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Sample records for carcinogenesis physicochemical properties

  1. Physicochemical properties of quinoa starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guantian; Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan

    2016-02-10

    Physicochemical properties of quinoa starches isolated from 26 commercial samples from a wide range of collection were studied. Swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), amylose leaching (AML), enzyme susceptibility, pasting, thermal and textural properties were analyzed. Apparent amylose contents (AAM) ranged from 7.7 to 25.7%. Great variations in the diverse physicochemical properties were observed. Correlation analysis showed that AAM was the most significant factor related to AML, WSI, and pasting parameters. Correlations among diverse physicochemical parameters were analyzed. Principal component analysis using twenty three variables were used to visualize the difference among samples. Six principal components were extracted which could explain 88.8% of the total difference. The wide variations in physicochemical properties could contribute to innovative utilization of quinoa starch for food and non-food applications. PMID:26686137

  2. Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on studies at the molecular, biochemical, and immunological level of carcinogenesis induced in mice by viruses, radiation, or environmental chemicals alone or in combinations. Emphasis was placed on the identification and assessments of cocarcinogens and studies on their mechanisms of action. Data are included on mechanisms of carcinogenesis in the liver, thyroid, Harderian glands, skin, and lungs. The effects of the food additive butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), phenobarbitol, DDT, uv irradiation, the herbicide 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole(AT), the pituitary hormone prolactin, topically applied 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and benzo(a) pyrene(BaP) on tumor induction or enhancement were studied

  3. Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section contains summaries of research in the following areas: use of liver for mechanistic studies of multistage hepatocarcinogenesis and for screening of environmental contaminants for tumor initiating and promoting activity; molecular properties of rat liver ornithine aminotransferase; regulation of gene expression in rat liver; methods of tumor detection; mechanisms of radiation and viral oncogenesis; biphenyl metabolism by rat liver microsomes; and studies on aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity

  4. Statistical properties of a two-stage model of carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Portier, C J

    1987-01-01

    Some of the statistical properties of a simple two-stage model of carcinogenesis are explored. The implications of additive treatment effects versus independent treatment effects on the shape of the dose-response curve are considered. Response that is low-dose linear results in the cases where the mutation rates are affected by dose or in the cases where treatment changes the birth rate/death rate of initiated cells in an additive fashion. Independent treatment effects lead to non-low-dose li...

  5. Physicochemical Properties of Palm Kernel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira P. Olaniyi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical analyses were carried out on palm kernel oil (Adin and the following results were obtained: Saponification value; 280.5±56.1 mgKOH/g, acid value; 2.7±0.3 mg KOH/g, Free Fatty Acid (FFA; 1.35±0.15 KOH/g, ester value; 277.8±56.4 mgKOH/g, peroxide value; 14.3±0.8 mEq/kg; iodine value; 15.86±4.02 mgKOH/g, Specific Gravity (S.G value; 0.904, refractive index; 1.412 and inorganic materials; 1.05%. Its odour and colour were heavy burnt smell and burnt brown, respectively. These values were compared with those obtained for groundnut and coconut oils. It was found that the physico-chemical properties of palm kernel oil are comparable to those of groundnut and coconut oils except for the peroxide value (i.e., 14.3±0.8 mEq which was not detectable in groundnut and coconut oils. Also the odour of both groundnut and coconut oils were pleasant while that of the palm kernel oil was not as pleasant (i.e., heavy burnt smell.

  6. Physicochemical properties and transport of steroids across Caco-2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faassen, F.; Kelder, J.; Lenders, J.; Onderwater, R.; Vromans, H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this work was to study the relevant physicochemical properties for the absorption of steroids. Methods. Various physicochemical properties of steroids were calculated (molecular weight, ClogP, static polar surface area [PSA], etc.). Within this series of steroids, different p

  7. Physicochemical properties of cookies enriched with xylooligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyappan, P; Abirami, A; Anbuvahini, N A; Tamil Kumaran, P S; Naresh, M; Malathi, D; Antony, Usha

    2016-07-01

    The growing commercial importance of xylooligosaccharides is based on their beneficial health properties, particularly their ability to stimulate the growth and activity of intestinal bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species. Xylooligosaccharides are less sweet, acid, and heat stable, with low recommended levels of intake compared to other oligosaccharides. In view of the consumer demand for foods with low sugar, low fat, and high fiber contents, they are suitable for incorporation into bakery products. In this study, we have developed wheat-based cookies incorporated with xylooligosaccharides at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels. The nutritive value and physicochemical properties of the cookies changed with xylooligosaccharides incorporation; both crude fiber and dietary fiber contents increased by 14% and 35%, respectively, in the enriched cookies. The moisture levels increased with increase in the percentage of xylooligosaccharides incorporated. Cookies with 5% xylooligosaccharides were found most acceptable, although the color was slightly darker compared to the control, while cookies with 10% and 15% xylooligosaccharides were softer and darker and therefore less acceptable. Enrichment with xylooligosaccharides at 5% provided a product stable for 21 days at room temperature (25 ± 2℃). The storage stability of cookies with higher levels of xylooligosaccharides was less than the 5% xylooligosaccharides cookies and control. The retention of the prebiotic xylooligosaccharides in the products was relatively high (74%). PMID:26644158

  8. Determination of physicochemical properties of delipidized hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Roger L; Laura, Donna; Chen, Susan; Koelmel, Donald; Zhang, Guojin; Gillece, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Using various physicochemical methods of analysis, we examined human hair in its virgin and delipidized state. Free lipids were removed by a solvent extraction technique (covalently bound lipids were not removed) using a series of solvents with varying polarity. We analyzed the surface properties of hair by conducting mechanical combing and dynamic contact angle analysis. In addition, we used inverse gas chromatography surface energy analysis to explore the chemical composition of the hair surface based on interactions of various nonpolar and polar probes with biological molecules residing on the hair surface. Further, we investigated the importance that free lipids play in the internal structural properties of hair using dynamic scanning calorimetry and tensile strength measurements. The microstructure of the hair surface was probed by atomic force microscopy, whereas the lipid content of hair's morphological components was determined by infrared spectroscopic imaging. We also monitored the water management properties of virgin and delipidized hair by dynamic vapor sorption, which yielded unique water sorption isotherms for each hair type. Using all these techniques, differences were found in the chemical composition and physical behavior of virgin and delipidized hair. To better understand the influence of hair lipid composition on hair styling treatments, we conducted mechanical analyses of hair shaped into omega loops to determine the stiffness, elasticity, and flexibility of hair-polymer assemblies. Although there were no discernible differences between untreated virgin and delipidized hair, in terms of stiffness and elasticity, we found that treatment with hair styling agents produced different effects depending on the hair type used. Likewise, streaming potential measurements were carried out to monitor the binding capacity of rinse-off treatments on virgin and delipidized hair. Using this technique, we monitored the surface potential of hair and found

  9. Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of Tequila Brands: Authentication and Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Carreon-Alvarez, Alejandra; Suárez-Gómez, Amaury; Zurita, Florentina; Gómez-Salazar, Sergio; Soltero, J. Felix Armando; Barcena-Soto, Maximiliano; Casillas, Norberto; Porfirio-Gutierrez; Moreno-Medrano, Edgar David

    2016-01-01

    Several physicochemical properties were measured in commercial tequila brands: conductivity, density, pH, sound velocity, viscosity, and refractive index. Physicochemical data were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, and the one-way analysis of variance to identify the quality and authenticity of tequila brands. According to the Principal Component Analysis, the existence of 3 main components was identified, explaining the 87.76% of the total variability of physi...

  10. Physicochemical Properties of Palm Kernel Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Amira P. Olaniyi; O.O. Babalola; Oyediran A. Mary

    2014-01-01

    Physicochemical analyses were carried out on palm kernel oil (Adin) and the following results were obtained: Saponification value; 280.5±56.1 mgKOH/g, acid value; 2.7±0.3 mg KOH/g, Free Fatty Acid (FFA); 1.35±0.15 KOH/g, ester value; 277.8±56.4 mgKOH/g, peroxide value; 14.3±0.8 mEq/kg; iodine value; 15.86±4.02 mgKOH/g, Specific Gravity (S.G) value; 0.904, refractive index; 1.412 and inorganic materials; 1.05%. Its odour and colour were heavy burnt smell and burnt brown, respectively. These va...

  11. Physicochemical characterization of fish protein adlayers with bacteria repelling properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, R. L.; Arpanaei, A.; Pillai, S.;

    2013-01-01

    Materials coated with aqueous fish protein extracts can reduce bacterial adhesion, but the mechanism behind the observed effect is not fully understood. In this study we explore the physicochemical properties of fish muscle protein adlayers on four substrates: gold, stainless steel, polystyrene...

  12. Role of Physicochemical Properties in Nanoparticle Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Won Shin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the recent rapid growth of technological comprehension in nanoscience, researchers have aimed to adapt this knowledge to various research fields within engineering and applied science. Dramatic advances in nanomaterials marked a new epoch in biomedical engineering with the expectation that they would have huge contributions to healthcare. However, several questions regarding their safety and toxicity have arisen due to numerous novel properties. Here, recent studies of nanomaterial toxicology will be reviewed from several physiochemical perspectives. A variety of physiochemical properties such as size distribution, electrostatics, surface area, general morphology and aggregation may significantly affect physiological interactions between nanomaterials and target biological areas. Accordingly, it is very important to finely tune these properties in order to safely fulfill a bio-user’s purpose.

  13. Physicochemical characterization of fish protein adlayers with bacteria repelling properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, R L; Arpanaei, A; Pillai, S; Bernbom, N; Enghild, J J; Ng, Y Y; Gram, L; Besenbacher, F; Kingshott, P

    2013-02-01

    Materials coated with aqueous fish protein extracts can reduce bacterial adhesion, but the mechanism behind the observed effect is not fully understood. In this study we explore the physicochemical properties of fish muscle protein adlayers on four substrates: gold, stainless steel, polystyrene and silicon dioxide. The aims were (i) to determine if the anti-adhesive effect is independent of the underlying substrate chemistry, (ii) to link the physicochemical properties of the adlayer to its ability to repel bacteria, and (iii) to elucidate the mechanism behind this effect. The main proteins on all surfaces were the muscle proteins troponin, tropomyosin, and myosin, and the lipid binding protein apolipoprotein. The quantity, viscoelasticity, and hydration of the protein adlayers varied greatly on the different substrates, but this variation did not affect the bacterial repelling properties. Our results imply that these proteins adsorb to all substrates and provide a steric barrier towards bacterial adhesion, potentially providing a universal antifouling solution. PMID:23104021

  14. THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF EDIBLE PROTEIN FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Ogur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, edible films from isolated or concentrated protein sources and from proteins of two different fish species were produced. The texture properties, light transmission (LT and oxygen permeability (OP of producing films were determined. The CL film settled in the second range according to both tension test parameters, thus outclassing the other tested films. The WG film possessed the lowest LT, so making it more effective in protecting of food products from light than the other tested films. The SPI film with the lowest OP value can be used for the purpose of protecting of food products from harmful effects of oxidation.

  15. Physico-chemical properties of probiotic yoghurt produced with transglutaminase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Spasenija D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different concentration of transglutaminase - TG (0.02%, 0.06% and 0.12% on physico-chemical properties of probiotic yoghurt was investigated. Two series of yoghurt were manufactured on a laboratory scale from pasteurised skim milk (0.1 % w/w fat. Series I was produced with TGase activation during a period of 2 h at 40°C, while series II was produced without enzyme activation. Then, the adequate quantities of TGase and probiotic starter culture ABT-4 (Chr. Hansen A/S Denmark were added. Chemical composition, physico-chemical properties (water holding capacity and whey separation and sensory characteristics of yoghurt samples were determined after production and during 5 days of storage. Addition of TGase to milk (direct or after activation for probiotic yoghurt manufacture improved its overall characteristics. Activation of TG in yoghurt production increases water holding capacity as well as decreases syneresis during the storage.

  16. Physicochemical properties and combustion behavior of duckweed during wet torrefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuping; Chen, Tao; Li, Wan; Dong, Qing; Xiong, Yuanquan

    2016-10-01

    Wet torrefaction of duckweed was carried out in the temperature range of 130-250°C to evaluate the effects on physicochemical properties and combustion behavior. The physicochemical properties of duckweed samples were investigated by ultimate analysis, proximate analysis, FTIR, XRD and SEM techniques. It was found that wet torrefaction improved the fuel characteristics of duckweed samples resulting from the increase in fixed carbon content, HHVs and the decrease in nitrogen and sulfur content and atomic ratios of O/C and H/C. It can be seen from the results of FTIR, XRD and SEM analyses that the dehydration, decarboxylation, solid-solid conversion, and condensation polymerization reactions were underwent during wet torrefaction. In addition, the results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in air indicated that wet torrefaction resulted in significant changes on combustion behavior and combustion kinetics parameters. Duckweed samples after wet torrefaction behaved more char-like and gave better combustion characteristics than raw sample.

  17. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Algerian Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Hua Gan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey samples (n = 4. Physical parameters, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content were measured. Several biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. The mean pH was 3.84 ± 0.01, and moisture the content was 13.21 ± 0.16%. The mean EC was 0.636 ± 0.001, and the mean TDS was 316.92 ± 0.92. The mean color was 120.58 ± 0.64 mm Pfund, and the mean 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF content was 21.49 mg/kg. The mean total sugar and reducing sugar contents were 67.03 ± 0.68 g/mL and 64.72 ± 0.52 g/g, respectively. The mean sucrose content was 2.29 ± 0.65%. High mean values of phenolic (459.83 ± 1.92 mg gallic acid/kg, flavonoid (54.23 ± 0.62 mg catechin/kg, ascorbic acid (159.70 ± 0.78 mg/kg, AEAC (278.15 ± 4.34 mg/kg, protein (3381.83 ± 6.19 mg/kg and proline (2131.47 ± 0.90 contents, as well as DPPH (39.57% ± 4.18 and FRAP activities [337.77 ± 1.01 µM Fe (II/100 g], were also detected, indicating that Algerian honey has a high antioxidant potential. Strong positive correlations were found between flavonoid, proline and ascorbic acid contents and color intensity with DPPH and FRAP values. Thus, the present study revealed that Algerian honey is a good source of antioxidants.

  18. Novel graphene-based nanostructures: physicochemical properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review concerns graphene-based nanostructures including graphene nanoribbons a few nanometres wide, structures functionalized with hydrogen and fluorine atoms as well as pure carbon composites. The physicochemical properties and the chemical engineering methods for their fabrication are considered. Methods for solving problems in modern nanotechnology are discussed. Possible applications of graphene and graphene-based nanostructures in various devices are outlined. The bibliography includes 286 references

  19. Physicochemical Properties of Melanin from A. auricula Fruiting Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Zou; Yuebing Wen; Wenxi She; Wenzhong Hu

    2014-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of melanin from Auricularia auricula ruiting bodies were studied. The result showed that A. auricula fruiting bodies melanin powder was dark with a little red and yellow colored (L* = 41.03, a* = 2.26, b* = 3.78). A. auricula fruiting bodies melanin was insoluble in both water and common organic solvents. It dissolved only in alkali aqueous solution and precipitated acidic aqueous solution (pH

  20. CNS drug design: balancing physicochemical properties for optimal brain exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankovic, Zoran

    2015-03-26

    The human brain is a uniquely complex organ, which has evolved a sophisticated protection system to prevent injury from external insults and toxins. Designing molecules that can overcome this protection system and achieve optimal concentration at the desired therapeutic target in the brain is a specific and major challenge for medicinal chemists working in CNS drug discovery. Analogous to the now widely accepted rule of 5 in the design of oral drugs, the physicochemical properties required for optimal brain exposure have been extensively studied in an attempt to similarly define the attributes of successful CNS drugs and drug candidates. This body of work is systematically reviewed here, with a particular emphasis on the interplay between the most critical physicochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters of CNS drugs as well as their impact on medicinal chemistry strategies toward molecules with optimal brain exposure. A summary of modern CNS pharmacokinetic concepts and methods is also provided.

  1. Predictions of Physicochemical Properties of Ionic Liquids with DFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Karu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, density functional theory (DFT-based high-throughput computational approach is becoming more efficient and, thus, attractive for finding advanced materials for electrochemical applications. In this work, we illustrate how theoretical models, computational methods, and informatics techniques can be put together to form a simple DFT-based throughput computational workflow for predicting physicochemical properties of room-temperature ionic liquids. The developed workflow has been used for screening a set of 48 ionic pairs and for analyzing the gathered data. The predicted relative electrochemical stabilities, ionic charges and dynamic properties of the investigated ionic liquids are discussed in the light of their potential practical applications.

  2. Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of Tequila Brands: Authentication and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Carreon-Alvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several physicochemical properties were measured in commercial tequila brands: conductivity, density, pH, sound velocity, viscosity, and refractive index. Physicochemical data were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA, cluster analysis, and the one-way analysis of variance to identify the quality and authenticity of tequila brands. According to the Principal Component Analysis, the existence of 3 main components was identified, explaining the 87.76% of the total variability of physicochemical measurements. In general, all tequila brands appeared together in the plane of the first two principal components. In the cluster analysis, four groups showing similar characteristics were identified. In particular, one of the clusters contains some tequila brands that are not identified by the Regulatory Council of Tequila and do not meet the quality requirements established in the Mexican Official Standard 006. These tequila brands are characterized by having higher conductivity and density and lower viscosity and refractive index, determined by one-way analysis of variance. Therefore, these economical measurements, PCA, and cluster analysis can be used to determinate the authenticity of a tequila brand.

  3. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WATER DEPLETED OF HEAVY ISOTOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav V. Goncharuk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on physicochemical properties of the light water (deuterium concentration is reduced to the ratio D/H = 4 ppm and that of the isotope of oxygen 18 – to the ratio 18O/16O = 750 ppm have been obtained. They include the melting and boiling points, kinematic viscosity, density, the spin-spin proton relaxation time, self-diffusion coefficients, and the small-angle laser light scattering. An explanation was proposed for the detected significant changes of the light water as compared with the high-resistivity water having geochemically ordinary isotope composition.

  4. Physicochemical and Binder Properties of Starch Obtained from Cyperus esculentus

    OpenAIRE

    Manek, Rahul V.; Builders, Philip F.; Kolling, William M.; Emeje, Martins; Olobayo O. Kunle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate starch from the tubers of Cyperus esculentus L. and evaluate its physicochemical and binder properties. Extraction of starch using sodium metabisulfite yielded 37 g of starch per 100 g of the tubers. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that Cyperus starch consists of oval to elliptical particles with a smooth surface. Cyperus starch demonstrates a narrow particle size distribution with a mean of 8.25 μm. Cyperus starch conforms well to United States...

  5. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of peanut protein hydrolysate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Tang

    Full Text Available Peanut protein and its hydrolysate were compared with a view to their use as food additives. The effects of pH, temperature and protein concentration on some of their key physicochemical properties were investigated. Compared with peanut protein, peanut peptides exhibited a significantly higher solubility and significantly lower turbidity at pH values 2-12 and temperature between 30 and 80°C. Peanut peptide showed better emulsifying capacity, foam capacity and foam stability, but had lower water holding and fat adsorption capacities over a wide range of protein concentrations (2-5 g/100 ml than peanut protein isolate. In addition, peanut peptide exhibited in vitro antioxidant properties measured in terms of reducing power, scavenging of hydroxyl radical, and scavenging of DPPH radical. These results suggest that peanut peptide appeared to have better functional and antioxidant properties and hence has a good potential as a food additive.

  6. Physicochemical properties of praseodymium hydroxide and oxide nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jun-Gill [Department of Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 304-764 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Bong-Ki [Centre for Research Facility, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Youngku, E-mail: youngkusohn@ynu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Pr(OH){sub 3} nanorods were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. • Pr{sub 6}O{sub 10} nanorods were obtained by a post-annealing method. • Pr(III) changed to Pr(IV) after annealing. • The physicochemical properties were fully examined. • Hydrogen reduction and CO oxidation profile were newly revealed. - Abstract: We synthesized hexagonal phase Pr(OH){sub 3} nanorods by a hydrothermal method and obtained cubic phase Pr{sub 6}O{sub 11} by post-thermal annealing at above 550 °C. Pr(OH){sub 3} nanorod growth was found to occur in the [0 0 1] direction. Upon thermal annealing, the oxidation state of Pr(III) was changed to Pr(III, IV). The physicochemical properties were fully examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) crystallography, UV–Visible–NIR absorption, differential scanning calorimetry/thermogravimetric analysis (DSC/TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and CO oxidation activity tests.

  7. Immunoreactivity, sensory and physicochemical properties of fermented soy protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinlschmidt, Pia; Ueberham, Elke; Lehmann, Jörg; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute; Eisner, P

    2016-08-15

    The effect of induced liquid state fermentation (Bacillus subtilis, Rhizopus oryzae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus helveticus) on the immunoreactivity, physicochemical and sensory properties of soy protein isolate (SPI) was studied. L. helveticus revealed the most abundant reduction in terms of immunoreactivity within soluble protein fractions, up to 100%, which could be measured by in vitro sandwich ELISA using mouse monoclonal anti-Glym5 antibodies (mAbs). Almost no binding was found in western blot analysis using mouse monoclonal mAbs and sera from soy sensitive individuals. Fermentation increased water- and oil-binding capacity as well as protein solubility at pH 4.0. Foaming activity was nearly doubled compared to non-fermented SPI. A decreased emulsifying capacity, foaming density, and quantity of soluble proteins at pH 7.0 were observed. Principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed decreased bitter and beany off-flavors of fermented samples compared to non-fermented SPI. Consequently, fermentation might be a promising method to produce tasty low-allergen food ingredients with good physicochemical properties. PMID:27006235

  8. Physicochemical Properties of Starch Isolated from Bracken (Pteridium aquilinim) Rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xurun; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Leilei; Wang, Zhong; Xiong, Fei

    2015-12-01

    Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) is an important wild plant starch resource worldwide. In this work, starch was separated from bracken rhizome, and the physicochemical properties of this starch were systematically investigated and compared with 2 other common starches, that is, starches from waxy maize and potato. There were significant differences in shape, birefringence patterns, size distribution, and amylose content between bracken and the 2 other starches. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that bracken starch exhibited a typical C-type crystalline structure. Bracken starch presented, respectively, lower and higher relative degree of crystallinity than waxy maize and potato starches. Ordered structures in particle surface differed among these 3 starches. The swelling power tendency of bracken starch in different temperature intervals was very similar to that of potato starch. The viscosity parameters during gelatinization were the lowest in waxy maize, followed by bracken and potato starches. The contents of 3 nutritional components, that is, rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches in native, gelatinized, and retrograded starch from bracken rhizome presented more similarities with potato starch than waxy maize starch. These finding indicated that physicochemical properties of bracken starch showed more similarities with potato starch than waxy maize starch. PMID:26551243

  9. Chronic exposure to combined carcinogens enhances breast cell carcinogenesis with mesenchymal and stem-like cell properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenora Ann Pluchino

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer affecting women in North America and Europe. More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to small quantities of multiple carcinogens. To understand how multiple carcinogens act together to induce cellular carcinogenesis, we studied the activity of environmental carcinogens 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P, and dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP using our breast cell carcinogenesis model. Our study revealed, for the first time, that combined NNK and B[a]P enhanced breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by PhIP in both non-cancerous and cancerous breast cells. Co-exposure was more potent than sequential exposure to combined NNK and B[a]P followed by PhIP in inducing carcinogenesis. Initiation of carcinogenesis was measured by transient endpoints induced in a single exposure, while progression of carcinogenesis was measured by acquisition of constitutive endpoints in cumulative exposures. Transient endpoints included DNA damage, Ras-Erk-Nox pathway activation, reactive oxygen species elevation, and increased cellular proliferation. Constitutive endpoints included various cancer-associated properties and signaling modulators, as well as enrichment of cancer stem-like cell population and activation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition program. Using transient and constitutive endpoints as targets, we detected that a combination of the green tea catechins ECG and EGCG, at non-cytotoxic levels, was more effective than individual agents in intervention of cellular carcinogenesis induced by combined NNK, B[a]P, and PhIP. Thus, use of combined ECG and EGCG should be seriously considered for early intervention of breast cell carcinogenesis associated with long-term exposure to environmental and dietary carcinogens.

  10. EVOLUTION OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF IODINE FORTIFIED LIPIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Molnar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available in refined and deodorized sunflower oil. To investigate the influence of iodine administration in sunflower oil were evaluated the quality indices of oil (acid value, peroxide value, iodine value, refractive index, which were reported to the standard. Iodized oil manufacture and of food products fortified with iodine by additive administration in the form of iodized oil would constitute a considerable iodine supplement, which associated to iodine intake of kitchen salt, would contribute to the eradication of iodine deficiency. Incorporation ofexogenous iodine in a complex system, such as food, requires elucidation of physicochemical transformations, which may intervene in manufacturing process and storage of the product. It was established that the iodization of sunflower oil may be considered as an admissible method, which allows the incorporation of a considerableamount of iodine (0,1; 1 g/L without modifying the physicochemical properties of the product. Research of quality indices variation of iodized oil during product storage (5 weeks, demonstrated that only in the case of maximum concentration of iodine (1 g/L it was manifested a slight overcome of the maximum permitted limitcaused by the free iodine presence.

  11. Effect of irradiated pork on physicochemical properties of meat emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Sung, Jung-Min; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-02-01

    The effect of pork irradiated with doses up to 10 kGy on meat emulsions formulated with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) was investigated. Raw pork was vacuums packaged at a thickness of 2.0 cm and irradiated by X-ray linear accelerator (15 kW, 5 MeV). The emulsion had higher lightness, myofibrillar protein solubility, total protein solubility, and apparent viscosity with increasing doses, whereas cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, and hardness decreased. There were no significant differences in fat separation, sarcoplasmic protein solubility, springiness, and cohesiveness. Our results indicated that it is treatment by ionizing radiation which causes the effects the physicochemical properties of the final raw meat product.

  12. STUDY ON THE SYNTHESIS AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SUCROSE POLYESTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhongdong; LIU Huihua; LUO Peng; LIU Peng; Xiao Fugang

    2006-01-01

    Orthogonal test was used to evaluate the effects of synthetic such as temperature (120~140 ℃), reaction time (4-6) and substrate molar ratio of methyl oleate to sucrose (8:1-12:1) on the percent quantity conversion to sucrose polyester. Sucrose polyester was synthesized by a solvent-free one-stage interesterification. The optimum reaction conditions are as follows: methyl oleate/sucrose = 10∶1 (mol/mol); reaction temperature is 140 ℃;yield reaches 88.15%, and the degree of esterification (DE) is over 7 in the conditions. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), column chromatography (CC), High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to analyze the product, the results show that the percent of sucrose polyoleate is over 70% in the product. The physicochemical properties of sucrose polyesters were compared with cooking oil. The results show that the qualities of sucrose polyesters are all up to the triglyceride.

  13. Physicochemical properties of calcium polycarbophil, a water-absorbing polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T; Kitayama, M; Yamazaki, M; Nagata, O; Tamaj, I; Tsuji, A

    1996-07-01

    The physicochemical properties of calcium polycarbophil were examined. Calcium polycarbophil was decalcified rapidly under acidic conditions, affording polycarbophil. Polycarbophil absorbed about 10 times its own weight of water under acidic conditions, but the swelling ratio markedly increased at above pH 4.0 and reached 70 times the initial weight under neutral conditions. The swelling of polycarbophil was not affected by non-ionic osmolarity, but was affected by ionic strength, showing a decrease with increase of ionic strength. Monovalent metal ions such as sodium and potassium ions in gastrointestinal fluid did not reduce the equilibrium swelling of polycarbophil, but divalent ions such as calcium and magnesium ions did. However, calcium ion only slightly reduced the equilibrium swelling under sodium-rich conditions. The viscosity (as an indicator of fluidity) of polycarbophil was larger than that of CMC-Na at every shear rate and polymer content examined.

  14. Effect of corylus clusters on the physicochemical properties of soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Soil sample plots were specified and the soil in layer A0, A1 and AB were collected in MaoershanForest Experiment Farm of Northeast Forestry University for study of the effect of corylus clusters on soil in 1999. The result shows that the pH value, contents of organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-discomposed nitrogen and total phosphorus under the corylus clusters are higher than that under the non-corylus clusters, except the available phosphorus content. The number of soil granular aggregates or the water stable aggregates under corylus clusters is more than that under the non-corylus clusters. The corylus clusters play an important role in improving the physicochemical properties of the soil, which should be conserved and developed in the forestry production.

  15. Relationships Between Fungal Contamination and Some Physicochemical Properties of Rapeseeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janda Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some properties of rapeseed, to determine the amount of fungi including thermotolerant and xerophilic species and to specify the correlations between some physical properties of rapeseed and the number of fungi. Material was 18 samples of rapeseeds. The characteristics of seeds included volumetric weight, impurities, pH, moisture, water activity, fat content, fat acidity and critical moisture of seeds. Number of fungi were investigated on RBA, YpSs, DG18 medium at 25, 37 and 45°C. Differences between amount of rapeseed impurities and fat acidity have been revealed. The number of fungi was diversified depending on medium and incubation temperature. The largest fungi number was isolated on DG18 at 25°C. Correlations between physicochemical properties of seeds and number of isolated fungi have been pointed out. Our study demonstrated that low pH values and weight by volume of seeds as well as high acidity of fat can be used as indicators of contamination of rapeseeds by fungi.

  16. STUDIES ON SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA BARK GUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Pendyala

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C. At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.

  17. Physicochemical properties investigations of metallic urological stent after implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tyrlik-Held

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: : The aim of the work was to determine the surfaces as well as physicochemical properties changes of the metallic urological stent. The tested stent was made of Co-Cr-Ni-Fe-Mo-Mn alloy and was implanted during four years.Design/methodology/approach: Electrochemical tests have been used for corrosion resistance investigations. They were carried out in the artificial urine solution at the temperature 37±1°C with the use of the VoltaLab® PGP 201 system. The evaluation of pitting corrosion was realized by recording of anodic polarization curves with the use of the potentiodynamic method. Chemical composition investigations of the surface have been carried out with the use of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS. The topography of surfaces changes was observed in scanning electron microscope (SEM.Findings: Surface observations haven’t showed the signs of pitting corrosion. No decrease of corrosion resistance for metallic material was stated. Furthermore in surface layer the presence of the organic compounds was observed.Practical implications: The time of four years of implantation didn’t induce the significant changes in electrochemical properties of metallic material of the tested stent which was in contact with the natural environment of physiological fluids.Originality/value: The results obtained concern to investigations of the metallic material of the stent, which was implanted during the period of four years in human body that mean in natural environment of human tissues and physiological fluids.

  18. Studies on some physicochemical properties of Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Pendyala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/ v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C. At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.

  19. Electronic structure and physicochemical properties of selected penicillins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Correa, Catalina; Ruiz, Juan F. Sánchez; Raya, A.; Esquivel, Rodolfo O.

    Traditionally, penicillins have been used as antibacterial agents due to their characteristics and widespread applications with few collateral effects, which have motivated several theoretical and experimental studies. Despite the latter, their mechanism of biological action has not been completely elucidated. We present a theoretical study at the Hartree-Fock and density functional theory (DFT) levels of theory of a selected group of penicillins such as the penicillin-G, amoxicillin, ampicillin, dicloxacillin, and carbenicillin molecules, to systematically determine the electron structure of full ?-lactam antibiotics. Our results allow us to analyze the electronic properties of the pharmacophore group, the aminoacyl side-chain, and the influence of the substituents (R and X) attached to the aminoacyl side-chain at 6? (in contrast with previous studies focused at the 3? substituents), and to corroborate the results of previous studies performed at the semiempirical level, solely on the ?-lactam ring of penicillins. Besides, several density descriptors are determined with the purpose of analyzing their link to the antibacterial activity of these penicillin compounds. Our results for the atomic charges (fitted to the electrostatic potential), the bond orders, and several global reactivity descriptors, such as the dipole moments, ionization potential, hardness, and the electrophilicity index, led us to characterize: the active sites, the effect of the electron-attracting substituent properties and their physicochemical features, which altogether, might be important to understand the biological activity of these type of molecules.

  20. Effect of heat processing on selected grain amaranth physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyonga, John H; Andabati, Brian; Ssepuuya, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Grain amaranth is a pseudocereal with unique agricultural, nutritional, and functional properties. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of different heat-processing methods on physicochemical and nutraceutical properties in two main grain amaranth species, of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. Grains were prepared by roasting and popping, milled and analyzed for changes in in vitro protein digestibility, gruel viscosity, pasting characteristics, antioxidant activity, flavonoids, and total phenolics. In vitro protein digestibility was determined using the pepsin-pancreatin enzyme system. Viscosity and pasting characteristics of samples were determined using a Brookfield Viscometer and a Rapid Visco Analyzer, respectively. The grain methanol extracts were analysed for phenolics using spectrophotometry while antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method. Heat treatment led to a reduction in protein digestibility, the effect being higher in popped than in roasted samples. Viscosities for roasted grain amaranth gruels were significantly higher than those obtained from raw and popped grain amaranth gruels. The results for pasting properties were consistent with the results for viscosity. In both A. hypochondriacus L. and A. cruentus L., the order of the viscosity values was roasted>raw>popped. The viscosities were also generally lower for A. cruentus L. compared to A. hypochondriacus L. Raw samples for both A. hypochondriacus L. and A. cruentus L. did not significantly differ in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total antioxidant activity values. Thermal processing led to an increase in TFC and antioxidant activity. However, TPC of heat-processed samples remained unchanged. From the results, it can be concluded that heat treatment enhances antioxidant activity of grain amaranth and causes rheological changes dependent on the nature of heat treatment.

  1. Physicochemical and binder properties of starch obtained from Cyperus esculentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manek, Rahul V; Builders, Philip F; Kolling, William M; Emeje, Martins; Kunle, Olobayo O

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate starch from the tubers of Cyperus esculentus L. and evaluate its physicochemical and binder properties. Extraction of starch using sodium metabisulfite yielded 37 g of starch per 100 g of the tubers. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that Cyperus starch consists of oval to elliptical particles with a smooth surface. Cyperus starch demonstrates a narrow particle size distribution with a mean of 8.25 μm. Cyperus starch conforms well to United States Pharmacopeia standards established for widely used starches like maize and potato. The X-ray powder diffraction pattern and moisture sorption profile of Cyperus starch were comparable to that of maize starch. Cyperus starch had lower swelling power than maize and potato starch, indicative of stronger associative forces within the granules. Carr's index and Hausner ratio indicate that Cyperus starch should have comparable flow properties with respect to maize and potato starch. Cyperus starch was employed as binder for the formulation of metronidazole tablets. Formulations containing 5%, 7.5%, and 10% Cyperus starch were compared with those containing 10% potato starch. At 10% binder concentration, the tablets containing Cyperus starch exhibited better hardness and negligible friability as compared with those with potato starch. Although the binder concentration had a significant effect on the disintegration time of the tablets, it did not seem to affect the dissolution profile. These results indicate that Cyperus starch provides excellent binding properties without compromising drug release characteristics and should be explored in pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:22350737

  2. Physicochemical properties of cassava starch oxidized by sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Lúcia Helena; Schnitzler, Egon; Zortéa, Manoela Estefânea Boff; de Souza Rocha, Thaís; Demiate, Ivo Mottin

    2014-10-01

    In this work, cassava starch was modified by treatment with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) at different concentrations (0.8, 2.0 and 5.0 % of active chlorine) and selected physicochemical properties of the oxidized starches were investigated. The native and modified samples were evaluated considering moisture, carboxyl content, apparent viscosity, susceptibility to syneresis, mid-infrared spectroscopy and crystallinity index. The treatment with NaClO resulted in alterations in carboxyl content of the oxidized starches that increased with increasing concentration of the oxidant. Oxidized starches also showed higher susceptibility to syneresis, as assessed by the release of liquid during freezing and thawing. Apparent viscosity analysis showed decrease in peak viscosity of the oxidized starches. X-ray diffractograms showed that the oxidation influenced the extent of cassava starch relative crystallinity found to lie between 34.4 % (native) and 39.9 % (2.0 % active chlorine). The infrared spectra are sensitive to structural changes on starch macromolecules and presented characteristic peaks as C-O-C of the six carbon glucose ring absorbs at 1,150-1,085 cm(-1) and due to axial deformation these bands changed with the crystal structure of the starch samples.

  3. Physicochemical and biofunctional properties of crab chitosan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The Han; Kwak, Hae Soo; Kim, Sang Moo

    2013-08-01

    The physicochemical and biofunctional properties of crab chitosan nanoparticles of two different sizes (Nano A and B) manufactured by dry milling method were evaluated for commercialization. The deacetylation degrees (DD) of Nano A, B and the control chitosan were 90.9, 93.0, and 92.7% respectively whereas their molecular weights (M(w)) were 43.9, 44.7 and 208.8 kDa. The average sizes of the dispersed Nano A, B and the control chitosan in cetyltrimethylammonium chloride were 735.9, 849.4 and 2,382.4 nm, respectively, which were lower than 1441.7, 2935.6 and 6832.9 nm of the intact chitosans. Chitosan nanoparticles had mild tyrosinase, antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE), but weak collagenase, elastase and beta-glucuronidase inhibitory activity. However, Nano A had strong alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity, which was comparable to that of acarbose, a commercial alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of chitosan and its nanoparticles ranged from 30 to > 200 microg/mL against each four gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, crab chitosan nanoparticles could be used as a nutraceutical, cosmeceutical or pharmaceutical product.

  4. Physicochemical and functional properties of yeast fermented brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Mediani, Ahmed; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, effects of fermentation on physicochemical and functional properties of brown rice flour (BRF) were investigated. Fermentation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology to achieve moderate acidity (pH 5-6), specifically pH 5.5 of brown rice batter with time, temperature and yeast concentration as the independent variables. The results indicated that brown rice batter was well fermented to maintain pH 5.5 at optimum conditions of 32 °C for 6.26 h using 1 % yeast concentration. Fermentation at moderate acidity significantly increased the levels of protein, total ash, insoluble fiber, soluble fibre, minerals, phenolics, antioxidants, resistant starch, riboflavin, pyridoxine, nicotinic acid, γ-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol. However, it reduced the contents of γ-oryzanol, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, phytic acid, amylose and total starch. Foaming capacity, foaming stability, oil holding capacity, gelatinization temperatures, enthalpy and whiteness of BRF were increased after fermentation. In contrast, its swelling power, water solubility index, hot paste viscosity, breakdown, and setback significantly decreased. Microstructure of BRF was also influenced, where its starch granules released from its enclosed structure after fermentation. This investigation shows evidence that yeast fermentation modified the functionality of BRF and can be used as a functional food ingredient. PMID:26344967

  5. A Review on Physicochemical and Thermorheological Properties of Sago Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was a part of a research project aiming to investigate the texture characteristics of protein - starch interaction in fish based product keropok lekor. Accordingly, the current review study focused on some physicochemical (molecular weight, viscosity, chemical composition and swelling power and thermorheological (gelatinization, retrogradation and viscoelsticity characteristics of sago starch alone and in mixtures with other ingredients such as sucrose, salts and hydroclloids. The inferred outcome of this extensive survey revealed that the gelatinisation temperature for sago-water mixture ranged from 69.4-70.1°C which was low compared to sweet potato, tania and yam starches. The role of using hydrocolloids in starch-based foods was to control the rheological properties as well as modifying the texture of the products, enhaning or modifying the gelatinization and retrogradation behaviour and improving water-holding capacity of the system. In the presence of sucrose or sodium chloride, the gelatinisation temperatures of sago starch shifted to higher temperatures and its enthalpy decreased. The addition of salts caused an elevation or depression of gelatinization temperature and gelatinization enthalpy, depending on their types and concentrations used. However, sodium chloride appeared to exhibit a maximum inhibitory effect on starch gelatinisation at a concentration of 6-9%.

  6. Physicochemical properties of the Harenna forest honey, Bale, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Abera; Solomon, W K; Bultossa, Geremew; Adgaba, Nuru; Melaku, Samuel

    2013-12-15

    In this study, the physicochemical properties of the Harenna forest honey were characterised. The Harenna forest honey moisture, reducing sugar, sucrose, water insoluble solids, ash, free acid, pH, HMF contents, electrical conductivity and specific rotation were found to be 17.89±1.02 g/100 g, 69.48±1.72 g/100 g, 2.43±1.02 g/100 g, 0.12±0.08 g/100 g, 0.19±0.09 g/100 g, 34.57±4.80 meq/kg, 3.87±0.16, 0.84±0.46 mg/1000 g, 0.70±0.04 mS/cm and -132±15.27 [α]D(20), respectively. All quality indicators of honey from traditional and frame hives were within the criteria set by Codex Alimentarus (CA), European Union (EU) and Ethiopian standard, except for water insoluble solids. The type of hives significantly affected the moisture (phoney. The sampling location also significantly affected the moisture (phoney. Significant correlations were observed between moisture content and electrical conductivity (r=0.76, phoney if honey harvesting, handling and processing is properly carried out.

  7. Chain conformational and physicochemical properties of fucoidans from sea cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoqi; Xue, Changhu; Chang, Yaoguang; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Kunhao

    2016-11-01

    Although fucoidans from sea cucumber (SC-FUCs) have been proven as potential bioactive polysaccharides and functional food ingridents, their chain conformation and physicochemical properties were still poorly understood. This study investigated the chain conformation of fucoidans from sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides (Am-FUC), Isostichopus badionotus (Ib-FUC) and Apostichopus japonicus (Aj-FUC), of which primary structure has been recently clarified. Chain conformation parameters demonstrated that studied SC-FUCs adopted random coil conformation in 150mM NaCl solution (pH 7.4). Based on the worm-like cylinder model and atomic force microscopy, the chain stiffness of SC-FUCs was further evaluated as Am-FUC≈Ib-FUC>Aj-FUC. It was suggested that the existence of branch structure increased the chain flexibility, while sulfated pattern exerted limited influence. SC-FUCs demonstrated shear-thinning rheological behavior and negative charge. Am-FUC possessed a higher thermostability than Ib-FUC and Aj-FUC. These results have important implications for understanding the molecular characteristics of SC-FUCs, which could facilitate their further application. PMID:27516290

  8. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Whey Cheese with Pine Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a value-added whey cheese through addition of pine nuts. Therefore, different concentrations of pine nuts [2, 4, 6 and 8% (w/w] were added to whey cheese. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of pine nuts on physicochemical and sensory properties of whey cheese. The addition of pine nuts resulted in an increase in fat content and total solids and a decrease in moisture content. However, no statistically significant difference was found in pH values. Sensory analysis was performed using the 9-point hedonic scale, with selected assessors. The whey cheese sample with 4% pine nuts was the most appreciated (7.6 points, followed by the classic whey cheese, whey cheese with 6 and 8% pine nuts (7.4 points, and whey cheese with 2% pine nuts (7.3 points. Nevertheless, the sensory characteristics of whey cheese were not significantly influenced by the addition of pine nuts. Whey cheese sensory profiling was successful in differential characterization of whey cheese samples.

  9. Physicochemical properties of tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) hydrocolloid fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannasin, Sri Puvanesvari; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Hamzah, Mohd Yusof; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-09-01

    Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) is an underutilised fruit in Malaysia. The fruit, however, contains good proportions of soluble fibre, protein, starch, anthocyanins and carotenoids. Amongst the fruits, only tamarillo mesocarp contains both polar (anthocyanins) and non-polar (carotenoids) pigments. The ability to retain both polar and non-polar pigments in the mesocarp could be related to the unique properties of its hydrocolloids. To understand the pigment-hydrocolloid interaction in the fruit, information on the physicochemical characteristics of the hydrocolloids is required. Therefore, hydrocolloids from the anthocyanin-rich seed mucilage fraction of the tamarillo and its carotenoid-rich pulp fraction were extracted and characterised. Water and 1% citric acid were used to extract the seed mucilage hydrocolloid while 72% ethanol and 20mM HEPES buffer were used for pulp hydrocolloid extraction. Seed mucilage hydrocolloid was primarily composed of arabinogalactan protein-associated pectin whereas pulp hydrocolloid was composed of hemicellulosic polysaccharides with some naturally interacting proteins and neutral polysaccharides. PMID:25842340

  10. Characterization of physicochemical properties of ivy nanoparticles for cosmetic application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yujian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Naturally occurring nanoparticles isolated from English ivy (Hedera helix have previously been proposed as an alternative to metallic nanoparticles as sunscreen fillers due to their effective UV extinction property, low toxicity and potential biodegradability. Methods This study focused on analyzing the physicochemical properties of the ivy nanoparticles, specifically, those parameters which are crucial for use as sunscreen fillers, such as pH, temperature, and UV irradiation. The visual transparency and cytotoxicity of ivy nanoparticles were also investigated comparing them with other metal oxide nanoparticles. Results Results from this study demonstrated that, after treatment at 100°C, there was a clear increase in the UV extinction spectra of the ivy nanoparticles caused by the partial decomposition. In addition, the UVA extinction spectra of the ivy nanoparticles gradually reduced slightly with the decrease of pH values in solvents. Prolonged UV irradiation indicated that the influence of UV light on the stability of the ivy nanoparticle was limited and time-independent. Compared to TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles, ivy nanoparticles showed better visual transparency. Methylthiazol tetrazolium assay demonstrated that ivy nanoparticles exhibited lower cytotoxicity than the other two types of nanoparticles. Results also suggested that protein played an important role in modulating the three-dimensional structure of the ivy nanoparticles. Conclusions Based on the results from this study it can be concluded that the ivy nanoparticles are able to maintain their UV protective capability at wide range of temperature and pH values, further demonstrating their potential as an alternative to replace currently available metal oxide nanoparticles in sunscreen applications.

  11. Physicochemical Properties of Biopolymer Hydrogels Treated by Direct Electric Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żaneta Król

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes within the physicochemical properties of gelatine (2%; 4%; 8%, carrageenan (1.5%; 2%; 2.5% and sodium alginate (0.75%; 1%; 1.25% hydrogels with different sodium chloride concentrations that were triggered by applying direct current (DC of 400 mA for a duration of five minutes. There were three types of gels prepared for the purpose of the study: C, control; H, gels on the basis of hydrosols that were treated with DC; and G, gels treated with DC. In the course of the study, the authors carried out the following analyses: Texture Profile Analysis (TPA, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Swelling Ratio (SR. Furthermore, the color and pH of hydrogels were measured. The FTIR spectra showed that the structures of gelatine, carrageenan and sodium alginate do not significantly change upon applying DC. The results of TPA, SR, color and pH measurement indicate that hydrogels’ properties are significantly dependent on the type of polymer, its concentration and the type of the gel. By changing those parameters, the characteristics of such gels can be additionally tuned, which extends their applicability, e.g., in the food industry. Moreover, the analysis revealed that SR of H gel gelatine after 72 h of storage was 1.84-times higher than SR of the control sample, which indicated that this gel may be considered as a possible component for wound dressing materials.

  12. STRUCTURAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL SURFACE-PROPERTIES OF SERRATIA-MARCESCENS STRAINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERMEI, HC; COWAN, MM; GENET, MJ; ROUXHET, PG; BUSSCHER, HJ

    1992-01-01

    Serratia marcescens is an important pathogen with noteworthy hydrophobicity characteristics as assessed by microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons. However, the present knowledge on the surface characteristics of S. marcescens strains does not include physicochemical properties relevant for adhesion such

  13. Effect of microwave treatment on the physicochemical properties of potato starch granules

    OpenAIRE

    XIE, YANLI; Yan, Mingxia; Yuan, Shasha; SUN, ShuMin; Huo, Quangong

    2013-01-01

    Background The degree of polymerization of amylose starch in potato was so large that the gel was hardness after gelatinization. Therefore, it is one of the most important ways that the microwave treatment was used to change the physicochemical properties of starch gel to make it suitable for the preparation of instant food. Results The effect of microwave treatment on the physicochemical properties including morphology, crystalline structure, molecular weight distribution and rheological pro...

  14. Effects of Spray Drying on Physicochemical Properties of Chitosan Acid Salts

    OpenAIRE

    Cervera, Mirna Fernández; Heinämäki, Jyrki; de la Paz, Nilia; López, Orestes; Maunu, Sirkka Liisa; Virtanen, Tommi; Hatanpää, Timo; Antikainen, Osmo; Nogueira, Antonio; Fundora, Jorge; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2011-01-01

    The effects of spray-drying process and acidic solvent system on physicochemical properties of chitosan salts were investigated. Chitosan used in spray dryings was obtained by deacetylation of chitin from lobster (Panulirus argus) origin. The chitosan acid salts were prepared in a laboratory-scale spray drier, and organic acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid were used as solvents in the process. The physicochemical properties of chitosan salts were investigated by means of solid-state CP...

  15. Physicochemical properties of magnetic fluids based on synthetic oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, V. V.; Ramazanova, A. G.; Yashkova, V. I.; Balmasova, O. V.

    2013-04-01

    A technique for synthesizing magnetic fluids based on Alkaren synthetic oil is described. The optimum synthesis conditions for the magnetite are selected, and the magnetic phase-stabilizer quantitative ratio is calculated. A magnetic fluid based on synthetic hydrocarbon oil is synthesized, and its physicochemical characteristics are determined.

  16. Physicochemical properties of endodontic sealers of different bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Alexandra Marín-Bauza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the setting time (ST, flow (FL, radiopacity (RD, solubility (SB and dimensional change following setting (DC of different sealers (AH Plus®, Polifil, Apexit Plus®, Sealapex®, Endométhasone® and Endofill® according to American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA Specification 57. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five samples of each material were used for each test. For ST, cast rings were filled with sealers and tested with a Gilmore needle. For FL, the sealer was placed on a glass plate. After 180 s, another plate with 20 g and a load of 100 g were applied on the material, and the diameters of the discs formed were measured. In RD, circular molds were filled with the sealers, radiographed and analyzed using Digora software. For SB, circular molds were filled with the sealers, a nylon thread was placed inside the material and another glass plate was positioned on the set, pressed and stored at 37°C. Samples were weighed, placed in water, dried and reweighed. The water used for SB was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. For DC, circular molds were filled with the sealers, covered by glass plates and stored at 37°C. Samples were measured and stored in water for 30 days. After this period, they were dryed and measured again. RESULTS: Regarding ST, AH Plus®, Apexit® and Endofil® sealers are in accordance with ANSI/ADA standards. Endométhasone's manufacturer did not mention the ST; Polifil is an experimental sealer and Sealapex® did not set. Considering RD, SB and DC, all sealers were in accordance with ANSI/ADA. The spectrometric analysis showed that a significant amount of K+ and Zn2+ ions was released from Apexit Plus® and Endofill®, respectively. CONCLUSION: Except for DC, all other physicochemical properties of the tested sealers conformed to ANSI/ADA requirements.

  17. Effect of acetylation, oxidation and annealing on physicochemical properties of bean starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Senay; Ovando-Martínez, Maribel; Whitney, Kristin; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2012-10-15

    Black and Pinto bean starches were physically and chemically modified to investigate the effect of modification on digestibility and physicochemical properties of bean starch. The impact of acetylation, oxidation (ozonation) and annealing on the chemical composition, syneresis, swelling volume, pasting, thermal properties and digestibility of starches was evaluated. The physicochemical and estimated glycemic index (eGI) of the Black and Pinto bean starches treated with ozone were not significantly (P>0.05) different than that of their respective control starches. Annealed starches had improved thermal and pasting properties compared to native starches. Acetylated starches presented reduced syneresis, good pasting properties and lower eGI. Also, all modified starches had increased levels of resistant starch (RS). Therefore, the digestibility and physicochemical properties of bean starch were affected by the type of modification but there were no significant (P>0.05) differences between the Black and Pinto bean starches.

  18. Effect of Desalination on Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Duck (Anas plotyrhyncus Egg Whites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhamadi Mmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Desalted Duck Egg Whites (DDEW was prepared by electrodialysis desalination using Salted Duck Egg Whites (SDEW. DDEW and SDEW (used as control were subjected to freeze drying process. Freeze Dried Desalted and Salted Duck Egg Whites (FDDEW and FSDEW, respectively were assessed for functional properties (turbidity, foaming, emulsifying and gelation and some physicochemical characteristics. Among the physicochemical parameters, the proximate composition, amino acid composition, pH, particle sizes, microstructure and color attributes were studied. The electrodialysis desalination process had significant effect on the physicochemical characteristics of FDDEW and FSDEW except for amino acids composition. Thus, the pH decreased from 8.07 to 7.40 while the NaCl content decreased from 3.76 to 0.18%. The same trend was observed for protein and ash contents. The functional properties were variable among the two samples. For instance, the gel characteristics decreased sharply after electrodialysis desalination treatment.

  19. Effect of the improved fermentation on physicochemical properties and sensorial acceptability of sour cassava starch

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Janete Angeloni Marcon; Gisele Cristina Netto Vieira; Karina Nunes de Simas; Karina Santos; Manoela Alano Vieira; Renata Dias de Mello Castanho Amboni; Edna Regina Amante

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of improved fermentation on sour cassava starch, aiming to reduce its fermentation time and to enhance its expansion capacity as well as its viscoamylographic properties and its sensorial acceptability. Results showed that the improved process of cassava starch production did not harm starch expansion, physicochemical properties or sensorial acceptability; it also produced starches with different viscoamylographic properties, which compared favoura...

  20. Organic complexed superphosphates (CSP): physicochemical characterization and agronomical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erro, Javier; Urrutia, Oscar; Baigorri, Roberto; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro; Irigoyen, Ignacio; Storino, Francesco; Torino, Francesco; Mandado, Marcos; Yvin, Jean Claude; Garcia-Mina, Jose M

    2012-02-29

    A new type of superphosphate (organic complexed superphosphate (CSP)) has been developed by the introduction of organic chelating agents, preferably a humic acid (HA), into the chemical reaction of single superphosphate (SSP) production. This modification yielded a product containing monocalcium phosphate complexed by the chelating organic agent through Ca bridges. Theoretically, the presence of these monocalcium-phosphate-humic complexes (MPHC) inhibits phosphate fixation in soil, thus increasing P fertilizer efficiency. This study investigateed the structural and functional features of CSP fertilizers produced employing diverse HA with different structural features. To this end were used complementary analytical techniques: solid-phase ³¹P NMR, ¹³C NMR, laser-confocal microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and molecular modeling. Finally, the agronomical efficiency of four CSP have been compared with that of SSP as P sources for wheat plants grown in both alkaline and acidic soils in greenhouse pot trials under controlled conditions. The results obtained from the diverse analytical studies showed the formation of MPHC in CSP. Plant-soil studies showed that CSP products were more efficient than SSP in providing available phosphate for wheat plants cultivated in various soils with different physicochemical features. This fact is probably associated with the ability of CSP complexes to inhibit phosphate fixation in soil. PMID:22300509

  1. Fuzzy clustering of physicochemical and biochemical properties of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Indrajit; Maulik, Ujjwal; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2012-08-01

    In this article, we categorize presently available experimental and theoretical knowledge of various physicochemical and biochemical features of amino acids, as collected in the AAindex database of known 544 amino acid (AA) indices. Previously reported 402 indices were categorized into six groups using hierarchical clustering technique and 142 were left unclustered. However, due to the increasing diversity of the database these indices are overlapping, therefore crisp clustering method may not provide optimal results. Moreover, in various large-scale bioinformatics analyses of whole proteomes, the proper selection of amino acid indices representing their biological significance is crucial for efficient and error-prone encoding of the short functional sequence motifs. In most cases, researchers perform exhaustive manual selection of the most informative indices. These two facts motivated us to analyse the widely used AA indices. The main goal of this article is twofold. First, we present a novel method of partitioning the bioinformatics data using consensus fuzzy clustering, where the recently proposed fuzzy clustering techniques are exploited. Second, we prepare three high quality subsets of all available indices. Superiority of the consensus fuzzy clustering method is demonstrated quantitatively, visually and statistically by comparing it with the previously proposed hierarchical clustered results. The processed AAindex1 database, supplementary material and the software are available at http://sysbio.icm.edu.pl/aaindex/ .

  2. Interactions of skin thickness and physicochemical properties of test compounds in percutaneous penetration studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, S.C.; Maas, W.J.M.; Nielsen, J.B.; Greaves, L.C.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Williams, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effect of skin thickness on the percutaneous penetration and distribution of test compounds with varying physicochemical properties using in vitro systems. Studies were carried out in accordance with OECD guidelines on skin absorption tests. Methods: Percutaneous penetra

  3. Physicochemical properties of alloys of PbTe-Fe2Te3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicochemical and some electric properties of PbTe-Fe2Te3 cut alloys are investigated. State diagram for this system where at 1145 K PbFe2Te4 new ternary compound is formed, is plotted. Temperature dependences of electric parameters have shown that PbFe2Te4 compound is semiconductor with conductivity of electron type

  4. Multi-walled carbon nanotube physicochemical properties predict pulmonary inflammation and genotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah S.; Jackson, Petra; Kling, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    Lung deposition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) induces pulmonary toxicity. Commercial MWCNT vary greatly in physicochemical properties and consequently in biological effects. To identify determinants of MWCNT-induced toxicity, we analyzed the effects of pulmonary exposure to 10 commercial...

  5. Surface of Lactic Acid Bacteria: Relationships between Chemical Composition and Physicochemical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Boonaert, C J; Rouxhet, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The surface chemical composition and physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity and zeta potential) of two lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetilactis and Lactobacillus helveticus, have been investigated using cells harvested in exponential or stationary growth phase. The surface composition determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was converted into a molecular composition in terms of proteins, polysaccharides, and hydrocarbonlike compounds. The conce...

  6. Use of an integrated approach to characterize the physicochemical properties of foundry green sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fresh green sand, spent green sand, and a weathered spent green sand from a landfill were analyzed using diffractometry, electron microscopy, granulometry, spectrometry, and thermogravimetry. Our objective was to understand how the physicochemical properties of the green sands change from their o...

  7. Physico-Chemical and Structural Properties of DeNOx and SO2 Oxidation Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masters, Stephen Grenville; Oehlers, Cord; Nielsen, Kurt;

    1996-01-01

    Commercial catalysts for NOx removal and SO2 oxidation and their model systems have been investigated by spectroscopic, thermal, electrochemical and X-ray methods. Structural information on the vanadium complexes and compounds as well as physico-chemical properties for catalyst model systems have...... been obtained. The results are discussed in relation to proposed reaction mechanisms....

  8. Influence of electron beam irradiation on physicochemical properties of poly(trimethylene carbonate)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jozwiakowska, Joanna; Wach, Radoslaw A.; Rokita, Bozena; Ulanski, Piotr; Nalawade, Sameer P.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Feijen, Jan; Rosiak, Janusz M.

    2011-01-01

    Electron beam (EB) irradiation of poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC), an amorphous, biodegradable polymer used in the field of biomaterials, results in predominant cross-linking and finally in the formation of gel fraction, thus enabling modification of physicochemical properties of this material w

  9. [Physico-chemical profiling of centrally acting molecules for prediction of pharmacokinetic properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deák, Katalin

    2008-01-01

    Physico-chemical profiling is a fundamental tool at the early stage of drug discovery in screening drug-like candidates. Complex physico-chemical profiling, including molecular properties such as solubility, ionization, lipophilicity and permeability, has been found to be of predictive power in ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination). In the present thesis work, the physico-chemical properties of centrally acting compounds were investigated. We determined the protonation constants (K), the partition coeffitient in octanol/water (Poct) and cyclohexane/water (Pch) systems of antidepressive sertraline and 15 antipsychotic piperidine and piperazine derivatives and calculated the delta logP (logPoct-logPch) values of the molecules. Due to the poor water solubility of the compounds potentiometry using the "co-solvent" technique was applied for the determination of the protonation constants. The logP values were measured by the dual-phase potentiometric titration in octanol/water system and the traditional shake-flask method was used in cyclohexane/water system. Highly precise physico-chemical data were obtained by these validated methods. The relationship between the structure of the molecules and the physico-chemical data was investigated. The pharmacokinetic properties of the compounds were predicted by the physico-chemical parameters. Linear relationship has been found between the brain penetration characterized by the logBB values and the delta logP values. The validity of the equation was controlled by the delta logP and the logBB values of sertraline. PMID:18986088

  10. Predicting blood:air partition coefficients using basic physicochemical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Wit-Bos, L. de; Bouwman, T.; Vaes, W.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative Property Property Relationships (QPPRs) for human and rat blood:air partition coefficients (PBAs) have been derived, based on vapour pressure (Log(VP)), the octanol:water partition coefficient (Log(K_OW)) and molecular weight (MW), using partial least squares multilinear modelling. Thes

  11. Effect of Microwave Irradiation on the Physicochemical and Digestive Properties of Lotus Seed Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shaoxiao; Chen, Bingyan; Zeng, Hongliang; Guo, Zebin; Lu, Xu; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-03-30

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of microwave irradiation on the physicochemical and digestive properties of lotus seed starch. The physicochemical properties of lotus seed starch were characterized by light microscopy, (1)H NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, and HPSEC-MALLS-RI. The starch-water interaction and crystalline region increased due to the changed water distribution of starch granules and the increase of the double-helix structure. The swelling power, amylose leaching, molecular properties, and radius of gyration reduced with the increasing microwave power, which further affected the sensitivity of lotus seed starch to enzymatic degradation. Furthermore, the resistant starch and slowly digestible starch increased with the increasing microwave irradiation, which further resulted in their decreasing hydrolysis index and glycemic index. The digestive properties of lotus seed starch were mainly influenced by the reduced branching degree of amylopectin and the strong amylose-amylose interaction. PMID:26912092

  12. Effect of Microwave Irradiation on the Physicochemical and Digestive Properties of Lotus Seed Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shaoxiao; Chen, Bingyan; Zeng, Hongliang; Guo, Zebin; Lu, Xu; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-03-30

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of microwave irradiation on the physicochemical and digestive properties of lotus seed starch. The physicochemical properties of lotus seed starch were characterized by light microscopy, (1)H NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, and HPSEC-MALLS-RI. The starch-water interaction and crystalline region increased due to the changed water distribution of starch granules and the increase of the double-helix structure. The swelling power, amylose leaching, molecular properties, and radius of gyration reduced with the increasing microwave power, which further affected the sensitivity of lotus seed starch to enzymatic degradation. Furthermore, the resistant starch and slowly digestible starch increased with the increasing microwave irradiation, which further resulted in their decreasing hydrolysis index and glycemic index. The digestive properties of lotus seed starch were mainly influenced by the reduced branching degree of amylopectin and the strong amylose-amylose interaction.

  13. Effect of cream fermentation on microbiological, physicochemical and rheological properties of L. helveticus-butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewe, Joo-Ann; Loo, Su-Yi

    2016-06-15

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and rheological properties of butter produced by Lactobacillus helveticus fermented cream. The incorporation of putative probiotic - the L. helveticus, to ferment cream prior to butter production was anticipated to alter the nutritional composition of butter. Changes in crude macronutrients and the resultant modification relating to textural properties of butter induced upon metabolic activities of L. helveticus in cream were focused in this research. Fermented butter (LH-butter) was produced by churning the cream that was fermented by lactobacilli at 37 °C for 24 h. Physicochemical analysis, proximate analysis and rheology properties of LH-butter were compared with butter produced using unfermented cream (control). LH-butter showed a significantly (Pproduct softer. Its enrichment with probiotics could thus further enhance its functional property. PMID:26868544

  14. Effect of cream fermentation on microbiological, physicochemical and rheological properties of L. helveticus-butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewe, Joo-Ann; Loo, Su-Yi

    2016-06-15

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and rheological properties of butter produced by Lactobacillus helveticus fermented cream. The incorporation of putative probiotic - the L. helveticus, to ferment cream prior to butter production was anticipated to alter the nutritional composition of butter. Changes in crude macronutrients and the resultant modification relating to textural properties of butter induced upon metabolic activities of L. helveticus in cream were focused in this research. Fermented butter (LH-butter) was produced by churning the cream that was fermented by lactobacilli at 37 °C for 24 h. Physicochemical analysis, proximate analysis and rheology properties of LH-butter were compared with butter produced using unfermented cream (control). LH-butter showed a significantly (Pbutter in which LH-butter contained higher health beneficial unsaturated fatty acids than the control and thus rendered the product softer. Its enrichment with probiotics could thus further enhance its functional property.

  15. Effect of Various Polymers Concentrations on Physicochemical Properties of Floating Microspheres

    OpenAIRE

    Jagtap, Y. M.; Bhujbal, R. K.; Ranade, A. N.; Ranpise, N. S.

    2012-01-01

    Floating microspheres have emerged as a potential candidate for gastroretentive drug delivery system. For developing a desired intragastric floatation system employing these microspheres, it is necessary to select an appropriate balance between buoyancy and drug releasing rate. These properties mainly depend on the polymers used in the formulation of the microspheres. Hence it is necessory to study the effect of these polymer concentrations on the various physicochemical properties of the mic...

  16. Comparative Analysis of Selected Physicochemical Properties of Pozzolan Portland and MTA-Based Cements

    OpenAIRE

    Dorileo, Maura Cristiane Gonçales Orçati; Villa, Ricardo Dalla; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fábio; Semenoff-Segundo, Alex; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of pozzolan Portland cement were compared to ProRoot MTA and MTA BIO. To test the pH, the samples were immersed in distilled water for different periods of time. After the pH analysis, the sample was retained in the plastic recipient, and the electrical conductivity of the solution was measured. The solubility and radiopacity properties were evaluated according to specification 57 of the American National Standard Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA). Th...

  17. Molecular design of seed storage proteins for enhanced food physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandang-Silvas, Mary Rose G; Tecson-Mendoza, Evelyn Mae; Mikami, Bunzo; Utsumi, Shigeru; Maruyama, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Seed storage proteins such as soybean globulins have been nutritionally and functionally valuable in the food industry. Protein structure-function studies are valuable in modifying proteins for enhanced functionality. Recombinant technology and protein engineering are two of the tools in biotechnology that have been used in producing soybean proteins with better gelling property, solubility, and emulsifying ability. This article reviews the molecular basis for the logical and precise protein designs that are important in obtaining the desired improved physicochemical properties.

  18. Characterization of Genotoxic Response to 15 Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes with Variable Physicochemical Properties Including Surface Functionalizations in the FE1-Muta(TM) Mouse Lung Epithelial Cell Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Kling, Kirsten; Jensen, Keld Alstrup;

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes vary greatly in physicochemical properties. We compared cytotoxic and genotoxic response to 15 multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with varying physicochemical properties to identify drivers of toxic responses. The studied MWCNT included OECD Working Party on Manufactured...

  19. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE GASOLINE AND ALCOHOL BIOFUEL MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Povar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of added alcohols, ethanol and butanol, on the main biofuel properties, such as the specific gravity, Reid saturated vapour pressure and distillation curves have been investigated. These properties are intimately related to the fuel composition and their prediction relies on the knowledge of its components characteristics. This research proves the possibility of obtaining fuels with different levels of resistance to detonation, using gasoline with different chemical components and various fractions of alcohols.

  20. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of japonica Rice Varied with Production Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-yu; LIN Zhao-miao; LIU Zheng-hui; Md A Alim; BI Jun-guo; LI Gang-hua; WANG Qiang-sheng; WANG Shao-hua; DING Yan-feng

    2013-01-01

    Northeast of China and Jiangsu Province are major production areas of japonica rice in China. Rice from northeast of China is well-known for its good-eating and appearance quality, and that from Jiangsu Province is viewed as inferior. However, little is known concerning the difference in physicochemical and sensory properties of rice between the major two production areas. Analysis of 16 commercial rice samples showed marked differences in physicochemical properties, including chalky grain rate, contents of amylose and protein and pasting properties between the two main areas. Northeastern rice contained more short-chain amylopectin as compared with Jiangsu rice. However, Jiangsu rice is comparable to northeastern rice in terms of sensory quality including overall acceptability and textural properties of springiness, stickiness and hardness as evaluated by trained panel. Our results indicated the limitation of conventional index of physicochemical properties, and suggested the necessity of identiifcation of new factors controlling rice sensory property. In addition, the taste analyzer from Japan demonstrates limitation in distinguishing the differences between northeastern and Jiangsu rice, and therefore needs localization to ift China.

  1. Physicochemical properties of native and γ-irradiated wild arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia L.) tuber starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Arif Ali; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Hussain, Peerzada Rashid; Gani, Adil; Wani, Touseef Ahmad; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Starch isolated from wild arrowhead tuber was treated by γ-irradiation at 0, 5, 10 and 15kGy doses. Arrowhead tubers yielded 40.33% starch and its chemical composition revealed moisture, protein, ash and fat were 8.34±0.09%, 0.26±0.04%, 0.58±0.02% and 0%, respectively. Physicochemical, morphological and pasting properties of native and irradiated tuber starches were investigated. The results showed that peak, trough, final, and setback viscosities were significantly (p≤0.05) reduced, whereas the breakdown viscosity increased following irradiation. Physicochemical properties differed significantly and showed strong dose dependent relationship. Solubility, water absorption capacity and transmittance increased, whereas swelling power, bulk density and syneresis decreased upon increase in irradiation of starch. Correlation studies showed that irradiation dose was positively correlated with water absorption capacity and solubility index while it correlated negatively with pasting properties, swelling index, syneresis, and freeze thaw stability.

  2. Physico-chemical Properties of Marine Phospholipid Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.;

    2012-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the emulsifying properties of various commercial marine PL and the feasibility of using them to prepare stable emulsions prepared with or without addition of fish oil. In addition, this study also investigated the relationship between chemical composition of marine PL...

  3. Physicochemical property distributions for accurate and rapid pairwise protein homology detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oehmen Christopher S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The challenge of remote homology detection is that many evolutionarily related sequences have very little similarity at the amino acid level. Kernel-based discriminative methods, such as support vector machines (SVMs, that use vector representations of sequences derived from sequence properties have been shown to have superior accuracy when compared to traditional approaches for the task of remote homology detection. Results We introduce a new method for feature vector representation based on the physicochemical properties of the primary protein sequence. A distribution of physicochemical property scores are assembled from 4-mers of the sequence and normalized based on the null distribution of the property over all possible 4-mers. With this approach there is little computational cost associated with the transformation of the protein into feature space, and overall performance in terms of remote homology detection is comparable with current state-of-the-art methods. We demonstrate that the features can be used for the task of pairwise remote homology detection with improved accuracy versus sequence-based methods such as BLAST and other feature-based methods of similar computational cost. Conclusions A protein feature method based on physicochemical properties is a viable approach for extracting features in a computationally inexpensive manner while retaining the sensitivity of SVM protein homology detection. Furthermore, identifying features that can be used for generic pairwise homology detection in lieu of family-based homology detection is important for applications such as large database searches and comparative genomics.

  4. Pharmacopoeial and physicochemical properties of α-cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose powders derived from cornstalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuemeka P Azubuike

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suitable α-cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose powders for use in the pharmaceutical industry can be derived from agricultural wastes. Aims: The pharmacopoeial and physicochemical properties of cornstalk α-cellulose (CCC and cornstalk microcrystalline cellulose powders (MCCC were compared to a commercial brand of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH101 to evaluate their usefulness as pharmaceutical excipients. Settings and Design: Physicochemical properties of an excipient play a very crucial role in the functions of the excipient; hence, these properties were evaluated and compared with a commercial brand. Materials and Methods: α-cellulose was extracted from cornstalks. Modification of this α-cellulose powder was carried out by its partial hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid (HCl to obtain a microcrystalline cellulose powder. Their pharmacopoeial, physicochemical and microbiological properties were evaluated using standard methods. Statistical Analysis: OriginPro 8 SR2 v. 0891 (B891 software (OriginLab Corporation USA was used for statistical evaluation. One-way analysis of variance was used to differentiate between samples and decide where significant differences were established. Results: The yield of α-cellulose from the cornstalks was 32.5%w/w and that of microcrystalline cellulose 26%w/w. All the cellulose samples met all the pharmacopoeial parameters that were carried out. The comparison of physicochemical properties of the CCC, MCCC and Avicel PH101 suggests that the microcrystalline celluloses might have better flow and compression properties than the CCC sample. The three cellulose powders were of high microbial excipient quality. For almost all parameters evaluated, it was generally observed that the MCCC has similar characteristics to Avicel PH101. Conclusions: MCCC can be a suitable alternative to the expensive Avicel PH101as pharmaceutical excipients.

  5. Physico-chemical properties and cytotoxic effects of sugar-based surfactants: Impact of structural variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Biao; Vayssade, Muriel; Miao, Yong; Chagnault, Vincent; Grand, Eric; Wadouachi, Anne; Postel, Denis; Drelich, Audrey; Egles, Christophe; Pezron, Isabelle

    2016-09-01

    Surfactants derived from the biorefinery process can present interesting surface-active properties, low cytotoxicity, high biocompatibility and biodegradability. They are therefore considered as potential sustainable substitutes to currently used petroleum-based surfactants. To better understand and anticipate their performances, structure-property relationships need to be carefully investigated. For this reason, we applied a multidisciplinary approach to systematically explore the effect of subtle structural variations on both physico-chemical properties and biological effects. Four sugar-based surfactants, each with an eight carbon alkyl chain bound to a glucose or maltose head group by an amide linkage, were synthesized and evaluated together along with two commercially available standard surfactants. Physico-chemical properties including solubility, Krafft point, surface-tension lowering and critical micellar concentration (CMC) in water and biological medium were explored. Cytotoxicity evaluation by measuring proliferation index and metabolic activity against dermal fibroblasts showed that all surfactants studied may induce cell death at low concentrations (below their CMC). Results revealed significant differences in both physico-chemical properties and cytotoxic effects depending on molecule structural features, such as the position of the linkage on the sugar head-group, or the orientation of the amide linkage. Furthermore, the cytotoxic response increased with the reduction of surfactant CMC. This study underscores the relevance of a methodical and multidisciplinary approach that enables the consideration of surfactant solution properties when applied to biological materials. Overall, our results will contribute to a better understanding of the concomitant impact of surfactant structure at physico-chemical and biological levels. PMID:27137806

  6. Photoluminescent carbon nanodots: synthesis, physicochemical properties and analytical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathik Roy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanodots (C-dots possessing photoluminescence (PL properties have become interesting materials for sensing and imaging, with the advantages of water-dispersibility, biocompatibility, chemical and photo stability. They can be prepared from organic matter such as tea, grass, coffee, and small organic molecules like glycine and glucose through hydrothermal routes. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of C-dots along with their optical (absorption, PL, upconverted PL properties and analytical applications. Having bright PL, biocompatibility, chemical and photo stability, as well as low toxicity, C-dots have been used for the detection of metal ions and for cell imaging. C-dots prepared from organic matter such as used tea and ginger possess a great inhibitory effect on the growth of cancer cells, showing their excellent potential as new drugs.

  7. Blending ionic liquids: how physico-chemical properties change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglione, Franca; Raos, Guido; Appetecchi, Giovanni Battista; Montanino, Maria; Passerini, Stefano; Moreno, Margherita; Famulari, Antonino; Mele, Andrea

    2010-02-28

    Ionic liquids offer the opportunity of tailoring their properties by changing the chemical structure of the cation and anion. Blending of two or more liquids adds a further dimension to this "chemical space". Here we present the results of a study of three binary and one ternary mixture of the ionic liquids formed by the N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium cation with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide, bis(pentafluoroethanesulfonyl) imide and (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)(nonafluorobutanesulfonyl) imide. We have collected viscosity and NMR-based data on ionxion correlations (NOE) and diffusion (DOSY). We also attempt to establish a quantitative correlation between mixture and the corresponding pure liquid properties. We find that the binary mixture containing the two very different anions has an intriguing and somewhat anomalous behaviour. PMID:20145843

  8. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista; Masiello, Caroline A; Dugan, Brandon; Toselli, Moreno

    2016-09-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30tha(-1). We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρs) and envelope (ρe) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0-5nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over short (~years) timescales.

  9. Some physicochemical and optical properties of Schungite I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyukkiev, E.F.; Punka, A.P.; Tupolev, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    The hydrophilic, acidic, and optical properties of the surface of schungite I (Shunga deposit, KASSR) with a carbon content of about 88% have been investigated. The contact angle of wetting by water and the degree of oxidation of the surface have been determined, and the nature of the active centers has been revealed. The reflection and absorption spectra in the UV, visible, and IR regions and the optical parameters are similar to those of highly metamorphosed coals.

  10. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista; Masiello, Caroline A; Dugan, Brandon; Toselli, Moreno

    2016-09-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30tha(-1). We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρs) and envelope (ρe) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0-5nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over short (~years) timescales. PMID

  11. Shreddability of pizza Mozzarella cheese predicted using physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2014-07-01

    This study used rheological techniques such as uniaxial compression, wire cutting, and dynamic oscillatory shear to probe the physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheeses. Predictive models were built using compositional and textural descriptors to predict cheese shreddability. Experimental cheeses were made using milk with (0.25% wt/wt) or without denatured whey protein and renneted at pH 6.5 or 6.4. The cheeses were aged for 8, 22, or 36 d and then tested at 4, 13, or 22°C for textural attributes using 11 descriptors. Adding denatured whey protein and reducing the milk renneting pH strongly affected cheese mechanical properties, but these effects were usually dependent on testing temperature. Cheeses were generally weaker as they aged. None of the compositional or rheological descriptors taken alone could predict the shredding behavior of the cheeses. Using the stepwise method, an objective selection of a few (cheese to the shredding blade (R(2)=0.45). The principal component analysis markedly contrasted the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade with other shredding properties such as the production of fines or long shreds. The predictive models and principal component analysis can help manufacturers select relevant descriptors for the development of cheese with optimal mechanical behavior under shredding conditions. PMID:24792787

  12. Shreddability of pizza Mozzarella cheese predicted using physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2014-07-01

    This study used rheological techniques such as uniaxial compression, wire cutting, and dynamic oscillatory shear to probe the physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheeses. Predictive models were built using compositional and textural descriptors to predict cheese shreddability. Experimental cheeses were made using milk with (0.25% wt/wt) or without denatured whey protein and renneted at pH 6.5 or 6.4. The cheeses were aged for 8, 22, or 36 d and then tested at 4, 13, or 22°C for textural attributes using 11 descriptors. Adding denatured whey protein and reducing the milk renneting pH strongly affected cheese mechanical properties, but these effects were usually dependent on testing temperature. Cheeses were generally weaker as they aged. None of the compositional or rheological descriptors taken alone could predict the shredding behavior of the cheeses. Using the stepwise method, an objective selection of a few (<4) relevant descriptors made it possible to predict the production of fines (R(2)=0.82), the percentage of long shreds (R(2)=0.67), and to a lesser degree, the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade (R(2)=0.45). The principal component analysis markedly contrasted the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade with other shredding properties such as the production of fines or long shreds. The predictive models and principal component analysis can help manufacturers select relevant descriptors for the development of cheese with optimal mechanical behavior under shredding conditions.

  13. Interfacial antiwear and physicochemical properties of alkylborate-dithiophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faiz Ullah; Glavatskih, Sergei; Höglund, Erik; Lindberg, Mats; Antzutkin, Oleg N

    2011-04-01

    Boron compounds have become of interest in tribology because of their unique tribochemical and tribological properties. At the same time, dialkyldithiophosphates (DTPs) of transition metals have been extensively used as multifunctional additives in lubricants to control friction and reduce wear in mechanical systems. Because of the environmental pollution and health hazards of these compounds, ashless compounds with reduced amounts of sulfur and phosphorus are desirable. This work reports on the synthesis, characterization, and tribological properties of a new class of compounds, alkylborate-dithiophosphates. This class combines two high-iron-affinity surface active groups, borate and dialkyldithiophosphate, into a single molecule. The final products, viscous liquids, were characterized by FT-IR, multinuclear (1)H, (13)C, (31)P, and (11)B NMR spectroscopy and thermal analyses. Residues of one representative compound from this class, DPB-EDTP, after thermal analyses were additionally characterized by multinuclear (13)C, (31)P and (11)B MAS and (31)P CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy. Solid-state NMR data suggest that a dominant part of the solid residue of DPB-EDTP consists of borophosphates. Antiwear and friction properties of a mineral oil with these novel additives were evaluated in a four-ball tribometer in comparison with O,O'-di-n-butyl-dithiophosphato-zinc(II), Zn-BuDTP, as a reference lubricant additive. The surface morphology and the elemental composition of the tribofilms were characterized using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-rays spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The results show that alkylborate-dithiophosphates, with substantially reduced amounts of sulfur and phosphorus compared with Zn-BuDTP, have considerably better antiwear and friction performance. PMID:21381776

  14. Physicochemical and organoleptic properties of cookies incorporated with legume flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Thongram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries like India, with increasing urbanization, the demand for processed food and bakery products particularly cookies command wide popularity in both urban and rural mass. Hence, an attempt was made to develop functionally and nutritionally improved cookies and the influence of the partial replacement of the wheat flour by legume on the quality characteristic of cookies was analyzed. Six blends were prepared by homogenously mixing chickpea flour, pigeon pea, moong bean flour, and cowpea flour with wheat flour in the percentage proportions: 100, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, and 10:10:10:10:60 (CPF:WWF, PF:WWF, MF:WWF, CF:WWF, and CPF:PF:MF:CF:WWF and later used to make cookies. Chemical and functional properties of the composite flours and chemical as well as sensory characteristics of cookies made from the above combinations were determined. The incorporation of legume flour significantly affected the physical, chemical, and phytonutrient parameters of the cookies. The results revealed that functional properties, viz. water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, and swelling property, increased with addition of legume flours. The physical analysis revealed that the diameter and height increased with the incorporation of legume flour. The results of the proximate composition showed that the A6 possesses highest percentage of proteins (13.42% and crude fat (22.90%, A5 contains maximum value of crude fiber (2.10% and DPPH radical scavenging activity (55.47%, A1 showed maximum moisture (10.60%, A2 total phenolic content (6.14 TAE mg/100 g, and A3 showed maximum ash (3.66%. Statistical results revealed that the addition of selected pulse flours and a combination of these whole flours do not have a significant effect (p > 0.05 on the sensory characteristics of cookies.

  15. Rational engineering of physicochemical properties of nanomaterials for biomedical applications with nanotoxicological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navya, P. N.; Daima, Hemant Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Innovative engineered nanomaterials are at the leading edge of rapidly emerging fields of nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. Meticulous synthesis, unique physicochemical properties, manifestation of chemical or biological moieties on the surface of materials make engineered nanostructures suitable for a variety of biomedical applications. Besides, tailored nanomaterials exhibit entirely novel therapeutic applications with better functionality, sensitivity, efficiency and specificity due to their customized unique physicochemical and surface properties. Additionally, such designer made nanomaterials has potential to generate series of interactions with various biological entities including DNA, proteins, membranes, cells and organelles at nano-bio interface. These nano-bio interactions are driven by colloidal forces and predominantly depend on the dynamic physicochemical and surface properties of nanomaterials. Nevertheless, recent development and atomic scale tailoring of various physical, chemical and surface properties of nanomaterials is promising to dictate their interaction in anticipated manner with biological entities for biomedical applications. As a result, rationally designed nanomaterials are in extensive demand for bio-molecular detection and diagnostics, therapeutics, drug and gene delivery, fluorescent labelling, tissue engineering, biochemical sensing and other pharmaceuticals applications. However, toxicity and risk associated with engineered nanomaterials is rather unclear or not well understood; which is gaining considerable attention and the field of nanotoxicology is evolving promptly. Therefore, this review explores current knowledge of articulate engineering of nanomaterials for biomedical applications with special attention on potential toxicological perspectives.

  16. Effects of Lipids and Emulsifiers on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Cosmetic Emulsions Containing Vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Montenegro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensory properties are fundamental in determining the success of a cosmetic product. In this work, we assessed the influence of different oils and emulsifiers on the physicochemical and sensory properties of anti-ageing cosmetic O/W emulsions containing vitamin E acetate as active ingredient. No clear correlation between physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics was evidenced. Sensorial evaluation of these formulations pointed out that the emulsifier systems affected the perceived oiliness and absorbency during application of the product, thus influencing its acceptance. These results suggest the need for more detailed studies on the physicochemical factors involved in determining the consumers’ acceptance.

  17. Irradiated gelatin-potato starch blends: evaluation of physicochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Regis, Wellington; Mastro, Nelida L., E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Macromolecular polysaccharides of large chains as starch can interlace with gelatin modifying their mechanical resistance. In this work, biodegradable bovine gelatin-potato starch blends films were developed using glycerol as plasticizer. Three formulations of gelatin/starch proportions (w/w) were used (1:0; 3:1; 1:1) and casting was the chosen method. The dried samples were then submitted to ionizing radiation coming from an electron beam (EB) accelerator with doses of 20 and 40 kGy, at room temperature, in the presence of air. Mechanical properties such as puncture strength and elongation at break were measured. Color measurements, water absorption, moisture, and film solubility were assessed. The results showed that starch addition to films based on gelatin as well as irradiation affected physical and structural properties of the films. Although the increase of starch content in the mixture led to decrease of the puncture force even in samples irradiated with the higher dose, there was a decrease of water absorption of films with the increase of the dose, and also by the higher starch content. Samples irradiated at 20 kGy presented higher moisture and film solubility. The methodology developed in this paper can be applied to other composite systems to establish the best protein:starch ratio, and the contribution of the radiation crosslinking in each specific case. (author)

  18. Maltodextrins from chemically modified starches. Selected physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pycia, Karolina; Juszczak, Lesław; Gałkowska, Dorota; Witczak, Mariusz; Jaworska, Grażyna

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of chemical modification of starch (cross-linking and/or stabilisation) on selected rheological and functional properties of maltodextrins of dextrose equivalent of 6, 11 and 16. It was found that values of glass transition temperatures were decreasing with dextrose equivalent of maltodextrin. The highest values of glass transition temperature (TG) were determined for maltodextrin of DE 6-obtained from distarch phosphate and acetylated distarch phosphate. Increase in DE value of maltodextrin was also accompanied by decrease and increase in values of intrinsic viscosity and the critical concentration, respectively; however, there was no significant effect of kind of chemical modification of starch on the values of these parameters. Maltodextrin solutions at concentrations of from 10 to 70 % exhibited Newtonian flow behaviour. In the case of 50% solutions of maltodextrins of DE 6 the highest viscosity was produced by maltodextrin from native potato starch, while the lowest one by maltodextrin from acetylated starch. On the other hand, among the maltodextrin of DE 11 this one produced from acetylated starch showed the highest viscosity. All the maltodextrins exhibited surfactant properties in a water-air system, with the strongest effect observed for maltodextrins produced from double chemically modified starches and from acetylated starch. The surface activity was increasing with increasing of the DE value of maltodextrin. Moreover, values of surface tension were decreasing with increasing in maltodextrin concentration in the system. PMID:27112878

  19. Hierarchical structure and physicochemical properties of plasticized chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingkai; Heuzey, Marie-Claude; Carreau, Pierre J

    2014-04-14

    Plasticized chitosan with hierarchical structure, including multiple length scale structural units, was prepared by a "melt"-based method, that is, thermomechanical mixing, as opposed to the usual casting-evaporation procedure. Chitosan was successfully plasticized by thermomechanical mixing in the presence of concentrated lactic acid and glycerol using a batch mixer. Different plasticization formulations were compared in this study, in which concentrated lactic acid was used as protonation agent as well as plasticizer. The microstructure of thermomechanically plasticized chitosan was investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and optical microscopy. With increasing amount of additional plasticizers (glycerol or water), the crystallinity of the plasticized chitosan decreased from 63.7% for the original chitosan powder to almost zero for the sample plasticized with additional water. Salt linkage between lactic acid molecules and amino side chains of chitosan was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy: the lactic acid molecules expanded the space between the chitosan molecules of the crystalline phase. In the presence of other plasticizers (glycerol and water), various levels of structural units including an amorphous phase, nanofibrils, nanofibril clusters, and microfibers were produced under mechanical shear and thermal energy and identified for the first time. The thermal and thermomechanical properties of the plasticized chitosan were measured by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetric, and DMA. These properties were correlated with the different levels of microstructure, including multiple structural units. PMID:24564751

  20. Irradiated gelatin-potato starch blends: evaluation of physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macromolecular polysaccharides of large chains as starch can interlace with gelatin modifying their mechanical resistance. In this work, biodegradable bovine gelatin-potato starch blends films were developed using glycerol as plasticizer. Three formulations of gelatin/starch proportions (w/w) were used (1:0; 3:1; 1:1) and casting was the chosen method. The dried samples were then submitted to ionizing radiation coming from an electron beam (EB) accelerator with doses of 20 and 40 kGy, at room temperature, in the presence of air. Mechanical properties such as puncture strength and elongation at break were measured. Color measurements, water absorption, moisture, and film solubility were assessed. The results showed that starch addition to films based on gelatin as well as irradiation affected physical and structural properties of the films. Although the increase of starch content in the mixture led to decrease of the puncture force even in samples irradiated with the higher dose, there was a decrease of water absorption of films with the increase of the dose, and also by the higher starch content. Samples irradiated at 20 kGy presented higher moisture and film solubility. The methodology developed in this paper can be applied to other composite systems to establish the best protein:starch ratio, and the contribution of the radiation crosslinking in each specific case. (author)

  1. of Clove on Physicochemical Properties of Chitosan-Based Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Reyes-Chaparro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical and barrier properties of chitosan films prepared with essential oils of clove and functional extract were studied. The films made with functional extracts (esters E6 and E7 presented the significant increment of extensibility compared with the untreated chitosan films. In the case of punction test, the films made with the esters E6 and E7 resisted more the applied strength before tearing up compared with the chitosan control film (without any treatment. Thermogravimetric analysis values were determined for the chitosan control film and chitosan film treated with clove essential oil obtaining 112.17°C and 176.73°C, respectively. Atomic force microscopy (AFM was used to determine their morphology by analyzing their surfaces and phase arrangement; AFM was also used to observe the porosity in chitosan-based antimicrobial films and the chitosan films incorporating functional extracts. The water vapour permeability (WVP data showed that incorporating the functional extract to the formulation of films has a positive effect on water vapour barrier properties. In general, the incorporation of essential oils and functional extract of clove at 20% in chitosan films caused microstructural changes that were dependent on the different affinity of components.

  2. Chemical interesterification of blends of palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil: physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schäfer De Martini; da Silva, Roberta Claro; Hazzan, Márcia; Capacla, Isabele Renata; Viccola, Elise Raduan; Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio

    2012-02-15

    trans-Free interesterified fat was produced for possible usage as a margarine. Palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil were used as substrates for chemical interesterification. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of blends of palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil submitted to chemical interesterification using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The original and interesterified blends were examined for fatty acid composition, softening and melting points, solid fat content, and consistency. Chemical interesterification reduced softening and melting points, consistency, and solid fat content. The interesterified fats showed desirable physicochemical properties for possible use as a margarine. Therefore, our result suggested that the interesterified fat without trans-fatty acids could be used as an alternative to partially hydrogenated fat.

  3. Fluorine Scanning by Nonselective Fluorination: Enhancing Raf/MEK Inhibition while Keeping Physicochemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyohdoh, Ikumi; Furuichi, Noriyuki; Aoki, Toshihiro; Itezono, Yoshiko; Shirai, Haruyoshi; Ozawa, Sawako; Watanabe, Fumio; Matsushita, Masayuki; Sakaitani, Masahiro; Ho, Pil-Su; Takanashi, Kenji; Harada, Naoki; Tomii, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kiyoshi; Ori, Kazutomo; Tabo, Mitsuyasu; Aoki, Yuko; Shimma, Nobuo; Iikura, Hitoshi

    2013-11-14

    A facile methodology effective in obtaining a set of compounds monofluorinated at various positions (fluorine scan) by chemical synthesis is reported. Direct and nonselective fluorination reactions of our lead compound 1a and key intermediate 2a worked efficiently to afford a total of six monofluorinated derivatives. All of the derivatives kept their physicochemical properties compared with the lead 1a and one of them had enhanced Raf/MEK inhibitory activity. Keeping physicochemical properties could be considered a benefit of monofluorinated derivatives compared with chlorinated derivatives, iodinated derivatives, methylated derivatives, etc. This key finding led to the identification of compound 14d, which had potent tumor growth inhibition in a xenograft model, excellent PK profiles in three animal species, and no critical toxicity. PMID:24900605

  4. Effect of Potassium Permanganate Nano-Zeolite and Storage Time on Physicochemical Properties of Kiwifruit (Hayward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mirzaee Moghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research, kiwifruits (Hayward were selected in two mass ranges (large and small. They were placed in one-liter glass bottles in the vicinity of the polyethylene sachets containing potassium permanganate nano-zeolite (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 g and were stored in a germinator (5°C temperature and 30% relative humidity. Then, the physicochemical properties of the fruits (soluble solid content, pH, moisture content and fruit firmness and potassium permanganate nano-zeolite color (L, Hue angle, Chroma and E were measured after t 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks of storage. The factorial treatment structure based on completely randomized block design was used for analyzing the obtained data. The results of analysis showed that potassium permanganate nano-zeolite had a significant effect on the measured physicochemical properties, except for the moisture content (P

  5. Replication of simulated prebiotic amphiphile vesicles controlled by experimental lipid physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new embodiment of the graded autocatalysis replication domain (GARD) for the growth, replication and evolution of lipid vesicles based on a semi-empirical foundation using experimentally measured kinetic values of selected extant lipid species. Extensive simulations using this formalism elucidated the details of the dependence of the replication and properties of the vesicles on the physicochemical properties and concentrations of the lipids, both in the environment and in the vesicle. As expected, the overall concentration and number of amphiphilic components strongly affect average replication time. Furthermore, variations in acyl chain length and unsaturation of vesicles also influence replication rate, as do the relative concentrations of individual lipid types. Understanding of the dependence of replication rates on physicochemical parameters opens a new direction in the study of prebiotic vesicles and lays the groundwork for future studies involving the competition between lipid vesicles for available amphiphilic monomers

  6. Physicochemical properties and digestibility of hydrothermally treated waxy rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Feng; Ma, Fei; Kong, Fansheng; Gao, Qunyu; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-04-01

    Waxy rice starch was subjected to annealing (ANN) and heat-moisture treatment (HMT). These starches were also treated by a combination of ANN and HMT. The impact of single and dual modifications (ANN-HMT and HMT-ANN) on the molecular weight (M(w)), crystalline structure, thermal properties, and the digestibility were investigated. The relative crystallinity and short-range order on the granule surface increased on ANN, whereas decreased on HMT. All treated starches showed lower M(w) than that of the native starch. Gelatinization onset temperature, peak temperature and conclusion temperature increased for both single and dual treatments. Increased slowly digestible starch content was found on HMT and ANN-HMT. However, resistant starch levels decreased in all treated starches as compared with native starch. The results would imply that hydrothermal treatment induced structural changes in waxy rice starch significantly affected its digestibility.

  7. Physicochemical Properties of Gold Nanostructures Deposited on Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Novotna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of gold films sputtered onto borosilicate glass substrate were studied. UV-Vis absorption spectra were used to investigate optical parameters. XRD analysis provided information about the gold crystalline nanostructure, the texture, and lattice parameter and biaxial tension was also determined by the XRD method. The surface morphology was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM; chemical structure of sputtered gold nanostructures was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS. The gold crystallites are preferentially [111] oriented on the sputtered samples. Gold deposition leads to dramatic changes in the surface morphology in comparison to pristine glass substrate. Oxygen is not incorporated into the gold layer during gold deposition. Experimental data on lattice parameter were also confirmed by theoretical investigations of nanoclusters using tight-binding potentials.

  8. Production Technology and Physicochemical Properties of Composition Containing Surfactant Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Novochadov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a production method of substance containing great amount of phospolipids (up to 36 % and surfactant proteins (up to 2 % in terms of lyophilisate composition. Basic physical and chemical characteristics of the substance (density, viscosity, surface tension and the coefficient of sliding friction indicate a high lubricant capacity of the derived product. These properties are kept when mixed with native human synovial fluid in the ratio of 1 to 9 inclusive. The obtained data allows to consider the derived composition, containing surfactant proteins and phospholipids, a variety of bionic lubricant suitable for testing as a potential equivalent of synovial fluid which can be used in traumatology and orthopedics, a cosmetic component or agent which increases the stability of the cell suspension during culturing in bioreactors.

  9. Sorption of roxarsone onto soils with different physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing-Long; He, Jian-Zhou; Blaney, Lee; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2016-09-01

    Elevated roxarsone (ROX) concentrations in soils, caused by land application of ROX-bearing poultry litter, mandate investigation of ROX sorption onto soils. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of ROX sorption onto five soils were carried out to explore the relationship between sorption parameters and soil properties, and to reveal the effects of coexisting humic acid (HA), P(V), As(V), and As(III) on ROX transport. Experimental results indicated that ROX sorption reached equilibrium within 24 h, with pseudo-second order rate constants of 5.74-5.26 × 10(2) g/(mg h); film and intra-particle diffusion were the rate-limiting processes. ROX sorption to soils involved partitioning and adsorption phenomena; however, their relative contributions varied for different soils. The maximum ROX sorption varied with soil type, ranging from 0.59 to 4.12 mg/g. Results from correlation analysis and multiple linear regressions revealed that the maximum sorption capacities, partition coefficients, and desorption percentages were correlated with soil properties, especially iron content, total organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. ROX sorption to soils was affected more by soil pH than the initial pH of ROX-containing solutions. Carboxylic and amide functional groups were determined to be responsible for ROX sorption to soils. ROX sorption capacities decreased in the presence of HA, P(V), As(V), and As(III), indicating that ROX mobility in soils was facilitated by dissolved organic matter (DOM) and competing anions. PMID:27281543

  10. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of polyhydroxylated diphenyl ethers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fu; Zhang, Xuesheng; Qu, Ruijuan; Shi, Jiaqi; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: • The experimental pK{sub a1} values of five synthesized PHODEs were determined. • The hydrogen bonds existed in PHODEs were investigated. • There exist close relationships between the thermodynamic properties and N{sub PHOS}. • The relative stability order of PHODE congeners was theoretically proposed. - Abstract: Five polyhydroxylated diphenyl ethers (PHODEs) were synthesized. The first ionization constants (pK{sub a1}) of the synthesized compounds and seven phenolic compounds were determined using potentiometric titration experiments, together with the software ACD/Labs pK{sub a} DB program (version 6.0). The compared results showed that the software could be used to predict the pK{sub a1} of all 209 PHODEs. The thermodynamic properties of 209 PHODEs were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311G** level with Gaussian 09 program. The standard enthalpy of formation (Δ{sub f}H{sup θ}) and the standard Gibbs energy of formation (Δ{sub f}G{sup θ}) were obtained. Two types of hydrogen bond were found to exist in the PHODEs’ molecules. The intramolecular hydrogen bond energies were discussed. The relative stability of PHODEs isomers was proposed theoretically with the relative standard Gibbs energy of formation (Δ{sub f}G{sub R}{sup θ}). The relationships of S{sup θ}, Δ{sub f}H{sup θ} and Δ{sub f}G{sup θ} to the number and position of the hydroxyl substitution (N{sub PHOS}) were studied.

  11. The physico-chemical properties of spiramycin and clarithromycin / Rodé van Eeden

    OpenAIRE

    Van Eeden, Rodé

    2012-01-01

    In most cases, organic materials exist in the solid phase as polymorphs, solvatomorphs or amorphous forms. Physico-chemical properties in the solid-state are all affected primarily in terms of dissolution, solubility, bioavailability, stability and processability. Therefore investigation into the polymorphic behaviour of APIs has become a mandatory part of drug characterisation studies by pharmaceutical companies (Giron, 2001). The influence polymorphism has on bioavailability ...

  12. Physico-chemical properties of blends of palm olein with other vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Mobin Siddique, Bazlul; Ahmad, Anees; Hakimi Ibrahim, Mohamad; Hena, Sufia; Rafatullah, Mohd; Omar A. K, Mohd

    2010-01-01

    Palm oil (olein) was blended with other edible oils for the enhancement of its market acceptability in terms of melting point depression and shelf life. The physico-chemical properties like viscosity, density, melting behavior, peroxide value (PV), saponification value (SV) and iodine value (IV) of four different binary blends with four vegetable oils were evaluated. Palm olein was found to be more stable against rancidity than the other oils. For the stability against oxidation and melting p...

  13. Nisin as a Food Preservative: Part 1: Physicochemical Properties, Antimicrobial Activity, and Main Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsallaoui, Adem; Oulahal, Nadia; Joly, Catherine; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-06-10

    Nisin is a natural preservative for many food products. This bacteriocin is mainly used in dairy and meat products. Nisin inhibits pathogenic food borne bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and many other Gram-positive food spoilage microorganisms. Nisin can be used alone or in combination with other preservatives or also with several physical treatments. This paper reviews physicochemical and biological properties of nisin, the main factors affecting its antimicrobial effectiveness, and its food applications as an additive directly incorporated into food matrices.

  14. Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex to Improve Physicochemical Properties of Herbicide Bentazon: Exploring Better Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Yáñez; Paulina Cañete-Rosales; Juan Pablo Castillo; Nicole Catalán; Tomás Undabeytia; Esmeralda Morillo

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of the host-guest complexes using cyclodextrins (CDs) has prompted an increase in the development of new formulations. The capacity of these organic host structures of including guest within their hydrophobic cavities, improves physicochemical properties of the guest. In the case of pesticides, several inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins have been reported. However, in order to explore rationally new pesticide formulations, it is essential to know the effect of cyclodextrins ...

  15. Structure and physico-chemical properties in mixed aqueoussolution of sodium alkylcarboxylate-alkyltrimethylammoniumbromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG, Jian-Bin(黄建滨); ZHAO, Guo-Xi(赵国玺); HE, Xu(何煦); ZHU, Bu-Yao(朱步瑶); FU, Hong-Lan(付宏兰)

    2000-01-01

    The physico-chemical properties of organized assemblies (micelle or vesicle) from sodium alkylcarboxylate-alkyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide mixture have been investigated systematically. In different mixed cationic-anionic surfactant systems, micelles and vesicles can coexist or be transformed into each other on different conditions. The experimental results are explained prelimilarily from the viewpoint of molecular packing geometry. The solubilization of organic compound in the mixed surfactant system was also studied in detail.

  16. Calcium Silicate-Based Cements Associated with Micro- and Nanoparticle Radiopacifiers: Physicochemical Properties and Bioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    BOSSO-MARTELO, Roberta; Juliane Maria GUERREIRO-TANOMARU; Viapiana, Raqueli; Berbert, Fábio Luis Camargo Vilella; Basso Bernardi, Maria Inês; Tanomaru-Filho, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties and bioactivity of two formulations of calcium silicate-based cements containing additives (CSCM) or resin (CSCR), associated with radiopacifying agents zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and niobium oxide (Nb2O5) as micro- and nanoparticles; calcium tungstate (CaWO4); and bismuth oxide (Bi2O3). MTA Angelus was used as control. Methods. Surface features and bioactivity were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and the ch...

  17. Prediction of Substrate-Enzyme-Product Interaction Based on Molecular Descriptors and Physicochemical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Niu; Guohua Huang; Linfeng Zheng; Xueyuan Wang; Fuxue Chen; Yuhui Zhang; Tao Huang

    2013-01-01

    It is important to correctly and efficiently predict the interaction of substrate-enzyme and to predict their product in metabolic pathway. In this work, a novel approach was introduced to encode substrate/product and enzyme molecules with molecular descriptors and physicochemical properties, respectively. Based on this encoding method, KNN was adopted to build the substrate-enzyme-product interaction network. After selecting the optimal features that are able to represent the main factors of...

  18. Morphological and physico-chemical properties of British aquatic habitats potentially exposed to pesticides.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Colin D.; Turner, Nigel; Hollis, John; Bellamy, Patricia H.; Biggs, Jeremy; Williams, Penny; Arnold, Dave; Pepper, Tim; Maund, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Approaches to describe the exposure of non-target aquatic organisms to agricultural pesticides can be limited by insufficient knowledge of the environmental conditions where the compounds are used. This study analysed information from national and regional datasets gathered in the UK describing the morphological and physico-chemical properties of rivers, streams, ponds and ditches. An aggregation approach was adopted, whereby the landscape was divided into 12 hydrogeological classes for agric...

  19. Physicochemical properties, modifications and applications of starches from different botanical sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Carolina Alcázar-Alay; Maria Angela Almeida Meireles

    2015-01-01

    Present trends towards technologies and processes that increase the use of residues make starchy vegetal biomass an important alternative material in various applications due to starch’s versatility, low cost and ease of use when its physicochemical properties are altered. Starch is increasingly used in many industrial applications and as a renewable energy resource. Starch can be modified to enhance its positive attributes and eliminate deficiencies in its native characteristics. In this art...

  20. Exploiting the Physicochemical Properties of Dendritic Polymers for Environmental and Biological Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Geitner, Nicholas K.; Sarupria, Sapna; Ke, Pu Chun

    2013-04-07

    In this Perspective we first examine the rich physicochemical properties of dendritic polymers for hosting cations, anions, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. We then extrapolate these conceptual discussions to the use of dendritic polymers for humic acid antifouling, oil dispersion, copper sensing, and fullerenol remediation. In addition, we review the state-of-the-art of dendrimer research and elaborate on their 10 implications for water purification, environmental remediation, nanomedicine, and energy harvesting.

  1. Effect of Packaging and Antioxidant Combinations on Physicochemical Properties of Irradiated Restructured Chicken Rolls

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Dong U. Ahn; Nam, Ki-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Effects of double packaging (combinational use of aerobic and vacuum conditions) and antioxidants on physicochemical properties in irradiated restructured chicken rolls were determined. Chicken breast treated with antioxidants (none, sesamol+a-tocopherol) was used to process restructured chicken breast rolls. The sliced rolls were vacuum, aerobic, or double packaged (vacuum for 7 d then aerobic for 3 d) and electron beam irradiated at 2.5 kGy. Color, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances ...

  2. Effect of organic mulching on physico-chemical properties of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice straw is used as organic mulch to regulate the hydrothermal regime of the soil. It is also used for moisture conservation, soil temperature moderation and weed suppression. Attempts were made to study the physico-chemical properties of soil through a series of experiments at four different locations of lateritic sandy loam soil of India under straw mulch. It was concluded that rice straw might be used as a nutrient source in crop production and act as mulch-cum manure. (author)

  3. Physico-Chemical Properties, Antioxidant Activity and Mineral Contents of Pineapple Genotypes Grown in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xin-Hua Lu; De-Quan Sun; Qing-Song Wu; Sheng-Hui Liu; Guang-Ming Sun

    2014-01-01

    The fruit physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of 26 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] genotypes grown in China were measured. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of these pineapple genotypes. Sucrose was the dominant sugar in all 26 genotypes, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents. The ascorbic acid (AsA) content ranged from 5.08 to 33.57 mg/...

  4. Physico-chemical property prediction and environmental fate modelling of N-acylchalcogenourea derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    B Schröder; Martins, M.A.R.; Pinho, Simão; Coutinho, J. A. P.

    2013-01-01

    (Subcooled) vapour pressures, aqueous solubilities, Henry constants, log KOW and log KOC partition constants have been estimated for a set of N-acyl-chalcogenourea derivatives using several prediction methods (COSMO-RS in its COSMOtherm implementation, SPARC as well as EPA’s EPIsuite). The data are discussed in terms of substituent effects: how do subtle changes in the chemical composition influence basic physico-chemical properties and hence, the environmental fate of...

  5. Evaluation of physicochemical and phytochemical properties of Safoof-E-Sana, a Unani polyherbal formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ajazuddin,; Shailendra Saraf

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although the formulations of the Unani system of medicine are popular, not much scientific work has been reported so far. The present article is an attempt to establish the scientific basis of one of the popular Unani formulations Safoof-ESana, a polyherbal formulation widely used as a laxative. Methods: Investigations were carried out to study the physicochemical and phytochemical properties of Safoof-E-Sana and its active ingredients. Results and Conclusion: The values of percen...

  6. Theophylline Cocrystals Prepared by Spray Drying: Physicochemical Properties and Aerosolization Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Alhalaweh, Amjad; Kaialy, Waseem; Buckton, Graham; Gill, Hardyal; Nokhodchi, Ali; Velaga, Sitaram P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize theophylline (THF) cocrystals prepared by spray drying in terms of the physicochemical properties and inhalation performance when aerosolized from a dry powder inhaler. Cocrystals of theophylline with urea (THF-URE), saccharin (THF-SAC) and nicotinamide (THF-NIC) were prepared by spray drying. Milled THF and THF-SAC cocrystals were also used for comparison. The physical purity, particle size, particle morphology and surface energy of the materials ...

  7. Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum: Dilute solution and some physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesarinejad, M A; Razavi, Seyed M A; Koocheki, A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of various temperatures (25-65°C) on some dilute solution properties of Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum (AHSG) as a novel potential source of hydrocolloid. Monosaccharide composition, FTIR analysis and molecular parameters were determined to provide more structural information. The results indicated that AHSG had a low molecular weight (3.66×10(5)Da), medium intrinsic viscosity (18.34dl/g) at 25°C, relatively flexible chain with a chain flexibility parameter of 618.54, and activation energy of 0.51×10(7)J/kgmol. With rise in temperature from 25 to 55°C, the intrinsic viscosity decreased as well as coil radius and volume of AHSG. The shape factor of AHSG macromolecule was spherical at all temperatures. The electrostatic interaction and particle size of AHSG solution were -25.81mV (at neutral pH) and 225.36nm, respectively. The results revealed that AHSG had high total sugar content (85.33%), small amount of uronic acids (5.63%) and it is likely a galactan-type polysaccharide. The FTIR spectra showed that AHSG behaved like a typical polyelectrolyte because of the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups.

  8. Effect of high pressure on physicochemical properties of meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckow, Roman; Sikes, Anita; Tume, Ron

    2013-01-01

    The application of high pressure offers some interesting opportunities in the processing of muscle-based food products. It is well known that high-pressure processing can prolong the shelf life of meat products in addition to chilling but the pressure-labile nature of protein systems limits the commercial range of applications. High pressure can affect the texture and gel-forming properties of myofibrillar proteins and, hence, has been suggested as a physical and additive-free alternative to tenderize and soften or restructure meat and fish products. However, the rate and magnitude at which pressure and temperature effects take place in muscles are variable and depend on a number of circumstances and conditions that are still not precisely known. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the effects of high pressure on muscle tissue over a range of temperatures as it relates to meat texture, microstructure, color, enzymes, lipid oxidation, and pressure-induced gelation of myofibrillar proteins.

  9. Preparation and Physicochemical Properties of Vinblastine Microparticles by Supercritical Antisolvent Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Ma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to prepare vinblastine microparticles by supercritical antisolvent process using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as solvent and carbon dioxide as antisolvent and evaluate its physicochemical properties. The effects of four process variables, pressure, temperature, drug concentration and drug solution flow rate, on drug particle formation during the supercritical antisolvent process, were investigated. Particles with a mean particle size of 121 ± 5.3 nm were obtained under the optimized process conditions (precipitation temperature 60 °C, precipitation pressure 25 MPa, vinblastine concentration 2.50 mg/mL and vinblastine solution flow rate 6.7 mL/min. The vinblastine was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and dissolution test. It was concluded that physicochemical properties of crystalline vinblastine could be improved by physical modification, such as particle size reduction and generation of amorphous state using the supercritical antisolvent process. Furthermore, the supercritical antisolvent process was a powerful methodology for improving the physicochemical properties of vinblastine.

  10. Glutarimides: Biological activity, general synthetic methods and physicochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Đorđević Jelena B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutarimides, 2,6-dioxopiperidines are compounds that rarely occur in natural sources, but so far isolated ones exert widespread pharmacological activities, which makes them valuable as potential pharmacotherapeutics. Glutarimides act as androgen receptor antagonists, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytics, antibacterials, and tumor suppressing agents. Some synthetic glutarimide derivatives are already in use as immunosuppressive and sedative (e.g., thalidomide or anxiolytics (buspirone drugs. The wide applicability of this class of compounds, justify the interest of scientists to explore new pathways for its syntheses. General methods for synthesis of six-membered imide ring, are presented in this paper. These methods include: a reaction of dicarboxylic acids with ammonia or primary amine, b reactions of cyclization: amido-acids, diamides, dinitriles, nitrilo-acids, amido-nitriles, amido-esters, amidoacyl-chlorides or diacyl-chlorides, c adition of carbon-monoxide on a,b-unsaturated amides, d oxidation reactions, e Michael adition of active methylen compounds on methacrylamide or conjugated amides. Some of the described methods are used for closing glutarimide ring in syntheses of farmacological active compounds sesbanimide and aldose reductase inhibitors (ARI. Analyses of the geometry, as well as, the spectroscopic analyses (NMR and FT-IR of some glutarimides are presented because of their broad spectrum of pharmacological activity. To elucidate structures of glutarimides, geometrical parameters of newly synthesized tert-pentyl-1-benzyl-4-methyl-glutarimide-3-carboxylate (PBMG are analyzed and compared with the experimental data from X-ray analysis for glutarimide. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surface which is plotted over the optimized geometry to elucidate the reactivity of PBMG molecule is analyzed. The electronic properties of glutarimide derivatives are explained on the example of thalidomide. The Frontier Molecular Orbital

  11. Physico-chemical properties of perturbed water: facts and enigmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Elia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The study of extremely diluted and agitated substances and solutions is strictly linked with the analysis of properties of water perturbed using different systems. This study is about the determination of the physical-chemical parameters of water, after the perturbations described. Methods The perturbed water was obtained using the three different protocols: · EDS (Extremely Diluted Solutions. Obtained through an iterative process of successive dilutions and agitations. · IFW (Iteratively Filtered Water. Obtained through an iterative process of successive filtrations through sintered glass filters. · INW (Iteratively Nafionized Water. Obtained through an iterative process of successive drying and wetting of the Nafion polymer. The parameters under study are: electrical conductivity, χ / μS cm-1; heat of mixing with acid (HCl, ΔQmixHCl / J Kg-1 or basic (NaOH solutions, ΔQmixNaOH / J Kg-1 and pH. χ increases of up to two orders of magnitude, ΔQmixNaOH / J Kg-1 is exothermic and increases as the electrical conductivity increases, with a roughly linear trend, up to one order of magnitude. The analogous ΔQmixHCl / J Kg-1, on the contrary, is found to be exothermic or null depending on the protocol used. For the two protocol (EDS or IFW the pH is alkaline while for the third one (INW is quite acid and shows a very good linear correlation with logχ. The linear correlations hint at a single cause for the variation of the three very different physical- chemical parameters. Results and discussion Each protocol produces water exhibiting its own peculiarities, to the point that they can be considered different, albeit with the common element of a variation of the super-molecular structure of the water solvent. These three procedures capable of affecting water can be grouped together by means of a common work

  12. Effect of Shading During Grain Filling on the Physicochemical Properties of Fresh Waxy Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Da-lei; SUN Xu-li; WANG Xin; YAN Fa-bao; LU Wei-ping

    2013-01-01

    Grain physicochemical properties determine the table quality of fresh waxy maize. Two waxy maize varieties, Suyunuo 5 (shading tolerant) and FHN003 (shading sensitive), were used to estimate the effect of shading (plants received 30%less radiation than control) during grain filling (from 0 d to 23 d after pollination) on physicochemical properties of fresh waxy maize grain. Shading decreased the grain fresh weight of Suyunuo 5 and FHN003 by 8.4 and 19.1%, respectively. Shading increased the grain water content of FHN003, whereas that of Suyunuo 5 was not affected. In both varieties for shading treatment, soluble sugar, starch and protein contents were decreased, whereas zein content was increased. The changes in globulin, albumin and glutenin contents under shading were variety dependent. In both varieties, shading decreasedλmax, iodine binding capacity and the percentage of large starch granules (diameter>17μm) but increased crystallinity. The results of rapid visco analysis showed that the viscosity characteristics (except for pasting temperature) of both varieties were decreased by shading;however, FHN003 was more severely affected than Suyunuo 5. Under shading,ΔHret and%R were decreased in both varieties, whereas the changes in ΔHgel and transition temperatures were variety dependent. Hardness, cohesiveness and chewiness were decreased in both varieties. Significant differences in physicochemical characteristics were observed between the two varieties.

  13. Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs modulate the physicochemical properties of plasma membrane in experimental colorectal cancer: a fluorescence spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Vivek; Sanyal, Sankar Nath

    2011-12-01

    According to "fluid-mosaic model," plasma membrane is a bilayer constituted by phospholipids which regulates the various cellular activities governed by many proteins and enzymes. Any chemical, biochemical, or physical factor has to interact with the bilayer in order to regulate the cellular metabolism where various physicochemical properties of membrane, i.e., polarization, fluidity, electrostatic potential, and phase state may get affected. In this study, we have observed the in vivo effects of a pro-carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) and the two non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); sulindac and celecoxib on various properties of the plasma membrane of colonocytes, i.e., electric potential, fluidity, anisotropy, microviscosity, lateral diffusion, and phase state in the experimentally induced colorectal cancer. A number of fluorescence probes were utilized like membrane fluidity and anisotropy by 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene, membrane microviscosity by Pyrene, membrane electric potential by merocyanine 540, lateral diffusion by N-NBD-PE, and phase state by Laurdan. It is observed that membrane phospholipids are less densely packed and therefore, the membrane is more fluid in case of carcinogenesis produced by DMH than control. But NSAIDs are effective in reverting back the membrane toward normal state when co-administered with DMH. The membrane becomes less fluid, composed of low electric potential phospholipids whose lateral diffusion is being prohibited and the membrane stays mostly in relative gel phase. It may be stated that sulindac and celecoxib, the two NSAIDs may exert their anti-neoplastic role in colorectal cancer via modifying the physicochemical properties of the membranes. PMID:21725642

  14. Effect of Pre-Harvest Sprouting on Physicochemical Properties of Starch in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senay Simsek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. occurs when physiologically mature kernels begin germinating in the spike. The objective of this study was to provide fundamental information on physicochemical changes of starch due to PHS in Hard Red Spring (HRS and Hard White Spring (HWS wheat. The mean values of α-amylase activity of non-sprouted and sprouted wheat samples were 0.12 CU/g and 2.00 CU/g, respectively. Sprouted samples exhibited very low peak and final viscosities compared to non-sprouted wheat samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images showed that starch granules in sprouted samples were partially hydrolyzed. Based on High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC profiles, the starch from sprouted samples had relatively lower molecular weight than that of non-sprouted samples. Overall, high α-amylase activity caused changes to the physicochemical properties of the PHS damaged wheat.

  15. Physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of bleached pomace-olive oil on Tunisian activated clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a contribution to studying bleaching process, which is an important stage in refining of vegetable oils. This process permitted to reduce or convert undesired constituents to harmless ones from oils and fats. Virgin olive oil, considered as reference, and pomace-olive oil were bleached in optimal conditions using Tunisian activated clays ( collected from the South of Tunisia) which were prepared in our laboratory and compared with commercial bleaching earths. It was shown that activated Tunisian clays are characterized by a very important adsorptive capacity, which is similar to that of commercial ones. In addition, the study of physicochemical properties of bleached oils was considered. The fatty acid composition (GC), the triacylglycerol composition (HPLC), and oxidative stability (UV spectrometry) allowed to conclude that treated oils do not undergo considerable physicochemical alterations and their caracteristics remain in concordance with international standards relative to edible refined oils. (Author)

  16. Distribution of Fish in the Upper Citarum River: an Adaptive Response to Physico-Chemical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    SUNARDI; KEUKEU KANIAWATI; TEGUH HUSODO; DESAK MADE MALINI; ANNISA JOVIANI ASTARI

    2012-01-01

    Distribution of fish in river is controlled by physico-chemical properties of the water which is affected by land-use complexity and intensity of human intervention. A study on fish distribution was carried out in the upper Citarum River to map the effects of physio-chemical properties on habitat use. A survey was conducted to collect fish and to measure the water quality both on dry and rainy season. The result showed that distribution of the fish, in general, represented their adaptive resp...

  17. Storage stability and physicochemical properties of passion fruit juice microcapsules by spray-drying

    OpenAIRE

    H. Carrillo-Navas; D. A. González-Rodea; J. Cruz-Olivares; J. F. Barrera-Pichardo; A. Román-Guerrero; C. Pérez-Alonso

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to microencapsulate passion fruit juice (PFJ) by spray-drying in two dierent biopolymers blends: Gum Arabic-mesquite gum-maltodextrin DE-10 (GA17-MG66-MD17 and GA17-MG-17-MD66), yielding the microcapsules MGA17-MG66-MD17 and MGA17-MG17-MD66. The spray-dried passion fruit microcapsules were analyzed for physicochemical properties (moisture content, water activity, powder particle size), quality properties (hygroscopicity, dispersibility, rehydration time), and reconsti...

  18. Physicochemical properties of different corn varieties by principal components analysis and cluster analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principal components analysis and cluster analysis were used to investigate the properties of different corn varieties. The chemical compositions and some properties of corn flour which processed by drying milling were determined. The results showed that the chemical compositions and physicochemical properties were significantly different among twenty six corn varieties. The quality of corn flour was concerned with five principal components from principal component analysis and the contribution rate of starch pasting properties was important, which could account for 48.90%. Twenty six corn varieties could be classified into four groups by cluster analysis. The consistency between principal components analysis and cluster analysis indicated that multivariate analyses were feasible in the study of corn variety properties. (author)

  19. Chemical carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical compounds benefits society in a number of ways. Pesticides, for instance, enable foodstuffs to be produced in sufficient quantities to satisfy the needs of millions of people, a condition that has led to an increase in levels of life expectancy. Yet, at times, these benefits are offset by certain disadvantages, notably the toxic side effects of the chemical compounds used. Exposure to these compounds can have varying effects, ranging from instant death to a gradual process of chemical carcinogenesis. There are three stages involved in chemical carcinogenesis. These are defined as initiation, promotion and progression. Each of these stages is characterised by morphological and biochemical modifications and result from genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. These genetic modifications include: mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, cell death and DNA repair - i.e. mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressing genes. The epigenetic factors, also considered as being non-genetic in character, can also contribute to carcinogenesis via epigenetic mechanisms which silence gene expression. The control of responses to carcinogenesis through the application of several chemical, biochemical and biological techniques facilitates the identification of those basic mechanisms involved in neoplasic development. Experimental assays with laboratory animals, epidemiological studies and quick tests enable the identification of carcinogenic compounds, the dissection of many aspects of carcinogenesis, and the establishment of effective strategies to prevent the cancer which results from exposure to chemicals.A sociedade obtém numerosos benefícios da utilização de compostos químicos. A aplicação dos pesticidas, por exemplo, permitiu obter alimento em quantidade suficiente para satisfazer as necessidades alimentares de milhões de pessoas, condição relacionada com o aumento da esperança de vida. Os benefícios estão, por

  20. Influence of mannitol concentration on the physicochemical, mechanical and pharmaceutical properties of lyophilised mannitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaialy, Waseem; Khan, Usman; Mawlud, Shadan

    2016-08-20

    Mannitol is a pharmaceutical excipient that is receiving increased popularity in solid dosage forms. The aim of this study was to provide comparative evaluation on the effect of mannitol concentration on the physicochemical, mechanical, and pharmaceutical properties of lyophilised mannitol. The results showed that the physicochemical, mechanical and pharmaceutical properties of lyophilised mannitol powders are strong functions of mannitol concentration. By decreasing mannitol concentration, the true density, bulk density, cohesivity, flowability, netcharge-to-mass ratio, and relative degree of crystallinity of LM were decreased, whereas the breakability, size distribution, and size homogeneity of lyophilised mannitol particles were increased. The mechanical properties of lyophilised mannitol tablets improved with decreasing mannitol concentration. The use of lyophilised mannitol has profoundly improved the dissolution rate of indomethacin from tablets in comparison to commercial mannitol. This improvement exhibited an increasing trend with decreasing mannitol concentration. In conclusion, mannitols lyophilised from lower concentrations are more desirable in tableting than mannitols from higher concentrations due to their better mechanical and dissolution properties. PMID:27242312

  1. Physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of Chinese noodles in relation to optimal cooking time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoting; Sui, Zhongquan

    2016-03-01

    Changes in the physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of white salted noodles (WSN) at different cooking stage were investigated. The noodles were dried in fresh air and then cooked for 2-12 min by boiling in distilled water to determine the properties of cooking quality, textural properties and optical characteristic. For starch digestibility, dry noodles were milled and sieved into various particle size classes ranging from 0.5 mm to 5.0 mm, and hydrolyzed by porcine pancreatic α-amylase. The optimal cooking time of WSN determined by squeezing between glasses was 6 min. The results showed that the kinetics of solvation of starch and protein molecules were responsible for changes of the physicochemical properties of WSN during cooking. The susceptibility of starch to α-amylase was influenced by the cooking time, particle size and enzyme treatment. The greater value of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and lower value of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) were reached at the optimal cooking stage ranging between 63.14-71.97%, 2.47-10.74% and 23.94-26.88%, respectively, indicating the susceptibility on hydrolysis by enzyme was important in defining the cooked stage. The study suggested that cooking quality and digestibility were not correlated but the texture greatly controls the digestibility of the noodles.

  2. Distribution of Fish in the Upper Citarum River: an Adaptive Response to Physico-Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNARDI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of fish in river is controlled by physico-chemical properties of the water which is affected by land-use complexity and intensity of human intervention. A study on fish distribution was carried out in the upper Citarum River to map the effects of physio-chemical properties on habitat use. A survey was conducted to collect fish and to measure the water quality both on dry and rainy season. The result showed that distribution of the fish, in general, represented their adaptive response to physico-chemical properties. The river environment could be grouped into two categories: (i clean and relatively unpolluted sites, which associated with high DO and water current, and (ii polluted sites characterized by low DO, high COD, BOD, water temperature, NO3, PO4, H2S, NH3, and surfactant. Fish inhabiting the first sites were Xiphophorus helleri, Punctius binotatus, Xiphophorus maculatus, and Oreochromis mossambicus. Meanwhile, the latter sites were inhabited by Liposarcus pardalis, Trichogaster trichopterus, and Poecilia reticulata. Knowledge about fish distribution in association with the pysico-chemical properties of water is crucial especially for the river management.

  3. Physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of Chinese noodles in relation to optimal cooking time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoting; Sui, Zhongquan

    2016-03-01

    Changes in the physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of white salted noodles (WSN) at different cooking stage were investigated. The noodles were dried in fresh air and then cooked for 2-12 min by boiling in distilled water to determine the properties of cooking quality, textural properties and optical characteristic. For starch digestibility, dry noodles were milled and sieved into various particle size classes ranging from 0.5 mm to 5.0 mm, and hydrolyzed by porcine pancreatic α-amylase. The optimal cooking time of WSN determined by squeezing between glasses was 6 min. The results showed that the kinetics of solvation of starch and protein molecules were responsible for changes of the physicochemical properties of WSN during cooking. The susceptibility of starch to α-amylase was influenced by the cooking time, particle size and enzyme treatment. The greater value of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and lower value of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) were reached at the optimal cooking stage ranging between 63.14-71.97%, 2.47-10.74% and 23.94-26.88%, respectively, indicating the susceptibility on hydrolysis by enzyme was important in defining the cooked stage. The study suggested that cooking quality and digestibility were not correlated but the texture greatly controls the digestibility of the noodles. PMID:26718868

  4. A study of relations between physicochemical properties of crude oils and microbiological characteristics of reservoir microflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, I. G.; Polishchuk, Yu. M.; Peremitina, T. O.

    2015-10-01

    The dependence of the population and activity of reservoir microflora upon the chemical composition and viscosity of crude oils has been investigated, since it allows the problem of improvement in the technologies and enhancement of oil recovery as applied to production of difficult types of oils with anomalous properties (viscous, heavy, waxy, high resin) to be solved. The effect of the chemical composition of the oil on the number, distribution, and activity of reservoir microflora has been studied using data on the microbiological properties of reservoir water of 16 different fields in oil and gas basins of Russia, Mongolia, China, and Vietnam. Information on the physicochemical properties of crude oils of these fields has been obtained from the database created at the Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch on the physicochemical properties of oils throughout the world. It has been found that formation water in viscous oil reservoirs is char acterized by a large population of heterotrophic and sulfate reducing bacteria and the water of oil fields with a high paraffin content, by population of denitrifying bacteria.

  5. Effect of slope position on physico-chemical properties of eroded soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmanullah Khan, Zubair Hayat, Waqar Ahmad,

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The research work was conducted on eroded soil (Missa Series in Samarbagh, District Lower Dir to determine the effect of slope position on soil physico-chemical properties. Soil samples were collected from top-slope, mid-slope and bottom slope positions at horizon-A, B and C. Results showed a significant difference among the physico-chemical properties of top, mid and bottom slope soils. Bulk density of the top-slope (1.51 g cm-3 was the highest followed by mid (1.39 g cm-3 and bottom slopes (1.32 g cm-3. Conversely, electrical conductivity EC-2.47 dS m-1, phosphorus (3.40 mg kg-1, Potassium (118.8 mg kg-1, Organic matter content (1.52 %, clay content (20.39 % and silt content (49.17% were the highest at bottom slope followed by mid and top-slopes, respectively. Soil A, B and C horizons were also significantly (p<0.05 different in their physico-chemical properties. Mean values showed that horizon Ap had the highest bulk density (1.43 g cm-3 and lower electrical conductivity (1.74 dS m-1, phosphorus (2.29 mg kg-1, potassium (84.86 mg kg-1, organic matter (1.08%, clay (12.83% and silt content (40.49% than both the B and C horizons. The deterioration in physico-chemical properties of top slope as compared to mid and bottom slopes and that of Ap horizon as compared to B and C horizons were presumed to be due to past soil erosion effect that removed the finer soil particles including soil organic matter and other plant nutrients. This study concluded that increasing extent of erosion due to slope effect can further deteriorate soil properties. The control of such damaging effects would require soil conservation strategies such as proper land levelling, afforestation, terracing and inclusion of restorative crops in cropping systems on these lands.

  6. Effect of Inulin and β-glucan on The Physicochemical, Rheological, and Sensory Properties Barbari Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Monireh Iranshahi; Seyed Mahdi Seyedain Ardebili

    2014-01-01

    In this research, applications of inulin and beta-glucan fibers on Iranian Barbari bread quality as well as their potential to retard the staling, has been studied. Inulin and beta-glucan powders used in the preparation of the samples, respectively, at three levels of 2, 2.5 and 3% (w-w) and beta-glucan concentrations of 1, 1.5 and 3% (w-w). Tests performed include physicochemical tests relating to quality of flour including moisture, protein, ash, etc; rheological properties ...

  7. Physicochemical, mechanical and thermal properties of chitosan films with and without sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Zhou, Yibin; Zhang, Yang; Yu, Chen; Cao, Shengnan

    2014-09-01

    The effect of sorbitol on the physicochemical, mechanical and thermal properties of chitosan films with different degrees of deacetylation (DD; i.e., DD85% and DD95%) was investigated. The thickness, moisture content (MC), water solubility (WS) and water-vapor permeability (WVP) of the films were evaluated. Sorbitol addition reduced MC, increased WS and significantly (psorbitol increased the strain and decreased stress for both DD films, but DD95% could sustain higher strain and DD85% could sustain higher stress. Thermogravimetrics analysis and differential scanning calorimetry showed that sorbitol elicited a lower degradation temperature for both films, and that DD95% films exhibited higher thermal stability than DD85% films.

  8. Optimization of a sponge cake formulation with inulin as fat replacer: structure, physicochemical, and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, Julia; Puig, Ana; Salvador, Ana; Hernando, Isabel

    2012-02-01

    The effects of several fat replacement levels (0%, 35%, 50%, 70%, and 100%) by inulin in sponge cake microstructure and physicochemical properties were studied. Oil substitution for inulin decreased significantly (P health benefits and accepted by consumers is achieved. Practical Application:  In this study, fat is replaced by inulin in cakes, which is a fiber mainly obtained from chicory roots. Sponge cake formulations with reductions in fat content up to 70% are achieved. These high-quality products can be labeled as "reduced in fat" according to U.S. FDA (2009) and EU regulations (European-Union 2006).

  9. Nisin as a Food Preservative: Part 1: Physicochemical Properties, Antimicrobial Activity, and Main Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsallaoui, Adem; Oulahal, Nadia; Joly, Catherine; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-06-10

    Nisin is a natural preservative for many food products. This bacteriocin is mainly used in dairy and meat products. Nisin inhibits pathogenic food borne bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and many other Gram-positive food spoilage microorganisms. Nisin can be used alone or in combination with other preservatives or also with several physical treatments. This paper reviews physicochemical and biological properties of nisin, the main factors affecting its antimicrobial effectiveness, and its food applications as an additive directly incorporated into food matrices. PMID:25675115

  10. Effect of Potassium Permanganate Nano-Zeolite and Storage Time on Physicochemical Properties of Kiwifruit (Hayward)

    OpenAIRE

    H Mirzaee Moghaddam; M.H Khoshtaghaza; M Barzegar Bafroee; Salimi, A

    2016-01-01

    In this research, kiwifruits (Hayward) were selected in two mass ranges (large and small). They were placed in one-liter glass bottles in the vicinity of the polyethylene sachets containing potassium permanganate nano-zeolite (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 g) and were stored in a germinator (5°C temperature and 30% relative humidity). Then, the physicochemical properties of the fruits (soluble solid content, pH, moisture content and fruit firmness) and potassium permanganate nano-zeolite color (L, Hue...

  11. Effect of Pre-rigor Salting Levels on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Chicken Breast Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Yeo, Eui-Joo; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pre-rigor salting level (0-4% NaCl concentration) on physicochemical and textural properties of pre-rigor chicken breast muscles. The pre-rigor chicken breast muscles were de-boned 10 min post-mortem and salted within 25 min post-mortem. An increase in pre-rigor salting level led to the formation of high ultimate pH of chicken breast muscles at post-mortem 24 h. The addition of minimum of 2% NaCl significantly improved water holding capacity,...

  12. Physico-chemical properties and toxicity of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Joong; Lee, So-Young; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2016-07-15

    Crude oil and refined petroleum products contain many polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in particular, alkylated PAHs. Although alkylated PAHs are found in significantly higher quantities than their corresponding unsubstituted PAHs, the most studies on the physico-chemical properties and toxicities of these compounds have been conducted on unsubstituted PAHs. In this study, we measured crucial physico-chemical properties (i.e., water solubility, partition coefficients between polydimethylsiloxane and water (KPDMSw), and partition coefficient between liposomes and water (Klipw)) of selected alkylated PAHs, and evaluated their toxicity using the luminescence inhibition of Aliivibrio fischeri and growth inhibition of Raphidocelis subcapitata. In general, the logarithms of these properties for alkylated PAHs showed good linear correlations with log Kow, as did those for unsubstituted PAHs. Changes in molecular symmetry on the introduction of alkyl groups on aromatic ring structure significantly altered water solubility. The inhibition of bacterial luminescence and algal growth by alkylated PAHs can be explained well by the baseline toxicity hypothesis, and good linear relationships between log Kow or log Klipw and log (1/EC50) were found.

  13. Use of an integrated approach to characterize the physicochemical properties of foundry green sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnin, Raquel L.P. [Tupy S.A., Rua Albano Schmidt 3.400, Joinville, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Folgueras, Marilena Valadares; Luvizao, Rubia Raquel; Correia, Sivaldo Leite [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Rua Paulo Malschitzki, s/numero - Campus Universitario Prof. Avelino Marcante, Bairro Zona Industrial Norte, Joinville, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Cunha, Carlos Jorge da [Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Politecnico, Jardim das Americas, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Dungan, Robert S., E-mail: robert.dungan@ars.usda.gov [USDA-ARS, Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research Laboratory, 3793 North 3600 East, Kimberly, ID 83341 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physicochemical properties of fresh, spent, and landfilled foundry green sands were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A phase composition model was postulated for each material based on thermogravimetric results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sand from the landfill was determined to be composed of almost pure silica sand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weathering is likely responsible for removing the coating materials from the green sands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Landfilled sands may be suitable for reuse within the foundry or beneficial use applications. - Abstract: A fresh green sand, spent green sand, and a weathered spent green sand (wSGS) from a foundry landfill were analyzed using diffractometry, electron microscopy, fluorometry, granulometry, spectrometry, and thermogravimetry (TG). Our objective was to understand how the physicochemical properties of the foundry green sands change from their original form after being subjected to the casting process, then after weathering at the landfill. A quantitative phase composition model was also postulated for each material based on the TG results and it was found to be the most reliable and informative quantitative data for this type of residue. The weathered sample, that remained in a landfill for two years, was found to be composed of almost pure sand. Because of the weathering process, it may be possible to use the wSGS as a virgin sand replacement in the regeneration system or in geotechnical applications where bentonite would affect the properties of the final product.

  14. Adsorption of pharmaceutical excipients onto microcrystals of siramesine hydrochloride: effects on physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Anne; Millqvist-Fureby, Anna; Elema, Michiel Ringkjøbing; Hansen, Tue; Müllertz, Anette; Hovgaard, Lars

    2009-01-01

    A common challenge in the development of new drug substances is poor dissolution characteristics caused by low aqueous solubility. In this study, microcrystals with optimized physicochemical properties were prepared by precipitation in the presence of excipients, which adsorbed to the particle surface and altered particle size, morphology, and dissolution rate. The poorly water-soluble drug siramesine hydrochloride was precipitated by the antisolvent method in the presence of each of various polymeric and surface active excipients. Powder dissolution studies of six of the resulting particle systems showed a significant increase in percent dissolved after 15 min compared to the starting material. A quantitative determination of the amount of excipient adsorbed to the surface of the drug particles proved that only a very small amount of excipient was needed to exert a marked effect on particle properties. The adsorbed amount of excipient constituted less than 1.4% (w/w) of the total particle weight, and thus powders of very high drug loads were obtained. Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), which exhibited the greatest degree of adsorption, also had the greatest effect on the physicochemical properties of the particles. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the surface composition and scanning electron microscopy studies on particle morphology suggested that the excipients adsorbed to specific faces of the crystals.

  15. Effect of storage on physicochemical, microbial and antioxidant properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata candy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabeera Muzzaffar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata is highly nutritious and antioxidant-rich vegetable widely grown all over the world. Present study reports the effect of storage on physicochemical, microbial, and antioxidant properties of pumpkin candy. Pumpkin and its candy were analyzed for the physicochemical characteristics like moisture content, ash, total soluble solids (TSS, titrable acidity, total sugar, reducing sugar, and color. Beta-carotene and vitamin-C content of pumpkin and its candy were also studied. Antioxidant properties like 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, total phenolic content (TPC, reducing power, and lipid peroxidation of methanolic extracts of pumpkin and processed candy were evaluated. During storage, a significant increase in TSS while a non-significant increase in titrable acidity, reducing and total sugars was observed. Beta-carotene, vitamin C, color, and antioxidant properties (DPPH, FRAP, TPC, reducing power, and lipid peroxidation also showed a non-significant decrease during storage at ambient temperature. Microbial load of pumpkin candy (1.74–3.2 log cfu/g suggested that candies were safe for human consumption during storage. Hence, candy preparation from pumpkin could be an effective method for preservation of pumpkin and retention of its bioactive components.

  16. Influence of physicochemical properties of rice flour on oil uptake of tempura frying batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2010-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of rice flour and wheat flour influenced the oil uptake of tempura frying batter. Rice flour was better than wheat flour in the overall quality and crispness of the fried tempura batter. Rice flour resisted oil absorption more than wheat flour, and a higher level of apparent starch amylose and higher consistency/breakdown ratio of the pasting properties led to a lower oil uptake of the batter. Super hard EM10 rice showed the highest apparent amylose content and higher consistency/breakdown ratio than the other flour samples, the batter from EM10 revealing the lowest oil content after frying among all the batters examined. The apparent amylose content, consistency/breakdown ratio and oil absorption index are proposed as useful guides for oil absorption when frying from among the physicochemical properties that influence the oil content of fried batter. Our proposal for the "oil absorption index" could be a simple, although not perfect method for estimating the oil content of batter flour.

  17. Physico-chemical properties and toxicity of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Joong; Lee, So-Young; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2016-07-15

    Crude oil and refined petroleum products contain many polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in particular, alkylated PAHs. Although alkylated PAHs are found in significantly higher quantities than their corresponding unsubstituted PAHs, the most studies on the physico-chemical properties and toxicities of these compounds have been conducted on unsubstituted PAHs. In this study, we measured crucial physico-chemical properties (i.e., water solubility, partition coefficients between polydimethylsiloxane and water (KPDMSw), and partition coefficient between liposomes and water (Klipw)) of selected alkylated PAHs, and evaluated their toxicity using the luminescence inhibition of Aliivibrio fischeri and growth inhibition of Raphidocelis subcapitata. In general, the logarithms of these properties for alkylated PAHs showed good linear correlations with log Kow, as did those for unsubstituted PAHs. Changes in molecular symmetry on the introduction of alkyl groups on aromatic ring structure significantly altered water solubility. The inhibition of bacterial luminescence and algal growth by alkylated PAHs can be explained well by the baseline toxicity hypothesis, and good linear relationships between log Kow or log Klipw and log (1/EC50) were found. PMID:27037474

  18. Gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismail Gomceli; Baris Demiriz; Mesut Tez

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths.Despite complete resection of gastric cancer and lymph node dissection,as well as improvements in chemotherapy and radiotherapy,there are still 700 000 gastric cancer-related deaths per year worldwide and more than 80% of patients with advanced gastric cancer die of the disease or recurrent disease within 1 year after diagnosis.None of the treatment modalities we have been applying today can influence the overall survival rates:at present,the overall 5-year relative survival rate for gastric cancer is about 28%.Cellular metaplasia due to chronic inflammation,injury and repair are the most documented processes for neoplasia.It appears that chronic inflammation stimulates tumor development and plays a critical role in initiating,sustaining and advancing tumor growth.It is also evident that not all inflammation is tumorigenic.Additional mutations can be acquired,and this leads to the cancer cell gaining a further growth advantage and acquiring a more malignant phenotype.Intestinalization of gastric units,which is called "intestinal metaplasia";phenotypic antralization of fundic units,which is called "spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia"; and the development directly from the stem/progenitor cell zone are three pathways that have been described for gastric carcinogenesis.Also,an important factor for the development of gastrointestinal cancers is peritumoral stroma.However,the initiating cellular event in gastric metaplasia is still controversial.Understanding gastric carcinogenesis and its precursor lesions has been under intense investigation,and our paper attempts to high-light recent progress in this field of cancer research.

  19. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis

  20. VARIATION OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF RADIATION CROSSLINKED RUBBER WITH STORAGE TIME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.C. Dafader; M.E. Haque; F. Akhtar

    2005-01-01

    The effect of storage on physico-chemical properties of non-irradiated natural rubber and radiation vulcanized natural rubber (RVNR) were evaluated. The rubber films were stored under two different conditions, namely in open air and sealed polyethylene bags. The antioxidant, tris(nonylated phenyl) phosphite (TNPP) was used for preventing degradation of RVNR films. Gel content, cross-link density, tensile strength at break and 500% elongation of rubber films were measured.The results show that the retention (%) of tensile properties of rubber films with TNPP is higher than that of rubber films without antioxidants. The rubber films stored in polyethylene bags also show better retention of tensile properties than those of rubber films stored in open air.

  1. Effect of Different Modification Techniques on the Physicochemical and Thermoanalytical Properties of Wheat and Corn Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Kotancilar

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The starches of wheat and corn treated with four different modification methods (pregelatinized, thinnedwith acid, cross-linked and dextrinized were investigated in terms of changes in swelling, water-holdingcapacity, gelatinization and thermoanalytical properties. Modification processes caused significant changes inthe physicochemical properties of the starches. Also, having effect on the thermoanalytical properties ofstarch, of modification process pregelatinization, cross-linking and dextrinization increased the temperaturesof gelatinization initiation, peak, and final points. In addition, the modification process decreased the changein the value of entalphi. In general, peaks appeared in shorter time in corn starch amylograph than that inwheat starch for all the modified methods. The wheat starch had more swelling capacity than those of thecorn starch at 30 and 40 oC. The modifications applied, in this study, decreased water-holding capacity of thestarches of the wheat and corn at 70 oC.

  2. Effect of preparation conditions on physicochemical, surface and catalytic properties of cobalt ferrite prepared by coprecipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shobaky, G.A., E-mail: elshobaky@yahoo.co [Physical Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Turky, A.M.; Mostafa, N.Y.; Mohamed, S.K. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522 (Egypt)

    2010-03-18

    Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were prepared via thermal treatment of cobalt-iron mixed hydroxides at 400-600 {sup o}C. The mixed hydroxides were coprecipitated from their nitrates solutions using NaOH as precipitating agent. The effects of pH and temperature of coprecipitation and calcination temperature on the physicochemical, surface and catalytic properties of the prepared ferrites were studied. The prepared systems were characterized using TG, DTG, DTA, chemical analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) as well as surface and texture properties based on nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The prepared cobalt ferrites were found to be mesoporous materials that have crystallite size ranges between 8 and 45 nm. The surface and catalytic properties of the produced ferrite phase were strongly dependent on coprecipitation conditions of the mixed hydroxides and on their calcination temperature.

  3. Physicochemical properties of Terminalia catappa seed oil as a novel dietary lipid source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supatcha Janporn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia catappa Linn (TC is an ornamental tree planted extensively in many countries. It has been known for a long time that the seeds are edible but no research has focused on the realm of its use as food. Our previous data showed that the seed contains high levels of oil content (600 g/kg and possesses the optimum fatty acid balance indicated in fat dietary guidelines. This study aims to investigate the physical and chemical properties and the possibility of using TC seed oil as a new dietary lipid. The effects of extraction conditions, partial refining process, and storage stability on TC oil properties were conducted compared with soybean oil. The results showed that physicochemical properties including the density, refractive index, melting point, acidity, free fatty acid, saponification value, unsaponifiable, peroxide, and fatty acid composition of the extracted oil were comparable with soybean oil and their values followed the dietary standard of edible oil.

  4. Effect of γ-irradiation on the physicochemical properties and structure of fish myofibrillar proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of γ-irradiation on physicochemical properties and structures of myofibrillar protein from grass crap exposed to dose up to 10 kGy was investigated. Irradiated samples exhibited decreased emulsifying property and increased surface hydrophobicity. Increasing dose resulted in decreasing free and total sulphydryl groups, decreasing myosin heavy chains in the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns. This study demonstrated that γ-irradiation decreased the myofibrillar protein ordered structure and generated the crosslinking and provided a possible reference for the identification of irradiated fish products. - Highlights: • Irradiation decreases emulsifying properties of fish myofibrillar protein. • Irradiation caused the decrease of ordered structure of protein molecule. • Irradiation up to 6 kGy distinctly decreases the content of myosin heavy chains. • Irradiation caused an intermolecular crosslinking in the myofibrillar protein

  5. Filling the gap: Estimating physicochemical properties of the full array of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicochemical properties of PBDE congeners are important for modeling their transport, but data are often missing. The quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR) approach is utilized to fill this gap. Individual research groups often report piecemeal properties through experimental measurements or estimation techniques, but these data seldom satisfy fundamental thermodynamic relationships because of errors. The data then lack internal consistency and cannot be used directly in environmental modeling. This paper critically reviews published experimental data to select the best QSPR models, which are then extended to all 209 PBDE congeners. Properties include aqueous solubility, vapor pressure, Henry's law constant, octanol–water partition coefficient and octanol–air partition coefficient. Their values are next adjusted to satisfy fundamental thermodynamic equations. The resulting values then take advantage of all measurements and provide quick references for modeling and PBDE-contaminated site assessment and remediation. PCBs are also compared with respect to their properties and estimation methods. -- Highlights: •Property data of PBDEs and reported experimental and estimation methods were reviewed. •Missing data were estimated for all 209 PBDEs based on selected methods. •All data were adjusted to meet thermodynamic constrains using a VisualBasic program. •The established database provides a quick reference for PBDE environmental modeling. -- Through careful selection of literature data, structure–property estimation and adjustment, key properties of 209 PBDE congeners are estimated with internal consistency

  6. [Dynamic changes of physicochemical properties in phenanthrene-contaminated soil under wheat and clover intercropping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-bin; Zhan, Xin-hua; Zhou, Li-xiang; Liang, Xiao

    2011-05-01

    Soil physicochemical properties play an important role in the efficiency of phytoremediation and soil arability after phytoremediation. Soil pot experiments were conducted to investigate the dynamic changes of physicochemical properties in phenanthrene (a representative of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons)-contaminated soil under wheat and clover intercropping. The results showed that plants improved the pH values of phenanthrene-polluted soil with a maximum variation pH of 0.61. The difference in pH between wheat/clover intercropping and wheat/clover single cropping was not significant. Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, cation exchange capacity and available potassium decreased over the experiment period due to biodecomposition and plant root absorption. The intercropping of wheat and alfalfa accelerated the consumption of the above-mentioned nutrients. And the decrease percentages ranged from 5.24% to 57.85%, more than those of wheat or alfalfa only planted with decrease percentages between 6.29% and 39.09%. In particular, soil available nitrogen and availiable phosphorus decreased more than the other nutrients with a maximum reduction percentage of 57.85%. Therefore, the application of nitrogen and phosphorus must be paid more attention during phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil in the wheat and alfalfa intercropping system.

  7. Physicochemical properties of β-carotene emulsions stabilized by chlorogenic acid-lactoferrin-glucose/polydextrose conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuguo; Wang, Di; Xu, Honggao; Sun, Cuixia; Gao, Yanxiang

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the influence of chlorogenic acid (CA)-lactoferrin (LF)-glucose (Glc) conjugate and CA-LF-polydextrose (PD) conjugate on the physicochemical characteristics of β-carotene emulsions was investigated. Novel emulsifiers were formed during Maillard reaction between CA-LF conjugate and Glc/PD. The physicochemical properties of β-carotene emulsions were characterized by droplet size, ζ-potential, rheological behavior, transmission changes during centrifugal sedimentation and β-carotene degradation. Results showed that the covalent attachment of Glc or PD to CA-LF conjugate effectively increased the hydrophilicity of the oil droplets surfaces and strengthened the steric repulsion between the oil droplets. Glucose was better than polydextrose for the conjugation with CA-LF conjugate to stabilize β-carotene emulsions. In comparison with LF and CA-LF-Glc/PD mixtures, CA-LF-Glc/PD ternary conjugates exhibited better emulsifying properties and improved physical stability of β-carotene emulsions during the freeze-thaw treatment. In addition, CA-LF-Glc/PD conjugates significantly enhanced chemical stability of β-carotene in the emulsions against ultraviolet light exposure. PMID:26593499

  8. Starch-guar gum extrudates: microstructure, physicochemical properties and in-vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Borries-Medrano, Erich; Jaime-Fonseca, Mónica R; Aguilar-Méndez, Miguel A

    2016-03-01

    Starch-guar gum mixtures were obtained by extrusion using a three-variable Box-Behnken statistic design. Morphology, expansion index, viscosity, crystallinity and digestion in vitro of the extruded samples were analyzed through response surface methodology (RSM). The extrusion temperature and the moisture content were the factors that significantly affected the physicochemical properties of the samples. Starch-guar gum samples showed expansion index and viscosity up to 1.55 and 1400mPas, respectively. The crystallinity of the samples was modified by adding guar gum to the extrudates, showing correlation between long-range order (X-ray diffraction) and short-range order (FTIR spectroscopy). Guar induced microstructural changes and its role in gelatinization-melting processes was significant. The rate of glucose release decreased from 0.47 to 0.43mM/min when the extrusion temperature decreased. However, adding guar gum to starch had no significant effect on glucose release. Overall, the extrusion temperature and the moisture content were the factors that significantly affected the physicochemical properties of the extruded samples. PMID:26471632

  9. Effects of extrusion conditions on the physicochemical properties of extruded red ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Ying; Gil, Sun Kuk; Ryu, Gi Hyung

    2012-09-01

    The effects of variable moisture content, screw speed and barrel temperature on the physicochemical properties of red ginseng powder extrudates were investigated. The raw red ginseng powders were processed in a co-rotating intermeshing twin-screw extruder. Primary extrusion variables were feed moisture content (20 and 30%), screw speed (200 and 250 rpm) and barrel temperature (115 and 130°C). Extruded red ginseng showed higher crude saponin contents (6.72~7.18%) than raw red ginseng (5.50%). Tested extrusion conditions did not significantly affect the crude saponin content of extrudates. Increased feed moisture content resulted in increased bulk density, specific length, water absorption index (WAI), breaking strength, elastic modulus and crude protein content and decreased water solubility index (WSI) and expansion (p<0.05). Increased barrel temperature resulted in increased total sugar content, but decreased reducing sugar content in the extrudate (p<0.05). Furthermore, increased barrel temperature resulted in increased amino acid content and specific length and decreased expansion and bulk density of extrudates only at a higher feed moisture content. The physicochemical properties of extrudates were mainly dependent on the feed moisture content and barrel temperature, whereas the screw speed showed a lesser effect. These results will be used to help define optimized process conditions for controlling and predicting qualities and characteristics of extruded red ginseng. PMID:24471085

  10. Physicochemical Properties and Evaluation of Microemulsion Systems for Transdermal Delivery of Meloxicam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Microemulsion systems, composed of water, isopropyl myristate (IPM), polyoxyethylene sorbitan trioleate (Tween 85 ), and ethanol, were investigated as transdermal drug delivery vehicles for a lipophilic model drug( meloxicam). The purpose of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties of the tested microemulsion and to find the correlation between the physicochemical properties and the skin permeation rate of the microemulsion. Pseudo-ternary phase diagram of the investigated system at a constant surfactant/cosurfactant mass ratio (Km =1:1) was constructed by titration at 20℃, and the five formulations were selected for further research in the o/w microemulsion domains. The values of electrical conductivity and viscosity showed that the selected systems were bicontinuous or non-spherical o/w microemulsion, and the electrical conductivity and viscosity were increased with increasing the content of water. These results suggest that the optimum formulation of microemulsion, containing 0. 375 meloxicam, 5% isopropyl myristate, 25% Tween 85, 25% ethanol, and water, showed the maximum permeation rate. It had a high electrical conductivity, small droplet size, and proper viscocity.

  11. Effects of extrusion cooking on physicochemical properties of white and red ginseng (powder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Ying; Ryu, Gi-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    A systematic comparison of the physicochemical properties of white ginseng (WG), extruded white ginseng (EWG), red ginseng (RG), and extruded red ginseng (ERG) was performed. The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of the physicochemical properties of ginseng by extrusion cooking. The highest value of the water absorption index (WAI) was 3.64 g/g obtained from EWG, and the highest value of the water solubility index (WSI) was 45.27% obtained from ERG. The ERG had a better dispersibility compared with other samples. Extrusion cooking led to a significant increase in acidic polysaccharide and total sugar content but resulted in a decrease in crude fat and reducing sugar contents. Enzyme treatment led to a sharp increase in acidic polysaccharide content, especially the cellulose enzyme. Extrusion cooking led to a significant increase in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reducing power, and the increases in WG and RG were 13.56% (0.038) and 3.56% (0.026), respectively. The data of this study provide valuable information about the effects of extrusion on quality changes of EWG and ERG. PMID:24748839

  12. Antibacterial effect and physicochemical properties of essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansour Amin; Enayat Kalantar; Neda Mohammad-Saeid; Behzad Ahsan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial effect and physicochemical properties of essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. Methods:Antibacterial activity of essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss was assessed by agar disc diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) was tested by E test. Results:The essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss was effective on pathogenic bacteria particularly Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The MIC values of the target cultures ranged from 0.39 mg/mL to 1.56 mg/mL. The physicochemical properties like effects of pH, temperature, detergents, and enzymes on the activity of essential oil from Zataria multiflora Boiss were also determined. The essential oil was quite stable to temperature as tested against S. aureus and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The essential oil was very stable over a wide range of pH. The antibacterial activity of essential oil was insensitive to various protein-denaturing detergents (Such as Tween 80, Tween 20, Triton 100, etc.) and enzymes (namely proteinase K, trypsin, lipase, and lysosyme). Conclusions:A potential use of the essential oil from Zataria multiflora Boiss is suggested. More studies including further purification, mass spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and evaluation of toxicity are needed for confirmation of this suggestion.

  13. Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles regulate translocation across pulmonary surfactant monolayer and formation of lipoprotein corona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guoqing; Jiao, Bao; Shi, Xinghua; Valle, Russell P; Fan, Qihui; Zuo, Yi Y

    2013-12-23

    Interaction with the pulmonary surfactant film, being the first line of host defense, represents the initial bio-nano interaction in the lungs. Such interaction determines the fate of the inhaled nanoparticles and their potential therapeutic or toxicological effect. Despite considerable progress in optimizing physicochemical properties of nanoparticles for improved delivery and targeting, the mechanisms by which inhaled nanoparticles interact with the pulmonary surfactant film are still largely unknown. Here, using combined in vitro and in silico methods, we show how hydrophobicity and surface charge of nanoparticles differentially regulate the translocation and interaction with the pulmonary surfactant film. While hydrophilic nanoparticles generally translocate quickly across the pulmonary surfactant film, a significant portion of hydrophobic nanoparticles are trapped by the surfactant film and encapsulated in lipid protrusions upon film compression. Our results support a novel model of pulmonary surfactant lipoprotein corona associated with inhaled nanoparticles of different physicochemical properties. Our data suggest that the study of pulmonary nanotoxicology and nanoparticle-based pulmonary drug delivery should consider this lipoprotein corona.

  14. Physico-chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Different Pumpkin Cultivars Grown in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To obtain more detailed knowledge of the differences among major pumpkin species grown in China, physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of four pumpkin cultivars (Miben, Hongli, Lvli, Xihulu were characterized and compared. Dry matter, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, fruit color, protein, fat, sugars, minerals, amino acids, &beta -carotene, L-ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP were measured in the studied cultivars. The results showed great differences in the composition and characteristics of the pumpkin cultivars. Miben exhibited the highest concentration of dry matter, fat, Total Soluble Solid (TSS, Titratable Acidity (TA, sucrose, &beta-carotene, K, P, Fe, Zn and aspartic acid. Hongli had the highest concentration protein, L-ascorbic acid, Na, Ca, Mg and all individual amino acids except for asparitic acid. Lvli exhibited significantly (p<0.05 higher antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP, which are highly related to total phenols content in pumpkin fruits (r = 0.94 and r = 0.98, respectively. Principal Component Analysis (PCA allowed the four pumpkin cultivars to be differentiated clearly based on all these physico-chemical and antioxidant properties determined in the study.

  15. Physicochemical and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Novel Environmentally Benign Heterocyclic Azomethine Dyes: Experimental and Theoretical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, S M; Razvi, M A N; Khan, Salman A; Osman, Osman I; Bakry, Ahmed H; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2016-01-01

    Novel heterocyclic azomethine dyes were prepared by the reaction of anthracene-9-carbaldehyde with different heterocyclic amines under microwave irradiation. Structures of the azomethine dyes were confirmed by the elemental analysis, mass spectrometry and several spectroscopic techniques. We studied absorbance and fluorescence spectra of the azomethine dyes in various solvents. They are found to be good absorbers and emitters. We also report photophysical properties like, extinction coefficient, oscillator strength, stokes shift and transition dipole moment. This reflects physicochemical behaviors of synthesized dyes. In addition, their intramolecular charge transfer and nonlinear optical properties, supported by natural bond orbital technique, were also studied computationally by density functional theory. The negative nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient were measured for these dyes using the closed and open aperture Z-scan technique with a continuous wave helium-neon laser. These are found to vary linearly with solution concentration.

  16. Physicochemical properties of carbon materials obtained by combustion synthesis of perchlorinated hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cudziło

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present studies on the combustion synthesis of carbon materials from several perchlorinated organic compounds : tetrachloromethane (CCl4, hexachloroethane (C2Cl6, tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4, hexachloro-1,3-butadiene (C4Cl6, hexachlorocyclopentadiene (C5Cl6. The porosity (obtained by low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, microstructure (SEM, structural arrangement (XRD and Raman spectroscopy, surface chemistry (FTIR and electrochemical behavior (cyclic voltammetry of the obtained carbons were investigated. The synthesized materials exhibit an ordered structure similar to carbon black. Their physicochemical properties strongly depended on the structure of the perchlorocarbon precursor. It was found that perchlorinated compounds with unsaturated bonds yielded more amorphous products. The electrochemical properties (e.g. edl capacity depend mainly on the mesopore surface area of the carbonaceous products.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on the physicochemical properties of alkali-extracted rice starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Shah, Asima; Gani, Asir; Rather, Sajad Ahmad; Wani, Sajad Mohd.; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Gani, Adil

    2014-06-01

    Starches isolated from two newly released rice varieties (K-322 and K-448) were subject to irradiation at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy doses. Comparative study between native (not irradiated) and irradiated starch samples was carried out to evaluate the changes in physicochemical, morphological and pasting properties due to gamma irradiation. Significant decrease was found in apparent amylose content, pH, swelling power, syneresis, and pasting properties, whereas carboxyl content, water absorption capacity, and transmittance were found to increase with the increase in irradiation dose. Granule morphology of native and irradiated starches under scanning electron microscope revealed that granules were polygonal or irregular in shape. The starch granules were somewhat deformed by gamma irradiation. X-ray diffraction pattern showed A type of pattern in native as well as irradiated starches.

  18. Structural diversity, physicochemical properties and application of imidazolium surfactants: Recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadani, Avinash; Misono, Takeshi; Singh, Sukhprit; Sakai, Kenichi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2016-05-01

    The current review covers recent advances on development and investigation of cationic surfactants containing imidazolium headgroup, which are being extensively investigated for their self-aggregation properties and are currently being utilized in various conventional and non-conventional application areas. These surfactants are being used as: soft template for synthesis of mesoporous/microporous materials, drug and gene delivery agent, stabilizing agent for nanoparticles, dispersants for single/multi walled carbon nanotubes, antimicrobial and antifungal agent, viscosity modifiers, preparing nanocomposite materials, stabilizing microemulsions, corrosion inhibitors and catalyst for organic reactions. Recently several structural derivatives of these surfactants have been developed having many interesting physicochemical properties and they have demonstrated enormous potential in the area of nanotechnology, material science and biomedical science. PMID:27063924

  19. Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of two medicinal wild plants grown in Moldova region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Ropciuc

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of this study is to report physico-chemical (moisture, ash, protein, total phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid and the antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of nettle (Urtica dioica L. and typical romaine spice "leurda" (Allium ursinum, wild garlic fresh and dried. The antioxidant properties of methanol extract of medicinal herbs were evaluated using free radical scavenging test. The phenols were extracted from the medicinal plants with methanol solvent and were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The ascorbic acid content varied between 77.94 mg/100g in the fresh Urtica dioica L. and 39.55 from fresh Allium ursinum. The results showed that the total phenolic compounds in all medicinal plants decreased along processing. These results suggest that the medicinal plants sample extract with highest polyphenolic content will indicates the possibility of using them  as ingredients in functional foods.

  20. Antibacterial Properties of Copper Nanoparticle Dispersions: Influence of Synthesis Conditions and Physicochemical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godymchuk, A.; Frolov, G.; Gusev, A.; Zakharova, O.; Yunda, E.; Kuznetsov, D.; Kolesnikov, E.

    2015-11-01

    The production of bactericidal plasters, bandages and medicines with the inclusion of copper nanoparticles and copper ions may have a great potential in terms of their biomedical application. The work considers the influence of the synthesis conditions, size, aggregation status, and charge of nanoparticles in aqueous solutions as well as the type of microorganisms to the antibacterial properties of water suspensions of electroexplosive copper nanoparticles in the conditions in vitro in relation to strains Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus. Water dispersions of copper nanoparticles were shown to inhibit the growth of test cells for both G+ and G- microbacteria but the degree of such an influence strongly depended on the type of a test strain. The authors have demonstrated that use of deeply purified water and alcohol-containing stabilizers at the synthesis of nanoparticles via metals electric erosion in the liquid prevents the copper nanoparticles coagulation and significantly influences on their physicochemical characteristics and, consequently, antibacterial properties.

  1. Changes in crystal structure and physicochemical properties of potato starch treated by induced electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Yang, Na; Jin, Yamei; Zhou, Yuyi; Xie, Zhengjun; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-11-20

    The effects of induced electric field (IEF) on the crystal structure and physicochemical properties of potato starch were investigated by subjecting identically treated control and electrically-modified samples to the same temperature history. Additionally, a method of combining IEF with heating for efficient modification of native polymer was also proposed. Results showed that the application of IEF at an electric voltage of 75V has a statistically significant effect on starch gelatinization and pasting properties, especially when combined with heating at 50°C. After treatment by the combination method for 96h, the gelatinization temperatures increased, which can be explained by the slight increase in the ratio of 1044/1015cm(-1) and relative crystallinity. Furthermore, IEF reduced granular swelling and therefore contributed to decreasing the peak, breakdown, and setback viscosity of potato starch. This study explores the potential of IEF as innovative technology for starch modification. PMID:27561526

  2. Physicochemical and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Novel Environmentally Benign Heterocyclic Azomethine Dyes: Experimental and Theoretical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, S M; Razvi, M A N; Khan, Salman A; Osman, Osman I; Bakry, Ahmed H; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2016-01-01

    Novel heterocyclic azomethine dyes were prepared by the reaction of anthracene-9-carbaldehyde with different heterocyclic amines under microwave irradiation. Structures of the azomethine dyes were confirmed by the elemental analysis, mass spectrometry and several spectroscopic techniques. We studied absorbance and fluorescence spectra of the azomethine dyes in various solvents. They are found to be good absorbers and emitters. We also report photophysical properties like, extinction coefficient, oscillator strength, stokes shift and transition dipole moment. This reflects physicochemical behaviors of synthesized dyes. In addition, their intramolecular charge transfer and nonlinear optical properties, supported by natural bond orbital technique, were also studied computationally by density functional theory. The negative nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient were measured for these dyes using the closed and open aperture Z-scan technique with a continuous wave helium-neon laser. These are found to vary linearly with solution concentration. PMID:27631371

  3. Changes in crystal structure and physicochemical properties of potato starch treated by induced electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Yang, Na; Jin, Yamei; Zhou, Yuyi; Xie, Zhengjun; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-11-20

    The effects of induced electric field (IEF) on the crystal structure and physicochemical properties of potato starch were investigated by subjecting identically treated control and electrically-modified samples to the same temperature history. Additionally, a method of combining IEF with heating for efficient modification of native polymer was also proposed. Results showed that the application of IEF at an electric voltage of 75V has a statistically significant effect on starch gelatinization and pasting properties, especially when combined with heating at 50°C. After treatment by the combination method for 96h, the gelatinization temperatures increased, which can be explained by the slight increase in the ratio of 1044/1015cm(-1) and relative crystallinity. Furthermore, IEF reduced granular swelling and therefore contributed to decreasing the peak, breakdown, and setback viscosity of potato starch. This study explores the potential of IEF as innovative technology for starch modification.

  4. Influence of mechanical milling time on physicochemical properties and stability of cefotaxime sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouholamini Najafabadi A.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of mechanical milling time on physicochemical properties and stability of Cefotaxime sodium (CS. CS was micronized by ball milling in five period of time: 30, 60, 120, 240, and 360 min. The powder properties of the samples were examined by HPLC assay, laser diffraction, helium densitometery, IR spectrophotometery, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scaning electron microscopy (SEM, differential scanning calorimetery (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and Karl-Fisher titrimetery. The results showed that ball milling was not an appropriate method for particle size reduction to make solid dosage form such as dry powder inhaler formulation (DPI of CS and by increase in milling time, degradation of CS increased.

  5. Physicochemical and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Novel Environmentally Benign Heterocyclic Azomethine Dyes: Experimental and Theoretical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, S. M.; Razvi, M. A. N.; Khan, Salman A.; Osman, Osman I.; Bakry, Ahmed H.; Asiri, Abdullah M.

    2016-01-01

    Novel heterocyclic azomethine dyes were prepared by the reaction of anthracene-9-carbaldehyde with different heterocyclic amines under microwave irradiation. Structures of the azomethine dyes were confirmed by the elemental analysis, mass spectrometry and several spectroscopic techniques. We studied absorbance and fluorescence spectra of the azomethine dyes in various solvents. They are found to be good absorbers and emitters. We also report photophysical properties like, extinction coefficient, oscillator strength, stokes shift and transition dipole moment. This reflects physicochemical behaviors of synthesized dyes. In addition, their intramolecular charge transfer and nonlinear optical properties, supported by natural bond orbital technique, were also studied computationally by density functional theory. The negative nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient were measured for these dyes using the closed and open aperture Z-scan technique with a continuous wave helium-neon laser. These are found to vary linearly with solution concentration. PMID:27631371

  6. iNuc-PhysChem: a sequence-based predictor for identifying nucleosomes via physicochemical properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    Full Text Available Nucleosome positioning has important roles in key cellular processes. Although intensive efforts have been made in this area, the rules defining nucleosome positioning is still elusive and debated. In this study, we carried out a systematic comparison among the profiles of twelve DNA physicochemical features between the nucleosomal and linker sequences in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. We found that nucleosomal sequences have some position-specific physicochemical features, which can be used for in-depth studying nucleosomes. Meanwhile, a new predictor, called iNuc-PhysChem, was developed for identification of nucleosomal sequences by incorporating these physicochemical properties into a 1788-D (dimensional feature vector, which was further reduced to a 884-D vector via the IFS (incremental feature selection procedure to optimize the feature set. It was observed by a cross-validation test on a benchmark dataset that the overall success rate achieved by iNuc-PhysChem was over 96% in identifying nucleosomal or linker sequences. As a web-server, iNuc-PhysChem is freely accessible to the public at http://lin.uestc.edu.cn/server/iNuc-PhysChem. For the convenience of the vast majority of experimental scientists, a step-by-step guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get the desired results without the need to follow the complicated mathematics that were presented just for the integrity in developing the predictor. Meanwhile, for those who prefer to run predictions in their own computers, the predictor's code can be easily downloaded from the web-server. It is anticipated that iNuc-PhysChem may become a useful high throughput tool for both basic research and drug design.

  7. The Influence of the RF PACVD MS Process Parameters on the Physicochemical Properties of Hydroxyapatite Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niedzielska A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydroksyapatite (HAp as the coating, is produced using different methods of deposition, among others: laser ablation method, sol-gel, electrophoresis, thermal sputtering or magnetron spraying with the usage of high frequency. Attempts to benefit from such a wide spectrum of existing methods are related to the fact that this material possesses many advantages. We have to distinguish, among others, proper biological properties, i.e. both - high bio-tolerance and high osteo-inductivity [1,2]. However, it is worth mentioning that the material also presents disadvantages, i.e. it indicates too quick resorption within the biological environment, depending on its obtained form. In case when HAp is in the amorphous form, it undergoes a very rapid process of dissolving in the tissue environment. [3] In order to prevent the above, it is important to produce the coatings with a regulative level of cristallinity. In the presented research the hydroxyapatite coating produced using RF PACVD MS plasma method (Radio Frequency Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition Magnetron Sputtering possesses the above mentioned amorphous form. Nevertheless, due to the usage of ‘bubbler’, allowing for delivery of hydroxyl groups into the operating chamber, it was possible to receive the Hap coatings in a crystalline form. Changing the operating pressure (the amount of bonds - OH, during sputtering, it was checked what is the influence of that parameter on the physicochemical properties of obtained coatings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used for the founding research as well as the Roentgen Apparatus Analyser (EDS. The Phase composition of a created coating was researched using the Roentgen diffract-meter (XRD. The measures of thickness were conducted using contact-profilometry. Nano-indentation technique was used to assess the mechanical properties. Obtained results of research encourage for further researches related to the influence of hydroxyl groups on the

  8. Reference dataset of volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties for atmospheric measurement retrievals and transport modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Andreas; Durant, Adam; Sytchkova, Anna; Diplas, Spyros; Bonadonna, Costanza; Scarnato, Barbara; Krüger, Kirstin; Kylling, Arve; Kristiansen, Nina; Stohl, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions emit up to 50 wt.% (total erupted mass) of fine ash particles (threat for aviation operations. Recent volcanic eruptions, such as the 2010 Icelandic Eyjafjallajökull event, illustrated how volcanic ash can severely impact commercial air traffic. In order to manage the threat, it is important to have accurate forecast information on the spatial extent and absolute quantity of airborne volcanic ash. Such forecasts are constrained by empirically-derived estimates of the volcanic source term and the nature of the constituent volcanic ash properties. Consequently, it is important to include a quantitative assessment of measurement uncertainties of ash properties to provide realistic ash forecast uncertainty. Currently, information on volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties is derived from a small number of somewhat dated publications. In this study, we provide a reference dataset for physical (size distribution and shape), chemical (bulk vs. surface chemistry) and optical properties (complex refractive index in the UV-vis-NIR range) of a representative selection of volcanic ash samples from 10 different volcanic eruptions covering the full variability in silica content (40-75 wt.% SiO2). Through the combination of empirical analytical methods (e.g., image analysis, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and UV/Vis/NIR/FTIR Spectroscopy) and theoretical models (e.g., Bruggeman effective medium approach), it was possible to fully capture the natural variability of ash physicochemical and optical characteristics. The dataset will be applied in atmospheric measurement retrievals and atmospheric transport modelling to determine the sensitivity to uncertainty in ash particle characteristics.

  9. Influence of biodiesel blending on physicochemical properties and importance of mathematical model for predicting the properties of biodiesel blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Short identification of selected biodiesel feedstock. • Review of physicochemical properties for blended biodiesel. • Mathematical model for predicting properties of various biodiesel blends. - Abstract: The growing demand for green world serves as one of the most significant challenges of modernization. Requirements like largest usage of energy for modern society as well as demand for friendly milieu create a deep concern in field of research. Biofuels are placed at the peak of the research arena for their underlying benefits as mentioned by multiple researches. Out of a number of vegetable oils, only a few are used commercially for biodiesel production. Due to various limitations of edible oil, non-edible oils are becoming a profitable choice. Till today, very little percentage of biodiesel is used successfully in engine. The research is still continuing for improving the biodiesel usage level. Recently, it is found that the blended biodiesel from more than one feedstock provides better performance in engine. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties of different biodiesel blends obtained from various feedstocks with a view to properly understand the fuel quality. Moreover, a short description of each feedstock is given along with graphical presentation of important properties for various blend percentages from B0 to B100. Finally, mathematical model is formed for predicting various properties of biodiesel blend with the help of different research data by using polynomial curve fitting method. The results obtained from a number of literature based on this work shows that the heating value of biodiesel is about 11% lower than diesel except coconut (14.5% lower) whereas kinematic viscosity is in the range of 4–5.4 mm2/s. Flash point of all biodiesels are more than 150 °C, except neem and coconut. Cold flow properties of calophyllum, palm, jatropha, moringa are inferior to others. This would help to determine important properties of

  10. Study on the Surface-Physicochemical-Property Changing of Bentonite by Adapting a New Soil Stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Xiang, Wei; Lang, Linzhi; Cui, Deshan

    2015-04-01

    Surface-physicochemical-property of clays has been proved to have direct influence on its mechanic behavior. Specific surface area (SSA) is one of the most important factors for surface-physicochemical-property assessment. The smaller SSA tends higher strength (shear strength, unconfined compressive strength and tensile strength) under different water contents of soil. In this paper, a new soil stabilizer (Tung oil-based sulfonated) is developed and applied to improve the properties of Ca-bentonite. The differences of specific surface area, fractal dimension and micro geometric morphology between raw Ca-bentonite samples and modified ones are investigated based on the data acquired from water vapor, nitrogen adsorption experiments and SEM experiments. Results show that the SSA including external SSA and total SSA of treated samples decrease largely and apparently when compared to that of the raw samples. Furthermore, the higher volume ratio between soil stabilizer and water, the more decrease in SSA. Compared to the ones of raw Ca-bentonite, the external SSA and total SSA of the modified Ca-bentonite samples decrease by 48.5% and 25.2%, respectively, when the volume ratio was 1:50. This result implies that the connection of montmorillonite particles becomes more tightly after the treatment by the soil stabilizer. In addition, an obvious decreasing trend is found in fractal dimension by analysis of water vapor adsorption isotherms. This finding indicates that the pore surface tends to be smoother by the chemical action among particles bonds, more condensable in aggregates and shorter space between the interlayer of montmorillonite. SEM results display that the new soil stabilizer developed a quantity of lamellar aggregates but did not change the structure of montmorillonite. Based on all mentioned above, the results of fractal dimension analysis are verified. Consequently, this study shows that the new soil stabilizer (Tung oil-based sulfonated) has obvious effects

  11. Relationship between physicochemical properties and enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse varieties for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienzo, Michel; Tyhoda, Luvuyo; Benjamin, Yuda; Görgens, Johann

    2015-03-25

    The structural and physicochemical characteristics are associated with resistance of plant cell walls to saccharification by enzymes. The effect of physicochemical properties on glucose yield of bagasse from different varieties of sugarcane at low and high enzyme dosages was investigated. The result showed that glucose yield at low enzyme dosage was positively linear correlated with the yield at high enzyme dosage, for both the untreated and pretreated materials. The pretreatment significantly increased the accessibility of substrates by enzyme due to the increase of internal and external surface area. Glucose yield also showed a linear correlation with dye adsorption. However, the increase in glucose yield as a result of pretreatment did not correlate with the increases in crystallinity index and decreases in degree of polymerization. The Principal Component Analysis of infrared data indicated that lignin was the main component that differentiated the varieties before and after pretreatment. These results suggested that the key differences in pretreatment responses among varieties could be mainly attributed to their differences in the internal and external surface area after pretreatment. PMID:25576176

  12. Characterization of Turkish honeys regarding of physicochemical properties, and their adulteration analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeyda KIVRAK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work was conducted to evaluate the quality of 54 honey samples from eighteen different origins from Turkey. Physicochemical properties were examined according to AOAC methods, total phenolic and flavonoid contents by a spectrophotometric method and authenticity of honeys by Combustion Module - Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CM-CRDS. The microscopic analysis of honey sediment (mellissopalynology was carried out to identify and count the pollen to provide qualitative indicators to confirm botanical origin. The moisture, electrical conductivity and free acidity of honeys ranged from 15.56 to 18.39%, 0.143 to 2.006 mS.cm-1, 16.05 meq.kg-1 and 34.10 meq.kg-1, respectively. Diastase activity of sideritis honey was found highest. Honeys showed HMF level below 40 mg.kg-1. The highest proline was determined in thyme honey. The results showed that honeys contained eminent amounts of phenolics and flavonoids. δ13C values of honeys were more negative than -23.5‰. The C4% sugar ratios were lower than 7% value. The lowest glucose-fructose content was observed in eucalyptus, cedar and pine honey samples. The results obtained for physicochemical characteristics, total phenolic and flavonoid contents an authenticity analysis of Turkish honeys indicate a good quality level, adequate processing, good maturity and freshness. The discrimination between honey types was achieved by PCA.

  13. Effects of physicochemical properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles on cellular uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J.; Baek, M.; Chung, H. E.; Choi, S. J.

    2011-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have been used as a source of zinc, an essential trace element in food industry and also widely applied to various cosmetic products. However, there are few researches demonstrating that the cellular uptake behaviours of ZnO with respect to the physicochemical characteristics such as particle size and surface charge in human cells. In this study, we evaluated the cellular uptake of ZnO with two different sizes (20 and 70 nm) and different charges (positive and negative). Human lung epithelial cells were exposed to ZnO for a given time, and then the uptake amount of ZnO was measured with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results showed that the smaller sized ZnO could more easily enter the cells than the larger sized ZnO. In terms of surface charge, positively charged ZnO showed high cellular uptake compared to ZnO with negative charge. The internalization pathway of positively charged ZnO nanoparticles was determined to be primarily related to the energy-dependent endocytosis. It is, therefore, concluded that the particle size and surface charge of ZnO nanoparticles are critical factors influencing on their cellular uptake. Understanding the cellular uptake behaviours of nanoparticles with respect to physicochemical properties may be important to predict their toxicity potential on human.

  14. Physico-chemical properties of soil at oil palm plantation area, Labu, Negeri Sembilan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozieta, R.; Sahibin A., R.; Wan Mohd Razi, I.

    2015-09-01

    A study on the physico-chemical characteristics of soil from oil palm plantation area at New Labu Estate, Negeri Sembilan was carried out. A number of 20 topsoil (0-20cm) samples were collected based on plantation block by using `Dutch Auger'. The soil physico-chemical properties determined were particle size distribution, organic matter content, pH and total organic carbon. Particle size distribution was determined by pipette method and dry sieving. Bulk density was determined by waxing method. Organic matter and total organic carbon were measured through loss of ignition and Walkley-Black method, respectively. Soil pH was determined based on soil:water ratio of 1:2.5. Results showed that the texture of the soil was classified as sandy clay with the highest percentage of sand particles component. Organic matter content is considered as low at less than 4% and soil organic carbon content was low with 1.75%. The average soil pH in the study area was very acidic with values of 3.81.

  15. Physico-Chemical Properties of the Oils and Fat from Crotalaria cleomifolia Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of C. cleomifolia (locally known as kacang hantu) collected along Simpang Pulai - Berinchang Road, Cameron Highlands, was defatted with hexane and the resulting oil was analysed for their physico-chemical properties. The percentage yield of the oil was calculated as 5.3 %. The acid value (1.2 %), iodine value (85), peroxide value (0.6), saponification value (192.0) and unsaponifiable matter (2.3 %) were determined to assess the quality of the oil. The physico-chemical characterisation showed that C. cleomifolia seeds oil is unsaturated semi-drying oil, with high saponification and acidic values. The fatty acid composition of C. cleomifolia seed oil was determined by Gas Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (ToF). The seed oil of C. cleomifolia contained linoleic acid (57.59 %) and palmitic acid (5.07 %), the most abundant unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, respectively. The polyunsaturated triacylglycerol (TAG) in C. cleomifolia seed oil determined by reverse phase High performance Liquid Chromatography; contained as PLL (18.04 %) followed by POL + SLL (11.92 %), OOL (7.04 %) and PLLn (6.31 %). The melting and cooling point of the oil were 16.22 degree Celsius and -33.54 degree Celsius, respectively. (author)

  16. Effects of the microbubble shell physicochemical properties on ultrasound-mediated drug delivery to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shih-Ying; Chen, Cherry C; Tung, Yao-Sheng; Olumolade, Oluyemi O; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2015-08-28

    Lipid-shelled microbubbles have been used in ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. The physicochemical properties of the microbubble shell could affect the delivery efficiency since they determine the microbubble mechanical properties, circulation persistence, and dissolution behavior during cavitation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the shell effects on drug delivery efficiency in the brain via blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening in vivo using monodisperse microbubbles with different phospholipid shell components. The physicochemical properties of the monolayer were varied by using phospholipids with different hydrophobic chain lengths (C16, C18, and C24). The dependence on the molecular size and acoustic energy (both pressure and pulse length) were investigated. Our results showed that a relatively small increase in the microbubble shell rigidity resulted in a significant increase in the delivery of 40-kDa dextran, especially at higher pressures. Smaller (3kDa) dextran did not show significant difference in the delivery amount, suggesting that the observed shell effect was molecular size-dependent. In studying the impact of acoustic energy on the shell effects, it was found that they occurred most significantly at pressures causing microbubble destruction (450kPa and 600kPa); by increasing the pulse length to deliver the 40-kDa dextran, the difference between C16 and C18 disappeared while C24 still achieved the highest delivery efficiency. These indicated that the acoustic energy could be used to modulate the shell effects. The acoustic cavitation emission revealed the physical mechanisms associated with different shells. Overall, lipid-shelled microbubbles with long hydrophobic chain length could achieve high delivery efficiency for larger molecules especially with high acoustic energy. Our study, for the first time, offered evidence directly linking the microbubble monolayer shell with their efficacy for drug delivery in vivo.

  17. Cellular interaction and toxicity depend on physicochemical properties and surface modification of redox-active nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowding, Janet M; Das, Soumen; Kumar, Amit; Dosani, Talib; McCormack, Rameech; Gupta, Ankur; Sayle, Thi X T; Sayle, Dean C; von Kalm, Laurence; Seal, Sudipta; Self, William T

    2013-06-25

    The study of the chemical and biological properties of CeO2 nanoparticles (CNPs) has expanded recently due to its therapeutic potential, and the methods used to synthesize these materials are diverse. Moreover, conflicting reports exist regarding the toxicity of CNPs. To help resolve these discrepancies, we must first determine whether CNPs made by different methods are similar or different in their physicochemical and catalytic properties. In this paper, we have synthesized several forms of CNPs using identical precursors through a wet chemical process but using different oxidizer/reducer; H2O2 (CNP1), NH4OH (CNP2), or hexamethylenetetramine (HMT-CNP1). Physicochemical properties of these CNPs were extensively studied and found to be different depending on the preparation methods. Unlike CNP1 and CNP2, HMT-CNP1 was readily taken into endothelial cells and the aggregation can be visualized using light microscopy. Exposure to HMT-CNP1 also reduced cell viability at a 10-fold lower concentration than CNP1 or CNP2. Surprisingly, exposure to HMT-CNP1 led to substantial decreases in ATP levels. Mechanistic studies revealed that HMT-CNP1 exhibited substantial ATPase (phosphatase) activity. Though CNP2 also exhibits ATPase activity, CNP1 lacked ATPase activity. The difference in catalytic (ATPase) activity of different CNPs preparation may be due to differences in their morphology and oxygen extraction energy. These results suggest that the combination of increased uptake and ATPase activity of HMT-CNP1 may underlie the biomechanism of the toxicity of this preparation of CNPs and may suggest that ATPase activity should be considered when synthesizing CNPs for use in biomedical applications. PMID:23668322

  18. Physicochemically tunable polyfunctionalized RNA square architecture with fluorogenic and ribozymatic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Daniel L; Khisamutdinov, Emil F; Lyubchenko, Yuri L; Guo, Peixuan

    2014-08-26

    Recent advances in RNA nanotechnology allow the rational design of various nanoarchitectures. Previous methods utilized conserved angles from natural RNA motifs to form geometries with specific sizes. However, the feasibility of producing RNA architecture with variable sizes using native motifs featuring fixed sizes and angles is limited. It would be advantageous to display RNA nanoparticles of diverse shape and size derived from a given primary sequence. Here, we report an approach to construct RNA nanoparticles with tunable size and stability. Multifunctional RNA squares with a 90° angle were constructed by tuning the 60° angle of the three-way junction (3WJ) motif from the packaging RNA (pRNA) of the bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor. The physicochemical properties and size of the RNA square were also easily tuned by modulating the “core” strand and adjusting the length of the sides of the square via predictable design. Squares of 5, 10, and 20 nm were constructed, each showing diverse thermodynamic and chemical stabilities. Four “arms” extending from the corners of the square were used to incorporate siRNA, ribozyme, and fluorogenic RNA motifs. Unique intramolecular contact using the pre-existing intricacy of the 3WJ avoids relatively weaker intermolecular interactions via kissing loops or sticky ends. Utilizing the 3WJ motif, we have employed a modular design technique to construct variable-size RNA squares with controllable properties and functionalities for diverse and versatile applications with engineering, pharmaceutical, and medical potential. This technique for simple design to finely tune physicochemical properties adds a new angle to RNA nanotechnology. PMID:24971772

  19. Cyclodextrin inclusion complex to improve physicochemical properties of herbicide bentazon: exploring better formulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Yáñez

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the host-guest complexes using cyclodextrins (CDs has prompted an increase in the development of new formulations. The capacity of these organic host structures of including guest within their hydrophobic cavities, improves physicochemical properties of the guest. In the case of pesticides, several inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins have been reported. However, in order to explore rationally new pesticide formulations, it is essential to know the effect of cyclodextrins on the properties of guest molecules. In this study, the inclusion complexes of bentazon (Btz with native βCD and two derivatives, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD and sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBECD, were prepared by two methods: kneading and freeze-drying, and their characterization was investigated with different analytical techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, differential thermal analysis (DTA, X-ray diffractometry (XRD and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV. All these approaches indicate that Btz forms inclusion complexes with CDs in solution and in solid state, with a stoichiometry of 1:1, although some of them are obtained in mixtures with free Btz. The calculated association constant of the Btz/HPCD complex by DPV was 244±19 M(-1 being an intermediate value compared with those obtained with βCD and SBECD. The use of CDs significantly increases Btz photostability, and depending on the CDs, decreases the surface tension. The results indicated that bentazon forms inclusion complexes with CDs showing improved physicochemical properties compared to free bentazon indicating that CDs may serve as excipient in herbicide formulations.

  20. Chitosan-gum arabic polyelectrolyte complex films: physicochemical, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakloetsakun, Duangkamon; Preechagoon, Detpon; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2016-08-01

    By blending chitosan (CS) and gum arabic (GA), a powerful biomaterial complex might be obtained due to the unique properties of CS and the low viscosity and good emulsifying properties of GA. The objectives of this study were to prepare and examine the properties of dispersions and films of CS and GA as a function of the mixing weight ratio, pH value and molecular weight of CS. The dispersions were characterized by turbidity, zeta potential and cytotoxicity and then the dispersions were cast into films. Physicochemical properties of the film were performed. CS-GA dispersions exhibited higher turbidity and a lower zeta potential with an increase in the GA ratio. Continuous films of the CS-GA could be formed at all ratios. CS and GA could molecularly interact via electrostatic forces and intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The CS-GA (1:0.5) films exhibited relatively low water uptake, erosion, water vapor permeability and puncture strength compared to the CS films. Furthermore, the CS-GA films demonstrated good mucoadhesive properties, allowing for adhesion to the mucosal membrane. Based on these results, it could be advantageous to use CS-GA films as film formers for the formulation of coatings and drug delivery systems. PMID:25886079

  1. Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Profiles of Elaeagnus mollis Diels Nut Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaohua; Yang, Ruinan; Dong, Caiwen; Yang, Qingping

    2015-01-01

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid profiles, content of tocopherol and sterol of the oils extracted from the nuts of Elaeagnus mollis Diels grown in different regions of China were studied in this work. The results indicated that the Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oils contained about 0.2% sterols and the tocopherol contents were in the range of 119.6-128.6mg/100g. The nut oils were all rich in unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid and linoleic acid. Furthermore, the main triacylglycerols species of the nut oils were all dilinoleoyl-monoolein (LOL), dioleoyl-monolinoleoyl (OLO) and trilinoleate (LLL). This work might be useful for developing applications for Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oil.

  2. Effects of citric acid esterification on digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of cassava starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Ji-Qiang; Zhou, Da-Nian; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Han-Qing

    2015-11-15

    In this study, citric acid was used to react with cassava starch in order to compare the digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of citrate starch samples. The results indicated that citric acid esterification treatment significantly increased the content of resistant starch (RS) in starch samples. The swelling power and solubility of citrate starch samples were lower than those of native starch. Compared with native starch, a new peak at 1724 cm(-1) was appeared in all citrate starch samples, and crystalline peaks of all starch citrates became much smaller or even disappeared. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the endothermic peak of citrate starches gradually shrank or even disappeared. Moreover, the citrate starch gels exhibited better freeze-thaw stability. These results suggested that citric acid esterification induced structural changes in cassava starch significantly affected its digestibility and it could be a potential method for the preparation of RS with thermal stability.

  3. Studies on the Effect of Accelerated Thermal Aging on Electrical and Physicochemical Properties of XLPE Cable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Chon-ung; JIN Zhi-jian; JIANG Ping-kai; ZHU Zi-shu; LIU Fei; KIM Ui-chon

    2007-01-01

    The degradation of crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) cable insulation during service, such as thermo-oxidation and water treeing may lead to a premature electrical breakdown of the XLPE insulation cables. Therefore,it is necessary to optimize the period of replacement to evenly distribute the replacement cost by ascertaining the deterioration degree. Estimation of the aging degree is at present the most important task for diagnosis of the residual lifetime of the power cable insulation. This paper presents a study on the changes in the dielectric properties of the thermally aged XLPE cables in the frequency range from 0.07~10 MHz. Based on electrical and physicochemical characterization, some new "dactylograms" for the thermally aged XLPE cable insulation have been proposed.

  4. Physico-chemical and nutritional properties of cereal-pulse blends for bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Shfali; Jood, Sudesh

    2002-01-01

    Supplementation of soy (full fat and defatted) and barley flours to wheat flour at 51 10, 15 and 20% levels were carried out to see their effect on physico-chemical and nutritional properties of blends for bread making. The gluten content and sedimentation value of flour blends decreased and water absorption capacity increased with increase in the level of soybean and barley flour separately and in combinations to bread flour. All the blends at 20% levels were found nutritionally superior but breads prepared from them found organoleptically unacceptable. However, addition of 15% barley flour, 10% full fat soy flour, 10% defatted soy flour, 15% full fat soy flour + barley flour and 15% defatted soy flour + barley flour to wheat flour not only increased the total protein, glutelin (protein fraction), total lysine, dietary fibre and beta-glucan contents of cereal-pulse blends for bread making, but could also produce a product of acceptable quality. PMID:12418802

  5. Physicochemical and functional properties of protein isolate produced from Australian chia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Adhikari, Raju; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu

    2016-12-01

    Protein was isolated from Australian chia seeds and converted to powders using spray, freeze and vacuum drying methods, to investigate the effect of drying methods on physicochemical and functional attributes of chia-seed protein isolate (CPI). It was found that there was no significant difference in the proximate composition; however vacuum dried CPI (VDCPI) had the highest bulk density and oil absorption capacity, whereas spray dried powder (SDCPI) demonstrated the highest solubility, water absorption capacity and lowest surface hydrophobicity. Solubility of all powders was higher at elevated temperature and alkaline pH. Foaming capacity and foam stability of CPI were found to increase with increasing pH and protein concentration. SDCPI was the least denatured and VDCPI the most denatured, demonstrating the poorest solubility and foaming properties of the latter. These findings are expected to be useful in selection of a drying process to yield chia seed protein powders with more desirable functionality. PMID:27374580

  6. Prediction of Substrate-Enzyme-Product Interaction Based on Molecular Descriptors and Physicochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Niu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to correctly and efficiently predict the interaction of substrate-enzyme and to predict their product in metabolic pathway. In this work, a novel approach was introduced to encode substrate/product and enzyme molecules with molecular descriptors and physicochemical properties, respectively. Based on this encoding method, KNN was adopted to build the substrate-enzyme-product interaction network. After selecting the optimal features that are able to represent the main factors of substrate-enzyme-product interaction in our prediction, totally 160 features out of 290 features were attained which can be clustered into ten categories: elemental analysis, geometry, chemistry, amino acid composition, predicted secondary structure, hydrophobicity, polarizability, solvent accessibility, normalized van der Waals volume, and polarity. As a result, our predicting model achieved an MCC of 0.423 and an overall prediction accuracy of 89.1% for 10-fold cross-validation test.

  7. Prediction of substrate-enzyme-product interaction based on molecular descriptors and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Bing; Huang, Guohua; Zheng, Linfeng; Wang, Xueyuan; Chen, Fuxue; Zhang, Yuhui; Huang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    It is important to correctly and efficiently predict the interaction of substrate-enzyme and to predict their product in metabolic pathway. In this work, a novel approach was introduced to encode substrate/product and enzyme molecules with molecular descriptors and physicochemical properties, respectively. Based on this encoding method, KNN was adopted to build the substrate-enzyme-product interaction network. After selecting the optimal features that are able to represent the main factors of substrate-enzyme-product interaction in our prediction, totally 160 features out of 290 features were attained which can be clustered into ten categories: elemental analysis, geometry, chemistry, amino acid composition, predicted secondary structure, hydrophobicity, polarizability, solvent accessibility, normalized van der Waals volume, and polarity. As a result, our predicting model achieved an MCC of 0.423 and an overall prediction accuracy of 89.1% for 10-fold cross-validation test. PMID:24455714

  8. Effect of cooking on physicochemical properties and volatile compounds in lotus root (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuyi; Li, Xiaojin; Lamikanra, Olusola; Luo, Qing; Liu, Zhiwei; Yang, Jun

    2017-02-01

    The effects of boiling and steaming on lotus root volatile compounds and some of its physicochemical properties were determined. A total of 52 compounds identified in the raw tuber by GC-MS were a combination of the rhizome's native compounds and those from the soil and water environment, and are predominantly a mixture of straight chain and cyclic alkanes, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Boiling increased concentrations of most of these compounds, unlike steaming that lowered total volatile components of the tuber. Cooking increased complexity of volatile compounds with the production of new compounds such as methylated derivatives, particularly in steam cooked lotus. Other heat-induced compounds include antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyl compounds and antifungal organic compounds such as dimethyl disulfide. Instrumental texture measurements indicate that the characteristic post-cooked retention of crunchiness in lotus root is likely to be related to retention of its springiness index through the cooking process. PMID:27596426

  9. Supramolecular structure of jackfruit seed starch and its relationship with digestibility and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin; Liang, Yi; Li, Xiaoxi; Chen, Ling; Xie, Fengwei

    2016-10-01

    The influence of supramolecular structure on the physicochemical properties and digestibility of jackfruit seed starch (JSS) were investigated. Compared with maize and cassava starches (MS and CS), JSS had smaller granules and higher amylose content (JSS: 24.90%; CS: 16.68%; and MS: 22.42%), which contributed to higher gelatinization temperature (To: 81.11°C) and setback viscosity (548.9mPas). From scanning electron microscopy, the digestion of JSS was observed mainly at the granule surface. Due to its higher crystallinity (JSS: 30.6%; CS: 30.3%; and MS: 27.4%) and more ordered semi-crystalline lamellae, JSS had a high RS content (74.26%) and melting enthalpy (19.61J/g). In other words, the supramolecular structure of JSS extensively determined its digestibility and resistance to heat and mechanical shear treatment. PMID:27312638

  10. Physico-chemical properties of ready to eat, shelf-stable pasta during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, E; Curti, E; Cassotta, F; Najm, N E O; Vittadini, E

    2014-02-01

    The changes in physico-chemical properties of RTE shelf stable pasta were studied during storage with a multianalytical and multidimensional approach (with special focus on water status) to understand the ageing process in this product. Pasta hardness and amylopectin recrystallisation increased, macroscopic water status indicators and proton molecular translational mobility remained constant, and significant changes were measured in the proton rotational molecular mobility indicators ((1)H FID, (1)H T2) during storage. Since the main changes observed in RTE pasta during storage were similar to those observed in other cereal-based products, it would be interesting to verify the effect of the anti-staling methods commonly used in the cereal processing industry in improving RTE pasta shelf-stability.

  11. EFFECT OF PRESSURE INDUCED GRAFT COPOLYMERIZATION ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BIO-FIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Singh Singha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the surface modification of Agave americana L. fiber through graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate under pressure in the presence of ceric ammonium nitrate as redox initiator. The various reaction parameters such as reaction time, pressure, concentration of nitric acid, initiator, and monomer, etc. were optimized to have the maximum graft yield of 13.6%. The grafted fibers were then subjected to the evaluation of different physico-chemical properties such as swelling behavior, solubility, moisture absorption under different humidity levels, resistance to acids and bases, etc. It was observed that swelling behavior, solubility behavior, and moisture absorbance decreased with increase in grafting, whereas resistance to acids and bases increased with grafting. The fibers grafted under the optimized conditions were then characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and x-ray diffraction techniques.

  12. Physicochemical properties and starch structure of a rice mutant with reduction of starch paste viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variations in starch physicochemical properties and starch structure between the rice low-paste viscosity mutant RSV-1 and its original parent II-32B were investigated. The results indicated that the apparent amylose content (AAC), gel consistency (GC), alkali spreading value (ASV) of mutant RSV-1 were higher than the wild type. However, major parameters of starch paste viscosity in mutant RSV-1 starch, i. e. peak paste viscosity, hot paste viscosity, and cool paste viscosity were significantly lower than those of the original parent. Compared to the original parent, the mutant had a similar peak time, but less energy and longer time needed for gelatinization. The starch manifested C-type crystalline and starch granule in the endosperm were irregular with different diameters. The mutation of the starch structure might play a key role for the decrease of starch paste viscosity in the mutant RSV-1. (authors)

  13. Comparison of some physico-chemical properties of irradiated cereal starches, separated or contained in flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study some physico-chemical properties of separated wheat starch from flour type 500 and 850, rye starch from flour type 720 and triticale starch from flour type 680 were compared. All starches were irradiated with medium doses of gamma rays: 2,3 and 5 kGy directly (after their separation from flour) and in flour. The water binding capacity of starches, their solubility in water and reduction capacity were found to depend on the dose applied and the method of irradiation, individually for each starch. Additional direct irradiation of all starches caused a smaller decrease in the viscosity of starch pastes and a stronger inhibition of the retrogradation process, in comparison to the starches separated from the irradiated flours. (author)

  14. Effect of the conditions of structure formation on the physicochemical properties of ozonated shungites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emel'Yanova, G. I.; Gorlenko, L. E.; Rozhkova, N. N.; Rumyantseva, M. N.; Lunin, V. V.

    2010-08-01

    It was investigated the influence of ozone on the physicochemical properties of shungites (type 1) (75-98% C) from Nigozero and Chebolaksha deposits (Karelia) formed by hydrothermal (Nigozero) and high-temperature (Chebolaksha) processes. Ozonation was found to affect the specific surface and the total pore volume of shungites considerably. The pore size distribution pattern depends on the volume morphology (texture) of the sample. An increase in the temperature and pressure during the structure formation of shungite (Chebolaksha) led to a shift of the maximum on the distribution pattern towards the formation of mesopores. The size distribution of pores with the dominant contents of micro- and submesopores for both shungites correlated with the basic structural nanoelements of shungite carbon. The peculiarities of the ozonation of shungite nanocarbon found previously (the non-steady state vibrational kinetics of ozonation and the absence of carbon(II) oxide among the reaction products) were confirmed.

  15. Physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of sausage formulated with surimi powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Palestina; Huda, Nurul; Yang, Tajul Aris

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of fish sausage made with 100 % threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicus) surimi powder (SP100), a mix of 50 % surimi powder and 50 % frozen surimi (SP50), and a control (100 % frozen surimi). No significant differences in protein content and folding test results (P > 0.05) were detected among the SP100 and SP50 samples and the control. Gel strength of SP100 was lower (P > 0.05) than that of the control. The texture profile analysis (TPA) values (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) of SP100 were significantly lower (P Malaysian commercial fish sausages. The water holding capacity, and emulsion stability of SP100 were significantly lower (P Malaysian commercial fish sausages. PMID:25745219

  16. Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Profiles of Elaeagnus mollis Diels Nut Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaohua; Yang, Ruinan; Dong, Caiwen; Yang, Qingping

    2015-01-01

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid profiles, content of tocopherol and sterol of the oils extracted from the nuts of Elaeagnus mollis Diels grown in different regions of China were studied in this work. The results indicated that the Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oils contained about 0.2% sterols and the tocopherol contents were in the range of 119.6-128.6mg/100g. The nut oils were all rich in unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid and linoleic acid. Furthermore, the main triacylglycerols species of the nut oils were all dilinoleoyl-monoolein (LOL), dioleoyl-monolinoleoyl (OLO) and trilinoleate (LLL). This work might be useful for developing applications for Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oil. PMID:26632946

  17. Composition and physicochemical properties of Zedo gum exudates from Amygdalus scoparia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadavi, Ghasem; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Zargarran, Azizollaah; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad; Komeili, Rozita

    2014-01-30

    Composition and physicochemical properties of three types of Zedo gum exudates from Amygdalus scoparia were investigated. Monosaccharide analysis by GC-MS indicated the occurrence of arabinose and galactose as the main sugars. FTIR spectra showed no differences in functional groups among the samples. Steady shear rheological data and power law parameters revealed that the white gum (W) was the most shear sensitive type and had the highest value of consistency coefficient. The mechanical spectra derived from the strain and frequency sweep measurements indicated a liquid viscoelastic behavior for Zedo gum dispersions. GPC-MALLS revealed that the white sample had the highest apparent average molecular weight (4.74 × 10(6)Da) and the lowest dispersity (1.045). TG-DTA analysis showed that the character of gum decomposition significantly depended on the gum type and the white sample had the highest thermal stability. PMID:24299876

  18. Effect of amylose content and nanoclay incorporation order in physicochemical properties of starch/montmorillonite composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Bastida, C A; Tapia-Blácido, D R; Méndez-Montealvo, G; Bello-Pérez, L A; Velázquez, G; Alvarez-Ramirez, J

    2016-11-01

    The effects of the amylose content and the preparation sequence in physicochemical properties of starch/montmorillonite (MMT) composites were studied in this work. Native (30%) and high amylose Hylon VII (70%) starches were considered for assessing the effects of amylose content. Glycerol and MMT were used as additives to evaluate the effects of the former as plasticizer and the latter as reinforcer. The glycerol was incorporated before (Method M1) and after (Method M2) the addition of MMT. FTIR studies indicated that water bonding was affected by amylose content. Sorption isotherms indicated that method M2 favoured water adsorption and method M1 reduced water adsorption due to competition for active sites for interaction. TGA showed that method M1 induced a higher degradation rate than method M2. Wettability analysis by contact angle measurements showed that plasticizer promoted the hydrophilicity of the film, whereas MMT promoted a hydrophobic surface for both cases of amylose content. PMID:27516282

  19. Physicochemical, Functional and Antioxidant Properties of Tropical Fruits Co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selani, Miriam Mabel; Bianchini, Andreia; Ratnayake, Wajira S; Flores, Rolando A; Massarioli, Adna Prado; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Canniatti Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of mango (MAC), pineapple (PAC) and passion fruit (PFC) co-products in order to evaluate them as ingredients for food application. Proximate composition showed low fat content (0.95-5.64 g/100 g), and high levels of dietary fiber. In pineapple and passion fruit co-products, dietary fiber represented more than 50 % of the sample. Low pH, water activity, along with high acidity indicated that these co-products would not be easily susceptible to deterioration as food ingredients. Pineapple and passion fruit co-products had significant (p DPPH and ABTS methods. The results indicated that the fruit co-products under evaluation could be used as functional ingredient to provide dietary fiber and natural antioxidants to food products. PMID:26984339

  20. Study of the relationships between nuclear decontamination foams stability and their physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LPAD (French Atomic Energy Commission) develops innovative processes in the frame of the future dismantling of nuclear facilities. Formulations were developed using high viscosified foams stabilized by biodegradable nonionic surfactants: alkyl poly-glucosides and viscosifiers (xanthan gum), which allow us to increase the foam lifetime and thus contact time of chemical reactants with the facility walls. We have considered the relationships between physicochemical properties and foam stability through the exploration of the foam at three different scales: from the molecular range (micelles, surface tension and visco-elasticity), to the film and Plateau border range (XR reflectivity, surface shear viscosity) and to macroscopic range, meaning the whole foam (foaminess, liquid fraction and wall film thickness evolution). Finally, exploratory study is presented concerning simultaneous foam three scales characterisation by small angle neutron scattering. (author)

  1. Physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of a polymer-paclitaxel conjugate for cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Danbo Yang1, Sang Van2, Jian Liu2, Jing Wang1, Xinguo Jiang3, Yiting Wang1, Lei Yu1,2 1Biomedical Engineering and Technology Institute, Institutes for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China; 2Biomedical Group, Nitto Denko Technical Corporation, Oceanside, CA; 3School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, ChinaBackground: Poly(L-γ-glutamylglutamine paclitaxel (PGG-PTX conjugate is a non-diblock polymeric drug nanoparticle intended to improve the therapeutic index of paclitaxel. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate further the physicochemical properties of PGG-PTX in order to proceed with its clinical development.Methods and results: PGG-PTX was designed by integration of a hydrophobic paclitaxel conjugate through an added hydrophilic glutamic acid onto poly(L-glutamic acid. The addition of a flexible glutamic linker between PGA and paclitaxel resulted in spontaneous self-assembly of a PGG-PTX conjugate into nanoparticles. The PGG-PTX conjugate was stable as a lyophilized solid form. An in vitro viability experiment showed that PGG-PTX was effective after a longer incubation period, the same trend as Taxol. In vitro studies using NCI-H460 and B16F0 cancer cells demonstrated significantly high cellular uptake after 30 minutes of incubation. The in vivo biocompatibility of PGG-PTX conjugate was evaluated in the NCI-H460 tumor model, the assessment of tissue seemed to be normal after 21 days of treatment.Conclusion: These results are encouraging for further development of non-block polymeric paclitaxel nanoparticles for treatment of cancer.Keywords: polymer conjugate, paclitaxel, poly(L-γ-glutamylglutamine, drug delivery, physicochemical properties, nanoparticles

  2. Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Milk Samples Collected from Five Goat Breeds in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Alyaqoubi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Five different goat breeds (Saanen, Kacang, Jamnapari, Boer and a crossbred of Jamnapari and Saanen were obtained from one farm in Bandar Baru Bangi. The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity based on TPC, FRAP and DPPH. Goat milk samples were collected during the same lactation period (middle lactation and were subsequently compared with cow milk. The results of the study showed that goat milk exhibited a significantly higher (p<0.05 antioxidant capacity than cow milk. Jamnapari milk exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity in Total Phenol Content (TPC, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays with values of 544.08 mg GA/100 g FW, 481.69 mg TE/100 g FW and 67.44%, respectively. By contrast, the milk samples obtained from the Boer exhibited the lowest corresponding values of 460.00 mg GA/100 g FW, 386.06 mg TE/100 g FW and 59.68%, respectively. Results showed that physicochemical properties were significantly different (p<0.05 among the milk samples, with some samples more superior compared with others in one or more aspects. Jamnapari milk was superior in terms of ash, total soluble solid and protein with values of 0.96%, 13.02 Brix and 5.11%, respectively and this milk also showed the lowest moisture (81.28% among all milk samples. Cow milk exhibited the highest fat (4.43% and Kacang milk had the lowest titratable acidity (0.06% than the other milk samples. Thus, goat milk can be considered as an excellence source of antioxidants.

  3. Effects of Tamarisk shrub on physicochemical properties of soil in coastal wetland of the Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiuping; WANG Baodong; XIE Linping; XIN Ming; WANG Wei; WANG Zicheng; ZHANG Wenquan; WEI Qinsheng

    2016-01-01

    There are many different and even controversial results concerning the effects of Tamarisk on the physicochemical properties of soil. A year-round monitoring of soil salinity, pH and moisture is conducted beneath the Tamarisk shrub in a coastal wetland in the Bohai Sea in China, to ascertain the effects of Tamarisk on the physicochemical properties of soil in coastal wetland. Compared with the control area, the soil moisture content is lower around the area of the taproot when there is less precipitation in the growing season because of water consumption by Tamarisk shrub. However, the soil moisture content is higher around the taproot when there is more precipitation in the growing season or in the non-growing period because of water conservation by the rhizosphere. The absorption of salt by the Tamarisk shrub reduces the soil salinity temporarily, but eventually salt returns to the soil by the leaching of salt on leaves by rainfall or by fallen leaves. The annual average soil moisture content beneath the Tamarisk shrub is lower than the control area by only 6.4%, indicating that the Tamarisk shrub has little effect on drought or water conservation in soils in the temperate coastal wetland with moderate annual precipitation. The annual average salinity beneath the Tamarisk shrub is 18% greater than that of the control area, indicating that Tamarisk does have an effect of rising soil salinity around Tamarisk shrubs. The soil pH value is as low as 7.3 in summer and as high as 10.2 in winter. The pH of soil near the taproot of the Tamarisk shrubs is one pH unit lower than that in the control area during the growing season. The difference in pH is less different from the control area in the non-growing season, indicating that the Tamarisk shrub does have the effect of reducing the alkalinity of soil in coastal wetland.

  4. Bactericidal Effects against S. aureus and Physicochemical Properties of Plasma Activated Water stored at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jin; Tian, Ying; Li, Yinglong; Ma, Ruonan; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Water activated by non-thermal plasma creates an acidified solution containing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, known as plasma-activated water (PAW). The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different storage temperatures (25 °C, 4 °C, ‑20 °C, ‑80 °C) on bactericidal activities against S. aureus and physicochemical properties of PAW up to 30 days. Interestingly, PAW stored at ‑80 °C yielded the best antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, 3~4 log reduction over a 30-day period after PAW generation; meanwhile, PAW stored at 25 °C, 4 °C, and ‑20 °C, respectively, yielded 0.2~2 log decrease in cell viability after the same exposure and storage time. These results were verified by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The physicochemical properties of PAW stored at different temperatures were evaluated, including pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), and hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, nitrite anion and NO radical levels. These findings suggested that bacterial activity of PAW stored at 25 °C, 4 °C, ‑20 °C decreased over time, and depended on three germicidal factors, specifically ORP, H2O2, and NO3‑. Moreover, PAW stored at ‑80 °C retained bactericidal activity, with NO2‑ contributing to bactericidal ability in association with H2O2. Our findings provide a basis for PAW storage and practical applications in disinfection and food preservation.

  5. Bactericidal Effects against S. aureus and Physicochemical Properties of Plasma Activated Water stored at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jin; Tian, Ying; Li, Yinglong; Ma, Ruonan; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Water activated by non-thermal plasma creates an acidified solution containing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, known as plasma-activated water (PAW). The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different storage temperatures (25 °C, 4 °C, -20 °C, -80 °C) on bactericidal activities against S. aureus and physicochemical properties of PAW up to 30 days. Interestingly, PAW stored at -80 °C yielded the best antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, 3~4 log reduction over a 30-day period after PAW generation; meanwhile, PAW stored at 25 °C, 4 °C, and -20 °C, respectively, yielded 0.2~2 log decrease in cell viability after the same exposure and storage time. These results were verified by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The physicochemical properties of PAW stored at different temperatures were evaluated, including pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), and hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, nitrite anion and NO radical levels. These findings suggested that bacterial activity of PAW stored at 25 °C, 4 °C, -20 °C decreased over time, and depended on three germicidal factors, specifically ORP, H2O2, and NO3(-). Moreover, PAW stored at -80 °C retained bactericidal activity, with NO2(-) contributing to bactericidal ability in association with H2O2. Our findings provide a basis for PAW storage and practical applications in disinfection and food preservation. PMID:27346695

  6. Pentaglyme-K salt binary mixtures: phase behavior, solvate structures, and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandai, Toshihiko; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Ueno, Kazuhide; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2015-01-28

    We prepared a series of binary mixtures composed of certain K salts (KX) and pentaglyme (G5) with different salt concentrations and anionic species ([X](-): [(CF3SO2)2N](-) = [TFSA](-), [CF3SO3](-) = [TfO](-), [C4F9SO3](-) = [NfO](-), PF6(-), SCN(-)), and characterized them with respect to their phase diagrams, solvate structures, and physicochemical properties. Their phase diagrams and thermal stability strongly implied the formation of equimolar complexes. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography was performed on certain equimolar complexes, which revealed that G5 molecules coordinate to K(+) cations in a characteristic manner, like 18-crown-6 ether in the crystalline state, irrespective of the paired anions. The solvate structures in the molten state were elucidated by a combination of temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. A drastic spectral variation was observed in the [K(G5)1][TfO] Raman spectra, indicating that solvate structures in the crystalline state break apart upon melting. The solvate stability of [K(G5)1]X is closely related to the ion-ion interaction of the parent salts. A stable solvate forms when the ion-dipole interaction between K(+) and G5 overwhelms the ion-ion interaction between K(+) and X(-). Furthermore, the physicochemical properties of certain equimolar mixtures were evaluated. A Walden plot clearly reflects the ionic nature of the molten equimolar complexes. Judging from the structural characteristics and dissociativity, we classified [K(G5)1]X into two groups, good and poor solvate ionic liquids. PMID:25501925

  7. Physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of nanopowdered eggshell-supplemented yogurt during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mijan, Mohammad; Choi, Kyung-Hoon; Kwak, Hae-Soo

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of adding nanopowdered eggshell (NPES) into yogurt to improve the functionality of yogurt and the effects of adding NPES on the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of the products during storage. The pH and mean lactic acid bacteria counts of NPES-added (0.15-0.45%, wt/vol) yogurt ranged from 4.31 to 4.66 and from 6.56 × 10(8) to 8.56 × 10(8)cfu/mL, respectively, whereas these values ranged from 4.13 to 4.44 and 8.46 × 10(8) to 1.39 × 10(9), respectively, for the control samples during storage at 5 °C for 16d, which indicates a prolonged shelf-life with NPES-supplemented yogurt. Color analysis showed that the lightness (L*) and position between red and green (a*) values were not significantly influenced by the addition of NPES. However, the position between yellow and blue (b*) value significantly increased with the addition of the concentration (0.45%, wt/vol) of NPES at d 16 of storage. Sensory evaluation revealed that NPES-added yogurts showed a notably less sourness score and a higher astringency score than the control. An earthy flavor was higher in 0.45% NPES-supplemented yogurt compared with the control. Based on the results obtained from the current study, the concentration (0.15 to 0.30%, wt/vol) of NPES can be used to formulate NPES-supplemented yogurt without any significant adverse effects on the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties.

  8. Physicochemical Properties Analysis and Secretome of Aspergillus niger in Fermented Rapeseed Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Changyou; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient digestibility and feeding value of rapeseed meal (RSM) for non-ruminant animals is poor due to the presence of anti-nutritional substances such as glucosinolate, phytic acid, crude fiber etc. In the present study, a solid state fermentation (SSF) using Aspergillus niger was carried out with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of RSM. The chemical composition and physicochemical properties of RSM before and after fermentation were compared. To further understand possible mechanism of solid state fermentation, the composition of extracellular enzymes secreted by Aspergillus niger during fermentation was analysed using two-dimentional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS). Results of the present study indicated that SSF had significant effects on chemical composition of RSM. The fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) contained more crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) (except His) than unfermented RSM. Notably, the small peptide in FRSM was 2.26 time larger than that in unfermented RSM. Concentrations of anti-nutritional substrates in FRSM including neutral detergent fiber (NDF), glucosinolates, isothiocyanate, oxazolidithione, and phytic acid declined (P < 0.05) by 13.47, 43.07, 55.64, 44.68 and 86.09%, respectively, compared with unfermented RSM. A. niger fermentation disrupted the surface structure, changed macromolecular organic compounds, and reduced the protein molecular weights of RSM substrate. Total proteins of raw RSM and FRSM were separated and 51 protein spots were selected for mass spectrometry according to 2D-DIGE map. In identified proteins, there were 15 extracellular hydrolases secreted by A. niger including glucoamylase, acid protease, beta-glucanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylanase, and phytase. Some antioxidant related enzymes also were identified. These findings suggested that A. niger is able to secrete many extracellular

  9. Strong cation exchange resin for improving physicochemical properties and sustaining release of ranitidine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study strong cation exchange resin (Amberlite IRP69 was used to improve the physicochemical properties of ranitidine hydrochloride such as taste and bulk properties and to sustain dissolution rate. Drug-resin complexes were prepared using batch method. Drug loading was done under different processing conditions such as temperature, pH, drug-resin ratio, and drug concentration to get the optimum condition for resinate preparation. Resinate prepared under optimized condition was tested for taste, bulk properties and release rate. Degree of bitterness of ranitidine was found to reduce to zero after complexation with resin. Improvement in flow properties was also observed. Angle of repose for resinate was found to be 33.21 o as compared to 42.27 o for ranitidine HCl. Effect of dissolution medium and particle size on in vitro release of drug from resinate was also investigated. Resinate with drug to resin ratio of 2:3 and particle size> 90 µm showed about 90% of drug release within 12 h. The orodispersible tablet formulated from the resinate containing 10% croscarmellose sodium disintegrated within 35 sec in oral cavity and showed similar dissolution profile as the resinate. Tablets were found stable after stability studies with no change in dissolution profile.

  10. Effect of food processing on the physicochemical properties of dietary fibre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasfi ye Hazal Ozyurt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Products derived from the manufacturing or processing of plant based foods: cereals, fruits, vegetables, as well as algae, are sources of abundant dietary fi bre. Diets high in dietary fi bre have been associated with the reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and gastrointestinal disorders. These fibre-rich products and byproducts can also fortify foods, increase their dietary fibre content and result in healthy products, low in calories, cholesterol and fat. Traditionally, consumers have chosen foods such as whole grains, fruits and vegetables as sources of dietary fibre. Recently, food manufacturers have responded to consumer demand for foods with a higher fibre content by developing products in which highfibre ingredients are used. Diff erent food processing methods also increase the dietary fiber content of food. Moreover, its chemical and physical properties may be aff ected by food processing. Some of them might even improve the functionality of fibre. Therefore, they may also be applied as functional ingredients to improve physical properties like the physical and structural properties of hydration, oil-holding capacity, viscosity. This study was conducted to examine the eff ect of diff erent food processing methods on the physicochemical properties of dietary fibre.

  11. The usual suspects-influence of physicochemical properties on lag time, skin deposition, and percutaneous penetration of nine model compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo Nielsen, Jesper; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Nielsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    The influence of physicochemical properties of nine model compounds on lag time, skin deposition, and percutaneous penetration was evaluated. Static diffusion cells mounted with human skin were used as the experimental model, and experiments were carried out in accordance with Organization for Ec...

  12. Physicochemical, Proximate and Sensory Properties of Pineapple (Ananas sp.) Syrup Developed from Its Organic Side-Stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tortoe, C.; Johnson, P.N.T.; Slaghek, T.; Miedema, M.; Timmermans, T.

    2013-01-01

    A major economical industrial challenge from pineapple (Ananas sp.) processing contributing to environmental pollu- tion is the organic side-streams of pineapple. The physicochemical, proximate and sensory properties of organic side- stream pineapple syrup (OSPS) developed from Smooth cayenne, Sugar

  13. Physicochemical properties of frozen tortillas from nixtamalized maize flours enriched with β-glucans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Madrigal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractEffects of different β-glucan concentrations in maize flour on the properties of frozen maize tortillas were evaluated. Masa (dough, pre-cooked (PTs, frozen (FTs, thawed (TTs, and cooked tortillas (CTs were made and analyzed. Moisture content of masa and tortillas significantly decreased as β-glucan concentration increased; however, the water absorption capacity (WAC, ice melting enthalpy, and frozen water in FTs increased. Texture and color of the masa, PTs, and CTs as well as sensory analysis showed differences only between tortillas with 0% and 4% β-glucans. β-glucans did not affect the texture of CTs. Soluble fiber increased by over threefold and fivefold in tortillas with 2% and 4% β-glucans, respectively, than in those without β-glucans. This result was consistent with the observed structural changes in tortillas, showing an increase in high-fiber aggregates with increasing β-glucan concentration. Tortillas with 2% β-glucans showed acceptable physicochemical, functional, and sensory properties, but over three times the soluble fiber. Therefore, it is possible to obtain frozen tortillas with high fiber content and increase their shelf life for subsequent cooking while maintaining good properties.

  14. Measuring properties of nanoparticles in embryonic blood vessels: Towards a physicochemical basis for nanotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Aisling A.; Gregoriou, Yiota; Yaehne, Kristin; Cramb, David T.

    2010-03-01

    The developing field of nanotoxicology aims to relate the physical properties of nanomaterials to potential risk when organisms are exposed to those materials. Regulators are interested in whether a nanoformulation would alter the risk of the native material. It may be that due to the physical nature of embryonic blood vessels (i.e. they are angiogenic and therefore leaky), embryos are at greater risk for bioaccumulation of nanoparticles (NPs) than mature organisms. To study the physicochemical nature of nanoparticle accumulation from embryonic blood vessels, one needs to measure the NP properties in situ, because these properties could be significantly dependent on environment. We have undertaken a study of the dynamics of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots and polystyrene nanospheres in the blood vessels of the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). We show proof of principle that fluorescence correlation spectroscopy can be used in this system to determine the concentrations and hydrodynamic radii of NP solutions micro-injected into the CAM.

  15. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of black, brown and red rice varieties of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawat Pengkumsri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice, the seed of Oryza species, is the major cereal crop in most of the developing countries. Nearly 95% of global rice production is done in Asian countries, and about half of the world’s population consumes it. Some speciality rices are not commonly consumed. Colored rice is one of such variety. In these varieties, high amounts of anthocyanin pigment are deposited in the rice coat to form its black (also known as purple, brown and red colors. Minimum studies are there to explain the properties of these rice varieties of Thailand. Thus, the current study was aimed to assess the physicochemical and antioxidative properties of three rice varieties (Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice of different cultivars of northern Thailand. Rice bran extracts of these three cultivars were prepared with different solvents (polar and non-polar for the evaluation of total phytochemical content and anti-oxidant free-radical-scavenging properties. Chiang Mai Black rice contained higher concentration of phenolic acid, flavonoids, and anthocyanins (Cyanidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin chloride. Chiang Mai Black rice is richer in free-radical-scavenging compounds and activities than the other tested varieties. Polar extractions of rice bran are high in anti-oxidative compounds and activities than non-polar extractions.

  16. Ultrastructure of underutilized tuber starches and its relation to physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiaohong; Li, Yongfu; Xie, Shichao; Wang, Zhengwu

    2015-12-01

    Starches from five underutilized tubers (canna, potato, Chinese yam, water chestnut, and taro) were extracted to investigate quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) in each starch using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Structural parameters of the tuber starches were determined using the paracrystalline model. Swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), amylose leaching (AML), and thermal properties were also measured. The XRD results indicated that starches from Chinese yam, water chestnut, and taro are C-type starches with relatively high crystallinity (29.23-35.02%). In contrast, canna and potato starches are B-type starches exhibiting lower crystallinity and higher amylose content. The paracrystalline model provided a better fit for the C-type starches than for the B-type starches because the former was highly compressible (indicated by a higher "β" value). B-type starches, on the other hand, tend to be more rigid along the lamellar repeat direction, requiring the layers to bend to accommodate internal stress. The QSPR analysis showed that three structural parameters, "Ø", "β", and "Δρu", correlate well with the SP and WSI, and thus can be used to predict certain physicochemical properties. PMID:26041241

  17. Physicochemical and thermal properties of gamma-irradiated sago (Metroxylon sagu) starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sago (Metroxylon sagu) starch was exposed to gamma-irradiation in air at doses 6, 10 and 25 kGy. Subsequent changes in the physicochemical and thermal properties were measured. The apparent amylose content and swelling power of irradiated sago starch was significantly reduced while reducing sugars and starch solubility were significantly increased due to degradation. X-ray diffraction studies showed that radiation did not affect the crystalline type but induced a decrease in the degree of crystallinity, indicating the destruction of the ordered distribution of neighboring polysaccharide chains in the starch granules, in particular of the amylopectin component, which is responsible for starch crystallinity. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of irradiated sago starch showed a small but significant increase in the onset and peak transition temperatures at 10 and 25 kGy dose; the conclusion temperature and gelatinization enthalpy was not affected. SEM and particle size analysis produced no evidence of physical damage to sago starch up to 25 kGy dose radiation treatment since the granular appearance and size distribution was retained. - Highlights: • Properties of irradiated sago starch at doses 0, 6, 10 and 25 kGy were studied. • Apparent amylose content and swelling power was reduced by irradiation • Irradiation decreased relative crystallinity but did not alter the crystalline type. • SEM of irradiated starch granules up to dose of 25 kGy showed no physical damage. • Thermal properties of irradiated sago starch were slightly affected

  18. Different Storage Conditions Influence Biocompatibility and Physicochemical Properties of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zaloga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs have attracted increasing attention in many biomedical fields. In magnetic drug targeting SPIONs are injected into a tumour supplying artery and accumulated inside the tumour with a magnet. The effectiveness of this therapy is thus dependent on magnetic properties, stability and biocompatibility of the particles. A good knowledge of the effect of storage conditions on those parameters is of utmost importance for the translation of the therapy concept into the clinic and for reproducibility in preclinical studies. Here, core shell SPIONs with a hybrid coating consisting of lauric acid and albumin were stored at different temperatures from 4 to 45 °C over twelve weeks and periodically tested for their physicochemical properties over time. Surprisingly, even at the highest storage temperature we did not observe denaturation of the protein or colloidal instability. However, the saturation magnetisation decreased by maximally 28.8% with clear correlation to time and storage temperature. Furthermore, the biocompatibility was clearly affected, as cellular uptake of the SPIONs into human T-lymphoma cells was crucially dependent on the storage conditions. Taken together, the results show that the particle properties undergo significant changes over time depending on the way they are stored.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on the physicochemical properties of alkali-extracted rice starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starches isolated from two newly released rice varieties (K-322 and K-448) were subject to irradiation at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy doses. Comparative study between native (not irradiated) and irradiated starch samples was carried out to evaluate the changes in physicochemical, morphological and pasting properties due to gamma irradiation. Significant decrease was found in apparent amylose content, pH, swelling power, syneresis, and pasting properties, whereas carboxyl content, water absorption capacity, and transmittance were found to increase with the increase in irradiation dose. Granule morphology of native and irradiated starches under scanning electron microscope revealed that granules were polygonal or irregular in shape. The starch granules were somewhat deformed by gamma irradiation. X-ray diffraction pattern showed A type of pattern in native as well as irradiated starches. - Highlights: • Irradiation significantly decreased swelling power, syneresis and pasting properties of starch. • Increase in water absorption capacity, carboxyl content and light transmittance took place with irradiation. • SEM images revealed surface cracking of starch granules with increasing irradiation dose. • No significant difference was observed in the X-ray diffraction pattern of irradiated starches when compared with non-irradiated starches

  20. Physicochemical and optical properties of combustion-generated particles from Ship Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Jeong, S.; Jin, H. C.; Kim, J. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Shipping contributes significantly to the anthropogenic burden of particulate matter (PM), and is among the world's highest polluting combustion sources per fuel consumed. Moreover, ships are a highly concentrated source of pollutants which are emitted into clean marine environments (e.g., Artic region). Shipping utilizes heavy fuel oil (HFO) which is less distilled compared to fuels used on land and few investigations on shipping related PM properties are available. BC is one of the dominant combustion products of ship diesel engines and its chemical and microphysical properties have a significant impact on climate by influencing the amount of albedo reduction on bright surfaces such as in polar regions. We have carried out a campaign to characterize the PM emissions from medium-sized marine engines in Gunsan, Jeonbuk Institute of Automotive Technology. The properties of ship-diesel PM have characterized depending on (1) fuel sulfur content (HFO vs. ULSD) and (2) engine conditions (Running state vs. Idling state). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) equipped with HRTEM and Raman spectroscopy were used for physicochemical analysis. Optical properties, which are ultimately linked to the snow/ice albedo decrease impacting climate, were assessed as well. PM generated under high engine temperature conditions had typical features of soot, e.g., concentric circles comprised of closely packed graphene layers, however PM generated by the idling state at low combustion temperature was characterized by amorphous and droplet-like carbonaceous particles with no crystalline structure. Significant differences in optical properties depending on the combustion conditions were also observed. Particles from running conditions showed wavelength-independent absorbing properties, whereas the particles from idling conditions showed enhanced absorption at shorter wavelengths, which is

  1. Predicting physico-chemical properties of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs):potential persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jun; YU Gang; YANG Xi; ZHANG Zu-lin

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated diphenyl ethers(PCDEs) have received more and more concerns as a category of potentialpersistent organic pollutants( POPs). Modeling its environmental fate and exposure assessment require a number offundamental physico-chemical properties. However, the experimental data are currently limited due to the difficulty inanalysis caused by the complexity of PCDE congeners. As an alternative, the quantitative structure propertyrelationship(QSPR) approach could be used. In this paper, twelve kinds of molecular connectivity indices(MCIs) ofall 209 possible molecular structure patterns of PCDEs were calculated. Based on 106 PCDEs with three observedphysico-chemical properties-vapour pressure(PoL), aqueous solubility(Sw) and n-octanol/water(Kow) and theirMCIs data, a series of QSPR equations were established using multiple linear regression(MLR) method. As aresult, three equations with best performance were selected mainly from the view of high regression coefficient(R)and low standard error( SE). All of them showed significant relationship and high accuracy. With these equationsthe properties of other 103 patterns of PCDEs without the reported observed values were predicted. Furthermore,three partition properties for PCDE congeners-Henry' s Law constants(H), partition coefficients between gas/water(Kgw) and gas/n-octanol ( Kgo ) were calculated according to the internal relationship among these six properties.These observed and predicted values, in contrast with the criteria listed in the Stockholm treaty about POPs whichhas been signed by more than ninety countries in May 2001, illustrated that most of PCDEs congeners are potentialpersistent organic pollutants. As all descriptors/predictors are derived just from the molecular structure itself andwithout the import of any empirical parameters, this method is impersonal and promising for the estimation ofphysico-chemical properties of PCDEs.

  2. Influence of soil physicochemical properties on hydrology and restoration response in Carolina Bay wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, C. D.; Andrews, D.M.; Kolka, R.K.

    2006-04-01

    Carolina Bays are shallow depression wetlands found in the southeast US that have been severely altered by human activity. The need to restore these complex and diverse systems is well established, but our understanding of basic wetland hydrological processes is limited, hence our ability to predict the need for and/or assess the effectiveness of bay restorations is hindered. Differing physicochemical properties of soils within bay interiors may control bay hydrology. However, previous efforts to establish relationships between soil characteristics and bay hydrology have been inconclusive and the question still remains as to why some bays are ponded throughout the year while others, within a similar landscape unit, are predominantly dry. An assessment of soil and hydrologic characteristics was initiated in restored and unrestored control bays to determine if a relationship exists. Soil morphology was described and permanent monitoring wells were installed at each site. Soil samples were collected by horizon to a depth of 2 meters at the topographic center of each site, and then analyzed. After three years, multiple regression analysis (stepwise backward and forward) was used to establish relationships between the soil physicochemical characteristics and bay hydroperiod in the undisturbed sites. Results from surface soils indicated that exchangeable acidity (EA) was the best single predictor of hydrology. The best double predictor was EA and total N and EA, total N and total C as the best triple predictor. A significant relationship (r2 = 0.96) between hydroperiod and clay content in the argillic horizon (Bt) was also observed. Subsequently, this relationship was utilized to predict hydrologic response using pre-restoration hydroperiod data. The model accurately identified sites that did not need hydrologic restoration (too wet), and effectively showed sites that responded well to restoration activities.

  3. Visualization of physico-chemical properties and microbial distribution in soil and root microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhorst, Thilo; Schmidt, Hannes

    2016-04-01

    Plant root development is influenced by soil properties and environmental factors. In turn plant roots can also change the physico-chemical conditions in soil resulting in gradients between roots and the root-free bulk soil. By releasing a variety of substances roots facilitate microbial activities in their direct vicinity, the rhizosphere. The related microorganisms are relevant for various ecosystem functions in the root-soil interface such as nutrient cycling. It is therefore important to study the impact and dynamics of microorganisms associated to different compartments in root-soil interfaces on a biologically meaningful micro-scale. The analysis of microorganisms in their habitats requires microscopic observations of the respective microenvironment. This can be obtained by preserving the complex soil structure including the root system by resin impregnation resulting in high quality thin sections. The observation of such sections via fluorescence microscopy, SEM-EDS, and Nano-SIMS will be highlighted in this presentation. In addition, we will discuss the combination of this methodological approach with other imaging techniques such as planar optodes or non-invasive 3D X-ray CT to reveal the entire spatial structure and arrangement of soil particles and roots. When combining the preservation of soil structure via resin impregnation with 16S rRNA targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) single microbial cells can be visualized, localized, and quantified in the undisturbed soil matrix including the root-soil interfaces. The simultaneous use of multiple oligonucleotide probes thereby provides information on the spatial distribution of microorganisms belonging to different phylogenetic groups. Results will be shown for paddy soils, where management induced physico-chemical dynamics (flooding and drying) as well as resulting microbial dynamics were visualized via correlative microscopy in resin impregnated samples.

  4. Sensory evaluation, physicochemical properties and aroma-active profiles in a diverse collection of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huan; Chen, Jianle; Chen, Shiguo; Xia, Qile; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to differentiate the flavor (taste and odor) profiles of 11 Chinese bayberry cultivars (Myrica rubra). The physicochemical analysis for taste indicated the bayberry cultivars were quite different in soluble sugars, organic acids, color, total phenolics and anthocyanin contents. Sucrose was the main soluble sugar in bayberry fruit. Principal component analysis (PCA) of physicochemical properties indicated bayberries could be divided into 5 groups, and the Bi qi cultivar contained the highest brix/acid ratio demonstrating the sweetest taste. PCA of aroma-active profile for odor (analyzed by SPME-GC-MS-O) indicated bayberries could be divided into 3 groups: α-pinene ("pine" odor) for group 1 (four cultivars), β-caryophyllene and isocaryophyllene ("woody" odor) for group 2 (six cultivars), and ethyl acetate ("overripe" odor) for group 3 (one cultivar). Our research on the physicochemical and active-aroma of 11 bayberry cultivars will help to select suitable cultivars to increase consumer satisfaction. PMID:27374545

  5. Physicochemical and biological properties of a novel injectable polyurethane system for root canal filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jian Wang,1 Yi Zuo,1 Minghui Zhao,1 Jiaxing Jiang,1 Yi Man,2 Jun Wu,3 Yunjiu Hu,3 Changlei Liu,4 Yubao Li,1 Jidong Li11Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Orthopedics, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 4College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: A root canal sealer with antibacterial activity can be efficacious in preventing reinfection that results from residual microorganisms and/or the leakage of microorganisms. In the present study, a series of injectable, self-curing polyurethane (PU-based antibacterial sealers with different concentrations of silver phosphate (Ag3PO4 were fabricated. Subsequently, their physicochemical properties, antibacterial abilities, and preliminary cytocompatibilities were evaluated. The results indicated that the fabricated PU-based sealers can achieve a high conversion rate in a short amount of time. More than 95% of the isocyanate group of PU sealers with 3 wt% (PU3 and 5 wt% (PU5 concentrations of Ag3PO4 were included in the curing reaction after 7 hours. With the exception of those for film thickness for PU5, the results of setting time, film thickness, and solubility were able to meet the requirements of the International Organization for Standardization. The antibacterial tests showed that PU3 and PU5 exhibit stronger antimicrobial effects than that achieved with 1 wt% Ag3PO4 (PU1 and AH Plus (positive control against Streptococcus mutans. The cytocompatibility evaluation revealed that the PU1 and PU3 sealers possess good cytocompatibility and low cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate that the PU3 sealer offers good physicochemical and antimicrobial properties along with cytocompatibility, which may hold great

  6. Optical and Physicochemical Properties of Brown Carbon Aerosol: Light Scattering, FTIR Extinction Spectroscopy, and Hygroscopic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingjin; Alexander, Jennifer M; Kwon, Deokhyeon; Estillore, Armando D; Laskina, Olga; Young, Mark A; Kleiber, Paul D; Grassian, Vicki H

    2016-06-23

    in the mid-IR range (800 to 7000 cm(-1)) also showed no significant changes in either the real or the imaginary parts of the refractive indices for brown carbon aerosol particles when compared to ammonium sulfate. Therefore, changes in the optical properties of ammonium sulfate in the mid-IR spectral range due to reaction with methylglyoxal appear to be insignificant. In addition to these measurements, we have characterized additional physicochemical properties of the brown carbon aerosol particles including hygroscopic growth using a tandem-differential mobility analyzer. Compared to ammonium sulfate, brown carbon aerosol particles are found to have lower deliquescence relative humidity (DRH), efflorescence relative humidity (ERH), and hygroscopic growth at the same relative humidities. Overall, our study provides new details of the optical and physicochemical properties of a class of secondary organic aerosol which may have important implications for atmospheric chemistry and climate. PMID:27253434

  7. Assessment of the physico-chemical properties of phases in the Na-U-Pu-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical review is given on the physico-chemical properties of phases in the Na-O, Na-U-O, Na-Pu-O and Na-U-Pu-O systems. This includes the phase diagrams as well as the crystallographic, mechanical, thermal, thermodynamic, transport, optical and chemical properties. This data is to be used for the modelling of the thermal, mechanical and chemical behaviour of defective LMFBR mixed oxide pins during and after reactor operation. (orig.)

  8. Influence of gum tragacanth on the physicochemical and rheological properties of kashk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroodi, Setareh Ghorban; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Gorji, Elham Ghorbani; Ezzatpanah, Hamid; Zohouri, Nilofar

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the physicochemical properties of a low-fat dried yogurt paste (kashk) were determined, and the effects of different concentrations (0, 0·1, 0·3 and 0·5% w/w) of gum tragacanth exudates from Astragalus gossypinus on the stability and texture of the samples were investigated by measuring amount of syneresis, turbidity, particle size distribution (PSD), flow behaviour and viscoelastic properties. The flow behaviour index was not very sensitive to the concentration of gum, while a remarkable concentration dependency of the power-law consistency coefficient and Herschel-Bulkley yield stress was observed. The initial increase in the gum concentration at 0·1 and 0·3% levels led to a higher degree of syneresis, which was related to the depletion flocculation mechanism. However, the reduced amount of syneresis in samples containing 0·5% gum tragacanth was attributed to the significant increase in viscosity of the continuous phase, which is also accompanied by trapping of the aggregated casein particles. The presence of 3% salt in the samples may have led to the neutralization of charges on the surface of gum tragacanth; consequently, the non-adsorbing behaviour of high-ionic-strength polysaccharides inhibited the formation of electrostatic protein-polysaccharide complexes. Furthermore, maximum values of polydispersity, syneresis and tan δ at high frequencies were found in samples containing 0·1% gum tragacanth.

  9. Insulin/poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-lysine) Complexes: Physicochemical Properties and Protein Encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippa, Natassa; Kalinova, Radostina; Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Pispas, Stergios; Demetzos, Costas

    2015-06-01

    Insulin (INS) was encapsulated into complexes with poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-lysine) (PEG-b-PLys), which is a polypeptide-based block copolymer (a neutral-cationic block polyelectrolyte). The particular cationic-neutral block copolymer can complex INS molecules in aqueous media via electrostatic interactions. Light-scattering techniques are used to study the complexation process and structure of the hybrid nanoparticles in a series of buffers, as a function of protein concentration. The physicochemical and structural characteristics of the complexes depend on the ionic strength of the aqueous medium, while the concentration of PEG-b-PLys was constant through the series of solutions. As INS concentration increased the size distribution of the complexes decreased, especially at the highest ionic strength. The size/structure of complexes diluted in biological medium indicated that the copolymer imparts stealth properties and colloidal and biological stability to the complexes, features that could in turn affect the clearance properties in vivo. Therefore, these studies could be a rational roadmap for designing the optimum complexes/effective nanocarriers for proteins and peptides. PMID:25974620

  10. Salt tolerant SUV3 overexpressing transgenic rice plants conserve physicochemical properties and microbial communities of rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Ranjan K; Ansari, Mohammad W; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Key concerns in the ecological evaluation of GM crops are undesirably spread, gene flow, other environmental impacts, and consequences on soil microorganism's biodiversity. Numerous reports have highlighted the effects of transgenic plants on the physiology of non-targeted rhizospheric microbes and the food chain via causing adverse effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop transgenics with insignificant toxic on environmental health. In the present study, SUV3 overexpressing salt tolerant transgenic rice evaluated in New Delhi and Cuttack soil conditions for their effects on physicochemical and biological properties of rhizosphere. Its cultivation does not affect soil properties viz., pH, Eh, organic C, P, K, N, Ca, Mg, S, Na and Fe(2+). Additionally, SUV3 rice plants do not cause any change in the phenotype, species characteristics and antibiotic sensitivity of rhizospheric bacteria. The population and/or number of soil organisms such as bacteria, fungi and nematodes were unchanged in the soil. Also, the activity of bacterial enzymes viz., dehydrogenase, invertase, phenol oxidases, acid phosphatases, ureases and proteases was not significantly affected. Further, plant growth promotion (PGP) functions of bacteria such as siderophore, HCN, salicylic acid, IAA, GA, zeatin, ABA, NH3, phosphorus metabolism, ACC deaminase and iron tolerance were, considerably, not influenced. The present findings suggest ecologically pertinent of salt tolerant SUV3 rice to sustain the health and usual functions of the rhizospheric organisms. PMID:25303666

  11. The contribution of physicochemical properties to multiple in vitro cytotoxicity endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuyan; Jessen, Bart; Strock, Christopher; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Attrition due to safety reasons remains a serious problem for the pharmaceutical industry. This has prompted efforts to develop early predictive in vitro screens that can assist in selecting compounds with a more desirable safety profile early on in the drug discovery process. Here we examined the relationship between physicochemical properties, such as partition coefficient (clogP), topological polar surface area (TPSA), acid dissociation constant (pK(a)), and in vitro mechanistic endpoints generated using a high content imaging approach. We demonstrate in our initial analysis that compounds with clogP>2 and pK(a)>5.5 flagged more endpoints than compounds with clogP ≤ 2 and pK(a) ≤ 5.5. In contrast, TPSA did not stand on its own in predicting cytotoxicity. When this knowledge was applied to eight different mechanistic cytotoxicity endpoints (cell loss, apoptosis, ER stress, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial potential, nuclear size, neutral lipids/steatosis and lysosomal mass), we found that compounds with such properties preferentially flagged in the lysosomal endpoint. We also saw a slight enrichment of such compounds in the endpoints cell loss, DNA fragmentation and nuclear size. We demonstrate that lysosomal compound accumulation is a potential contributor to cell death and possibly organ toxicity.

  12. Purification of cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum: Physicochemical characterization and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Ale, Marcel Tutor

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different purification methods (ethanol, isopropanol and ethanol-isopropanol) on the physicochemical and functional characteristics of cress seed gum. Sugar composition and molecular weight of the samples varied significantly. All the purification methods reduced ash and protein content and molecular weight of cress seed gum. The main decomposition of the purified samples started above 200°C and initial decomposition temperature of the crude gum was 190.21°C. DSC thermograms of the purified gums showed two exothermic events at 257.81-261.95°C and 302.46-311.57°C. Crude gum displayed an exothermic peak at 259.42°C. Sample I (purified using isopropanol) imparted the best surface activity among the purified samples as it had the highest protein and uronic acid contents and the lowest Mw. All the purification methods could improve emulsifying properties of cress seed gum and there was no significant difference among the purified samples. Crude gum showed the lowest foaming properties, while samples I and E (purified using ethanol) showed the highest foaming capacity and foam stability, respectively.

  13. Enhanced Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Ion-Implanted Titanium Using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Hegedűs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of metallic implants play an important role in their clinical success. Improving upon the inherent shortcomings of Ti implants, such as poor bioactivity, is imperative for achieving clinical use. In this study, we have developed a Ti implant modified with Ca or dual Ca + Si ions on the surface using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS. The physicochemical and biological properties of ion-implanted Ti surfaces were analyzed using various analytical techniques, such as surface analyses, potentiodynamic polarization and cell culture. Experimental results indicated that a rough morphology was observed on the Ti substrate surface modified by ECRIS plasma ions. The in vitro electrochemical measurement results also indicated that the Ca + Si ion-implanted surface had a more beneficial and desired behavior than the pristine Ti substrate. Compared to the pristine Ti substrate, all ion-implanted samples had a lower hemolysis ratio. MG63 cells cultured on the high Ca and dual Ca + Si ion-implanted surfaces revealed significantly greater cell viability in comparison to the pristine Ti substrate. In conclusion, surface modification by electron cyclotron resonance Ca and Si ion sources could be an effective method for Ti implants.

  14. Comparison of Morphology and Physicochemical Properties of Starch Among 3 Arrowhead Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aimin; Zhang, Yunhong; Zhang, Yongji; Yu, Xurun; Xiong, Fei; Zhou, Rumei; Zhang, Yongtai

    2016-05-01

    Arrowhead (Sagittaria trifolia var. sinensis) is a source of starch worldwide, but arrowhead starch has been rarely studied. In this work, starch was separated from arrowhead corm. The morphology and physicochemical properties of starch were then investigated and compared among 3 different arrowhead varieties (Purple-corm, Hongta, and Japanese). Results showed that starches from the 3 varieties similarly featured an oval shape containing a visible polarization cross, a CA -type crystalline structure, and an ordered structure in the external granule region. However, starch content, granule size, crystal characteristics, and pasting properties differed among the 3 varieties. Japanese arrowhead exhibited the highest starch content and degree of ordered structure in the external granule region, as well as onset, peak, and final gelatinization temperature. Purple-corm arrowhead starch demonstrated the highest amylose content and relative degree of crystallinity, smallest granule size, and lowest swelling power and solubility. Purple-corm arrowhead starch also showed the highest gelatinization enthalpy, as well as peak, trough, final, and setback viscosities. This starch further presented the lowest breakdown viscosity and degree of hydrolysis by HCl and porcine pancreatic α-amylase. These findings can provide useful references for arrowhead variety selection in food and nonfood industries. PMID:27082515

  15. Effect of parboiling on phytochemical content, antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of germinated red rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhanqiang; Tang, Xiaozhi; Liu, Junfei; Zhu, Zhiwei; Shao, Yafang

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve functional properties and palatability of germinated red rice, this study investigated differences in phytochemicals and physicochemical properties of germinated red rice at 2, 5, 10, 15min of parboiling. Total free phenolic content and antioxidant activity of germinated red rice parboiled for 5 and 15min was higher than that of germinated red rice. Free p-coumaric acid increased from 0.20 to 0.67mg/100g with parboiling time increasing from 5 to 15min. Bound vanillic (0.17-0.27mg/100g) and p-coumaric acid (6.56-8.59mg/100g) had higher levels at 0, 2, or 5min. During 15min of parboiling, color difference (ΔE) increased from 0.58 to 9.09, heat enthalpy (ΔH) decreased from 4.69 to 1.94J/g, and internal structure of rice was destroyed. Overall, parboiling time of less than 5min was suitable to improve the quality of germinated red rice. PMID:27507477

  16. Effect of silver nanoparticles on the physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of an orthodontic adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    DEGRAZIA, Felipe Weidenbach; LEITUNE, Vicente Castelo Branco; GARCIA, Isadora Martini; ARTHUR, Rodrigo Alex; SAMUEL, Susana Maria Werner; COLLARES, Fabrício Mezzomo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Orthodontic treatment with fixed brackets plays a major role on the formation of white spot lesions. Objective This study aimed to incorporate silver nanoparticle solutions (AgNP) in an orthodontic adhesive and evaluate its physicochemical and antimicrobial properties. Material and Methods Silver nanoparticle solutions were added to a commercial adhesive in different concentrations (w/w): 0%, 0.11%, 0.18%, and 0.33%. Shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed after bonding metal brackets to enamel. Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze in situ the degree of conversion (DC) of the adhesive layer. The surface free energy (SFE) was evaluated after the measurement of contact angles. Growth inhibition of Streptococcus mutans in liquid and solid media was determined by colony-forming unit count and inhibition halo, respectively. One-way ANOVA was performed for SBS, DC, SFE, and growth inhibition. Results The incorporation of AgNP solution decreased the SBS (p<0.001) and DC in situ (p<0.001) values. SFE decreased after addition of 0.18% and 0.33% AgNP. Growth inhibition of S. mutans in liquid media was obtained after silver addition (p<0.05). Conclusions The addition of AgNP solutions to Transbond™ XT adhesive primer inhibited S. mutans growth. SBS, DC, and SFE values decreased after incorporation up to 0.33% AgNP solution without compromising the chemical and physical properties of the adhesive. PMID:27556213

  17. Physico-chemical properties and amino acid profiles of sap from Tunisian date palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Makhlouf-Gafsi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Date palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L., also known as “legmi”, is a fresh juice extracted from date palm trees. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of collection time (at the beginning of the tapping period and after seven days of collection on the amino acid profile and physico-chemical properties of date palm sap from both male and female trees. Dry matter, protein, amino acid, and sugar profiles were determined using the Kjeldahl method, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, and High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC-PAD, respectively. Date palm sap from both male and female trees contained high levels of carbohydrates. HPLC analysis showed that this fraction was dominated by sucrose in the sap sample from female trees compared to that from male trees. Male date palm sap was noted to exhibit lower dry matter content than female date palm sap but higher protein, total polyphenol, ash, and amino acid contents. While the major essential amino acids in the sap from male trees consisted of valine and threonine, they were represented by lysine and phenylalanine in sap samples from female trees. Further, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis showed the presence of a proteinic band of 30 kDa only for the sap from male trees. Taken together, the sap from both male and female date palm trees had a number of properties that are highly valued by the functional food industry.

  18. Physicochemical Properties of Edible Chitosan/Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose/Lysozyme Films Incorporated with Acidic Electrolyzed Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Brychcy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment with acidic electrolyzed water (AEW is a promising disinfection method due to its effectiveness in reducing microbial population. The aim of the study was to evaluate physicochemical properties of chitosan/HPMC films incorporated with lysozyme and acidic electrolyzed water. In the composite films, decreasing film solubility and increasing concentration of sodium chloride solution and prolongation of electrolysis time were observed. Electrolysis process with sodium chloride induces spongy network of film structure. The use of AEW has not changed chemical composition of films which was proved by 1H NMR, MALDI-TOF, and FT-IR spectroscopy. The research confirmed that electrolysis significantly improved thermomechanical properties of the examined films. The contact angle values of the films were quite similar and ranged between 56° and 73°. The increase of salt concentration used in the electrolysis process had an impact on increasing flexibility of samples. Application of electrolyzed water in commonly used food processing systems is possible. Fusion of AEW and biopolymers may provide better integration with coated food product and multidirectional protecting effect.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Selected Physicochemical Properties of Pozzolan Portland and MTA-Based Cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorileo, Maura Cristiane Gonçales Orçati; Villa, Ricardo Dalla; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fábio; Semenoff-Segundo, Alex; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of pozzolan Portland cement were compared to ProRoot MTA and MTA BIO. To test the pH, the samples were immersed in distilled water for different periods of time. After the pH analysis, the sample was retained in the plastic recipient, and the electrical conductivity of the solution was measured. The solubility and radiopacity properties were evaluated according to specification 57 of the American National Standard Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA). The statistical analyses were performed using ANOVA and Tukey's test at a 5% level of significance. Pozzolan Portland cement exhibited pH and electrical conductivity mean values similar to those of the MTA-based cements. The solubilities of all tested materials were in accordance with the ANSI/ADA standards. Only the MTA-based cements met the ANSI/ADA recommendations for radiopacity. It might be concluded that the pH and electrical conductivity of pozzolan Portland cement are similar to and comparable to those of MTA-based cements.

  20. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of epoxidized Tmp trioleate by in situ method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samidin, Salma; Salimon, Jumat [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Tmp trioleate was initially synthesized via esterification of trimetilolprapane and oleic acid (90%) using 1.5% of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as a catalyst. The production of Tmp trioleate was observed at 98% (w/w). The iodine value of Tmp trioleate was analyzed for further reaction of epoxidation. Epoxide was important reaction as an intermediate for preparation of chemical modified lubricants from vegetable oils. Finding the best way of epoxidation process will give high quality for further modification of oil instead of reduce the cost and time for the preparation process during reaction of epoxidation. In this study, the epoxidation of unsaturation Tmp trioleate with peroxyformic acid generated in-situ from hydrogen peroxide 30% in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with formic acid was studied. 95% conversion to oxygen oxirane content (OOC) ring was obtained. The derivatization showed an improvement of the compound's oxidative stability evidenced from pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) data which are 177°C to 200°C. Physicochemical properties showed increasing of temperature of flash point from 280°C to 300°C and viscosity index (VI) from 146 to 154. However, the pour point showed increasing temperature which was −58.81°C to −17.32°C. From the data obtained, these derivatives have shown better performance of lubricity properties. Overall, the data indicates that these performances are compatible to the commercial lubricants.

  1. Influence of Epicuticular Physicochemical Properties on Porcine Rotavirus Adsorption to 24 Leafy Green Vegetables and Tomatoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lu

    Full Text Available Foodborne diseases are a persistent problem in the United States and worldwide. Fresh produce, especially those used as raw foods like salad vegetables, can be contaminated, causing illness. In this study, we determined the number of rotaviruses adsorbed on produce surfaces using group A porcine rotaviruses and 24 cultivars of leafy vegetables and tomato fruits. We also characterized the physicochemical properties of each produce's outermost surface layer, known as the epicuticle. The number of rotaviruses found on produce surfaces varied among cultivars. Three-dimensional crystalline wax structures on the epicuticular surfaces were found to significantly contribute to the inhibition of viral adsorption to the produce surfaces (p = 0.01. We found significant negative correlations between the number of rotaviruses adsorbed on the epicuticular surfaces and the concentrations of alkanes, fatty acids, and total waxes on the epicuticular surfaces. Partial least square model fitting results suggest that alkanes, ketones, fatty acids, alcohols, contact angle and surface roughness together can explain 60% of the variation in viral adsorption. The results suggest that various fresh produce surface properties need to be collectively considered for efficient sanitation treatments. Up to 10.8% of the originally applied rotaviruses were found on the produce surfaces after three washing treatments, suggesting a potential public health concern regarding rotavirus contamination.

  2. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of epoxidized Tmp trioleate by in situ method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tmp trioleate was initially synthesized via esterification of trimetilolprapane and oleic acid (90%) using 1.5% of H2SO4 as a catalyst. The production of Tmp trioleate was observed at 98% (w/w). The iodine value of Tmp trioleate was analyzed for further reaction of epoxidation. Epoxide was important reaction as an intermediate for preparation of chemical modified lubricants from vegetable oils. Finding the best way of epoxidation process will give high quality for further modification of oil instead of reduce the cost and time for the preparation process during reaction of epoxidation. In this study, the epoxidation of unsaturation Tmp trioleate with peroxyformic acid generated in-situ from hydrogen peroxide 30% in H2O2 with formic acid was studied. 95% conversion to oxygen oxirane content (OOC) ring was obtained. The derivatization showed an improvement of the compound's oxidative stability evidenced from pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) data which are 177°C to 200°C. Physicochemical properties showed increasing of temperature of flash point from 280°C to 300°C and viscosity index (VI) from 146 to 154. However, the pour point showed increasing temperature which was −58.81°C to −17.32°C. From the data obtained, these derivatives have shown better performance of lubricity properties. Overall, the data indicates that these performances are compatible to the commercial lubricants

  3. Physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of sausage formulated with surimi powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Palestina; Huda, Nurul; Yang, Tajul Aris

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of fish sausage made with 100 % threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicus) surimi powder (SP100), a mix of 50 % surimi powder and 50 % frozen surimi (SP50), and a control (100 % frozen surimi). No significant differences in protein content and folding test results (P > 0.05) were detected among the SP100 and SP50 samples and the control. Gel strength of SP100 was lower (P > 0.05) than that of the control. The texture profile analysis (TPA) values (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) of SP100 were significantly lower (P sausages. The water holding capacity, and emulsion stability of SP100 were significantly lower (P sausage did not differ with that of control in the term of color, odor, or oiliness scored by panelists. The drying process impacted the texture properties of surimi when it was used in fish sausage. However, the use of surimi powder in fish sausage formulation is still accepted since the TPA values of SP100 and SP50 were still within the textural range of Malaysian commercial fish sausages.

  4. Enhanced physicochemical properties of collagen by using EDC/NHS-crosslinking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chunrong Yang

    2012-10-01

    Collagen-based scaffolds are appealing products for the repair of cartilage defects using tissue engineering strategies. The present study investigated the collagen scaffolds with and without 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)/-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-crosslinking. Crosslinking density, matrix morphology, swelling ratio shrinkage temperature and resistance against collagenase digestion were determined to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the collagen matrices with and without crosslinking. The results conformed that the porous structure of collagen was largely preserved and adjusted by crosslinking treatment. Furthermore, crosslinked collagen samples showed significantly reduced swelling ratio and increased resistance against thermal treatment and enzymatic degradation compared to non-crosslinked samples. An in vitro evaluation of MC3T3-E1 cells seeded onto the crosslinked and non-crosslinked collagen matrix indicated that crosslinked collagen was nontoxic and improved cell proliferation. Through this work, it was shown that an osteoconductive collagen matrix with optimized properties used as bioactive and bioresorbable scaffolds in bone tissue engineering could be fabricated through the EDC/NHS-crosslinking method.

  5. Effect of silver nanoparticles on the physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of an orthodontic adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    DEGRAZIA, Felipe Weidenbach; LEITUNE, Vicente Castelo Branco; GARCIA, Isadora Martini; ARTHUR, Rodrigo Alex; SAMUEL, Susana Maria Werner; COLLARES, Fabrício Mezzomo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Orthodontic treatment with fixed brackets plays a major role on the formation of white spot lesions. Objective This study aimed to incorporate silver nanoparticle solutions (AgNP) in an orthodontic adhesive and evaluate its physicochemical and antimicrobial properties. Material and Methods Silver nanoparticle solutions were added to a commercial adhesive in different concentrations (w/w): 0%, 0.11%, 0.18%, and 0.33%. Shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed after bonding metal brackets to enamel. Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze in situ the degree of conversion (DC) of the adhesive layer. The surface free energy (SFE) was evaluated after the measurement of contact angles. Growth inhibition of Streptococcus mutans in liquid and solid media was determined by colony-forming unit count and inhibition halo, respectively. One-way ANOVA was performed for SBS, DC, SFE, and growth inhibition. Results The incorporation of AgNP solution decreased the SBS (padhesive primer inhibited S. mutans growth. SBS, DC, and SFE values decreased after incorporation up to 0.33% AgNP solution without compromising the chemical and physical properties of the adhesive. PMID:27556213

  6. Physico-chemical properties of blends of palm olein with other vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobin Siddique, Bazlul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil (olein was blended with other edible oils for the enhancement of its market acceptability in terms of melting point depression and shelf life. The physico-chemical properties like viscosity, density, melting behavior, peroxide value (PV, saponification value (SV and iodine value (IV of four different binary blends with four vegetable oils were evaluated. Palm olein was found to be more stable against rancidity than the other oils. For the stability against oxidation and melting point depression the palm olein-canola (PO/CO blend was found to be better than the others. The Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC thermogram of the melting behavior of the blends traces some new polymorphs of the triglyceride. This study will help the oil producing industry to find out the most economically viable oil blends for cooking purposes, with maximum nutrition as well as desirable physico-chemical properties.

    Aceite de palma (oleína fue mezclada con otros aceites comestibles para aumentar su aceptabilidad en el mercado en términos de descenso del punto de fusión y mejora de su almacenamiento. Las propiedades físico-químicas tales como viscosidad, densidad, comportamiento en la fusión, valor de peróxidos (PV, valor de saponificación (SV e índice de yodo (IV de cuatro diferentes mezclas binarias con cuatro aceites vegetales fueron evaluadas. La oleína de palma fue más estable frente a la rancidez que otros aceites. En la estabilidad frente la oxidación y el descenso del punto de fusión, la mezcla de oleína de palma/canola (PO/CO fue mejor que las otras. Los termogramas del calorímetro diferencial de barrido (DSC referidos al comportamiento de fusión de las mezclas indican algunos nuevos polimorfismos de los triglicéridos. Este estudio podría ayudar a las empresas que elaboran aceites a encontrar los aceites económicamente más viables para cocinar, con buenas propiedades nutricionales, así como con unas propiedades f

  7. Physicochemical and sensory properties of Galician chorizo sausage preserved by refrigeration, freezing, oil-immersion, or vacuum-packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, E; Romero-Rodríguez, M A; Vázquez-Odériz, M L

    2001-05-01

    Galician chorizo sausage is a traditional cured meat product from northwest Spain. We monitored changes in the physicochemical and sensory properties of Galician chorizo sausage conserved by four different methods, namely refrigeration, freezing, immersion in sunflower oil, and vacuum-packing. Refrigeration was the least effective method tested, with rapid deterioration of sensory properties, and oxidative spoilage evident from week 4 onward. Oil immersion and vacuum-packing gave reasonable conservation of sensory properties (despite some masking of aromas by the oil). Freezing gave acceptable conservation of sensory properties, and by week 6 there was still no evidence of oxidative spoilage.

  8. Physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of copaiba oil: implications on product quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata G. Fonseca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The copaiba oil is a common natural product used in cosmetic industry and as a nutraceutical product. However, lack of quality control and scarce knowledge about its antimicrobial activity is a point of concern. The proposal of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties and the antimicrobial activity of five commercial brands of copaiba oil. Material and methods. Acidity and ester index, refractory index, solubility in alcohol, and thin layer chromatography were performed to verify the physicochemical properties of five commercial copaiba oils sold in local pharmacies. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD/ESI-Q-TOF-MS was used to investigate diterpene acids while the volatile compounds were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were also evaluated by agar diffusion technique; and minimal inhibitory concentration and maximal bactericidal concentration were defi ned for each sample and bacteria. Results. The physical-chemical analysis revealed heterogeneity between all samples analysed. The A1 sample showed characteristics of copaiba oil and was mainly composed by hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (29.95% β-bisabolene, 25.65% Z-α-bergamotene and 10.27% β-cariophyllene. Among diterpene acids, the UPLCDAD/ESI-Q-TOF-MS data are compatible with presence of copalic and/or kolavenic acid (m/z 305 [M + H]+. Candida albicans was sensitive to almost all samples at high concentration and Saccaromyces. Cerevisiae showed sensitivity to A1 sample at 100 mg/mL. Although variable, all samples showed antibacterial activity. Significant activity was seen for A3 (19.0 ±0 and 15.6 ±0.5 mm, A4 (16.6 ±0.5 and 15.6 ±0 mm, and A5 (17.1 ±0 and 17.1 ±0 mm on Staphylococcus saprophyticus and S. aureus, respectively. All samples were active against Klebsiella

  9. Physicochemical and functional properties of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chuan-He; Ten, Zi; Wang, Xian-Sheng; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2006-11-15

    The amino acid composition and physicochemical and functional properties of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein isolate (HPI) were evaluated and compared with those of soy protein isolate (SPI). Edestin, a kind of hexameric legumin, was the major protein component. HPI had similar or higher levels of essential amino acids (except lysine), in comparison to those amino acids of SPI. The essential amino acids in HPI (except lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids) are sufficient for the FAO/WHO suggested requirements for 2-5 year old children. The protein solubility (PS) of HPI was lower than that of SPI at pH less than 8.0 but similar at above pH 8.0. HPI contained much higher free sulfhydryl (SH) content than SPI. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that HPI had only one endothermic peak with denaturation temperature (T(d)) of about 95.0 degrees C, attributed to the edestin component. The T(d) of the endotherm was nearly unaffected by 20-40 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate but significantly decreased by 20 mM dithiothreitol (P < 0.05). The emulsifying activity index, emulsion stability index, and water-holding capacity of HPI were much lower than those of SPI, and the fat adsorption capacity was similar. The data suggest that HPI can be used as a valuable source of nutrition for infants and children but has poor functional properties when compared with SPI. The poor functional properties of HPI have been largely attributed to the formation of covalent disulfide bonds between individual proteins and subsequent aggregation at neutral or acidic pH, due to its high free sulfhydryl content from sulfur-containing amino acids.

  10. Effect of the improved fermentation on physicochemical properties and sensorial acceptability of sour cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Janete Angeloni Marcon

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of improved fermentation on sour cassava starch, aiming to reduce its fermentation time and to enhance its expansion capacity as well as its viscoamylographic properties and its sensorial acceptability. Results showed that the improved process of cassava starch production did not harm starch expansion, physicochemical properties or sensorial acceptability; it also produced starches with different viscoamylographic properties, which compared favourably to those of the sour cassava starch produced through current industrial methods.O Polvilho azedo é caracterizado pelas suas propriedades físicas, químicas e reológicas, as quais são diferentes do amido nativo do qual se originou. A propriedade de expansão é uma das mais importantes características do produto, sendo um parâmetro fundamental de avaliação do polvilho azedo. O resultado do perfil viscoamilográfico também é uma importante maneira de avaliação uma vez que cada amido tem um padrão viscoamilográfico definido de acordo com sua organização granular. Este trabalho determinou o efeito da fermentação melhorada pela adição de glicose, sobre o polvilho azedo, apontando para uma redução no tempo de fermentação e avaliando sua capacidade de expansão, suas propriedades viscoamilográficas e aceitabilidade sensorial. O processo de produção de polvilho azedo melhorado não prejudicou a expansão do amido, suas propriedades físico-químicas e sensoriais, mas sim resultou em amidos com diferentes propriedades viscoamilográficas melhores comparativamente ao polvilho azedo produzido pelo processo industrial atual.

  11. Physicochemical, pasting, rheological, thermal and morphological properties of horse chestnut starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Syed Insha; Jan, Kulsum; Singh, Sukhcharn; Saxena, D C

    2015-09-01

    Indian Horse chestnuts contain high content of starch which can be explored to be used in various applications in food industry as encapsulating agent, stabilizer, binder, thickener, gelling agents and many more. Horse chest nut is locally available and can be a boon for food industry if the inherent properties are explored. Hence, horse chest nut starch can be a better option for the replacement of conventional starches to meet the industrial demand of starch. Physicochemical, pasting, rheological, thermal and morphological properties of starch isolated from Indian Horse chestnut (HCN) were determined. Amylose content was found to be 26.10 %. Peak viscosity obtained from RVA profile was 4110 cP. Hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness and gumminess were determined by Texture Profile Analyser. Particle size analysis showed a typical Uni modal size distribution profile with particle distribution ranging from 7.52 to 27.44 μm. The shape of starch granules varied from round, irregular, oval, and elliptical with smooth surface. X- ray diffraction revealed that HCN starch showed a typical C-type pattern with characteristic peaks at 5.7, 15.0, 17.3 and 22.3°. The transition temperatures (To, Tp, and Tc) and enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) values were 53.35, 58.81, 63.57 °C and 8.76 J/g, respectively. The rheological properties were determined in terms of variation of storage modulus (G (/)), loss modulus (G (//)) and loss factor (tan δ) at different temperatures. Peak G (/), peak G (//) and peak tan δ values were observed as 10,400 Pa, 1,710 Pa, and 0.164, respectively. PMID:26344978

  12. Effect of electromagnetic radiation on the physico-chemical properties of minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electromagnetic radiation effect represented by gamma rays was investigated through; chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (Sem) and magnetization when applied at a dose of 0.5704 Gy (0.5704 J/ kg) at a feed relation of 18.40 ± 1.13 mGy/ h., in different minerals; in order to characterize the impact of the same from 137Cs in the physicochemical properties of these minerals. All the irradiated samples showed chemical stability at this stage undetectable other both in the XRD study and in the images analysis obtained by Sem; and at present almost the same chemical composition as the non-irradiated samples. So the same patterns of X-ray diffraction thereof, show a tendency to slightly lower the intensity of the most representative peaks of each mineral phase, which may be due to a decrease in crystallinity or preferential crystallographic orientation in crystals. In the micrographs analysis obtained by Sem on the irradiated samples, some holes (open pores) present in the particles were observed, mainly chalcopyrite and sphalerite lesser extent, seen this fact may be due to Compton Effect, in the radiation process. In relation to the magnetization property, a variation is obtained in the saturation magnetization (Ms) for the irradiated samples containing iron and more significantly in the chalcopyrite case. Therefore, with the radiation level used; slight changes occurring in the physical properties of minerals, whereas they remained stable chemically. These small changes may represent a signal that electromagnetic radiation applied at higher doses, is a viable option for improving the mineral processing. (author)

  13. A comparison of the physicochemical properties and a sensory test of Acyclovir creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yutaka; Furuya, Kayoko; Matumoto, Miruto; Murata, Isamu; Kimura, Masayuki; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2012-10-15

    In external medicine, types and ratios of additives are not necessarily the same for well-known brand-name drugs and generic drugs. This study sought to compare the physicochemical properties and sensory test results of a brand-name Acyclovir (ACV) cream and two generic ACV creams. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy revealed changes in absorption spectra attributed to differences in the oil and water content of the 3 creams. In addition, ACV-B and ACV-C had similar NIR absorption spectra. Microscopic examination revealed crystallization in each of the creams and droplets in ACV-C. Powder X-ray diffraction measurement revealed diffraction peaks due to ACV for ACV-A and ACV-B. Assessment of viscoelasticity indicated that stress of subjection to 35 °C caused no changes in the viscoelasticity of ACV-B and ACV-C in comparison to stress of subjection to 25 °C but it did cause the viscoelasticity of ACV-A to decrease. ACV-A had a greater tolerance to stress and a higher viscosity, tan δ, and yield value than the other 2 creams. Results of a sensory test revealed significant differences in adhesiveness, spreadability, and feel for ACV-A in comparison to ACV-B and ACV-C. Thus, differences in the viscosity and elasticity of the creams due to differences in types and ratios of additives were noted. These differences are surmised to be differences in physical properties. In addition, results suggested that viscoelasticity and spreadability in the sensory test reflected differences in physical properties.

  14. Physicochemical properties of whole fruit plum powders obtained using different drying technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Lech, Krzysztof; Łysiak, Grzegorz P; Figiel, Adam

    2016-09-15

    Physicochemical quality parameters of plum powders obtained by applying conventional drying methods and their combination devised to process plums were evaluated. The effect of freeze-drying (FD), vacuum drying (VD), convective drying (CD), microwave-vacuum drying (MVD) and combination of convective pre-drying and microwave finish-drying (CPD-MVFD) affected physical (bulk density, porosity, colour, solubility) and chemical (polyphenolic compounds determined by UPLC and antioxidant capacity by TEAC ABTS and FRAP methods) properties of plum powders. The MVD at 1.2 W g(-1) and a novel combination for plum powders production - CPD-MVFD at 70 °C/1.2 W g(-1) allowed the best preservation of phenolic compounds and increased the efficiency of production. Results obtained support the use of MVD and its combination for better quality of dried plum products. The study proved that the determination of the browning index and HMF level (formed via Maillard reaction) might be good tool for monitoring the thermal processing of plum powders.

  15. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant potential of phosvitin-resveratrol complexes in emulsion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiang; Li, Mei; Ma, Huijie; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Liu, Xuebo

    2016-09-01

    Egg yolk phosvitin is the most highly phosphorylated protein found in the nature. The physicochemical properties of phosvitin-resveratrol complexes and their synergistic antioxidant activities in microemulsions were investigated. The particle diameters of microemulsions containing 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% phosvitin were 2.660, 0.501 and 0.414μm, respectively. The emulsifying activity index increased largely from 3.72 to 21.5m(2)/g with increasing phosvitin concentration from 0.5% to 2.0%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal analyses indicated that the microemulsions underwent a conformational change during homogenization. Antioxidant assays showed that phosvitin-resveratrol microemulsions exhibited a higher antioxidant activity than that of phosvitin-resveratrol primary emulsions. The MTT assay indicated that HepG2 cell viability remained higher than 80% at phosvitin concentration below 1.0mg/ml. This suggested that phosvitin, when coupled with polyphenol, can effectively inhibit lipid oxidation in food emulsions, which provided valuable insights into deep processing and application of egg proteins in food industry. PMID:27041304

  16. Effect of citric acid concentration and hydrolysis time on physicochemical properties of sweet potato starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra Babu, Ayenampudi; Parimalavalli, Ramanathan; Rudra, Shalini Gaur

    2015-09-01

    Physicochemical properties of citric acid treated sweet potato starches were investigated in the present study. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed using citric acid with different concentrations (1 and 5%) and time periods (1 and 11 h) at 45 °C and was denoted as citric acid treated starch (CTS1 to CTS4) based on their experimental conditions. The recovery yield of acid treated starches was above 85%. The CTS4 sample displayed the highest amylose (around 31%) and water holding capacity its melting temperature was 47.66 °C. The digestibility rate was slightly increased for 78.58% for the CTS3 and CTS4. The gel strength of acid modified starches ranged from 0.27 kg to 1.11 kg. RVA results of acid thinned starches confirmed a low viscosity profile. CTS3 starch illustrated lower enthalpy compared to all other modified starches. All starch samples exhibited a shear-thinning behavior. SEM analysis revealed that the extent of visible degradation was increased at higher hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The CTS3 satisfied the criteria required for starch to act as a fat mimetic. Overall results conveyed that the citric acid treatment of sweet potato starch with 5% acid concentration and 11h period was an ideal condition for the preparation of a fat replacer.

  17. The critical role of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide on physico-chemical, technological and biological properties of NLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, C; Campisi, A; Manno, D; Serra, A; Spatuzza, M; Musumeci, T; Bonfanti, R; Puglisi, G

    2014-09-01

    Exploiting the experimental factorial design and the potentiality of Turbiscan AG Station, we developed and characterized unmodified and DDAB-coated NLC prepared by a low energy organic solvent free phase inversion temperature technique. A 22 full factorial experimental design was developed in order to study the effects of two independent variables (DDAB and ferulic acid) and their interaction on mean particle size and zeta potential values. The factorial planning was validated by ANOVA analysis; the correspondence between the predicted values of size and zeta and those measured experimentally confirmed the validity of the design and the equation applied for its resolution. The DDAB-coated NLC were significantly affected in their physico-chemical properties by the presence of DDAB, as showed by the results of the experimental design. The coated NLC showed higher physical stability with no particles aggregation compared to the unmodified NLC, as demonstrated by Turbiscan(®) AGS measurements. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and Cryo-TEM images allowed us to assert that DDAB plays a critical role in increasing the lipids structural order with a consequent enhancement of the NLC physical stability. Furthermore, the results of the in vitro biological studies allow the revisiting of the role of DDAB to the benefit of glioblastoma treatment, due to its efficacy in increasing the NLC uptake and reducing the viability of human glioblastoma cancer cells (U87MG). PMID:24929522

  18. Effect of ball-milling on the physicochemical properties of maize starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghua He

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ball-milling on physicochemical properties of maize starch was evaluated. Results found that the cold water solubility (CWS of maize starch was positively correlated with the time of milling up to 3 h. There was no significant influence of using a ceramic pot versus a stainless steel pot on CWS. However, following 5 h of ball-milling CWS increased quite dramatically in the ceramic pot (72.6% and in the stainless steel pot (70.7%, as compared to the untreated maize starches (2.9%. In addition, as CWS increased, the regions of amorphism enlarged at the expense of the crystalline regions, resulting in a change from the native starch state (oval with a smooth surface to having more of a rough, abrasive surface. Finally, the transparency of the starch increased as CWS increased and that the syneresis of freeze–thawed ball-milled maize starch also increased with an increase in the number of freeze–thaw cycles.

  19. Physicochemical and thermal properties of gamma-irradiated sago (Metroxylon sagu) starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Zainon; Hassan, Osman; Hashim, Kamaruddin

    2015-04-01

    Sago (Metroxylon sagu) starch was exposed to gamma-irradiation in air at doses 6, 10 and 25 kGy. Subsequent changes in the physicochemical and thermal properties were measured. The apparent amylose content and swelling power of irradiated sago starch was significantly reduced while reducing sugars and starch solubility were significantly increased due to degradation. X-ray diffraction studies showed that radiation did not affect the crystalline type but induced a decrease in the degree of crystallinity, indicating the destruction of the ordered distribution of neighboring polysaccharide chains in the starch granules, in particular of the amylopectin component, which is responsible for starch crystallinity. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of irradiated sago starch showed a small but significant increase in the onset and peak transition temperatures at 10 and 25 kGy dose; the conclusion temperature and gelatinization enthalpy was not affected. SEM and particle size analysis produced no evidence of physical damage to sago starch up to 25 kGy dose radiation treatment since the granular appearance and size distribution was retained.

  20. Physicochemical Properties Influencing Presence of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Soil from Small Ruminant Farms in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani; Zakaria, Zunita; Abdul Aziz, Saleha

    2016-01-01

    Soil is considered to be a major reservoir of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the environment. This paper investigates soil physicochemical properties that may influence presence of B. pseudomallei in soil samples from small ruminant farms in Peninsular Malaysia. Soil samples were collected from the farms and cultured for B. pseudomallei. The texture, organic matter and water contents, pH, elemental contents, cation exchange capacities, carbon, sulfur and nitrogen contents were determined. Analysis of soil samples that were positive and negative for B. pseudomallei using multivariable logistic regression found that the odds of bacterial isolation from soil was significantly higher for samples with higher contents of iron (OR = 1.01, 95%CI = 1.00–1.02, p = 0.03), water (OR = 1.28, 95%CI = 1.05–1.55, p = 0.01) and clay (OR = 1.54, 95%CI = 1.15–2.06, p = 0.004) compared to the odds of isolation in samples with lower contents of the above variables. These three factors may have favored the survival of B. pseudomallei because iron regulates expression of respiratory enzymes, while water is essential for soil ecology and agent’s biological processes and clay retains water and nutrients. PMID:27635652

  1. Molecular structure and physicochemical properties of potato and bean starches as affected by gamma-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun-Jung; Liu, Qiang

    2010-08-01

    In this study, potato and bean starches were treated by gamma-irradiation up to 50kGy. Molecular structure and physicochemical properties of irradiated potato and bean starches were investigated. Microscopic observation under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and polarized microscope showed that some of potato and bean starch granules were destroyed by gamma-irradiation and the breakage was much greater at a higher dose (50 kGy). Carboxyl content and amylose leaching increased, whereas the swelling factor and apparent amylose content decreased after irradiation in both potato and bean starches. The proportions of short (DP 6-12) and long (DP > or = 37) amylopectin chains as well as average chain length increased with increasing irradiation dose. However, the proportion of DP 13-24 decreased by irradiation. The relative crystallinity, the degree of granule surface order, and gelatinization enthalpy decreased with an increase in irradiation dose. The extent of decrease in potato starch was greater than that in bean starch. The exothermic peak around 90-110 degrees C was observed in DSC thermogram when the potato starch was irradiated at 50 kGy. The pasting viscosity significantly decreased with an increase in irradiation dose. The proportion of slowly digestible starch (SDS) decreased and resistant starch (RS) content increased by irradiation in both potato and bean starches. However, the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) of potato starch increased with increasing irradiation dose, whereas the bean starch showed the opposite trend to potato starch in RDS content.

  2. Purification, optimization and physicochemical properties of collagen from soft-shelled turtle calipash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya'nan; Li, Caiyan; Song, Wei; Wang, Wei; Qian, Guoying

    2016-08-01

    The present work was to optimize the purification conditions for soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) calipash collagen (STCC) isolated by pepsin and to explore collagen physicochemical properties for potential biomaterial applications. Single-factor test and orthogonal method L9 (3(4)) were employed with the STCC recovery yield as indicator. The optimum purification conditions were obtained when NaCl concentration, collagen concentration and purification time were 2M, 8g/L, and 24h, respectively. Purified STCC were characterized by SDS-PAGE, UV scanning, FTIR, solubility, thermal behavior and amino acid analysis. The results showed that STCC contained high hydroxyproline content than that of other fishery skins, belonging to typical type I collagen in form of [α1(I)] 2α2(I). FTIR spectra of STCC were quite similar to other aquatic animals' collagens. It has the lowest solubility at pH 6, and when NaCl concentration decreased from 2% to 6% (w/v), solubility dropped. The denaturation temperature (Td) and melting temperature (Tm) were 35.1°C and 105.14°C, respectively. Morphology of STCC depicted as regular and porous network structure by SEM. In general, the results suggested that turtle calipash can be exploited as alternatives to mammalian collagen and could also be used for biomedical applications as a potential new material. PMID:27106588

  3. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of margarine containing Opuntia ficus-indica peel extract as antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougui, Nadia; Djerroud, Naima; Naraoui, Fatima; Hadjal, Samir; Aliane, Khellaf; Zeroual, Brahim; Larbat, Romain

    2015-04-15

    This study falls within the framework of the industrial exploitation of by-products of the prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). The study aims to evaluate the use of hydro-ethanolic extract of prickly pear peels as a substitute of vitamin E used as antioxidant in margarine preservation. The extract was rich in total phenolics (1512.58 mg GAE/100 g DM). HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analyses allowed the identification of sixteen compounds belonging to hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The extract displayed a reducing power and an antiradical activity that were respectively similar to and lower than the two antioxidant standards quercetin and butylated hydroxyanisole. Tests conducted at laboratory and pilot scales showed that the margarines elaborated with peel extract were more resistant to oxidation than the margarine reference with vitamin E. In addition, neither the physicochemical nor the microbiological properties were modified. Prickly pear peels contain bioactive substances that could be used in different food sectors. PMID:25466036

  4. Evaluation of physicochemical properties, proximate and nutritional composition of Gracilaria edulis collected from Palk Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, Ravi; Pandima Devi, Kasi

    2015-05-01

    Gracilaria edulis, a red alga present in southeast coast of India was evaluated for its nutritional composition. FT-IR analysis of soluble polysaccharides revealed the presence of galactans, 3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactopyranose, sulphated galactose and the gelling agent agar, with the sulphate content estimated as 51.01 μg/mg of polysaccharide. Results of physicochemical properties and nutritional profile reveal the presence of dietary fibre (8.9 ± 0.62% DW), carbohydrate (101.61 ± 1.8 mg/g DW), crude protein (6.68 ± 0.94 mg/g DW) and lipid content (8.3 ± 1.03 mg/g DW). G. edulis contains biologically important fatty acids like palmitic acid (2.06%), linolenic acid (2.56%), and oleic acid (1.98%). The other nutritional components present in high amounts are proline, chlorophyll A and B, all the essential amino acids and vitamin A, E and C. These findings suggest that G. edulis has potent nutritional value which might be used as a source of nutrients for human and animals.

  5. Physicochemical properties of Malaysian-grown tropical almond nuts (Terminalia catappa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Siew; Lasekan, Ola; Muhammad, Kharidah Syed; Hussain, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Rabiha

    2015-10-01

    The seeds of Terminalia catappa from Malaysia were analyzed for their physicochemical properties. The following values were obtained: moisture 6.23 ± 0.09 %, ash 3.78 ± 0.04 %, lipid 54.68 ± 0.14 %, protein 17.66 ± 0.13 %, total dietary fibre 9.97 ± 0.08 %, carbohydrate 7.68 ± 0.06 %, reducing sugar 1.36 ± 0.16 %, starch 1.22 ± 0.15 %, caloric value 593.48 ± 0.24 %. Studies were also conducted on amino acid profile and free fatty acid composition of the seed oil. Results revealed that glutamic acid was the major essential amino acid while methionine and lysine were the limiting amino acids. The major saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid, while the main unsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid followed by linoleic acid. In addition, the seed was rich in sucrose and had trace amount of glucose and fructose. Briefly, the seed was high in proteins and lipids which are beneficial to human. PMID:26396409

  6. Discrimination of Chinese traditional soy sauces based on their physico-chemical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOKOT; Serge

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed to classify the categories (produced by different processes) and brands (obtained from different geographical origins) of Chinese soy sauces.Nine variables of physico-chemical properties (density,pH,dry matter,ashes,electric conductivity,amino nitrogen,salt,viscosity and total acidity) of 53 soy sauce samples were measured.The measured data was submitted to such pattern recognition as cluster analysis (CA),principal component analysis (PCA),discrimination partial least squares (DPLS),linear discrimination analysis (LDA) and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) to evaluate the data patterns and the possibility of differentiating Chinese soy sauces between different categories and brands.Two clusters corresponding to the two categories were obtained,and each cluster was divided into three subsets corresponding to three brands by the CA method.The variables for LDA and KNN were selected by the Fisher F-ratio approach.The prediction ability of all classifiers was evaluated by cross-validation.For the three supervised discrimination analyses,LDA and KNN gave 100% predications according to the sample category and brand.

  7. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of kiwifruit as a function of cultivar and fruit harvested month

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Singh Pal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to find the effect of fruit harvesting stage (October, November and December on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties in five kiwi cultivars (Abbot, Bruno, Allison, Hayward, Monty. Results showed that soluble solid content (SSC and pH increased while ascorbic acid (Vit C, titrated acidity (TAD and SSC/TAD decreased in all the cultivars with delay in harvesting. Total polyphenols (TP were decreased while total flavonoids (TF increased in all tested cultivars with delay in harvesting. The highest concentration of TP (2.02 mg gallic acid equivalent/g fresh weight and TF (51.12 mg catechin equivalent/100g FW were found in cultivar 'Allison' in the month of October and December, respectively. Antioxidant activities (AA were genotype depended and no trend was observed with month of harvesting. Principal component analysis (PCA showed strong correlation between Vit C, TP and antioxidant activities. Two major clusters were computed using agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC. All the studied important traits may be used in the breeding programmes to increase the variability for different physiochemical and antioxidative characteristics and to make suitable selections that could be acceptable to consumers.

  8. Effect of Microwave Treatment on Microbial Contamination of Honeys and on Their Physicochemical and Thermal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Moliné María de la

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, microwave heating has become a common method for pasteurization and sterilization of food. Honey is a sweet substance produced by worker honeybees from nectar of flowers. The major microbial contaminants include moulds and yeasts, as well as the spore-forming bacteria, being their counts indicative of honeys’ commercial quality and safety. Paenibacillus larvae is also of interest since it causes American foulbrood (AFB in honeybee larvae. The main quality factors that are used in the honey international trade are moisture, hydroxymethylfurfural content (HMF, and enzymatic indices. Moreover, honey exhibits several thermal events, the most important being the glass transition temperature (Tg. The aim of this work was to evaluate microwave effect (800 watts during 45 and 90 seconds on microbial content in particular over P. larvae spores retained in honey, and on physicochemical and thermal properties. Microwave promoted a decrease of microbial count with time of exposure, including P. larvae. Moisture content diminished after treatment, while Tg increased linearly, and acidity decremented in the majority of cases. Honeys darkened and HMF exceeded the permissible value. Diastase and glucose-oxidase enzymes were totally inactivated by microwave treatment.

  9. The physico-chemical properties and biostimulative activities of humic substances regenerated from lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Jan; Smejkalová, Daniela; Hudecová, Sárka; Zmeškal, Oldřich; von Wandruszka, Ray; Gregor, Tomáš; Kučerík, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    The positive effect of humic acids on the growth of plant roots is well known, however, the mechanisms and role of their physical structure in these processes have not been fully explained yet. In this work, South-Moravian lignite was oxidized by means of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to produce a set of regenerated humic acids. The elemental composition, solid state stability and solution characteristics were determined and correlated in vitro with their biological activity. A modified hydroponic method was applied to determine the effects of their potassium salts on Zea mays seedlings roots with respect to the plant weight, root length, root division, and starch and protein content. The relations between the determined parameters were evaluated through Principal Component Analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results indicated that the most important factor determining the biological activity of South-Moravian lignite potassium humates is related to the nature of self-assemblies, while the chemical composition had no direct connection with the root growth of Zea mays seedlings. It was demonstrated a controlled processing that provided humic substances with different chemical and physicochemical properties and variable biological activity. PMID:24790812

  10. A functional natural deep eutectic solvent based on trehalose: Structural and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ruipu; Qi, Suijian; Zeng, Chaoxi; Khan, Faez Iqbal; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-02-15

    In this study, the natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) based on trehalose and choline chloride have been prepared to enhance the protein thermostability. The results of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy suggested that there were intensive hydrogen-bonding interactions between trehalose and choline chloride in TCCL3-DES and TCCL3-DES75. The physicochemical properties of TCCL3-DES and TCCL3-DES75 were investigated in the temperature range of 293.15-363.15K. Our results revealed that the thermostability of lysozyme, a model protein used in this study was dramatically increased in TCCL3-DES75, as evidenced by the disappearance of the denaturing peak from their Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) traces. The results of circular dichroism (CD) experiments further demonstrated that the lysozyme in TCCL3-DES75 unfolded partially at 90°C and recovered to the initial structure at 20°C. The study suggests that TCCL3-DES75 might be a potential solvent for stabilizing proteins. PMID:27664672

  11. Proposal for a risk banding framework for inhaled low aspect ratio nanoparticles based on physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwijk, Mattheus T T; Feber, Maaike Le; Burello, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    We present a conceptual framework that can be used to assign risk bands to inhaled low aspect ratio nanoparticles starting from exposure bands assigned to a specific exposure situation. The framework mimics a basic physiological scheme that captures the essential mechanisms of fate and toxicity of inhaled nanoparticles and is composed of several models and rules that estimate the result of the following processes: the deposition of particles in the respiratory tract, their (de-)agglomeration, lung burden and clearance, their diffusion through the lung mucus layer, translocation and cellular uptake and local and systemic toxicity. Each model is based on a set of particle's physicochemical properties, including the size and size distribution(s), the zeta potential (or net charge at a specific pH), the surface hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, the conduction band energy (for metals, metal oxides, quantum dots, etc.) and the solubility at a specific pH. The framework takes the exposure bands as input and predicts, using the above-mentioned models, an internal dose band (module 1). Module 2 assigns a relative hazard ranking depending on the region of particle deposition in the respiratory tract, the likelihood of uptake and whether the toxicological effects are assumed to be local and/or systemic. By combining the results of Module 1 and 2, the framework provides a relative risk ranking. PMID:26763369

  12. Physicochemical properties and heavy metals leachability of fly ash from coal-fired power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Wei; Han Baoping; Zhou Dong; Nzihou Ange

    2012-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of fly ash from two kinds of coal-fired power plants were studied.Three aspects were examined:the micro-morphology,the mineral composition and the content of heavy met als.The results show that the fly ash from plants using a circulating fluidized bed are more irregular particles,while the particles from the plants using a pulverized coal-fired boiler are mainly spherical in shape.Quartz and mullite are the main crystalline phases in the ash.Clearly,both the technology and the coal used by a power plant can influence the mineral composition of the ash.The mineral composition of fly ash from a circulating fluidized bed is more complex than that from a pulverized coal-fired boiler.The quantity of elements found in the fly ash is greater than that found in the bottom ash for the same plant.Heavy metals are likely to be enriched in the fly ash.Heavy metal leachability was studied using two leaching methods.The results indicate that most of the heavy metals that leached during either batch leaching or column leaching experiments did not exceed the related maximum concentration standards.But Ni concentrations in the leachates from both batch and column tests exceed the standard.The highest excess rates in both tests were 572% and 497%,which levels might threaten the environment.

  13. Impacts of intensive shrimp cultivation on bacteria in the nitrogen cycle and physicochemical properties of sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangporn Kantachote

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial numbers involved in the nitrogen cycle and some physicochemical properties in sediments of 4 intensive shrimp ponds, that had been cultivated continuously for 3 and 5 years, were studied between November 2004 to February 2005. The parameters were monitored as follows:, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, C/N ratio, ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate. The only significant differences (p 5-10 cm for both types of pond. Total numbers were in the order of heterotrophic plate count > azotobacteraceae > ammonifiers > denitrifiers > ammonium oxidizing bacteria > nitrite oxidizing bacteria.No significant difference was found between each bacterial group in the 2 levels of sediments from each sample set. In pond sediments from both sets of ponds organic matter was highly correlated with TKN (r = 0.783, p < 0.05,r = 0.883, p < 0.01 indicating that ammonia release and the increase pH in the sediments was to some extent determined by the deposit of organic matter.

  14. The effect of wash cleaning and demagnetization process on the fly ash physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baliński

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Problems related in this study concern the possibility of improving the physico-chemical properties of fly ash used as a base granular material in moulding mixtures. The investigations were carried out mainly to evaluate the process of the fly ash modification performed in order to stabilize its mineralogical and chemical composition. Changes in chemical composition, specific surface and helium density of fly ash after the process of its wash cleaning and demagnetization were examined. The analysis of the data has proved that the process of wash cleaning considerably reduces the content of sodium and potassium. Calcium and magnesium are washed out, too. The wash cleaning process of fly ash reduces also its true density. This fact can be due to the washing out of illite as well as some fractions of haematite (the grains weakly bonded to the glassy phase. The process of demagnetization allows removing about 25.7% of the magnetic phase calculated in terms of Fe2O3. The process of demagnetization is accompanied by a decrease in the content of aluminium, sodium, potassium and calcium, and a reduction in the size of the specific surface by over one half. The possible processes of transformation have also been discussed.

  15. Physico-chemical properties of biodiesel manufactured from waste frying oil using domestic adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Samir Abd-elmonem A.; Ali, Rehab Farouk M.

    2015-06-01

    We have evaluated the efficiency of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA), date palm seed carbon (DPSC), and rice husk ash (RHA) as natural adsorbents and compared them with the synthetic adsorbent Magnesol XL for improving the quality of waste frying oil (WFO) and for the impact on the physicochemical properties of the obtained biodiesel. We measured moisture content, refractive index (RI), density, acid value (AV), iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), and saponification value (SV), as well as fatty acid profile. Purification treatments with various levels of adsorbents caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) decreases in free fatty acids (FFAs), PVs, and IVs. The highest yields (86.45 and 87.80%) were observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO treated with 2% Magnesol and 3% of RHA, respectively, followed by samples treated with 2 and 3% of DPSC or RHA. Pre-treatments caused a significant decrease in the content of C 18:2 linoleic acids, consistent with a significant increase in the content of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the treated samples. The highest oxidation value (COX) (1.30) was observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO without purification treatments. However, the lowest values (0.44-0.73) were observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO treated with different levels of adsorbents. Our results indicate that pre-treatments with different levels of adsorbents regenerated the quality of WFO and improved the quality of the obtained biodiesel.

  16. Effects of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oenology has as its main purpose the continuous improvement of wine quality without jeopardizing its proprieties, and the intent is to make these improvements using innovative new technologies. The objective of the present work is to assess the effect of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of Cabernet Sauvignon that may lead to changes in wine quality, aging process and other related characteristics. The samples used for this process were irradiated using an Argonaut reactor powered at 340 Watts and with a thermal neutron fluency of 109 n.cm-2.s-1. For irradiation experiments, the samples were put into the reactor chamber until the reactor reached criticality and for an additional 30 minutes while receiving radiation. The analyzed data included density, alcoholic, ashes and spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance at wavelengths of 420, 520 and 620 nm. Increased absorbance values at 420 nm indicate an increase in tannin composition of the wine and therefore a higher level of oxidation. Intriguingly, a rise in absorbance was also observed at 520 nm for the same test samples; which is inconsistent with published data on irradiated cachaca that showed that anthocyanin levels dropped at 520 nm after irradiation. In summary, for measurements made at a fluency of 109 n/cm2.s for 30 min, the effects were minimal, which requires a higher dose to have better effects. Future studies should evaluating dosing effects of irradiation on improving the quality of the Cabernet Sauvignon. (author)

  17. The physicochemical properties of a spray dried glutinous rice starch biopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laovachirasuwan, Pornpun; Peerapattana, Jomjai; Srijesdaruk, Voranuch; Chitropas, Padungkwan; Otsuka, Makoto

    2010-06-15

    Glutinous rice starch (GRS) is a biopolymer used widely in the food industry but not at all in the pharmaceutical industry. There are several ways to modify this biopolymer. Physical modification is simple and cheap because it requires no chemicals or biological agents. The aim of this study was to characterize the physicochemical properties of a spray dried glutinous rice starch (SGRS) produced from pregelatinized GRS. The surface morphology changed from an irregular to concave spherical shape as revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). SGRS was almost amorphous as determined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The water molecules became linked through hydrogen bonds to the exposed hydroxyl group of amorphous SGRS as determined by Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Then, SGRS formed a colloid gel matrix with water and developed a highly viscous gelatinous form as determined using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and a stress control type rheometer. In addition, SGRS can swell and produce a gelatinous surface barrier like a hydrophilic matrix biopolymer which controls drug release. Therefore, a novel application of SGRS is as a sustained release modifier for direct compression tablets in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:20307959

  18. Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Rheolgical Properties of Different Wheat Varieties Grown in Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahvish Jabeen Channa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the physico-chemical and rheological properties of 17 wheat varieties (TJ-83, Jouhar, TD-1, Anmool, Mehran, Indus-66, Sindh B-1, Abadgar, Bhittai, Imdad, Mexi-Pak, Soughat, Blue Silver, Moomal, Marvi, Kiran, and Pak-70 commercially grown on experimental field of Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam. The results revealed that moisture % were in range of 11 to 12 among all varieties, high protein content of about 15.2% was found in Mehran and Blue silver varieties, starch was found high in Maxi-pak (70.6%, high hardness values in Imdad (70.1% and Jouhar (70.2%. However, zeleny content was found high in Marvi, Abadgaar and Mehran i.e. 71%. Amylographic results showed that among all varieties the Bhittai variety required maximum temperature up to 65.7 oC for the beginning of gelatinization as compared to other varieties. The highest gelatinization temperature was noted up to 96.7 oC in Moomal whereas others had temperature from 82.7 to 89.0 oC. Highest gelatinization maxima (1782AU acquired by T.J-83 variety. The results of Farinograph showed that highest water absorption was noted in Anmool variety. The highest dough development time and dough stability were found highest in Kiran and Indus-66, respectively. T.D-1 and Jouhar varieties had highest break down time as well as highest Farinograph quality.

  19. Mechanical and physicochemical properties of AlN thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibert, C.; Tétard, F.; Djemia, P.; Champeaux, C.; Catherinot, A.; Tétard, D.

    2004-10-01

    AlN thin films have been deposited on Si(100) substrates by a pulsed laser deposition method. The deposition parameters (pressure, temperature, purity of target) play an important role in the mechanical and physicochemical properties. The films have been characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Brillouin light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and wettability testing. With a high purity target of AlN and a temperature deposition of 750 ∘C, the measured Rayleigh wave velocity is close to the one previously determined for AlN films grown at high temperature by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. Growth of nanocrystalline AlN at low temperature and of AlN film with good crystallinity for samples deposited at higher temperature is confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, as it was by atomic force microscopy, in agreement with X-ray diffraction results. A high hydrophobicity has been measured with zero polar contribution for the surface energy. These results confirm that films made by pulsed laser deposition of pure AlN at relatively low temperature have good prospects for microelectromechanical systems applications.

  20. Physicochemical and sensory properties of ice-cream formulated with virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, S Y; Leong, S K; Henna Lu, F S

    2010-12-01

    The substitution of milk fat with virgin coconut oil (VCO) was used to produce nutritious ice cream with pleasant coconut flavor and aroma. Three formulations were developed whereby formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 was substituted with 4%, 8% and 12% of VCO, respectively. The physicochemical properties of ice creams analyzed include overrun, meltdown, pH, titratable acidity, total solid, protein and fat content. The fatty acids profile of VCO formulated ice creams and their stabilities over 3 and 6 weeks storage were studied respectively using gas chromatography (GC). Qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and consumer affective test were performed among the trained and untrained panelists. Significant differences (p < 0.05) of overrun, pH, total solid, protein and fat content between ice cream formulations were observed except titratable acidity. Increased VCO content in ice cream formulations lowered the melting resistance of ice cream. For GC analysis, the major fatty acid identified was lauric acid. Upon storage time, the concentration of unsaturated fatty acid decreased but the concentration of saturated fatty acid increased. The result of QDA showed that formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 were significantly (p < 0.05) different in attributes of color, firmness and smoothness as compared to the control ice cream. Formulation VCO12 was highly accepted by panelists in terms of the acceptance level of appearance, aroma, texture, flavor and overall acceptability. Hence, it has a potential marketable value.

  1. Optimization of a sponge cake formulation with inulin as fat replacer: structure, physicochemical, and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, Julia; Puig, Ana; Salvador, Ana; Hernando, Isabel

    2012-02-01

    The effects of several fat replacement levels (0%, 35%, 50%, 70%, and 100%) by inulin in sponge cake microstructure and physicochemical properties were studied. Oil substitution for inulin decreased significantly (P cake structure development during baking. Cryo-SEM micrographs of cake crumbs showed a continuous matrix with embedded starch granules and coated with oil; when fat replacement levels increased, starch granules appeared as detached structures. Cakes with fat replacement up to 70% had a high crumb air cell values; they were softer and rated as acceptable by an untrained sensory panel (n = 51). So, the reformulation of a standard sponge cake recipe to obtain a new product with additional health benefits and accepted by consumers is achieved. Practical Application:  In this study, fat is replaced by inulin in cakes, which is a fiber mainly obtained from chicory roots. Sponge cake formulations with reductions in fat content up to 70% are achieved. These high-quality products can be labeled as "reduced in fat" according to U.S. FDA (2009) and EU regulations (European-Union 2006). PMID:22250810

  2. Effect of modified yam (Dioscorea esculenta) flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, M. N.; Cakrawati, D.; Handayani, S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study were to know characteristics of yam modified flour; to know the effect of modified yam flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt and to determine the concentration level of modified yam flour to produce symbiotic yoghurt preferred by panelists. The reasearch was conducted using one factor complete randomized design. Modified yam flour was added to yoghurt at concentration of 2%, 4%, 6%. The effect of physical modification were investigated. Proximate analysis showed modified yam flour consist of 7.66% moisture content, 1.42% ash content, 10.16%, dietary fiber, 7.49% inulin, and 71.78% total starch content. Result obtained that modified yam flour has yield of 10.54%, the modified yam flour showed solubility and water absopsion of 77,63% and 136,65 respectively. The addition of modified yam flour on yoghurt resulted significantly difference effect on texture, but did not have significantly difference on colour, flavour and aroma. Modified yam flour added yoghurt thickness because it was gelatinized when added to yoghurt at 40°C. Sensory analysis conducted with hedonic test showed synbiotic yoghurt added with 2% of modified yam flour most preferred by panellists. Synbiotic yoghurt with 2% of modified yam flour has pH number of 4, 8 and total acid tirated of 1, 7%.

  3. Physicochemical properties and thermal stability of quercetin hydrates in the solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghetti, G.S., E-mail: greicefarm@yahoo.com.br [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga 2752, CEP 90.610-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Carini, J.P. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga 2752, CEP 90.610-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Honorato, S.B.; Ayala, A.P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Caixa Postal 6030, CEP 60.455-970, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Moreira, J.C.F. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2600, CEP 90035-003, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bassani, V.L. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga 2752, CEP 90.610-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin raw materials may present different degree of hydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal stability of quercetin in the solid state depends on its degree of hydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin dehydrate is thermodynamically more stable than the other crystal forms. - Abstract: In the present work three samples of quercetin raw materials (QCTa, QCTb and QCTc), purchased from different Brazilian suppliers, were characterized employing scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, simultaneous thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and variable temperature-powder X-ray diffraction, in order to know their physicochemical properties, specially the thermal stability in solid state. The results demonstrated that the raw materials of quercetin analyzed present distinct crystalline structures, ascribed to the different degree of hydration of their crystal lattice. The thermal stability of these quercetin raw materials in the solid state was highly dependent on their degree of hydration, where QCTa (quercetin dihydrate) was thermodynamically more stable than the other two samples.

  4. Effect of Packaging and Antioxidant Combinations on Physicochemical Properties of Irradiated Restructured Chicken Rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Ahn, Dong U; Nam, Ki-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Effects of double packaging (combinational use of aerobic and vacuum conditions) and antioxidants on physicochemical properties in irradiated restructured chicken rolls were determined. Chicken breast treated with antioxidants (none, sesamol+a-tocopherol) was used to process restructured chicken breast rolls. The sliced rolls were vacuum, aerobic, or double packaged (vacuum for 7 d then aerobic for 3 d) and electron beam irradiated at 2.5 kGy. Color, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidation reduction potentials (ORP), and volatile profiles of the samples were determined at 0 and 10 d. Irradiation made restructured chicken rolls redder (p<0.05), and the increased redness was more distinct in irradiated vacuum-packaged than irradiated aerobic or double packaged meats. TBARS values of antioxidant-treated double packaged rolls were lower than even nonirradiated vacuum-packaged meat, and those were distinct at 10 d (p<0.05). ORP and lipid oxidation values were lower in irradiated vacuum and double packaged samples than those in irradiated aerobic packaged ones at 0 d (p<0.05). Irradiation of restructured chicken rolls increased the amount of total volatiles. Considerable amounts of off-odor volatiles were reduced or not detected by double packaging and antioxidant treatment at 10 d. Therefore, the combined use of antioxidants and double packaging would be useful to reduce redness and control the oxidative quality changes of irradiated restructured chicken rolls. PMID:26761835

  5. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of α-tocopherol loaded nanoliposome's containing DHA and EPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahari, Mohammad Ali; Moghimi, Hamid Reza; Hadian, Zahra; Barzegar, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdorreza

    2017-01-15

    The aim of this study was to prepare α-tocopherol loaded nanoliposomes as carriers of DHA and EPA and to investigate their physicochemical properties, such as peroxide value (PV), volatile compounds (VOCs), particle size, size distribution, zeta potential and morphology of the liposomes. The particle size of liposomes was in the range of 82.4-107.2nm. The highest extent of lipid oxidation was observed at 40°C for 90days, with the lowest PV and propanal levels for a nanoliposome formulation in comparison with the control sample. The zeta potential of the nanoliposomes was decreased during storage. No significant change in the PV and zeta potential of the liposome formulations with α-tocopherol was observed at 4°C after 90days (0.14meq/kg and -43.5mV, respectively). This study demonstrated that incorporation of α-tocopherol into liposomes contributes a significant antioxidant effect on DHA and EPA. PMID:27542462

  6. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Appenzeller Cheese Supplemented with Powdered Microcapsule of Tomato Extract during Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hae-Soo; Chimed, Chogsom; Yoo, Sang-Hun; Chang, Yoon Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of Appenzeller cheese supplemented with different concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4%, w/w) of powdered microcapsules of tomato extracts (PMT) during ripening at 14℃ for 6 mon. The particle sizes of PMT ranged from 1 to 10 m diameter with an average particle size of approximately 2 m. Butyric acid (C4) concentrations of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were significantly higher than that of the control. Lactic acid bacteria counts in the cheese were not significantly influenced by ripening time from 0 to 6 mon or the concentrations (0-4%, w/w) of PMT. In terms of texture, the hardness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese was significantly increased compared to the control. The gumminess and chewiness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were similar to those of the control. However, both cohesiveness and springiness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were slightly decreased. In sensory analysis, bitterness and sourness of Appenzeller cheese were not significantly changed after supplementation of PMT, but sweetness of the cheese was significantly increased after increasing the ripening time from 0 to 6 mon and increasing the concentration from 1 to 4% (w/w). Based on these results, the addition of the concentrations (1-4%, w/w) of PMT to Appenzeller cheese can be used to develop functional Appenzeller cheese. PMID:27194934

  7. Physicochemical properties and potential health effects of nanoparticles from pulverized coal combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU DunXi; XU MingHou; YAO Hong; LIU XiaoWei; ZHOU Ke; WEN Chang; LI Lin

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles are thought to induce more severe health impacts than larger particles. The nanoparti-cles from coal-fired boilers are classified into three size fractions with a 13-stage low pressure impactor. Their physicochemical properties are characterized by the high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF). The results show that coal-derived nanoparticles mainly consist of individual primary particles of 20-150 nm and their aggregates. Inor-ganic nanoparticles primarily contain ash-forming elements and their aggregates have a dense struc-ture. Organic nanoparticles are dominated by the element carbon and their aggregates have a loose structure. Nanoparticles from the same boiler have a similar composition and are primarily composed of sulfur, refractory elements and alkali/alkaline elements. Some transition and heavy metals are also detected. For different boilers, greater differences are observed in the production of the nanoparticles and their composition, possibly due to the use of low-NOx burners. Coal-derived nanoparticles have a small size, large specific surface area and complicated chemical composition, and thus are potentially more harmful to human health.

  8. Composition and Physico-Chemical Properties of Meat from Capons Fed Cereals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olga Díaz; Luisana Rodríguez; Alexandr Torres; Ángel Cobos

    2013-01-01

    Chemical composition, physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of breast and drumstick meat from capons (castrated male cockerels) fed cereals were studied. Three groups of capons were reared. One group was fed ad libitum the same commercial diet until the 4th mon of life. The last month of its life, the capons of this group were fed corn. The second and third group of capons were fed the same diet from caponization. The second group was fed mixture of corn (50%) and wheat (50%). The third group of capons was fed 2/3 corn and 1/3 mixture of corn (50%) and barley (50%). Capons were reared under free-range conditions and slaughtered at 150 d of age. Caponization was performed at 48 d. No signiifcant effects of feeding in chemical composition, pH, water holding capacity, drip and cooking losses and texture of the meat were observed. The meat of the third group (capons fed 83%corn) was more yellow and showed higher content of C18:2 than that of the other capons.

  9. The fermentation kinetics and physicochemical properties of special beer with addition of Prokupac grape variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Mile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the market of special beers with improved healthy function and/or with new refreshing taste has significantly increased. One of the possible solutions enables grape and mixing beer with bioactive component responsible for well known health promoting action of red wine. The influence of the addition of Prokupac grape on the physicochemical properties and the fermentation kinetics of the grape beer were studied and results were compared with control lager beer. The effect of grape addition on the activity of yeast was also studied. Original extract, alcohol content, degree of fermentation, fermentation rate and yeast growth were significantly higher in beers with grapes as a consequence of higher concentration of simple sugars in grapes compared with pure wort. Based on the CIELab chromatic parameters the color of grape beer samples was yellow with certain proportion of redness, while the control beer was purely yellow. The increase in the concentration of grape mash affects the reduction of lightness and yellowness of beers, while the redness of samples was directly proportional with grape quantity. The phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grape beers was remarkably higher compared with control beer, which indicates that the grape beer is a better source of natural antioxidants than regular lager beer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46001

  10. Evaluation of physico-chemical properties of Portland cements and MTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Gonçalves

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydrogenionic potential and electrical conductivity of Portland cements and MTA, as well as the amount of arsenic and calcium released from these materials. In Teflon molds, samples of each material were agitated and added to plastic flasks containing distilled water for 3, 24, 72 and 168 h. The results were analyzed with a Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test for global comparisons and a Dunn-Tukey test for pairwise comparisons. The results revealed no significant differences in the pH of the materials (p > 0.05. The electrical conductivity of the cements were not statistically different (p > 0.05. White non-structural cement and MTA BIO released the largest amount of calcium ions into solution (p 0.05. The results indicated that the physico-chemical properties of Portland cements and MTA were similar. Furthermore, all materials produced an alkaline environment and can be considered safe for clinical use because arsenic was not released. The electrical conductivity and the amount of calcium ions released into solution increased over time.

  11. Physicochemical properties of whole fruit plum powders obtained using different drying technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Lech, Krzysztof; Łysiak, Grzegorz P; Figiel, Adam

    2016-09-15

    Physicochemical quality parameters of plum powders obtained by applying conventional drying methods and their combination devised to process plums were evaluated. The effect of freeze-drying (FD), vacuum drying (VD), convective drying (CD), microwave-vacuum drying (MVD) and combination of convective pre-drying and microwave finish-drying (CPD-MVFD) affected physical (bulk density, porosity, colour, solubility) and chemical (polyphenolic compounds determined by UPLC and antioxidant capacity by TEAC ABTS and FRAP methods) properties of plum powders. The MVD at 1.2 W g(-1) and a novel combination for plum powders production - CPD-MVFD at 70 °C/1.2 W g(-1) allowed the best preservation of phenolic compounds and increased the efficiency of production. Results obtained support the use of MVD and its combination for better quality of dried plum products. The study proved that the determination of the browning index and HMF level (formed via Maillard reaction) might be good tool for monitoring the thermal processing of plum powders. PMID:27080900

  12. Structural characteristics and physicochemical properties of lotus seed resistant starch prepared by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shaoxiao; Wu, Xiaoting; Lin, Shan; Zeng, Hongliang; Lu, Xu; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong

    2015-11-01

    Lotus seed resistant starch (LRS) is commonly known as resistant starch type 3 (LRS3). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different preparation methods on the structural characteristics and physicochemical properties of LRS3. The molar mass of LRS3 prepared by autoclaving method (GP-LRS3) and ultrasonic-autoclaving method (UP-LRS3) was mainly distributed in the range 1.0 × 10(4)-2 × 10(4) g/mol while a decrease of LRS3 prepared by microwave-moisture method (MP-LRS3) was observed. The particle of MP-LRS3 was smaller and relatively smoother while UP-LRS3 was bigger and rougher compared to GP-LRS3. Among these samples, GP-LRS3 exhibited the highest degree of ordered structure and crystallinity, the amorphous region of MP-LRS3 was the biggest and UP-LRS3 displayed the highest degree of double helical structure. Additionally, MP-LRS3 displayed the strongest solubility and swelling power while UP-LRS3 exhibited the strongest iodine absorption ability and thermostability, which were affected by their structural characteristics.

  13. Structural and physicochemical properties of lotus seed starch treated with ultra-high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zebin; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Lu, Xu; Zhou, Meiling; Zheng, Mingjing; Zheng, Baodong

    2015-11-01

    Aqueous lotus seed starch suspensions (15%, w/w) were subjected to ultra-high pressure treatment (UHP, 100-600 MPa) for 30 min. The effects of UHP treatment on the structural and physicochemical properties of starch were investigated. The SEM and laser diffraction particle size analysis revealed that UHP treatment affected the shape and size distribution of starch granules. The morphological structure of starch was completely destroyed at 600 MPa, indicating complete gelatinization. Analysis of HPSEC-MALLS-RI suggested that the dispersity index of UHP-treated starch were decreased from 1.28 to 1.11. According to XRD analyses, UHP treatment converted native starch (C-type) into a B-type pattern. The swelling power and solubility presented a significant decrease at 85 and 95 °C, but opposite trends were found at 55-75 °C. The DSC results indicated a reduction in gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy with increasing pressure treatment. The RVA viscograms revealed that UHP-treated starch showed a decreased breakdown and setback viscosity, reflecting lower retrogradation tendency compared to native starch.

  14. Physicochemical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of potato starch/protein blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhan-Hui; Donner, Elizabeth; Yada, Rickey Y; Liu, Qiang

    2016-12-10

    This study aimed to investigate effects of starch-protein interactions on physicochemical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of composite potato starch/protein blends (0, 5, 10, or 15% protein) during processing (cooking, cooling and reheating). The effect on recrystallization and short-range ordering in starch was studied by light microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that protein in the blend proportionally restricted starch granule swelling during cooking and facilitated amylopectin recrystallization during cold-storage. The facilitating effect of protein diminished with increasing blend ratio. Resistant starch content in the processed blends was positively correlated to intensity ratio of 1053/1035cm(-1) in FTIR spectra arising from slow retrogradation of amylopectin (r(2)>0.88, P≤0.05), whose formation was favored by the presence of protein in the blends and further enhanced by cooling of cooked blends. As a conclusion, starch-protein interaction reduced starch digestibility of the processed blends. PMID:27577912

  15. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hye-Ryun Kim; Il-Doo Kim; Sanjeev Kumar Dhungana; Mi-Ok Kim; Dong-Hyun Shin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample.Methods:The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid (˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities.Results:Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively.Conclusions:The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health.

  16. Activated carbon from biochar: influence of its physicochemical properties on the sorption characteristics of phenanthrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junyeong; Hung, Ivan; Gan, Zhehong; Rojas, Orlando J; Lim, Kwang Hun; Park, Sunkyu

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between physicochemical properties of biochar-based activated carbons and its adsorption was investigated using an aromatic model compound, phenanthrene. Solid-state (13)C NMR analysis indicated more condensed aromatic structures when pyrolysis temperature increased or after activation process induced. The increasing aromaticity and non-protonated carbon fraction of the activated biochar treated at 300°C amounted to 14.7% and 24.0%, respectively, compared to 7.4% and 4.4% for biochar treated at 700°C. The surface area and pore volume were reduced with the increase in pyrolysis temperature, but increased after activation. Surface characteristics correlated with the initial sorption rate and equilibrium concentration of phenanthrene, but not with the aromaticity. Solid-state (2)H NMR for phenanthrene-d10 saturated activated biochars, however, showed substantial difference in molecular mobility, which might be due to the high aromaticity of the activated biochars. Overall, these results provide an opportunity to manipulate the characteristics of biomass-based adsorbents based on the application needs. PMID:24128401

  17. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of margarine containing Opuntia ficus-indica peel extract as antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougui, Nadia; Djerroud, Naima; Naraoui, Fatima; Hadjal, Samir; Aliane, Khellaf; Zeroual, Brahim; Larbat, Romain

    2015-04-15

    This study falls within the framework of the industrial exploitation of by-products of the prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). The study aims to evaluate the use of hydro-ethanolic extract of prickly pear peels as a substitute of vitamin E used as antioxidant in margarine preservation. The extract was rich in total phenolics (1512.58 mg GAE/100 g DM). HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analyses allowed the identification of sixteen compounds belonging to hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The extract displayed a reducing power and an antiradical activity that were respectively similar to and lower than the two antioxidant standards quercetin and butylated hydroxyanisole. Tests conducted at laboratory and pilot scales showed that the margarines elaborated with peel extract were more resistant to oxidation than the margarine reference with vitamin E. In addition, neither the physicochemical nor the microbiological properties were modified. Prickly pear peels contain bioactive substances that could be used in different food sectors.

  18. Physicochemical and microbiological properties of selected rice flour-based batters for fried chicken drumsticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukprasirt, A; Herald, T J; Boyle, D L; Boyle, E A

    2001-07-01

    Rice flour-based batter (RFBB) formulations for chicken drumstick coating were developed as an alternative for traditional wheat flour-based batter (WFBB). Physicochemical properties and storage stability of selected RFBB were evaluated and compared to WFBB. Batter pickup of RFBB formulated in combination with oxidized corn starch and methylcellulose (MC) was not significantly different from that of WFBB. In contrast, batters with only rice and corn flour (60:40% flour weight) exhibited significantly higher pickup. Rice flour batter with 15% oxidized corn starch had the lowest batter pickup. All RFBB exhibited (P < 0.05) lower oil absorption than WFBB. The TBA values of RFBB and WFBB increased (P < 0.05) with increased frozen storage time at -40 C for 90 d. The RFBB with MC exhibited the lowest TBA values, whereas WFBB had the highest values. Microstructural analysis revealed that freezing caused structural deterioration of all batters, but the RFBB with MC exhibited less freezing tolerance than other samples. The total plate counts of immediately fried or frozen fried chicken stored for 90 d were less than 1 log cfu/g sample. The RFBB with 5% oxidized corn starch and MC can replace WFBB on fried drumsticks. Additionally, RFBB results in a healthier product due to lower fat absorption. PMID:11469667

  19. [Composition, physico-chemical properties and molecular superstructure of dietary fiber preparations of the cellan type].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongowski, G; Frigge, K; Zenke, I

    1995-07-01

    Dietary fiber preparations of "cellan" type were prepared from apples, white cabbage, sugar beet pulp, soy hulls and wheat bran by treatment with amylolytic and proteolytic enzymes as well as by chemical extractions. Scanning electron microscopic examinations show different morphological structures of the preparations and a high maintenance of native biomolecular superstructure. The content of pectin, protein, polysaccharide-hexoses and -pentoses and the composition of monosaccharides (also after their treatment with 4 or 8% sodium hydroxide) were determined. The cellans possess waterbinding capacities (WBC) between 25 g H2O/g and waterholding capacities between 50 g H2O/g. The WBC is related to the internal surface; it diminishes after treatment with NaOH. The interactions between the cellans and the adsorbed water were characterized by NMR-spin-lattice relaxation time T1. The molecular mobility increases as the water content grows. The T1-values of dried cellans decreased with increasing degree of moisture before drying. The supermolecular structure is comparatively disordered. Only in case of soy cellan a crystalline cellulose-I-modification could be identified by X-ray-diffraction pattern, esp. after NaOH treatment. The low degree of order of cellans was observed in the 13C-NMR spectra, too. Only the soy hull preparation resulted in a spectrum corresponding to well-ordered cellulose. The botanic source has an essential influence on the physico-chemical properties of dietary fiber preparations of cellan type.

  20. Characterization of starch morphology, composition, physicochemi-cal properties and gene expressions in oat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Ke; Zheng You-liang; Jiang Qian-tao; Wei Long; Zhang Xiao-wei; Ma Jian; Chen guo-yue; Wei Yu-ming; Mitchell Fetch Jennifer; Lu Zhen-xiang

    2015-01-01

    abstract Starch is the major carbohydrate in oat (Avena sativaL.) and starch formation requires the coordinated actions of several synthesis enzymes. In this study, the granule morphology, composition and physicochemical properties of oat starch, as wel as the expressions of starch synthesis genes were investigated during oat endosperm development. Under the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we observed that the unique compound granules were developed in oat endosperms at 10 days post anthesis (DPA) and then fragmented into irregular or polygonal simple granules from 12 DPA until seed maturity. The amylose content, branch chain length of degree of polymerization (DP=13–24), gelatinization temperature and percentage of retrogradation were gradualy increased during the endosperm development; whereas the distribution of short chains (DP=6–12) were gradualy decreased. The relative expressions of 4 classes of 13 starch synthesis genes characterized in this study indicated that three expression pattern groups were signiifcantly different among gene classes as wel as among varied isoforms, in which the ifrst group of starch synthesis genes may play a key role on the initiation of starch synthesis in oat endosperms.

  1. Interactions of skin thickness and physicochemical properties of test compounds in percutaneous penetration studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkinson, Simon C.; Maas, Wilfred J. M.; Nielsen, Jesper Bo;

    2006-01-01

    Abstract   Objectives: To determine the effect of skin thickness on the percutaneous penetration and distribution of test compounds with varying physicochemical properties using in vitro systems. Studies were carried out in accordance with OECD guidelines on skin absorption tests. Methods......: Percutaneous penetration of caffeine (log P -0.01), testosterone (log P 3.32), propoxur (log P 1.52) (finite dose in ethanol to water vehicle ratio) and butoxyethanol (log P 0.83) (undiluted finite dose or as an infinite dose 50% [v/v] aqueous solution) through skin of varying thicknesses under occluded...... conditions was measured using flow through cells for 8-24 h. Saline (adjusted to pH 7.4) was used as receptor fluid, with BSA added for studies with testosterone and propoxur. Following exposure, the remaining surface dose was removed by swabbing and the skin digested prior to scintillation counting. Results...

  2. Ultrasound treatment: effect on physicochemical, microbial and antioxidant properties of cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Sabeera; Ahmad, Mudasir; Wani, S M; Gani, Adil; Baba, Waqas N; Shah, Umar; Khan, Asma Ashraf; Masoodi, F A; Gani, Asir; Wani, Touseef Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    The cherry was treated with ultrasonic waves (33 kHz, 60 W) at different time intervals (10, 20, 30, 40, 60 min) and study was carried out to analyze the change in physico-chemical properties (TSS, pH, color, acidity and firmness), antioxidant potential and microbial load of the fruit during the storage period of 15 days at 4 °C. It was observed that ultrasound treatment (US) between 30 and 40 min showed better retention of color of the fruit during the storage period. The antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS and TPC) also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) up to 40 min, however the firmness of the fruit was affected and it showed a significant decrease beyond 20 min of US treatment. The sample with 40 min US treatment showed significantly less microbial load than other samples. The 20-40 min US treatment time (33 kHz, 60 W) was suggested for preservation of cherry during the storage at 4 °C. PMID:27478231

  3. Changes in physicochemical and transport properties of a reverse osmosis membrane exposed to chloraminated seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Lauren; Renkens, Tennie; Maugin, Thomas; Croué, Jean-Philippe; Mariñas, Benito J

    2015-02-17

    This study contributed to improving our understanding of how disinfectants, applied to control biofouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, result in membrane performance degradation. We investigated changes in physicochemical properties and permeation performance of a RO membrane with fully aromatic polyamide (PA) active layer. Membrane samples were exposed to varying concentrations of monochloramine, bromide, and iodide in both synthetic and natural seawater. Elemental analysis of the membrane active layer by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) revealed the incorporation of bromine and iodine into the polyamide. The kinetics of polyamide bromination were first order with respect to the concentration of the secondary oxidizing agent Br2 for the conditions investigated. Halogenated membranes were characterized after treatment with a reducing agent and heavy ion probes to reveal the occurrence of irreversible ring halogenation and an increase in carboxylic groups, the latter produced as a result of amide bond cleavage. Finally, permeation experiments revealed increases in both water permeability and salt passage as a result of oxidative damage.

  4. Conformational and physicochemical properties of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoqi; Xue, Changhu; Chang, Yaoguang; Chen, Feng; Wang, Jun

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed at investigating the chain conformation and physicochemical properties of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate extracted from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas (Aj-fCS). By using HPSEC-MALLS-Visc-RI, Mw, z(1/2), Rh and [η] for Aj-fCS were determined as 58.0±4.4kDa, 21.8±1.3nm, 12.5±1.3nm and 27.8±0.5mL/g respectively. Conformation parameter αs derived from the relationship of Mw-z(1/2) (0.39) and structure-sensitive parameter ρ (1.74) consistently indicated that Aj-fCS adopted a random coil conformation in solution, which was also supported by atomic force microscopy. Stiffness parameters of Aj-fCS chains including q (2.72nm), d (1.03nm) and C∞ (5.28) were furthermore deduced from the worm-like cylinder model. Aj-fCS demonstrated a shear-thinning rheological behavior, relatively low apparent viscosity, negative charge in wide pH and ionic strength ranges, and favorable thermostability. These results have important implications for designing and fabricating functional foods or drugs based on Aj-fCS. PMID:27516246

  5. Effects of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fellipe S.; Santos, Anderson R.L.; Pereira, Walsan W., E-mail: fellipess@ird.gov.br, E-mail: aleiras@ird.gov.br, E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Oenology has as its main purpose the continuous improvement of wine quality without jeopardizing its proprieties, and the intent is to make these improvements using innovative new technologies. The objective of the present work is to assess the effect of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of Cabernet Sauvignon that may lead to changes in wine quality, aging process and other related characteristics. The samples used for this process were irradiated using an Argonaut reactor powered at 340 Watts and with a thermal neutron fluency of 10{sup 9} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1}. For irradiation experiments, the samples were put into the reactor chamber until the reactor reached criticality and for an additional 30 minutes while receiving radiation. The analyzed data included density, alcoholic, ashes and spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance at wavelengths of 420, 520 and 620 nm. Increased absorbance values at 420 nm indicate an increase in tannin composition of the wine and therefore a higher level of oxidation. Intriguingly, a rise in absorbance was also observed at 520 nm for the same test samples; which is inconsistent with published data on irradiated cachaca that showed that anthocyanin levels dropped at 520 nm after irradiation. In summary, for measurements made at a fluency of 109 n/cm{sup 2}.s for 30 min, the effects were minimal, which requires a higher dose to have better effects. Future studies should evaluating dosing effects of irradiation on improving the quality of the Cabernet Sauvignon. (author)

  6. Physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of pineapple genotypes grown in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin-Hua; Sun, De-Quan; Wu, Qing-Song; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The fruit physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of 26 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] genotypes grown in China were measured. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of these pineapple genotypes. Sucrose was the dominant sugar in all 26 genotypes, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents. The ascorbic acid (AsA) content ranged from 5.08 to 33.57 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), while the total phenolic (TP) content varied from 31.48 to 77.55 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g FW. The two parameters in the predominant cultivars Comte de Paris and Smooth Cayenne were relative low. However, MD-2 indicated the highest AsA and TP contents (33.57 mg/100 g and 77.55 mg GAE/100 g FM, respectively), and it also showed the strongest antioxidant capacity 22.85 and 17.30 μmol TE/g FW using DPPH and TEAC methods, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of pineapple was correlated with the contents of phenolics, flavonoids and AsA. The present study provided important information for the further application of those pineapple genotypes.

  7. Physico-Chemical Properties, Antioxidant Activity and Mineral Contents of Pineapple Genotypes Grown in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Hua Lu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The fruit physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of 26 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr.] genotypes grown in China were measured. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of these pineapple genotypes. Sucrose was the dominant sugar in all 26 genotypes, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents. The ascorbic acid (AsA content ranged from 5.08 to 33.57 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW, while the total phenolic (TP content varied from 31.48 to 77.55 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100 g FW. The two parameters in the predominant cultivars Comte de Paris and Smooth Cayenne were relative low. However, MD-2 indicated the highest AsA and TP contents (33.57 mg/100 g and 77.55 mg GAE/100 g FM, respectively, and it also showed the strongest antioxidant capacity 22.85 and 17.30 μmol TE/g FW using DPPH and TEAC methods, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of pineapple was correlated with the contents of phenolics, flavonoids and AsA. The present study provided important information for the further application of those pineapple genotypes.

  8. Changes in physicochemical and transport properties of a reverse osmosis membrane exposed to chloraminated seawater

    KAUST Repository

    Valentino, Lauren

    2015-02-17

    This study contributed to improving our understanding of how disinfectants, applied to control biofouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, result in membrane performance degradation. We investigated changes in physicochemical properties and permeation performance of a RO membrane with fully aromatic polyamide (PA) active layer. Membrane samples were exposed to varying concentrations of monochloramine, bromide, and iodide in both synthetic and natural seawater. Elemental analysis of the membrane active layer by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) revealed the incorporation of bromine and iodine into the polyamide. The kinetics of polyamide bromination were first order with respect to the concentration of the secondary oxidizing agent Br2 for the conditions investigated. Halogenated membranes were characterized after treatment with a reducing agent and heavy ion probes to reveal the occurrence of irreversible ring halogenation and an increase in carboxylic groups, the latter produced as a result of amide bond cleavage. Finally, permeation experiments revealed increases in both water permeability and salt passage as a result of oxidative damage.

  9. Buff/wipe effects on the physicochemical properties of perfluoropolyether nanoscale thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haigang; Seung Chung, Pil; Jhon, Myung S.

    2014-05-01

    Buff/Wipe (B/W) process is commonly used in disk drive manufacturing to remove the particles and asperities on the lubricated disk surface. In this paper, we investigated how B/W process impacts the physicochemical properties of perfluoropolyethers (PFPE) nano-films through the study of surface energy and bonded ratio. Two-liquid geometric method was used to analyze the surface energy of nonfunctional PFPE, i.e., Z03, and functional PFPE, i.e., Zdol, lubricated media before and after B/W process. It was found that the dispersive surface energy of Z03 films greatly decreased after B/W, which was more significant in the submonolayer regime. In addition, the bonded ratio slightly increased. However, B/W effect on the surface energy and bonded ratio was not detected for Zdol films. It is hypothesized that nonfunctional PFPE behaves liquid-like on the carbon overcoat due to the weak interaction between lubricant and overcoat. External mechanical stress as applied with B/W can change the conformation and increase the surface coverage for nonfunctional PFPE. On the other hand, functional PFPEs behave solid-like due to the strong attraction between lubricant and overcoat; therefore, it is difficult to change the conformation by external stress from B/W process.

  10. Evaluation of physicochemical and phytochemical properties of Safoof-E-Sana, a Unani polyherbal formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajazuddin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the formulations of the Unani system of medicine are popular, not much scientific work has been reported so far. The present article is an attempt to establish the scientific basis of one of the popular Unani formulations Safoof-ESana, a polyherbal formulation widely used as a laxative. Methods: Investigations were carried out to study the physicochemical and phytochemical properties of Safoof-E-Sana and its active ingredients. Results and Conclusion: The values of percentage loss on drying, angle of repose, Hausner ratio, and Carr′s index of the formulation were calculated as 8.25 ± 0.582, 27.68, 1.23, and 19 respectively, which indicate that the moisture content of the formulation is within the range and depict good flow characteristics. The total ash, acid- nsoluble ash, and water-soluble ash were found to be 19.146 ± 0.237, 2.351 ± 0.223, and 49.216 ± 0.634, respectively; the value of total ash indicates that the inorganic contents of the formulation are below the limits. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the formulation and ingredients were prepared and evaluated for phytochemical analysis and extractive values, and the results show that alkaloids of the formulation are more soluble in water than in alcohol and the higher aqueous extractive value (45.784 ± 0.876 of Unani formulation depicts that water is a better solvent of extraction for the formulation than ethanol.

  11. Physicochemical Properties Influencing Presence of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Soil from Small Ruminant Farms in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Hassan Ismail; Hassan, Latiffah; Shamsuddin, Zulkifli Hj; Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani; Zakaria, Zunita; Abdul Aziz, Saleha

    2016-01-01

    Soil is considered to be a major reservoir of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the environment. This paper investigates soil physicochemical properties that may influence presence of B. pseudomallei in soil samples from small ruminant farms in Peninsular Malaysia. Soil samples were collected from the farms and cultured for B. pseudomallei. The texture, organic matter and water contents, pH, elemental contents, cation exchange capacities, carbon, sulfur and nitrogen contents were determined. Analysis of soil samples that were positive and negative for B. pseudomallei using multivariable logistic regression found that the odds of bacterial isolation from soil was significantly higher for samples with higher contents of iron (OR = 1.01, 95%CI = 1.00-1.02, p = 0.03), water (OR = 1.28, 95%CI = 1.05-1.55, p = 0.01) and clay (OR = 1.54, 95%CI = 1.15-2.06, p = 0.004) compared to the odds of isolation in samples with lower contents of the above variables. These three factors may have favored the survival of B. pseudomallei because iron regulates expression of respiratory enzymes, while water is essential for soil ecology and agent's biological processes and clay retains water and nutrients. PMID:27635652

  12. Physicochemical property profile for brain permeability: comparative study by different approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raevsky, Oleg A; Grigorev, Veniamin Y; Polianczyk, Daniel E; Sandakov, German I; Solodova, Svetlana L; Yarkov, Alexander V; Bachurin, Sergey O; Dearden, John C

    2016-08-01

    A comparative study of classification models of brain penetration by different approaches was carried out on a training set of 1000 chemicals and drugs, and an external test set of 100 drugs. Ten approaches were applied in this work: seven medicinal chemistry approaches (including "rule of 5" and multiparameter optimization) and also three SAR techniques: logistic regression (LR), random forest (RF) and support vector machine (SVM). Forty-one different medicinal chemistry descriptors representing diverse physicochemical properties were used in this work. Medicinal chemistry approaches based on the intuitive estimation of preference zones of CNS or non-CNS chemicals, with different rules and scoring functions, yield unbalanced models with poor classification accuracy. RF and SVM methods yielded 82% and 84% classification accuracy respectively for the external test set. LR was also successful in CNS/non-CNS (denoted in this study as CNS+/CNS-) classification and yielded an overall accuracy equivalent to that of SVM and RF. At the same time, LR is especially valuable for medicinal chemists because of its simplicity and the possibility of clear mechanistic interpretation. PMID:26755431

  13. Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa (mucuna deeringiana and soybean (glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Chaparro Acuña

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa flour (Mucuna deeringiana and soybean flour (Glycine max were determined. Oil absorption capacity was higher in vitabosa. Water absorption capacity was higher in soy and it was affected by the change in the ionic strength of the medium. Emulsifying Activity (EA decreased with increasing concentration of flour, while Emulsifying Stability (ES showed an increased. EA and ES of flours have more ionic strength in the range between 0.0 and 0.4 M, but it is reduced afterwards with the higher concentration of NaCl. Foaming stability varied with the concentration of flour solution reaching maximum values of 39 and 33% for vitabosa and soybean, respectively at 10% flour concentration.Vitabosa had the best foaming capacity (56% to 0.6 M compared with soybeans (47% to 0.4 M. Maximum capacity of gelation was observed in vitabosa at 10% flour concentration. Increases in ionic strength of the flour solution, at low salt concentrations (<0.4 M, improved the gelation of flours.

  14. Stability, antimicrobial activity, and effect of nisin on the physico-chemical properties of fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Junior, Adelson Alves; de Araújo Couto, Hyrla Grazielle Silva; Barbosa, Ana Andréa Teixeira; Carnelossi, Marcelo Augusto Guitierrez; de Moura, Tatiana Rodrigues

    2015-10-15

    Heat processing is the most commonly used hurdle for inactivating microorganisms in fruit juices. However, this preservation method could interfere with the organoleptic characteristics of the product. Alternative methods have been proposed and bacteriocins such as nisin are potential candidates. However, the approval of bacteriocins as food additives is limited, especially in foods from vegetal origin. We aimed to verify the stability, the effect on physico-chemical properties, and the antimicrobial activity of nisin in different fruit juices. Nisin remained stable in fruit juices (cashew, soursop, peach, mango, passion fruit, orange, guava, and cupuassu) for at least 30 days at room or refrigerated temperature and did not cause any significant alterations in the physico-chemical characteristics of the juices. Besides, nisin favored the preservation of vitamin C content in juices. The antimicrobial activity of nisin was tested against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in cashew, soursop, peach, and mango juices. Nisin caused a 4-log reduction in viable cells of A. acidoterrestris in soursop, peach, and mango juices after 8h of incubation, and no viable cells were detected in cashew juices. After 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin, no viable cells were detected, independently of the juices. To S. aureus, at 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin, viable cells were only detected in mango juices, representing a 4-log decrease as compared with the control treatment. The number of viable cells of B. cereus at 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin represented at least a 4-log decrease compared to the control treatment. When the antimicrobial activity of nisin was tested against L. monocytogenes in cashew and soursop juices, no reduction in the viable cell number was observed compared to the control treatment after 24h of incubation. Viable cells were four and six times less than in the

  15. Stability, antimicrobial activity, and effect of nisin on the physico-chemical properties of fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Junior, Adelson Alves; de Araújo Couto, Hyrla Grazielle Silva; Barbosa, Ana Andréa Teixeira; Carnelossi, Marcelo Augusto Guitierrez; de Moura, Tatiana Rodrigues

    2015-10-15

    Heat processing is the most commonly used hurdle for inactivating microorganisms in fruit juices. However, this preservation method could interfere with the organoleptic characteristics of the product. Alternative methods have been proposed and bacteriocins such as nisin are potential candidates. However, the approval of bacteriocins as food additives is limited, especially in foods from vegetal origin. We aimed to verify the stability, the effect on physico-chemical properties, and the antimicrobial activity of nisin in different fruit juices. Nisin remained stable in fruit juices (cashew, soursop, peach, mango, passion fruit, orange, guava, and cupuassu) for at least 30 days at room or refrigerated temperature and did not cause any significant alterations in the physico-chemical characteristics of the juices. Besides, nisin favored the preservation of vitamin C content in juices. The antimicrobial activity of nisin was tested against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in cashew, soursop, peach, and mango juices. Nisin caused a 4-log reduction in viable cells of A. acidoterrestris in soursop, peach, and mango juices after 8h of incubation, and no viable cells were detected in cashew juices. After 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin, no viable cells were detected, independently of the juices. To S. aureus, at 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin, viable cells were only detected in mango juices, representing a 4-log decrease as compared with the control treatment. The number of viable cells of B. cereus at 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin represented at least a 4-log decrease compared to the control treatment. When the antimicrobial activity of nisin was tested against L. monocytogenes in cashew and soursop juices, no reduction in the viable cell number was observed compared to the control treatment after 24h of incubation. Viable cells were four and six times less than in the

  16. Some physicochemical properties of acetaminophen pediatric suspensions formulated with okra gums obtained from different extraction processes as suspending agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikoni Ogaji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of the extraction process and the potential of okra gum as a suspending agent in pharmaceutical oral formulations containing acetaminophen as a model drug. Clarified mucilage of dried okra was either extracted directly with ethanol 96% (F1 or was first treated with base (F2, acid (F3 or heating in the presence of salt (F4 before extraction with ethanol 96%. The samples were used at 0.5% w/v as suspending agents in acetaminophen acetaminophen suspension to deliver 125 mg/5 mL acetaminophen. A binary mixture of F2 and F4 (1:1 was also used. Similar suspensions of acetaminophen containing either hydroxymethylpropylcellulose (HPMC or tragacanth gum (TRAGA were produced. Some physicochemical properties of the formulations were evaluated. The rheological properties of acetaminophen-containing treated okra gums (F2-F5 were generally similar. Changes in viscosity with storage were slower in the F2-F5 formulations as compared with F1. Particle size and particle size distribution were different for all formulations, and hysteresis was a function of time and the suspending agent used. The re-dispersion time of the formulations with treated okra gums was generally shorter than that observed with the untreated okra gum. The use of a binary mixture of F2 and F4 resulted in different physicochemical properties from those of either F2 or F4. The physicochemical properties of the formulations were comparable to those with HPMC and TRAGA. It can thus be concluded that treating okra gum with acid, base or salt impacted better physicochemical properties on an acetaminophen pediatric suspension when they were used as suspending agents.

  17. Assessment of inhalation dose sensitivity by physicochemical properties of airborne particulates containing naturally occurring radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Si Young; Choi, Cheol Kyu; Kim, Yong Geon; Choi, Won Chul; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Facilities processing raw materials containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) may give rise to enhanced radiation dose to workers due to chronic inhalation of airborne particulates. Internal radiation dose due to particulate inhalation varies depending on particulate properties, including size, shape, density, and absorption type. The objective of the present study was to assess inhalation dose sensitivity to physicochemical properties of airborne particulates. Committed effective doses to workers resulting from inhalation of airborne particulates were calculated based on International Commission on Radiological Protection 66 human respiratory tract model. Inhalation dose generally increased with decreasing particulate size. Committed effective doses due to inhalation of 0.01μm sized particulates were higher than doses due to 100μm sized particulates by factors of about 100 and 50 for {sup 238}U and {sup 230}Th, respectively. Inhalation dose increased with decreasing shape factor. Shape factors of 1 and 2 resulted in dose difference by about 18 %. Inhalation dose increased with particulate mass density. Particulate mass densities of 11 g·cm{sup -3} and 0.7 g·cm{sup -3} resulted in dose difference by about 60 %. For {sup 238}U, inhalation doses were higher for absorption type of S, M, and F in that sequence. Committed effective dose for absorption type S of {sup 238}U was about 9 times higher than dose for absorption F. For {sup 230}Th, inhalation doses were higher for absorption type of F, M, and S in that sequence. Committed effective dose for absorption type F of {sup 230}Th was about 16 times higher than dose for absorption S. Consequently, use of default values for particulate properties without consideration of site specific physiochemical properties may potentially skew radiation dose estimates to unrealistic values up to 1-2 orders of magnitude. For this reason, it is highly recommended to consider site specific working materials and

  18. On the structural and physicochemical properties of gamma irradiated UHMWPE/silane hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiq, Muhammad [Advanced Polymer Laboratory, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 45650 Islamabad (Pakistan); Mehmood, Malik Sajjad [Advanced Polymer Laboratory, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 45650 Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Basic Sciences and Humanities, University of Engineering and Technology, 47050 Taxila (Pakistan); Yasin, Tariq, E-mail: yasintariq@yahoo.com [Advanced Polymer Laboratory, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 45650 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-12-16

    This study has been carried to investigate the influence of gamma rays on the structural and physicochemical properties of UHMWPE/silane hybrid. UHMWPE was mixed with vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) and compression molded sheets were irradiated at different doses of gamma rays. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the formation of siloxane linkages in hybrids, which were found to be shifted towards lower wave number upon irradiation. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed significant increase in the percentage crystallinity of hybrid upon gamma irradiation, especially at 65 kGy absorbed dose. Scanning electron micrographs showed good consolidation and compaction with no surface defects. Moreover, the rough topography was changed to smooth ripple-like appearance upon γ-irradiation. Thermal analysis revealed that irradiated hybrids exhibited higher onset thermal degradation temperature, peak melting temperature, and crystalline lamellae thickness compared with the water treated hybrid. In addition, the tensile testing confirmed an increase of 41% and 133% in yield strength and Young's modulus in 100 kGy irradiated hybrid respectively than that of water treated hybrid. We hope that the irradiated UHMWPE/silane hybrids can be used in various high-strength applications such as total joint replacements, pickers for textile machinery, lining for coal chutes and dump trucks. - Highlights: • UHMWPE/silane hybrids have been prepared and irradiated using gamma rays. • The structural analysis revealed the formation siloxane linkages in the hybrid. • The crystallinity, thermal stability and mechanical properties of hybrids were improved with irradiation. • The irradiated hybrids can be used in various high-strength applications.

  19. Impact of Sulfuric Acid Treatment of Halloysite on Physico-Chemic Property Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayser Sumer Gaaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Halloysite (HNT is treated with sulfuric acid and the physico-chemical properties of its morphology, surface activity, physical and chemical properties have been investigated when HNT is exposed to sulfuric acid with treatment periods of 1 h (H1, 3 h (H3, 8 h (H8, and 21 h (H21. The significance of this and similar work lies in the importance of using HNT as a functional material in nanocomposites. The chemical structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The spectrum demonstrates that the hydroxyl groups were active for grafting modification using sulfuric acid, promoting a promising potential use for halloysite in ceramic applications as filler for novel clay-polymer nanocomposites. From the X-ray diffraction (XRD spectrum, it can be seen that the sulfuric acid breaks down the HNT crystal structure and alters it into amorphous silica. In addition, the FESEM images reveal that the sulfuric acid treatment dissolves the AlO6 octahedral layers and induces the disintegration of SiO4 tetrahedral layers, resulting in porous nanorods. The Bruncher-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area and total pore volume of HNTs showed an increase. The reaction of the acid with both the outer and inner surfaces of the nanotubes causes the AlO6 octahedral layers to dissolve, which leads to the breakdown and collapse of the tetrahedral layers of SiO4. The multi-fold results presented in this paper serve as a guide for further HNT functional treatment for producing new and advanced nanocomposites.

  20. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils.

  1. Physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles

    KAUST Repository

    Longhin, Eleonora

    2016-05-15

    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Diesel combustion and solid biomass burning are the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in urbanized areas. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, are possible outcomes of combustion particles exposure, but differences in particles properties seem to influence their biological effects.Here the physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles, produced under controlled laboratory conditions, have been characterized. Diesel UFP were sampled from a Euro 4 light duty vehicle without DPF fuelled by commercial diesel and run over a chassis dyno. Biomass UFP were collected from a modern automatic 25 kW boiler propelled by prime quality spruce pellet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of both diesel and biomass samples showed aggregates of soot particles, but in biomass samples ash particles were also present. Chemical characterization showed that metals and PAHs total content was higher in diesel samples compared to biomass ones.Human bronchial epithelial (HBEC3) cells were exposed to particles for up to 2 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism were observed after exposure to both UFP already after 24 h. However, only diesel particles modulated the expression of genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the release of inflammatory mediators and caused phenotypical alterations, mostly after two weeks of exposure.These results show that diesel UFP affected cellular processes involved in lung and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Biomass particles exerted low biological activity compared to diesel UFP. This evidence emphasizes that the study of different emission sources contribution to ambient PM toxicity may have a fundamental role in the development of more effective strategies for air quality improvement.

  2. Chitosan extracted from mud crab (Scylla olivicea) shells: physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbon, N M; Sandanamsamy, S; Kamaruzaman, S F S; Ahmad, F

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to report the yield of extraction, as well as the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of extracted chitosan from mud crabs (S.olivacea) as compared to commercial chitosan. The yield obtained for extracted chitosan was 44.57 ± 3.44 % with a moisture and ash content of 9.48 ± 0.59 % and 5.97 ± 0.90 %, respectively. Commercial chitosan demonstrated a higher degree of deacetylation (58.42 ± 2.67 %), water (250 ± 9.90 %) and fat (329 ± 7.07 %) binding capacity, solubility (73.85 %), viscosity (463.25 ± 13.10 %) and also the whiteness value (77.8 ± 0.47) compared to the extracted chitosan, which were only 53.42 ± 0.88 %, 180 ± 0.00 %, 260 ± 0.00 %, 53.38 %, 383.9 ± 28.43 % and 62.1 ± 7.52 %, respectively. The structure of extracted and commercial chitosan was also investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). In conclusion, the extracted chitosan possessed potential properties similar to the commercial chitosan with high reducing power but low in the scavenging activity on the DPPH and hydroxyl radicals compared to the commercial chitosan.

  3. Physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhin, Eleonora; Gualtieri, Maurizio; Capasso, Laura; Bengalli, Rossella; Mollerup, Steen; Holme, Jørn A; Øvrevik, Johan; Casadei, Simone; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Parenti, Paolo; Camatini, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Diesel combustion and solid biomass burning are the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in urbanized areas. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, are possible outcomes of combustion particles exposure, but differences in particles properties seem to influence their biological effects. Here the physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles, produced under controlled laboratory conditions, have been characterized. Diesel UFP were sampled from a Euro 4 light duty vehicle without DPF fuelled by commercial diesel and run over a chassis dyno. Biomass UFP were collected from a modern automatic 25 kW boiler propelled by prime quality spruce pellet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of both diesel and biomass samples showed aggregates of soot particles, but in biomass samples ash particles were also present. Chemical characterization showed that metals and PAHs total content was higher in diesel samples compared to biomass ones. Human bronchial epithelial (HBEC3) cells were exposed to particles for up to 2 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism were observed after exposure to both UFP already after 24 h. However, only diesel particles modulated the expression of genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the release of inflammatory mediators and caused phenotypical alterations, mostly after two weeks of exposure. These results show that diesel UFP affected cellular processes involved in lung and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Biomass particles exerted low biological activity compared to diesel UFP. This evidence emphasizes that the study of different emission sources contribution to ambient PM toxicity may have a fundamental role in the development of more effective strategies for air quality improvement. PMID:27194366

  4. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils. PMID:25007749

  5. Physicochemical salivary properties, Lactobacillus, mutans streptococci counts and early childhood caries in preschool children of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pabón, Maria C; Ramírez-Puerta, Blanca S; Escobar-Paucar, Gloria M; Franco-Cortés, Angela M

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease, in which saliva has an important role. Saliva properties affect the growth of cariogenic microorganisms, so variations below threshold levels are considered risk factors for the development of dental caries. Salivary tests and microbiological counts of cariogenic bacteria are often used for clinical purposes in order to reveal problems that could explain caries development and have been evaluated in multiple studies, but these studies have mainly been carried out on adults. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify physicochemical salivary properties, mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus counts among preschool children, and their relationship with ECC in a cross-sectional study in Medellín, Colombia. Caries was determined using ICDAS criteria for a sample of 201 preschool children. Stimulated saliva samples were processed for bacterial detection, mean flow rate, pH and buffer capacity calculation. Risk variables for ECC were assessed individually and adjusted using a binary logistic regression model. The results showed that 71.14% of study subjects had ECC. Flow rate, final pH and Buffer capacity increased with age, but none of them were related to the presence of ECC. Although OR analysis detected correlations between ECC, gender age, dental eruption stage and Lactobacillus presence, binary logistic regression analysis only showed gender and Lactobacillus as strongly associated with ECC. It can be concluded that gender and Lactobacillus presence are key variables for the presence of ECC in these children; whilst age and dental eruption stage play a minor role. Further studies are required to clarify the role of mutans streptococci counts in this population and to establish normal salivary parameters as well as threshold levels for hyprosalivation in preschool children, as results showed differences with normal parameters used for adults. PMID:21638968

  6. Cellulose reinforced nylon-6 nanofibrous membrane: Fabrication strategies, physicochemical characterizations, wicking properties and biomimetic mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mahesh Kumar; Tiwari, Arjun Prasad; Maharjan, Bikendra; Won, Ko Sung; Kim, Han Joo; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2016-08-20

    The aim of the present study is to develop a facile, efficient approach to reinforce nylon 6 (N6) nanofibers with cellulose chains as well as to study the effect that cellulose regeneration has on the physicochemical properties of the composite fibers. Here, a cellulose acetate (CA) solution (17wt%) was prepared in formic acid and was blended with N6 solution (20%, prepared in formic acid and acetic acid) in various proportions, and the blended solutions were then electrospun to produce hybrid N6/CA nanofibers. Cellulose was regenerated in-situ in the fiber via alkaline saponification of the CA content of the hybrid fiber, leading to cellulose-reinforced N6 (N6/CL) nanofibers. Electron microscopy studies suggest that the fiber diameter and hence pore size gradually decreases as the mass composition of CA increases in the electrospinning solution. Cellulose regeneration showed noticeable change in the polymorphic behavior of N6, as observed in the XRD and IR spectra. The strong interaction of the hydroxyl group of cellulose with amide group of N6, mainly via hydrogen bonding, has a pronounced effect on the polymorphic behavior of N6. The γ-phase was dominant in pristine N6 and N6/CA fibers while α- phase was dominant in the N6/CL fibers. The surface wettability, wicking properties, and the tensile stress were greatly improved for N6/CL fibers compared to the corresponding N6/CA hybrid fibers. Results of DSC/TGA revealed that N6/CL fibers were more thermally stable than pristine N6 and N6/CA nanofibers. Furthermore, regeneration of cellulose chain improved the ability to nucleate bioactive calcium phosphate crystals in a simulated body fluid solution. PMID:27178914

  7. Heat-deproteinated xenogeneic bone from slaughterhouse waste: Physico-chemical properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Murugan; K Panduranga Rao; T S Sampath Kumar

    2003-08-01

    Xenogeneic bone procured from the slaughterhouse waste was deproteinated by heat treatment method intended for use as a bone substitute. The effect of heat treatment was investigated by thermal analysis and by physico-chemical methods such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The heat treatment temperatures for the bovine bone samples were predetermined by thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. The XRD results revealed that the process of heat treatment promoted the crystallinity of bone samples, particularly at 700 and 900°C. There was no secondary phase transformation detected for heat-deproteinated bone except the presence of the hydroxyapatite (HA) phase, which indicated its phase purity even at a higher temperature. The FTIR spectra of raw bone and bone heated at 300°C indicated the presence of organic macromolecules whereas these disappeared in the samples heated at 500, 700 and 900°C, which suggested the removal of antigenic organic matters around 500°C. The same results were also confirmed quantitatively by calculating the amount of collagen using hydroxyproline estimation. There was no significant change in the TG-thermogram of bone heated at 500, 700 and 900°C, which indicated their thermal stability. These findings implied that the heat treated bone at 500°C had properties similar to carbonated HA with low crystallinity, while 700 and 900°C samples had the same with higher crystallinity. As low temperature treatment does not alter morphological and structural properties, we propose that the 500°C heat treated xenogeneic bone may act as an excellent osteogenic bone substitute.

  8. Changes in physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of common buckwheat starch by heat-moisture treatment and annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Guo, Xudan; Li, Wuxia; Wang, Xiaofang; Lv, Manman; Peng, Qiang; Wang, Min

    2015-11-01

    Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and annealing (ANN) were applied in the test to investigate how they can affect the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of common buckwheat starch (CBS). In the practice, these two modification methods did not change typical 'A'-type X-ray diffraction pattern of CBS. However, the gelatinization temperature, amylose content, and relative crystallinity increased and peak viscosity value and gelatinization enthalpy of CBS declined significantly. Both the solubility and swelling power, which were temperature dependent, progressively decreased along with the treatments. Remarkable increase in slowly digested starch and resistant starch level was found at the same time. Besides, the decreases of rapidly digested starch and total hydrolysis content by using HMT were greater than by using ANN. The results indicated that the ANN and HMT efficiently modified physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of CBS and were able to improve its thermal stability, healthy benefits and application value.

  9. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Spray Drying Powders from Stropharia rugoso-annulata and Agaricus brunnescens Blanching Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impacts of carrier agents on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant retention rate of spray drying powders from blanching liquids of Stropharia rugoso-annulata (BLS and Agaricus brunnescens (BLA. Physicochemical, nutritional and antioxidant properties of the powder were examined in order to better determine potential applications of powders. Carrier agents could improve the qualities of the spray drying BLS powders and BLA powders and &beta-Cyclodextrin (&beta-CD was more suitable as carrier agent than Maltodextrin (MD. The powder had higher flour yield and antioxidant retention rate while &beta-CD addition rate was 44.44 g/100 g (w/w.Proximate composition and total phenolics were performed. The powder was ranging from 5 and 30 μm in particle size with spherical particle morphology. BLA powders had higher antioxidant activity (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibition ability than BLS powder.

  10. [Effects of helium-neon laser on physico-chemical properties of the bile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurov, Kh Kh; Dzhuraev, Kh Sh; Barakaev, S B; Kharina, T P; Pulatov, L I

    1990-08-01

    The influence of helium-neon laser radiation on bile physico-chemical characteristics in healthy subjects and in patients with the physico-chemical stage of gallstone disease was studied in vitro. This type of laser was found to induce positive therapeutic effects, such as: correction of hydrogen ion concentrations, surface tension and viscosity decrease and prolonged bile nucleation in patients with gallstone disease.

  11. Replacing sugar with S. rebaudiana extracts on the physicochemical and sensory properties of strawberry ice cream

    OpenAIRE

    Irma Aranda-Gonzalez; Maribel Perera-Pacheco; Enrique Barbosa-Martín; David Betancur-Ancona

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Ice cream is a product whose formulation requires considerable amounts of sugar. In addition to providing flavor, sugar contributes to the physicochemical characteristics of ice cream but its consumption in large quantities is related to chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. For this reason, the food industry seeks to formulate products with sweeteners that preserve the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the original product. Stevia rebaudiana is a plant that na...

  12. Physicochemical properties of the DMSO-Cu(NO3)2·3H2O system

    OpenAIRE

    MAMYRBEKOVA AIGUL; MAMITOVA AIGUL; MAMYRBEKOVA AIZHAN

    2016-01-01

    PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE DMSO-CU(NO3)2·3H2O SYSTEM ARE STUDIED IN THE CONCENTRATION RANGE OF 0.01-2 M AT 298 K. THE REFRACTION INDEX OF A SOLUTION OF COPPER(II) NITRATE IN DIMETHYLSULFOXIDE (DMSO) IS MEASURED AT 288-318 K. THE EXCESS AND PARTIAL MOLAR VOLUMES OF THE SOLVENT AND DISSOLVED SUBSTANCE ARE CALCULATED ANALYTICALLY.

  13. Physicochemical Properties and Nutritional Compositions of Foamed Banana Powders (Pisang Awak, Musa sapientum L.) Dehydrated by Various Drying Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Phisut NAKNAEN; Phantipha CHAROENTHAIKIJ; Paramaporn KERDSUP

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the physicochemical properties and nutritional compositions of foamed banana powders, as affected by various drying methods. The foaming process of banana puree was undertaken by using whey protein concentrate (5 %) as a foaming agent. After that, the banana foam was dehydrated by various drying methods, including hot air drying, vacuum drying, and freeze drying. Unfoamed banana puree dried by hot air drying was used as the control treatment. All...

  14. Preparation, Spectroscopy, Physicochemical Properties and X-ray Structure Analysis of 3,4,5-Trimethoxy N(2-hydroxybenzylidene) aniline

    OpenAIRE

    Kodjo Charles Guillaume; Zabri Herve; Benie Anoubile; Estienne Jacques

    2009-01-01

    3,4,5-Trimethoxy N-(salicylidene) aniline was synthesized and characterized by IR spectroscopy, 1H NMR and x-ray single crystal analysis. UV-visible spectroscopy was used for physicochemical tests. X-ray data reveals that the crystalline network cohesion of this compound is essentially assured by CH/pi type hydrogen bounds. It crystallized in the orthorhombic Pbcn space group. Electronic spectroscopy shows that the title compound doesn't present photochromic property but thermochromic one. In...

  15. Effect of the Amount and Particle Size of Wheat Fiber on the Physicochemical Properties and Gel Morphology of Starches

    OpenAIRE

    Qingjie Sun; Min Wu; Xianghui Bu; Liu Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Effects of added wheat fiber, with different levels and particle sizes, on the physicochemical properties and gel morphology of wheat starch and mung bean starch were investigated, using rapid visco analyzer (RVA), texture analyzer (TPA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Each starch was added with wheat fiber at 10, 20, 30 and 40% (weight basis, g/100g), and different sizes of 60, 100 and 180 mesh, respectively. The peak viscosity (PV) of starches with wheat fiber were higher than the c...

  16. Physicochemical, Proximate and Sensory Properties of Pineapple (Ananas sp.) Syrup Developed from Its Organic Side-Stream

    OpenAIRE

    Tortoe, C.; Johnson, P.N.T.; Slaghek, T.; Miedema, M.; Timmermans, T.

    2013-01-01

    A major economical industrial challenge from pineapple (Ananas sp.) processing contributing to environmental pollu- tion is the organic side-streams of pineapple. The physicochemical, proximate and sensory properties of organic side- stream pineapple syrup (OSPS) developed from Smooth cayenne, Sugar loaf and MD2 pineapple varieties were evalu- ated. Organic side-stream pineapple syrup developed from MD2 recorded the highest moisture content with a corre- sponding water activity. The colour ch...

  17. Correlation between Evaluation of Palatability by Sensory Test and Physicochemical Properties in Chinese japonica–type Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Jing; Xin ZHANG; Cui, Zhongqiu; Kusutani, Akihito; ITO, Shoichi; Matsue, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    To obtain basic information on the breeding for palatability of japonica–type paddy rice in China, we collected 28 varieties from the northern area of China and examined the correlation between evaluation by sensory test (appearance, aroma, taste, stickiness, hardness and overall eating–quality) and physicochemical properties (amylose content and protein content of polished rice, breakdown value of polished rice flour and hardness/adhesion ratio of cooked rice). The overall eating–quality in ...

  18. Evolution of an alumina-magnesia/self-forming spinel castable. Part II: physico-chemical and mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez-Campos D.; Diaz J. I.; Rodriguez R. M.

    1999-01-01

    This study was carried out in conjunction with the investigation, reported in Part I, on the microstructural characteristics of an alumina-spinel castable with several percentages of MgO content. Bulk density and cold crushing strength of samples were evaluated dried and at three fired states (1000, 1200, 1400 °C). Results indicate little influence of MgO additions on physico-chemical properties of the alumina-magnesia/self-forming spinel castable. Characteristics compared with those reported...

  19. Investigation into the Physico-Chemical Properties of Soils of Caspian Sea Coastal Area in Mangystau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samal Syrlybekkyzy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of investigation into physico-chemical properties of coastal soils in the areas of oil fields. it has been established that the considered soils are characterized with low content of organics, alkaline reaction of soil solutions, high salinity and weak resistance against anthropogenic impacts. The obtained data can be applied for further studies and monitoring of environment in oil field areas.

  20. Effects of Long-term Located Fertilization on the Physico-chemical Property of Soil Humus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ji-ping; ZHANG Fu-dao; LIN Bao

    2002-01-01

    A systematic study concerning the effects of a long-term stationary fertilization on content and property of soil humus in fluvo-aquic soil sampled from Malan Farm, Xinji City, Hebei, and arid red soil and paddy red soil sampled from the Institute of Red Soil, Jinxian County, Jiangxi was conducted. The results showed that long-term fertilization had effects not only on the content and composition of soil humus, but also on the physico-chemical property of humus. With applying organic manure or combined application of organic manure and chemical fertilizer, E4 and E6 values of humic acid decreased in fluvo-aquic soil and arid red soil,but increased in paddy red soil. In paddy red soil, E4 and E6 values of humic acid increased also with a single application of chemical fertilizer, but E4 and E6 values had less change of humic acid in fluvo-aquic soil and arid red soil. The effects on the visible spectroscopic property of fulvic acid were different from that of humic acid. Long-term application of organic manure or combined application of organic manure and chemical fertilizer could increase E4 and E6 values of fulvic acid in three types of soil. Single application of chemical fertilizer had less effect on the E4 and E6. Long-term fertilization could also influence the ultraviolet spectroscopic property of humus. With a single application of organic manure or combined application of organic manure and chemical fertilizer, the ultraviolet absorbance of humic acid and fulvic acid increased in the three types of soil.But this effect was obvious only in short wave length, and the effect could decrease if the wave length increased. With a single application of chemical fertilizer the ultraviolet absorbance of fulvic acid could increase, but it of humic acid increased only in fluvo-aquic soil. Long-term application of organic manure or combined application of organic manure and chemical fertilizer could increase the content of total acidic groups, carboxy groups and

  1. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Bangladeshi honeys stored for more than one year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Asiful

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no available information on physicochemical and antioxidant properties on Bangladeshi honey. We investigated five different monofloral and three different multifloral honey samples collected from different parts of Bangladesh. Methods The levels of phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant content (AEAC, proline, protein and antioxidants were determined in the honey samples using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays. Results The highest level of phenolic was 688.5 ± 5.9 mg Gallic acid/kg, and the highest level of flavonoid was 155 ± 6.9 mg Catechin/kg. The highest color intensity was 2034.00 ± 17.5 mAU, and the highest protein content was 8.6 ± 0.0mg/g. High levels of proline (2932.8 ± 3.7 mg/kg, ascorbic acid (154.3 ± 0.3 mg/kg, AEAC (34.1 ± 1.4mg/100 g and FRAP (772.4 ± 2.5 μmol Fe (II/100 g were detected in some of the samples, especially the multifloral honey samples, indicating good antioxidant properties. A strong positive correlation was found between phenolics, flavonoids, DPPH, FRAP and color intensity, indicating that in addition to total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations, color intensity and amino acid are good indicators of the antioxidant potential of honey. Except for a single sample (BDH-6, the honey samples stored for 1.5 years at room temperature still had 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF values within the recommended range (mean = 10.93 mg/kg, indicating that the rate of HMF production in Bangladeshi honey samples is low. Conclusion It is postulated that the low rate of HMF formation could be attributed to the acidic and low moisture content in the samples. In general, multifloral honeys have higher antioxidant properties based on their high levels of phenolics, flavonoids, AEAC, DPPH and FRAP when compared to monofloral honeys. We also found that monofloral honey samples from

  2. Comparison of amino acids physico-chemical properties and usage of late embryogenesis abundant proteins, hydrophilins and WHy domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspard, Emmanuel; Hunault, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant proteins (LEAPs) comprise several diverse protein families and are mostly involved in stress tolerance. Most of LEAPs are intrinsically disordered and thus poorly functionally characterized. LEAPs have been classified and a large number of their physico-chemical properties have been statistically analyzed. LEAPs were previously proposed to be a subset of a very wide family of proteins called hydrophilins, while a domain called WHy (Water stress and Hypersensitive response) was found in LEAP class 8 (according to our previous classification). Since little is known about hydrophilins and WHy domain, the cross-analysis of their amino acids physico-chemical properties and amino acids usage together with those of LEAPs helps to describe some of their structural features and to make hypothesis about their function. Physico-chemical properties of hydrophilins and WHy domain strongly suggest their role in dehydration tolerance, probably by interacting with water and small polar molecules. The computational analysis reveals that LEAP class 8 and hydrophilins are distinct protein families and that not all LEAPs are a protein subset of hydrophilins family as proposed earlier. Hydrophilins seem related to LEAP class 2 (also called dehydrins) and to Heat Shock Proteins 12 (HSP12). Hydrophilins are likely unstructured proteins while WHy domain is structured. LEAP class 2, hydrophilins and WHy domain are thus proposed to share a common physiological role by interacting with water or other polar/charged small molecules, hence contributing to dehydration tolerance. PMID:25296175

  3. Comparison of amino acids physico-chemical properties and usage of late embryogenesis abundant proteins, hydrophilins and WHy domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Jaspard

    Full Text Available Late Embryogenesis Abundant proteins (LEAPs comprise several diverse protein families and are mostly involved in stress tolerance. Most of LEAPs are intrinsically disordered and thus poorly functionally characterized. LEAPs have been classified and a large number of their physico-chemical properties have been statistically analyzed. LEAPs were previously proposed to be a subset of a very wide family of proteins called hydrophilins, while a domain called WHy (Water stress and Hypersensitive response was found in LEAP class 8 (according to our previous classification. Since little is known about hydrophilins and WHy domain, the cross-analysis of their amino acids physico-chemical properties and amino acids usage together with those of LEAPs helps to describe some of their structural features and to make hypothesis about their function. Physico-chemical properties of hydrophilins and WHy domain strongly suggest their role in dehydration tolerance, probably by interacting with water and small polar molecules. The computational analysis reveals that LEAP class 8 and hydrophilins are distinct protein families and that not all LEAPs are a protein subset of hydrophilins family as proposed earlier. Hydrophilins seem related to LEAP class 2 (also called dehydrins and to Heat Shock Proteins 12 (HSP12. Hydrophilins are likely unstructured proteins while WHy domain is structured. LEAP class 2, hydrophilins and WHy domain are thus proposed to share a common physiological role by interacting with water or other polar/charged small molecules, hence contributing to dehydration tolerance.

  4. Physicochemical properties of physical chitin hydrogels: modeling and relation with the mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachoud, L; Domard, A

    2001-01-01

    In this work, we were interested in the modeling of syneresis of physical chitin hydrogels by a mathematic law allowing us to predict the variation of the weight of the gel as a function of time. The variation of the weight of the gel during syneresis can be described by W(t)()/W(0) = (t(1/2) + (W(infinity)/W(0))t)/(t(1/2)) + t) where W(0), W(infinity), and W(t)() are the weights of the gel at the beginning of syneresis, for infinite time and for a time t, respectively. t(1/2) corresponds to the half-time of syneresis. W(infinity)/W(0) and t(1/2) were studied in relation with several parameters such as the ionic strength, pH, degree of acetylation of chitin and the initial concentration of polymer. The mechanical properties of chitin hydrogels maintained during syneresis in media of different pH's and ionic strengths were also investigated.

  5. Geochemistry Of Lead In Contaminated Soils: Effects Of Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, S.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Andra, S. P.

    2006-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is an environmental contaminant with proven human health effects. When assessing human health risks associated with Pb, one of the most common exposure pathways typically evaluated is soil ingestion by children. However, bioaccessibility of Pb primarily depends on the solubility and hence, the geochemical form of Pb, which in turn is a function of site specific soil chemistry. Certain fractions of ingested soil-Pb may not dissociate during digestion in the gastro-intestinal tract, and hence, may not be available for transport across the intestinal membrane. Therefore, this study is being currently performed to assess the geochemical forms and bioaccessibility of Pb in soils with varying physico-chemical properties. In order to elucidate the level of Pb that can be ingested and assimilated by humans, an in-vitro model that simulates the physiological conditions of the human digestive system has been developed and is being used in this study. Four different types of soils from the Immokalee (an acid sandy soil with minimal Pb retention potential), Millhopper (a sandy loam with high Fe/Al content), Pahokee (a muck soil with more than 80% soil organic matter), and Tobosa series (an alkaline soil with high clay content) were artificially contaminated with Pb as lead nitrate at the rate equivalent to 0, 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg dry soil. Analysis of soils by a sequential extraction method at time zero (immediately after spiking) showed that Immokalee and Millhopper soils had the highest amount of Pb in exchangeable form, whereas Pahokee and Tobosa soils had higher percentages of carbonate-bound and Fe/Al-bound Pb. The results of in-vitro experiment at time zero showed that majority of Pb was dissolved in the acidic stomach environment in Immokalee, Millhopper, and Tobosa, whereas it was in the intestinal phase in Pahokee soils. Because the soil system is not in equilibrium at time zero, the effect of soil properties on Pb geochemistry is not clear as yet. The

  6. Study of some physicochemical and functional properties of quinoa (chenopodium quinoa willd) protein isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch, Lilian E; Romero, Nalda; Tapia, Cristián A; Silva, Jorge; Rivera, Mónica

    2008-06-25

    The amino acid composition and the physicochemical and functional properties of quinoa protein isolates were evaluated. Protein isolates were prepared from quinoa seed by alkaline solubilization (at pH 9, called Q9, and at pH 11, called Q11) followed by isoelectric precipitation and spray drying. Q9 and Q11 had high levels of essential amino acids, with high levels of lysine. Both isolates showed similar patterns in native/SDS-PAGE and SEM. The pH effect on fluorescence measurements showed decreasing fluorescence intensity and a shift in the maximum of emission of both isolates. Q9 showed an endotherm with a denaturation temperature of 98.1 degrees C and a denaturation enthalpy of 12.7 J/g, while Q11 showed no endotherm. The protein solubility of Q11 was lower than that of Q9 at pH above 5.0 but similar at the pH range 3.0-4.0. The water holding capacity (WHC) was similar in both isolates and was not affected by pH. The water imbibing capacity (WIC) was double for Q11 (3.5 mL of water/g isolate). Analysis of DSC, fluorescence, and solubility data suggests that there is apparently denaturation due to pH. Some differences were found that could be attributed to the extreme pH treatments in protein isolates and the nature of quinoa proteins. Q9 and Q11 can be used as a valuable source of nutrition for infants and children. Q9 may be used as an ingredient in nutritive beverages, and Q11 may be used as an ingredient in sauces, sausages, and soups.

  7. Role of nanomaterial physicochemical properties on fate and toxicity in bacteria and plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomberg, Danielle

    Nanomaterials, defined as those having at least one dimension Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was evaluated as a function of scaffold size, shape, and exterior functionality using nitric oxide-releasing (NO) silica particles, dendrimers, and chitosan oligosaccharides. Improved bactericidal efficacy was observed for silica particles with decreased size and increased aspect ratio (i.e., rod-like) due to improved particle-cell interactions. Likewise, better nanomaterial-bacteria association and biocidal action was noted for more hydrophobic NO-releasing dendrimers and chitosan oligosaccharides. Planktonic bacterial killing was not dependent on chitosan molecular weight due to rapid association between the cationic scaffolds and negatively-charged bacterial cell membranes. Given the importance of nanomaterial physicochemical properties in planktonic bacterial killing, the NO-releasing scaffolds were also evaluated against clinically-relevant bacterial biofilms. Similar to planktonic studies, smaller particle sizes proved more efficient in delivering NO throughout the biofilm. Particles with rod-like shape also eradicated biofilms more effectively. The role of NO-releasing dendrimer and chitosan oligosaccharide hydrophobicity was prominent in scaffold diffusion through the biofilm and subsequent NO delivery, with hydrophobic functionalities generally exhibiting better bacterial association. Lastly, biofilm eradication was more effective for NO-releasing dendrimers exhibiting sustained NO-release compared to delivery of NO via an intial burst. Phytotoxicity and uptake of silica nanoparticles was evaluated for the plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, as a function of particle size, surface composition, and shape (i.e., spherical versus rod-like particles). Overall, the silica nanoparticles examined were found to be relatively non-toxic to A. thaliana plants when pH effects were mitigated. Size-dependent uptake of the silica particles was observed

  8. Physico-chemical properties of Pd nanoparticles produced by Pulsed Laser Ablation in different organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palladium nanoparticles are arousing an increasing interest because of their strong activity in heterogeneous catalysis in a wide range of reactions. Driven by the interest of producing Pd nanoparticles to be deposited for catalysis over hydrophobic supports, we investigated their synthesis via Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid in several organic solvents, as acetone, ethanol, 2-propanol, toluene, n-hexane. The colloids were produced by using a Nd:YAG ns laser and without the addition of surfactant agents. The morphology, composition, stability and oxidation state of the obtained nanoparticles were investigated by TEM-EDS analysis, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results evidence that the nature of the solvent influences both the yield and the physico-chemical properties of the produced nanoparticles. While in acetone and alcohols spheroidal, non aggregated and stable particles are obtained, in case of toluene and n-hexane few unstable particles surrounded by a gel-like material are produced. Raman/XPS measurements suggest the presence of amorphous or graphitic carbon onto crystalline Pd nanoparticles, which could have hindered their growth and determined the observed smaller sizes if compared to nanoparticles produced in water. The stability of Pd colloids obtained in acetone and alcohols was attributed to adsorbed anions like enolates or alcoholates; non polar solvents like toluene and n-hexane, unable to give rise to adsorbed anionic species, cannot provide any stabilization to the palladium nanoparticles. XPS analyses also evidenced a partial oxidation of particles surface, with a ratio Pd2+:Pd0 of 1:2.5 and 1:4 in acetone and ethanol, respectively.

  9. Physico-chemical properties of Pd nanoparticles produced by Pulsed Laser Ablation in different organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristoforetti, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.cristoforetti@cnr.it [National Institute of Optics, Research Area of National Research Council, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Pitzalis, Emanuela; Spiniello, Roberto [Institute of Chemistry of OrganoMetallic Compounds, Research Area of National Research Council, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Ishak, Randa [Department of Chem. Eng. And Material Science, University of Pisa, Via Diotisalvi 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Giammanco, Francesco [Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio; Caporali, Stefano [Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    Palladium nanoparticles are arousing an increasing interest because of their strong activity in heterogeneous catalysis in a wide range of reactions. Driven by the interest of producing Pd nanoparticles to be deposited for catalysis over hydrophobic supports, we investigated their synthesis via Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid in several organic solvents, as acetone, ethanol, 2-propanol, toluene, n-hexane. The colloids were produced by using a Nd:YAG ns laser and without the addition of surfactant agents. The morphology, composition, stability and oxidation state of the obtained nanoparticles were investigated by TEM-EDS analysis, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results evidence that the nature of the solvent influences both the yield and the physico-chemical properties of the produced nanoparticles. While in acetone and alcohols spheroidal, non aggregated and stable particles are obtained, in case of toluene and n-hexane few unstable particles surrounded by a gel-like material are produced. Raman/XPS measurements suggest the presence of amorphous or graphitic carbon onto crystalline Pd nanoparticles, which could have hindered their growth and determined the observed smaller sizes if compared to nanoparticles produced in water. The stability of Pd colloids obtained in acetone and alcohols was attributed to adsorbed anions like enolates or alcoholates; non polar solvents like toluene and n-hexane, unable to give rise to adsorbed anionic species, cannot provide any stabilization to the palladium nanoparticles. XPS analyses also evidenced a partial oxidation of particles surface, with a ratio Pd{sup 2+}:Pd{sup 0} of 1:2.5 and 1:4 in acetone and ethanol, respectively.

  10. Physicochemical properties of pentaglyme-sodium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide solvate ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Shoshi; Mandai, Toshihiko; Nozawa, Risa; Yoshida, Kazuki; Ueno, Kazuhide; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2014-06-21

    The physicochemical properties of pentaglyme (G5) and sodium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (Na[TFSA]) binary mixtures were investigated with respect to salt concentration and temperature. The density, viscosity, ionic conductivity, self-diffusion coefficient, and oxidative stability of a series of binary mixtures were measured, and the mixtures were examined as electrolytes for Na secondary batteries. An equimolar mixture of G5 and Na[TFSA] formed a low melting solvate, [Na(G5)1][TFSA], which exhibited an ionic conductivity of 0.61 mS cm(-1) at 30 °C. The ionicity (Λimp/Λideal) of the glyme-Na[TFSA] mixture was estimated from the molar conductivity of electrochemical impedance measurements (Λimp) and the Walden plot (Λideal). [Na(G5)1][TFSA] possessed a high ionicity of 0.63 at 30 °C, suggesting that [Na(G5)1][TFSA] is highly dissociated into a [Na(G5)1](+) cation and a [TFSA](-) anion, regardless of the extreme salt concentration in the liquid. The oxidative stabilities of G5-Na[TFSA] mixtures were investigated by linear sweep voltammetry, and the higher concentration resulted in higher oxidative stability due to the lowering of the HOMO energy level of G5 by complexation with the Na(+) ion. In addition, battery tests were performed using the mixtures as electrolytes. The [Na|[Na(G5)1][TFSA]|Na0.44MnO2] cell showed good charge-discharge cycle stability, with a discharge capacity of ca. 100 mA h g(-1), while the [Na(G5)1.25][TFSA] system, containing excess G5, showed poor stability. PMID:24810659

  11. Phosphorus sorption capacities and physicochemical properties of nine substrate materials for constructed wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, L.H.; Zhu, X.Z.; Ma, M.; Ouyang, Y.; Dong, M.; Zhu, W.L.; Luo, S.M. [South China Agricultural University, Guangdong (China)

    2008-08-15

    Constructed wetland (CW) is a promising technique for removal of pollutants from wastewater and agricultural runoff. The performance of a CW to remove pollutants, however, hinges on the use of suitable substrate materials. This study examined the physicochemical properties and phosphorus (P) sorption capacities of nine different CW substrate materials using both batch experiments and the Freundlich as well as the Langmuir isotherm. The nine substrate materials used in this study were turf, topsoil, gravel, midsized sand (MSS), blast furnace slag (BFS), coal burn slag (CBS), blast furnace artificial slag (BFAS), coal burn artificial slag (CBAS), and midsized artificial sand (MSAS). Experimental data showed that sorption of P increased with initial solution P concentrations for all nine substrate materials. The maximum P sorption capacity of the substrate materials estimated by Langmuir isotherm was in the following order: turf (4243 mg/kg substrate) > BFAS (2116 mg/kg substrate) > BFS (1598 mg/kg substrate) > CBS (1449 mg/kg substrate) > top soil (1396 mg/kg substrate) > CBAS (1194 mg/kg substrate) > MSAS (519 mg/kg substrate) > gravel (494 mg/kg substrate) > MSS (403 mg/kg substrate). The specific gravity of eight substrate materials (except gravel) had very significant negative correlations with the P sorption, whereas the particle diameter of D-60 and uniformity coefficient (K-60) had positive correlations with the P sorption. The cation exchange capacity, organic matter, available ferrous, and exchangeable aluminum of the eight substrate materials also had very significant positive correlations with the P sorption, while the pH of the substrate materials showed a very significant negative correlation with the P sorption. Our study further suggests that turf and CBAS are the two relatively ideal substrate materials suitable for removal of P from a CW system.

  12. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties, antioxidant and microbial activities of sour cherry juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjeh, Edris; Barzegar, Mohsen; Ali Sahari, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Recently, due to the beneficial effects of bioactive compounds, demand for minimally processed fruits and fruit juices has increased rapidly in the world. In this study, sour cherry juice (SCJ) was exposed to gamma irradiation at 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 kGy and then stored at 4 °C for 60 days. Total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA), color, total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMC), antioxidant activity, organic acid profile, and microbial analysis were evaluated at regular intervals during the storage. Results indicated that irradiation did not have any significant effect on TSS, while level of TA increased significantly at the dose of 6 kGy (panthocyanin content of the irradiated SCJ was lower than that of the non-irradiated one (24% at 3.0 kGy) and also changed toward a more negative direction during the storage (63% at 3.0 kGy for 60 days). There was a significant decrease in the antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay) in both irradiated and stored SCJs. After irradiation (0-6 kGy), the results showed that the concentration of malic and oxalic acid significantly increased; but, the concentration of ascorbic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids significantly decreased. Gamma irradiation with doses of ≥3 kGy resulted in overall reduction in microbial loads. Based on the results obtained from the changes of physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and microbial analysis, irradiation of SCJ at doses of higher than 3.0 kGy is not recommended.

  13. Effect of Grain Size on Selected Physico-Chemical Properties of Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osumanu H. Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mixture of the right proportion of expanding and non-expanding clays to improve plasticity (moldability of clays used in the pot industry of Malaysia is yet to be well investigated. In addition, little is known about the choice of the right clay size to eliminate or reduce the content of undesirable compounds such as Fe2O3, Al2O3 to improve the strength of pots and roofing tiles in the country. The objective of this study was to investigate how selected physico-chemical properties of pottery clay relate to grain size of Nyalau series ((Typic Paleudults. Approach: Soil samples were refined into 25, 20 and 63 µm using size grading method. The mineralogical composition of the samples was determined using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. The chemical composition of the samples was also determined using standard procedures. Firing was done at 800°C in a muffle furnace and the cracks of the samples recorded. Results: The clay particles with sizes 20 and 25 µm were higher in LOI and total C than that those of 63 µm regardless of grain size, the clay investigated had quartz (SiO2, illite-montmorillonite, Anatase ((TiO2 and kaolinite. Grading affected the concentrations of Fe, Al and Si as clays with particle sizes 20 and 25 µm had higher contents of the aforementioned elements compared with those of 63 µm. The clay with particles 63 µm had the best strength and this was so because the clay particles had the lowest amount of Fe, Al and Si. Conclusion: The strength of Malaysian pots could be improved upon proper grading of the clay particles.

  14. Evaluation of the physicochemical and functional properties of Colombian bee pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fuenmayor B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To establish current knowledge about Colombian bee-pollen from a point of view nutritional and functional, contributing towards creating national technical standards and the identification of chemical differentiation factors for further researches. Material and methods. One hundred ninety-six samples of dried bee pollen were collected in the center region of Colombia known as Cundi-boyacense high plateau, where nearly 90% of total bee pollen production is concentrated in this country. Performed physicochemical analyses in this study were: moisture, pH, acidity, ash, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, dietary fiber, fatty acid profile and mineral elements. Results. Bee pollen from this region had 7.7±5.2 g/100 g moisture content, and a following centesimal composition based on dry matter: ashes 2.5±0.4 g; lipids 6.90±3.5 g; proteins 23.8±3.2 g and total dietary fiber 14.5±3.5 g. The most abundant fatty acids were α-linolenic, palmitic and linoleic. Carbohydrates were the main components and fructose and glucose the most concentrated sugars. The predominant minerals assessed here were potassium, calcium and magnesium. The results were also discussed in terms of the characteristics found in Colombian bee-pollen in comparison to international regulations and findings for other varieties of commercial bee-pollen from eight different countries. Conclusions. The results found in this study suggest that bee-pollen may be used as a dietary supplement and agree with bibliographical reports and international regulations. Such characterization will enable to be proposed technical standards in line with Colombian bee-pollen properties and it is expected to improve marketing and production chain conditions.

  15. Physicochemical, Functional and Antioxidant Properties of Tropical Fruits Co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selani, Miriam Mabel; Bianchini, Andreia; Ratnayake, Wajira S; Flores, Rolando A; Massarioli, Adna Prado; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Canniatti Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of mango (MAC), pineapple (PAC) and passion fruit (PFC) co-products in order to evaluate them as ingredients for food application. Proximate composition showed low fat content (0.95-5.64 g/100 g), and high levels of dietary fiber. In pineapple and passion fruit co-products, dietary fiber represented more than 50 % of the sample. Low pH, water activity, along with high acidity indicated that these co-products would not be easily susceptible to deterioration as food ingredients. Pineapple and passion fruit co-products had significant (p < 0.05) water holding capacity (4.96 and 4.31 g water/g sample, respectively), however oil holding capacity was low (1.59-1.85 g oil/g sample) for the three matrices studied. Regarding the phenolic content, values ranged from 3.78 to 4.67 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, with MAC showing the highest content. Through high performance liquid chromatography analysis, six compounds were identified and quantified (gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, and mangiferin) in the fruit co-products. As observed for the phenolic content, the highest antioxidant activity (p < 0.05) was found in MAC when measured by both DPPH and ABTS methods. The results indicated that the fruit co-products under evaluation could be used as functional ingredient to provide dietary fiber and natural antioxidants to food products.

  16. Physicochemical, functional and pasting properties of flour produced from gamma irradiated tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocloo, Fidelis C. K.; Okyere, Abenaa A.; Asare, Isaac K.

    2014-10-01

    Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) has been recognised as one of the best nutritional crops that can be used to augment the Ghanaian diet. The application of gamma irradiation as means of preserving tiger nut could modify the characteristics of resultant flour. The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, functional and pasting characteristics of flour from gamma irradiated tiger nut. The yellow and black types of tiger nut were sorted, washed and dried in an air-oven at 60 oC for 24 h. The dried tiger nut samples were irradiated at 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy and then flours produced from them. Moisture, ash, pH, titratable acidity, water and oil absorption capacities, swelling power, solubility, bulk density and pasting properties of the flours were determined using appropriate analytical methods. Results showed that irradiation did not significantly (P>0.05) affect the moisture and ash contents of the resultant flours. Gamma irradiation significantly (P≤0.05) increased titratable acidity with concomitant decrease in pH of the flours. No significant differences were observed for water and oil absorption capacities, swelling power as well as bulk density. Solubility significantly (P≤0.05) increased generally with irradiation dose. Peak viscosity, viscosities at 92 °C and 55 °C, breakdown and setback viscosities decreased significantly with irradiation dose. Flour produced from irradiated tiger nut has a potential in complementary food formulations due to its low viscosity and increased solubility values.

  17. A comparative study of the physicochemical properties of perfluorinated and hydrogenated amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Elena; González-Pérez, Alfredo; Ruso, Juan M; Pedrido, Rosa; Prieto, Gerardo; Sarmiento, Félix

    2005-08-01

    In this work we studied and compared the physicochemical properties of perfluorinated (sodium perfluoroheptanoate, C7FONa, and perfluorooctanoate, C8FONa) and hydrogenated (sodium octanoate, C8HONa, decanoate, C10HONa, and dodecanoate, C12HONa) amphiphiles. First, we determined their Krafft points to study the solubility and appropriate temperature range of micellization of these compounds. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) and ionization degree of micellization (beta) as a function of temperature (T) were estimated from conductivity data. Plots of cmc vs T appear to follow the typical U-shaped curve with a minimum T(min). The results show that the surfactants with CF2/CH2 ratio of 1.5 between alkyl chains (C12HONa-C8FONa and C10HONa-C7FONa) have nearly the same minimum value for cmc against temperature. The comparison between the cmc of hydrogenated amphiphiles and the corresponding perfluorinated amphiphiles must be done at this point. Thermodynamic functions of micellization were obtained by applying different theoretical models and choosing the one that best fit our experimental data. Although perfluorinated and hydrogenated amphiphiles present similar thermodynamic behavior, we have found a variation of 1.3 to 1.7 in the CF2/CH2 ratio, which did not remain constant with temperature. In the second part of this study the apparent molar volumes and adiabatic compressibilities were determined from density and ultrasound velocity measurements. Apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution presented the ratio 1.5 between alkyl chains again. However, apparent molar volumes upon micellization for sodium perfluoroheptanoate indicated a different aggregation pattern.

  18. Physico-Chemical Properties and Laboratory Hyperspectral Reflectance of Coastal Saline Soil in Shangyu City of Zhejiang Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI ZHOU; HUANG MINGXIANG; LI YAN

    2003-01-01

    45 and 50 composite soil samples were collected, respectively, from two agricultural fields, that wereenclosed and reclaimed fron coastal tidal-flat areas in 1996 and 1984 respectively, in Shangyu of ZhejiangProvince, China, to investigate the physico-chemical properties and the hyperspectral characteristics of thesaline soils and to make an assessment on their relationships. The reflectance spectra of saline soils weremeasured using a spectroradiometer in laboratory. The mean spectral curves of the saline soils from thetwo sites different in reclamation year showed that the saline soil taken from the recently reclaimed landwith higher salinity demonstrated a lower reflectance intensity in the spectral region from about 550 nm to2300 nm. In addition, nine absorption bands, i.e., 488 nm, 530 nm, 670 nm, 880 nm, 940 nm, 1400 nm,1 900 nm, 2 200 nm and 2 300 nm, were chosen as the spectral bands to investigate the relationships betweensoil physico-chemical properties by means of Pearson correlation analysis. Finally, the first two principalcomponents were calculated from nine absorption bands and used to discriminate the saline soil samplestaken from two sampled fields. The results indicate that it is feasible to detect physico-chemical propertiesof saline soils from fields reclaimed for varying time periods on the basis of the hyperspectral data.

  19. Prediction of the residue levels of drugs in eggs, using physicochemical properties and their influence on passive diffusion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schefferlie, G J; Hekman, P

    2016-08-01

    Based on a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model, describing the relationship between the plasma concentration of a drug and its deposition into eggs, general transport constants into yolk and albumen were derived, for a number of compounds, using experimental data from literature. Using only generally accepted concepts in passive diffusion theory, these transport constants were used to derive and calibrate general equations, describing the transport into yolk and albumen, in terms of the physicochemical properties of a drug. It is shown that, in theory, it is possible to calculate/predict the transport constants, using the physicochemical parameters: pKa and plasma protein binding. For a number of sulfonamides, the model was used to predict their distribution between egg yolk and albumen; the outcome was compared to data found in literature. Within this dataset, the lipophilic nature of a drug does not seem to play a major role in explaining the distribution ratio of a drug between albumen and yolk. PMID:26763131

  20. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Cassava Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    concentration had values of 5%, 6% and 8% and swelling power also had values of 13.60g, 7.63g and 9.02g. The setback and breakdown viscosities of native starch samples from Ankra, Bosome nsia and TME 419 were respectively 292BU, 265BU and 262.5BU, 1358BU, 1325.5BU and 1122BU. Analysis of variance treatment means indicated that irradiation significantly decreased amylose content and carbohydrate content,PH, L* and a* values but increased b* values. PH, amylose and carbohydrate contents were 7.98, 20.2% and 48.1% respectively for non-irradiated starch to 7.03, 13.3% and 27.5% for 20kGy starch. L*a*b* values were 96.7,-0.17,1.39 for 0kGy starch and 90.6,-0.38,2.98 for 20kGy starch. All the physicochemical indices were significantly influenced by the variety of cassava. The amyclose content of TME419, Ankra and Bosome nsia wer 14.5%, 16.4% and 18.2% respectively. Irradiation significantly increased starch water absorption capacity, solubility index, fat absorption capacity and least gelation concentration but decreased swelling power. These functional indices of starch were significantly influenced by the variety of the cassava. Irradiation had significant effects on the pasting indices measured. Peak viscosity, breakdown viscosity, setback viscosity and paste stability at 92 degrees celcius were 1822.3BU, 1268.5BU, 273.2BU, 269.5BU for native starch and 483.7BU, 397.5BU, 42.7BU and 185.3BU for starch treated with 20kGy. Paste stability at 50 degrees celcius for native starch was -110.5BU and -33.7BU for starch treated with 20kGy radiation. The properties of irradiated cassava starch were significantly different from non-irradiated starch and could be exploited for specific industrial applications. (au)

  1. Gluten-free spaghetti with unripe plantain, chickpea and maize: physicochemical, texture and sensory properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the physicochemical, textural and sensorial characteristics of gluten-free spaghetti elaborated with unripe plantain, chickpea and maize flours. Luminosity (L*) of the uncooked gluten-free spaghetti was not significantly different from control sampl...

  2. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  3. Physicochemical properties and stability of thousand-year-old soil organic matter in boreal paleopodzols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wen-Ting; Klaminder, Jonatan; Boily, Jean-Francois

    2013-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization mechanisms are key to predict carbon (C) cycle responses to climate change, especially in critically sensitive ecosystems, such as the arctic and boreal ecosystems of Scandinavia (IPCC 2007). Interactions between organic matter and soil mineral components can be of particular importance. Their impacts on SOM stability are however not fully resolved. In this study, we present an exhaustive physicochemical characterization of SOM and soil mineral components of boreal paleopodzols formed over several thousands of years in northern Sweden. We also test the hypothesis that old SOM in these environments is strongly associated to mineral surfaces. This work was specifically focused on two relict podzolic profiles capped by more recently developed podzolic profile. Each of the three profiles consisted of a well developed E-horizon and of an underlying B-horizon enriched in secondary weathering products. Soil C age was greater with increasing depth, with the deepest horizon dating from the mid-Holocene. Organic C loadings, expressed in terms of C mass per mineral surface area, decreased from 0.52 to 0.31 mg C m-2 from deep to the deepest B horizons. A monolayer coating model could thus be used to suggest that C was mainly bonded to unsaturated mineral surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that, unlike in younger B-horizon, the oldest C of the deepest B-horizon did not accumulate in clusters. It was instead distributed more homogenously at the micrometer scale with soil mineral particles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy moreover showed that the top 1-10 nm of the mineral surfaces contained proportions of aliphatic-C, ether/alcohol-C, and amide-C that varied greatly amongst the three B horizons but not among the three E horizons. Different composition of SOM remained in deep E and B horizons, thereby suggesting a selective SOM preservation process that is controlled by the properties of

  4. Physico-Chemical and Catalytic Properties of Mesoporous CuO-ZrO2 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman N. Basahel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous CuO-ZrO2 catalysts were prepared and calcined at 500 °C. The performance of the synthesized catalysts for benzylation of benzene using benzyl chloride was studied. The bare support (macroporous ZrO2 offered 45% benzyl chloride conversion after reaction time of 10 h at 75 °C. Significant increase in benzyl chloride conversion (98% was observed after CuO loading (10 wt. % on porous ZrO2 support. The conversion was decreased to 80% with increase of CuO loading to 20 wt. %. Different characterization techniques (XRD, Raman, diffuse reflectance UV-vis, N2-physisorption, H2-TPR, XPS and acidity measurements were used to evaluate physico-chemical properties of CuO-ZrO2 catalysts; the results showed that the surface and structural characteristics of the ZrO2 phase as well as the interaction between CuO-ZrO2 species depend strongly on the CuO content. The results also indicated that ZrO2 support was comprised of monoclinic and tetragonal phases with macropores. An increase of the volume of monoclinic ZrO2 phase was observed after impregnation of 10 wt. % of CuO; however, stabilization of tetragonal ZrO2 phase was noticed after loading of 20 wt. % CuO. The presence of low-angle XRD peaks indicates that mesoscopic order is preserved in the calcined CuO-ZrO2 catalysts. XRD reflections due to CuO phase were not observed in case of 10 wt. % CuO supported ZrO2 sample; in contrast, the presence of crystalline CuO phase was observed in 20 wt. % CuO supported ZrO2 sample. The mesoporous 10 wt. % CuO supported ZrO2 catalyst showed stable catalytic activity for several reaction cycles. The observed high catalytic activity of this catalyst could be attributed to the presence of a higher number of dispersed interactive CuO (Cu2+-O-Zr4+ species, easy reducibility, and greater degree of accessible surface Lewis acid sites.

  5. The influence of physico-chemical properties of soils on the bioavailability of 65Zn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetkov, Ilia; Anisimov, Vyacheslav

    2014-05-01

    Stability of soils to the effects of man-made origin pollutants is determined by their buffer capaci-ty (the ability to inactivate pollutants in a soil - soil solution - plant system). Soils are character-ized by the same types of stability as the ecosystem as a whole. Increased migration activity of pollutants is a symptom of ecological trouble, due to the soil transformation in an unstable state. Thus, the problem of the stability of soil is one of the fundamental problems of modern science. The aim of the study was to estimate the buffering capacity of soil as a key factor of their ecological and geochemical stability with respect to a relatively long-lived radionuclides 65Zn (T1/2 = 224 days), representing the radiological hazard in the location of nuclear facilities. There was proposed a method for scoring the buffering capacity of soils as for 65Zn contamination. It's based on dependence between the main physico-chemical soil properties and accumulation of the radionuclide in the aboveground plant parts (barley kind of "Zazersky-85"). The role of the considered indicators of soil health in the accumulation of radiozinc by plants was defined. The essence of this technique was to assess the contribution of individual characteristics of the soil condition, which play the most important role in the regulation of mobility (and bioavailability) of radionuclides, using the method of stepwise multiple regression analysis. For this aim representative sampling was compiled (from 20 soil types and varieties belonging to different climatic zones of the European part of the Russian Federation), thus providing a wide range of variation of the studied physical and chemical parameters, and also vegetation model experiments using 65Zn were held. On the basis of the conducted statistical analysis was revealed that the dominant contribution to the variation of the effective trait (accumulation coefficient of 65Zn) make: CaCO3 content, mobile iron (Tamm extract) and pH. As a

  6. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties, antioxidant and microbial activities of sour cherry juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, due to the beneficial effects of bioactive compounds, demand for minimally processed fruits and fruit juices has increased rapidly in the world. In this study, sour cherry juice (SCJ) was exposed to gamma irradiation at 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 kGy and then stored at 4 °C for 60 days. Total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA), color, total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMC), antioxidant activity, organic acid profile, and microbial analysis were evaluated at regular intervals during the storage. Results indicated that irradiation did not have any significant effect on TSS, while level of TA increased significantly at the dose of 6 kGy (p<0.05). Furthermore, irradiation treatment and storage time led to a significant increase in L⁎ and b⁎ values and a decrease in a⁎ values. Total monomeric anthocyanin content of the irradiated SCJ was lower than that of the non-irradiated one (24% at 3.0 kGy) and also changed toward a more negative direction during the storage (63% at 3.0 kGy for 60 days). There was a significant decrease in the antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay) in both irradiated and stored SCJs. After irradiation (0–6 kGy), the results showed that the concentration of malic and oxalic acid significantly increased; but, the concentration of ascorbic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids significantly decreased. Gamma irradiation with doses of ≥3 kGy resulted in overall reduction in microbial loads. Based on the results obtained from the changes of physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and microbial analysis, irradiation of SCJ at doses of higher than 3.0 kGy is not recommended. - Highlights: • Sour cherry juice is an abundant source of functional compounds. • Thermal pasteurization is a common food processing method with some adverse effects. • Gamma irradiation has high potential for keeping fruit juice quality. • This technique improved the shelf life

  7. Physicochemical Properties of Lacquer Oils%漆籽油的物化特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董艳鹤; 王成章; 叶建中; 原姣姣; 周彦; 何源锋

    2012-01-01

    对陕西漆籽在不同处理下漆籽油的物化特征进行了分析,并对日本漆籽及江西引种漆籽嫁接苗与实生苗漆籽的漆籽油进行了化学成分的对比分析,结果表明:经过水洗和石油醚浸泡过的陕西漆籽核提取的漆籽油透明澄清,颜色浅,得率相应的由9.61%提高到14.87%,酸值分别为9.79和6.95,明显低于未经任何处理而直接提取漆籽油的样品,处理后提取的漆籽油的皂化价及过氧化值则比未处理提取的漆籽油低;陕西漆籽油的亚油酸的相对含量则高达72%,具有较高的应用价值.江西引种的漆籽皮核易于分离,漆籽油中亚油酸的相对含量为56.222%.%The physicochemical properties of lacquer oils from Shanxi under different pretreatments were studied in this paper. Chemical constituents of lacquer oils of Rhus Succedanea L. , seeding and grafting Rhus Succedanea L. from,Jiangxi were studied too. The results showed that lacquer oils after aqueous wash or soaked by petroleum ether are light and clarify in color, and its yield improves from 9. 61% to 14. 87% accordingly. Meanwhile, their acid value are 9. 79 and 6. 95 , respectively. This result is clearly lower than the lacquer oils without any pretreatment. The saponification value and peroxide value are lower, too. That the content of linoleic acid in lacquer oils from Shanxi is higher than 72 % results in a high application value. The skin and kernels of the introduced lacquer berries from Jiangxi are easier to be separated. Their relative contents of the linoleic acid are 56.222%.

  8. Semisynthetic bile acid FXR and TGR5 agonists: physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics, and metabolism in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Aldo; Pellicciari, Roberto; Gioiello, Antimo; Neri, Flavia; Camborata, Cecilia; Passeri, Daniela; De Franco, Francesca; Spinozzi, Silvia; Colliva, Carolina; Adorini, Luciano; Montagnani, Marco; Aldini, Rita

    2014-07-01

    We report on the relationship between the structure-pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and therapeutic activity of semisynthetic bile acid analogs, including 6α-ethyl-3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid (a selective farnesoid X receptor [FXR] receptor agonist), 6α-ethyl-23(S)-methyl-3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid (a specific Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 [TGR5] receptor agonist), and 6α-ethyl-3α,7α-dihydroxy-24-nor-5β-cholan-23-sulfate (a dual FXR/TGR5 agonist). We measured the main physicochemical properties of these molecules, including ionization constants, water solubility, lipophilicity, detergency, and protein binding. Biliary secretion and metabolism and plasma and hepatic concentrations were evaluated by high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry in bile fistula rat and compared with natural analogs chenodeoxycholic, cholic acid, and taurochenodexycholic acid and intestinal bacteria metabolism was evaluated in terms of 7α-dehydroxylase substrate-specificity in anaerobic human stool culture. The semisynthetic derivatives detergency, measured in terms of their critical micellar concentration, was quite similar to the natural analogs. They were slightly more lipophilic than the corresponding natural analogs, evaluated by their 1-octanol water partition coefficient (log P), because of the ethyl group in 6 position, which makes these molecules very stable toward bacterial 7-dehydroxylation. The hepatic metabolism and biliary secretion were different: 6α-ethyl-3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid, as chenodeoxycholic acid, was efficiently conjugated with taurine in the liver and, only in this form, promptly and efficiently secreted in bile. 6α-Ethyl-23(S)-methyl-3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid was poorly conjugated with taurine because of the steric hindrance of the methyl at C23(S) position metabolized to the C23(R) isomer and partly conjugated with taurine. Conversely, 6

  9. Ion-ion correlation, solvent excluded volume and pH effects on physicochemical properties of spherical oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovanesyan, Zaven; Aljzmi, Amal; Almusaynid, Manal; Khan, Asrar; Valderrama, Esteban; Nash, Kelly L; Marucho, Marcelo

    2016-01-15

    One major source of complexity in the implementation of nanoparticles in aqueous electrolytes arises from the strong influence that biological environments has on their physicochemical properties. A key parameter for understanding the molecular mechanisms governing the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles is the formation of the surface charge density. In this article, we present an efficient and accurate approach that combines a recently introduced classical solvation density functional theory for spherical electrical double layers with a surface complexation model to account for ion-ion correlation and excluded volume effects on the surface titration of spherical nanoparticles. We apply the proposed computational approach to account for the charge-regulated mechanisms on the surface chemistry of spherical silica (SiO2) nanoparticles. We analyze the effects of the nanoparticle size, as well as pH level and electrolyte concentration of the aqueous solution on the nanoparticle's surface charge density and Zeta potential. We validate our predictions for 580Å and 200Å nanoparticles immersed in acid, neutral and alkaline mono-valent aqueous electrolyte solutions against experimental data. Our results on mono-valent electrolyte show that the excluded volume and ion-ion correlations contribute significantly to the surface charge density and Zeta potential of the nanoparticle at high electrolyte concentration and pH levels, where the solvent crowding effects and electrostatic screening have shown a profound influence on the protonation/deprotonation reactions at the liquid/solute interface. The success of this approach in describing physicochemical properties of silica nanoparticles supports its broader application to study other spherical metal oxide nanoparticles.

  10. PbO2 based composite materials deposited from suspension electrolytes: electrosynthesis, physico-chemical and electrochemical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Velichenko, Alexander; Knysh, Valentina; Luk’yanenko, Tatiana; Dmitrikova, Larisa; Velichenko, Yulia; Devilliers, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Composite materials based on PbO2 containing TiO2 or ZrO2 were prepared from electrolytes containing a suspension of TiO2 or ZrO2. The contents of foreign oxides in the composite depend on the electrolyte composition and conditions of deposition. When a dispersed phase is incorporated into the composite coating, the dimensions of lead dioxide crystals decrease to submicro- and nano-size. Physico-chemical properties and electrocatalytic activity of composite materials are mainly determin...

  11. Physicochemical, morphological, thermal and IR spectral changes in the properties of waxy rice starch modified with vinyl acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Kalita, Dipankar; Kaushik, Neelima; Mahanta, Charu L.

    2012-01-01

    Waxy rice starch was modified with vinyl acetate at levels of 4, 6, 8, and 10 % with degree of substitution of 0.021, 0.023, 0.032 and 0.056. The modified starches were studied for physicochemical, morphological, thermal and infra red spectral properties. Waxy starch acetates had high water holding capacity and did not sediment. Scanning electron microscopy revealed surface damage of the granules and their fusion. X ray diffractography showed that crystalline peak intensity had increased on a...

  12. Resistant starch content, in vitro starch digestibility and physico-chemical properties of flour and starch from Thai bananas

    OpenAIRE

    Nednapis Vatanasuchart

    2012-01-01

    Flour and starch were prepared from six Thai banana cultivars: Kluai Hom, Kluai Khai,Kluai Lebmuenang, Kluai Namwa, Kluai Hakmuk and Kluai Hin, and their resistant starch (RS), invitro starch digestibility and physico-chemical properties were determined. The RS content of theflour is 52.2-68.1%, with flour from Kluai Hin containing the highest amount of RS, followed by thatfrom Kluai Hakmuk. The starch has a higher RS content (70.1-79.2%), the highest value comingfrom Kluai Hakmuk starch, fol...

  13. Synthesis, characterization, photo and physicochemical properties of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and tetraaniline capped CdS quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface modification of quantum dots (QDs) for improved photo and physicochemical properties is a topic of potential technological interest. Herein, we report on the synthesis of aggregation free 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and tetraaniline (TA) capped CdS QDs with narrow size distribution (∼2.3 nm diameter), which are further characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The TA capped CdS QDs show improved photoluminescence and photostability, which is attributed to the effective grafting of TA on CdS QDs through N-atoms, changing the surface chemical environment and facilitating charge transfer.

  14. Synthesis, characterization, photo and physicochemical properties of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and tetraaniline capped CdS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wen-Yin [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Ghule, Anil Vithal, E-mail: anighule@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jia-Yaw; Chen, Bo-Jung; Liu, Jen-Yu; Tzing, Shin-Hwa [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Ling, Yong-Chien, E-mail: ycling@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-01

    Surface modification of quantum dots (QDs) for improved photo and physicochemical properties is a topic of potential technological interest. Herein, we report on the synthesis of aggregation free 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and tetraaniline (TA) capped CdS QDs with narrow size distribution ({approx}2.3 nm diameter), which are further characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The TA capped CdS QDs show improved photoluminescence and photostability, which is attributed to the effective grafting of TA on CdS QDs through N-atoms, changing the surface chemical environment and facilitating charge transfer.

  15. Effect of α-Amylase Degradation on Physicochemical Properties of Pre-High Hydrostatic Pressure-Treated Potato Starch

    OpenAIRE

    Tai-Hua Mu; Miao Zhang; Leyla Raad; Hong-Nan Sun; Cheng Wang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the susceptibility of potato starch (25%, w/v) suspended in water to degradation by exposure to bacterial α-amylase (0.02%, 0.04% and 0.06%, w/v) for 40 min at 25°C was investigated. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the structure, morphology and physicochemical properties were observed. HHP-treated potato starch (PS) exposed to α-amylase (0.06%, w/v) showed a significantly greater degree of hydrolysis and amount of reducing sugar released ...

  16. Protein sequence analysis by incorporating modified chaos game and physicochemical properties into Chou's general pseudo amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunrui; Sun, Dandan; Liu, Shenghui; Zhang, Yusen

    2016-10-01

    In this contribution we introduced a novel graphical method to compare protein sequences. By mapping a protein sequence into 3D space based on codons and physicochemical properties of 20 amino acids, we are able to get a unique P-vector from the 3D curve. This approach is consistent with wobble theory of amino acids. We compute the distance between sequences by their P-vectors to measure similarities/dissimilarities among protein sequences. Finally, we use our method to analyze four datasets and get better results compared with previous approaches. PMID:27375218

  17. Tetrahydroquinolines as a novel series of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators: structural requirements for better physicochemical and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Naoya; Miyakawa, Motonori; Amano, Seiji; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Noriko; Nejishima, Hiroaki; Inoguchi, Kiyoshi

    2011-11-01

    A rationally designed tetrahydroquinoline (1) for nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators was modified for the exploration of promising compounds by Grieco three-component condensation using various dienophiles. Based on the in vitro effects and physicochemical properties of the synthesized compounds, compound 4c was selected for further study. Compound 4c increased the femoral bone mineral density as much as DHT, but it reduced the uterus effect compared with DHT in ovariectomized rats. Thus, compound 4c has desirable osteoanabolic effects with weak undesirable effects on the uterus in a female osteoporosis model.

  18. Modified β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex to improve the physicochemical properties of albendazole. complete in vitro evaluation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Agustina; Leonardi, Darío; Salazar, Mario Oscar; Lamas, María Celina

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of natural cyclodextrins and their synthetic derivatives have been studied extensively in pharmaceutical research and development to modify certain properties of hydrophobic drugs. The ability of these host molecules of including guest molecules within their cavities improves notably the physicochemical properties of poorly soluble drugs, such as albendazole, the first chosen drug to treat gastrointestinal helminthic infections. Thus, the aim of this work was to synthesize a beta cyclodextrin citrate derivative, to analyze its ability to form complexes with albendazole and to evaluate its solubility and dissolution rate. The synthesis progress of the cyclodextrin derivative was followed by electrospray mass spectrometry and the acid-base titration of the product. The derivative exhibited an important drug affinity. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments demonstrated that the tail and the aromatic ring of the drug were inside the cavity of the cyclodextrin derivative. The inclusion complex was prepared by spray drying and full characterized. The drug dissolution rate displayed exceptional results, achieving 100% drug release after 20 minutes. The studies indicated that the inclusion complex with the cyclodextrin derivative improved remarkably the physicochemical properties of albendazole, being a suitable excipient to design oral dosage forms. PMID:24551084

  19. Influence of addition of calcium oxide on physicochemical properties of Portland cement with zirconium or niobium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tanomaru-Filho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Calcium oxide (CaO may be added to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA or Portland cement (PC to improve physicochemical and biological properties. Aims: To evaluate the physicochemical properties of PC associated with radiopacifiers and CaO. Materials and Methods: MTA Angelus, PC + 30% zirconium oxide (Zr, or 30% niobium oxide (Nb associated with 10 or 20% of CaO were evaluated. Gilmore needles were used to evaluate initial and final setting time. Compressive strength was evaluated after the periods of 24 hours and 21 days. pH was analyzed after 3, 12, 24 hours, 7, 14, 21 days. Solubility and flow tests were performed based on the ISO 6876. The data obtained were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey tests (P ≤ 0.05. Results: The associations with 10% CaO showed greater strength that the associations with 20% CaO. The shortest initial setting time was observed for the association PC + Zr + 20% CaO and MTA. All the cements presented alkaline pH. The flow of all cements was similar. The highest solubility was found in the associations with 20% CaO. Conclusion: The addition of CaO to PC favored the alkaline property and the PC + Zr + 20% CaO presented setting time similar to MTA.

  20. Modified β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex to improve the physicochemical properties of albendazole. complete in vitro evaluation and characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina García

    Full Text Available The potential use of natural cyclodextrins and their synthetic derivatives have been studied extensively in pharmaceutical research and development to modify certain properties of hydrophobic drugs. The ability of these host molecules of including guest molecules within their cavities improves notably the physicochemical properties of poorly soluble drugs, such as albendazole, the first chosen drug to treat gastrointestinal helminthic infections. Thus, the aim of this work was to synthesize a beta cyclodextrin citrate derivative, to analyze its ability to form complexes with albendazole and to evaluate its solubility and dissolution rate. The synthesis progress of the cyclodextrin derivative was followed by electrospray mass spectrometry and the acid-base titration of the product. The derivative exhibited an important drug affinity. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments demonstrated that the tail and the aromatic ring of the drug were inside the cavity of the cyclodextrin derivative. The inclusion complex was prepared by spray drying and full characterized. The drug dissolution rate displayed exceptional results, achieving 100% drug release after 20 minutes. The studies indicated that the inclusion complex with the cyclodextrin derivative improved remarkably the physicochemical properties of albendazole, being a suitable excipient to design oral dosage forms.

  1. Effect of natamycin, nisin and glycerol on the physicochemical properties, roughness and hydrophobicity of tapioca starch edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollé Resa, Carolina P; Jagus, Rosa J; Gerschenson, Lía N

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, films based on tapioca starch and containing nisin, natamycin and glycerol were characterized in relation to their physicochemical properties, roughness and hydrophobicity. The content of glycerol affected the mechanical properties of the films studied and the roughness and it was observed an increase in WVP with the increase in glycerol content. The addition of antimicrobials affected the mechanical properties, being nisin the one that produced the greater decrease in the Young modulus. The color was highly affected by the joint presence of natamycin and nisin, which increased the yellow index. The contact angle increased with antimicrobial addition indicating a decrease in hydrophilicity. Nisin also affected the roughness of the films. Water vapor permeability was slightly reduced by the presence of natamycin. It was observed that water vapor permeability and contact angle were correlated with the roughness of the films.

  2. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF PLA-CHITOSAN BLENDS OBTAINED BY CASTING WITH POTENTIAL USE AS AGRICULTURAL MULCH FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Merino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available PLA-Chitosan films compatibilized with hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI were obtained by casting and subsequent hot pressing. The films were prepared with different contents of chitosan (CS and then its physicochemical properties were studied by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, optical microscopy (OM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. It was found that the compatibilizing agent reacts completely and that chitosan affects the thermal properties of the films decreasing their decomposition temperatures, glass transition temperature (Tg and melting (Tm and increase its crystallinity. From the functional standpoint, antimicrobial properties of each blend were tested against Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC-3000. The increase in chitosan content was proportional to the antimicrobial effect allowing project its potential application in the agronomic field.

  3. Investigating the relationship between nanomaterial hazard and physicochemical properties: Informing the exploitation of nanomaterials within therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Helinor; Brown, David; Kermanizadeh, Ali; Gubbins, Eva; Stone, Vicki

    2012-12-28

    Nanomaterials (NMs) have the potential to improve the treatment and diagnosis of disease as they are suitable candidates for a number of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. On entering the body via a variety of exposure routes, and during their translocation to secondary target sites it is inevitable that NMs interact with biological molecules, such as proteins. These interactions may influence the behaviour and toxicity of NMs following exposure. As the surface of NMs is what interacts with cells and tissues it is necessary to identify the influence of NM surface properties on their toxicity, and determine how this is influenced by the route of exposure, and physico-chemical characteristics of NMs. The term protein corona is used to describe the coating of the NM surface with protein. The protein corona is a dynamic and complex structure whose composition is dictated by the biological medium and the physico-chemical properties of NMs (such as their size, composition, hydrophobicity and charge) as this influences protein binding specificity and affinity. Depending on the route of exposure (e.g. inhalation or injection) NMs will encounter different proteins. We have observed that i) the composition of protein corona of NMs is likely to be dictated by their route of entry, ii) the translocation of NMs to secondary target sites may influence the composition of the protein corona (i.e. they encounter different proteins on their transport in the body) so that the composition of the protein corona evolves over time, iii) the physico-chemical characteristics of NMs dictate the composition of the protein corona, and the toxicity of NMs and iv) NMs can affect secondary target sites that vary according to delivery route and corona composition following exposure. These findings, and evidence from the wider literature has therefore led us to hypothesise that NM toxicity is dictated by the exposure route due to the acquisition of a surface coating (protein corona) that is

  4. Differences in ecological impacts of systemic insecticides with different physicochemical properties on biocenosis of experimental paddy fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Daisuke; Korenaga, Tomoko; Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    The environmental risks of pesticides are typically determined by laboratory single-species tests based on OECD test guidelines, even if biodiversity should also be taken into consideration. To evaluate how realistic these assessments are, ecological changes caused by the systemic insecticides imidacloprid and fipronil, which have different physicochemical properties, when applied at recommended commercial rates on rice fields were monitored using experimental paddy mesocosms. A total of 178 species were observed. There were no significant differences in abundance of crop arthropods among the experimental paddies. However, zooplankton, benthic and neuston communities in imidacloprid-treated field had significantly less abundance of species than control and fipronil fields. Significant differences in abundance of nekton community were also found between both insecticide-treated paddies and control. Influences on the growth of medaka fish were also found in both adults and their fries. Both Principal Response Curve analysis (PRC) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) showed the time series variations in community structure among treatments, in particular for imidacloprid during the middle stage of the experimental period. These results show the ecological effect-concentrations (LOEC ~ 1 μg/l) of these insecticides in mesocosms, especially imidacloprid, are clearly different from their laboratory tests. We suggest that differences in the duration of the recovery process among groups of species are due to different physicochemical properties of the insecticides. Therefore, realistic prediction and assessment of pesticide effects at the community level should consider not only the sensitivity traits and interaction among species but also the differences in physicochemical characteristics of each pesticide. PMID:21877228

  5. Influence of Chemical Extraction Conditions on the Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Polysaccharide Gum from Durian (Durio zibethinus Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Tabatabaee Amid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Durian seed is an agricultural biomass waste of durian fruit. It can be a natural plant source of non-starch polysaccharide gum with potential functional properties. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of chemical extraction variables (i.e., the decolouring time, soaking temperature and soaking time on the physicochemical properties of durian seed gum. The physicochemical and functional properties of chemically-extracted durian seed gum were assessed by determining the particle size and distribution, solubility and the water- and oil-holding capacity (WHC and OHC. The present work revealed that the soaking time should be considered as the most critical extraction variable affecting the physicochemical properties of crude durian seed gum.

  6. Seasonal Variation in Physicochemical Properties of Soil within the Vicinity of an Iron Smelting Factory - Implication on Standing Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusanya Abiodun OLATUNJI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the seasonal variations in the physicochemical properties of soil around the vicinity of an iron smelting factory in Fashina area, Ile-Ife, with the aim of monitoring the impact on the soil characteristics, nutrient availability and its possible consequence on the surrounding vegetation. Four study plots, each measuring 50 × 50 m were selected around the iron and smelting Factory. Soil samples were collected randomly and analysed during the rainy and dry seasons at a depth of 0-20 cm, representing the top soil using soil auger. The soil samples were analysed for particle size, soil texture, pH and availability of some basic soil nutrient such as nitrogen, organic carbon, potassium, phosphorus, etc. The study revealed that the physicochemical properties of soil in focus varied across the plots, which may be a consequence of the gradient created by the citing of iron smelting factory, but the data obtained did not significantly varied within the seasons. Furthermore, high organic matter was recorded in all the plots under study; this might be due to the fact that the study area was rich in clay. More clayey soils generally tend to contain higher levels of organic matter, mainly because of the tendency of clays to slow down microbial degradation of organic matter, as clays form clay-humus complexes with organic matter. Also, the heavy metal distribution varied within the two seasons, as most of the metals showed high level of concentration in the rainy season.

  7. Evaluation of Mixed Probiotic Starter Cultures Isolated from Kimchi on Physicochemical and Functional Properties, and Volatile Compounds of Fermented Hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Joo; Park, Sung Yong; Lee, Hong Chul; Yoo, Seung Seok; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Chin, Koo Bok

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mixed starter cultures isolated from kimchi on physicochemical properties, functionality and flavors of fermented ham. Physicochemical properties, microbial counts, shear force, cholesterol contents and volatile compounds of fermented ham were investigated during processing (curing and ripening time). Curing process for 7 d increased saltiness, however, decreased hunter color values (L, a, and b values). Ripening process for 21 d increased most parameters, such as saltiness, color values, weight loss, shear force and cholesterol content due to the drying process. The mixed starter culture had higher lactic acid bacteria than the commercial one. While eight volatile compounds were identified from fermented hams during curing process, total fiftyeight volatile compounds were identified from fermented hams during ripening process. The main volatile compounds were alcohols, esters and furans. However, no differences in volatile compounds were observed between two batches. Fermented hams (batch B) manufactured with probiotic starter culture (LPP) had higher sensory score in texture, color and overall acceptability than counterparts (batch A), while the opposite trend was observed in flavor. Therefore, mixed probiotic starter culture isolated from kimchi might be used as a starter culture to be able to replace with commercial starter culture (LK-30 plus) for the manufacture of fermented ham. PMID:27499673

  8. Type II collagen and gelatin from silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) cartilage: isolation, purification, physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevithan, Elango; Bao, Bin; Bu, Yongshi; Zhou, Yu; Zhao, Qingbo; Wu, Wenhui

    2014-07-01

    Type II acid soluble collagen (CIIA), pepsin soluble collagen (CIIP) and type II gelatin (GII) were isolated from silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) cartilage and examined for their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. GII had a higher hydroxyproline content (173 mg/g) than the collagens and cartilage. CIIA, CIIP and GII were composed of two identical α1 and β chains and were characterized as type II. Amino acid analysis of CIIA, CIIP and GII indicated imino acid contents of 150, 156 and 153 amino acid residues per 1000 residues, respectively. Differing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of CIIA, CIIP and GII were observed, which suggested that the isolation process affected the secondary structure and molecular order of collagen, particularly the triple-helical structure. The denaturation temperature of GII (32.5 °C) was higher than that of CIIA and CIIP. The antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and the reducing power of CIIP was greater than that of CIIA and GII. SEM microstructure of the collagens depicted a porous, fibrillary and multi-layered structure. Accordingly, the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of type II collagens (CIIA, CIIP) and GII isolated from shark cartilage were found to be suitable for biomedical applications. PMID:24979271

  9. Preparation of dietary fiber powder from tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) milk ("Horchata") byproducts and its physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Zapata, Elena; Fuentes-Zaragoza, Evangélica; Fernández-López, Juana; Sendra, Esther; Sayas, Estrella; Navarro, Casilda; Pérez-Alvarez, Jose Angel

    2009-09-01

    "Horchata" is a vegetable milk obtained from tiger nuts. The solid waste from horchata production was analyzed for physicochemical and microbial properties, aiming to determine its potential use as a fiber source for the food industry. The solid waste contains a high proportion of total dietary fiber (59.71 g/100 g), composed mainly of insoluble dietary fiber (99.8%). It has a high water-holding capacity (8.01 g/g) and oil-holding capacity (6.92 g/g) and a low water absorption (1.79 g/g) and water adsorption (0.23 g/g) capacities, in comparison with other dietary fiber sources. The emulsifying ability was 70.33 mL/100 mL, and the wastes showed high emulsion stability (100 mL/100 mL). The physicochemical properties indicate that tiger nut byproducts are rich in fiber and may be considered a potential ingredient in a healthy diet. However, the microbial quality was poor, meaning that it must be pasteurized prior to its addition to any food product. PMID:19670887

  10. Physicochemical properties of ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents and their electrochemical evaluation using organometallic reference redox systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Physicochemical properties of seven deep eutectic solvents as electrolytes measured. • Walden plot showed ideal ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents. • Potential windows of all deep eutectic solvents determined. • Diffusion coefficients and rate constants of organometallic redox couples measured. • Rate constants of deep eutectic solvents were lower than those of ionic liquids. -- Abstract: Seven deep eutectic solvents (DESs) containing ammonium based salts are prepared by means of hydrogen bonding with acid, amine, amide and nitrate based compounds. The major physicochemical properties of the DESs in terms of density, viscosity, electrical conductivity, molar conductivity and pH are investigated prior to ascertaining their electrochemical characteristics by means of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Nitrate based DESs exhibit higher conductivities but lower viscosities than other DESs, whereas the amide based DES displays the widest electrochemical potential window. Diffusion coefficient, D, of two organometallic redox couples, Fc/Fc+ (ferrocene/ferrocenium) and Cc/Cc+(cobaltocene/cobaltocenium) is found to be of the order of 10−9 to 10−8 cm2 s−1 in all studied DESs while the heterogeneous rate constant for electron transfer across the electrode/DES interface is of the order of 10−4 cm s−1. The Stokes–Einstein products of Fc and Cc+ in the DESs have also been determined

  11. Type II Collagen and Gelatin from Silvertip Shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus Cartilage: Isolation, Purification, Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elango Jeevithan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Type II acid soluble collagen (CIIA, pepsin soluble collagen (CIIP and type II gelatin (GII were isolated from silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus cartilage and examined for their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. GII had a higher hydroxyproline content (173 mg/g than the collagens and cartilage. CIIA, CIIP and GII were composed of two identical α1 and β chains and were characterized as type II. Amino acid analysis of CIIA, CIIP and GII indicated imino acid contents of 150, 156 and 153 amino acid residues per 1000 residues, respectively. Differing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra of CIIA, CIIP and GII were observed, which suggested that the isolation process affected the secondary structure and molecular order of collagen, particularly the triple-helical structure. The denaturation temperature of GII (32.5 °C was higher than that of CIIA and CIIP. The antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and the reducing power of CIIP was greater than that of CIIA and GII. SEM microstructure of the collagens depicted a porous, fibrillary and multi-layered structure. Accordingly, the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of type II collagens (CIIA, CIIP and GII isolated from shark cartilage were found to be suitable for biomedical applications.

  12. Improving drug candidates by design: a focus on physicochemical properties as a means of improving compound disposition and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meanwell, Nicholas A

    2011-09-19

    The development of small molecule drug candidates from the discovery phase to a marketed product continues to be a challenging enterprise with very low success rates that have fostered the perception of poor productivity by the pharmaceutical industry. Although there have been significant advances in preclinical profiling that have improved compound triaging and altered the underlying reasons for compound attrition, the failure rates have not appreciably changed. As part of an effort to more deeply understand the reasons for candidate failure, there has been considerable interest in analyzing the physicochemical properties of marketed drugs for the purpose of comparing with drugs in discovery and development as a means capturing recent trends in drug design. The scenario that has emerged is one in which contemporary drug discovery is thought to be focused too heavily on advancing candidates with profiles that are most easily satisfied by molecules with increased molecular weight and higher overall lipophilicity. The preponderance of molecules expressing these properties is frequently a function of increased aromatic ring count when compared with that of the drugs launched in the latter half of the 20th century and may reflect a preoccupation with maximizing target affinity rather than taking a more holistic approach to drug design. These attributes not only present challenges for formulation and absorption but also may influence the manifestation of toxicity during development. By providing some definition around the optimal physicochemical properties associated with marketed drugs, guidelines for drug design have been developed that are based largely on calculated parameters and which may readily be applied by medicinal chemists as an aid to understanding candidate quality. The physicochemical properties of a molecule that are consistent with the potential for good oral absorption were initially defined by Lipinski, with additional insights allowing further

  13. Physico-chemical properties and the microflora of Moroccan black table olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asehraou, A.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Eleven samples of Moroccan black table olives were analyzed for their microflora and the physico-chemical factors. A survey of the most frequent microorganisms including standard plate count (SPC, counts of the indicator microorganisms (total and fecal coliforms and enterococci, staphylococci. Salmonella, sporeforming bacteria (Clostridium and Bacillus and yeasts and molds was determined. The physico-chemical factors grouped pH, aw, NaCl concentration and the ADV (Acid degree value of the fatty matter. Results reported hereby showed a low microbial load except for the yeasts and molds. The values found for the physico-chemical factors (low for the pH and the aw and high for the ADV and salt content would suggest an inhibitory effect on the initial microflora charge of the black table olives.

    Se estudiaron la microflora y las propiedades físico-químicas de aceitunas negras de mesa en 11 muestras. Los microorganismos más abundantes contados incluyeron: flora mesofila total, indicadores de contaminación fecal (Coliformes totales y fecales, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, esporulados (Bacillus y Clostridium y levaduras y mohos. Los análisis físico-químicos incluyeron: aw (actividad de agua, pH, índice de acidez de la materia grasa y concentración de NaCl. Los resultados nos demuestran perfiles microbianos bajos para todos los microorganismos excepto levaduras y mohos. Los valores bajos de pH y de aw, y otros elevados del índice de acidez y del contenido en sal, nos sugiere una Inhibición de estos factores sobre e! crecimiento y/o la supervivencia de la microflora de las aceitunas negras de mesa.

  14. Effect of Pre-Harvest Sprouting on Physicochemical Properties of Starch in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Senay Simsek; Jae-Bom Ohm; Haiyan Lu; Mory Rugg; William Berzonsky; Alamri, Mohammed S.; Mohamed Mergoum

    2014-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) occurs when physiologically mature kernels begin germinating in the spike. The objective of this study was to provide fundamental information on physicochemical changes of starch due to PHS in Hard Red Spring (HRS) and Hard White Spring (HWS) wheat. The mean values of α-amylase activity of non-sprouted and sprouted wheat samples were 0.12 CU/g and 2.00 CU/g, respectively. Sprouted samples exhibited very low peak and final viscositi...

  15. Antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of an acidic polysaccharide from Morinda officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hualin; Li, Jun; Xia, Jingmin; Lin, Sanqing

    2013-07-01

    An acidic polysaccharide APMO was isolated from Morinda officinalis by alkaline solvent extraction followed by fractionation treatments. Its antioxidant activities were evaluated by various methods in vitro, APMO presented excellent capability in scavenging DPPH radicals, chelating ferrous ions and inhibiting hemolysis of rats erythrocyte induced by H2O2, which was stronger than those of Vc at high concentration. Moreover, APMO displayed moderate reducing power. Physicochemical characteristics of APMO were observed by a combination of chemical and instrumental analysis. APMO predominantly consisted of galacturonic acid, arabinose and galactose. Galacturonic acid was assigned to be 1→4 glycosyl linkage in the skeleton of APMO. PMID:23511058

  16. Effect of Synthesis Conditions on Physicochemical Properties of Zeolite SUZ-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Deok Kyu; Park, Sang Eon [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ho [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young Kyu; Chang, Jong San [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    Zeolite SUZ-4 was successfully synthesized with TEAOH (Tetraethyl ammonium hydroxide) as structure directing agent under a vigorous stirring condition. Well-defined zeolite SUZ-4 structure was only obtained under stirring of 250 rpm or more. The results imply that stirring plays a pivotal role for reproducible synthesis. Morphology of SUZ-4 crystal was controlled by adjustment of water concentrations. The physicochemical characterization of SUZ- 4 and its hydrothermal stability using a steam treatment were investigated by using XRD, BET, and NH{sub 3}-TPD.

  17. Effect of hot-air drying on the physicochemical properties of kaffir lime leaves (Citrus hystrix)

    OpenAIRE

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; Lasekan, Ola; Muhammad, Kharidah; Karim, Shahrim

    2013-01-01

    The effect of hot-air drying namely drying time (3-15 h), drying temperature (40-80°C) and loading capacity (0.5-2.0 kg/m2 ) on the physicochemical characteristics of kaffir lime leaves was optimized using Response Surface Methodology. Twenty treatments were assigned based on the second- order CCD including 6 center points, 6 axial points and 8 factorial points. The quality of dried kaffir lime leaves was evaluated by determining moisture content, water activity, texture (brittleness) and Hun...

  18. [Effect of physico-chemical properties of polyacrylamide gel media on the growth of Escherichia coli colonies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, V B; Bulatova, R F; Domotenko, L V; Inkovskaia, T E; Artiukhin, V I

    1992-01-01

    We studied the growth of Escherichia coli LE-392 colonies on polyacrylamide gels (PAAG) depending on the physico-chemical properties of the latter, i.e. polymer concentration in the gel, swelling degree, bound water content (fm), spin-lattice relaxation and spin-spin relaxation times of water molecule protons, and modulus of elasticity (G0). S- or R-type colonies formed depending on gel properties; the diametral growth rate of S colonies was 3 times less compared with that on the control agar medium (Tryptose broth). The procedure is proposed for preparation of PAAG which rules out syneresis. Functional relations between the polymer concentrations in uniformly swelling gels and concentrations of copolymers in the reaction mixture, fm and G0 were revealed. The fm and G0 parameters can be used for controlling the quality of PAAG.

  19. Assessment of the Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Properties of Borehole Water Samples from Akungba - Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLAJUBU, F. A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Water is very important to the existence of humans, though could also serve as vehicle of pathogenic organisms and dangerous organic and inorganic matters. The physicochemical and microbiological analysis of seven borehole water samples used by Akungba- Akoko residents were carried out with the aim of ascertaining their suitability or otherwise for human consumption. Methods: The total hardness, pH, alkalinity, some common elements and presence of toxic metals were determined. The Most Probable Number (MPN was used for the detection and isolation of the contaminating microorganisms. Results: In the physicochemical analysis of the borehole water samples, the lowest pH (6.54 was recorded in IBK1 sample while AKA water sample gave highest calcium concentration (86.97mg/L. The total hardness ranged between 171.76 and 327.33mg/L. Elements such as manganese, zinc, copper, cadmium were below detectable levels in the water samples. Seven bacteria species, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi and Proteus vulgaris were isolated. AKA sample gave the highest bacteria count of 1.6 X 105 cfu/ml. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated among the bacteria, having been isolated in three of out of the seven samples examined. The antibiotics susceptibility test showed that Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoniae were susceptible to most antibiotics. Conclusion: The physicochemical properties and the bacteria load of most of the water samples were within WHO standard for drinking water hence, the water samples can be declared fit for drinking.

  20. Proximate analysis and physico-chemical properties of flour from the seeds of the China chestnut, Sterculia monosperma Ventenat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noitang, S; Sooksai, S A; Foophow, T; Petsom, A

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional composition of China chestnut seeds, Sterculia monosperma Vent. and analyze the physico-chemical properties of flour from the seeds. The results obtained on proximate analysis of China chestnut seeds, S. monosperma, revealed that they contained mostly carbohydrate (73.7% dm), followed by fat (12.0% dm), protein (7.8% dm), fiber (5.5% dm) and ash (1.0% dm). They have a relatively high content of potassium (12.3 mg g(-1) dm) following by phosphorus (2.30 mg g(-1) dm), magnesium (1.87 mg g(-1) dm), sulfur (0.88 mg g(-1) dm) and calcium (0.14 mg g(-1) dm). The fatty acids profile was found to be composed of mainly palmitic (42%) and oleic acids (34%), with general long-chain fatty acids the other significant component by mass (13%). Glutamic acid (17.4%), aspartic acid (12.5%) and arginine (12.5%) were the three major amino acid constituents. The purified seed starch was investigated for its morphological, starch content and physico-chemical properties, such as amylose content, swelling power, solubility and pasting properties. The starch granules were quite round, about 10-15 micron diameter and composed of more than 35% (w/w) of amylose. The pasting properties of flour from the seeds of S. monosperma revealed that gelatinization began at 72.6-73.2 degrees C and the maximum viscosity in the holding period at 95 degrees C was 633 BU. Interestingly and potentially of use, was that the viscosity at the cooling period was more than two-fold higher than that in the holding period.

  1. Improved classification of lung cancer tumors based on structural and physicochemical properties of proteins using data mining models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Geetha Ramani

    Full Text Available Detecting divergence between oncogenic tumors plays a pivotal role in cancer diagnosis and therapy. This research work was focused on designing a computational strategy to predict the class of lung cancer tumors from the structural and physicochemical properties (1497 attributes of protein sequences obtained from genes defined by microarray analysis. The proposed methodology involved the use of hybrid feature selection techniques (gain ratio and correlation based subset evaluators with Incremental Feature Selection followed by Bayesian Network prediction to discriminate lung cancer tumors as Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC and the COMMON classes. Moreover, this methodology eliminated the need for extensive data cleansing strategies on the protein properties and revealed the optimal and minimal set of features that contributed to lung cancer tumor classification with an improved accuracy compared to previous work. We also attempted to predict via supervised clustering the possible clusters in the lung tumor data. Our results revealed that supervised clustering algorithms exhibited poor performance in differentiating the lung tumor classes. Hybrid feature selection identified the distribution of solvent accessibility, polarizability and hydrophobicity as the highest ranked features with Incremental feature selection and Bayesian Network prediction generating the optimal Jack-knife cross validation accuracy of 87.6%. Precise categorization of oncogenic genes causing SCLC and NSCLC based on the structural and physicochemical properties of their protein sequences is expected to unravel the functionality of proteins that are essential in maintaining the genomic integrity of a cell and also act as an informative source for drug design, targeting essential protein properties and their composition that are found to exist in lung cancer tumors.

  2. An investigation of Turkish honeys: their physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacities and phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Zehra; Yildiz, Oktay; Sahin, Huseyin; Turumtay, Emine Akyuz; Silici, Sibel; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated some physico-chemical and biochemical characteristics of different honey types belonging to Turkish flora. Sixty-two honey samples were examined on the basis of pollen analyses, including 11 unifloral honeys (chestnut, heather, chaste tree, rhododendron, common eryngo, lavender, Jerusalem tea, astragalus, clover and acacia), two different honeydew honeys (lime and oak), and 7 different multifloral honeys. Electrical conductivity, moisture, Hunter color values, HMF, proline, diastase number, and sugar analyses of the honey samples were assessed for chemical characterization. Some phenolic components were analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) to determine honeys' phenolic profiles. Total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity were measured as antioxidant determinants. The study results confirm that physico-chemical and biological characteristics of honeys are closely related to their floral sources, and that dark-colored honeys such as oak, chestnut and heather, have a high therapeutic potential. PMID:25766810

  3. Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of Rituximab Related to Its Immunomodulatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana P. Miranda-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody employed for the treatment of CD20-positive B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis. It binds specifically to the CD20 antigen expressed on pre-B and consequently on mature B-lymphocytes of both normal and malignant cells, inhibiting their proliferation through apoptosis, CDC, and ADCC mechanisms. The immunomodulatory activity of rituximab is closely related to critical quality attributes that characterize its chemical composition and spatial configuration, which determine the recognition of CD20 and the binding to receptors or factors involved in its effector functions, while regulating the potential immunogenic response. Herein, we present a physicochemical and biological characterization followed by a pharmacodynamics and immunogenicity study to demonstrate comparability between two products containing rituximab. The physicochemical and biological characterization revealed that both products fit within the same response intervals exhibiting the same degree of variability. With regard to clinical response, both products depleted CD20+ B-cells until posttreatment recovery and no meaningful differences were found in their pharmacodynamic profiles. The evaluation of anti-chimeric antibodies did not show differential immunogenicity among products. Overall, these data confirm that similarity of critical quality attributes results in a comparable immunomodulatory activity.

  4. Analysis of Physicochemical Properties of Mexican Gasoline and Diesel Reformulated with Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porfirio Caballero-Mata

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High energy prices, environmental issues and increasing importation of fossil fuels has provoked, in some countries, a reorientation of resources towards the development of biofuels that can partially substitute the consumption of fossil fuels. Ethanol is one of the biofuels more commonly used in the world; in the United States, Brazil and Australia gasoline blends that reach up to 85% Ethanol are commercialized. This work presents the results of a physicochemical characterization of commercial Mexican gasoline (Magna and Premium and diesel blends with 10% vol. and 15% vol. anhydrous Ethanol. The analytical testing included: Research Octane Number, Motor Octane Number, Cetane Number, Reid Vapor Pressure, Distillation Curve and Heating Value. The stability of the blends was also evaluated. The theoretical emissions of CO2 were calculated based on the results of the physicochemical characterization. The ethanol-gasoline blends increased their Octane Number with respect to the commercial gasoline, while conserving an appropriate Distillation Index. The Cetane Number of the ethanol-diesel blends showed a substantial decrease, while the heating value of gasoline and diesel blends was negatively affected by the addition of ethanol. Nevertheless, taking into account the credits by the use of a renewable fuel, the use of the reformulated gasoline blends would imply a maximum theoretical reduction of 7.5% in CO2 emissions whereas in the case of ethanol-diesel blends it would represent a 9.2% decrease.

  5. Effect of higher temperature exposure on physicochemical properties of frozen buffalo meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Vishnuraj

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the changes in various physicochemical parameters of frozen buffalo meat undergone temperature abuse at two different isothermal storage temperatures (37±1°C, 25±1°C using a simulated model. Materials and Methods: Frozen buffalo meat was evaluated after exposing to various temperature abuse conditions over selected durations for different meat quality parameters including pH, extract release volume (ERV, flourescein diacetate (FDA hydrolysis, free amino acid (FAA, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN and D-glucose value and compared against a control sample maintained at 4±1°C. Results: Of the various meat quality parameters evaluated pH, FDA hydrolysis, FAA content and TVBN content showed a significant (p<0.05 increase in temperature abused samples after temperature abuse and on subsequent refrigerated storage. However, ERV and D-glucose content decreased significantly (p<0.05 in temperature abused buffalo meat during the same period of study. Conclusions: The present study featured the influence of exposure temperature and duration in various physicochemical parameters and the rate of spoilage development in frozen buffalo meat after temperature abuse.

  6. Physicochemical properties of honey from Marche, Central Italy: classification of unifloral and multifloral honeys by multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, Cristina; Illuminati, Silvia; Annibaldia, Anna; Finale, Carolina; Rossetti, Monica; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was the physicochemical characterization and classification of Italian honey from Marche Region with a chemometric approach. A total of 135 honeys of different botanical origins [acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), chestnut (Castanea sativa), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), lime (Tilia spp.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Metcalfa honeydew and multifloral honey] were considered. The average results of electrical conductivity (0.14-1.45 mS cm(-1)), pH (3.89-5.42), free acidity (10.9-39.0 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), lactones (2.4-4.5 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), total acidity (14.5-40.9 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), proline (229-665 mg kg(-1)) and 5-(hydroxy-methyl)-2-furaldehyde (0.6-3.9 mg kg(-1)) content show wide variability among the analysed honey types, with statistically significant differences between the different honey types. Pattern recognition methods such as principal component analysis and discriminant analysis were performed in order to find a relationship between variables and types of honey and to classify honey on the basis of its physicochemical properties. The variables of electrical conductivity, acidity (free, lactones), pH and proline content exhibited higher discriminant power and provided enough information for the classification and distinction of unifloral honey types, but not for the classification of multifloral honey (100% and 85% of samples correctly classified, respectively). PMID:25532290

  7. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. PMID:25839884

  8. Physicochemical properties of honey from Marche, Central Italy: classification of unifloral and multifloral honeys by multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, Cristina; Illuminati, Silvia; Annibaldia, Anna; Finale, Carolina; Rossetti, Monica; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was the physicochemical characterization and classification of Italian honey from Marche Region with a chemometric approach. A total of 135 honeys of different botanical origins [acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), chestnut (Castanea sativa), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), lime (Tilia spp.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Metcalfa honeydew and multifloral honey] were considered. The average results of electrical conductivity (0.14-1.45 mS cm(-1)), pH (3.89-5.42), free acidity (10.9-39.0 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), lactones (2.4-4.5 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), total acidity (14.5-40.9 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), proline (229-665 mg kg(-1)) and 5-(hydroxy-methyl)-2-furaldehyde (0.6-3.9 mg kg(-1)) content show wide variability among the analysed honey types, with statistically significant differences between the different honey types. Pattern recognition methods such as principal component analysis and discriminant analysis were performed in order to find a relationship between variables and types of honey and to classify honey on the basis of its physicochemical properties. The variables of electrical conductivity, acidity (free, lactones), pH and proline content exhibited higher discriminant power and provided enough information for the classification and distinction of unifloral honey types, but not for the classification of multifloral honey (100% and 85% of samples correctly classified, respectively).

  9. Influence of radiation on some physico-chemical properties of gum acacia. Mitigation of degradation by different class of antioxidants in LDPE expose to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlling of degradation in polysaccharide is also gaining impetus from commercial point of view. Comprehensive studies on the influence of ionizing radiation on the physico-chemical properties of polysaccharides are very important for their applications in different industries. The effect of gamma radiation on gum acacia has been studied and its effect on some physico-chemical properties, as measured by UV spectroscopy and viscometry has been discussed. The gum samples are irradiated in the range of 5 kGy to 25 kGy both in air and vacuum. Samples irradiated under vacuum shows colour stability while viscosity remain unaffected. (author)

  10. Relationship between performance deterioration of a polyamide reverse osmosis membrane used in a seawater desalination plant and changes in its physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tasuma; Tanaka, Ryohei; Tahara, Marina; Isamu, Yuya; Niinae, Masakazu; Lin, Lin; Wang, Jingbo; Luh, Jeanne; Coronell, Orlando

    2016-09-01

    While it is known that the performance of reverse osmosis membranes is dependent on their physicochemical properties, the existing literature studying membranes used in treatment facilities generally focuses on foulant layers or performance changes due to fouling, not on the performance and physicochemical changes that occur to the membranes themselves. In this study, the performance and physicochemical properties of a polyamide reverse osmosis membrane used for three years in a seawater desalination plant were compared to those of a corresponding unused membrane. The relationship between performance changes during long-term use and changes in physicochemical properties was evaluated. The results showed that membrane performance deterioration (i.e., reduced water flux, reduced contaminant rejection, and increased fouling propensity) occurred as a result of membrane use in the desalination facility, and that the main physicochemical changes responsible for performance deterioration were reduction in PVA coating coverage and bromine uptake by polyamide. The latter was likely promoted by oxidant residual in the membrane feed water. Our findings indicate that the optimization of membrane materials and processes towards maximizing the stability of the PVA coating and ensuring complete removal of oxidants in feed waters would minimize membrane performance deterioration in water purification facilities. PMID:27214345

  11. Evolution of the Physicochemical and Activation Properties of Aerosols within Smoke Plumes during the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, J. M.; Mei, F.; Wang, J.; Comstock, J. M.; Hubbe, J. M.; Pekour, M. S.; Shilling, J. E.; Fortner, E.; Chand, D.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Kleinman, L. I.; Senum, G.; Schmid, B.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning from wildfires and controlled agricultural burns are known to be a major source of fine particles and organic aerosols at northern temperate latitudes during the summer months. However, the evolution of the physicochemical properties of the aerosol during transport and the potential impact of this evolution on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity has rarely been studied for these events. During the DOE-sponsored Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) conducted in the summer and fall of 2013, over 30 research flights sampled biomass burning plumes from wildfires in the Northwestern United States and agricultural burns in the Mid-South region of the United States. A large suite of instruments aboard the DOE G-1 (Gulfstream-1) measured the chemical, physical, and optical properties of biomass burning aerosol with an emphasis on black carbon. A Fast Integrated Mobility Spectrometer (FIMS), Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer - Airborne (UHSAS-A), and Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer (PCASP) were used to measure the aerosol size distribution from 15 - 3,000 nm at 1-Hz. A dual column CCN counter measured the CCN number concentration at supersaturations of 0.25% and 0.50% at a time resolution of 1-Hz and the aerosol chemical composition was measured using a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS, Aerodyne, Inc). The SP-AMS was operated in two modes: (i) as a traditional high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS, Aerodyne Inc.), which measured chemical composition of non-refractory aerosols and (ii) as the SP-AMS which measured chemical composition of the refractory black carbon-containing (rBC) particle coating and rBC aerosol mass. Utilizing the aforementioned measurements, a CCN closure study is used to investigate the emitted aerosol hygroscopicity, the evolution of the physicochemical properties of the aerosol, and the potential impacts on cloud microphysics from the different fuel sources.

  12. Effect of the Methylation and N-H Acidic Group on the Physicochemical Properties of Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana S M C; Rocha, Marisa A A; Almeida, Hugo F D; Neves, Catarina M S S; Lopes-da-Silva, José A; Freire, Mara G; Coutinho, João A P; Santos, Luís M N B F

    2015-07-16

    This work presents and highlights the differentiation of the physicochemical properties of the [C1Him][NTf2], [C2Him][NTf2], [(1)C1(2)C1Him][NTf2], and [(1)C4(2)C1(3)C1im][NTf2] that is related with the strong bulk interaction potential, which highlights the differentiation on the physicochemical arising from the presence of the acidic group (N-H) as well as the methylation in position 2, C(2), of the imidazolium ring. Densities, viscosities, refractive indices, and surface tensions in a wide range of temperatures, as well as isobaric heat capacities at 298.15 K, for this IL series are presented and discussed. It was found that the volumetric properties are barely affected by the geometric and structural isomerization, following a quite regular trend. A linear correlation between the glass transition temperature, Tg, and the alkyl chain size was found; however, ILs with the acidic N-H group present a significant higher Tg than the [(1)CN-1(3)C1im][NTf2] and [(1)CN(3)CNim][NTf2] series. It was found that the most viscous ILs, ([(1)C1Him][NTf2], [(1)C2Him][NTf2], and [(1)C1(2)C1Him][NTf2]) have an acidic N-H group in the imidazolium ring in agreement with the observed increase of energy barrier of flow. The methylation in position 2, C(2), as well as the N-H acidic group in the imidazolium ring contribute to a significant variation in the cation-anion interactions and their dynamics, which is reflected in their charge distribution and polarizability leading to a significant differentiation of the refractive indices, surface tension, and heat capacities. The observed differentiation of the physicochemical properties of the [(1)C1Him][NTf2], [(1)C2Him][NTf2], [(1)C1(2)C1Him][NTf2], and [(1)C4(2)C1(3)C1im][NTf2] are an indication of the stronger bulk interaction potential, which highlights the effect that arises from the presence of the acidic group (N-H) as well as the methylation in position 2 of the imidazolium ring. PMID:26082427

  13. Effect of different radiations on some physico-chemical properties of gum Arabic (Acacia senegal (L.) Wild)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven different Acacia senegal gum samples namely A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, and A7 were collected from different trees in the same forest growing in Eldmazein season 1994/ 1995. Some physicochemical and functional properties were investigated i. e. moisture content, nitrogen content, specific rotation, molecular weight, emulsifying stability and water holding capacity. Also the effect of radiation from different sources gammaγ, ultraviolet (UV) and infra-red (IR) radiations with various doses i.e 150, 325 and 500 gray, 2,4 and 6 hours and 80, 105 and 140 C, respectively on some physicochemical and functional properties and component sugars of gum samples in solid from and solution of different concentrations were studied. Statistical analysis showed significant differences (P≤0.05) between all of these seven samples in their physicochemical and functional properties except in ph value. Also Ph values were not affected by different doses of γ, UV and IR radiations used in this study. Results showed that the moisture content, ash, nitrogen content and emulsifying stability were not affected γ(60(Co) irradiation where solid and aqueous solution of gum samples showed significant differences (P≤0.05) in specific rotation, intrinsic and molecular weight when exposed to various doses of γrays. Statistical analysis showed insignificant differences (P≤0.05) between the whole and irradiated solid gum by UV radiation on ash, nitrogen content and emulsifying stability. But there was a little decrease as radiation time increase on the moisture content. Reducing sugars and solubility were decreased from 1.88 % and 97.19 % of whole gum to 0.16 % and 84.1 % of gum irradiated by IR radiation at 140 C, respectively while moisture content reduced from 10.7 % to 0.4 %. Maximum absorbance of UV spectrum of the whole gum was reported at the wave length 280 nm. UV absorbance was not affected by Υand UV radiations while it increased of temperature. Thin layer chromatography

  14. Physicochemical properties and volatile profile of chili shrimp paste as affected by irradiation and heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Choon Yoong; Sobhi, Babak; Mohd Adzahan, Noranizan; Bakar, Jamilah; Abdul Rahman, Russly; Ab Karim, Muhammad Shahrim; Ghazali, Zulkafli

    2017-02-01

    Chili shrimp paste (CSP) is an exotic traditional Southeast Asian condiment prepared using mainly fresh chilies and fermented shrimp paste (belacan) which attributed to strong pungent fishy odor. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of electron beam irradiation (EBI) exposure on CSP for microorganisms decontamination, and its physicochemical qualities changes. Changes in capsaicinoid contents and volatile compounds were analyzed using HPLC and GC-MS. Mesophilic bacteria, yeast, mold and pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae decreased as irradiation dose increasing from 0 to 10kGy. EBI at 10kGy effectively decontaminated the samples with no significant effects on phenolic and capsaicinoids contents compared to the fresh samples. From 24 compounds, irradiated CSP retained 23 volatile compounds, while thermally treated CSP has only 19 compounds. EBI at 10kGy is effective for decontamination in CSP with lesser destructive effect on volatile compounds and texture compared to thermal treatment. PMID:27596386

  15. Physicochemical Properties of Pectin from Retama raetam Obtained using Sequential Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacem, I.; Majdoub, H.; Roudesli, S.

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted sequentially from Retama raetam. Dried Alcohol-Insoluble Residues (AIR) of Retama raetam were treated sequentially with deionised water, ammonium oxalate and basic solutions and purified by ultrafiltration. The resulting pectin extracts analysed for some physicochemical parameters. The results show that pectin yield (62% dry AIR), uronic acid (260-640 mg g-1), neutral sugars (320-540 mg g-1), degree of methylation (20-31%) and acetylation (2-19%), molar mass (8. 93x104-3.42x105 g mol-1) and intrinsic viscosity (27- 47 mL g-1) varied with the various extraction methods used. Extraction with ammonium oxalate solution gave the highest pectin yield, with high molar mass and degree of methylation.

  16. Cold Oxygen Plasma Treatments for the Improvement of the Physicochemical and Biodegradable Properties of Polylactic Acid Films for Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ah Young; Oh, Yoon Ah; Roh, Si Hyeon; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Min, Sea C

    2016-01-01

    The effects of cold plasma (CP) treatment on the physicochemical and biodegradable properties of polylactic acid (PLA) films were studied. The PLA films were exposed to CP for 40 min at 900 W and 667 Pa using oxygen as the plasma-forming gas. The tensile, optical, and dynamic mechanical thermal properties, surface morphology, printability, water contact angle, chemical structure, weight change, and biodegradability properties of the films were evaluated during storage for up to 56 d. The tensile and optical properties of the PLA films were not significantly affected by CP treatment (CPT; P > 0.05). The surface roughness and water contact angle of PLA films increased by CPT and further increased during storage for 56 d. The printability of the PLA films increased following CPT and remained stable throughout the storage period. CP-induced hydrophilicity was also sustained during the storage period. The PLA films lost 1.9% of their weight after CPT, but recovered 99.5% of this loss after 14 d in storage. Photodegradation, thermal, and microbial biodegradable properties of the films were significantly improved by CPT (P < 0.05). Accelerated biodegradation of CP-treated PLA sachets with and without cheese was observed in compost. These results demonstrate the potential of CPT for modifying the stiffness, water contact angle, and chemical structure of PLA films and improving the printability and biodegradability of the films for food packaging.

  17. Oral texture perception of semisolid foods in relation to physicochemical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, M.E.J.

    2008-01-01

    When we eat a food product, we perceive its sensory properties and subconsciously decide whether we like the food. Next to properties of flavor and taste, we perceive textural properties. How thick, rough and creamy the food is perceived depends on the structure and properties of the food product in

  18. Combined Effect of Monoxide Hemoglobin and Sodium Nitrite on Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Properties of Pork Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjiang Tan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium nitrite (NaNO2 faces a challenge in the meat industry because of its carcinogenicity. The studies about nitrite substitutes have attracted a considerable interest for many years. This study aims at the combined effects of monoxide hemoglobin (COHb and NaNO2 on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of pork sausages. The addition of COHb led to the reductions in L*, b*, TBA, VBN and aerobic plate count as well as the increase in a* (p<0.05. The samples with 0.005% NaNO2 and 0.2% COHb addition had equal even better sensory color, flavor, mouthfeel and slice traits than those with 0.015% NaNO2 addition during storage. Moreover, such sample had less than 30 cfu/100 g Escherichia coli and no detectable Staphylococcus aureus during 29 days storage. Therefore, COHb showed a potential in the manufacture of sausages

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of commercial poly(lactic acid) clamshell for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera-Santana, Tomás J.; Meléndrez, R.; González-García, Gerardo; Quintana-Owen, Patricia; Pillai, Suresh D.

    2016-06-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a well-known biodegradable polymer with strong potential application in food packaging industry. In this paper, samples of PLA clamshell for tomatoes packaging were exposed with 60CO γ-ray's source (1.33 MeV) at different dose levels (0, 10, 60, 150, 300, and 600 kGy), at room temperature and in presence of air. The physicochemical properties of neat PLA and sample exposed to gamma irradiation were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tensile measurements. Results show as the dose increases, the molecular weight (Mw), melting temperature (Tm), tensile strength and elongation at break decreased. However, the tensile modulus increased with increasing doses. The surface of PLA clamshells was degraded (scratches and minor cracks) when samples were exposed to doses greater than 60 kGy.

  20. Influence of UF4 physico-chemical properties on the assessment of the chronic exposure to this compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method was developed in order to assess uranium exposure hazards at work stations based on the industrial experience acquired by Comurhex Malvesi at Narbonne. Applied to uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) the method involves 4 steps: 1. characterization of the industrial compound, including its physico-chemical properties (density, surface area, X-ray spectrum and uranium enrichment); 2. assessment of work station concentrations and particle size distribution (AMAD); 3. In vitro biological solubility with different synthetic fluids such as Gamble solutions with different gases or compounds added (oxygen or superoxide ions O2-) in order to determine the solubility class D, W or Y; 4. workers' monitoring by routine measurements of urinary excretion completed, if necessary, by fecal excretion and γ-spectrometry. Results and present data on UF4 are presented. 3 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-02-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated. The hardness of the legumes cooked by APC or HPC were not statistically different (P > 0.05). APC resulted in higher percentage of seed coat splits than HPC. Both cooking methods decreased Hunter "L" value significantly (P < 0.05). The "a" and "b" values of dark-colored seeds decreased after cooking, while these values tended to increase for the light-colored seeds. The total amounts of solid lost from legume seeds were higher after HPC compared with APC. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) percentages increased considerably after both cooking methods. High pressure cooked legumes resulted in higher levels of resistant starch (RS) but lower levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) than the atmospheric pressure cooked legumes.

  2. Sonication-Based Improvement of the Physicochemical Properties of Guar Gum as a Potential Substrate for Modified Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddique Akber Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Guar Gum is a natural polysaccharide that, due to its physicochemical properties, is extensively investigated for biomedical applications as a matrix for modified drug delivery, but it is also used in the food industry as well as in cosmetics. A commercial sample of Guar Gum was sonicated for different periods of time, and the reduction in the average molecular weight was monitored by means of viscometric measurements. At the same time, the rheological behaviour was also followed, in terms of viscoelasticity range, flow curves, and mechanical spectra. Sonicated samples were used for the preparation of gels in the presence of borate ions. The effect of borax on the new samples was investigated by recording mechanical spectra, flow curves, and visible absorption spectra of complexes with Congo Red. The anisotropic elongation, observed in previous studies with tablets of Guar Gum and borax, was remarkably reduced when the sonicated samples were used for the preparation of the gels.

  3. Effect of thermal processing on the physicochemical properties of chestnut starch and textural profile of chestnut kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Lina; Li, Qian; Xie, Shuangshuang; Hu, Jiaqi; Wu, Yanwen; Ouyang, Jie

    2016-10-20

    The present study focused on the effect of thermal processing on the physicochemical properties of chestnut starch and textural profile of chestnut kernel. After thermal processing, the total starch content in both boiled and roasted chestnuts decreased significantly (Pstarch in cooked chestnut was gradually destroyed during the thermal processing. The starch in cooked chestnut still exhibited C-type X-ray diffraction patterns, but the intensity of diffraction peaks and the crystallinity were obviously declined compared with those of fresh chestnut. Textural profile analysis of chestnut starch gel and chestnut kernel showed that the main textural characterizations of roasted chestnut were higher than those of boiled chestnuts. These results are helpful for better understanding the texture change in fresh, boiled and roasted chestnuts, which indicated that roasting is an alternative industrial thermal processing method for chestnut kernel. PMID:27474607

  4. Effects of Chemical Inter esterification on the Physicochemical Properties of Palm Stearin, Palm Kernel Oil and Soybean Oil Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and soybean oil (SBO) blends were formulated according to Design Expert 8.0.4 (2010). All the sixteen oil blends were subjected to chemical inter esterification (CIE) using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The effects of chemical inter esterification on the slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and polymorphism were investigated. Palm based trans-free table margarine containing PS/PKO/SBO [49/20/31, (w/w)], was optimally formulated through analysis of multiple ternary phase diagrams and was found to have quite similar SMP and SFC profiles as compared with commercial table margarine. This study has shown that blending and chemical inter esterification are effective in modifying the physicochemical properties of palm stearin, palm kernel oil, soybean oil and their blends. (author)

  5. Effect of Caesalpinia sappan L. extract on physico-chemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Ha, So-Ra; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of extract from heart wood of Caesalpinia sappan on the physico-chemical properties and to find the appropriate addition level in the emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage. The pH of treatments with C. sappan extract was significantly lower than control and T1 during cold storage periods (Psausages containing C. sappan extract were decreased compared to control. Inclusion of the C. sappan extract in sausages resulted in lower lightness and higher yellowness, chroma and hue values. However, the antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, and volatile basic nitrogen in the emulsion-type pork sausages with C. sappan extract showed increased quality characteristics during cold storage. In conclusion, the proper addition level of C. sappan extract was 0.1% on the processing of emulsion-type pork sausage.

  6. Aerosol-halogen interaction: Change of physico-chemical properties of SOA by naturally released halogen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofner, J.; Balzer, N.; Buxmann, J.; Grothe, H.; Krüger, H.; Platt, U.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Zetzsch, C.

    2011-12-01

    Reactive halogen species are released by various sources like photo-activated sea-salt aerosol or salt pans and salt lakes. These heterogeneous release mechanisms have been overlooked so far, although their potential of interaction with organic aerosols like Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA), Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol (BBOA) or Atmospheric Humic LIke Substances (HULIS) is completely unknown. Such reactions can constitute sources of gaseous organo-halogen compounds or halogenated organic particles in the atmospheric boundary layer. To study the interaction of organic aerosols with reactive halogen species (RHS), SOA was produced from α-pinene, catechol and guaiacol using an aerosol smog-chamber. The model SOAs were characterized in detail using a variety of physico-chemical methods (Ofner et al., 2011). Those aerosols were exposed to molecular halogens in the presence of UV/VIS irradiation and to halogens, released from simulated natural halogen sources like salt pans, in order to study the complex aerosol-halogen interaction. The heterogeneous reaction of RHS with those model aerosols leads to different gaseous species like CO2, CO and small reactive/toxic molecules like phosgene (COCl2). Hydrogen containing groups on the aerosol particles are destroyed to form HCl or HBr, and a significant formation of C-Br bonds could be verified in the particle phase. Carbonyl containing functional groups of the aerosol are strongly affected by the halogenation process. While changes of functional groups and gaseous species were visible using FTIR spectroscopy, optical properties were studied using Diffuse Reflectance UV/VIS spectroscopy. Overall, the optical properties of the processed organic aerosols are significantly changed. While chlorine causes a "bleaching" of the aerosol particles, bromine shifts the maximum of UV/VIS absorption to the red end of the UV/VIS spectrum. Further physico-chemical changes were recognized according to the aerosol size-distributions or the

  7. Effects of granule size of cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starches on their physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwei; Chen, Zhenghong; Jin, Zhengyu; Buwalda, Piet; Gruppen, Harry; Schols, Henk A

    2015-05-13

    Sweet potato starch was modified by cross-linking, hydroxypropylation, and combined cross-linking and hydroxypropylation, and the starches were subsequently sieved to obtain differently sized granule fractions. The effects of granule size of native and modified sweet potato starch fractions and all fractions were investigated with respect to their physicochemical properties. The large-size granule fraction (27-30 μm) showed a 16-20% higher chemical phosphorylation and a 4-7% higher hydroxypropylation than the small-size granule fraction (14-16 μm). The large-size granule fractions of native and modified sweet potato starches showed lower transition temperatures (0.7-3.1 °C for peak temperature of gelatinization) and lower enthalpy changes (0.6-1.9 J/g) during gelatinization than the small-size granule fractions, making the sweet potato starch different from cereal starches. The large-size granule fraction of native starch showed a higher paste viscosity (78-244 cP) than the corresponding small-size granule fraction. In addition, cross-linking and hydroxypropylation affected the paste viscosity of the large-size granule fraction significantly more than that of the small-size granule fraction when compared to the corresponding parental starch fractions. The large-size granule fraction of native and dual-modified starches showed a lower syneresis after freeze-thaw treatments than the small-size granule fractions. The difference in swelling power between large- and small-size granule fractions was not significant. In general, the large-size granule fraction of sweet potato starch was more susceptible for cross-linking and hydroxypropylation and the physicochemical properties were changed to a higher extent compared to the corresponding small-size granule fraction.

  8. Physicochemical properties and mineral and protein content of honey samples from Ceará state, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Tavares Cavalcanti Liberato

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the physicochemical properties and protein and mineral content of honey samples from Ceará State, Northeastern Brazil, one of the major honey exporters in the country. Nutritional importance of the minerals detected was also analyzed. Physicochemical properties were examined according to the AOAC and CAC official methods; the protein content was determined using the Bradford method, and the minerals were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. All analyses were performed in triplicate. The levels of macrominerals sodium (Na, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, and magnesium (Mg varied from 1.80-47.20, 21.30-1513.30, 14.58-304.82, and 2.48-28.33 mg/kg, respectively, and the trace elements iron (Fe, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, selenium (Se, and chromium (Cr varied from 0.12-8.76, 0.07-1.29, 0.06-1.96, 0.07-1.85 mg/kg, 0.36 × 10-3-62.00 × 10-3 and 22.50 × 10-3-170.33 × 10-3 µg/kg, respectively. Myracrodruon urundeuva honey sample had high contents of macrominerals (Na, K, Ca, and Mg. Protein content of the Anacardium occidentale honey sample was the highest (1121.00 µg/g among the samples analyzed. Among the minerals detected in the honey samples, K showed the highest concentration, followed by Ca, Na, and Mg. The presence of trace elements can show environmental contamination. The honey samples studied were free of trace elements contamination, except for Mn; the Piptadenia moniliformis was the only honey sample that was in compliance with the law requirements. The variations of the chemical constituents in the honey samples are probably related to differences in the floral origin and mineral and protein contents and confirm the nutritional importance of Ceará State honey.

  9. Physico-chemical properties of the potentially oxidative water and its capability of the instrumentation residual layer remotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Silva-Herzog FLORES

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to elaborate the potentially oxidative water (POW and analyze some of the physico-chemical properties: pH density, superficial stress, contact angle, conductivity and REDOX potential; besides comparing its POW organic as well as non-organic matter removal capacity with hypochlorite sodium at 1% plus 17% EDTA. For the methodology the POW elaboration an electrolysis process was used and the physico-chemical properties were determined in 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. For the removal capacity of teeth tartarevaluation, 30 extracted uniradicular premolars were used, divided in three groups:positive control (NaOCl at 1% + EDTA at 17%, negative control(distilled water and experimental (POW. Afterwards, the samples were observed under electronic microscopy with 2500x magnifying at the middle thirds and apical, analyzing them with the Rome scale (amount of open dental tubes. For the statistical analysis the Chi-square and the Fisher Exact Proofwas used. The results showed that the solution was constantly maintained at all times during the evaluation and there was found statistical difference between negative control and positive control and between negative control and the experimental group. With regards to the dental tartar removal it was found that there was no statistical difference between the control group and the experimental group (POW; reason why it is concluded that the POW has the capacity to remove dental tartar. Nevertheless, to be able to propose the use of the POW as an irrigator solution in Endodontics it is necessary to do further studies to evaluate its cytotoxicity and biocompability.

  10. Physico-chemical properties of smeltery and vitreous ceramic masses in the UO2-SiO2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of original research activities on the physicochemical properties of smeltery and vitreous ceramic masses in the UO2-SiO2 system which describe the operating process for their obtaining as fuel elements. These properties are rendered evident, monitored and correlated in the following way: the equilibrium diagram is determined within the domain of over 60% mol UO2 with technical means for achieving the required temperature, fluidity of smeltery - with mass homogeneity, mechanical properties - with resistance to thermal shock, crystallization of smeltery - with structure interaction of smeltery - with the atmosphere interaction of smeltery - with the smelting pot, interaction of smeltery - with copper or stainless matrices, cooling rate - with the rising rate of the smeltery up a cylindrical column. On the basis of these studies a smelting and casting installation for fire proof materials at temperatures of over 2500 deg K could be designed and achieved. The most beneficial designs for achieving matrices by means of which the above mentioned properties could also be tested at an industrial scale have been, also analysed, as well as the possibility of obtaining these inhousing masses under the form of honeycomb, rods or pipes. (author)

  11. Effects of different packaging techniques on the microbiological and physicochemical properties of coated pumpkin slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz AKSU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study the effects of zein film coating along with benzoic acid on the quality of sliced pumpkin samples, which were packaged with different techniques were investigated. The samples were allocated into different groups and were treated with different processes. Following processing, the samples were stored at +4 °C for twenty days. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses were carried out on the samples once every five days during the storage period. According to color analysis, the L* value was observed to have significantly decreased in the processed and packaged samples in comparison with the control group. Besides, a* and b* values increased in all groups. It was determined that zein film alone did not exhibit the expected effectiveness against moisture loss in the samples. According to the results of microbiological analysis, a final decrease at approximately 1.00 log level was determined in total count of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB in the group which was vacuum packaged in PVDC with zein coating when compared with the initial TMAB. Furthermore, no molding occurred in zein-coated group on the last day of the storage period, while massive mold growth was noted in the group which was packaged without any pretreatment procedure.

  12. Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) Extracts and Wine: Phytochemical Profile, Physicochemical Properties, and Carbohydrase Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifie, Idolo; Marshall, Lisa J; Ho, Peter; Williamson, Gary

    2016-06-22

    Three varieties of Hibiscus sabdariffa were analyzed for their phytochemical content and inhibitory potential on carbohydrate-digesting enzymes as a basis for selecting a variety for wine production. The dark red variety was chosen as it was highest in phenolic content and an aqueous extract partially inhibited α-glucosidase (maltase), with delphinidin 3-O-sambubioside, cyanidin 3-O-sambubioside, and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid accounting for 65% of this activity. None of the varieties significantly inhibited α-amylase. Regarding Hibiscus sabdariffa wine, the effect of fermentation temperature (20 and 30 °C) on the physicochemical, phytochemical, and aroma composition was monitored over 40 days. The main change in phytochemical composition observed was the hydrolysis of 3-O-caffeolquinic acid and the concomitant increase of caffeic acid irrespective of fermentation temperature. Wine fermented at 20 °C was slightly more active for α-glucosidase inhibition with more fruity aromas (ethyl octanoate), but there were more flowery notes (2-phenylethanol) at 30 °C. PMID:27226105

  13. Variability in Saponin Content, Cancer Antiproliferative Activity and Physicochemical Properties of Concentrated Agave Sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Zea, Liliana; Rosas-Pérez, Aratza Mireya; Leal-Díaz, Ana María; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-08-01

    Concentrated agave sap (CAS) has gained popularity as an unrefined sweetener. It is obtained by boiling "aguamiel" that contains phytochemicals with diverse bioactivities. Saponins have been the most widely studied agave phytochemicals due to their cancer antiproliferative effect but their concentration may vary due to maturity of the agave plant and collection site. In this study, 18 CAS samples produced in different states of Mexico were analyzed using multivariate methods to determine which physicochemical or phytochemical parameters were responsible for variation. Additionally, extracts with different saponin profiles were tested to determine possible correlations with antiproliferative activity. Total soluble solids, pH, and water activity were similar to those reported for other agave sweeteners. Antioxidant capacity of samples was correlated to browning index. Eleven steroidal saponins were found in CAS samples and they were the main source of variability. Magueyoside B, a kammogenin tetraglycoside, was the most abundant saponin in all samples. With respect to bioactivity, multivariate analysis indicated that magueyoside B and a gentrogenin tetraglycoside were compounds strongly related with bioactivity. CAS from Hidalgo, Puebla, and Veracruz had higher concentration of magueyoside B than from the other kamogenin tetraglycoside found in the samples from other Mexican states. These results could be used as a first approach to characterize and standardize CAS to validate the potential health benefits derived from its consumption. PMID:27376349

  14. Zingiber cassumunar blended patches for skin application: Formulation, physicochemical properties, and in vitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirapornchai Suksaeree

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our work was to study the preparation, physicochemical characterization, and in vitro characteristic of Zingiber cassumunar blended patches. The Z. cassumunar blended patches incorporating Z. cassumunar Roxb. also known as Plai were prepared from chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol with glycerin as plasticizer. They were prepared by adding all ingredients in a beaker and homogeneously mixing them. Then, they were transferred into Petri-dish and dried in hot air oven. The hydrophilic nature of the Z. cassumunar blended patches was confirmed by the moisture uptake, swelling ratio, erosion, and porosity values. The FTIR, DSC, XRD, and SEM studies showed revealed blended patches with amorphous region that was homogeneously smooth and compact in both surface and cross section dimensions. They exhibited controlled the release behavior of (E-4-(3′,4′-dimethoxyphenyl but-3-en-l-ol (compound D that is the main active compound in Z. cassumunar for anti-inflammation activity. However, in in vitro skin permeation study, the compound D was accumulated in newborn pig skin more than in the receptor medium. Thus, the blended patches showed the suitable entrapment and controlled release of compound D. Accordingly, we have demonstrated that such chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol formulated patches might be developed for medical use.

  15. Varietal and Seasonal Effect of Rice on the Physicochemical Properties of Rice Flakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Qing-yao; ZHU Xiao-yang; YANG Lian; WU Wei-jian; Peter Bucheli

    2007-01-01

    Rice-based flakes made from 7 mid-season rice varieties (4 indica and 3 japonica subspecies) and 3 early season indica varieties produced both in early and late season were studied for their main physicochemical characters, including water activity, film thickness, bulk density (BD), ash, reducing sugars (RS), protein, phytic acid, starch, amylose, and rapid visco analyser (RVA) viscosity profile. A significant varietal effect was found for all these parameters (P<0.05 or 0.01) except starch. Strong variety × season interactions were observed but the seasonal effect was less pronounced, and only significant (P < 0.01) for RS. The apparent amylose content (AAC) of rice flakes was significantly correlated (P < 0.01) with AAC (r=0.99) and several RVA profile parameters [e.g., final viscosity (r=0.92)] ofrice flour. For rice flakes, BD was significantly correlated with AAC (r=0.82, P<0.01) and most RVA profile parameters. The study indicates that varietal and environmental effects should be considered simultaneously for optimal production of rice grains for rice flakes manufacturing.

  16. 药物共晶筛选与理化性质研究进展%Progress in Screening Methods and Physicochemical Properties of Pharmaceutical Co-crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学文; 宋菊; 唐海谊; 郑颖

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) can influence manufactory process and quality of final products so that they are the important part of performulation study. Salts formation, solvation and polymorphism screening are traditional methods to improve physicochemical properties of slightly soluble compound. Recently, co-crystal, which is designed by crystal engineering, attracts more attention on improving physicochemical properties and patent protection of API. The screening methods, physicochemical properties, industrial production and prospects of co-crystals are reviewed in this paper.%药物的理化性质是制剂前研究的重要内容,可影响制剂的生产工艺及最终产品质量.对于难溶性药物,常使用成盐、溶剂化和多晶型筛选等方法来改善理化性质.近年共晶技术得到迅速发展,通过晶体工程学设计的共晶,不但可改善药物的理化性质,并可申请专利保护,受到广泛关注.本文综述了共晶的筛选方法及其理化性质的研究进展,并对共晶的工业化生产及未来发展作了展望.

  17. Multivariate analysis of surface physico-chemical properties controlling biofilm formation on orthodontic adhesives prior to and after fluoride and chlorhexidine treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chin, Yeen; Sandham, John; Pratten, Jonathan; de Vries, Jacob; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2006-01-01

    Biofilm formation on orthodontic adhesives is a serious clinical problem, as it leads to enamel demineralization around fixed orthodontic appliances, often leaving white spot lesions after their removal. The aim of this work was to determine the influence of surface physico-chemical properties of fo

  18. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of water eroded soils of Sharkul area of district Mansehra, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmanullah Khan, A. Iqbal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation is the major threat to agricultural sustainability because it affects the soil productivity. Present study was conducted in 2008 to evaluate physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some eroded soil series of Sharkul area district Manshera, Hazara division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Six soil series including slightly eroded (Dosera and Girari, moderately eroded (Nakholi and Sharkul and severely eroded (Ahl and Banser were selected. Soil samples were collected from surface (0-15 cm, subsurface (30-45 cm and substrata soil (60-75cm depths and were analyzed for various soil properties. Due to severity of erosion, bulk density increased, while total porosity, saturation percentage and organic matter decreased significantly. AB-DTPA extractable P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentrations were decreased due to the severity of erosion in surface and sub surface soils, whereas in the substrata soils (60-75 cm depth, the effect of erosion was almost non significant. Sub-surface and sub-strata soils were found deficient in available P ( Zn > Fe > Mn. The physical and chemical properties of eroded soils varied significantly and the increasing severity of erosion resulted in corresponding deterioration of soil quality.

  19. Organically Modified Silica Nanoparticles Interaction with Macrophage Cells: Assessment of Cell Viability on the Basis of Physicochemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dhiraj; Mutreja, Isha; Keshvan, Prashant C; Bhat, Madhusudan; Dinda, Amit K; Mitra, Susmita

    2015-11-01

    Silica nanoparticles have drawn a lot of attention for nanomedicine application, and this is attributed to their biocompatibility and ease of surface functionalization. However, successful utilization of these inorganic systems for biomedical application depends on their physicochemical properties. This study, therefore, discusses in vitro toxicity of organically modified silica nanoparticles on the basis of size, shape, and surface properties of silica nanoparticles. Spherical- and oval-shaped nanoparticles having hydroxyl and amine groups were synthesized in Tween 80 micelles using different organosilanes. Nanoparticles of similar size and morphology were considered for comparative assessment. "As-prepared" nanoparticles were characterized in terms of size, shape, and surface properties using ZetaSizer, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared to establish the above parameters. In vitro analysis in terms of nanoparticle-based toxicity was performed on J-774 (macrophage) cell line using propidium iodide-4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindol and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. Fluorescent dye-entrapped nanoparticles were used to visualize the uptake of the nanoparticles by macrophage cells. Results from cell studies suggested low levels of toxicity for different nanoparticle formulations studied, therefore are suitable for nanocarrier application for poorly soluble molecules. On the contrary, the nanoparticles of similar size and shape, having amine groups and low net negative charge, do not exhibit any in vitro cytotoxicity.

  20. A Comparative Study of the Physicochemical Properties of a Virgin Coconut Oil Emulsion and Commercial Food Supplement Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Phing Khor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO. In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4. C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV, which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.

  1. Physicochemical and thermal properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta sp) powders as affected by state of maturity and drying method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeda, M; Njintang, Y N; Gaiani, C; Nguimbou, R M; Scher, J; Facho, B; Mbofung, C M F

    2014-09-01

    The study was aimed at determining the effect of harvesting time and drying method on the thermal and physicochemical properties of taro powder, Sosso ecotype. A 5 × 2 factorial experiment with 5 harvesting times (6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 months after planting) and 2 drying methods (sun and electric oven drying) was used for this purpose. The variance component analysis revealed harvesting time as the most important factor affecting all the variables measured. In particular the proteins and available sugar contents of the powders increased significantly with increase in harvesting time. The same was true of the gelling property and water absorption capacity of the powders. It was equally observed that the temperatures (start, peak and end) and enthalpy of gelatinization of the powders increased with harvesting time. It is concluded that harvesting sosso-taro at full maturity (10 months after planting) and sun-drying produces food powders with excellent gelling properties among others.

  2. The effect of thermal aging and color pigments on the Egyptian linen properties evaluated by physicochemical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gaoudy, H.; Kourkoumelis, N.; Varella, E.; Kovala-Demertzi, D.

    2011-11-01

    Archaeologists in Egypt discovered ancient colored textiles in great quantities in comparison with the analogous uncolored ones. Furthermore, the latter are far more deteriorated. Most research investigations into archaeological linen have been concerned with manufacture, restoration, and conservation but little information is available about the properties of the fibers, and particularly their chemical and physical properties after dyeing with natural dyes or painted with pigments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the physicochemical properties of Egyptian linen textiles coloring with a variety of pigments used in painting in ancient times after thermally aged to get linen samples which are similar as possible to the ancient linen textiles. The evaluations were based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and tensile strength, and elongation measurements. Results showed that beyond cosmetic reasons, colored textiles did indeed play a role as protecting agents affecting strength and reducing thermal deterioration. Specifically, in the molecular level, pigments under study seem to interact to cellulose and lignin compounds of the aged linen while in the macroscopic level tensile and elongation parameters are altered. Electron microscopy confirms that pigment particles are deposited on and between the fibers' surfaces.

  3. Effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on physicochemical characteristics and rheological properties of soy protein/sugar Maillard reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cheng-Bin; Zhou, Lin-Yi; Liu, Jin-Yang; Zhang, Yao; Chen, Yang; Wu, Fei

    2016-05-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRPs) of soybean protein isolate (SPI) and sugars (glucose and maltose) were prepared by heating in the aqueous dispersion at 95 °C for 15 min with ultrasonic pretreatment (ultrasonic power of 200 W) for 20 min. Effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on physicochemical characteristics and rheological properties of SPI/sugar MRPs was investigated. SPI/sugar MRPs prepared with ultrasonic pretreatment had higher degree of glycation (DG), lower browning and less compact tertiary conformation than that with non-ultrasonic pretreatment. Surface hydrophobicity (H0), particle size and rheological properties were measured by fluorescence spectrophotometry, laser particle size analysis and dynamic oscillatory rheometry, respectively. Glycation reduced H0 and particle size as well as weaken the gel network formed by the acidification of GDL. However, ultrasound increased H0 and decreased particle size. This is desirable for the formation of acid-induced gel structure. The ultrasonic pretreatments reduced/eliminate the weakening effect of glycation on the gel network of SPI/sugar MRPs, and even improved the gel properties. PMID:27407200

  4. A comparative study of the physicochemical properties of a virgin coconut oil emulsion and commercial food supplement emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Yih Phing; Koh, Soo Peng; Long, Kamariah; Long, Shariah; Ahmad, Sharifah Zarah Syed; Tan, Chin Ping

    2014-07-01

    Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4). C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV), which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.

  5. Physicochemical and thermal properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta sp) powders as affected by state of maturity and drying method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeda, M; Njintang, Y N; Gaiani, C; Nguimbou, R M; Scher, J; Facho, B; Mbofung, C M F

    2014-09-01

    The study was aimed at determining the effect of harvesting time and drying method on the thermal and physicochemical properties of taro powder, Sosso ecotype. A 5 × 2 factorial experiment with 5 harvesting times (6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 months after planting) and 2 drying methods (sun and electric oven drying) was used for this purpose. The variance component analysis revealed harvesting time as the most important factor affecting all the variables measured. In particular the proteins and available sugar contents of the powders increased significantly with increase in harvesting time. The same was true of the gelling property and water absorption capacity of the powders. It was equally observed that the temperatures (start, peak and end) and enthalpy of gelatinization of the powders increased with harvesting time. It is concluded that harvesting sosso-taro at full maturity (10 months after planting) and sun-drying produces food powders with excellent gelling properties among others. PMID:25190840

  6. Recovery potential of cold press byproducts obtained from the edible oil industry: physicochemical, bioactive, and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Safa; Karasu, Salih; Tornuk, Fatih; Toker, Omer Said; Geçgel, Ümit; Sagdic, Osman; Ozcan, Nihat; Gül, Osman

    2015-03-01

    Physicochemical, bioactive, and antimicrobial properties of different cold press edible oil byproducts (almond (AOB), walnut (WOB), pomegranate (POB), and grape (GOB)) were investigated. Oil, protein, and crude fiber content of the byproducts were found between 4.82 and 12.57%, between 9.38 and 49.05%, and between 5.87 and 45.83%, respectively. GOB had very high crude fiber content; therefore, it may have potential for use as a new dietary fiber source in the food industry. As GOB, POB, and WOB oils were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, AOB was rich in monounsaturated fatty acids. Oil byproducts were also found to be rich in dietary mineral contents, especially potassium, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. WOB had highest total phenolic (802 ppm), flavonoid (216 ppm), and total hydrolyzed tannin (2185 ppm) contents among the other byproducts. Volatile compounds of all the byproducts are mainly composed of terpenes in concentration of approximately 95%. Limonene was the dominant volatile compound in all of the byproducts. Almond and pomegranate byproduct extracts showed antibacterial activity depending on their concentration, whereas those of walnut and grape byproducts showed no antibacterial activity against any pathogenic bacteria tested. According to the results of the present study, walnut, almond, pomegranate, and grape seed oil byproducts possess valuable properties that can be taken into consideration for improvement of nutritional and functional properties of many food products.

  7. Geohelminths distribution as affected by soil properties, physicochemical factors and climate in Sharkyia governorate Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etewa, Samia E; Abdel-Rahman, Sara A; Abd El-Aal, Naglaa F; Fathy, Ghada M; El-Shafey, Mahmoud A; Ewis, A M G

    2016-06-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths are mainly a group of parasitic nematodes causing human infection through contact with parasite eggs or larvae; they survive in the warm and moist soil of the tropical and subtropical countries. This study was carried out in Sharkyia governorate from October, 2011 to October, 2013, to correlate between the prevalence and distribution of these parasites in the soil and the physicochemical factors affecting the examined samples of the soil. One hundred and twenty samples of different types of soil (clay, silt, sand) from different localities were collected and examined. Diagnosis of geohelminths was confirmed by the recovery of their eggs and larvae with other protozoa by different parasitological methods. The modified baermann method was found to be more efficient in detection of geohelminths larvae than charcoal culture method. Among the examined sites geohelminths were much more numerous in the soil of rural areas especially in the spring and summer seasons, while the contamination of canal banks by geohelminths was the worst (80 %). An insignificant correlation was reported between the soil texture and the number of positive samples in the examined areas while the relationship was directly proportional among (moisture, PH, organic). It appeared that the most common geohelminthic stage was Toxocara spp. eggs besides other types of protozoa especially Balantidium coli cysts. This suggests that factors other than soil texture are important in the prevalence of geohelminths in the soil e.g. temperature, moisture, PH and organic matter. So, to change some of these factors in a trial to control geoparasites transmission but with keeping the environment should be tried. These results also open the way to further studies to highlight the mutual affection between inhabitants of these sites and the prevalence of these geoparasites.

  8. Geohelminths distribution as affected by soil properties, physicochemical factors and climate in Sharkyia governorate Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etewa, Samia E; Abdel-Rahman, Sara A; Abd El-Aal, Naglaa F; Fathy, Ghada M; El-Shafey, Mahmoud A; Ewis, A M G

    2016-06-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths are mainly a group of parasitic nematodes causing human infection through contact with parasite eggs or larvae; they survive in the warm and moist soil of the tropical and subtropical countries. This study was carried out in Sharkyia governorate from October, 2011 to October, 2013, to correlate between the prevalence and distribution of these parasites in the soil and the physicochemical factors affecting the examined samples of the soil. One hundred and twenty samples of different types of soil (clay, silt, sand) from different localities were collected and examined. Diagnosis of geohelminths was confirmed by the recovery of their eggs and larvae with other protozoa by different parasitological methods. The modified baermann method was found to be more efficient in detection of geohelminths larvae than charcoal culture method. Among the examined sites geohelminths were much more numerous in the soil of rural areas especially in the spring and summer seasons, while the contamination of canal banks by geohelminths was the worst (80 %). An insignificant correlation was reported between the soil texture and the number of positive samples in the examined areas while the relationship was directly proportional among (moisture, PH, organic). It appeared that the most common geohelminthic stage was Toxocara spp. eggs besides other types of protozoa especially Balantidium coli cysts. This suggests that factors other than soil texture are important in the prevalence of geohelminths in the soil e.g. temperature, moisture, PH and organic matter. So, to change some of these factors in a trial to control geoparasites transmission but with keeping the environment should be tried. These results also open the way to further studies to highlight the mutual affection between inhabitants of these sites and the prevalence of these geoparasites. PMID:27413327

  9. Physico-chemical and functional properties of spray-dried sourdough in breadmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafti, Abolfazl Golshan; Peighambardoust, Seyed Hadi; Hesari, Javad; Bahrami, Akbar; Bonab, Elnaz Shakuoie

    2013-06-01

    In present study, spray-dried sourdough was produced using a pilot scale spray dryer and the physico-chemical and microbial characteristics of the obtained sourdough powder were investigated. The application of the spray-dried sourdough at different levels (3%, 6%, 9% and 15%) in breadmaking was also evaluated. Bulk density, wettability and suspensibility of the sourdough powder were 0.6 g/cm(3), 98 s and 29%, respectively. The most of the powder particles were in a range of 106-250 µm. The spray-dried sourdough had a moisture content and ash content of 3.72% and 1.9% (db), respectively. The pH and total titratable acidity of the sourdough powder were 3.26 and 59 (mL of 0.1 N NaOH/10 g powder), respectively. Spray drying reduced lactic acid bacteria population of the sourdough to 2 × 10(5) CFU/g compared to the initial value of 10(9) CFU/g. Iranian traditional flat bread (Sangak) made with different levels of the sourdough powder had significantly (p breads containing 15% sourdough powder were slightly darker and sourer than the other breads. Incorporation of spray-dried sourdough delayed bread staling, as judged by sensory panel. The results suggest that spray-dried sourdough at the level of 9% can be successfully used for Sangak breadmaking, leading to bread with an improved flavor and delayed staling.

  10. Comparative characterization of physicochemical properties and bioactivities of polysaccharides from selected medicinal mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chun-Han; Lai, Min-Nan; Lin, Ching-Chuan; Ng, Lean-Teik

    2016-05-01

    Mushroom polysaccharides have been known to possess various pharmacological activities. However, information on their chemical and biological differences between mushrooms remains limited. In this study, we aimed to examine the differences in physicochemical characteristics of polysaccharides prepared from Antrodia cinnamomea (AC-P), Coriolus versicolor (CV-P), Grifola frondosa (GF-P), Ganoderma lucidum (GL-P), and Phellinus linteus (PL-P), followed by evaluating their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Results showed that under similar conditions of preparation, the monosaccharide composition of polysaccharides varied between different mushrooms, and glucose was the predominant monosaccharide, followed by galactose and mannose. AC-P and GF-P contained the highest amount of (1,3;1,6)-β-D-glucans. The degree of branching of (1,3;1,6)-β-D-glucans in all polysaccharides ranged from 0.21 to 0.26, with the exception of GF-P (0.38). The molecular weights of different polysaccharides showed diverse distributions; AC-P, CV-P, and GF-P contained two major macromolecular populations (200 kDa) and possessed triple-helix conformation, whereas GL-P (10.2 kDa) and PL-P (15.5 kDa) only had a low molecular weight population without triple-helix structure. These polysaccharides showed different inhibitory potency on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. PMID:26743656

  11. Feeding restriction impairs milk yield and physicochemical properties rendering it less suitable for sale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Fruscalso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Feed shortages are relatively frequent in subtropical pasture-based dairy production systems. The effect of feed restriction on milk yield and physical-chemical traits was evaluated in this study. The experiment was carried out in Brazil's south region. Treatments consisted of control and restricted diet. Six multiparous and six primiparous cows, with 499 ± 47.20 kg body weight (BW, at mid-lactation (188 ± 124 days in milk, producing 19.35 ± 4.10 kg of milk were assigned to two groups, balanced for parity, each group receiving a different sequence of the dietary treatments for 56 days, in a crossover design. Diet nominated as control included 8 kg DM 100 kg BW-1 of Bermuda grass var. Tifton pasture (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., 5.00 kg of concentrate and 2.50 kg of Tifton hay per day. The restriction diet consisted of 50 % of the quantity offered in the control diet. Milk production and physicochemical composition were evaluated. Feed restriction reduced milk production by 40 %, body condition score by 5 %, milk magnesium by 14.3 %, lactose by 1.7 %, titratable acidity by 10 % and stability to the ethanol test by 9 % and it tended to increase (7 % milk potassium content. No changes were found for the remaining characteristics. Since feed restriction is quite frequent in Brazil's extensive dairy production systems, our concern is that besides decreased milk production, changes can occur in the physiochemical attributes of the milk, mainly a reduction in the stability to the ethanol test, which may increase the volume of milk rejected by the industry.

  12. Chicken avidin-related proteins show altered biotin-binding and physico-chemical properties as compared with avidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Olli H; Hytönen, Vesa P; Ahlroth, Mervi K; Pentikäinen, Olli T; Gallagher, Ciara; Nordlund, Henri R; Ovod, Vladimir; Marttila, Ari T; Porkka, Eevaleena; Heino, Sanna; Johnson, Mark S; Airenne, Kari J; Kulomaa, Markku S

    2002-01-01

    Chicken avidin and bacterial streptavidin are proteins familiar from their use in various (strept)avidin-biotin technological applications. Avidin binds the vitamin biotin with the highest affinity known for non-covalent interactions found in nature. The gene encoding avidin (AVD) has homologues in chicken, named avidin-related genes (AVRs). In the present study we used the AVR genes to produce recombinant AVR proteins (AVRs 1, 2, 3, 4/5, 6 and 7) in insect cell cultures and characterized their biotin-binding affinity and biochemical properties. Amino acid sequence analysis and molecular modelling were also used to predict and explain the properties of the AVRs. We found that the AVR proteins are very similar to avidin, both structurally and functionally. Despite the numerous amino acid substitutions in the subunit interface regions, the AVRs form extremely stable tetramers similar to those of avidin. Differences were found in some physico-chemical properties of the AVRs as compared with avidin, including lowered pI, increased glycosylation and, most notably, reversible biotin binding for two AVRs (AVR1 and AVR2). Molecular modelling showed how the replacement Lys(111)-->isoleucine in AVR2 alters the shape of the biotin-binding pocket and thus results in reversible binding. Both modelling and biochemical analyses showed that disulphide bonds can form and link monomers in AVR4/5, a property not found in avidin. These, together with the other properties of the AVRs described in the present paper, may offer advantages over avidin and streptavidin, making the AVRs applicable for improved avidin-biotin technological applications. PMID:11964162

  13. Mechanical, physico-chemical, and antimicrobial properties of gelatin-based film incorporated with catechin-lysozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawdkuen Saroat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial activity is a primary cause of deterioration in many foods and is often responsible for reduced quality and safety. Food-borne illnesses associated with E. coli O157:H7, S. aureus, S. enteritidis and L. monocytogenes are a major public health concern throughout the world. A number of methods have been employed to control or prevent the growth of these microorganisms in food. Antimicrobial packaging is one of the most promising active packaging systems for effectively retarding the growth of food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical, physico-chemical properties and inhibitory effects of the fish gelatin films against selected food spoilage microorganisms when incorporated with catechin-lysozyme. Results The effect of the catechin-lysozyme combination addition (CLC: 0, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, w/v on fish gelatin film properties was monitored. At the level of 0.5% addition, the CLC showed the greatest elongation at break (EAB at 143.17% with 0.039 mm thickness, and the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP at 6.5 x 10−8 g·mm·h-1·cm-2·Pa-1, whereas the control showed high tensile strength (TS and the highest WVP. Regarding color attributes, the gelatin film without CLC addition gave the highest lightness (L* 91.95 but lowest in redness (a*-1.29 and yellowness (b* 2.25 values. The light transmission of the film did not significantly decrease and nor did film transparency (p>0.05 with increased CLC. Incorporating CLC could not affect the film microstructure. The solubility of the gelatin based film incorporated with CLC was not affected, especially at a high level of addition (p>0.05. Inhibitory activity of the fish gelatin film against E.coli, S.aureus, L. innocua and S. cerevisiae was concentration dependent. Conclusions These findings suggested that CLC incorporation can improve mechanical, physico-chemical, and antimicrobial properties of the resulting films

  14. Influence of the extraction method and storage time on the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) oil

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Cosme Ribeiro; Eduardo Valério de Barros Vilas Boas; Tania Regina Riul; Lílian Pantoja; Helyde Albuquerque Marinho; Alexandre Soares dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi oil obtained by different extraction methods and to evaluate the preservation of these properties and pigments during storage time. The pequi oil was obtained by solvent extraction, mechanical extraction, and hot water flotation. It was stored for over 180 days in an amber bottle at ambient conditions. Analyses for the determination of the acidity, peroxide, saponification and iodine value...

  15. Physicochemical characteristics, nutritional properties, and health benefits of argan oil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abbassi, Abdelilah; Khalid, Nauman; Zbakh, Hanaa; Ahmad, Asif

    2014-01-01

    The argan tree (Argania spinosa L. Skeels), an endemic tree in Morocco, is the most remarkable species in North Africa, due to its botanical and bioecologic interest as well as its social value. Argan oil is traditionally well known for its cardioprotective properties and it is also used in the treatment of skin infections. This paper gives an overview of scientific literature available on nutritional and pharmacologic properties of argan oil. Owing to its unique organoleptic properties associated with its cardioprotective properties, argan oil has found, recently, its place in the highly competitive international edible oil market. This success is a very positive sign for the preservation of the argan tree, the argan forests and, therefore, in general, the biodiversity.

  16. Physicochemical characteristics, nutritional properties, and health benefits of argan oil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abbassi, Abdelilah; Khalid, Nauman; Zbakh, Hanaa; Ahmad, Asif

    2014-01-01

    The argan tree (Argania spinosa L. Skeels), an endemic tree in Morocco, is the most remarkable species in North Africa, due to its botanical and bioecologic interest as well as its social value. Argan oil is traditionally well known for its cardioprotective properties and it is also used in the treatment of skin infections. This paper gives an overview of scientific literature available on nutritional and pharmacologic properties of argan oil. Owing to its unique organoleptic properties associated with its cardioprotective properties, argan oil has found, recently, its place in the highly competitive international edible oil market. This success is a very positive sign for the preservation of the argan tree, the argan forests and, therefore, in general, the biodiversity. PMID:24580537

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on cooking time and associated physicochemical properties of two legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of gamma irradiation (0.25-5.00 kGy) on physical properties (seed size and density), water uptake (swelling and hydration capacities and indices), cooking time and phytic acid content was studied for five varieties each of chickpea and mungbean. Up to 5 kgy irradiation had no significant effect on physical and water uptake properties of these legumes, but cooking time and phytic acid content were drastically reduced. Irradiation caused more reduction in cooking time of chickpea than of mungbeans

  18. Effects of Soy Protein Hydrolysates Prepared by Varying Subcritical Media on the Physicochemical Properties of Pork Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Kyung; Ko, Bo-Bae; Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Hong, Geun-Pyo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of soy protein hydrolysates (SPH) prepared by varying subcritical media on the physicochemical properties of pork patties. For resource of SPH, two different soybean species (Glycine max Merr.) of Daewonkong (DWK) and Saedanbaek (SDB) were selected. SPH was prepared by subcritical processing at 190℃ and 25 MPa under three different of media (water, 20% ethanol and 50% ethanol). Solubility and free amino group content revealed that water was better to yield larger amount of SPH than ethanol/water mixtures, regardless of species. Molecular weight (Mw) distribution of SPH was also similar between two species, while slightly different Mw distribution was obtained by subcritical media. For pork patty application, 50% ethanol treatment showed clear red color comparing to control after 14 d of storage. In addition, ethanol treatment had better oxidative stability than control and water treatment based on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) analysis. For eating quality, although 20% ethanol treatment in SDB showed slightly higher cooking loss than control, generally addition of SPH did not affect the water-binding properties and hardness of pork patties. Consequently, the present study indicated that 50% ethanol was the best subcritical media to produce SPH possessing antioxidant activity, and the SPH produced from DWK exhibited better antioxidant activity than that produced SDB. PMID:27499657

  19. Annealing-Induced Modifications in Physicochemical and Optoelectronic Properties of Ag-Doped Nanostructured CdS Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya S. Taur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ag-doped nanostructured CdS thin films are grown by simple, cost effective chemical ion exchange technique at room temperature on ITO-coated glass substrate. These as grown thin films are annealed at 100, 200, 300, and 400°C in air atmosphere for 1 hour. To study the effect of annealing on physicochemical and optoelectronic properties, these as grown and annealed thin films are characterized for structural, compositional, morphological, optical, and electrical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern reveals polycrystalline nature of these thin films with increase in crystallite size from 6.4 to 11.2 nm, from XRD the direct identification of Ag doping in CdS thin films cannot be judged, while shift in characteristics peak position of CdS is observed. The Raman spectrum represents increase in full width at half maxima and intensity of characteristic peak, confirming the material modification upon annealing treatment. Presence of Cd, Ag, and S in energy dispersive X-ray analysis spectra (EDAX confirms expected elemental composition in thin films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images represent grain growth and agglomeration upon annealing. Red shift in optical absorbance strength and energy band gap values from 2.28 to 2.14 eV is obtained. I-V response obtained from as grown and annealed thin films shows an enhancement in photosensitivity from 72% to 96% upon illumination to 100 mW/cm2 light source.

  20. Comparison of the thickening properties of four Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains and physicochemical characterization of their exopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Sandrine; Furlan, Sylviane; Waghorne, Earle; Saulnier, Luc; Cerning dagger, Jutta; Maguin, Emmanuelle

    2003-04-25

    It is now well established that physicochemical properties of exopolysaccharides (EPS) can vary between strains of a given species and according to growth conditions. The EPS production of four strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus was monitored during growth in milk and in a chemically defined media. All strains, including the non-ropy one, produced EPS. The monosaccharide composition, molar mass (M(w)), and intrinsic viscosity of these EPS were determined and compared. Further characterization using high-performance size-exclusion chromatography revealed the presence of two fractions in all EPS: one fraction exhibited a high M(w) and a high intrinsic viscosity while the other had a low M(w) and a low intrinsic viscosity. Strikingly, the EPS synthesized by the non-ropy strain was mainly composed of the low-M(w) fraction while for the ropy strains, the fraction of high M(w) varied between 43 and 90%. According to our results, we propose that the ratio between the high-M(w) and low-M(w) fractions is critical for the texturing properties of L. bulgaricus EPS.

  1. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTY CHANGES AND ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS ENHANCEMENT OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES TREATED WITH SUPERHEATED STEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezyana Kamal Bahrin,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of superheated steam treatment on oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB was investigated in terms of physicochemical property changes and enzymatic hydrolysis enhancement. The experimental treatment was carried out at different temperatures (140-210°C and durations (20-90 min. Results showed that as the superheated steam temperature and time increased, the size distribution also changed, resulting in more small particles. Analysis on the surface texture, color, and mechanical properties of the treated OPEFB also showed that significant changes resulted due to the superheated steam treatment. In support to this, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG analyses showed that solubilization and removal of the hemicelluloses component also took place. As a result of this phenomenon, higher total sugar and glucose yield was achieved once the treated OPEFB was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis. This suggests that superheated steam treatment could enhance OPEFB structure degradation for the preparation of a suitable substrate in order to produce a higher glucose yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis process.

  2. Geochemical modeling of trivalent chromium migration in saline-sodic soil during Lasagna process: impact on soil physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukman, Salihu; Bukhari, Alaadin; Al-Malack, Muhammad H; Mu'azu, Nuhu D; Essa, Mohammed H

    2014-01-01

    Trivalent Cr is one of the heavy metals that are difficult to be removed from soil using electrokinetic study because of its geochemical properties. High buffering capacity soil is expected to reduce the mobility of the trivalent Cr and subsequently reduce the remedial efficiency thereby complicating the remediation process. In this study, geochemical modeling and migration of trivalent Cr in saline-sodic soil (high buffering capacity and alkaline) during integrated electrokinetics-adsorption remediation, called the Lasagna process, were investigated. The remedial efficiency of trivalent Cr in addition to the impacts of the Lasagna process on the physicochemical properties of the soil was studied. Box-Behnken design was used to study the interaction effects of voltage gradient, initial contaminant concentration, and polarity reversal rate on the soil pH, electroosmotic volume, soil electrical conductivity, current, and remedial efficiency of trivalent Cr in saline-sodic soil that was artificially spiked with Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, phenol, and kerosene. Overall desirability of 0.715 was attained at the following optimal conditions: voltage gradient 0.36 V/cm; polarity reversal rate 17.63 hr; soil pH 10.0. Under these conditions, the expected trivalent Cr remedial efficiency is 64.75%. PMID:25152905

  3. Effect of incorporation of calcium lactate on physico-chemical, textural, and sensory properties of restructured buffalo meat loaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Irshad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to develop a functional meat product by fortifying calcium (in the form of calcium lactate with restructured buffalo meat loaf (RBML. Materials and Methods: Deboned buffalo meat obtained from the carcass of adult female buffalo within 5-6 h of slaughter and stored under frozen condition. Calcium fortified RBML were prepared by replacing the lean buffalo meat with calcium lactate powder at 0%, 1%, 1.25%, and 1.5% level through the pre-standardized procedure. The developed products were evaluated for physico-chemical properties, proximate composition, calcium concentration (mg/100 g, water activity (aw, Lovibond® tintometer color units, texture profile analysis (TPA, and sensory qualities as per-standard procedures. Results: Of the various product quality parameters evaluated, cooking yield (%, product pH, moisture (%, protein (%, fat (%, and water activity (aw decreases significantly with increasing level of calcium lactate. Calcium content of fortified functional RBMLs was 135.02, 165.73, and 203.85 mg/100 g as compared to 6.48 mg/100 g in control. Most of the sensory scores at 1% and 1.25% levels of calcium lactate in treatment products remained comparable among themselves and control product, with a gradual decline. Conclusions: The present study concluded that 1.25% calcium lactate was the optimum level for the fortification of calcium in RBML without affecting the textural and sensory properties which could meet out 15% of recommended dietary allowance for calcium.

  4. Geochemical Modeling of Trivalent Chromium Migration in Saline-Sodic Soil during Lasagna Process: Impact on Soil Physicochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salihu Lukman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trivalent Cr is one of the heavy metals that are difficult to be removed from soil using electrokinetic study because of its geochemical properties. High buffering capacity soil is expected to reduce the mobility of the trivalent Cr and subsequently reduce the remedial efficiency thereby complicating the remediation process. In this study, geochemical modeling and migration of trivalent Cr in saline-sodic soil (high buffering capacity and alkaline during integrated electrokinetics-adsorption remediation, called the Lasagna process, were investigated. The remedial efficiency of trivalent Cr in addition to the impacts of the Lasagna process on the physicochemical properties of the soil was studied. Box-Behnken design was used to study the interaction effects of voltage gradient, initial contaminant concentration, and polarity reversal rate on the soil pH, electroosmotic volume, soil electrical conductivity, current, and remedial efficiency of trivalent Cr in saline-sodic soil that was artificially spiked with Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, phenol, and kerosene. Overall desirability of 0.715 was attained at the following optimal conditions: voltage gradient 0.36 V/cm; polarity reversal rate 17.63 hr; soil pH 10.0. Under these conditions, the expected trivalent Cr remedial efficiency is 64.75 %.

  5. Hormones and endometrial carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Areege; Tempest, Nicola; Parkes, Christina; Alnafakh, Rafah; Makrydima, Sofia; Adishesh, Meera; Hapangama, Dharani K

    2016-02-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is the commonest gynaecological cancer in the Western World with an alarmingly increasing incidence related to longevity and obesity. Ovarian hormones regulate normal human endometrial cell proliferation, regeneration and function therefore are implicated in endometrial carcinogenesis directly or via influencing other hormones and metabolic pathways. Although the role of unopposed oestrogen in the pathogenesis of EC has received considerable attention, the emerging role of other hormones in this process, such as androgens and gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) is less well recognised. This review aims to consolidate the current knowledge of the involvement of the three main endogenous ovarian hormones (oestrogens, progesterone and androgens) as well as the other hormones in endometrial carcinogenesis, to identify important avenues for future research. PMID:26966933

  6. Synthesis and physicochemical and dynamic mechanical properties of a water-soluble chitosan derivative as a biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaepyoung; Grant, Justin; Piquette-Miller, Micheline; Allen, Christine

    2006-10-01

    The physicochemical and rheological properties of a water-soluble chitosan (WSC) derivative were characterized in order to facilitate its use as a novel material for biomedical applications. The WSC was prepared by conjugating glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC) onto chitosan chains. Varying the molar ratio of GTMAC to chitosan from 3:1 to 6:1 produced WSCs with a degree of substitution (DS) that ranged from 56% to 74%. The WSC with the highest DS was soluble in water up to concentrations of 25 g/dL at room temperature. An increase in the polymer concentration gradually increased both the pH and conductivity of the WSC solutions. The rheological properties of the WSC solutions were found to be dependent on the salt and polymer concentrations as well as the DS value. In the absence of salt, the rheological behavior of the WSC was found to be typical of that for a polyelectrolyte in the dilute solution regime. However, the addition of salt decreased the viscosity of the polymer solution due to the reduction of electrostatic repulsions by the positively charged trimethylated ammonium groups of the WSC. In the concentrated regime, the viscosity of the WSCs was found to follow a power-law expression. The lowest DS WSC had the more favorable viscoelastic properties that were attributed to its high molecular weight, as confirmed by the stress relaxation spectra and intrinsic viscosity measurements. The effect of DS on the degree of interaction between WSC and the lipid egg phosphatidylcholine was investigated by FTIR analysis. Overall, the lower DS WSC had enhanced rheological properties and was capable of engaging in stronger intermolecular physical interactions. PMID:17025361

  7. Biomarkers for pancreatic carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hustinx, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease. Most pancreatic cancers (approximately 85%) are diagnosed at a late, incurable stage. The poor prognosis and late presentation of pancreatic cancer patients underscore the importance of early detection, which is the sine qua non for the fight against pancreatic cancer. It is hoped for the future that the understanding of genetic alterations will lead to the rapid discovery of an effective biomarker of pancreatic carcinogenesis. In this thesis we vis...

  8. Relationship between galactomannan structure and physicochemical properties of films produced thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, V R F; Souza, B W S; Teixeira, J A; Vicente, A A; Cerqueira, M A

    2015-12-01

    In this work five sources of galactomannans, Adenanthera pavonina, Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Ceratonia siliqua and Sophora japonica, presenting mannose/galactose ratios of 1.3, 1.7, 2.9, 3.4 and 5.6, respectively, were used to produce galactomannan-based films. These films were characterized in terms of: water vapour, oxygen and carbon dioxide permeabilities (WVP, O 2 P and CO 2 P); moisture content, water solubility, contact angle, elongation-at-break (EB), tensile strength (TS) and glass transition temperature (T g ). Results showed that films properties vary according to the galactomannan source (different galactose distribution) and their mannose/galactose ratio. Water affinity of mannan and galactose chains and the intermolecular interactions of mannose backbone should also be considered being factors that affect films' properties. This work has shown that knowing mannose/galactose ratio of galactomannans is possible to foresee galactomannan-based edible films properties.

  9. Physicochemical Properties and Cellular Responses of Strontium-Doped Gypsum Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Pouria; Hadis Bandegani; Milad Pourbaghi-Masouleh; Saeed Hesaraki; Masoud Alizadeh

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes some physical, structural, and biological properties of gypsum bioceramics doped with various amounts of strontium ions (0.19–2.23 wt%) and compares these properties with those of a pure gypsum as control. Strontium-doped gypsum (gypsum:Sr) was obtained by mixing calcium sulfate hemihydrate powder and solutions of strontium nitrate followed by washing the specimens with distilled water to remove residual salts. Gypsum was the only phase found in the composition of both pu...

  10. Physicochemical properties of lard-based diacylglycerols in blends with lard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miklos, Rikke; Zhang, Hong; Lametsch, René;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate how blending of triacylglycerols and diacylglycerols affected the melting and crystallisation properties in a solid fat system. Lard-based diacylglycerols (DAGs) were blended with lard in various concentrations (0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80......%, 90%, and 100%). The melting and crystallisation properties were investigated by the determination of dropping point (DP), solid fat content (SFC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In general, the effects of DAGs were found to be dependent on concentration. The DP...

  11. Effect of laser radiation on physicochemical and functional properties of human hemoglobin in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irzhak, LI; Zotova, EA; Mamaeva, SA

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to laser radiation increases pH and isoelectric point of human hemoglobin solution, improves the acid-base properties, increases affinity for oxygen, and decreases the Bohr effect in comparison with intact hemoglobin. The mechanisms underlying these changes are discussed.

  12. Effect of Carrageenan on Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Low-Fat Colby Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Tong, Qigen; Luo, Jie; Xu, Yiqing; Ren, Fazheng

    2016-08-01

    The effect of carrageenan (κ-carrageenan, ι-carrageenan, and λ-carrageenan) on the physiochemical and functional properties of low-fat Colby cheese during ripening was investigated. Protein, fat, and moisture contents; the soluble fractions of the total nitrogen at pH 4.6; protein and fat recovery; and the actual yield and dry matter yield (DM yield) were monitored. Hardness, springiness, and the storage modulus were also evaluated to assess the functional properties of the cheese. Moreover, the behavior of water in the samples was investigated to ascertain the underlying mechanisms. The results indicated that 0.15 g/kg κ-carrageenan had no significant effect on the actual yield and DM yield, and physiochemical and functional properties of low-fat Colby cheese. The protein content increased in the low-fat cheese and low-fat cheese containing κ-carrageenan, and the moisture in the nonfat substance (MNFS) decreased in both samples, which contributed to the harder texture. The addition of 0.3 g/kg ι-carrageenan and 0.3 g/kg λ-carrageenan improved the textural and rheological properties of low-fat cheese by 2 ways: one is increasing the content of bound and expressible moisture due to their high water absorption capacity and the other is interfering with casein crosslinking, thereby further increasing MNFS and the actual yield.

  13. Physicochemical properties and amylopectin chain profiles of cowpea, chickpea and yellow pea starches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Schols, H.A.; Soest, van J.J.G.; Jin, Z.; Sulmann, E.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Starches from cowpea and chickpea seeds were isolated and their properties were compared with those of commercial yellow pea starch. Amylose contents were 25.8%, 27.2%, and 31.2%, and the volume mean diameter of granules, determined in the dry state, were 15.5, 17.9, and 33.8 ¿m for cowpea, chickpea

  14. Gelatin Effects on the Physicochemical and Hemocompatible Properties of Gelatin/PAAm/Laponite Nanocomposite Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changpeng; Mu, Changdao; Lin, Wei; Ngai, To

    2015-08-26

    In recent years, inorganic nanoparticles such as Laponite have frequently been incorporated into polymer matrixes to obtain nanocomposite hydrogels with hierarchical structures, ultrastrong tensibilities, and high transparencies. Despite their unique physical and chemical properties, only a few reports have evaluated Laponite-based nanocomposite hydrogels for biomedical applications. This article presents the synthesis and characterization of a novel, hemocompatible nanocomposite hydrogels by in situ polymerization of acrylamide (AAm) in a mixed suspension containing Laponite and gelatin. The compatibility, structure, thermal stability, and mechanical properties of the resulting NC gels with varied gel compositions were investigated. Our results show that the prepared nanocomposite hydrogels exhibit good thermal stability and mechanical properties. The introduction of a biocompatible polymer, gelatin, into the polymer matrix did not change the transparency and homogeneity of the resulting nanocomposite hydrogels, but it significantly decreased the hydrogel's pH-responsive properties. More importantly, gelatins that were incorporated into the PAAm network resisted nonspecific protein adsorption, improved the degree of hemolysis, and eventually prolonged the clotting time, indicating that the in vitro hemocompatibility of the resulting nanocomposite hydrogels had been substantially enhanced. Therefore, these nanocomposite hydrogels provide opportunities for potential use in various biomedical applications.

  15. An Investigation into the Physico-chemical Properties of Transformer Oil Blends with Antioxidants extracted from Turmeric Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhi, Veresha; Bissessur, Ajay; Ngila, Catherine Jane; Ijumba, Nelson Mutatina

    2013-07-01

    The blending of transformer oil (used mainly as an insulating oil) with appropriate synthetic antioxidants, such as BHT (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) and DBP (2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) have been previously reported. This article is focused on the use of antioxidant extracts from turmeric (Curcuma longa), a natural source. Turmeric is well known for its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties owing to the active nature of its components. Extracts from powdered turmeric were subsequently blended into naphthenic-based uninhibited virgin transformer oil, hereinafter referred to as extract-oil blends (E-OB). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of the oil blends revealed that five components extracted from turmeric powder were successfully blended into the oil. Subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed the presence of the compounds: curcumene, sesquiphellandrene, ar-turmerone, turmerone and curlone. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the extract-oil blends, containing various levels of extracts, revealed an average temperature shift of ˜8.21°C in the initial onset of degradation in comparison to virgin non-blended oil. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed that an increase in the mass aliquot of turmeric extracts in the transformer oil increased the free radical scavenging activity of the oil. Electrical properties of the oil investigated showed that the dissipation factor in the blended oil was found to be lower than that of virgin transformer oil. Evidently, a lower dissipation value renders the oil blend as a superior insulator over normal virgin non-blended oil. This investigation elucidated improved physico-chemical properties of transformer oil blended with turmeric antioxidant extracts.

  16. Effects of residue 5-point mutation and N-terminus hydrophobic residues on temporin-SHc physicochemical and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbassi, Feten; Piesse, Christophe; Foulon, Thierry; Nicolas, Pierre; Ladram, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Temporin-SHc (FLSHIAGFLSNLFamide) first isolated from skin extraction of the Tunisian frog Pelophylax saharica, which shows potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and is highly active against yeasts and fungi without hemolytic activity at antimicrobial concentrations. The peptide adopts well-defined α-helical conformation when bound to SDS micelles. In this study, we explored the effects of residue at position 5 and the N-terminus hydrophobic character on the hydrophilic/polar face of temp-SHc, on its biological activities (antimicrobial and hemolytic) and biophysical properties (hydrophobicity, amphipathicity and helicity). Antibacterial and hemolytic properties of temporin-SHc derivatives depend strongly on physicochemical properties. Therefore, slight decreasing amphipathicity together with hydrophobicity and helicity by the substitution Ile(5) → Leu decreased antimicrobial potency approximately twofold without changing of hemolytic activity. It is noteworthy that a conservative amino acid substitution decreases the antimicrobial activity, underlining the differences between Leu/Ile side chains insertion into the lipid bilayer. While the modification of N-terminal hydrophobic character by four residue inversion decreased amphipathicity (twofold) of (4-1)L5temp-SHc and resulted in an increase in antibacterial activity against E. coli, E. faecalis and C. parapsilosis of at least fourfold, its therapeutic potential is limited by its drastic increase of hemolysis (LC₅₀ = 2 μM). We found that the percentage of helicity of temp-SHc analog is directly correlated to its hemolytic activity. Last, the hydrophobic N-terminal character is an important determinant of antimicrobial activity. PMID:24842084

  17. Improvement of in vitro physicochemical properties and osteogenic activity of calcium sulfate cement for bone repair by dicalcium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Dicalcium silicate can improve osteogenic activity of calcium sulfate cement. • The higher the calcium sulfate content, the shorter the setting time in the composite cement. • The results were useful for designing calcium-based cement with optimal properties. -- Abstract: An ideal bone graft substitute should have the same speed of degradation as formation of new bone tissue. To improve the properties of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) featured for its rapid resorption, a low degradation material of dicalcium silicate (DCS) was added to the CSH cement. This study examined the effect of DCS (20, 40, 60 and 80 wt%) on the in vitro physicochemical properties and osteogenic activities of the calcium-based composite cements. The diametral tensile strength, porosity and weight loss of the composite cements were evaluated before and after soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF). The osteogenic activities, such as proliferation, differentiation and mineralization, of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) seeded on cement surfaces were also examined. As a result, the greater the DCS amount, the higher the setting time was in the cement. Before soaking in SBF, the diametral tensile strength of the composite cements was decreased due to the introduction of DCS. On 180-day soaking, the composite cements containing 20, 40, 60 and 80 wt% DCS lost 80%, 69%, 61% and 44% in strength, respectively. Regarding in vitro bioactivity, the DCS-rich cements were covered with clusters of apatite spherulites after soaking for 7 days, while there was no formation of apatite spherulites on the CSH-rich cement surfaces. The presence of DCS could reduce the degradation of the CSH cements, as evidenced in the results of weight loss and porosity. More importantly, DCS may promote effectively the cell proliferation, proliferation and mineralization. The combination of osteogenesis of DCS and degradation of CSH made the calcium-based composite cements an attractive choice for

  18. Physicochemical properties of biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol-agar films from the red algae Hydropuntia cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera-Santana, Tomás J; Robledo, Daniel; Freile-Pelegrín, Yolanda

    2011-08-01

    Agar obtained from the red alga Hydropuntia cornea was blended with polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) in order to produce biodegradable films. In this study, we compare the properties of biopolymeric films formulated with agars extracted from H. cornea collected at different seasons (rainy and dry) in the Gulf of Mexico coast and PVOH as synthetic matrix. The films were prepared at different agar contents (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) and their optical, mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties analyzed. The tensile strength of PVOH-agar films increased when agar content was augmented. The formulation with 50% agar from rainy season (RS) had a significant higher tensile strength when compared to those from dry season (DS; p biodegradable packaging industry.

  19. Evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of a new polysaccharide gum from Prosopis africana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikwu, M U; Ezeabasili, S I; Esimone, C O

    2001-01-01

    The gum obtained from the ripe seeds of Prosopis africana was processed to compendial standard for plant gums and characterised. Toxicological studies of the polysaccharide on mice showed the material to be safe. The material hydrates slowly in aqueous media to form a colloidal dispersion. Swelling studies on the gum shows that the gum has a higher swelling capacity than methylcellulose. Rheological studies showed that the material is more viscous than tragacanth gum at equivalent concentrations. Acid hydrolysis and thin layer chromatography of the resulting hydrolysates showed that the gum contains glucose, fructose, galactose and xylose as the monosaccharide components. Microbial tests showed the gum to contain 8.26 x 10(4) viable cells per gram when freshly prepared. Other properties of the gum evaluated includes; melting or charring temperature, optical properties, true density, ash values, element content as well as its reactions with lead subacetate solution and 0.02 M iodine.

  20. Effect of sulfonation and diethanolamine addition on the mechanical and physicochemical properties of SEPS copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, D.; Correa, E.; Acevedo-Morantes, M.

    2016-02-01

    Modification techniques have been developed to achieve changes in the processing of polymers, and modification of their mechanical, thermal and morphological properties, as well as their hydrophobicity and conductivity. Sulfonation improves ion conductivity, antistatic behaviour, hydrophilicity and solubility of the polymers. These characteristics are related to the presence of sulfonic groups in the polymer matrix. This research project focuses on the evaluation of mechanical, physical and chemical properties of membranes that are based on a sulfonated Styrene-Ethylene-Propylene-Styrene (SEPS) copolymer. The membranes were functionalized with diethanolamine at 5, 15 and 30% w/w, to separate carbon dioxide. FTIR and XRD analyses were used to characterize the membranes. The sulfonated-loaded membrane with 15% of diethanolamine showed the best results in each characterization.