WorldWideScience

Sample records for carcinogenesis physicochemical properties

  1. Physicochemical properties of maca starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Li, Guantian; Wang, Sunan; Yao, Weirong; Zhu, Fan

    2017-03-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) is gaining research attention due to its unique bioactive properties. Starch is a major component of maca roots, thus representing a novel starch source. In this study, the properties of three maca starches (yellow, purple and black) were compared with commercially maize, cassava, and potato starches. The starch granule sizes ranged from 9.0 to 9.6μm, and the granules were irregularly oval. All the maca starches presented B-type X-ray diffraction patterns, with the relative degree of crystallinity ranging from 22.2 to 24.3%. The apparent amylose contents ranged from 21.0 to 21.3%. The onset gelatinization temperatures ranged from 47.1 to 47.5°C as indicated by differential scanning calorimetry. Significant differences were observed in the pasting properties and textural parameters among all of the studied starches. These characteristics suggest the utility of native maca starch in products subjected to low temperatures during food processing and other industrial applications.

  2. Physicochemical and protective properties of hydroxypropylated ethanolamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinarskaya, L.M.; Luneva, V.S.; Nikolaeva, N.M.; Shekhter, Yu.N.

    1982-09-01

    This article reports on a study of the physicochemical, electrochemical, and protective properties of nonionic surfactants. It examines oxypropylated monoethanolamides (MEA) with the general formula R-CON(C/sub 3/H/sub 6/O) /SUB x/ HC/sub 2/H/sub 4/O(C/sub 3/H/sub 6/O) /SUB y/ H and oxypropylated diethanolamides (DEA) with the general formula R'CON(C/sub 2/H/sub 4/O)/sub 2/(C/sub 3/H/sub 6/O) /SUB x/ H(C/sub 3/ H/sub 6/O) /SUB y/ H, where R is a C/sub 10/-C/sub 16/ alkyl radical; R' is a C/sub 10/-C/sub 13/ alkyl radical; n=x + y is the number of oxypropylene groups, ranging from 1 to 10. An increase in the number of added oxypropylene groups is accompanied by decreases in the refractive index, nitrogen content, and solid point, along with an increase in the density of the products that are obtained. These studies of the relationships in the variation of physicochemical and protective properties of compounds based on ethanolamides may contribute to the development of protective surfactants for petroleum products with the particular combinations of properties and performance indices that may be required for specific purposes.

  3. Physicochemical Properties of Palm Kernel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira P. Olaniyi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical analyses were carried out on palm kernel oil (Adin and the following results were obtained: Saponification value; 280.5±56.1 mgKOH/g, acid value; 2.7±0.3 mg KOH/g, Free Fatty Acid (FFA; 1.35±0.15 KOH/g, ester value; 277.8±56.4 mgKOH/g, peroxide value; 14.3±0.8 mEq/kg; iodine value; 15.86±4.02 mgKOH/g, Specific Gravity (S.G value; 0.904, refractive index; 1.412 and inorganic materials; 1.05%. Its odour and colour were heavy burnt smell and burnt brown, respectively. These values were compared with those obtained for groundnut and coconut oils. It was found that the physico-chemical properties of palm kernel oil are comparable to those of groundnut and coconut oils except for the peroxide value (i.e., 14.3±0.8 mEq which was not detectable in groundnut and coconut oils. Also the odour of both groundnut and coconut oils were pleasant while that of the palm kernel oil was not as pleasant (i.e., heavy burnt smell.

  4. Physicochemical properties and transport of steroids across Caco-2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faassen, F.; Kelder, J.; Lenders, J.; Onderwater, R.; Vromans, H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this work was to study the relevant physicochemical properties for the absorption of steroids. Methods. Various physicochemical properties of steroids were calculated (molecular weight, ClogP, static polar surface area [PSA], etc.). Within this series of steroids, different p

  5. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Il Sook; Cha, Han Sam; Lee, Young Soon

    2014-10-20

    Black garlic (BG) is a processed garlic product prepared by heat treatment of whole garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) at high temperature under high humidity for several days, resulting in black cloves with a sweet taste. BG has recently been introduced to the Korean market as a product beneficial to health. To clarify how BG changes during the 35 day aging period, the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant contents, and antioxidant activities were evaluated under controlled conditions of 70 °C and 90% relative humidity. Reducing sugar and total acidity of BG increased during the aging period, whereas pH decreased from pH 6.33 to 3.74. Lightness and yellowness values of BG radically decreased during the aging period, whereas redness values increased significantly. Antioxidant components, including the total polyphenol and total flavonoids contents of BG, increased significantly until the 21st day of aging (p properties during the aging period, but also to reach its optimal antioxidant properties at the 21st day of aging.

  6. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Black Garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Sook Choi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Black garlic (BG is a processed garlic product prepared by heat treatment of whole garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L. at high temperature under high humidity for several days, resulting in black cloves with a sweet taste. BG has recently been introduced to the Korean market as a product beneficial to health. To clarify how BG changes during the 35 day aging period, the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant contents, and antioxidant activities were evaluated under controlled conditions of 70 °C and 90% relative humidity. Reducing sugar and total acidity of BG increased during the aging period, whereas pH decreased from pH 6.33 to 3.74. Lightness and yellowness values of BG radically decreased during the aging period, whereas redness values increased significantly. Antioxidant components, including the total polyphenol and total flavonoids contents of BG, increased significantly until the 21st day of aging (p < 0.05 and correspondingly, the antioxidant activities of BG, measured by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and reducing power assays, were highest on the 21st day of aging. These results indicate that BG can be considered to not only possess antioxidant properties during the aging period, but also to reach its optimal antioxidant properties at the 21st day of aging.

  7. Determination of physicochemical properties of delipidized hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Roger L; Laura, Donna; Chen, Susan; Koelmel, Donald; Zhang, Guojin; Gillece, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Using various physicochemical methods of analysis, we examined human hair in its virgin and delipidized state. Free lipids were removed by a solvent extraction technique (covalently bound lipids were not removed) using a series of solvents with varying polarity. We analyzed the surface properties of hair by conducting mechanical combing and dynamic contact angle analysis. In addition, we used inverse gas chromatography surface energy analysis to explore the chemical composition of the hair surface based on interactions of various nonpolar and polar probes with biological molecules residing on the hair surface. Further, we investigated the importance that free lipids play in the internal structural properties of hair using dynamic scanning calorimetry and tensile strength measurements. The microstructure of the hair surface was probed by atomic force microscopy, whereas the lipid content of hair's morphological components was determined by infrared spectroscopic imaging. We also monitored the water management properties of virgin and delipidized hair by dynamic vapor sorption, which yielded unique water sorption isotherms for each hair type. Using all these techniques, differences were found in the chemical composition and physical behavior of virgin and delipidized hair. To better understand the influence of hair lipid composition on hair styling treatments, we conducted mechanical analyses of hair shaped into omega loops to determine the stiffness, elasticity, and flexibility of hair-polymer assemblies. Although there were no discernible differences between untreated virgin and delipidized hair, in terms of stiffness and elasticity, we found that treatment with hair styling agents produced different effects depending on the hair type used. Likewise, streaming potential measurements were carried out to monitor the binding capacity of rinse-off treatments on virgin and delipidized hair. Using this technique, we monitored the surface potential of hair and found

  8. Physico-chemical surface properties of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Altan; Berberoglu, Halil

    2013-12-01

    This study reports a comprehensive set of experimentally measured physico-chemical surface properties of 12 different microalgae including fresh and seawater species of green algae, diatoms and cyanobacteria. The surface free energy and its components including the acid-base (AB), van der Waals (LW), electron donor/acceptor parameters were quantified based on contact angle measurements along with the Lifshitz-van der Waals acid-base approach using the probe liquid surface tension parameters proposed by van Oss et al. as well as by Della Volpe and Siboni. Moreover, the zeta and surface potentials of all species were determined using electrophoretic mobility measurements along with using Smoluchowski's model. Finally, the free energy of cohesion of the microalgae was also determined based on the calculated surface energy properties. The results showed that the electron donor parameter correlated well with the free energy of cohesion in all groups of microalgae. Moreover, species known to form colonies and exhibit benthic cultures had distinctly hydrophobic surfaces compared to microalgae prefering planktonic growth. These results indicate the importance of surface hydrophobicity for causing biofouiling or flocculation of cultures. Finally, the zeta potentials did not show a distinctive trend with the types of microalgae but the surface potentials were markedly larger for the salt water species. The reported methods and data are expected to provide critical information for researchers and technology developers concerned with cell to cell and cell to substrata interactions of microalgae in algal biomass cultivation and harvesting, biofouling of membranes and surfaces, as well as cell-surface interactions in photosynthetic microbial fuel cell technologies.

  9. Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of Tequila Brands: Authentication and Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Carreon-Alvarez; Amaury Suárez-Gómez; Florentina Zurita; Sergio Gómez-Salazar; J. Felix Armando Soltero; Maximiliano Barcena-Soto; Norberto Casillas; Porfirio-Gutierrez; Edgar David Moreno-Medrano

    2016-01-01

    Several physicochemical properties were measured in commercial tequila brands: conductivity, density, pH, sound velocity, viscosity, and refractive index. Physicochemical data were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, and the one-way analysis of variance to identify the quality and authenticity of tequila brands. According to the Principal Component Analysis, the existence of 3 main components was identified, explaining the 87.76% of the total variability of physi...

  10. QSPR prediction of physico-chemical properties for REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearden, J C; Rotureau, P; Fayet, G

    2013-01-01

    For registration of a chemical, European Union REACH legislation requires information on the relevant physico-chemical properties of the chemical. Predicted property values can be used when the predictions can be shown to be valid and adequate. The relevant physico-chemical properties that are amenable to prediction are: melting/freezing point, boiling point, relative density, vapour pressure, surface tension, water solubility, n-octanol-water partition coefficient, flash point, flammability, explosive properties, self-ignition temperature, adsorption/desorption, dissociation constant, viscosity, and air-water partition coefficient (Henry's law constant). Published quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) methods for all of these properties are discussed, together with relevant property prediction software, as an aid for those wishing to use predicted property values in submissions to the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA).

  11. Physicochemical characterization of fish protein adlayers with bacteria repelling properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, R. L.; Arpanaei, A.; Pillai, S.;

    2013-01-01

    Materials coated with aqueous fish protein extracts can reduce bacterial adhesion, but the mechanism behind the observed effect is not fully understood. In this study we explore the physicochemical properties of fish muscle protein adlayers on four substrates: gold, stainless steel, polystyrene...... and silicon dioxide. The aims were (i) to determine if the anti-adhesive effect is independent of the underlying substrate chemistry, (ii) to link the physicochemical properties of the adlayer to its ability to repel bacteria, and (iii) to elucidate the mechanism behind this effect. The main proteins on all...

  12. Comparison of physicochemical properties of suppositories containing starch hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Belniak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of starch hydrolysates (SH on the physicochemical properties of suppositories. The study was conducted with suppositories with acetaminophen (AAP a typical antipyretic analgesic, as model drug on lipophilic (cocoa butter and hydrophilic base (polyethylene glycol 1500 + 400. The suppositories with and without the addition of SH were examined for physicochemical tests according to European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition (Ph. Eur.: the uniformity of mass of single-dose preparation test, the softening time determination of lipophilic suppositories test, the disintegration of suppositories test, and dissolution test with flow-through apparatus. The results confirm the possibility of using starch hydrolysates as a cheap and safe addition to modify physicochemical properties of suppositories.

  13. THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF EDIBLE PROTEIN FILMS

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    Seda Ogur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, edible films from isolated or concentrated protein sources and from proteins of two different fish species were produced. The texture properties, light transmission (LT and oxygen permeability (OP of producing films were determined. The CL film settled in the second range according to both tension test parameters, thus outclassing the other tested films. The WG film possessed the lowest LT, so making it more effective in protecting of food products from light than the other tested films. The SPI film with the lowest OP value can be used for the purpose of protecting of food products from harmful effects of oxidation.

  14. Physico-chemical properties of probiotic yoghurt produced with transglutaminase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Spasenija D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different concentration of transglutaminase - TG (0.02%, 0.06% and 0.12% on physico-chemical properties of probiotic yoghurt was investigated. Two series of yoghurt were manufactured on a laboratory scale from pasteurised skim milk (0.1 % w/w fat. Series I was produced with TGase activation during a period of 2 h at 40°C, while series II was produced without enzyme activation. Then, the adequate quantities of TGase and probiotic starter culture ABT-4 (Chr. Hansen A/S Denmark were added. Chemical composition, physico-chemical properties (water holding capacity and whey separation and sensory characteristics of yoghurt samples were determined after production and during 5 days of storage. Addition of TGase to milk (direct or after activation for probiotic yoghurt manufacture improved its overall characteristics. Activation of TG in yoghurt production increases water holding capacity as well as decreases syneresis during the storage.

  15. Morphological features and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanxin; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Chunzhong; Zhou, Xing

    2013-11-01

    Morphological features, granule composition, and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch were compared with those of normal wheat starch. The morphologies and granule populations were found to be similar for the two starches. However, waxy wheat starch contained a smaller proportion of B-type granules, had a larger average granule diameter, and a higher degree of crystallinity than normal wheat starch, as measured by particle size analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. These differences resulted in a higher gelatinization temperature, transition enthalpy, peak viscosity, breakdown, swelling power, lower peak viscosity temperature and final viscosity in waxy wheat starch. These points suggest that waxy wheat starch should have greater resistance to retrogradation during cooling and higher water-holding capacity under dry conditions. Highlighting the differences in physicochemical properties of waxy and normal wheat starches should help point toward effective applications of waxy wheat starch in the food industry.

  16. Physicochemical properties and combustion behavior of duckweed during wet torrefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuping; Chen, Tao; Li, Wan; Dong, Qing; Xiong, Yuanquan

    2016-10-01

    Wet torrefaction of duckweed was carried out in the temperature range of 130-250°C to evaluate the effects on physicochemical properties and combustion behavior. The physicochemical properties of duckweed samples were investigated by ultimate analysis, proximate analysis, FTIR, XRD and SEM techniques. It was found that wet torrefaction improved the fuel characteristics of duckweed samples resulting from the increase in fixed carbon content, HHVs and the decrease in nitrogen and sulfur content and atomic ratios of O/C and H/C. It can be seen from the results of FTIR, XRD and SEM analyses that the dehydration, decarboxylation, solid-solid conversion, and condensation polymerization reactions were underwent during wet torrefaction. In addition, the results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in air indicated that wet torrefaction resulted in significant changes on combustion behavior and combustion kinetics parameters. Duckweed samples after wet torrefaction behaved more char-like and gave better combustion characteristics than raw sample.

  17. Characterization of physicochemical properties of carboxymethyl agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mingzhao; Liu, Xin; Luan, Jimei; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-10-13

    A series of carboxymethyl agars (CMAs) with different degree of substitution (DS) were prepared, and their properties were determined and analyzed. The results showed that with the increase of DS, the dissolving temperature, the gelling temperature, the gel melting temperature, the gel strength, the gel hardness, the gel fracturability, and the solution apparent viscosity of CMA all decreased, except that its gel cohesiveness and gel springiness increased. The variation process of agar molecules in solution from coil to helix could be observed by measuring the optical rotation of the solution at such a low concentration, at which even the solution could not form a gel. The gel skeleton microstructures of both agar and CMA were of porous network structure, and the pore size of CMA became smaller and denser with the increase of its DS. After carboxymethylation, the agar hygroscopicity was improved, but its thermal stability was lowered.

  18. Effect of Microwave Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Maize Flour

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Relatively little work has been reported about flour changes during microwave irradiation. For this reason, maize flours were treated by microwave radiation at 400 W for 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 min, and their microstructure and physicochemical characteristics (X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry and pasting properties) were analysed. Micrographs showed that maize flour treated by microwave radiation displayed less compacted particl...

  19. Some physicochemical properties of dextrin produced by extrusion process

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Dextrinization of corn starch by twin screw extruder was studied. The effect of extruder operating conditions (five different screw speeds: 35, 45, 55, 65, and 70; and three temperatures: 125, 130, and 135 °C) on some physicochemical properties of dextrin (total soluble solid, water absorption index, water solubility index, and total color difference) was investigated. Results showed that as the screw speed and temperature of extrusion were increased the water absorption index of dextrin tend...

  20. Effect of the electronic and physicochemical parameters on the carcinogenesis activity of some sulfa drugs using QSAR analysis based on genetic-MLR and genetic-PLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Omar; Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Jaber, Amal; Garduno-Juarez, R; Miri, Ramin

    2007-05-01

    A quantitative structure activity relationship study has been applied to a data set of 18 sulfa drugs with carcinogenesis activity. Semi-empirical quantum chemical calculation (AM1 method) was used to find the optimum 3D geometry of the studied molecules. Two types of molecular descriptors including chemical and electronic was used to derive a quantitative relation between the carcinogenesis activity and structural properties. Two multi-parametric equations with good statistical qualities were obtained using genetic algorithms multiple linear regression (GA-MLR) methods. In addition, genetic algorithm-partial least squares (GA-PLS) regression was used to model the structure-activity relationships, more accurately. The results confirmed the superiority of the results obtained by GA-PLS relative to GA-MLR. The significant effect of the HOMO energy on the carcinogenic activity was explained in the context of the shape of this orbital.

  1. CNS drug design: balancing physicochemical properties for optimal brain exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankovic, Zoran

    2015-03-26

    The human brain is a uniquely complex organ, which has evolved a sophisticated protection system to prevent injury from external insults and toxins. Designing molecules that can overcome this protection system and achieve optimal concentration at the desired therapeutic target in the brain is a specific and major challenge for medicinal chemists working in CNS drug discovery. Analogous to the now widely accepted rule of 5 in the design of oral drugs, the physicochemical properties required for optimal brain exposure have been extensively studied in an attempt to similarly define the attributes of successful CNS drugs and drug candidates. This body of work is systematically reviewed here, with a particular emphasis on the interplay between the most critical physicochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters of CNS drugs as well as their impact on medicinal chemistry strategies toward molecules with optimal brain exposure. A summary of modern CNS pharmacokinetic concepts and methods is also provided.

  2. Predictions of Physicochemical Properties of Ionic Liquids with DFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Karu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, density functional theory (DFT-based high-throughput computational approach is becoming more efficient and, thus, attractive for finding advanced materials for electrochemical applications. In this work, we illustrate how theoretical models, computational methods, and informatics techniques can be put together to form a simple DFT-based throughput computational workflow for predicting physicochemical properties of room-temperature ionic liquids. The developed workflow has been used for screening a set of 48 ionic pairs and for analyzing the gathered data. The predicted relative electrochemical stabilities, ionic charges and dynamic properties of the investigated ionic liquids are discussed in the light of their potential practical applications.

  3. Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of Tequila Brands: Authentication and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Carreon-Alvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several physicochemical properties were measured in commercial tequila brands: conductivity, density, pH, sound velocity, viscosity, and refractive index. Physicochemical data were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA, cluster analysis, and the one-way analysis of variance to identify the quality and authenticity of tequila brands. According to the Principal Component Analysis, the existence of 3 main components was identified, explaining the 87.76% of the total variability of physicochemical measurements. In general, all tequila brands appeared together in the plane of the first two principal components. In the cluster analysis, four groups showing similar characteristics were identified. In particular, one of the clusters contains some tequila brands that are not identified by the Regulatory Council of Tequila and do not meet the quality requirements established in the Mexican Official Standard 006. These tequila brands are characterized by having higher conductivity and density and lower viscosity and refractive index, determined by one-way analysis of variance. Therefore, these economical measurements, PCA, and cluster analysis can be used to determinate the authenticity of a tequila brand.

  4. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WATER DEPLETED OF HEAVY ISOTOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav V. Goncharuk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on physicochemical properties of the light water (deuterium concentration is reduced to the ratio D/H = 4 ppm and that of the isotope of oxygen 18 – to the ratio 18O/16O = 750 ppm have been obtained. They include the melting and boiling points, kinematic viscosity, density, the spin-spin proton relaxation time, self-diffusion coefficients, and the small-angle laser light scattering. An explanation was proposed for the detected significant changes of the light water as compared with the high-resistivity water having geochemically ordinary isotope composition.

  5. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of peanut protein hydrolysate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Tang

    Full Text Available Peanut protein and its hydrolysate were compared with a view to their use as food additives. The effects of pH, temperature and protein concentration on some of their key physicochemical properties were investigated. Compared with peanut protein, peanut peptides exhibited a significantly higher solubility and significantly lower turbidity at pH values 2-12 and temperature between 30 and 80°C. Peanut peptide showed better emulsifying capacity, foam capacity and foam stability, but had lower water holding and fat adsorption capacities over a wide range of protein concentrations (2-5 g/100 ml than peanut protein isolate. In addition, peanut peptide exhibited in vitro antioxidant properties measured in terms of reducing power, scavenging of hydroxyl radical, and scavenging of DPPH radical. These results suggest that peanut peptide appeared to have better functional and antioxidant properties and hence has a good potential as a food additive.

  6. Physicochemical properties of surimi gels fortified with dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debusca, Alicia; Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2014-04-01

    Although dietary fiber provides health benefits, most Western populations have insufficient intake. Surimi seafood is not currently fortified with dietary fiber, nor have the effects of fiber fortification on physicochemical properties of surimi been thoroughly studied. In the present study, Alaska pollock surimi was fortified with 0-8 g/100 g of long-chain powdered cellulose as a source of dietary fiber. The protein/water concentrations in surimi were kept constant by adding an inert filler, silicon dioxide in inverse concentrations to the fiber fortification. Fiber-fortified surimi gels were set at 90 °C. The objectives were to determine (1) textural and colour properties; (2) heat-induced gelation (dynamic rheology); and (3) protein endothermic transitions (differential scanning calorimetry) of surimi formulated with constant protein/water, but variable fiber content. Fiber fortification up to 6 g/100 g improved (Pfiber. Dynamic rheology correlated with texture and showed large increase in gel elasticity, indicating enhanced thermal gelation of surimi. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that fiber fortification did not interfere with thermal transitions of surimi myosin and actin. Long-chain fiber probably traps water physically, which is stabilized by chemical bonding with protein within surimi gel matrix. Based on the present study, it is suggested that the fiber-protein interaction is mediated by water and is physicochemical in nature.

  7. Physicochemical properties of praseodymium hydroxide and oxide nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jun-Gill [Department of Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 304-764 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Bong-Ki [Centre for Research Facility, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Youngku, E-mail: youngkusohn@ynu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Pr(OH){sub 3} nanorods were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. • Pr{sub 6}O{sub 10} nanorods were obtained by a post-annealing method. • Pr(III) changed to Pr(IV) after annealing. • The physicochemical properties were fully examined. • Hydrogen reduction and CO oxidation profile were newly revealed. - Abstract: We synthesized hexagonal phase Pr(OH){sub 3} nanorods by a hydrothermal method and obtained cubic phase Pr{sub 6}O{sub 11} by post-thermal annealing at above 550 °C. Pr(OH){sub 3} nanorod growth was found to occur in the [0 0 1] direction. Upon thermal annealing, the oxidation state of Pr(III) was changed to Pr(III, IV). The physicochemical properties were fully examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) crystallography, UV–Visible–NIR absorption, differential scanning calorimetry/thermogravimetric analysis (DSC/TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and CO oxidation activity tests.

  8. Physicochemical properties of quinoa flour as affected by starch interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2017-04-15

    There has been growing interest in whole grain quinoa flour for new product development due to the unique nutritional benefits. The quality of quinoa flour is much determined by the properties of its major component starch as well as non-starch components. In this study, composition and physicochemical properties of whole grain flour from 7 quinoa samples have been analyzed. Flour properties have been correlated to the flour composition and the properties of isolated quinoa starches through chemometrics. Great variations in chemical composition, swelling power, water soluble index, enzyme susceptibility, pasting, gel texture, and thermal properties of the flour have been observed. Correlation analysis showed that thermal properties and enzyme susceptibility of quinoa flour are highly influenced by the starch. Interactions of starch with non-starch components, including lipids, protein, dietary fibre, phenolics, and minerals, greatly impacted the flour properties. For example, peak gelatinization temperature of the flour is positively correlated to that of the starch (r=0.948, pquinoa flour provides a basis for better utilization of this specialty crop.

  9. Some physicochemical properties of dextrin produced by extrusion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmat Sarifudin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dextrinization of corn starch by twin screw extruder was studied. The effect of extruder operating conditions (five different screw speeds: 35, 45, 55, 65, and 70; and three temperatures: 125, 130, and 135 °C on some physicochemical properties of dextrin (total soluble solid, water absorption index, water solubility index, and total color difference was investigated. Results showed that as the screw speed and temperature of extrusion were increased the water absorption index of dextrin tended to drop meanwhile the total soluble solid, water solubility index, and color were inclined to rise. The range of total soluble solid, water absorption index, water solubility index and total color difference was 2.1–4.6 Brix, 159–203%, 20–51%, 3.5–14.1, respectively.

  10. STUDY ON THE SYNTHESIS AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SUCROSE POLYESTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhongdong; LIU Huihua; LUO Peng; LIU Peng; Xiao Fugang

    2006-01-01

    Orthogonal test was used to evaluate the effects of synthetic such as temperature (120~140 ℃), reaction time (4-6) and substrate molar ratio of methyl oleate to sucrose (8:1-12:1) on the percent quantity conversion to sucrose polyester. Sucrose polyester was synthesized by a solvent-free one-stage interesterification. The optimum reaction conditions are as follows: methyl oleate/sucrose = 10∶1 (mol/mol); reaction temperature is 140 ℃;yield reaches 88.15%, and the degree of esterification (DE) is over 7 in the conditions. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), column chromatography (CC), High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to analyze the product, the results show that the percent of sucrose polyoleate is over 70% in the product. The physicochemical properties of sucrose polyesters were compared with cooking oil. The results show that the qualities of sucrose polyesters are all up to the triglyceride.

  11. Effect of corylus clusters on the physicochemical properties of soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Soil sample plots were specified and the soil in layer A0, A1 and AB were collected in MaoershanForest Experiment Farm of Northeast Forestry University for study of the effect of corylus clusters on soil in 1999. The result shows that the pH value, contents of organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-discomposed nitrogen and total phosphorus under the corylus clusters are higher than that under the non-corylus clusters, except the available phosphorus content. The number of soil granular aggregates or the water stable aggregates under corylus clusters is more than that under the non-corylus clusters. The corylus clusters play an important role in improving the physicochemical properties of the soil, which should be conserved and developed in the forestry production.

  12. The physicochemical properties of hair in the BIDS syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, H P; Jackson, C E; Weiss, L; Jimbow, K; Lee, L; Kubilus, J; Gold, R J

    1976-09-01

    The physicochemical properties of hair from a new recessive syndrome associated with brittle hair, intellectual impairment, decreased fertility, and short stature have been studied. Electrophoresis of the SCM-structural proteins showed that the alpha polypeptides appeared normal, but the matrix component was markedly reduced. This was confirmed by finding a normal alpha X-ray diffraction pattern but a reduced 1/2 cystine content of hair and an abnormal stress-strain curve. Electron-microscopic studies revealed extreme disorganization of the filaments which most likely resulted from the absence of normal cross-linking. Nails, which contain structural proteins similar to hair, also showed the abnormality. Since the matrix component seen by electrophoresis consists of more than one component the defect cannot be explained as a single structural gene abnormality.

  13. Physicochemical properties of calcium polycarbophil, a water-absorbing polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T; Kitayama, M; Yamazaki, M; Nagata, O; Tamaj, I; Tsuji, A

    1996-07-01

    The physicochemical properties of calcium polycarbophil were examined. Calcium polycarbophil was decalcified rapidly under acidic conditions, affording polycarbophil. Polycarbophil absorbed about 10 times its own weight of water under acidic conditions, but the swelling ratio markedly increased at above pH 4.0 and reached 70 times the initial weight under neutral conditions. The swelling of polycarbophil was not affected by non-ionic osmolarity, but was affected by ionic strength, showing a decrease with increase of ionic strength. Monovalent metal ions such as sodium and potassium ions in gastrointestinal fluid did not reduce the equilibrium swelling of polycarbophil, but divalent ions such as calcium and magnesium ions did. However, calcium ion only slightly reduced the equilibrium swelling under sodium-rich conditions. The viscosity (as an indicator of fluidity) of polycarbophil was larger than that of CMC-Na at every shear rate and polymer content examined.

  14. Chronic exposure to combined carcinogens enhances breast cell carcinogenesis with mesenchymal and stem-like cell properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenora Ann Pluchino

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer affecting women in North America and Europe. More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to small quantities of multiple carcinogens. To understand how multiple carcinogens act together to induce cellular carcinogenesis, we studied the activity of environmental carcinogens 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P, and dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP using our breast cell carcinogenesis model. Our study revealed, for the first time, that combined NNK and B[a]P enhanced breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by PhIP in both non-cancerous and cancerous breast cells. Co-exposure was more potent than sequential exposure to combined NNK and B[a]P followed by PhIP in inducing carcinogenesis. Initiation of carcinogenesis was measured by transient endpoints induced in a single exposure, while progression of carcinogenesis was measured by acquisition of constitutive endpoints in cumulative exposures. Transient endpoints included DNA damage, Ras-Erk-Nox pathway activation, reactive oxygen species elevation, and increased cellular proliferation. Constitutive endpoints included various cancer-associated properties and signaling modulators, as well as enrichment of cancer stem-like cell population and activation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition program. Using transient and constitutive endpoints as targets, we detected that a combination of the green tea catechins ECG and EGCG, at non-cytotoxic levels, was more effective than individual agents in intervention of cellular carcinogenesis induced by combined NNK, B[a]P, and PhIP. Thus, use of combined ECG and EGCG should be seriously considered for early intervention of breast cell carcinogenesis associated with long-term exposure to environmental and dietary carcinogens.

  15. Physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starches and their mutants in relation to their structural properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomand, S.V.; Lamberts, L.; Visser, R.G.F.; Delcour, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Physicochemical properties [swelling power (SP), pasting behaviour and retrogradation] of five wild type (wt), five amylose free (amf), four high-amylose (ha) potato starches (ps) and one wt and amf cassava starch (cs) were investigated. While swelling of wtps occurred in two phases, amfps showed a

  16. Recycled palm oil spoilage: Correlation between physicochemical properties and oleophilicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Ili Afiqa Ab; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Jurid, Lailatul Syema

    2016-11-01

    Palm oil is widely used for domestic and commercial frying due to its techno-economic advantages as compared to other vegetable oils. However, if the oil is used beyond its recommended usage cycle, it might lead to oil spoilage. Therefore this study focuses on the comprehensive analysis of chemical and physical properties of recycled palm oil. Recycled palm oil was prepared by frying potato strips up to 4 batches; 5 cycles for each batch) was carried out with potato (g)-to-oil (ml) ratio of 3/20 prior to physico-chemical analysis (moisture content, color measurement, viscosity, density and iodine value. From 5 tests used to indicate physico-chemical properties of recycled palm oil, only color measurement, viscosity and IV shows results accordingly to theories. Whereas moisture content and density were not comply to theories. With increasing frying times, recycled palm oil color has been darker due to chemical reaction that occurs during frying. The trend line illustrates that with increasing frying times, recycled palm oil lightness decreases. It also means that its color has been darker. Meanwhile, b* rate increase indicating that recycled palm oil show tendency towards green color. Whereas, a* rate decreased, showing low tendency towards red color. Viscosity and moisture content increase with frying cycle. This situation occurred might be due to formation of hydrolysis products which are volatile while frying process. But the remaining non-volatile compounds among the hydrolysis products might also accumulate in palm oil and thus affect the total oil/fat chemical changes. Meanwhile the density of palm oil was quite constant at 0.15 g/cm3 except for cycle 2 with 0.17 g/cm3. The result obtained from this experiment were comply with previous study that stated frying batch number is a significant variable (a = 0.05) affecting the density of oil only after 20 frying batch. The contact angle of recycled palm oil on PHBV thin film was more than 90 °. Hence it shows

  17. STUDIES ON SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA BARK GUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Pendyala

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C. At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.

  18. Studies on some physicochemical properties of leucaena leucocephala bark gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendyala, Vijetha; Baburao, Chandu; Chandrasekhar, K B

    2010-04-01

    Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae) plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/ v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C). At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL) bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.

  19. Physicochemical properties of acidified skim milk gels containing cocoa flavanols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, César; Grover, Mollie K

    2011-06-22

    The physicochemical properties of acidified milk gels after the addition of cocoa flavanols were studied. As the flavanol level increased (from 0 to 2.5 mg/g), syneresis and gel elasticity (tan δ) were found to significantly increase and decrease, respectively. Flavanol addition reduced the stress at fracture, with no changes in fracture strain, suggesting that the bond type (i.e., covalent vs noncovalent) was the underlying factor explaining the ease of fracture. Gels made from recombined milks containing the casein fraction of heated milk and the serum of heated flavanol/milk mixtures showed the lowest values of G' and fracture stress. It was concluded that whey proteins/flavanol interactions were responsible for the poor mechanical properties of flavanol-added acidified milk gels. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of milk sera showed that 60% of the total available monomeric flavanols was found in the serum phase from which 75% was non-associated to whey proteins. Concomitantly, >70% of flavanols with degree of polymerization >3 were found to be associated with the casein fraction.

  20. Recommended reference materials for realization of physicochemical properties pressure-volume-temperature relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Herington, E F G

    1977-01-01

    Recommended Reference Materials for Realization of Physicochemical Properties presents recommendations of reference materials for use in measurements involving physicochemical properties, namely, vapor pressure; liquid-vapor critical temperature and critical pressure; orthobaric volumes of liquid and vapor; pressure-volume-temperature properties of the unsaturated vapor or gas; and pressure-volume-temperature properties of the compressed liquid. This monograph focuses on reference materials for vapor pressures at temperatures up to 770 K, as well as critical temperatures and critical pressures

  1. Effect of heat processing on selected grain amaranth physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyonga, John H; Andabati, Brian; Ssepuuya, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Grain amaranth is a pseudocereal with unique agricultural, nutritional, and functional properties. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of different heat-processing methods on physicochemical and nutraceutical properties in two main grain amaranth species, of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. Grains were prepared by roasting and popping, milled and analyzed for changes in in vitro protein digestibility, gruel viscosity, pasting characteristics, antioxidant activity, flavonoids, and total phenolics. In vitro protein digestibility was determined using the pepsin-pancreatin enzyme system. Viscosity and pasting characteristics of samples were determined using a Brookfield Viscometer and a Rapid Visco Analyzer, respectively. The grain methanol extracts were analysed for phenolics using spectrophotometry while antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method. Heat treatment led to a reduction in protein digestibility, the effect being higher in popped than in roasted samples. Viscosities for roasted grain amaranth gruels were significantly higher than those obtained from raw and popped grain amaranth gruels. The results for pasting properties were consistent with the results for viscosity. In both A. hypochondriacus L. and A. cruentus L., the order of the viscosity values was roasted>raw>popped. The viscosities were also generally lower for A. cruentus L. compared to A. hypochondriacus L. Raw samples for both A. hypochondriacus L. and A. cruentus L. did not significantly differ in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total antioxidant activity values. Thermal processing led to an increase in TFC and antioxidant activity. However, TPC of heat-processed samples remained unchanged. From the results, it can be concluded that heat treatment enhances antioxidant activity of grain amaranth and causes rheological changes dependent on the nature of heat treatment.

  2. Physicochemical Properties of Starch from Dioscorea pyrifolia tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi Sharlina, M S; Yaacob, W A; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Fazry, Shazrul; Lim, Seng Joe; Abdullah, Sapina; Noordin, Akram; Kumaran, Malina

    2017-04-01

    Starch from Dioscorea pyrifolia tubers was characterized for its proximate composition, physicochemical properties and toxicity. This starch contains 44.47±1.86% amylose, 4.84±0.29% moisture, 0.88±0.21% ash, 1.34±0.11% proteins and 92.73±0.48% carbohydrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed a type-C starch with a relative crystallinity of 23.31±2.41%. The starch granules are polyhedral, with a diameter of 2.8 to 5.6μm and average size of 3.93±1.47μm. Initial, peak and finishing gelatinization temperatures for the starch were 71.51±0.07, 75.05±0.15, and 78.25±0.18°C, respectively; the gelatinization enthalpy was 3.86±0.02J/g, and the peak height index was 1.09±0.05. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a weight loss of 85.81±0.52% and a decomposition temperature of 320.16±0.35°C, which indicated that there was good thermal stability of the starch. Fish embryo toxicity (FET) showed that the starch was not toxic and that it was suitable for food and non-food industries.

  3. A Review on Physicochemical and Thermorheological Properties of Sago Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was a part of a research project aiming to investigate the texture characteristics of protein - starch interaction in fish based product keropok lekor. Accordingly, the current review study focused on some physicochemical (molecular weight, viscosity, chemical composition and swelling power and thermorheological (gelatinization, retrogradation and viscoelsticity characteristics of sago starch alone and in mixtures with other ingredients such as sucrose, salts and hydroclloids. The inferred outcome of this extensive survey revealed that the gelatinisation temperature for sago-water mixture ranged from 69.4-70.1°C which was low compared to sweet potato, tania and yam starches. The role of using hydrocolloids in starch-based foods was to control the rheological properties as well as modifying the texture of the products, enhaning or modifying the gelatinization and retrogradation behaviour and improving water-holding capacity of the system. In the presence of sucrose or sodium chloride, the gelatinisation temperatures of sago starch shifted to higher temperatures and its enthalpy decreased. The addition of salts caused an elevation or depression of gelatinization temperature and gelatinization enthalpy, depending on their types and concentrations used. However, sodium chloride appeared to exhibit a maximum inhibitory effect on starch gelatinisation at a concentration of 6-9%.

  4. Physicochemical and biofunctional properties of crab chitosan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The Han; Kwak, Hae Soo; Kim, Sang Moo

    2013-08-01

    The physicochemical and biofunctional properties of crab chitosan nanoparticles of two different sizes (Nano A and B) manufactured by dry milling method were evaluated for commercialization. The deacetylation degrees (DD) of Nano A, B and the control chitosan were 90.9, 93.0, and 92.7% respectively whereas their molecular weights (M(w)) were 43.9, 44.7 and 208.8 kDa. The average sizes of the dispersed Nano A, B and the control chitosan in cetyltrimethylammonium chloride were 735.9, 849.4 and 2,382.4 nm, respectively, which were lower than 1441.7, 2935.6 and 6832.9 nm of the intact chitosans. Chitosan nanoparticles had mild tyrosinase, antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE), but weak collagenase, elastase and beta-glucuronidase inhibitory activity. However, Nano A had strong alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity, which was comparable to that of acarbose, a commercial alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of chitosan and its nanoparticles ranged from 30 to > 200 microg/mL against each four gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, crab chitosan nanoparticles could be used as a nutraceutical, cosmeceutical or pharmaceutical product.

  5. Physicochemical properties of cassava starch oxidized by sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Lúcia Helena; Schnitzler, Egon; Zortéa, Manoela Estefânea Boff; de Souza Rocha, Thaís; Demiate, Ivo Mottin

    2014-10-01

    In this work, cassava starch was modified by treatment with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) at different concentrations (0.8, 2.0 and 5.0 % of active chlorine) and selected physicochemical properties of the oxidized starches were investigated. The native and modified samples were evaluated considering moisture, carboxyl content, apparent viscosity, susceptibility to syneresis, mid-infrared spectroscopy and crystallinity index. The treatment with NaClO resulted in alterations in carboxyl content of the oxidized starches that increased with increasing concentration of the oxidant. Oxidized starches also showed higher susceptibility to syneresis, as assessed by the release of liquid during freezing and thawing. Apparent viscosity analysis showed decrease in peak viscosity of the oxidized starches. X-ray diffractograms showed that the oxidation influenced the extent of cassava starch relative crystallinity found to lie between 34.4 % (native) and 39.9 % (2.0 % active chlorine). The infrared spectra are sensitive to structural changes on starch macromolecules and presented characteristic peaks as C-O-C of the six carbon glucose ring absorbs at 1,150-1,085 cm(-1) and due to axial deformation these bands changed with the crystal structure of the starch samples.

  6. Physicochemical properties of the Harenna forest honey, Bale, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Abera; Solomon, W K; Bultossa, Geremew; Adgaba, Nuru; Melaku, Samuel

    2013-12-15

    In this study, the physicochemical properties of the Harenna forest honey were characterised. The Harenna forest honey moisture, reducing sugar, sucrose, water insoluble solids, ash, free acid, pH, HMF contents, electrical conductivity and specific rotation were found to be 17.89±1.02 g/100 g, 69.48±1.72 g/100 g, 2.43±1.02 g/100 g, 0.12±0.08 g/100 g, 0.19±0.09 g/100 g, 34.57±4.80 meq/kg, 3.87±0.16, 0.84±0.46 mg/1000 g, 0.70±0.04 mS/cm and -132±15.27 [α]D(20), respectively. All quality indicators of honey from traditional and frame hives were within the criteria set by Codex Alimentarus (CA), European Union (EU) and Ethiopian standard, except for water insoluble solids. The type of hives significantly affected the moisture (phoney. The sampling location also significantly affected the moisture (phoney. Significant correlations were observed between moisture content and electrical conductivity (r=0.76, phoney if honey harvesting, handling and processing is properly carried out.

  7. Physicochemical and functional properties of gelatin extracted from Yak skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengqi; Wei, Lixin; Xiao, Yuancan; Bi, Hongtao; Yang, Hongxia; Du, Yuzhi

    2017-02-01

    Different molecular weight distribution (MWD) gelatin was extracted from Yak skin after enzymatic pretreatments and their physicochemical and functional properties (SDS-PAGE, UV-vis absorption spectra, DSC, FT-IR, Amino acid analysis, AFM, emulsibility and foamability) were analyzed. The gelatin was extracted by pepsin and got different MWD of Yak skin gelatin by controlling the enzymolysis time. The SDS-PAGE showed the MWD of the Yak skin gelatin. The UV-vis absorption turned out that the broad MWD of Yak skin gelatin had a higher maximum absorption peaks. The FT-IR and AFM indicated that the gelatin structures and microstructures changed with the change of the MWD. The broad MWD of the Yak skin gelatin had a higher denaturation temperature (TD), and it was higher than most of the other mammals and marine biological gelatin. The broad MWD gelatin also had higher imino acids (proline and hydroxyproline) contents and lower foamability and emulsibility compared to the narrow MWD gelatin. These findings, obtained for the first time for Yak skin gelatin, showed that it has great potential for application as an alternative to commercial gelatin due to its good thermotolerance, particularly in the applications of the biological materials, stabilizer of thermo-tolerant and so on.

  8. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Whey Cheese with Pine Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a value-added whey cheese through addition of pine nuts. Therefore, different concentrations of pine nuts [2, 4, 6 and 8% (w/w] were added to whey cheese. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of pine nuts on physicochemical and sensory properties of whey cheese. The addition of pine nuts resulted in an increase in fat content and total solids and a decrease in moisture content. However, no statistically significant difference was found in pH values. Sensory analysis was performed using the 9-point hedonic scale, with selected assessors. The whey cheese sample with 4% pine nuts was the most appreciated (7.6 points, followed by the classic whey cheese, whey cheese with 6 and 8% pine nuts (7.4 points, and whey cheese with 2% pine nuts (7.3 points. Nevertheless, the sensory characteristics of whey cheese were not significantly influenced by the addition of pine nuts. Whey cheese sensory profiling was successful in differential characterization of whey cheese samples.

  9. Physicochemical properties of Venezuelan breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Alicia Mariela; Padilla, Fanny C

    2004-12-01

    Artocarpus altilis, seedless variety, is a fruit-producing plant which is cultived in Margarita Island, Venezuela, and is consumed by the inhabitants of the region. Its chemical composition and physical characteristics were determined. The chemical (AOAC and AACC methods), physicochemical, morphometric characteristics, viscoamylographic properties and digestibility in vitro of starch from Artocarpus were studied. The starch yield was 18.5 g/100 g (dw)w with a purity of 98.86%, 27.68 and 72.32% of amylose and amylopectin, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed irregular-rounded granules. Swelling power, water absorption and solubility values were determined and found to be higher than that of corn and amaranth starch. The amylographic study showed a gelatinization temperature at 73.3 degrees C, with high stability during heating and cooling cycles. Artocarpus starch could also be categorized in the group of mixed short chain branched/long chain branched glucan starches, this agrees with digestibility results that showed a high degree of digestibility in vitro. These results might be advantageous in medical and food use.

  10. Physicochemical Properties of Biopolymer Hydrogels Treated by Direct Electric Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żaneta Król

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes within the physicochemical properties of gelatine (2%; 4%; 8%, carrageenan (1.5%; 2%; 2.5% and sodium alginate (0.75%; 1%; 1.25% hydrogels with different sodium chloride concentrations that were triggered by applying direct current (DC of 400 mA for a duration of five minutes. There were three types of gels prepared for the purpose of the study: C, control; H, gels on the basis of hydrosols that were treated with DC; and G, gels treated with DC. In the course of the study, the authors carried out the following analyses: Texture Profile Analysis (TPA, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Swelling Ratio (SR. Furthermore, the color and pH of hydrogels were measured. The FTIR spectra showed that the structures of gelatine, carrageenan and sodium alginate do not significantly change upon applying DC. The results of TPA, SR, color and pH measurement indicate that hydrogels’ properties are significantly dependent on the type of polymer, its concentration and the type of the gel. By changing those parameters, the characteristics of such gels can be additionally tuned, which extends their applicability, e.g., in the food industry. Moreover, the analysis revealed that SR of H gel gelatine after 72 h of storage was 1.84-times higher than SR of the control sample, which indicated that this gel may be considered as a possible component for wound dressing materials.

  11. STRUCTURAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL SURFACE-PROPERTIES OF SERRATIA-MARCESCENS STRAINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERMEI, HC; COWAN, MM; GENET, MJ; ROUXHET, PG; BUSSCHER, HJ

    1992-01-01

    Serratia marcescens is an important pathogen with noteworthy hydrophobicity characteristics as assessed by microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons. However, the present knowledge on the surface characteristics of S. marcescens strains does not include physicochemical properties relevant for adhesion such

  12. Amylopectin molecular structure in relation to physicochemical properties of quinoa starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2017-05-15

    Structure-function relationships of starch components remain a subject of research interest. Quinoa starch has very small granules (∼2μm) with unique properties. In this study, nine quinoa starches varied greatly in composition, structure, and physicochemical properties were selected for the analysis of structure-function relationships. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the properties related to gelatinization such as swelling power, water solubility index, crystallinity, pasting, and thermal properties are much affected by the amylopectin chain profile and amylose content. The parameters of gel texture and amylose leaching are much related to amylopectin internal structure. Other properties such as enzyme susceptibility and particle size distribution are also strongly correlated with starch composition and amylopectin structure. Interesting findings indicate the importance of amylopectin internal structure and individual unit chain profile in determining the physicochemical properties of starch. This work highlights some relationships among composition, amylopectin structure and physicochemical properties of quinoa starch.

  13. Study of sensory properties of emollients used in cosmetics and their correlation with physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Solana, Gerardo

    2005-01-01

    Eight liquid emollients (mineral oil, sunflower oil, squalane, decyl oleate, isopropyl myristate, octyldodecanol, dimethicone, and cyclomethicone) were characterized by instrumental and sensory methods and evaluated to determine the relationship between sensory and instrumental measures. Sensory analysis was carried out by a panel of 14 assessors, who evaluated the following attributes: difficulty of spreading, gloss, residue, stickiness, slipperiness, softness, and oiliness. The physicochemical properties measured were spreadability (at one-half minute and at one minute), viscosity, and superficial tension. Data collected were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA), and linear partial least squares regression analysis (PLS). In consideration of their physicochemical characteristics, the studied emollients were sorted into three groups, in which the silicones distinctly separate from the rest. Sensory characteristics enabled the discrimination of four groups of emollients where, besides the two silicones, isopropyl myristate was also differentiated. PLS revealed that emollient sensory attributes could be well predicted by instrumental measurements.

  14. Physico-chemical properties of radionuclides emitted as particulate matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents work done to improve the representation in European decision support tools of physico-chemical forms of radiocontaminants released to the atmosphere from a major nuclear power plant accident. The task is to accommodate those types of scenarios where fuel particles are at play...

  15. Effect of Different Modification Techniques on the Physicochemical and Thermoanalytical Properties of Wheat and Corn Starch

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The starches of wheat and corn treated with four different modification methods (pregelatinized, thinnedwith acid, cross-linked and dextrinized) were investigated in terms of changes in swelling, water-holdingcapacity, gelatinization and thermoanalytical properties. Modification processes caused significant changes inthe physicochemical properties of the starches. Also, having effect on the thermoanalytical properties ofstarch, of modification process pregelatinization, cross-linking and dext...

  16. Classification of traditional Chinese pork bacon based on physicochemical properties and chemometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Chunjiang; Hu, Honghai; Chen, Wenbo

    2016-07-01

    Sixty-seven pork bacon samples from Hunan, Sichuan Guangdong, Jiangxi, and Yunnan Provinces in China were analyzed to understand their geographical properties. Classification was performed by determining their physicochemical properties through chemometric techniques, including variance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis (DA). Results showed that certain differences existed in terms of nine physicochemical determinations in traditional Chinese pork bacon. PCA revealed the distinction among Hunan, Sichuan, and Guangdong style bacon. Meanwhile, seven key physicochemical determination criteria were identified in line with DA and could be reasonably applied to the classification of traditional Chinese pork bacon. Furthermore, the ratio of overall correct classification was 97.76% and that of cross-validation was 91.76%. These findings indicated that chemometric techniques, together with several physicochemical determination, were effective for the classification of traditional Chinese pork bacon with geographical features. Our study provided a theoretical reference for the classification of traditional Chinese pork bacon.

  17. Effect of acetylation, oxidation and annealing on physicochemical properties of bean starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Senay; Ovando-Martínez, Maribel; Whitney, Kristin; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2012-10-15

    Black and Pinto bean starches were physically and chemically modified to investigate the effect of modification on digestibility and physicochemical properties of bean starch. The impact of acetylation, oxidation (ozonation) and annealing on the chemical composition, syneresis, swelling volume, pasting, thermal properties and digestibility of starches was evaluated. The physicochemical and estimated glycemic index (eGI) of the Black and Pinto bean starches treated with ozone were not significantly (P>0.05) different than that of their respective control starches. Annealed starches had improved thermal and pasting properties compared to native starches. Acetylated starches presented reduced syneresis, good pasting properties and lower eGI. Also, all modified starches had increased levels of resistant starch (RS). Therefore, the digestibility and physicochemical properties of bean starch were affected by the type of modification but there were no significant (P>0.05) differences between the Black and Pinto bean starches.

  18. Physicochemical properties of the surfaces of silica species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshchina, T. M.; Shoniya, N. K.; Tegina, O. Ya.; Tkachenko, O. P.; Kustov, L. M.

    2017-02-01

    The results from studying the physicochemical characteristics of the adsorption of n-alkanes, arenes, and acetonitrile on silicas of different origins, silica gels, and silochromes are presented. It is shown that increasing the concentration of silanol groups reduces the role of dispersion interactions accompanied by the intensification of specific interactions on silica gels, compared to silochromes. According to diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy data, the acidity of silanol groups on silica gel is in this case less pronounced.

  19. Chemometric evaluation of physicochemical properties of carbonated-apatitic preparations by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Papangkorn, Kongnara; Baig, Arif A; Higuchi, William I

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and quick method of evaluating the physicochemical properties of carbonated apatite preparations (CAP) as an index of the bioaffinity of implantable materials based on Fourier-transformed-infrared (IR) spectra by chemometrics. The wet-synthesized CAPs contained various levels of carbonate content (CO(3)), and were analyzed microstrain parameter (MS), crystallite size parameter (CP), specific surface area (Sw), CO(3), and solubility parameter (pK(HAP)) using by X-ray powder diffraction, nitrogen gas adsorption, IR, and UV absorption. The IR spectral results of CAPs suggested that the peak intensities of CAP reflected the physicochemical properties of the samples. The IR data sets were calculated to obtain calibration models evaluating the physicochemical properties of CAPs by a partial least squares regression analysis (PLS). As validation of the calibration model, physicochemical properties of CAP could be evaluated based on validation IR data sets of independent samples, and those values had sufficient accuracy. The regression vector of each calibration model suggested that the physicochemical properties of CAP, such as CO(3), Sw, MS, CP, and pK(HAP), were affected by phosphate, hydroxyl, and carbonate groups.

  20. Impact of pressure on physicochemical properties of starch dispersions

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi

    2016-09-02

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can be employed as a non-thermal sterilization technique in the food industry while inducing structure and physicochemical changes of the food macromolecules like starch. The effect of HHP on starch depends on various factors including starch type and concentration, pressurization temperature, time, and suspending media. In this review, we summarize the influence of HHP on the structure, gelatinization, retrogradation, and modification of starches from different botanical origins. Suggestions for future research are provided to better understand the mechanism of HHP on starch, and on how HHP can be used in the starch industry. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Multi-walled carbon nanotube physicochemical properties predict pulmonary inflammation and genotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah S.; Jackson, Petra; Kling, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    Lung deposition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) induces pulmonary toxicity. Commercial MWCNT vary greatly in physicochemical properties and consequently in biological effects. To identify determinants of MWCNT-induced toxicity, we analyzed the effects of pulmonary exposure to 10 commercial...... MWCNT on day 28 and 92. Using adjusted, multiple regression analyses, inflammation and genotoxicity were related to dose, time and physicochemical properties. The specific surface area (BET) was identified as a positive predictor of pulmonary inflammation on all post-exposure days. In addition, length...... diameter was associated with increased genotoxicity. This study provides information on possible toxicity-driving physicochemical properties of MWCNT. The results may contribute to safe-by-design manufacturing of MWCNT, thereby minimizing adverse effects....

  2. Physicochemical properties and oral bioavailability of ursolic acid nanoparticles using supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Sun, Zhen; Zu, Yuangang; Zhao, Chunjian; Sun, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhonghua; Zhang, Lin

    2012-05-01

    The objective of the study was to prepare ursolic acid (UA) nanoparticles using the supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) process and evaluate its physicochemical properties and oral bioavailability. The effects of four process variables, pressure, temperature, drug concentration and drug solution flow rate, on drug particle formation during SAS process, were investigated. Particles with mean particle size ranging from 139.2±19.7 to 1039.8±65.2nm were obtained by varying the process parameters. The UA was characterised by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, specific surface area, dissolution test and bioavailability test. It was concluded that physicochemical properties and bioavailability of crystalline UA could be improved by physical modification, such as particle size reduction and generation of amorphous state using SAS process. Further, SAS process was a powerful methodology for improving the physicochemical properties and bioavailability of UA.

  3. Environmental properties of long chain alcohols. Part 1: Physicochemical, environmental fate and acute aquatic toxicity properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisk, Peter; Sanderson, Hans; Wildey, Ross;

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarises the physicochemical, biodegradation and acute aquatic ecotoxicity properties of long chain aliphatic alcohols. Properties of pure compounds are shown to follow somewhat predictable trends, which are amenable to estimation by quantitative structure-activity relationships ((Q......)SARs). This allows predictions of data relating to human and environmental safety profiles and patterns. These alcohols have been shown to be rapidly degradable under standard conditions up to C18. Furthermore, evidence suggests that longer chain lengths are also rapidly biodegradable. While log Kow values suggest...... possible bioaccumulation potential, available data suggest that these substances are not as bioaccumulative as estimations would predict. For acute aquatic toxicity, solubility limits the possibility of effects being appropriately observed and become increasingly challenging above C12. Further, a model has...

  4. Review on palladium-containing perovskites: synthesis, physico-chemical properties and applications in catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essoumhi, Abdellatif; El Kazzouli, Saïd; Bousmina, Mosto

    2014-02-01

    This review reports on the recent advances in the synthesis and physico-chemical properties of palladium-containing perovskites. Initially, the perovskite structure is briefly reviewed, then palladium-containing perovskites synthesis and physico-chemical properties are detailed. The applications of palladium-containing perovskites in catalysis; namely, NO reduction, methane combustion, methanol as well as ethanol oxidation, are briefly highlighted. The involvement and the important contribution of palladium-containing perovskites in cross-coupling reactions, especially Suzuki-Miyaura, Sonogashira, Ulmann and Grignard, are discussed.

  5. Effect of Desalination on Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Duck (Anas plotyrhyncus Egg Whites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhamadi Mmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Desalted Duck Egg Whites (DDEW was prepared by electrodialysis desalination using Salted Duck Egg Whites (SDEW. DDEW and SDEW (used as control were subjected to freeze drying process. Freeze Dried Desalted and Salted Duck Egg Whites (FDDEW and FSDEW, respectively were assessed for functional properties (turbidity, foaming, emulsifying and gelation and some physicochemical characteristics. Among the physicochemical parameters, the proximate composition, amino acid composition, pH, particle sizes, microstructure and color attributes were studied. The electrodialysis desalination process had significant effect on the physicochemical characteristics of FDDEW and FSDEW except for amino acids composition. Thus, the pH decreased from 8.07 to 7.40 while the NaCl content decreased from 3.76 to 0.18%. The same trend was observed for protein and ash contents. The functional properties were variable among the two samples. For instance, the gel characteristics decreased sharply after electrodialysis desalination treatment.

  6. Microbial inactivation and physicochemical properties of ultrasound processed pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Çiğdem Uysal; Zorba, Nükhet Nilüfer Demirel; Özcan, Gülçin

    2015-03-01

    The effects of ultrasound treatment at various amplitudes (50, 75, and 100%) and times (0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 min) on Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (a surrogate for E. coli O157:H7) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 2366 levels and physicochemical characteristics (monomeric anthocyanins, color values, total phenolics, pH, and soluble solids) were determined in pomegranate juice. More than a 5-log inactivation of E. coli ATCC 25922 and a 1.36-log inactivation of S. cerevisiae ATCC 2366 were achieved after 30 min of ultrasound treatment at 100% amplitude. The log-linear and Weibull models were successfully used to estimate the microbial inactivation as a function of ultrasound treatment time (R(2) > 0.97). No significant changes were observed in total phenolics, pH, and soluble solids of the treated juice (P > 0.05). The ultrasound treatment for up to 30 min resulted in more than 92 and 89% anthocyanin retention at 75 and 100% amplitude, respectively. The redness (a*) of the juice did not change significantly after the ultrasound treatment at amplitudes of 75 and 100% for up to 24 and 12 min, respectively. No significant changes in L* and b* values were observed after ultrasound treatment at all amplitudes and after up to 30 min of treatment for 50 and 75% amplitudes. Small differences in juice color were noted based on total color difference scores.

  7. Fuzzy clustering of physicochemical and biochemical properties of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Indrajit; Maulik, Ujjwal; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2012-08-01

    In this article, we categorize presently available experimental and theoretical knowledge of various physicochemical and biochemical features of amino acids, as collected in the AAindex database of known 544 amino acid (AA) indices. Previously reported 402 indices were categorized into six groups using hierarchical clustering technique and 142 were left unclustered. However, due to the increasing diversity of the database these indices are overlapping, therefore crisp clustering method may not provide optimal results. Moreover, in various large-scale bioinformatics analyses of whole proteomes, the proper selection of amino acid indices representing their biological significance is crucial for efficient and error-prone encoding of the short functional sequence motifs. In most cases, researchers perform exhaustive manual selection of the most informative indices. These two facts motivated us to analyse the widely used AA indices. The main goal of this article is twofold. First, we present a novel method of partitioning the bioinformatics data using consensus fuzzy clustering, where the recently proposed fuzzy clustering techniques are exploited. Second, we prepare three high quality subsets of all available indices. Superiority of the consensus fuzzy clustering method is demonstrated quantitatively, visually and statistically by comparing it with the previously proposed hierarchical clustered results. The processed AAindex1 database, supplementary material and the software are available at http://sysbio.icm.edu.pl/aaindex/ .

  8. Multi-walled carbon nanotube physicochemical properties predict pulmonary inflammation and genotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah S.; Jackson, Petra; Kling, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    Lung deposition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) induces pulmonary toxicity. Commercial MWCNT vary greatly in physicochemical properties and consequently in biological effects. To identify determinants of MWCNT-induced toxicity, we analyzed the effects of pulmonary exposure to 10 commercial...

  9. Interactions of skin thickness and physicochemical properties of test compounds in percutaneous penetration studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, S.C.; Maas, W.J.M.; Nielsen, J.B.; Greaves, L.C.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Williams, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effect of skin thickness on the percutaneous penetration and distribution of test compounds with varying physicochemical properties using in vitro systems. Studies were carried out in accordance with OECD guidelines on skin absorption tests. Methods: Percutaneous penetra

  10. Influence of electron beam irradiation on physicochemical properties of poly(trimethylene carbonate)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jozwiakowska, Joanna; Wach, Radoslaw A.; Rokita, Bozena; Ulanski, Piotr; Nalawade, Sameer P.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Feijen, Jan; Rosiak, Janusz M.

    2011-01-01

    Electron beam (EB) irradiation of poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC), an amorphous, biodegradable polymer used in the field of biomaterials, results in predominant cross-linking and finally in the formation of gel fraction, thus enabling modification of physicochemical properties of this material w

  11. Physico-Chemical and Structural Properties of DeNOx and SO2 Oxidation Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masters, Stephen Grenville; Oehlers, Cord; Nielsen, Kurt;

    1996-01-01

    Commercial catalysts for NOx removal and SO2 oxidation and their model systems have been investigated by spectroscopic, thermal, electrochemical and X-ray methods. Structural information on the vanadium complexes and compounds as well as physico-chemical properties for catalyst model systems have...... been obtained. The results are discussed in relation to proposed reaction mechanisms....

  12. Predicting blood:air partition coefficients using basic physicochemical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Wit-Bos, L. de; Bouwman, T.; Vaes, W.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative Property Property Relationships (QPPRs) for human and rat blood:air partition coefficients (PBAs) have been derived, based on vapour pressure (Log(VP)), the octanol:water partition coefficient (Log(K_OW)) and molecular weight (MW), using partial least squares multilinear modelling. Thes

  13. Effect of Microwave Irradiation on the Physicochemical and Digestive Properties of Lotus Seed Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shaoxiao; Chen, Bingyan; Zeng, Hongliang; Guo, Zebin; Lu, Xu; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-03-30

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of microwave irradiation on the physicochemical and digestive properties of lotus seed starch. The physicochemical properties of lotus seed starch were characterized by light microscopy, (1)H NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, and HPSEC-MALLS-RI. The starch-water interaction and crystalline region increased due to the changed water distribution of starch granules and the increase of the double-helix structure. The swelling power, amylose leaching, molecular properties, and radius of gyration reduced with the increasing microwave power, which further affected the sensitivity of lotus seed starch to enzymatic degradation. Furthermore, the resistant starch and slowly digestible starch increased with the increasing microwave irradiation, which further resulted in their decreasing hydrolysis index and glycemic index. The digestive properties of lotus seed starch were mainly influenced by the reduced branching degree of amylopectin and the strong amylose-amylose interaction.

  14. Natural Minerals Coated by Biopolymer Chitosan: Synthesis, Physicochemical, and Adsorption Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Budnyak, T. M.; Yanovska, E. S.; Kichkiruk, O. Yu.; Sternik, D.; Tertykh, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    Natural minerals are widely used in treatment technologies as mineral fertilizer, food additive in animal husbandry, and cosmetics because they combine valuable ion-exchanging and adsorption properties together with unique physicochemical and medical properties. Saponite (saponite clay) of the Ukrainian Podillya refers to the class of bentonites, a subclass of layered magnesium silicate montmorillonite. Clinoptilolits are aluminosilicates with carcase structure. In our work, we have coated bi...

  15. Comparative Analysis of Selected Physicochemical Properties of Pozzolan Portland and MTA-Based Cements

    OpenAIRE

    Dorileo, Maura Cristiane Gonçales Orçati; Villa, Ricardo Dalla; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fábio; Semenoff-Segundo, Alex; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of pozzolan Portland cement were compared to ProRoot MTA and MTA BIO. To test the pH, the samples were immersed in distilled water for different periods of time. After the pH analysis, the sample was retained in the plastic recipient, and the electrical conductivity of the solution was measured. The solubility and radiopacity properties were evaluated according to specification 57 of the American National Standard Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA). Th...

  16. Molecular design of seed storage proteins for enhanced food physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandang-Silvas, Mary Rose G; Tecson-Mendoza, Evelyn Mae; Mikami, Bunzo; Utsumi, Shigeru; Maruyama, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Seed storage proteins such as soybean globulins have been nutritionally and functionally valuable in the food industry. Protein structure-function studies are valuable in modifying proteins for enhanced functionality. Recombinant technology and protein engineering are two of the tools in biotechnology that have been used in producing soybean proteins with better gelling property, solubility, and emulsifying ability. This article reviews the molecular basis for the logical and precise protein designs that are important in obtaining the desired improved physicochemical properties.

  17. Characterization of Genotoxic Response to 15 Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes with Variable Physicochemical Properties Including Surface Functionalizations in the FE1-Muta(TM) Mouse Lung Epithelial Cell Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Kling, Kirsten; Jensen, Keld Alstrup;

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes vary greatly in physicochemical properties. We compared cytotoxic and genotoxic response to 15 multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with varying physicochemical properties to identify drivers of toxic responses. The studied MWCNT included OECD Working Party on Manufactured...

  18. Honey physicochemical properties of three species of the brazilian Melipona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena G.A. Lage

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical analyses were carried out to evaluate 27 samples of honeys from three species of the Brazilian genus Melipona (M. capixaba, M. rufiventris and M. mondury from Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais States. The parameters water activity (Aw, percentage of soluble solids (Brix %, pH, acidity (meq/Kg and moisture (% were evaluated. The honey characteristics obtained from these samples were very similar to the ones from other Melipona species. However, regarding the honey from Apis (honey bee, only the pH values were similar. The low pH value and the high acidity detected in Melipona honey are potential factors for increasing the honey shelf life because they do not provide favorable conditions for the microbial development. On the other hand, the high level of water activity favors the growth of microorganisms, especially yeast, which demands a more careful handled and storage. The observed differences between Melipona and Apis honey reinforce the need for specific quality settings for stingless bee honey.Análises fisico-quimicas foram realizadas para avaliar vinte e sete amostras de mel de três espécies do gênero Melipona (M. capixaba, M. rufiventris e M. mondury coletadas nos Estados do Espírito Santo e de Minas Gerais. Os parâmetros atividade de água (aW, porcentagem de sólidos solúveis (Brix %, pH, acidez (meq.Kg-1 e umidade (% foram avaliados. As características do mel dessas amostras foram muito similares às do mel de outras espécies de Melipona. Entretanto, para o mel de Apis apenas os valores de pH foram similares. O baixo valor de pH e a elevada acidez detectados no mel de Melipona são fatores potenciais para uma maior vida útil do mesmo por não oferecerem condições favoráveis ao desenvolvimento microbiano. Por outro lado, o alto teor de atividade de água favorece o crescimento de microrganismos, especialmente de leveduras o que requer maior cuidado no manuseio e armazenamento do mel. As diferenças observadas

  19. Physico-Chemical Properties of Nanoparticles Functionalized by Polypyrrole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.A. Mirgorod

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Мagnetite nanoparticles coated with polypyrrole have been synthesized. Nanocomposite powder has been investigated by FTIR, XRD, SEM, magnetometry, conductivity measurements. Polypyrrole in nanocomposite does not impair the magnetic properties of magnetite.

  20. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE GASOLINE AND ALCOHOL BIOFUEL MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Povar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of added alcohols, ethanol and butanol, on the main biofuel properties, such as the specific gravity, Reid saturated vapour pressure and distillation curves have been investigated. These properties are intimately related to the fuel composition and their prediction relies on the knowledge of its components characteristics. This research proves the possibility of obtaining fuels with different levels of resistance to detonation, using gasoline with different chemical components and various fractions of alcohols.

  1. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of japonica Rice Varied with Production Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-yu; LIN Zhao-miao; LIU Zheng-hui; Md A Alim; BI Jun-guo; LI Gang-hua; WANG Qiang-sheng; WANG Shao-hua; DING Yan-feng

    2013-01-01

    Northeast of China and Jiangsu Province are major production areas of japonica rice in China. Rice from northeast of China is well-known for its good-eating and appearance quality, and that from Jiangsu Province is viewed as inferior. However, little is known concerning the difference in physicochemical and sensory properties of rice between the major two production areas. Analysis of 16 commercial rice samples showed marked differences in physicochemical properties, including chalky grain rate, contents of amylose and protein and pasting properties between the two main areas. Northeastern rice contained more short-chain amylopectin as compared with Jiangsu rice. However, Jiangsu rice is comparable to northeastern rice in terms of sensory quality including overall acceptability and textural properties of springiness, stickiness and hardness as evaluated by trained panel. Our results indicated the limitation of conventional index of physicochemical properties, and suggested the necessity of identiifcation of new factors controlling rice sensory property. In addition, the taste analyzer from Japan demonstrates limitation in distinguishing the differences between northeastern and Jiangsu rice, and therefore needs localization to ift China.

  2. Replacing sugar with S. rebaudiana extracts on the physicochemical and sensory properties of strawberry ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Aranda-Gonzalez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Ice cream is a product whose formulation requires considerable amounts of sugar. In addition to providing flavor, sugar contributes to the physicochemical characteristics of ice cream but its consumption in large quantities is related to chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. For this reason, the food industry seeks to formulate products with sweeteners that preserve the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the original product. Stevia rebaudiana is a plant that naturally contains glycosides with no calories and high sweetening capacity and it is considered safe for consumption. Therefore the aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of replacing sugar with different levels of extracts of S. rebaudiana Morita II and Criolla, on the physicochemical and sensory properties of strawberry ice cream. Using a 2x2 factorial experimental design, a total of 4 formulations were prepared with two levels of concentration of the aqueous extract of Stevia rebaudiana (5 or 8% and the variety of S. rebaudiana (Morita II or Criolla. Proximate composition, physicochemical properties and sensory evaluation were determined in processed products. The proximate analysis of strawberry ice cream varied significantly (P<0.05 depending of variety and level used on the formulation. The viscosities of all ice cream mixes were decreasing as the shear rate was increased, indicating a pseudoplastic behavior. The sensory analysis showed differences (P<0.05 among the formulations tested, however the score of all products were above the indifference point, suggesting that all of these formulations may have a commercial potential.

  3. Physicochemical properties of native and γ-irradiated wild arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia L.) tuber starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Arif Ali; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Hussain, Peerzada Rashid; Gani, Adil; Wani, Touseef Ahmad; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Starch isolated from wild arrowhead tuber was treated by γ-irradiation at 0, 5, 10 and 15kGy doses. Arrowhead tubers yielded 40.33% starch and its chemical composition revealed moisture, protein, ash and fat were 8.34±0.09%, 0.26±0.04%, 0.58±0.02% and 0%, respectively. Physicochemical, morphological and pasting properties of native and irradiated tuber starches were investigated. The results showed that peak, trough, final, and setback viscosities were significantly (p≤0.05) reduced, whereas the breakdown viscosity increased following irradiation. Physicochemical properties differed significantly and showed strong dose dependent relationship. Solubility, water absorption capacity and transmittance increased, whereas swelling power, bulk density and syneresis decreased upon increase in irradiation of starch. Correlation studies showed that irradiation dose was positively correlated with water absorption capacity and solubility index while it correlated negatively with pasting properties, swelling index, syneresis, and freeze thaw stability.

  4. Physico-chemical Properties of Marine Phospholipid Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    2012-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the emulsifying properties of various commercial marine PL and the feasibility of using them to prepare stable emulsions prepared with or without addition of fish oil. In addition, this study also investigated the relationship between chemical composition of marine PL...

  5. Physicochemical property distributions for accurate and rapid pairwise protein homology detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oehmen Christopher S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The challenge of remote homology detection is that many evolutionarily related sequences have very little similarity at the amino acid level. Kernel-based discriminative methods, such as support vector machines (SVMs, that use vector representations of sequences derived from sequence properties have been shown to have superior accuracy when compared to traditional approaches for the task of remote homology detection. Results We introduce a new method for feature vector representation based on the physicochemical properties of the primary protein sequence. A distribution of physicochemical property scores are assembled from 4-mers of the sequence and normalized based on the null distribution of the property over all possible 4-mers. With this approach there is little computational cost associated with the transformation of the protein into feature space, and overall performance in terms of remote homology detection is comparable with current state-of-the-art methods. We demonstrate that the features can be used for the task of pairwise remote homology detection with improved accuracy versus sequence-based methods such as BLAST and other feature-based methods of similar computational cost. Conclusions A protein feature method based on physicochemical properties is a viable approach for extracting features in a computationally inexpensive manner while retaining the sensitivity of SVM protein homology detection. Furthermore, identifying features that can be used for generic pairwise homology detection in lieu of family-based homology detection is important for applications such as large database searches and comparative genomics.

  6. Physico-chemical properties and cytotoxic effects of sugar-based surfactants: Impact of structural variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Biao; Vayssade, Muriel; Miao, Yong; Chagnault, Vincent; Grand, Eric; Wadouachi, Anne; Postel, Denis; Drelich, Audrey; Egles, Christophe; Pezron, Isabelle

    2016-09-01

    Surfactants derived from the biorefinery process can present interesting surface-active properties, low cytotoxicity, high biocompatibility and biodegradability. They are therefore considered as potential sustainable substitutes to currently used petroleum-based surfactants. To better understand and anticipate their performances, structure-property relationships need to be carefully investigated. For this reason, we applied a multidisciplinary approach to systematically explore the effect of subtle structural variations on both physico-chemical properties and biological effects. Four sugar-based surfactants, each with an eight carbon alkyl chain bound to a glucose or maltose head group by an amide linkage, were synthesized and evaluated together along with two commercially available standard surfactants. Physico-chemical properties including solubility, Krafft point, surface-tension lowering and critical micellar concentration (CMC) in water and biological medium were explored. Cytotoxicity evaluation by measuring proliferation index and metabolic activity against dermal fibroblasts showed that all surfactants studied may induce cell death at low concentrations (below their CMC). Results revealed significant differences in both physico-chemical properties and cytotoxic effects depending on molecule structural features, such as the position of the linkage on the sugar head-group, or the orientation of the amide linkage. Furthermore, the cytotoxic response increased with the reduction of surfactant CMC. This study underscores the relevance of a methodical and multidisciplinary approach that enables the consideration of surfactant solution properties when applied to biological materials. Overall, our results will contribute to a better understanding of the concomitant impact of surfactant structure at physico-chemical and biological levels.

  7. Photoluminescent carbon nanodots: synthesis, physicochemical properties and analytical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathik Roy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanodots (C-dots possessing photoluminescence (PL properties have become interesting materials for sensing and imaging, with the advantages of water-dispersibility, biocompatibility, chemical and photo stability. They can be prepared from organic matter such as tea, grass, coffee, and small organic molecules like glycine and glucose through hydrothermal routes. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of C-dots along with their optical (absorption, PL, upconverted PL properties and analytical applications. Having bright PL, biocompatibility, chemical and photo stability, as well as low toxicity, C-dots have been used for the detection of metal ions and for cell imaging. C-dots prepared from organic matter such as used tea and ginger possess a great inhibitory effect on the growth of cancer cells, showing their excellent potential as new drugs.

  8. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista; Masiello, Caroline A; Dugan, Brandon; Toselli, Moreno

    2016-09-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30tha(-1). We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρs) and envelope (ρe) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0-5nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over short (~years) timescales.

  9. Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobicpiperidinium and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kumar, R. Anand; Lee,Jong-Min; Kerr, John; Newman, John; Prausnitz, John M.

    2007-06-25

    Some properties are reported for hydrophobic ionic liquids (IL) containing 1-methyl-1-propyl pyrrolidinium [MPPyrro]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-butyl pyrrolidinium [MBPyrro]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-propyl piperidinium [MPPip]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-butyl piperidinium [MBPip]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-octylpyrrolidinium [MOPyrro]{sup +} and 1-methyl-1-octylpiperidinium [MOPip]{sup +} cations. These liquids provide new alternatives to pyridinium and imidazolium ILs. High thermal stability of an ionic liquid increases safety in applications like rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and other electrochemical devices. Thermal properties, ionic conductivities, viscosities, and mutual solubilities with water are reported. In addition, toxicities of selected ionic liquids have been measured using a human cancer cell-line. The ILs studied here are sparingly soluble in water but hygroscopic. We show some structure-property relationships that may help to design green solvents for specific applications. While ionic liquids are claimed to be environmentally-benign solvents, as yet few data have been published to support these claims.

  10. Shreddability of pizza Mozzarella cheese predicted using physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2014-07-01

    This study used rheological techniques such as uniaxial compression, wire cutting, and dynamic oscillatory shear to probe the physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheeses. Predictive models were built using compositional and textural descriptors to predict cheese shreddability. Experimental cheeses were made using milk with (0.25% wt/wt) or without denatured whey protein and renneted at pH 6.5 or 6.4. The cheeses were aged for 8, 22, or 36 d and then tested at 4, 13, or 22°C for textural attributes using 11 descriptors. Adding denatured whey protein and reducing the milk renneting pH strongly affected cheese mechanical properties, but these effects were usually dependent on testing temperature. Cheeses were generally weaker as they aged. None of the compositional or rheological descriptors taken alone could predict the shredding behavior of the cheeses. Using the stepwise method, an objective selection of a few (<4) relevant descriptors made it possible to predict the production of fines (R(2)=0.82), the percentage of long shreds (R(2)=0.67), and to a lesser degree, the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade (R(2)=0.45). The principal component analysis markedly contrasted the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade with other shredding properties such as the production of fines or long shreds. The predictive models and principal component analysis can help manufacturers select relevant descriptors for the development of cheese with optimal mechanical behavior under shredding conditions.

  11. Rational engineering of physicochemical properties of nanomaterials for biomedical applications with nanotoxicological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navya, P. N.; Daima, Hemant Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Innovative engineered nanomaterials are at the leading edge of rapidly emerging fields of nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. Meticulous synthesis, unique physicochemical properties, manifestation of chemical or biological moieties on the surface of materials make engineered nanostructures suitable for a variety of biomedical applications. Besides, tailored nanomaterials exhibit entirely novel therapeutic applications with better functionality, sensitivity, efficiency and specificity due to their customized unique physicochemical and surface properties. Additionally, such designer made nanomaterials has potential to generate series of interactions with various biological entities including DNA, proteins, membranes, cells and organelles at nano-bio interface. These nano-bio interactions are driven by colloidal forces and predominantly depend on the dynamic physicochemical and surface properties of nanomaterials. Nevertheless, recent development and atomic scale tailoring of various physical, chemical and surface properties of nanomaterials is promising to dictate their interaction in anticipated manner with biological entities for biomedical applications. As a result, rationally designed nanomaterials are in extensive demand for bio-molecular detection and diagnostics, therapeutics, drug and gene delivery, fluorescent labelling, tissue engineering, biochemical sensing and other pharmaceuticals applications. However, toxicity and risk associated with engineered nanomaterials is rather unclear or not well understood; which is gaining considerable attention and the field of nanotoxicology is evolving promptly. Therefore, this review explores current knowledge of articulate engineering of nanomaterials for biomedical applications with special attention on potential toxicological perspectives.

  12. Physicochemical and organoleptic properties of cookies incorporated with legume flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Thongram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries like India, with increasing urbanization, the demand for processed food and bakery products particularly cookies command wide popularity in both urban and rural mass. Hence, an attempt was made to develop functionally and nutritionally improved cookies and the influence of the partial replacement of the wheat flour by legume on the quality characteristic of cookies was analyzed. Six blends were prepared by homogenously mixing chickpea flour, pigeon pea, moong bean flour, and cowpea flour with wheat flour in the percentage proportions: 100, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, and 10:10:10:10:60 (CPF:WWF, PF:WWF, MF:WWF, CF:WWF, and CPF:PF:MF:CF:WWF and later used to make cookies. Chemical and functional properties of the composite flours and chemical as well as sensory characteristics of cookies made from the above combinations were determined. The incorporation of legume flour significantly affected the physical, chemical, and phytonutrient parameters of the cookies. The results revealed that functional properties, viz. water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, and swelling property, increased with addition of legume flours. The physical analysis revealed that the diameter and height increased with the incorporation of legume flour. The results of the proximate composition showed that the A6 possesses highest percentage of proteins (13.42% and crude fat (22.90%, A5 contains maximum value of crude fiber (2.10% and DPPH radical scavenging activity (55.47%, A1 showed maximum moisture (10.60%, A2 total phenolic content (6.14 TAE mg/100 g, and A3 showed maximum ash (3.66%. Statistical results revealed that the addition of selected pulse flours and a combination of these whole flours do not have a significant effect (p > 0.05 on the sensory characteristics of cookies.

  13. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista, E-mail: g.sorrenti@unibo.it [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, viale G. Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Masiello, Caroline A., E-mail: masiello@rice.edu [Departments of Earth Science, BioSciences, and Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Dugan, Brandon, E-mail: dugan@rice.edu [Department of Earth Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Toselli, Moreno, E-mail: moreno.toselli@unibo.it [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, viale G. Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30 t ha{sup −1}. We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρ{sub s}) and envelope (ρ{sub e}) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0–5 nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75 nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75 nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110 nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over

  14. Parent and trisubstituted triazacoronenes: synthesis, crystal structure and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qitao; Chen, Huanhuan; Xia, Huaida; Liu, Bingxin; Xu, Bin

    2016-01-11

    A four-step synthesis of the C3-symmetric parent 1,5,9-triazacoronene (TAC) and its derivatives was achieved using a three-fold Bischler-Napieralski cyclization as the key step. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction of 1b (R = n-Bu) demonstrates that the azacoronene core is perfectly co-planar and the molecules adopt a favorable 2-D "brick-wall" arrangement with strong π-π interactions. The unique stacking, tunable photophysical and electronic properties, and high thermal stability should make them promising candidates for emissive and electron-transport materials.

  15. of Clove on Physicochemical Properties of Chitosan-Based Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Reyes-Chaparro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical and barrier properties of chitosan films prepared with essential oils of clove and functional extract were studied. The films made with functional extracts (esters E6 and E7 presented the significant increment of extensibility compared with the untreated chitosan films. In the case of punction test, the films made with the esters E6 and E7 resisted more the applied strength before tearing up compared with the chitosan control film (without any treatment. Thermogravimetric analysis values were determined for the chitosan control film and chitosan film treated with clove essential oil obtaining 112.17°C and 176.73°C, respectively. Atomic force microscopy (AFM was used to determine their morphology by analyzing their surfaces and phase arrangement; AFM was also used to observe the porosity in chitosan-based antimicrobial films and the chitosan films incorporating functional extracts. The water vapour permeability (WVP data showed that incorporating the functional extract to the formulation of films has a positive effect on water vapour barrier properties. In general, the incorporation of essential oils and functional extract of clove at 20% in chitosan films caused microstructural changes that were dependent on the different affinity of components.

  16. Irradiated gelatin-potato starch blends: evaluation of physicochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Regis, Wellington; Mastro, Nelida L., E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Macromolecular polysaccharides of large chains as starch can interlace with gelatin modifying their mechanical resistance. In this work, biodegradable bovine gelatin-potato starch blends films were developed using glycerol as plasticizer. Three formulations of gelatin/starch proportions (w/w) were used (1:0; 3:1; 1:1) and casting was the chosen method. The dried samples were then submitted to ionizing radiation coming from an electron beam (EB) accelerator with doses of 20 and 40 kGy, at room temperature, in the presence of air. Mechanical properties such as puncture strength and elongation at break were measured. Color measurements, water absorption, moisture, and film solubility were assessed. The results showed that starch addition to films based on gelatin as well as irradiation affected physical and structural properties of the films. Although the increase of starch content in the mixture led to decrease of the puncture force even in samples irradiated with the higher dose, there was a decrease of water absorption of films with the increase of the dose, and also by the higher starch content. Samples irradiated at 20 kGy presented higher moisture and film solubility. The methodology developed in this paper can be applied to other composite systems to establish the best protein:starch ratio, and the contribution of the radiation crosslinking in each specific case. (author)

  17. Chemical interesterification of blends of palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil: physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schäfer De Martini; da Silva, Roberta Claro; Hazzan, Márcia; Capacla, Isabele Renata; Viccola, Elise Raduan; Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio

    2012-02-15

    trans-Free interesterified fat was produced for possible usage as a margarine. Palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil were used as substrates for chemical interesterification. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of blends of palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil submitted to chemical interesterification using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The original and interesterified blends were examined for fatty acid composition, softening and melting points, solid fat content, and consistency. Chemical interesterification reduced softening and melting points, consistency, and solid fat content. The interesterified fats showed desirable physicochemical properties for possible use as a margarine. Therefore, our result suggested that the interesterified fat without trans-fatty acids could be used as an alternative to partially hydrogenated fat.

  18. Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of four mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng-Xia; Fu, Shu-Fang; Bi, Xiu-Fang; Chen, Fang; Liao, Xiao-Jun; Hu, Xiao-Song; Wu, Ji-Hong

    2013-05-01

    Four principal mango cultivars (Tainong No.1, Irwin, JinHwang and Keitt) grown in southern China were selected, and their physico-chemical and antioxidant properties were characterized and compared. Of all the four cultivars, Tainong No.1 had highest content of total phenols, ρ-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, quercetin, titratable acidity, citric acid, malic acid, fructose, higher antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP) and L(*), lower pH, PPO activity and individual weight. Keitt mangoes showed significantly (p<0.05) higher contents of β-carotene, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid, sucrose, total sugar, total soluble solid, catechin, succinic acid and higher PPO activity. JinHwang mangoes exhibited significantly (p<0.05) higher individual weight and PPO activity, but had lower content of total phenols, β-carotene and lower antioxidant activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed the four mango cultivars to be differentiated clearly based on all these physico-chemical and antioxidant properties determined in the study.

  19. Exploring Cellular Interactions of Liposomes Using Protein Corona Fingerprints and Physicochemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdeli, Arafeh; Palchetti, Sara; Pozzi, Daniela; Hormozi-Nezhad, Mohammad Reza; Baldelli Bombelli, Francesca; Caracciolo, Giulio; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2016-03-22

    To control liposomes fate and transport upon contact with biofluids, it is essential to consider several parameters affecting the synthetic and biological identity of liposomes, as well as liposome-protein corona (PC) aspects. As a powerful tool in this data mining adventure, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approach is used to correlate physicochemical properties of liposomes and their PC fingerprints to multiple quantified biological responses. In the present study, the relationship between cellular interactions of a set of structurally diverse liposomal formulations and their physicochemical and PC properties has been investigated via linear and nonlinear QSAR models. Significant parameters affecting cellular uptake and cell viability of liposomes in two important cancer cell lines (PC3 and HeLa) have been identified. The developed QSARs have the capacity to be implemented in advanced targeted delivery of liposomal drugs.

  20. Physicochemical Properties of Gold Nanostructures Deposited on Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Novotna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of gold films sputtered onto borosilicate glass substrate were studied. UV-Vis absorption spectra were used to investigate optical parameters. XRD analysis provided information about the gold crystalline nanostructure, the texture, and lattice parameter and biaxial tension was also determined by the XRD method. The surface morphology was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM; chemical structure of sputtered gold nanostructures was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS. The gold crystallites are preferentially [111] oriented on the sputtered samples. Gold deposition leads to dramatic changes in the surface morphology in comparison to pristine glass substrate. Oxygen is not incorporated into the gold layer during gold deposition. Experimental data on lattice parameter were also confirmed by theoretical investigations of nanoclusters using tight-binding potentials.

  1. Physicochemical properties and digestibility of hydrothermally treated waxy rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Feng; Ma, Fei; Kong, Fansheng; Gao, Qunyu; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-04-01

    Waxy rice starch was subjected to annealing (ANN) and heat-moisture treatment (HMT). These starches were also treated by a combination of ANN and HMT. The impact of single and dual modifications (ANN-HMT and HMT-ANN) on the molecular weight (M(w)), crystalline structure, thermal properties, and the digestibility were investigated. The relative crystallinity and short-range order on the granule surface increased on ANN, whereas decreased on HMT. All treated starches showed lower M(w) than that of the native starch. Gelatinization onset temperature, peak temperature and conclusion temperature increased for both single and dual treatments. Increased slowly digestible starch content was found on HMT and ANN-HMT. However, resistant starch levels decreased in all treated starches as compared with native starch. The results would imply that hydrothermal treatment induced structural changes in waxy rice starch significantly affected its digestibility.

  2. Production Technology and Physicochemical Properties of Composition Containing Surfactant Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Novochadov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a production method of substance containing great amount of phospolipids (up to 36 % and surfactant proteins (up to 2 % in terms of lyophilisate composition. Basic physical and chemical characteristics of the substance (density, viscosity, surface tension and the coefficient of sliding friction indicate a high lubricant capacity of the derived product. These properties are kept when mixed with native human synovial fluid in the ratio of 1 to 9 inclusive. The obtained data allows to consider the derived composition, containing surfactant proteins and phospholipids, a variety of bionic lubricant suitable for testing as a potential equivalent of synovial fluid which can be used in traumatology and orthopedics, a cosmetic component or agent which increases the stability of the cell suspension during culturing in bioreactors.

  3. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of polyhydroxylated diphenyl ethers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fu; Zhang, Xuesheng; Qu, Ruijuan; Shi, Jiaqi; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: • The experimental pK{sub a1} values of five synthesized PHODEs were determined. • The hydrogen bonds existed in PHODEs were investigated. • There exist close relationships between the thermodynamic properties and N{sub PHOS}. • The relative stability order of PHODE congeners was theoretically proposed. - Abstract: Five polyhydroxylated diphenyl ethers (PHODEs) were synthesized. The first ionization constants (pK{sub a1}) of the synthesized compounds and seven phenolic compounds were determined using potentiometric titration experiments, together with the software ACD/Labs pK{sub a} DB program (version 6.0). The compared results showed that the software could be used to predict the pK{sub a1} of all 209 PHODEs. The thermodynamic properties of 209 PHODEs were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311G** level with Gaussian 09 program. The standard enthalpy of formation (Δ{sub f}H{sup θ}) and the standard Gibbs energy of formation (Δ{sub f}G{sup θ}) were obtained. Two types of hydrogen bond were found to exist in the PHODEs’ molecules. The intramolecular hydrogen bond energies were discussed. The relative stability of PHODEs isomers was proposed theoretically with the relative standard Gibbs energy of formation (Δ{sub f}G{sub R}{sup θ}). The relationships of S{sup θ}, Δ{sub f}H{sup θ} and Δ{sub f}G{sup θ} to the number and position of the hydroxyl substitution (N{sub PHOS}) were studied.

  4. Sorption of roxarsone onto soils with different physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing-Long; He, Jian-Zhou; Blaney, Lee; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2016-09-01

    Elevated roxarsone (ROX) concentrations in soils, caused by land application of ROX-bearing poultry litter, mandate investigation of ROX sorption onto soils. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of ROX sorption onto five soils were carried out to explore the relationship between sorption parameters and soil properties, and to reveal the effects of coexisting humic acid (HA), P(V), As(V), and As(III) on ROX transport. Experimental results indicated that ROX sorption reached equilibrium within 24 h, with pseudo-second order rate constants of 5.74-5.26 × 10(2) g/(mg h); film and intra-particle diffusion were the rate-limiting processes. ROX sorption to soils involved partitioning and adsorption phenomena; however, their relative contributions varied for different soils. The maximum ROX sorption varied with soil type, ranging from 0.59 to 4.12 mg/g. Results from correlation analysis and multiple linear regressions revealed that the maximum sorption capacities, partition coefficients, and desorption percentages were correlated with soil properties, especially iron content, total organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. ROX sorption to soils was affected more by soil pH than the initial pH of ROX-containing solutions. Carboxylic and amide functional groups were determined to be responsible for ROX sorption to soils. ROX sorption capacities decreased in the presence of HA, P(V), As(V), and As(III), indicating that ROX mobility in soils was facilitated by dissolved organic matter (DOM) and competing anions.

  5. Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa (mucuna deeringiana) and soybean (glycine max)

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Patricia Chaparro Acuña; Jesús Humberto Gil González; Iván Darío Aristizábal Torres

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa flour (Mucuna deeringiana) and soybean flour (Glycine max) were determined. Oil absorption capacity was higher in vitabosa. Water absorption capacity was higher in soy and it was affected by the change in the ionic strength of the medium. Emulsifying Activity (EA) decreased with increasing concentration of flour, while Emulsifying Stability (ES) showed an increased. EA and ES of flours have more ionic strength in the range ...

  6. Nisin as a Food Preservative: Part 1: Physicochemical Properties, Antimicrobial Activity, and Main Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsallaoui, Adem; Oulahal, Nadia; Joly, Catherine; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-06-10

    Nisin is a natural preservative for many food products. This bacteriocin is mainly used in dairy and meat products. Nisin inhibits pathogenic food borne bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and many other Gram-positive food spoilage microorganisms. Nisin can be used alone or in combination with other preservatives or also with several physical treatments. This paper reviews physicochemical and biological properties of nisin, the main factors affecting its antimicrobial effectiveness, and its food applications as an additive directly incorporated into food matrices.

  7. Analogue Encoding of Physicochemical Properties of Proteins in their Cognate Messenger RNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Polyansky, Anton A; Hlevnjak, Mario; Zagrovic, Bojan

    2013-01-01

    Being related by the genetic code, mRNAs and their cognate proteins exhibit mutually interdependent compositions, which implies the possibility of a direct connection between their general physicochemical properties. Here we probe the general potential of the cell to encode information about proteins in the average characteristics of their cognate mRNAs and decode it in a ribosome-independent manner. We show that average protein hydrophobicity, calculated from either sequences or 3D structure...

  8. Physico-Chemical Properties, Antioxidant Activity and Mineral Contents of Pineapple Genotypes Grown in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xin-Hua Lu; De-Quan Sun; Qing-Song Wu; Sheng-Hui Liu; Guang-Ming Sun

    2014-01-01

    The fruit physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of 26 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] genotypes grown in China were measured. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of these pineapple genotypes. Sucrose was the dominant sugar in all 26 genotypes, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents. The ascorbic acid (AsA) content ranged from 5.08 to 33.57 mg/...

  9. Structure and physico-chemical properties in mixed aqueoussolution of sodium alkylcarboxylate-alkyltrimethylammoniumbromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG, Jian-Bin(黄建滨); ZHAO, Guo-Xi(赵国玺); HE, Xu(何煦); ZHU, Bu-Yao(朱步瑶); FU, Hong-Lan(付宏兰)

    2000-01-01

    The physico-chemical properties of organized assemblies (micelle or vesicle) from sodium alkylcarboxylate-alkyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide mixture have been investigated systematically. In different mixed cationic-anionic surfactant systems, micelles and vesicles can coexist or be transformed into each other on different conditions. The experimental results are explained prelimilarily from the viewpoint of molecular packing geometry. The solubilization of organic compound in the mixed surfactant system was also studied in detail.

  10. Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum: Dilute solution and some physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesarinejad, M A; Razavi, Seyed M A; Koocheki, A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of various temperatures (25-65°C) on some dilute solution properties of Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum (AHSG) as a novel potential source of hydrocolloid. Monosaccharide composition, FTIR analysis and molecular parameters were determined to provide more structural information. The results indicated that AHSG had a low molecular weight (3.66×10(5)Da), medium intrinsic viscosity (18.34dl/g) at 25°C, relatively flexible chain with a chain flexibility parameter of 618.54, and activation energy of 0.51×10(7)J/kgmol. With rise in temperature from 25 to 55°C, the intrinsic viscosity decreased as well as coil radius and volume of AHSG. The shape factor of AHSG macromolecule was spherical at all temperatures. The electrostatic interaction and particle size of AHSG solution were -25.81mV (at neutral pH) and 225.36nm, respectively. The results revealed that AHSG had high total sugar content (85.33%), small amount of uronic acids (5.63%) and it is likely a galactan-type polysaccharide. The FTIR spectra showed that AHSG behaved like a typical polyelectrolyte because of the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups.

  11. Effect of high pressure on physicochemical properties of meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckow, Roman; Sikes, Anita; Tume, Ron

    2013-01-01

    The application of high pressure offers some interesting opportunities in the processing of muscle-based food products. It is well known that high-pressure processing can prolong the shelf life of meat products in addition to chilling but the pressure-labile nature of protein systems limits the commercial range of applications. High pressure can affect the texture and gel-forming properties of myofibrillar proteins and, hence, has been suggested as a physical and additive-free alternative to tenderize and soften or restructure meat and fish products. However, the rate and magnitude at which pressure and temperature effects take place in muscles are variable and depend on a number of circumstances and conditions that are still not precisely known. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the effects of high pressure on muscle tissue over a range of temperatures as it relates to meat texture, microstructure, color, enzymes, lipid oxidation, and pressure-induced gelation of myofibrillar proteins.

  12. Glutarimides: Biological activity, general synthetic methods and physicochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Đorđević Jelena B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutarimides, 2,6-dioxopiperidines are compounds that rarely occur in natural sources, but so far isolated ones exert widespread pharmacological activities, which makes them valuable as potential pharmacotherapeutics. Glutarimides act as androgen receptor antagonists, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytics, antibacterials, and tumor suppressing agents. Some synthetic glutarimide derivatives are already in use as immunosuppressive and sedative (e.g., thalidomide or anxiolytics (buspirone drugs. The wide applicability of this class of compounds, justify the interest of scientists to explore new pathways for its syntheses. General methods for synthesis of six-membered imide ring, are presented in this paper. These methods include: a reaction of dicarboxylic acids with ammonia or primary amine, b reactions of cyclization: amido-acids, diamides, dinitriles, nitrilo-acids, amido-nitriles, amido-esters, amidoacyl-chlorides or diacyl-chlorides, c adition of carbon-monoxide on a,b-unsaturated amides, d oxidation reactions, e Michael adition of active methylen compounds on methacrylamide or conjugated amides. Some of the described methods are used for closing glutarimide ring in syntheses of farmacological active compounds sesbanimide and aldose reductase inhibitors (ARI. Analyses of the geometry, as well as, the spectroscopic analyses (NMR and FT-IR of some glutarimides are presented because of their broad spectrum of pharmacological activity. To elucidate structures of glutarimides, geometrical parameters of newly synthesized tert-pentyl-1-benzyl-4-methyl-glutarimide-3-carboxylate (PBMG are analyzed and compared with the experimental data from X-ray analysis for glutarimide. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surface which is plotted over the optimized geometry to elucidate the reactivity of PBMG molecule is analyzed. The electronic properties of glutarimide derivatives are explained on the example of thalidomide. The Frontier Molecular Orbital

  13. Physico-chemical properties of perturbed water: facts and enigmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Elia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The study of extremely diluted and agitated substances and solutions is strictly linked with the analysis of properties of water perturbed using different systems. This study is about the determination of the physical-chemical parameters of water, after the perturbations described. Methods The perturbed water was obtained using the three different protocols: · EDS (Extremely Diluted Solutions. Obtained through an iterative process of successive dilutions and agitations. · IFW (Iteratively Filtered Water. Obtained through an iterative process of successive filtrations through sintered glass filters. · INW (Iteratively Nafionized Water. Obtained through an iterative process of successive drying and wetting of the Nafion polymer. The parameters under study are: electrical conductivity, χ / μS cm-1; heat of mixing with acid (HCl, ΔQmixHCl / J Kg-1 or basic (NaOH solutions, ΔQmixNaOH / J Kg-1 and pH. χ increases of up to two orders of magnitude, ΔQmixNaOH / J Kg-1 is exothermic and increases as the electrical conductivity increases, with a roughly linear trend, up to one order of magnitude. The analogous ΔQmixHCl / J Kg-1, on the contrary, is found to be exothermic or null depending on the protocol used. For the two protocol (EDS or IFW the pH is alkaline while for the third one (INW is quite acid and shows a very good linear correlation with logχ. The linear correlations hint at a single cause for the variation of the three very different physical- chemical parameters. Results and discussion Each protocol produces water exhibiting its own peculiarities, to the point that they can be considered different, albeit with the common element of a variation of the super-molecular structure of the water solvent. These three procedures capable of affecting water can be grouped together by means of a common work

  14. Study of rosin-glycerol esters as microencapsulating materials. II. Quantitative correlation between physico-chemical properties and release characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Y V; Rao, M N; Dorle, A K

    1985-01-01

    Rosin-glycerol esters have been used as microencapsulating materials. A quantitative correlation has been observed between the physico-chemical properties, i.e. acid value and moisture affinity, and the release characteristics from the encapsulated drug.

  15. Comparison of the physicochemical properties of a biosimilar filgrastim with those of reference filgrastim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrlin, A; Radic, I; Vuletic, M; Schwinke, D; Runac, D; Kusalic, T; Paskvan, I; Krsic, M; Bratos, M; Marinc, S

    2010-09-01

    Recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (filgrastim) is a therapeutic protein used primarily to reduce incidence and duration of severe neutropenia and its associated, and serious, complications. We have developed a biosimilar filgrastim (Hospira filgrastim; Nivestim) designed to be comparable to Amgen filgrastim (Neupogen). An extensive characterization study assessed the physiochemical similarity of Hospira filgrastim to Amgen filgrastim. Both drugs were supplied in 1 ml glass, single-use, prefilled syringes (five batches of each product at 480 microg/0.5 ml and one batch of each product at 300 microg/0.5 ml). Samples were evaluated using state-of-the-art analytical methods (validated in accordance with International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use or Pharmeuropa guidelines) to determine physicochemical properties, molecular characteristics, purity and biological activity. Samples were compared after long-term storage at 2-8 degrees C and storage at 40 degrees C (stress conditions) to evaluate their degradation impurity profiles. Hospira filgrastim and Amgen filgrastim were shown to have similar physicochemical properties, molecular characteristics, purity and biological activity. No significant differences in product-related impurities were recorded between Hospira filgrastim and Amgen filgrastim following storage for 12 weeks under stress conditions. These data show that the physicochemical profile of Hospira filgrastim is similar to that of Amgen filgrastim.

  16. Effect of Pre-Harvest Sprouting on Physicochemical Properties of Starch in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senay Simsek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. occurs when physiologically mature kernels begin germinating in the spike. The objective of this study was to provide fundamental information on physicochemical changes of starch due to PHS in Hard Red Spring (HRS and Hard White Spring (HWS wheat. The mean values of α-amylase activity of non-sprouted and sprouted wheat samples were 0.12 CU/g and 2.00 CU/g, respectively. Sprouted samples exhibited very low peak and final viscosities compared to non-sprouted wheat samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images showed that starch granules in sprouted samples were partially hydrolyzed. Based on High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC profiles, the starch from sprouted samples had relatively lower molecular weight than that of non-sprouted samples. Overall, high α-amylase activity caused changes to the physicochemical properties of the PHS damaged wheat.

  17. Antioxidant properties, physico-chemical characteristics and proximate composition of five wild fruits of Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ph Baleshwor; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Devi, Huidrom Sunitibala

    2015-02-01

    Antioxidant properties, physico-chemical characteristics and proximate composition of five wild fruits viz., Garcinia pedunculata, Garcinia xanthochymus, Docynia indica, Rhus semialata and Averrhoa carambola grown in Manipur, India were presented in the current study. The order of the antioxidant activity and reducing power of the fruit samples was found as R. semialata > D. indica > G. xanthochymus > A. carambola > G. pedunculata. Good correlation coefficient (R(2) > 0.99) was found among the three methods applied to determine antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content was positively correlated (R(2) = 0.960) with the antioxidant activity however, total flavonoid content was not positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. Physico-chemical and proximate composition of these fruits is documented for the first time.

  18. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Yogurt Supplemented with Corni fructus during Storage

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine a possibility of adding Corni fructus extract (CFE) into yogurt for improving the neutraceutical properties of yogurt and the effects of adding CFE (2∼6%, v/v) on the physicochemical and sensory properties of the products during a 15-day storage period at 4°C. Incorporation of CFE into the yogurt samples resulted in a significant pH reduction and a significant increase in titratable acidity. When evaluating the color of the yogurt, the L*-values were no...

  19. Effect of γ-irradiation on the physicochemical properties and structure of fish myofibrillar proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Li, Ru-yi; Tu, Zong-cai; Ma, Da; Wang, Hui; Huang, Xiao-qin; He, Na

    2015-04-01

    The influence of γ-irradiation on physicochemical properties and structures of myofibrillar protein from grass crap exposed to dose up to 10 kGy was investigated. Irradiated samples exhibited decreased emulsifying property and increased surface hydrophobicity. Increasing dose resulted in decreasing free and total sulphydryl groups, decreasing myosin heavy chains in the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns. This study demonstrated that γ-irradiation decreased the myofibrillar protein ordered structure and generated the crosslinking and provided a possible reference for the identification of irradiated fish products.

  20. Effect of cream fermentation on microbiological, physicochemical and rheological properties of L. helveticus-butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewe, Joo-Ann; Loo, Su-Yi

    2016-06-15

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and rheological properties of butter produced by Lactobacillus helveticus fermented cream. The incorporation of putative probiotic - the L. helveticus, to ferment cream prior to butter production was anticipated to alter the nutritional composition of butter. Changes in crude macronutrients and the resultant modification relating to textural properties of butter induced upon metabolic activities of L. helveticus in cream were focused in this research. Fermented butter (LH-butter) was produced by churning the cream that was fermented by lactobacilli at 37 °C for 24 h. Physicochemical analysis, proximate analysis and rheology properties of LH-butter were compared with butter produced using unfermented cream (control). LH-butter showed a significantly (PCream fermentation modified nutritional and textural properties of butter in which LH-butter contained higher health beneficial unsaturated fatty acids than the control and thus rendered the product softer. Its enrichment with probiotics could thus further enhance its functional property.

  1. Physicochemical and morphological properties of plasticized poly(vinyl alcohol)-agar biodegradable films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera-Santana, T J; Freile-Pelegrín, Y; Azamar-Barrios, J A

    2014-08-01

    The effects of the addition of glycerol (GLY) on the physicochemical and morphological properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-agar films were reported. PVA-agar films were prepared by solution cast method, and the addition of GLY in PVA-agar films altered the optical properties, resulting in a decrease in opacity values and in the color difference (ΔE) of the films. Structural characterization using Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the presence of GLY altered the intensity of the bands (from 1200 to 800cm(-1)) and crystallinity. The characterization of the thermal properties indicated that an increase in the agar content produces a decrease in the melting temperature and augments the heat of fusion. Similar tendencies were observed in plasticized films, but at different magnification. The formulation that demonstrated the lowest mechanical properties contained 25wt.% agar, whereas the formulation that contained 75wt.% agar demonstrated a significant improvement. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and surface morphology analysis demonstrated that the structure of PVA-agar films is reorganized upon GLY addition. The physicochemical properties of PVA-agar films using GLY as a plasticizer provide information for the application of this formulation as packaging material for specific food applications.

  2. Physicochemical conditions and properties of particles in urban runoff and rivers: Implications for runoff pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Qionghua; Wu, Yaketon; Wang, Xiaochang C

    2017-04-01

    In this study, to gain an improved understanding of the fate and fractionation of particle-bound pollutants, we evaluated the physicochemical conditions and the properties of particles in rainwater, urban runoff, and rivers of Yixing, a city with a large drainage density in the Taihu Lake Basin, China. Road runoff and river samples were collected during the wet and dry seasons in 2015 and 2016. There were significant differences between the physicochemical conditions (pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and electroconductivity (EC)) of rainwater, runoff, and rivers. The lowest pH and highest ORP values of rainwater provide the optimal conditions for leaching of particle-bound pollutants such as heavy metals. The differences in the physicochemical conditions of the runoff and rivers may contribute to the redistribution of pollutants between particulate and dissolved phases after runoff is discharged into waterways. Runoff and river particles were mainly composed of silt and clay (pollutants and settling ability of particles, which shows that it can be used as an index when monitoring runoff pollution.

  3. Physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of Chinese noodles in relation to optimal cooking time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoting; Sui, Zhongquan

    2016-03-01

    Changes in the physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of white salted noodles (WSN) at different cooking stage were investigated. The noodles were dried in fresh air and then cooked for 2-12 min by boiling in distilled water to determine the properties of cooking quality, textural properties and optical characteristic. For starch digestibility, dry noodles were milled and sieved into various particle size classes ranging from 0.5 mm to 5.0 mm, and hydrolyzed by porcine pancreatic α-amylase. The optimal cooking time of WSN determined by squeezing between glasses was 6 min. The results showed that the kinetics of solvation of starch and protein molecules were responsible for changes of the physicochemical properties of WSN during cooking. The susceptibility of starch to α-amylase was influenced by the cooking time, particle size and enzyme treatment. The greater value of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and lower value of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) were reached at the optimal cooking stage ranging between 63.14-71.97%, 2.47-10.74% and 23.94-26.88%, respectively, indicating the susceptibility on hydrolysis by enzyme was important in defining the cooked stage. The study suggested that cooking quality and digestibility were not correlated but the texture greatly controls the digestibility of the noodles.

  4. Effect of dietary pomegranate seed oil on laying hen performance and physicochemical properties of eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostogrys, Renata B; Filipiak-Florkiewicz, Agnieszka; Dereń, Katarzyna; Drahun, Anna; Czyżyńska-Cichoń, Izabela; Cieślik, Ewa; Szymczyk, Beata; Franczyk-Żarów, Magdalena

    2017-04-15

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of pomegranate seed oil, used as a source of punicic acid (CLnA) in the diets of laying hens, on the physicochemical properties of eggs. Forty Isa Brown laying hens (26weeks old) were equally subjected to 4 dietary treatments (n=10) and fed a commercial layer diet supplying 2.5% sunflower oil (control) or three levels (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) of punicic acid in the diets. After 12weeks of feeding the hens, eggs collection began. Sixty eggs - randomly selected from each group - were analysed for physicochemical properties. Eggs naturally enriched with CLnA preserve their composition and conventional properties in most of the analysed parameters (including chemical composition, physical as well as organoleptic properties). Dietary CLnA had positive impact on the colour of the eggs' yolk, whereas the hardness of hard-boiled egg yolks was not affected. Additionally, increasing dietary CLnA led to an increase not only the CLnA concentrations, but also CLA in egg-yolk lipids.

  5. Assessing Physicochemical Properties of Drug Molecules via Microsolvation Measurements with Differential Mobility Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Le Blanc, J C Yves; Schneider, Bradley B; Shields, Jefry; Federico, James J; Zhang, Hui; Stroh, Justin G; Kauffman, Gregory W; Kung, Daniel W; Ieritano, Christian; Shepherdson, Evan; Verbuyst, Mitch; Melo, Luke; Hasan, Moaraj; Naser, Dalia; Janiszewski, John S; Hopkins, W Scott; Campbell, J Larry

    2017-02-22

    The microsolvated state of a molecule, represented by its interactions with only a small number of solvent molecules, can play a key role in determining the observable bulk properties of the molecule. This is especially true in cases where strong local hydrogen bonding exists between the molecule and the solvent. One method that can probe the microsolvated states of charged molecules is differential mobility spectrometry (DMS), which rapidly interrogates an ion's transitions between a solvated and desolvated state in the gas phase (i.e., few solvent molecules present). However, can the results of DMS analyses of a class of molecules reveal information about the bulk physicochemical properties of those species? Our findings presented here show that DMS behaviors correlate strongly with the measured solution phase pKa and pKb values, and cell permeabilities of a set of structurally related drug molecules, even yielding high-resolution discrimination between isomeric forms of these drugs. This is due to DMS's ability to separate species based upon only subtle (yet predictable) changes in structure: the same subtle changes that can influence isomers' different bulk properties. Using 2-methylquinolin-8-ol as the core structure, we demonstrate how DMS shows promise for rapidly and sensitively probing the physicochemical properties of molecules, with particular attention paid to drug candidates at the early stage of drug development. This study serves as a foundation upon which future drug molecules of different structural classes could be examined.

  6. A study of relations between physicochemical properties of crude oils and microbiological characteristics of reservoir microflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, I. G.; Polishchuk, Yu. M.; Peremitina, T. O.

    2015-10-01

    The dependence of the population and activity of reservoir microflora upon the chemical composition and viscosity of crude oils has been investigated, since it allows the problem of improvement in the technologies and enhancement of oil recovery as applied to production of difficult types of oils with anomalous properties (viscous, heavy, waxy, high resin) to be solved. The effect of the chemical composition of the oil on the number, distribution, and activity of reservoir microflora has been studied using data on the microbiological properties of reservoir water of 16 different fields in oil and gas basins of Russia, Mongolia, China, and Vietnam. Information on the physicochemical properties of crude oils of these fields has been obtained from the database created at the Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch on the physicochemical properties of oils throughout the world. It has been found that formation water in viscous oil reservoirs is char acterized by a large population of heterotrophic and sulfate reducing bacteria and the water of oil fields with a high paraffin content, by population of denitrifying bacteria.

  7. Distribution of Fish in the Upper Citarum River: an Adaptive Response to Physico-Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNARDI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of fish in river is controlled by physico-chemical properties of the water which is affected by land-use complexity and intensity of human intervention. A study on fish distribution was carried out in the upper Citarum River to map the effects of physio-chemical properties on habitat use. A survey was conducted to collect fish and to measure the water quality both on dry and rainy season. The result showed that distribution of the fish, in general, represented their adaptive response to physico-chemical properties. The river environment could be grouped into two categories: (i clean and relatively unpolluted sites, which associated with high DO and water current, and (ii polluted sites characterized by low DO, high COD, BOD, water temperature, NO3, PO4, H2S, NH3, and surfactant. Fish inhabiting the first sites were Xiphophorus helleri, Punctius binotatus, Xiphophorus maculatus, and Oreochromis mossambicus. Meanwhile, the latter sites were inhabited by Liposarcus pardalis, Trichogaster trichopterus, and Poecilia reticulata. Knowledge about fish distribution in association with the pysico-chemical properties of water is crucial especially for the river management.

  8. Effect of slope position on physico-chemical properties of eroded soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmanullah Khan, Zubair Hayat, Waqar Ahmad,

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The research work was conducted on eroded soil (Missa Series in Samarbagh, District Lower Dir to determine the effect of slope position on soil physico-chemical properties. Soil samples were collected from top-slope, mid-slope and bottom slope positions at horizon-A, B and C. Results showed a significant difference among the physico-chemical properties of top, mid and bottom slope soils. Bulk density of the top-slope (1.51 g cm-3 was the highest followed by mid (1.39 g cm-3 and bottom slopes (1.32 g cm-3. Conversely, electrical conductivity EC-2.47 dS m-1, phosphorus (3.40 mg kg-1, Potassium (118.8 mg kg-1, Organic matter content (1.52 %, clay content (20.39 % and silt content (49.17% were the highest at bottom slope followed by mid and top-slopes, respectively. Soil A, B and C horizons were also significantly (p<0.05 different in their physico-chemical properties. Mean values showed that horizon Ap had the highest bulk density (1.43 g cm-3 and lower electrical conductivity (1.74 dS m-1, phosphorus (2.29 mg kg-1, potassium (84.86 mg kg-1, organic matter (1.08%, clay (12.83% and silt content (40.49% than both the B and C horizons. The deterioration in physico-chemical properties of top slope as compared to mid and bottom slopes and that of Ap horizon as compared to B and C horizons were presumed to be due to past soil erosion effect that removed the finer soil particles including soil organic matter and other plant nutrients. This study concluded that increasing extent of erosion due to slope effect can further deteriorate soil properties. The control of such damaging effects would require soil conservation strategies such as proper land levelling, afforestation, terracing and inclusion of restorative crops in cropping systems on these lands.

  9. Significant differences in physicochemical properties of human immunoglobulin kappa and lambda CDR3 regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Townsend

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibody variable regions are composed of a heavy and a light chain and in humans there are two light chain isotypes: kappa and lambda. Despite their importance in receptor editing, the light chain is often overlooked in the antibody literature, with the focus being on the heavy chain CDR-H3 region. In this paper, we set out to investigate the physicochemical and structural differences between human kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. We constructed a dataset containing over 29,000 - light chain variable region sequences from IgM-transcribing, newly formed B cells isolated from human bone marrow and peripheral blood. We also used a published human naïve dataset to investigate the CDR-H3 properties of heavy chains paired with kappa and lambda light chains, and probed the Protein Data Bank (PDB to investigate the structural differences between kappa and lambda antibody CDR regions. We found that kappa and lambda light chains have very different CDR physicochemical and structural properties, whereas the heavy chains with which they are paired do not differ significantly. We also observed that the mean CDR3 N nucleotide addition in the kappa, lambda and heavy chain gene rearrangements are correlated within donors, but can differ between donors. This indicates that TdT may work with differing efficiencies between different people, but the same efficiency in the different classes of immunoglobulin chain within one person. We have observed large differences in the physicochemical and structural properties of kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. This may reflect different roles in the humoral immune response.

  10. Significant Differences in Physicochemical Properties of Human Immunoglobulin Kappa and Lambda CDR3 Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Catherine L; Laffy, Julie M J; Wu, Yu-Chang Bryan; Silva O'Hare, Joselli; Martin, Victoria; Kipling, David; Fraternali, Franca; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K

    2016-01-01

    Antibody variable regions are composed of a heavy and a light chain, and in humans, there are two light chain isotypes: kappa and lambda. Despite their importance in receptor editing, the light chain is often overlooked in the antibody literature, with the focus being on the heavy chain complementarity-determining region (CDR)-H3 region. In this paper, we set out to investigate the physicochemical and structural differences between human kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. We constructed a dataset containing over 29,000 light chain variable region sequences from IgM-transcribing, newly formed B cells isolated from human bone marrow and peripheral blood. We also used a published human naïve dataset to investigate the CDR-H3 properties of heavy chains paired with kappa and lambda light chains and probed the Protein Data Bank to investigate the structural differences between kappa and lambda antibody CDR regions. We found that kappa and lambda light chains have very different CDR physicochemical and structural properties, whereas the heavy chains with which they are paired do not differ significantly. We also observed that the mean CDR3 N nucleotide addition in the kappa, lambda, and heavy chain gene rearrangements are correlated within donors but can differ between donors. This indicates that terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase may work with differing efficiencies between different people but the same efficiency in the different classes of immunoglobulin chain within one person. We have observed large differences in the physicochemical and structural properties of kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. This may reflect different roles in the humoral immune response.

  11. Enhancing Physicochemical Properties through Synthesis and Formulation of Piclamilast- and Lapatinib-Derived Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodring, Jennifer L.

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a neglected tropical disease of significant morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Current chemotherapeutics targeting the causative agent Trypanosoma brucei lack oral bioavailability, efficacy, and safety. New small molecule drugs are desperately needed for HAT. Target repurposing represents one method for rapidly discovering new anti-trypanosomal compounds. This concept has been applied to repurposing small molecule inhibitors of human phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) for HAT, while improving physicochemical properties. The first project in this dissertation begins with the human PDE4 inhibitor piclamilast, which has an IC50 value of 4.7 microM against T. brucei PDEB1. Based upon this scaffold, new analogs were designed, synthesized, and screened for their biological activity against TbrPDEB1. Secondly, previous optimization of the human tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib led to the discovery of the 4-anilino-quinazoline NEU-617, a potent (EC 50 = 42 nM) antitrypanosomal agent. Since alkynyl thienopyrimidines are well-known scaffolds for tyrosine kinase inhibitors, we assessed this scaffold as an alternative to the quinazoline of NEU-617. In addition, analogs of the NEU-617 were designed and synthesized to improve their physicochemical properties, such as lipophilicity and predicted central nervous system penetration. Lastly, nanoformulations have been shown to improve the oral bioavailability and circulation half-life of their encapsulated drug components. Because of this, nanoemulsions, liposomes, and polymeric nanoparticles were explored for their potential parasitic inhibitory effects and their ability to improve the physicochemical properties of NEU-617.

  12. Protein Sequence Comparison Based on Physicochemical Properties and the Position-Feature Energy Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lulu; Zhang, Yusen; Gutman, Ivan; Shi, Yongtang; Dehmer, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    We develop a novel position-feature-based model for protein sequences by employing physicochemical properties of 20 amino acids and the measure of graph energy. The method puts the emphasis on sequence order information and describes local dynamic distributions of sequences, from which one can get a characteristic B-vector. Afterwards, we apply the relative entropy to the sequences representing B-vectors to measure their similarity/dissimilarity. The numerical results obtained in this study show that the proposed methods leads to meaningful results compared with competitors such as Clustal W. PMID:28393857

  13. Optimization of a sponge cake formulation with inulin as fat replacer: structure, physicochemical, and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, Julia; Puig, Ana; Salvador, Ana; Hernando, Isabel

    2012-02-01

    The effects of several fat replacement levels (0%, 35%, 50%, 70%, and 100%) by inulin in sponge cake microstructure and physicochemical properties were studied. Oil substitution for inulin decreased significantly (P sponge cake recipe to obtain a new product with additional health benefits and accepted by consumers is achieved. Practical Application:  In this study, fat is replaced by inulin in cakes, which is a fiber mainly obtained from chicory roots. Sponge cake formulations with reductions in fat content up to 70% are achieved. These high-quality products can be labeled as "reduced in fat" according to U.S. FDA (2009) and EU regulations (European-Union 2006).

  14. [Physicochemical, catalytic, and regulatory properties of malate dehydrogenase from Rhodovulum steppense bacteria, strain A-20s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eprintsev, A T; Falaleeva, M I; Parfenova, I V; Liashchenko, M S; Kompantseva, E I; Tret'iakova, A Iu

    2014-01-01

    The physicochemical, regulatory, and kinetic properties of malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) from haloalkaliphilic purple nonsulfur Rhodovulum steppense bacteria, strain A-20s, were studied. The malate dehydrogenase (MDH) preparation with a specific activity of 0.775 ± 0.113 U/mg protein was obtained in an electrophoretically homogeneous state using multistep purification. Using homogenous preparations, the molecular weight and the Michaelis constant of the enzyme were determined; the effects of metal ions, the temperature effect, and the thermal stability of the MDH were studied. The dimer structure of the enzyme was demonstrated by DS-Na-electrophoresis.

  15. Physicochemical and morphological properties of starch from fresh waxy corn kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Ketthaisong, Danupol; Suriharn, Bhalang; Tangwongchai, Ratchada; Jane, Jay-lin; Lertrat, Kamol

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics on physicochemical and morphological properties of starches were investigated in fresh waxy corn kernels. Starches were isolated from eight waxy corn genotypes at the immature kernel stage growing in Thailand. The starch content showed variation with genotypes and ranged from 77.76 to 90.97 %. Granule size distribution showed a two population of starch granules with peak values ranged from 0.8 to 1.1 μm (small) and 9.0 to 12.2 μm (large). Genotypes were also significantly ...

  16. Physicochemical, mechanical and thermal properties of chitosan films with and without sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Zhou, Yibin; Zhang, Yang; Yu, Chen; Cao, Shengnan

    2014-09-01

    The effect of sorbitol on the physicochemical, mechanical and thermal properties of chitosan films with different degrees of deacetylation (DD; i.e., DD85% and DD95%) was investigated. The thickness, moisture content (MC), water solubility (WS) and water-vapor permeability (WVP) of the films were evaluated. Sorbitol addition reduced MC, increased WS and significantly (psorbitol increased the strain and decreased stress for both DD films, but DD95% could sustain higher strain and DD85% could sustain higher stress. Thermogravimetrics analysis and differential scanning calorimetry showed that sorbitol elicited a lower degradation temperature for both films, and that DD95% films exhibited higher thermal stability than DD85% films.

  17. Physicochemical Properties of Defatted Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum Seed Flour after Alkaline Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirawat Eiamwat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rambutan seeds were subjected to SC-CO2 extraction at 35 MPa, 45 °C to obtain defatted rambutan seed flour. Its physicochemical properties before and after treatment with alakali solution using 0.075 N NaOH were investigated. Alkali-treated flour had a significant increment in bulk density, swelling power, water adsorption capacity, emulsion capacity and stability but a reduction in turbidity, solubility and oil absorption capacity. Pasting measurements showed peak viscosity, breakdown, setback and final viscosity increased significantly for the alkali-treated flour, while pasting temperature decreased. The alkaline treatment decreased the least gelation concentration, but increased the apparent viscosity.

  18. Adsorption of pharmaceutical excipients onto microcrystals of siramesine hydrochloride: effects on physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Anne; Millqvist-Fureby, Anna; Elema, Michiel Ringkjøbing; Hansen, Tue; Müllertz, Anette; Hovgaard, Lars

    2009-01-01

    A common challenge in the development of new drug substances is poor dissolution characteristics caused by low aqueous solubility. In this study, microcrystals with optimized physicochemical properties were prepared by precipitation in the presence of excipients, which adsorbed to the particle surface and altered particle size, morphology, and dissolution rate. The poorly water-soluble drug siramesine hydrochloride was precipitated by the antisolvent method in the presence of each of various polymeric and surface active excipients. Powder dissolution studies of six of the resulting particle systems showed a significant increase in percent dissolved after 15 min compared to the starting material. A quantitative determination of the amount of excipient adsorbed to the surface of the drug particles proved that only a very small amount of excipient was needed to exert a marked effect on particle properties. The adsorbed amount of excipient constituted less than 1.4% (w/w) of the total particle weight, and thus powders of very high drug loads were obtained. Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), which exhibited the greatest degree of adsorption, also had the greatest effect on the physicochemical properties of the particles. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the surface composition and scanning electron microscopy studies on particle morphology suggested that the excipients adsorbed to specific faces of the crystals.

  19. Effect of storage on physicochemical, microbial and antioxidant properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata candy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabeera Muzzaffar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata is highly nutritious and antioxidant-rich vegetable widely grown all over the world. Present study reports the effect of storage on physicochemical, microbial, and antioxidant properties of pumpkin candy. Pumpkin and its candy were analyzed for the physicochemical characteristics like moisture content, ash, total soluble solids (TSS, titrable acidity, total sugar, reducing sugar, and color. Beta-carotene and vitamin-C content of pumpkin and its candy were also studied. Antioxidant properties like 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, total phenolic content (TPC, reducing power, and lipid peroxidation of methanolic extracts of pumpkin and processed candy were evaluated. During storage, a significant increase in TSS while a non-significant increase in titrable acidity, reducing and total sugars was observed. Beta-carotene, vitamin C, color, and antioxidant properties (DPPH, FRAP, TPC, reducing power, and lipid peroxidation also showed a non-significant decrease during storage at ambient temperature. Microbial load of pumpkin candy (1.74–3.2 log cfu/g suggested that candies were safe for human consumption during storage. Hence, candy preparation from pumpkin could be an effective method for preservation of pumpkin and retention of its bioactive components.

  20. Influence of physicochemical properties of rice flour on oil uptake of tempura frying batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2010-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of rice flour and wheat flour influenced the oil uptake of tempura frying batter. Rice flour was better than wheat flour in the overall quality and crispness of the fried tempura batter. Rice flour resisted oil absorption more than wheat flour, and a higher level of apparent starch amylose and higher consistency/breakdown ratio of the pasting properties led to a lower oil uptake of the batter. Super hard EM10 rice showed the highest apparent amylose content and higher consistency/breakdown ratio than the other flour samples, the batter from EM10 revealing the lowest oil content after frying among all the batters examined. The apparent amylose content, consistency/breakdown ratio and oil absorption index are proposed as useful guides for oil absorption when frying from among the physicochemical properties that influence the oil content of fried batter. Our proposal for the "oil absorption index" could be a simple, although not perfect method for estimating the oil content of batter flour.

  1. Physico-chemical properties and toxicity of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Joong; Lee, So-Young; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2016-07-15

    Crude oil and refined petroleum products contain many polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in particular, alkylated PAHs. Although alkylated PAHs are found in significantly higher quantities than their corresponding unsubstituted PAHs, the most studies on the physico-chemical properties and toxicities of these compounds have been conducted on unsubstituted PAHs. In this study, we measured crucial physico-chemical properties (i.e., water solubility, partition coefficients between polydimethylsiloxane and water (KPDMSw), and partition coefficient between liposomes and water (Klipw)) of selected alkylated PAHs, and evaluated their toxicity using the luminescence inhibition of Aliivibrio fischeri and growth inhibition of Raphidocelis subcapitata. In general, the logarithms of these properties for alkylated PAHs showed good linear correlations with log Kow, as did those for unsubstituted PAHs. Changes in molecular symmetry on the introduction of alkyl groups on aromatic ring structure significantly altered water solubility. The inhibition of bacterial luminescence and algal growth by alkylated PAHs can be explained well by the baseline toxicity hypothesis, and good linear relationships between log Kow or log Klipw and log (1/EC50) were found.

  2. Use of an integrated approach to characterize the physicochemical properties of foundry green sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnin, Raquel L.P. [Tupy S.A., Rua Albano Schmidt 3.400, Joinville, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Folgueras, Marilena Valadares; Luvizao, Rubia Raquel; Correia, Sivaldo Leite [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Rua Paulo Malschitzki, s/numero - Campus Universitario Prof. Avelino Marcante, Bairro Zona Industrial Norte, Joinville, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Cunha, Carlos Jorge da [Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Politecnico, Jardim das Americas, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Dungan, Robert S., E-mail: robert.dungan@ars.usda.gov [USDA-ARS, Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research Laboratory, 3793 North 3600 East, Kimberly, ID 83341 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physicochemical properties of fresh, spent, and landfilled foundry green sands were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A phase composition model was postulated for each material based on thermogravimetric results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sand from the landfill was determined to be composed of almost pure silica sand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weathering is likely responsible for removing the coating materials from the green sands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Landfilled sands may be suitable for reuse within the foundry or beneficial use applications. - Abstract: A fresh green sand, spent green sand, and a weathered spent green sand (wSGS) from a foundry landfill were analyzed using diffractometry, electron microscopy, fluorometry, granulometry, spectrometry, and thermogravimetry (TG). Our objective was to understand how the physicochemical properties of the foundry green sands change from their original form after being subjected to the casting process, then after weathering at the landfill. A quantitative phase composition model was also postulated for each material based on the TG results and it was found to be the most reliable and informative quantitative data for this type of residue. The weathered sample, that remained in a landfill for two years, was found to be composed of almost pure sand. Because of the weathering process, it may be possible to use the wSGS as a virgin sand replacement in the regeneration system or in geotechnical applications where bentonite would affect the properties of the final product.

  3. Effect of Different Modification Techniques on the Physicochemical and Thermoanalytical Properties of Wheat and Corn Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Kotancilar

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The starches of wheat and corn treated with four different modification methods (pregelatinized, thinnedwith acid, cross-linked and dextrinized were investigated in terms of changes in swelling, water-holdingcapacity, gelatinization and thermoanalytical properties. Modification processes caused significant changes inthe physicochemical properties of the starches. Also, having effect on the thermoanalytical properties ofstarch, of modification process pregelatinization, cross-linking and dextrinization increased the temperaturesof gelatinization initiation, peak, and final points. In addition, the modification process decreased the changein the value of entalphi. In general, peaks appeared in shorter time in corn starch amylograph than that inwheat starch for all the modified methods. The wheat starch had more swelling capacity than those of thecorn starch at 30 and 40 oC. The modifications applied, in this study, decreased water-holding capacity of thestarches of the wheat and corn at 70 oC.

  4. Physicochemical properties of copper important for its antibacterial activity and development of a unified model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Michael; Mathews, Salima; Mücklich, Frank; Solioz, Marc

    2015-03-16

    Contact killing is a novel term describing the killing of bacteria when they come in contact with metallic copper or copper-containing alloys. In recent years, the mechanism of contact killing has received much attention and many mechanistic details are available. The authors here review some of these mechanistic aspects with a focus on the critical physicochemical properties of copper which make it antibacterial. Known mechanisms of contact killing are set in context to ionic, corrosive, and physical properties of copper. The analysis reveals that the oxidation behavior of copper, paired with the solubility properties of copper oxides, are the key factors which make metallic copper antibacterial. The concept advanced here explains the unique position of copper as an antibacterial metal. Based on our model, novel design criteria for metallic antibacterial materials may be derived.

  5. Effect of preparation conditions on physicochemical, surface and catalytic properties of cobalt ferrite prepared by coprecipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shobaky, G.A., E-mail: elshobaky@yahoo.co [Physical Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Turky, A.M.; Mostafa, N.Y.; Mohamed, S.K. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522 (Egypt)

    2010-03-18

    Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were prepared via thermal treatment of cobalt-iron mixed hydroxides at 400-600 {sup o}C. The mixed hydroxides were coprecipitated from their nitrates solutions using NaOH as precipitating agent. The effects of pH and temperature of coprecipitation and calcination temperature on the physicochemical, surface and catalytic properties of the prepared ferrites were studied. The prepared systems were characterized using TG, DTG, DTA, chemical analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) as well as surface and texture properties based on nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The prepared cobalt ferrites were found to be mesoporous materials that have crystallite size ranges between 8 and 45 nm. The surface and catalytic properties of the produced ferrite phase were strongly dependent on coprecipitation conditions of the mixed hydroxides and on their calcination temperature.

  6. VARIATION OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF RADIATION CROSSLINKED RUBBER WITH STORAGE TIME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.C. Dafader; M.E. Haque; F. Akhtar

    2005-01-01

    The effect of storage on physico-chemical properties of non-irradiated natural rubber and radiation vulcanized natural rubber (RVNR) were evaluated. The rubber films were stored under two different conditions, namely in open air and sealed polyethylene bags. The antioxidant, tris(nonylated phenyl) phosphite (TNPP) was used for preventing degradation of RVNR films. Gel content, cross-link density, tensile strength at break and 500% elongation of rubber films were measured.The results show that the retention (%) of tensile properties of rubber films with TNPP is higher than that of rubber films without antioxidants. The rubber films stored in polyethylene bags also show better retention of tensile properties than those of rubber films stored in open air.

  7. Physicochemical properties of Terminalia catappa seed oil as a novel dietary lipid source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supatcha Janporn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia catappa Linn (TC is an ornamental tree planted extensively in many countries. It has been known for a long time that the seeds are edible but no research has focused on the realm of its use as food. Our previous data showed that the seed contains high levels of oil content (600 g/kg and possesses the optimum fatty acid balance indicated in fat dietary guidelines. This study aims to investigate the physical and chemical properties and the possibility of using TC seed oil as a new dietary lipid. The effects of extraction conditions, partial refining process, and storage stability on TC oil properties were conducted compared with soybean oil. The results showed that physicochemical properties including the density, refractive index, melting point, acidity, free fatty acid, saponification value, unsaponifiable, peroxide, and fatty acid composition of the extracted oil were comparable with soybean oil and their values followed the dietary standard of edible oil.

  8. Preparation and physicochemical properties of scaffold materials of heterogeneous deproteinized bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lei; LI Qi-hong; TANG Kang-lai; YANG Liu; JIAN Yue-kui

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To prepare and observe the physicochemical properties of scaffold materials of heterogeneous deproteinized tissue-engineered bone.Methods:Deproteinized bone was made through a series of physicochemical treatments in pig ribs and analyzed with histological observation,scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectrum, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive analysis, Kjeldahl determination and mechanics analysis.Results:Interstitial collagen fiber was positive and mucin was negative in deproteinized bone,but,both were positive in fresh bone. Deproteinized bone maintained natural pore network.Its pore size was 472.51 μm±7.02μm and the porosity was 78.15 % ± 6.45 %.The results of infrared spectrum showed that collagen was present in deproteinized bone.Both fresh and deproteinized bone had curve of hydroxyapatite.The Ca/P ratios were 1.71 ±0.95and 1.68 ± 0.76 ( P > 0.05 ),and the protein contents were 26.6% ± 2.23% and 19.1% ± 2.14% (P < 0.05)in fresh and deproteinized bone,respectively.There was no significant difference of destruction load under compression and maximal destruction load between fresh and deproteinized bone (P > 0.05).The elastic modulus was higher in deproteinized bone than that in fresh bone (P < 0.05).Conclusions:Physicochemical properties and mechanic strength of deproteinized tissue-engineered bone meet the demands of ideal scaffold materials. But,its immunogenicity should be observed through further experiments for its clinical applications.

  9. [Dynamic changes of physicochemical properties in phenanthrene-contaminated soil under wheat and clover intercropping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-bin; Zhan, Xin-hua; Zhou, Li-xiang; Liang, Xiao

    2011-05-01

    Soil physicochemical properties play an important role in the efficiency of phytoremediation and soil arability after phytoremediation. Soil pot experiments were conducted to investigate the dynamic changes of physicochemical properties in phenanthrene (a representative of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons)-contaminated soil under wheat and clover intercropping. The results showed that plants improved the pH values of phenanthrene-polluted soil with a maximum variation pH of 0.61. The difference in pH between wheat/clover intercropping and wheat/clover single cropping was not significant. Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, cation exchange capacity and available potassium decreased over the experiment period due to biodecomposition and plant root absorption. The intercropping of wheat and alfalfa accelerated the consumption of the above-mentioned nutrients. And the decrease percentages ranged from 5.24% to 57.85%, more than those of wheat or alfalfa only planted with decrease percentages between 6.29% and 39.09%. In particular, soil available nitrogen and availiable phosphorus decreased more than the other nutrients with a maximum reduction percentage of 57.85%. Therefore, the application of nitrogen and phosphorus must be paid more attention during phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil in the wheat and alfalfa intercropping system.

  10. Effects of extrusion cooking on physicochemical properties of white and red ginseng (powder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Ying; Ryu, Gi-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    A systematic comparison of the physicochemical properties of white ginseng (WG), extruded white ginseng (EWG), red ginseng (RG), and extruded red ginseng (ERG) was performed. The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of the physicochemical properties of ginseng by extrusion cooking. The highest value of the water absorption index (WAI) was 3.64 g/g obtained from EWG, and the highest value of the water solubility index (WSI) was 45.27% obtained from ERG. The ERG had a better dispersibility compared with other samples. Extrusion cooking led to a significant increase in acidic polysaccharide and total sugar content but resulted in a decrease in crude fat and reducing sugar contents. Enzyme treatment led to a sharp increase in acidic polysaccharide content, especially the cellulose enzyme. Extrusion cooking led to a significant increase in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reducing power, and the increases in WG and RG were 13.56% (0.038) and 3.56% (0.026), respectively. The data of this study provide valuable information about the effects of extrusion on quality changes of EWG and ERG. PMID:24748839

  11. Physico-chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Different Pumpkin Cultivars Grown in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To obtain more detailed knowledge of the differences among major pumpkin species grown in China, physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of four pumpkin cultivars (Miben, Hongli, Lvli, Xihulu were characterized and compared. Dry matter, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, fruit color, protein, fat, sugars, minerals, amino acids, &beta -carotene, L-ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP were measured in the studied cultivars. The results showed great differences in the composition and characteristics of the pumpkin cultivars. Miben exhibited the highest concentration of dry matter, fat, Total Soluble Solid (TSS, Titratable Acidity (TA, sucrose, &beta-carotene, K, P, Fe, Zn and aspartic acid. Hongli had the highest concentration protein, L-ascorbic acid, Na, Ca, Mg and all individual amino acids except for asparitic acid. Lvli exhibited significantly (p<0.05 higher antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP, which are highly related to total phenols content in pumpkin fruits (r = 0.94 and r = 0.98, respectively. Principal Component Analysis (PCA allowed the four pumpkin cultivars to be differentiated clearly based on all these physico-chemical and antioxidant properties determined in the study.

  12. Physicochemical Properties and Evaluation of Microemulsion Systems for Transdermal Delivery of Meloxicam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Microemulsion systems, composed of water, isopropyl myristate (IPM), polyoxyethylene sorbitan trioleate (Tween 85 ), and ethanol, were investigated as transdermal drug delivery vehicles for a lipophilic model drug( meloxicam). The purpose of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties of the tested microemulsion and to find the correlation between the physicochemical properties and the skin permeation rate of the microemulsion. Pseudo-ternary phase diagram of the investigated system at a constant surfactant/cosurfactant mass ratio (Km =1:1) was constructed by titration at 20℃, and the five formulations were selected for further research in the o/w microemulsion domains. The values of electrical conductivity and viscosity showed that the selected systems were bicontinuous or non-spherical o/w microemulsion, and the electrical conductivity and viscosity were increased with increasing the content of water. These results suggest that the optimum formulation of microemulsion, containing 0. 375 meloxicam, 5% isopropyl myristate, 25% Tween 85, 25% ethanol, and water, showed the maximum permeation rate. It had a high electrical conductivity, small droplet size, and proper viscocity.

  13. Ultrasound emulsification: effect of ultrasonic and physicochemical properties on dispersed phase volume and droplet size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Shashank G; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2008-04-01

    Ultrasonic emulsification of oil and water was carried out and the effect of irradiation time, irradiation power and physicochemical properties of oil on the dispersed phase volume and dispersed phase droplet size has been studied. The increase in the irradiation time increases the dispersed phase volume while decreases the dispersed phase droplets size. With an increase in the ultrasonic irradiation power, there is an increase in the fraction of volume of the dispersed phase while the droplet size of the dispersed phase decreases. The fractional volume of the dispersed phase increases for the case of groundnut oil-water system while it is low for paraffin (heavy) oil-water system. The droplet size of soyabean oil dispersed in water is found to be small while that of paraffin (heavy) oil is found to be large. These variations could be explained on the basis of varying physicochemical properties of the system, i.e., viscosity of oil and the interfacial tension. During the ultrasonic emulsification, coalescence phenomenon which is only marginal, has been observed, which can be attributed to the collision of small droplets when the droplet concentration increases beyond a certain number and the acoustic streaming strength increases.

  14. Starch-guar gum extrudates: microstructure, physicochemical properties and in-vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Borries-Medrano, Erich; Jaime-Fonseca, Mónica R; Aguilar-Méndez, Miguel A

    2016-03-01

    Starch-guar gum mixtures were obtained by extrusion using a three-variable Box-Behnken statistic design. Morphology, expansion index, viscosity, crystallinity and digestion in vitro of the extruded samples were analyzed through response surface methodology (RSM). The extrusion temperature and the moisture content were the factors that significantly affected the physicochemical properties of the samples. Starch-guar gum samples showed expansion index and viscosity up to 1.55 and 1400mPas, respectively. The crystallinity of the samples was modified by adding guar gum to the extrudates, showing correlation between long-range order (X-ray diffraction) and short-range order (FTIR spectroscopy). Guar induced microstructural changes and its role in gelatinization-melting processes was significant. The rate of glucose release decreased from 0.47 to 0.43mM/min when the extrusion temperature decreased. However, adding guar gum to starch had no significant effect on glucose release. Overall, the extrusion temperature and the moisture content were the factors that significantly affected the physicochemical properties of the extruded samples.

  15. A critical review on the spray drying of fruit extract: effect of additives on physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaiah, Duduku; Nithyanandam, Rajesh; Sarbatly, Rosalam

    2014-01-01

    Spray drying accomplishes drying while particles are suspended in the air and is one method in the family of suspended particle processing systems, along with fluid-bed drying, flash drying, spray granulation, spray agglomeration, spray reaction, spray cooling, and spray absorption. This drying process is unique because it involves both particle formation and drying. The present paper reviews spray drying of fruit extracts, such as acai, acerola pomace, gac, mango, orange, cactus pear, opuntia stricta fruit, watermelon, and durian, and the effects of additives on physicochemical properties such as antioxidant activity, total carotenoid content, lycopene and β-carotene content, hygroscopy, moisture content, volatile retention, stickiness, color, solubility, glass transition temperature, bulk density, rehydration, caking, appearance under electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The literature clearly demonstrates that the effect of additives and encapsulation play a vital role in determining the physicochemical properties of fruit extract powder. The technical difficulties in spray drying of fruit extracts can be overcome by modifying the spray dryer design. It also reveals that spray drying is a novel technology for converting fruit extract into powder form.

  16. Antibacterial effect and physicochemical properties of essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansour Amin; Enayat Kalantar; Neda Mohammad-Saeid; Behzad Ahsan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial effect and physicochemical properties of essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. Methods:Antibacterial activity of essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss was assessed by agar disc diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) was tested by E test. Results:The essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss was effective on pathogenic bacteria particularly Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The MIC values of the target cultures ranged from 0.39 mg/mL to 1.56 mg/mL. The physicochemical properties like effects of pH, temperature, detergents, and enzymes on the activity of essential oil from Zataria multiflora Boiss were also determined. The essential oil was quite stable to temperature as tested against S. aureus and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The essential oil was very stable over a wide range of pH. The antibacterial activity of essential oil was insensitive to various protein-denaturing detergents (Such as Tween 80, Tween 20, Triton 100, etc.) and enzymes (namely proteinase K, trypsin, lipase, and lysosyme). Conclusions:A potential use of the essential oil from Zataria multiflora Boiss is suggested. More studies including further purification, mass spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and evaluation of toxicity are needed for confirmation of this suggestion.

  17. Natural Minerals Coated by Biopolymer Chitosan: Synthesis, Physicochemical, and Adsorption Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnyak, T. M.; Yanovska, E. S.; Kichkiruk, O. Yu.; Sternik, D.; Tertykh, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    Natural minerals are widely used in treatment technologies as mineral fertilizer, food additive in animal husbandry, and cosmetics because they combine valuable ion-exchanging and adsorption properties together with unique physicochemical and medical properties. Saponite (saponite clay) of the Ukrainian Podillya refers to the class of bentonites, a subclass of layered magnesium silicate montmorillonite. Clinoptilolits are aluminosilicates with carcase structure. In our work, we have coated biopolymer chitosan on the surfaces of natural minerals of Ukrainian origin — Podilsky saponite and Sokyrnitsky clinoptilolite. Chitosan mineral composites have been obtained by crosslinking of adsorbed biopolymer on saponite and clinoptilolite surface with glutaraldehyde. The obtained composites have been characterized by the physicochemical methods such as thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses (DTA, DTG, TG), differential scanning calorimetry, mass analysis, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to determine possible interactions between the silica and chitosan molecule. The adsorption of microquantities of cations Cu(II), Zn(II), Fe(III), Cd(II), and Pb(II) by the obtained composites and the initial natural minerals has been studied from aqueous solutions. The sorption capacities and kinetic adsorption characteristics of the adsorbents were estimated. It was found that the obtained results have shown that the ability of chitosan to coordinate heavy metal ions Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Fe(III) is less or equal to the ability to retain ions of these metals in the pores of minerals without forming chemical bonds.

  18. [Microbial alpha-amylases: physicochemical properties, substrate specificity and domain structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdiiuk, K V; Varbanets', L D

    2013-01-01

    The current literature data on producers, physico-chemical properties and substrate specificity of a-amylases produced by microbes from different taxonomic groups such as bacteria, fungi and yeasts are discussed in the survey. Synthesis of alpha-amylase majority is an inducible process which is stimulated in the presence of starch or products of its hydrolysis. It is possible to increase enzymes activity level by optimization of cultivation conditions of strains-producers. alpha-Amylases, isolated from different sources are distinguished in their physico-chemical properties, particularly in their molecular weights, pH- and thermooptimums, inhibitors and activators. The enzymes hydrolyse soluble starch, amylose, amylopectin, glycogen, maltodextrins, alpha- and beta3-cyclodextrins and other carbohydrate substrates. It is well known that alpha-amylases belong to GH-13 family of glycosyl-hydrolases, which contain the catalytic domain A as (beta/alpha)8-barrel. In addition to domain A, alpha-amylases contain two other domains: B and C, which are localized approximately on opposite sides of (beta/alpha)8-barrel. Most of the known alpha-amylases contain calcium ion, which is located on the surface between domains A and B and plays an important role in stability and activity of the enzyme.

  19. Comparison of physicochemical properties of B-type nontraditional starches from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Zhao, Lingxiao; Man, Jianmin; Wang, Juan; Zhou, Weidong; Huai, Huyin; Wei, Cunxu

    2015-01-01

    Starches were isolated from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, Canna edulis and Canna indica and bulbs of Lilium lancifolium, and showed a B-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Their physicochemical properties were investigated and compared. These starches showed significantly different granule morphologies and sizes, but all had eccentric hila. The C. longa starch had the lowest content of amylopectin short branch-chain and branching degree and the highest content of amylopectin long branch-chain, and the L. lancifolium starch the highest content of amylopectin short branch-chain and branching degree and the lowest content of amylopectin long branch-chain among the four starches. The L. lancifolium starch had the lowest resistance to gelatinization, and showed the lowest pasting peak, hot and final viscosities, and the C. longa starch had the highest resistance to gelatinization, and showed the highest pasting hot, final and setback viscosities and the lowest pasting breakdown viscosity. The C. longa and L. lancifolium starches possessed very high and low resistance to hydrolysis and digestion, respectively. The above physicochemical properties would be useful for the applications of B-type starches in food and nonfood industries.

  20. Physicochemical Properties of Epoxy Resin-Based and Bioceramic-Based Root Canal Sealers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Kyung; Kwak, Sang Won; Ha, Jung-Hong; Lee, WooCheol

    2017-01-01

    Three bioceramic sealers (EndoSequence BC sealer, EndoSeal MTA, and MTA Fillapex) and three epoxy resin-based sealers (AH-Plus, AD Seal, and Radic-Sealer) were tested to evaluate the physicochemical properties: flow, final setting time, radiopacity, dimensional stability, and pH change. The one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test were used to analyze the data (P = 0.05). The MTA Fillapex sealer had a highest flow and the BC Sealer presented a flow significantly lower than the others (P MTA Fillapex samples were not set in humid incubator condition even after one month. EndoSeal MTA had the longest setting time among the measurable materials and Radic-Sealer and AD Seal showed shorter setting time than the AH-Plus (P MTA showed statistically higher values and MTA Fillapex showed statistically lower radiopacity (P MTA presented a significant increase of pH over experimental time for 4 weeks. In conclusion, the bioceramic sealer and epoxy resin-based sealers showed clinical acceptable physicochemical properties, but BC Sealer and MTA Fillapex were not set completely. PMID:28210204

  1. High throughput screening of physicochemical properties and in vitro ADME profiling in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hong; Holmén, Anders G

    2009-03-01

    Current advances of new technologies with robotic automated assays combined with highly selective and sensitive LC-MS enable high-speed screening of lead series libraries in many in vitro assays. In this review, we summarize state of the art high throughput assays for screening of key physicochemical properties such as solubility, lipophilicity, pKa, drug-plasma protein binding and brain tissue binding as well as in vitro ADME profiling. We discuss two primary approaches for high throughput screening of solubility, i.e. an automated 96-well plate assay integrated with LC-MS and a rapid multi-wavelength UV plate reader. We address the advantages of newly developed miniaturized techniques for high throughput pKa screening by capillary electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry (CE-MS) with automated data analysis flow. Several new lipophilicity approaches other than octanol-water partitioning are critically reviewed, including rapid liquid chromatographic retention based approach, immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) partitioning and liposome, and potential microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) for accurate screening of LogP. We highlight the sample pooling (namely cassette dosing, all-in-one, cocktail) as an efficient approach for high throughput screening of physicochemical properties and in vitro ADME profiling with emphasis on the benefit of on-line quality control. This cassette dosing approach has been widely adapted in drug discovery for rapid screening of in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters with significantly increased capacity and dramatically reduced animal usage.

  2. Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles regulate translocation across pulmonary surfactant monolayer and formation of lipoprotein corona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guoqing; Jiao, Bao; Shi, Xinghua; Valle, Russell P; Fan, Qihui; Zuo, Yi Y

    2013-12-23

    Interaction with the pulmonary surfactant film, being the first line of host defense, represents the initial bio-nano interaction in the lungs. Such interaction determines the fate of the inhaled nanoparticles and their potential therapeutic or toxicological effect. Despite considerable progress in optimizing physicochemical properties of nanoparticles for improved delivery and targeting, the mechanisms by which inhaled nanoparticles interact with the pulmonary surfactant film are still largely unknown. Here, using combined in vitro and in silico methods, we show how hydrophobicity and surface charge of nanoparticles differentially regulate the translocation and interaction with the pulmonary surfactant film. While hydrophilic nanoparticles generally translocate quickly across the pulmonary surfactant film, a significant portion of hydrophobic nanoparticles are trapped by the surfactant film and encapsulated in lipid protrusions upon film compression. Our results support a novel model of pulmonary surfactant lipoprotein corona associated with inhaled nanoparticles of different physicochemical properties. Our data suggest that the study of pulmonary nanotoxicology and nanoparticle-based pulmonary drug delivery should consider this lipoprotein corona.

  3. Effects of supercritical water and mechanochemical grinding treatments on physicochemical properties of chitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Mitsumasa; Miura, Chika; Nakagawa, Yuko S; Kaihara, Mikio; Nikaido, Mitsuru; Totani, Kazuhide

    2013-02-15

    This study examined the effects of a combined pretreatment with supercritical water and mechanochemical grinding with a ball mill on the physicochemical properties of chitin and its enzymatic degradation. Following pretreatment with a combination of supercritical water and grinding, chitin had a lower mean molecular weight, a lower crystallinity index, a lower crystallite size, greater d-spacing, weaker hydrogen bonds, and the amide group was more exposed compared with untreated chitin. These properties increased the hydrophilicity of the chitin and enhanced its enzymatic degradation. The N,N'-diacetylchitobiose (GlcNAc)(2) yield after enzymatic degradation of chitin following pretreatment with supercritical water (400 °C, 1 min) and grinding (800 rpm, 10 min) was 93%, compared with 5% without any treatment, 37% with supercritical water pretreatment alone (400 °C, 1 min), and 60% with grinding alone (800 rpm, 30 min).

  4. Physicochemical and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Novel Environmentally Benign Heterocyclic Azomethine Dyes: Experimental and Theoretical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, S M; Razvi, M A N; Khan, Salman A; Osman, Osman I; Bakry, Ahmed H; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2016-01-01

    Novel heterocyclic azomethine dyes were prepared by the reaction of anthracene-9-carbaldehyde with different heterocyclic amines under microwave irradiation. Structures of the azomethine dyes were confirmed by the elemental analysis, mass spectrometry and several spectroscopic techniques. We studied absorbance and fluorescence spectra of the azomethine dyes in various solvents. They are found to be good absorbers and emitters. We also report photophysical properties like, extinction coefficient, oscillator strength, stokes shift and transition dipole moment. This reflects physicochemical behaviors of synthesized dyes. In addition, their intramolecular charge transfer and nonlinear optical properties, supported by natural bond orbital technique, were also studied computationally by density functional theory. The negative nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient were measured for these dyes using the closed and open aperture Z-scan technique with a continuous wave helium-neon laser. These are found to vary linearly with solution concentration.

  5. Physicochemical properties of carbon materials obtained by combustion synthesis of perchlorinated hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cudziło

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present studies on the combustion synthesis of carbon materials from several perchlorinated organic compounds : tetrachloromethane (CCl4, hexachloroethane (C2Cl6, tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4, hexachloro-1,3-butadiene (C4Cl6, hexachlorocyclopentadiene (C5Cl6. The porosity (obtained by low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, microstructure (SEM, structural arrangement (XRD and Raman spectroscopy, surface chemistry (FTIR and electrochemical behavior (cyclic voltammetry of the obtained carbons were investigated. The synthesized materials exhibit an ordered structure similar to carbon black. Their physicochemical properties strongly depended on the structure of the perchlorocarbon precursor. It was found that perchlorinated compounds with unsaturated bonds yielded more amorphous products. The electrochemical properties (e.g. edl capacity depend mainly on the mesopore surface area of the carbonaceous products.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on the physicochemical properties of alkali-extracted rice starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Shah, Asima; Gani, Asir; Rather, Sajad Ahmad; Wani, Sajad Mohd.; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Gani, Adil

    2014-06-01

    Starches isolated from two newly released rice varieties (K-322 and K-448) were subject to irradiation at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy doses. Comparative study between native (not irradiated) and irradiated starch samples was carried out to evaluate the changes in physicochemical, morphological and pasting properties due to gamma irradiation. Significant decrease was found in apparent amylose content, pH, swelling power, syneresis, and pasting properties, whereas carboxyl content, water absorption capacity, and transmittance were found to increase with the increase in irradiation dose. Granule morphology of native and irradiated starches under scanning electron microscope revealed that granules were polygonal or irregular in shape. The starch granules were somewhat deformed by gamma irradiation. X-ray diffraction pattern showed A type of pattern in native as well as irradiated starches.

  7. Antibacterial Properties of Copper Nanoparticle Dispersions: Influence of Synthesis Conditions and Physicochemical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godymchuk, A.; Frolov, G.; Gusev, A.; Zakharova, O.; Yunda, E.; Kuznetsov, D.; Kolesnikov, E.

    2015-11-01

    The production of bactericidal plasters, bandages and medicines with the inclusion of copper nanoparticles and copper ions may have a great potential in terms of their biomedical application. The work considers the influence of the synthesis conditions, size, aggregation status, and charge of nanoparticles in aqueous solutions as well as the type of microorganisms to the antibacterial properties of water suspensions of electroexplosive copper nanoparticles in the conditions in vitro in relation to strains Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus. Water dispersions of copper nanoparticles were shown to inhibit the growth of test cells for both G+ and G- microbacteria but the degree of such an influence strongly depended on the type of a test strain. The authors have demonstrated that use of deeply purified water and alcohol-containing stabilizers at the synthesis of nanoparticles via metals electric erosion in the liquid prevents the copper nanoparticles coagulation and significantly influences on their physicochemical characteristics and, consequently, antibacterial properties.

  8. Effects of salts on physicochemical, microstructural and thermal properties of potato starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongxian; Wang, Chenjie; Shi, Liu; Chang, Tong; Yang, Hong; Cui, Min

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of salts on the physicochemical, microstructural and thermal properties of potato starch. The salting-out ions were able to decrease the solubility, swelling power, transparency and particle size of potato starch significantly (ppotato starch granules, observed by a light microscopy at 50°C and 70°C, was consistent with the above results. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis demonstrated an increase in gelatinization temperature and enthalpy with the addition of salting-out ions, whereas there was a reverse trend for the addition of salting-in ions. The effects of anions on these properties of potato starch follow the order of SCN(-)>I(-)>NO3(-)>Br(-)>Cl(-)>SO4(2-)>F(-), while effects of the cations follow the order of Li(+)>Na(+)>K(+), matching to the order of the Hofmeister series.

  9. Changes in crystal structure and physicochemical properties of potato starch treated by induced electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Yang, Na; Jin, Yamei; Zhou, Yuyi; Xie, Zhengjun; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-11-20

    The effects of induced electric field (IEF) on the crystal structure and physicochemical properties of potato starch were investigated by subjecting identically treated control and electrically-modified samples to the same temperature history. Additionally, a method of combining IEF with heating for efficient modification of native polymer was also proposed. Results showed that the application of IEF at an electric voltage of 75V has a statistically significant effect on starch gelatinization and pasting properties, especially when combined with heating at 50°C. After treatment by the combination method for 96h, the gelatinization temperatures increased, which can be explained by the slight increase in the ratio of 1044/1015cm(-1) and relative crystallinity. Furthermore, IEF reduced granular swelling and therefore contributed to decreasing the peak, breakdown, and setback viscosity of potato starch. This study explores the potential of IEF as innovative technology for starch modification.

  10. Physicochemical and structural properties of composite gels prepared with myofibrillar protein and lard diacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Xiaoqin; Guan, Haining; Zhao, Xinxin; Diao, Xinping; Kong, Baohua

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical and structural properties of composite gels prepared with porcine myofibrillar protein (MP) and lard, glycerolized lard (GL) or purified glycerolized lard (PGL). The gels prepared with MP and GL or PGL had significantly higher penetration force and water-holding capacity (WHC) than the gel with lard (Pgel, T21 and T22 of the gels that were prepared with GL or PGL moved in the direction of slower relaxation time, which suggests that the water mobility in the gel system was restricted. The presence of lard, GL and PGL did not affect the participating proteins in composite gels. The presence of GL and PGL altered the secondary and tertiary structures of MP in composite gels, which changed the gel properties. In general, the composite gels that were prepared with MP and GL or PGL showed improved gel quality.

  11. Physicochemical and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Novel Environmentally Benign Heterocyclic Azomethine Dyes: Experimental and Theoretical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, S. M.; Razvi, M. A. N.; Khan, Salman A.; Osman, Osman I.; Bakry, Ahmed H.; Asiri, Abdullah M.

    2016-01-01

    Novel heterocyclic azomethine dyes were prepared by the reaction of anthracene-9-carbaldehyde with different heterocyclic amines under microwave irradiation. Structures of the azomethine dyes were confirmed by the elemental analysis, mass spectrometry and several spectroscopic techniques. We studied absorbance and fluorescence spectra of the azomethine dyes in various solvents. They are found to be good absorbers and emitters. We also report photophysical properties like, extinction coefficient, oscillator strength, stokes shift and transition dipole moment. This reflects physicochemical behaviors of synthesized dyes. In addition, their intramolecular charge transfer and nonlinear optical properties, supported by natural bond orbital technique, were also studied computationally by density functional theory. The negative nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient were measured for these dyes using the closed and open aperture Z-scan technique with a continuous wave helium-neon laser. These are found to vary linearly with solution concentration. PMID:27631371

  12. Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of two medicinal wild plants grown in Moldova region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Ropciuc

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of this study is to report physico-chemical (moisture, ash, protein, total phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid and the antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of nettle (Urtica dioica L. and typical romaine spice "leurda" (Allium ursinum, wild garlic fresh and dried. The antioxidant properties of methanol extract of medicinal herbs were evaluated using free radical scavenging test. The phenols were extracted from the medicinal plants with methanol solvent and were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The ascorbic acid content varied between 77.94 mg/100g in the fresh Urtica dioica L. and 39.55 from fresh Allium ursinum. The results showed that the total phenolic compounds in all medicinal plants decreased along processing. These results suggest that the medicinal plants sample extract with highest polyphenolic content will indicates the possibility of using them  as ingredients in functional foods.

  13. Molybdophosphoric acid in sol-gel titania: Physico-chemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Islas, E. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, A.P. 55-534, 9340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Lopez, T. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, A.P. 55-534, 9340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: tesy@xanum.uam.mx; Gomez, R. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, A.P. 55-534, 9340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Navarrete, J. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, A.P. 14-805, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Aguilar, D.H. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, CINVESTAV-Unidad Merida, A.P. 73, Cordemex 97110, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Quintana, P. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, CINVESTAV-Unidad Merida, A.P. 73, Cordemex 97110, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Picquart, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, A.P. 55-534, 9340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-10-31

    Titania mixed with molybdophosphoric acid, HMoP, in various proportions (1, 15, 25 and 50 wt.%) was obtained by the sol-gel method. The gels were dried and calcined in air at 400, 600 and 800 deg. C. The crystalline phases were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), whereas the physico-chemical properties were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and {sup 31}P MAS-NMR spectroscopy. FTIR was a technique used to determine acidic properties by pyridine adsorption. XRD showed that HMoP does not decompose until 700 deg. C. The stabilization of the anatase phase and the Keggin HMoP crystalline structure were evidenced by Raman spectroscopy; whereas FTIR-pyridine adsorption spectra showed that titania-HMoP present Broensted and Lewis acid sites. A correlation between the acid sites and the amount of HMoP was observed by {sup 31}P MAS-NMR.

  14. Chemical carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical compounds benefits society in a number of ways. Pesticides, for instance, enable foodstuffs to be produced in sufficient quantities to satisfy the needs of millions of people, a condition that has led to an increase in levels of life expectancy. Yet, at times, these benefits are offset by certain disadvantages, notably the toxic side effects of the chemical compounds used. Exposure to these compounds can have varying effects, ranging from instant death to a gradual process of chemical carcinogenesis. There are three stages involved in chemical carcinogenesis. These are defined as initiation, promotion and progression. Each of these stages is characterised by morphological and biochemical modifications and result from genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. These genetic modifications include: mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, cell death and DNA repair - i.e. mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressing genes. The epigenetic factors, also considered as being non-genetic in character, can also contribute to carcinogenesis via epigenetic mechanisms which silence gene expression. The control of responses to carcinogenesis through the application of several chemical, biochemical and biological techniques facilitates the identification of those basic mechanisms involved in neoplasic development. Experimental assays with laboratory animals, epidemiological studies and quick tests enable the identification of carcinogenic compounds, the dissection of many aspects of carcinogenesis, and the establishment of effective strategies to prevent the cancer which results from exposure to chemicals.A sociedade obtém numerosos benefícios da utilização de compostos químicos. A aplicação dos pesticidas, por exemplo, permitiu obter alimento em quantidade suficiente para satisfazer as necessidades alimentares de milhões de pessoas, condição relacionada com o aumento da esperança de vida. Os benefícios estão, por

  15. Effects of dietary fibers with different physicochemical properties on feeding motivation in adult female pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Carol Souza; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2012-09-10

    The satiating effects of dietary fiber may depend more on physicochemical properties of the fiber than on total fiber intake. These properties are expected to affect satiety feelings and feeding motivation due to different effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of fibers with varying physicochemical properties (bulkiness, viscosity and fermentability) on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets: lignocellulose (LC), pectin (PEC), resistant starch (RS), and control (C) without fiber, in four periods in a Latin square design. Each fiber was fed at a low (L) followed by a high (H) inclusion level (7 days each). At 1h, 3h, and 7h after the morning meal, feeding motivation was assessed in an operant test, where turning a wheel yielded multiple food rewards, and in a runway test, where walking a fixed U-shaped track yielded one food reward. Pigs were observed in their home pen for 6h, using 90-s instantaneous scan sampling. In the operant test, throughout the day feeding motivation was higher for pigs on PEC compared with pigs on LC. In the runway, feeding motivation increased particularly at 1h after the meal for pigs on PEC compared with pigs on RS. Also at 7h, feeding motivation tended to decrease for pigs on RS compared with pigs fed other diets. In their home pen, pigs on PEC showed more feeder-directed behavior compared with pigs on RS. In conclusion, PEC was the least satiating fiber. LC and RS, despite a lower supply of available energy, were the most satiating fibers, possibly due to their bulky and fermentation properties, respectively.

  16. The Influence of the RF PACVD MS Process Parameters on the Physicochemical Properties of Hydroxyapatite Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niedzielska A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydroksyapatite (HAp as the coating, is produced using different methods of deposition, among others: laser ablation method, sol-gel, electrophoresis, thermal sputtering or magnetron spraying with the usage of high frequency. Attempts to benefit from such a wide spectrum of existing methods are related to the fact that this material possesses many advantages. We have to distinguish, among others, proper biological properties, i.e. both - high bio-tolerance and high osteo-inductivity [1,2]. However, it is worth mentioning that the material also presents disadvantages, i.e. it indicates too quick resorption within the biological environment, depending on its obtained form. In case when HAp is in the amorphous form, it undergoes a very rapid process of dissolving in the tissue environment. [3] In order to prevent the above, it is important to produce the coatings with a regulative level of cristallinity. In the presented research the hydroxyapatite coating produced using RF PACVD MS plasma method (Radio Frequency Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition Magnetron Sputtering possesses the above mentioned amorphous form. Nevertheless, due to the usage of ‘bubbler’, allowing for delivery of hydroxyl groups into the operating chamber, it was possible to receive the Hap coatings in a crystalline form. Changing the operating pressure (the amount of bonds - OH, during sputtering, it was checked what is the influence of that parameter on the physicochemical properties of obtained coatings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used for the founding research as well as the Roentgen Apparatus Analyser (EDS. The Phase composition of a created coating was researched using the Roentgen diffract-meter (XRD. The measures of thickness were conducted using contact-profilometry. Nano-indentation technique was used to assess the mechanical properties. Obtained results of research encourage for further researches related to the influence of hydroxyl groups on the

  17. Reference dataset of volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties for atmospheric measurement retrievals and transport modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Andreas; Durant, Adam; Sytchkova, Anna; Diplas, Spyros; Bonadonna, Costanza; Scarnato, Barbara; Krüger, Kirstin; Kylling, Arve; Kristiansen, Nina; Stohl, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions emit up to 50 wt.% (total erupted mass) of fine ash particles (threat for aviation operations. Recent volcanic eruptions, such as the 2010 Icelandic Eyjafjallajökull event, illustrated how volcanic ash can severely impact commercial air traffic. In order to manage the threat, it is important to have accurate forecast information on the spatial extent and absolute quantity of airborne volcanic ash. Such forecasts are constrained by empirically-derived estimates of the volcanic source term and the nature of the constituent volcanic ash properties. Consequently, it is important to include a quantitative assessment of measurement uncertainties of ash properties to provide realistic ash forecast uncertainty. Currently, information on volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties is derived from a small number of somewhat dated publications. In this study, we provide a reference dataset for physical (size distribution and shape), chemical (bulk vs. surface chemistry) and optical properties (complex refractive index in the UV-vis-NIR range) of a representative selection of volcanic ash samples from 10 different volcanic eruptions covering the full variability in silica content (40-75 wt.% SiO2). Through the combination of empirical analytical methods (e.g., image analysis, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and UV/Vis/NIR/FTIR Spectroscopy) and theoretical models (e.g., Bruggeman effective medium approach), it was possible to fully capture the natural variability of ash physicochemical and optical characteristics. The dataset will be applied in atmospheric measurement retrievals and atmospheric transport modelling to determine the sensitivity to uncertainty in ash particle characteristics.

  18. Physicochemical Property and Oxidative Stability of Whey Protein Concentrate Multiple Nanoemulsion Containing Fish Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Young; Ha, Ho-Kyung; Lee, Mee-Ryung; Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Won-Jae

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this research were to produce whey protein concentrate (WPC) multiple nanoemulsion (MNE) and to study how whey protein concentration level and antioxidant type affected the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of fish oil in MNE. The morphological and physicochemical characteristics of MNE were investigated by using transmission electron microscopy and particle size analyzer, respectively. The oxidative stability of fish oil in MNEs was assessed by measuring peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value, and volatile compounds. The spherical forms of emulsions with size ranging from 190 to 210 nm were observed indicating the successful production of MNE. Compared with free fish oil, fish oil in MNE exhibited lower PV, p-anisidine value, and formation of maker of oxidation of fish oil indicating the oxidative stability of fish oil in MNE was enhanced. PV, p-anisidine value, and makers of oxidation of fish oil were decreased with increased WPC concentration level. The combined use of Vitamin C and E in MNE resulted in a reduction in PV and p-anisidine value, and development of maker of oxidation. In conclusion, WPC concentration level and antioxidant type are key factors affecting the droplet size of MNE and oxidative stability of fish oil.

  19. Effects of physicochemical properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles on cellular uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J.; Baek, M.; Chung, H. E.; Choi, S. J.

    2011-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have been used as a source of zinc, an essential trace element in food industry and also widely applied to various cosmetic products. However, there are few researches demonstrating that the cellular uptake behaviours of ZnO with respect to the physicochemical characteristics such as particle size and surface charge in human cells. In this study, we evaluated the cellular uptake of ZnO with two different sizes (20 and 70 nm) and different charges (positive and negative). Human lung epithelial cells were exposed to ZnO for a given time, and then the uptake amount of ZnO was measured with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results showed that the smaller sized ZnO could more easily enter the cells than the larger sized ZnO. In terms of surface charge, positively charged ZnO showed high cellular uptake compared to ZnO with negative charge. The internalization pathway of positively charged ZnO nanoparticles was determined to be primarily related to the energy-dependent endocytosis. It is, therefore, concluded that the particle size and surface charge of ZnO nanoparticles are critical factors influencing on their cellular uptake. Understanding the cellular uptake behaviours of nanoparticles with respect to physicochemical properties may be important to predict their toxicity potential on human.

  20. Effect of emulsifying salts on the physicochemical properties of processed cheese made from Mozzarella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Liu, H

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different types and concentrations of emulsifying salts (trisodium citrate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium hexametaphosphate, and disodium orthophosphate) on the physicochemical properties of processed cheese. The physicochemical composition, texture profile, degree of casein dissociation, fat particle size, color, and nuclear magnetic resonance profile (NMR) of processed cheese were determined. Hardness, degree of casein dissociation, and pH increased as the concentration of emulsifying salts increased. The fat particle size of processed cheese was significantly influenced by the type of emulsifying salts, with processed cheese made with sodium hexametaphosphate having larger particles (4.68 µm) than cheeses made with the other salts (from 2.71 to 3.30 µm). The processed cheese prepared with trisodium citrate was whiter than those prepared with the other emulsifying salts. The NMR analysis showed that the relaxation time of processed cheese of 10 to 100 ms accounted for a major proportion, indicating that the moisture in processed cheese was mainly bound water combined with the fat globule and hydrated casein.

  1. Characterization of Turkish honeys regarding of physicochemical properties, and their adulteration analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeyda KIVRAK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work was conducted to evaluate the quality of 54 honey samples from eighteen different origins from Turkey. Physicochemical properties were examined according to AOAC methods, total phenolic and flavonoid contents by a spectrophotometric method and authenticity of honeys by Combustion Module - Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CM-CRDS. The microscopic analysis of honey sediment (mellissopalynology was carried out to identify and count the pollen to provide qualitative indicators to confirm botanical origin. The moisture, electrical conductivity and free acidity of honeys ranged from 15.56 to 18.39%, 0.143 to 2.006 mS.cm-1, 16.05 meq.kg-1 and 34.10 meq.kg-1, respectively. Diastase activity of sideritis honey was found highest. Honeys showed HMF level below 40 mg.kg-1. The highest proline was determined in thyme honey. The results showed that honeys contained eminent amounts of phenolics and flavonoids. δ13C values of honeys were more negative than -23.5‰. The C4% sugar ratios were lower than 7% value. The lowest glucose-fructose content was observed in eucalyptus, cedar and pine honey samples. The results obtained for physicochemical characteristics, total phenolic and flavonoid contents an authenticity analysis of Turkish honeys indicate a good quality level, adequate processing, good maturity and freshness. The discrimination between honey types was achieved by PCA.

  2. Design of a dual nanostructured lipid carrier formulation based on physicochemical, rheological, and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitorino, Carla [University of Coimbra, Centro de Estudos Farmaceuticos (CEF), Faculty of Pharmacy (Portugal); Alves, Luis; Antunes, Filipe E. [University of Coimbra, Department of Chemistry (Portugal); Sousa, Joao J. [University of Coimbra, Centro de Estudos Farmaceuticos (CEF), Faculty of Pharmacy (Portugal); Pais, Alberto A. C. C., E-mail: pais@qui.uc.pt [University of Coimbra, Department of Chemistry (Portugal)

    2013-10-15

    The synergy between nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and chemical penetration enhancers provides the basis for a promising strategy to effectively deliver drugs through the skin. In the present work, focus is given to the study of the interaction of limonene, ethanol, and Carbopol Ultrez{sup Registered-Sign} 10NF, as the gelling agent, with a co-encapsulating NLC dispersion, containing both olanzapine and simvastatin. The analysis is based on rheological, mechanical, and physicochemical properties. The nanoparticle size ranged from 130 to 400 nm, depending on the system considered. The inclusion of carbopol resulted in a considerable increase in the NLC particle size, which was attributed to carbomer bridging nanoparticles, resulting in some particle aggregation. Rheological measurements indicated that the viscosity of the neat carbopol hydrogel was reduced by the enhancers and to a higher extent by the presence of NLC. A more apolar medium can be pointed out as a general explanation, while a polymer/nanoparticle hydrophobic interaction coupled with surfactant/polymer H-bonding provides the rationale for the NLC effect. The inclusion of enhancers and a carbomer largely contributed to the physicochemical stability of the NLC formulation, as revealed by the low transmission profiles and more negative zeta potential values.

  3. Cyclodextrin inclusion complex to improve physicochemical properties of herbicide bentazon: exploring better formulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Yáñez

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the host-guest complexes using cyclodextrins (CDs has prompted an increase in the development of new formulations. The capacity of these organic host structures of including guest within their hydrophobic cavities, improves physicochemical properties of the guest. In the case of pesticides, several inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins have been reported. However, in order to explore rationally new pesticide formulations, it is essential to know the effect of cyclodextrins on the properties of guest molecules. In this study, the inclusion complexes of bentazon (Btz with native βCD and two derivatives, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD and sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBECD, were prepared by two methods: kneading and freeze-drying, and their characterization was investigated with different analytical techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, differential thermal analysis (DTA, X-ray diffractometry (XRD and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV. All these approaches indicate that Btz forms inclusion complexes with CDs in solution and in solid state, with a stoichiometry of 1:1, although some of them are obtained in mixtures with free Btz. The calculated association constant of the Btz/HPCD complex by DPV was 244±19 M(-1 being an intermediate value compared with those obtained with βCD and SBECD. The use of CDs significantly increases Btz photostability, and depending on the CDs, decreases the surface tension. The results indicated that bentazon forms inclusion complexes with CDs showing improved physicochemical properties compared to free bentazon indicating that CDs may serve as excipient in herbicide formulations.

  4. Analysis of physicochemical and structural properties determining HIV-1 coreceptor usage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bozek

    Full Text Available The relationship of HIV tropism with disease progression and the recent development of CCR5-blocking drugs underscore the importance of monitoring virus coreceptor usage. As an alternative to costly phenotypic assays, computational methods aim at predicting virus tropism based on the sequence and structure of the V3 loop of the virus gp120 protein. Here we present a numerical descriptor of the V3 loop encoding its physicochemical and structural properties. The descriptor allows for structure-based prediction of HIV tropism and identification of properties of the V3 loop that are crucial for coreceptor usage. Use of the proposed descriptor for prediction results in a statistically significant improvement over the prediction based solely on V3 sequence with 3 percentage points improvement in AUC and 7 percentage points in sensitivity at the specificity of the 11/25 rule (95%. We additionally assessed the predictive power of the new method on clinically derived 'bulk' sequence data and obtained a statistically significant improvement in AUC of 3 percentage points over sequence-based prediction. Furthermore, we demonstrated the capacity of our method to predict therapy outcome by applying it to 53 samples from patients undergoing Maraviroc therapy. The analysis of structural features of the loop informative of tropism indicates the importance of two loop regions and their physicochemical properties. The regions are located on opposite strands of the loop stem and the respective features are predominantly charge-, hydrophobicity- and structure-related. These regions are in close proximity in the bound conformation of the loop potentially forming a site determinant for the coreceptor binding. The method is available via server under http://structure.bioinf.mpi-inf.mpg.de/.

  5. Effects of the microbubble shell physicochemical properties on ultrasound-mediated drug delivery to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shih-Ying; Chen, Cherry C; Tung, Yao-Sheng; Olumolade, Oluyemi O; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2015-08-28

    Lipid-shelled microbubbles have been used in ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. The physicochemical properties of the microbubble shell could affect the delivery efficiency since they determine the microbubble mechanical properties, circulation persistence, and dissolution behavior during cavitation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the shell effects on drug delivery efficiency in the brain via blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening in vivo using monodisperse microbubbles with different phospholipid shell components. The physicochemical properties of the monolayer were varied by using phospholipids with different hydrophobic chain lengths (C16, C18, and C24). The dependence on the molecular size and acoustic energy (both pressure and pulse length) were investigated. Our results showed that a relatively small increase in the microbubble shell rigidity resulted in a significant increase in the delivery of 40-kDa dextran, especially at higher pressures. Smaller (3kDa) dextran did not show significant difference in the delivery amount, suggesting that the observed shell effect was molecular size-dependent. In studying the impact of acoustic energy on the shell effects, it was found that they occurred most significantly at pressures causing microbubble destruction (450kPa and 600kPa); by increasing the pulse length to deliver the 40-kDa dextran, the difference between C16 and C18 disappeared while C24 still achieved the highest delivery efficiency. These indicated that the acoustic energy could be used to modulate the shell effects. The acoustic cavitation emission revealed the physical mechanisms associated with different shells. Overall, lipid-shelled microbubbles with long hydrophobic chain length could achieve high delivery efficiency for larger molecules especially with high acoustic energy. Our study, for the first time, offered evidence directly linking the microbubble monolayer shell with their efficacy for drug delivery in vivo.

  6. Gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismail Gomceli; Baris Demiriz; Mesut Tez

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths.Despite complete resection of gastric cancer and lymph node dissection,as well as improvements in chemotherapy and radiotherapy,there are still 700 000 gastric cancer-related deaths per year worldwide and more than 80% of patients with advanced gastric cancer die of the disease or recurrent disease within 1 year after diagnosis.None of the treatment modalities we have been applying today can influence the overall survival rates:at present,the overall 5-year relative survival rate for gastric cancer is about 28%.Cellular metaplasia due to chronic inflammation,injury and repair are the most documented processes for neoplasia.It appears that chronic inflammation stimulates tumor development and plays a critical role in initiating,sustaining and advancing tumor growth.It is also evident that not all inflammation is tumorigenic.Additional mutations can be acquired,and this leads to the cancer cell gaining a further growth advantage and acquiring a more malignant phenotype.Intestinalization of gastric units,which is called "intestinal metaplasia";phenotypic antralization of fundic units,which is called "spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia"; and the development directly from the stem/progenitor cell zone are three pathways that have been described for gastric carcinogenesis.Also,an important factor for the development of gastrointestinal cancers is peritumoral stroma.However,the initiating cellular event in gastric metaplasia is still controversial.Understanding gastric carcinogenesis and its precursor lesions has been under intense investigation,and our paper attempts to high-light recent progress in this field of cancer research.

  7. Effect of γ-irradiation on the physicochemical and sensory properties of hazelnuts ( Corylus avellana L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexis, S. F.; Kontominas, M. G.

    2009-06-01

    The present study evaluated the quality of hazelnuts as a function of irradiation dose to determine dose levels causing minimal undesirable changes to hazelnuts. Physicochemical (color, peroxide value (PV), hexanal content, fatty acid composition and volatile compounds) and sensory (color, texture, odor and taste) properties were determined. Results showed a twenty fold increase in peroxide value and twenty-eight fold increase in hexanal content after irradiation at a dose of 7 kGy. An increase was also observed in saturated fatty acids (10%-23%) with a parallel decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (90-77%). Volatile compounds such as ketones, alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes, furans, aromatic hydrocarbons, bicyclic monoterpenes and acids were produced mostly comprising secondary oxidation products of hazelnut lipids after irradiation. Color parameter b* increased ( phazelnuts retain acceptable sensory quality when irradiated up to a dose of 1.5 kGy.

  8. Effect of the conditions of structure formation on the physicochemical properties of ozonated shungites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emel'Yanova, G. I.; Gorlenko, L. E.; Rozhkova, N. N.; Rumyantseva, M. N.; Lunin, V. V.

    2010-08-01

    It was investigated the influence of ozone on the physicochemical properties of shungites (type 1) (75-98% C) from Nigozero and Chebolaksha deposits (Karelia) formed by hydrothermal (Nigozero) and high-temperature (Chebolaksha) processes. Ozonation was found to affect the specific surface and the total pore volume of shungites considerably. The pore size distribution pattern depends on the volume morphology (texture) of the sample. An increase in the temperature and pressure during the structure formation of shungite (Chebolaksha) led to a shift of the maximum on the distribution pattern towards the formation of mesopores. The size distribution of pores with the dominant contents of micro- and submesopores for both shungites correlated with the basic structural nanoelements of shungite carbon. The peculiarities of the ozonation of shungite nanocarbon found previously (the non-steady state vibrational kinetics of ozonation and the absence of carbon(II) oxide among the reaction products) were confirmed.

  9. Orange peel flour effect on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Hernandez Garcia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange peel flours as a source of fiber, protein, and flavonoids as antioxidants was added to meat batters in order to improve nutritional quality and physicochemical, textural and sensory properties. Orange peel flour in meat batters improved yield and reduced expressible moisture. Hardness in orange peel flour samples was higher, but less resilient and cohesive. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not different between control (no orange peel flour and samples with this functional ingredient. A no trained panel determinate that there was no difference between control and orange peel flour added sausages at a 5% (w/w level. In this view, orange peel flour can be employed to improve yield and texture of cooked meat products.

  10. The use of potato fibre to improve bread physico-chemical properties during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, Elena; Carini, Eleonora; Diantom, Agoura; Vittadini, Elena

    2016-03-15

    Bread staling reduction is a very important issue for the food industry. A fibre with high water holding capacity, extracted from potato peel, was studied for its ability to reduce bread staling even if employed at low level (0.4 g fibre/100 g flour). Physico-chemical properties (water activity, moisture content, frozen water content, amylopectin retrogradation) and (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance molecular mobility were characterised in potato fibre added bread over 7 days of storage. Potato fibre addition in bread slightly affected water activity and moisture content, while increased frozen water content and resulted in a softer bread crumb, more importantly when the optimal amount of water was used in the formulation. Potato fibre also reduced (1)H NMR molecular mobility changes in bread crumb during storage. Potato fibre addition in bread contributed to reduce bread staling.

  11. EFFECT OF PRESSURE INDUCED GRAFT COPOLYMERIZATION ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BIO-FIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Singh Singha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the surface modification of Agave americana L. fiber through graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate under pressure in the presence of ceric ammonium nitrate as redox initiator. The various reaction parameters such as reaction time, pressure, concentration of nitric acid, initiator, and monomer, etc. were optimized to have the maximum graft yield of 13.6%. The grafted fibers were then subjected to the evaluation of different physico-chemical properties such as swelling behavior, solubility, moisture absorption under different humidity levels, resistance to acids and bases, etc. It was observed that swelling behavior, solubility behavior, and moisture absorbance decreased with increase in grafting, whereas resistance to acids and bases increased with grafting. The fibers grafted under the optimized conditions were then characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and x-ray diffraction techniques.

  12. Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Profiles of Elaeagnus mollis Diels Nut Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaohua; Yang, Ruinan; Dong, Caiwen; Yang, Qingping

    2015-01-01

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid profiles, content of tocopherol and sterol of the oils extracted from the nuts of Elaeagnus mollis Diels grown in different regions of China were studied in this work. The results indicated that the Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oils contained about 0.2% sterols and the tocopherol contents were in the range of 119.6-128.6mg/100g. The nut oils were all rich in unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid and linoleic acid. Furthermore, the main triacylglycerols species of the nut oils were all dilinoleoyl-monoolein (LOL), dioleoyl-monolinoleoyl (OLO) and trilinoleate (LLL). This work might be useful for developing applications for Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oil.

  13. Physicochemical Properties of Pineapple Plant Waste Fibers from the Leaves and Stems of Different Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fakhri Zainuddin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple agro-waste, the residue produced during harvesting or processing activities, is widely available around the world. After harvesting, most pineapple residue is disposed of and serves as fertilizer, or is burnt in an open field. However, these methods are not only ineffective, but also contribute to air pollution. The main objective of this study is to determine the physicochemical properties (i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, proximate composition, dry matter, and nitrogen content, of leaves and stems in different varieties (MD2, Moris, and Josapine of the pineapple plant waste. The data obtained were analyzed using thermogravimetry analysis and proximate analysis. The results showed that the stems and leaves of different varieties exhibit different percentages in lignocellulosic content (hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. Proximate analysis showed that nutrient contents were available in the leaves and stems of pineapple plant of different varieties.

  14. Effects of citric acid esterification on digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of cassava starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Ji-Qiang; Zhou, Da-Nian; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Han-Qing

    2015-11-15

    In this study, citric acid was used to react with cassava starch in order to compare the digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of citrate starch samples. The results indicated that citric acid esterification treatment significantly increased the content of resistant starch (RS) in starch samples. The swelling power and solubility of citrate starch samples were lower than those of native starch. Compared with native starch, a new peak at 1724 cm(-1) was appeared in all citrate starch samples, and crystalline peaks of all starch citrates became much smaller or even disappeared. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the endothermic peak of citrate starches gradually shrank or even disappeared. Moreover, the citrate starch gels exhibited better freeze-thaw stability. These results suggested that citric acid esterification induced structural changes in cassava starch significantly affected its digestibility and it could be a potential method for the preparation of RS with thermal stability.

  15. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of five Iranian pomegranate cultivars (Punica granatum L.) in maturation stage

    OpenAIRE

    Kosar NIKDEL; Esmaiel SEIFI; Hamed BABAIE; Sharifani, Mehdi; Khodayar HEMMATI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of five different pomegranate cultivars. Fruit mass ranged from 109.27 to 78.07 g. Peel thickness of the fruit was recorded from 5.05 to 2.70 mm. The pH, total soluble solids content, the titratable acidity content were within the range of 4.23 to 4.36, 20.00 (◦Brix) to 14.05 (◦Brix), 0.04 to 0.007 mg per 100 g of juice, respectively. Ascorbic acid content was from 4.73 to 1.98 mg per 100 g of juice. ...

  16. Physicochemical/photophysical characterization and angiogenic properties of Curcuma longa essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Lilhian A; Araújo, Rafael G M; Gomes, Flávia O; Lemes, Susy R; Almeida, Luciane M; Maia, Lauro J Q; Gonçalves, Pablo J; Mrué, Fátima; Silva-Junior, Nelson J; Melo-Reis, Paulo R DE

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the physicochemical and photophysical properties of essential oil of Curcuma longa and its angiogenic potential. The results showed that curcumin is the main fluorescent component present in the oil, although the amount is relatively small. The experimental chorioallantoic membrane model was used to evaluate angiogenic activity, showing a significant increase in the vascular network of Curcuma longa and positive control groups when compared to the neutral and inhibitor controls (P Curcuma longa essential oil and the positive control (P >0.05). Histological analysis showed extensive neovascularization, hyperemia and inflammation in the positive control group and Curcuma longa when compared to other controls (P Curcuma longa oil showed considerable proangiogenic activity and could be a potential compound in medical applications.

  17. Physicochemical and functional properties of protein isolate produced from Australian chia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Adhikari, Raju; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu

    2016-12-01

    Protein was isolated from Australian chia seeds and converted to powders using spray, freeze and vacuum drying methods, to investigate the effect of drying methods on physicochemical and functional attributes of chia-seed protein isolate (CPI). It was found that there was no significant difference in the proximate composition; however vacuum dried CPI (VDCPI) had the highest bulk density and oil absorption capacity, whereas spray dried powder (SDCPI) demonstrated the highest solubility, water absorption capacity and lowest surface hydrophobicity. Solubility of all powders was higher at elevated temperature and alkaline pH. Foaming capacity and foam stability of CPI were found to increase with increasing pH and protein concentration. SDCPI was the least denatured and VDCPI the most denatured, demonstrating the poorest solubility and foaming properties of the latter. These findings are expected to be useful in selection of a drying process to yield chia seed protein powders with more desirable functionality.

  18. Studies on the Effect of Accelerated Thermal Aging on Electrical and Physicochemical Properties of XLPE Cable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Chon-ung; JIN Zhi-jian; JIANG Ping-kai; ZHU Zi-shu; LIU Fei; KIM Ui-chon

    2007-01-01

    The degradation of crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) cable insulation during service, such as thermo-oxidation and water treeing may lead to a premature electrical breakdown of the XLPE insulation cables. Therefore,it is necessary to optimize the period of replacement to evenly distribute the replacement cost by ascertaining the deterioration degree. Estimation of the aging degree is at present the most important task for diagnosis of the residual lifetime of the power cable insulation. This paper presents a study on the changes in the dielectric properties of the thermally aged XLPE cables in the frequency range from 0.07~10 MHz. Based on electrical and physicochemical characterization, some new "dactylograms" for the thermally aged XLPE cable insulation have been proposed.

  19. Morphological structure and physicochemical properties of nanotube TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Morphological structure and physicochemical properties of nanotube TiO2 were investigated. It was found that the TiO2 nanotube consisted of 2-5 monolayers of TiO2 molecules, and its inner diameter was between 4.2 and 5.9 nm. The nanotube TiO2 powder had high specific surface area and pore volume (379 m2/g and 1.431 cm3/g respectively) and its decolorization activity for Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B was 2 times higher than that of raw TiO2 (p-25). This new type of TiO2 was hopeful for application in photocatalysis and composite nanomaterial.

  20. Effects of waterlogging after pollination on the physicochemical properties of starch from waxy maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dalei; Cai, Xuemei; Shi, Yaxing; Zhao, Jiuran; Lu, Weiping

    2015-07-15

    Waterlogging frequently occurs in Southern China in summer and significantly affects waxy maize growth. This study investigated the physicochemical properties of starch from six waxy maize varieties exposed to waterlogging for 1-7 days after pollination. Waterlogging decreased the starch granule size. Starch maximum absorption wavelength, iodine-binding capacity, crystallinity, and peak intensities in response to waterlogging depended on varieties. Swelling power and solubility in response to waterlogging increased in Wannuo5 and decreased in the other five varieties. Gelatinization and pasting temperatures were only slightly affected by waterlogging. Gelatinization enthalpy was unaffected in Nongkeyu301, increased in Guangbainuo5, and decreased in the other four varieties. Peak and breakdown viscosities decreased and retrogradation percentage increased when plants were subjected to waterlogging after pollination. In conclusion, waterlogging decreased starch granule size, crystallinity, swelling power, and solubility, resulting in deteriorated starch quality (i.e., low swelling, less sticky and easy to retrograde).

  1. Physico-chemical properties of ready to eat, shelf-stable pasta during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, E; Curti, E; Cassotta, F; Najm, N E O; Vittadini, E

    2014-02-01

    The changes in physico-chemical properties of RTE shelf stable pasta were studied during storage with a multianalytical and multidimensional approach (with special focus on water status) to understand the ageing process in this product. Pasta hardness and amylopectin recrystallisation increased, macroscopic water status indicators and proton molecular translational mobility remained constant, and significant changes were measured in the proton rotational molecular mobility indicators ((1)H FID, (1)H T2) during storage. Since the main changes observed in RTE pasta during storage were similar to those observed in other cereal-based products, it would be interesting to verify the effect of the anti-staling methods commonly used in the cereal processing industry in improving RTE pasta shelf-stability.

  2. Synthesis of bioactive β-TCP coatings with tailored physico-chemical properties on zirconia bioceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanic, Martin; Milacic, Radmila; Drazic, Goran; Škarabot, Miha; Budič, Bojan; Krnel, Kristoffer; Kosmač, Tomaž

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a synthesis procedure for the deposition of β-TCP coatings with tailored physico-chemical properties on zirconia bioceramics. The synthesis procedure involved two steps: (i) a rapid wet-chemical deposition of a biomimetic CaP coating and (ii) a subsequent post-deposition processing of the biomimetic CaP coating, which included a heat treatment between 800 and 1200 °C, followed by a short sonication in a water bath. By regulating the heating temperature the topography of the β-TCP coatings could be controlled. The average surface roughness (Ra) ranged from 42 nm for the coating that was heated at 900 °C (TCP-900) to 630 nm for the TCP-1200 coating. Moreover, the heating temperature also affected the dissolution rate of the coatings in a physiological solution, their protein-adsorption capacity and their bioactivity in a simulated body fluid.

  3. Predicting the DPP-IV inhibitory activity pIC₅₀ based on their physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Tianhong; Yang, Xiaoyan; Li, Minjie; Wu, Milin; Su, Qiang; Lu, Wencong; Zhang, Yuhui

    2013-01-01

    The second development program developed in this work was introduced to obtain physicochemical properties of DPP-IV inhibitors. Based on the computation of molecular descriptors, a two-stage feature selection method called mRMR-BFS (minimum redundancy maximum relevance-backward feature selection) was adopted. Then, the support vector regression (SVR) was used in the establishment of the model to map DPP-IV inhibitors to their corresponding inhibitory activity possible. The squared correlation coefficient for the training set of LOOCV and the test set are 0.815 and 0.884, respectively. An online server for predicting inhibitory activity pIC50 of the DPP-IV inhibitors as described in this paper has been given in the introduction.

  4. Evolution of some physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic whole bulbs and peeled cloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano-Medina, M Angeles; Pérez-Aparicio, Jesús; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Merinas-Amo, Tania

    2016-05-15

    Black garlic was processed at three different temperatures of heat treatment (72°, 75° and 78°C) and close to 90% of relative humidity. Two types of material source were used: whole bulbs and peeled cloves. Total soluble solids content (°Brix), pH, water activity (aw), browning intensive (L value), total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol index of the raw and heated garlic were determined. This study showed the changes occurring in the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the garlic during the heat-treatment evolution. The soluble solids content (°Brix) in garlic increased gradually and the pH decreased in whole bulbs and peeled garlics. The polyphenol content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method showed a significant increase during the heat-treatment in all the cases. Also, the antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS radical increased significantly during the heat-treatment.

  5. Transfer of pesticides to the brew during mate drinking process and their relationship with physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Parada, Andrés; González, Joaquín; Pareja, Lucía; Geis-Asteggiante, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Niell, Silvina; Besil, Natalia; González, Gabriel; Cesio, Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio

    2010-11-01

    In order to evaluate the extraction of pesticide residues that are transferred to the brew during mate drinking process of P.U.1 yerba mate leaves (Ilex paraguariensis), a special device to simulate the way in which mate is drunk in Uruguay was developed. The transfer to the brew of 12 organophosphates, 5 synthethic pyrethroids and one organochlorine pesticide from spiked samples was studied. The relationship between the transfer data thus obtained and physicochemical properties like water solubility (Ws), octanol-water coefficient (Kow) and Henry's constant (H) was evaluated. The extractability of the pesticide residues from yerba mate can be correlated with log Ws and log Kow. These transfer values allowed the calculation of ARLs (acceptable residue level) for the pesticides following Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), World Health Organizaion (WHO) guidelines. These results can help the future establishment of maximum residue levels (MRLs).

  6. Bactericidal Effects against S. aureus and Physicochemical Properties of Plasma Activated Water stored at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jin; Tian, Ying; Li, Yinglong; Ma, Ruonan; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Water activated by non-thermal plasma creates an acidified solution containing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, known as plasma-activated water (PAW). The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different storage temperatures (25 °C, 4 °C, ‑20 °C, ‑80 °C) on bactericidal activities against S. aureus and physicochemical properties of PAW up to 30 days. Interestingly, PAW stored at ‑80 °C yielded the best antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, 3~4 log reduction over a 30-day period after PAW generation; meanwhile, PAW stored at 25 °C, 4 °C, and ‑20 °C, respectively, yielded 0.2~2 log decrease in cell viability after the same exposure and storage time. These results were verified by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The physicochemical properties of PAW stored at different temperatures were evaluated, including pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), and hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, nitrite anion and NO radical levels. These findings suggested that bacterial activity of PAW stored at 25 °C, 4 °C, ‑20 °C decreased over time, and depended on three germicidal factors, specifically ORP, H2O2, and NO3‑. Moreover, PAW stored at ‑80 °C retained bactericidal activity, with NO2‑ contributing to bactericidal ability in association with H2O2. Our findings provide a basis for PAW storage and practical applications in disinfection and food preservation.

  7. Physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of nanopowdered eggshell-supplemented yogurt during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mijan, Mohammad; Choi, Kyung-Hoon; Kwak, Hae-Soo

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of adding nanopowdered eggshell (NPES) into yogurt to improve the functionality of yogurt and the effects of adding NPES on the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of the products during storage. The pH and mean lactic acid bacteria counts of NPES-added (0.15-0.45%, wt/vol) yogurt ranged from 4.31 to 4.66 and from 6.56 × 10(8) to 8.56 × 10(8)cfu/mL, respectively, whereas these values ranged from 4.13 to 4.44 and 8.46 × 10(8) to 1.39 × 10(9), respectively, for the control samples during storage at 5 °C for 16d, which indicates a prolonged shelf-life with NPES-supplemented yogurt. Color analysis showed that the lightness (L*) and position between red and green (a*) values were not significantly influenced by the addition of NPES. However, the position between yellow and blue (b*) value significantly increased with the addition of the concentration (0.45%, wt/vol) of NPES at d 16 of storage. Sensory evaluation revealed that NPES-added yogurts showed a notably less sourness score and a higher astringency score than the control. An earthy flavor was higher in 0.45% NPES-supplemented yogurt compared with the control. Based on the results obtained from the current study, the concentration (0.15 to 0.30%, wt/vol) of NPES can be used to formulate NPES-supplemented yogurt without any significant adverse effects on the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties.

  8. Physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of yogurt supplemented with nanopowdered chitosan during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, M H; Lee, S Y; Chang, Y H; Kwak, H S

    2009-12-01

    This study was carried out to determine the possibility of adding nanopowdered chitosan (NPC) into cholesterol-reduced yogurt to improve the functionality of yogurt and the effects of adding NPC on the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of the products during storage. The pH values and mean lactic acid bacteria counts of NPC-added (0.3 to approximately 0.7%, wt/vol) and cholesterol-reduced yogurt ranged from 4.19 to 4.41 and from 4.75 x 10(8) to 9.70 x 10(8) cfu/mL, respectively, when stored at 4 degrees C for 20 d, thereby indicating a possibility of prolonging the shelf life of yogurt. In color, the a* and b* values for cholesterol-reduced yogurt were not significantly influenced by the addition of NPC (0.1 to approximately 0.7%, wt/vol); however, the L* values significantly decreased with the addition of the greatest concentration (0.7%, wt/vol) of NPC at 0-d storage. The sensory test revealed that the astringency scores significantly increased at 0-d storage when the greatest concentration (0.7%, wt/vol) of NPC was added into cholesterol-reduced yogurt. Based on the data obtained from the current study, it is concluded that concentrations (0.3 to ~0.5%, vol/vol) of NPC could be used to produce an NPC-added and cholesterol-reduced yogurt without significantly adverse effects on the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties.

  9. New direct compression excipient from tigernut starch: physicochemical and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Builders, Philip F; Anwunobi, Patricia A; Mbah, Chukwuemeka C; Adikwu, Michael U

    2013-06-01

    Tigernut starch has been isolated and modified by forced retrogradation of the acidic gel by freezing and thawing processes. Relevant physicochemical and functional properties of the new excipient (tigernut starch modified by acid gelation and accelerated (forced) retrogradation (ST(AM))) were evaluated as a direct compression excipient in relation to the native tigernut starch (ST(NA)), intermediate product (tigernut starch modified by acid gelation (ST(A))), and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The particle morphology, swelling capacity, moisture sorption, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) thermographs and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns, flow, dilution capacity, and tablet disintegration efficiency were evaluated. The particles of ST(NA) were either round or oval in shape, ST(A) were smooth with thick round edges and hollowed center while ST(AM) were long, smooth, and irregularly shaped typically resembling MCC. The DSC thermographs of ST(NA) and MCC showed two endothermic transitions as compared with ST(A) and ST(AM) which showed an endothermic and an exothermic. The moisture uptake, swelling, flow, and dilution capacity of ST(AM) were higher than those of MCC, ST(A), and ST(NA). The XRD pattern and moisture sorption profile of ST(AM) showed similarities and differences with ST(NA), ST(A), and MCC that relate the modification. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) tablets containing ST(AM) disintegrated at 3±0.5 min as compared with the tablets containing ST(NA), ST(A), and MCC which disintegrated at 8.5±0.5, 10±0.5, and 58±0.8 min, respectively. The study shows the physicochemical properties of tigernut starch modified by forced retrogradation as well as its potential as an efficient direct compression excipient with enhanced flow and disintegration abilities for tablets production.

  10. Microparticulated and nanoparticulated zirconium oxide added to calcium silicate cement: Evaluation of physicochemical and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Guilherme F; Bosso, Roberta; Ferino, Rafael V; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Bernardi, Maria I B; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane M; Cerri, Paulo S

    2014-12-01

    The physicochemical and biological properties of calcium silicate-based cement (CS) associated to microparticulated (micro) or nanoparticulated (nano) zirconium oxide (ZrO2 ) were compared with CS and bismuth oxide (BO) with CS. The pH, release of calcium ions, radiopacity, setting time, and compression strength of the materials were evaluated. The tissue reaction promoted by these materials in the subcutaneous was also investigated by morphological, immunohistochemical, and quantitative analyses. For this purpose, polyethylene tubes filled with materials were implanted into rat subcutaneous. After 7, 15, 30, and 60 days, the tubes surrounded by capsules were fixed and embedded in paraffin. In the H&E-stained sections, the number of inflammatory cells (ICs) in the capsule was obtained. Moreover, detection of interleukin-6 (IL-6) by immunohistochemistry and number of IL-6 immunolabeled cells were carried out. von Kossa method was also performed. The differences among the groups were subjected to Tukey test (p ≤ 0.05). The solutions containing the materials presented an alkaline pH and released calcium ions. The addition of radiopacifiers increased setting time and radiopacity of CS. A higher compressive strength in the CS + ZrO2 (micro and nano) was found compared with CS + BO. The number of IC and IL-6 positive cells in the materials with ZrO2 was significantly reduced in comparison with CS + BO. von Kossa-positive structures were observed adjacent to implanted materials. The ZrO2 associated to the CS provides satisfactory physicochemical properties and better biological response than BO. Thus, ZrO2 may be a good alternative for use as radiopacifying agent in substitution to BO.

  11. Effects of Tamarisk shrub on physicochemical properties of soil in coastal wetland of the Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiuping; WANG Baodong; XIE Linping; XIN Ming; WANG Wei; WANG Zicheng; ZHANG Wenquan; WEI Qinsheng

    2016-01-01

    There are many different and even controversial results concerning the effects of Tamarisk on the physicochemical properties of soil. A year-round monitoring of soil salinity, pH and moisture is conducted beneath the Tamarisk shrub in a coastal wetland in the Bohai Sea in China, to ascertain the effects of Tamarisk on the physicochemical properties of soil in coastal wetland. Compared with the control area, the soil moisture content is lower around the area of the taproot when there is less precipitation in the growing season because of water consumption by Tamarisk shrub. However, the soil moisture content is higher around the taproot when there is more precipitation in the growing season or in the non-growing period because of water conservation by the rhizosphere. The absorption of salt by the Tamarisk shrub reduces the soil salinity temporarily, but eventually salt returns to the soil by the leaching of salt on leaves by rainfall or by fallen leaves. The annual average soil moisture content beneath the Tamarisk shrub is lower than the control area by only 6.4%, indicating that the Tamarisk shrub has little effect on drought or water conservation in soils in the temperate coastal wetland with moderate annual precipitation. The annual average salinity beneath the Tamarisk shrub is 18% greater than that of the control area, indicating that Tamarisk does have an effect of rising soil salinity around Tamarisk shrubs. The soil pH value is as low as 7.3 in summer and as high as 10.2 in winter. The pH of soil near the taproot of the Tamarisk shrubs is one pH unit lower than that in the control area during the growing season. The difference in pH is less different from the control area in the non-growing season, indicating that the Tamarisk shrub does have the effect of reducing the alkalinity of soil in coastal wetland.

  12. Physicochemical Properties Analysis and Secretome of Aspergillus niger in Fermented Rapeseed Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Changyou; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient digestibility and feeding value of rapeseed meal (RSM) for non-ruminant animals is poor due to the presence of anti-nutritional substances such as glucosinolate, phytic acid, crude fiber etc. In the present study, a solid state fermentation (SSF) using Aspergillus niger was carried out with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of RSM. The chemical composition and physicochemical properties of RSM before and after fermentation were compared. To further understand possible mechanism of solid state fermentation, the composition of extracellular enzymes secreted by Aspergillus niger during fermentation was analysed using two-dimentional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS). Results of the present study indicated that SSF had significant effects on chemical composition of RSM. The fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) contained more crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) (except His) than unfermented RSM. Notably, the small peptide in FRSM was 2.26 time larger than that in unfermented RSM. Concentrations of anti-nutritional substrates in FRSM including neutral detergent fiber (NDF), glucosinolates, isothiocyanate, oxazolidithione, and phytic acid declined (P niger fermentation disrupted the surface structure, changed macromolecular organic compounds, and reduced the protein molecular weights of RSM substrate. Total proteins of raw RSM and FRSM were separated and 51 protein spots were selected for mass spectrometry according to 2D-DIGE map. In identified proteins, there were 15 extracellular hydrolases secreted by A. niger including glucoamylase, acid protease, beta-glucanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylanase, and phytase. Some antioxidant related enzymes also were identified. These findings suggested that A. niger is able to secrete many extracellular degradation enzymes (especially lignocellulosic hydrolyzing enzymes, acid proteases and phytase

  13. Physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of a polymer-paclitaxel conjugate for cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Danbo Yang1, Sang Van2, Jian Liu2, Jing Wang1, Xinguo Jiang3, Yiting Wang1, Lei Yu1,2 1Biomedical Engineering and Technology Institute, Institutes for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China; 2Biomedical Group, Nitto Denko Technical Corporation, Oceanside, CA; 3School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, ChinaBackground: Poly(L-γ-glutamylglutamine paclitaxel (PGG-PTX conjugate is a non-diblock polymeric drug nanoparticle intended to improve the therapeutic index of paclitaxel. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate further the physicochemical properties of PGG-PTX in order to proceed with its clinical development.Methods and results: PGG-PTX was designed by integration of a hydrophobic paclitaxel conjugate through an added hydrophilic glutamic acid onto poly(L-glutamic acid. The addition of a flexible glutamic linker between PGA and paclitaxel resulted in spontaneous self-assembly of a PGG-PTX conjugate into nanoparticles. The PGG-PTX conjugate was stable as a lyophilized solid form. An in vitro viability experiment showed that PGG-PTX was effective after a longer incubation period, the same trend as Taxol. In vitro studies using NCI-H460 and B16F0 cancer cells demonstrated significantly high cellular uptake after 30 minutes of incubation. The in vivo biocompatibility of PGG-PTX conjugate was evaluated in the NCI-H460 tumor model, the assessment of tissue seemed to be normal after 21 days of treatment.Conclusion: These results are encouraging for further development of non-block polymeric paclitaxel nanoparticles for treatment of cancer.Keywords: polymer conjugate, paclitaxel, poly(L-γ-glutamylglutamine, drug delivery, physicochemical properties, nanoparticles

  14. Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Milk Samples Collected from Five Goat Breeds in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Alyaqoubi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Five different goat breeds (Saanen, Kacang, Jamnapari, Boer and a crossbred of Jamnapari and Saanen were obtained from one farm in Bandar Baru Bangi. The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity based on TPC, FRAP and DPPH. Goat milk samples were collected during the same lactation period (middle lactation and were subsequently compared with cow milk. The results of the study showed that goat milk exhibited a significantly higher (p<0.05 antioxidant capacity than cow milk. Jamnapari milk exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity in Total Phenol Content (TPC, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays with values of 544.08 mg GA/100 g FW, 481.69 mg TE/100 g FW and 67.44%, respectively. By contrast, the milk samples obtained from the Boer exhibited the lowest corresponding values of 460.00 mg GA/100 g FW, 386.06 mg TE/100 g FW and 59.68%, respectively. Results showed that physicochemical properties were significantly different (p<0.05 among the milk samples, with some samples more superior compared with others in one or more aspects. Jamnapari milk was superior in terms of ash, total soluble solid and protein with values of 0.96%, 13.02 Brix and 5.11%, respectively and this milk also showed the lowest moisture (81.28% among all milk samples. Cow milk exhibited the highest fat (4.43% and Kacang milk had the lowest titratable acidity (0.06% than the other milk samples. Thus, goat milk can be considered as an excellence source of antioxidants.

  15. Effect of alcohol-acid modification on physicochemical, rheological and morphological properties of glutinous rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gope, Sangeeta; Samyor, Duyi; Paul, Atanu Kumar; Das, Amit Baran

    2016-12-01

    In the present study chemical modification of glutinous rice starch was carried out using 1-Buatnol-hydrochloric acid with varying time and temperature. The changes in physico-chemical, dynamic rheological and morphological properties of starch during hydrolysis was investigated. There was a significant increase in water solubility of starch due to modification; however, swelling and sedimentation value decrease after modification. The peak, hold and final viscosity of modified starches were decreased significantly as compared to native starch. Thermal properties and dynamic rheological properties of rice starch were changed with the change in time and temperature during modification. The storage (G') modulus, loss (G″) modulus, dynamic viscosity (η') and complex viscosity (η*) of modified starches were varied significantly. Analysis of microstructure revealed that the hydrolysis altered morphology of starch granules. The hydrolysis was affected the surface properties and granule size of rice starch. These results suggested that 1-butanol-HCl hydrolysis of glutinous rice starch can be a preferred way of modification.

  16. Effect of food processing on the physicochemical properties of dietary fibre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasfi ye Hazal Ozyurt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Products derived from the manufacturing or processing of plant based foods: cereals, fruits, vegetables, as well as algae, are sources of abundant dietary fi bre. Diets high in dietary fi bre have been associated with the reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and gastrointestinal disorders. These fibre-rich products and byproducts can also fortify foods, increase their dietary fibre content and result in healthy products, low in calories, cholesterol and fat. Traditionally, consumers have chosen foods such as whole grains, fruits and vegetables as sources of dietary fibre. Recently, food manufacturers have responded to consumer demand for foods with a higher fibre content by developing products in which highfibre ingredients are used. Diff erent food processing methods also increase the dietary fiber content of food. Moreover, its chemical and physical properties may be aff ected by food processing. Some of them might even improve the functionality of fibre. Therefore, they may also be applied as functional ingredients to improve physical properties like the physical and structural properties of hydration, oil-holding capacity, viscosity. This study was conducted to examine the eff ect of diff erent food processing methods on the physicochemical properties of dietary fibre.

  17. Strong cation exchange resin for improving physicochemical properties and sustaining release of ranitidine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study strong cation exchange resin (Amberlite IRP69 was used to improve the physicochemical properties of ranitidine hydrochloride such as taste and bulk properties and to sustain dissolution rate. Drug-resin complexes were prepared using batch method. Drug loading was done under different processing conditions such as temperature, pH, drug-resin ratio, and drug concentration to get the optimum condition for resinate preparation. Resinate prepared under optimized condition was tested for taste, bulk properties and release rate. Degree of bitterness of ranitidine was found to reduce to zero after complexation with resin. Improvement in flow properties was also observed. Angle of repose for resinate was found to be 33.21 o as compared to 42.27 o for ranitidine HCl. Effect of dissolution medium and particle size on in vitro release of drug from resinate was also investigated. Resinate with drug to resin ratio of 2:3 and particle size> 90 µm showed about 90% of drug release within 12 h. The orodispersible tablet formulated from the resinate containing 10% croscarmellose sodium disintegrated within 35 sec in oral cavity and showed similar dissolution profile as the resinate. Tablets were found stable after stability studies with no change in dissolution profile.

  18. Physicochemical, Proximate and Sensory Properties of Pineapple (Ananas sp.) Syrup Developed from Its Organic Side-Stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tortoe, C.; Johnson, P.N.T.; Slaghek, T.; Miedema, M.; Timmermans, T.

    2013-01-01

    A major economical industrial challenge from pineapple (Ananas sp.) processing contributing to environmental pollu- tion is the organic side-streams of pineapple. The physicochemical, proximate and sensory properties of organic side- stream pineapple syrup (OSPS) developed from Smooth cayenne, Sugar

  19. Different Storage Conditions Influence Biocompatibility and Physicochemical Properties of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zaloga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs have attracted increasing attention in many biomedical fields. In magnetic drug targeting SPIONs are injected into a tumour supplying artery and accumulated inside the tumour with a magnet. The effectiveness of this therapy is thus dependent on magnetic properties, stability and biocompatibility of the particles. A good knowledge of the effect of storage conditions on those parameters is of utmost importance for the translation of the therapy concept into the clinic and for reproducibility in preclinical studies. Here, core shell SPIONs with a hybrid coating consisting of lauric acid and albumin were stored at different temperatures from 4 to 45 °C over twelve weeks and periodically tested for their physicochemical properties over time. Surprisingly, even at the highest storage temperature we did not observe denaturation of the protein or colloidal instability. However, the saturation magnetisation decreased by maximally 28.8% with clear correlation to time and storage temperature. Furthermore, the biocompatibility was clearly affected, as cellular uptake of the SPIONs into human T-lymphoma cells was crucially dependent on the storage conditions. Taken together, the results show that the particle properties undergo significant changes over time depending on the way they are stored.

  20. Physicochemical properties of frozen tortillas from nixtamalized maize flours enriched with β-glucans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Madrigal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractEffects of different β-glucan concentrations in maize flour on the properties of frozen maize tortillas were evaluated. Masa (dough, pre-cooked (PTs, frozen (FTs, thawed (TTs, and cooked tortillas (CTs were made and analyzed. Moisture content of masa and tortillas significantly decreased as β-glucan concentration increased; however, the water absorption capacity (WAC, ice melting enthalpy, and frozen water in FTs increased. Texture and color of the masa, PTs, and CTs as well as sensory analysis showed differences only between tortillas with 0% and 4% β-glucans. β-glucans did not affect the texture of CTs. Soluble fiber increased by over threefold and fivefold in tortillas with 2% and 4% β-glucans, respectively, than in those without β-glucans. This result was consistent with the observed structural changes in tortillas, showing an increase in high-fiber aggregates with increasing β-glucan concentration. Tortillas with 2% β-glucans showed acceptable physicochemical, functional, and sensory properties, but over three times the soluble fiber. Therefore, it is possible to obtain frozen tortillas with high fiber content and increase their shelf life for subsequent cooking while maintaining good properties.

  1. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of South African Cashew Apple Juice as a Biofuel Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanie Devi Deenanath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cashew apple juice (CAJ is one of the feedstocks used for biofuel production and ethanol yield depends on the physical and chemical properties of the extracted juice. As far as can be ascertained, information on physical and chemical properties of South African cashew apple juice is limited in open literature. Therefore, this study provides information on the physical and chemical properties of the South African cashew apple juice. Physicochemical characteristics of the juice, such as specific gravity, pH, sugars, condensed tannins, Vitamin C, minerals, and total protein, were measured from a mixed variety of cashew apples. Analytical results showed the CAJ possesses specific gravity and pH of 1.050 and 4.52, respectively. The highest sugars were glucose (40.56 gL−1 and fructose (57.06 gL−1. Other chemical compositions of the juice were condensed tannin (55.34 mgL−1, Vitamin C (112 mg/100 mL, and total protein (1.78 gL−1. The minerals content was as follows: zinc (1.39 ppm, copper (2.18 ppm, magnesium (4.32 ppm, iron (1.32 ppm, sodium (5.44 ppm, and manganese (1.24 ppm. With these findings, South African CAJ is a suitable biomass feedstock for ethanol production.

  2. Physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of chitosan oligosaccharide/gelatin/calcium phosphate hybrid cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Ting-Yi [Department of Dental Laboratory Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 406, Taiwan (China); Ho, Chia-Che [Institute of Oral Biology and Biomaterials Science, Chung-Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chen, David Chan-Hen [Institute of Veterinary Microbiology, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Lai, Meng-Heng [Institute of Oral Biology and Biomaterials Science, Chung-Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Ding, Shinn-Jyh, E-mail: sjding@csmu.edu.tw [Institute of Oral Biology and Biomaterials Science, Chung-Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung-Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-15

    A bone substitute material was developed consisting of a chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) solution in a liquid phase and gelatin (GLT) containing calcium phosphate powder in a solid phase. The physicochemical and biocompatible properties of the hybrid cements were evaluated. The addition of COS to cement did not affect the setting time or diametral tensile strength of the hybrid cements, whereas GLT significantly prolonged the setting time and decreased the strength slightly. The setting reaction was inhibited by the addition of GLT to the initial mixture, but not by COS. However, the presence of GLT appreciably improved the anti-washout properties of the hybrid cement compared with COS. COS may promote the cement's biocompatibility as an approximate twofold increase in cell proliferation for 10% COS-containing cements was observed on day 3 as compared with the controls. The combination of GLT and COS was chosen due to the benefits achieved from several synergistic effects and for their clinical applications. Cement with 5% GLT and 10% COS may be a better choice among cements in terms of anti-washout properties and biological activity.

  3. Predicting physico-chemical properties of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs):potential persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jun; YU Gang; YANG Xi; ZHANG Zu-lin

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated diphenyl ethers(PCDEs) have received more and more concerns as a category of potentialpersistent organic pollutants( POPs). Modeling its environmental fate and exposure assessment require a number offundamental physico-chemical properties. However, the experimental data are currently limited due to the difficulty inanalysis caused by the complexity of PCDE congeners. As an alternative, the quantitative structure propertyrelationship(QSPR) approach could be used. In this paper, twelve kinds of molecular connectivity indices(MCIs) ofall 209 possible molecular structure patterns of PCDEs were calculated. Based on 106 PCDEs with three observedphysico-chemical properties-vapour pressure(PoL), aqueous solubility(Sw) and n-octanol/water(Kow) and theirMCIs data, a series of QSPR equations were established using multiple linear regression(MLR) method. As aresult, three equations with best performance were selected mainly from the view of high regression coefficient(R)and low standard error( SE). All of them showed significant relationship and high accuracy. With these equationsthe properties of other 103 patterns of PCDEs without the reported observed values were predicted. Furthermore,three partition properties for PCDE congeners-Henry' s Law constants(H), partition coefficients between gas/water(Kgw) and gas/n-octanol ( Kgo ) were calculated according to the internal relationship among these six properties.These observed and predicted values, in contrast with the criteria listed in the Stockholm treaty about POPs whichhas been signed by more than ninety countries in May 2001, illustrated that most of PCDEs congeners are potentialpersistent organic pollutants. As all descriptors/predictors are derived just from the molecular structure itself andwithout the import of any empirical parameters, this method is impersonal and promising for the estimation ofphysico-chemical properties of PCDEs.

  4. Effects of carbonation on probiotic survivability, physicochemical, and sensory properties of milk-based symbiotic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Helen; Cheng, Jianjun; Guo, Mingruo

    2014-04-01

    Drinkable yogurt is a popular beverage in the United States and there may be a niche for carbonated drinkable yogurt in the functional foods market. Pomegranate (P) and vanilla (V) yogurt beverages were formulated, containing inulin as a prebiotic, along with probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium, to produce symbiotic products. These beverages were stabilized with high-methoxyl pectin and whey protein concentrate and compared to samples with approximately 2 volumes of added carbon dioxide (CO2 ). Samples were stored in sealed glass bottles at 4 °C for 9 wk for evaluation of physicochemical and functional properties. Trials were carried out in triplicate and 3 replicates from each trial were analyzed. Physicochemical attributes were analyzed using standard AOAC methods. Survivability of the probiotics and changes in pH and viscosity were measured weekly. Chemical composition of the carbonated beverages was: protein: 1.58 ± 0.05%, 1.59 ± 0.06%, fat: 1.24 ± 0.2%, 1.18 ± 0.11%, total solids: 14.78 ± 0.11%, 14.93 ± 0.05%, ash: 0.49 ± 0.02%, 0.46 ± 0.03%, and carbohydrate (by difference): 11.47 ± 0.12%, 11.69 ± 0.14% for P and V, respectively. Both L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium were stable and remained above 10(6) CFU/g for both flavors of beverage both with and without carbonation. The new manufacturing technology for these prototypes may have potential for commercialization of carbonated symbiotic milk-based beverages.

  5. Influence of DE-value on the physicochemical properties of maltodextrin for melt extrusion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Natalia; Durrieu, Vanessa; Raynaud, Christine; Rouilly, Antoine

    2016-06-25

    In this study, five different types of maltodextrins (DE-2, DE-6, DE-12, DE-17 and DE-19) were characterized for the physico-chemical properties. TGA, DVS and SEC analyses were carried out and additionally apparent melt-viscosity (in a micro-extruder) and the glass transition temperature (analyzed by DMA) of maltodextrin/plasticizer mixtures were also measured in order to evaluate both the effect of plasticizer nature and content and the effect of the DE-value. For this, three plasticizing agents were compared: water, d-sorbitol and glycerin. The adsorption isotherms showed that depending on the DE-value and the relative humidity they were exposed to, different behavior could be obtained. For example, for relative humidities below 60% RH maltodextrin DE-2 was the least hygroscopic. And on the contrary for relative humidities above 75% RH maltodextrin DE-2 was the most hygroscopic. The rheology measurements showed that the viscosity decreased with the increase of the DE-value and with the plasticizer content, as expected. On the contrary, no direct correlation could be established between the DE-value and the glass transition temperature. These results demonstrated that to predict maltodextrins behavior and to better adapt the process conditions, combined analyses are mandatory as the DE-value alone is not sufficient. The most compelling evidence was obtained by size exclusion chromatography, which pointed out that maltodextrins had a bimodal molecular weight distribution composed of high and low molecular weight oligo-saccharides. Indeed, maltodextrins are highly polydisperse materials (i.e. polydispersity index ranging from 5 to 12) and that should be the reason why such distinct behaviors were observed in some of the physico-chemical analyses that were preformed.

  6. Processing effects on physicochemical properties of creams formulated with modified milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, J C; Duncan, S E; Eigel, W N; Waterman, K M

    2005-04-01

    Type of thermal process [high temperature, short time pasteurization (HTST) or ultra-high temperature pasteurization (UHT)] and homogenization sequence (before or after pasteurization) were examined for influence on the physicochemical properties of natural cream (20% milk fat) and creams formulated with 20% low-melt, fractionated butteroil emulsified with skim milk, or buttermilk and butter-derived aqueous phase. Homogenization sequence influenced physicochemical makeup of the creams. Creams homogenized before pasteurization contained more milk fat surface material, higher phospholipid levels, and less protein at the milk fat interface than creams homogenized after pasteurization. Phosphodiesterase I activity was higher (relative to protein on lipid globule surface) when cream was homogenized before pasteurization. Creams formulated with skim milk and modified milk fat had relatively more phospholipid adsorbed at the milk fat interface. Ultra-high-temperature-pasteurized natural and reformulated creams were higher in viscosity at all shear rates investigated compared with HTST-pasteurized creams. High-temperature, short time-pasteurized natural cream was more viscous than HTST-pasteurized reformulated creams at most shear rates investigated. High-temperature, short time-pasteurized creams had better emulsion stability than UHT-pasteurized creams. Cream formulated with buttermilk had creaming stability most comparable to natural cream, and cream formulated with skim milk and modified butteroil was least stable to creaming. Most creams feathered in a pH range of 5.00 to 5.20, indicating that they were moderately stable to slightly unstable emulsions. All processing sequences yielded creams within sensory specifications with the exception of treatments homogenized before UHT pasteurization and skim milk formulations homogenized after UHT pasteurization.

  7. Visualization of physico-chemical properties and microbial distribution in soil and root microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhorst, Thilo; Schmidt, Hannes

    2016-04-01

    Plant root development is influenced by soil properties and environmental factors. In turn plant roots can also change the physico-chemical conditions in soil resulting in gradients between roots and the root-free bulk soil. By releasing a variety of substances roots facilitate microbial activities in their direct vicinity, the rhizosphere. The related microorganisms are relevant for various ecosystem functions in the root-soil interface such as nutrient cycling. It is therefore important to study the impact and dynamics of microorganisms associated to different compartments in root-soil interfaces on a biologically meaningful micro-scale. The analysis of microorganisms in their habitats requires microscopic observations of the respective microenvironment. This can be obtained by preserving the complex soil structure including the root system by resin impregnation resulting in high quality thin sections. The observation of such sections via fluorescence microscopy, SEM-EDS, and Nano-SIMS will be highlighted in this presentation. In addition, we will discuss the combination of this methodological approach with other imaging techniques such as planar optodes or non-invasive 3D X-ray CT to reveal the entire spatial structure and arrangement of soil particles and roots. When combining the preservation of soil structure via resin impregnation with 16S rRNA targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) single microbial cells can be visualized, localized, and quantified in the undisturbed soil matrix including the root-soil interfaces. The simultaneous use of multiple oligonucleotide probes thereby provides information on the spatial distribution of microorganisms belonging to different phylogenetic groups. Results will be shown for paddy soils, where management induced physico-chemical dynamics (flooding and drying) as well as resulting microbial dynamics were visualized via correlative microscopy in resin impregnated samples.

  8. Classification of lung cancer tumors based on structural and physicochemical properties of proteins by bioinformatics models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Faezeh; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Goliaei, Bahram; Shamabadi, Narges

    2012-01-01

    Rapid distinction between small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors is very important in diagnosis of this disease. Furthermore sequence-derived structural and physicochemical descriptors are very useful for machine learning prediction of protein structural and functional classes, classifying proteins and the prediction performance. Herein, in this study is the classification of lung tumors based on 1497 attributes derived from structural and physicochemical properties of protein sequences (based on genes defined by microarray analysis) investigated through a combination of attribute weighting, supervised and unsupervised clustering algorithms. Eighty percent of the weighting methods selected features such as autocorrelation, dipeptide composition and distribution of hydrophobicity as the most important protein attributes in classification of SCLC, NSCLC and COMMON classes of lung tumors. The same results were observed by most tree induction algorithms while descriptors of hydrophobicity distribution were high in protein sequences COMMON in both groups and distribution of charge in these proteins was very low; showing COMMON proteins were very hydrophobic. Furthermore, compositions of polar dipeptide in SCLC proteins were higher than NSCLC proteins. Some clustering models (alone or in combination with attribute weighting algorithms) were able to nearly classify SCLC and NSCLC proteins. Random Forest tree induction algorithm, calculated on leaves one-out and 10-fold cross validation) shows more than 86% accuracy in clustering and predicting three different lung cancer tumors. Here for the first time the application of data mining tools to effectively classify three classes of lung cancer tumors regarding the importance of dipeptide composition, autocorrelation and distribution descriptor has been reported.

  9. Classification of lung cancer tumors based on structural and physicochemical properties of proteins by bioinformatics models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Hosseinzadeh

    Full Text Available Rapid distinction between small cell lung cancer (SCLC and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC tumors is very important in diagnosis of this disease. Furthermore sequence-derived structural and physicochemical descriptors are very useful for machine learning prediction of protein structural and functional classes, classifying proteins and the prediction performance. Herein, in this study is the classification of lung tumors based on 1497 attributes derived from structural and physicochemical properties of protein sequences (based on genes defined by microarray analysis investigated through a combination of attribute weighting, supervised and unsupervised clustering algorithms. Eighty percent of the weighting methods selected features such as autocorrelation, dipeptide composition and distribution of hydrophobicity as the most important protein attributes in classification of SCLC, NSCLC and COMMON classes of lung tumors. The same results were observed by most tree induction algorithms while descriptors of hydrophobicity distribution were high in protein sequences COMMON in both groups and distribution of charge in these proteins was very low; showing COMMON proteins were very hydrophobic. Furthermore, compositions of polar dipeptide in SCLC proteins were higher than NSCLC proteins. Some clustering models (alone or in combination with attribute weighting algorithms were able to nearly classify SCLC and NSCLC proteins. Random Forest tree induction algorithm, calculated on leaves one-out and 10-fold cross validation shows more than 86% accuracy in clustering and predicting three different lung cancer tumors. Here for the first time the application of data mining tools to effectively classify three classes of lung cancer tumors regarding the importance of dipeptide composition, autocorrelation and distribution descriptor has been reported.

  10. Physicochemical and biological properties of a novel injectable polyurethane system for root canal filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jian Wang,1 Yi Zuo,1 Minghui Zhao,1 Jiaxing Jiang,1 Yi Man,2 Jun Wu,3 Yunjiu Hu,3 Changlei Liu,4 Yubao Li,1 Jidong Li11Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Orthopedics, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 4College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: A root canal sealer with antibacterial activity can be efficacious in preventing reinfection that results from residual microorganisms and/or the leakage of microorganisms. In the present study, a series of injectable, self-curing polyurethane (PU-based antibacterial sealers with different concentrations of silver phosphate (Ag3PO4 were fabricated. Subsequently, their physicochemical properties, antibacterial abilities, and preliminary cytocompatibilities were evaluated. The results indicated that the fabricated PU-based sealers can achieve a high conversion rate in a short amount of time. More than 95% of the isocyanate group of PU sealers with 3 wt% (PU3 and 5 wt% (PU5 concentrations of Ag3PO4 were included in the curing reaction after 7 hours. With the exception of those for film thickness for PU5, the results of setting time, film thickness, and solubility were able to meet the requirements of the International Organization for Standardization. The antibacterial tests showed that PU3 and PU5 exhibit stronger antimicrobial effects than that achieved with 1 wt% Ag3PO4 (PU1 and AH Plus (positive control against Streptococcus mutans. The cytocompatibility evaluation revealed that the PU1 and PU3 sealers possess good cytocompatibility and low cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate that the PU3 sealer offers good physicochemical and antimicrobial properties along with cytocompatibility, which may hold great

  11. Physicochemical properties of precursors of Al2O3-ZrO2 oxide ceramics prepared by electrochemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, E. V.; Dresvyannikov, A. F.; Ahmadi Daryakenari, M.; Khairullina, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray, and thermal analysis are used to examine the structure and properties of dispersive systems based on aluminum and zirconium oxides prepared electrochemically. The effect the conditions of synthesis have on the structure and morphology of Al2O3-ZrO2 particles is studied. It is shown that the effect of an electric field on the reaction medium allows us to adjust the physicochemical properties and morphology.

  12. Urease from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seeds: isolation, physicochemical characterization, and antifungal properties of the protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegassi, Angela; Wassermann, German E; Olivera-Severo, Deiber; Becker-Ritt, Arlete B; Martinelli, Anne Helene S; Feder, Vanessa; Carlini, Celia R

    2008-06-25

    Ureases (EC 3.5.1.5) are metalloenzymes that hydrolyze urea to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide These enzymes, which are found in fungi, bacteria, and plants, show very similar structures. Despite an abundance of urease in vegetal tissues, the physiological role of this enzyme in plants is still poorly understood. It has been previously described that ureases from the legumes jackbean ( Canavalia ensiformis) and soybean ( Glycine max) have insecticidal activity and antifungal properties. This work presents the physicochemical purification and characterization of a urease from cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum) seeds, the first description of this enzyme in Malvaceae. The urease content varied among different cotton cultivars. Cotton seed urease (98.3 kDa) displayed low ureolytic activity but exhibited potent antifungal properties at sub-micromolar concentrations against different phytopathogenic fungi. As described for other ureases, the antifungal effect of cotton urease persisted after treatment with an irreversible inhibitor of its enzyme activity. The data suggest an important role of these proteins in plant defense.

  13. Effect of silver nanoparticles on the physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of an orthodontic adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Weidenbach DEGRAZIA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Orthodontic treatment with fixed brackets plays a major role on the formation of white spot lesions. Objective This study aimed to incorporate silver nanoparticle solutions (AgNP in an orthodontic adhesive and evaluate its physicochemical and antimicrobial properties. Material and Methods Silver nanoparticle solutions were added to a commercial adhesive in different concentrations (w/w: 0%, 0.11%, 0.18%, and 0.33%. Shear bond strength (SBS test was performed after bonding metal brackets to enamel. Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze in situ the degree of conversion (DC of the adhesive layer. The surface free energy (SFE was evaluated after the measurement of contact angles. Growth inhibition of Streptococcus mutans in liquid and solid media was determined by colony-forming unit count and inhibition halo, respectively. One-way ANOVA was performed for SBS, DC, SFE, and growth inhibition. Results The incorporation of AgNP solution decreased the SBS (p<0.001 and DC in situ (p<0.001 values. SFE decreased after addition of 0.18% and 0.33% AgNP. Growth inhibition of S. mutans in liquid media was obtained after silver addition (p<0.05. Conclusions The addition of AgNP solutions to Transbond™ XT adhesive primer inhibited S. mutans growth. SBS, DC, and SFE values decreased after incorporation up to 0.33% AgNP solution without compromising the chemical and physical properties of the adhesive.

  14. Evaluation of physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant property of Prunus avium gum exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Hossein; Askari, Gholamreza; Jahanbin, Kambiz; Khodaeian, Faramarz

    2016-12-01

    In this study some physicochemical properties and elemental analysis of Prunus avium gum exudates were investigated. The gum studied had, on average, 75.14% carbohydrate, 11.3% uronic acids, 1.11% protein, 7.53% moisture content (w.b.) and 3.12% ash. Measured values for the angle of repose, Carr's index and Hausner ratio showed the good flow ability for the gum powder. The viscosity of 1% aqueous solution of the gum exhibited a Newtonian type of flow and with pH reduction the swelling index was increased. The average molecular weight of the main polysaccharide fraction was about 1.46×10(5)Da (146kDa). GC analysis showed that the main polysaccharide was composed of four kinds of neutral monosaccharides, namely mannose (Man), arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal) and xylose (Xyl) with a relative molar ratio of 1.0:14.7:7.1:2.4. FTIR analysis showed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups and glycosidic linkage. The antioxidant activity of the gum was evaluated by determining DPPH scavenging and total phenolic contents which showed poor antioxidant property.

  15. Physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of sausage formulated with surimi powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Palestina; Huda, Nurul; Yang, Tajul Aris

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of fish sausage made with 100 % threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicus) surimi powder (SP100), a mix of 50 % surimi powder and 50 % frozen surimi (SP50), and a control (100 % frozen surimi). No significant differences in protein content and folding test results (P > 0.05) were detected among the SP100 and SP50 samples and the control. Gel strength of SP100 was lower (P > 0.05) than that of the control. The texture profile analysis (TPA) values (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) of SP100 were significantly lower (P sausages. The water holding capacity, and emulsion stability of SP100 were significantly lower (P sausage did not differ with that of control in the term of color, odor, or oiliness scored by panelists. The drying process impacted the texture properties of surimi when it was used in fish sausage. However, the use of surimi powder in fish sausage formulation is still accepted since the TPA values of SP100 and SP50 were still within the textural range of Malaysian commercial fish sausages.

  16. Effect of silver nanoparticles on the physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of an orthodontic adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    DEGRAZIA, Felipe Weidenbach; LEITUNE, Vicente Castelo Branco; GARCIA, Isadora Martini; ARTHUR, Rodrigo Alex; SAMUEL, Susana Maria Werner; COLLARES, Fabrício Mezzomo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Orthodontic treatment with fixed brackets plays a major role on the formation of white spot lesions. Objective This study aimed to incorporate silver nanoparticle solutions (AgNP) in an orthodontic adhesive and evaluate its physicochemical and antimicrobial properties. Material and Methods Silver nanoparticle solutions were added to a commercial adhesive in different concentrations (w/w): 0%, 0.11%, 0.18%, and 0.33%. Shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed after bonding metal brackets to enamel. Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze in situ the degree of conversion (DC) of the adhesive layer. The surface free energy (SFE) was evaluated after the measurement of contact angles. Growth inhibition of Streptococcus mutans in liquid and solid media was determined by colony-forming unit count and inhibition halo, respectively. One-way ANOVA was performed for SBS, DC, SFE, and growth inhibition. Results The incorporation of AgNP solution decreased the SBS (p<0.001) and DC in situ (p<0.001) values. SFE decreased after addition of 0.18% and 0.33% AgNP. Growth inhibition of S. mutans in liquid media was obtained after silver addition (p<0.05). Conclusions The addition of AgNP solutions to Transbond™ XT adhesive primer inhibited S. mutans growth. SBS, DC, and SFE values decreased after incorporation up to 0.33% AgNP solution without compromising the chemical and physical properties of the adhesive. PMID:27556213

  17. The physicochemical properties of a new class of anticancer fungal polysaccharides: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lu; Reynisson, Jóhannes; Perera, Conrad; Hemar, Yacine

    2013-08-14

    The structural and physicochemical properties of polysaccharides isolated from fungi with anticancer properties were investigated. The majority of the polysaccharides considered, have the β-d-Glcp component mostly connected by 1→3 and 1→6 linkages in the backbones and the short branches, respectively. The established parameters of lead-like, drug-like and of known dug space (KDS) were used and the repeating units of the polysaccharides exhibit some overlap with these. It was found that a unique region of chemical space is occupied by the polysaccharides, with MW: 1.0 x 10(5) to 2.5 x 10(5) g mol(-1); LogP: -3.0 x 10(3) to -1.0 x 10(3); HD: 1.0 x 10(3) to 5.0 x 10(3); HA: 5.0 x 10(3) to 1.0 x 10(4); PSA: 5.0 x 10(4) to 1.0 x 10(5) and RB: 5.0 x 10(3) to 1.0 x 10(4). These findings can be exploited in antitumor drug discovery projects.

  18. Enhanced Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Ion-Implanted Titanium Using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Hegedűs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of metallic implants play an important role in their clinical success. Improving upon the inherent shortcomings of Ti implants, such as poor bioactivity, is imperative for achieving clinical use. In this study, we have developed a Ti implant modified with Ca or dual Ca + Si ions on the surface using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS. The physicochemical and biological properties of ion-implanted Ti surfaces were analyzed using various analytical techniques, such as surface analyses, potentiodynamic polarization and cell culture. Experimental results indicated that a rough morphology was observed on the Ti substrate surface modified by ECRIS plasma ions. The in vitro electrochemical measurement results also indicated that the Ca + Si ion-implanted surface had a more beneficial and desired behavior than the pristine Ti substrate. Compared to the pristine Ti substrate, all ion-implanted samples had a lower hemolysis ratio. MG63 cells cultured on the high Ca and dual Ca + Si ion-implanted surfaces revealed significantly greater cell viability in comparison to the pristine Ti substrate. In conclusion, surface modification by electron cyclotron resonance Ca and Si ion sources could be an effective method for Ti implants.

  19. Salt tolerant SUV3 overexpressing transgenic rice plants conserve physicochemical properties and microbial communities of rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Ranjan K; Ansari, Mohammad W; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Key concerns in the ecological evaluation of GM crops are undesirably spread, gene flow, other environmental impacts, and consequences on soil microorganism's biodiversity. Numerous reports have highlighted the effects of transgenic plants on the physiology of non-targeted rhizospheric microbes and the food chain via causing adverse effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop transgenics with insignificant toxic on environmental health. In the present study, SUV3 overexpressing salt tolerant transgenic rice evaluated in New Delhi and Cuttack soil conditions for their effects on physicochemical and biological properties of rhizosphere. Its cultivation does not affect soil properties viz., pH, Eh, organic C, P, K, N, Ca, Mg, S, Na and Fe(2+). Additionally, SUV3 rice plants do not cause any change in the phenotype, species characteristics and antibiotic sensitivity of rhizospheric bacteria. The population and/or number of soil organisms such as bacteria, fungi and nematodes were unchanged in the soil. Also, the activity of bacterial enzymes viz., dehydrogenase, invertase, phenol oxidases, acid phosphatases, ureases and proteases was not significantly affected. Further, plant growth promotion (PGP) functions of bacteria such as siderophore, HCN, salicylic acid, IAA, GA, zeatin, ABA, NH3, phosphorus metabolism, ACC deaminase and iron tolerance were, considerably, not influenced. The present findings suggest ecologically pertinent of salt tolerant SUV3 rice to sustain the health and usual functions of the rhizospheric organisms.

  20. Influence of gum tragacanth on the physicochemical and rheological properties of kashk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroodi, Setareh Ghorban; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Gorji, Elham Ghorbani; Ezzatpanah, Hamid; Zohouri, Nilofar

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the physicochemical properties of a low-fat dried yogurt paste (kashk) were determined, and the effects of different concentrations (0, 0·1, 0·3 and 0·5% w/w) of gum tragacanth exudates from Astragalus gossypinus on the stability and texture of the samples were investigated by measuring amount of syneresis, turbidity, particle size distribution (PSD), flow behaviour and viscoelastic properties. The flow behaviour index was not very sensitive to the concentration of gum, while a remarkable concentration dependency of the power-law consistency coefficient and Herschel-Bulkley yield stress was observed. The initial increase in the gum concentration at 0·1 and 0·3% levels led to a higher degree of syneresis, which was related to the depletion flocculation mechanism. However, the reduced amount of syneresis in samples containing 0·5% gum tragacanth was attributed to the significant increase in viscosity of the continuous phase, which is also accompanied by trapping of the aggregated casein particles. The presence of 3% salt in the samples may have led to the neutralization of charges on the surface of gum tragacanth; consequently, the non-adsorbing behaviour of high-ionic-strength polysaccharides inhibited the formation of electrostatic protein-polysaccharide complexes. Furthermore, maximum values of polydispersity, syneresis and tan δ at high frequencies were found in samples containing 0·1% gum tragacanth.

  1. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of epoxidized Tmp trioleate by in situ method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samidin, Salma; Salimon, Jumat [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Tmp trioleate was initially synthesized via esterification of trimetilolprapane and oleic acid (90%) using 1.5% of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as a catalyst. The production of Tmp trioleate was observed at 98% (w/w). The iodine value of Tmp trioleate was analyzed for further reaction of epoxidation. Epoxide was important reaction as an intermediate for preparation of chemical modified lubricants from vegetable oils. Finding the best way of epoxidation process will give high quality for further modification of oil instead of reduce the cost and time for the preparation process during reaction of epoxidation. In this study, the epoxidation of unsaturation Tmp trioleate with peroxyformic acid generated in-situ from hydrogen peroxide 30% in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with formic acid was studied. 95% conversion to oxygen oxirane content (OOC) ring was obtained. The derivatization showed an improvement of the compound's oxidative stability evidenced from pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) data which are 177°C to 200°C. Physicochemical properties showed increasing of temperature of flash point from 280°C to 300°C and viscosity index (VI) from 146 to 154. However, the pour point showed increasing temperature which was −58.81°C to −17.32°C. From the data obtained, these derivatives have shown better performance of lubricity properties. Overall, the data indicates that these performances are compatible to the commercial lubricants.

  2. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of five Iranian pomegranate cultivars (Punica granatum L. in maturation stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosar NIKDEL

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of five different pomegranate cultivars. Fruit mass ranged from 109.27 to 78.07 g. Peel thickness of the fruit was recorded from 5.05 to 2.70 mm. The pH, total soluble solids content, the titratable acidity content were within the range of 4.23 to 4.36, 20.00 (◦Brix to 14.05 (◦Brix, 0.04 to 0.007 mg per 100 g of juice, respectively. Ascorbic acid content was from 4.73 to 1.98 mg per 100 g of juice. The amount of total phenolics in pomegranate cultivars was between 6.36 and 1.78 mg GAE/100 ml. The total flavonoids content also ranged between 4.93 to 2.24 mg GAE/100 ml. The level of antioxidant activity was varied from 86.77 % to 79.54 %. Reducing sugar content ranged between 5.81 to 1.72 mg/100g. Glucose content was found from 3.48 to 1.14 mg/100g. In total based on these results, the cultivar is the main parameter which influences the physic-chemical properties and antioxidant activity in pomegranates.

  3. Physicochemical Properties of Edible Chitosan/Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose/Lysozyme Films Incorporated with Acidic Electrolyzed Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Brychcy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment with acidic electrolyzed water (AEW is a promising disinfection method due to its effectiveness in reducing microbial population. The aim of the study was to evaluate physicochemical properties of chitosan/HPMC films incorporated with lysozyme and acidic electrolyzed water. In the composite films, decreasing film solubility and increasing concentration of sodium chloride solution and prolongation of electrolysis time were observed. Electrolysis process with sodium chloride induces spongy network of film structure. The use of AEW has not changed chemical composition of films which was proved by 1H NMR, MALDI-TOF, and FT-IR spectroscopy. The research confirmed that electrolysis significantly improved thermomechanical properties of the examined films. The contact angle values of the films were quite similar and ranged between 56° and 73°. The increase of salt concentration used in the electrolysis process had an impact on increasing flexibility of samples. Application of electrolyzed water in commonly used food processing systems is possible. Fusion of AEW and biopolymers may provide better integration with coated food product and multidirectional protecting effect.

  4. The contribution of physicochemical properties to multiple in vitro cytotoxicity endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuyan; Jessen, Bart; Strock, Christopher; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Attrition due to safety reasons remains a serious problem for the pharmaceutical industry. This has prompted efforts to develop early predictive in vitro screens that can assist in selecting compounds with a more desirable safety profile early on in the drug discovery process. Here we examined the relationship between physicochemical properties, such as partition coefficient (clogP), topological polar surface area (TPSA), acid dissociation constant (pK(a)), and in vitro mechanistic endpoints generated using a high content imaging approach. We demonstrate in our initial analysis that compounds with clogP>2 and pK(a)>5.5 flagged more endpoints than compounds with clogP ≤ 2 and pK(a) ≤ 5.5. In contrast, TPSA did not stand on its own in predicting cytotoxicity. When this knowledge was applied to eight different mechanistic cytotoxicity endpoints (cell loss, apoptosis, ER stress, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial potential, nuclear size, neutral lipids/steatosis and lysosomal mass), we found that compounds with such properties preferentially flagged in the lysosomal endpoint. We also saw a slight enrichment of such compounds in the endpoints cell loss, DNA fragmentation and nuclear size. We demonstrate that lysosomal compound accumulation is a potential contributor to cell death and possibly organ toxicity.

  5. Purification of cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum: Physicochemical characterization and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Ale, Marcel Tutor

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different purification methods (ethanol, isopropanol and ethanol-isopropanol) on the physicochemical and functional characteristics of cress seed gum. Sugar composition and molecular weight of the samples varied significantly. All the purification methods reduced ash and protein content and molecular weight of cress seed gum. The main decomposition of the purified samples started above 200°C and initial decomposition temperature of the crude gum was 190.21°C. DSC thermograms of the purified gums showed two exothermic events at 257.81-261.95°C and 302.46-311.57°C. Crude gum displayed an exothermic peak at 259.42°C. Sample I (purified using isopropanol) imparted the best surface activity among the purified samples as it had the highest protein and uronic acid contents and the lowest Mw. All the purification methods could improve emulsifying properties of cress seed gum and there was no significant difference among the purified samples. Crude gum showed the lowest foaming properties, while samples I and E (purified using ethanol) showed the highest foaming capacity and foam stability, respectively.

  6. Physico-chemical properties of chars obtained in the co-pyrolysis of waste mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, M; Lapa, N; Gonçalves, M; Mendes, B; Pinto, F; Fonseca, I; Lopes, H

    2012-06-15

    The present work aims to perform a multistep upgrading of chars obtained in the co-pyrolysis of PE, PP and PS plastic wastes, pine biomass and used tires. The quality of the upgraded chars was evaluated by measuring some of their physico-chemical properties in order to assess their valorisation as adsorbents' precursors. The crude chars were submitted to a sequential solvent extraction with organic solvents of increasing polarity (hexane, mixture 1:1 v/v hexane:acetone and acetone) followed by an acidic demineralization procedure with 1M HCl solution. The results obtained showed that the upgrading treatment allow the recovery of 63-81% of the pyrolysis oils trapped in the crude chars and a reduction in the char's ash content in the range of 64-86%. The textural and adsorption properties of the upgraded chars were evaluated and the results indicate that the chars are mainly mesoporous and macroporous materials, with adsorption capacities in the range of 3.59-22.2 mg/g for the methylene blue dye. The upgrading treatment allowed to obtain carbonaceous materials with quality to be reused as adsorbents or as precursors for activated carbon.

  7. In vitro human skin penetration model for organophosphorus compounds with different physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thors, L; Koch, B; Koch, M; Hägglund, L; Bucht, A

    2016-04-01

    A flow-through diffusion cell was validated for in vitro human epidermal penetration studies of organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) applied by infinite dosing. By testing OPCs with similar molecular weight but different physicochemical properties, it was shown that hydrophilic and lipophilic properties are major determinants for the penetration rate. Lipophilic OPCs displayed maximum cumulative penetration in the 20-75% agent concentration range whereas the hydrophilic OPCs displayed maximum cumulative penetration at 10 or 20% agent concentration. Low penetration was observed for all agents at 1% agent concentration or when applied as neat agents. The impact of the receptor solution composition was evaluated by comparing the penetration using receptor solutions of different ratios of ethanol and water. For diluted OPCs, a high concentration of ethanol in the receptor solution significantly increased the penetration compared to lower concentrations. When OPCs were applied as neat agents, the composition of the receptor solution only affected the penetration for one of four tested compounds. In conclusion, the flow-through diffusion cell was useful for examining the penetration of OPCs through the epidermal membrane. It was also demonstrated that the penetration rates of OPCs are strongly influenced by dilution in water and the receptor fluid composition.

  8. Enhanced physicochemical properties of collagen by using EDC/NHS-crosslinking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chunrong Yang

    2012-10-01

    Collagen-based scaffolds are appealing products for the repair of cartilage defects using tissue engineering strategies. The present study investigated the collagen scaffolds with and without 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)/-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-crosslinking. Crosslinking density, matrix morphology, swelling ratio shrinkage temperature and resistance against collagenase digestion were determined to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the collagen matrices with and without crosslinking. The results conformed that the porous structure of collagen was largely preserved and adjusted by crosslinking treatment. Furthermore, crosslinked collagen samples showed significantly reduced swelling ratio and increased resistance against thermal treatment and enzymatic degradation compared to non-crosslinked samples. An in vitro evaluation of MC3T3-E1 cells seeded onto the crosslinked and non-crosslinked collagen matrix indicated that crosslinked collagen was nontoxic and improved cell proliferation. Through this work, it was shown that an osteoconductive collagen matrix with optimized properties used as bioactive and bioresorbable scaffolds in bone tissue engineering could be fabricated through the EDC/NHS-crosslinking method.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Selected Physicochemical Properties of Pozzolan Portland and MTA-Based Cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorileo, Maura Cristiane Gonçales Orçati; Villa, Ricardo Dalla; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fábio; Semenoff-Segundo, Alex; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of pozzolan Portland cement were compared to ProRoot MTA and MTA BIO. To test the pH, the samples were immersed in distilled water for different periods of time. After the pH analysis, the sample was retained in the plastic recipient, and the electrical conductivity of the solution was measured. The solubility and radiopacity properties were evaluated according to specification 57 of the American National Standard Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA). The statistical analyses were performed using ANOVA and Tukey's test at a 5% level of significance. Pozzolan Portland cement exhibited pH and electrical conductivity mean values similar to those of the MTA-based cements. The solubilities of all tested materials were in accordance with the ANSI/ADA standards. Only the MTA-based cements met the ANSI/ADA recommendations for radiopacity. It might be concluded that the pH and electrical conductivity of pozzolan Portland cement are similar to and comparable to those of MTA-based cements.

  10. Insulin/poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-lysine) Complexes: Physicochemical Properties and Protein Encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippa, Natassa; Kalinova, Radostina; Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Pispas, Stergios; Demetzos, Costas

    2015-06-04

    Insulin (INS) was encapsulated into complexes with poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-lysine) (PEG-b-PLys), which is a polypeptide-based block copolymer (a neutral-cationic block polyelectrolyte). The particular cationic-neutral block copolymer can complex INS molecules in aqueous media via electrostatic interactions. Light-scattering techniques are used to study the complexation process and structure of the hybrid nanoparticles in a series of buffers, as a function of protein concentration. The physicochemical and structural characteristics of the complexes depend on the ionic strength of the aqueous medium, while the concentration of PEG-b-PLys was constant through the series of solutions. As INS concentration increased the size distribution of the complexes decreased, especially at the highest ionic strength. The size/structure of complexes diluted in biological medium indicated that the copolymer imparts stealth properties and colloidal and biological stability to the complexes, features that could in turn affect the clearance properties in vivo. Therefore, these studies could be a rational roadmap for designing the optimum complexes/effective nanocarriers for proteins and peptides.

  11. Evaluation of cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity and physicochemical properties of a calcium aluminate-based endodontic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Joao Nogueira Leal SILVA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A calcium aluminate-based endodontic material, EndoBinder, has been developed in order to reduce MTA negative characteristics, preserving its biological properties and clinical applications. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, pH, solubility and water sorption of EndoBinder and to compare them with those of white MTA (WMTA. Material and Methods: Cytotoxicity was assessed through a multiparametric analysis employing 3T3 cells. Antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus. (ATCC 25923 and Candida albicans (ATCC 10556 was determined by the agar diffusion method. pH was measured at periods of 3, 24, 72 and 168 hours. Solubility and water sorption evaluation were performed following ISO requirements. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey`s test with a significance level of 5%. Results: EndoBinder and WMTA were non-cytotoxic in all tested periods and with the different cell viability parameters. There was no statistical differences between both materials (P>.05. All tested materials were inhibitory by direct contact against all microbial strains tested. EndoBinder and WMTA presented alkaline pH in all tested times with higher values of pH for WMTA (P.05. Conclusion: Under these experimental conditions, we concluded that the calcium aluminate-based endodontic material EndoBinder demonstrated suitable biological and physicochemical properties, so it can be suggested as a material of choice in root resorption, perforations and root-end filling.

  12. Physico-chemical properties and amino acid profiles of sap from Tunisian date palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Makhlouf-Gafsi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Date palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L., also known as “legmi”, is a fresh juice extracted from date palm trees. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of collection time (at the beginning of the tapping period and after seven days of collection on the amino acid profile and physico-chemical properties of date palm sap from both male and female trees. Dry matter, protein, amino acid, and sugar profiles were determined using the Kjeldahl method, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, and High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC-PAD, respectively. Date palm sap from both male and female trees contained high levels of carbohydrates. HPLC analysis showed that this fraction was dominated by sucrose in the sap sample from female trees compared to that from male trees. Male date palm sap was noted to exhibit lower dry matter content than female date palm sap but higher protein, total polyphenol, ash, and amino acid contents. While the major essential amino acids in the sap from male trees consisted of valine and threonine, they were represented by lysine and phenylalanine in sap samples from female trees. Further, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis showed the presence of a proteinic band of 30 kDa only for the sap from male trees. Taken together, the sap from both male and female date palm trees had a number of properties that are highly valued by the functional food industry.

  13. Modelling physico-chemical properties of (benzo)triazoles, and screening for environmental partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhhatarai, B; Gramatica, P

    2011-01-01

    (Benzo)triazoles are distributed throughout the environment, mainly in water compartments, because of their wide use in industry where they are employed in pharmaceutical, agricultural and deicing products. They are hazardous chemicals that adversely affect humans and other non-target species, and are on the list of substances of very high concern (SVHC) in the new European regulation of chemicals - REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances). Thus there is a vital need for further investigations to understand the behavior of these compounds in biota and the environment. In such a scenario, physico-chemical properties like aqueous solubility, hydrophobicity, vapor pressure and melting point can be useful. However, the limited availability and the high cost of lab testing prevents the acquisition of necessary experimental data that industry must submit for the registration of these chemicals. In such cases a preliminary analysis can be made using Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSPR) models. For such an analysis, we propose Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models based on theoretical molecular descriptors selected by Genetic Algorithm (GA). Training and prediction sets were prepared a priori by splitting the available experimental data, which were then used to derive statistically robust and predictive (both internally and externally) models. These models, after verification of their structural applicability domain (AD), were used to predict the properties of a total of 351 compounds, including those in the REACH preregistration list. Finally, Principal Component Analysis was applied to the predictions to rank the environmental partitioning properties (relevant for leaching and volatility) of new and untested (benzo)triazoles within the AD of each model. Our study using this approach highlighted compounds dangerous for the aquatic compartment. Similar analyses using predictions obtained by the EPI Suite and

  14. The physicochemical and thermal properties of Malaysian high free fatty acid crude palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadi, Murad Awadh; Salimon, Jumat; Japir, Abd-Wali M.

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the physicochemical properties and the thermal behavior of Malaysian high free fatty acid crude palm oil (HFFA-CPO). The physicochemical properties showed that the free fatty acid (FFA %), acid value, iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter, hydroxyl value, specific gravity, refractive index at 28°C, moisture content, viscosity at 28°C and colour at 28°C values were 9.4±0.1 %, 21.3±0.1 mg/g, 50.6±0.2 mg/g, 203.1±0.1 mg/g, 0.7±0.1%, 43.4±0.2 mg/g, 0.878 g/ml, 1.4669, 0.6 %, 52 cP and 50R-40Y respectively. Gas chromatography (GC) was used to determine the fatty acid (FA) composition in HFFA-CPO. The fatty acids were found to be comprised mostly with 45.7 % palmitic acid (C16:0), 39.5 % oleic acid (C18:1), 9.4 % linoleic acid (C18:2) and 4.3 % stearic acid (C18:0). The analysis of triacylglycerol components with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has resulted with 3.5 % triunsaturated (OOO, OLL and OLO), 32.7 % monosaturated (POO, PLO, SOO and PLL), 35.7 % disaturated (MLP, PPL, PPO, POS and SOS) and 2.32 % trisaturated fatty acids (PPP and PPS). The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that the crystallization of TAG displayed two major exothermic regions of HFFA-CPO with the di and trisaturated TAG at 23.11°C and the di and triunsaturated TAG at 9.31 °C. The melting curve displayed multiple endothermic peak regions at 25.13 °C and 35.31 °C could be attributed to the di and trisaturated TAGs. While the peaks at 0.95 °C, 6.94 °C and 9.77 °C could be attributed to the mono, di and triunsaturated TAGs.

  15. Physico-chemical properties of blends of palm olein with other vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobin Siddique, Bazlul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil (olein was blended with other edible oils for the enhancement of its market acceptability in terms of melting point depression and shelf life. The physico-chemical properties like viscosity, density, melting behavior, peroxide value (PV, saponification value (SV and iodine value (IV of four different binary blends with four vegetable oils were evaluated. Palm olein was found to be more stable against rancidity than the other oils. For the stability against oxidation and melting point depression the palm olein-canola (PO/CO blend was found to be better than the others. The Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC thermogram of the melting behavior of the blends traces some new polymorphs of the triglyceride. This study will help the oil producing industry to find out the most economically viable oil blends for cooking purposes, with maximum nutrition as well as desirable physico-chemical properties.

    Aceite de palma (oleína fue mezclada con otros aceites comestibles para aumentar su aceptabilidad en el mercado en términos de descenso del punto de fusión y mejora de su almacenamiento. Las propiedades físico-químicas tales como viscosidad, densidad, comportamiento en la fusión, valor de peróxidos (PV, valor de saponificación (SV e índice de yodo (IV de cuatro diferentes mezclas binarias con cuatro aceites vegetales fueron evaluadas. La oleína de palma fue más estable frente a la rancidez que otros aceites. En la estabilidad frente la oxidación y el descenso del punto de fusión, la mezcla de oleína de palma/canola (PO/CO fue mejor que las otras. Los termogramas del calorímetro diferencial de barrido (DSC referidos al comportamiento de fusión de las mezclas indican algunos nuevos polimorfismos de los triglicéridos. Este estudio podría ayudar a las empresas que elaboran aceites a encontrar los aceites económicamente más viables para cocinar, con buenas propiedades nutricionales, así como con unas propiedades f

  16. Physicochemical Properties Analysis and Secretome of Aspergillus niger in Fermented Rapeseed Meal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyou Shi

    Full Text Available The nutrient digestibility and feeding value of rapeseed meal (RSM for non-ruminant animals is poor due to the presence of anti-nutritional substances such as glucosinolate, phytic acid, crude fiber etc. In the present study, a solid state fermentation (SSF using Aspergillus niger was carried out with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of RSM. The chemical composition and physicochemical properties of RSM before and after fermentation were compared. To further understand possible mechanism of solid state fermentation, the composition of extracellular enzymes secreted by Aspergillus niger during fermentation was analysed using two-dimentional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE combined with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS. Results of the present study indicated that SSF had significant effects on chemical composition of RSM. The fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM contained more crude protein (CP and amino acid (AA (except His than unfermented RSM. Notably, the small peptide in FRSM was 2.26 time larger than that in unfermented RSM. Concentrations of anti-nutritional substrates in FRSM including neutral detergent fiber (NDF, glucosinolates, isothiocyanate, oxazolidithione, and phytic acid declined (P < 0.05 by 13.47, 43.07, 55.64, 44.68 and 86.09%, respectively, compared with unfermented RSM. A. niger fermentation disrupted the surface structure, changed macromolecular organic compounds, and reduced the protein molecular weights of RSM substrate. Total proteins of raw RSM and FRSM were separated and 51 protein spots were selected for mass spectrometry according to 2D-DIGE map. In identified proteins, there were 15 extracellular hydrolases secreted by A. niger including glucoamylase, acid protease, beta-glucanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylanase, and phytase. Some antioxidant related enzymes also were identified. These findings suggested that A. niger is able to secrete many

  17. Physicochemical and sensory properties of Galician chorizo sausage preserved by refrigeration, freezing, oil-immersion, or vacuum-packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, E; Romero-Rodríguez, M A; Vázquez-Odériz, M L

    2001-05-01

    Galician chorizo sausage is a traditional cured meat product from northwest Spain. We monitored changes in the physicochemical and sensory properties of Galician chorizo sausage conserved by four different methods, namely refrigeration, freezing, immersion in sunflower oil, and vacuum-packing. Refrigeration was the least effective method tested, with rapid deterioration of sensory properties, and oxidative spoilage evident from week 4 onward. Oil immersion and vacuum-packing gave reasonable conservation of sensory properties (despite some masking of aromas by the oil). Freezing gave acceptable conservation of sensory properties, and by week 6 there was still no evidence of oxidative spoilage.

  18. Physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of copaiba oil: implications on product quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata G. Fonseca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The copaiba oil is a common natural product used in cosmetic industry and as a nutraceutical product. However, lack of quality control and scarce knowledge about its antimicrobial activity is a point of concern. The proposal of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties and the antimicrobial activity of five commercial brands of copaiba oil. Material and methods. Acidity and ester index, refractory index, solubility in alcohol, and thin layer chromatography were performed to verify the physicochemical properties of five commercial copaiba oils sold in local pharmacies. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD/ESI-Q-TOF-MS was used to investigate diterpene acids while the volatile compounds were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were also evaluated by agar diffusion technique; and minimal inhibitory concentration and maximal bactericidal concentration were defi ned for each sample and bacteria. Results. The physical-chemical analysis revealed heterogeneity between all samples analysed. The A1 sample showed characteristics of copaiba oil and was mainly composed by hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (29.95% β-bisabolene, 25.65% Z-α-bergamotene and 10.27% β-cariophyllene. Among diterpene acids, the UPLCDAD/ESI-Q-TOF-MS data are compatible with presence of copalic and/or kolavenic acid (m/z 305 [M + H]+. Candida albicans was sensitive to almost all samples at high concentration and Saccaromyces. Cerevisiae showed sensitivity to A1 sample at 100 mg/mL. Although variable, all samples showed antibacterial activity. Significant activity was seen for A3 (19.0 ±0 and 15.6 ±0.5 mm, A4 (16.6 ±0.5 and 15.6 ±0 mm, and A5 (17.1 ±0 and 17.1 ±0 mm on Staphylococcus saprophyticus and S. aureus, respectively. All samples were active against Klebsiella

  19. Effects of phytase-assisted processing method on physicochemical and functional properties of soy protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongjian; Chen, Yeming; Hua, Yufei; Kong, Xiangzhen; Zhang, Caimeng

    2014-11-12

    Phytate is an important antinutritional factor in food products. In this study, a phytase-assisted processing method was used to produce low-phytate soybean protein isolate (SPI) samples, and their physicochemical and functional properties were examined. Hydrolysis condition at low temperature (room temperature) and pH 5.0 was better than that recommended by manufacturer (pH 5.0, 55 °C) at keeping the properties of SPI, so the former condition was selected to prepare SPI samples with phytate contents of 19.86-0.11 mg/g by prolonging hydrolysis time (0 (traditional method), 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 min). Ash content (R(2) = 0.940), solubility (R(2) = 0.983), ζ-potential value (R(2) = 0.793), denaturation temperatures (β-conglycinin, R(2) = 0.941; glycinin, R(2) = 0.977), emulsifying activity index (R(2) = 0.983), foaming capacity (R(2) = 0.955), and trypsin inhibitor activity (R(2) = 0.821) of SPI were positively correlated with phytate content, whereas protein content (R(2) = 0.876), protein recovery (R(2) = 0.781), emulsifying stability index (R(2) = 0.953), foaming stability (R(2) = 0.919), gel hardness (R(2) = 0.893), and in vitro digestibility (R(2) = 0.969) were negatively correlated with phytate content. Simulated gastrointestinal digestion and subsequent dialysis showed that percentages of dialyzable Zn and Ca were increased with decreasing phytate content, whereas the amounts of dialyzable Zn and Ca revealed different behaviors: the former was increased and the latter was decreased. Circular dichroism spectra showed that secondary structure of SPI was changed by phytase. Compared with traditional processing method, the phytase-assisted processing method could produce SPI with lower phytate and higher protein contents, which had better in vitro digestibility and could be used to prepare gels with higher hardness by partially losing some other functional properties.

  20. Physicochemical and functional properties of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chuan-He; Ten, Zi; Wang, Xian-Sheng; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2006-11-15

    The amino acid composition and physicochemical and functional properties of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein isolate (HPI) were evaluated and compared with those of soy protein isolate (SPI). Edestin, a kind of hexameric legumin, was the major protein component. HPI had similar or higher levels of essential amino acids (except lysine), in comparison to those amino acids of SPI. The essential amino acids in HPI (except lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids) are sufficient for the FAO/WHO suggested requirements for 2-5 year old children. The protein solubility (PS) of HPI was lower than that of SPI at pH less than 8.0 but similar at above pH 8.0. HPI contained much higher free sulfhydryl (SH) content than SPI. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that HPI had only one endothermic peak with denaturation temperature (T(d)) of about 95.0 degrees C, attributed to the edestin component. The T(d) of the endotherm was nearly unaffected by 20-40 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate but significantly decreased by 20 mM dithiothreitol (P < 0.05). The emulsifying activity index, emulsion stability index, and water-holding capacity of HPI were much lower than those of SPI, and the fat adsorption capacity was similar. The data suggest that HPI can be used as a valuable source of nutrition for infants and children but has poor functional properties when compared with SPI. The poor functional properties of HPI have been largely attributed to the formation of covalent disulfide bonds between individual proteins and subsequent aggregation at neutral or acidic pH, due to its high free sulfhydryl content from sulfur-containing amino acids.

  1. Physicochemical, pasting, rheological, thermal and morphological properties of horse chestnut starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Syed Insha; Jan, Kulsum; Singh, Sukhcharn; Saxena, D C

    2015-09-01

    Indian Horse chestnuts contain high content of starch which can be explored to be used in various applications in food industry as encapsulating agent, stabilizer, binder, thickener, gelling agents and many more. Horse chest nut is locally available and can be a boon for food industry if the inherent properties are explored. Hence, horse chest nut starch can be a better option for the replacement of conventional starches to meet the industrial demand of starch. Physicochemical, pasting, rheological, thermal and morphological properties of starch isolated from Indian Horse chestnut (HCN) were determined. Amylose content was found to be 26.10 %. Peak viscosity obtained from RVA profile was 4110 cP. Hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness and gumminess were determined by Texture Profile Analyser. Particle size analysis showed a typical Uni modal size distribution profile with particle distribution ranging from 7.52 to 27.44 μm. The shape of starch granules varied from round, irregular, oval, and elliptical with smooth surface. X- ray diffraction revealed that HCN starch showed a typical C-type pattern with characteristic peaks at 5.7, 15.0, 17.3 and 22.3°. The transition temperatures (To, Tp, and Tc) and enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) values were 53.35, 58.81, 63.57 °C and 8.76 J/g, respectively. The rheological properties were determined in terms of variation of storage modulus (G (/)), loss modulus (G (//)) and loss factor (tan δ) at different temperatures. Peak G (/), peak G (//) and peak tan δ values were observed as 10,400 Pa, 1,710 Pa, and 0.164, respectively.

  2. A comparison of the physicochemical properties and a sensory test of Acyclovir creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yutaka; Furuya, Kayoko; Matumoto, Miruto; Murata, Isamu; Kimura, Masayuki; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2012-10-15

    In external medicine, types and ratios of additives are not necessarily the same for well-known brand-name drugs and generic drugs. This study sought to compare the physicochemical properties and sensory test results of a brand-name Acyclovir (ACV) cream and two generic ACV creams. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy revealed changes in absorption spectra attributed to differences in the oil and water content of the 3 creams. In addition, ACV-B and ACV-C had similar NIR absorption spectra. Microscopic examination revealed crystallization in each of the creams and droplets in ACV-C. Powder X-ray diffraction measurement revealed diffraction peaks due to ACV for ACV-A and ACV-B. Assessment of viscoelasticity indicated that stress of subjection to 35 °C caused no changes in the viscoelasticity of ACV-B and ACV-C in comparison to stress of subjection to 25 °C but it did cause the viscoelasticity of ACV-A to decrease. ACV-A had a greater tolerance to stress and a higher viscosity, tan δ, and yield value than the other 2 creams. Results of a sensory test revealed significant differences in adhesiveness, spreadability, and feel for ACV-A in comparison to ACV-B and ACV-C. Thus, differences in the viscosity and elasticity of the creams due to differences in types and ratios of additives were noted. These differences are surmised to be differences in physical properties. In addition, results suggested that viscoelasticity and spreadability in the sensory test reflected differences in physical properties.

  3. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the physicochemical and sensory properties of hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mexis, S.F. [Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Kontominas, M.G. [Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece)], E-mail: mkontomi@cc.uoi.gr

    2009-06-15

    The present study evaluated the quality of hazelnuts as a function of irradiation dose to determine dose levels causing minimal undesirable changes to hazelnuts. Physicochemical (color, peroxide value (PV), hexanal content, fatty acid composition and volatile compounds) and sensory (color, texture, odor and taste) properties were determined. Results showed a twenty fold increase in peroxide value and twenty-eight fold increase in hexanal content after irradiation at a dose of 7 kGy. An increase was also observed in saturated fatty acids (10%-23%) with a parallel decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (90-77%). Volatile compounds such as ketones, alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes, furans, aromatic hydrocarbons, bicyclic monoterpenes and acids were produced mostly comprising secondary oxidation products of hazelnut lipids after irradiation. Color parameter b* increased (p<0.05) after irradiation at a dose of {>=}5 kGy, while color parameters L* and a* remained unchanged by irradiation. Sensory evaluation showed that texture and color were not affected by irradiation. Taste, the most sensitive sensory attribute showed that hazelnuts retain acceptable sensory quality when irradiated up to a dose of 1.5 kGy.

  4. Effect of modified yam (Dioscorea esculenta) flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, M. N.; Cakrawati, D.; Handayani, S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study were to know characteristics of yam modified flour; to know the effect of modified yam flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt and to determine the concentration level of modified yam flour to produce symbiotic yoghurt preferred by panelists. The reasearch was conducted using one factor complete randomized design. Modified yam flour was added to yoghurt at concentration of 2%, 4%, 6%. The effect of physical modification were investigated. Proximate analysis showed modified yam flour consist of 7.66% moisture content, 1.42% ash content, 10.16%, dietary fiber, 7.49% inulin, and 71.78% total starch content. Result obtained that modified yam flour has yield of 10.54%, the modified yam flour showed solubility and water absopsion of 77,63% and 136,65 respectively. The addition of modified yam flour on yoghurt resulted significantly difference effect on texture, but did not have significantly difference on colour, flavour and aroma. Modified yam flour added yoghurt thickness because it was gelatinized when added to yoghurt at 40°C. Sensory analysis conducted with hedonic test showed synbiotic yoghurt added with 2% of modified yam flour most preferred by panellists. Synbiotic yoghurt with 2% of modified yam flour has pH number of 4, 8 and total acid tirated of 1, 7%.

  5. Discrimination of Chinese traditional soy sauces based on their physico-chemical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOKOT; Serge

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed to classify the categories (produced by different processes) and brands (obtained from different geographical origins) of Chinese soy sauces.Nine variables of physico-chemical properties (density,pH,dry matter,ashes,electric conductivity,amino nitrogen,salt,viscosity and total acidity) of 53 soy sauce samples were measured.The measured data was submitted to such pattern recognition as cluster analysis (CA),principal component analysis (PCA),discrimination partial least squares (DPLS),linear discrimination analysis (LDA) and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) to evaluate the data patterns and the possibility of differentiating Chinese soy sauces between different categories and brands.Two clusters corresponding to the two categories were obtained,and each cluster was divided into three subsets corresponding to three brands by the CA method.The variables for LDA and KNN were selected by the Fisher F-ratio approach.The prediction ability of all classifiers was evaluated by cross-validation.For the three supervised discrimination analyses,LDA and KNN gave 100% predications according to the sample category and brand.

  6. The effect of wash cleaning and demagnetization process on the fly ash physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baliński

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Problems related in this study concern the possibility of improving the physico-chemical properties of fly ash used as a base granular material in moulding mixtures. The investigations were carried out mainly to evaluate the process of the fly ash modification performed in order to stabilize its mineralogical and chemical composition. Changes in chemical composition, specific surface and helium density of fly ash after the process of its wash cleaning and demagnetization were examined. The analysis of the data has proved that the process of wash cleaning considerably reduces the content of sodium and potassium. Calcium and magnesium are washed out, too. The wash cleaning process of fly ash reduces also its true density. This fact can be due to the washing out of illite as well as some fractions of haematite (the grains weakly bonded to the glassy phase. The process of demagnetization allows removing about 25.7% of the magnetic phase calculated in terms of Fe2O3. The process of demagnetization is accompanied by a decrease in the content of aluminium, sodium, potassium and calcium, and a reduction in the size of the specific surface by over one half. The possible processes of transformation have also been discussed.

  7. Physico-chemical properties of biodiesel manufactured from waste frying oil using domestic adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Samir Abd-elmonem A.; Ali, Rehab Farouk M.

    2015-06-01

    We have evaluated the efficiency of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA), date palm seed carbon (DPSC), and rice husk ash (RHA) as natural adsorbents and compared them with the synthetic adsorbent Magnesol XL for improving the quality of waste frying oil (WFO) and for the impact on the physicochemical properties of the obtained biodiesel. We measured moisture content, refractive index (RI), density, acid value (AV), iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), and saponification value (SV), as well as fatty acid profile. Purification treatments with various levels of adsorbents caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) decreases in free fatty acids (FFAs), PVs, and IVs. The highest yields (86.45 and 87.80%) were observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO treated with 2% Magnesol and 3% of RHA, respectively, followed by samples treated with 2 and 3% of DPSC or RHA. Pre-treatments caused a significant decrease in the content of C 18:2 linoleic acids, consistent with a significant increase in the content of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the treated samples. The highest oxidation value (COX) (1.30) was observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO without purification treatments. However, the lowest values (0.44-0.73) were observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO treated with different levels of adsorbents. Our results indicate that pre-treatments with different levels of adsorbents regenerated the quality of WFO and improved the quality of the obtained biodiesel.

  8. Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa (mucuna deeringiana and soybean (glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Chaparro Acuña

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa flour (Mucuna deeringiana and soybean flour (Glycine max were determined. Oil absorption capacity was higher in vitabosa. Water absorption capacity was higher in soy and it was affected by the change in the ionic strength of the medium. Emulsifying Activity (EA decreased with increasing concentration of flour, while Emulsifying Stability (ES showed an increased. EA and ES of flours have more ionic strength in the range between 0.0 and 0.4 M, but it is reduced afterwards with the higher concentration of NaCl. Foaming stability varied with the concentration of flour solution reaching maximum values of 39 and 33% for vitabosa and soybean, respectively at 10% flour concentration.Vitabosa had the best foaming capacity (56% to 0.6 M compared with soybeans (47% to 0.4 M. Maximum capacity of gelation was observed in vitabosa at 10% flour concentration. Increases in ionic strength of the flour solution, at low salt concentrations (<0.4 M, improved the gelation of flours.

  9. Chitosan-Based Nano-Embedded Microparticles: Impact of Nanogel Composition on Physicochemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Paromita; Water, Jorrit J; Bohr, Adam; Rantanen, Jukka

    2016-12-22

    Chitosan-based nanogels have been widely applied as drug delivery vehicles. Spray-drying of said nanogels allows for the preparation of dry powder nano-embedded microparticles. In this work, chitosan-based nanogels composed of chitosan, alginate, and/or sodium tri-penta phosphate were investigated, particularly with respect to the impact of composition on the resulting physicochemical properties. Different compositions were obtained as nanogels with sizes ranging from 203 to 561 nm. The addition of alginate and exclusion of sodium tri-penta phosphate led to an increase in nanogel size. The nanogels were subsequently spray-dried to form nano-embedded microparticles with trehalose or mannitol as matrix excipient. The microparticles of different composition were mostly spherical with a smooth surface and a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 6-10 µm. Superior redispersibility was observed for microparticles containing amorphous trehalose. This study demonstrates the potential of nano-embedded microparticles for stabilization and delivery of nanogel-based delivery systems.

  10. Physicochemical and sensory properties of ice-cream formulated with virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, S Y; Leong, S K; Henna Lu, F S

    2010-12-01

    The substitution of milk fat with virgin coconut oil (VCO) was used to produce nutritious ice cream with pleasant coconut flavor and aroma. Three formulations were developed whereby formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 was substituted with 4%, 8% and 12% of VCO, respectively. The physicochemical properties of ice creams analyzed include overrun, meltdown, pH, titratable acidity, total solid, protein and fat content. The fatty acids profile of VCO formulated ice creams and their stabilities over 3 and 6 weeks storage were studied respectively using gas chromatography (GC). Qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and consumer affective test were performed among the trained and untrained panelists. Significant differences (p ice cream formulations were observed except titratable acidity. Increased VCO content in ice cream formulations lowered the melting resistance of ice cream. For GC analysis, the major fatty acid identified was lauric acid. Upon storage time, the concentration of unsaturated fatty acid decreased but the concentration of saturated fatty acid increased. The result of QDA showed that formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 were significantly (p ice cream. Formulation VCO12 was highly accepted by panelists in terms of the acceptance level of appearance, aroma, texture, flavor and overall acceptability. Hence, it has a potential marketable value.

  11. Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Rheolgical Properties of Different Wheat Varieties Grown in Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahvish Jabeen Channa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the physico-chemical and rheological properties of 17 wheat varieties (TJ-83, Jouhar, TD-1, Anmool, Mehran, Indus-66, Sindh B-1, Abadgar, Bhittai, Imdad, Mexi-Pak, Soughat, Blue Silver, Moomal, Marvi, Kiran, and Pak-70 commercially grown on experimental field of Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam. The results revealed that moisture % were in range of 11 to 12 among all varieties, high protein content of about 15.2% was found in Mehran and Blue silver varieties, starch was found high in Maxi-pak (70.6%, high hardness values in Imdad (70.1% and Jouhar (70.2%. However, zeleny content was found high in Marvi, Abadgaar and Mehran i.e. 71%. Amylographic results showed that among all varieties the Bhittai variety required maximum temperature up to 65.7 oC for the beginning of gelatinization as compared to other varieties. The highest gelatinization temperature was noted up to 96.7 oC in Moomal whereas others had temperature from 82.7 to 89.0 oC. Highest gelatinization maxima (1782AU acquired by T.J-83 variety. The results of Farinograph showed that highest water absorption was noted in Anmool variety. The highest dough development time and dough stability were found highest in Kiran and Indus-66, respectively. T.D-1 and Jouhar varieties had highest break down time as well as highest Farinograph quality.

  12. Evaluation of physicochemical properties, proximate and nutritional composition of Gracilaria edulis collected from Palk Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, Ravi; Pandima Devi, Kasi

    2015-05-01

    Gracilaria edulis, a red alga present in southeast coast of India was evaluated for its nutritional composition. FT-IR analysis of soluble polysaccharides revealed the presence of galactans, 3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactopyranose, sulphated galactose and the gelling agent agar, with the sulphate content estimated as 51.01 μg/mg of polysaccharide. Results of physicochemical properties and nutritional profile reveal the presence of dietary fibre (8.9 ± 0.62% DW), carbohydrate (101.61 ± 1.8 mg/g DW), crude protein (6.68 ± 0.94 mg/g DW) and lipid content (8.3 ± 1.03 mg/g DW). G. edulis contains biologically important fatty acids like palmitic acid (2.06%), linolenic acid (2.56%), and oleic acid (1.98%). The other nutritional components present in high amounts are proline, chlorophyll A and B, all the essential amino acids and vitamin A, E and C. These findings suggest that G. edulis has potent nutritional value which might be used as a source of nutrients for human and animals.

  13. Physicochemical properties and potential health effects of nanoparticles from pulverized coal combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU DunXi; XU MingHou; YAO Hong; LIU XiaoWei; ZHOU Ke; WEN Chang; LI Lin

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles are thought to induce more severe health impacts than larger particles. The nanoparti-cles from coal-fired boilers are classified into three size fractions with a 13-stage low pressure impactor. Their physicochemical properties are characterized by the high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF). The results show that coal-derived nanoparticles mainly consist of individual primary particles of 20-150 nm and their aggregates. Inor-ganic nanoparticles primarily contain ash-forming elements and their aggregates have a dense struc-ture. Organic nanoparticles are dominated by the element carbon and their aggregates have a loose structure. Nanoparticles from the same boiler have a similar composition and are primarily composed of sulfur, refractory elements and alkali/alkaline elements. Some transition and heavy metals are also detected. For different boilers, greater differences are observed in the production of the nanoparticles and their composition, possibly due to the use of low-NOx burners. Coal-derived nanoparticles have a small size, large specific surface area and complicated chemical composition, and thus are potentially more harmful to human health.

  14. Effect of inulin and glycerol supplementation on physicochemical properties of probiotic frozen yogurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzammil, Hafiz Shehzad; Rasco, Barbara; Sablani, Shyam

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study was designed to investigate the effects of inulin and glycerol supplementation on physicochemical properties of probiotic frozen yogurt. Frozen yogurt was prepared with different types of probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis) along with yogurt starter culture (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus). The frozen yogurt mixture was supplemented with inulin (2%, 4%, and 6%) and glycerol (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%). The results showed that inulin 4% and 6% supplementation increased the overrun by 3% and 5% and the glass transition temperature by 3.3% and 2.8%, and decreased the hardness by 7% and 11%, respectively. Inulin supplementation did not have a significant effect on ice crystal size (p > 0.05). Glycerol supplementation increased the stickiness from 2.4% to 18.7%, and decreased the hardness from 8.0% to 14.5% and the glass transition temperature from 2.4% to 34.5%, respectively. Glycerol supplementation did not have a significant effect on overrun or melting rate (p > 0.05). PMID:28326004

  15. Structural characteristics and physicochemical properties of lotus seed resistant starch prepared by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shaoxiao; Wu, Xiaoting; Lin, Shan; Zeng, Hongliang; Lu, Xu; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong

    2015-11-01

    Lotus seed resistant starch (LRS) is commonly known as resistant starch type 3 (LRS3). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different preparation methods on the structural characteristics and physicochemical properties of LRS3. The molar mass of LRS3 prepared by autoclaving method (GP-LRS3) and ultrasonic-autoclaving method (UP-LRS3) was mainly distributed in the range 1.0 × 10(4)-2 × 10(4) g/mol while a decrease of LRS3 prepared by microwave-moisture method (MP-LRS3) was observed. The particle of MP-LRS3 was smaller and relatively smoother while UP-LRS3 was bigger and rougher compared to GP-LRS3. Among these samples, GP-LRS3 exhibited the highest degree of ordered structure and crystallinity, the amorphous region of MP-LRS3 was the biggest and UP-LRS3 displayed the highest degree of double helical structure. Additionally, MP-LRS3 displayed the strongest solubility and swelling power while UP-LRS3 exhibited the strongest iodine absorption ability and thermostability, which were affected by their structural characteristics.

  16. Ultrasound treatment: effect on physicochemical, microbial and antioxidant properties of cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Sabeera; Ahmad, Mudasir; Wani, S M; Gani, Adil; Baba, Waqas N; Shah, Umar; Khan, Asma Ashraf; Masoodi, F A; Gani, Asir; Wani, Touseef Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    The cherry was treated with ultrasonic waves (33 kHz, 60 W) at different time intervals (10, 20, 30, 40, 60 min) and study was carried out to analyze the change in physico-chemical properties (TSS, pH, color, acidity and firmness), antioxidant potential and microbial load of the fruit during the storage period of 15 days at 4 °C. It was observed that ultrasound treatment (US) between 30 and 40 min showed better retention of color of the fruit during the storage period. The antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS and TPC) also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) up to 40 min, however the firmness of the fruit was affected and it showed a significant decrease beyond 20 min of US treatment. The sample with 40 min US treatment showed significantly less microbial load than other samples. The 20-40 min US treatment time (33 kHz, 60 W) was suggested for preservation of cherry during the storage at 4 °C.

  17. Simultaneous incorporation of magnesium and carbonate in apatite: effect on physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia S. Sader

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic apatites are widely used both in the dental and the orthopaedic fields due to their similarity in composition with the inorganic phase of hard tissues. Biologic apatites are not pure hydroxyapatite (HA, but are calcium-deficient apatites with magnesium and carbonate as minor but important substituents. The aim of the present study was to produce a more soluble biomaterial through the simultaneous substitution of magnesium and carbonate in the apatite structure to accelerate the degradation time in the body. The physico-chemical and dissolution properties of unsintered magnesium and carbonate-substituted apatite (MCAp with similar Mg/Ca molar ratio (0.03 and varying C/P molar ratio were evaluated. The resultant powders were characterised using several techniques, such as FTIR, TGA, XRD, ICP and SEM, while the release of calcium ions in a pH 6 solution was monitored using a Ca-ion selective electrode. The results showed a decrease of crystallite size and an increase in the release of calcium to the medium as the carbonate content in the samples increased.

  18. [Composition, physico-chemical properties and molecular superstructure of dietary fiber preparations of the cellan type].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongowski, G; Frigge, K; Zenke, I

    1995-07-01

    Dietary fiber preparations of "cellan" type were prepared from apples, white cabbage, sugar beet pulp, soy hulls and wheat bran by treatment with amylolytic and proteolytic enzymes as well as by chemical extractions. Scanning electron microscopic examinations show different morphological structures of the preparations and a high maintenance of native biomolecular superstructure. The content of pectin, protein, polysaccharide-hexoses and -pentoses and the composition of monosaccharides (also after their treatment with 4 or 8% sodium hydroxide) were determined. The cellans possess waterbinding capacities (WBC) between 25 g H2O/g and waterholding capacities between 50 g H2O/g. The WBC is related to the internal surface; it diminishes after treatment with NaOH. The interactions between the cellans and the adsorbed water were characterized by NMR-spin-lattice relaxation time T1. The molecular mobility increases as the water content grows. The T1-values of dried cellans decreased with increasing degree of moisture before drying. The supermolecular structure is comparatively disordered. Only in case of soy cellan a crystalline cellulose-I-modification could be identified by X-ray-diffraction pattern, esp. after NaOH treatment. The low degree of order of cellans was observed in the 13C-NMR spectra, too. Only the soy hull preparation resulted in a spectrum corresponding to well-ordered cellulose. The botanic source has an essential influence on the physico-chemical properties of dietary fiber preparations of cellan type.

  19. Effect of citric acid concentration and hydrolysis time on physicochemical properties of sweet potato starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra Babu, Ayenampudi; Parimalavalli, Ramanathan; Rudra, Shalini Gaur

    2015-09-01

    Physicochemical properties of citric acid treated sweet potato starches were investigated in the present study. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed using citric acid with different concentrations (1 and 5%) and time periods (1 and 11 h) at 45 °C and was denoted as citric acid treated starch (CTS1 to CTS4) based on their experimental conditions. The recovery yield of acid treated starches was above 85%. The CTS4 sample displayed the highest amylose (around 31%) and water holding capacity its melting temperature was 47.66 °C. The digestibility rate was slightly increased for 78.58% for the CTS3 and CTS4. The gel strength of acid modified starches ranged from 0.27 kg to 1.11 kg. RVA results of acid thinned starches confirmed a low viscosity profile. CTS3 starch illustrated lower enthalpy compared to all other modified starches. All starch samples exhibited a shear-thinning behavior. SEM analysis revealed that the extent of visible degradation was increased at higher hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The CTS3 satisfied the criteria required for starch to act as a fat mimetic. Overall results conveyed that the citric acid treatment of sweet potato starch with 5% acid concentration and 11h period was an ideal condition for the preparation of a fat replacer.

  20. Effect of ball-milling on the physicochemical properties of maize starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghua He

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ball-milling on physicochemical properties of maize starch was evaluated. Results found that the cold water solubility (CWS of maize starch was positively correlated with the time of milling up to 3 h. There was no significant influence of using a ceramic pot versus a stainless steel pot on CWS. However, following 5 h of ball-milling CWS increased quite dramatically in the ceramic pot (72.6% and in the stainless steel pot (70.7%, as compared to the untreated maize starches (2.9%. In addition, as CWS increased, the regions of amorphism enlarged at the expense of the crystalline regions, resulting in a change from the native starch state (oval with a smooth surface to having more of a rough, abrasive surface. Finally, the transparency of the starch increased as CWS increased and that the syneresis of freeze–thawed ball-milled maize starch also increased with an increase in the number of freeze–thaw cycles.

  1. Structural and physicochemical properties of lotus seed starch treated with ultra-high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zebin; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Lu, Xu; Zhou, Meiling; Zheng, Mingjing; Zheng, Baodong

    2015-11-01

    Aqueous lotus seed starch suspensions (15%, w/w) were subjected to ultra-high pressure treatment (UHP, 100-600 MPa) for 30 min. The effects of UHP treatment on the structural and physicochemical properties of starch were investigated. The SEM and laser diffraction particle size analysis revealed that UHP treatment affected the shape and size distribution of starch granules. The morphological structure of starch was completely destroyed at 600 MPa, indicating complete gelatinization. Analysis of HPSEC-MALLS-RI suggested that the dispersity index of UHP-treated starch were decreased from 1.28 to 1.11. According to XRD analyses, UHP treatment converted native starch (C-type) into a B-type pattern. The swelling power and solubility presented a significant decrease at 85 and 95 °C, but opposite trends were found at 55-75 °C. The DSC results indicated a reduction in gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy with increasing pressure treatment. The RVA viscograms revealed that UHP-treated starch showed a decreased breakdown and setback viscosity, reflecting lower retrogradation tendency compared to native starch.

  2. Prediction of drug release from HPMC matrices: effect of physicochemical properties of drug and polymer concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X C; Wang, G P; Liang, W Q; Chow, M S S

    2004-03-05

    A working equation to predict drug release from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) matrices was derived using a training set of HPMC matrices having different HPMC concentration (w/w, 16.5-55%) and different drugs (solubilities of 1.126-125.5 g/100 ml in water and molecular volumes of 0.1569-0.4996 nm(3)). The equation was log(M(t)/M( infinity ))=-0.6747+1.027 log t -0.1759 (log C(s)) log t +0.4027 (log V) log t -1.041C(H) +0.3213 (log C(s)) C(H) -0.4101 (log V) C(H) -0.3521 (log V) log C(s) (n=263, r=0.9831), where M(t) is the amount of drug released at time t, M( infinity ) the amount of drug released over a very long time, which corresponds in principle to the initial loading, t the release time (h), C(s) the drug solubility in water (g/100 ml), V the volume of drug molecule (nm(3)), and C(H) is HPMC concentration (w/w). The benefit of the novel model is to predict M(t)/M( infinity ) values of a drug from formulation and its physicochemical properties, so applicable to the HPMC matrices of different polymer levels and different drugs including soluble drugs and slightly soluble drugs.

  3. Production of natural edible melanin by Auricularia auricula and its physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shujing; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Chen, Wenxing; Zhang, Liaoyuan; Zhu, Hu

    2016-04-01

    Fermentation conditions of natural edible melanin by Auricularia auricula were optimized to obtain a high melanin yield and physicochemical properties of melanin were firstly investigated. The results indicated that yeast extract, tyrosine and lactose have significant effects on melanin production. Under the proposed optimized conditions, the melanin experimental yield (2.97 g/L) closely matched the value (3.04 g/L) predicted by the second-order model, which provided a statistically prediction of media in submerged fermentation of A. auricula. The yield achieved was 2.14-fold higher compared to the control. It was firstly revealed that tyrosine could stimulate melanin synthesis in A. auricula. The results showed that this melanin had better thermostability and light resistance, and its solubility was relatively high under alkaline conditions. Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) could result in melanin precipitation. The results should be useful for the efficient production of melanin and enable numerous applications in food, cosmetics, pharmacology, medicines and other fields.

  4. Composition and Physico-Chemical Properties of Meat from Capons Fed Cereals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olga Díaz; Luisana Rodríguez; Alexandr Torres; Ángel Cobos

    2013-01-01

    Chemical composition, physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of breast and drumstick meat from capons (castrated male cockerels) fed cereals were studied. Three groups of capons were reared. One group was fed ad libitum the same commercial diet until the 4th mon of life. The last month of its life, the capons of this group were fed corn. The second and third group of capons were fed the same diet from caponization. The second group was fed mixture of corn (50%) and wheat (50%). The third group of capons was fed 2/3 corn and 1/3 mixture of corn (50%) and barley (50%). Capons were reared under free-range conditions and slaughtered at 150 d of age. Caponization was performed at 48 d. No signiifcant effects of feeding in chemical composition, pH, water holding capacity, drip and cooking losses and texture of the meat were observed. The meat of the third group (capons fed 83%corn) was more yellow and showed higher content of C18:2 than that of the other capons.

  5. The Influence of Maltodextrin on the Physicochemical Properties and Stabilization of Beta-carotene Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianpan; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Wang, Xinyi; Huang, Ying; Yang, Beibei; Pan, Xin; Wu, Chuanbin

    2016-06-27

    Beta-carotene is important for fortification of nutritional products while its application is limited by instability. The influence of maltodextrin (MDX) on physicochemical properties and stability of beta-carotene emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate (SC) was investigated. The emulsions were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), laser diffraction (LD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), rheometer, and turbiscan lab expert. The effects of pH, ionic strength, and freeze-thaw on stability of emulsions were observed. The emulsions could tolerate up to 2 mol/L NaCl or 10 mmol/L CaCl2 and showed Newtonian behavior. The droplet diameter, polydispersity index, and zeta-potential did not change obviously after 3 months storage at 4°C in dark conditions. The emulsions with MDX showed excellent freeze-thaw stability and gave favorite protection for beta-carotene. The retention ratio of beta-carotene in the emulsions with MDX was above 92.1% after 3 months storage while that in the one without MDX was only 62.7%. The study may provide a promising strategy to improve stability of sensitive nutraceuticals without adding synthetic antioxidants. The findings obtained could provide fundamental basis for rational design of emulsion delivery systems when freeze-thawing is required during manufacturing process or storage period.

  6. Physicochemical properties and heavy metals leachability of fly ash from coal-fired power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Wei; Han Baoping; Zhou Dong; Nzihou Ange

    2012-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of fly ash from two kinds of coal-fired power plants were studied.Three aspects were examined:the micro-morphology,the mineral composition and the content of heavy met als.The results show that the fly ash from plants using a circulating fluidized bed are more irregular particles,while the particles from the plants using a pulverized coal-fired boiler are mainly spherical in shape.Quartz and mullite are the main crystalline phases in the ash.Clearly,both the technology and the coal used by a power plant can influence the mineral composition of the ash.The mineral composition of fly ash from a circulating fluidized bed is more complex than that from a pulverized coal-fired boiler.The quantity of elements found in the fly ash is greater than that found in the bottom ash for the same plant.Heavy metals are likely to be enriched in the fly ash.Heavy metal leachability was studied using two leaching methods.The results indicate that most of the heavy metals that leached during either batch leaching or column leaching experiments did not exceed the related maximum concentration standards.But Ni concentrations in the leachates from both batch and column tests exceed the standard.The highest excess rates in both tests were 572% and 497%,which levels might threaten the environment.

  7. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of kiwifruit as a function of cultivar and fruit harvested month

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Singh Pal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to find the effect of fruit harvesting stage (October, November and December on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties in five kiwi cultivars (Abbot, Bruno, Allison, Hayward, Monty. Results showed that soluble solid content (SSC and pH increased while ascorbic acid (Vit C, titrated acidity (TAD and SSC/TAD decreased in all the cultivars with delay in harvesting. Total polyphenols (TP were decreased while total flavonoids (TF increased in all tested cultivars with delay in harvesting. The highest concentration of TP (2.02 mg gallic acid equivalent/g fresh weight and TF (51.12 mg catechin equivalent/100g FW were found in cultivar 'Allison' in the month of October and December, respectively. Antioxidant activities (AA were genotype depended and no trend was observed with month of harvesting. Principal component analysis (PCA showed strong correlation between Vit C, TP and antioxidant activities. Two major clusters were computed using agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC. All the studied important traits may be used in the breeding programmes to increase the variability for different physiochemical and antioxidative characteristics and to make suitable selections that could be acceptable to consumers.

  8. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hye-Ryun Kim; Il-Doo Kim; Sanjeev Kumar Dhungana; Mi-Ok Kim; Dong-Hyun Shin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample.Methods:The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid (˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities.Results:Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively.Conclusions:The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health.

  9. Physicochemical and thermal properties of gamma-irradiated sago (Metroxylon sagu) starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Zainon; Hassan, Osman; Hashim, Kamaruddin

    2015-04-01

    Sago (Metroxylon sagu) starch was exposed to gamma-irradiation in air at doses 6, 10 and 25 kGy. Subsequent changes in the physicochemical and thermal properties were measured. The apparent amylose content and swelling power of irradiated sago starch was significantly reduced while reducing sugars and starch solubility were significantly increased due to degradation. X-ray diffraction studies showed that radiation did not affect the crystalline type but induced a decrease in the degree of crystallinity, indicating the destruction of the ordered distribution of neighboring polysaccharide chains in the starch granules, in particular of the amylopectin component, which is responsible for starch crystallinity. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of irradiated sago starch showed a small but significant increase in the onset and peak transition temperatures at 10 and 25 kGy dose; the conclusion temperature and gelatinization enthalpy was not affected. SEM and particle size analysis produced no evidence of physical damage to sago starch up to 25 kGy dose radiation treatment since the granular appearance and size distribution was retained.

  10. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of margarine containing Opuntia ficus-indica peel extract as antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougui, Nadia; Djerroud, Naima; Naraoui, Fatima; Hadjal, Samir; Aliane, Khellaf; Zeroual, Brahim; Larbat, Romain

    2015-04-15

    This study falls within the framework of the industrial exploitation of by-products of the prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). The study aims to evaluate the use of hydro-ethanolic extract of prickly pear peels as a substitute of vitamin E used as antioxidant in margarine preservation. The extract was rich in total phenolics (1512.58 mg GAE/100 g DM). HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analyses allowed the identification of sixteen compounds belonging to hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The extract displayed a reducing power and an antiradical activity that were respectively similar to and lower than the two antioxidant standards quercetin and butylated hydroxyanisole. Tests conducted at laboratory and pilot scales showed that the margarines elaborated with peel extract were more resistant to oxidation than the margarine reference with vitamin E. In addition, neither the physicochemical nor the microbiological properties were modified. Prickly pear peels contain bioactive substances that could be used in different food sectors.

  11. Molecular structure and physicochemical properties of potato and bean starches as affected by gamma-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun-Jung; Liu, Qiang

    2010-08-01

    In this study, potato and bean starches were treated by gamma-irradiation up to 50kGy. Molecular structure and physicochemical properties of irradiated potato and bean starches were investigated. Microscopic observation under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and polarized microscope showed that some of potato and bean starch granules were destroyed by gamma-irradiation and the breakage was much greater at a higher dose (50 kGy). Carboxyl content and amylose leaching increased, whereas the swelling factor and apparent amylose content decreased after irradiation in both potato and bean starches. The proportions of short (DP 6-12) and long (DP > or = 37) amylopectin chains as well as average chain length increased with increasing irradiation dose. However, the proportion of DP 13-24 decreased by irradiation. The relative crystallinity, the degree of granule surface order, and gelatinization enthalpy decreased with an increase in irradiation dose. The extent of decrease in potato starch was greater than that in bean starch. The exothermic peak around 90-110 degrees C was observed in DSC thermogram when the potato starch was irradiated at 50 kGy. The pasting viscosity significantly decreased with an increase in irradiation dose. The proportion of slowly digestible starch (SDS) decreased and resistant starch (RS) content increased by irradiation in both potato and bean starches. However, the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) of potato starch increased with increasing irradiation dose, whereas the bean starch showed the opposite trend to potato starch in RDS content.

  12. Streptococcus suis sorption on agricultural soils: role of soil physico-chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenqiang; Liu, Xing; Huang, Qiaoyun; Cai, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Understanding pathogen sorption on natural soil particles is crucial to protect public health from soilborne and waterborne diseases. Sorption of pathogen Streptococcus suis on 10 agricultural soils was examined, and its correlations with soil physico-chemical properties were also elucidated. S. suis sorption isotherms conformed to the linear equation, with partition coefficients (Ks) ranging from 12.7 mL g(-1) to 100.1 mL g(-1). Bacteria were observed to sorb on the external surfaces of soil aggregates by scanning electron microscopy. Using Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis, solution pH was found to have significant negative correlations with Ks. Stepwise multiple regression and path analysis revealed that pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were the main factors influencing sorption behaviors. The obtained overall model (Ks=389.6-45.9×pH-1.3×CEC, R(2)=0.943, PKs values. However, the variability in Ks was less dependent on soil organic matter, specific surface area, soil texture and zeta potential, probably due to the internal-surface shielding phenomenon of soil aggregates. Additionally, the sorption trends cannot be interpreted by interaction energy barriers calculated using the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, suggesting the limits of DLVO theory in describing pathogen sorption on natural soils. Our results also indicated soil pH and CEC should be preferentially considered when modeling S. suis sorption process.

  13. Influence of Surfactant and Lipid Type on the Physicochemical Properties and Biocompatibility of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Dal Pizzol

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nine types of solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN formulations were produced using tripalmitin (TPM, glyceryl monostearate (GM or stearic acid (SA, stabilized with lecithin S75 and polysorbate 80. Formulations were prepared presenting PI values within 0.25 to 0.30, and the physicochemical properties, stability upon storage and biocompatibility were evaluated. The average particle size ranged from 116 to 306 nm, with a negative surface charge around −11 mV. SLN presented good stability up to 60 days. The SLN manufactured using SA could not be measured by DLS due to the reflective feature of this formulation. However, TEM images revealed that SA nanoparticles presented square/rod shapes with an approximate size of 100 nm. Regarding biocompatibility aspects, SA nanoparticles showed toxicity in fibroblasts, causing cell death, and produced high hemolytic rates, indicating toxicity to red blood cells. This finding might be related to lipid type, as well as, the shape of the nanoparticles. No morphological alterations and hemolytic effects were observed in cells incubated with SLN containing TPM and GM. The SLN containing TPM and GM showed long-term stability, suggesting good shelf-life. The results indicate high toxicity of SLN prepared with SA, and strongly suggest that the components of the formulation should be analyzed in combination rather than separately to avoid misinterpretation of the results.

  14. Influence of surfactant and lipid type on the physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzol, Carine Dal; Filippin-Monteiro, Fabíola Branco; Restrepo, Jelver Alexander Sierra; Pittella, Frederico; Silva, Adny Henrique; Alves de Souza, Paula; Machado de Campos, Angela; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia Beatriz

    2014-08-20

    Nine types of solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) formulations were produced using tripalmitin (TPM), glyceryl monostearate (GM) or stearic acid (SA), stabilized with lecithin S75 and polysorbate 80. Formulations were prepared presenting PI values within 0.25 to 0.30, and the physicochemical properties, stability upon storage and biocompatibility were evaluated. The average particle size ranged from 116 to 306 nm, with a negative surface charge around -11 mV. SLN presented good stability up to 60 days. The SLN manufactured using SA could not be measured by DLS due to the reflective feature of this formulation. However, TEM images revealed that SA nanoparticles presented square/rod shapes with an approximate size of 100 nm. Regarding biocompatibility aspects, SA nanoparticles showed toxicity in fibroblasts, causing cell death, and produced high hemolytic rates, indicating toxicity to red blood cells. This finding might be related to lipid type, as well as, the shape of the nanoparticles. No morphological alterations and hemolytic effects were observed in cells incubated with SLN containing TPM and GM. The SLN containing TPM and GM showed long-term stability, suggesting good shelf-life. The results indicate high toxicity of SLN prepared with SA, and strongly suggest that the components of the formulation should be analyzed in combination rather than separately to avoid misinterpretation of the results.

  15. A TD-DFT Study on the Photo-Physicochemical Properties of Chrysophanol from Rheum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhan Chen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As a naturally occurring anthraquinone pigment, chrysophanol (MHAQ has attracted considerable attention in recent years owing to its efficient photosensitivity under the solar spectrum. Considering the successful use of time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT in investigating the photo-physicochemical behaviors of dyes and pigments, we performed a study by means of TD-DFT calculations, which provided us with various excited state properties of chrysophanol, including absorption spectrum, lowest triplet excited-state energy, vertical electron affinity and vertical ionization potential. On the basis of the calculated results, the photosensitive mechanisms of chrysophanol were discussed and some deeper insights were gained. First, we indicated that the experimentally observed chrysophanol’s photo-damage to DNA in oxygen-free media is more likely to arise from MHAQ •+ rather than from T1 state chrysophanol. Second, we revealed that it is the MHAQ •− that is responsible for the O2•− generation in solvents. Based on the photosensitive activities, chrysophanol may be potentially used as the photodynamic medicine for clinical therapy of the diseases occurring on the shallow surface and vascular capillary diseases.

  16. Chemical constituents, physicochemical properties and antibacterial activity of leaves essential oil of Ocimum urticifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketema Alemayehu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine chemical compositions, physicochemical properties and evaluating antibacterial activities of essential oils extracted from leaves of Ocimum urticifolium (O. urticifolium. Methods: Essential oil of O. urticifolium was extracted by hydrodistillation technique. A number of phytochemical screening tests were applied to identify the classes of compounds in the leaves extract of O. urticifolium. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were used to characterize the chemical components in the essential oil. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity as per of standard procedure. Results: Phytochemical screening of crude extract revealed that the presence of tannins, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and phenols. The obtained oil yield is (0.33 ± 0.11 % (v/w. Analysis of oil using gas chromatography and gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry showed a total of 22 components, the abundance of monoterpene and sesquiterpenes (98.99%. The percentage composition of monoterpene in the oil was α-pinene (22.105%, eugenol (21.099%, while sesquiterpenes α-cubebene (11.341%, α-bisabolene (9.945%, α-caryophyllene (7.709%, α-caryophyllene oxide (5.754%, and copaene (3.594%. The oil inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, while no activity was shown to Salmonella typhi. Conclusions: The O. urticifolium is a rich source of various classes of chemical constituents and the antibacterial activity of the oil could be attributed mainly to these compounds.

  17. Changes in physicochemical and transport properties of a reverse osmosis membrane exposed to chloraminated seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Lauren; Renkens, Tennie; Maugin, Thomas; Croué, Jean-Philippe; Mariñas, Benito J

    2015-02-17

    This study contributed to improving our understanding of how disinfectants, applied to control biofouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, result in membrane performance degradation. We investigated changes in physicochemical properties and permeation performance of a RO membrane with fully aromatic polyamide (PA) active layer. Membrane samples were exposed to varying concentrations of monochloramine, bromide, and iodide in both synthetic and natural seawater. Elemental analysis of the membrane active layer by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) revealed the incorporation of bromine and iodine into the polyamide. The kinetics of polyamide bromination were first order with respect to the concentration of the secondary oxidizing agent Br2 for the conditions investigated. Halogenated membranes were characterized after treatment with a reducing agent and heavy ion probes to reveal the occurrence of irreversible ring halogenation and an increase in carboxylic groups, the latter produced as a result of amide bond cleavage. Finally, permeation experiments revealed increases in both water permeability and salt passage as a result of oxidative damage.

  18. Effect of Microwave Treatment on Microbial Contamination of Honeys and on Their Physicochemical and Thermal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Moliné María de la

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, microwave heating has become a common method for pasteurization and sterilization of food. Honey is a sweet substance produced by worker honeybees from nectar of flowers. The major microbial contaminants include moulds and yeasts, as well as the spore-forming bacteria, being their counts indicative of honeys’ commercial quality and safety. Paenibacillus larvae is also of interest since it causes American foulbrood (AFB in honeybee larvae. The main quality factors that are used in the honey international trade are moisture, hydroxymethylfurfural content (HMF, and enzymatic indices. Moreover, honey exhibits several thermal events, the most important being the glass transition temperature (Tg. The aim of this work was to evaluate microwave effect (800 watts during 45 and 90 seconds on microbial content in particular over P. larvae spores retained in honey, and on physicochemical and thermal properties. Microwave promoted a decrease of microbial count with time of exposure, including P. larvae. Moisture content diminished after treatment, while Tg increased linearly, and acidity decremented in the majority of cases. Honeys darkened and HMF exceeded the permissible value. Diastase and glucose-oxidase enzymes were totally inactivated by microwave treatment.

  19. Physico-Chemical Properties, Antioxidant Activity and Mineral Contents of Pineapple Genotypes Grown in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Hua Lu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The fruit physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of 26 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr.] genotypes grown in China were measured. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of these pineapple genotypes. Sucrose was the dominant sugar in all 26 genotypes, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents. The ascorbic acid (AsA content ranged from 5.08 to 33.57 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW, while the total phenolic (TP content varied from 31.48 to 77.55 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100 g FW. The two parameters in the predominant cultivars Comte de Paris and Smooth Cayenne were relative low. However, MD-2 indicated the highest AsA and TP contents (33.57 mg/100 g and 77.55 mg GAE/100 g FM, respectively, and it also showed the strongest antioxidant capacity 22.85 and 17.30 μmol TE/g FW using DPPH and TEAC methods, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of pineapple was correlated with the contents of phenolics, flavonoids and AsA. The present study provided important information for the further application of those pineapple genotypes.

  20. Physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of pineapple genotypes grown in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin-Hua; Sun, De-Quan; Wu, Qing-Song; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2014-06-23

    The fruit physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of 26 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] genotypes grown in China were measured. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of these pineapple genotypes. Sucrose was the dominant sugar in all 26 genotypes, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents. The ascorbic acid (AsA) content ranged from 5.08 to 33.57 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), while the total phenolic (TP) content varied from 31.48 to 77.55 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g FW. The two parameters in the predominant cultivars Comte de Paris and Smooth Cayenne were relative low. However, MD-2 indicated the highest AsA and TP contents (33.57 mg/100 g and 77.55 mg GAE/100 g FM, respectively), and it also showed the strongest antioxidant capacity 22.85 and 17.30 μmol TE/g FW using DPPH and TEAC methods, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of pineapple was correlated with the contents of phenolics, flavonoids and AsA. The present study provided important information for the further application of those pineapple genotypes.

  1. Effects of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fellipe S.; Santos, Anderson R.L.; Pereira, Walsan W., E-mail: fellipess@ird.gov.br, E-mail: aleiras@ird.gov.br, E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Oenology has as its main purpose the continuous improvement of wine quality without jeopardizing its proprieties, and the intent is to make these improvements using innovative new technologies. The objective of the present work is to assess the effect of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of Cabernet Sauvignon that may lead to changes in wine quality, aging process and other related characteristics. The samples used for this process were irradiated using an Argonaut reactor powered at 340 Watts and with a thermal neutron fluency of 10{sup 9} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1}. For irradiation experiments, the samples were put into the reactor chamber until the reactor reached criticality and for an additional 30 minutes while receiving radiation. The analyzed data included density, alcoholic, ashes and spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance at wavelengths of 420, 520 and 620 nm. Increased absorbance values at 420 nm indicate an increase in tannin composition of the wine and therefore a higher level of oxidation. Intriguingly, a rise in absorbance was also observed at 520 nm for the same test samples; which is inconsistent with published data on irradiated cachaca that showed that anthocyanin levels dropped at 520 nm after irradiation. In summary, for measurements made at a fluency of 109 n/cm{sup 2}.s for 30 min, the effects were minimal, which requires a higher dose to have better effects. Future studies should evaluating dosing effects of irradiation on improving the quality of the Cabernet Sauvignon. (author)

  2. Characterization of starch morphology, composition, physicochemi-cal properties and gene expressions in oat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Ke; Zheng You-liang; Jiang Qian-tao; Wei Long; Zhang Xiao-wei; Ma Jian; Chen guo-yue; Wei Yu-ming; Mitchell Fetch Jennifer; Lu Zhen-xiang

    2015-01-01

    abstract Starch is the major carbohydrate in oat (Avena sativaL.) and starch formation requires the coordinated actions of several synthesis enzymes. In this study, the granule morphology, composition and physicochemical properties of oat starch, as wel as the expressions of starch synthesis genes were investigated during oat endosperm development. Under the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we observed that the unique compound granules were developed in oat endosperms at 10 days post anthesis (DPA) and then fragmented into irregular or polygonal simple granules from 12 DPA until seed maturity. The amylose content, branch chain length of degree of polymerization (DP=13–24), gelatinization temperature and percentage of retrogradation were gradualy increased during the endosperm development; whereas the distribution of short chains (DP=6–12) were gradualy decreased. The relative expressions of 4 classes of 13 starch synthesis genes characterized in this study indicated that three expression pattern groups were signiifcantly different among gene classes as wel as among varied isoforms, in which the ifrst group of starch synthesis genes may play a key role on the initiation of starch synthesis in oat endosperms.

  3. The fermentation kinetics and physicochemical properties of special beer with addition of Prokupac grape variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Mile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the market of special beers with improved healthy function and/or with new refreshing taste has significantly increased. One of the possible solutions enables grape and mixing beer with bioactive component responsible for well known health promoting action of red wine. The influence of the addition of Prokupac grape on the physicochemical properties and the fermentation kinetics of the grape beer were studied and results were compared with control lager beer. The effect of grape addition on the activity of yeast was also studied. Original extract, alcohol content, degree of fermentation, fermentation rate and yeast growth were significantly higher in beers with grapes as a consequence of higher concentration of simple sugars in grapes compared with pure wort. Based on the CIELab chromatic parameters the color of grape beer samples was yellow with certain proportion of redness, while the control beer was purely yellow. The increase in the concentration of grape mash affects the reduction of lightness and yellowness of beers, while the redness of samples was directly proportional with grape quantity. The phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grape beers was remarkably higher compared with control beer, which indicates that the grape beer is a better source of natural antioxidants than regular lager beer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46001

  4. Physicochemical properties and thermal stability of quercetin hydrates in the solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghetti, G.S., E-mail: greicefarm@yahoo.com.br [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga 2752, CEP 90.610-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Carini, J.P. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga 2752, CEP 90.610-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Honorato, S.B.; Ayala, A.P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Caixa Postal 6030, CEP 60.455-970, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Moreira, J.C.F. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2600, CEP 90035-003, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bassani, V.L. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga 2752, CEP 90.610-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin raw materials may present different degree of hydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal stability of quercetin in the solid state depends on its degree of hydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin dehydrate is thermodynamically more stable than the other crystal forms. - Abstract: In the present work three samples of quercetin raw materials (QCTa, QCTb and QCTc), purchased from different Brazilian suppliers, were characterized employing scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, simultaneous thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and variable temperature-powder X-ray diffraction, in order to know their physicochemical properties, specially the thermal stability in solid state. The results demonstrated that the raw materials of quercetin analyzed present distinct crystalline structures, ascribed to the different degree of hydration of their crystal lattice. The thermal stability of these quercetin raw materials in the solid state was highly dependent on their degree of hydration, where QCTa (quercetin dihydrate) was thermodynamically more stable than the other two samples.

  5. Effect of inulin and glycerol supplementation on physicochemical properties of probiotic frozen yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzammil, Hafiz Shehzad; Rasco, Barbara; Sablani, Shyam

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of inulin and glycerol supplementation on physicochemical properties of probiotic frozen yogurt. Frozen yogurt was prepared with different types of probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis) along with yogurt starter culture (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus). The frozen yogurt mixture was supplemented with inulin (2%, 4%, and 6%) and glycerol (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%). The results showed that inulin 4% and 6% supplementation increased the overrun by 3% and 5% and the glass transition temperature by 3.3% and 2.8%, and decreased the hardness by 7% and 11%, respectively. Inulin supplementation did not have a significant effect on ice crystal size (p > 0.05). Glycerol supplementation increased the stickiness from 2.4% to 18.7%, and decreased the hardness from 8.0% to 14.5% and the glass transition temperature from 2.4% to 34.5%, respectively. Glycerol supplementation did not have a significant effect on overrun or melting rate (p > 0.05).

  6. Interactions of skin thickness and physicochemical properties of test compounds in percutaneous penetration studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkinson, Simon C.; Maas, Wilfred J. M.; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2006-01-01

    Abstract   Objectives: To determine the effect of skin thickness on the percutaneous penetration and distribution of test compounds with varying physicochemical properties using in vitro systems. Studies were carried out in accordance with OECD guidelines on skin absorption tests. Methods......: Percutaneous penetration of caffeine (log P -0.01), testosterone (log P 3.32), propoxur (log P 1.52) (finite dose in ethanol to water vehicle ratio) and butoxyethanol (log P 0.83) (undiluted finite dose or as an infinite dose 50% [v/v] aqueous solution) through skin of varying thicknesses under occluded...... conditions was measured using flow through cells for 8-24 h. Saline (adjusted to pH 7.4) was used as receptor fluid, with BSA added for studies with testosterone and propoxur. Following exposure, the remaining surface dose was removed by swabbing and the skin digested prior to scintillation counting. Results...

  7. Effect of dietary garlic bulb and husk on the physicochemical properties of chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y J; Jin, S K; Yang, H S

    2009-02-01

    This study was carried out to compare the physicochemical and sensory properties of chicken thigh muscles from broilers fed different levels of garlic bulb (GB) and garlic husk (GH). Two hundred male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 2 and 4% of GB and GH powder for 5 wk. There were no differences among diets in moisture and ash contents. However, dietary supplementation with GB and GH resulted in significantly greater protein content and lower fat content in chicken thigh muscle compared with muscle from birds fed nonsupplemented diets (Pgarlic supplementation resulted in lower shear force and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values (Pgarlic led to decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in broiler blood, and the greatest level of garlic supplementation decreased saturated fatty acid and increased unsaturated fatty acid levels (%) in broiler thigh muscle (Pgarlic dietary supplementation (Pgarlic can produce chicken meat with favorable lipid profiles and can enhance eating quality because sensory panels found that thigh meat from chickens fed a garlic-supplemented diet had better texture and flavor. Therefore, the treatment with the most significant effects in this study was that with the high level of garlic husk.

  8. Changes in physicochemical and transport properties of a reverse osmosis membrane exposed to chloraminated seawater

    KAUST Repository

    Valentino, Lauren

    2015-02-17

    This study contributed to improving our understanding of how disinfectants, applied to control biofouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, result in membrane performance degradation. We investigated changes in physicochemical properties and permeation performance of a RO membrane with fully aromatic polyamide (PA) active layer. Membrane samples were exposed to varying concentrations of monochloramine, bromide, and iodide in both synthetic and natural seawater. Elemental analysis of the membrane active layer by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) revealed the incorporation of bromine and iodine into the polyamide. The kinetics of polyamide bromination were first order with respect to the concentration of the secondary oxidizing agent Br2 for the conditions investigated. Halogenated membranes were characterized after treatment with a reducing agent and heavy ion probes to reveal the occurrence of irreversible ring halogenation and an increase in carboxylic groups, the latter produced as a result of amide bond cleavage. Finally, permeation experiments revealed increases in both water permeability and salt passage as a result of oxidative damage.

  9. Preparation of a tea polyphenol nanoliposome system and its physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qun; Li, Di-Cai; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2011-12-28

    Tea polyphenol is rich in green tea with diverse biological activities. However, its application in the food industry is limited due to its instability toward oxygen and light. In this study, the preparation of tea polyphenol liposome by the thin film ultrasonic dispersion method was performed in order to enhance the bioavailability of tea polyphenol. The process conditions were optimized using response surface analysis, and the optimal parameters were as follows: ratio of tea polyphenol to lecithin, 0.125:1; ratio of lecithin to cholesterol, 4:1; phosphate buffered saline (PBS) pH, 6.62; ultrasonic time, 3.5 min. The theoretical and practical entrapment efficiency were 60.36% and 60.09 ± 0.69%, respectively. Furthermore, physicochemical properties including size distribution, zeta potential, permeability, infrared spectrum and in vitro release of liposomal formulations were determined. The mean size of tea polyphenol liposome was 160.4 nm, and the ζ-potential value was -67.2. The tea polyphenol liposome was formed by physical interaction, and the in vitro release process followed a first-order equation. The results indicated that the prepared tea polyphenol liposome was stable and suitable for more widespread application.

  10. Influence of lipid shell physicochemical properties on ultrasound-induced microbubble destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Mark A; Kruse, Dustin E; Caskey, Charles F; Zhao, Shukui; Dayton, Paul A; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2005-11-01

    We present the first study of the effects of monolayer shell physicochemical properties on the destruction of lipid-coated microbubbles during insonification with single, one-cycle pulses at 2.25 MHz and low-duty cycles. Shell cohesiveness was changed by varying phospholipid and emulsifier composition, and shell microstructure was controlled by postproduction processing. Individual microbubbles with initial resting diameters between 1 and 10 microm were isolated and recorded during pulsing with bright-field and fluorescence video microscopy. Microbubble destruction occurred through two modes: acoustic dissolution at 400 and 600 kPa and fragmentation at 800 kPa peak negative pressure. Lipid composition significantly impacted the acoustic dissolution rate, fragmentation propensity, and mechanism of excess lipid shedding. Less cohesive shells resulted in micron-scale or smaller particles of excess lipid material that shed either spontaneously or on the next pulse. Conversely, more cohesive shells resulted in the buildup of shell-associated lipid strands and globular aggregates of several microns in size; the latter showed a significant increase in total shell surface area and lability. Lipid-coated microbubbles were observed to reach a stable size over many pulses at intermediate acoustic pressures. Observations of shell microstructure between pulses allowed interpretation of the state of the shell during oscillation. We briefly discuss the implications of these results for therapeutic and diagnostic applications involving lipid-coated microbubbles as ultrasound contrast agents and drug/gene delivery vehicles.

  11. Effects of pyrolysis temperature on the physicochemical properties of empty fruit bunch and rice husk biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claoston, N; Samsuri, A W; Ahmad Husni, M H; Mohd Amran, M S

    2014-04-01

    Biochar has received great attention recently due to its potential to improve soil fertility and immobilize contaminants as well as serving as a way of carbon sequestration and therefore a possible carbon sink. In this work, a series of biochars were produced from empty fruit bunch (EFB) and rice husk (RH) by slow pyrolysis at different temperatures (350, 500, and 650°C) and their physicochemical properties were analysed. The results indicate that porosity, ash content, electrical conductivity (EC), and pH value of both EFB and RH biochars were increased with temperature; however, yield, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and H, C, and N content were decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature. The Fourier transform IR spectra were similar for both RH and EFB biochars but the functional groups were more distinct in the EFB biochar spectra. There were reductions in the amount of functional groups as pyrolysis temperature increased especially for the EFB biochar. However, total acidity of the functional groups increased with pyrolysis temperature for both biochars.

  12. Physicochemical properties of whole fruit plum powders obtained using different drying technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Lech, Krzysztof; Łysiak, Grzegorz P; Figiel, Adam

    2016-09-15

    Physicochemical quality parameters of plum powders obtained by applying conventional drying methods and their combination devised to process plums were evaluated. The effect of freeze-drying (FD), vacuum drying (VD), convective drying (CD), microwave-vacuum drying (MVD) and combination of convective pre-drying and microwave finish-drying (CPD-MVFD) affected physical (bulk density, porosity, colour, solubility) and chemical (polyphenolic compounds determined by UPLC and antioxidant capacity by TEAC ABTS and FRAP methods) properties of plum powders. The MVD at 1.2 W g(-1) and a novel combination for plum powders production - CPD-MVFD at 70 °C/1.2 W g(-1) allowed the best preservation of phenolic compounds and increased the efficiency of production. Results obtained support the use of MVD and its combination for better quality of dried plum products. The study proved that the determination of the browning index and HMF level (formed via Maillard reaction) might be good tool for monitoring the thermal processing of plum powders.

  13. Buff/wipe effects on the physicochemical properties of perfluoropolyether nanoscale thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haigang; Seung Chung, Pil; Jhon, Myung S.

    2014-05-01

    Buff/Wipe (B/W) process is commonly used in disk drive manufacturing to remove the particles and asperities on the lubricated disk surface. In this paper, we investigated how B/W process impacts the physicochemical properties of perfluoropolyethers (PFPE) nano-films through the study of surface energy and bonded ratio. Two-liquid geometric method was used to analyze the surface energy of nonfunctional PFPE, i.e., Z03, and functional PFPE, i.e., Zdol, lubricated media before and after B/W process. It was found that the dispersive surface energy of Z03 films greatly decreased after B/W, which was more significant in the submonolayer regime. In addition, the bonded ratio slightly increased. However, B/W effect on the surface energy and bonded ratio was not detected for Zdol films. It is hypothesized that nonfunctional PFPE behaves liquid-like on the carbon overcoat due to the weak interaction between lubricant and overcoat. External mechanical stress as applied with B/W can change the conformation and increase the surface coverage for nonfunctional PFPE. On the other hand, functional PFPEs behave solid-like due to the strong attraction between lubricant and overcoat; therefore, it is difficult to change the conformation by external stress from B/W process.

  14. Stability, antimicrobial activity, and effect of nisin on the physico-chemical properties of fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Junior, Adelson Alves; de Araújo Couto, Hyrla Grazielle Silva; Barbosa, Ana Andréa Teixeira; Carnelossi, Marcelo Augusto Guitierrez; de Moura, Tatiana Rodrigues

    2015-10-15

    Heat processing is the most commonly used hurdle for inactivating microorganisms in fruit juices. However, this preservation method could interfere with the organoleptic characteristics of the product. Alternative methods have been proposed and bacteriocins such as nisin are potential candidates. However, the approval of bacteriocins as food additives is limited, especially in foods from vegetal origin. We aimed to verify the stability, the effect on physico-chemical properties, and the antimicrobial activity of nisin in different fruit juices. Nisin remained stable in fruit juices (cashew, soursop, peach, mango, passion fruit, orange, guava, and cupuassu) for at least 30 days at room or refrigerated temperature and did not cause any significant alterations in the physico-chemical characteristics of the juices. Besides, nisin favored the preservation of vitamin C content in juices. The antimicrobial activity of nisin was tested against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in cashew, soursop, peach, and mango juices. Nisin caused a 4-log reduction in viable cells of A. acidoterrestris in soursop, peach, and mango juices after 8h of incubation, and no viable cells were detected in cashew juices. After 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin, no viable cells were detected, independently of the juices. To S. aureus, at 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin, viable cells were only detected in mango juices, representing a 4-log decrease as compared with the control treatment. The number of viable cells of B. cereus at 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin represented at least a 4-log decrease compared to the control treatment. When the antimicrobial activity of nisin was tested against L. monocytogenes in cashew and soursop juices, no reduction in the viable cell number was observed compared to the control treatment after 24h of incubation. Viable cells were four and six times less than in the

  15. Assessment of inhalation dose sensitivity by physicochemical properties of airborne particulates containing naturally occurring radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Si Young; Choi, Cheol Kyu; Kim, Yong Geon; Choi, Won Chul; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Facilities processing raw materials containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) may give rise to enhanced radiation dose to workers due to chronic inhalation of airborne particulates. Internal radiation dose due to particulate inhalation varies depending on particulate properties, including size, shape, density, and absorption type. The objective of the present study was to assess inhalation dose sensitivity to physicochemical properties of airborne particulates. Committed effective doses to workers resulting from inhalation of airborne particulates were calculated based on International Commission on Radiological Protection 66 human respiratory tract model. Inhalation dose generally increased with decreasing particulate size. Committed effective doses due to inhalation of 0.01μm sized particulates were higher than doses due to 100μm sized particulates by factors of about 100 and 50 for {sup 238}U and {sup 230}Th, respectively. Inhalation dose increased with decreasing shape factor. Shape factors of 1 and 2 resulted in dose difference by about 18 %. Inhalation dose increased with particulate mass density. Particulate mass densities of 11 g·cm{sup -3} and 0.7 g·cm{sup -3} resulted in dose difference by about 60 %. For {sup 238}U, inhalation doses were higher for absorption type of S, M, and F in that sequence. Committed effective dose for absorption type S of {sup 238}U was about 9 times higher than dose for absorption F. For {sup 230}Th, inhalation doses were higher for absorption type of F, M, and S in that sequence. Committed effective dose for absorption type F of {sup 230}Th was about 16 times higher than dose for absorption S. Consequently, use of default values for particulate properties without consideration of site specific physiochemical properties may potentially skew radiation dose estimates to unrealistic values up to 1-2 orders of magnitude. For this reason, it is highly recommended to consider site specific working materials and

  16. Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Insoluble Dietary Fiber Isolated from Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedericks, Claudine F; Jideani, Victoria A

    2015-09-01

    Bambara groundnut (BGN) is a widely cultivated legume with a rich nutritional profile, yet despite its many benefits it still remains underutilized. To highlight its potential value, 4 BGN varieties-brown, red, black eye, and brown eye were subjected to sequential enzymatic treatments followed by centrifugation to obtain the insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) fraction. The IDFs were vacuum-dried and evaluated for color, hydration properties, fat absorption, polyphenolic compounds, neutral sugars, and uronic acids. An optimized white bread formulation was also determined using brown BGN-IDF in an optimal (IV) mixture design. Three mixture components constrained at lower and upper limits (water: 57% to 60%, yeast: 2.3% to 5.3%, and BGN-IDF: 7% to 10%) were evaluated for their effects on responses of specific loaf volume, gumminess, chewiness, and resilience of the loaves. All BGN-IDFs differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) across all color parameters. Polyphenols were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest in red and brown BGN-IDFs. Arabinose/galactose (31.04% to 37.12%), xylose (16.53% to 27.30%), and mannose (14.48% to 22.24%) were the major sugars identified. Swelling capacity was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest for brown eye BGN-IDF (7.72 ± 0.49 mL/g). Water retention capacity ranged from 1.63 to 2.01 g water/g dry weight. Fat absorption for red BGN-IDF differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the best optimal white bread formulation enriched with brown BGN-IDF was established with numerical optimization at 59.5% water, 4.3% yeast, and 8.5% BGN-IDF. Overall positive physicochemical and functional properties were observed for BGN-IDFs, and it was shown that an optimal white bread enriched with BGN-IDF could be produced.

  17. Chitosan extracted from mud crab (Scylla olivicea) shells: physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbon, N M; Sandanamsamy, S; Kamaruzaman, S F S; Ahmad, F

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to report the yield of extraction, as well as the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of extracted chitosan from mud crabs (S.olivacea) as compared to commercial chitosan. The yield obtained for extracted chitosan was 44.57 ± 3.44 % with a moisture and ash content of 9.48 ± 0.59 % and 5.97 ± 0.90 %, respectively. Commercial chitosan demonstrated a higher degree of deacetylation (58.42 ± 2.67 %), water (250 ± 9.90 %) and fat (329 ± 7.07 %) binding capacity, solubility (73.85 %), viscosity (463.25 ± 13.10 %) and also the whiteness value (77.8 ± 0.47) compared to the extracted chitosan, which were only 53.42 ± 0.88 %, 180 ± 0.00 %, 260 ± 0.00 %, 53.38 %, 383.9 ± 28.43 % and 62.1 ± 7.52 %, respectively. The structure of extracted and commercial chitosan was also investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). In conclusion, the extracted chitosan possessed potential properties similar to the commercial chitosan with high reducing power but low in the scavenging activity on the DPPH and hydroxyl radicals compared to the commercial chitosan.

  18. Physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhin, Eleonora; Gualtieri, Maurizio; Capasso, Laura; Bengalli, Rossella; Mollerup, Steen; Holme, Jørn A; Øvrevik, Johan; Casadei, Simone; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Parenti, Paolo; Camatini, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Diesel combustion and solid biomass burning are the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in urbanized areas. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, are possible outcomes of combustion particles exposure, but differences in particles properties seem to influence their biological effects. Here the physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles, produced under controlled laboratory conditions, have been characterized. Diesel UFP were sampled from a Euro 4 light duty vehicle without DPF fuelled by commercial diesel and run over a chassis dyno. Biomass UFP were collected from a modern automatic 25 kW boiler propelled by prime quality spruce pellet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of both diesel and biomass samples showed aggregates of soot particles, but in biomass samples ash particles were also present. Chemical characterization showed that metals and PAHs total content was higher in diesel samples compared to biomass ones. Human bronchial epithelial (HBEC3) cells were exposed to particles for up to 2 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism were observed after exposure to both UFP already after 24 h. However, only diesel particles modulated the expression of genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the release of inflammatory mediators and caused phenotypical alterations, mostly after two weeks of exposure. These results show that diesel UFP affected cellular processes involved in lung and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Biomass particles exerted low biological activity compared to diesel UFP. This evidence emphasizes that the study of different emission sources contribution to ambient PM toxicity may have a fundamental role in the development of more effective strategies for air quality improvement.

  19. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils.

  20. Physicochemical and structural properties of glycerin gel prepared using glycyrrhizic acid diethyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Kenjiro; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Sakai, Kenichi; Kushida, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Nobuji

    2014-01-01

    Glycyrrhizic acid diethyl ester (GZ-DE) was developed as a prodrug of glycyrrhizic acid (GZ), a hepatitis therapeutic drug. We fortuitously found that GZ-DE gels with glycerin selectively while searching for a safe solvent with which to dissolve GZ-DE. Based on this gelation, the aim of this study was to investigate the preparation of the gel and study the rheology, physicochemical and structural properties of the glycerin gel by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), capillary electrophoresis (CEP), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The glycerin gel was prepared by the addition of at least 2.0% w/w GZ-DE. This gel did not flow at room temperature. After mixing glycerin and GZ-DE, a gel was formed after 2 days at 25°C or 3 h at 60°C. Glycerin gel containing 2.4% w/w GZ-DE provided the following results: 1) The glycerin gel exhibited creep at a constant stress of less than 10 Pa, but it is a fragile gel, showing Newtonian flow at 10 Pa stress. 2) Dynamic viscoelastic measurements showed that the elastic modulus (G') exceeds the viscous modulus (G''), indicating that glycerin gel has solid-like properties. 3) DSC showed a significant difference between the glass transition temperature of glycerin and glycerin gel. 4) CEP did not reveal a new compound in the glycerin gel. 5) NMR confirmed that glycerin gel is a physical gel. 6) SAXS measurements revealed that the glycerin gel has an oval-shaped basic frame (119 nm long and 65 nm wide).

  1. Heat-deproteinated xenogeneic bone from slaughterhouse waste: Physico-chemical properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Murugan; K Panduranga Rao; T S Sampath Kumar

    2003-08-01

    Xenogeneic bone procured from the slaughterhouse waste was deproteinated by heat treatment method intended for use as a bone substitute. The effect of heat treatment was investigated by thermal analysis and by physico-chemical methods such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The heat treatment temperatures for the bovine bone samples were predetermined by thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. The XRD results revealed that the process of heat treatment promoted the crystallinity of bone samples, particularly at 700 and 900°C. There was no secondary phase transformation detected for heat-deproteinated bone except the presence of the hydroxyapatite (HA) phase, which indicated its phase purity even at a higher temperature. The FTIR spectra of raw bone and bone heated at 300°C indicated the presence of organic macromolecules whereas these disappeared in the samples heated at 500, 700 and 900°C, which suggested the removal of antigenic organic matters around 500°C. The same results were also confirmed quantitatively by calculating the amount of collagen using hydroxyproline estimation. There was no significant change in the TG-thermogram of bone heated at 500, 700 and 900°C, which indicated their thermal stability. These findings implied that the heat treated bone at 500°C had properties similar to carbonated HA with low crystallinity, while 700 and 900°C samples had the same with higher crystallinity. As low temperature treatment does not alter morphological and structural properties, we propose that the 500°C heat treated xenogeneic bone may act as an excellent osteogenic bone substitute.

  2. Effects of PEGylation on the physicochemical properties and in vivo distribution of organic nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding W

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wuxiao Ding, Hiroyuki Minamikawa, Naohiro Kameta, Toshimi Shimizu, Mitsutoshi Masuda Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, Ibaraki, Japan Abstract: Application of organic nanotubes (ONTs into drug nanocarriers ultimately requires validation in live animals. For improving the dispersibility in biological media and in vivo distribution, the outer surface of an ONT was functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG via the coassembly of an ONT-forming lipid with 5–20 mol% of a PEG-tethered lipid analogue (PEG-lipid. Firstly, the effect of PEGylation on the psysicochemical properties of ONTs, such as morphology and dispersibility, was investigated. PEGylation of ONTs slightly reduced the average length and effectively prevented the aggregation in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. The PEGylated ONTs even showed high thermal stability in aqueous dispersion at least up to 95°C. Secondly, differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction indicated that ~10 mol% of PEG-lipid was completely incorporated into the ONTs, while 20 mol% of PEG-lipid encountered a partial phase separation during coassembly. In the heating differential scanning calorimetry runs, the resultant PEGylated ONTs with 5 mol% PEG-lipid showed no sign of phase separation up to 180°C under lyophilized condition, while those with 10 mol% and 20 mol% PEG-lipid showed some phase separation of the PEG-lipid above 120°C. Finally, PEGylation significantly affected the tissue distribution and prolonged the persistence time in the blood in mice. Non-PEGylated ONTs was quickly cleared from the circulation after intravenous infusion and preferentially accumulated in the lung, while PEGylated ONTs was mainly trapped in the liver and could circulate in the blood up to 24 hours. This study provided valuable information of physicochemical properties and the in vivo distribution behavior of PEGylated ONTs for their potential

  3. On the structural and physicochemical properties of gamma irradiated UHMWPE/silane hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiq, Muhammad [Advanced Polymer Laboratory, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 45650 Islamabad (Pakistan); Mehmood, Malik Sajjad [Advanced Polymer Laboratory, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 45650 Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Basic Sciences and Humanities, University of Engineering and Technology, 47050 Taxila (Pakistan); Yasin, Tariq, E-mail: yasintariq@yahoo.com [Advanced Polymer Laboratory, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 45650 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-12-16

    This study has been carried to investigate the influence of gamma rays on the structural and physicochemical properties of UHMWPE/silane hybrid. UHMWPE was mixed with vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) and compression molded sheets were irradiated at different doses of gamma rays. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the formation of siloxane linkages in hybrids, which were found to be shifted towards lower wave number upon irradiation. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed significant increase in the percentage crystallinity of hybrid upon gamma irradiation, especially at 65 kGy absorbed dose. Scanning electron micrographs showed good consolidation and compaction with no surface defects. Moreover, the rough topography was changed to smooth ripple-like appearance upon γ-irradiation. Thermal analysis revealed that irradiated hybrids exhibited higher onset thermal degradation temperature, peak melting temperature, and crystalline lamellae thickness compared with the water treated hybrid. In addition, the tensile testing confirmed an increase of 41% and 133% in yield strength and Young's modulus in 100 kGy irradiated hybrid respectively than that of water treated hybrid. We hope that the irradiated UHMWPE/silane hybrids can be used in various high-strength applications such as total joint replacements, pickers for textile machinery, lining for coal chutes and dump trucks. - Highlights: • UHMWPE/silane hybrids have been prepared and irradiated using gamma rays. • The structural analysis revealed the formation siloxane linkages in the hybrid. • The crystallinity, thermal stability and mechanical properties of hybrids were improved with irradiation. • The irradiated hybrids can be used in various high-strength applications.

  4. Influences of influent carbon source on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and physicochemical properties of activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fenxia; Peng, Ge; Li, Ying

    2011-08-01

    It is necessary to understand the bioflocculation, settling and dewatering characteristics in the activated sludge process in order to establish more efficient operational strategies. The influences of carbon source on the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and flocculation, settling and dewatering properties of the activated sludge were investigated. Laboratory-scale completely mixed activated sludge processes were used to grow the activated sludge with different carbon sources of starch, glucose and sodium acetate. The sludge fed with acetate had highest loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and that fed with starch lowest. The amount of tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS), protein content in LB-EPS, polysaccharide content and protein contents in TB-EPS, were independent of the influent carbon source. The polysaccharide content in LB-EPS of the activated sludge fed with sodium acetate was lower slightly than those of starch and glucose. The sludge also had a nearly consistent flocs size and the sludge volume index (SVI) value. ESS content of the sludge fed with sodium acetate was higher initially, although it was similar to those fed with glucose and starch finally. However, the specific resistance to filtration and normalized capillary suction time fluctuated first, but finally were stable at around 5.0×10(8)mkg(-1) and 3.5 s Lg(-1) SS, respectively. Only the protein content in LB-EPS weakly correlated with the flocs size and SVI of the activated sludge. But there was no correlation between any other EPS contents or components and the physicochemical properties of the activated sludge.

  5. Physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles

    KAUST Repository

    Longhin, Eleonora

    2016-05-15

    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Diesel combustion and solid biomass burning are the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in urbanized areas. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, are possible outcomes of combustion particles exposure, but differences in particles properties seem to influence their biological effects.Here the physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles, produced under controlled laboratory conditions, have been characterized. Diesel UFP were sampled from a Euro 4 light duty vehicle without DPF fuelled by commercial diesel and run over a chassis dyno. Biomass UFP were collected from a modern automatic 25 kW boiler propelled by prime quality spruce pellet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of both diesel and biomass samples showed aggregates of soot particles, but in biomass samples ash particles were also present. Chemical characterization showed that metals and PAHs total content was higher in diesel samples compared to biomass ones.Human bronchial epithelial (HBEC3) cells were exposed to particles for up to 2 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism were observed after exposure to both UFP already after 24 h. However, only diesel particles modulated the expression of genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the release of inflammatory mediators and caused phenotypical alterations, mostly after two weeks of exposure.These results show that diesel UFP affected cellular processes involved in lung and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Biomass particles exerted low biological activity compared to diesel UFP. This evidence emphasizes that the study of different emission sources contribution to ambient PM toxicity may have a fundamental role in the development of more effective strategies for air quality improvement.

  6. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Spray Drying Powders from Stropharia rugoso-annulata and Agaricus brunnescens Blanching Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impacts of carrier agents on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant retention rate of spray drying powders from blanching liquids of Stropharia rugoso-annulata (BLS and Agaricus brunnescens (BLA. Physicochemical, nutritional and antioxidant properties of the powder were examined in order to better determine potential applications of powders. Carrier agents could improve the qualities of the spray drying BLS powders and BLA powders and &beta-Cyclodextrin (&beta-CD was more suitable as carrier agent than Maltodextrin (MD. The powder had higher flour yield and antioxidant retention rate while &beta-CD addition rate was 44.44 g/100 g (w/w.Proximate composition and total phenolics were performed. The powder was ranging from 5 and 30 μm in particle size with spherical particle morphology. BLA powders had higher antioxidant activity (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibition ability than BLS powder.

  7. Investigations of physicochemical properties of dusts generated in mechanical reclamation process of spent moulding sands with alkaline resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical reclamation processes of spent moulding sands generate large amounts of post-reclamation dusts mainly containing rubbed spent binding agents and quartz dusts. The amount of post-reclamation dusts, depending in the reclamation system efficiency and the reclaim dedusting system, can reach 5%-10% in relation to the total reclaimed spent moulding sand. The proper utilization of such material is a big problem facing foundries these days. This study presents the results of investigations of physicochemical properties of post- reclamation dusts. All tested dusts originated from various Polish cast steel plants applying the mechanical reclamation process of moulding sands with alkaline resins, obtained from different producers. Different dusts, delivered from foundries, were tested to determine their chemical composition, granular characterization, physicochemical and energetic properties. Presented results confirmed assumptions that it is possible to utilize dusts generated during mechanical reclamation of used sands with organic resins as a source of energy.

  8. Germinated barley as a functional ingredient in chicken sausages: effect on physicochemical and technological properties at different levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of germinated barley (GB) levels on physicochemical and technological properties of cooked chicken sausages. The chicken sausages were formulated with 0-4 % GB. Addition of GB increased pH and yellowness but decreased lightness of the cooked chicken sausages. However, there was no difference in redness among treatments (P > 0.05). Based on the positive effects of GB on measurements related to water and/or fat retention ability, such as emulsion stability, cooking loss, and thawing loss, such results depended upon the added amount of GB. In addition, apparent viscosity increased with increasing levels of GB, resulting in hardness, springiness, and chewiness (P fiber, β-glucan, and starch. Therefore, our results suggests that GB could be a functional ingredient to improve physicochemical and technological properties of chicken sausages and optimal level of GB was determined as minimum 2 %.

  9. Effect of carbon coating on the physico-chemical properties and toxicity of copper and nickel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Shalini; Mumper, Russell J

    2012-11-05

    The primary aim of these interdisciplinary studies is to investigate the effect of surface carbon coating on the physico-chemical properties and toxicity of carbon-coated and noncoated copper and nickel nanoparticles (C-Cu, Cu, C-Ni, Ni NPs) in A549 alveolar epithelial cells. Compared to Cu NPs, C-Cu NPs exhibit protection against surface oxidation, tenfold higher cellular uptake, and fourfold lower release of soluble Cu. The toxicity of C-Cu NPs and Cu NPs is associated with pronounced damage to mitochondrial function and plasma membrane integrity, respectively. Compared to Cu and C-Cu NPs, Ni and C-Ni NPs are less toxic. These studies demonstrate that correlations can be drawn between physico-chemical properties and resultant toxicity of NPs as a function of surface carbon coating.

  10. Changes in physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of common buckwheat starch by heat-moisture treatment and annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Guo, Xudan; Li, Wuxia; Wang, Xiaofang; Lv, Manman; Peng, Qiang; Wang, Min

    2015-11-05

    Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and annealing (ANN) were applied in the test to investigate how they can affect the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of common buckwheat starch (CBS). In the practice, these two modification methods did not change typical 'A'-type X-ray diffraction pattern of CBS. However, the gelatinization temperature, amylose content, and relative crystallinity increased and peak viscosity value and gelatinization enthalpy of CBS declined significantly. Both the solubility and swelling power, which were temperature dependent, progressively decreased along with the treatments. Remarkable increase in slowly digested starch and resistant starch level was found at the same time. Besides, the decreases of rapidly digested starch and total hydrolysis content by using HMT were greater than by using ANN. The results indicated that the ANN and HMT efficiently modified physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of CBS and were able to improve its thermal stability, healthy benefits and application value.

  11. [Effects of helium-neon laser on physico-chemical properties of the bile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurov, Kh Kh; Dzhuraev, Kh Sh; Barakaev, S B; Kharina, T P; Pulatov, L I

    1990-08-01

    The influence of helium-neon laser radiation on bile physico-chemical characteristics in healthy subjects and in patients with the physico-chemical stage of gallstone disease was studied in vitro. This type of laser was found to induce positive therapeutic effects, such as: correction of hydrogen ion concentrations, surface tension and viscosity decrease and prolonged bile nucleation in patients with gallstone disease.

  12. Relationship between the spectral properties of solutions of borofluoride complex of alkylated dipyrromethene and the physicochemical parameters of solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfin, Yu. S.; Rumyantsev, E. V.; Fadeev, Ya. S.; Antina, E. V.

    2012-07-01

    Spectral and photophysical characteristics of borofluoride complex of alkylated dipyrromethene (Bodipy) are determined by means of absorption and fluorescence electron spectroscopy in various organic solvents. Dependences of the spectral and photophysical characteristics of Bodipy solutions vs. the physico-chemical parameters of solvents are obtained by linear regression analysis and the contribution from each parameter to the property under study is determined. It is established that the negative solvatochromic effect is intrinsic for Bodipy. It is concluded that specific interactions contribute substantially to the properties of the chromophore, which are determined by the electron donor properties of the solvent.

  13. Optimization of a novel class of benzimidazole-based farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonists to improve physicochemical and ADME properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Hans G F; Benson, G M; Bleicher, K H; Blum, D; Chaput, E; Clemann, N; Feng, S; Gardes, C; Grether, U; Hartman, P; Kuhn, B; Martin, R E; Plancher, J-M; Rudolph, M G; Schuler, F; Taylor, S

    2011-02-15

    Structure-guided lead optimization of recently described benzimidazolyl acetamides addressed the key liabilities of the previous lead compound 1. These efforts culminated in the discovery of 4-{(S)-2-[2-(4-chloro-phenyl)-5,6-difluoro-benzoimidazol-1-yl]-2-cyclohexyl-acetylamino}-3-fluoro-benzoic acid 7g, a highly potent and selective FXR agonist with excellent physicochemical and ADME properties and potent lipid lowering activity after oral administration to LDL receptor deficient mice.

  14. Investigation into the Physico-Chemical Properties of Soils of Caspian Sea Coastal Area in Mangystau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samal Syrlybekkyzy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of investigation into physico-chemical properties of coastal soils in the areas of oil fields. it has been established that the considered soils are characterized with low content of organics, alkaline reaction of soil solutions, high salinity and weak resistance against anthropogenic impacts. The obtained data can be applied for further studies and monitoring of environment in oil field areas.

  15. Physicochemical, Proximate and Sensory Properties of Pineapple (Ananas sp.) Syrup Developed from Its Organic Side-Stream

    OpenAIRE

    Tortoe, C.; Johnson, P.N.T.; Slaghek, T.; Miedema, M.; Timmermans, T.

    2013-01-01

    A major economical industrial challenge from pineapple (Ananas sp.) processing contributing to environmental pollu- tion is the organic side-streams of pineapple. The physicochemical, proximate and sensory properties of organic side- stream pineapple syrup (OSPS) developed from Smooth cayenne, Sugar loaf and MD2 pineapple varieties were evalu- ated. Organic side-stream pineapple syrup developed from MD2 recorded the highest moisture content with a corre- sponding water activity. The colour ch...

  16. Type II Collagen and Gelatin from Silvertip Shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) Cartilage: Isolation, Purification, Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Elango Jeevithan; Bin Bao; Yongshi Bu; Yu Zhou; Qingbo Zhao; Wenhui Wu

    2014-01-01

    Type II acid soluble collagen (CIIA), pepsin soluble collagen (CIIP) and type II gelatin (GII) were isolated from silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) cartilage and examined for their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. GII had a higher hydroxyproline content (173 mg/g) than the collagens and cartilage. CIIA, CIIP and GII were composed of two identical α1 and β chains and were characterized as type II. Amino acid analysis of CIIA, CIIP and GII indicated imino acid contents of...

  17. Penetration of antimicrobials to pulmonary epithelial lining fluid and muscle and impact of drug physicochemical properties determined by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottbøll, Lisa Amanda Holm; Friis, Christian

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objectives of this study were to characterize antimicrobial drug penetration into the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) and extracellular fluid (ECF) of muscle in relation to physicochemical properties of the drugs (molecular mass, Log D, polar surface area and charge......), using intrabronchial microdialysis. The series of drugs tested include gentamicin, sulfadiazine, cefquinome, minocycline and colistin. METHODS: Drug concentrations were measured during 2h of steady state plasma drug concentrations at therapeutic levels in anesthetized pigs. Microdialysis probes were...

  18. Effects of Long-term Located Fertilization on the Physico-chemical Property of Soil Humus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ji-ping; ZHANG Fu-dao; LIN Bao

    2002-01-01

    A systematic study concerning the effects of a long-term stationary fertilization on content and property of soil humus in fluvo-aquic soil sampled from Malan Farm, Xinji City, Hebei, and arid red soil and paddy red soil sampled from the Institute of Red Soil, Jinxian County, Jiangxi was conducted. The results showed that long-term fertilization had effects not only on the content and composition of soil humus, but also on the physico-chemical property of humus. With applying organic manure or combined application of organic manure and chemical fertilizer, E4 and E6 values of humic acid decreased in fluvo-aquic soil and arid red soil,but increased in paddy red soil. In paddy red soil, E4 and E6 values of humic acid increased also with a single application of chemical fertilizer, but E4 and E6 values had less change of humic acid in fluvo-aquic soil and arid red soil. The effects on the visible spectroscopic property of fulvic acid were different from that of humic acid. Long-term application of organic manure or combined application of organic manure and chemical fertilizer could increase E4 and E6 values of fulvic acid in three types of soil. Single application of chemical fertilizer had less effect on the E4 and E6. Long-term fertilization could also influence the ultraviolet spectroscopic property of humus. With a single application of organic manure or combined application of organic manure and chemical fertilizer, the ultraviolet absorbance of humic acid and fulvic acid increased in the three types of soil.But this effect was obvious only in short wave length, and the effect could decrease if the wave length increased. With a single application of chemical fertilizer the ultraviolet absorbance of fulvic acid could increase, but it of humic acid increased only in fluvo-aquic soil. Long-term application of organic manure or combined application of organic manure and chemical fertilizer could increase the content of total acidic groups, carboxy groups and

  19. Cationic vesicles based on biocompatible diacyl glycerol-arginine surfactants: physicochemical properties, antimicrobial activity, encapsulation efficiency and drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavano, L; Pinazo, A; Abo-Riya, M; Infante, M R; Manresa, M A; Muzzalupo, R; Pérez, L

    2014-08-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of cationic vesicular systems prepared from biocompatible diacyl glycerol-arginine surfactants are investigated. These systems form stable cationic vesicles by themselves and the average diameter of the vesicles decreases as the alkyl chain length of the surfactant increases. The addition of DPPC also modifies the physicochemical properties of these vesicles. Among the drugs these cationic formulations can encapsulate, we have considered Ciprofloxacin and 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). We show that the percentage of encapsulated drug depends on both the physicochemical properties of the carrier and the type of drug. The capacity of these systems to carry different molecules was evaluated performing in vitro drug release studies. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of empty and Ciprofloxacin-loaded vesicles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria has been determined. Three bacteria were tested: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The in vitro drug release from all formulations was effectively delayed. Empty cationic vesicles showed antimicrobial activity and Ciprofloxacin-loaded vesicles showed similar or higher antimicrobial activity than the free drug solution. These results suggest that our formulations represent a great innovation in the pharmaceutical field, due to their dual pharmacological function: one related to the nature of the vehiculated drug and the other related to the innate antibacterial properties of the surfactant-based carriers.

  20. Effect of hydroxypropylcellulose and Tween 80 on physicochemical properties and bioavailability of ezetimibe-loaded solid dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Rehmana; Kim, Dong Wuk; Din, Fakhar Ud; Mustapha, Omer; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Park, Jong Hyuck; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2015-10-05

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of the HPC (hydroxypropylcellulose) and Tween 80 on the physicochemical properties and oral bioavailability of ezetimibe-loaded solid dispersions. The binary solid dispersions were prepared with drug and various amounts of HPC. Likewise, ternary solid dispersions were prepared with different ratios of drug, HPC and Tween 80. Both types of solid dispersions were prepared using the solvent evaporation method. Their aqueous solubility, physicochemical properties, dissolution and oral bioavailability were investigated in comparison with the drug powder. All the solid dispersions significantly improved the drug solubility and dissolution. As the amount of HPC increased in the binary solid dispersions to 10-fold, the drug solubility and dissolution were increased accordingly. However, further increase in HPC did not result in significant differences among them. Similarly, up to 0.1-fold, Tween 80 increased the drug solubility in the ternary solid dispersions followed by no significant change. However, Tween 80 hardly affected the drug dissolution. The physicochemical analysis proved that the drug in binary and ternary solid dispersion was existed in the amorphous form. The particle-size measurements of these formulations were also not significantly different from each other, which showed that Tween 80 had no impact on physicochemical properties. The ezetimibe-loaded binary and ternary solid dispersions gave 1.6- and 1.8-fold increased oral bioavailability in rats, respectively, as compared to the drug powder; however, these values were not significantly different from each other. Thus, HPC greatly affected the solubility, dissolution and oral bioavailability of drug, but Tween 80 hardly did. Furthermore, this ezetimibe-loaded binary solid dispersion prepared only with HPC would be suggested as a potential formulation for oral administration of ezetimibe.

  1. Relationship between physicochemical properties and maximum residue levels and tolerances of crop-protection products for crops set by the USA, European Union and Codex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorbek, P; Hyder, K

    2006-08-01

    Residues on foodstuffs resulting from the use of crop-protection products are a function of many factors, e.g. environmental conditions, dissipation and application rate, some of which are linked to the physicochemical properties of the active ingredients. Residue limits (maximum residue levels (MRLs) and tolerances) of fungicides, herbicides and insecticides set by different regulatory authorities are compared, and the relationship between physicochemical properties of the active ingredients and residue limits are explored. This was carried out using simple summary statistics and artificial neural networks. US tolerances tended to be higher than European Union MRLs. Generally, fungicides had the highest residue limits followed by insecticides and herbicides. Physicochemical properties (e.g. aromatic proportion, non-carbon proportion and water solubility) and crop type explained up to 50% of the variation in residue limits. This suggests that physicochemical properties of the active ingredients may control important aspects of the processes leading to residues.

  2. Geochemistry Of Lead In Contaminated Soils: Effects Of Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, S.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Andra, S. P.

    2006-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is an environmental contaminant with proven human health effects. When assessing human health risks associated with Pb, one of the most common exposure pathways typically evaluated is soil ingestion by children. However, bioaccessibility of Pb primarily depends on the solubility and hence, the geochemical form of Pb, which in turn is a function of site specific soil chemistry. Certain fractions of ingested soil-Pb may not dissociate during digestion in the gastro-intestinal tract, and hence, may not be available for transport across the intestinal membrane. Therefore, this study is being currently performed to assess the geochemical forms and bioaccessibility of Pb in soils with varying physico-chemical properties. In order to elucidate the level of Pb that can be ingested and assimilated by humans, an in-vitro model that simulates the physiological conditions of the human digestive system has been developed and is being used in this study. Four different types of soils from the Immokalee (an acid sandy soil with minimal Pb retention potential), Millhopper (a sandy loam with high Fe/Al content), Pahokee (a muck soil with more than 80% soil organic matter), and Tobosa series (an alkaline soil with high clay content) were artificially contaminated with Pb as lead nitrate at the rate equivalent to 0, 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg dry soil. Analysis of soils by a sequential extraction method at time zero (immediately after spiking) showed that Immokalee and Millhopper soils had the highest amount of Pb in exchangeable form, whereas Pahokee and Tobosa soils had higher percentages of carbonate-bound and Fe/Al-bound Pb. The results of in-vitro experiment at time zero showed that majority of Pb was dissolved in the acidic stomach environment in Immokalee, Millhopper, and Tobosa, whereas it was in the intestinal phase in Pahokee soils. Because the soil system is not in equilibrium at time zero, the effect of soil properties on Pb geochemistry is not clear as yet. The

  3. Chemical constituents, physicochemical properties and antibacterial activity of leaves essential oil of Ocimum urticifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ketema Alemayehu; Mathewos Anza; Destaw Engdaw; Abedelfeta Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To determine chemical compositions, physicochemical properties and evaluating antibacterial activities of essential oils extracted from leaves ofOcimum urticifolium(O. urticifolium). Methods: Essential oil ofO. urticifolium was extracted by hydrodistillation technique. A number of phytochemical screening tests were applied to identify the classes of compounds in the leaves extract ofO. urticifolium. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were used to characterize the chemical components in the essential oil. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity as per of standard procedure. Results:Phytochemical screening of crude extract revealed that the presence of tannins, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and phenols. The obtained oil yield is (0.33 ± 0.11) % (v/w). Analysis of oil using gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed a total of 22 components, the abundance of monoterpene and sesquiterpenes (98.99%). The percentage composition of monoterpene in the oil wasα-pinene (22.105%), eugenol (21.099%), while sesquiterpenesα-cubebene (11.341%),α-bisabolene (9.945%),α-caryophyllene (7.709%),α-caryophyllene oxide (5.754%), and copaene (3.594%). The oil inhibited the growth ofStaphylococcus aureus andEscherichia coli, while no activity was shown toSalmonella typhi. Conclusions: TheO. urticifolium is a rich source of various classes of chemical constituents and the antibacterial activity of the oil could be attributed mainly to these compounds.

  4. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties, antioxidant and microbial activities of sour cherry juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjeh, Edris; Barzegar, Mohsen; Ali Sahari, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Recently, due to the beneficial effects of bioactive compounds, demand for minimally processed fruits and fruit juices has increased rapidly in the world. In this study, sour cherry juice (SCJ) was exposed to gamma irradiation at 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 kGy and then stored at 4 °C for 60 days. Total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA), color, total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMC), antioxidant activity, organic acid profile, and microbial analysis were evaluated at regular intervals during the storage. Results indicated that irradiation did not have any significant effect on TSS, while level of TA increased significantly at the dose of 6 kGy (p<0.05). Furthermore, irradiation treatment and storage time led to a significant increase in L* and b* values and a decrease in a* values. Total monomeric anthocyanin content of the irradiated SCJ was lower than that of the non-irradiated one (24% at 3.0 kGy) and also changed toward a more negative direction during the storage (63% at 3.0 kGy for 60 days). There was a significant decrease in the antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay) in both irradiated and stored SCJs. After irradiation (0-6 kGy), the results showed that the concentration of malic and oxalic acid significantly increased; but, the concentration of ascorbic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids significantly decreased. Gamma irradiation with doses of ≥3 kGy resulted in overall reduction in microbial loads. Based on the results obtained from the changes of physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and microbial analysis, irradiation of SCJ at doses of higher than 3.0 kGy is not recommended.

  5. Study of some physicochemical and functional properties of quinoa (chenopodium quinoa willd) protein isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch, Lilian E; Romero, Nalda; Tapia, Cristián A; Silva, Jorge; Rivera, Mónica

    2008-06-25

    The amino acid composition and the physicochemical and functional properties of quinoa protein isolates were evaluated. Protein isolates were prepared from quinoa seed by alkaline solubilization (at pH 9, called Q9, and at pH 11, called Q11) followed by isoelectric precipitation and spray drying. Q9 and Q11 had high levels of essential amino acids, with high levels of lysine. Both isolates showed similar patterns in native/SDS-PAGE and SEM. The pH effect on fluorescence measurements showed decreasing fluorescence intensity and a shift in the maximum of emission of both isolates. Q9 showed an endotherm with a denaturation temperature of 98.1 degrees C and a denaturation enthalpy of 12.7 J/g, while Q11 showed no endotherm. The protein solubility of Q11 was lower than that of Q9 at pH above 5.0 but similar at the pH range 3.0-4.0. The water holding capacity (WHC) was similar in both isolates and was not affected by pH. The water imbibing capacity (WIC) was double for Q11 (3.5 mL of water/g isolate). Analysis of DSC, fluorescence, and solubility data suggests that there is apparently denaturation due to pH. Some differences were found that could be attributed to the extreme pH treatments in protein isolates and the nature of quinoa proteins. Q9 and Q11 can be used as a valuable source of nutrition for infants and children. Q9 may be used as an ingredient in nutritive beverages, and Q11 may be used as an ingredient in sauces, sausages, and soups.

  6. Antimicrobial activities, pollen diversity and physicochemical properties of natural honey from Southeastern Anatolia of Turkey

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    Menderes Cenet

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Honey, a natural sweetener, is produced from the nectar of many plants. The pollen diversity, physicochemical properties, and antimicrobial activities were analyzed in honey samples from Mardin (Southeastern Anatolia. Methods: The melissopalynological method was used to identify and enumerate the pollen granules. Analytical methods and agar well diffusion assays were employed for the determination of some quality parameters and the antimicrobial potential of honey samples, respectively. Results: The pollen composition consisted of 27 taxa belonging to 13 families. The origins of all honey were determined as the multifloral sources. The most predominant taxa were mainly Hedysarum sp., Carduus sp., Melissa officinalis, Gossypium hirsitum, Paliurus spina-christi, Salix sp. and Pimpinella anisum. The secondary pollen taxa were Hedysarum sp., Trifolium sp., Astragalus sp., Salix sp., Paliurus spina-christi, Asphodeline sp., Centaurea sp., Carduus sp., Zea mays and Cistus sp., respectively. Asphodeline sp. as a secondary pollen taxon in a honey sample could be considered as the first report. The pH, total acidity, brix, refractive index, electrical conductivity, moisture and L, a, b values of the samples varied from 3.75 to 4.28, 30 to 42, 67.3 to 85.70, 1.45 to 1.50, 12.40 to 31.61, 0.24 to 0.90, 47.81 to 57.59, -0.94 to 4.31, 20.37 to 31.28, respectively. Antimicrobial activities of the honey specimens were also effective on five bacterial species and two yeast species. Conclusions: Honey samples from Southeastern Anatolia revealed a good diversity of pollen granules. The rich multiflora of honey increases not only its nutritional quality as well as antimicrobial potential on various clinically important microorganisms.

  7. Effect of Soaking and Roasting on the Physicochemical and Pasting Properties of Soybean Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agume, Aurelie Solange Ntso; Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Mbofung, Carl Moses F.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of soaking and roasting on the physicochemical and pasting properties of soybean flour were evaluated. Soybean seeds were soaked overnight in tap water for 0–72 h, hand dehulled, dried, and part of the sample was roasted. Roasted and unroasted soy beans were milled into flour and analyzed. The results showed that the total carbohydrates (22.8–27.9 g/100 g), the ash content (3.5–3.6 g/100 g), and the total polyphenols (0.29–0.51 g/100 g) did not significantly change during both the soaking and roasting processes. However, the total proteins (35.8–46.0 g/100 g) and lipid contents (21.4–29.5 g/100 g) were significantly (p Phytate content (0.22–0.26 g/100 g) decreased significantly (p < 0.05) only with roasting. The tannins (0.01–0.30 g/100 g) and soluble proteins (4.0–29.0 g/100 g) significantly (p < 0.05) diminished with both treatments. There was a significant increase in the least gelation concentration (20–30 g/100 mL), a decrease in the swelling power (1.3–2.0 mL/mL), and consequently, reduction in the viscosity (range peak viscosity 18–210 cP) of the flour slurry after soaking and roasting. All these qualities—needed for producing nutritious flour for infants—highlighted the efficiency of these endogenous technologies. PMID:28231091

  8. Effect of Grain Size on Selected Physico-Chemical Properties of Clay

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    Osumanu H. Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mixture of the right proportion of expanding and non-expanding clays to improve plasticity (moldability of clays used in the pot industry of Malaysia is yet to be well investigated. In addition, little is known about the choice of the right clay size to eliminate or reduce the content of undesirable compounds such as Fe2O3, Al2O3 to improve the strength of pots and roofing tiles in the country. The objective of this study was to investigate how selected physico-chemical properties of pottery clay relate to grain size of Nyalau series ((Typic Paleudults. Approach: Soil samples were refined into 25, 20 and 63 µm using size grading method. The mineralogical composition of the samples was determined using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. The chemical composition of the samples was also determined using standard procedures. Firing was done at 800°C in a muffle furnace and the cracks of the samples recorded. Results: The clay particles with sizes 20 and 25 µm were higher in LOI and total C than that those of 63 µm regardless of grain size, the clay investigated had quartz (SiO2, illite-montmorillonite, Anatase ((TiO2 and kaolinite. Grading affected the concentrations of Fe, Al and Si as clays with particle sizes 20 and 25 µm had higher contents of the aforementioned elements compared with those of 63 µm. The clay with particles 63 µm had the best strength and this was so because the clay particles had the lowest amount of Fe, Al and Si. Conclusion: The strength of Malaysian pots could be improved upon proper grading of the clay particles.

  9. A comparative study of the physicochemical properties of perfluorinated and hydrogenated amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Elena; González-Pérez, Alfredo; Ruso, Juan M; Pedrido, Rosa; Prieto, Gerardo; Sarmiento, Félix

    2005-08-01

    In this work we studied and compared the physicochemical properties of perfluorinated (sodium perfluoroheptanoate, C7FONa, and perfluorooctanoate, C8FONa) and hydrogenated (sodium octanoate, C8HONa, decanoate, C10HONa, and dodecanoate, C12HONa) amphiphiles. First, we determined their Krafft points to study the solubility and appropriate temperature range of micellization of these compounds. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) and ionization degree of micellization (beta) as a function of temperature (T) were estimated from conductivity data. Plots of cmc vs T appear to follow the typical U-shaped curve with a minimum T(min). The results show that the surfactants with CF2/CH2 ratio of 1.5 between alkyl chains (C12HONa-C8FONa and C10HONa-C7FONa) have nearly the same minimum value for cmc against temperature. The comparison between the cmc of hydrogenated amphiphiles and the corresponding perfluorinated amphiphiles must be done at this point. Thermodynamic functions of micellization were obtained by applying different theoretical models and choosing the one that best fit our experimental data. Although perfluorinated and hydrogenated amphiphiles present similar thermodynamic behavior, we have found a variation of 1.3 to 1.7 in the CF2/CH2 ratio, which did not remain constant with temperature. In the second part of this study the apparent molar volumes and adiabatic compressibilities were determined from density and ultrasound velocity measurements. Apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution presented the ratio 1.5 between alkyl chains again. However, apparent molar volumes upon micellization for sodium perfluoroheptanoate indicated a different aggregation pattern.

  10. Physicochemical, Functional and Antioxidant Properties of Tropical Fruits Co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selani, Miriam Mabel; Bianchini, Andreia; Ratnayake, Wajira S; Flores, Rolando A; Massarioli, Adna Prado; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Canniatti Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of mango (MAC), pineapple (PAC) and passion fruit (PFC) co-products in order to evaluate them as ingredients for food application. Proximate composition showed low fat content (0.95-5.64 g/100 g), and high levels of dietary fiber. In pineapple and passion fruit co-products, dietary fiber represented more than 50 % of the sample. Low pH, water activity, along with high acidity indicated that these co-products would not be easily susceptible to deterioration as food ingredients. Pineapple and passion fruit co-products had significant (p < 0.05) water holding capacity (4.96 and 4.31 g water/g sample, respectively), however oil holding capacity was low (1.59-1.85 g oil/g sample) for the three matrices studied. Regarding the phenolic content, values ranged from 3.78 to 4.67 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, with MAC showing the highest content. Through high performance liquid chromatography analysis, six compounds were identified and quantified (gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, and mangiferin) in the fruit co-products. As observed for the phenolic content, the highest antioxidant activity (p < 0.05) was found in MAC when measured by both DPPH and ABTS methods. The results indicated that the fruit co-products under evaluation could be used as functional ingredient to provide dietary fiber and natural antioxidants to food products.

  11. Physicochemical Properties of Jatropha Oil-Based Polyol Produced by a Two Steps Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sariah Saalah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A low cost, abundant, and renewable vegetable oil source has been gaining increasing attention due to its potential to be chemically modified to polyol and thence to become an alternative replacement for the petroleum-based polyol in polyurethane production. In this study, jatropha oil-based polyol (JOL was synthesised from non-edible jatropha oil by a two steps process, namely epoxidation and oxirane ring opening. In the first step, the effect of the reaction temperature, the molar ratio of the oil double bond to formic acid, and the reaction time on the oxirane oxygen content (OOC of the epoxidised jatropha oil (EJO were investigated. It was found that 4.3% OOC could be achieved with a molar ratio of 1:0.6, a reaction temperature of 60 °C, and 4 h of reaction. Consequently, a series of polyols with hydroxyl numbers in the range of 138–217 mgKOH/g were produced by oxirane ring opening of EJOs, and the physicochemical and rheological properties were studied. Both the EJOs and the JOLs are liquid and have a number average molecular weight (Mn in the range of 834 to 1457 g/mol and 1349 to 2129 g/mol, respectively. The JOLs exhibited Newtonian behaviour, with a low viscosity of 430–970 mPas. Finally, the JOL with a hydroxyl number of 161 mgKOH/g was further used to synthesise aqueous polyurethane dispersion, and the urethane formation was successfully monitored by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR.

  12. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of lutein microcapsules prepared with maltodextrins and sucrose by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Pengqun; Zhang, Hongchao; Bajaj, Poonam R; Yuan, Qipeng; Tang, Juming; Chen, Shulin; Sablani, Shyam S

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties of lutein microcapsules. Nine types of lutein microcapsules were prepared in order to determine their encapsulation efficiency and yield. Results show that lutein microcapsules with maltodextrin M040 and sucrose at the weight ratio of 3:1 (designated as M040:1) had the highest encapsulation efficiency (90.1%) among the lutein microcapsules, as well as a higher encapsulation yield (90.4%). The onset glass transition temperatures (Tgi ) and the surface dents of the lutein microcapsules decreased as the dextrose equivalent value of maltodextrin and the weight ratio of sucrose increased. Enthalpy relaxation experiments were conducted for the lutein microcapsules M040:1 at (Tgi - 5) , (Tgi - 10), and (Tgi - 15) °C, and the obtained data were fitted to the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts model. Results show that the mean relaxation time (τ) (316 h) of M040:1 lutein microcapsules aged at (Tgi - 15) °C was greater than the τ (161 h) at (Tgi - 10) °C and τ (60.5 h) at (Tgi - 5) °C. Effects of temperature and oxygen transmission rates for package film on the storage stability of M040:1 lutein microcapsules were also investigated. Findings show that rates of lutein degradation and color change increased by an order of magnitude as storage temperature (4 to 97 °C) and oxygen transmission rate of the package film (0.018 to 62.8 cc/m(2) day) increased. These results suggest that lutein is highly unstable and susceptible to thermal and oxidative degradations. However, microencapsulation with appropriate wall materials of higher relaxation time and high oxygen barrier packaging can increase the storage life.

  13. Physicochemical properties of physical chitin hydrogels: modeling and relation with the mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachoud, L; Domard, A

    2001-01-01

    In this work, we were interested in the modeling of syneresis of physical chitin hydrogels by a mathematic law allowing us to predict the variation of the weight of the gel as a function of time. The variation of the weight of the gel during syneresis can be described by W(t)()/W(0) = (t(1/2) + (W(infinity)/W(0))t)/(t(1/2)) + t) where W(0), W(infinity), and W(t)() are the weights of the gel at the beginning of syneresis, for infinite time and for a time t, respectively. t(1/2) corresponds to the half-time of syneresis. W(infinity)/W(0) and t(1/2) were studied in relation with several parameters such as the ionic strength, pH, degree of acetylation of chitin and the initial concentration of polymer. The mechanical properties of chitin hydrogels maintained during syneresis in media of different pH's and ionic strengths were also investigated.

  14. Physico-Chemical Properties and Laboratory Hyperspectral Reflectance of Coastal Saline Soil in Shangyu City of Zhejiang Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI ZHOU; HUANG MINGXIANG; LI YAN

    2003-01-01

    45 and 50 composite soil samples were collected, respectively, from two agricultural fields, that wereenclosed and reclaimed fron coastal tidal-flat areas in 1996 and 1984 respectively, in Shangyu of ZhejiangProvince, China, to investigate the physico-chemical properties and the hyperspectral characteristics of thesaline soils and to make an assessment on their relationships. The reflectance spectra of saline soils weremeasured using a spectroradiometer in laboratory. The mean spectral curves of the saline soils from thetwo sites different in reclamation year showed that the saline soil taken from the recently reclaimed landwith higher salinity demonstrated a lower reflectance intensity in the spectral region from about 550 nm to2300 nm. In addition, nine absorption bands, i.e., 488 nm, 530 nm, 670 nm, 880 nm, 940 nm, 1400 nm,1 900 nm, 2 200 nm and 2 300 nm, were chosen as the spectral bands to investigate the relationships betweensoil physico-chemical properties by means of Pearson correlation analysis. Finally, the first two principalcomponents were calculated from nine absorption bands and used to discriminate the saline soil samplestaken from two sampled fields. The results indicate that it is feasible to detect physico-chemical propertiesof saline soils from fields reclaimed for varying time periods on the basis of the hyperspectral data.

  15. Synthesis and Determination of Physicochemical Properties of New 3-(4-Arylpiperazin-1-yl-2-hydroxypropyl 4-Alkoxyethoxybenzoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlina Marvanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nine new dihydrochloride salts of 3-(4-arylpiperazin-1-yl-2-hydroxypropyl 4-alkoxyethoxybenzoates were designed and synthesized. The physicochemical properties such as lipophilicity index (log kw and dissociation constant (pKa were experimentally determined and compared to the software calculated data. The lipophilicity index was determined by means of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The pKa values were determined by means of capillary zone electrophoresis. The “drug-likeness” properties according to the Lipinski Rule of Five and prediction of possible blood–brain barrier penetration were computed and discussed.

  16. Effects of Biochar and Lime on Soil Physicochemical Properties and Tobacco Seedling Growth in Red Soil

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    ZHU Pan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Red soil, mainly found in the southern China, is developed in a warm, moist climate. The main property of the soils is strong acidity, aluminum toxicity, and low available nutrients. In this study, different effects of biochar and lime on soil physicochemical properties and tobacco growth were determined in red soil, so as to provide a scientific foundation for soil improvement tobacco field. A pot experiment was designed and conducted at four biochar levels(0, 0.5%, 1%, 2% and normal lime level (0.3% to study effects of two different soil amendments on red soil pH, exchangeable aluminum(Exc-Al and exchangeable manganese(Exc-Mn, available nutrients and organic carbon (SOC. Meanwhile, agronomic traits, biomass and leaves elements of tobacco were also tested. Results showed that the agronomic characters and biomass of tobacco seedling had changed effectively after biochar or lime was added. Under 0.5%, 1% biochar treatment, the content of nitrogen(N, phosphorus(P, potassium(K, calcium(Ca and magnesium(Mg in tobacco leaves substantially raised. However, when 2% biochar was applied, leaves N content declined by 9.3%. Compared with the control, leaves N, P and Ca content increased observably in the lime treatment. However, its K and Mg content decreased by 9.0% and 13.3% respectively. Alkaline nitrogen(SAN, available phosphorus (SAP, available potassium (SAK, and exchangeable calcium (Exc-Ca and exchangeable magnesium (Exc-Mg were improved obviously in soil applied with biochar. Only the content of Exc-Ca was significantly increased in lime treatment. In addition, it was beneficial to improve soil pH and reduce soil Exc-Al when biochar or lime had been used. Thus, both biochar and lime are propitious to increase soil pH value, lessen soil Exc-Al content, and improve the growth of tobacco seedling. Furthermore, biochar application also can raise the content of available nutrient and SOC in red soil.

  17. Characterization of physicochemical properties of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) type 2208 and their influence on prolonged drug release from matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devjak Novak, S; Šporar, E; Baumgartner, S; Vrečer, F

    2012-07-01

    The key physicochemical properties of functional excipients should be identified, and the influence of their variability on the properties of the final dosage form should be evaluated during the development phase. Excipients produced by different manufacturers and/or by different manufacturing processes should have comparable properties. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) with a high molecular weight is a functional excipient often used in solid matrix systems with prolonged release of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). This study investigates whether HPMC manufactured by two manufacturers using different chemical procedures differs in particle-size distribution, particle shape, particle morphology, chemical composition, and dissolution of diclofenac sodium as a model drug. NIR spectroscopy was introduced and calibration models were developed to detect physical differences among HPMC batches from two different origins. The physical differences between HPMC samples were additionally confirmed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas chromatography (GC) measurements, and dissolution testing of hydrophilic matrix tablets. Our results prove that, even if HPMC polymers manufactured from two different sources comply with the pharmacopeial specification, they significantly differ in physicochemical properties and thus influence the properties of the formulated dosage forms.

  18. Purification of cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum: Physicochemical characterization and functional properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different purification methods (ethanol, isopropanol and ethanol-isopropanol) on the physicochemical and functional characteristics of cress seed gum. Sugar composition and molecular weight of the samples varied significantly. All...

  19. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  20. Physicochemical properties and nutritional quality of raw cereals for newly weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, G A; Doucet, F J; Hill, S E; Wiseman, J

    2008-06-01

    The digestibility of the starch component of raw cereals in newly weaned piglets is highly variable. Reasons for this must be elucidated if the most suitable cereals are to be used. A novel approach was employed, which consisted of assessing the physicochemical properties (rapid visco analysis, water absorption and solubility indices, particle size distribution and in vitro amylolytic digestion) of eight raw cereals contained within piglet diets and subsequently relating this in vitro data to the biological responses of weaned piglets. Trial 1 examined soft and hard wheat, trial 2 - soft wheat, barley, rye and triticale, and trial 3 - soft wheat, naked oats, whole oats and maize. The initial observation was that in vitro testing prior to animal trials is recommended in nutritional evaluation since it indicated fundamental differences between raw cereals, such as for example the levels of endogenous amylase in wheat. Starch and nitrogen digestibility differed between cereals (apparent digestibility coefficients at the 0.5 site of the small intestine ranged from 0.10 to 0.69 for starch and from 0.17 to 0.68 for nitrogen). There is also a probable relationship between the coefficients of ileal apparent starch digestibility, at approximately halfway from the gastric pylorus to the ileocaecal valve, and the presence of endogenous amylase (mean values of 0.53 and 0.62 in trials 2 and 3, respectively, for the higher amylase wheat; 0.38 for the low-amylase wheat used in trial 1). This additional variable (i.e. the unforeseen presence of endogenous amylase) in wheat made it more difficult to draw a firm conclusion about the nutritional suitability of the different cereals. All raw-cereal diets caused atrophy of the villi during the initial week following weaning, but the soft wheat was associated with the highest comparative villi height and might therefore be considered the best of all raw cereals in minimising the post-weaning growth check. For wheat, this might also

  1. Physico-Chemical and Catalytic Properties of Mesoporous CuO-ZrO2 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman N. Basahel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous CuO-ZrO2 catalysts were prepared and calcined at 500 °C. The performance of the synthesized catalysts for benzylation of benzene using benzyl chloride was studied. The bare support (macroporous ZrO2 offered 45% benzyl chloride conversion after reaction time of 10 h at 75 °C. Significant increase in benzyl chloride conversion (98% was observed after CuO loading (10 wt. % on porous ZrO2 support. The conversion was decreased to 80% with increase of CuO loading to 20 wt. %. Different characterization techniques (XRD, Raman, diffuse reflectance UV-vis, N2-physisorption, H2-TPR, XPS and acidity measurements were used to evaluate physico-chemical properties of CuO-ZrO2 catalysts; the results showed that the surface and structural characteristics of the ZrO2 phase as well as the interaction between CuO-ZrO2 species depend strongly on the CuO content. The results also indicated that ZrO2 support was comprised of monoclinic and tetragonal phases with macropores. An increase of the volume of monoclinic ZrO2 phase was observed after impregnation of 10 wt. % of CuO; however, stabilization of tetragonal ZrO2 phase was noticed after loading of 20 wt. % CuO. The presence of low-angle XRD peaks indicates that mesoscopic order is preserved in the calcined CuO-ZrO2 catalysts. XRD reflections due to CuO phase were not observed in case of 10 wt. % CuO supported ZrO2 sample; in contrast, the presence of crystalline CuO phase was observed in 20 wt. % CuO supported ZrO2 sample. The mesoporous 10 wt. % CuO supported ZrO2 catalyst showed stable catalytic activity for several reaction cycles. The observed high catalytic activity of this catalyst could be attributed to the presence of a higher number of dispersed interactive CuO (Cu2+-O-Zr4+ species, easy reducibility, and greater degree of accessible surface Lewis acid sites.

  2. Physicochemical and functional properties of rapeseed protein isolate: influence of antinutrient removal with acidified organic solvents from rapeseed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Gogoi, Jyotchna; Kalita, Dipankar; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Nakhuru, Khonamai Sewa; Goyary, Danswrang; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2014-08-06

    The presence of antinutritional constituents in rapeseed protein products (RPI), such as polyphenols, phytates, allyl isothiocyanates, and glucosinolates, is a formidable constraint. The effect of antinutrient removal from rapeseed meal with an organic solvent mixture (methanol/acetone, 1:1 v/v, combined with an acid (hydrochloric, acetic, perchloric, trichloroacetic, phosphoric)) on the physicochemical and functional properties of RPI was investigated. The extraction resulted in a substantial reduction of antinutrients from RPI, especially polyphenols and phytates, with concomitant decreases in protein yield and solubility. Treatment harbored significant improvement in the degree of whiteness, which was highest in the perchloric acid case. Surface hydrophobicity and free sulfhydryl group of RPI changed considerably, with perchloric acid-treated samples showing higher values, whereas the disulfide content remarkably increased in trichloroacetic acid- and phosphoric acid-treated samples, signifying aggregation. Intrinsic emission fluorescence and FTIR spectra showed significant changes in proteins' tertiary and secondary conformations, and the changes were more pronounced in samples treated with higher concentrations of acids. No appreciable alteration appeared among the electrophoretic profiles of proteins from pristine meal and those treated with lower levels of acids. Interfacial surface properties of proteins were variably improved by the solvent extraction, whereas the converse was true for their extent of denaturation. The results suggest that the physicochemical and conformational properties of RPI are closely related to its functional properties.

  3. Influence of trehalose 6,6'-diester (TDX) chain length on the physicochemical and immunopotentiating properties of DDA/TDX liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallerup, Rie Selchau; Madsen, Cecilie Maria; Schiøth, Mikkel Lohmann;

    2015-01-01

    Linking physicochemical characterization to functional properties is crucial for defining critical quality attributes during development of subunit vaccines toward optimal safety and efficacy profiles. We investigated how the trehalose 6,6'-diester (TDX) chain length influenced the physicochemical......, immunization of mice with the recombinant tuberculosis fusion antigen Ag85B-ESAT-6-Rv2660c (H56) and the physicochemically most optimal formulations (DDA/TDB, DDA/TDS and DDA/TDP) induced comparable T-cell responses. In conclusion, of the investigated TDB analogues, incorporation of 11mol% TDS or TDP into DDA...... liposomes resulted in an adjuvant system with the most favorable physicochemical properties and an immunological profile comparable to that of DDA/TDB....

  4. Nutritional value and physicochemical properties of red deer and wild boar meat after frozen storage under vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz FLOREK

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was the comparison of physicochemical properties of red deer and wild boar meat frozen under vacuum for 60 days and then cold stored during 7 days. The research material included vacuum-packed, frozen and stored for 60 days skeletal muscles from shoulder (deboned retail cut of red deer (n=9 and wild boar (n=9. Following thawing, muscles were removed from the packaging and then cold stored 7 days. Measurements of physicochemical properties as follow: pH and electrical conductivity (1, 2, 3 and 7 d, CIE L*a*b* colour characteristics, parameters of water holding capacity and shear force test (1 and 7 d were determined. The proximate composition of meat (contents of moisture, ash, protein and fat, as well water:protein ratio, energy value and nutritional quality index (NQI for protein and fat were calculated. Red deer meat showed significantly (P0.05 lower content of fat and higher NQI for protein compared to wild boar. Muscles of both species stored for 3 d following thawing displayed pH below 6.0, and similar colour characteristics. However, cold storage significantly (P0.05 influenced the increase of lightness (L* and decrease of redness (a*. Venison stored up to 7 d following thawing indicated significantly (P0.05 lower water holding capacity (higher cooking loss and free water amount. Meat of wild boar was significantly (P0.05 tougher (higher shear force and shear energy than red deer. Although, the improvement of tenderness for meat of both species during cold storage was not observed up to 7 d following thawing, the red deer meat should be considered “tender”, and wild boar “intermediate”. The assessment of the nutritional value and physicochemical properties of retail elements from frozen venison indicate their high quality, fulfilling criterions for fresh meat in culinary and processing purposes.

  5. Ion-ion correlation, solvent excluded volume and pH effects on physicochemical properties of spherical oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovanesyan, Zaven; Aljzmi, Amal; Almusaynid, Manal; Khan, Asrar; Valderrama, Esteban; Nash, Kelly L; Marucho, Marcelo

    2016-01-15

    One major source of complexity in the implementation of nanoparticles in aqueous electrolytes arises from the strong influence that biological environments has on their physicochemical properties. A key parameter for understanding the molecular mechanisms governing the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles is the formation of the surface charge density. In this article, we present an efficient and accurate approach that combines a recently introduced classical solvation density functional theory for spherical electrical double layers with a surface complexation model to account for ion-ion correlation and excluded volume effects on the surface titration of spherical nanoparticles. We apply the proposed computational approach to account for the charge-regulated mechanisms on the surface chemistry of spherical silica (SiO2) nanoparticles. We analyze the effects of the nanoparticle size, as well as pH level and electrolyte concentration of the aqueous solution on the nanoparticle's surface charge density and Zeta potential. We validate our predictions for 580Å and 200Å nanoparticles immersed in acid, neutral and alkaline mono-valent aqueous electrolyte solutions against experimental data. Our results on mono-valent electrolyte show that the excluded volume and ion-ion correlations contribute significantly to the surface charge density and Zeta potential of the nanoparticle at high electrolyte concentration and pH levels, where the solvent crowding effects and electrostatic screening have shown a profound influence on the protonation/deprotonation reactions at the liquid/solute interface. The success of this approach in describing physicochemical properties of silica nanoparticles supports its broader application to study other spherical metal oxide nanoparticles.

  6. Physicochemical properties and oral bioavailability of amorphous atorvastatin hemi-calcium using spray-drying and SAS process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Min-Soo; Park, Hee Jun; Jin, Shun-Ji; Lee, Sibeum; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2008-07-09

    The objective of the study was to prepare amorphous atorvastatin hemi-calcium using spray-drying and supercritical antisolvent (SAS) process and evaluate its physicochemical properties and oral bioavailability. Atorvastatin hemi-calcium trihydrate was transformed to anhydrous amorphous form by spray-drying and SAS process. With the SAS process, the mean particle size and the specific surface area of amorphous atorvastatin were drastically changed to 68.7+/-15.8nm, 120.35+/-1.40m2/g and 95.7+/-12.2nm, 79.78+/-0.93m2/g from an acetone solution and a tetrahydrofuran solution, respectively and appeared to be associated with better performance in apparent solubility, dissolution and pharmacokinetic studies, compared with unprocessed crystalline atorvastatin. Oral AUC0-8h values in SD rats for crystalline and amorphous atorvastatin were as follow: 1121.4+/-212.0ngh/mL for crystalline atorvastatin, 3249.5+/-406.4ngh/mL and 3016.1+/-200.3ngh/mL for amorphous atorvastatin from an acetone solution and a tetrahydrofuran solution with SAS process, 2227.8+/-274.5 and 2099.9+/-339.2ngh/mL for amorphous atorvastatin from acetone and tetrahydrofuran with spray-drying. The AUCs of all amorphous atorvastatin significantly increased (PSAS process exhibits better bioavailability than spray-drying because of particle size reduction with narrow particle size distribution. It was concluded that physicochemical properties and bioavailability of crystalline atorvastatin could be improved by physical modification such as particle size reduction and generation of amorphous state using spray-drying and SAS process. Further, SAS process was a powerful methodology for improving the physicochemical properties and bioavailability of atorvastatin.

  7. Preparation, Spectroscopy, Physicochemical Properties and X-ray Structure Analysis of 3,4,5-Trimethoxy N(2-hydroxybenzylidene aniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodjo Charles Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available 3,4,5-Trimethoxy N-(salicylidene aniline was synthesized and characterized by IR spectroscopy, 1H NMR and x-ray single crystal analysis. UV-visible spectroscopy was used for physicochemical tests. X-ray data reveals that the crystalline network cohesion of this compound is essentially assured by CH/pi type hydrogen bounds. It crystallized in the orthorhombic Pbcn space group. Electronic spectroscopy shows that the title compound doesn't present photochromic property but thermochromic one. Intermolecular interactions analysis confirms for this compound a thermochromic structural predisposition.

  8. Tetrahydroquinolines as a novel series of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators: structural requirements for better physicochemical and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Naoya; Miyakawa, Motonori; Amano, Seiji; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Noriko; Nejishima, Hiroaki; Inoguchi, Kiyoshi

    2011-11-01

    A rationally designed tetrahydroquinoline (1) for nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators was modified for the exploration of promising compounds by Grieco three-component condensation using various dienophiles. Based on the in vitro effects and physicochemical properties of the synthesized compounds, compound 4c was selected for further study. Compound 4c increased the femoral bone mineral density as much as DHT, but it reduced the uterus effect compared with DHT in ovariectomized rats. Thus, compound 4c has desirable osteoanabolic effects with weak undesirable effects on the uterus in a female osteoporosis model.

  9. How far are rheological parameters from amplitude sweep tests predictable using common physicochemical soil properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppe, N.; Horn, R.

    2017-01-01

    A basic understanding of soil behavior on the mesoscale resp. macroscale (i.e. soil aggregates resp. bulk soil) requires knowledge of the processes at the microscale (i.e. particle scale), therefore rheological investigations of natural soils receive growing attention. In the present research homogenized and sieved (account. Although the influence of the individual factors varies depending on soil texture, the physicochemical features significantly affecting soil micro structure were identified. Based on the determined statistical relationships between rheological and physicochemical parameters, pedotransfer functions (PTF) have been developed, which allow a mathematical estimation of the rheological target value integral z. Thus, stabilizing factors are: soil organic matter, concentration of Ca2+, content of CaCO3 and pedogenic iron oxides; whereas the concentration of Na+ and water content represent structurally unfavorable factors.

  10. Modified β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex to improve the physicochemical properties of albendazole. complete in vitro evaluation and characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina García

    Full Text Available The potential use of natural cyclodextrins and their synthetic derivatives have been studied extensively in pharmaceutical research and development to modify certain properties of hydrophobic drugs. The ability of these host molecules of including guest molecules within their cavities improves notably the physicochemical properties of poorly soluble drugs, such as albendazole, the first chosen drug to treat gastrointestinal helminthic infections. Thus, the aim of this work was to synthesize a beta cyclodextrin citrate derivative, to analyze its ability to form complexes with albendazole and to evaluate its solubility and dissolution rate. The synthesis progress of the cyclodextrin derivative was followed by electrospray mass spectrometry and the acid-base titration of the product. The derivative exhibited an important drug affinity. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments demonstrated that the tail and the aromatic ring of the drug were inside the cavity of the cyclodextrin derivative. The inclusion complex was prepared by spray drying and full characterized. The drug dissolution rate displayed exceptional results, achieving 100% drug release after 20 minutes. The studies indicated that the inclusion complex with the cyclodextrin derivative improved remarkably the physicochemical properties of albendazole, being a suitable excipient to design oral dosage forms.

  11. Effects of sulfation on the physicochemical and functional properties of a water-insoluble polysaccharide preparation from Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Hengyu; Yao, Wenbing; Gao, Xiangdong; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2010-03-24

    The sulfation of a water-insoluble Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP) was successfully carried out with chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine in dimethyl formamide to prepare three sulfated GLP derivatives, named sGLP1, sGLP2, and sGLP3. The chemical structure of the sulfated GLP was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared and (13)C NMR analyses. The sGLPs were evaluated for their water solubility, degree of substitution (DS), antioxidant properties, and bile acid-binding capacities. The results showed that sulfation improved the water solubility of GLP and increased its scavenging capacities against hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals, hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity, Fe(II) chelating ability, reducing power, and bile acid-binding capacities. It was also observed that the DS may influence the physicochemical and functional properties of sGLPs. For instance, the sulfated GLP with the lowest DS had the greatest bile acid-binding capacity, and the sGLP that had the highest DS showed the lowest bile acid-binding ability under the experimental conditions. The results from this study suggested that sulfation is a possible approach to obtain novel water-soluble derivatives of GLP with improved physicochemical, functional, and biological properties for potential utilization in functional foods or supplemental products.

  12. Biodiversity in Relation to Physicochemical Properties of Keenjhar Lake, Thatta District, Sindh, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    A. L. Korai; Sahato, G. A.; Lashari, K. H.; Arbani, S. N.

    2008-01-01

    Keenjhar Lake is artificial tropical lake. It is located almost 120 km from Karachi; Keenjhar Lake is essential for diverse aspects such as, supply of drinking water, irrigation and wild life intention. Adverse effects of physicochemical parameters on aquatic ecosystem may occur at all levels of biological communities can be wide-ranging or limited, temporary or permanent. Mainly serious effects involve loss in productivity, changes in growth, loss of primary productivity, altered diversity o...

  13. Effect of GdL Addition on Physico-chemical Properties of Fermented Sausages during Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Jang, Kyoung-Hwan; Chung, Ku-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of glucono-δ-lactone (GdL) addition on physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented sausages during ripening and drying. Five batches of sausages were produced under ripening conditions: without GdL and with 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75% of GdL addition. Samples from each treatment were taken for physicochemical and microbiological analyses on the 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 25th day of ripening. Chemical analysis showed a significant decrease in moisture content of sausages with increasing amounts of GdL added (pfermented sausages showed the highest in T4 (psausages were increased on the 25th day compared to day 0 (psausages. The addition of 0.75% GdL was effective in controlling bacteria counts. Addition of GdL in sausages resulted in the physicochemical and microbiological attributes equal to or better than no addition of GdL without any harmful effect.

  14. Physico-chemical and membrane-interacting properties of D-xylose-based bolaforms. Influence of the anomeric configuration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir M. N.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sugar-based biosurfactants such as xylose-derived bolaforms have interesting properties, for example high biocompatibility and biodegradability which make them potential useful molecules in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields. Until now, no detailed analyses of the physico-chemical properties of these compounds have been undertaken. Two symmetrical D-xylose-based bolaforms were chemically synthesized where the two xylose heads are linked via an acetal link to a hydrocarbon chain containing 18 carbon atoms and an unsaturation. The two bolaforms differ only by their anomeric configuration: αα or ββ. The αα bolaform exhibits interfacial properties at the air-water interface which is not the case for the ββ. FTIR spectroscopy showed that the interactions between the αα bolaform and POPC, a model phospholipid, involve the carbonyl groups of the phospholipid. .

  15. Effect of natamycin, nisin and glycerol on the physicochemical properties, roughness and hydrophobicity of tapioca starch edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollé Resa, Carolina P; Jagus, Rosa J; Gerschenson, Lía N

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, films based on tapioca starch and containing nisin, natamycin and glycerol were characterized in relation to their physicochemical properties, roughness and hydrophobicity. The content of glycerol affected the mechanical properties of the films studied and the roughness and it was observed an increase in WVP with the increase in glycerol content. The addition of antimicrobials affected the mechanical properties, being nisin the one that produced the greater decrease in the Young modulus. The color was highly affected by the joint presence of natamycin and nisin, which increased the yellow index. The contact angle increased with antimicrobial addition indicating a decrease in hydrophilicity. Nisin also affected the roughness of the films. Water vapor permeability was slightly reduced by the presence of natamycin. It was observed that water vapor permeability and contact angle were correlated with the roughness of the films.

  16. Physicochemical, morphological, thermal and IR spectral changes in the properties of waxy rice starch modified with vinyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Dipankar; Kaushik, Neelima; Mahanta, Charu L

    2014-10-01

    Waxy rice starch was modified with vinyl acetate at levels of 4, 6, 8, and 10 % with degree of substitution of 0.021, 0.023, 0.032 and 0.056. The modified starches were studied for physicochemical, morphological, thermal and infra red spectral properties. Waxy starch acetates had high water holding capacity and did not sediment. Scanning electron microscopy revealed surface damage of the granules and their fusion. X ray diffractography showed that crystalline peak intensity had increased on acetylation. Differential scanning calorimetry studies showed changes in thermal properties. While gelatinization temperatures of modified starches were higher than the native starch, their transition enthalpies were lower than the native starch. IR spectra of the starch acetates did not show the peak typical for acetyl group. Thus, modification of waxy rice starch with vinyl acetate caused changes in the starch properties. The high water holding capacity of starch acetates can be exploited for specific applications.

  17. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF PLA-CHITOSAN BLENDS OBTAINED BY CASTING WITH POTENTIAL USE AS AGRICULTURAL MULCH FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Merino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available PLA-Chitosan films compatibilized with hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI were obtained by casting and subsequent hot pressing. The films were prepared with different contents of chitosan (CS and then its physicochemical properties were studied by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, optical microscopy (OM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. It was found that the compatibilizing agent reacts completely and that chitosan affects the thermal properties of the films decreasing their decomposition temperatures, glass transition temperature (Tg and melting (Tm and increase its crystallinity. From the functional standpoint, antimicrobial properties of each blend were tested against Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC-3000. The increase in chitosan content was proportional to the antimicrobial effect allowing project its potential application in the agronomic field.

  18. Investigating the relationship between nanomaterial hazard and physicochemical properties: Informing the exploitation of nanomaterials within therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Helinor; Brown, David; Kermanizadeh, Ali; Gubbins, Eva; Stone, Vicki

    2012-12-28

    Nanomaterials (NMs) have the potential to improve the treatment and diagnosis of disease as they are suitable candidates for a number of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. On entering the body via a variety of exposure routes, and during their translocation to secondary target sites it is inevitable that NMs interact with biological molecules, such as proteins. These interactions may influence the behaviour and toxicity of NMs following exposure. As the surface of NMs is what interacts with cells and tissues it is necessary to identify the influence of NM surface properties on their toxicity, and determine how this is influenced by the route of exposure, and physico-chemical characteristics of NMs. The term protein corona is used to describe the coating of the NM surface with protein. The protein corona is a dynamic and complex structure whose composition is dictated by the biological medium and the physico-chemical properties of NMs (such as their size, composition, hydrophobicity and charge) as this influences protein binding specificity and affinity. Depending on the route of exposure (e.g. inhalation or injection) NMs will encounter different proteins. We have observed that i) the composition of protein corona of NMs is likely to be dictated by their route of entry, ii) the translocation of NMs to secondary target sites may influence the composition of the protein corona (i.e. they encounter different proteins on their transport in the body) so that the composition of the protein corona evolves over time, iii) the physico-chemical characteristics of NMs dictate the composition of the protein corona, and the toxicity of NMs and iv) NMs can affect secondary target sites that vary according to delivery route and corona composition following exposure. These findings, and evidence from the wider literature has therefore led us to hypothesise that NM toxicity is dictated by the exposure route due to the acquisition of a surface coating (protein corona) that is

  19. Type II Collagen and Gelatin from Silvertip Shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus Cartilage: Isolation, Purification, Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elango Jeevithan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Type II acid soluble collagen (CIIA, pepsin soluble collagen (CIIP and type II gelatin (GII were isolated from silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus cartilage and examined for their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. GII had a higher hydroxyproline content (173 mg/g than the collagens and cartilage. CIIA, CIIP and GII were composed of two identical α1 and β chains and were characterized as type II. Amino acid analysis of CIIA, CIIP and GII indicated imino acid contents of 150, 156 and 153 amino acid residues per 1000 residues, respectively. Differing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra of CIIA, CIIP and GII were observed, which suggested that the isolation process affected the secondary structure and molecular order of collagen, particularly the triple-helical structure. The denaturation temperature of GII (32.5 °C was higher than that of CIIA and CIIP. The antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and the reducing power of CIIP was greater than that of CIIA and GII. SEM microstructure of the collagens depicted a porous, fibrillary and multi-layered structure. Accordingly, the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of type II collagens (CIIA, CIIP and GII isolated from shark cartilage were found to be suitable for biomedical applications.

  20. A comparison of physicochemical properties of sterilized chitosan hydrogel and its applicability in a canine model of periodontal regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Shengqi; Dong, Guangying; Peng, Bo; Xu, Jie; Ma, Zhiwei; Wang, Xinwen; Liu, Lingxia; Wang, Qintao

    2014-11-26

    Chitosan has previously been exploited as a scaffold in tissue engineering processes. To avoid infection, chitosan must be sterilized prior to contact with bodily fluids or blood. Previous research has shown that autoclaved chitosan solution lead to decreased molecular weight, dynamic viscosity, and rate of gelling. We prepared a thermosensitive chitosan hydrogel using autoclaved chitosan powder (121 °C, 10 min) and β-glycerophosphate (chitosan-PA/GP) and compared the physicochemical properties and biocompatibility in vitro with autoclaved chitosan solution/GP hydrogel. The chitosan-PA/GP hydrogel had a shortened gelation time, higher viscosity, increased water absorption, appropriate degradation time, porous structure, and no obvious cytotoxicity on human periodontal ligament cells. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the cells exhibited a normal morphology. The chitosan-PA/GP hydrogel promoted periodontal tissue regeneration in dog class III furcation defects. The chitosan-PA/GP thermosensitive hydrogel displayed suitable physicochemical properties and biocompatibilities and represents a promising candidate as an injectable tissue engineering scaffold.

  1. Cell type-specific and common characteristics of exosomes derived from mouse cell lines: Yield, physicochemical properties, and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenviriyakul, Chonlada; Takahashi, Yuki; Morishita, Masaki; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Nishikawa, Makiya; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    Exosomes are small membrane vesicles secreted from cells and are expected to be used as drug delivery systems. Important characteristics of exosomes, such as yield, physicochemical properties, and pharmacokinetics, may be different among different cell types. However, there is limited information about the effect of cell type on these characteristics. In the present study, we evaluated these characteristics of exosomes derived from five different types of mouse cell lines: B16BL6 murine melanoma cells, C2C12 murine myoblast cells, NIH3T3 murine fibroblasts cells, MAEC murine aortic endothelial cells, and RAW264.7 murine macrophage-like cells. Exosomes were collected using a differential ultracentrifugation method. The exosomes collected from all the cell types were negatively charged globular vesicles with a diameter of approximately 100nm. C2C12 and RAW264.7 cells produced more exosomes than the other types of cells. The exosomes were labeled with a fusion protein of Gaussia luciferase and lactadherin to evaluate their pharmacokinetics. After intravenous injection into mice, all the exosomes rapidly disappeared from the systemic circulation and mainly distributed to the liver. In conclusion, the exosome yield was significantly different among the cell types, and all the exosomes evaluated in this study showed comparable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties.

  2. Freeze Dried Quetiapine-Nicotinamide Binary Solid Dispersions: A New Strategy for Improving Physicochemical Properties and Ex Vivo Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Remawi, Mayyas Mohammad Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Improving the physicochemical properties and oral bioavailability of quetiapine fumarate (QF) enabling enhanced antipsychotic attributes are the main aims of this research. The freeze dried solid dispersion strategy was adopted using nicotinamide (NIC) as highly soluble coformer. The prepared dispersions were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Static disc intrinsic dissolution rate and ex vivo diffusion through intestinal tissues were conducted and compared to pure quetiapine fumarate. The results demonstrated a highly soluble coamorphous system formed between quetiapine fumarate and nicotinamide at 1 : 3 molar ratio through H-bonding interactions. The results showed >14-fold increase in solubility of QF from the prepared dispersions. Increased intrinsic dissolution rate (from 0.28 to 0.603 mg cm−2 min−1) and faster flux rate through duodenum (from 0.027 to 0.041 mg cm−2 h−1) and jejunum (0.027 to 0.036 mg cm−2 h−1) were obtained. The prepared coamorphous dispersion proved to be effective in improving the drug solubility and dissolution rate and ex vivo diffusion. Therefore, binary coamorphous dispersions could be a promising solution to modify the physicochemical properties, raise oral bioavailability, and change the biopharmaceutics classification (BCS) of some active pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:28042494

  3. Exploring the physicochemical properties of oxime-reactivation therapeutics for cyclosarin, sarin, tabun, and VX inactivated acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Emilio Xavier; Stouch, Terry R; Wymore, Troy; Madura, Jeffry D

    2014-01-21

    The inactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by organophosphorus agent (OP) compounds is a serious problem regardless of how the individual was exposed. The reactivation of OP-inactivated AChE is dependent on the OP conjugate, and commonly a specific oxime is better at reactivating a specific OP conjugate than several diverse OP conjugates. The presented research explores the physicochemical properties needed for the reactivation of OP-inactivated AChE. Four different OPs, cyclosarin, sarin, tabun, and VX, were analyzed using the same set of oxime reactivators. A trial descriptor pool of semiempirical, traditional, and molecular interaction field descriptors was used to construct an ensemble of QSAR models for each OP-conjugate pair. Based on the molecular information and the cross-validation ability, individual QSAR models were selected to be part of an OP-conjugate consensus model. The OP-conjugate specific models provide important insight into the physicochemical properties required to reactivate the OP conjugates of interest. The reactivation of AChE inactivated with either cyclosarin or tabun requires the oxime therapeutic to possess an overall polar-positive surface area. Oxime therapeutics for the reactivation of sarin-inactivated AChE are conformationally dependent while oxime reverse therapeutics for VX require a compact region with a highly hydrophilic region and two positively charged pyridine rings.

  4. Type II collagen and gelatin from silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) cartilage: isolation, purification, physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevithan, Elango; Bao, Bin; Bu, Yongshi; Zhou, Yu; Zhao, Qingbo; Wu, Wenhui

    2014-06-27

    Type II acid soluble collagen (CIIA), pepsin soluble collagen (CIIP) and type II gelatin (GII) were isolated from silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) cartilage and examined for their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. GII had a higher hydroxyproline content (173 mg/g) than the collagens and cartilage. CIIA, CIIP and GII were composed of two identical α1 and β chains and were characterized as type II. Amino acid analysis of CIIA, CIIP and GII indicated imino acid contents of 150, 156 and 153 amino acid residues per 1000 residues, respectively. Differing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of CIIA, CIIP and GII were observed, which suggested that the isolation process affected the secondary structure and molecular order of collagen, particularly the triple-helical structure. The denaturation temperature of GII (32.5 °C) was higher than that of CIIA and CIIP. The antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and the reducing power of CIIP was greater than that of CIIA and GII. SEM microstructure of the collagens depicted a porous, fibrillary and multi-layered structure. Accordingly, the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of type II collagens (CIIA, CIIP) and GII isolated from shark cartilage were found to be suitable for biomedical applications.

  5. Physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages are not influenced by color differences of turkey breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, J; Krischek, C; Janisch, S; Wicke, M; Klein, G

    2013-05-01

    It has been suggested that the color of turkey breast meat influences both physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages. In this study, raw fermented sausages were produced with turkey breast meat in 3 different colors (pale, normal, or dark), which were obtained from 2 fast-growing-genetic-line toms at 2 slaughterhouses. Prior to the sausage production, the breast muscles were sorted into color groups according to the lightness values determined at 24 h postmortem. This meat was subsequently processed to raw fermented sausages using 1.5 or 2.5% curing salt (CS). The pale meat had higher lightness, electrical conductivity, and drip loss, whereas the dark meat showed a darker color only. The physico-chemical (pH, water activity), visual (lightness, redness), and microbial (total plate count) properties of the sausages were not influenced by the color of the turkey breast meat. The sausage made with 2.5% CS had lower aw and higher ash and hardness values than the sausages produced with 1.5% CS. In conclusion, processing of differently colored turkey meat to raw fermented sausages does not influence the quality characteristics of the products. Based on these findings, there is no reason for the sausage producer to separate turkey breast muscles by color before producing raw fermented sausages.

  6. Preparation of dietary fiber powder from tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) milk ("Horchata") byproducts and its physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Zapata, Elena; Fuentes-Zaragoza, Evangélica; Fernández-López, Juana; Sendra, Esther; Sayas, Estrella; Navarro, Casilda; Pérez-Alvarez, Jose Angel

    2009-09-09

    "Horchata" is a vegetable milk obtained from tiger nuts. The solid waste from horchata production was analyzed for physicochemical and microbial properties, aiming to determine its potential use as a fiber source for the food industry. The solid waste contains a high proportion of total dietary fiber (59.71 g/100 g), composed mainly of insoluble dietary fiber (99.8%). It has a high water-holding capacity (8.01 g/g) and oil-holding capacity (6.92 g/g) and a low water absorption (1.79 g/g) and water adsorption (0.23 g/g) capacities, in comparison with other dietary fiber sources. The emulsifying ability was 70.33 mL/100 mL, and the wastes showed high emulsion stability (100 mL/100 mL). The physicochemical properties indicate that tiger nut byproducts are rich in fiber and may be considered a potential ingredient in a healthy diet. However, the microbial quality was poor, meaning that it must be pasteurized prior to its addition to any food product.

  7. Key physicochemical properties of nanomaterials in view of their toxicity: an exploratory systematic investigation for the example of carbon-based nanomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salieri, Beatrice; Pasteris, Andrea; Netkueakul, Woranan; Hischier, Roland

    2017-03-01

    Currently, a noncomprehensive understanding of the physicochemical properties of carbon-based nanomaterial (CBNs), which may affect toxic effects, is still observable. In this study, an exploratory systematic investigation into the key physicochemical properties of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT), and C60-fullerene on their ecotoxicity has been undertaken. We undertook an extensive survey of the literature pertaining to the ecotoxicity of organism representative of the trophic level of algae, crustaceans, and fish. Based on this, a set of data reporting both the physicochemical properties of carbon-based nanomaterial and the observed toxic effect has been established. The relationship between physicochemical properties and observed toxic effect was investigated based on various statistical approaches. Specifically, analysis of variance by one-way ANOVA was used to assess the effect of categorical properties (use of a dispersant or treatments in the test medium, type of carbon-based nanomaterial, i.e., SWCNT, MWCNT, C60-fullerene, functionalization), while multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effect of quantitative properties (i.e., diameter length of nanotubes, secondary size) on the toxicity values. The here described investigations revealed significant relationships among the physicochemical properties and observed toxic effects. The research was mainly affected by the low availability of data and also by the low variability of the studies collected. Overall, our results demonstrate that the here proposed and applied approach could have a major role in identifying the physicochemical properties of relevance for the toxicity of nanomaterial. However, the future success of the approach would require that the ENMs and the experimental conditions used in the toxicity studies are fully characterized.

  8. A modeling assessment of the physicochemical properties and environmental fate of emerging and novel per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomis, Melissa Ines; Wang, Zhanyun; Scheringer, Martin; Cousins, Ian T

    2015-02-01

    Long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic contaminants that are globally present in the environment, wildlife and humans. Phase-out actions and use restrictions to reduce the environmental release of long-chain PFCAs, PFSAs and their precursors have been taken since 2000. In particular, long-chain poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are being replaced with shorter-chain homologues or other fluorinated or non-fluorinated alternatives. A key question is: are these alternatives, particularly the structurally similar fluorinated alternatives, less hazardous to humans and the environment than the substances they replace? Several fluorinated alternatives including perfluoroether carboxylic acids (PFECAs) and perfluoroether sulfonic acids (PFESAs) have been recently identified. However, the scarcity of experimental data prevents hazard and risk assessments for these substances. In this study, we use state-of-the-art in silico tools to estimate key properties of these newly identified fluorinated alternatives. [i] COSMOtherm and SPARC are used to estimate physicochemical properties. The US EPA EPISuite software package is used to predict degradation half-lives in air, water and soil. [ii] In combination with estimated chemical properties, a fugacity-based multimedia mass-balance unit-world model - the OECD Overall Persistence (POV) and Long-Range Transport Potential (LRTP) Screening Tool - is used to assess the likely environmental fate of these alternatives. Even though the fluorinated alternatives contain some structural differences, their physicochemical properties are not significantly different from those of their predecessors. Furthermore, most of the alternatives are estimated to be similarly persistent and mobile in the environment as the long-chain PFASs. The models therefore predict that the fluorinated alternatives will become globally distributed in the

  9. Improving drug candidates by design: a focus on physicochemical properties as a means of improving compound disposition and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meanwell, Nicholas A

    2011-09-19

    The development of small molecule drug candidates from the discovery phase to a marketed product continues to be a challenging enterprise with very low success rates that have fostered the perception of poor productivity by the pharmaceutical industry. Although there have been significant advances in preclinical profiling that have improved compound triaging and altered the underlying reasons for compound attrition, the failure rates have not appreciably changed. As part of an effort to more deeply understand the reasons for candidate failure, there has been considerable interest in analyzing the physicochemical properties of marketed drugs for the purpose of comparing with drugs in discovery and development as a means capturing recent trends in drug design. The scenario that has emerged is one in which contemporary drug discovery is thought to be focused too heavily on advancing candidates with profiles that are most easily satisfied by molecules with increased molecular weight and higher overall lipophilicity. The preponderance of molecules expressing these properties is frequently a function of increased aromatic ring count when compared with that of the drugs launched in the latter half of the 20th century and may reflect a preoccupation with maximizing target affinity rather than taking a more holistic approach to drug design. These attributes not only present challenges for formulation and absorption but also may influence the manifestation of toxicity during development. By providing some definition around the optimal physicochemical properties associated with marketed drugs, guidelines for drug design have been developed that are based largely on calculated parameters and which may readily be applied by medicinal chemists as an aid to understanding candidate quality. The physicochemical properties of a molecule that are consistent with the potential for good oral absorption were initially defined by Lipinski, with additional insights allowing further

  10. Physico-chemical properties and the microflora of Moroccan black table olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asehraou, A.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Eleven samples of Moroccan black table olives were analyzed for their microflora and the physico-chemical factors. A survey of the most frequent microorganisms including standard plate count (SPC, counts of the indicator microorganisms (total and fecal coliforms and enterococci, staphylococci. Salmonella, sporeforming bacteria (Clostridium and Bacillus and yeasts and molds was determined. The physico-chemical factors grouped pH, aw, NaCl concentration and the ADV (Acid degree value of the fatty matter. Results reported hereby showed a low microbial load except for the yeasts and molds. The values found for the physico-chemical factors (low for the pH and the aw and high for the ADV and salt content would suggest an inhibitory effect on the initial microflora charge of the black table olives.

    Se estudiaron la microflora y las propiedades físico-químicas de aceitunas negras de mesa en 11 muestras. Los microorganismos más abundantes contados incluyeron: flora mesofila total, indicadores de contaminación fecal (Coliformes totales y fecales, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, esporulados (Bacillus y Clostridium y levaduras y mohos. Los análisis físico-químicos incluyeron: aw (actividad de agua, pH, índice de acidez de la materia grasa y concentración de NaCl. Los resultados nos demuestran perfiles microbianos bajos para todos los microorganismos excepto levaduras y mohos. Los valores bajos de pH y de aw, y otros elevados del índice de acidez y del contenido en sal, nos sugiere una Inhibición de estos factores sobre e! crecimiento y/o la supervivencia de la microflora de las aceitunas negras de mesa.

  11. Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Evaluation of Jelly Candy Made from Carrots and Strawberries

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    Liana Claudia Salanţă

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumers today want healthful foods that provide phytonutrients to promote good health and well-being without sacrificing taste, texture, or convenience. Consumption of fruits and vegetables is part of maintaining a healthy lifestyle, in order to diversification of jellies and promote healthy eating, it was intended to valorification a raw material such as carrots and strawberry. The aim of the study was to investigate potential use of some fruits or vegetables in jelly candies, by physicochemical analyses and general consumer’s acceptance. To achieve the proposed goal, two kinds of jellies (with carrots and strawberry was obtained.

  12. Effect of Synthesis Conditions on Physicochemical Properties of Zeolite SUZ-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Deok Kyu; Park, Sang Eon [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ho [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young Kyu; Chang, Jong San [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    Zeolite SUZ-4 was successfully synthesized with TEAOH (Tetraethyl ammonium hydroxide) as structure directing agent under a vigorous stirring condition. Well-defined zeolite SUZ-4 structure was only obtained under stirring of 250 rpm or more. The results imply that stirring plays a pivotal role for reproducible synthesis. Morphology of SUZ-4 crystal was controlled by adjustment of water concentrations. The physicochemical characterization of SUZ- 4 and its hydrothermal stability using a steam treatment were investigated by using XRD, BET, and NH{sub 3}-TPD.

  13. [Effect of physico-chemical properties of polyacrylamide gel media on the growth of Escherichia coli colonies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, V B; Bulatova, R F; Domotenko, L V; Inkovskaia, T E; Artiukhin, V I

    1992-01-01

    We studied the growth of Escherichia coli LE-392 colonies on polyacrylamide gels (PAAG) depending on the physico-chemical properties of the latter, i.e. polymer concentration in the gel, swelling degree, bound water content (fm), spin-lattice relaxation and spin-spin relaxation times of water molecule protons, and modulus of elasticity (G0). S- or R-type colonies formed depending on gel properties; the diametral growth rate of S colonies was 3 times less compared with that on the control agar medium (Tryptose broth). The procedure is proposed for preparation of PAAG which rules out syneresis. Functional relations between the polymer concentrations in uniformly swelling gels and concentrations of copolymers in the reaction mixture, fm and G0 were revealed. The fm and G0 parameters can be used for controlling the quality of PAAG.

  14. Physico-chemical properties of alginate/shellac aqueous-core capsules: Influence of membrane architecture on riboflavin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Messaoud, Ghazi; Sánchez-González, Laura; Probst, Laurent; Jeandel, Carole; Arab-Tehrany, Elmira; Desobry, Stéphane

    2016-06-25

    To enhance physico-chemical properties of alginate liquid-core capsules, shellac was incorporated into the membrane (composite capsules) or as an additional external layer (coated capsules). The influence of pH, coating time, shellac concentration and preparation mechanism (acid or calcium precipitation) were investigated. Results showed that shellac significantly influenced the capsules properties. The feasibility of shellac incorporation was closely related to the preparation conditions as confirmed by Infrared spectroscopy. Optical, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy, highlighted different capsules and membranes architectures. In contrast to simple and composite capsules, coated capsules showed a pH-dependent release of the entrapped vitamin especially after shellac crosslinking with calcium. Heating of coated capsules above the glass transition temperature investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, led to irreversible structural change due to thermoplastic behavior of shellac and enhanced riboflavin retention under acidic conditions. This global approach is useful to control release mechanism of low molecular weight molecules from macro and micro-capsules.

  15. Edible film production from chia seed mucilage: Effect of glycerol concentration on its physicochemical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Melina; Costa, Tania Maria Haas; Gomaa, Ahmed; Subirade, Muriel; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Flôres, Simone Hickmann

    2015-10-05

    This study investigated the physicochemical and mechanical properties of a novel edible film based on chia mucilage (CM) hydrocolloid. CM (1% w/v) films were prepared by incorporation of three concentrations of glycerol (25%, 50%, and 75% w/w, based on CM weight). As glycerol concentration increased, water vapor permeability (WVP), elongation at break (EB), and water solubility of CM films increased while their tensile strength (TS), and Young's modulus (YM) decreased significantly (pglycerol were slightly reddish and yellowish in color but still had a transparent appearance. CM films exhibited excellent absorption of ultraviolet light, and good thermal stability. The scanning electron micrographs showed that all CM films had a uniform appearance. This study demonstrated that the chia mucilage hydrocolloid has important properties and potential as an edible film, or coating.

  16. Assessment of the Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Properties of Borehole Water Samples from Akungba - Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLAJUBU, F. A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Water is very important to the existence of humans, though could also serve as vehicle of pathogenic organisms and dangerous organic and inorganic matters. The physicochemical and microbiological analysis of seven borehole water samples used by Akungba- Akoko residents were carried out with the aim of ascertaining their suitability or otherwise for human consumption. Methods: The total hardness, pH, alkalinity, some common elements and presence of toxic metals were determined. The Most Probable Number (MPN was used for the detection and isolation of the contaminating microorganisms. Results: In the physicochemical analysis of the borehole water samples, the lowest pH (6.54 was recorded in IBK1 sample while AKA water sample gave highest calcium concentration (86.97mg/L. The total hardness ranged between 171.76 and 327.33mg/L. Elements such as manganese, zinc, copper, cadmium were below detectable levels in the water samples. Seven bacteria species, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi and Proteus vulgaris were isolated. AKA sample gave the highest bacteria count of 1.6 X 105 cfu/ml. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated among the bacteria, having been isolated in three of out of the seven samples examined. The antibiotics susceptibility test showed that Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoniae were susceptible to most antibiotics. Conclusion: The physicochemical properties and the bacteria load of most of the water samples were within WHO standard for drinking water hence, the water samples can be declared fit for drinking.

  17. Proximate analysis and physico-chemical properties of flour from the seeds of the China chestnut, Sterculia monosperma Ventenat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noitang, S; Sooksai, S A; Foophow, T; Petsom, A

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional composition of China chestnut seeds, Sterculia monosperma Vent. and analyze the physico-chemical properties of flour from the seeds. The results obtained on proximate analysis of China chestnut seeds, S. monosperma, revealed that they contained mostly carbohydrate (73.7% dm), followed by fat (12.0% dm), protein (7.8% dm), fiber (5.5% dm) and ash (1.0% dm). They have a relatively high content of potassium (12.3 mg g(-1) dm) following by phosphorus (2.30 mg g(-1) dm), magnesium (1.87 mg g(-1) dm), sulfur (0.88 mg g(-1) dm) and calcium (0.14 mg g(-1) dm). The fatty acids profile was found to be composed of mainly palmitic (42%) and oleic acids (34%), with general long-chain fatty acids the other significant component by mass (13%). Glutamic acid (17.4%), aspartic acid (12.5%) and arginine (12.5%) were the three major amino acid constituents. The purified seed starch was investigated for its morphological, starch content and physico-chemical properties, such as amylose content, swelling power, solubility and pasting properties. The starch granules were quite round, about 10-15 micron diameter and composed of more than 35% (w/w) of amylose. The pasting properties of flour from the seeds of S. monosperma revealed that gelatinization began at 72.6-73.2 degrees C and the maximum viscosity in the holding period at 95 degrees C was 633 BU. Interestingly and potentially of use, was that the viscosity at the cooling period was more than two-fold higher than that in the holding period.

  18. Effect of higher temperature exposure on physicochemical properties of frozen buffalo meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Vishnuraj

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the changes in various physicochemical parameters of frozen buffalo meat undergone temperature abuse at two different isothermal storage temperatures (37±1°C, 25±1°C using a simulated model. Materials and Methods: Frozen buffalo meat was evaluated after exposing to various temperature abuse conditions over selected durations for different meat quality parameters including pH, extract release volume (ERV, flourescein diacetate (FDA hydrolysis, free amino acid (FAA, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN and D-glucose value and compared against a control sample maintained at 4±1°C. Results: Of the various meat quality parameters evaluated pH, FDA hydrolysis, FAA content and TVBN content showed a significant (p<0.05 increase in temperature abused samples after temperature abuse and on subsequent refrigerated storage. However, ERV and D-glucose content decreased significantly (p<0.05 in temperature abused buffalo meat during the same period of study. Conclusions: The present study featured the influence of exposure temperature and duration in various physicochemical parameters and the rate of spoilage development in frozen buffalo meat after temperature abuse.

  19. Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of Rituximab Related to Its Immunomodulatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana P. Miranda-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody employed for the treatment of CD20-positive B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis. It binds specifically to the CD20 antigen expressed on pre-B and consequently on mature B-lymphocytes of both normal and malignant cells, inhibiting their proliferation through apoptosis, CDC, and ADCC mechanisms. The immunomodulatory activity of rituximab is closely related to critical quality attributes that characterize its chemical composition and spatial configuration, which determine the recognition of CD20 and the binding to receptors or factors involved in its effector functions, while regulating the potential immunogenic response. Herein, we present a physicochemical and biological characterization followed by a pharmacodynamics and immunogenicity study to demonstrate comparability between two products containing rituximab. The physicochemical and biological characterization revealed that both products fit within the same response intervals exhibiting the same degree of variability. With regard to clinical response, both products depleted CD20+ B-cells until posttreatment recovery and no meaningful differences were found in their pharmacodynamic profiles. The evaluation of anti-chimeric antibodies did not show differential immunogenicity among products. Overall, these data confirm that similarity of critical quality attributes results in a comparable immunomodulatory activity.

  20. Effects of Selected Polysorbate and Sucrose Ester Emulsifiers on the Physicochemical Properties of Astaxanthin Nanodispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navideh Anarjan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of selected nonionic emulsifiers on the physicochemical characteristics of astaxanthin nanodispersions produced by an emulsification/evaporation technique were studied. The emulsifiers used were polysorbates (Polysorbate 20, Polysorbate 40, Polysorbate 60 and Polysorbate 80 and sucrose esters of fatty acids (sucrose laurate, palmitate, stearate and oleate. The mean particle diameters of the nanodispersions ranged from 70 nm to 150 nm, depending on the emulsifier used. In the prepared nanodispersions, the astaxanthin particle diameter decreased with increasing emulsifier hydrophilicity and decreasing carbon number of the fatty acid in the emulsifier structure. Astaxanthin nanodispersions with the smallest particle diameters were produced with Polysorbate 20 and sucrose laurate among the polysorbates and the sucrose esters, respectively. We also found that the Polysorbate 80- and sucrose oleate-stabilized nanodispersions had the highest astaxanthin losses (i.e., the lowest astaxanthin contents in the final products among the nanodispersions. This work demonstrated the importance of emulsifier type in determining the physicochemical characteristics of astaxanthin nano-dispersions.

  1. Analysis of Physicochemical Properties of Mexican Gasoline and Diesel Reformulated with Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porfirio Caballero-Mata

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High energy prices, environmental issues and increasing importation of fossil fuels has provoked, in some countries, a reorientation of resources towards the development of biofuels that can partially substitute the consumption of fossil fuels. Ethanol is one of the biofuels more commonly used in the world; in the United States, Brazil and Australia gasoline blends that reach up to 85% Ethanol are commercialized. This work presents the results of a physicochemical characterization of commercial Mexican gasoline (Magna and Premium and diesel blends with 10% vol. and 15% vol. anhydrous Ethanol. The analytical testing included: Research Octane Number, Motor Octane Number, Cetane Number, Reid Vapor Pressure, Distillation Curve and Heating Value. The stability of the blends was also evaluated. The theoretical emissions of CO2 were calculated based on the results of the physicochemical characterization. The ethanol-gasoline blends increased their Octane Number with respect to the commercial gasoline, while conserving an appropriate Distillation Index. The Cetane Number of the ethanol-diesel blends showed a substantial decrease, while the heating value of gasoline and diesel blends was negatively affected by the addition of ethanol. Nevertheless, taking into account the credits by the use of a renewable fuel, the use of the reformulated gasoline blends would imply a maximum theoretical reduction of 7.5% in CO2 emissions whereas in the case of ethanol-diesel blends it would represent a 9.2% decrease.

  2. A study of physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of amoxicillin tablets using full factorial design and PCA biplot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualoto, Kerly F M; Teófilo, Reinaldo F; Guterres, Marcos; Pereira, Flávia S; Ferreira, Márcia M C

    2007-07-09

    The variables that influence the tablets obtained by direct compression method deserve to be studied to minimize formulations costs and to improve the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of the compacts. Here, we explore the adjuvants effects on amoxicillin tablet formulations considering multiple responses, and indicate the most suitable formulation composition. A 2(3) full factorial design was built to different amoxicillin formulations, each one containing three replicate batches, and eight responses (physicochemical and biopharmaceutical parameters) were obtained. The microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) type Avicel PH-102 (low) or PH-200 (high), the absence (low) or presence (high) of spray-dried lactose (LAC), and the absence (low) or presence (high) of disintegrant (DIS) were the levels investigated. The more relevant responses to the distinct formulations from the experimental design were hardness, friability, and the amount of amoxicillin dissolved during the first hour. PCA biplot indicated high values of amount of drug dissolved in 60 min as advantageous responses for the investigated amoxicillin tablet formulations and high values of friability as not desirable. Considering the individual response evaluation, the most suitable amoxicillin tablet formulation should present in its composition the MCC type Avicel PH-102 (low level) and the superdisintegrant agent (DIS high level), croscarmellose sodium, but no LAC (low level).

  3. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages.

  4. Physicochemical properties of honey from Marche, Central Italy: classification of unifloral and multifloral honeys by multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, Cristina; Illuminati, Silvia; Annibaldia, Anna; Finale, Carolina; Rossetti, Monica; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was the physicochemical characterization and classification of Italian honey from Marche Region with a chemometric approach. A total of 135 honeys of different botanical origins [acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), chestnut (Castanea sativa), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), lime (Tilia spp.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Metcalfa honeydew and multifloral honey] were considered. The average results of electrical conductivity (0.14-1.45 mS cm(-1)), pH (3.89-5.42), free acidity (10.9-39.0 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), lactones (2.4-4.5 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), total acidity (14.5-40.9 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), proline (229-665 mg kg(-1)) and 5-(hydroxy-methyl)-2-furaldehyde (0.6-3.9 mg kg(-1)) content show wide variability among the analysed honey types, with statistically significant differences between the different honey types. Pattern recognition methods such as principal component analysis and discriminant analysis were performed in order to find a relationship between variables and types of honey and to classify honey on the basis of its physicochemical properties. The variables of electrical conductivity, acidity (free, lactones), pH and proline content exhibited higher discriminant power and provided enough information for the classification and distinction of unifloral honey types, but not for the classification of multifloral honey (100% and 85% of samples correctly classified, respectively).

  5. Antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide particles on five micro-organisms of the Challenge Tests related to their physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquet, Julia; Chevalier, Yves; Couval, Emmanuelle; Bouvier, Dominique; Noizet, Gaëlle; Morlière, Cécile; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine

    2014-01-02

    Zinc oxide is commonly used in pharmaceutical products to prevent or treat topical or systemic diseases owing to its antimicrobial properties, but it is scarcely used as preservative in topical formulations. The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide (ZnO) powders on the five microbial strains used for Challenge Tests in order to evaluate this inorganic compound as a preservative in topical formulation and assess relationships between the structural parameters of ZnO particles and their antimicrobial activity. For this purpose, the physicochemical characteristics of three ZnO grades were measured and their antimicrobial efficacy against the following micro-organisms - Escherichia coli; Staphylococcus aureus; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Candida albicans; Aspergillus brasiliensis - was assessed using disc diffusion susceptibility tests and a broth dilution method. The comprehensive dataset of physicochemical characteristics and antimicrobial activities (MIC and MBC) is discussed regarding methodological issues related to the particulate nature of ZnO and structure-activity relationships. Every ZnO grade showed bactericidal and antifungal activity against the five tested micro-organisms in a concentration dependent manner. ZnO particles with smaller size, larger specific area and higher porosity exhibit higher antimicrobial activity. Such trends are related to their mechanisms of antimicrobial activity.

  6. Relationship between performance deterioration of a polyamide reverse osmosis membrane used in a seawater desalination plant and changes in its physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tasuma; Tanaka, Ryohei; Tahara, Marina; Isamu, Yuya; Niinae, Masakazu; Lin, Lin; Wang, Jingbo; Luh, Jeanne; Coronell, Orlando

    2016-09-01

    While it is known that the performance of reverse osmosis membranes is dependent on their physicochemical properties, the existing literature studying membranes used in treatment facilities generally focuses on foulant layers or performance changes due to fouling, not on the performance and physicochemical changes that occur to the membranes themselves. In this study, the performance and physicochemical properties of a polyamide reverse osmosis membrane used for three years in a seawater desalination plant were compared to those of a corresponding unused membrane. The relationship between performance changes during long-term use and changes in physicochemical properties was evaluated. The results showed that membrane performance deterioration (i.e., reduced water flux, reduced contaminant rejection, and increased fouling propensity) occurred as a result of membrane use in the desalination facility, and that the main physicochemical changes responsible for performance deterioration were reduction in PVA coating coverage and bromine uptake by polyamide. The latter was likely promoted by oxidant residual in the membrane feed water. Our findings indicate that the optimization of membrane materials and processes towards maximizing the stability of the PVA coating and ensuring complete removal of oxidants in feed waters would minimize membrane performance deterioration in water purification facilities.

  7. Evaluation of physicochemical properties and in-vitro release profile of glipizide-matrix patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajal Ghosal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present investigation was to form matrix patches with ethyl cellulose (EC as the base polymer, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP as the copolymer, plasticizer with dibutyl phthalate (DBP or acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC and the drug glipizide (gz by the solvent casting method. Physicochemical properties of the patches and in vitro drug release were determined in a modified Keshary-chien diffusion cell to optimize the patch formulations with the help of experimental data and figures for further studies. TECHNIQUES: EC and PVP of different proportions with different weight percentages of either DBP or ATBC and a fixed amount of glipizide were taken for matrix patch formations. The dried patches were used for measuring their drug contents as well as their thicknesses, tensile strengths, moisture contents and water absorption amounts in percentage. In vitro release amounts at different intervals were measured by UV-spectrophotometer. RESULTS: Drug contents varied from 96 - 99%. Thickness and tensile strength varied due to weight variation of the ingredients in the matrix patches. Moisture content and water absorption in wt % were greater for the patches containing higher amount of PVP due to its hydrophilic nature. Variations in drug release were observed among various formulations. It was found that all of the releases followed diffusion controlled zero order kinetics. Two DBP patches yielded better and more adequate release. CONCLUSIONS: The two formulations with DBP were the preferred choice for making matrix patches for further studies.O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi formar matrizes para bandagens de liberação transdérmica com etilcelulose (EC como polímero base, polivinilpirrolidona (PVP, como copolímero, plastificante com ftalato de dibutila (DBP ou citrato de tributilacetila (ATBC e o fármaco glipizida (gz pelo método de evaporação do solvente (moldagem com solvente. As propriedades físico-químicas das

  8. Effect of enzymatic depolymerization on physicochemical and rheological properties of guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S

    2012-09-01

    Depolymerization of guar gum using enzymatic hydrolysis was performed to obtain depolymerized guar gum having functional application as soluble dietary fiber. Enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum significantly affected the physicochemical and rheological characteristics of guar gum. The depolymerized guar gum showed a significant increase in crystallinity index from 3.86% to 13.2% and flow behavior index from 0.31 to 1.7 as compared to native guar gum. Remarkable decrease in intrinsic viscosity and consistency index was also observed from 9 to 0.28 and 4.04 to 0.07, respectively. Results revealed that enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum resulted in a polysaccharide with low degree of polymerization, viscosity and consistency which could make it useful for incorporation in food products as dietary fiber without affecting the rheology, consistency and texture of the products.

  9. Physicochemical Properties of Pectin from Retama raetam Obtained using Sequential Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacem, I.; Majdoub, H.; Roudesli, S.

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted sequentially from Retama raetam. Dried Alcohol-Insoluble Residues (AIR) of Retama raetam were treated sequentially with deionised water, ammonium oxalate and basic solutions and purified by ultrafiltration. The resulting pectin extracts analysed for some physicochemical parameters. The results show that pectin yield (62% dry AIR), uronic acid (260-640 mg g-1), neutral sugars (320-540 mg g-1), degree of methylation (20-31%) and acetylation (2-19%), molar mass (8. 93x104-3.42x105 g mol-1) and intrinsic viscosity (27- 47 mL g-1) varied with the various extraction methods used. Extraction with ammonium oxalate solution gave the highest pectin yield, with high molar mass and degree of methylation.

  10. Cold Oxygen Plasma Treatments for the Improvement of the Physicochemical and Biodegradable Properties of Polylactic Acid Films for Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ah Young; Oh, Yoon Ah; Roh, Si Hyeon; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Min, Sea C

    2016-01-01

    The effects of cold plasma (CP) treatment on the physicochemical and biodegradable properties of polylactic acid (PLA) films were studied. The PLA films were exposed to CP for 40 min at 900 W and 667 Pa using oxygen as the plasma-forming gas. The tensile, optical, and dynamic mechanical thermal properties, surface morphology, printability, water contact angle, chemical structure, weight change, and biodegradability properties of the films were evaluated during storage for up to 56 d. The tensile and optical properties of the PLA films were not significantly affected by CP treatment (CPT; P > 0.05). The surface roughness and water contact angle of PLA films increased by CPT and further increased during storage for 56 d. The printability of the PLA films increased following CPT and remained stable throughout the storage period. CP-induced hydrophilicity was also sustained during the storage period. The PLA films lost 1.9% of their weight after CPT, but recovered 99.5% of this loss after 14 d in storage. Photodegradation, thermal, and microbial biodegradable properties of the films were significantly improved by CPT (P < 0.05). Accelerated biodegradation of CP-treated PLA sachets with and without cheese was observed in compost. These results demonstrate the potential of CPT for modifying the stiffness, water contact angle, and chemical structure of PLA films and improving the printability and biodegradability of the films for food packaging.

  11. Oral texture perception of semisolid foods in relation to physicochemical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, M.E.J.

    2008-01-01

    When we eat a food product, we perceive its sensory properties and subconsciously decide whether we like the food. Next to properties of flavor and taste, we perceive textural properties. How thick, rough and creamy the food is perceived depends on the structure and properties of the food product in

  12. Evolution of an alumina-magnesia/self-forming spinel castable. Part II: physico-chemical and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez-Campos D.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in conjunction with the investigation, reported in Part I, on the microstructural characteristics of an alumina-spinel castable with several percentages of MgO content. Bulk density and cold crushing strength of samples were evaluated dried and at three fired states (1000, 1200, 1400 °C. Results indicate little influence of MgO additions on physico-chemical properties of the alumina-magnesia/self-forming spinel castable. Characteristics compared with those reported for conventional alumina-spinel castables did not show large difference in values. Therefore, the alumina-magnesia/self-forming spinel castable could be a possible material for substitution of the conventional alumina-spinel castable.

  13. Impact of amylosucrase modification on the structural and physicochemical properties of native and acid-thinned waxy corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Xing; He, Jian; Wang, Tao; Luo, Xiaohu; Wang, Li; Wang, Ren; Chen, Zhengxing

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea was utilized to modify native and acid-thinned starches. The molecular structures and physicochemical properties of modified starches were investigated. Acid-thinned starch displayed much lower viscosity after gelatinization than did the native starch. However, the enzyme exhibited similar catalytic efficiency for both forms of starch. The modified starches had higher proportions of long (DP>33) and intermediate chains (DP 13-33), and X-ray diffraction showed a B-type crystalline structure for all modified starches. With increasing reaction time, the relative crystallinity and endothermic enthalpy of the modified starches gradually decreased, whereas the melting peak temperatures and resistant starch contents increased. Slight differences were observed in thermal parameters, relative crystallinity, and branch chain length distribution between the modified native and acid-thinned starches. Moreover, the digestibility of the modified starches was not affected by acid hydrolysis pretreatment, but was affected by the percentage of intermediate and long chains.

  14. Effect of Caesalpinia sappan L. extract on physico-chemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Ha, So-Ra; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of extract from heart wood of Caesalpinia sappan on the physico-chemical properties and to find the appropriate addition level in the emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage. The pH of treatments with C. sappan extract was significantly lower than control and T1 during cold storage periods (Psausages containing C. sappan extract were decreased compared to control. Inclusion of the C. sappan extract in sausages resulted in lower lightness and higher yellowness, chroma and hue values. However, the antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, and volatile basic nitrogen in the emulsion-type pork sausages with C. sappan extract showed increased quality characteristics during cold storage. In conclusion, the proper addition level of C. sappan extract was 0.1% on the processing of emulsion-type pork sausage.

  15. Sonication-based improvement of the physicochemical properties of Guar Gum as a potential substrate for modified drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Siddique Akber; Matricardi, Pietro; Cencetti, Claudia; Di Meo, Chiara; Carafa, Maria; Mazzuca, Claudia; Palleschi, Antonio; Capitani, Donatella; Alhaique, Franco; Coviello, Tommasina

    2013-01-01

    Guar Gum is a natural polysaccharide that, due to its physicochemical properties, is extensively investigated for biomedical applications as a matrix for modified drug delivery, but it is also used in the food industry as well as in cosmetics. A commercial sample of Guar Gum was sonicated for different periods of time, and the reduction in the average molecular weight was monitored by means of viscometric measurements. At the same time, the rheological behaviour was also followed, in terms of viscoelasticity range, flow curves, and mechanical spectra. Sonicated samples were used for the preparation of gels in the presence of borate ions. The effect of borax on the new samples was investigated by recording mechanical spectra, flow curves, and visible absorption spectra of complexes with Congo Red. The anisotropic elongation, observed in previous studies with tablets of Guar Gum and borax, was remarkably reduced when the sonicated samples were used for the preparation of the gels.

  16. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-02-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated. The hardness of the legumes cooked by APC or HPC were not statistically different (P > 0.05). APC resulted in higher percentage of seed coat splits than HPC. Both cooking methods decreased Hunter "L" value significantly (P < 0.05). The "a" and "b" values of dark-colored seeds decreased after cooking, while these values tended to increase for the light-colored seeds. The total amounts of solid lost from legume seeds were higher after HPC compared with APC. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) percentages increased considerably after both cooking methods. High pressure cooked legumes resulted in higher levels of resistant starch (RS) but lower levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) than the atmospheric pressure cooked legumes.

  17. The effect of physico-chemical properties of the drug on the pharmaceutical availability of piroxicam from pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieszczek, Barbara; Jachowicz, Renata

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the formulation of pellets with solid dispersions of piroxicam, and determine the effect of physico-chemical properties of the drug on pharmaceutical availability from solid dispersions and pellets. Two types of piroxicam, varying in crystal size, were used in this study. Presence of the amorphous form in solid dispersions depended on the method of their formulation, and type of piroxicam used. Based on the results of piroxicam release rate from pellets, it was established that the extrusion and spheronization process caused change in the drug release profile in comparison to powder systems, because during the pelletization process, the amorphous form of the piroxicam present in the solid dispersion recrystallizes, and a low-solubility type forms. Better results were obtained using the method, where microcrystalline cellulose cores were coated with solid dispersion.

  18. Survival of Bifidobacterium longum and its effect on physicochemical properties and sensorial attributes of white brined cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursoy, Oguz; Gokce, Ramazan; Con, Ahmet Hilmi; Kinik, Ozer

    2014-11-01

    Survival of the probiotic adjunct culture Bifidobacterium longum and cheese starters during ripening of white brined cheese, effect of the probiotic culture on physicochemical properties and sensorial attributes of cheeses were investigated throughout 90 d of ripening. Bifidobacterium longum were able to survive at higher levels (>10(7 )cfu/g cheese) than the therapeutic minimum (10(6)-10(7 )cfu/g cheese) after 90 d and did not have any negative effect on the survival of Streptococcus spp. (including common cheese starters). Incorporation of the probiotic adjunct into white brined cheese and high levels of their survival rates during ripening had an insignificant effect on the composition of cheeses. Results indicated that white brined cheese is a suitable food matrix for the delivery of B. longum used in this study, and white brined cheeses with B. longum may be considered as a probiotic dairy product.

  19. Sonication-Based Improvement of the Physicochemical Properties of Guar Gum as a Potential Substrate for Modified Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddique Akber Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Guar Gum is a natural polysaccharide that, due to its physicochemical properties, is extensively investigated for biomedical applications as a matrix for modified drug delivery, but it is also used in the food industry as well as in cosmetics. A commercial sample of Guar Gum was sonicated for different periods of time, and the reduction in the average molecular weight was monitored by means of viscometric measurements. At the same time, the rheological behaviour was also followed, in terms of viscoelasticity range, flow curves, and mechanical spectra. Sonicated samples were used for the preparation of gels in the presence of borate ions. The effect of borax on the new samples was investigated by recording mechanical spectra, flow curves, and visible absorption spectra of complexes with Congo Red. The anisotropic elongation, observed in previous studies with tablets of Guar Gum and borax, was remarkably reduced when the sonicated samples were used for the preparation of the gels.

  20. Effect of the Amount and Particle Size of Wheat Fiber on the Physicochemical Properties and Gel Morphology of Starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingjie; Wu, Min; Bu, Xianghui; Xiong, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Effects of added wheat fiber, with different levels and particle sizes, on the physicochemical properties and gel morphology of wheat starch and mung bean starch were investigated, using rapid visco analyzer (RVA), texture analyzer (TPA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Each starch was added with wheat fiber at 10, 20, 30 and 40% (weight basis, g/100g), and different sizes of 60, 100 and 180 mesh, respectively. The peak viscosity (PV) of starches with wheat fiber were higher than the control. Starches had the highest PV with 40%, 60 mesh wheat fiber. The starches with wheat fiber showed higher hardness when compared to the control. Wheat starch and mung bean starch, with 40%, 60 mesh wheat fiber, had the highest hardnesses of 147.78 and 1032.11 g, respectively. SEM showed that the dense honeycomb structure of starch gel was diminished with increasing wheat fiber. Additionally, the number of internal pores was reduced, and a large lamellar structure was formed.

  1. High-Pressure Enzymatic Hydrolysis to Reveal Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Bamboo Fiber Using a Supercritical Water Fermenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. S. Abdul Khalil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo fiber was treated using a high-pressure enzyme hydrolysis process. The process performance was compared with the pulping and bleaching process for bamboo fiber. Several analytical methods, including field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry, were employed to determine the physicochemical and thermal properties of the treated cellulosic bamboo fiber. It was found that the pressurized enzyme hydrolysis treated bamboo fiber had the most uniform morphological structure, along with lowest crystallinity and highest thermal stability. Thus, utilizing high-pressure enzyme hydrolysis is the most effective process for treating fiber to remove non-cellulosic components from the raw material, including lignin, hemicelluloses, and waxy materials.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of commercial poly(lactic acid) clamshell for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera-Santana, Tomás J.; Meléndrez, R.; González-García, Gerardo; Quintana-Owen, Patricia; Pillai, Suresh D.

    2016-06-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a well-known biodegradable polymer with strong potential application in food packaging industry. In this paper, samples of PLA clamshell for tomatoes packaging were exposed with 60CO γ-ray's source (1.33 MeV) at different dose levels (0, 10, 60, 150, 300, and 600 kGy), at room temperature and in presence of air. The physicochemical properties of neat PLA and sample exposed to gamma irradiation were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tensile measurements. Results show as the dose increases, the molecular weight (Mw), melting temperature (Tm), tensile strength and elongation at break decreased. However, the tensile modulus increased with increasing doses. The surface of PLA clamshells was degraded (scratches and minor cracks) when samples were exposed to doses greater than 60 kGy.

  3. Combined Effect of Monoxide Hemoglobin and Sodium Nitrite on Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Properties of Pork Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjiang Tan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium nitrite (NaNO2 faces a challenge in the meat industry because of its carcinogenicity. The studies about nitrite substitutes have attracted a considerable interest for many years. This study aims at the combined effects of monoxide hemoglobin (COHb and NaNO2 on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of pork sausages. The addition of COHb led to the reductions in L*, b*, TBA, VBN and aerobic plate count as well as the increase in a* (p<0.05. The samples with 0.005% NaNO2 and 0.2% COHb addition had equal even better sensory color, flavor, mouthfeel and slice traits than those with 0.015% NaNO2 addition during storage. Moreover, such sample had less than 30 cfu/100 g Escherichia coli and no detectable Staphylococcus aureus during 29 days storage. Therefore, COHb showed a potential in the manufacture of sausages

  4. Characterisation of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa). Part II: volatiles, physicochemical properties and non-volatiles in the juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Mun Wai; Zhu, Danping; Sng, Jingting; Liu, Shao Quan; Zhou, Weibiao; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin

    2012-09-15

    Calamansi juices from three countries (Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam) were characterised through measuring volatiles, physicochemical properties and non-volatiles (sugars, organic acids and phenolic acids). The volatile components of manually squeezed calamansi juices were extracted using dichloromethane and headspace solid-phase microextraction, and then analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionisation detector, respectively. A total of 60 volatile compounds were identified. The results indicated that the Vietnam calamansi juice contained the highest amount of volatiles. Two principal components obtained from principal component analysis (PCA) represented 89.65% of the cumulative total variations of the volatiles. Among the non-volatile components, these three calamansi juices could be, to some extent, differentiated according to fructose and glucose concentrations. Hence, this study of calamansi juices could lead to a better understanding of calamansi fruits.

  5. Effect of thermal processing on the physicochemical properties of chestnut starch and textural profile of chestnut kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Lina; Li, Qian; Xie, Shuangshuang; Hu, Jiaqi; Wu, Yanwen; Ouyang, Jie

    2016-10-20

    The present study focused on the effect of thermal processing on the physicochemical properties of chestnut starch and textural profile of chestnut kernel. After thermal processing, the total starch content in both boiled and roasted chestnuts decreased significantly (Pchestnut increased and that of roasted chestnut remained stable. The granular microstructure of the starch in cooked chestnut was gradually destroyed during the thermal processing. The starch in cooked chestnut still exhibited C-type X-ray diffraction patterns, but the intensity of diffraction peaks and the crystallinity were obviously declined compared with those of fresh chestnut. Textural profile analysis of chestnut starch gel and chestnut kernel showed that the main textural characterizations of roasted chestnut were higher than those of boiled chestnuts. These results are helpful for better understanding the texture change in fresh, boiled and roasted chestnuts, which indicated that roasting is an alternative industrial thermal processing method for chestnut kernel.

  6. How do physicochemical properties influence the toxicity of silver nanoparticles on freshwater decomposers of plant litter in streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Daniela; Pascoal, Cláudia; Cássio, Fernanda

    2017-06-01

    AgNP physicochemical properties may affect AgNP toxicity, but their effects on plant litter decomposition and the species driving this key ecosystem process in freshwaters have been poorly investigated. We assessed the impacts of AgNPs with different size and surface coating (100nm PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone)-dispersant, 50-60nm and 35nm uncoated) on freshwater decomposers of leaf litter by exposing leaf associated microbial assemblages to increasing concentrations of AgNPs (up to 200mgL(-1)) and of AgNO3 (up to 25mgL(-1)). We further conducted a feeding preference experiment with a common invertebrate shredder, Limnephilus sp., which was allowed to feed on microbially-colonized leaves previously exposed to AgNPs and AgNO3. Leaf decomposition and microbial activity and diversity were inhibited when exposed to increased concentrations of 100nm AgNPs (≥25mgL(-1)), while microbial activity was stimulated by exposure to 35nm AgNPs (≥100mgL(-1)). Invertebrate shredders preferred leaves exposed to 35nm AgNPs (25mgL(-1)) and avoided leaves exposed to AgNO3 (≥2mgL(-1)). Results from the characterization of AgNPs by dynamic light scattering revealed that AgNps with PVP-dispersant were more stable than the uncoated AgNPs. Our results highlight the importance of considering the physicochemical properties of NPs when assessing their toxicity to litter decomposers in freshwaters.

  7. Physico-chemical properties of the potentially oxidative water and its capability of the instrumentation residual layer remotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Silva-Herzog FLORES

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to elaborate the potentially oxidative water (POW and analyze some of the physico-chemical properties: pH density, superficial stress, contact angle, conductivity and REDOX potential; besides comparing its POW organic as well as non-organic matter removal capacity with hypochlorite sodium at 1% plus 17% EDTA. For the methodology the POW elaboration an electrolysis process was used and the physico-chemical properties were determined in 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. For the removal capacity of teeth tartarevaluation, 30 extracted uniradicular premolars were used, divided in three groups:positive control (NaOCl at 1% + EDTA at 17%, negative control(distilled water and experimental (POW. Afterwards, the samples were observed under electronic microscopy with 2500x magnifying at the middle thirds and apical, analyzing them with the Rome scale (amount of open dental tubes. For the statistical analysis the Chi-square and the Fisher Exact Proofwas used. The results showed that the solution was constantly maintained at all times during the evaluation and there was found statistical difference between negative control and positive control and between negative control and the experimental group. With regards to the dental tartar removal it was found that there was no statistical difference between the control group and the experimental group (POW; reason why it is concluded that the POW has the capacity to remove dental tartar. Nevertheless, to be able to propose the use of the POW as an irrigator solution in Endodontics it is necessary to do further studies to evaluate its cytotoxicity and biocompability.

  8. Effects of granule size of cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starches on their physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwei; Chen, Zhenghong; Jin, Zhengyu; Buwalda, Piet; Gruppen, Harry; Schols, Henk A

    2015-05-13

    Sweet potato starch was modified by cross-linking, hydroxypropylation, and combined cross-linking and hydroxypropylation, and the starches were subsequently sieved to obtain differently sized granule fractions. The effects of granule size of native and modified sweet potato starch fractions and all fractions were investigated with respect to their physicochemical properties. The large-size granule fraction (27-30 μm) showed a 16-20% higher chemical phosphorylation and a 4-7% higher hydroxypropylation than the small-size granule fraction (14-16 μm). The large-size granule fractions of native and modified sweet potato starches showed lower transition temperatures (0.7-3.1 °C for peak temperature of gelatinization) and lower enthalpy changes (0.6-1.9 J/g) during gelatinization than the small-size granule fractions, making the sweet potato starch different from cereal starches. The large-size granule fraction of native starch showed a higher paste viscosity (78-244 cP) than the corresponding small-size granule fraction. In addition, cross-linking and hydroxypropylation affected the paste viscosity of the large-size granule fraction significantly more than that of the small-size granule fraction when compared to the corresponding parental starch fractions. The large-size granule fraction of native and dual-modified starches showed a lower syneresis after freeze-thaw treatments than the small-size granule fractions. The difference in swelling power between large- and small-size granule fractions was not significant. In general, the large-size granule fraction of sweet potato starch was more susceptible for cross-linking and hydroxypropylation and the physicochemical properties were changed to a higher extent compared to the corresponding small-size granule fraction.

  9. Phosphorus status of soils from contrasting forested ecosystems in southwestern Siberia: effects of microbiological and physicochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Achat

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Siberian forest is a tremendous repository of terrestrial organic carbon (C, which may increase owing to climate change, potential increases in ecosystem productivity and hence C sequestration. Phosphorus (P availability could limit the C sequestration potential, but tree roots may mine the soil deep to increase access to mineral P. Improved understanding and quantification of the processes controlling P availability in surface and deep soil layers of Siberian forest ecosystems are thus required. The objectives of the present study were to (1 evaluate P status of surface and deep soil horizons from different forest plots in southwestern Siberia and (2 assess the effects of physicochemical soil properties, microbiological activity and decomposition processes on soil P fractions and availability. Results revealed high concentrations of total P (879–1042 mg kg−1 in the surface mineral soils and plant-available phosphate ions. In addition, plant-available phosphate ions accumulated in the subsoil, suggesting that deeper root systems may mine sufficient available P for the trees and the potentially enhanced growth and C sequestration, may not be P-limited. Because the proportions of total organic P were large in the surface soil layers (47–56% of total P, we concluded that decomposition processes may play a significant role in P availability. However, microbiological activity and decomposition processes varied between the study plots and higher microbiological activity resulted in smaller organic P fractions and consequently larger available inorganic P fractions. In the studied Siberian soils, P availability was also controlled by the physicochemical soil properties, namely Al and Fe oxides and soil pH.

  10. Phosphorus status of soils from contrasting forested ecosystems in southwestern Siberia: effects of microbiological and physicochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achat, D. L.; Bakker, M. R.; Augusto, L.; Derrien, D.; Gallegos, N.; Lashchinskiy, N.; Milin, S.; Nikitich, P.; Raudina, T.; Rusalimova, O.; Zeller, B.; Barsukov, P.

    2013-02-01

    The Siberian forest is a tremendous repository of terrestrial organic carbon (C), which may increase owing to climate change, potential increases in ecosystem productivity and hence C sequestration. Phosphorus (P) availability could limit the C sequestration potential, but tree roots may mine the soil deep to increase access to mineral P. Improved understanding and quantification of the processes controlling P availability in surface and deep soil layers of Siberian forest ecosystems are thus required. The objectives of the present study were to (1) evaluate P status of surface and deep soil horizons from different forest plots in southwestern Siberia and (2) assess the effects of physicochemical soil properties, microbiological activity and decomposition processes on soil P fractions and availability. Results revealed high concentrations of total P (879-1042 mg kg-1 in the surface mineral soils) and plant-available phosphate ions. In addition, plant-available phosphate ions accumulated in the subsoil, suggesting that deeper root systems may mine sufficient available P for the trees and the potentially enhanced growth and C sequestration, may not be P-limited. Because the proportions of total organic P were large in the surface soil layers (47-56% of total P), we concluded that decomposition processes may play a significant role in P availability. However, microbiological activity and decomposition processes varied between the study plots and higher microbiological activity resulted in smaller organic P fractions and consequently larger available inorganic P fractions. In the studied Siberian soils, P availability was also controlled by the physicochemical soil properties, namely Al and Fe oxides and soil pH.

  11. Effect of Extraction Solvents and Drying Methods on the Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Helicteres hirsuta Lour. Leaves

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    Hong Ngoc Thuy Pham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Helicteres hirsuta Lour. (H. hirsuta L. is widely distributed in southeast Asian countries and has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant. However, optimal conditions for preparation of dried materials for further processing and suitable solvents for the extraction of bioactive compounds have not been investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different extraction solvents and different drying conditions on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of the H. hirsuta L. leaves. The results showed that both extraction solvents and drying conditions had a significant impact on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of H. hirsuta L. leaves. Among the five solvents investigated, water could extract the highest level of solid content and phenolic compounds, whereas methanol was more effective for obtaining flavonoids and saponins than other solvents. The leaves dried under either hot-air drying at 80 °C (HAD80, or vacuum drying at 50 °C (VD50 yielded the highest amount of total phenolic compounds (7.77 and 8.33 mg GAE/g, respectively and total flavonoid content (5.79 and 4.62 mg CE/g, respectively, and possessed the strongest antioxidant power, while leaves dried using infrared drying at 30 °C had the lowest levels of bioactive compounds. Phenolic compounds including flavonoids had a strong correlation with antioxidant capacity. Therefore, HAD80 and VD50 are recommended for the preparation of dried H. hirsuta L. leaves. Water and methanol are suggested solvents to be used for extraction of phenolic compounds and saponins from H. hirsuta L. leaves for the potential application in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.

  12. A photochemical crosslinking technology for tissue engineering: enhancement of the physico-chemical properties of collagen-based scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Barbara P.

    2005-04-01

    Collagen gel is a natural biomaterial commonly used in tissue engineering because of its close resemblance to nature, negligible immunogenecity and excellent biocompatibility. However, unprocessed collagen gel is mechanically weak, highly water binding and vulnerable to chemical and enzymatic attacks that limits its use in tissue engineering in particular tissues for weight-bearing purposes. The current project aimed to strengthen and stabilize collagen scaffolds using a photochemical crosslinking technique. Photochemical crosslinking is rapid, efficient, non-thermal and does not involve toxic chemicals, comparing with other crosslinking methods such as glutaraldehyde and gamma irradiation. Collagen scaffolds were fabricated using rat-tail tendon collagen. An argon laser was used to process the collagen gel after equilibrating with a photosensitizing reagent. Scanning electronic microscope was used to characterize the surface and cross-sectional morphology of the membranes. Physico-chemical properties of the collagen scaffolds such as water-binding capacity, mechanical properties and thermostability were studied. Photochemical crosslinking significantly reduced the water-binding capacity, a parameter inversely proportional to the extent of crosslinking, of collagen scaffolds. Photochemical crosslinking also significantly increased the ultimate stress and tangent modulus at 90% of the rupture strain of the collagen scaffolds. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed a significantly higher shrinkage temperature and absence of the denaturation peak during the thermoscan comparing with the controls. This means greater thermostability in the photochemically crosslinked collagen scaffolds. This study demonstrates that the photochemical crosslinking technology is able to enhance the physicochemical propterties of collagen scaffolds by strengthening, stabilizing and controlling the swelling ratio of the collagen scaffolds so as to enable their use for tissue

  13. Related physicochemical properties to microstructure of hard and soft wheat grains with different kernel thickness and specific density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinian; Wang, Jun; Xie, Weizhong; Lu, Daxin; Ding, Weimin

    2013-10-01

    Physicochemical properties of wheat grains with largest kernel thickness always was lowest than the other sections, examination of microstructure of wheat grains can help us understand this phenomena. Two varieties of wheat, soft white winter wheat Yangmai 11 and hard white winter wheat Zhengmai 9023, were fractionated into five sections by kernel thickness. Then the fractionated wheat grains in 2.7-3.0 mm section were separated into three fractions by kernel specific density sequentially. Microstructure of the fractured surface were evaluated at different scale level to two varieties wheat with different kernel thickness and specific density by using environmental scanning electron microscopy. Compactness and size of endosperm cell tended to decrease with decreasing wheat kernel thickness and specific density. Protein matrix tended to increase with decreasing wheat kernel thickness and specific density. Size of starch granules and proportion for different type starch granules also varied with different wheat kernel thickness and specific density. Those microstructure properties of the fractured surface, formation of endosperm cells, protein matrix and starch granules were close related to rheological properties and pasting properties of wheat grains.

  14. Effect of rice variety on the physicochemical properties of the modified rice powders and their derived mucoadhesive gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonogi, Siriporn; Kaewpinta, Adchareeya; Khongkhunthian, Sakornrat; Yotsawimonwat, Songwut

    2015-06-01

    In the present study; the glutinous Niaw Sanpatong (NSP) and Niaw Koko-6 (NKK), and the non-glutinous Jasmine (JM) and Saohai (SH) were chemically modified. The difference of these rice varieties on the physicochemical characteristics of the modified rice powders and the properties of the derived gels were evaluated. X-ray diffractometer was used for crystalline structure investigation of the rice powders and gels. A parallel plate rheometer was used to measure the rheological property of the gels. It was found that the non-glutinous varieties produced gels with higher mucoadhesive properties than the glutinous rice. Rheological behavior of JM and SH gels was pseudoplastic without yield value whereas that of NSP and NKK gels was plastic with the yield values of 1077.4 ± 185.9 and 536.1 ± 45.8 millipascals-second (mPas), respectively. These different properties are considered to be due to the amylose content in different rice variety. The results suggest that the non-glutinous rice varieties with high amylose content are the most suitable for preparing gels as local delivery systems via the mucosal membrane.

  15. High pressure and thermal pasteurization effects on sweet cherry juice microbiological stability and physicochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, Rui P.; Rainho, Daniel; Santos, Mauro D.; Fidalgo, Liliana G.; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated high pressure processing (P1 - 400 MPa/5 min; P2 - 550 MPa/2 min) and thermal pasteurization (TP - 70°C/30 s) effects on sweet cherry juice's microbiological and physicochemical parameters, during four weeks of refrigerated storage. All treatments reduced the microbiological load to undetectable levels not affecting total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The pH increased with all treatments, however, it decreased during storage. Phenols were differently affected: TP increased them by 6%, P1 had no effect while P2 decreased them by 11%. During storage, phenols in control and TP samples decreased by 26% and 20%, P1 samples decreased them by 11% whereas P2 showed no variation. TP had no effect on anthocyanins, while pressure treatments increased them by 8%. Anthocyanins decreased during storage, particularly in the control and P1 (decreasing 41%). All treatments had no effect on antioxidant activity until the 14th day, thereafter high pressure processing samples showed the highest antioxidant activity.

  16. Physicochemical properties of harpagoside and its in vitro release from Harpagophytum procumbens extract tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrubasik, S; Sporer, F; Dillmann-Marschner, R; Friedmann, A; Wink, M

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to characterize the active-component harpagoside of Harpagophytum extract from a physico-chemical perspective and to determine its in-vitro release from tablets according to DAB 1996. It was found that both pure harpagoside and harpagoside in Harpagophytum extract have an octanol-water distribution coefficient of approximately 4 which is neither dependent on temperature nor on pH. The mean harpagoside content in Harpagophytum tablets of Batch 9102 was 16.4 mg (S.D. 0.2; S.E. 0.03). Related to a tablet weight of 365 mg (100%), this corresponds to a haragoside content of 4.5% (S.D. 0.049; S.E. 0.006). On average the tablets disintegrate after 18 +/- 3 minutes (mean +/- SD). The tablets taken from Batch 9102 released the active component harpagoside well, with a t50 of 13.5 min, a t90 of 23 min and a t95 of 25 min in relation to 16.5 mg of harpagoside per dose. Harpagoside content decreased by about 10% in artificial gastric fluid within a period of 3 hours and remained stable in artificial intestinal fluid for a period of 6 hours.

  17. Effects of different packaging techniques on the microbiological and physicochemical properties of coated pumpkin slices

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    Filiz AKSU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study the effects of zein film coating along with benzoic acid on the quality of sliced pumpkin samples, which were packaged with different techniques were investigated. The samples were allocated into different groups and were treated with different processes. Following processing, the samples were stored at +4 °C for twenty days. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses were carried out on the samples once every five days during the storage period. According to color analysis, the L* value was observed to have significantly decreased in the processed and packaged samples in comparison with the control group. Besides, a* and b* values increased in all groups. It was determined that zein film alone did not exhibit the expected effectiveness against moisture loss in the samples. According to the results of microbiological analysis, a final decrease at approximately 1.00 log level was determined in total count of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB in the group which was vacuum packaged in PVDC with zein coating when compared with the initial TMAB. Furthermore, no molding occurred in zein-coated group on the last day of the storage period, while massive mold growth was noted in the group which was packaged without any pretreatment procedure.

  18. Zingiber cassumunar blended patches for skin application: Formulation, physicochemical properties, and in vitro studies

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    Jirapornchai Suksaeree

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our work was to study the preparation, physicochemical characterization, and in vitro characteristic of Zingiber cassumunar blended patches. The Z. cassumunar blended patches incorporating Z. cassumunar Roxb. also known as Plai were prepared from chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol with glycerin as plasticizer. They were prepared by adding all ingredients in a beaker and homogeneously mixing them. Then, they were transferred into Petri-dish and dried in hot air oven. The hydrophilic nature of the Z. cassumunar blended patches was confirmed by the moisture uptake, swelling ratio, erosion, and porosity values. The FTIR, DSC, XRD, and SEM studies showed revealed blended patches with amorphous region that was homogeneously smooth and compact in both surface and cross section dimensions. They exhibited controlled the release behavior of (E-4-(3′,4′-dimethoxyphenyl but-3-en-l-ol (compound D that is the main active compound in Z. cassumunar for anti-inflammation activity. However, in in vitro skin permeation study, the compound D was accumulated in newborn pig skin more than in the receptor medium. Thus, the blended patches showed the suitable entrapment and controlled release of compound D. Accordingly, we have demonstrated that such chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol formulated patches might be developed for medical use.

  19. STUDY OF STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE OF NAAG BHASMA IN RELATION TO ITS PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagad C. E.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Standard operating procedures (SOPs should to be designed, implemented and set for all Ayurvedic drugs one by one for globalization Ayurveda. In this study, an attempt has been made to introduce SOP for preparation of Naag Bhasma [NB] & its analytical study. Study was conducted in the Department of Rasa Shastra under the postgraduate research programme is being presented. The pharmaceutical processing of NB was performed by following Samanya Shodhana, Jarana, Marana of Naag [Pb] & its analytical study. Naga Bhasma was prepared in two batches namely Batch A & B. In this method purified Haratala (Orpiment were taken as media. The percentage loss in the Naga Bhasma in Batch A was 63%, while in case of Batch B was 60.5%. Raw drugs, in process materials and the final products were analyzed physico-chemically and comparison was drawn to lay down pharmacopoeial standards. The average percentage purity of Naga decreased from 99.46% to 86.57% after Shodhana. The percentage of (Pb lead in Naga Bhasma was 58.4% and 57.89% respectively in Batch A and B. Both the Bhasmas were in PbS form chemically with other elements like Ca, Si, Fe, Al, K, As, Mg, Ni, Mn, Cd, Zn in trace amount.

  20. Physicochemical and morphological properties of poly (acrylamide) and methylcellulose hydrogels: rffects of monomer, crosslinker and polysaccharide compositions, polymer engineering and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes the physicochemical (mechanical and swelling) and morphological characterization of poly (acrylamide) and methylcellulose (PAAm-MC) hydrogels synthesized with different formulations by the free radical polymerization method. The structure-property relationship of the PAAm-MC hyd...

  1. Multivariate analysis of surface physico-chemical properties controlling biofilm formation on orthodontic adhesives prior to and after fluoride and chlorhexidine treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chin, Yeen; Sandham, John; Pratten, Jonathan; de Vries, Jacob; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2006-01-01

    Biofilm formation on orthodontic adhesives is a serious clinical problem, as it leads to enamel demineralization around fixed orthodontic appliances, often leaving white spot lesions after their removal. The aim of this work was to determine the influence of surface physico-chemical properties of fo

  2. Physicochemical and thermal properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta sp) powders as affected by state of maturity and drying method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeda, M; Njintang, Y N; Gaiani, C; Nguimbou, R M; Scher, J; Facho, B; Mbofung, C M F

    2014-09-01

    The study was aimed at determining the effect of harvesting time and drying method on the thermal and physicochemical properties of taro powder, Sosso ecotype. A 5 × 2 factorial experiment with 5 harvesting times (6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 months after planting) and 2 drying methods (sun and electric oven drying) was used for this purpose. The variance component analysis revealed harvesting time as the most important factor affecting all the variables measured. In particular the proteins and available sugar contents of the powders increased significantly with increase in harvesting time. The same was true of the gelling property and water absorption capacity of the powders. It was equally observed that the temperatures (start, peak and end) and enthalpy of gelatinization of the powders increased with harvesting time. It is concluded that harvesting sosso-taro at full maturity (10 months after planting) and sun-drying produces food powders with excellent gelling properties among others.

  3. A comparative study of physico-chemical properties of CBD and SILAR grown ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambure, S.B.; Patil, S.J.; Deshpande, A.R.; Lokhande, C.D., E-mail: l_chandrakant@yahoo.com

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic model indicating ZnO nanorods by CBD (Z{sub 1}) and nanograins by SILAR (Z{sub 2}). - Highlights: • Simple methods for the synthesis of ZnO thin films. • Comparative study of physico-chemical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by CBD and SILAR methods. • CBD outperforms SILAR method. - Abstract: In the present work, nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully deposited onto glass substrates by simple and economical chemical bath deposition (CBD) and successive ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR) methods. These films were further characterized for their structural, optical, surface morphological and wettability properties. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for both CBD and SILAR deposited ZnO thin films reveal the highly crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure. From optical studies, band gaps obtained are 2.9 and 3.0 eV for CBD and SILAR deposited thin films, respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) patterns show growth of well defined randomly oriented nanorods and nanograins on the CBD and SILAR deposited samples, respectively. The resistivity of CBD deposited films (10{sup 2} Ω cm) is lower than that of SILAR deposited films (10{sup 5} Ω cm). Surface wettability studies show hydrophobic nature for both films. From the above results it can be concluded that CBD grown ZnO thin films show better properties as compared to SILAR method.

  4. A Comparative Study of the Physicochemical Properties of a Virgin Coconut Oil Emulsion and Commercial Food Supplement Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Phing Khor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO. In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4. C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV, which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.

  5. Effect of Malting and Nixtamalization Processes on the Physicochemical Properties of Instant Extruded Corn Flour and Tortilla Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Nicolás Alberto; Salazar-García, María Guadalupe; Ramírez-Wong, Benjamín; Islas-Rubio, Alma Rosa; Platt-Lucero, Luis Carlos; Morales-Rosas, Ignacio; Marquez-Melendez, Rubén; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed to prepare instant flour from malted and raw (un-malted) corn flours nixtamalized by the extrusion process and evaluate the effect on the physicochemical properties of tortillas prepared using these flours. White maize was malted for 24 h, dried at 50 ± 1 °C, and ground. Subsequently, 0.3 % lime and 25 or 30 % water were added to ground malted or un-malted corn, and the mixture was refrigerated (4 °C) for 12 h. These samples were nixtamalized by an extrusion process in a single screw extruder at two temperature profiles within four heating zones, TP1 (60, 60, 70, and 80 °C) and TP2 (60, 70, 80, and 90 °C), to obtain corn flour. Water was added to the extruded corn flours to make a dough, or masa, and the masa was then molded and baked to obtain tortillas. The corn flours were characterized according to their ability to absorb water and viscosity profile (RVA). The firmness and rollability after 2 and 24 h of storage were determined, and a sensory evaluation was conducted. The malted corn flour extruded with a 25 % moisture content and TP2 temperature profile yielded tortillas with the best firmness and rollability. In conclusion, the changes during the malting of corn grain and the nixtamalization by the extrusion process improved the water absorption capacity of flours and textural properties of the tortilla and produced a product with acceptable sensory properties.

  6. Effect of Phosphorylation and Copper(II or Iron(II Ions Enrichment on Some Physicochemical Properties of Spelt Starch

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    Jacek Rożnowski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper provides an assessment of the effect of saturation of spelt starch and monostarch phosphate with copper or iron ions on selected physicochemical properties of the resulting modified starches. Native and modified spelt starch samples were analyzed for selected mineral element content using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. Thermodynamic properties were measured using DSC, and pasting properties by RVA. Flow curves of 5% pastes were plotted and described using the Herschel-Bulkley model. The structure recovery ratio was measured. AAS analysis established the presence of iron(II and copper(II ions in the samples of modified starches and that potassium and magnesium ions had leached from them. In comparison to unfortified samples, enriching native starch with copper(II ions decreases value of all temperatures of phase transformation about 1.3-2.7 °C, but in case of monostarch phosphates bigger changes (2.8-3.7 °C were observed. Fortified native spelt starch with copper(II ions caused increasing the final viscosity of paste from 362 to 429 mPa·s. However, presence iron(II ions in samples caused reduced its final viscosity by 170 (spelt starch and 103 mPa·s (monostarch phosphate. Furthermore, enriching monostarch phosphate contributed to reduce degree of structure recovery of pastes from 70.9% to 66.6% in case of copper(II ions and to 59.9% in case of iron(II ions.

  7. Recovery potential of cold press byproducts obtained from the edible oil industry: physicochemical, bioactive, and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Safa; Karasu, Salih; Tornuk, Fatih; Toker, Omer Said; Geçgel, Ümit; Sagdic, Osman; Ozcan, Nihat; Gül, Osman

    2015-03-04

    Physicochemical, bioactive, and antimicrobial properties of different cold press edible oil byproducts (almond (AOB), walnut (WOB), pomegranate (POB), and grape (GOB)) were investigated. Oil, protein, and crude fiber content of the byproducts were found between 4.82 and 12.57%, between 9.38 and 49.05%, and between 5.87 and 45.83%, respectively. GOB had very high crude fiber content; therefore, it may have potential for use as a new dietary fiber source in the food industry. As GOB, POB, and WOB oils were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, AOB was rich in monounsaturated fatty acids. Oil byproducts were also found to be rich in dietary mineral contents, especially potassium, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. WOB had highest total phenolic (802 ppm), flavonoid (216 ppm), and total hydrolyzed tannin (2185 ppm) contents among the other byproducts. Volatile compounds of all the byproducts are mainly composed of terpenes in concentration of approximately 95%. Limonene was the dominant volatile compound in all of the byproducts. Almond and pomegranate byproduct extracts showed antibacterial activity depending on their concentration, whereas those of walnut and grape byproducts showed no antibacterial activity against any pathogenic bacteria tested. According to the results of the present study, walnut, almond, pomegranate, and grape seed oil byproducts possess valuable properties that can be taken into consideration for improvement of nutritional and functional properties of many food products.

  8. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of water eroded soils of Sharkul area of district Mansehra, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmanullah Khan, A. Iqbal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation is the major threat to agricultural sustainability because it affects the soil productivity. Present study was conducted in 2008 to evaluate physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some eroded soil series of Sharkul area district Manshera, Hazara division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Six soil series including slightly eroded (Dosera and Girari, moderately eroded (Nakholi and Sharkul and severely eroded (Ahl and Banser were selected. Soil samples were collected from surface (0-15 cm, subsurface (30-45 cm and substrata soil (60-75cm depths and were analyzed for various soil properties. Due to severity of erosion, bulk density increased, while total porosity, saturation percentage and organic matter decreased significantly. AB-DTPA extractable P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentrations were decreased due to the severity of erosion in surface and sub surface soils, whereas in the substrata soils (60-75 cm depth, the effect of erosion was almost non significant. Sub-surface and sub-strata soils were found deficient in available P ( Zn > Fe > Mn. The physical and chemical properties of eroded soils varied significantly and the increasing severity of erosion resulted in corresponding deterioration of soil quality.

  9. Organically Modified Silica Nanoparticles Interaction with Macrophage Cells: Assessment of Cell Viability on the Basis of Physicochemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dhiraj; Mutreja, Isha; Keshvan, Prashant C; Bhat, Madhusudan; Dinda, Amit K; Mitra, Susmita

    2015-11-01

    Silica nanoparticles have drawn a lot of attention for nanomedicine application, and this is attributed to their biocompatibility and ease of surface functionalization. However, successful utilization of these inorganic systems for biomedical application depends on their physicochemical properties. This study, therefore, discusses in vitro toxicity of organically modified silica nanoparticles on the basis of size, shape, and surface properties of silica nanoparticles. Spherical- and oval-shaped nanoparticles having hydroxyl and amine groups were synthesized in Tween 80 micelles using different organosilanes. Nanoparticles of similar size and morphology were considered for comparative assessment. "As-prepared" nanoparticles were characterized in terms of size, shape, and surface properties using ZetaSizer, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared to establish the above parameters. In vitro analysis in terms of nanoparticle-based toxicity was performed on J-774 (macrophage) cell line using propidium iodide-4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindol and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. Fluorescent dye-entrapped nanoparticles were used to visualize the uptake of the nanoparticles by macrophage cells. Results from cell studies suggested low levels of toxicity for different nanoparticle formulations studied, therefore are suitable for nanocarrier application for poorly soluble molecules. On the contrary, the nanoparticles of similar size and shape, having amine groups and low net negative charge, do not exhibit any in vitro cytotoxicity.

  10. The effect of thermal aging and color pigments on the Egyptian linen properties evaluated by physicochemical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gaoudy, H.; Kourkoumelis, N.; Varella, E.; Kovala-Demertzi, D.

    2011-11-01

    Archaeologists in Egypt discovered ancient colored textiles in great quantities in comparison with the analogous uncolored ones. Furthermore, the latter are far more deteriorated. Most research investigations into archaeological linen have been concerned with manufacture, restoration, and conservation but little information is available about the properties of the fibers, and particularly their chemical and physical properties after dyeing with natural dyes or painted with pigments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the physicochemical properties of Egyptian linen textiles coloring with a variety of pigments used in painting in ancient times after thermally aged to get linen samples which are similar as possible to the ancient linen textiles. The evaluations were based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and tensile strength, and elongation measurements. Results showed that beyond cosmetic reasons, colored textiles did indeed play a role as protecting agents affecting strength and reducing thermal deterioration. Specifically, in the molecular level, pigments under study seem to interact to cellulose and lignin compounds of the aged linen while in the macroscopic level tensile and elongation parameters are altered. Electron microscopy confirms that pigment particles are deposited on and between the fibers' surfaces.

  11. A comparative study of the physicochemical properties of a virgin coconut oil emulsion and commercial food supplement emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Yih Phing; Koh, Soo Peng; Long, Kamariah; Long, Shariah; Ahmad, Sharifah Zarah Syed; Tan, Chin Ping

    2014-07-01

    Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4). C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV), which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.

  12. Feeding restriction impairs milk yield and physicochemical properties rendering it less suitable for sale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Fruscalso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Feed shortages are relatively frequent in subtropical pasture-based dairy production systems. The effect of feed restriction on milk yield and physical-chemical traits was evaluated in this study. The experiment was carried out in Brazil's south region. Treatments consisted of control and restricted diet. Six multiparous and six primiparous cows, with 499 ± 47.20 kg body weight (BW, at mid-lactation (188 ± 124 days in milk, producing 19.35 ± 4.10 kg of milk were assigned to two groups, balanced for parity, each group receiving a different sequence of the dietary treatments for 56 days, in a crossover design. Diet nominated as control included 8 kg DM 100 kg BW-1 of Bermuda grass var. Tifton pasture (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., 5.00 kg of concentrate and 2.50 kg of Tifton hay per day. The restriction diet consisted of 50 % of the quantity offered in the control diet. Milk production and physicochemical composition were evaluated. Feed restriction reduced milk production by 40 %, body condition score by 5 %, milk magnesium by 14.3 %, lactose by 1.7 %, titratable acidity by 10 % and stability to the ethanol test by 9 % and it tended to increase (7 % milk potassium content. No changes were found for the remaining characteristics. Since feed restriction is quite frequent in Brazil's extensive dairy production systems, our concern is that besides decreased milk production, changes can occur in the physiochemical attributes of the milk, mainly a reduction in the stability to the ethanol test, which may increase the volume of milk rejected by the industry.

  13. Physico-chemical and functional properties of spray-dried sourdough in breadmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafti, Abolfazl Golshan; Peighambardoust, Seyed Hadi; Hesari, Javad; Bahrami, Akbar; Bonab, Elnaz Shakuoie

    2013-06-01

    In present study, spray-dried sourdough was produced using a pilot scale spray dryer and the physico-chemical and microbial characteristics of the obtained sourdough powder were investigated. The application of the spray-dried sourdough at different levels (3%, 6%, 9% and 15%) in breadmaking was also evaluated. Bulk density, wettability and suspensibility of the sourdough powder were 0.6 g/cm(3), 98 s and 29%, respectively. The most of the powder particles were in a range of 106-250 µm. The spray-dried sourdough had a moisture content and ash content of 3.72% and 1.9% (db), respectively. The pH and total titratable acidity of the sourdough powder were 3.26 and 59 (mL of 0.1 N NaOH/10 g powder), respectively. Spray drying reduced lactic acid bacteria population of the sourdough to 2 × 10(5) CFU/g compared to the initial value of 10(9) CFU/g. Iranian traditional flat bread (Sangak) made with different levels of the sourdough powder had significantly (p breads containing 15% sourdough powder were slightly darker and sourer than the other breads. Incorporation of spray-dried sourdough delayed bread staling, as judged by sensory panel. The results suggest that spray-dried sourdough at the level of 9% can be successfully used for Sangak breadmaking, leading to bread with an improved flavor and delayed staling.

  14. Geohelminths distribution as affected by soil properties, physicochemical factors and climate in Sharkyia governorate Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etewa, Samia E; Abdel-Rahman, Sara A; Abd El-Aal, Naglaa F; Fathy, Ghada M; El-Shafey, Mahmoud A; Ewis, A M G

    2016-06-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths are mainly a group of parasitic nematodes causing human infection through contact with parasite eggs or larvae; they survive in the warm and moist soil of the tropical and subtropical countries. This study was carried out in Sharkyia governorate from October, 2011 to October, 2013, to correlate between the prevalence and distribution of these parasites in the soil and the physicochemical factors affecting the examined samples of the soil. One hundred and twenty samples of different types of soil (clay, silt, sand) from different localities were collected and examined. Diagnosis of geohelminths was confirmed by the recovery of their eggs and larvae with other protozoa by different parasitological methods. The modified baermann method was found to be more efficient in detection of geohelminths larvae than charcoal culture method. Among the examined sites geohelminths were much more numerous in the soil of rural areas especially in the spring and summer seasons, while the contamination of canal banks by geohelminths was the worst (80 %). An insignificant correlation was reported between the soil texture and the number of positive samples in the examined areas while the relationship was directly proportional among (moisture, PH, organic). It appeared that the most common geohelminthic stage was Toxocara spp. eggs besides other types of protozoa especially Balantidium coli cysts. This suggests that factors other than soil texture are important in the prevalence of geohelminths in the soil e.g. temperature, moisture, PH and organic matter. So, to change some of these factors in a trial to control geoparasites transmission but with keeping the environment should be tried. These results also open the way to further studies to highlight the mutual affection between inhabitants of these sites and the prevalence of these geoparasites.

  15. Mechanical, physico-chemical, and antimicrobial properties of gelatin-based film incorporated with catechin-lysozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawdkuen Saroat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial activity is a primary cause of deterioration in many foods and is often responsible for reduced quality and safety. Food-borne illnesses associated with E. coli O157:H7, S. aureus, S. enteritidis and L. monocytogenes are a major public health concern throughout the world. A number of methods have been employed to control or prevent the growth of these microorganisms in food. Antimicrobial packaging is one of the most promising active packaging systems for effectively retarding the growth of food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical, physico-chemical properties and inhibitory effects of the fish gelatin films against selected food spoilage microorganisms when incorporated with catechin-lysozyme. Results The effect of the catechin-lysozyme combination addition (CLC: 0, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, w/v on fish gelatin film properties was monitored. At the level of 0.5% addition, the CLC showed the greatest elongation at break (EAB at 143.17% with 0.039 mm thickness, and the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP at 6.5 x 10−8 g·mm·h-1·cm-2·Pa-1, whereas the control showed high tensile strength (TS and the highest WVP. Regarding color attributes, the gelatin film without CLC addition gave the highest lightness (L* 91.95 but lowest in redness (a*-1.29 and yellowness (b* 2.25 values. The light transmission of the film did not significantly decrease and nor did film transparency (p>0.05 with increased CLC. Incorporating CLC could not affect the film microstructure. The solubility of the gelatin based film incorporated with CLC was not affected, especially at a high level of addition (p>0.05. Inhibitory activity of the fish gelatin film against E.coli, S.aureus, L. innocua and S. cerevisiae was concentration dependent. Conclusions These findings suggested that CLC incorporation can improve mechanical, physico-chemical, and antimicrobial properties of the resulting films

  16. Physicochemical characteristics, nutritional properties, and health benefits of argan oil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abbassi, Abdelilah; Khalid, Nauman; Zbakh, Hanaa; Ahmad, Asif

    2014-01-01

    The argan tree (Argania spinosa L. Skeels), an endemic tree in Morocco, is the most remarkable species in North Africa, due to its botanical and bioecologic interest as well as its social value. Argan oil is traditionally well known for its cardioprotective properties and it is also used in the treatment of skin infections. This paper gives an overview of scientific literature available on nutritional and pharmacologic properties of argan oil. Owing to its unique organoleptic properties associated with its cardioprotective properties, argan oil has found, recently, its place in the highly competitive international edible oil market. This success is a very positive sign for the preservation of the argan tree, the argan forests and, therefore, in general, the biodiversity.

  17. The comparative effect of heating and irradiation on the physicochemical and sensory properties of licorice roots powders (Glycyrrhiza Glabra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz AL-BACHIR

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the changes in the physicochemical and sensory properties of the licorice root powders extracts as a function of heating, steaming, gamma irradiation and storage periods. Physical and chemical analyses of the extracts were performed after 0 and 12 months of storage, whereas, sensory evaluation was done only two days after irradiation. The results showed that the extraction yield of licorice root measured as organic dissolved solids was significantly increased by heating and decreased by steaming, but there was no significant difference between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. Reduced sugar, glycyrrhizin components, pH values, and color of the extracts were found to be decreased due to heating and steaming. Also the heating and steaming increased the total sugar and viscosity of the licorice root extracts. No differences were verified in the overall sensorial (color, flavor, texture, and taste, physical (color and viscosity, and chemical (total sugar, reduced sugar, glycyrrhizin components, and pH values properties of licorice root extracts after irradiation with 10 kGy.

  18. Effects of electron beam irradiation on tribological and physico-chemical properties of Polyoxymethylene copolymer (POM-C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Shahinur; Shaislamov, Ulugbek; Yang, Jong-Keun; Kim, Jong-Kuk; Yu, Young Hun; Choi, Sooseok; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2016-11-01

    Polyoxymethylene copolymer (POM-C) is an attractive and widely used engineering thermoplastic across many industrial sectors owing to outstanding physical, mechanical, self-lubricating and chemical properties. In this research work, the POM-C blocks were irradiated with 1 MeV electron beam energy in five doses (100, 200, 300, 500 and 700 kGy) in vacuum condition at room temperature. The tribological and physico-chemical properties of electron beam irradiated POM-C blocks have been analyzed using pin on disk tribometer, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR-ATR, gel content analysis, SEM-EDS (scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy), surface profiler and contact angle analyzer. Electron beam irradiation at a dose of 100 kGy resulted in decrease of the friction coefficient of POM-C block due to well suited carbonization, cross-linking, free radicals formation and partial physical modification. It also showed the lowest surface roughness and highest water contact angle among all unirradiated and irradiated POM-C blocks. The irradiation dose at 200 kGy resulted in increase of friction coefficient due to less effective cross-linking, but the irradiation doses at 300, 500 and 700 kGy resulted in increase of the friction coefficient as compared to unirradiated POM-C block due to severe chain scission, chemical and physical structural degradation. The degree of improvement for tribological attribute relies on the electron beam surface dose delivered (energy and dose rate).

  19. Geochemical Modeling of Trivalent Chromium Migration in Saline-Sodic Soil during Lasagna Process: Impact on Soil Physicochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salihu Lukman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trivalent Cr is one of the heavy metals that are difficult to be removed from soil using electrokinetic study because of its geochemical properties. High buffering capacity soil is expected to reduce the mobility of the trivalent Cr and subsequently reduce the remedial efficiency thereby complicating the remediation process. In this study, geochemical modeling and migration of trivalent Cr in saline-sodic soil (high buffering capacity and alkaline during integrated electrokinetics-adsorption remediation, called the Lasagna process, were investigated. The remedial efficiency of trivalent Cr in addition to the impacts of the Lasagna process on the physicochemical properties of the soil was studied. Box-Behnken design was used to study the interaction effects of voltage gradient, initial contaminant concentration, and polarity reversal rate on the soil pH, electroosmotic volume, soil electrical conductivity, current, and remedial efficiency of trivalent Cr in saline-sodic soil that was artificially spiked with Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, phenol, and kerosene. Overall desirability of 0.715 was attained at the following optimal conditions: voltage gradient 0.36 V/cm; polarity reversal rate 17.63 hr; soil pH 10.0. Under these conditions, the expected trivalent Cr remedial efficiency is 64.75 %.

  20. Differentiation of δ, μ, and κ opioid receptor agonists based on pharmacophore development and computed physicochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filizola, Marta; Villar, Hugo O.; Loew, Gilda H.

    2001-04-01

    Compounds that bind with significant affinity to the opioid receptor types, δ, μ, and κ, with different combinations of activation and inhibition at these three receptors could be promising behaviorally selective agents. Working on this hypothesis, the chemical moieties common to three different sets of opioid receptor agonists with significant affinity for each of the three receptor types δ, μ, or κ were identified. Using a distance analysis approach, common geometric arrangements of these chemical moieties were found for selected δ, μ, or κ opioid agonists. The chemical and geometric commonalities among agonists at each opioid receptor type were then compared with a non-specific opioid recognition pharmacophore recently developed. The comparison provided identification of the additional requirements for activation of δ, μ, and κ opioid receptors. The distance analysis approach was able to clearly discriminate κ-agonists, while global molecular properties for all compounds were calculated to identify additional requirements for activation of δ and μ receptors. Comparisons of the combined geometric and physicochemical properties calculated for each of the three sets of agonists allowed the determination of unique requirements for activation of each of the three opioid receptors. These results can be used to improve the activation selectivity of known opioid agonists and as a guide for the identification of novel selective opioid ligands with potential therapeutic usefulness.

  1. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTY CHANGES AND ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS ENHANCEMENT OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES TREATED WITH SUPERHEATED STEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezyana Kamal Bahrin,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of superheated steam treatment on oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB was investigated in terms of physicochemical property changes and enzymatic hydrolysis enhancement. The experimental treatment was carried out at different temperatures (140-210°C and durations (20-90 min. Results showed that as the superheated steam temperature and time increased, the size distribution also changed, resulting in more small particles. Analysis on the surface texture, color, and mechanical properties of the treated OPEFB also showed that significant changes resulted due to the superheated steam treatment. In support to this, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG analyses showed that solubilization and removal of the hemicelluloses component also took place. As a result of this phenomenon, higher total sugar and glucose yield was achieved once the treated OPEFB was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis. This suggests that superheated steam treatment could enhance OPEFB structure degradation for the preparation of a suitable substrate in order to produce a higher glucose yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis process.

  2. Comparison of the thickening properties of four Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains and physicochemical characterization of their exopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Sandrine; Furlan, Sylviane; Waghorne, Earle; Saulnier, Luc; Cerning dagger, Jutta; Maguin, Emmanuelle

    2003-04-25

    It is now well established that physicochemical properties of exopolysaccharides (EPS) can vary between strains of a given species and according to growth conditions. The EPS production of four strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus was monitored during growth in milk and in a chemically defined media. All strains, including the non-ropy one, produced EPS. The monosaccharide composition, molar mass (M(w)), and intrinsic viscosity of these EPS were determined and compared. Further characterization using high-performance size-exclusion chromatography revealed the presence of two fractions in all EPS: one fraction exhibited a high M(w) and a high intrinsic viscosity while the other had a low M(w) and a low intrinsic viscosity. Strikingly, the EPS synthesized by the non-ropy strain was mainly composed of the low-M(w) fraction while for the ropy strains, the fraction of high M(w) varied between 43 and 90%. According to our results, we propose that the ratio between the high-M(w) and low-M(w) fractions is critical for the texturing properties of L. bulgaricus EPS.

  3. Genotypic diversity and environmental stability of starch physicochemical properties in the USDA rice mini-core collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kehu; Bao, Jinsong; Corke, Harold; Sun, Mei

    2017-04-15

    The USDA rice mini-core collection consists of 217 accessions representative of a world-wide germplam bank. We investigated its genotypic diversity in starch physicochemical properties and the effects of genotype, environment and G×E interaction in this study. High genotypic diversity was found in all 18 measured starch quality traits in the mini-core rice in two location-years in China. Genotype, environment and G×E effects on these traits were analysed using 115 common accessions successfully produced in both environments. Thermal properties (To, Tp and Tc) were very stable whereas most other traits differed significantly between environments. However, when these accessions were divided into five subgroups based on amylose content, environment was found to have differential effects. G×E interaction also played a significant role in determining the starch traits. These findings will provide guidance for selection from the diverse genotypes in the USDA mini-core collection for cultivation and for developing cultivars with desired cooking and eating quality.

  4. Fast and General Method To Predict the Physicochemical Properties of Druglike Molecules Using the Integral Equation Theory of Molecular Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David S; Mišin, Maksim; Fedorov, Maxim V; Llinas, Antonio

    2015-09-08

    We report a method to predict physicochemical properties of druglike molecules using a classical statistical mechanics based solvent model combined with machine learning. The RISM-MOL-INF method introduced here provides an accurate technique to characterize solvation and desolvation processes based on solute-solvent correlation functions computed by the 1D reference interaction site model of the integral equation theory of molecular liquids. These functions can be obtained in a matter of minutes for most small organic and druglike molecules using existing software (RISM-MOL) (Sergiievskyi, V. P.; Hackbusch, W.; Fedorov, M. V. J. Comput. Chem. 2011, 32, 1982-1992). Predictions of caco-2 cell permeability and hydration free energy obtained using the RISM-MOL-INF method are shown to be more accurate than the state-of-the-art tools for benchmark data sets. Due to the importance of solvation and desolvation effects in biological systems, it is anticipated that the RISM-MOL-INF approach will find many applications in biophysical and biomedical property prediction.

  5. Effect of starch type on the physico-chemical properties of edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiak, Ewelina; Lenart, Andrzej; Debeaufort, Frédéric

    2017-05-01

    Food preservation is mostly related to packaging in oil-based plastics, inducing environmental problems, but this drawback could be limited by using edible/biodegradable films and coatings. Physical and chemical properties were assessed and reflect the role of the starch type (wheat, corn or potato) and thus that of the amylose/amylopectin ratio, which influences thickness, colour, moisture, wettability, thermal, surface and mechanical properties. Higher amylose content in films induces higher moisture sensitivity, and thus affects the mechanical and barrier properties. Films made from potato starch constitute a greater barrier for oxygen and water vapour though they have weaker mechanical properties than wheat and corn starch films. Starch species with higher amylose content have lower wettability properties, and better mechanical resistance, which strongly depends on the water content due to the hydrophilic nature of starch films, so they could be used for products with higher water activity, such as cheese, fruits and vegetables. It especially concerns wheat starch systems, and the contact angle indicates less hydrophilic surfaces (above 90°) than those of corn and potato starch films (below 90°). The starch origin influences optical properties and thickness: with more amylose, films are opalescent and thicker; with less, they are transparent and thinner.

  6. Effect of pulsed ultrasound on the physicochemical characteristics and emulsifying properties of squid (Dosidicus gigas) mantle proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera-Barraza, O A; Torres-Arreola, W; Ezquerra-Brauer, J M; Cinco-Moroyoqui, F J; Rodríguez Figueroa, J C; Marquez-Ríos, E

    2017-01-12

    Food technologists are always looking to improve the functional properties of proteins. In this sense, in last years ultrasound has been used to improve some functional properties. For this reason, and considering that jumbo squid is an important fishery in northwest Mexico, the purpose of this research was to determine the effect of pulsed ultrasound on the physicochemical characteristics and emulsifying properties of squid (Dosidicus gigas) mantle proteins. Pulsed ultrasound (20kHz, 20, and 40% amplitude) was applied for 30, 60, and 90s to a protein extract prepared from giant squid mantle causing an increase (p<0.05) in surface hydrophobicity (So) from 108.4±1.4 to 239.1±2.4 after application of pulsed ultrasound at 40% of amplitude for 90s. The electrophoretic profile and the total and reactive sulfhydryl contents were not affected (p⩾0.05) by the ultrasound treatment. The emulsifying ability of the protein solution was improved (p<0.05), whereas the Emulsifier Activity Index (EAI) varied from123.67±5.52m(2)/g for the control and increased up to 217.7±3.8m(2)/g after application of the ultrasound. The Stability Emulsifier Index (EEI) was improved at 40% of amplitude by 60 and 90s. The results suggested that pulsed ultrasound used as pretreatment induced conformational changes in giant squid proteins, which improved the interfacial association between protein-oil phases, thus contributing to the improvement of their emulsifient properties.

  7. Synthesis and physicochemical and dynamic mechanical properties of a water-soluble chitosan derivative as a biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaepyoung; Grant, Justin; Piquette-Miller, Micheline; Allen, Christine

    2006-10-01

    The physicochemical and rheological properties of a water-soluble chitosan (WSC) derivative were characterized in order to facilitate its use as a novel material for biomedical applications. The WSC was prepared by conjugating glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC) onto chitosan chains. Varying the molar ratio of GTMAC to chitosan from 3:1 to 6:1 produced WSCs with a degree of substitution (DS) that ranged from 56% to 74%. The WSC with the highest DS was soluble in water up to concentrations of 25 g/dL at room temperature. An increase in the polymer concentration gradually increased both the pH and conductivity of the WSC solutions. The rheological properties of the WSC solutions were found to be dependent on the salt and polymer concentrations as well as the DS value. In the absence of salt, the rheological behavior of the WSC was found to be typical of that for a polyelectrolyte in the dilute solution regime. However, the addition of salt decreased the viscosity of the polymer solution due to the reduction of electrostatic repulsions by the positively charged trimethylated ammonium groups of the WSC. In the concentrated regime, the viscosity of the WSCs was found to follow a power-law expression. The lowest DS WSC had the more favorable viscoelastic properties that were attributed to its high molecular weight, as confirmed by the stress relaxation spectra and intrinsic viscosity measurements. The effect of DS on the degree of interaction between WSC and the lipid egg phosphatidylcholine was investigated by FTIR analysis. Overall, the lower DS WSC had enhanced rheological properties and was capable of engaging in stronger intermolecular physical interactions.

  8. Chances and limitations of nanosized titanium dioxide practical application in view of its physicochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Janusz; Jackowska-Tracz, Agnieszka; Zarzyńska, Joanna; Pławińska-Czarnak, Joanna

    2015-02-01

    Nanotechnology is a field of science that is nowadays developing in a dynamic way. It seems to offer almost endless opportunities of contribution to many areas of economy and human activity, in general. Thanks to nanotechnology, the so-called nanomaterials can be designed. They present structurally altered materials, with their physical, chemical and biological properties entirely differing from properties of the same materials manufactured in microtechnology. Nanotechnology creates a unique opportunity to modify the matter at the level of atoms and particles. Therefore, it has become possible to obtain items displaying new, useful properties, i.e. self-disinfecting and self-cleaning surfaces. Those surfaces are usually covered by a thin layer of a photocatalyst. The role of the photocatalyst is most of the time performed by the nanosized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2). Excitation of nano-TiO2 by ultraviolet radiation initiates advanced oxidation processes and reactions leading to the creation of oxygen vacancies that bind water particles. As a result, photocatalytic surfaces are given new properties. Those properties can then be applied in a variety of disciplines, such as medicine, food hygiene, environmental protection or building industry. Practically, the applications include inactivation of microorganisms, degradation of toxins, removing pollutants from buildings and manufacturing of fog-free windows or mirrors.

  9. Relationship between galactomannan structure and physicochemical properties of films produced thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, V R F; Souza, B W S; Teixeira, J A; Vicente, A A; Cerqueira, M A

    2015-12-01

    In this work five sources of galactomannans, Adenanthera pavonina, Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Ceratonia siliqua and Sophora japonica, presenting mannose/galactose ratios of 1.3, 1.7, 2.9, 3.4 and 5.6, respectively, were used to produce galactomannan-based films. These films were characterized in terms of: water vapour, oxygen and carbon dioxide permeabilities (WVP, O 2 P and CO 2 P); moisture content, water solubility, contact angle, elongation-at-break (EB), tensile strength (TS) and glass transition temperature (T g ). Results showed that films properties vary according to the galactomannan source (different galactose distribution) and their mannose/galactose ratio. Water affinity of mannan and galactose chains and the intermolecular interactions of mannose backbone should also be considered being factors that affect films' properties. This work has shown that knowing mannose/galactose ratio of galactomannans is possible to foresee galactomannan-based edible films properties.

  10. Methods for Estimating Physicochemical Properties of Inorganic Chemicals of Environmental Concern. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    listed valuet,. Appendix C is a primer on the classification and properties of ils, focusing on those properties that affect the movement of water and...1972). 26. Zafiriou, W., J. Joussot-Dubien, R. Zepp and R. Zika , "Photochemistry of !•:, Natural Waters," Environ. Sci. Technol., 18, 358 (1984). 27...8217 Z 000 u 00 0004) 0 0 0 i60 0 0 > 13 w =D E(Z- Z Z cj-0- Z- L =o CDC DCi<o00 00( Dw jl-. Z’ Z >j-> z 0-(v -1 20 a 0~j C\\ 4)4)() CO) 0(o _ ) Cy > - Z(C

  11. Effect of Carrageenan on Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Low-Fat Colby Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Tong, Qigen; Luo, Jie; Xu, Yiqing; Ren, Fazheng

    2016-08-01

    The effect of carrageenan (κ-carrageenan, ι-carrageenan, and λ-carrageenan) on the physiochemical and functional properties of low-fat Colby cheese during ripening was investigated. Protein, fat, and moisture contents; the soluble fractions of the total nitrogen at pH 4.6; protein and fat recovery; and the actual yield and dry matter yield (DM yield) were monitored. Hardness, springiness, and the storage modulus were also evaluated to assess the functional properties of the cheese. Moreover, the behavior of water in the samples was investigated to ascertain the underlying mechanisms. The results indicated that 0.15 g/kg κ-carrageenan had no significant effect on the actual yield and DM yield, and physiochemical and functional properties of low-fat Colby cheese. The protein content increased in the low-fat cheese and low-fat cheese containing κ-carrageenan, and the moisture in the nonfat substance (MNFS) decreased in both samples, which contributed to the harder texture. The addition of 0.3 g/kg ι-carrageenan and 0.3 g/kg λ-carrageenan improved the textural and rheological properties of low-fat cheese by 2 ways: one is increasing the content of bound and expressible moisture due to their high water absorption capacity and the other is interfering with casein crosslinking, thereby further increasing MNFS and the actual yield.

  12. Physicochemical properties and amylopectin chain profiles of cowpea, chickpea and yellow pea starches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Schols, H.A.; Soest, van J.J.G.; Jin, Z.; Sulmann, E.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Starches from cowpea and chickpea seeds were isolated and their properties were compared with those of commercial yellow pea starch. Amylose contents were 25.8%, 27.2%, and 31.2%, and the volume mean diameter of granules, determined in the dry state, were 15.5, 17.9, and 33.8 ¿m for cowpea, chickpea

  13. Percolation transitions in porous structure and their effect on physicochemical properties of ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul'Kov, S. N.; Buyakova, S. P.; Smolin, A. Yu.; Roman, N. V.; Kinelovskii, S. A.

    2011-04-01

    Computer simulation and experimental investigation of zirconia-based ceramics showed that a percolation transition from isolated to communicating pores in this brittle porous material lead to changes in the character of dependence of the elastic properties and structural characteristics on the total porosity.

  14. Physicochemical properties of lard-based diacylglycerols in blends with lard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miklos, Rikke; Zhang, Hong; Lametsch, René;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate how blending of triacylglycerols and diacylglycerols affected the melting and crystallisation properties in a solid fat system. Lard-based diacylglycerols (DAGs) were blended with lard in various concentrations (0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80...

  15. Effect of laser radiation on physicochemical and functional properties of human hemoglobin in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irzhak, LI; Zotova, EA; Mamaeva, SA

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to laser radiation increases pH and isoelectric point of human hemoglobin solution, improves the acid-base properties, increases affinity for oxygen, and decreases the Bohr effect in comparison with intact hemoglobin. The mechanisms underlying these changes are discussed.

  16. Gelatin Effects on the Physicochemical and Hemocompatible Properties of Gelatin/PAAm/Laponite Nanocomposite Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changpeng; Mu, Changdao; Lin, Wei; Ngai, To

    2015-08-26

    In recent years, inorganic nanoparticles such as Laponite have frequently been incorporated into polymer matrixes to obtain nanocomposite hydrogels with hierarchical structures, ultrastrong tensibilities, and high transparencies. Despite their unique physical and chemical properties, only a few reports have evaluated Laponite-based nanocomposite hydrogels for biomedical applications. This article presents the synthesis and characterization of a novel, hemocompatible nanocomposite hydrogels by in situ polymerization of acrylamide (AAm) in a mixed suspension containing Laponite and gelatin. The compatibility, structure, thermal stability, and mechanical properties of the resulting NC gels with varied gel compositions were investigated. Our results show that the prepared nanocomposite hydrogels exhibit good thermal stability and mechanical properties. The introduction of a biocompatible polymer, gelatin, into the polymer matrix did not change the transparency and homogeneity of the resulting nanocomposite hydrogels, but it significantly decreased the hydrogel's pH-responsive properties. More importantly, gelatins that were incorporated into the PAAm network resisted nonspecific protein adsorption, improved the degree of hemolysis, and eventually prolonged the clotting time, indicating that the in vitro hemocompatibility of the resulting nanocomposite hydrogels had been substantially enhanced. Therefore, these nanocomposite hydrogels provide opportunities for potential use in various biomedical applications.

  17. miRNA-regulated cancer stem cells: understanding the property and the role of miRNA in carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Chin, Kok-Yong; Das, Srijit

    2016-10-01

    Over the last few years, microRNAs (miRNA)-controlled cancer stem cells have drawn enormous attention. Cancer stem cells are a small population of tumor cells that possess the stem cell property of self-renewal. Recent data shows that miRNA regulates this small population of stem cells. In the present review, we explained different characteristics of cancer stem cells as well as miRNA regulation of self-renewal and differentiation in cancer stem cells. We also described the migration and tumor formation. Finally, we described the different miRNAs that regulate various types of cancer stem cells, such as prostate cancer stem cells, head and neck cancer stem cells, breast cancer stem cells, colorectal cancer stem cells, lung cancer stem cells, gastric cancer stem cells, pancreatic cancer stem cells, etc. Extensive research is needed in order to employ miRNA-based therapeutics to control cancer stem cell population in various cancers in the future.

  18. Improvement of in vitro physicochemical properties and osteogenic activity of calcium sulfate cement for bone repair by dicalcium silicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chun-Cheng [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung City 402, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chien-Wen [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Nai-Shuo [Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City 402, Taiwan (China); Ding, Shinn-Jyh, E-mail: sjding@csmu.edu.tw [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung City 402, Taiwan (China); Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City 402, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-05

    Highlights: • Dicalcium silicate can improve osteogenic activity of calcium sulfate cement. • The higher the calcium sulfate content, the shorter the setting time in the composite cement. • The results were useful for designing calcium-based cement with optimal properties. -- Abstract: An ideal bone graft substitute should have the same speed of degradation as formation of new bone tissue. To improve the properties of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) featured for its rapid resorption, a low degradation material of dicalcium silicate (DCS) was added to the CSH cement. This study examined the effect of DCS (20, 40, 60 and 80 wt%) on the in vitro physicochemical properties and osteogenic activities of the calcium-based composite cements. The diametral tensile strength, porosity and weight loss of the composite cements were evaluated before and after soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF). The osteogenic activities, such as proliferation, differentiation and mineralization, of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) seeded on cement surfaces were also examined. As a result, the greater the DCS amount, the higher the setting time was in the cement. Before soaking in SBF, the diametral tensile strength of the composite cements was decreased due to the introduction of DCS. On 180-day soaking, the composite cements containing 20, 40, 60 and 80 wt% DCS lost 80%, 69%, 61% and 44% in strength, respectively. Regarding in vitro bioactivity, the DCS-rich cements were covered with clusters of apatite spherulites after soaking for 7 days, while there was no formation of apatite spherulites on the CSH-rich cement surfaces. The presence of DCS could reduce the degradation of the CSH cements, as evidenced in the results of weight loss and porosity. More importantly, DCS may promote effectively the cell proliferation, proliferation and mineralization. The combination of osteogenesis of DCS and degradation of CSH made the calcium-based composite cements an attractive choice for

  19. An Investigation into the Physico-chemical Properties of Transformer Oil Blends with Antioxidants extracted from Turmeric Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhi, Veresha; Bissessur, Ajay; Ngila, Catherine Jane; Ijumba, Nelson Mutatina

    2013-07-01

    The blending of transformer oil (used mainly as an insulating oil) with appropriate synthetic antioxidants, such as BHT (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) and DBP (2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) have been previously reported. This article is focused on the use of antioxidant extracts from turmeric (Curcuma longa), a natural source. Turmeric is well known for its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties owing to the active nature of its components. Extracts from powdered turmeric were subsequently blended into naphthenic-based uninhibited virgin transformer oil, hereinafter referred to as extract-oil blends (E-OB). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of the oil blends revealed that five components extracted from turmeric powder were successfully blended into the oil. Subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed the presence of the compounds: curcumene, sesquiphellandrene, ar-turmerone, turmerone and curlone. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the extract-oil blends, containing various levels of extracts, revealed an average temperature shift of ˜8.21°C in the initial onset of degradation in comparison to virgin non-blended oil. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed that an increase in the mass aliquot of turmeric extracts in the transformer oil increased the free radical scavenging activity of the oil. Electrical properties of the oil investigated showed that the dissipation factor in the blended oil was found to be lower than that of virgin transformer oil. Evidently, a lower dissipation value renders the oil blend as a superior insulator over normal virgin non-blended oil. This investigation elucidated improved physico-chemical properties of transformer oil blended with turmeric antioxidant extracts.

  20. Effects of metal compounds with distinct physicochemical properties on iron homeostasis and antibacterial activity in the lungs: chromium and vanadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mitchell D; Sisco, Maureen; Prophete, Colette; Yoshida, Kotaro; Chen, Lung-chi; Zelikoff, Judith T; Smee, Jason; Holder, Alvin A; Stonehuerner, Jacqueline; Crans, Debbie C; Ghio, Andrew J

    2010-02-01

    In situ reactions of metal ions or their compounds are important mechanisms by which particles alter lung immune responses. The authors hypothesized that major determinants of the immunomodulatory effect of any metal include its redox behavior/properties, oxidation state, and/or solubility, and that the toxicities arising from differences in physicochemical parameters are manifest, in part, via differential shifts in lung iron (Fe) homeostasis. To test the hypotheses, immunomodulatory potentials for both pentavalent vanadium (VV; as soluble metavanadate or insoluble vanadium pentoxide) and hexavalent chromium (CrVI; as soluble sodium chromate or insoluble calcium chromate) were quantified in rats after inhalation (5h/day for 5 days) of each at 100 microg metal/m3. Differences in effects on local bacterial resistance between the two VV, and between each CrVI, agents suggested that solubility might be a determinant of in situ immunotoxicity. For the soluble forms, VV had a greater impact on resistance than CrVI, indicating that redox behavior/properties was likely also a determinant. The soluble VV agent was the strongest immunomodulant. Regarding Fe homeostasis, both VV agents had dramatic effects on airway Fe levels. Both also impacted local immune/airway epithelial cell Fe levels in that there were significant increases in production of select cytokines/chemokines whose genes are subject to regulation by HIF-1 (whose intracellular longevity is related to cell Fe status). Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the role that metal compound properties play in respiratory disease pathogenesis and provide a rationale for differing pulmonary immunotoxicities of commonly encountered ambient metal pollutants.

  1. Physicochemical properties of biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol-agar films from the red algae Hydropuntia cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera-Santana, Tomás J; Robledo, Daniel; Freile-Pelegrín, Yolanda

    2011-08-01

    Agar obtained from the red alga Hydropuntia cornea was blended with polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) in order to produce biodegradable films. In this study, we compare the properties of biopolymeric films formulated with agars extracted from H. cornea collected at different seasons (rainy and dry) in the Gulf of Mexico coast and PVOH as synthetic matrix. The films were prepared at different agar contents (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) and their optical, mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties analyzed. The tensile strength of PVOH-agar films increased when agar content was augmented. The formulation with 50% agar from rainy season (RS) had a significant higher tensile strength when compared to those from dry season (DS; p biodegradable packaging industry.

  2. Evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of a new polysaccharide gum from Prosopis africana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikwu, M U; Ezeabasili, S I; Esimone, C O

    2001-01-01

    The gum obtained from the ripe seeds of Prosopis africana was processed to compendial standard for plant gums and characterised. Toxicological studies of the polysaccharide on mice showed the material to be safe. The material hydrates slowly in aqueous media to form a colloidal dispersion. Swelling studies on the gum shows that the gum has a higher swelling capacity than methylcellulose. Rheological studies showed that the material is more viscous than tragacanth gum at equivalent concentrations. Acid hydrolysis and thin layer chromatography of the resulting hydrolysates showed that the gum contains glucose, fructose, galactose and xylose as the monosaccharide components. Microbial tests showed the gum to contain 8.26 x 10(4) viable cells per gram when freshly prepared. Other properties of the gum evaluated includes; melting or charring temperature, optical properties, true density, ash values, element content as well as its reactions with lead subacetate solution and 0.02 M iodine.

  3. Short cationic lipopeptides as effective antibacterial agents: Design, physicochemical properties and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Fazren; Elliott, Alysha G; Marasini, Nirmal; Ramu, Soumya; Ziora, Zyta; Kavanagh, Angela M; Blaskovich, Mark A T; Cooper, Matthew A; Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Toth, Istvan

    2016-05-15

    The spread of drug-resistant bacteria has imparted a sense of urgency in the search for new antibiotics. In an effort to develop a new generation of antibacterial agents, we have designed de novo charged lipopeptides inspired by natural antimicrobial peptides. These short lipopeptides are composed of cationic lysine and hydrophobic lipoamino acids that replicate the amphiphilic properties of natural antimicrobial peptides. The resultant lipopeptides were found to self-assemble into nanoparticles. Some were effective against a variety of Gram-positive bacteria, including strains resistant to methicillin, daptomycin and/or vancomycin. The lipopeptides were not toxic to human kidney and liver cell lines and were highly resistant to tryptic degradation. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of bacteria cells treated with lipopeptide showed membrane-damage and lysis with extrusion of cytosolic contents. With such properties in mind, these lipopeptides have the potential to be developed as new antibacterial agents against drug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria.

  4. Synthesis, Physico-Chemical Properties, and Biomedical Applications of Gold Nanorods--A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Valeria S; Cancino-Bernardi, Juliana; Zucolotto, Valtencir

    2016-06-01

    The development of new systems for diagnostic and therapeutic applications is a topic of intense and growing interest. The unique optical and electronic properties exhibited by gold-based nanomaterials have proved to be valuable for a wide range of biomedical applications. Recently, great attention has been given to rod-shaped gold nanomaterials, especially because of their electronic absorption band in the near infrared region, where maximum radiation penetration through tissue occurs. This feature has allowed the use of gold nanorods for in vivo imaging, with different techniques, and photothermal therapy. Furthermore, gold nanorods can be functionalized with a wide variety of biomolecules for cancer cell targeting. Moreover, their versatility and unique properties have generated much enthusiasm in medicine. The present review aims to show the recent advances in the synthesis and applications of gold nanorods in medical areas.

  5. Physico-chemical properties of PDMS surfaces suitable as substrates for cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczkowska, Joanna; Prauzner-Bechcicki, Szymon; Lukes, Jaroslav; Sepitka, Josef; Bernasik, Andrzej; Awsiuk, Kamil; Paluszkiewicz, Czesława; Pabijan, Joanna; Lekka, Małgorzata; Budkowski, Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    Elastic properties of the substrate have profound effect on adhesion and proliferation of cells. Here, we introduce a method to produce polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates with stiffness tuned monotonically from 1.67 to 0.24 MPa, by the time of UV irradiation adjusted up to 5 h. The Young's modulus (determined by using nanoindenter) scales linearly with stiffness calculated using AFM-based force spectroscopy data. Such a relation enables the determination of the Young modulus from AFM force - distance curves also when the Herz model is not applicable. Our findings demonstrate that surface properties of PDMS substrates are not affected by the applied methodology of tuning substrate elasticity. Finally, the colorimetric proliferation assay (MTT) carried out for non-malignant (HCV29) and cancerous (T24) bladder cancer cells depicted a significant contribution of PDMS substrate elasticity to the behavior of cells. The softer PDMS substrate demonstrated excellent cytocompatibility whereas the stiff one is more cell-repellent.

  6. Cultivar difference in physicochemical properties of starches and flours from temperate rice of Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Shabir Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don

    2014-08-15

    Starch and flour of seven temperate rice cultivars grown in Himalayan region were evaluated for composition, granule structure, crystallinity, Raman spectrometry, turbidity, swelling power, solubility, pasting properties and textural properties. The rice cultivars showed medium to high amylose content for starch (24.69-32.76%) and flour (17.78-24.86%). SKAU-382 showed the highest amount of amylose (32.76%). Rice starch showed polyhedral granule shapes and differences in their mean granule size (2.3-6.5 μm) were noted among the samples. The starch and flour samples showed type A-pattern with strong reflection at 15, 18, and 23. Pasting profile and textural analysis of rice starch and flour showed that all the cultivars differences, probably due to variation in amylose content. The present study can be used for identifying differences between rice genotypes for starch and flour quality and could provide guidance to possible industries for their end use.

  7. Integral physicochemical properties of reverse micelles of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyaeva, O. A.; Shubenkova, E. G.; Poshelyuzhnaya, E. G.; Lutaeva, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    The effect the degree of hydration has on optical and electrophysical properties of water/AOT/ n-hexane system is studied. It is found that AOT reverse micelles form aggregates whose dimensions grow along with the degree of hydration and temperature. Aggregation enhances their electrical conductivity and shifts the UV spectrum of AOT reverse emulsions to the red region. Four states of water are found in the structure of AOT reverse micelles.

  8. Effect of bioglass granules on the physico-chemical properties of brushite cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohner, M. [Robert Mathys Foundation, Bettlach (Switzerland); Matter, S. [Stratec Medical, Oberdorf (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    Bioglass granules were added to a brushite cement in an attempt to neutralize the cement paste after setting. Results show that the pH of the cement paste was drastically increased by the addition of these granules. However, the setting time and the mechanical properties of the cement were strongly reduced. Therefore, the addition of bioglass granules is not a good way to modify the acidity of the cement paste after setting. (orig.)

  9. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of unsaturated trifluoromethylated sodium carboxylates in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damas, Christine; Carcenac, Yvan; Abarbri, Mohamed; Coudert, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Structural modifications of unsaturated sodium carboxylate surfactants in terms of trifluoromethylation associated with the hydrocarbon chain length have been studied, the synthesis is described, and aggregation properties have been examined by conductimetry and vapor pressure osmometry between 30°C and 45°C. No strong effect of adding a CF3 group was observed on the Critical Micellar Concentrations. However, the thermodynamic study shows the specific effect exerted by the CF3 group through the enhancement of the entropic contribution.

  10. Changes in antioxidant activities and physicochemical properties of Kapi, a fermented shrimp paste, during fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Faithong, Nandhsha; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2012-01-01

    Changes in chemical composition, physical properties and antioxidant activities of Kapi were monitored during fermentation for 12 months. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl), ABTS (2, 2 – azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical scavenging activity as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) gradually increased as the fermentation time increased, particularly during the first 8 months (P 

  11. Physicochemical and functional properties of two cowpea cultivars grown in temperate Indian climate

    OpenAIRE

    Saima Hamid; Sabeera Muzzafar; Idrees Ahmed Wani; Farooq Ahmad Masoodi

    2015-01-01

    Flours of two local cowpea cultivars namely Red cowpea and Black cowpea were analysed for proximate composition, pasting and functional properties. The crude protein and fat contents were higher for Black cultivar than the Red cultivar. The apparent amylose content was significantly higher for Red cowpea (25.54%) than Black cowpea (15.09%). Polyphenols were significantly higher for Red cowpea than Black cowpea. The pasting profile of two cultivars revealed significantly higher values of peak ...

  12. Heterogeneity of Physico-Chemical Properties in Structured Soils and Its Consequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. JASINSKA; H. WETZEL; T. BAUMGARTL; R. HORN

    2006-01-01

    Structured soils are characterized by the presence of inter- and intra-aggregate pore systems and aggregates, which show varying chemical, physical, and biological properties depending on the aggregate type and land use system. How far these aspects also affect the ion exchange processes and to what extent the interaction between the carbon distribution and kind of organic substances affect the internal soil strength as well as hydraulic properties like wettability are still under discussion. Thus, the objective of this research was to clarify the effect of soil aggregation on physical and chemical properties of structured soils at two scales: homogenized material and single aggregates. Data obtained by sequentially peeling off soil aggregates layers revealed gradients in the chemical composition from the aggregate surface to the aggregatecore. In aggregates from long term untreated forest soils we found lower amounts of carbon in the external layer, while in arable soils the differentiation was not pronounced. However, soil aggregates originating from these sites exhibited a higher concentration of microbial activity in the outer aggregate layer and declined towards the interior. Furthermore,soil depth and the vegetation type affected the wettability. Aggregate strength depended on water suction and differences in tillage treatments.

  13. New crosslinked cast films based on poly(vinyl alcohol: Preparation and physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Birck

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a green route to prepare insoluble poly(vinyl alcohol (PVOH cast films with potential application as antimicrobial packaging. First PVOH films were cast from different aqueous solutions and analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA to determine their physical properties under two storage conditions. In order to obtain insoluble films, PVOH was then crosslinked by citric acid (CTR as confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR analyses. The crosslinking reaction parameters (curing time, crosslinker content were studied by comparing the characteristics of PVOH/CTR films, such as free COOH content and glass transition temperature (Tg value, as well as the impact of the crosslinking reaction on mechanical properties. It was found that for 40 and 10 wt% CTR contents, 120 and 40 min of crosslinking times were necessary to bind all CTR respectively. Brittle films were obtained for 40 wt% CTR whereas 10 wt% CTR content led to ductile films. Finally, films containing hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD, chosen as a potential vector of antimicrobial agent, were prepared. The obtained results show that the incorporation of HPβCD in the PVOH matrix does not mainly influence the physical and mechanical properties of the films.

  14. Do Mechanical and Physicochemical Properties of Orthodontic NiTi Wires Remain Stable In Vivo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Sarul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Exceptional properties of the NiTi archwires may be jeopardized by the oral cavity; thus its long-term effect on the mechanical and physiochemical properties of NiTi archwires was the aim of work. Material and Methods. Study group comprised sixty 0.016 × 0.022 NiTi archwires from the same manufacturer evaluated (group A after the first 12 weeks of orthodontic treatment. 30 mm long pieces cut off from each wire prior to insertion formed the control group B. Obeying the strict rules of randomization, all samples were subjected to microscopic evaluation and nanoindentation test. Results. Both groups displayed substantial presence of nonmetallic inclusions. Heterogeneity of the structure and its alteration after usage were found in groups B and A, respectively. Conclusions. Long-term, reliable prediction of biomechanics of NiTi wires in vivo is impossible, especially new archwires from the same vendor display different physiochemical properties. Moreover, manufacturers have to decrease contamination in the production process in order to minimize risk of mutual negative influence of nickel-titanium archwires and oral environment.

  15. Physicochemical properties of the novel biphasic hydroxyapatite-magnesium phosphate biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijocha, Dawid; Zima, Aneta; Paszkiewicz, Zofia; Ślósarczyk, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Besides high-temperature calcium phosphates (CaPs), low-temperature calcium phosphate bone cements (CPCs), due to excellent biological properties: bioactivity, biocompability and osteoconductivity, are successfully used as bone substitutes. However, some disadvantages, related mainly to their low resorption rate and poor mechanical properties result in limited range of applications of these implant materials to non-loaded places in the skeletal system. To overcome this problem, magnesium phosphate cements (MPCs) with high strength have been considered as biomaterials. The main disadvantage of MPCs is that the acid-base setting reaction is an exothermic process that must be strictly controlled to avoid tissue necrosis. In this work, a new composite bone substitute (Hydroxyapatite Magnesium Phosphate Material - HMPM) based on hydroxyapatite (HA) and magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) with sodium pyrophosphate applied as a retardant of setting reaction was obtained. Its setting time was adequate for clinical applications. Combining properties of HA and MPC has made it possible to obtain microporous (showing bimodal pore size distribution in the range of 0.005-1.700 micrometers) potential implant material showing good surgical handiness and sufficient mechanical strength. Effectiveness of sodium pyrophosphate as a retardant of exothermic setting reaction of the new cement formulation was confirmed. After setting and hardening, the material consisted of hydroxyapatite and struvite as crystalline phases. Unreacted magnesium oxide was not detected.

  16. Physicochemical and mechanical interfacial properties of trifluorometryl groups containing epoxy resin cured with amine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo-Jin [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, PO Box 107, Yusong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: psjin@krict.re.kr; Jin, Fan-Long [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, PO Box 107, Yusong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jae-Sup [Department of Chemistry, Chungbuk National University, Chongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-01-15

    A phenyl-trifluoromethyl (-Ph-CF{sub 3}) groups modified epoxy resin, diglycidylether of bisphenol A-fluorine (DGEBA-F), was synthesized and the physical properties, such as curing behaviors, thermal stabilities, and dielectric constant of the DGEBA-F/4,4'-diaminodiphenyl methane (DDM) system were investigated and compared with commercial DGEBA/DDM system. For the mechanical behaviors of the specimens, the fracture toughness and impact tests were performed, and their fractured surfaces were examined by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The dielectric constant values of the DGEBA-F/DDM system were lower than those of the DGEBA/DDM system and the mechanical properties of the casting DGEBA-F specimens were higher than those of the DGEBA specimens. This was probably due to the fact that the introduction of the -Ph-CF{sub 3} groups into the side chain of the epoxy resin resulted in improving the electrical properties and toughness of the cured DGEBA-F epoxy resin.