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Sample records for carcinogenesis physicochemical properties

  1. Physicochemical properties of quinoa starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guantian; Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan

    2016-02-10

    Physicochemical properties of quinoa starches isolated from 26 commercial samples from a wide range of collection were studied. Swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), amylose leaching (AML), enzyme susceptibility, pasting, thermal and textural properties were analyzed. Apparent amylose contents (AAM) ranged from 7.7 to 25.7%. Great variations in the diverse physicochemical properties were observed. Correlation analysis showed that AAM was the most significant factor related to AML, WSI, and pasting parameters. Correlations among diverse physicochemical parameters were analyzed. Principal component analysis using twenty three variables were used to visualize the difference among samples. Six principal components were extracted which could explain 88.8% of the total difference. The wide variations in physicochemical properties could contribute to innovative utilization of quinoa starch for food and non-food applications. PMID:26686137

  2. Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on studies at the molecular, biochemical, and immunological level of carcinogenesis induced in mice by viruses, radiation, or environmental chemicals alone or in combinations. Emphasis was placed on the identification and assessments of cocarcinogens and studies on their mechanisms of action. Data are included on mechanisms of carcinogenesis in the liver, thyroid, Harderian glands, skin, and lungs. The effects of the food additive butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), phenobarbitol, DDT, uv irradiation, the herbicide 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole(AT), the pituitary hormone prolactin, topically applied 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and benzo(a) pyrene(BaP) on tumor induction or enhancement were studied

  3. Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section contains summaries of research in the following areas: use of liver for mechanistic studies of multistage hepatocarcinogenesis and for screening of environmental contaminants for tumor initiating and promoting activity; molecular properties of rat liver ornithine aminotransferase; regulation of gene expression in rat liver; methods of tumor detection; mechanisms of radiation and viral oncogenesis; biphenyl metabolism by rat liver microsomes; and studies on aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity

  4. Statistical properties of a two-stage model of carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Portier, C J

    1987-01-01

    Some of the statistical properties of a simple two-stage model of carcinogenesis are explored. The implications of additive treatment effects versus independent treatment effects on the shape of the dose-response curve are considered. Response that is low-dose linear results in the cases where the mutation rates are affected by dose or in the cases where treatment changes the birth rate/death rate of initiated cells in an additive fashion. Independent treatment effects lead to non-low-dose li...

  5. City snow's physicochemical property affects snow disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovbysh, V. O.; Sharukha, A. V.; Evtin, P. V.; Vershinina, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    At the present day the industrial cities run into severe problem: fallen snow in a city it's a concentrator of pollutants and their quantity is constantly increasing by technology development. Pollution of snow increases because of emission of gases to the atmosphere by cars and factories. Large accumulation of polluted snow engenders many vexed ecological problems. That's why we need a new, non-polluting, scientifically based method of snow disposal. This paper investigates polluted snow's physicochemical property effects on snow melting. A distinctive feature of the ion accelerators with self-magnetically insulated diode is that there.

  6. Banana cultivars, cultivation practices, and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitoyannis, I S; Mavromatis, A

    2009-02-01

    The physicochemical (pH, texture, Vitamin C, ash, fat, minerals) and sensory properties of banana were correlated with the genotype and growing conditions. Minerals in particular were shown to discriminate banana cultivars of different geographical origin quite accurately. Another issue relates to the beneficial properties of bananas both in terms of the high dietary fiber and antioxidant compounds, the latter being abundant in the peel. Therefore, banana can be further exploited for extracting several important components such as starch, and antioxidant compounds which can find industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Finally, the various storage methodologies were presented with an emphasis on Modified Atmosphere Packaging which appears to be one of the most promising of technologies. PMID:18989831

  7. Physicochemical Properties of Palm Kernel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira P. Olaniyi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical analyses were carried out on palm kernel oil (Adin and the following results were obtained: Saponification value; 280.5±56.1 mgKOH/g, acid value; 2.7±0.3 mg KOH/g, Free Fatty Acid (FFA; 1.35±0.15 KOH/g, ester value; 277.8±56.4 mgKOH/g, peroxide value; 14.3±0.8 mEq/kg; iodine value; 15.86±4.02 mgKOH/g, Specific Gravity (S.G value; 0.904, refractive index; 1.412 and inorganic materials; 1.05%. Its odour and colour were heavy burnt smell and burnt brown, respectively. These values were compared with those obtained for groundnut and coconut oils. It was found that the physico-chemical properties of palm kernel oil are comparable to those of groundnut and coconut oils except for the peroxide value (i.e., 14.3±0.8 mEq which was not detectable in groundnut and coconut oils. Also the odour of both groundnut and coconut oils were pleasant while that of the palm kernel oil was not as pleasant (i.e., heavy burnt smell.

  8. Physicochemical properties and transport of steroids across Caco-2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faassen, F.; Kelder, J.; Lenders, J.; Onderwater, R.; Vromans, H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this work was to study the relevant physicochemical properties for the absorption of steroids. Methods. Various physicochemical properties of steroids were calculated (molecular weight, ClogP, static polar surface area [PSA], etc.). Within this series of steroids, different p

  9. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Black Garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Sook Choi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Black garlic (BG is a processed garlic product prepared by heat treatment of whole garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L. at high temperature under high humidity for several days, resulting in black cloves with a sweet taste. BG has recently been introduced to the Korean market as a product beneficial to health. To clarify how BG changes during the 35 day aging period, the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant contents, and antioxidant activities were evaluated under controlled conditions of 70 °C and 90% relative humidity. Reducing sugar and total acidity of BG increased during the aging period, whereas pH decreased from pH 6.33 to 3.74. Lightness and yellowness values of BG radically decreased during the aging period, whereas redness values increased significantly. Antioxidant components, including the total polyphenol and total flavonoids contents of BG, increased significantly until the 21st day of aging (p < 0.05 and correspondingly, the antioxidant activities of BG, measured by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and reducing power assays, were highest on the 21st day of aging. These results indicate that BG can be considered to not only possess antioxidant properties during the aging period, but also to reach its optimal antioxidant properties at the 21st day of aging.

  10. Physicochemical properties of cookies enriched with xylooligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyappan, P; Abirami, A; Anbuvahini, N A; Tamil Kumaran, P S; Naresh, M; Malathi, D; Antony, Usha

    2016-07-01

    The growing commercial importance of xylooligosaccharides is based on their beneficial health properties, particularly their ability to stimulate the growth and activity of intestinal bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species. Xylooligosaccharides are less sweet, acid, and heat stable, with low recommended levels of intake compared to other oligosaccharides. In view of the consumer demand for foods with low sugar, low fat, and high fiber contents, they are suitable for incorporation into bakery products. In this study, we have developed wheat-based cookies incorporated with xylooligosaccharides at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels. The nutritive value and physicochemical properties of the cookies changed with xylooligosaccharides incorporation; both crude fiber and dietary fiber contents increased by 14% and 35%, respectively, in the enriched cookies. The moisture levels increased with increase in the percentage of xylooligosaccharides incorporated. Cookies with 5% xylooligosaccharides were found most acceptable, although the color was slightly darker compared to the control, while cookies with 10% and 15% xylooligosaccharides were softer and darker and therefore less acceptable. Enrichment with xylooligosaccharides at 5% provided a product stable for 21 days at room temperature (25 ± 2℃). The storage stability of cookies with higher levels of xylooligosaccharides was less than the 5% xylooligosaccharides cookies and control. The retention of the prebiotic xylooligosaccharides in the products was relatively high (74%). PMID:26644158

  11. Physicochemical properties of bismuth tungstate catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that in the Bi2O3-WO3 system there are formed the following compounds: 1. Bi2x3WO3=Bi(WO4)3 tsub(m)-890 deg C 2. Bi2O3x2WO3=Bi2W2O9 tsub(m)-910 deg C 3. Bi2O3xWO3=Bi2WO6 tsub(m)-1040 deg C 4. 3BiO3xWO3=Bi6WO12 tsub(m)-905 deg C In the 440-650 deg C range these compounds are characterized by endothermal maxima corresponding to dehydration and followed by exothermal maxima referred to the exothermal transition of some phases into other modifications. Increased catalytic activity is attributed to Bi2WO6 phase, activity and celectivity of which are bound with the presence of W-O octahedrons connected by the angles in the solid body volume, what leads to the growth of (W-O) tetrahonal-pyramidal centres on the surface. The concentration of such supposed active centres (W=O) reaches its maximum in Bi2WO6 phase, the least active phase Bi6WO12 having its maximum concentration of centres as W-O-W. Samples of Bi2(WO4)3 and Bi2W2O9 compositions have centres of both types. Correlation between physicochemical properties and activity shows that selective oxidation stops when Bi/W > 2, that is an active structural group of (Bi2O2)2+(WO4)2- octahedron type can exist in the catalyst containing Bi up to 57%

  12. Influence of succinylation on physicochemical property of yak casein micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Yang, Jitao; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Weibing

    2016-01-01

    Succinylation is a chemical-modification method that affects the physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of proteins. This study assessed the influence of succinylation on the physicochemical properties of yak casein micelles. The results revealed that surface hydrophobicity indices decreased with succinylation. Additionally, denaturation temperature and denaturation enthalpy decreased with increasing succinylation level, except at 82%. The buffering properties of yak casein micelles were affected by succinylation. It was found that chemical modification contributed to a slight shift of the buffering peak towards a lower pH value and a markedly increase of the maximum buffering values of yak casein micelles at pH 4.5-6.0 and pH casein micellar hydration and whiteness values. The findings obtained from this study will provide the basic information on the physicochemical properties of native and succinylated yak casein micelles. PMID:26213046

  13. Physicochemical Properties of Palm Kernel Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Amira P. Olaniyi; O.O. Babalola; Oyediran A. Mary

    2014-01-01

    Physicochemical analyses were carried out on palm kernel oil (Adin) and the following results were obtained: Saponification value; 280.5±56.1 mgKOH/g, acid value; 2.7±0.3 mg KOH/g, Free Fatty Acid (FFA); 1.35±0.15 KOH/g, ester value; 277.8±56.4 mgKOH/g, peroxide value; 14.3±0.8 mEq/kg; iodine value; 15.86±4.02 mgKOH/g, Specific Gravity (S.G) value; 0.904, refractive index; 1.412 and inorganic materials; 1.05%. Its odour and colour were heavy burnt smell and burnt brown, respectively. These va...

  14. Structure and physico-chemical properties of Kumkol petroleum deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of study of physico-chemical properties and structure of Kumkol deposit petroleum in Southern Kazakhstan are presented. It is determined, that these petroleums are light, paraffinic, with low sulfur and ash contents, has insignificant concentration of vanadium and nickel, and has not porphyrin complexes. (author)

  15. Spatially resolved optical and ultrastructural properties of colorectal and pancreatic field carcinogenesis observed by inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Ji; Radosevich, Andrew J.; Stypula-Cyrus, Yolanda; Nikhil N Mutyal; Azarin, Samira Michelle; Horcher, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Michael J.; Bianchi, Laura K.; Bajaj, Shailesh; Hemant K. Roy; Backman, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Field carcinogenesis is the initial stage of cancer progression. Understanding field carcinogenesis is valuable for both cancer biology and clinical medicine. Here, we used inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography to study colorectal cancer (CRC) and pancreatic cancer (PC) field carcinogenesis. Depth-resolved optical and ultrastructural properties of the mucosa were quantified from histologically normal rectal biopsies from patients with and without colon adenomas ( n = 85...

  16. 3.7. Physicochemical properties of solid wastes and products of their processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is devoted to physicochemical properties of solid aluminium production wastes and products of their processing. The physicochemical properties of solid aluminium production wastes were studied by means of X-ray and differential thermal analysis.

  17. Characterization of physicochemical properties of ivy nanoparticles for cosmetic application

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Yujian; Lenaghan Scott C; Xia Lijin; Burris Jason N; Stewart C Neal Jr; Zhang Mingjun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Naturally occurring nanoparticles isolated from English ivy (Hedera helix) have previously been proposed as an alternative to metallic nanoparticles as sunscreen fillers due to their effective UV extinction property, low toxicity and potential biodegradability. Methods This study focused on analyzing the physicochemical properties of the ivy nanoparticles, specifically, those parameters which are crucial for use as sunscreen fillers, such as pH, temperature, and UV irradia...

  18. Physicochemical characterization of fish protein adlayers with bacteria repelling properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, R L; Arpanaei, A; Pillai, S; Bernbom, N; Enghild, J J; Ng, Y Y; Gram, L; Besenbacher, F; Kingshott, P

    2013-02-01

    Materials coated with aqueous fish protein extracts can reduce bacterial adhesion, but the mechanism behind the observed effect is not fully understood. In this study we explore the physicochemical properties of fish muscle protein adlayers on four substrates: gold, stainless steel, polystyrene and silicon dioxide. The aims were (i) to determine if the anti-adhesive effect is independent of the underlying substrate chemistry, (ii) to link the physicochemical properties of the adlayer to its ability to repel bacteria, and (iii) to elucidate the mechanism behind this effect. The main proteins on all surfaces were the muscle proteins troponin, tropomyosin, and myosin, and the lipid binding protein apolipoprotein. The quantity, viscoelasticity, and hydration of the protein adlayers varied greatly on the different substrates, but this variation did not affect the bacterial repelling properties. Our results imply that these proteins adsorb to all substrates and provide a steric barrier towards bacterial adhesion, potentially providing a universal antifouling solution. PMID:23104021

  19. Role of Physicochemical Properties in Nanoparticle Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Won Shin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the recent rapid growth of technological comprehension in nanoscience, researchers have aimed to adapt this knowledge to various research fields within engineering and applied science. Dramatic advances in nanomaterials marked a new epoch in biomedical engineering with the expectation that they would have huge contributions to healthcare. However, several questions regarding their safety and toxicity have arisen due to numerous novel properties. Here, recent studies of nanomaterial toxicology will be reviewed from several physiochemical perspectives. A variety of physiochemical properties such as size distribution, electrostatics, surface area, general morphology and aggregation may significantly affect physiological interactions between nanomaterials and target biological areas. Accordingly, it is very important to finely tune these properties in order to safely fulfill a bio-user’s purpose.

  20. Physicochemical properties of a cadmium telluride surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Change of chemical state of cadmium telluride surface is investigated after different treatments (exposure in air, vacuum, gaseous media, γ- and IR-irradiation). The results of these investigations are of great interest for clarifying the nature of active surface of diamond-like semiconductors, the mechanism of its interaction with different media and the possibilities of surface properties regulation

  1. THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF EDIBLE PROTEIN FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Ogur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, edible films from isolated or concentrated protein sources and from proteins of two different fish species were produced. The texture properties, light transmission (LT and oxygen permeability (OP of producing films were determined. The CL film settled in the second range according to both tension test parameters, thus outclassing the other tested films. The WG film possessed the lowest LT, so making it more effective in protecting of food products from light than the other tested films. The SPI film with the lowest OP value can be used for the purpose of protecting of food products from harmful effects of oxidation.

  2. Novel graphene-based nanostructures: physicochemical properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review concerns graphene-based nanostructures including graphene nanoribbons a few nanometres wide, structures functionalized with hydrogen and fluorine atoms as well as pure carbon composites. The physicochemical properties and the chemical engineering methods for their fabrication are considered. Methods for solving problems in modern nanotechnology are discussed. Possible applications of graphene and graphene-based nanostructures in various devices are outlined. The bibliography includes 286 references

  3. Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Properties of Biofield Energy Treated Protose

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Protose is the enzyme digest of mixed proteins that is recommended for culture media, bulk production of enzymes, antibiotics, toxins, veterinary preparations, etc. This study was proposed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of protose. The study was achieved in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group was remained as untreated, while the treated group was received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. ...

  4. The Critical Assessment of the Physicochemical Properties of Substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the application of physicochemical values to practical and theoretical problems, it becomes increasingly important that the published experimental data should continuously be sifted and critically assessed by experts. This type of work is actually a relatively new field in chemistry, and some of the principles and methods involved in assessing the thermodynamic and transport properties of metallic substances will be discussed. The centres dealing with this evaluation work, their distribution and their accepted responsibilities will be outlined. (author)

  5. Physicochemical Properties of Melanin from A. auricula Fruiting Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Zou; Yuebing Wen; Wenxi She; Wenzhong Hu

    2014-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of melanin from Auricularia auricula ruiting bodies were studied. The result showed that A. auricula fruiting bodies melanin powder was dark with a little red and yellow colored (L* = 41.03, a* = 2.26, b* = 3.78). A. auricula fruiting bodies melanin was insoluble in both water and common organic solvents. It dissolved only in alkali aqueous solution and precipitated acidic aqueous solution (pH

  6. A survey on hygienic and physicochemical properties of Istrian cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Skelin; Dubravka Samaržija; Sulejman Redžepović; Samir Kalit; Mirna Mrkonjić Fuka; Višnja Magdić; Jasmina Havranek

    2013-01-01

    Istrian cheese is the traditional hard cheese produced exclusively from the raw milk of the autochthonous Istrian sheep. The aim of this study was to determine the bacteriological quality, physicochemical properties of the sheep milk and Istrian cheese as well as proteolysis of cheese produced on six family farms during the cheese ripening. The hygienic microbial indicators of the sheep milk were poor in comparison to the other East Adriatic regions. However, the number of bacterial indicator...

  7. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Algerian Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Hua Gan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey samples (n = 4. Physical parameters, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content were measured. Several biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. The mean pH was 3.84 ± 0.01, and moisture the content was 13.21 ± 0.16%. The mean EC was 0.636 ± 0.001, and the mean TDS was 316.92 ± 0.92. The mean color was 120.58 ± 0.64 mm Pfund, and the mean 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF content was 21.49 mg/kg. The mean total sugar and reducing sugar contents were 67.03 ± 0.68 g/mL and 64.72 ± 0.52 g/g, respectively. The mean sucrose content was 2.29 ± 0.65%. High mean values of phenolic (459.83 ± 1.92 mg gallic acid/kg, flavonoid (54.23 ± 0.62 mg catechin/kg, ascorbic acid (159.70 ± 0.78 mg/kg, AEAC (278.15 ± 4.34 mg/kg, protein (3381.83 ± 6.19 mg/kg and proline (2131.47 ± 0.90 contents, as well as DPPH (39.57% ± 4.18 and FRAP activities [337.77 ± 1.01 µM Fe (II/100 g], were also detected, indicating that Algerian honey has a high antioxidant potential. Strong positive correlations were found between flavonoid, proline and ascorbic acid contents and color intensity with DPPH and FRAP values. Thus, the present study revealed that Algerian honey is a good source of antioxidants.

  8. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ibrahim; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Boukraâ, Laïd; Benhanifia, Mokhtar; Islam, Asiful; Islam, Nazmul; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey samples (n = 4). Physical parameters, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content were measured. Several biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. The mean pH was 3.84 ± 0.01, and moisture the content was 13.21 ± 0.16%. The mean EC was 0.636 ± 0.001, and the mean TDS was 316.92 ± 0.92. The mean color was 120.58 ± 0.64 mm Pfund, and the mean 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was 21.49 mg/kg. The mean total sugar and reducing sugar contents were 67.03 ± 0.68 g/mL and 64.72 ± 0.52 g/g, respectively. The mean sucrose content was 2.29 ± 0.65%. High mean values of phenolic (459.83 ± 1.92 mg gallic acid/kg), flavonoid (54.23 ± 0.62 mg catechin/kg), ascorbic acid (159.70 ± 0.78 mg/kg), AEAC (278.15 ± 4.34 mg/kg), protein (3381.83 ± 6.19 mg/kg) and proline (2131.47 ± 0.90) contents, as well as DPPH (39.57% ± 4.18) and FRAP activities [337.77 ± 1.01 µM Fe (II)/100 g], were also detected, indicating that Algerian honey has a high antioxidant potential. Strong positive correlations were found between flavonoid, proline and ascorbic acid contents and color intensity with DPPH and FRAP values. Thus, the present study revealed that Algerian honey is a good source of antioxidants. PMID:22996344

  9. Chemopreventive properties of indole-3-carbinol, diindolylmethane and other constituents of cardamom against carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Asha; Das, Ila; Singh, Sushmita; Saha, Tapas

    2010-06-01

    Oxidative stress results from an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell's own antioxidant defenses that in part lead to numerous carcinogenesis. Several phytochemicals, derived from vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices, have demonstrated excellent chemopreventive properties against carcinogenesis by regulating the redox status of the cells during oxidative stress. I3C (indole-3-carbinol) and DIM (diindolylmethane) are the phytochemicals that are found in all types of cruciferous vegetables and demonstrated exceptional anti-cancer effects against hormone responsive cancers like breast, prostate and ovarian cancers. Novel analogs of I3C were designed to enhance the overall efficacy, particularly with respect to the therapeutic activity and oral bioavailability and that results in several patent applications on symptoms associated with endometriosis, vaginal neoplasia, cervical dysplasia and mastalgia. Likewise, DIM and its derivatives are patented for treatment and prevention of leiomyomas, HPV infection, respiratory syncytial virus, angiogenesis, atherosclerosis and anti-proliferative actions. On the other hand, phytochemicals in cardamom have not been explored in great details but limonene and cineole demonstrate promising effects against carcinogenesis. Thus studies with selected phytochemicals of cardamom and bioavailability research might lead to many patent applications. This review is focused on the patents generated on the effects of I3C, DIM and selected phytochemicals of cardamom on carcinogenesis. PMID:20653562

  10. Physicochemical characterization of fish protein adlayers with bacteria repelling properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, R. L.; Arpanaei, A.; Pillai, S.;

    2013-01-01

    and silicon dioxide. The aims were (i) to determine if the anti-adhesive effect is independent of the underlying substrate chemistry, (ii) to link the physicochemical properties of the adlayer to its ability to repel bacteria, and (iii) to elucidate the mechanism behind this effect. The main proteins on all...... surfaces were the muscle proteins troponin, tropomyosin, and myosin, and the lipid binding protein apolipoprotein. The quantity, viscoelasticity, and hydration of the protein adlayers varied greatly on the different substrates, but this variation did not affect the bacterial repelling properties. Our...

  11. Predictions of Physicochemical Properties of Ionic Liquids with DFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Karu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, density functional theory (DFT-based high-throughput computational approach is becoming more efficient and, thus, attractive for finding advanced materials for electrochemical applications. In this work, we illustrate how theoretical models, computational methods, and informatics techniques can be put together to form a simple DFT-based throughput computational workflow for predicting physicochemical properties of room-temperature ionic liquids. The developed workflow has been used for screening a set of 48 ionic pairs and for analyzing the gathered data. The predicted relative electrochemical stabilities, ionic charges and dynamic properties of the investigated ionic liquids are discussed in the light of their potential practical applications.

  12. Physicochemical and biological properties of new steroid metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigation was to prepare stable steroid metal chelates by chemical conversion of the natural steroid hormones testerone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) and estradiol and to characterize these by means of their spectroscopic and other physico-chemical properties. In addition, various measuring techniques for the qualitative and quantitative study of complex stabilities and hydrolytic properties were employed. The distribution of some tritiated steroid metal complexes in the tissues of rats was tested using whole animal autoradiography, mainly with a view to identifying whether selective concentration occurs in certain organs. (orig.)

  13. Physicochemical and Binder Properties of Starch Obtained from Cyperus esculentus

    OpenAIRE

    Manek, Rahul V.; Builders, Philip F.; Kolling, William M.; Emeje, Martins; Olobayo O. Kunle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate starch from the tubers of Cyperus esculentus L. and evaluate its physicochemical and binder properties. Extraction of starch using sodium metabisulfite yielded 37 g of starch per 100 g of the tubers. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that Cyperus starch consists of oval to elliptical particles with a smooth surface. Cyperus starch demonstrates a narrow particle size distribution with a mean of 8.25 μm. Cyperus starch conforms well to United States...

  14. [Physico-chemical properties of microbial and plant polysaccharides structurants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votselko, S K; Dankevytch, L A; Lytvynchuk, O O

    2012-01-01

    The comparative investigation of physico-chemical properties of plant (guar gum, konjac-mannan) and microbial (xanthan gum) origin structurants have been carried out. Among them, xanthan sigma (1544 mPa) and konjac-mannan (5000 mPa) have the best initial viscosity. It has been shown that due to molecular-mass characteristics xanthan (74.3%) gum, ksampan (39%) and konjac-mannan (42.1%) have the highest percentage of high-weight fractions. It has been established that mannose, glucose and galactose as well as unidentified substances are presented in different concentrations in the structure of structurants. PMID:22686017

  15. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Whey Cheese with Pine Nuts

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc; Laura Zăpărţan; Laura Stan; Carmen R. POP; Maria Doiniţa Borş; Ancuţa M. Rotar

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a value-added whey cheese through addition of pine nuts. Therefore, different concentrations of pine nuts [2, 4, 6 and 8% (w/w)] were added to whey cheese. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of pine nuts on physicochemical and sensory properties of whey cheese. The addition of pine nuts resulted in an increase in fat content and total solids and a decrease in moisture content. However, no statistically significant difference was found in pH values. Se...

  16. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of peanut protein hydrolysate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Tang

    Full Text Available Peanut protein and its hydrolysate were compared with a view to their use as food additives. The effects of pH, temperature and protein concentration on some of their key physicochemical properties were investigated. Compared with peanut protein, peanut peptides exhibited a significantly higher solubility and significantly lower turbidity at pH values 2-12 and temperature between 30 and 80°C. Peanut peptide showed better emulsifying capacity, foam capacity and foam stability, but had lower water holding and fat adsorption capacities over a wide range of protein concentrations (2-5 g/100 ml than peanut protein isolate. In addition, peanut peptide exhibited in vitro antioxidant properties measured in terms of reducing power, scavenging of hydroxyl radical, and scavenging of DPPH radical. These results suggest that peanut peptide appeared to have better functional and antioxidant properties and hence has a good potential as a food additive.

  17. Immunoreactivity, sensory and physicochemical properties of fermented soy protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinlschmidt, Pia; Ueberham, Elke; Lehmann, Jörg; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute; Eisner, P

    2016-08-15

    The effect of induced liquid state fermentation (Bacillus subtilis, Rhizopus oryzae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus helveticus) on the immunoreactivity, physicochemical and sensory properties of soy protein isolate (SPI) was studied. L. helveticus revealed the most abundant reduction in terms of immunoreactivity within soluble protein fractions, up to 100%, which could be measured by in vitro sandwich ELISA using mouse monoclonal anti-Glym5 antibodies (mAbs). Almost no binding was found in western blot analysis using mouse monoclonal mAbs and sera from soy sensitive individuals. Fermentation increased water- and oil-binding capacity as well as protein solubility at pH 4.0. Foaming activity was nearly doubled compared to non-fermented SPI. A decreased emulsifying capacity, foaming density, and quantity of soluble proteins at pH 7.0 were observed. Principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed decreased bitter and beany off-flavors of fermented samples compared to non-fermented SPI. Consequently, fermentation might be a promising method to produce tasty low-allergen food ingredients with good physicochemical properties. PMID:27006235

  18. Physicochemical Properties of Malaysian Jatropha curcas Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatropha curcas oil was extracted using n-hexane as solvent in the Soxhlet extraction method. The physicochemical properties of Malaysian Jatropha curcas oil were evaluated. The result showed that the Jatropha seeds consist of 60% (dry w/ w) crude oil. The physicochemical properties showed that the seed oil contained low moisture level of 0.02±0.01%, acid value (1.50±0.07%), iodine value (91.70±1.44 mg/ g), peroxide value (0.66±0.04 miliequivalence/ kg) and saponification value of 208.5±0.47 mg/ g respectively. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid (46.00±0.19%) appears as dominant fatty acid in seed oil followed by linoleic acid (31.96±0.19%) and palmitic acid (13.89±0.06%). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) results showed that the dominant triacylglycerols present were PLL (22.00%), POP(16.48%), 000(16.48%), 00L(16.23%) and OLL(13.00%). (author)

  19. Physicochemical Properties of Starch Isolated from Bracken (Pteridium aquilinim) Rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xurun; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Leilei; Wang, Zhong; Xiong, Fei

    2015-12-01

    Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) is an important wild plant starch resource worldwide. In this work, starch was separated from bracken rhizome, and the physicochemical properties of this starch were systematically investigated and compared with 2 other common starches, that is, starches from waxy maize and potato. There were significant differences in shape, birefringence patterns, size distribution, and amylose content between bracken and the 2 other starches. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that bracken starch exhibited a typical C-type crystalline structure. Bracken starch presented, respectively, lower and higher relative degree of crystallinity than waxy maize and potato starches. Ordered structures in particle surface differed among these 3 starches. The swelling power tendency of bracken starch in different temperature intervals was very similar to that of potato starch. The viscosity parameters during gelatinization were the lowest in waxy maize, followed by bracken and potato starches. The contents of 3 nutritional components, that is, rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches in native, gelatinized, and retrograded starch from bracken rhizome presented more similarities with potato starch than waxy maize starch. These finding indicated that physicochemical properties of bracken starch showed more similarities with potato starch than waxy maize starch. PMID:26551243

  20. Physicochemical properties of TiO2/Hydroxyapatite nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TiO2/Hydroxyapatite (TiO2/HAp) nanocomposites with different ratios were prepared by precipitation of hydroxyapatite in the presence of TiO2 or TiO(OH)2. The physicochemical properties of TiO2/HAp material were characterized using the batch equilibration method and BET, XPS, DRS, FTIR analyses. The XPS result showed that binding energy of Ca-P was 347.2 eV, that of P-OH was 133.3 eV and the Ti 2p spectrum could be resolved into spin-orbit pairs 2p3/2 and 2p1/2 with binding energies of 458.6 and 464.1 eV, respectively, which are the characteristics of titanium(IV) in TiO2. The FTIR result suggested that the formation of the TiO2/HAp nanocomposites have not changed the structure nor the phase of the hydroxyapatite crystals. However, the physicochemical properties of TiO2/HAp nanocomposites such as pHpzc values, band gap energy, specific surface area and pore volume were higher than those of pure TiO2 and HAp. (author)

  1. A survey on hygienic and physicochemical properties of Istrian cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Skelin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Istrian cheese is the traditional hard cheese produced exclusively from the raw milk of the autochthonous Istrian sheep. The aim of this study was to determine the bacteriological quality, physicochemical properties of the sheep milk and Istrian cheese as well as proteolysis of cheese produced on six family farms during the cheese ripening. The hygienic microbial indicators of the sheep milk were poor in comparison to the other East Adriatic regions. However, the number of bacterial indicators rapidly declined during the ripening and they were under the detection limit for “ready to consume” cheese and therefore indicated their good bacteriological quality. Regression function of the effects of the ripening time on physicochemical properties of Istrian cheese during ripening showed a substantial increase in total solids, in salt, in moisture and in salt content as well as in the lactic acid in the total solids. However, these changes were not significant due to the high variability of the Istrian cheese production. The farm cheese making procedure affected the electrophoretic profile of the primary proteolysis in the cheese samples. Significant (P5 %. Equal degradation of as1-casein and ß-casein during ripening of Istrian cheese occurred. A low percentage of nitrogen fractions soluble in water and in 12 % trichloroacetic acid were determined.

  2. Physicochemical and biochemical properties of honeys from arid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Hosam M; Al Meqbali, Fatima T; Kamal, Hina; Souka, Usama D; Ibrahim, Wissam H

    2014-06-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of 11 honeys from arid regions for first time, and compare it with 5 different honeys from non-arid regions. Mean values obtained for physicochemical parameters were: pH 4.76 ± 0.55; 17.32 ± 1.8% moisture; 80.95 ± 1.60 °Brix sugar; 69.05 ± 4.41% total sugar; 413.81 ± 178.48 μS cm(-1) electrical conductivity; 17.58 ± 7.68 meq/kg free acidity; 11.05 ± 3.18 meq/kg lactonic acidity; 28.63 ± 9.6 meq/kg total acidity; 12.66 ± 20.39 mg/kg HMF; 0.58 ± 0.03 water activity; and 0.98 ± 0.62 colour intensity. Potassium was the major mineral (1760.54 ± 685.24 mg/kg). All the samples showed considerable significant variations with reference to their physicochemical and biochemical properties, moreover, the total free amino acids and total carotenoids were 61.13 ± 63.16 mg/100g and 4.07 ± 10.05 μg/100g respectively. Acrylamide was detected only in one sample at 2.39 ± 0.22 μg/kg. PMID:24491697

  3. Effect of irradiated pork on physicochemical properties of meat emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Sung, Jung-Min; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-02-01

    The effect of pork irradiated with doses up to 10 kGy on meat emulsions formulated with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) was investigated. Raw pork was vacuums packaged at a thickness of 2.0 cm and irradiated by X-ray linear accelerator (15 kW, 5 MeV). The emulsion had higher lightness, myofibrillar protein solubility, total protein solubility, and apparent viscosity with increasing doses, whereas cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, and hardness decreased. There were no significant differences in fat separation, sarcoplasmic protein solubility, springiness, and cohesiveness. Our results indicated that it is treatment by ionizing radiation which causes the effects the physicochemical properties of the final raw meat product.

  4. STUDY ON THE SYNTHESIS AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SUCROSE POLYESTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhongdong; LIU Huihua; LUO Peng; LIU Peng; Xiao Fugang

    2006-01-01

    Orthogonal test was used to evaluate the effects of synthetic such as temperature (120~140 ℃), reaction time (4-6) and substrate molar ratio of methyl oleate to sucrose (8:1-12:1) on the percent quantity conversion to sucrose polyester. Sucrose polyester was synthesized by a solvent-free one-stage interesterification. The optimum reaction conditions are as follows: methyl oleate/sucrose = 10∶1 (mol/mol); reaction temperature is 140 ℃;yield reaches 88.15%, and the degree of esterification (DE) is over 7 in the conditions. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), column chromatography (CC), High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to analyze the product, the results show that the percent of sucrose polyoleate is over 70% in the product. The physicochemical properties of sucrose polyesters were compared with cooking oil. The results show that the qualities of sucrose polyesters are all up to the triglyceride.

  5. Physico-chemical and biological properties of Ambroxol under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physico-chemical properties of Ambroxol (AM), a potential antioxidant drug from the expectorant class, were investigated by radiation chemical and spectroscopic studies. The pulse radiolysis experiments showed that AM is a good scavenger of the primary water radical species, particularly eaq- and ·OH radicals. The ·OH attack, preferentially addressed to the ring positions activated by the -NH2 group and occupied by bromine atoms, leads to hydroxycyclohexadienyl radicals. The molecule stabilisation may be achieved by a dehalogenation reaction to give phenoxyl radicals. The ·OH attack to AM is not affected by Cu(II) ions, which interact only weakly with the drug as evidenced by IR and Raman spectroscopy. Survival experiments on E. coli B/r cells irradiated in the presence of AM showed a radiosensitising effect of AM in anoxia. Some possible mechanisms of radiosensitisation are outlined. (author)

  6. Structures and physicochemical properties of molecular aggregates of lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structures and physicochemical properties of lipids such as fatty acids, alcohols, acylglycerols and steroids in their two- or three-dimensional states were studied through the measurements of surface pressure (π), surface-molecular area (A), vapor-pressure osmosis, radioactivity (R), self-diffusion coefficient (D), density, viscosity, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR), 13C-NMR spin-lattice relaxation time (T1), ESR, SEM, DSC, X-ray diffraction and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Following results are obtained: (1) π-A and R-A relationships indicate that the explanation, being widely believed, of the reaction occurred in the oleic acid or the trioleylglycerol monolayer on the aqueous KMnO4 solution is incorrect. (2) By using the LB film of 3H-labelled fatty acid, the upper limit of the neutrino mass was determined. In addition, by using the LB film of 14C-labelled fatty acid, a new type of crystal-transformation process was found, in which fatty-acid crystal transforms from its unstable state to its stable one by the transfer of the fatty acid molecules through the vapor phase. (3) Fatty acids always exist as their dimers in their liquid state and mostly in non-polar solvents; the dimers are the units of the molecular movements in the molten liquid and in solvents. T1 results clearly showed the internal molecular movements of the dimers. In addition, D and SANS results indicated that two different kinds of fatty acids in their binary mixture make only each homodimers. (4) Furthermore, the study on the liquid structure of fatty acids such as cis-6-, cis-9-, cis-11-, trans-9-octadecenoic acids and stearic acid indicated that these fatty-acid dimers construct the clusters resemble to the smectic-liquid crystal in the liquid state. The clusters determine the physicochemical properties of the liquid of the fatty acid. (author)

  7. Antimicrobial and physicochemical properties of chitosan-HPMC-based films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Heike; Grelier, Stéphane; Pardon, Patrick; Coma, Véronique

    2004-10-20

    To prepare composite films from biopolymers with anti-listerial activity and moisture barrier properties, the antimicrobial efficiency of chitosan-hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) films, chitosan-HPMC films associated with lipid, and chitosan-HPMC films chemically modified by cross-linking were evaluated. In addition, the physicochemical properties of composite films were evaluated to determine their potential for food applications. The incorporation of stearic acid into the composite chitosan-HPMC film formulation decreased water sensitivity such as initial solubility in water and water drop angle. Thus, cross-linking of composite chitosan-HPMC, using citric acid as the cross-linking agent, led to a 40% reduction in solubility in water. The water vapor transfer rate of HPMC film, approximately 270 g x m(-2) x day(-1) x atm(-1), was improved by incorporating chitosan and was further reduced 40% by the addition of stearic acid and/or cross-linking. Anti-listerial activity of films was determined on solid medium by a numeration technique. Chitosan-HPMC-based films, with and without stearic acid, inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes completely. On the other hand, a loss of antimicrobial activity after chemical cross-linking modification was observed. FTIR and 13C NMR analyses were then conducted in order to study a potential chemical modification of biopolymers such as a chemical reaction with the amino group of chitosan. To complete the study, the mechanical properties of composite films were determined from tensile strength assays. PMID:15479027

  8. Prediction of Physicochemical Properties of Indonesian Indica Rice Using Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUJI LESTARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties determine the palatability and cooking quality of rice, which must be determined efficiently in order to satisfy consumer demand. To date, little information exists on the use of molecular markers to predict physicochemical properties of the “indica” rice varieties found in Indonesia. The objective of this study was to investigate physicochemical properties and genetic variation of Indonesian rice varieties, and to formulate regression equations to analyze sets of DNA markers which could predict amylose content (AC, protein content (PC and pasting properties of the varieties. A total of 24 Indonesian indica rice varieties were chosen based on their genetic background and agricultural characteristics. We then measured selected physicochemical properties, and genotyped the varieties using 30 DNA markers. The chosen varieties showed favorable values for PC, AC, and six rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA pasting properties, which was supported by molecular data. As demonstrated by principal component analysis (PCA, markers could provide a complementary method for differentiating rice varieties, as an alternative to measuring physicochemical properties. PCA analysis also allowed us to establish marker sets using multiple regression analysis. We formulated eight model regression equations comprising data regarding 15 to 19 markers with high coefficients (R2=0.98-0.99. The formulas provided results that consistently correlated and therefore predicted the physicochemical properties of indica rice. Further validation of these marker sets may provide rapid and efficient means for predicting the physicochemical properties of Indonesian-bred indica rice in the future.

  9. STUDIES ON SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA BARK GUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Pendyala

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C. At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.

  10. Physicochemical properties investigations of metallic urological stent after implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tyrlik-Held

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: : The aim of the work was to determine the surfaces as well as physicochemical properties changes of the metallic urological stent. The tested stent was made of Co-Cr-Ni-Fe-Mo-Mn alloy and was implanted during four years.Design/methodology/approach: Electrochemical tests have been used for corrosion resistance investigations. They were carried out in the artificial urine solution at the temperature 37±1°C with the use of the VoltaLab® PGP 201 system. The evaluation of pitting corrosion was realized by recording of anodic polarization curves with the use of the potentiodynamic method. Chemical composition investigations of the surface have been carried out with the use of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS. The topography of surfaces changes was observed in scanning electron microscope (SEM.Findings: Surface observations haven’t showed the signs of pitting corrosion. No decrease of corrosion resistance for metallic material was stated. Furthermore in surface layer the presence of the organic compounds was observed.Practical implications: The time of four years of implantation didn’t induce the significant changes in electrochemical properties of metallic material of the tested stent which was in contact with the natural environment of physiological fluids.Originality/value: The results obtained concern to investigations of the metallic material of the stent, which was implanted during the period of four years in human body that mean in natural environment of human tissues and physiological fluids.

  11. Electronic structure and physicochemical properties of selected penicillins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Correa, Catalina; Ruiz, Juan F. Sánchez; Raya, A.; Esquivel, Rodolfo O.

    Traditionally, penicillins have been used as antibacterial agents due to their characteristics and widespread applications with few collateral effects, which have motivated several theoretical and experimental studies. Despite the latter, their mechanism of biological action has not been completely elucidated. We present a theoretical study at the Hartree-Fock and density functional theory (DFT) levels of theory of a selected group of penicillins such as the penicillin-G, amoxicillin, ampicillin, dicloxacillin, and carbenicillin molecules, to systematically determine the electron structure of full ?-lactam antibiotics. Our results allow us to analyze the electronic properties of the pharmacophore group, the aminoacyl side-chain, and the influence of the substituents (R and X) attached to the aminoacyl side-chain at 6? (in contrast with previous studies focused at the 3? substituents), and to corroborate the results of previous studies performed at the semiempirical level, solely on the ?-lactam ring of penicillins. Besides, several density descriptors are determined with the purpose of analyzing their link to the antibacterial activity of these penicillin compounds. Our results for the atomic charges (fitted to the electrostatic potential), the bond orders, and several global reactivity descriptors, such as the dipole moments, ionization potential, hardness, and the electrophilicity index, led us to characterize: the active sites, the effect of the electron-attracting substituent properties and their physicochemical features, which altogether, might be important to understand the biological activity of these type of molecules.

  12. Studies on some physicochemical properties of Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Pendyala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/ v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C. At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.

  13. Characterization and Physicochemical Properties of Condensed Tannins from Acacia catechu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Antoine; Avérous, Luc

    2016-03-01

    Condensed tannins from Acacia catechu were carefully studied to determine their chemical structure and physicochemical properties. The combined use of MALDI-TOF-MS and (13)C NMR revealed that catechin and epicatechin are the predominant monomers. Most of the compounds were dimers, as confirmed by size exclusion chromatography measurements. To evaluate their potential as aromatic building block in polymer synthesis, special care was given to the characterization and quantification of the different OH groups. A detailed (31)P NMR analysis showed the predominance of catechin, with a catechin/epicatechin ratio of 4.2:1. Two distinct (1)H NMR measurements confirmed the quantification. The thermal properties were also determined: the tannins showed a high temperature of degradation (ca. 190 °C) and a high glass transition temperature (ca. 140 °C), allowing for thermal processing or chemical reactions at relatively high temperature. A. catechu tannins thus present interesting features to be used as aromatic building blocks in polymer materials. PMID:26853705

  14. A Review on Physicochemical and Thermorheological Properties of Sago Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was a part of a research project aiming to investigate the texture characteristics of protein - starch interaction in fish based product keropok lekor. Accordingly, the current review study focused on some physicochemical (molecular weight, viscosity, chemical composition and swelling power and thermorheological (gelatinization, retrogradation and viscoelsticity characteristics of sago starch alone and in mixtures with other ingredients such as sucrose, salts and hydroclloids. The inferred outcome of this extensive survey revealed that the gelatinisation temperature for sago-water mixture ranged from 69.4-70.1°C which was low compared to sweet potato, tania and yam starches. The role of using hydrocolloids in starch-based foods was to control the rheological properties as well as modifying the texture of the products, enhaning or modifying the gelatinization and retrogradation behaviour and improving water-holding capacity of the system. In the presence of sucrose or sodium chloride, the gelatinisation temperatures of sago starch shifted to higher temperatures and its enthalpy decreased. The addition of salts caused an elevation or depression of gelatinization temperature and gelatinization enthalpy, depending on their types and concentrations used. However, sodium chloride appeared to exhibit a maximum inhibitory effect on starch gelatinisation at a concentration of 6-9%.

  15. Chain conformational and physicochemical properties of fucoidans from sea cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoqi; Xue, Changhu; Chang, Yaoguang; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Kunhao

    2016-11-01

    Although fucoidans from sea cucumber (SC-FUCs) have been proven as potential bioactive polysaccharides and functional food ingridents, their chain conformation and physicochemical properties were still poorly understood. This study investigated the chain conformation of fucoidans from sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides (Am-FUC), Isostichopus badionotus (Ib-FUC) and Apostichopus japonicus (Aj-FUC), of which primary structure has been recently clarified. Chain conformation parameters demonstrated that studied SC-FUCs adopted random coil conformation in 150mM NaCl solution (pH 7.4). Based on the worm-like cylinder model and atomic force microscopy, the chain stiffness of SC-FUCs was further evaluated as Am-FUC≈Ib-FUC>Aj-FUC. It was suggested that the existence of branch structure increased the chain flexibility, while sulfated pattern exerted limited influence. SC-FUCs demonstrated shear-thinning rheological behavior and negative charge. Am-FUC possessed a higher thermostability than Ib-FUC and Aj-FUC. These results have important implications for understanding the molecular characteristics of SC-FUCs, which could facilitate their further application. PMID:27516290

  16. Physicochemical and functional properties of yeast fermented brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Mediani, Ahmed; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, effects of fermentation on physicochemical and functional properties of brown rice flour (BRF) were investigated. Fermentation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology to achieve moderate acidity (pH 5-6), specifically pH 5.5 of brown rice batter with time, temperature and yeast concentration as the independent variables. The results indicated that brown rice batter was well fermented to maintain pH 5.5 at optimum conditions of 32 °C for 6.26 h using 1 % yeast concentration. Fermentation at moderate acidity significantly increased the levels of protein, total ash, insoluble fiber, soluble fibre, minerals, phenolics, antioxidants, resistant starch, riboflavin, pyridoxine, nicotinic acid, γ-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol. However, it reduced the contents of γ-oryzanol, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, phytic acid, amylose and total starch. Foaming capacity, foaming stability, oil holding capacity, gelatinization temperatures, enthalpy and whiteness of BRF were increased after fermentation. In contrast, its swelling power, water solubility index, hot paste viscosity, breakdown, and setback significantly decreased. Microstructure of BRF was also influenced, where its starch granules released from its enclosed structure after fermentation. This investigation shows evidence that yeast fermentation modified the functionality of BRF and can be used as a functional food ingredient. PMID:26344967

  17. Physicochemical properties of the Harenna forest honey, Bale, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Abera; Solomon, W K; Bultossa, Geremew; Adgaba, Nuru; Melaku, Samuel

    2013-12-15

    In this study, the physicochemical properties of the Harenna forest honey were characterised. The Harenna forest honey moisture, reducing sugar, sucrose, water insoluble solids, ash, free acid, pH, HMF contents, electrical conductivity and specific rotation were found to be 17.89±1.02 g/100 g, 69.48±1.72 g/100 g, 2.43±1.02 g/100 g, 0.12±0.08 g/100 g, 0.19±0.09 g/100 g, 34.57±4.80 meq/kg, 3.87±0.16, 0.84±0.46 mg/1000 g, 0.70±0.04 mS/cm and -132±15.27 [α]D(20), respectively. All quality indicators of honey from traditional and frame hives were within the criteria set by Codex Alimentarus (CA), European Union (EU) and Ethiopian standard, except for water insoluble solids. The type of hives significantly affected the moisture (pHMF (phoney. The sampling location also significantly affected the moisture (phoney. Significant correlations were observed between moisture content and electrical conductivity (r=0.76, phoney if honey harvesting, handling and processing is properly carried out. PMID:23993497

  18. Physicochemical properties of tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) hydrocolloid fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannasin, Sri Puvanesvari; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Hamzah, Mohd Yusof; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-09-01

    Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) is an underutilised fruit in Malaysia. The fruit, however, contains good proportions of soluble fibre, protein, starch, anthocyanins and carotenoids. Amongst the fruits, only tamarillo mesocarp contains both polar (anthocyanins) and non-polar (carotenoids) pigments. The ability to retain both polar and non-polar pigments in the mesocarp could be related to the unique properties of its hydrocolloids. To understand the pigment-hydrocolloid interaction in the fruit, information on the physicochemical characteristics of the hydrocolloids is required. Therefore, hydrocolloids from the anthocyanin-rich seed mucilage fraction of the tamarillo and its carotenoid-rich pulp fraction were extracted and characterised. Water and 1% citric acid were used to extract the seed mucilage hydrocolloid while 72% ethanol and 20mM HEPES buffer were used for pulp hydrocolloid extraction. Seed mucilage hydrocolloid was primarily composed of arabinogalactan protein-associated pectin whereas pulp hydrocolloid was composed of hemicellulosic polysaccharides with some naturally interacting proteins and neutral polysaccharides. PMID:25842340

  19. Physicochemical Properties of Biopolymer Hydrogels Treated by Direct Electric Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żaneta Król

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes within the physicochemical properties of gelatine (2%; 4%; 8%, carrageenan (1.5%; 2%; 2.5% and sodium alginate (0.75%; 1%; 1.25% hydrogels with different sodium chloride concentrations that were triggered by applying direct current (DC of 400 mA for a duration of five minutes. There were three types of gels prepared for the purpose of the study: C, control; H, gels on the basis of hydrosols that were treated with DC; and G, gels treated with DC. In the course of the study, the authors carried out the following analyses: Texture Profile Analysis (TPA, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Swelling Ratio (SR. Furthermore, the color and pH of hydrogels were measured. The FTIR spectra showed that the structures of gelatine, carrageenan and sodium alginate do not significantly change upon applying DC. The results of TPA, SR, color and pH measurement indicate that hydrogels’ properties are significantly dependent on the type of polymer, its concentration and the type of the gel. By changing those parameters, the characteristics of such gels can be additionally tuned, which extends their applicability, e.g., in the food industry. Moreover, the analysis revealed that SR of H gel gelatine after 72 h of storage was 1.84-times higher than SR of the control sample, which indicated that this gel may be considered as a possible component for wound dressing materials.

  20. Characterization of physicochemical properties of ivy nanoparticles for cosmetic application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yujian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Naturally occurring nanoparticles isolated from English ivy (Hedera helix have previously been proposed as an alternative to metallic nanoparticles as sunscreen fillers due to their effective UV extinction property, low toxicity and potential biodegradability. Methods This study focused on analyzing the physicochemical properties of the ivy nanoparticles, specifically, those parameters which are crucial for use as sunscreen fillers, such as pH, temperature, and UV irradiation. The visual transparency and cytotoxicity of ivy nanoparticles were also investigated comparing them with other metal oxide nanoparticles. Results Results from this study demonstrated that, after treatment at 100°C, there was a clear increase in the UV extinction spectra of the ivy nanoparticles caused by the partial decomposition. In addition, the UVA extinction spectra of the ivy nanoparticles gradually reduced slightly with the decrease of pH values in solvents. Prolonged UV irradiation indicated that the influence of UV light on the stability of the ivy nanoparticle was limited and time-independent. Compared to TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles, ivy nanoparticles showed better visual transparency. Methylthiazol tetrazolium assay demonstrated that ivy nanoparticles exhibited lower cytotoxicity than the other two types of nanoparticles. Results also suggested that protein played an important role in modulating the three-dimensional structure of the ivy nanoparticles. Conclusions Based on the results from this study it can be concluded that the ivy nanoparticles are able to maintain their UV protective capability at wide range of temperature and pH values, further demonstrating their potential as an alternative to replace currently available metal oxide nanoparticles in sunscreen applications.

  1. Physicochemical properties of fixation plates used in funnel chest treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krauze

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents physicochemical properties and biomechanical analysis of fixation plates made ofCr-Ni-Mo stainless steel used in the funnel chest treatment.Design/methodology/approach: The corrosion tests were realized by recording of anodic polarization curveswith the use of the potentiodynamic method. The VoltaLab® PGP 201 system for electrochemical tests wasapplied. The numerical analysis was performed for: the stabilizer of 460 mm length, 16 mm width and 4.5 mmthickness, the stabilizer of 460 mm length, 16 mm width and 3.5 mm thickness, the stabilizer of 460 mm length,16 mm width and 2.5 mm thickness.Findings: The tests showed that structure of the steel the plates were made of, met the PN-ISO 5832-1standard. The surface damage is induced in the given deformation regions and is a potential reason of corrosion.The numerical analysis shows that stresses in plates didn’t exceed the yield point: for the stainless steelRp0,2min = 590 MPa. Values of maximum displacements occuring in the stabilizing bar in the range of clinicallyacceptable displacements.Research limitations/implications: The obtained results are the basis for the optimization of physicochemicaland mechanical properties of the metallic biomaterial.Practical implications: On the basis of the obtained results it can be stated that that stainless steel can beapplied in the funnel chest treatment.Originality/value: The paper presents the influence of surface damage and stresses and displacement of platesused in the funnel chest treatment on the corrosion resistance.

  2. Understanding the Physicochemical Properties of Mitragynine, a Principal Alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa, for Preclinical Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Surash Ramanathan; Suhanya Parthasarathy; Vikneswaran Murugaiyah; Enrico Magosso; Soo Choon Tan; Sharif Mahsufi Mansor

    2015-01-01

    Varied pharmacological responses have been reported for mitragynine in the literature, but no supportive scientific explanations have been given for this. These studies have been undertaken without a sufficient understanding of the physicochemical properties of mitragynine. In this work a UV spectrophotometer approach and HPLC-UV method were employed to ascertain the physicochemical properties of mitragynine. The pKa of mitragynine measured by conventional UV (8.11 ± 0.11) was in agreement wi...

  3. Effect of microwave treatment on the physicochemical properties of potato starch granules

    OpenAIRE

    XIE, YANLI; Yan, Mingxia; Yuan, Shasha; SUN, ShuMin; Huo, Quangong

    2013-01-01

    Background The degree of polymerization of amylose starch in potato was so large that the gel was hardness after gelatinization. Therefore, it is one of the most important ways that the microwave treatment was used to change the physicochemical properties of starch gel to make it suitable for the preparation of instant food. Results The effect of microwave treatment on the physicochemical properties including morphology, crystalline structure, molecular weight distribution and rheological pro...

  4. Effects of Spray Drying on Physicochemical Properties of Chitosan Acid Salts

    OpenAIRE

    Cervera, Mirna Fernández; Heinämäki, Jyrki; de la Paz, Nilia; López, Orestes; Maunu, Sirkka Liisa; Virtanen, Tommi; Hatanpää, Timo; Antikainen, Osmo; Nogueira, Antonio; Fundora, Jorge; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2011-01-01

    The effects of spray-drying process and acidic solvent system on physicochemical properties of chitosan salts were investigated. Chitosan used in spray dryings was obtained by deacetylation of chitin from lobster (Panulirus argus) origin. The chitosan acid salts were prepared in a laboratory-scale spray drier, and organic acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid were used as solvents in the process. The physicochemical properties of chitosan salts were investigated by means of solid-state CP...

  5. Does ultrafiltration have a lasting effect on the physico-chemical properties of the casein micelles?

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, Mary Ann; Alexander, Marcela; Corredig, Milena

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine if concentration of milk using ultrafiltration (in the absence of diafiltration) affects the physico-chemical properties of the casein micelles. The milk, once concentrated, was brought back to its original concentration and the physico-chemical properties as well as its susceptibility to rennet induced gelation were assessed. Although much is understood on the renneting behavior of concentrated milk, no information is available on how (or if) ultra...

  6. Physicochemical properties of magnetic fluids based on synthetic oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, V. V.; Ramazanova, A. G.; Yashkova, V. I.; Balmasova, O. V.

    2013-04-01

    A technique for synthesizing magnetic fluids based on Alkaren synthetic oil is described. The optimum synthesis conditions for the magnetite are selected, and the magnetic phase-stabilizer quantitative ratio is calculated. A magnetic fluid based on synthetic hydrocarbon oil is synthesized, and its physicochemical characteristics are determined.

  7. Investigating the relationship between nanomaterial hazard and physicochemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnston, Helinor; Brown, David; Kermanizadeh, Ali;

    2012-01-01

    corona evolves over time, iii) the physico-chemical characteristics of NMs dictate the composition of the protein corona, and the toxicity of NMs and iv) NMs can affect secondary target sites that vary according to delivery route and corona composition following exposure. These findings, and evidence...

  8. Physicochemical properties of endodontic sealers of different bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Alexandra Marín-Bauza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the setting time (ST, flow (FL, radiopacity (RD, solubility (SB and dimensional change following setting (DC of different sealers (AH Plus®, Polifil, Apexit Plus®, Sealapex®, Endométhasone® and Endofill® according to American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA Specification 57. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five samples of each material were used for each test. For ST, cast rings were filled with sealers and tested with a Gilmore needle. For FL, the sealer was placed on a glass plate. After 180 s, another plate with 20 g and a load of 100 g were applied on the material, and the diameters of the discs formed were measured. In RD, circular molds were filled with the sealers, radiographed and analyzed using Digora software. For SB, circular molds were filled with the sealers, a nylon thread was placed inside the material and another glass plate was positioned on the set, pressed and stored at 37°C. Samples were weighed, placed in water, dried and reweighed. The water used for SB was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. For DC, circular molds were filled with the sealers, covered by glass plates and stored at 37°C. Samples were measured and stored in water for 30 days. After this period, they were dryed and measured again. RESULTS: Regarding ST, AH Plus®, Apexit® and Endofil® sealers are in accordance with ANSI/ADA standards. Endométhasone's manufacturer did not mention the ST; Polifil is an experimental sealer and Sealapex® did not set. Considering RD, SB and DC, all sealers were in accordance with ANSI/ADA. The spectrometric analysis showed that a significant amount of K+ and Zn2+ ions was released from Apexit Plus® and Endofill®, respectively. CONCLUSION: Except for DC, all other physicochemical properties of the tested sealers conformed to ANSI/ADA requirements.

  9. Classification of traditional Chinese pork bacon based on physicochemical properties and chemometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Chunjiang; Hu, Honghai; Chen, Wenbo

    2016-07-01

    Sixty-seven pork bacon samples from Hunan, Sichuan Guangdong, Jiangxi, and Yunnan Provinces in China were analyzed to understand their geographical properties. Classification was performed by determining their physicochemical properties through chemometric techniques, including variance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis (DA). Results showed that certain differences existed in terms of nine physicochemical determinations in traditional Chinese pork bacon. PCA revealed the distinction among Hunan, Sichuan, and Guangdong style bacon. Meanwhile, seven key physicochemical determination criteria were identified in line with DA and could be reasonably applied to the classification of traditional Chinese pork bacon. Furthermore, the ratio of overall correct classification was 97.76% and that of cross-validation was 91.76%. These findings indicated that chemometric techniques, together with several physicochemical determination, were effective for the classification of traditional Chinese pork bacon with geographical features. Our study provided a theoretical reference for the classification of traditional Chinese pork bacon. PMID:26994313

  10. Effect of Different Modification Techniques on the Physicochemical and Thermoanalytical Properties of Wheat and Corn Starch

    OpenAIRE

    H. G. Kotancilar; M. M. Karaoglu; N. Aktas

    2006-01-01

    The starches of wheat and corn treated with four different modification methods (pregelatinized, thinnedwith acid, cross-linked and dextrinized) were investigated in terms of changes in swelling, water-holdingcapacity, gelatinization and thermoanalytical properties. Modification processes caused significant changes inthe physicochemical properties of the starches. Also, having effect on the thermoanalytical properties ofstarch, of modification process pregelatinization, cross-linking and dext...

  11. Physicochemical, microbiological and antimicrobial properties of commercial honeys from Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Susana Paula Martins; Dias, L.G.; Moreira, Leandro; Rodrigues, Paula; Estevinho, Leticia M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize five commercial honeys available in the Portuguese market in respect to their floral origins, physicochemical parameters and microbial safety and commercial quality assessment. Pollen profile, colour, moisture content, ash, acidity, electrical conductivity, pH, reducing sugars, apparent sucrose and HMF were the parameters analysed in each honey sample. Aerobic mesophiles, moulds and yeasts, fecal coliforms and sulphite-reducing clostridia were the micro...

  12. Physicochemical, microbiological and antimicrobial properties of commercial honeys from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Susana; Dias, Luis G; Moreira, Leandro L; Rodrigues, Paula; Estevinho, Leticia

    2010-02-01

    The present study aimed to characterize five commercial honeys available in the Portuguese market in respect to their floral origins, physicochemical parameters and microbial safety and commercial quality assessment. Pollen profile, colour, moisture content, ash, acidity, electrical conductivity, pH, reducing sugars, apparent sucrose and HMF were the parameters analysed in each honey sample. Aerobic mesophiles, moulds and yeasts, fecal coliforms and sulphite-reducing clostridia were the microbial contaminants of interest studied. The antimicrobial effect against four fermentative yeasts was determined. Concerning the physicochemical parameters, all honey samples were found to meet European Legislation (EC Directive 2001/110) for all parameters, except for HMF and apparent sucrose. Microbiologically, the commercial quality was considered good and all samples showed to be negative in respect to safety parameters. We also verified that the presence of honey differentially affected the growth of fermentative yeasts under study, depending on the type of yeast, but this growth was not significantly influenced by the type of honey used. PMID:19909782

  13. Influence of radiation on some physico-chemical properties of gum acacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlling of degradation in polysaccharide is also gaining impetus from commercial point of view. Comprehensive studies on the influence of ionizing radiation on the physico-chemical properties of polysaccharides are very important for their applications in different industries. The effect of gamma radiation on gum acacia has been studied and its effect on some physico-chemical properties, as measured by UV spectroscopy and viscometry has been discussed. The gum samples are irradiated in the range of 5 kGy to 25 kGy both in air and vacuum. Samples irradiated under vacuum shows colour stability while viscosity remain unaffected. (author)

  14. Radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on neutron carcinogenesis, time-dose relationships, the role of host factors in radiation carcinogenesis, and the dynamics of the carcinogenic process after exposure to radiation and chemicals are reported. Problems are being pursued with in vivo studies as well as in vitro and in vivo/in vitro approaches. A common theme among all of these studies is the examination of mechanisms and the establishment of general principles which may alow a better understanding of the risks to humans from radiation exposure. Data from all of these studies are also being used to examine more direct methods of extrapolation of animal data to human risks. The program in ultraviolet radiation carcinogenesis (UVR) is concerned with development of model systems, methods and background information necessary for designing quantitative UVR carcinogenesis experiments, the role of interactions of UVR and chemicals, and interactions between ionizing and ultraviolet radiation in skin carcinogenesis

  15. Effect of Desalination on Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Duck (Anas plotyrhyncus Egg Whites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhamadi Mmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Desalted Duck Egg Whites (DDEW was prepared by electrodialysis desalination using Salted Duck Egg Whites (SDEW. DDEW and SDEW (used as control were subjected to freeze drying process. Freeze Dried Desalted and Salted Duck Egg Whites (FDDEW and FSDEW, respectively were assessed for functional properties (turbidity, foaming, emulsifying and gelation and some physicochemical characteristics. Among the physicochemical parameters, the proximate composition, amino acid composition, pH, particle sizes, microstructure and color attributes were studied. The electrodialysis desalination process had significant effect on the physicochemical characteristics of FDDEW and FSDEW except for amino acids composition. Thus, the pH decreased from 8.07 to 7.40 while the NaCl content decreased from 3.76 to 0.18%. The same trend was observed for protein and ash contents. The functional properties were variable among the two samples. For instance, the gel characteristics decreased sharply after electrodialysis desalination treatment.

  16. Effect of the improved fermentation on physicochemical properties and sensorial acceptability of sour cassava starch

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Janete Angeloni Marcon; Gisele Cristina Netto Vieira; Karina Nunes de Simas; Karina Santos; Manoela Alano Vieira; Renata Dias de Mello Castanho Amboni; Edna Regina Amante

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of improved fermentation on sour cassava starch, aiming to reduce its fermentation time and to enhance its expansion capacity as well as its viscoamylographic properties and its sensorial acceptability. Results showed that the improved process of cassava starch production did not harm starch expansion, physicochemical properties or sensorial acceptability; it also produced starches with different viscoamylographic properties, which compared favoura...

  17. [Physico-chemical profiling of centrally acting molecules for prediction of pharmacokinetic properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deák, Katalin

    2008-01-01

    Physico-chemical profiling is a fundamental tool at the early stage of drug discovery in screening drug-like candidates. Complex physico-chemical profiling, including molecular properties such as solubility, ionization, lipophilicity and permeability, has been found to be of predictive power in ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination). In the present thesis work, the physico-chemical properties of centrally acting compounds were investigated. We determined the protonation constants (K), the partition coeffitient in octanol/water (Poct) and cyclohexane/water (Pch) systems of antidepressive sertraline and 15 antipsychotic piperidine and piperazine derivatives and calculated the delta logP (logPoct-logPch) values of the molecules. Due to the poor water solubility of the compounds potentiometry using the "co-solvent" technique was applied for the determination of the protonation constants. The logP values were measured by the dual-phase potentiometric titration in octanol/water system and the traditional shake-flask method was used in cyclohexane/water system. Highly precise physico-chemical data were obtained by these validated methods. The relationship between the structure of the molecules and the physico-chemical data was investigated. The pharmacokinetic properties of the compounds were predicted by the physico-chemical parameters. Linear relationship has been found between the brain penetration characterized by the logBB values and the delta logP values. The validity of the equation was controlled by the delta logP and the logBB values of sertraline. PMID:18986088

  18. Physicochemical properties of alloys of PbTe-Fe2Te3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicochemical and some electric properties of PbTe-Fe2Te3 cut alloys are investigated. State diagram for this system where at 1145 K PbFe2Te4 new ternary compound is formed, is plotted. Temperature dependences of electric parameters have shown that PbFe2Te4 compound is semiconductor with conductivity of electron type

  19. Interactions of skin thickness and physicochemical properties of test compounds in percutaneous penetration studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, S.C.; Maas, W.J.M.; Nielsen, J.B.; Greaves, L.C.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Williams, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effect of skin thickness on the percutaneous penetration and distribution of test compounds with varying physicochemical properties using in vitro systems. Studies were carried out in accordance with OECD guidelines on skin absorption tests. Methods: Percutaneous penetra

  20. Surface of Lactic Acid Bacteria: Relationships between Chemical Composition and Physicochemical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Boonaert, C J; Rouxhet, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The surface chemical composition and physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity and zeta potential) of two lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetilactis and Lactobacillus helveticus, have been investigated using cells harvested in exponential or stationary growth phase. The surface composition determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was converted into a molecular composition in terms of proteins, polysaccharides, and hydrocarbonlike compounds. The conce...

  1. Influence of electron beam irradiation on physicochemical properties of poly(trimethylene carbonate)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jozwiakowska, Joanna; Wach, Radoslaw A.; Rokita, Bozena; Ulanski, Piotr; Nalawade, Sameer P.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Feijen, Jan; Rosiak, Janusz M.

    2011-01-01

    Electron beam (EB) irradiation of poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC), an amorphous, biodegradable polymer used in the field of biomaterials, results in predominant cross-linking and finally in the formation of gel fraction, thus enabling modification of physicochemical properties of this material w

  2. Physico-Chemical and Structural Properties of DeNOx and SO2 Oxidation Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masters, Stephen Grenville; Oehlers, Cord; Nielsen, Kurt;

    1996-01-01

    Commercial catalysts for NOx removal and SO2 oxidation and their model systems have been investigated by spectroscopic, thermal, electrochemical and X-ray methods. Structural information on the vanadium complexes and compounds as well as physico-chemical properties for catalyst model systems have...... been obtained. The results are discussed in relation to proposed reaction mechanisms....

  3. Organic complexed superphosphates (CSP): physicochemical characterization and agronomical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erro, Javier; Urrutia, Oscar; Baigorri, Roberto; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro; Irigoyen, Ignacio; Storino, Francesco; Torino, Francesco; Mandado, Marcos; Yvin, Jean Claude; Garcia-Mina, Jose M

    2012-02-29

    A new type of superphosphate (organic complexed superphosphate (CSP)) has been developed by the introduction of organic chelating agents, preferably a humic acid (HA), into the chemical reaction of single superphosphate (SSP) production. This modification yielded a product containing monocalcium phosphate complexed by the chelating organic agent through Ca bridges. Theoretically, the presence of these monocalcium-phosphate-humic complexes (MPHC) inhibits phosphate fixation in soil, thus increasing P fertilizer efficiency. This study investigateed the structural and functional features of CSP fertilizers produced employing diverse HA with different structural features. To this end were used complementary analytical techniques: solid-phase ³¹P NMR, ¹³C NMR, laser-confocal microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and molecular modeling. Finally, the agronomical efficiency of four CSP have been compared with that of SSP as P sources for wheat plants grown in both alkaline and acidic soils in greenhouse pot trials under controlled conditions. The results obtained from the diverse analytical studies showed the formation of MPHC in CSP. Plant-soil studies showed that CSP products were more efficient than SSP in providing available phosphate for wheat plants cultivated in various soils with different physicochemical features. This fact is probably associated with the ability of CSP complexes to inhibit phosphate fixation in soil. PMID:22300509

  4. Improving protein fold recognition and structural class prediction accuracies using physicochemical properties of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raicar, Gaurav; Saini, Harsh; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Lal, Sunil; Sharma, Alok

    2016-08-01

    Predicting the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of a protein is an important task in the field of bioinformatics and biological sciences. However, directly predicting the 3-D structure from the primary structure is hard to achieve. Therefore, predicting the fold or structural class of a protein sequence is generally used as an intermediate step in determining the protein's 3-D structure. For protein fold recognition (PFR) and structural class prediction (SCP), two steps are required - feature extraction step and classification step. Feature extraction techniques generally utilize syntactical-based information, evolutionary-based information and physicochemical-based information to extract features. In this study, we explore the importance of utilizing the physicochemical properties of amino acids for improving PFR and SCP accuracies. For this, we propose a Forward Consecutive Search (FCS) scheme which aims to strategically select physicochemical attributes that will supplement the existing feature extraction techniques for PFR and SCP. An exhaustive search is conducted on all the existing 544 physicochemical attributes using the proposed FCS scheme and a subset of physicochemical attributes is identified. Features extracted from these selected attributes are then combined with existing syntactical-based and evolutionary-based features, to show an improvement in the recognition and prediction performance on benchmark datasets. PMID:27164998

  5. Effect of cream fermentation on microbiological, physicochemical and rheological properties of L. helveticus-butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewe, Joo-Ann; Loo, Su-Yi

    2016-06-15

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and rheological properties of butter produced by Lactobacillus helveticus fermented cream. The incorporation of putative probiotic - the L. helveticus, to ferment cream prior to butter production was anticipated to alter the nutritional composition of butter. Changes in crude macronutrients and the resultant modification relating to textural properties of butter induced upon metabolic activities of L. helveticus in cream were focused in this research. Fermented butter (LH-butter) was produced by churning the cream that was fermented by lactobacilli at 37 °C for 24 h. Physicochemical analysis, proximate analysis and rheology properties of LH-butter were compared with butter produced using unfermented cream (control). LH-butter showed a significantly (Pproduct softer. Its enrichment with probiotics could thus further enhance its functional property. PMID:26868544

  6. Effect of Microwave Irradiation on the Physicochemical and Digestive Properties of Lotus Seed Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shaoxiao; Chen, Bingyan; Zeng, Hongliang; Guo, Zebin; Lu, Xu; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-03-30

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of microwave irradiation on the physicochemical and digestive properties of lotus seed starch. The physicochemical properties of lotus seed starch were characterized by light microscopy, (1)H NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, and HPSEC-MALLS-RI. The starch-water interaction and crystalline region increased due to the changed water distribution of starch granules and the increase of the double-helix structure. The swelling power, amylose leaching, molecular properties, and radius of gyration reduced with the increasing microwave power, which further affected the sensitivity of lotus seed starch to enzymatic degradation. Furthermore, the resistant starch and slowly digestible starch increased with the increasing microwave irradiation, which further resulted in their decreasing hydrolysis index and glycemic index. The digestive properties of lotus seed starch were mainly influenced by the reduced branching degree of amylopectin and the strong amylose-amylose interaction. PMID:26912092

  7. Characterization of Genotoxic Response to 15 Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes with Variable Physicochemical Properties Including Surface Functionalizations in the FE1-Muta(TM) Mouse Lung Epithelial Cell Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Kling, Kirsten; Jensen, Keld Alstrup;

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes vary greatly in physicochemical properties. We compared cytotoxic and genotoxic response to 15 multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with varying physicochemical properties to identify drivers of toxic responses. The studied MWCNT included OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanoma...

  8. Green solvents from glycerol. Synthesis and physico-chemical properties of alkyl glycerol ethers

    OpenAIRE

    García, José I.; García-Marín, Héctor; Mayoral, José A.; Pérez, Pascual

    2010-01-01

    A family of glycerol derivatives, consisting of over sixty 1,3-dialkoxy-2-propanols and 1,2,3-trialkoxypropanes, both symmetrically and unsymmetrically substituted at terminal positions, have been synthesized and the possible role of these glycerol derivatives as substitutive solvents has been evaluated through measurements of their physico-chemical properties. The molecular diversity of the derivatives prepared results in significant variations of polarity properties, facilitating the identi...

  9. Effect of Various Polymers Concentrations on Physicochemical Properties of Floating Microspheres

    OpenAIRE

    Jagtap, Y. M.; Bhujbal, R. K.; Ranade, A. N.; Ranpise, N. S.

    2012-01-01

    Floating microspheres have emerged as a potential candidate for gastroretentive drug delivery system. For developing a desired intragastric floatation system employing these microspheres, it is necessary to select an appropriate balance between buoyancy and drug releasing rate. These properties mainly depend on the polymers used in the formulation of the microspheres. Hence it is necessory to study the effect of these polymer concentrations on the various physicochemical properties of the mic...

  10. Effect of saccharose substitutes on physicochemical and sensory properties of sour cherries in starch gel

    OpenAIRE

    Sławomir Pietrzyk; Teresa Fortuna; Irena Bojdo-Tomasiak; Dawid Płaczek

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the effect of saccharose substitutes on physicochemical and sensory properties of sour cherries in starch gel. Sour cherries in starch gel were produced with saccharose and its substitutes (maltitol, sucralose, trehalose). The sour cherries in gel were examined for pH, active total acidity, total soluble solids content, water activity. and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*). Moreover, rheological and textural properties (flow curves, back extrusion test) and sensory quality...

  11. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of japonica Rice Varied with Production Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-yu; LIN Zhao-miao; LIU Zheng-hui; Md A Alim; BI Jun-guo; LI Gang-hua; WANG Qiang-sheng; WANG Shao-hua; DING Yan-feng

    2013-01-01

    Northeast of China and Jiangsu Province are major production areas of japonica rice in China. Rice from northeast of China is well-known for its good-eating and appearance quality, and that from Jiangsu Province is viewed as inferior. However, little is known concerning the difference in physicochemical and sensory properties of rice between the major two production areas. Analysis of 16 commercial rice samples showed marked differences in physicochemical properties, including chalky grain rate, contents of amylose and protein and pasting properties between the two main areas. Northeastern rice contained more short-chain amylopectin as compared with Jiangsu rice. However, Jiangsu rice is comparable to northeastern rice in terms of sensory quality including overall acceptability and textural properties of springiness, stickiness and hardness as evaluated by trained panel. Our results indicated the limitation of conventional index of physicochemical properties, and suggested the necessity of identiifcation of new factors controlling rice sensory property. In addition, the taste analyzer from Japan demonstrates limitation in distinguishing the differences between northeastern and Jiangsu rice, and therefore needs localization to ift China.

  12. Honey physicochemical properties of three species of the brazilian Melipona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena G.A. Lage

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical analyses were carried out to evaluate 27 samples of honeys from three species of the Brazilian genus Melipona (M. capixaba, M. rufiventris and M. mondury from Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais States. The parameters water activity (Aw, percentage of soluble solids (Brix %, pH, acidity (meq/Kg and moisture (% were evaluated. The honey characteristics obtained from these samples were very similar to the ones from other Melipona species. However, regarding the honey from Apis (honey bee, only the pH values were similar. The low pH value and the high acidity detected in Melipona honey are potential factors for increasing the honey shelf life because they do not provide favorable conditions for the microbial development. On the other hand, the high level of water activity favors the growth of microorganisms, especially yeast, which demands a more careful handled and storage. The observed differences between Melipona and Apis honey reinforce the need for specific quality settings for stingless bee honey.Análises fisico-quimicas foram realizadas para avaliar vinte e sete amostras de mel de três espécies do gênero Melipona (M. capixaba, M. rufiventris e M. mondury coletadas nos Estados do Espírito Santo e de Minas Gerais. Os parâmetros atividade de água (aW, porcentagem de sólidos solúveis (Brix %, pH, acidez (meq.Kg-1 e umidade (% foram avaliados. As características do mel dessas amostras foram muito similares às do mel de outras espécies de Melipona. Entretanto, para o mel de Apis apenas os valores de pH foram similares. O baixo valor de pH e a elevada acidez detectados no mel de Melipona são fatores potenciais para uma maior vida útil do mesmo por não oferecerem condições favoráveis ao desenvolvimento microbiano. Por outro lado, o alto teor de atividade de água favorece o crescimento de microrganismos, especialmente de leveduras o que requer maior cuidado no manuseio e armazenamento do mel. As diferenças observadas

  13. Serum Albumin-Alginate Microparticles Prepared by Transacylation: Relationship between Physicochemical, Structural and Functional Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadef, Imane; Rogé, Barbara; Edwards-Lévy, Florence

    2015-08-10

    Our laboratory develops a method of microencapsulation using a transacylation reaction in a water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion. The method is based on the creation of amide bonds between free amine functions of a protein (human serum albumin (HSA)) and ester groups of propylene glycol alginate (PGA) in the inner aqueous phase after alkalization. The aim of this work is to study the influence of physicochemical properties of HSA-PGA mixtures on microparticle characteristics. Microparticles were prepared varying the concentrations of PGA and HSA, then characterized (inner structure, size, swelling rate, release kinetics). PGA and each polymer mixture used in the microencapsulation procedure were examined in order to elucidate the mechanism of microstructure formation. It was found that the morphology and functional properties of HSA-alginate microparticles were related to the two polymer concentrations in the aqueous solution. Actually, the polymer concentration variations led to physicochemical changes, which affected the microparticle structure and functional properties. PMID:26121308

  14. Physicochemical and bitterness properties of enzymatic pea protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humiski, L M; Aluko, R E

    2007-10-01

    The effects of different proteolytic treatments on the physiochemical and bitterness properties of pea protein hydrolysates were investigated. A commercial pea protein isolate was digested using each of 5 different proteases to produce protein hydrolysates with varying properties. After 4 h of enzyme digestion, samples were clarified by centrifugation followed by desalting of the supernatant with a 1000 Da membrane; the retentates were then freeze-dried. Alcalase and Flavourzymetrade mark produced protein hydrolysates with significantly higher (P pea protein hydrolysates because of the low bitterness scores combined with a high level of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and moderate free radical scavenging activity. PMID:17995627

  15. Pharmacopoeial and physicochemical properties of α-cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose powders derived from cornstalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuemeka P Azubuike

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suitable α-cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose powders for use in the pharmaceutical industry can be derived from agricultural wastes. Aims: The pharmacopoeial and physicochemical properties of cornstalk α-cellulose (CCC and cornstalk microcrystalline cellulose powders (MCCC were compared to a commercial brand of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH101 to evaluate their usefulness as pharmaceutical excipients. Settings and Design: Physicochemical properties of an excipient play a very crucial role in the functions of the excipient; hence, these properties were evaluated and compared with a commercial brand. Materials and Methods: α-cellulose was extracted from cornstalks. Modification of this α-cellulose powder was carried out by its partial hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid (HCl to obtain a microcrystalline cellulose powder. Their pharmacopoeial, physicochemical and microbiological properties were evaluated using standard methods. Statistical Analysis: OriginPro 8 SR2 v. 0891 (B891 software (OriginLab Corporation USA was used for statistical evaluation. One-way analysis of variance was used to differentiate between samples and decide where significant differences were established. Results: The yield of α-cellulose from the cornstalks was 32.5%w/w and that of microcrystalline cellulose 26%w/w. All the cellulose samples met all the pharmacopoeial parameters that were carried out. The comparison of physicochemical properties of the CCC, MCCC and Avicel PH101 suggests that the microcrystalline celluloses might have better flow and compression properties than the CCC sample. The three cellulose powders were of high microbial excipient quality. For almost all parameters evaluated, it was generally observed that the MCCC has similar characteristics to Avicel PH101. Conclusions: MCCC can be a suitable alternative to the expensive Avicel PH101as pharmaceutical excipients.

  16. Physico-chemical properties and cytotoxic effects of sugar-based surfactants: Impact of structural variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Biao; Vayssade, Muriel; Miao, Yong; Chagnault, Vincent; Grand, Eric; Wadouachi, Anne; Postel, Denis; Drelich, Audrey; Egles, Christophe; Pezron, Isabelle

    2016-09-01

    Surfactants derived from the biorefinery process can present interesting surface-active properties, low cytotoxicity, high biocompatibility and biodegradability. They are therefore considered as potential sustainable substitutes to currently used petroleum-based surfactants. To better understand and anticipate their performances, structure-property relationships need to be carefully investigated. For this reason, we applied a multidisciplinary approach to systematically explore the effect of subtle structural variations on both physico-chemical properties and biological effects. Four sugar-based surfactants, each with an eight carbon alkyl chain bound to a glucose or maltose head group by an amide linkage, were synthesized and evaluated together along with two commercially available standard surfactants. Physico-chemical properties including solubility, Krafft point, surface-tension lowering and critical micellar concentration (CMC) in water and biological medium were explored. Cytotoxicity evaluation by measuring proliferation index and metabolic activity against dermal fibroblasts showed that all surfactants studied may induce cell death at low concentrations (below their CMC). Results revealed significant differences in both physico-chemical properties and cytotoxic effects depending on molecule structural features, such as the position of the linkage on the sugar head-group, or the orientation of the amide linkage. Furthermore, the cytotoxic response increased with the reduction of surfactant CMC. This study underscores the relevance of a methodical and multidisciplinary approach that enables the consideration of surfactant solution properties when applied to biological materials. Overall, our results will contribute to a better understanding of the concomitant impact of surfactant structure at physico-chemical and biological levels. PMID:27137806

  17. Physicochemical Properties of Menthol-Based Imidazolium Ionic Liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andresová, Adéla

    Prague : Institute of Chemical Process Fundamental of the CAS, v. v. i, 2015 - (Bendová, M.; Wagner, Z.), s. 14-15 ISBN 978-80-86186-70-2. [Bažant Postgraduate Conference 2015. Prague (CZ)] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : thermodynamic properties * imidazolium ionoc liquids * excess molar volumes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  18. Blending ionic liquids: how physico-chemical properties change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglione, Franca; Raos, Guido; Appetecchi, Giovanni Battista; Montanino, Maria; Passerini, Stefano; Moreno, Margherita; Famulari, Antonino; Mele, Andrea

    2010-02-28

    Ionic liquids offer the opportunity of tailoring their properties by changing the chemical structure of the cation and anion. Blending of two or more liquids adds a further dimension to this "chemical space". Here we present the results of a study of three binary and one ternary mixture of the ionic liquids formed by the N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium cation with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide, bis(pentafluoroethanesulfonyl) imide and (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)(nonafluorobutanesulfonyl) imide. We have collected viscosity and NMR-based data on ionxion correlations (NOE) and diffusion (DOSY). We also attempt to establish a quantitative correlation between mixture and the corresponding pure liquid properties. We find that the binary mixture containing the two very different anions has an intriguing and somewhat anomalous behaviour. PMID:20145843

  19. Photoluminescent carbon nanodots: synthesis, physicochemical properties and analytical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathik Roy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanodots (C-dots possessing photoluminescence (PL properties have become interesting materials for sensing and imaging, with the advantages of water-dispersibility, biocompatibility, chemical and photo stability. They can be prepared from organic matter such as tea, grass, coffee, and small organic molecules like glycine and glucose through hydrothermal routes. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of C-dots along with their optical (absorption, PL, upconverted PL properties and analytical applications. Having bright PL, biocompatibility, chemical and photo stability, as well as low toxicity, C-dots have been used for the detection of metal ions and for cell imaging. C-dots prepared from organic matter such as used tea and ginger possess a great inhibitory effect on the growth of cancer cells, showing their excellent potential as new drugs.

  20. Some Aspects of Physicochemical Properties of DNA and RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Sandipta

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is based on nine research publications (I – IX) on structure and reactivity of RNA vis-à-vis DNA. The DNA and RNA are made of flexible pentose sugar units, polyelectrolytic phosphodiester backbone, and heterocyclic nucleobases. DNA stores our genetic code, whereas RNA is involved both in protein biosynthesis and catalysis. Various ligand-binding and recognition properties of DNA/RNA are mediated through inter- and intra-molecular H-bonding and stacking interactions, beside hydrati...

  1. Some physicochemical and optical properties of Schungite I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyukkiev, E.F.; Punka, A.P.; Tupolev, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    The hydrophilic, acidic, and optical properties of the surface of schungite I (Shunga deposit, KASSR) with a carbon content of about 88% have been investigated. The contact angle of wetting by water and the degree of oxidation of the surface have been determined, and the nature of the active centers has been revealed. The reflection and absorption spectra in the UV, visible, and IR regions and the optical parameters are similar to those of highly metamorphosed coals.

  2. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista; Masiello, Caroline A; Dugan, Brandon; Toselli, Moreno

    2016-09-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30tha(-1). We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρs) and envelope (ρe) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0-5nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over short (~years) timescales. PMID

  3. Effects of Lipids and Emulsifiers on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Cosmetic Emulsions Containing Vitamin E

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Montenegro; Lucia Rapisarda; Carmen Ministeri; Giovanni Puglisi

    2015-01-01

    Sensory properties are fundamental in determining the success of a cosmetic product. In this work, we assessed the influence of different oils and emulsifiers on the physicochemical and sensory properties of anti-ageing cosmetic O/W emulsions containing vitamin E acetate as active ingredient. No clear correlation between physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics was evidenced. Sensorial evaluation of these formulations pointed out that the emulsifier systems affected the perceive...

  4. Physicochemical properties of modified citrus pectins extracted from orange pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzon, Simoni Spohr; Canteri, Maria Helene Giovanetti; Granato, Daniel; Junior, Bogdan Demczuk; Maciel, Giselle Maria; Stafussa, Ana Paula; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro

    2015-07-01

    Modified pectin is a polysaccharide rich in galacturonic acid altered by pH adjustment and thermal treatment used especially as an anti-cancer agent. The aim of this work was to study the physical and chemical properties of modified pectins extracted from orange pomace with citric and nitric acids. The galacturonic acid content, degree of esterification, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy profile, molecular weight, intrinsic viscosity, rheological properties and antioxidant activity of the pectins were evaluated. The modification process caused the de-esterification of pectins and a decrease of molecular weight due to removal of neutral sugars, maintaining the linear chain of galacturonic acid. Such changes also caused a significant increase in the in vitro antioxidant activity (p ≤ 0.05) and influenced the rheological properties of pectin, reducing its viscosity. This work showed that the modification of pectin from orange pomace with citric and nitric acids altered its structural and physical characteristics as well as its biological activity toward a free-radical. PMID:26139875

  5. Shreddability of pizza Mozzarella cheese predicted using physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2014-07-01

    This study used rheological techniques such as uniaxial compression, wire cutting, and dynamic oscillatory shear to probe the physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheeses. Predictive models were built using compositional and textural descriptors to predict cheese shreddability. Experimental cheeses were made using milk with (0.25% wt/wt) or without denatured whey protein and renneted at pH 6.5 or 6.4. The cheeses were aged for 8, 22, or 36 d and then tested at 4, 13, or 22°C for textural attributes using 11 descriptors. Adding denatured whey protein and reducing the milk renneting pH strongly affected cheese mechanical properties, but these effects were usually dependent on testing temperature. Cheeses were generally weaker as they aged. None of the compositional or rheological descriptors taken alone could predict the shredding behavior of the cheeses. Using the stepwise method, an objective selection of a few (cheese to the shredding blade (R(2)=0.45). The principal component analysis markedly contrasted the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade with other shredding properties such as the production of fines or long shreds. The predictive models and principal component analysis can help manufacturers select relevant descriptors for the development of cheese with optimal mechanical behavior under shredding conditions. PMID:24792787

  6. Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobicpiperidinium and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kumar, R. Anand; Lee,Jong-Min; Kerr, John; Newman, John; Prausnitz, John M.

    2007-06-25

    Some properties are reported for hydrophobic ionic liquids (IL) containing 1-methyl-1-propyl pyrrolidinium [MPPyrro]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-butyl pyrrolidinium [MBPyrro]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-propyl piperidinium [MPPip]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-butyl piperidinium [MBPip]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-octylpyrrolidinium [MOPyrro]{sup +} and 1-methyl-1-octylpiperidinium [MOPip]{sup +} cations. These liquids provide new alternatives to pyridinium and imidazolium ILs. High thermal stability of an ionic liquid increases safety in applications like rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and other electrochemical devices. Thermal properties, ionic conductivities, viscosities, and mutual solubilities with water are reported. In addition, toxicities of selected ionic liquids have been measured using a human cancer cell-line. The ILs studied here are sparingly soluble in water but hygroscopic. We show some structure-property relationships that may help to design green solvents for specific applications. While ionic liquids are claimed to be environmentally-benign solvents, as yet few data have been published to support these claims.

  7. Effects of Lipids and Emulsifiers on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Cosmetic Emulsions Containing Vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Montenegro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensory properties are fundamental in determining the success of a cosmetic product. In this work, we assessed the influence of different oils and emulsifiers on the physicochemical and sensory properties of anti-ageing cosmetic O/W emulsions containing vitamin E acetate as active ingredient. No clear correlation between physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics was evidenced. Sensorial evaluation of these formulations pointed out that the emulsifier systems affected the perceived oiliness and absorbency during application of the product, thus influencing its acceptance. These results suggest the need for more detailed studies on the physicochemical factors involved in determining the consumers’ acceptance.

  8. Rational engineering of physicochemical properties of nanomaterials for biomedical applications with nanotoxicological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navya, P. N.; Daima, Hemant Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Innovative engineered nanomaterials are at the leading edge of rapidly emerging fields of nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. Meticulous synthesis, unique physicochemical properties, manifestation of chemical or biological moieties on the surface of materials make engineered nanostructures suitable for a variety of biomedical applications. Besides, tailored nanomaterials exhibit entirely novel therapeutic applications with better functionality, sensitivity, efficiency and specificity due to their customized unique physicochemical and surface properties. Additionally, such designer made nanomaterials has potential to generate series of interactions with various biological entities including DNA, proteins, membranes, cells and organelles at nano-bio interface. These nano-bio interactions are driven by colloidal forces and predominantly depend on the dynamic physicochemical and surface properties of nanomaterials. Nevertheless, recent development and atomic scale tailoring of various physical, chemical and surface properties of nanomaterials is promising to dictate their interaction in anticipated manner with biological entities for biomedical applications. As a result, rationally designed nanomaterials are in extensive demand for bio-molecular detection and diagnostics, therapeutics, drug and gene delivery, fluorescent labelling, tissue engineering, biochemical sensing and other pharmaceuticals applications. However, toxicity and risk associated with engineered nanomaterials is rather unclear or not well understood; which is gaining considerable attention and the field of nanotoxicology is evolving promptly. Therefore, this review explores current knowledge of articulate engineering of nanomaterials for biomedical applications with special attention on potential toxicological perspectives.

  9. Physicochemical properties of low viscous lactam based ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Remarkably low viscosities of butyrolactam acetate and caprolactam acetate: experimental values (symbols) and VTF equation fitting (solid lines). - Highlights: • Caprolactam and butyrolactam based novel six ionic liquids have been synthesized. • Density, viscosity and speed of sound of lactam based ionic liquids have been measured. • Remarkably low viscosity has been observed for studied lactum based ionic liquids. • Effects of alkyl chain length on anion, geometry of cation and temperature upon studied properties have been discussed. - Abstract: Lactam based ionic liquids were synthesized by an atom economization process between a lactam such as caprolactam or butyrolactam with a Brønsted acid such as formic acid, acetic acid or hexanoic acid. The density, speed of sound and viscosity were measured at atmospheric pressure and as a function of temperature from T = (293.15 to 333.15) K. The experimental density and viscosity values were fitted with linear and Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher (VTF) equations, respectively and found to be fitting well within the experimental error. Thermodynamically important derived properties such as the coefficient of thermal expansion (α) and isentropic compressibility (βs) were calculated from the experimental density and speed of sound values. Lattice potential energy (UPOT) has been calculated to understand the strength of ionic interaction between the ions and the standard entropy (So) has been estimated to assess the disorder within the fluids. The remarkably low values of viscosity of ionic liquids studied are discussed on the basis of activation energy estimated from the Arrhenius equation. Furthermore, the effect of alkyl chain length on the anion, geometry of the cation and temperature has been analysed for the properties studied

  10. Interfacial antiwear and physicochemical properties of alkylborate-dithiophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faiz Ullah; Glavatskih, Sergei; Höglund, Erik; Lindberg, Mats; Antzutkin, Oleg N

    2011-04-01

    Boron compounds have become of interest in tribology because of their unique tribochemical and tribological properties. At the same time, dialkyldithiophosphates (DTPs) of transition metals have been extensively used as multifunctional additives in lubricants to control friction and reduce wear in mechanical systems. Because of the environmental pollution and health hazards of these compounds, ashless compounds with reduced amounts of sulfur and phosphorus are desirable. This work reports on the synthesis, characterization, and tribological properties of a new class of compounds, alkylborate-dithiophosphates. This class combines two high-iron-affinity surface active groups, borate and dialkyldithiophosphate, into a single molecule. The final products, viscous liquids, were characterized by FT-IR, multinuclear (1)H, (13)C, (31)P, and (11)B NMR spectroscopy and thermal analyses. Residues of one representative compound from this class, DPB-EDTP, after thermal analyses were additionally characterized by multinuclear (13)C, (31)P and (11)B MAS and (31)P CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy. Solid-state NMR data suggest that a dominant part of the solid residue of DPB-EDTP consists of borophosphates. Antiwear and friction properties of a mineral oil with these novel additives were evaluated in a four-ball tribometer in comparison with O,O'-di-n-butyl-dithiophosphato-zinc(II), Zn-BuDTP, as a reference lubricant additive. The surface morphology and the elemental composition of the tribofilms were characterized using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-rays spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The results show that alkylborate-dithiophosphates, with substantially reduced amounts of sulfur and phosphorus compared with Zn-BuDTP, have considerably better antiwear and friction performance. PMID:21381776

  11. Physico-chemical Properties of Marine Phospholipid Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.;

    2012-01-01

    study was to investigate the emulsifying properties of various commercial marine PL and the feasibility of using them to prepare stable emulsions prepared with or without addition of fish oil. In addition, this study also investigated the relationship between chemical composition of marine PL and the...... stability of their emulsions. Physical stability was investigated through particle size distribution (PSD), zeta potential, microscopy inspection and emulsion separation (ES); while the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of emulsions were investigated through peroxide value (PV) and free fatty acids value...

  12. Physicochemical properties analysis and size distribution research of microstickies in whitewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Wei Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Microstickies in whitewater have caused serious deterioration of paper quality and low efficiency of paper machine runnability. To solve this problem it is necessary to master the characteristics of various aspects of microstickies. In this study, the physicochemical properties and size distribution of microstickies in whitewater of three typical kinds of waste papers, old newspaper (ONP, old book paper (OBP, and mixed office wastepaper (MOW, were investigated by conventional methods and a modified Flow Cytometry Method (FCM. The results showed that white water microstickies in different kinds of waste paper have different characteristics. This is a premise for analyzing stickies problems. Furthermore, in a certain kind of waste paper, the physicochemical properties and the direct determination of size and number of microstickies particle in whitewater can be combined together and taken as a whole to account for more phenomena or deduce more mechanisms, such as agglomeration and deposition, etc.

  13. Effect of crosslinking on the physico-chemical properties of radiation grafted PEM fuel cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of crosslinking on the physico-chemical properties of radiation grafted proton conducting membranes (PFA-g-PSSA) was investigated. The membranes were prepared by radiation induced grafting of styrene/divinylbenzene (DVB) mixtures onto poly (tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluorovinyl either) (PFA) films followed by sulfonation reactions. The variation of DVB content in the grafting mixture was in the range of 1-4 vol %. The equivalent weight, swelling, behavior and the proton conductivity of crosslinked membranes having equal degrees of grafting prepared found to be dependent predominantly on the level of crosslinking. The obtained membranes were found to posses a good combination of physico-chemical properties that is matching the commercial Nation 117 membranes

  14. Fluorine Scanning by Nonselective Fluorination: Enhancing Raf/MEK Inhibition while Keeping Physicochemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyohdoh, Ikumi; Furuichi, Noriyuki; Aoki, Toshihiro; Itezono, Yoshiko; Shirai, Haruyoshi; Ozawa, Sawako; Watanabe, Fumio; Matsushita, Masayuki; Sakaitani, Masahiro; Ho, Pil-Su; Takanashi, Kenji; Harada, Naoki; Tomii, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kiyoshi; Ori, Kazutomo; Tabo, Mitsuyasu; Aoki, Yuko; Shimma, Nobuo; Iikura, Hitoshi

    2013-11-14

    A facile methodology effective in obtaining a set of compounds monofluorinated at various positions (fluorine scan) by chemical synthesis is reported. Direct and nonselective fluorination reactions of our lead compound 1a and key intermediate 2a worked efficiently to afford a total of six monofluorinated derivatives. All of the derivatives kept their physicochemical properties compared with the lead 1a and one of them had enhanced Raf/MEK inhibitory activity. Keeping physicochemical properties could be considered a benefit of monofluorinated derivatives compared with chlorinated derivatives, iodinated derivatives, methylated derivatives, etc. This key finding led to the identification of compound 14d, which had potent tumor growth inhibition in a xenograft model, excellent PK profiles in three animal species, and no critical toxicity. PMID:24900605

  15. Replication of simulated prebiotic amphiphile vesicles controlled by experimental lipid physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new embodiment of the graded autocatalysis replication domain (GARD) for the growth, replication and evolution of lipid vesicles based on a semi-empirical foundation using experimentally measured kinetic values of selected extant lipid species. Extensive simulations using this formalism elucidated the details of the dependence of the replication and properties of the vesicles on the physicochemical properties and concentrations of the lipids, both in the environment and in the vesicle. As expected, the overall concentration and number of amphiphilic components strongly affect average replication time. Furthermore, variations in acyl chain length and unsaturation of vesicles also influence replication rate, as do the relative concentrations of individual lipid types. Understanding of the dependence of replication rates on physicochemical parameters opens a new direction in the study of prebiotic vesicles and lays the groundwork for future studies involving the competition between lipid vesicles for available amphiphilic monomers

  16. Effect of Potassium Permanganate Nano-Zeolite and Storage Time on Physicochemical Properties of Kiwifruit (Hayward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mirzaee Moghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research, kiwifruits (Hayward were selected in two mass ranges (large and small. They were placed in one-liter glass bottles in the vicinity of the polyethylene sachets containing potassium permanganate nano-zeolite (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 g and were stored in a germinator (5°C temperature and 30% relative humidity. Then, the physicochemical properties of the fruits (soluble solid content, pH, moisture content and fruit firmness and potassium permanganate nano-zeolite color (L, Hue angle, Chroma and E were measured after t 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks of storage. The factorial treatment structure based on completely randomized block design was used for analyzing the obtained data. The results of analysis showed that potassium permanganate nano-zeolite had a significant effect on the measured physicochemical properties, except for the moisture content (P

  17. Irradiated gelatin-potato starch blends: evaluation of physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macromolecular polysaccharides of large chains as starch can interlace with gelatin modifying their mechanical resistance. In this work, biodegradable bovine gelatin-potato starch blends films were developed using glycerol as plasticizer. Three formulations of gelatin/starch proportions (w/w) were used (1:0; 3:1; 1:1) and casting was the chosen method. The dried samples were then submitted to ionizing radiation coming from an electron beam (EB) accelerator with doses of 20 and 40 kGy, at room temperature, in the presence of air. Mechanical properties such as puncture strength and elongation at break were measured. Color measurements, water absorption, moisture, and film solubility were assessed. The results showed that starch addition to films based on gelatin as well as irradiation affected physical and structural properties of the films. Although the increase of starch content in the mixture led to decrease of the puncture force even in samples irradiated with the higher dose, there was a decrease of water absorption of films with the increase of the dose, and also by the higher starch content. Samples irradiated at 20 kGy presented higher moisture and film solubility. The methodology developed in this paper can be applied to other composite systems to establish the best protein:starch ratio, and the contribution of the radiation crosslinking in each specific case. (author)

  18. Irradiated gelatin-potato starch blends: evaluation of physicochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Regis, Wellington; Mastro, Nelida L., E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Macromolecular polysaccharides of large chains as starch can interlace with gelatin modifying their mechanical resistance. In this work, biodegradable bovine gelatin-potato starch blends films were developed using glycerol as plasticizer. Three formulations of gelatin/starch proportions (w/w) were used (1:0; 3:1; 1:1) and casting was the chosen method. The dried samples were then submitted to ionizing radiation coming from an electron beam (EB) accelerator with doses of 20 and 40 kGy, at room temperature, in the presence of air. Mechanical properties such as puncture strength and elongation at break were measured. Color measurements, water absorption, moisture, and film solubility were assessed. The results showed that starch addition to films based on gelatin as well as irradiation affected physical and structural properties of the films. Although the increase of starch content in the mixture led to decrease of the puncture force even in samples irradiated with the higher dose, there was a decrease of water absorption of films with the increase of the dose, and also by the higher starch content. Samples irradiated at 20 kGy presented higher moisture and film solubility. The methodology developed in this paper can be applied to other composite systems to establish the best protein:starch ratio, and the contribution of the radiation crosslinking in each specific case. (author)

  19. Maltodextrins from chemically modified starches. Selected physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pycia, Karolina; Juszczak, Lesław; Gałkowska, Dorota; Witczak, Mariusz; Jaworska, Grażyna

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of chemical modification of starch (cross-linking and/or stabilisation) on selected rheological and functional properties of maltodextrins of dextrose equivalent of 6, 11 and 16. It was found that values of glass transition temperatures were decreasing with dextrose equivalent of maltodextrin. The highest values of glass transition temperature (TG) were determined for maltodextrin of DE 6-obtained from distarch phosphate and acetylated distarch phosphate. Increase in DE value of maltodextrin was also accompanied by decrease and increase in values of intrinsic viscosity and the critical concentration, respectively; however, there was no significant effect of kind of chemical modification of starch on the values of these parameters. Maltodextrin solutions at concentrations of from 10 to 70 % exhibited Newtonian flow behaviour. In the case of 50% solutions of maltodextrins of DE 6 the highest viscosity was produced by maltodextrin from native potato starch, while the lowest one by maltodextrin from acetylated starch. On the other hand, among the maltodextrin of DE 11 this one produced from acetylated starch showed the highest viscosity. All the maltodextrins exhibited surfactant properties in a water-air system, with the strongest effect observed for maltodextrins produced from double chemically modified starches and from acetylated starch. The surface activity was increasing with increasing of the DE value of maltodextrin. Moreover, values of surface tension were decreasing with increasing in maltodextrin concentration in the system. PMID:27112878

  20. Physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of copaiba oil: implications on product quality control

    OpenAIRE

    Renata G. Fonseca; Francisco M. Barros; Miriam A. Apel; Gilsane L. von Poser; Jo&#o L. Andriolli; Pedro C. Campos Filho; Dhierlate F. Sousa; Ivon P. Lobo; Aline O. Conceiç&#o

    2015-01-01

    Background. The copaiba oil is a common natural product used in cosmetic industry and as a nutraceutical product. However, lack of quality control and scarce knowledge about its antimicrobial activity is a point of concern. The proposal of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties and the antimicrobial activity of five commercial brands of copaiba oil. Material and methods. Acidity and ester index, refractory index, solubility in alcohol, and thin layer chromatography w...

  1. Physico-chemical properties of blends of palm olein with other vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Mobin Siddique, Bazlul; Ahmad, Anees; Hakimi Ibrahim, Mohamad; Hena, Sufia; Rafatullah, Mohd; Omar A. K, Mohd

    2010-01-01

    Palm oil (olein) was blended with other edible oils for the enhancement of its market acceptability in terms of melting point depression and shelf life. The physico-chemical properties like viscosity, density, melting behavior, peroxide value (PV), saponification value (SV) and iodine value (IV) of four different binary blends with four vegetable oils were evaluated. Palm olein was found to be more stable against rancidity than the other oils. For the stability against oxidation and melting p...

  2. Effect of organic mulching on physico-chemical properties of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice straw is used as organic mulch to regulate the hydrothermal regime of the soil. It is also used for moisture conservation, soil temperature moderation and weed suppression. Attempts were made to study the physico-chemical properties of soil through a series of experiments at four different locations of lateritic sandy loam soil of India under straw mulch. It was concluded that rice straw might be used as a nutrient source in crop production and act as mulch-cum manure. (author)

  3. Physicochemical Properties of Defatted Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) Seed Flour after Alkaline Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jirawat Eiamwat; Sorada Wanlapa; Sukit Kampruengdet

    2016-01-01

    Rambutan seeds were subjected to SC-CO2 extraction at 35 MPa, 45 °C to obtain defatted rambutan seed flour. Its physicochemical properties before and after treatment with alakali solution using 0.075 N NaOH were investigated. Alkali-treated flour had a significant increment in bulk density, swelling power, water adsorption capacity, emulsion capacity and stability but a reduction in turbidity, solubility and oil absorption capacity. Pasting measurements showed peak viscosity, breakdown, setba...

  4. Physicochemical properties and enzymatic hydrolysis of different starches in the presence of hydrocolloids

    OpenAIRE

    Arocha Gularte, Marcia; Rosell, Cristina M.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrocolloids are largely used in food processing because of their functional properties, but scarce information is available about the direct impact of different hydrocolloids on the starch digestibility. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different hydrocolloids on the digestibility of corn and potato starch and to establish the possible relationship between physicochemical and in vitro hydrolysis of starch. Hydrocolloids significantly affected the in vitro hydrolysis o...

  5. Morphological and physico-chemical properties of British aquatic habitats potentially exposed to pesticides.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Colin D.; Turner, Nigel; Hollis, John; Bellamy, Patricia H.; Biggs, Jeremy; Williams, Penny; Arnold, Dave; Pepper, Tim; Maund, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Approaches to describe the exposure of non-target aquatic organisms to agricultural pesticides can be limited by insufficient knowledge of the environmental conditions where the compounds are used. This study analysed information from national and regional datasets gathered in the UK describing the morphological and physico-chemical properties of rivers, streams, ponds and ditches. An aggregation approach was adopted, whereby the landscape was divided into 12 hydrogeological classes for agric...

  6. Physicochemical properties, modifications and applications of starches from different botanical sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Carolina Alcázar-Alay; Maria Angela Almeida Meireles

    2015-01-01

    Present trends towards technologies and processes that increase the use of residues make starchy vegetal biomass an important alternative material in various applications due to starch’s versatility, low cost and ease of use when its physicochemical properties are altered. Starch is increasingly used in many industrial applications and as a renewable energy resource. Starch can be modified to enhance its positive attributes and eliminate deficiencies in its native characteristics. In this art...

  7. Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex to Improve Physicochemical Properties of Herbicide Bentazon: Exploring Better Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Yáñez; Paulina Cañete-Rosales; Juan Pablo Castillo; Nicole Catalán; Tomás Undabeytia; Esmeralda Morillo

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of the host-guest complexes using cyclodextrins (CDs) has prompted an increase in the development of new formulations. The capacity of these organic host structures of including guest within their hydrophobic cavities, improves physicochemical properties of the guest. In the case of pesticides, several inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins have been reported. However, in order to explore rationally new pesticide formulations, it is essential to know the effect of cyclodextrins ...

  8. Effect of Packaging and Antioxidant Combinations on Physicochemical Properties of Irradiated Restructured Chicken Rolls

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Dong U. Ahn; Nam, Ki-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Effects of double packaging (combinational use of aerobic and vacuum conditions) and antioxidants on physicochemical properties in irradiated restructured chicken rolls were determined. Chicken breast treated with antioxidants (none, sesamol+a-tocopherol) was used to process restructured chicken breast rolls. The sliced rolls were vacuum, aerobic, or double packaged (vacuum for 7 d then aerobic for 3 d) and electron beam irradiated at 2.5 kGy. Color, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances ...

  9. Effect of electron beam irradiation on physicochemical properties of sago starch

    OpenAIRE

    Duangkhae Kanjanasopa; Zulkafli Ghazali; Sharifah Kharidah Syed Muhammad; Muhammad Ali Hassan; Benchamaporn Pimpa; Kamaruddin Hashim

    2007-01-01

    The effect of electron beam irradiation on sago starch was determined in terms of physicochemical properties. The irradiation dose employed was in the range of 10 to 30 kGy. Peak viscosity was decreasedwhen the irradiation dose was increased. The gel strength was found to be increased when the sago starch was irradiated at 10 to 15 kGy, thereafter, the value was decreased. Solubility was increased while swellingpower was decreased. Redness, yellowness and free acidity were increased. Intrinsi...

  10. Calcium Silicate-Based Cements Associated with Micro- and Nanoparticle Radiopacifiers: Physicochemical Properties and Bioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    BOSSO-MARTELO, Roberta; Juliane Maria GUERREIRO-TANOMARU; Viapiana, Raqueli; Berbert, Fábio Luis Camargo Vilella; Basso Bernardi, Maria Inês; Tanomaru-Filho, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties and bioactivity of two formulations of calcium silicate-based cements containing additives (CSCM) or resin (CSCR), associated with radiopacifying agents zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and niobium oxide (Nb2O5) as micro- and nanoparticles; calcium tungstate (CaWO4); and bismuth oxide (Bi2O3). MTA Angelus was used as control. Methods. Surface features and bioactivity were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and the ch...

  11. Non-covalent interactions and physico-chemical properties of small biological systems : theoretical approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Riffet, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure and physico-chemical properties of biomolecules such as peptides are not only governed by their elementary composition but also various non-covalent intra-and inter-molecular interactions. The characterization, measurement and effects of these interactions are currently at the center of many researches at the interface between biology and physical chemistry. In this context, the aim of our thesis is a better understanding of these interactions in biomolecules a...

  12. Characterization of Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Properties of Biofield Energy Treated Bio Peptone

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Bio peptone is a combination of enzymatic digest of animal tissues and casein; and generally used for the growth of several varieties of microbes. The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of bio peptone. The present study was carried out in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group was kept without treatment, while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy t...

  13. Studies on Physico-Chemical Properties of Rice Bran Wax and its Comparison with Carnauba Wax

    OpenAIRE

    Avish D. Maru; Rajendra K. Surawase; Prashant V. Bodhe

    2012-01-01

    Rice bran wax is a natural vegetable wax and is a value added by product of Rice bran oil refineries. It is hard nontacky wax and contains higher fatty alcohols and esters which make it comparable to Carnauba wax. In the present work, studies are carried out on Rice bran wax for various physico-chemical properties like solubility, melting point, specific gravity, moisture content, saponification value, acid value, ester value, hydroxyl value, unsaponifiable matter, Iodine number etc. The obse...

  14. Evaluation of physicochemical and phytochemical properties of Safoof-E-Sana, a Unani polyherbal formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ajazuddin,; Shailendra Saraf

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although the formulations of the Unani system of medicine are popular, not much scientific work has been reported so far. The present article is an attempt to establish the scientific basis of one of the popular Unani formulations Safoof-ESana, a polyherbal formulation widely used as a laxative. Methods: Investigations were carried out to study the physicochemical and phytochemical properties of Safoof-E-Sana and its active ingredients. Results and Conclusion: The values of percen...

  15. Physicochemical Properties That Enhance Discriminative Antibacterial Activity of Short Dermaseptin Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Rotem, Shahar; Radzishevsky, Inna; Mor, Amram

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are widely believed to exert their effects by nonspecific mechanisms. We assessed the extent to which physicochemical properties can be exploited to promote discriminative activity by manipulating the N-terminal sequence of the 13-mer dermaseptin derivative K4-S4(1-13) (P). Inhibitory activity determined in culture media against 16 strains of bacteria showed that when its hydrophobicity and charge were changed, P became predominantly active against either gram-positive ...

  16. Theophylline Cocrystals Prepared by Spray Drying: Physicochemical Properties and Aerosolization Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Alhalaweh, Amjad; Kaialy, Waseem; Buckton, Graham; Gill, Hardyal; Nokhodchi, Ali; Velaga, Sitaram P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize theophylline (THF) cocrystals prepared by spray drying in terms of the physicochemical properties and inhalation performance when aerosolized from a dry powder inhaler. Cocrystals of theophylline with urea (THF-URE), saccharin (THF-SAC) and nicotinamide (THF-NIC) were prepared by spray drying. Milled THF and THF-SAC cocrystals were also used for comparison. The physical purity, particle size, particle morphology and surface energy of the materials ...

  17. Physicochemical properties of wheat-canna and wheat-konjac composite flours

    OpenAIRE

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Vasiljevic, Todor; Bannikova, Anna; Kasapis, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of composite flours made of wheat from low to high protein contents and canna or konjac at different levels of substitution (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 %) were prepared and analyzed. Compared to that of wheat flour alone, increasing levels of canna inclusions significantly increased the amount of resistant starch (RS) but decreased the protein content of composite flours. This substitution did not alter the total starch (TS), amylase and amylopectin contents of these mi...

  18. Evaluation of physicochemical properties and in-vitro release profile of glipizide-matrix patch

    OpenAIRE

    Kajal Ghosal; Rajan Rajabalaya; Anindya Kishore Maiti; Bikramaditya Chowdhury; Arunabha Nanda

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present investigation was to form matrix patches with ethyl cellulose (EC) as the base polymer, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as the copolymer, plasticizer with dibutyl phthalate (DBP) or acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) and the drug glipizide (gz) by the solvent casting method. Physicochemical properties of the patches and in vitro drug release were determined in a modified Keshary-chien diffusion cell to optimize the patch formulations with the help of experimental da...

  19. New Direct Compression Excipient from Tigernut Starch: Physicochemical and Functional Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Builders, Philip F.; Anwunobi, Patricia A.; Mbah, Chukwuemeka C.; Adikwu, Michael U.

    2013-01-01

    Tigernut starch has been isolated and modified by forced retrogradation of the acidic gel by freezing and thawing processes. Relevant physicochemical and functional properties of the new excipient (tigernut starch modified by acid gelation and accelerated (forced) retrogradation (STAM)) were evaluated as a direct compression excipient in relation to the native tigernut starch (STNA), intermediate product (tigernut starch modified by acid gelation (STA)), and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). ...

  20. Physico-chemical property prediction and environmental fate modelling of N-acylchalcogenourea derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    B Schröder; Martins, M.A.R.; Pinho, Simão; Coutinho, J. A. P.

    2013-01-01

    (Subcooled) vapour pressures, aqueous solubilities, Henry constants, log KOW and log KOC partition constants have been estimated for a set of N-acyl-chalcogenourea derivatives using several prediction methods (COSMO-RS in its COSMOtherm implementation, SPARC as well as EPA’s EPIsuite). The data are discussed in terms of substituent effects: how do subtle changes in the chemical composition influence basic physico-chemical properties and hence, the environmental fate of...

  1. Exploiting the Physicochemical Properties of Dendritic Polymers for Environmental and Biological Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Geitner, Nicholas K.; Sarupria, Sapna; Ke, Pu Chun

    2013-04-07

    In this Perspective we first examine the rich physicochemical properties of dendritic polymers for hosting cations, anions, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. We then extrapolate these conceptual discussions to the use of dendritic polymers for humic acid antifouling, oil dispersion, copper sensing, and fullerenol remediation. In addition, we review the state-of-the-art of dendrimer research and elaborate on their 10 implications for water purification, environmental remediation, nanomedicine, and energy harvesting.

  2. Structure and physico-chemical properties in mixed aqueoussolution of sodium alkylcarboxylate-alkyltrimethylammoniumbromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG, Jian-Bin(黄建滨); ZHAO, Guo-Xi(赵国玺); HE, Xu(何煦); ZHU, Bu-Yao(朱步瑶); FU, Hong-Lan(付宏兰)

    2000-01-01

    The physico-chemical properties of organized assemblies (micelle or vesicle) from sodium alkylcarboxylate-alkyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide mixture have been investigated systematically. In different mixed cationic-anionic surfactant systems, micelles and vesicles can coexist or be transformed into each other on different conditions. The experimental results are explained prelimilarily from the viewpoint of molecular packing geometry. The solubilization of organic compound in the mixed surfactant system was also studied in detail.

  3. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Khalil, Md. Ibrahim; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian monofloral honey samples—acacia, pineapple and borneo honey—and compare them with tualang honey. Acacia and pineapple honey are produced by Apis mellifera bees while borneo and tualang honey are produced by Apis cerana and Apis dorsata bees, respectively. Methods The physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids ...

  4. The physico-chemical properties of spiramycin and clarithromycin / Rodé van Eeden

    OpenAIRE

    Van Eeden, Rodé

    2012-01-01

    In most cases, organic materials exist in the solid phase as polymorphs, solvatomorphs or amorphous forms. Physico-chemical properties in the solid-state are all affected primarily in terms of dissolution, solubility, bioavailability, stability and processability. Therefore investigation into the polymorphic behaviour of APIs has become a mandatory part of drug characterisation studies by pharmaceutical companies (Giron, 2001). The influence polymorphism has on bioavailability ...

  5. Prediction of Substrate-Enzyme-Product Interaction Based on Molecular Descriptors and Physicochemical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Niu; Guohua Huang; Linfeng Zheng; Xueyuan Wang; Fuxue Chen; Yuhui Zhang; Tao Huang

    2013-01-01

    It is important to correctly and efficiently predict the interaction of substrate-enzyme and to predict their product in metabolic pathway. In this work, a novel approach was introduced to encode substrate/product and enzyme molecules with molecular descriptors and physicochemical properties, respectively. Based on this encoding method, KNN was adopted to build the substrate-enzyme-product interaction network. After selecting the optimal features that are able to represent the main factors of...

  6. The physicochemical properties and solubility of pharmaceuticals – Methyl xanthines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Solubility of methyl xanthines in water and alcohols was measured. • Solubility in water, or alcohols was of the order of 10−4 in mole fraction. • Experimental aqueous pKa’s values are reported for the selected drugs. • The basic thermodynamic functions were determined. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the physio-chemical properties and solubility of three pharmaceuticals (Phs): theophylline, 7-(β-hydroxyethyl) theophylline, and theobromine in binary systems in different solvents. The solvents used were water, ethanol, and 1-octanol. Score of the solubility of these substances is being important for their dissolution effect inside the cell, the transportation by body fluids and the penetration possibility of lipid membranes. The Phs were classified to the group of methyl xanthines, which contain purine in their structure. Although they are mainly obtained via chemical synthesis, they can be also found in natural ingredients such as cocoa beans and tea leaves. These drugs are mainly acting on the central nervous system but are also used in the treatment of asthma or blood vessels. Solubility of 7 (β-hydroxyethyl) theophylline and theophylline were tested using synthetic method. In case of theobromine, which solubility is very small in the solvents noted, the spectrophotometric method has been used to measure its solubility. After designating phase diagrams of each of the solubility in the bipolar system, the experimental points have been correlated with the equations: Wilson, NRTL, UNIQUAC. Results show that theophylline and its derivatives show the best solubility from all tested Phs. Another method also used during this study was the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which allowed designation of the thermal properties of Phs. The fusion temperature and the enthalpy of melting were measured. Unfortunately, it was not possible to determine the fusion temperature and enthalpy of melting of theobromine, because of

  7. Physicochemical Properties of Gold Nanostructures Deposited on Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Novotna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of gold films sputtered onto borosilicate glass substrate were studied. UV-Vis absorption spectra were used to investigate optical parameters. XRD analysis provided information about the gold crystalline nanostructure, the texture, and lattice parameter and biaxial tension was also determined by the XRD method. The surface morphology was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM; chemical structure of sputtered gold nanostructures was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS. The gold crystallites are preferentially [111] oriented on the sputtered samples. Gold deposition leads to dramatic changes in the surface morphology in comparison to pristine glass substrate. Oxygen is not incorporated into the gold layer during gold deposition. Experimental data on lattice parameter were also confirmed by theoretical investigations of nanoclusters using tight-binding potentials.

  8. Impacts of radiation processing on physicochemical properties of Table Eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the effect of gamma irradiation on pathogens, quality, and functional properties of shell eggs. Using intact, fresh while and brown shell eggs, inoculated with 109 colony-forming units (cfu) of S enteritidis and S, typhimurium. The effect of gamma-irradiation at doses 2,4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation on bacteriologic and population and physical characteristics (Haugh units and yolk color), chemical composition (moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash), the rheological changes (viscosity), pH and protean solubility of the eggs were determinate d. Results showed that 2 kGy, the number of S, enteritidis and eggs internal quality as freshness as measured by albumen height and the number of hugh units, and yolk color index were all significantly reduced with increasing irradiation doses. On significant change was found after irradiation in egg white or yolk in the chemical composition (moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash). After irradiation, the foaming ability and foam capacity of egg white were increasing radiation doses> The viscosity of egg white and yolk decreased with increasing doses of irradiation. The pH of the egg white and yolk increasing doses of radiation dose. The protein salability decreased significantly in egg white and yolk with increasing radiation dose. These Results Suggest that gamma irradiation reduce the freshness of shell eggs and improving important functional properties such as to foaming ability and foaming capacity. Gamma irradiation can also be applied to the egg breaking process sine irradiation reduces the viscosity of egg white and yolk, which can allow egg whites and yolks to be separated with greater efficiency. (Author)

  9. Sorption of roxarsone onto soils with different physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing-Long; He, Jian-Zhou; Blaney, Lee; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2016-09-01

    Elevated roxarsone (ROX) concentrations in soils, caused by land application of ROX-bearing poultry litter, mandate investigation of ROX sorption onto soils. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of ROX sorption onto five soils were carried out to explore the relationship between sorption parameters and soil properties, and to reveal the effects of coexisting humic acid (HA), P(V), As(V), and As(III) on ROX transport. Experimental results indicated that ROX sorption reached equilibrium within 24 h, with pseudo-second order rate constants of 5.74-5.26 × 10(2) g/(mg h); film and intra-particle diffusion were the rate-limiting processes. ROX sorption to soils involved partitioning and adsorption phenomena; however, their relative contributions varied for different soils. The maximum ROX sorption varied with soil type, ranging from 0.59 to 4.12 mg/g. Results from correlation analysis and multiple linear regressions revealed that the maximum sorption capacities, partition coefficients, and desorption percentages were correlated with soil properties, especially iron content, total organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. ROX sorption to soils was affected more by soil pH than the initial pH of ROX-containing solutions. Carboxylic and amide functional groups were determined to be responsible for ROX sorption to soils. ROX sorption capacities decreased in the presence of HA, P(V), As(V), and As(III), indicating that ROX mobility in soils was facilitated by dissolved organic matter (DOM) and competing anions. PMID:27281543

  10. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of polyhydroxylated diphenyl ethers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fu; Zhang, Xuesheng; Qu, Ruijuan; Shi, Jiaqi; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: • The experimental pK{sub a1} values of five synthesized PHODEs were determined. • The hydrogen bonds existed in PHODEs were investigated. • There exist close relationships between the thermodynamic properties and N{sub PHOS}. • The relative stability order of PHODE congeners was theoretically proposed. - Abstract: Five polyhydroxylated diphenyl ethers (PHODEs) were synthesized. The first ionization constants (pK{sub a1}) of the synthesized compounds and seven phenolic compounds were determined using potentiometric titration experiments, together with the software ACD/Labs pK{sub a} DB program (version 6.0). The compared results showed that the software could be used to predict the pK{sub a1} of all 209 PHODEs. The thermodynamic properties of 209 PHODEs were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311G** level with Gaussian 09 program. The standard enthalpy of formation (Δ{sub f}H{sup θ}) and the standard Gibbs energy of formation (Δ{sub f}G{sup θ}) were obtained. Two types of hydrogen bond were found to exist in the PHODEs’ molecules. The intramolecular hydrogen bond energies were discussed. The relative stability of PHODEs isomers was proposed theoretically with the relative standard Gibbs energy of formation (Δ{sub f}G{sub R}{sup θ}). The relationships of S{sup θ}, Δ{sub f}H{sup θ} and Δ{sub f}G{sup θ} to the number and position of the hydroxyl substitution (N{sub PHOS}) were studied.

  11. Understanding the physicochemical properties of mitragynine, a principal alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa, for preclinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Surash; Parthasarathy, Suhanya; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Magosso, Enrico; Tan, Soo Choon; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

    2015-01-01

    Varied pharmacological responses have been reported for mitragynine in the literature, but no supportive scientific explanations have been given for this. These studies have been undertaken without a sufficient understanding of the physicochemical properties of mitragynine. In this work a UV spectrophotometer approach and HPLC-UV method were employed to ascertain the physicochemical properties of mitragynine. The pKa of mitragynine measured by conventional UV (8.11 ± 0.11) was in agreement with the microplate reader determination (8.08 ± 0.04). Mitragynine is a lipophilic alkaloid, as indicated by a logP value of 1.73. Mitragynine had poor solubility in water and basic media, and conversely in acidic environments, but it is acid labile. In an in vitro dissolution the total drug release was higher for the simulated gastric fluid but was prolonged and incomplete for the simulated intestinal fluid. The hydrophobicity, poor water solubility, high variability of drug release in simulated biological fluids and acid degradable characteristics of mitragynine probably explain the large variability of its pharmacological responses reported in the literature. The determined physicochemical properties of mitragynine will provide a basis for developing a suitable formulation to further improve its solubility, stability and oral absorption for better assessment of this compound in preclinical studies. PMID:25793541

  12. Understanding the Physicochemical Properties of Mitragynine, a Principal Alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa, for Preclinical Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surash Ramanathan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Varied pharmacological responses have been reported for mitragynine in the literature, but no supportive scientific explanations have been given for this. These studies have been undertaken without a sufficient understanding of the physicochemical properties of mitragynine. In this work a UV spectrophotometer approach and HPLC-UV method were employed to ascertain the physicochemical properties of mitragynine. The pKa of mitragynine measured by conventional UV (8.11 ± 0.11 was in agreement with the microplate reader determination (8.08 ± 0.04. Mitragynine is a lipophilic alkaloid, as indicated by a logP value of 1.73. Mitragynine had poor solubility in water and basic media, and conversely in acidic environments, but it is acid labile. In an in vitro dissolution the total drug release was higher for the simulated gastric fluid but was prolonged and incomplete for the simulated intestinal fluid. The hydrophobicity, poor water solubility, high variability of drug release in simulated biological fluids and acid degradable characteristics of mitragynine probably explain the large variability of its pharmacological responses reported in the literature. The determined physicochemical properties of mitragynine will provide a basis for developing a suitable formulation to further improve its solubility, stability and oral absorption for better assessment of this compound in preclinical studies.

  13. Preparation and Physicochemical Properties of Vinblastine Microparticles by Supercritical Antisolvent Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Ma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to prepare vinblastine microparticles by supercritical antisolvent process using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as solvent and carbon dioxide as antisolvent and evaluate its physicochemical properties. The effects of four process variables, pressure, temperature, drug concentration and drug solution flow rate, on drug particle formation during the supercritical antisolvent process, were investigated. Particles with a mean particle size of 121 ± 5.3 nm were obtained under the optimized process conditions (precipitation temperature 60 °C, precipitation pressure 25 MPa, vinblastine concentration 2.50 mg/mL and vinblastine solution flow rate 6.7 mL/min. The vinblastine was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and dissolution test. It was concluded that physicochemical properties of crystalline vinblastine could be improved by physical modification, such as particle size reduction and generation of amorphous state using the supercritical antisolvent process. Furthermore, the supercritical antisolvent process was a powerful methodology for improving the physicochemical properties of vinblastine.

  14. Effect of additives on physicochemical properties in amorphous starch matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Wang, Simon; Ludescher, Richard D

    2015-03-15

    The effect of the addition of non-reducing sugars or methylcellulose on the matrix physical properties and rate of non-enzymatic browning (NBR) between exogenous glucose+lysine in a starch-based glassy matrix were studied, using the methods of luminescence and FTIR. Amorphous starch-based matrices were formulated by rapidly dehydrating potato starch gel mixed with additives at weight ratios of 7:93 (additive:starch). Data on the phosphorescence emission energy and lifetime from erythrosin B dispersed in the matrices indicated that sugars decreased starch matrix mobility in a Tg-dependent manner, except for trehalose that interacted with starch in a unique mode, while methylcellulose, the additive with the highest Tg, increased the molecular mobility. Using FTIR, we found that methylcellulose decreased the strength of hydrogen bond network and sugars enhanced the hydrogen bond strength in the order: trehalose>maltitol>sucrose. Comparing those changes with the rate of NBR between exogenous glucose+lysine, we suggest that NBR rates are primarily influenced by matrix mobility, which is modulated by the hydrogen bond network, and interactions among components. PMID:25308673

  15. Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum: Dilute solution and some physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesarinejad, M A; Razavi, Seyed M A; Koocheki, A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of various temperatures (25-65°C) on some dilute solution properties of Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum (AHSG) as a novel potential source of hydrocolloid. Monosaccharide composition, FTIR analysis and molecular parameters were determined to provide more structural information. The results indicated that AHSG had a low molecular weight (3.66×10(5)Da), medium intrinsic viscosity (18.34dl/g) at 25°C, relatively flexible chain with a chain flexibility parameter of 618.54, and activation energy of 0.51×10(7)J/kgmol. With rise in temperature from 25 to 55°C, the intrinsic viscosity decreased as well as coil radius and volume of AHSG. The shape factor of AHSG macromolecule was spherical at all temperatures. The electrostatic interaction and particle size of AHSG solution were -25.81mV (at neutral pH) and 225.36nm, respectively. The results revealed that AHSG had high total sugar content (85.33%), small amount of uronic acids (5.63%) and it is likely a galactan-type polysaccharide. The FTIR spectra showed that AHSG behaved like a typical polyelectrolyte because of the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. PMID:26277752

  16. Glutarimides: Biological activity, general synthetic methods and physicochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Đorđević Jelena B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutarimides, 2,6-dioxopiperidines are compounds that rarely occur in natural sources, but so far isolated ones exert widespread pharmacological activities, which makes them valuable as potential pharmacotherapeutics. Glutarimides act as androgen receptor antagonists, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytics, antibacterials, and tumor suppressing agents. Some synthetic glutarimide derivatives are already in use as immunosuppressive and sedative (e.g., thalidomide or anxiolytics (buspirone drugs. The wide applicability of this class of compounds, justify the interest of scientists to explore new pathways for its syntheses. General methods for synthesis of six-membered imide ring, are presented in this paper. These methods include: a reaction of dicarboxylic acids with ammonia or primary amine, b reactions of cyclization: amido-acids, diamides, dinitriles, nitrilo-acids, amido-nitriles, amido-esters, amidoacyl-chlorides or diacyl-chlorides, c adition of carbon-monoxide on a,b-unsaturated amides, d oxidation reactions, e Michael adition of active methylen compounds on methacrylamide or conjugated amides. Some of the described methods are used for closing glutarimide ring in syntheses of farmacological active compounds sesbanimide and aldose reductase inhibitors (ARI. Analyses of the geometry, as well as, the spectroscopic analyses (NMR and FT-IR of some glutarimides are presented because of their broad spectrum of pharmacological activity. To elucidate structures of glutarimides, geometrical parameters of newly synthesized tert-pentyl-1-benzyl-4-methyl-glutarimide-3-carboxylate (PBMG are analyzed and compared with the experimental data from X-ray analysis for glutarimide. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surface which is plotted over the optimized geometry to elucidate the reactivity of PBMG molecule is analyzed. The electronic properties of glutarimide derivatives are explained on the example of thalidomide. The Frontier Molecular Orbital

  17. Influence of trehalose 6,6'-diester (TDX) chain length on the physicochemical and immunopotentiating properties of DDA/TDX liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallerup, Rie Selchau; Madsen, Cecilie Maria; Schiøth, Mikkel Lohmann;

    2015-01-01

    Linking physicochemical characterization to functional properties is crucial for defining critical quality attributes during development of subunit vaccines toward optimal safety and efficacy profiles. We investigated how the trehalose 6,6'-diester (TDX) chain length influenced the physicochemical...

  18. Physico-chemical properties of perturbed water: facts and enigmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Elia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The study of extremely diluted and agitated substances and solutions is strictly linked with the analysis of properties of water perturbed using different systems. This study is about the determination of the physical-chemical parameters of water, after the perturbations described. Methods The perturbed water was obtained using the three different protocols: · EDS (Extremely Diluted Solutions. Obtained through an iterative process of successive dilutions and agitations. · IFW (Iteratively Filtered Water. Obtained through an iterative process of successive filtrations through sintered glass filters. · INW (Iteratively Nafionized Water. Obtained through an iterative process of successive drying and wetting of the Nafion polymer. The parameters under study are: electrical conductivity, χ / μS cm-1; heat of mixing with acid (HCl, ΔQmixHCl / J Kg-1 or basic (NaOH solutions, ΔQmixNaOH / J Kg-1 and pH. χ increases of up to two orders of magnitude, ΔQmixNaOH / J Kg-1 is exothermic and increases as the electrical conductivity increases, with a roughly linear trend, up to one order of magnitude. The analogous ΔQmixHCl / J Kg-1, on the contrary, is found to be exothermic or null depending on the protocol used. For the two protocol (EDS or IFW the pH is alkaline while for the third one (INW is quite acid and shows a very good linear correlation with logχ. The linear correlations hint at a single cause for the variation of the three very different physical- chemical parameters. Results and discussion Each protocol produces water exhibiting its own peculiarities, to the point that they can be considered different, albeit with the common element of a variation of the super-molecular structure of the water solvent. These three procedures capable of affecting water can be grouped together by means of a common work

  19. Changes in some physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of irradiated meatballs during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meatball samples were irradiated using a 60Co irradiation source (with the dose of 1, 3, 5 and 7 kGy) and stored (1, 2 and 3 weeks at 4 °C) to appraise some physicochemical properties and the fatty acid composition. The physicochemical results showed no significant differences in moisture, protein, fat and ash content of meatballs because of irradiation. However, total acidity, peroxide and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values increased significantly as a result of irradiation doses and storage period. The fatty acid profile in meatball samples changed with irradiation. While saturated fatty acids (C16:0, C17:0, C18:0, and C20:0) increased with irradiation, monounsaturated (C14:1, C15:1, C18:1, and C20:1) and polyunsaturated (C18:2, C18:3, and C22:2) fatty acids decreased with irradiation. Trans fatty acids (C16:1trans, C18:1trans, C18:2trans, C18:3trans) increased with increasing irradiation doses. Meatball samples irradiated at 7 kGy had the highest total trans fatty acid content. This research shows that some physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of meatballs can be changed by gamma irradiation. (author)

  20. Effect of Shading During Grain Filling on the Physicochemical Properties of Fresh Waxy Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Da-lei; SUN Xu-li; WANG Xin; YAN Fa-bao; LU Wei-ping

    2013-01-01

    Grain physicochemical properties determine the table quality of fresh waxy maize. Two waxy maize varieties, Suyunuo 5 (shading tolerant) and FHN003 (shading sensitive), were used to estimate the effect of shading (plants received 30%less radiation than control) during grain filling (from 0 d to 23 d after pollination) on physicochemical properties of fresh waxy maize grain. Shading decreased the grain fresh weight of Suyunuo 5 and FHN003 by 8.4 and 19.1%, respectively. Shading increased the grain water content of FHN003, whereas that of Suyunuo 5 was not affected. In both varieties for shading treatment, soluble sugar, starch and protein contents were decreased, whereas zein content was increased. The changes in globulin, albumin and glutenin contents under shading were variety dependent. In both varieties, shading decreasedλmax, iodine binding capacity and the percentage of large starch granules (diameter>17μm) but increased crystallinity. The results of rapid visco analysis showed that the viscosity characteristics (except for pasting temperature) of both varieties were decreased by shading;however, FHN003 was more severely affected than Suyunuo 5. Under shading,ΔHret and%R were decreased in both varieties, whereas the changes in ΔHgel and transition temperatures were variety dependent. Hardness, cohesiveness and chewiness were decreased in both varieties. Significant differences in physicochemical characteristics were observed between the two varieties.

  1. Physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of bleached pomace-olive oil on Tunisian activated clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a contribution to studying bleaching process, which is an important stage in refining of vegetable oils. This process permitted to reduce or convert undesired constituents to harmless ones from oils and fats. Virgin olive oil, considered as reference, and pomace-olive oil were bleached in optimal conditions using Tunisian activated clays ( collected from the South of Tunisia) which were prepared in our laboratory and compared with commercial bleaching earths. It was shown that activated Tunisian clays are characterized by a very important adsorptive capacity, which is similar to that of commercial ones. In addition, the study of physicochemical properties of bleached oils was considered. The fatty acid composition (GC), the triacylglycerol composition (HPLC), and oxidative stability (UV spectrometry) allowed to conclude that treated oils do not undergo considerable physicochemical alterations and their caracteristics remain in concordance with international standards relative to edible refined oils. (Author)

  2. Effect of Pre-Harvest Sprouting on Physicochemical Properties of Starch in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senay Simsek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. occurs when physiologically mature kernels begin germinating in the spike. The objective of this study was to provide fundamental information on physicochemical changes of starch due to PHS in Hard Red Spring (HRS and Hard White Spring (HWS wheat. The mean values of α-amylase activity of non-sprouted and sprouted wheat samples were 0.12 CU/g and 2.00 CU/g, respectively. Sprouted samples exhibited very low peak and final viscosities compared to non-sprouted wheat samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images showed that starch granules in sprouted samples were partially hydrolyzed. Based on High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC profiles, the starch from sprouted samples had relatively lower molecular weight than that of non-sprouted samples. Overall, high α-amylase activity caused changes to the physicochemical properties of the PHS damaged wheat.

  3. Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs modulate the physicochemical properties of plasma membrane in experimental colorectal cancer: a fluorescence spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Vivek; Sanyal, Sankar Nath

    2011-12-01

    According to "fluid-mosaic model," plasma membrane is a bilayer constituted by phospholipids which regulates the various cellular activities governed by many proteins and enzymes. Any chemical, biochemical, or physical factor has to interact with the bilayer in order to regulate the cellular metabolism where various physicochemical properties of membrane, i.e., polarization, fluidity, electrostatic potential, and phase state may get affected. In this study, we have observed the in vivo effects of a pro-carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) and the two non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); sulindac and celecoxib on various properties of the plasma membrane of colonocytes, i.e., electric potential, fluidity, anisotropy, microviscosity, lateral diffusion, and phase state in the experimentally induced colorectal cancer. A number of fluorescence probes were utilized like membrane fluidity and anisotropy by 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene, membrane microviscosity by Pyrene, membrane electric potential by merocyanine 540, lateral diffusion by N-NBD-PE, and phase state by Laurdan. It is observed that membrane phospholipids are less densely packed and therefore, the membrane is more fluid in case of carcinogenesis produced by DMH than control. But NSAIDs are effective in reverting back the membrane toward normal state when co-administered with DMH. The membrane becomes less fluid, composed of low electric potential phospholipids whose lateral diffusion is being prohibited and the membrane stays mostly in relative gel phase. It may be stated that sulindac and celecoxib, the two NSAIDs may exert their anti-neoplastic role in colorectal cancer via modifying the physicochemical properties of the membranes. PMID:21725642

  4. Distribution of Fish in the Upper Citarum River: an Adaptive Response to Physico-Chemical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    SUNARDI; KEUKEU KANIAWATI; TEGUH HUSODO; DESAK MADE MALINI; ANNISA JOVIANI ASTARI

    2012-01-01

    Distribution of fish in river is controlled by physico-chemical properties of the water which is affected by land-use complexity and intensity of human intervention. A study on fish distribution was carried out in the upper Citarum River to map the effects of physio-chemical properties on habitat use. A survey was conducted to collect fish and to measure the water quality both on dry and rainy season. The result showed that distribution of the fish, in general, represented their adaptive resp...

  5. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Yogurt Supplemented with Corni fructus during Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Noh, Hyo Ju; Seo, Hye Min; Lee, Jun Ho; Chang, Yoon Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine a possibility of adding Corni fructus extract (CFE) into yogurt for improving the neutraceutical properties of yogurt and the effects of adding CFE (2∼6%, v/v) on the physicochemical and sensory properties of the products during a 15-day storage period at 4°C. Incorporation of CFE into the yogurt samples resulted in a significant pH reduction and a significant increase in titratable acidity. When evaluating the color of the yogurt, the L*-values were no...

  6. Storage stability and physicochemical properties of passion fruit juice microcapsules by spray-drying

    OpenAIRE

    H. Carrillo-Navas; D. A. González-Rodea; J. Cruz-Olivares; J. F. Barrera-Pichardo; A. Román-Guerrero; C. Pérez-Alonso

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to microencapsulate passion fruit juice (PFJ) by spray-drying in two dierent biopolymers blends: Gum Arabic-mesquite gum-maltodextrin DE-10 (GA17-MG66-MD17 and GA17-MG-17-MD66), yielding the microcapsules MGA17-MG66-MD17 and MGA17-MG17-MD66. The spray-dried passion fruit microcapsules were analyzed for physicochemical properties (moisture content, water activity, powder particle size), quality properties (hygroscopicity, dispersibility, rehydration time), and reconsti...

  7. Structure, physicochemical properties and in vitro fermentation of enzymatically degraded cell wall materials from apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, S; Dongowski, G; Kunzek, H

    2002-06-01

    Cell wall materials (CWM) prepared from apple parenchyma tissue by treatment with commercial enzymes for maceration, mash fermentation and liquefaction were characterised with regard to their composition and structure as well as their physicochemical and physiological properties. Increasing enzymatic degradation of the CWM resulted in growing loss of the pectin matrix, decreasing porosity as well as increasing particle aggregation. Due to these structural alterations the water binding, the viscoelastic properties of the CWM-water-suspensions and the in vitro fermentation, forming short chain fatty acids, were reduced. The investigations showed that interrelations exist between enzymatic treatment and changes of (i) structure and state of matrices (evaluated by means of thermal analysis), (ii) physicochemical properties and (iii) physiological properties. So the application of liquefying enzymes can lead to a complete removal of the pectin matrix, causing an essentially improved thermal stability of the CWM preparation, but strongly reduced water binding and reduced structure-forming properties into the CWM-water-suspensions. The formation of short-chain fatty acids during in vitro fermentation of the CWM preparations by fresh human faeces flora depended on the portion and the state of the pectin matrix and the cellulose network, respectively. PMID:12108214

  8. Physicochemical properties of different corn varieties by principal components analysis and cluster analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principal components analysis and cluster analysis were used to investigate the properties of different corn varieties. The chemical compositions and some properties of corn flour which processed by drying milling were determined. The results showed that the chemical compositions and physicochemical properties were significantly different among twenty six corn varieties. The quality of corn flour was concerned with five principal components from principal component analysis and the contribution rate of starch pasting properties was important, which could account for 48.90%. Twenty six corn varieties could be classified into four groups by cluster analysis. The consistency between principal components analysis and cluster analysis indicated that multivariate analyses were feasible in the study of corn variety properties. (author)

  9. Radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This general discussion is dealt with under the following headings: problems of collecting information (epidemiology, experimental animal studies), the temporal stages of radiation action (physical and chemical effects and cellular response), human cancer, radiation dose and risk, epidemiology and dose-response relationships, cellular and molecular processes (cell inactivation, chromosome damage and cell mutation, radiation transformation, virus and oncogene activation, free radical aspects of radiation carcinogenesis, interaction of radiation and chemical carcinogens. (U.K.)

  10. Physicochemical, rheological, thermal, and bread making properties of flour obtained from irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the methods that are nowadays used for food preservation derive from old times. Besides these methods, new non-thermal methods have been developed in order to improve food quality during its processing. Irradiation technology has a great contribution potential to improve preservation, storage and distribution of foods. Several studies from international literature have reported the efficiency of irradiation process on microbiological control of grains and their products. Due to the low technological quality of national wheat, Brazil depends on its import. Wheat is the main ingredient of bread which is one of the most important products of Brazilian people's diet. The objective of this work was to study the effect of ionizing radiation on wheat on physicochemical, rheological, and thermal properties of flour produced from this wheat, and consequently, its performance on bread making. All experiments were conducted on laboratory scale. Wheat was submitted to irradiation on different doses (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 kGy) and flour produced underwent physicochemical, rheological, thermal and microbiological analyses. Flour bread making performance was measured through quality of bread. None of the physicochemical, rheological or thermal parameters was influenced by irradiation, with the exception of Falling Number, which decreased significantly with the increase of irradiation dose, indicating the effect of irradiation on wheat starch, and consequently on dough's gelatinization. Bread quality parameters did also not show significant differences, and sensory analysis showed that bread produced from irradiated and non irradiated wheat did not present perceivable flavor. (author)

  11. Influence of mannitol concentration on the physicochemical, mechanical and pharmaceutical properties of lyophilised mannitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaialy, Waseem; Khan, Usman; Mawlud, Shadan

    2016-08-20

    Mannitol is a pharmaceutical excipient that is receiving increased popularity in solid dosage forms. The aim of this study was to provide comparative evaluation on the effect of mannitol concentration on the physicochemical, mechanical, and pharmaceutical properties of lyophilised mannitol. The results showed that the physicochemical, mechanical and pharmaceutical properties of lyophilised mannitol powders are strong functions of mannitol concentration. By decreasing mannitol concentration, the true density, bulk density, cohesivity, flowability, netcharge-to-mass ratio, and relative degree of crystallinity of LM were decreased, whereas the breakability, size distribution, and size homogeneity of lyophilised mannitol particles were increased. The mechanical properties of lyophilised mannitol tablets improved with decreasing mannitol concentration. The use of lyophilised mannitol has profoundly improved the dissolution rate of indomethacin from tablets in comparison to commercial mannitol. This improvement exhibited an increasing trend with decreasing mannitol concentration. In conclusion, mannitols lyophilised from lower concentrations are more desirable in tableting than mannitols from higher concentrations due to their better mechanical and dissolution properties. PMID:27242312

  12. Physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of Chinese noodles in relation to optimal cooking time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoting; Sui, Zhongquan

    2016-03-01

    Changes in the physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of white salted noodles (WSN) at different cooking stage were investigated. The noodles were dried in fresh air and then cooked for 2-12 min by boiling in distilled water to determine the properties of cooking quality, textural properties and optical characteristic. For starch digestibility, dry noodles were milled and sieved into various particle size classes ranging from 0.5 mm to 5.0 mm, and hydrolyzed by porcine pancreatic α-amylase. The optimal cooking time of WSN determined by squeezing between glasses was 6 min. The results showed that the kinetics of solvation of starch and protein molecules were responsible for changes of the physicochemical properties of WSN during cooking. The susceptibility of starch to α-amylase was influenced by the cooking time, particle size and enzyme treatment. The greater value of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and lower value of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) were reached at the optimal cooking stage ranging between 63.14-71.97%, 2.47-10.74% and 23.94-26.88%, respectively, indicating the susceptibility on hydrolysis by enzyme was important in defining the cooked stage. The study suggested that cooking quality and digestibility were not correlated but the texture greatly controls the digestibility of the noodles. PMID:26718868

  13. A study of relations between physicochemical properties of crude oils and microbiological characteristics of reservoir microflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, I. G.; Polishchuk, Yu. M.; Peremitina, T. O.

    2015-10-01

    The dependence of the population and activity of reservoir microflora upon the chemical composition and viscosity of crude oils has been investigated, since it allows the problem of improvement in the technologies and enhancement of oil recovery as applied to production of difficult types of oils with anomalous properties (viscous, heavy, waxy, high resin) to be solved. The effect of the chemical composition of the oil on the number, distribution, and activity of reservoir microflora has been studied using data on the microbiological properties of reservoir water of 16 different fields in oil and gas basins of Russia, Mongolia, China, and Vietnam. Information on the physicochemical properties of crude oils of these fields has been obtained from the database created at the Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch on the physicochemical properties of oils throughout the world. It has been found that formation water in viscous oil reservoirs is char acterized by a large population of heterotrophic and sulfate reducing bacteria and the water of oil fields with a high paraffin content, by population of denitrifying bacteria.

  14. Physicochemical Properties of Defatted Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum Seed Flour after Alkaline Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirawat Eiamwat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rambutan seeds were subjected to SC-CO2 extraction at 35 MPa, 45 °C to obtain defatted rambutan seed flour. Its physicochemical properties before and after treatment with alakali solution using 0.075 N NaOH were investigated. Alkali-treated flour had a significant increment in bulk density, swelling power, water adsorption capacity, emulsion capacity and stability but a reduction in turbidity, solubility and oil absorption capacity. Pasting measurements showed peak viscosity, breakdown, setback and final viscosity increased significantly for the alkali-treated flour, while pasting temperature decreased. The alkaline treatment decreased the least gelation concentration, but increased the apparent viscosity.

  15. Effect of Inulin and β-glucan on The Physicochemical, Rheological, and Sensory Properties Barbari Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Monireh Iranshahi; Seyed Mahdi Seyedain Ardebili

    2014-01-01

    In this research, applications of inulin and beta-glucan fibers on Iranian Barbari bread quality as well as their potential to retard the staling, has been studied. Inulin and beta-glucan powders used in the preparation of the samples, respectively, at three levels of 2, 2.5 and 3% (w-w) and beta-glucan concentrations of 1, 1.5 and 3% (w-w). Tests performed include physicochemical tests relating to quality of flour including moisture, protein, ash, etc; rheological properties ...

  16. Nisin as a Food Preservative: Part 1: Physicochemical Properties, Antimicrobial Activity, and Main Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsallaoui, Adem; Oulahal, Nadia; Joly, Catherine; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-06-10

    Nisin is a natural preservative for many food products. This bacteriocin is mainly used in dairy and meat products. Nisin inhibits pathogenic food borne bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and many other Gram-positive food spoilage microorganisms. Nisin can be used alone or in combination with other preservatives or also with several physical treatments. This paper reviews physicochemical and biological properties of nisin, the main factors affecting its antimicrobial effectiveness, and its food applications as an additive directly incorporated into food matrices. PMID:25675115

  17. Physicochemical Properties of Defatted Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) Seed Flour after Alkaline Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiamwat, Jirawat; Wanlapa, Sorada; Kampruengdet, Sukit

    2016-01-01

    Rambutan seeds were subjected to SC-CO₂ extraction at 35 MPa, 45 °C to obtain defatted rambutan seed flour. Its physicochemical properties before and after treatment with alakali solution using 0.075 N NaOH were investigated. Alkali-treated flour had a significant increment in bulk density, swelling power, water adsorption capacity, emulsion capacity and stability but a reduction in turbidity, solubility and oil absorption capacity. Pasting measurements showed peak viscosity, breakdown, setback and final viscosity increased significantly for the alkali-treated flour, while pasting temperature decreased. The alkaline treatment decreased the least gelation concentration, but increased the apparent viscosity. PMID:27043520

  18. Effect of electron beam irradiation on physicochemical properties of sago starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangkhae Kanjanasopa

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of electron beam irradiation on sago starch was determined in terms of physicochemical properties. The irradiation dose employed was in the range of 10 to 30 kGy. Peak viscosity was decreasedwhen the irradiation dose was increased. The gel strength was found to be increased when the sago starch was irradiated at 10 to 15 kGy, thereafter, the value was decreased. Solubility was increased while swellingpower was decreased. Redness, yellowness and free acidity were increased. Intrinsic viscosity, molecular weight and degree of polymerization were also decreased when the irradiation dose was increased.

  19. Studies on Physicochemical Properties of Biofield Treated 2,4-Dichlorophenol

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi; Gopal Nayak; Alice Branton; Dahryn Trivedi

    2015-01-01

    The chlorinated phenols are widely used in chemical industries for the manufacturing of herbicides, insecticides, etc. However, due to consistent use they create hazards to the environment. This study was designed to use an alternative method i.e. biofield energy treatment and analyse its impact on the physicochemical properties of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), which are the important factors related to its degradation. The 2,4-DCP sample was treated with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy a...

  20. Effect of Pre-rigor Salting Levels on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Chicken Breast Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Yeo, Eui-Joo; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pre-rigor salting level (0-4% NaCl concentration) on physicochemical and textural properties of pre-rigor chicken breast muscles. The pre-rigor chicken breast muscles were de-boned 10 min post-mortem and salted within 25 min post-mortem. An increase in pre-rigor salting level led to the formation of high ultimate pH of chicken breast muscles at post-mortem 24 h. The addition of minimum of 2% NaCl significantly improved water holding capacity,...

  1. Prediction and control of extraction ability and some physico-chemical properties of extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of investigations on solvent extraction of metals, including rare earths and actinides, by different extractions are generalized. Methods of forecasting and regularities, responsible for extraction ability (EA) of mono- and bidentate neutral compounds, organic acids, crown-esters are discussed. Consideration is given to correlation EA dependences on various characteristics of extractant molecules, such as electronegativity of substituents of the active (donor) center, basicity constant, energy of internal levels of oxygen atom, ionization potential, affinity to proton and others. Possibility of directed regulation and improvement of some physicochemical properties of extractants is shown

  2. The influence of sterilization conditions on physicochemical properties of fibrous implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of various methods of sterilization of carbon materials for prostheses and sutures on their physicochemical properties has been performed. The examined materials were sterilized by means of radiation technique, in ethylene oxide, in water vapour and in air. Heat treatment techniques seem to be most suitable for sterilization of carbon materials. Radiation technique is also possible but it requires to choice of suitable dose for each material. Sterilization in ethylene oxide results in the formation components which makes thus method usefulness for carbon materials. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Effect of KGM deacetylation on the physicochemical rheological and structural properties of glucomannan gels.

    OpenAIRE

    Solo de Zaldívar, Beatriz; Tovar, C. A.; Borderías, A. Javier

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between network structure and physicochemical and rheological properties of aqueous glucomannan dispersions (AGD) as a function of pH, to establish optimal conditions of glucomannan gelation for making restructured seafood products. Various lots of AGD were prepared from 3% (L1) and 5% (L2) konjac glucomannan adding different amounts (0.5-5%) of 0.6N KOH to obtain samples with successively increasing degrees of alkalinity, from pH= 8.9 t...

  4. Effect of Potassium Permanganate Nano-Zeolite and Storage Time on Physicochemical Properties of Kiwifruit (Hayward)

    OpenAIRE

    H Mirzaee Moghaddam; M.H Khoshtaghaza; M Barzegar Bafroee; Salimi, A

    2016-01-01

    In this research, kiwifruits (Hayward) were selected in two mass ranges (large and small). They were placed in one-liter glass bottles in the vicinity of the polyethylene sachets containing potassium permanganate nano-zeolite (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 g) and were stored in a germinator (5°C temperature and 30% relative humidity). Then, the physicochemical properties of the fruits (soluble solid content, pH, moisture content and fruit firmness) and potassium permanganate nano-zeolite color (L, Hue...

  5. Changes in physico-chemical properties of soil by adding organic amendments in a tomato crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study possible changes in the physico-chemical properties of soil under intensive cultivation of tomatoes after the addition of two different types of organic amendments: a natural as sheep manure and synthetic made. Trial plots that were designed are located in the NE of the province of Granada, in Puebla de Trial plots that were designed are located in the NE of the province of Granada, in Puebla de Don Fadrique, in the are that in recent years, change are very important in agriculture, from traditional farms extensive cultivation of rain-fed cereal crops such as intensive vegetale broccoli or tomatoes. (Author) 16 refs.

  6. Physico-Chemical Properties, Composition and Oxidative Stability of Camelina sativa Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Abramovič, Helena; Abram, Veronika

    2005-01-01

    Camelina sativa is a cruciferous oilseed plant. With the aim of describing the general characteristics of the oil obtained from the seeds of plants grown in Slovenia and of comparing it to camelina oil from other countries we determined some physico-chemical properties, fatty acid composition, iodine and saponification value and followed its oxidative stability under different storage conditions. The density at 20 °C was (0.927 0.0001) g/cm3 and the refractive index reached 1.4756 0.0001 at...

  7. Evaluation of some important physicochemical properties of starch free grewia gum

    OpenAIRE

    Nep, Elijah I.; Sims, I. M.; Kontogiorgos, Vassilis; Morris, Gordon; Smith, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    Gums obtained by extraction from the inner bark of stems can be found in association with starch, which must be digested in order to obtain a refined polysaccharide isolate. In the present study, grewia gum obtained from the inner bark of the stems of Grewia mollis was shown to co-exist with starch and the effect of starch digestion on the physicochemical properties of the resultant polysaccharide was evaluated. The gum was extracted by maceration of the inner bark in deionized water and ...

  8. Effect of storage on physicochemical, microbial and antioxidant properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata candy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabeera Muzzaffar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata is highly nutritious and antioxidant-rich vegetable widely grown all over the world. Present study reports the effect of storage on physicochemical, microbial, and antioxidant properties of pumpkin candy. Pumpkin and its candy were analyzed for the physicochemical characteristics like moisture content, ash, total soluble solids (TSS, titrable acidity, total sugar, reducing sugar, and color. Beta-carotene and vitamin-C content of pumpkin and its candy were also studied. Antioxidant properties like 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, total phenolic content (TPC, reducing power, and lipid peroxidation of methanolic extracts of pumpkin and processed candy were evaluated. During storage, a significant increase in TSS while a non-significant increase in titrable acidity, reducing and total sugars was observed. Beta-carotene, vitamin C, color, and antioxidant properties (DPPH, FRAP, TPC, reducing power, and lipid peroxidation also showed a non-significant decrease during storage at ambient temperature. Microbial load of pumpkin candy (1.74–3.2 log cfu/g suggested that candies were safe for human consumption during storage. Hence, candy preparation from pumpkin could be an effective method for preservation of pumpkin and retention of its bioactive components.

  9. Evaluation of physicochemical properties of SiO2-coated stainless steel after sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walke, Witold; Paszenda, Zbigniew; Pustelny, Tadeusz; Opilski, Zbigniew; Drewniak, Sabina; Kościelniak-Ziemniak, Magdalena; Basiaga, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    The study of most of the literature devoted to the use of coronary stents indicates that their efficiency is determined by the physicochemical properties of the implant surface. Therefore, the authors of this study suggested conditions for the formation of SiO2 layers obtained with the use of sol-gel methodology showing physicochemical properties adequate to the specific conditions of the cardio-vascular system. Previous experience of authors helped them much to optimize the coating of 316LVM steel surface with SiO2. The values of parameters that determine the usefulness of the coating in medical applications have been determined. In order to identify the phenomena taking place at the boundary of phases and to evaluate the usefulness of the proposed surface modification, taking into consideration the medical sterilization (steam or ethylene oxide (EO)), the potentiodynamic, impedance, adhesion, surface morphology and biological assessment characterizations were performed. Regardless of the usage of the sterilizing agent (steam, EO) the study showed the reduction of critical force causing layer's delamination. The research results of corrosion resistance study also confirmed a slight decrease of SiO2 barrier properties of the samples after sterilization in contact with the artificial plasma. SiO2 layers after the sterilization process did not show significant features of cytotoxicity and had no negative influence on blood cell counts, which confirmed the results of quantitative and qualitative studies. PMID:27040207

  10. Physico-chemical properties and toxicity of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Joong; Lee, So-Young; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2016-07-15

    Crude oil and refined petroleum products contain many polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in particular, alkylated PAHs. Although alkylated PAHs are found in significantly higher quantities than their corresponding unsubstituted PAHs, the most studies on the physico-chemical properties and toxicities of these compounds have been conducted on unsubstituted PAHs. In this study, we measured crucial physico-chemical properties (i.e., water solubility, partition coefficients between polydimethylsiloxane and water (KPDMSw), and partition coefficient between liposomes and water (Klipw)) of selected alkylated PAHs, and evaluated their toxicity using the luminescence inhibition of Aliivibrio fischeri and growth inhibition of Raphidocelis subcapitata. In general, the logarithms of these properties for alkylated PAHs showed good linear correlations with log Kow, as did those for unsubstituted PAHs. Changes in molecular symmetry on the introduction of alkyl groups on aromatic ring structure significantly altered water solubility. The inhibition of bacterial luminescence and algal growth by alkylated PAHs can be explained well by the baseline toxicity hypothesis, and good linear relationships between log Kow or log Klipw and log (1/EC50) were found. PMID:27037474

  11. Effect of Different Modification Techniques on the Physicochemical and Thermoanalytical Properties of Wheat and Corn Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Kotancilar

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The starches of wheat and corn treated with four different modification methods (pregelatinized, thinnedwith acid, cross-linked and dextrinized were investigated in terms of changes in swelling, water-holdingcapacity, gelatinization and thermoanalytical properties. Modification processes caused significant changes inthe physicochemical properties of the starches. Also, having effect on the thermoanalytical properties ofstarch, of modification process pregelatinization, cross-linking and dextrinization increased the temperaturesof gelatinization initiation, peak, and final points. In addition, the modification process decreased the changein the value of entalphi. In general, peaks appeared in shorter time in corn starch amylograph than that inwheat starch for all the modified methods. The wheat starch had more swelling capacity than those of thecorn starch at 30 and 40 oC. The modifications applied, in this study, decreased water-holding capacity of thestarches of the wheat and corn at 70 oC.

  12. Effect of γ-irradiation on the physicochemical properties and structure of fish myofibrillar proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of γ-irradiation on physicochemical properties and structures of myofibrillar protein from grass crap exposed to dose up to 10 kGy was investigated. Irradiated samples exhibited decreased emulsifying property and increased surface hydrophobicity. Increasing dose resulted in decreasing free and total sulphydryl groups, decreasing myosin heavy chains in the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns. This study demonstrated that γ-irradiation decreased the myofibrillar protein ordered structure and generated the crosslinking and provided a possible reference for the identification of irradiated fish products. - Highlights: • Irradiation decreases emulsifying properties of fish myofibrillar protein. • Irradiation caused the decrease of ordered structure of protein molecule. • Irradiation up to 6 kGy distinctly decreases the content of myosin heavy chains. • Irradiation caused an intermolecular crosslinking in the myofibrillar protein

  13. Physicochemical properties of surface charge-modified ZnO nanoparticles with different particle sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim KM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kyoung-Min Kim,1 Mun-Hyoung Choi,2 Jong-Kwon Lee,3 Jayoung Jeong,3 Yu-Ri Kim,4 Meyoung-Kon Kim,4 Seung-Min Paek,2 Jae-Min Oh1 1Department of Chemistry and Medical Chemistry, College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Gangwon-do, 2Department of Chemistry, Kyungpook National University, Taegu, 3Toxicological Research Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Chungchungbuk-do, 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: In this study, four types of standardized ZnO nanoparticles were prepared for assessment of their potential biological risk. Powder-phased ZnO nanoparticles with different particle sizes (20 nm and 100 nm were coated with citrate or L-serine to induce a negative or positive surface charge, respectively. The four types of coated ZnO nanoparticles were subjected to physicochemical evaluation according to the guidelines published by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. All four samples had a well crystallized Wurtzite phase, with particle sizes of ~30 nm and ~70 nm after coating with organic molecules. The coating agents were determined to have attached to the ZnO surfaces through either electrostatic interaction or partial coordination bonding. Electrokinetic measurements showed that the surface charges of the ZnO nanoparticles were successfully modified to be negative (about −40 mV or positive (about +25 mV. Although all the four types of ZnO nanoparticles showed some agglomeration when suspended in water according to dynamic light scattering analysis, they had clearly distinguishable particle size and surface charge parameters and well defined physicochemical properties. Keywords: ZnO nanoparticles, surface coating, surface charge, particle size, physicochemical properties

  14. Effect of the irradiation on the microbiological, physicochemical and technological properties of common wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we have studying the effect of irradiation dose: 1; 2; 3; 4 and 5kGy on microbiological, physico-chemical and technological properties of three wheat samples. Moreover, the effect of these irradiation doses on the lengthening of the shelf life during four months storage at room temperature was measured. Thus, the irradiation showed been efficiency on the microbiological level, in effect we observed a reduction of microbial load according to the irradiation dose. The dose of 2; 1.6 and 1.7kGy was caused the destruction of 90% of the initial aerobic total mesophyl flora respectively for the local varieties Salambo, Tebica and imported wheat. The irradiation did not cause any significant modification on the majority of the physico-chemical parameters. We can observe a reduction on humidity and an increase in fatty acidity and deterioration on the level of the starch and gluten. The α amylasic activity increase significantly with the irradiation doses. The rheological properties of the flour paste resulting from the wheat irradiated show that the irradiation caused an increase in the capacity of water absorption in the flour and reduction of the time of development, stability, elasticity and extensibility of the paste. The test of panification showed that the colour of the crust and the crumb intensify with increase of irradiation dose. During storage, the irradiated samples did not show a possible recontamination. (author). 70 refs

  15. Physicochemical properties of β-carotene emulsions stabilized by chlorogenic acid-lactoferrin-glucose/polydextrose conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuguo; Wang, Di; Xu, Honggao; Sun, Cuixia; Gao, Yanxiang

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the influence of chlorogenic acid (CA)-lactoferrin (LF)-glucose (Glc) conjugate and CA-LF-polydextrose (PD) conjugate on the physicochemical characteristics of β-carotene emulsions was investigated. Novel emulsifiers were formed during Maillard reaction between CA-LF conjugate and Glc/PD. The physicochemical properties of β-carotene emulsions were characterized by droplet size, ζ-potential, rheological behavior, transmission changes during centrifugal sedimentation and β-carotene degradation. Results showed that the covalent attachment of Glc or PD to CA-LF conjugate effectively increased the hydrophilicity of the oil droplets surfaces and strengthened the steric repulsion between the oil droplets. Glucose was better than polydextrose for the conjugation with CA-LF conjugate to stabilize β-carotene emulsions. In comparison with LF and CA-LF-Glc/PD mixtures, CA-LF-Glc/PD ternary conjugates exhibited better emulsifying properties and improved physical stability of β-carotene emulsions during the freeze-thaw treatment. In addition, CA-LF-Glc/PD conjugates significantly enhanced chemical stability of β-carotene in the emulsions against ultraviolet light exposure. PMID:26593499

  16. Starch-guar gum extrudates: microstructure, physicochemical properties and in-vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Borries-Medrano, Erich; Jaime-Fonseca, Mónica R; Aguilar-Méndez, Miguel A

    2016-03-01

    Starch-guar gum mixtures were obtained by extrusion using a three-variable Box-Behnken statistic design. Morphology, expansion index, viscosity, crystallinity and digestion in vitro of the extruded samples were analyzed through response surface methodology (RSM). The extrusion temperature and the moisture content were the factors that significantly affected the physicochemical properties of the samples. Starch-guar gum samples showed expansion index and viscosity up to 1.55 and 1400mPas, respectively. The crystallinity of the samples was modified by adding guar gum to the extrudates, showing correlation between long-range order (X-ray diffraction) and short-range order (FTIR spectroscopy). Guar induced microstructural changes and its role in gelatinization-melting processes was significant. The rate of glucose release decreased from 0.47 to 0.43mM/min when the extrusion temperature decreased. However, adding guar gum to starch had no significant effect on glucose release. Overall, the extrusion temperature and the moisture content were the factors that significantly affected the physicochemical properties of the extruded samples. PMID:26471632

  17. Effects of extrusion conditions on the physicochemical properties of extruded red ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Ying; Gil, Sun Kuk; Ryu, Gi Hyung

    2012-09-01

    The effects of variable moisture content, screw speed and barrel temperature on the physicochemical properties of red ginseng powder extrudates were investigated. The raw red ginseng powders were processed in a co-rotating intermeshing twin-screw extruder. Primary extrusion variables were feed moisture content (20 and 30%), screw speed (200 and 250 rpm) and barrel temperature (115 and 130°C). Extruded red ginseng showed higher crude saponin contents (6.72~7.18%) than raw red ginseng (5.50%). Tested extrusion conditions did not significantly affect the crude saponin content of extrudates. Increased feed moisture content resulted in increased bulk density, specific length, water absorption index (WAI), breaking strength, elastic modulus and crude protein content and decreased water solubility index (WSI) and expansion (p<0.05). Increased barrel temperature resulted in increased total sugar content, but decreased reducing sugar content in the extrudate (p<0.05). Furthermore, increased barrel temperature resulted in increased amino acid content and specific length and decreased expansion and bulk density of extrudates only at a higher feed moisture content. The physicochemical properties of extrudates were mainly dependent on the feed moisture content and barrel temperature, whereas the screw speed showed a lesser effect. These results will be used to help define optimized process conditions for controlling and predicting qualities and characteristics of extruded red ginseng. PMID:24471085

  18. Physicochemical properties of wheat-canna and wheat-konjac composite flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Vasiljevic, Todor; Bannikova, Anna; Kasapis, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    Physicochemical properties of composite flours made of wheat from low to high protein contents and canna or konjac at different levels of substitution (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 %) were prepared and analyzed. Compared to that of wheat flour alone, increasing levels of canna inclusions significantly increased the amount of resistant starch (RS) but decreased the protein content of composite flours. This substitution did not alter the total starch (TS), amylase and amylopectin contents of these mixtures. Changes in physicochemical properties were also observed in wheat-konjac composite flours. Increasing amounts of konjac flour decreased the TS, amylase, amylopectin, and protein content of the mixtures, but increased the amount of RS. Substitution of wheat flour with 75 % of canna or konjac flours in HPWC (High Protein Wheat-Canna), HPWK (High Protein Wheat-Konjac), and LPWK (Low Protein Wheat-Konjac) increased the swelling power of these mixtures at 80 and 90 °C. In general, substitution of wheat flour with up to 50 % of canna or konjac flours did not cause any other observable decline. In addition, the substitution of wheat flour with canna or konjac flours increased the gelatinization temperature of all composite flours. PMID:25190833

  19. A critical review on the spray drying of fruit extract: effect of additives on physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaiah, Duduku; Nithyanandam, Rajesh; Sarbatly, Rosalam

    2014-01-01

    Spray drying accomplishes drying while particles are suspended in the air and is one method in the family of suspended particle processing systems, along with fluid-bed drying, flash drying, spray granulation, spray agglomeration, spray reaction, spray cooling, and spray absorption. This drying process is unique because it involves both particle formation and drying. The present paper reviews spray drying of fruit extracts, such as acai, acerola pomace, gac, mango, orange, cactus pear, opuntia stricta fruit, watermelon, and durian, and the effects of additives on physicochemical properties such as antioxidant activity, total carotenoid content, lycopene and β-carotene content, hygroscopy, moisture content, volatile retention, stickiness, color, solubility, glass transition temperature, bulk density, rehydration, caking, appearance under electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The literature clearly demonstrates that the effect of additives and encapsulation play a vital role in determining the physicochemical properties of fruit extract powder. The technical difficulties in spray drying of fruit extracts can be overcome by modifying the spray dryer design. It also reveals that spray drying is a novel technology for converting fruit extract into powder form. PMID:24236997

  20. High throughput screening of physicochemical properties and in vitro ADME profiling in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hong; Holmén, Anders G

    2009-03-01

    Current advances of new technologies with robotic automated assays combined with highly selective and sensitive LC-MS enable high-speed screening of lead series libraries in many in vitro assays. In this review, we summarize state of the art high throughput assays for screening of key physicochemical properties such as solubility, lipophilicity, pKa, drug-plasma protein binding and brain tissue binding as well as in vitro ADME profiling. We discuss two primary approaches for high throughput screening of solubility, i.e. an automated 96-well plate assay integrated with LC-MS and a rapid multi-wavelength UV plate reader. We address the advantages of newly developed miniaturized techniques for high throughput pKa screening by capillary electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry (CE-MS) with automated data analysis flow. Several new lipophilicity approaches other than octanol-water partitioning are critically reviewed, including rapid liquid chromatographic retention based approach, immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) partitioning and liposome, and potential microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) for accurate screening of LogP. We highlight the sample pooling (namely cassette dosing, all-in-one, cocktail) as an efficient approach for high throughput screening of physicochemical properties and in vitro ADME profiling with emphasis on the benefit of on-line quality control. This cassette dosing approach has been widely adapted in drug discovery for rapid screening of in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters with significantly increased capacity and dramatically reduced animal usage. PMID:19275537

  1. Antibacterial effect and physicochemical properties of essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansour Amin; Enayat Kalantar; Neda Mohammad-Saeid; Behzad Ahsan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial effect and physicochemical properties of essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. Methods:Antibacterial activity of essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss was assessed by agar disc diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) was tested by E test. Results:The essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss was effective on pathogenic bacteria particularly Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The MIC values of the target cultures ranged from 0.39 mg/mL to 1.56 mg/mL. The physicochemical properties like effects of pH, temperature, detergents, and enzymes on the activity of essential oil from Zataria multiflora Boiss were also determined. The essential oil was quite stable to temperature as tested against S. aureus and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The essential oil was very stable over a wide range of pH. The antibacterial activity of essential oil was insensitive to various protein-denaturing detergents (Such as Tween 80, Tween 20, Triton 100, etc.) and enzymes (namely proteinase K, trypsin, lipase, and lysosyme). Conclusions:A potential use of the essential oil from Zataria multiflora Boiss is suggested. More studies including further purification, mass spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and evaluation of toxicity are needed for confirmation of this suggestion.

  2. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity of peanut oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil from seeds of 4 pea nut (Arachis hypogaea L.) varieties: Golden, Bari 2000, Mongphalla, and Mongphalli 334 cultivated in arid zones, was subjected to the comparative evaluation of its physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity. Pea nut seeds were found to be a rich source of crude fat (45.09-51.63 g/100 g dry weight). The physicochemical properties of the oil were investigated as specific gravity (0.915 +-0.008-0.918+-0.008), acid value (3.96+-0.22-4.95+-0.71 mg KOH/g oil), saponification value ( 226.40+-3.59-246.56+-2.04 mg KOH/g oil) and unsaponifiable matter (3.20 +- 0.23-4.20+-0.04 g/100 g oil). The higher amounts of unsaturated fatty acids (82.06-85.93%) were found to be present in each variety. A significant variation (p<0.05) was observed among the varieties regarding crude oil content, saponification value, oleic/linoleic (O/L) ratios, phenolic acid content and total antioxidant content. Golden was found to be high in oil content, O/L ratio, antioxidant profile and DPPH scavenging activity but low in iodine value. (author)

  3. Effect of Pre-rigor Salting Levels on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Chicken Breast Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Yeo, Eui-Joo; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pre-rigor salting level (0-4% NaCl concentration) on physicochemical and textural properties of pre-rigor chicken breast muscles. The pre-rigor chicken breast muscles were de-boned 10 min post-mortem and salted within 25 min post-mortem. An increase in pre-rigor salting level led to the formation of high ultimate pH of chicken breast muscles at post-mortem 24 h. The addition of minimum of 2% NaCl significantly improved water holding capacity, cooking loss, protein solubility, and hardness when compared to the non-salting chicken breast muscle (pNaCl concentration between 3% and 4% had no great differences in the results of physicochemical and textural properties due to pre-rigor salting effects (p>0.05). Therefore, our study certified the pre-rigor salting effect of chicken breast muscle salted with 2% NaCl when compared to post-rigor muscle salted with equal NaCl concentration, and suggests that the 2% NaCl concentration is minimally required to ensure the definite pre-rigor salting effect on chicken breast muscle. PMID:26761884

  4. Physico-chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Different Pumpkin Cultivars Grown in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To obtain more detailed knowledge of the differences among major pumpkin species grown in China, physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of four pumpkin cultivars (Miben, Hongli, Lvli, Xihulu were characterized and compared. Dry matter, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, fruit color, protein, fat, sugars, minerals, amino acids, &beta -carotene, L-ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP were measured in the studied cultivars. The results showed great differences in the composition and characteristics of the pumpkin cultivars. Miben exhibited the highest concentration of dry matter, fat, Total Soluble Solid (TSS, Titratable Acidity (TA, sucrose, &beta-carotene, K, P, Fe, Zn and aspartic acid. Hongli had the highest concentration protein, L-ascorbic acid, Na, Ca, Mg and all individual amino acids except for asparitic acid. Lvli exhibited significantly (p<0.05 higher antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP, which are highly related to total phenols content in pumpkin fruits (r = 0.94 and r = 0.98, respectively. Principal Component Analysis (PCA allowed the four pumpkin cultivars to be differentiated clearly based on all these physico-chemical and antioxidant properties determined in the study.

  5. Physicochemical Properties and Evaluation of Microemulsion Systems for Transdermal Delivery of Meloxicam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Microemulsion systems, composed of water, isopropyl myristate (IPM), polyoxyethylene sorbitan trioleate (Tween 85 ), and ethanol, were investigated as transdermal drug delivery vehicles for a lipophilic model drug( meloxicam). The purpose of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties of the tested microemulsion and to find the correlation between the physicochemical properties and the skin permeation rate of the microemulsion. Pseudo-ternary phase diagram of the investigated system at a constant surfactant/cosurfactant mass ratio (Km =1:1) was constructed by titration at 20℃, and the five formulations were selected for further research in the o/w microemulsion domains. The values of electrical conductivity and viscosity showed that the selected systems were bicontinuous or non-spherical o/w microemulsion, and the electrical conductivity and viscosity were increased with increasing the content of water. These results suggest that the optimum formulation of microemulsion, containing 0. 375 meloxicam, 5% isopropyl myristate, 25% Tween 85, 25% ethanol, and water, showed the maximum permeation rate. It had a high electrical conductivity, small droplet size, and proper viscocity.

  6. Filling the gap: Estimating physicochemical properties of the full array of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicochemical properties of PBDE congeners are important for modeling their transport, but data are often missing. The quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR) approach is utilized to fill this gap. Individual research groups often report piecemeal properties through experimental measurements or estimation techniques, but these data seldom satisfy fundamental thermodynamic relationships because of errors. The data then lack internal consistency and cannot be used directly in environmental modeling. This paper critically reviews published experimental data to select the best QSPR models, which are then extended to all 209 PBDE congeners. Properties include aqueous solubility, vapor pressure, Henry's law constant, octanol–water partition coefficient and octanol–air partition coefficient. Their values are next adjusted to satisfy fundamental thermodynamic equations. The resulting values then take advantage of all measurements and provide quick references for modeling and PBDE-contaminated site assessment and remediation. PCBs are also compared with respect to their properties and estimation methods. -- Highlights: •Property data of PBDEs and reported experimental and estimation methods were reviewed. •Missing data were estimated for all 209 PBDEs based on selected methods. •All data were adjusted to meet thermodynamic constrains using a VisualBasic program. •The established database provides a quick reference for PBDE environmental modeling. -- Through careful selection of literature data, structure–property estimation and adjustment, key properties of 209 PBDE congeners are estimated with internal consistency

  7. iNuc-PhysChem: a sequence-based predictor for identifying nucleosomes via physicochemical properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    Full Text Available Nucleosome positioning has important roles in key cellular processes. Although intensive efforts have been made in this area, the rules defining nucleosome positioning is still elusive and debated. In this study, we carried out a systematic comparison among the profiles of twelve DNA physicochemical features between the nucleosomal and linker sequences in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. We found that nucleosomal sequences have some position-specific physicochemical features, which can be used for in-depth studying nucleosomes. Meanwhile, a new predictor, called iNuc-PhysChem, was developed for identification of nucleosomal sequences by incorporating these physicochemical properties into a 1788-D (dimensional feature vector, which was further reduced to a 884-D vector via the IFS (incremental feature selection procedure to optimize the feature set. It was observed by a cross-validation test on a benchmark dataset that the overall success rate achieved by iNuc-PhysChem was over 96% in identifying nucleosomal or linker sequences. As a web-server, iNuc-PhysChem is freely accessible to the public at http://lin.uestc.edu.cn/server/iNuc-PhysChem. For the convenience of the vast majority of experimental scientists, a step-by-step guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get the desired results without the need to follow the complicated mathematics that were presented just for the integrity in developing the predictor. Meanwhile, for those who prefer to run predictions in their own computers, the predictor's code can be easily downloaded from the web-server. It is anticipated that iNuc-PhysChem may become a useful high throughput tool for both basic research and drug design.

  8. Physicochemical and mechanical properties of paracetamol cocrystal with 5-nitroisophthalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiendrawan, Stevanus; Veriansyah, Bambang; Widjojokusumo, Edward; Soewandhi, Sundani Nurono; Wikarsa, Saleh; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R

    2016-01-30

    We report novel pharmaceutical cocrystal of a popular antipyretic drug paracetamol (PCA) with coformer 5-nitroisophhthalic acid (5NIP) to improve its tabletability. The cocrystal (PCA-5NIP at molar ratio of 1:1) was synthesized by solvent evaporation technique using methanol as solvent. The physicochemical properties of cocrystal were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot stage polarized microscopy (HSPM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Stability of the cocrystal was assessed by storing them at 40°C/75% RH for one month. Compared to PCA, the cocrystal displayed superior tableting performance. PCA-5NIP cocrystal showed a similar dissolution profile as compared to PCA and exhibited good stability. This study showed the utility of PCA-5NIP cocrystal for improving mechanical properties of PCA. PMID:26657269

  9. Purification of cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum: Physicochemical characterization and functional properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali;

    2016-01-01

    purification methods reduced ash and protein content and molecular weight of cress seed gum. The main decomposition of the purified samples started above 200º C and initial decomposition temperature of the crude gum was 190.21º C. DSC thermograms of the purified gums showed two exothermic events at 257......The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different purification methods (ethanol, isopropanol and ethanol-isopropanol) on the physicochemical and functional characteristics of cress seed gum. Sugar composition and molecular weight of the samples varied significantly. All the...... emulsifying properties of cress seed gum and there was no significant difference among the purified samples. Crude gum showed the lowest foaming properties, while samples I and E (purified using ethanol) showed the highest foaming capacity and foam stability, respectively. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  10. QSPR Models for Chromatographic Retention of Some Azoles with Physicochemical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with 24 substances composed of nitrogen-containing heterocycles. The relationships between the chromatographic retention factor (k) and those physicochemical properties which are relevant in quantitative structure-properties relationship (QSPR) studies, such as the polarizability (α), molar refractivity (MR), lipophilicity (logP), dipole moment (μ), total energy (Etot), heat of formation (ΔHf), molecular surface area (SM), and binding energy (Eb), were investigated. The accuracy of the simple linear regressions between the chromatographic retention and the descriptors for all of the compounds was satisfactory (correlation coefficient, 0.8 ≤ r ≤ 1.0). The QSPR models of these nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds could be predicted with a multiple linear regression equation having the statistical index, r = 1.000. This work demonstrated the successful application of the multiple linear approaches through the development of accurate predictive equations for retention factors in liquid chromatography

  11. Changes in crystal structure and physicochemical properties of potato starch treated by induced electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Yang, Na; Jin, Yamei; Zhou, Yuyi; Xie, Zhengjun; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-11-20

    The effects of induced electric field (IEF) on the crystal structure and physicochemical properties of potato starch were investigated by subjecting identically treated control and electrically-modified samples to the same temperature history. Additionally, a method of combining IEF with heating for efficient modification of native polymer was also proposed. Results showed that the application of IEF at an electric voltage of 75V has a statistically significant effect on starch gelatinization and pasting properties, especially when combined with heating at 50°C. After treatment by the combination method for 96h, the gelatinization temperatures increased, which can be explained by the slight increase in the ratio of 1044/1015cm(-1) and relative crystallinity. Furthermore, IEF reduced granular swelling and therefore contributed to decreasing the peak, breakdown, and setback viscosity of potato starch. This study explores the potential of IEF as innovative technology for starch modification. PMID:27561526

  12. Physicochemical properties of carbon materials obtained by combustion synthesis of perchlorinated hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cudziło

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present studies on the combustion synthesis of carbon materials from several perchlorinated organic compounds : tetrachloromethane (CCl4, hexachloroethane (C2Cl6, tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4, hexachloro-1,3-butadiene (C4Cl6, hexachlorocyclopentadiene (C5Cl6. The porosity (obtained by low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, microstructure (SEM, structural arrangement (XRD and Raman spectroscopy, surface chemistry (FTIR and electrochemical behavior (cyclic voltammetry of the obtained carbons were investigated. The synthesized materials exhibit an ordered structure similar to carbon black. Their physicochemical properties strongly depended on the structure of the perchlorocarbon precursor. It was found that perchlorinated compounds with unsaturated bonds yielded more amorphous products. The electrochemical properties (e.g. edl capacity depend mainly on the mesopore surface area of the carbonaceous products.

  13. Structural diversity, physicochemical properties and application of imidazolium surfactants: Recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadani, Avinash; Misono, Takeshi; Singh, Sukhprit; Sakai, Kenichi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2016-05-01

    The current review covers recent advances on development and investigation of cationic surfactants containing imidazolium headgroup, which are being extensively investigated for their self-aggregation properties and are currently being utilized in various conventional and non-conventional application areas. These surfactants are being used as: soft template for synthesis of mesoporous/microporous materials, drug and gene delivery agent, stabilizing agent for nanoparticles, dispersants for single/multi walled carbon nanotubes, antimicrobial and antifungal agent, viscosity modifiers, preparing nanocomposite materials, stabilizing microemulsions, corrosion inhibitors and catalyst for organic reactions. Recently several structural derivatives of these surfactants have been developed having many interesting physicochemical properties and they have demonstrated enormous potential in the area of nanotechnology, material science and biomedical science. PMID:27063924

  14. Influence of mechanical milling time on physicochemical properties and stability of cefotaxime sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouholamini Najafabadi A.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of mechanical milling time on physicochemical properties and stability of Cefotaxime sodium (CS. CS was micronized by ball milling in five period of time: 30, 60, 120, 240, and 360 min. The powder properties of the samples were examined by HPLC assay, laser diffraction, helium densitometery, IR spectrophotometery, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scaning electron microscopy (SEM, differential scanning calorimetery (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and Karl-Fisher titrimetery. The results showed that ball milling was not an appropriate method for particle size reduction to make solid dosage form such as dry powder inhaler formulation (DPI of CS and by increase in milling time, degradation of CS increased.

  15. Antibacterial Properties of Copper Nanoparticle Dispersions: Influence of Synthesis Conditions and Physicochemical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godymchuk, A.; Frolov, G.; Gusev, A.; Zakharova, O.; Yunda, E.; Kuznetsov, D.; Kolesnikov, E.

    2015-11-01

    The production of bactericidal plasters, bandages and medicines with the inclusion of copper nanoparticles and copper ions may have a great potential in terms of their biomedical application. The work considers the influence of the synthesis conditions, size, aggregation status, and charge of nanoparticles in aqueous solutions as well as the type of microorganisms to the antibacterial properties of water suspensions of electroexplosive copper nanoparticles in the conditions in vitro in relation to strains Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus. Water dispersions of copper nanoparticles were shown to inhibit the growth of test cells for both G+ and G- microbacteria but the degree of such an influence strongly depended on the type of a test strain. The authors have demonstrated that use of deeply purified water and alcohol-containing stabilizers at the synthesis of nanoparticles via metals electric erosion in the liquid prevents the copper nanoparticles coagulation and significantly influences on their physicochemical characteristics and, consequently, antibacterial properties.

  16. Physicochemical characterization and dissolution properties of nimesulide-cyclodextrin binary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalluri, Buchi N; Chowdary, K P R; Murthy, K V R; Hayman, A R; Becket, G

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this work is physicochemical characterization of nimesulide-cyclodextrin binary systems both in solution and solid state and to improve the dissolution properties of nimesulide (N) via complexation with alpha-, beta, and gamma-cyclodextrins (CDs). Detection of inclusion complexation was done in solution by means of phase solubility analysis, mass spectrometry, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopic studies, and in solid state using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder x-ray diffractometry (X-RD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and in vitro dissolution studies. Phase solubility, mass spectrometry and 1H-NMR studies in solution revealed 1:1 M complexation of N with all CDs. A true inclusion of N with beta-CD at 1:2 M in solid state was confirmed by DSC, powder X-RD and SEM studies. Dissolution properties of N-CD binary systems were superior when compared to pure N. PMID:12916912

  17. Physicochemical characterization and dissolution properties of meloxicam-cyclodextrin binary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, N Buchi; Chowdary, K P R; Murthy, K V R; Satyanarayana, V; Hayman, A R; Becket, G

    2004-04-01

    The objective of the work is physicochemical characterization of meloxicam (ME)-cyclodextrin (CD) binary systems both in solution and solid states and to improve the dissolution properties of meloxicam via complexation with alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins. Detection of inclusion complexation was done in solution state by means of phase solubility analysis, mass spectrometry and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies, and in solid state using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffractometry, and in vitro dissolution studies. Phase solubility, mass spectrometry and 1H NMR studies in solution state revealed 1:1M complexation of meloxicam with all CDs. A true inclusion of ME with gamma-CD at 1:1 and 1:2M in solid state was confirmed by DSC, powder XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. Dissolution properties of ME-CDs binary systems were superior when compared to pure ME. PMID:15030882

  18. The Influence of the RF PACVD MS Process Parameters on the Physicochemical Properties of Hydroxyapatite Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niedzielska A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydroksyapatite (HAp as the coating, is produced using different methods of deposition, among others: laser ablation method, sol-gel, electrophoresis, thermal sputtering or magnetron spraying with the usage of high frequency. Attempts to benefit from such a wide spectrum of existing methods are related to the fact that this material possesses many advantages. We have to distinguish, among others, proper biological properties, i.e. both - high bio-tolerance and high osteo-inductivity [1,2]. However, it is worth mentioning that the material also presents disadvantages, i.e. it indicates too quick resorption within the biological environment, depending on its obtained form. In case when HAp is in the amorphous form, it undergoes a very rapid process of dissolving in the tissue environment. [3] In order to prevent the above, it is important to produce the coatings with a regulative level of cristallinity. In the presented research the hydroxyapatite coating produced using RF PACVD MS plasma method (Radio Frequency Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition Magnetron Sputtering possesses the above mentioned amorphous form. Nevertheless, due to the usage of ‘bubbler’, allowing for delivery of hydroxyl groups into the operating chamber, it was possible to receive the Hap coatings in a crystalline form. Changing the operating pressure (the amount of bonds - OH, during sputtering, it was checked what is the influence of that parameter on the physicochemical properties of obtained coatings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used for the founding research as well as the Roentgen Apparatus Analyser (EDS. The Phase composition of a created coating was researched using the Roentgen diffract-meter (XRD. The measures of thickness were conducted using contact-profilometry. Nano-indentation technique was used to assess the mechanical properties. Obtained results of research encourage for further researches related to the influence of hydroxyl groups on the

  19. Physicochemical properties of radiation-sterilized honey alginate wound dressing for exudating wounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honey is a well-known natural cure in promoting healing of wounds. Alginate, on the other hand, is a polysaccharide with pharmaceutical applications such as wound dressing and control release drugs. Calcium-alginate wound dressings have a gel-forming capability. in that, upon ion exchange between calcium ions in the dressing, and sodium ions in wound fluid, the dressing transforms into a gel. Cross-linked alginate gels can absorb would fluid, and also maintain a moist environment to the wound area. Combined with anti-microbial properties of honey and absorption and gelling properties of alginate, a honey alginate wound dressing is developed and irradiated for sterility. Its physicochemical properties are then analyzed. The honey-alginate wound dressing has lower pH (4.40±0.02) than alginate alone dressings (5.40±0.04) which is more favorable for wound healing. The dressing also has low moisture content (10.25±1.11%). Analysis of moisture vapour transmission rate shows a general increase with time for 48 hours. The wound dressing also has an absorbency of 19.00±1.80 g/100 cm2 with a gel fraction of 18.44±0.63%. The rate of absorption analysis, meanwhile, shows a very rapid absorption rate upon exposure to wound fluid. After some time, a decrease in rate is observed which is accounted to the release of honey to the wound environment. For tensile strength, irradiation causes an effect in tensile strength in machine direction but is insignificant for cross machine direction. Physicochemical properties of the radiation-sterilized honey alginate wound dressing e.g. acidic pH, absorbency, moisture vapor permeability and absorption rate ascertain its characteristic as a good wound dressing for exudating wounds. Its low moisture content, meanwhile, allows for longer shelf-life of the developed product. (author)

  20. Chemical carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that the multistage process of carcinogenesis can be affected by different environmental risk factors and that the type and temporal sequence of genetic or epigenetic changes varies from one cancer to another. Analytical epidemiological studies have contributed significantly to the identification of a number of major causes of human cancers, notably tobacco smoke, various occupational exposures, ionizing radiation, certain drugs and some viruses. At present, out of a total of 834 agents or exposure circumstances evaluated in the IARC Monographs, 75 have been concluded to be carcinogenic to humans, and the epidemiological evidence has played a critical role in these evaluations. Epidemiology and cancer statistics have also contributed to some basic understanding of the carcinogenic processes, showing that at least five or six sequential events are required in order to explain the development of cancer in humans

  1. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, Michael P

    2003-12-10

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis.

  2. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis

  3. Influence of biodiesel blending on physicochemical properties and importance of mathematical model for predicting the properties of biodiesel blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Short identification of selected biodiesel feedstock. • Review of physicochemical properties for blended biodiesel. • Mathematical model for predicting properties of various biodiesel blends. - Abstract: The growing demand for green world serves as one of the most significant challenges of modernization. Requirements like largest usage of energy for modern society as well as demand for friendly milieu create a deep concern in field of research. Biofuels are placed at the peak of the research arena for their underlying benefits as mentioned by multiple researches. Out of a number of vegetable oils, only a few are used commercially for biodiesel production. Due to various limitations of edible oil, non-edible oils are becoming a profitable choice. Till today, very little percentage of biodiesel is used successfully in engine. The research is still continuing for improving the biodiesel usage level. Recently, it is found that the blended biodiesel from more than one feedstock provides better performance in engine. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties of different biodiesel blends obtained from various feedstocks with a view to properly understand the fuel quality. Moreover, a short description of each feedstock is given along with graphical presentation of important properties for various blend percentages from B0 to B100. Finally, mathematical model is formed for predicting various properties of biodiesel blend with the help of different research data by using polynomial curve fitting method. The results obtained from a number of literature based on this work shows that the heating value of biodiesel is about 11% lower than diesel except coconut (14.5% lower) whereas kinematic viscosity is in the range of 4–5.4 mm2/s. Flash point of all biodiesels are more than 150 °C, except neem and coconut. Cold flow properties of calophyllum, palm, jatropha, moringa are inferior to others. This would help to determine important properties of

  4. Effects of physicochemical properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles on cellular uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have been used as a source of zinc, an essential trace element in food industry and also widely applied to various cosmetic products. However, there are few researches demonstrating that the cellular uptake behaviours of ZnO with respect to the physicochemical characteristics such as particle size and surface charge in human cells. In this study, we evaluated the cellular uptake of ZnO with two different sizes (20 and 70 nm) and different charges (positive and negative). Human lung epithelial cells were exposed to ZnO for a given time, and then the uptake amount of ZnO was measured with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results showed that the smaller sized ZnO could more easily enter the cells than the larger sized ZnO. In terms of surface charge, positively charged ZnO showed high cellular uptake compared to ZnO with negative charge. The internalization pathway of positively charged ZnO nanoparticles was determined to be primarily related to the energy-dependent endocytosis. It is, therefore, concluded that the particle size and surface charge of ZnO nanoparticles are critical factors influencing on their cellular uptake. Understanding the cellular uptake behaviours of nanoparticles with respect to physicochemical properties may be important to predict their toxicity potential on human.

  5. Characterization of Turkish honeys regarding of physicochemical properties, and their adulteration analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeyda KIVRAK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work was conducted to evaluate the quality of 54 honey samples from eighteen different origins from Turkey. Physicochemical properties were examined according to AOAC methods, total phenolic and flavonoid contents by a spectrophotometric method and authenticity of honeys by Combustion Module - Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CM-CRDS. The microscopic analysis of honey sediment (mellissopalynology was carried out to identify and count the pollen to provide qualitative indicators to confirm botanical origin. The moisture, electrical conductivity and free acidity of honeys ranged from 15.56 to 18.39%, 0.143 to 2.006 mS.cm-1, 16.05 meq.kg-1 and 34.10 meq.kg-1, respectively. Diastase activity of sideritis honey was found highest. Honeys showed HMF level below 40 mg.kg-1. The highest proline was determined in thyme honey. The results showed that honeys contained eminent amounts of phenolics and flavonoids. δ13C values of honeys were more negative than -23.5‰. The C4% sugar ratios were lower than 7% value. The lowest glucose-fructose content was observed in eucalyptus, cedar and pine honey samples. The results obtained for physicochemical characteristics, total phenolic and flavonoid contents an authenticity analysis of Turkish honeys indicate a good quality level, adequate processing, good maturity and freshness. The discrimination between honey types was achieved by PCA.

  6. Physico-chemical properties of soil at oil palm plantation area, Labu, Negeri Sembilan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozieta, R.; Sahibin A., R.; Wan Mohd Razi, I.

    2015-09-01

    A study on the physico-chemical characteristics of soil from oil palm plantation area at New Labu Estate, Negeri Sembilan was carried out. A number of 20 topsoil (0-20cm) samples were collected based on plantation block by using `Dutch Auger'. The soil physico-chemical properties determined were particle size distribution, organic matter content, pH and total organic carbon. Particle size distribution was determined by pipette method and dry sieving. Bulk density was determined by waxing method. Organic matter and total organic carbon were measured through loss of ignition and Walkley-Black method, respectively. Soil pH was determined based on soil:water ratio of 1:2.5. Results showed that the texture of the soil was classified as sandy clay with the highest percentage of sand particles component. Organic matter content is considered as low at less than 4% and soil organic carbon content was low with 1.75%. The average soil pH in the study area was very acidic with values of 3.81.

  7. Physico-Chemical Properties of the Oils and Fat from Crotalaria cleomifolia Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of C. cleomifolia (locally known as kacang hantu) collected along Simpang Pulai - Berinchang Road, Cameron Highlands, was defatted with hexane and the resulting oil was analysed for their physico-chemical properties. The percentage yield of the oil was calculated as 5.3 %. The acid value (1.2 %), iodine value (85), peroxide value (0.6), saponification value (192.0) and unsaponifiable matter (2.3 %) were determined to assess the quality of the oil. The physico-chemical characterisation showed that C. cleomifolia seeds oil is unsaturated semi-drying oil, with high saponification and acidic values. The fatty acid composition of C. cleomifolia seed oil was determined by Gas Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (ToF). The seed oil of C. cleomifolia contained linoleic acid (57.59 %) and palmitic acid (5.07 %), the most abundant unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, respectively. The polyunsaturated triacylglycerol (TAG) in C. cleomifolia seed oil determined by reverse phase High performance Liquid Chromatography; contained as PLL (18.04 %) followed by POL + SLL (11.92 %), OOL (7.04 %) and PLLn (6.31 %). The melting and cooling point of the oil were 16.22 degree Celsius and -33.54 degree Celsius, respectively. (author)

  8. Relationship between physicochemical properties and enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse varieties for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienzo, Michel; Tyhoda, Luvuyo; Benjamin, Yuda; Görgens, Johann

    2015-03-25

    The structural and physicochemical characteristics are associated with resistance of plant cell walls to saccharification by enzymes. The effect of physicochemical properties on glucose yield of bagasse from different varieties of sugarcane at low and high enzyme dosages was investigated. The result showed that glucose yield at low enzyme dosage was positively linear correlated with the yield at high enzyme dosage, for both the untreated and pretreated materials. The pretreatment significantly increased the accessibility of substrates by enzyme due to the increase of internal and external surface area. Glucose yield also showed a linear correlation with dye adsorption. However, the increase in glucose yield as a result of pretreatment did not correlate with the increases in crystallinity index and decreases in degree of polymerization. The Principal Component Analysis of infrared data indicated that lignin was the main component that differentiated the varieties before and after pretreatment. These results suggested that the key differences in pretreatment responses among varieties could be mainly attributed to their differences in the internal and external surface area after pretreatment. PMID:25576176

  9. Thermal and physicochemical properties important for the long term behavior of nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High level nuclear waste from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has to be solidified in a stable matrix for safe long-time storage. Vitrification in borosilicate glasses is the technique accepted worldwide as the best combination of engineering constraints from fabrication and physicochemical properties of the matrix. A number of different glasses was developed in different national programs. The criteria and the reasons for selecting the final compositions are described briefly. Emphasis is placed on the French product R7T7 and on thermal and physicochemical properties though glasses developed in other national projects (e.g., the German product GP 98/12, etc.) are also treated. The basic physical and mechanical properties and the chemical durability of the glass in contact with water are described. The basic mechanisms of aqueous corrosion are discussed and the evolving modelling of the leaching process is dealt with, as well as effects of container material, backfill, etc. The thermal behavior has also been studied and extensive data exist on diffusion of glass constituents (Na) and of interesting elements of the waste such as the alkalis Rb and Cs or the actinides U and Pu, as well as on crystallization processes in the glass during storage at elevated temperatures. Emphasis is placed on the radiation stability of the glasses, based on extensive studies using short-lived actinides (e.g., 244Cm) or ion implantation to produce the damage expected during long storage at an accelerated rate. The radiation stability is shown to be very good, if realistic damage conditions are used. The knowledge accumulated in the past years is used to evaluate and predict the long-term evolution of the glass under storage conditions. (orig.)

  10. Cyclodextrin inclusion complex to improve physicochemical properties of herbicide bentazon: exploring better formulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Yáñez

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the host-guest complexes using cyclodextrins (CDs has prompted an increase in the development of new formulations. The capacity of these organic host structures of including guest within their hydrophobic cavities, improves physicochemical properties of the guest. In the case of pesticides, several inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins have been reported. However, in order to explore rationally new pesticide formulations, it is essential to know the effect of cyclodextrins on the properties of guest molecules. In this study, the inclusion complexes of bentazon (Btz with native βCD and two derivatives, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD and sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBECD, were prepared by two methods: kneading and freeze-drying, and their characterization was investigated with different analytical techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, differential thermal analysis (DTA, X-ray diffractometry (XRD and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV. All these approaches indicate that Btz forms inclusion complexes with CDs in solution and in solid state, with a stoichiometry of 1:1, although some of them are obtained in mixtures with free Btz. The calculated association constant of the Btz/HPCD complex by DPV was 244±19 M(-1 being an intermediate value compared with those obtained with βCD and SBECD. The use of CDs significantly increases Btz photostability, and depending on the CDs, decreases the surface tension. The results indicated that bentazon forms inclusion complexes with CDs showing improved physicochemical properties compared to free bentazon indicating that CDs may serve as excipient in herbicide formulations.

  11. Cellular interaction and toxicity depend on physicochemical properties and surface modification of redox-active nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowding, Janet M; Das, Soumen; Kumar, Amit; Dosani, Talib; McCormack, Rameech; Gupta, Ankur; Sayle, Thi X T; Sayle, Dean C; von Kalm, Laurence; Seal, Sudipta; Self, William T

    2013-06-25

    The study of the chemical and biological properties of CeO2 nanoparticles (CNPs) has expanded recently due to its therapeutic potential, and the methods used to synthesize these materials are diverse. Moreover, conflicting reports exist regarding the toxicity of CNPs. To help resolve these discrepancies, we must first determine whether CNPs made by different methods are similar or different in their physicochemical and catalytic properties. In this paper, we have synthesized several forms of CNPs using identical precursors through a wet chemical process but using different oxidizer/reducer; H2O2 (CNP1), NH4OH (CNP2), or hexamethylenetetramine (HMT-CNP1). Physicochemical properties of these CNPs were extensively studied and found to be different depending on the preparation methods. Unlike CNP1 and CNP2, HMT-CNP1 was readily taken into endothelial cells and the aggregation can be visualized using light microscopy. Exposure to HMT-CNP1 also reduced cell viability at a 10-fold lower concentration than CNP1 or CNP2. Surprisingly, exposure to HMT-CNP1 led to substantial decreases in ATP levels. Mechanistic studies revealed that HMT-CNP1 exhibited substantial ATPase (phosphatase) activity. Though CNP2 also exhibits ATPase activity, CNP1 lacked ATPase activity. The difference in catalytic (ATPase) activity of different CNPs preparation may be due to differences in their morphology and oxygen extraction energy. These results suggest that the combination of increased uptake and ATPase activity of HMT-CNP1 may underlie the biomechanism of the toxicity of this preparation of CNPs and may suggest that ATPase activity should be considered when synthesizing CNPs for use in biomedical applications. PMID:23668322

  12. Physicochemically tunable polyfunctionalized RNA square architecture with fluorogenic and ribozymatic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Daniel L; Khisamutdinov, Emil F; Lyubchenko, Yuri L; Guo, Peixuan

    2014-08-26

    Recent advances in RNA nanotechnology allow the rational design of various nanoarchitectures. Previous methods utilized conserved angles from natural RNA motifs to form geometries with specific sizes. However, the feasibility of producing RNA architecture with variable sizes using native motifs featuring fixed sizes and angles is limited. It would be advantageous to display RNA nanoparticles of diverse shape and size derived from a given primary sequence. Here, we report an approach to construct RNA nanoparticles with tunable size and stability. Multifunctional RNA squares with a 90° angle were constructed by tuning the 60° angle of the three-way junction (3WJ) motif from the packaging RNA (pRNA) of the bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor. The physicochemical properties and size of the RNA square were also easily tuned by modulating the “core” strand and adjusting the length of the sides of the square via predictable design. Squares of 5, 10, and 20 nm were constructed, each showing diverse thermodynamic and chemical stabilities. Four “arms” extending from the corners of the square were used to incorporate siRNA, ribozyme, and fluorogenic RNA motifs. Unique intramolecular contact using the pre-existing intricacy of the 3WJ avoids relatively weaker intermolecular interactions via kissing loops or sticky ends. Utilizing the 3WJ motif, we have employed a modular design technique to construct variable-size RNA squares with controllable properties and functionalities for diverse and versatile applications with engineering, pharmaceutical, and medical potential. This technique for simple design to finely tune physicochemical properties adds a new angle to RNA nanotechnology. PMID:24971772

  13. Chitosan-gum arabic polyelectrolyte complex films: physicochemical, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakloetsakun, Duangkamon; Preechagoon, Detpon; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2016-08-01

    By blending chitosan (CS) and gum arabic (GA), a powerful biomaterial complex might be obtained due to the unique properties of CS and the low viscosity and good emulsifying properties of GA. The objectives of this study were to prepare and examine the properties of dispersions and films of CS and GA as a function of the mixing weight ratio, pH value and molecular weight of CS. The dispersions were characterized by turbidity, zeta potential and cytotoxicity and then the dispersions were cast into films. Physicochemical properties of the film were performed. CS-GA dispersions exhibited higher turbidity and a lower zeta potential with an increase in the GA ratio. Continuous films of the CS-GA could be formed at all ratios. CS and GA could molecularly interact via electrostatic forces and intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The CS-GA (1:0.5) films exhibited relatively low water uptake, erosion, water vapor permeability and puncture strength compared to the CS films. Furthermore, the CS-GA films demonstrated good mucoadhesive properties, allowing for adhesion to the mucosal membrane. Based on these results, it could be advantageous to use CS-GA films as film formers for the formulation of coatings and drug delivery systems. PMID:25886079

  14. Orange peel flour effect on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Hernandez Garcia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange peel flours as a source of fiber, protein, and flavonoids as antioxidants was added to meat batters in order to improve nutritional quality and physicochemical, textural and sensory properties. Orange peel flour in meat batters improved yield and reduced expressible moisture. Hardness in orange peel flour samples was higher, but less resilient and cohesive. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not different between control (no orange peel flour and samples with this functional ingredient. A no trained panel determinate that there was no difference between control and orange peel flour added sausages at a 5% (w/w level. In this view, orange peel flour can be employed to improve yield and texture of cooked meat products.

  15. Evaluation of physico-chemical properties of electron beam-irradiated polycarbonate film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, polycarbonate (PC) film samples were irradiated with 10 MeV electrons at different doses ranging from 25 to 250 kGy. Characterization techniques viz. thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) were exploited to understand the induced changes in the physico-chemical properties of the polymer. An increase in the decomposition temperature with increasing dose was observed, while the crystallinity remained unchanged as a result of the formation of cross-link bond. EPR technique characterized the stability of the free radicals in the irradiated PC. The result showed that cross-linking process occurs at low absorbed doses, whereas polymer degradation happens at higher doses

  16. Liposome drugs' loading efficiency: a working model based on loading conditions and drug's physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Daniel; Marcus, David; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Goldblum, Amiram

    2009-10-01

    Remote loading of liposomes by transmembrane gradients is one of the best approaches for achieving the high enough drug level per liposome required for the liposomal drug to be therapeutically efficacious. This breakthrough, which enabled the approval and clinical use of nanoliposomal drugs such as Doxil, has not been paralleled by an in-depth understanding that allows predicting loading efficiency of drugs. Here we describe how applying data-mining algorithms on a data bank based on Barenholz's laboratory's 15 years of liposome research experience on remote loading of 9 different drugs enabled us to build a model that relates drug physicochemical properties and loading conditions to loading efficiency. This model enables choosing candidate molecules for remote loading and optimizing loading conditions according to logical considerations. The model should also help in designing pro-drugs suitable for remote loading. Our approach is expected to improve and accelerate development of liposomal formulations for clinical applications. PMID:19508880

  17. Physicochemical properties and thermal stability of quercetin hydrates in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Quercetin raw materials may present different degree of hydration. ► Thermal stability of quercetin in the solid state depends on its degree of hydration. ► Quercetin dehydrate is thermodynamically more stable than the other crystal forms. - Abstract: In the present work three samples of quercetin raw materials (QCTa, QCTb and QCTc), purchased from different Brazilian suppliers, were characterized employing scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, simultaneous thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and variable temperature-powder X-ray diffraction, in order to know their physicochemical properties, specially the thermal stability in solid state. The results demonstrated that the raw materials of quercetin analyzed present distinct crystalline structures, ascribed to the different degree of hydration of their crystal lattice. The thermal stability of these quercetin raw materials in the solid state was highly dependent on their degree of hydration, where QCTa (quercetin dihydrate) was thermodynamically more stable than the other two samples.

  18. Physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of sausage formulated with surimi powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Palestina; Huda, Nurul; Yang, Tajul Aris

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of fish sausage made with 100 % threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicus) surimi powder (SP100), a mix of 50 % surimi powder and 50 % frozen surimi (SP50), and a control (100 % frozen surimi). No significant differences in protein content and folding test results (P > 0.05) were detected among the SP100 and SP50 samples and the control. Gel strength of SP100 was lower (P > 0.05) than that of the control. The texture profile analysis (TPA) values (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) of SP100 were significantly lower (P Malaysian commercial fish sausages. The water holding capacity, and emulsion stability of SP100 were significantly lower (P Malaysian commercial fish sausages. PMID:25745219

  19. EFFECT OF PRESSURE INDUCED GRAFT COPOLYMERIZATION ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BIO-FIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Singh Singha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the surface modification of Agave americana L. fiber through graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate under pressure in the presence of ceric ammonium nitrate as redox initiator. The various reaction parameters such as reaction time, pressure, concentration of nitric acid, initiator, and monomer, etc. were optimized to have the maximum graft yield of 13.6%. The grafted fibers were then subjected to the evaluation of different physico-chemical properties such as swelling behavior, solubility, moisture absorption under different humidity levels, resistance to acids and bases, etc. It was observed that swelling behavior, solubility behavior, and moisture absorbance decreased with increase in grafting, whereas resistance to acids and bases increased with grafting. The fibers grafted under the optimized conditions were then characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and x-ray diffraction techniques.

  20. Effect of the conditions of structure formation on the physicochemical properties of ozonated shungites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emel'Yanova, G. I.; Gorlenko, L. E.; Rozhkova, N. N.; Rumyantseva, M. N.; Lunin, V. V.

    2010-08-01

    It was investigated the influence of ozone on the physicochemical properties of shungites (type 1) (75-98% C) from Nigozero and Chebolaksha deposits (Karelia) formed by hydrothermal (Nigozero) and high-temperature (Chebolaksha) processes. Ozonation was found to affect the specific surface and the total pore volume of shungites considerably. The pore size distribution pattern depends on the volume morphology (texture) of the sample. An increase in the temperature and pressure during the structure formation of shungite (Chebolaksha) led to a shift of the maximum on the distribution pattern towards the formation of mesopores. The size distribution of pores with the dominant contents of micro- and submesopores for both shungites correlated with the basic structural nanoelements of shungite carbon. The peculiarities of the ozonation of shungite nanocarbon found previously (the non-steady state vibrational kinetics of ozonation and the absence of carbon(II) oxide among the reaction products) were confirmed.

  1. Physicochemical properties and starch structure of a rice mutant with reduction of starch paste viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variations in starch physicochemical properties and starch structure between the rice low-paste viscosity mutant RSV-1 and its original parent II-32B were investigated. The results indicated that the apparent amylose content (AAC), gel consistency (GC), alkali spreading value (ASV) of mutant RSV-1 were higher than the wild type. However, major parameters of starch paste viscosity in mutant RSV-1 starch, i. e. peak paste viscosity, hot paste viscosity, and cool paste viscosity were significantly lower than those of the original parent. Compared to the original parent, the mutant had a similar peak time, but less energy and longer time needed for gelatinization. The starch manifested C-type crystalline and starch granule in the endosperm were irregular with different diameters. The mutation of the starch structure might play a key role for the decrease of starch paste viscosity in the mutant RSV-1. (authors)

  2. Comparison of some physico-chemical properties of irradiated cereal starches, separated or contained in flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study some physico-chemical properties of separated wheat starch from flour type 500 and 850, rye starch from flour type 720 and triticale starch from flour type 680 were compared. All starches were irradiated with medium doses of gamma rays: 2,3 and 5 kGy directly (after their separation from flour) and in flour. The water binding capacity of starches, their solubility in water and reduction capacity were found to depend on the dose applied and the method of irradiation, individually for each starch. Additional direct irradiation of all starches caused a smaller decrease in the viscosity of starch pastes and a stronger inhibition of the retrogradation process, in comparison to the starches separated from the irradiated flours. (author)

  3. Effect of cooking on physicochemical properties and volatile compounds in lotus root (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuyi; Li, Xiaojin; Lamikanra, Olusola; Luo, Qing; Liu, Zhiwei; Yang, Jun

    2017-02-01

    The effects of boiling and steaming on lotus root volatile compounds and some of its physicochemical properties were determined. A total of 52 compounds identified in the raw tuber by GC-MS were a combination of the rhizome's native compounds and those from the soil and water environment, and are predominantly a mixture of straight chain and cyclic alkanes, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Boiling increased concentrations of most of these compounds, unlike steaming that lowered total volatile components of the tuber. Cooking increased complexity of volatile compounds with the production of new compounds such as methylated derivatives, particularly in steam cooked lotus. Other heat-induced compounds include antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyl compounds and antifungal organic compounds such as dimethyl disulfide. Instrumental texture measurements indicate that the characteristic post-cooked retention of crunchiness in lotus root is likely to be related to retention of its springiness index through the cooking process. PMID:27596426

  4. Systematic Study of the Physicochemical Properties of a Homologous Series of Aminobisphosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouko Vepsäläinen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aminobisphosphonates, e.g., alendronate and neridronate, are a well known class of molecules used as drugs for various bone diseases. Although these molecules have been available for decades, a detailed understanding of their most important physicochemical properties under comparable conditions is lacking. In this study, ten aminobisphosphonates, H2N(CH2nC(OH[P(O(OH2]2, in which n = 2–5, 7–11 and 15 have been synthesized. Their aqueous solubility as a function of temperature and pH, pKa-values, thermal stability, IR absorptions, and NMR spectral data for bothliquid (1H, 13C, 31P-NMR and solid state (13C, 15N and 31P-CPMAS NMR were determined.

  5. The use of potato fibre to improve bread physico-chemical properties during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, Elena; Carini, Eleonora; Diantom, Agoura; Vittadini, Elena

    2016-03-15

    Bread staling reduction is a very important issue for the food industry. A fibre with high water holding capacity, extracted from potato peel, was studied for its ability to reduce bread staling even if employed at low level (0.4 g fibre/100 g flour). Physico-chemical properties (water activity, moisture content, frozen water content, amylopectin retrogradation) and (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance molecular mobility were characterised in potato fibre added bread over 7 days of storage. Potato fibre addition in bread slightly affected water activity and moisture content, while increased frozen water content and resulted in a softer bread crumb, more importantly when the optimal amount of water was used in the formulation. Potato fibre also reduced (1)H NMR molecular mobility changes in bread crumb during storage. Potato fibre addition in bread contributed to reduce bread staling. PMID:26575713

  6. Supramolecular structure of jackfruit seed starch and its relationship with digestibility and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin; Liang, Yi; Li, Xiaoxi; Chen, Ling; Xie, Fengwei

    2016-10-01

    The influence of supramolecular structure on the physicochemical properties and digestibility of jackfruit seed starch (JSS) were investigated. Compared with maize and cassava starches (MS and CS), JSS had smaller granules and higher amylose content (JSS: 24.90%; CS: 16.68%; and MS: 22.42%), which contributed to higher gelatinization temperature (To: 81.11°C) and setback viscosity (548.9mPas). From scanning electron microscopy, the digestion of JSS was observed mainly at the granule surface. Due to its higher crystallinity (JSS: 30.6%; CS: 30.3%; and MS: 27.4%) and more ordered semi-crystalline lamellae, JSS had a high RS content (74.26%) and melting enthalpy (19.61J/g). In other words, the supramolecular structure of JSS extensively determined its digestibility and resistance to heat and mechanical shear treatment. PMID:27312638

  7. Effect of wall material on the antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of Rubus fruticosus juice microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Dafne I; Beristain, Cesar I; Azuara, Ebner; Luna, Guadalupe; Jimenez, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) juice possesses compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be protected by different biopolymers used in the microencapsulation. Therefore, the effects of cell wall material including maltodextrin (MD), Arabic gum (GA) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) were evaluated on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of encapsulated blackberries using a spray-drying technique. Anthocyanin concentration, polymeric colour, total polyphenols, radical scavenging activity of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazil radical, reducing power and the stability at different storage conditions were evaluated. GA and MD conferred a similar protection to the antioxidant compounds when the microcapsules were stored at low water activities (aw  0.902), whereas WPC presented a high protection. Therefore, the selection of the best wall material for blackberry juice encapsulation depends of the conditions of storage of the powder. PMID:26006741

  8. Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Profiles of Elaeagnus mollis Diels Nut Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaohua; Yang, Ruinan; Dong, Caiwen; Yang, Qingping

    2015-01-01

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid profiles, content of tocopherol and sterol of the oils extracted from the nuts of Elaeagnus mollis Diels grown in different regions of China were studied in this work. The results indicated that the Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oils contained about 0.2% sterols and the tocopherol contents were in the range of 119.6-128.6mg/100g. The nut oils were all rich in unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid and linoleic acid. Furthermore, the main triacylglycerols species of the nut oils were all dilinoleoyl-monoolein (LOL), dioleoyl-monolinoleoyl (OLO) and trilinoleate (LLL). This work might be useful for developing applications for Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oil. PMID:26632946

  9. Effect of amylose content and nanoclay incorporation order in physicochemical properties of starch/montmorillonite composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Bastida, C A; Tapia-Blácido, D R; Méndez-Montealvo, G; Bello-Pérez, L A; Velázquez, G; Alvarez-Ramirez, J

    2016-11-01

    The effects of the amylose content and the preparation sequence in physicochemical properties of starch/montmorillonite (MMT) composites were studied in this work. Native (30%) and high amylose Hylon VII (70%) starches were considered for assessing the effects of amylose content. Glycerol and MMT were used as additives to evaluate the effects of the former as plasticizer and the latter as reinforcer. The glycerol was incorporated before (Method M1) and after (Method M2) the addition of MMT. FTIR studies indicated that water bonding was affected by amylose content. Sorption isotherms indicated that method M2 favoured water adsorption and method M1 reduced water adsorption due to competition for active sites for interaction. TGA showed that method M1 induced a higher degradation rate than method M2. Wettability analysis by contact angle measurements showed that plasticizer promoted the hydrophilicity of the film, whereas MMT promoted a hydrophobic surface for both cases of amylose content. PMID:27516282

  10. Physico-chemical and nutritional properties of cereal-pulse blends for bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Shfali; Jood, Sudesh

    2002-01-01

    Supplementation of soy (full fat and defatted) and barley flours to wheat flour at 51 10, 15 and 20% levels were carried out to see their effect on physico-chemical and nutritional properties of blends for bread making. The gluten content and sedimentation value of flour blends decreased and water absorption capacity increased with increase in the level of soybean and barley flour separately and in combinations to bread flour. All the blends at 20% levels were found nutritionally superior but breads prepared from them found organoleptically unacceptable. However, addition of 15% barley flour, 10% full fat soy flour, 10% defatted soy flour, 15% full fat soy flour + barley flour and 15% defatted soy flour + barley flour to wheat flour not only increased the total protein, glutelin (protein fraction), total lysine, dietary fibre and beta-glucan contents of cereal-pulse blends for bread making, but could also produce a product of acceptable quality. PMID:12418802

  11. Evolution of some physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic whole bulbs and peeled cloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano-Medina, M Angeles; Pérez-Aparicio, Jesús; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Merinas-Amo, Tania

    2016-05-15

    Black garlic was processed at three different temperatures of heat treatment (72°, 75° and 78°C) and close to 90% of relative humidity. Two types of material source were used: whole bulbs and peeled cloves. Total soluble solids content (°Brix), pH, water activity (aw), browning intensive (L value), total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol index of the raw and heated garlic were determined. This study showed the changes occurring in the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the garlic during the heat-treatment evolution. The soluble solids content (°Brix) in garlic increased gradually and the pH decreased in whole bulbs and peeled garlics. The polyphenol content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method showed a significant increase during the heat-treatment in all the cases. Also, the antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS radical increased significantly during the heat-treatment. PMID:26775954

  12. Physicochemical and functional properties of protein isolate produced from Australian chia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Adhikari, Raju; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu

    2016-12-01

    Protein was isolated from Australian chia seeds and converted to powders using spray, freeze and vacuum drying methods, to investigate the effect of drying methods on physicochemical and functional attributes of chia-seed protein isolate (CPI). It was found that there was no significant difference in the proximate composition; however vacuum dried CPI (VDCPI) had the highest bulk density and oil absorption capacity, whereas spray dried powder (SDCPI) demonstrated the highest solubility, water absorption capacity and lowest surface hydrophobicity. Solubility of all powders was higher at elevated temperature and alkaline pH. Foaming capacity and foam stability of CPI were found to increase with increasing pH and protein concentration. SDCPI was the least denatured and VDCPI the most denatured, demonstrating the poorest solubility and foaming properties of the latter. These findings are expected to be useful in selection of a drying process to yield chia seed protein powders with more desirable functionality. PMID:27374580

  13. Prediction of Substrate-Enzyme-Product Interaction Based on Molecular Descriptors and Physicochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Niu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to correctly and efficiently predict the interaction of substrate-enzyme and to predict their product in metabolic pathway. In this work, a novel approach was introduced to encode substrate/product and enzyme molecules with molecular descriptors and physicochemical properties, respectively. Based on this encoding method, KNN was adopted to build the substrate-enzyme-product interaction network. After selecting the optimal features that are able to represent the main factors of substrate-enzyme-product interaction in our prediction, totally 160 features out of 290 features were attained which can be clustered into ten categories: elemental analysis, geometry, chemistry, amino acid composition, predicted secondary structure, hydrophobicity, polarizability, solvent accessibility, normalized van der Waals volume, and polarity. As a result, our predicting model achieved an MCC of 0.423 and an overall prediction accuracy of 89.1% for 10-fold cross-validation test.

  14. Prediction of substrate-enzyme-product interaction based on molecular descriptors and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Bing; Huang, Guohua; Zheng, Linfeng; Wang, Xueyuan; Chen, Fuxue; Zhang, Yuhui; Huang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    It is important to correctly and efficiently predict the interaction of substrate-enzyme and to predict their product in metabolic pathway. In this work, a novel approach was introduced to encode substrate/product and enzyme molecules with molecular descriptors and physicochemical properties, respectively. Based on this encoding method, KNN was adopted to build the substrate-enzyme-product interaction network. After selecting the optimal features that are able to represent the main factors of substrate-enzyme-product interaction in our prediction, totally 160 features out of 290 features were attained which can be clustered into ten categories: elemental analysis, geometry, chemistry, amino acid composition, predicted secondary structure, hydrophobicity, polarizability, solvent accessibility, normalized van der Waals volume, and polarity. As a result, our predicting model achieved an MCC of 0.423 and an overall prediction accuracy of 89.1% for 10-fold cross-validation test. PMID:24455714

  15. Study of the relationships between nuclear decontamination foams stability and their physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LPAD (French Atomic Energy Commission) develops innovative processes in the frame of the future dismantling of nuclear facilities. Formulations were developed using high viscosified foams stabilized by biodegradable nonionic surfactants: alkyl poly-glucosides and viscosifiers (xanthan gum), which allow us to increase the foam lifetime and thus contact time of chemical reactants with the facility walls. We have considered the relationships between physicochemical properties and foam stability through the exploration of the foam at three different scales: from the molecular range (micelles, surface tension and visco-elasticity), to the film and Plateau border range (XR reflectivity, surface shear viscosity) and to macroscopic range, meaning the whole foam (foaminess, liquid fraction and wall film thickness evolution). Finally, exploratory study is presented concerning simultaneous foam three scales characterisation by small angle neutron scattering. (author)

  16. Physicochemical, Functional and Antioxidant Properties of Tropical Fruits Co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selani, Miriam Mabel; Bianchini, Andreia; Ratnayake, Wajira S; Flores, Rolando A; Massarioli, Adna Prado; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Canniatti Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of mango (MAC), pineapple (PAC) and passion fruit (PFC) co-products in order to evaluate them as ingredients for food application. Proximate composition showed low fat content (0.95-5.64 g/100 g), and high levels of dietary fiber. In pineapple and passion fruit co-products, dietary fiber represented more than 50 % of the sample. Low pH, water activity, along with high acidity indicated that these co-products would not be easily susceptible to deterioration as food ingredients. Pineapple and passion fruit co-products had significant (p DPPH and ABTS methods. The results indicated that the fruit co-products under evaluation could be used as functional ingredient to provide dietary fiber and natural antioxidants to food products. PMID:26984339

  17. Physicochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Cocoa Pod Husk Pectin Intended as a Versatile Pharmaceutical Excipient and Nutraceutical

    OpenAIRE

    Ofosua Adi-Dako; Kwabena Ofori-Kwakye; Samuel Frimpong Manso; Mariam EL Boakye-Gyasi; Clement Sasu; Mike Pobee

    2016-01-01

    The physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of cocoa pod husk (CPH) pectin intended as a versatile pharmaceutical excipient and nutraceutical were studied. Properties investigated include pH, moisture content, ash values, swelling index, viscosity, degree of esterification (DE), flow properties, SEM, FTIR, NMR, and elemental content. Antimicrobial screening and determination of MICs against test microorganisms were undertaken using agar diffusion and broth dilution methods, respectively....

  18. Physicochemical characterization and evaluation of suspending properties of arabinoxylan from Ispaghula (Plantago ovata) husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Sajid; Erum, Alia; Saghir, Shazia; Tulain, Umme Ruqia; Rashid, Ayesha

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of arabinoxylan as potential suspending agent, an effective alternative to commercially used excipients for the preparation of pharmaceutical suspensions. Alkali extraction was done to separate arabinoxylan from ispaghula (Plantago ovata) seed husk by alkali extraction its physicochemical characterization was done and the suspending properties of arabinoxylan isolated were evaluated comparatively with those of bentonite at different concentration ranges of 0.125,0.25,0.5 and 1% in Zinc oxide suspension. The parameters employed for evaluation were sedimentation volume, degree of flocculation, flow rate, density, pH, redispersibility, microbiological evaluation and particle size analysis. Physicochemical characterization of arabinoxylan indicates its suitability as excipient as it has fair flow properties, low moisture content and almost neutral pH. Arabinoxylan at low conc. 0.125% showed sedimentation volume comparable to commercially used suspending agents such as bentonite 1% while suspensions containing higher concentrations such as 0.25% (sedimentation volume 92%), 0.5% (sedimentation volume 94%) and 1% conc. (sedimentation volume 98%) of arabinoxylan remained almost completely suspended during study period of 7 days. Formulations containing 0.125% and 0.25% arabinoxylan as suspending agents are easily redispersible as compared to bentonite containing formulation while formulation containing 0.5% arabinoxylan are moderately redispersible while formulation containing 1% suspending agent gel upon storage and was not redispersible. Furthermore arabinoxylan produces stable, highly flocculated suspension, which fulfilled microbiological, and particle size specifications, however the formulations containing higher arabinoxylan 1% concentration gel upon storage. So it is concluded that arabinoxylan could be used as effective suspending agent at low concentrations in Zinc oxide suspension. PMID:25362588

  19. Pentaglyme-K salt binary mixtures: phase behavior, solvate structures, and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandai, Toshihiko; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Ueno, Kazuhide; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2015-01-28

    We prepared a series of binary mixtures composed of certain K salts (KX) and pentaglyme (G5) with different salt concentrations and anionic species ([X](-): [(CF3SO2)2N](-) = [TFSA](-), [CF3SO3](-) = [TfO](-), [C4F9SO3](-) = [NfO](-), PF6(-), SCN(-)), and characterized them with respect to their phase diagrams, solvate structures, and physicochemical properties. Their phase diagrams and thermal stability strongly implied the formation of equimolar complexes. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography was performed on certain equimolar complexes, which revealed that G5 molecules coordinate to K(+) cations in a characteristic manner, like 18-crown-6 ether in the crystalline state, irrespective of the paired anions. The solvate structures in the molten state were elucidated by a combination of temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. A drastic spectral variation was observed in the [K(G5)1][TfO] Raman spectra, indicating that solvate structures in the crystalline state break apart upon melting. The solvate stability of [K(G5)1]X is closely related to the ion-ion interaction of the parent salts. A stable solvate forms when the ion-dipole interaction between K(+) and G5 overwhelms the ion-ion interaction between K(+) and X(-). Furthermore, the physicochemical properties of certain equimolar mixtures were evaluated. A Walden plot clearly reflects the ionic nature of the molten equimolar complexes. Judging from the structural characteristics and dissociativity, we classified [K(G5)1]X into two groups, good and poor solvate ionic liquids. PMID:25501925

  20. Effects of Tamarisk shrub on physicochemical properties of soil in coastal wetland of the Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiuping; WANG Baodong; XIE Linping; XIN Ming; WANG Wei; WANG Zicheng; ZHANG Wenquan; WEI Qinsheng

    2016-01-01

    There are many different and even controversial results concerning the effects of Tamarisk on the physicochemical properties of soil. A year-round monitoring of soil salinity, pH and moisture is conducted beneath the Tamarisk shrub in a coastal wetland in the Bohai Sea in China, to ascertain the effects of Tamarisk on the physicochemical properties of soil in coastal wetland. Compared with the control area, the soil moisture content is lower around the area of the taproot when there is less precipitation in the growing season because of water consumption by Tamarisk shrub. However, the soil moisture content is higher around the taproot when there is more precipitation in the growing season or in the non-growing period because of water conservation by the rhizosphere. The absorption of salt by the Tamarisk shrub reduces the soil salinity temporarily, but eventually salt returns to the soil by the leaching of salt on leaves by rainfall or by fallen leaves. The annual average soil moisture content beneath the Tamarisk shrub is lower than the control area by only 6.4%, indicating that the Tamarisk shrub has little effect on drought or water conservation in soils in the temperate coastal wetland with moderate annual precipitation. The annual average salinity beneath the Tamarisk shrub is 18% greater than that of the control area, indicating that Tamarisk does have an effect of rising soil salinity around Tamarisk shrubs. The soil pH value is as low as 7.3 in summer and as high as 10.2 in winter. The pH of soil near the taproot of the Tamarisk shrubs is one pH unit lower than that in the control area during the growing season. The difference in pH is less different from the control area in the non-growing season, indicating that the Tamarisk shrub does have the effect of reducing the alkalinity of soil in coastal wetland.

  1. Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Milk Samples Collected from Five Goat Breeds in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Alyaqoubi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Five different goat breeds (Saanen, Kacang, Jamnapari, Boer and a crossbred of Jamnapari and Saanen were obtained from one farm in Bandar Baru Bangi. The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity based on TPC, FRAP and DPPH. Goat milk samples were collected during the same lactation period (middle lactation and were subsequently compared with cow milk. The results of the study showed that goat milk exhibited a significantly higher (p<0.05 antioxidant capacity than cow milk. Jamnapari milk exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity in Total Phenol Content (TPC, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays with values of 544.08 mg GA/100 g FW, 481.69 mg TE/100 g FW and 67.44%, respectively. By contrast, the milk samples obtained from the Boer exhibited the lowest corresponding values of 460.00 mg GA/100 g FW, 386.06 mg TE/100 g FW and 59.68%, respectively. Results showed that physicochemical properties were significantly different (p<0.05 among the milk samples, with some samples more superior compared with others in one or more aspects. Jamnapari milk was superior in terms of ash, total soluble solid and protein with values of 0.96%, 13.02 Brix and 5.11%, respectively and this milk also showed the lowest moisture (81.28% among all milk samples. Cow milk exhibited the highest fat (4.43% and Kacang milk had the lowest titratable acidity (0.06% than the other milk samples. Thus, goat milk can be considered as an excellence source of antioxidants.

  2. Physicochemical Properties Analysis and Secretome of Aspergillus niger in Fermented Rapeseed Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Changyou; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient digestibility and feeding value of rapeseed meal (RSM) for non-ruminant animals is poor due to the presence of anti-nutritional substances such as glucosinolate, phytic acid, crude fiber etc. In the present study, a solid state fermentation (SSF) using Aspergillus niger was carried out with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of RSM. The chemical composition and physicochemical properties of RSM before and after fermentation were compared. To further understand possible mechanism of solid state fermentation, the composition of extracellular enzymes secreted by Aspergillus niger during fermentation was analysed using two-dimentional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS). Results of the present study indicated that SSF had significant effects on chemical composition of RSM. The fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) contained more crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) (except His) than unfermented RSM. Notably, the small peptide in FRSM was 2.26 time larger than that in unfermented RSM. Concentrations of anti-nutritional substrates in FRSM including neutral detergent fiber (NDF), glucosinolates, isothiocyanate, oxazolidithione, and phytic acid declined (P < 0.05) by 13.47, 43.07, 55.64, 44.68 and 86.09%, respectively, compared with unfermented RSM. A. niger fermentation disrupted the surface structure, changed macromolecular organic compounds, and reduced the protein molecular weights of RSM substrate. Total proteins of raw RSM and FRSM were separated and 51 protein spots were selected for mass spectrometry according to 2D-DIGE map. In identified proteins, there were 15 extracellular hydrolases secreted by A. niger including glucoamylase, acid protease, beta-glucanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylanase, and phytase. Some antioxidant related enzymes also were identified. These findings suggested that A. niger is able to secrete many extracellular

  3. Physicochemical properties and responses in microcirculation of native tapioca starch-based plasma expander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatpun, Surapong; Meesane, Jirut; Rujirojindakul, Pairaya

    2016-02-01

    Plasma expanders (PEs) such as hydroxyethyl strach are widely used for volume replacement. The plantation and production of tapioca in Thailand is abundant which may provide a new source for PEs starch with novel properties. This work investigated the properties and circulatory effects of native tapioca starch-based PE (TPE). Various formulations of mixture between native tapioca starch and 0.9% sodium chloride solution were prepared and characterized in order to obtain the proper physicochemical and rheological properties. About 1% concentration by weight per volume of TPE was compared with 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 in 0.9% sodium chloride (HES130/0.4) using an acute hemodilution by 40% of blood volume in an animal protocol. TPE had higher turbidity and viscosity but lower colloid osmotic pressure compared with HES 130/0.4. The in vivo study demonstrated that Golden Syrian hamsters hemodiluted with TPE maintained a mean arterial blood pressure and no significant difference compared to HES 130/0.4. The arterial vasodilation and functional capillary density in the animals hemodiluted with TPE had higher values than in the animals hemodiluted with HES 130/0.4. Although the in vivo study reported positive results using this native tapioca starch-based PE, the product needs work to improve some of its physiochemical properties. PMID:25892486

  4. Effect of saccharose substitutes on physicochemical and sensory properties of sour cherries in starch gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Pietrzyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the effect of saccharose substitutes on physicochemical and sensory properties of sour cherries in starch gel. Sour cherries in starch gel were produced with saccharose and its substitutes (maltitol, sucralose, trehalose. The sour cherries in gel were examined for pH, active total acidity, total soluble solids content, water activity. and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*. Moreover, rheological and textural properties (flow curves, back extrusion test and sensory quality of starch gels were determined. Saccharose substitutes do not change pH of products while reducing their active acidity, total soluble solids contents and cause increase in water activity. Only in the product with trehalose total soluble solids content was not changed. The saccharose substitutes caused changes in colour of products, with the biggest ones caused by sucralose. The saccharose substitutes influenced the rheological properties of starch gels. The differences in the rheological properties of starch gels were mainly dependent on the kind of sweetening agent. Starch gels with saccharose and its substitutes had good sensory quality.

  5. Strong cation exchange resin for improving physicochemical properties and sustaining release of ranitidine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study strong cation exchange resin (Amberlite IRP69 was used to improve the physicochemical properties of ranitidine hydrochloride such as taste and bulk properties and to sustain dissolution rate. Drug-resin complexes were prepared using batch method. Drug loading was done under different processing conditions such as temperature, pH, drug-resin ratio, and drug concentration to get the optimum condition for resinate preparation. Resinate prepared under optimized condition was tested for taste, bulk properties and release rate. Degree of bitterness of ranitidine was found to reduce to zero after complexation with resin. Improvement in flow properties was also observed. Angle of repose for resinate was found to be 33.21 o as compared to 42.27 o for ranitidine HCl. Effect of dissolution medium and particle size on in vitro release of drug from resinate was also investigated. Resinate with drug to resin ratio of 2:3 and particle size> 90 µm showed about 90% of drug release within 12 h. The orodispersible tablet formulated from the resinate containing 10% croscarmellose sodium disintegrated within 35 sec in oral cavity and showed similar dissolution profile as the resinate. Tablets were found stable after stability studies with no change in dissolution profile.

  6. DETERMINATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL, IMMUNOCHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES, TOXICOLOGICAL AND HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WHEY PROTEIN COMCENTRATE AND ITS HYDROLYSATE

    OpenAIRE

    T. N. Halavach; V. P. Kurchenko; V. G. Zhygankov; I. A. Evdokimov

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of whey proteins is aimed to obtain products with low allergenic potential and high nutritional value. Whey peptides are protein fraction that possesses a variety of physicochemical, immunochemical and bioactive properties (antioxidant, antibacterial, immunomodulatory effects). Controlled parameters of enzymatic hydrolysates are the degree of hydrolysis of protein substrates, peptide composition, residual antigenicity, antioxidant capacity, etc. The purpose of this work i...

  7. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Red Ginseng Extracts or Red Ginseng Hydrolyzates-added Asiago Cheese during Ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kyung-Hoon; Min, Ji-Young; Ganesan, Palanivel; Bae, In-Hyu; Kwak, Hae-Soo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate physicochemical properties of different concentrations (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%) of red ginseng hydrolyzates (RGH)- or red ginseng extract (RGE)-added Asiago cheeses (AC) during ripening at 14°C for 4 months. The moisture content significantly increased with increasing concentrations of both RGH- and RGE- added AC (p

  8. Physicochemical, Proximate and Sensory Properties of Pineapple (Ananas sp.) Syrup Developed from Its Organic Side-Stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tortoe, C.; Johnson, P.N.T.; Slaghek, T.; Miedema, M.; Timmermans, T.

    2013-01-01

    A major economical industrial challenge from pineapple (Ananas sp.) processing contributing to environmental pollu- tion is the organic side-streams of pineapple. The physicochemical, proximate and sensory properties of organic side- stream pineapple syrup (OSPS) developed from Smooth cayenne, Sugar

  9. Effect of roasting on physicochemical and functional properties of flaxseed flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Khan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out on the physical, physicochemical, and functional properties of flaxseed. Physical properties viz. seed shape and size, geometric and arithmetic mean diameter, sphericity, aspect ratio, bulk and true density, porosity, angle of repose, and static friction coefficient were determined. Geometric and arithmetic mean diameter were 2.19 and 3.51 mm while average sphericity and aspect ratio were 40.34 and 62.58%. The average true density, bulk density, and porosity were 1.34 g/cm3, .66 g/cm3, and 51.56%. Angle of repose was 19.40° and coefficient of static friction obtained on glass, stainless steel, plywood perpendicular, and plywood parallel was .32, .36, .33, and .33, respectively. Flaxseeds were roasted and compositional and functional properties like water absorption capacity (WAC, oil absorption capacity (OAC, foaming capacity, foaming stability, sedimentation value, and least gelation concentration of roasted and unroasted flaxseed flour were performed. Foaming capacity (9.23% and foaming stability (54.43% were significantly higher for unroasted flaxseed than roasted flaxseed flour (7.82 and 48.60%. Roasted flour was observed to have highest values of WAC, bulk density, WSI, ash, fiber, carbohydrate, and lowest values of moisture, protein, fat, OAC, tap density, porosity, angle of repose, WAI, and sediment value as compared to unroasted flour.

  10. Physicochemical and thermal properties of gamma-irradiated sago (Metroxylon sagu) starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sago (Metroxylon sagu) starch was exposed to gamma-irradiation in air at doses 6, 10 and 25 kGy. Subsequent changes in the physicochemical and thermal properties were measured. The apparent amylose content and swelling power of irradiated sago starch was significantly reduced while reducing sugars and starch solubility were significantly increased due to degradation. X-ray diffraction studies showed that radiation did not affect the crystalline type but induced a decrease in the degree of crystallinity, indicating the destruction of the ordered distribution of neighboring polysaccharide chains in the starch granules, in particular of the amylopectin component, which is responsible for starch crystallinity. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of irradiated sago starch showed a small but significant increase in the onset and peak transition temperatures at 10 and 25 kGy dose; the conclusion temperature and gelatinization enthalpy was not affected. SEM and particle size analysis produced no evidence of physical damage to sago starch up to 25 kGy dose radiation treatment since the granular appearance and size distribution was retained. - Highlights: • Properties of irradiated sago starch at doses 0, 6, 10 and 25 kGy were studied. • Apparent amylose content and swelling power was reduced by irradiation • Irradiation decreased relative crystallinity but did not alter the crystalline type. • SEM of irradiated starch granules up to dose of 25 kGy showed no physical damage. • Thermal properties of irradiated sago starch were slightly affected

  11. Physicochemical properties of frozen tortillas from nixtamalized maize flours enriched with β-glucans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Madrigal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractEffects of different β-glucan concentrations in maize flour on the properties of frozen maize tortillas were evaluated. Masa (dough, pre-cooked (PTs, frozen (FTs, thawed (TTs, and cooked tortillas (CTs were made and analyzed. Moisture content of masa and tortillas significantly decreased as β-glucan concentration increased; however, the water absorption capacity (WAC, ice melting enthalpy, and frozen water in FTs increased. Texture and color of the masa, PTs, and CTs as well as sensory analysis showed differences only between tortillas with 0% and 4% β-glucans. β-glucans did not affect the texture of CTs. Soluble fiber increased by over threefold and fivefold in tortillas with 2% and 4% β-glucans, respectively, than in those without β-glucans. This result was consistent with the observed structural changes in tortillas, showing an increase in high-fiber aggregates with increasing β-glucan concentration. Tortillas with 2% β-glucans showed acceptable physicochemical, functional, and sensory properties, but over three times the soluble fiber. Therefore, it is possible to obtain frozen tortillas with high fiber content and increase their shelf life for subsequent cooking while maintaining good properties.

  12. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of black, brown and red rice varieties of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawat Pengkumsri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice, the seed of Oryza species, is the major cereal crop in most of the developing countries. Nearly 95% of global rice production is done in Asian countries, and about half of the world’s population consumes it. Some speciality rices are not commonly consumed. Colored rice is one of such variety. In these varieties, high amounts of anthocyanin pigment are deposited in the rice coat to form its black (also known as purple, brown and red colors. Minimum studies are there to explain the properties of these rice varieties of Thailand. Thus, the current study was aimed to assess the physicochemical and antioxidative properties of three rice varieties (Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice of different cultivars of northern Thailand. Rice bran extracts of these three cultivars were prepared with different solvents (polar and non-polar for the evaluation of total phytochemical content and anti-oxidant free-radical-scavenging properties. Chiang Mai Black rice contained higher concentration of phenolic acid, flavonoids, and anthocyanins (Cyanidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin chloride. Chiang Mai Black rice is richer in free-radical-scavenging compounds and activities than the other tested varieties. Polar extractions of rice bran are high in anti-oxidative compounds and activities than non-polar extractions.

  13. Physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of chitosan oligosaccharide/gelatin/calcium phosphate hybrid cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bone substitute material was developed consisting of a chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) solution in a liquid phase and gelatin (GLT) containing calcium phosphate powder in a solid phase. The physicochemical and biocompatible properties of the hybrid cements were evaluated. The addition of COS to cement did not affect the setting time or diametral tensile strength of the hybrid cements, whereas GLT significantly prolonged the setting time and decreased the strength slightly. The setting reaction was inhibited by the addition of GLT to the initial mixture, but not by COS. However, the presence of GLT appreciably improved the anti-washout properties of the hybrid cement compared with COS. COS may promote the cement's biocompatibility as an approximate twofold increase in cell proliferation for 10% COS-containing cements was observed on day 3 as compared with the controls. The combination of GLT and COS was chosen due to the benefits achieved from several synergistic effects and for their clinical applications. Cement with 5% GLT and 10% COS may be a better choice among cements in terms of anti-washout properties and biological activity.

  14. Ultrastructure of underutilized tuber starches and its relation to physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiaohong; Li, Yongfu; Xie, Shichao; Wang, Zhengwu

    2015-12-01

    Starches from five underutilized tubers (canna, potato, Chinese yam, water chestnut, and taro) were extracted to investigate quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) in each starch using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Structural parameters of the tuber starches were determined using the paracrystalline model. Swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), amylose leaching (AML), and thermal properties were also measured. The XRD results indicated that starches from Chinese yam, water chestnut, and taro are C-type starches with relatively high crystallinity (29.23-35.02%). In contrast, canna and potato starches are B-type starches exhibiting lower crystallinity and higher amylose content. The paracrystalline model provided a better fit for the C-type starches than for the B-type starches because the former was highly compressible (indicated by a higher "β" value). B-type starches, on the other hand, tend to be more rigid along the lamellar repeat direction, requiring the layers to bend to accommodate internal stress. The QSPR analysis showed that three structural parameters, "Ø", "β", and "Δρu", correlate well with the SP and WSI, and thus can be used to predict certain physicochemical properties. PMID:26041241

  15. Measuring properties of nanoparticles in embryonic blood vessels: Towards a physicochemical basis for nanotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Aisling A.; Gregoriou, Yiota; Yaehne, Kristin; Cramb, David T.

    2010-03-01

    The developing field of nanotoxicology aims to relate the physical properties of nanomaterials to potential risk when organisms are exposed to those materials. Regulators are interested in whether a nanoformulation would alter the risk of the native material. It may be that due to the physical nature of embryonic blood vessels (i.e. they are angiogenic and therefore leaky), embryos are at greater risk for bioaccumulation of nanoparticles (NPs) than mature organisms. To study the physicochemical nature of nanoparticle accumulation from embryonic blood vessels, one needs to measure the NP properties in situ, because these properties could be significantly dependent on environment. We have undertaken a study of the dynamics of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots and polystyrene nanospheres in the blood vessels of the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). We show proof of principle that fluorescence correlation spectroscopy can be used in this system to determine the concentrations and hydrodynamic radii of NP solutions micro-injected into the CAM.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on the physicochemical properties of alkali-extracted rice starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starches isolated from two newly released rice varieties (K-322 and K-448) were subject to irradiation at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy doses. Comparative study between native (not irradiated) and irradiated starch samples was carried out to evaluate the changes in physicochemical, morphological and pasting properties due to gamma irradiation. Significant decrease was found in apparent amylose content, pH, swelling power, syneresis, and pasting properties, whereas carboxyl content, water absorption capacity, and transmittance were found to increase with the increase in irradiation dose. Granule morphology of native and irradiated starches under scanning electron microscope revealed that granules were polygonal or irregular in shape. The starch granules were somewhat deformed by gamma irradiation. X-ray diffraction pattern showed A type of pattern in native as well as irradiated starches. - Highlights: • Irradiation significantly decreased swelling power, syneresis and pasting properties of starch. • Increase in water absorption capacity, carboxyl content and light transmittance took place with irradiation. • SEM images revealed surface cracking of starch granules with increasing irradiation dose. • No significant difference was observed in the X-ray diffraction pattern of irradiated starches when compared with non-irradiated starches

  17. Physicochemical and optical properties of combustion-generated particles from Ship Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Jeong, S.; Jin, H. C.; Kim, J. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Shipping contributes significantly to the anthropogenic burden of particulate matter (PM), and is among the world's highest polluting combustion sources per fuel consumed. Moreover, ships are a highly concentrated source of pollutants which are emitted into clean marine environments (e.g., Artic region). Shipping utilizes heavy fuel oil (HFO) which is less distilled compared to fuels used on land and few investigations on shipping related PM properties are available. BC is one of the dominant combustion products of ship diesel engines and its chemical and microphysical properties have a significant impact on climate by influencing the amount of albedo reduction on bright surfaces such as in polar regions. We have carried out a campaign to characterize the PM emissions from medium-sized marine engines in Gunsan, Jeonbuk Institute of Automotive Technology. The properties of ship-diesel PM have characterized depending on (1) fuel sulfur content (HFO vs. ULSD) and (2) engine conditions (Running state vs. Idling state). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) equipped with HRTEM and Raman spectroscopy were used for physicochemical analysis. Optical properties, which are ultimately linked to the snow/ice albedo decrease impacting climate, were assessed as well. PM generated under high engine temperature conditions had typical features of soot, e.g., concentric circles comprised of closely packed graphene layers, however PM generated by the idling state at low combustion temperature was characterized by amorphous and droplet-like carbonaceous particles with no crystalline structure. Significant differences in optical properties depending on the combustion conditions were also observed. Particles from running conditions showed wavelength-independent absorbing properties, whereas the particles from idling conditions showed enhanced absorption at shorter wavelengths, which is

  18. Predicting physico-chemical properties of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs):potential persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jun; YU Gang; YANG Xi; ZHANG Zu-lin

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated diphenyl ethers(PCDEs) have received more and more concerns as a category of potentialpersistent organic pollutants( POPs). Modeling its environmental fate and exposure assessment require a number offundamental physico-chemical properties. However, the experimental data are currently limited due to the difficulty inanalysis caused by the complexity of PCDE congeners. As an alternative, the quantitative structure propertyrelationship(QSPR) approach could be used. In this paper, twelve kinds of molecular connectivity indices(MCIs) ofall 209 possible molecular structure patterns of PCDEs were calculated. Based on 106 PCDEs with three observedphysico-chemical properties-vapour pressure(PoL), aqueous solubility(Sw) and n-octanol/water(Kow) and theirMCIs data, a series of QSPR equations were established using multiple linear regression(MLR) method. As aresult, three equations with best performance were selected mainly from the view of high regression coefficient(R)and low standard error( SE). All of them showed significant relationship and high accuracy. With these equationsthe properties of other 103 patterns of PCDEs without the reported observed values were predicted. Furthermore,three partition properties for PCDE congeners-Henry' s Law constants(H), partition coefficients between gas/water(Kgw) and gas/n-octanol ( Kgo ) were calculated according to the internal relationship among these six properties.These observed and predicted values, in contrast with the criteria listed in the Stockholm treaty about POPs whichhas been signed by more than ninety countries in May 2001, illustrated that most of PCDEs congeners are potentialpersistent organic pollutants. As all descriptors/predictors are derived just from the molecular structure itself andwithout the import of any empirical parameters, this method is impersonal and promising for the estimation ofphysico-chemical properties of PCDEs.

  19. Sensory evaluation, physicochemical properties and aroma-active profiles in a diverse collection of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huan; Chen, Jianle; Chen, Shiguo; Xia, Qile; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to differentiate the flavor (taste and odor) profiles of 11 Chinese bayberry cultivars (Myrica rubra). The physicochemical analysis for taste indicated the bayberry cultivars were quite different in soluble sugars, organic acids, color, total phenolics and anthocyanin contents. Sucrose was the main soluble sugar in bayberry fruit. Principal component analysis (PCA) of physicochemical properties indicated bayberries could be divided into 5 groups, and the Bi qi cultivar contained the highest brix/acid ratio demonstrating the sweetest taste. PCA of aroma-active profile for odor (analyzed by SPME-GC-MS-O) indicated bayberries could be divided into 3 groups: α-pinene ("pine" odor) for group 1 (four cultivars), β-caryophyllene and isocaryophyllene ("woody" odor) for group 2 (six cultivars), and ethyl acetate ("overripe" odor) for group 3 (one cultivar). Our research on the physicochemical and active-aroma of 11 bayberry cultivars will help to select suitable cultivars to increase consumer satisfaction. PMID:27374545

  20. Visualization of physico-chemical properties and microbial distribution in soil and root microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhorst, Thilo; Schmidt, Hannes

    2016-04-01

    Plant root development is influenced by soil properties and environmental factors. In turn plant roots can also change the physico-chemical conditions in soil resulting in gradients between roots and the root-free bulk soil. By releasing a variety of substances roots facilitate microbial activities in their direct vicinity, the rhizosphere. The related microorganisms are relevant for various ecosystem functions in the root-soil interface such as nutrient cycling. It is therefore important to study the impact and dynamics of microorganisms associated to different compartments in root-soil interfaces on a biologically meaningful micro-scale. The analysis of microorganisms in their habitats requires microscopic observations of the respective microenvironment. This can be obtained by preserving the complex soil structure including the root system by resin impregnation resulting in high quality thin sections. The observation of such sections via fluorescence microscopy, SEM-EDS, and Nano-SIMS will be highlighted in this presentation. In addition, we will discuss the combination of this methodological approach with other imaging techniques such as planar optodes or non-invasive 3D X-ray CT to reveal the entire spatial structure and arrangement of soil particles and roots. When combining the preservation of soil structure via resin impregnation with 16S rRNA targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) single microbial cells can be visualized, localized, and quantified in the undisturbed soil matrix including the root-soil interfaces. The simultaneous use of multiple oligonucleotide probes thereby provides information on the spatial distribution of microorganisms belonging to different phylogenetic groups. Results will be shown for paddy soils, where management induced physico-chemical dynamics (flooding and drying) as well as resulting microbial dynamics were visualized via correlative microscopy in resin impregnated samples.

  1. Influence of DE-value on the physicochemical properties of maltodextrin for melt extrusion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Natalia; Durrieu, Vanessa; Raynaud, Christine; Rouilly, Antoine

    2016-06-25

    In this study, five different types of maltodextrins (DE-2, DE-6, DE-12, DE-17 and DE-19) were characterized for the physico-chemical properties. TGA, DVS and SEC analyses were carried out and additionally apparent melt-viscosity (in a micro-extruder) and the glass transition temperature (analyzed by DMA) of maltodextrin/plasticizer mixtures were also measured in order to evaluate both the effect of plasticizer nature and content and the effect of the DE-value. For this, three plasticizing agents were compared: water, d-sorbitol and glycerin. The adsorption isotherms showed that depending on the DE-value and the relative humidity they were exposed to, different behavior could be obtained. For example, for relative humidities below 60% RH maltodextrin DE-2 was the least hygroscopic. And on the contrary for relative humidities above 75% RH maltodextrin DE-2 was the most hygroscopic. The rheology measurements showed that the viscosity decreased with the increase of the DE-value and with the plasticizer content, as expected. On the contrary, no direct correlation could be established between the DE-value and the glass transition temperature. These results demonstrated that to predict maltodextrins behavior and to better adapt the process conditions, combined analyses are mandatory as the DE-value alone is not sufficient. The most compelling evidence was obtained by size exclusion chromatography, which pointed out that maltodextrins had a bimodal molecular weight distribution composed of high and low molecular weight oligo-saccharides. Indeed, maltodextrins are highly polydisperse materials (i.e. polydispersity index ranging from 5 to 12) and that should be the reason why such distinct behaviors were observed in some of the physico-chemical analyses that were preformed. PMID:27083839

  2. Physicochemical, functional and pasting properties of flour produced from gamma irradiated tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) has been recognised as one of the best nutritional crops that can be used to augment the Ghanaian diet. The application of gamma irradiation as means of preserving tiger nut could modify the characteristics of resultant flour. The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, functional and pasting characteristics of flour from gamma irradiated tiger nut. The yellow and black types of tiger nut were sorted, washed and dried in an air-oven at 60 oC for 24 h. The dried tiger nut samples were irradiated at 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy and then flours produced from them. Moisture, ash, pH, titratable acidity, water and oil absorption capacities, swelling power, solubility, bulk density and pasting properties of the flours were determined using appropriate analytical methods. Results showed that irradiation did not significantly (P>0.05) affect the moisture and ash contents of the resultant flours. Gamma irradiation significantly (P≤0.05) increased titratable acidity with concomitant decrease in pH of the flours. No significant differences were observed for water and oil absorption capacities, swelling power as well as bulk density. Solubility significantly (P≤0.05) increased generally with irradiation dose. Peak viscosity, viscosities at 92 °C and 55 °C, breakdown and setback viscosities decreased significantly with irradiation dose. Flour produced from irradiated tiger nut has a potential in complementary food formulations due to its low viscosity and increased solubility values. - Highlights: • Physicochemical, functional and pasting characteristics of flour from gamma irradiated tiger nut were studied. • Irradiation did not affect the moisture and ash contents of the resultant flours. • Titratable acidity increased with decrease in pH of the flours from the irradiated tiger nut. • Solubility increased whereas peak viscosity decreased with irradiation dose. • Flour produced from irradiated tiger nut has a

  3. Physicochemical and biological properties of a novel injectable polyurethane system for root canal filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jian Wang,1 Yi Zuo,1 Minghui Zhao,1 Jiaxing Jiang,1 Yi Man,2 Jun Wu,3 Yunjiu Hu,3 Changlei Liu,4 Yubao Li,1 Jidong Li11Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Orthopedics, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 4College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: A root canal sealer with antibacterial activity can be efficacious in preventing reinfection that results from residual microorganisms and/or the leakage of microorganisms. In the present study, a series of injectable, self-curing polyurethane (PU-based antibacterial sealers with different concentrations of silver phosphate (Ag3PO4 were fabricated. Subsequently, their physicochemical properties, antibacterial abilities, and preliminary cytocompatibilities were evaluated. The results indicated that the fabricated PU-based sealers can achieve a high conversion rate in a short amount of time. More than 95% of the isocyanate group of PU sealers with 3 wt% (PU3 and 5 wt% (PU5 concentrations of Ag3PO4 were included in the curing reaction after 7 hours. With the exception of those for film thickness for PU5, the results of setting time, film thickness, and solubility were able to meet the requirements of the International Organization for Standardization. The antibacterial tests showed that PU3 and PU5 exhibit stronger antimicrobial effects than that achieved with 1 wt% Ag3PO4 (PU1 and AH Plus (positive control against Streptococcus mutans. The cytocompatibility evaluation revealed that the PU1 and PU3 sealers possess good cytocompatibility and low cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate that the PU3 sealer offers good physicochemical and antimicrobial properties along with cytocompatibility, which may hold great

  4. Assessment of the physico-chemical properties of phases in the Na-U-Pu-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical review is given on the physico-chemical properties of phases in the Na-O, Na-U-O, Na-Pu-O and Na-U-Pu-O systems. This includes the phase diagrams as well as the crystallographic, mechanical, thermal, thermodynamic, transport, optical and chemical properties. This data is to be used for the modelling of the thermal, mechanical and chemical behaviour of defective LMFBR mixed oxide pins during and after reactor operation. (orig.)

  5. Electron-beam processed corn starch: evaluation of physicochemical and structural properties and technical-economic aspects of the processing

    OpenAIRE

    M. Braşoveanu; M. R. Nemţanu; D. Duţă

    2013-01-01

    The properties of starch can be modified by a variety of methods in order to meet desirable technological needs. Electron beam irradiation is able to induce changes in starch properties. The paper deals with investigation of physicochemical and structural modifications of corn starch processed by electron beam up to 50 kGy and evaluation of the technical-economic aspects of starch processing. Paste viscosity, pasting and peak temperatures decreased in a dose-dependent manner, indicating degra...

  6. Optical and Physicochemical Properties of Brown Carbon Aerosol: Light Scattering, FTIR Extinction Spectroscopy, and Hygroscopic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingjin; Alexander, Jennifer M; Kwon, Deokhyeon; Estillore, Armando D; Laskina, Olga; Young, Mark A; Kleiber, Paul D; Grassian, Vicki H

    2016-06-23

    in the mid-IR range (800 to 7000 cm(-1)) also showed no significant changes in either the real or the imaginary parts of the refractive indices for brown carbon aerosol particles when compared to ammonium sulfate. Therefore, changes in the optical properties of ammonium sulfate in the mid-IR spectral range due to reaction with methylglyoxal appear to be insignificant. In addition to these measurements, we have characterized additional physicochemical properties of the brown carbon aerosol particles including hygroscopic growth using a tandem-differential mobility analyzer. Compared to ammonium sulfate, brown carbon aerosol particles are found to have lower deliquescence relative humidity (DRH), efflorescence relative humidity (ERH), and hygroscopic growth at the same relative humidities. Overall, our study provides new details of the optical and physicochemical properties of a class of secondary organic aerosol which may have important implications for atmospheric chemistry and climate. PMID:27253434

  7. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of epoxidized Tmp trioleate by in situ method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tmp trioleate was initially synthesized via esterification of trimetilolprapane and oleic acid (90%) using 1.5% of H2SO4 as a catalyst. The production of Tmp trioleate was observed at 98% (w/w). The iodine value of Tmp trioleate was analyzed for further reaction of epoxidation. Epoxide was important reaction as an intermediate for preparation of chemical modified lubricants from vegetable oils. Finding the best way of epoxidation process will give high quality for further modification of oil instead of reduce the cost and time for the preparation process during reaction of epoxidation. In this study, the epoxidation of unsaturation Tmp trioleate with peroxyformic acid generated in-situ from hydrogen peroxide 30% in H2O2 with formic acid was studied. 95% conversion to oxygen oxirane content (OOC) ring was obtained. The derivatization showed an improvement of the compound's oxidative stability evidenced from pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) data which are 177°C to 200°C. Physicochemical properties showed increasing of temperature of flash point from 280°C to 300°C and viscosity index (VI) from 146 to 154. However, the pour point showed increasing temperature which was −58.81°C to −17.32°C. From the data obtained, these derivatives have shown better performance of lubricity properties. Overall, the data indicates that these performances are compatible to the commercial lubricants

  8. Salt tolerant SUV3 overexpressing transgenic rice plants conserve physicochemical properties and microbial communities of rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Ranjan K; Ansari, Mohammad W; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Key concerns in the ecological evaluation of GM crops are undesirably spread, gene flow, other environmental impacts, and consequences on soil microorganism's biodiversity. Numerous reports have highlighted the effects of transgenic plants on the physiology of non-targeted rhizospheric microbes and the food chain via causing adverse effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop transgenics with insignificant toxic on environmental health. In the present study, SUV3 overexpressing salt tolerant transgenic rice evaluated in New Delhi and Cuttack soil conditions for their effects on physicochemical and biological properties of rhizosphere. Its cultivation does not affect soil properties viz., pH, Eh, organic C, P, K, N, Ca, Mg, S, Na and Fe(2+). Additionally, SUV3 rice plants do not cause any change in the phenotype, species characteristics and antibiotic sensitivity of rhizospheric bacteria. The population and/or number of soil organisms such as bacteria, fungi and nematodes were unchanged in the soil. Also, the activity of bacterial enzymes viz., dehydrogenase, invertase, phenol oxidases, acid phosphatases, ureases and proteases was not significantly affected. Further, plant growth promotion (PGP) functions of bacteria such as siderophore, HCN, salicylic acid, IAA, GA, zeatin, ABA, NH3, phosphorus metabolism, ACC deaminase and iron tolerance were, considerably, not influenced. The present findings suggest ecologically pertinent of salt tolerant SUV3 rice to sustain the health and usual functions of the rhizospheric organisms. PMID:25303666

  9. Enhanced Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Ion-Implanted Titanium Using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Hegedűs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of metallic implants play an important role in their clinical success. Improving upon the inherent shortcomings of Ti implants, such as poor bioactivity, is imperative for achieving clinical use. In this study, we have developed a Ti implant modified with Ca or dual Ca + Si ions on the surface using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS. The physicochemical and biological properties of ion-implanted Ti surfaces were analyzed using various analytical techniques, such as surface analyses, potentiodynamic polarization and cell culture. Experimental results indicated that a rough morphology was observed on the Ti substrate surface modified by ECRIS plasma ions. The in vitro electrochemical measurement results also indicated that the Ca + Si ion-implanted surface had a more beneficial and desired behavior than the pristine Ti substrate. Compared to the pristine Ti substrate, all ion-implanted samples had a lower hemolysis ratio. MG63 cells cultured on the high Ca and dual Ca + Si ion-implanted surfaces revealed significantly greater cell viability in comparison to the pristine Ti substrate. In conclusion, surface modification by electron cyclotron resonance Ca and Si ion sources could be an effective method for Ti implants.

  10. Enhanced physicochemical properties of collagen by using EDC/NHS-crosslinking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chunrong Yang

    2012-10-01

    Collagen-based scaffolds are appealing products for the repair of cartilage defects using tissue engineering strategies. The present study investigated the collagen scaffolds with and without 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)/-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-crosslinking. Crosslinking density, matrix morphology, swelling ratio shrinkage temperature and resistance against collagenase digestion were determined to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the collagen matrices with and without crosslinking. The results conformed that the porous structure of collagen was largely preserved and adjusted by crosslinking treatment. Furthermore, crosslinked collagen samples showed significantly reduced swelling ratio and increased resistance against thermal treatment and enzymatic degradation compared to non-crosslinked samples. An in vitro evaluation of MC3T3-E1 cells seeded onto the crosslinked and non-crosslinked collagen matrix indicated that crosslinked collagen was nontoxic and improved cell proliferation. Through this work, it was shown that an osteoconductive collagen matrix with optimized properties used as bioactive and bioresorbable scaffolds in bone tissue engineering could be fabricated through the EDC/NHS-crosslinking method.

  11. Dietary fibers from mushroom sclerotia: 1. Preparation and physicochemical and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka-Hing; Cheung, Peter C K

    2005-11-30

    Preparation of three novel dietary fibers (DFs) from mushroom sclerotia, namely, Pleurotus tuberregium, Polyporous rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos, by a scale-up modified AOAC procedure using industrial enzymes was investigated. A remarkably high level of total dietary fiber (TDF) ranging from 81.7 to 96.3% sample dry matter (DM), in which a content of nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) ranging from 86.6 to 94.3% sclerotial TDF DM, was obtained from the three sclerotia. All sclerotial DFs were rich in beta-glucan (the glucose residue ranged from 89.7 to 94.5% NSP DM) with a very low level of resistant glycogen (ranged from 3.77 to 3.94% sclerotial TDF DM). All three novel sclerotial DFs also exhibited similar, if not better, physicochemical and functional properties (pH, color, water binding capacity, oil holding capacity, and emulsifying properties) as those of barely DF control and commercial DF-rich ingredients. The potential use of the three mushroom sclerotial DFs as a new beta-glucan type DF-rich ingredient in the food industry was discussed. PMID:16302753

  12. Purification of cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum: Physicochemical characterization and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Ale, Marcel Tutor

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different purification methods (ethanol, isopropanol and ethanol-isopropanol) on the physicochemical and functional characteristics of cress seed gum. Sugar composition and molecular weight of the samples varied significantly. All the purification methods reduced ash and protein content and molecular weight of cress seed gum. The main decomposition of the purified samples started above 200°C and initial decomposition temperature of the crude gum was 190.21°C. DSC thermograms of the purified gums showed two exothermic events at 257.81-261.95°C and 302.46-311.57°C. Crude gum displayed an exothermic peak at 259.42°C. Sample I (purified using isopropanol) imparted the best surface activity among the purified samples as it had the highest protein and uronic acid contents and the lowest Mw. All the purification methods could improve emulsifying properties of cress seed gum and there was no significant difference among the purified samples. Crude gum showed the lowest foaming properties, while samples I and E (purified using ethanol) showed the highest foaming capacity and foam stability, respectively. PMID:26877009

  13. Effect of parboiling on phytochemical content, antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of germinated red rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhanqiang; Tang, Xiaozhi; Liu, Junfei; Zhu, Zhiwei; Shao, Yafang

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve functional properties and palatability of germinated red rice, this study investigated differences in phytochemicals and physicochemical properties of germinated red rice at 2, 5, 10, 15min of parboiling. Total free phenolic content and antioxidant activity of germinated red rice parboiled for 5 and 15min was higher than that of germinated red rice. Free p-coumaric acid increased from 0.20 to 0.67mg/100g with parboiling time increasing from 5 to 15min. Bound vanillic (0.17-0.27mg/100g) and p-coumaric acid (6.56-8.59mg/100g) had higher levels at 0, 2, or 5min. During 15min of parboiling, color difference (ΔE) increased from 0.58 to 9.09, heat enthalpy (ΔH) decreased from 4.69 to 1.94J/g, and internal structure of rice was destroyed. Overall, parboiling time of less than 5min was suitable to improve the quality of germinated red rice. PMID:27507477

  14. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of epoxidized Tmp trioleate by in situ method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samidin, Salma; Salimon, Jumat [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Tmp trioleate was initially synthesized via esterification of trimetilolprapane and oleic acid (90%) using 1.5% of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as a catalyst. The production of Tmp trioleate was observed at 98% (w/w). The iodine value of Tmp trioleate was analyzed for further reaction of epoxidation. Epoxide was important reaction as an intermediate for preparation of chemical modified lubricants from vegetable oils. Finding the best way of epoxidation process will give high quality for further modification of oil instead of reduce the cost and time for the preparation process during reaction of epoxidation. In this study, the epoxidation of unsaturation Tmp trioleate with peroxyformic acid generated in-situ from hydrogen peroxide 30% in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with formic acid was studied. 95% conversion to oxygen oxirane content (OOC) ring was obtained. The derivatization showed an improvement of the compound's oxidative stability evidenced from pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) data which are 177°C to 200°C. Physicochemical properties showed increasing of temperature of flash point from 280°C to 300°C and viscosity index (VI) from 146 to 154. However, the pour point showed increasing temperature which was −58.81°C to −17.32°C. From the data obtained, these derivatives have shown better performance of lubricity properties. Overall, the data indicates that these performances are compatible to the commercial lubricants.

  15. Physicochemical Properties of Edible Chitosan/Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose/Lysozyme Films Incorporated with Acidic Electrolyzed Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Brychcy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment with acidic electrolyzed water (AEW is a promising disinfection method due to its effectiveness in reducing microbial population. The aim of the study was to evaluate physicochemical properties of chitosan/HPMC films incorporated with lysozyme and acidic electrolyzed water. In the composite films, decreasing film solubility and increasing concentration of sodium chloride solution and prolongation of electrolysis time were observed. Electrolysis process with sodium chloride induces spongy network of film structure. The use of AEW has not changed chemical composition of films which was proved by 1H NMR, MALDI-TOF, and FT-IR spectroscopy. The research confirmed that electrolysis significantly improved thermomechanical properties of the examined films. The contact angle values of the films were quite similar and ranged between 56° and 73°. The increase of salt concentration used in the electrolysis process had an impact on increasing flexibility of samples. Application of electrolyzed water in commonly used food processing systems is possible. Fusion of AEW and biopolymers may provide better integration with coated food product and multidirectional protecting effect.

  16. Effect of deep frying on physicochemical properties of some edible oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of heating on some quality characteristics of sunflower oil, cotton seed oil and a mixture (1:1) of both oils have been investigated. Every sample was heated for up to 10 hours. The study included changes in colour, viscosity, some chemical properties (acid value, peroxide value, saponification number and iodine value), fatty acids and hydrocarbons composition. The colour of the three studied oils was changed as a result of deep frying at 180 degree C for up to 10 hours. Also, the viscosity of all oil samples showed gradual increase from the 1st up to the 10th hour of frying. The acid, peroxide and saponification values of oil samples were increased by extending the frying periods whereas iodine value was decreased up to 10 hours frying. The fatty acids composition was unstable and changed as a result of heat treatments. Saturated fatty acids were increased while unsaturated fatty acids were decreased. Furthermore, the hydrocarbon contents of the three oils showed obvious change after 10 hours of boiling. According to the data obtained, it could be concluded that extending the time of heating resulted in significant changes in the physicochemical properties of the oil and sunflower oil appear to be the most resistant to thermal treatment (2-3 hours

  17. Effect of silver nanoparticles on the physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of an orthodontic adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    DEGRAZIA, Felipe Weidenbach; LEITUNE, Vicente Castelo Branco; GARCIA, Isadora Martini; ARTHUR, Rodrigo Alex; SAMUEL, Susana Maria Werner; COLLARES, Fabrício Mezzomo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Orthodontic treatment with fixed brackets plays a major role on the formation of white spot lesions. Objective This study aimed to incorporate silver nanoparticle solutions (AgNP) in an orthodontic adhesive and evaluate its physicochemical and antimicrobial properties. Material and Methods Silver nanoparticle solutions were added to a commercial adhesive in different concentrations (w/w): 0%, 0.11%, 0.18%, and 0.33%. Shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed after bonding metal brackets to enamel. Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze in situ the degree of conversion (DC) of the adhesive layer. The surface free energy (SFE) was evaluated after the measurement of contact angles. Growth inhibition of Streptococcus mutans in liquid and solid media was determined by colony-forming unit count and inhibition halo, respectively. One-way ANOVA was performed for SBS, DC, SFE, and growth inhibition. Results The incorporation of AgNP solution decreased the SBS (padhesive primer inhibited S. mutans growth. SBS, DC, and SFE values decreased after incorporation up to 0.33% AgNP solution without compromising the chemical and physical properties of the adhesive. PMID:27556213

  18. Influence of Epicuticular Physicochemical Properties on Porcine Rotavirus Adsorption to 24 Leafy Green Vegetables and Tomatoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lu

    Full Text Available Foodborne diseases are a persistent problem in the United States and worldwide. Fresh produce, especially those used as raw foods like salad vegetables, can be contaminated, causing illness. In this study, we determined the number of rotaviruses adsorbed on produce surfaces using group A porcine rotaviruses and 24 cultivars of leafy vegetables and tomato fruits. We also characterized the physicochemical properties of each produce's outermost surface layer, known as the epicuticle. The number of rotaviruses found on produce surfaces varied among cultivars. Three-dimensional crystalline wax structures on the epicuticular surfaces were found to significantly contribute to the inhibition of viral adsorption to the produce surfaces (p = 0.01. We found significant negative correlations between the number of rotaviruses adsorbed on the epicuticular surfaces and the concentrations of alkanes, fatty acids, and total waxes on the epicuticular surfaces. Partial least square model fitting results suggest that alkanes, ketones, fatty acids, alcohols, contact angle and surface roughness together can explain 60% of the variation in viral adsorption. The results suggest that various fresh produce surface properties need to be collectively considered for efficient sanitation treatments. Up to 10.8% of the originally applied rotaviruses were found on the produce surfaces after three washing treatments, suggesting a potential public health concern regarding rotavirus contamination.

  19. Effect of boron concentration on physicochemical properties of boron-doped carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron-doped carbon nanotubes (B-CNTs) were synthesized using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) floating catalyst method. Toluene was used as the carbon source, triphenylborane as boron as well as the carbon source while ferrocene was used as the catalyst. The amount of triphenylborane used was varied in a solution of toluene and ferrocene. Ferrocene was kept constant at 2.5 wt.%. while a maximum temperature of 900 °C was used for the synthesis of the shaped carbon nanomaterial (SCNMs). SCNMs obtained were characterized by the use of transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), high resolution-electron microscope, electron dispersive X-ay spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), nitrogen adsorption at 77 K, and inverse gas chromatography. TEM and SEM analysis confirmed SCNMs obtained were a mixture of B-CNTs and carbon nanofibres (B-CNF). EDX and ICP-OES results showed that boron was successively incorporated into the carbon hexagonal network of CNTs and its concentration was dependent on the amount of triphenylborane used. From the VSM results, the boron doping within the CNTs introduced ferromagnetic properties, and as the percentage of boron increased the magnetic coactivity and squareness changed. In addition, boron doping changed the conductivity and the surface energy among other physicochemical properties of B-CNTs. - Highlights: • Boron-doping of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) changes their physiochemical properties. • Amount of boron-doping was dependent on the wt.% of boron precursor used. • Boron-doping changed CNTs surfaces and the distribution of dispersive energy sites. • Boron-doping affected the conductivity and ferromagnetic properties. • Increased boron-doping results in a more favourable interaction with polar probes

  20. Physico-chemical properties of blends of palm olein with other vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobin Siddique, Bazlul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil (olein was blended with other edible oils for the enhancement of its market acceptability in terms of melting point depression and shelf life. The physico-chemical properties like viscosity, density, melting behavior, peroxide value (PV, saponification value (SV and iodine value (IV of four different binary blends with four vegetable oils were evaluated. Palm olein was found to be more stable against rancidity than the other oils. For the stability against oxidation and melting point depression the palm olein-canola (PO/CO blend was found to be better than the others. The Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC thermogram of the melting behavior of the blends traces some new polymorphs of the triglyceride. This study will help the oil producing industry to find out the most economically viable oil blends for cooking purposes, with maximum nutrition as well as desirable physico-chemical properties.

    Aceite de palma (oleína fue mezclada con otros aceites comestibles para aumentar su aceptabilidad en el mercado en términos de descenso del punto de fusión y mejora de su almacenamiento. Las propiedades físico-químicas tales como viscosidad, densidad, comportamiento en la fusión, valor de peróxidos (PV, valor de saponificación (SV e índice de yodo (IV de cuatro diferentes mezclas binarias con cuatro aceites vegetales fueron evaluadas. La oleína de palma fue más estable frente a la rancidez que otros aceites. En la estabilidad frente la oxidación y el descenso del punto de fusión, la mezcla de oleína de palma/canola (PO/CO fue mejor que las otras. Los termogramas del calorímetro diferencial de barrido (DSC referidos al comportamiento de fusión de las mezclas indican algunos nuevos polimorfismos de los triglicéridos. Este estudio podría ayudar a las empresas que elaboran aceites a encontrar los aceites económicamente más viables para cocinar, con buenas propiedades nutricionales, así como con unas propiedades f

  1. Physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of copaiba oil: implications on product quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata G. Fonseca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The copaiba oil is a common natural product used in cosmetic industry and as a nutraceutical product. However, lack of quality control and scarce knowledge about its antimicrobial activity is a point of concern. The proposal of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties and the antimicrobial activity of five commercial brands of copaiba oil. Material and methods. Acidity and ester index, refractory index, solubility in alcohol, and thin layer chromatography were performed to verify the physicochemical properties of five commercial copaiba oils sold in local pharmacies. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD/ESI-Q-TOF-MS was used to investigate diterpene acids while the volatile compounds were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were also evaluated by agar diffusion technique; and minimal inhibitory concentration and maximal bactericidal concentration were defi ned for each sample and bacteria. Results. The physical-chemical analysis revealed heterogeneity between all samples analysed. The A1 sample showed characteristics of copaiba oil and was mainly composed by hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (29.95% β-bisabolene, 25.65% Z-α-bergamotene and 10.27% β-cariophyllene. Among diterpene acids, the UPLCDAD/ESI-Q-TOF-MS data are compatible with presence of copalic and/or kolavenic acid (m/z 305 [M + H]+. Candida albicans was sensitive to almost all samples at high concentration and Saccaromyces. Cerevisiae showed sensitivity to A1 sample at 100 mg/mL. Although variable, all samples showed antibacterial activity. Significant activity was seen for A3 (19.0 ±0 and 15.6 ±0.5 mm, A4 (16.6 ±0.5 and 15.6 ±0 mm, and A5 (17.1 ±0 and 17.1 ±0 mm on Staphylococcus saprophyticus and S. aureus, respectively. All samples were active against Klebsiella

  2. Effect of the improved fermentation on physicochemical properties and sensorial acceptability of sour cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Janete Angeloni Marcon

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of improved fermentation on sour cassava starch, aiming to reduce its fermentation time and to enhance its expansion capacity as well as its viscoamylographic properties and its sensorial acceptability. Results showed that the improved process of cassava starch production did not harm starch expansion, physicochemical properties or sensorial acceptability; it also produced starches with different viscoamylographic properties, which compared favourably to those of the sour cassava starch produced through current industrial methods.O Polvilho azedo é caracterizado pelas suas propriedades físicas, químicas e reológicas, as quais são diferentes do amido nativo do qual se originou. A propriedade de expansão é uma das mais importantes características do produto, sendo um parâmetro fundamental de avaliação do polvilho azedo. O resultado do perfil viscoamilográfico também é uma importante maneira de avaliação uma vez que cada amido tem um padrão viscoamilográfico definido de acordo com sua organização granular. Este trabalho determinou o efeito da fermentação melhorada pela adição de glicose, sobre o polvilho azedo, apontando para uma redução no tempo de fermentação e avaliando sua capacidade de expansão, suas propriedades viscoamilográficas e aceitabilidade sensorial. O processo de produção de polvilho azedo melhorado não prejudicou a expansão do amido, suas propriedades físico-químicas e sensoriais, mas sim resultou em amidos com diferentes propriedades viscoamilográficas melhores comparativamente ao polvilho azedo produzido pelo processo industrial atual.

  3. Effect of electromagnetic radiation on the physico-chemical properties of minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electromagnetic radiation effect represented by gamma rays was investigated through; chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (Sem) and magnetization when applied at a dose of 0.5704 Gy (0.5704 J/ kg) at a feed relation of 18.40 ± 1.13 mGy/ h., in different minerals; in order to characterize the impact of the same from 137Cs in the physicochemical properties of these minerals. All the irradiated samples showed chemical stability at this stage undetectable other both in the XRD study and in the images analysis obtained by Sem; and at present almost the same chemical composition as the non-irradiated samples. So the same patterns of X-ray diffraction thereof, show a tendency to slightly lower the intensity of the most representative peaks of each mineral phase, which may be due to a decrease in crystallinity or preferential crystallographic orientation in crystals. In the micrographs analysis obtained by Sem on the irradiated samples, some holes (open pores) present in the particles were observed, mainly chalcopyrite and sphalerite lesser extent, seen this fact may be due to Compton Effect, in the radiation process. In relation to the magnetization property, a variation is obtained in the saturation magnetization (Ms) for the irradiated samples containing iron and more significantly in the chalcopyrite case. Therefore, with the radiation level used; slight changes occurring in the physical properties of minerals, whereas they remained stable chemically. These small changes may represent a signal that electromagnetic radiation applied at higher doses, is a viable option for improving the mineral processing. (author)

  4. Effect of drying technique on the physicochemical properties of sodium silicate-based mesoporous precipitated silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional drying (oven drying) method used for the preparation of precipitated mesoporous silica with low surface area (>300 m2/g) and small pore volume is often associated with a high production cost and a time consuming process. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to develop a cost-effective and fast drying process for the production of precipitated mesoporous silica using inexpensive industrial grade sodium silicate and spray drying of the precipitated wet-gel silica slurry. The precipitated wet-gel silica slurry was prepared from an aqueous sodium silicate solution through the drop-wise addition of sulfuric acid. Mesoporous precipitated silica powder was prepared by drying the wet-gel slurry with different drying techniques. The effects of the oven drying (OD), microwave drying (MD), and spray drying (SD) techniques on the physical (oil, water absorption, and tapping density), and textural properties (specific BET surface area, pore volume, pore size, and % porosity) of the precipitated mesoporous silica powder were studied. The dried precipitated mesoporous silica powders were characterized with field-emission scanning electron microscopy; Brunauer, Emmett and Teller and BJH nitrogen gas adsorption/desorption methods; Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy; thermogravimetric and differential analysis; N2 physisorption isotherm; pore size distribution and particle size analysis. There was a significant effect of drying technique on the textural properties, such as specific surface area, pore size distribution and cumulative pore volume of the mesoporous silica powder. Additionally, the effect of the microwave-drying period on the physicochemical properties of the precipitated mesoporous silica powder was investigated and discussed.

  5. Effect of roasting on physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia L.) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Gani, Adil; Tariq, Aanisa; Sharma, Paras; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Wani, Haroon Maqbool

    2016-04-15

    Arrowhead tubers with protein, lipid and ash content of 4.60%, 2.27% and 6.15%, respectively were subjected to pan and microwave roasting, converted to flour and studied for physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties. The lightness 'L' of flour decreased significantly (p⩽0.05) from 83.01 to 72.21 while significant increase in 'a' and 'b' color values was observed from -0.27 to 2.49 and 15.49 to 25.35 on roasting. Light transmittance decreased significantly upon roasting and the lowest value (0.80) was showed by pan roasted sample. Significant decrease in pasting properties like peak (963.0-147.7 cP), setback (172.0-97.67 cP) and final viscosity (861.67-202.66 cP) was also recorded on roasting. However, roasting led to increase in pasting temperature from 78.53 to 95.23°C. The water (1.49-2.03 g/g) and oil (1.65-1.85 g/g) absorption capacity increased, while significant decrease was observed in foaming and emulsion properties upon roasting. The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and reducing power enhanced upon pan and microwave roasting from 1.02 to 2.42 mg/g (GAE); 44.30% to 46.61%; 74.59% to 76.23%, respectively. Thermal parameters like onset temperature (To) and ΔH decreased while peak temperature (Tp) increased on roasting. PMID:26616959

  6. Influence of acid precursors on physicochemical properties of nanosized titania synthesized by thermal-hydrolysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of nature and concentration of acid species on surface morphology and physicochemical properties of titania particles synthesized by direct thermal hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride was investigated. The acids used were hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and perchloric acid with a concentration of 3 M. Thermal hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride in hydrochloric acid and perchloric acid with molar ratios of [H+]/[Ti4+] = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0, respectively, was used to study the effect of acid concentration. The synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and thermogravimetric analysis. Characterization of the samples by X-ray diffraction studies revealed the influence of acid species on the phase transformation of titania. Samples prepared by hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and perchloric acid formed rutile phase with rhombus primary particles, while sulfuric acid resulted in anatase phase with flake-shaped primary particles. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering results confirmed the nanosized titania particles and the agglomeration of primary particles to form secondary particles in spherical shape. The particle size of titania prepared using perchloric acid was smaller than those prepared with other acid sources. A direct correlation between [H+]/[Ti4+] ratio and particle size of titania was observed

  7. Production of natural edible melanin by Auricularia auricula and its physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shujing; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Chen, Wenxing; Zhang, Liaoyuan; Zhu, Hu

    2016-04-01

    Fermentation conditions of natural edible melanin by Auricularia auricula were optimized to obtain a high melanin yield and physicochemical properties of melanin were firstly investigated. The results indicated that yeast extract, tyrosine and lactose have significant effects on melanin production. Under the proposed optimized conditions, the melanin experimental yield (2.97 g/L) closely matched the value (3.04 g/L) predicted by the second-order model, which provided a statistically prediction of media in submerged fermentation of A. auricula. The yield achieved was 2.14-fold higher compared to the control. It was firstly revealed that tyrosine could stimulate melanin synthesis in A. auricula. The results showed that this melanin had better thermostability and light resistance, and its solubility was relatively high under alkaline conditions. Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) could result in melanin precipitation. The results should be useful for the efficient production of melanin and enable numerous applications in food, cosmetics, pharmacology, medicines and other fields. PMID:26593518

  8. Purification, optimization and physicochemical properties of collagen from soft-shelled turtle calipash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya'nan; Li, Caiyan; Song, Wei; Wang, Wei; Qian, Guoying

    2016-08-01

    The present work was to optimize the purification conditions for soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) calipash collagen (STCC) isolated by pepsin and to explore collagen physicochemical properties for potential biomaterial applications. Single-factor test and orthogonal method L9 (3(4)) were employed with the STCC recovery yield as indicator. The optimum purification conditions were obtained when NaCl concentration, collagen concentration and purification time were 2M, 8g/L, and 24h, respectively. Purified STCC were characterized by SDS-PAGE, UV scanning, FTIR, solubility, thermal behavior and amino acid analysis. The results showed that STCC contained high hydroxyproline content than that of other fishery skins, belonging to typical type I collagen in form of [α1(I)] 2α2(I). FTIR spectra of STCC were quite similar to other aquatic animals' collagens. It has the lowest solubility at pH 6, and when NaCl concentration decreased from 2% to 6% (w/v), solubility dropped. The denaturation temperature (Td) and melting temperature (Tm) were 35.1°C and 105.14°C, respectively. Morphology of STCC depicted as regular and porous network structure by SEM. In general, the results suggested that turtle calipash can be exploited as alternatives to mammalian collagen and could also be used for biomedical applications as a potential new material. PMID:27106588

  9. Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Rheolgical Properties of Different Wheat Varieties Grown in Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahvish Jabeen Channa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the physico-chemical and rheological properties of 17 wheat varieties (TJ-83, Jouhar, TD-1, Anmool, Mehran, Indus-66, Sindh B-1, Abadgar, Bhittai, Imdad, Mexi-Pak, Soughat, Blue Silver, Moomal, Marvi, Kiran, and Pak-70 commercially grown on experimental field of Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam. The results revealed that moisture % were in range of 11 to 12 among all varieties, high protein content of about 15.2% was found in Mehran and Blue silver varieties, starch was found high in Maxi-pak (70.6%, high hardness values in Imdad (70.1% and Jouhar (70.2%. However, zeleny content was found high in Marvi, Abadgaar and Mehran i.e. 71%. Amylographic results showed that among all varieties the Bhittai variety required maximum temperature up to 65.7 oC for the beginning of gelatinization as compared to other varieties. The highest gelatinization temperature was noted up to 96.7 oC in Moomal whereas others had temperature from 82.7 to 89.0 oC. Highest gelatinization maxima (1782AU acquired by T.J-83 variety. The results of Farinograph showed that highest water absorption was noted in Anmool variety. The highest dough development time and dough stability were found highest in Kiran and Indus-66, respectively. T.D-1 and Jouhar varieties had highest break down time as well as highest Farinograph quality.

  10. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Appenzeller Cheese Supplemented with Powdered Microcapsule of Tomato Extract during Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hae-Soo; Chimed, Chogsom; Yoo, Sang-Hun; Chang, Yoon Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of Appenzeller cheese supplemented with different concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4%, w/w) of powdered microcapsules of tomato extracts (PMT) during ripening at 14℃ for 6 mon. The particle sizes of PMT ranged from 1 to 10 m diameter with an average particle size of approximately 2 m. Butyric acid (C4) concentrations of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were significantly higher than that of the control. Lactic acid bacteria counts in the cheese were not significantly influenced by ripening time from 0 to 6 mon or the concentrations (0-4%, w/w) of PMT. In terms of texture, the hardness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese was significantly increased compared to the control. The gumminess and chewiness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were similar to those of the control. However, both cohesiveness and springiness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were slightly decreased. In sensory analysis, bitterness and sourness of Appenzeller cheese were not significantly changed after supplementation of PMT, but sweetness of the cheese was significantly increased after increasing the ripening time from 0 to 6 mon and increasing the concentration from 1 to 4% (w/w). Based on these results, the addition of the concentrations (1-4%, w/w) of PMT to Appenzeller cheese can be used to develop functional Appenzeller cheese. PMID:27194934

  11. Effect of modified yam (Dioscorea esculenta) flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, M. N.; Cakrawati, D.; Handayani, S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study were to know characteristics of yam modified flour; to know the effect of modified yam flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt and to determine the concentration level of modified yam flour to produce symbiotic yoghurt preferred by panelists. The reasearch was conducted using one factor complete randomized design. Modified yam flour was added to yoghurt at concentration of 2%, 4%, 6%. The effect of physical modification were investigated. Proximate analysis showed modified yam flour consist of 7.66% moisture content, 1.42% ash content, 10.16%, dietary fiber, 7.49% inulin, and 71.78% total starch content. Result obtained that modified yam flour has yield of 10.54%, the modified yam flour showed solubility and water absopsion of 77,63% and 136,65 respectively. The addition of modified yam flour on yoghurt resulted significantly difference effect on texture, but did not have significantly difference on colour, flavour and aroma. Modified yam flour added yoghurt thickness because it was gelatinized when added to yoghurt at 40°C. Sensory analysis conducted with hedonic test showed synbiotic yoghurt added with 2% of modified yam flour most preferred by panellists. Synbiotic yoghurt with 2% of modified yam flour has pH number of 4, 8 and total acid tirated of 1, 7%.

  12. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of margarine containing Opuntia ficus-indica peel extract as antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougui, Nadia; Djerroud, Naima; Naraoui, Fatima; Hadjal, Samir; Aliane, Khellaf; Zeroual, Brahim; Larbat, Romain

    2015-04-15

    This study falls within the framework of the industrial exploitation of by-products of the prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). The study aims to evaluate the use of hydro-ethanolic extract of prickly pear peels as a substitute of vitamin E used as antioxidant in margarine preservation. The extract was rich in total phenolics (1512.58 mg GAE/100 g DM). HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analyses allowed the identification of sixteen compounds belonging to hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The extract displayed a reducing power and an antiradical activity that were respectively similar to and lower than the two antioxidant standards quercetin and butylated hydroxyanisole. Tests conducted at laboratory and pilot scales showed that the margarines elaborated with peel extract were more resistant to oxidation than the margarine reference with vitamin E. In addition, neither the physicochemical nor the microbiological properties were modified. Prickly pear peels contain bioactive substances that could be used in different food sectors. PMID:25466036

  13. Physicochemical properties of Malaysian-grown tropical almond nuts (Terminalia catappa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Siew; Lasekan, Ola; Muhammad, Kharidah Syed; Hussain, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Rabiha

    2015-10-01

    The seeds of Terminalia catappa from Malaysia were analyzed for their physicochemical properties. The following values were obtained: moisture 6.23 ± 0.09 %, ash 3.78 ± 0.04 %, lipid 54.68 ± 0.14 %, protein 17.66 ± 0.13 %, total dietary fibre 9.97 ± 0.08 %, carbohydrate 7.68 ± 0.06 %, reducing sugar 1.36 ± 0.16 %, starch 1.22 ± 0.15 %, caloric value 593.48 ± 0.24 %. Studies were also conducted on amino acid profile and free fatty acid composition of the seed oil. Results revealed that glutamic acid was the major essential amino acid while methionine and lysine were the limiting amino acids. The major saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid, while the main unsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid followed by linoleic acid. In addition, the seed was rich in sucrose and had trace amount of glucose and fructose. Briefly, the seed was high in proteins and lipids which are beneficial to human. PMID:26396409

  14. Conformational and physicochemical properties of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoqi; Xue, Changhu; Chang, Yaoguang; Chen, Feng; Wang, Jun

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed at investigating the chain conformation and physicochemical properties of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate extracted from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas (Aj-fCS). By using HPSEC-MALLS-Visc-RI, Mw, z(1/2), Rh and [η] for Aj-fCS were determined as 58.0±4.4kDa, 21.8±1.3nm, 12.5±1.3nm and 27.8±0.5mL/g respectively. Conformation parameter αs derived from the relationship of Mw-z(1/2) (0.39) and structure-sensitive parameter ρ (1.74) consistently indicated that Aj-fCS adopted a random coil conformation in solution, which was also supported by atomic force microscopy. Stiffness parameters of Aj-fCS chains including q (2.72nm), d (1.03nm) and C∞ (5.28) were furthermore deduced from the worm-like cylinder model. Aj-fCS demonstrated a shear-thinning rheological behavior, relatively low apparent viscosity, negative charge in wide pH and ionic strength ranges, and favorable thermostability. These results have important implications for designing and fabricating functional foods or drugs based on Aj-fCS. PMID:27516246

  15. Physicochemical properties and potential health effects of nanoparticles from pulverized coal combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU DunXi; XU MingHou; YAO Hong; LIU XiaoWei; ZHOU Ke; WEN Chang; LI Lin

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles are thought to induce more severe health impacts than larger particles. The nanoparti-cles from coal-fired boilers are classified into three size fractions with a 13-stage low pressure impactor. Their physicochemical properties are characterized by the high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF). The results show that coal-derived nanoparticles mainly consist of individual primary particles of 20-150 nm and their aggregates. Inor-ganic nanoparticles primarily contain ash-forming elements and their aggregates have a dense struc-ture. Organic nanoparticles are dominated by the element carbon and their aggregates have a loose structure. Nanoparticles from the same boiler have a similar composition and are primarily composed of sulfur, refractory elements and alkali/alkaline elements. Some transition and heavy metals are also detected. For different boilers, greater differences are observed in the production of the nanoparticles and their composition, possibly due to the use of low-NOx burners. Coal-derived nanoparticles have a small size, large specific surface area and complicated chemical composition, and thus are potentially more harmful to human health.

  16. Physicochemical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of potato starch/protein blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhan-Hui; Donner, Elizabeth; Yada, Rickey Y; Liu, Qiang

    2016-12-10

    This study aimed to investigate effects of starch-protein interactions on physicochemical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of composite potato starch/protein blends (0, 5, 10, or 15% protein) during processing (cooking, cooling and reheating). The effect on recrystallization and short-range ordering in starch was studied by light microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that protein in the blend proportionally restricted starch granule swelling during cooking and facilitated amylopectin recrystallization during cold-storage. The facilitating effect of protein diminished with increasing blend ratio. Resistant starch content in the processed blends was positively correlated to intensity ratio of 1053/1035cm(-1) in FTIR spectra arising from slow retrogradation of amylopectin (r(2)>0.88, P≤0.05), whose formation was favored by the presence of protein in the blends and further enhanced by cooling of cooked blends. As a conclusion, starch-protein interaction reduced starch digestibility of the processed blends. PMID:27577912

  17. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hye-Ryun Kim; Il-Doo Kim; Sanjeev Kumar Dhungana; Mi-Ok Kim; Dong-Hyun Shin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample.Methods:The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid (˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities.Results:Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively.Conclusions:The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health.

  18. The critical role of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide on physico-chemical, technological and biological properties of NLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, C; Campisi, A; Manno, D; Serra, A; Spatuzza, M; Musumeci, T; Bonfanti, R; Puglisi, G

    2014-09-01

    Exploiting the experimental factorial design and the potentiality of Turbiscan AG Station, we developed and characterized unmodified and DDAB-coated NLC prepared by a low energy organic solvent free phase inversion temperature technique. A 22 full factorial experimental design was developed in order to study the effects of two independent variables (DDAB and ferulic acid) and their interaction on mean particle size and zeta potential values. The factorial planning was validated by ANOVA analysis; the correspondence between the predicted values of size and zeta and those measured experimentally confirmed the validity of the design and the equation applied for its resolution. The DDAB-coated NLC were significantly affected in their physico-chemical properties by the presence of DDAB, as showed by the results of the experimental design. The coated NLC showed higher physical stability with no particles aggregation compared to the unmodified NLC, as demonstrated by Turbiscan(®) AGS measurements. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and Cryo-TEM images allowed us to assert that DDAB plays a critical role in increasing the lipids structural order with a consequent enhancement of the NLC physical stability. Furthermore, the results of the in vitro biological studies allow the revisiting of the role of DDAB to the benefit of glioblastoma treatment, due to its efficacy in increasing the NLC uptake and reducing the viability of human glioblastoma cancer cells (U87MG). PMID:24929522

  19. Impacts of intensive shrimp cultivation on bacteria in the nitrogen cycle and physicochemical properties of sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangporn Kantachote

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial numbers involved in the nitrogen cycle and some physicochemical properties in sediments of 4 intensive shrimp ponds, that had been cultivated continuously for 3 and 5 years, were studied between November 2004 to February 2005. The parameters were monitored as follows:, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, C/N ratio, ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate. The only significant differences (p 5-10 cm for both types of pond. Total numbers were in the order of heterotrophic plate count > azotobacteraceae > ammonifiers > denitrifiers > ammonium oxidizing bacteria > nitrite oxidizing bacteria.No significant difference was found between each bacterial group in the 2 levels of sediments from each sample set. In pond sediments from both sets of ponds organic matter was highly correlated with TKN (r = 0.783, p < 0.05,r = 0.883, p < 0.01 indicating that ammonia release and the increase pH in the sediments was to some extent determined by the deposit of organic matter.

  20. Composition and Physico-Chemical Properties of Meat from Capons Fed Cereals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olga Díaz; Luisana Rodríguez; Alexandr Torres; Ángel Cobos

    2013-01-01

    Chemical composition, physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of breast and drumstick meat from capons (castrated male cockerels) fed cereals were studied. Three groups of capons were reared. One group was fed ad libitum the same commercial diet until the 4th mon of life. The last month of its life, the capons of this group were fed corn. The second and third group of capons were fed the same diet from caponization. The second group was fed mixture of corn (50%) and wheat (50%). The third group of capons was fed 2/3 corn and 1/3 mixture of corn (50%) and barley (50%). Capons were reared under free-range conditions and slaughtered at 150 d of age. Caponization was performed at 48 d. No signiifcant effects of feeding in chemical composition, pH, water holding capacity, drip and cooking losses and texture of the meat were observed. The meat of the third group (capons fed 83%corn) was more yellow and showed higher content of C18:2 than that of the other capons.

  1. Activated carbon from biochar: influence of its physicochemical properties on the sorption characteristics of phenanthrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junyeong; Hung, Ivan; Gan, Zhehong; Rojas, Orlando J; Lim, Kwang Hun; Park, Sunkyu

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between physicochemical properties of biochar-based activated carbons and its adsorption was investigated using an aromatic model compound, phenanthrene. Solid-state (13)C NMR analysis indicated more condensed aromatic structures when pyrolysis temperature increased or after activation process induced. The increasing aromaticity and non-protonated carbon fraction of the activated biochar treated at 300°C amounted to 14.7% and 24.0%, respectively, compared to 7.4% and 4.4% for biochar treated at 700°C. The surface area and pore volume were reduced with the increase in pyrolysis temperature, but increased after activation. Surface characteristics correlated with the initial sorption rate and equilibrium concentration of phenanthrene, but not with the aromaticity. Solid-state (2)H NMR for phenanthrene-d10 saturated activated biochars, however, showed substantial difference in molecular mobility, which might be due to the high aromaticity of the activated biochars. Overall, these results provide an opportunity to manipulate the characteristics of biomass-based adsorbents based on the application needs. PMID:24128401

  2. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant potential of phosvitin-resveratrol complexes in emulsion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiang; Li, Mei; Ma, Huijie; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Liu, Xuebo

    2016-09-01

    Egg yolk phosvitin is the most highly phosphorylated protein found in the nature. The physicochemical properties of phosvitin-resveratrol complexes and their synergistic antioxidant activities in microemulsions were investigated. The particle diameters of microemulsions containing 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% phosvitin were 2.660, 0.501 and 0.414μm, respectively. The emulsifying activity index increased largely from 3.72 to 21.5m(2)/g with increasing phosvitin concentration from 0.5% to 2.0%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal analyses indicated that the microemulsions underwent a conformational change during homogenization. Antioxidant assays showed that phosvitin-resveratrol microemulsions exhibited a higher antioxidant activity than that of phosvitin-resveratrol primary emulsions. The MTT assay indicated that HepG2 cell viability remained higher than 80% at phosvitin concentration below 1.0mg/ml. This suggested that phosvitin, when coupled with polyphenol, can effectively inhibit lipid oxidation in food emulsions, which provided valuable insights into deep processing and application of egg proteins in food industry. PMID:27041304

  3. Effects of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oenology has as its main purpose the continuous improvement of wine quality without jeopardizing its proprieties, and the intent is to make these improvements using innovative new technologies. The objective of the present work is to assess the effect of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of Cabernet Sauvignon that may lead to changes in wine quality, aging process and other related characteristics. The samples used for this process were irradiated using an Argonaut reactor powered at 340 Watts and with a thermal neutron fluency of 109 n.cm-2.s-1. For irradiation experiments, the samples were put into the reactor chamber until the reactor reached criticality and for an additional 30 minutes while receiving radiation. The analyzed data included density, alcoholic, ashes and spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance at wavelengths of 420, 520 and 620 nm. Increased absorbance values at 420 nm indicate an increase in tannin composition of the wine and therefore a higher level of oxidation. Intriguingly, a rise in absorbance was also observed at 520 nm for the same test samples; which is inconsistent with published data on irradiated cachaca that showed that anthocyanin levels dropped at 520 nm after irradiation. In summary, for measurements made at a fluency of 109 n/cm2.s for 30 min, the effects were minimal, which requires a higher dose to have better effects. Future studies should evaluating dosing effects of irradiation on improving the quality of the Cabernet Sauvignon. (author)

  4. Some physico-chemical properties of Prunus armeniaca L. gum exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Morteza; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Koocheki, Arash

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this paper were to investigate some physicochemical properties of Prunus armeniaca L. gum exudates (PAGE). PAGE had, on average, 66.89% carbohydrate, 10.47% uronic acids, 6.9% moisture (w.b.), 2.91% protein, 4% ash and 1.59% fat. PAGE was composed of monosaccharides including l-arabinose, d-galactose, xylose, mannose and rhamnose in molar percentages of 41.52%, 23.72%, 17.82%, 14.40% and 2.54%, respectively. Elemental analysis showed that PAGE had high values of nutrients. FTIR analysis demonstrated the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and methyl groups and glycoside bonds. The weight average molecular weight, number average molecular weight and polydispersity index were found to be approximately 5.69 × 10(5)g/mol, 4.33 g/mol and 1.31, respectively. Rheological measurement of PAGE solutions as a function of concentration (8, 10 and 12% (w/w)) and temperature (10, 20, 30 and 40°C) demonstrated that the gum solutions had a non Newtonian shear thinning behaviour. Intrinsic viscosity for PAGE in deionized water was 3.438 dl/g based on Kramer equation. PMID:26434520

  5. The physicochemical properties of a spray dried glutinous rice starch biopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laovachirasuwan, Pornpun; Peerapattana, Jomjai; Srijesdaruk, Voranuch; Chitropas, Padungkwan; Otsuka, Makoto

    2010-06-15

    Glutinous rice starch (GRS) is a biopolymer used widely in the food industry but not at all in the pharmaceutical industry. There are several ways to modify this biopolymer. Physical modification is simple and cheap because it requires no chemicals or biological agents. The aim of this study was to characterize the physicochemical properties of a spray dried glutinous rice starch (SGRS) produced from pregelatinized GRS. The surface morphology changed from an irregular to concave spherical shape as revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). SGRS was almost amorphous as determined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The water molecules became linked through hydrogen bonds to the exposed hydroxyl group of amorphous SGRS as determined by Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Then, SGRS formed a colloid gel matrix with water and developed a highly viscous gelatinous form as determined using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and a stress control type rheometer. In addition, SGRS can swell and produce a gelatinous surface barrier like a hydrophilic matrix biopolymer which controls drug release. Therefore, a novel application of SGRS is as a sustained release modifier for direct compression tablets in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:20307959

  6. Mechanical and physicochemical properties of AlN thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibert, C.; Tétard, F.; Djemia, P.; Champeaux, C.; Catherinot, A.; Tétard, D.

    2004-10-01

    AlN thin films have been deposited on Si(100) substrates by a pulsed laser deposition method. The deposition parameters (pressure, temperature, purity of target) play an important role in the mechanical and physicochemical properties. The films have been characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Brillouin light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and wettability testing. With a high purity target of AlN and a temperature deposition of 750 ∘C, the measured Rayleigh wave velocity is close to the one previously determined for AlN films grown at high temperature by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. Growth of nanocrystalline AlN at low temperature and of AlN film with good crystallinity for samples deposited at higher temperature is confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, as it was by atomic force microscopy, in agreement with X-ray diffraction results. A high hydrophobicity has been measured with zero polar contribution for the surface energy. These results confirm that films made by pulsed laser deposition of pure AlN at relatively low temperature have good prospects for microelectromechanical systems applications.

  7. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of α-tocopherol loaded nanoliposome's containing DHA and EPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahari, Mohammad Ali; Moghimi, Hamid Reza; Hadian, Zahra; Barzegar, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdorreza

    2017-01-15

    The aim of this study was to prepare α-tocopherol loaded nanoliposomes as carriers of DHA and EPA and to investigate their physicochemical properties, such as peroxide value (PV), volatile compounds (VOCs), particle size, size distribution, zeta potential and morphology of the liposomes. The particle size of liposomes was in the range of 82.4-107.2nm. The highest extent of lipid oxidation was observed at 40°C for 90days, with the lowest PV and propanal levels for a nanoliposome formulation in comparison with the control sample. The zeta potential of the nanoliposomes was decreased during storage. No significant change in the PV and zeta potential of the liposome formulations with α-tocopherol was observed at 4°C after 90days (0.14meq/kg and -43.5mV, respectively). This study demonstrated that incorporation of α-tocopherol into liposomes contributes a significant antioxidant effect on DHA and EPA. PMID:27542462

  8. Ultrasound treatment: effect on physicochemical, microbial and antioxidant properties of cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Sabeera; Ahmad, Mudasir; Wani, S M; Gani, Adil; Baba, Waqas N; Shah, Umar; Khan, Asma Ashraf; Masoodi, F A; Gani, Asir; Wani, Touseef Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    The cherry was treated with ultrasonic waves (33 kHz, 60 W) at different time intervals (10, 20, 30, 40, 60 min) and study was carried out to analyze the change in physico-chemical properties (TSS, pH, color, acidity and firmness), antioxidant potential and microbial load of the fruit during the storage period of 15 days at 4 °C. It was observed that ultrasound treatment (US) between 30 and 40 min showed better retention of color of the fruit during the storage period. The antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS and TPC) also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) up to 40 min, however the firmness of the fruit was affected and it showed a significant decrease beyond 20 min of US treatment. The sample with 40 min US treatment showed significantly less microbial load than other samples. The 20-40 min US treatment time (33 kHz, 60 W) was suggested for preservation of cherry during the storage at 4 °C. PMID:27478231

  9. Physicochemical and microbiological properties of selected rice flour-based batters for fried chicken drumsticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukprasirt, A; Herald, T J; Boyle, D L; Boyle, E A

    2001-07-01

    Rice flour-based batter (RFBB) formulations for chicken drumstick coating were developed as an alternative for traditional wheat flour-based batter (WFBB). Physicochemical properties and storage stability of selected RFBB were evaluated and compared to WFBB. Batter pickup of RFBB formulated in combination with oxidized corn starch and methylcellulose (MC) was not significantly different from that of WFBB. In contrast, batters with only rice and corn flour (60:40% flour weight) exhibited significantly higher pickup. Rice flour batter with 15% oxidized corn starch had the lowest batter pickup. All RFBB exhibited (P < 0.05) lower oil absorption than WFBB. The TBA values of RFBB and WFBB increased (P < 0.05) with increased frozen storage time at -40 C for 90 d. The RFBB with MC exhibited the lowest TBA values, whereas WFBB had the highest values. Microstructural analysis revealed that freezing caused structural deterioration of all batters, but the RFBB with MC exhibited less freezing tolerance than other samples. The total plate counts of immediately fried or frozen fried chicken stored for 90 d were less than 1 log cfu/g sample. The RFBB with 5% oxidized corn starch and MC can replace WFBB on fried drumsticks. Additionally, RFBB results in a healthier product due to lower fat absorption. PMID:11469667

  10. Characterization of starch morphology, composition, physicochemi-cal properties and gene expressions in oat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Ke; Zheng You-liang; Jiang Qian-tao; Wei Long; Zhang Xiao-wei; Ma Jian; Chen guo-yue; Wei Yu-ming; Mitchell Fetch Jennifer; Lu Zhen-xiang

    2015-01-01

    abstract Starch is the major carbohydrate in oat (Avena sativaL.) and starch formation requires the coordinated actions of several synthesis enzymes. In this study, the granule morphology, composition and physicochemical properties of oat starch, as wel as the expressions of starch synthesis genes were investigated during oat endosperm development. Under the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we observed that the unique compound granules were developed in oat endosperms at 10 days post anthesis (DPA) and then fragmented into irregular or polygonal simple granules from 12 DPA until seed maturity. The amylose content, branch chain length of degree of polymerization (DP=13–24), gelatinization temperature and percentage of retrogradation were gradualy increased during the endosperm development; whereas the distribution of short chains (DP=6–12) were gradualy decreased. The relative expressions of 4 classes of 13 starch synthesis genes characterized in this study indicated that three expression pattern groups were signiifcantly different among gene classes as wel as among varied isoforms, in which the ifrst group of starch synthesis genes may play a key role on the initiation of starch synthesis in oat endosperms.

  11. Physico-chemical properties, fatty acid profile and nutrition in palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Koushki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion in world production of palm oil over the last three decades has attracted the attention of the oils and fats industry. Oil palm gives the highest yield of oil per unit of any crop. Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. Throughout the world, 90% of palm oil is used for edible purposes (e.g., margarine, deep fat frying, shortening, ice creams, and cocoa butter substitutes in chocolate; the remaining 10% is used for soap and oleo chemical manufacturing (fatty acids, methyl esters, fatty nitrogenous derivatives, surfactants and detergents. Two distinct oils are produced by oil palms (palm kernel oil and palm oil, both of which are important in world trade. Palm oil contains 50% saturated fatty acids. The saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acid ratio of palm oil is close to unity and it contains a high amount of the antioxidants, β-carotene, and vitamin E. Palm oil contains a high proportion of palmitic acid as well as considerable quantities of oleic and linoleic acids. The physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and nutrition in palm oils are reviewed.

  12. Buff/wipe effects on the physicochemical properties of perfluoropolyether nanoscale thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haigang; Seung Chung, Pil; Jhon, Myung S.

    2014-05-01

    Buff/Wipe (B/W) process is commonly used in disk drive manufacturing to remove the particles and asperities on the lubricated disk surface. In this paper, we investigated how B/W process impacts the physicochemical properties of perfluoropolyethers (PFPE) nano-films through the study of surface energy and bonded ratio. Two-liquid geometric method was used to analyze the surface energy of nonfunctional PFPE, i.e., Z03, and functional PFPE, i.e., Zdol, lubricated media before and after B/W process. It was found that the dispersive surface energy of Z03 films greatly decreased after B/W, which was more significant in the submonolayer regime. In addition, the bonded ratio slightly increased. However, B/W effect on the surface energy and bonded ratio was not detected for Zdol films. It is hypothesized that nonfunctional PFPE behaves liquid-like on the carbon overcoat due to the weak interaction between lubricant and overcoat. External mechanical stress as applied with B/W can change the conformation and increase the surface coverage for nonfunctional PFPE. On the other hand, functional PFPEs behave solid-like due to the strong attraction between lubricant and overcoat; therefore, it is difficult to change the conformation by external stress from B/W process.

  13. Interactions of skin thickness and physicochemical properties of test compounds in percutaneous penetration studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkinson, Simon C.; Maas, Wilfred J. M.; Nielsen, Jesper Bo;

    2006-01-01

    Abstract   Objectives: To determine the effect of skin thickness on the percutaneous penetration and distribution of test compounds with varying physicochemical properties using in vitro systems. Studies were carried out in accordance with OECD guidelines on skin absorption tests. Methods......: Percutaneous penetration of caffeine (log P -0.01), testosterone (log P 3.32), propoxur (log P 1.52) (finite dose in ethanol to water vehicle ratio) and butoxyethanol (log P 0.83) (undiluted finite dose or as an infinite dose 50% [v/v] aqueous solution) through skin of varying thicknesses under occluded...... conditions was measured using flow through cells for 8-24 h. Saline (adjusted to pH 7.4) was used as receptor fluid, with BSA added for studies with testosterone and propoxur. Following exposure, the remaining surface dose was removed by swabbing and the skin digested prior to scintillation counting. Results...

  14. Physico-chemical properties of biodiesel manufactured from waste frying oil using domestic adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Samir Abd-elmonem A.; Ali, Rehab Farouk M.

    2015-06-01

    We have evaluated the efficiency of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA), date palm seed carbon (DPSC), and rice husk ash (RHA) as natural adsorbents and compared them with the synthetic adsorbent Magnesol XL for improving the quality of waste frying oil (WFO) and for the impact on the physicochemical properties of the obtained biodiesel. We measured moisture content, refractive index (RI), density, acid value (AV), iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), and saponification value (SV), as well as fatty acid profile. Purification treatments with various levels of adsorbents caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) decreases in free fatty acids (FFAs), PVs, and IVs. The highest yields (86.45 and 87.80%) were observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO treated with 2% Magnesol and 3% of RHA, respectively, followed by samples treated with 2 and 3% of DPSC or RHA. Pre-treatments caused a significant decrease in the content of C 18:2 linoleic acids, consistent with a significant increase in the content of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the treated samples. The highest oxidation value (COX) (1.30) was observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO without purification treatments. However, the lowest values (0.44-0.73) were observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO treated with different levels of adsorbents. Our results indicate that pre-treatments with different levels of adsorbents regenerated the quality of WFO and improved the quality of the obtained biodiesel.

  15. Evaluation of physicochemical and phytochemical properties of Safoof-E-Sana, a Unani polyherbal formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajazuddin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the formulations of the Unani system of medicine are popular, not much scientific work has been reported so far. The present article is an attempt to establish the scientific basis of one of the popular Unani formulations Safoof-ESana, a polyherbal formulation widely used as a laxative. Methods: Investigations were carried out to study the physicochemical and phytochemical properties of Safoof-E-Sana and its active ingredients. Results and Conclusion: The values of percentage loss on drying, angle of repose, Hausner ratio, and Carr′s index of the formulation were calculated as 8.25 ± 0.582, 27.68, 1.23, and 19 respectively, which indicate that the moisture content of the formulation is within the range and depict good flow characteristics. The total ash, acid- nsoluble ash, and water-soluble ash were found to be 19.146 ± 0.237, 2.351 ± 0.223, and 49.216 ± 0.634, respectively; the value of total ash indicates that the inorganic contents of the formulation are below the limits. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the formulation and ingredients were prepared and evaluated for phytochemical analysis and extractive values, and the results show that alkaloids of the formulation are more soluble in water than in alcohol and the higher aqueous extractive value (45.784 ± 0.876 of Unani formulation depicts that water is a better solvent of extraction for the formulation than ethanol.

  16. Effect of Microwave Treatment on Microbial Contamination of Honeys and on Their Physicochemical and Thermal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Moliné María de la

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, microwave heating has become a common method for pasteurization and sterilization of food. Honey is a sweet substance produced by worker honeybees from nectar of flowers. The major microbial contaminants include moulds and yeasts, as well as the spore-forming bacteria, being their counts indicative of honeys’ commercial quality and safety. Paenibacillus larvae is also of interest since it causes American foulbrood (AFB in honeybee larvae. The main quality factors that are used in the honey international trade are moisture, hydroxymethylfurfural content (HMF, and enzymatic indices. Moreover, honey exhibits several thermal events, the most important being the glass transition temperature (Tg. The aim of this work was to evaluate microwave effect (800 watts during 45 and 90 seconds on microbial content in particular over P. larvae spores retained in honey, and on physicochemical and thermal properties. Microwave promoted a decrease of microbial count with time of exposure, including P. larvae. Moisture content diminished after treatment, while Tg increased linearly, and acidity decremented in the majority of cases. Honeys darkened and HMF exceeded the permissible value. Diastase and glucose-oxidase enzymes were totally inactivated by microwave treatment.

  17. Physico-Chemical Properties, Antioxidant Activity and Mineral Contents of Pineapple Genotypes Grown in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Hua Lu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The fruit physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of 26 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr.] genotypes grown in China were measured. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of these pineapple genotypes. Sucrose was the dominant sugar in all 26 genotypes, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents. The ascorbic acid (AsA content ranged from 5.08 to 33.57 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW, while the total phenolic (TP content varied from 31.48 to 77.55 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100 g FW. The two parameters in the predominant cultivars Comte de Paris and Smooth Cayenne were relative low. However, MD-2 indicated the highest AsA and TP contents (33.57 mg/100 g and 77.55 mg GAE/100 g FM, respectively, and it also showed the strongest antioxidant capacity 22.85 and 17.30 μmol TE/g FW using DPPH and TEAC methods, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of pineapple was correlated with the contents of phenolics, flavonoids and AsA. The present study provided important information for the further application of those pineapple genotypes.

  18. Effects of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fellipe S.; Santos, Anderson R.L.; Pereira, Walsan W., E-mail: fellipess@ird.gov.br, E-mail: aleiras@ird.gov.br, E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Oenology has as its main purpose the continuous improvement of wine quality without jeopardizing its proprieties, and the intent is to make these improvements using innovative new technologies. The objective of the present work is to assess the effect of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of Cabernet Sauvignon that may lead to changes in wine quality, aging process and other related characteristics. The samples used for this process were irradiated using an Argonaut reactor powered at 340 Watts and with a thermal neutron fluency of 10{sup 9} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1}. For irradiation experiments, the samples were put into the reactor chamber until the reactor reached criticality and for an additional 30 minutes while receiving radiation. The analyzed data included density, alcoholic, ashes and spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance at wavelengths of 420, 520 and 620 nm. Increased absorbance values at 420 nm indicate an increase in tannin composition of the wine and therefore a higher level of oxidation. Intriguingly, a rise in absorbance was also observed at 520 nm for the same test samples; which is inconsistent with published data on irradiated cachaca that showed that anthocyanin levels dropped at 520 nm after irradiation. In summary, for measurements made at a fluency of 109 n/cm{sup 2}.s for 30 min, the effects were minimal, which requires a higher dose to have better effects. Future studies should evaluating dosing effects of irradiation on improving the quality of the Cabernet Sauvignon. (author)

  19. The effect of wash cleaning and demagnetization process on the fly ash physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baliński

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Problems related in this study concern the possibility of improving the physico-chemical properties of fly ash used as a base granular material in moulding mixtures. The investigations were carried out mainly to evaluate the process of the fly ash modification performed in order to stabilize its mineralogical and chemical composition. Changes in chemical composition, specific surface and helium density of fly ash after the process of its wash cleaning and demagnetization were examined. The analysis of the data has proved that the process of wash cleaning considerably reduces the content of sodium and potassium. Calcium and magnesium are washed out, too. The wash cleaning process of fly ash reduces also its true density. This fact can be due to the washing out of illite as well as some fractions of haematite (the grains weakly bonded to the glassy phase. The process of demagnetization allows removing about 25.7% of the magnetic phase calculated in terms of Fe2O3. The process of demagnetization is accompanied by a decrease in the content of aluminium, sodium, potassium and calcium, and a reduction in the size of the specific surface by over one half. The possible processes of transformation have also been discussed.

  20. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of kiwifruit as a function of cultivar and fruit harvested month

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Singh Pal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to find the effect of fruit harvesting stage (October, November and December on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties in five kiwi cultivars (Abbot, Bruno, Allison, Hayward, Monty. Results showed that soluble solid content (SSC and pH increased while ascorbic acid (Vit C, titrated acidity (TAD and SSC/TAD decreased in all the cultivars with delay in harvesting. Total polyphenols (TP were decreased while total flavonoids (TF increased in all tested cultivars with delay in harvesting. The highest concentration of TP (2.02 mg gallic acid equivalent/g fresh weight and TF (51.12 mg catechin equivalent/100g FW were found in cultivar 'Allison' in the month of October and December, respectively. Antioxidant activities (AA were genotype depended and no trend was observed with month of harvesting. Principal component analysis (PCA showed strong correlation between Vit C, TP and antioxidant activities. Two major clusters were computed using agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC. All the studied important traits may be used in the breeding programmes to increase the variability for different physiochemical and antioxidative characteristics and to make suitable selections that could be acceptable to consumers.

  1. The physico-chemical properties and biostimulative activities of humic substances regenerated from lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Jan; Smejkalová, Daniela; Hudecová, Sárka; Zmeškal, Oldřich; von Wandruszka, Ray; Gregor, Tomáš; Kučerík, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    The positive effect of humic acids on the growth of plant roots is well known, however, the mechanisms and role of their physical structure in these processes have not been fully explained yet. In this work, South-Moravian lignite was oxidized by means of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to produce a set of regenerated humic acids. The elemental composition, solid state stability and solution characteristics were determined and correlated in vitro with their biological activity. A modified hydroponic method was applied to determine the effects of their potassium salts on Zea mays seedlings roots with respect to the plant weight, root length, root division, and starch and protein content. The relations between the determined parameters were evaluated through Principal Component Analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results indicated that the most important factor determining the biological activity of South-Moravian lignite potassium humates is related to the nature of self-assemblies, while the chemical composition had no direct connection with the root growth of Zea mays seedlings. It was demonstrated a controlled processing that provided humic substances with different chemical and physicochemical properties and variable biological activity. PMID:24790812

  2. Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Rheolgical Properties of Different Wheat Varieties Grown in Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to investigate the physico-chemical and rheological properties of 17 wheat varieties (TJ-83, Jouhar, TD-1, Anmool, Mehran, Indus-66, Sindh B-1, Abadgar, Bhittai, Imdad, Mexi-Pak, Soughat, Blue Silver, Moomal, Marvi, Kiran, and Pak-70 ) commercially grown on experimental field of Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam. The results revealed that moisture percentage were in range of 11 to 12 among all varieties, high protein content of about 15.2 percentage was found in Mehran and Blue silver varieties, starch was found high in Maxi-pak (70.6 percentage), high hardness values in Imdad (70.1percentage) and Jouhar (70.2 percentage). However, zeleny content was found high in Marvi, Abadgaar and Mehran i.e. 71 percentage. Amylographic results showed that among all varieties the Bhittai variety required maximum temperature up to 65.7 Degree C for the beginning of gelatinization as compared to other varieties. The highest gelatinization temperature was noted up to 96.7 Degree C in Moomal whereas others had temperature from 82.7 to 89.0 Degree C. Highest gelatinization maxima (1782AU) acquired by T.J-83 variety. The results of Farinograph showed that highest water absorption was noted in Anmool variety. The highest dough development time and dough stability were found highest in Kiran and Indus-66, respectively. T.D-1 and Jouhar varieties had highest break down time as well as highest Farinograph quality. (author)

  3. Discrimination of Chinese traditional soy sauces based on their physico-chemical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOKOT; Serge

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed to classify the categories (produced by different processes) and brands (obtained from different geographical origins) of Chinese soy sauces.Nine variables of physico-chemical properties (density,pH,dry matter,ashes,electric conductivity,amino nitrogen,salt,viscosity and total acidity) of 53 soy sauce samples were measured.The measured data was submitted to such pattern recognition as cluster analysis (CA),principal component analysis (PCA),discrimination partial least squares (DPLS),linear discrimination analysis (LDA) and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) to evaluate the data patterns and the possibility of differentiating Chinese soy sauces between different categories and brands.Two clusters corresponding to the two categories were obtained,and each cluster was divided into three subsets corresponding to three brands by the CA method.The variables for LDA and KNN were selected by the Fisher F-ratio approach.The prediction ability of all classifiers was evaluated by cross-validation.For the three supervised discrimination analyses,LDA and KNN gave 100% predications according to the sample category and brand.

  4. Evaluation of physico-chemical properties of Portland cements and MTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Gonçalves

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydrogenionic potential and electrical conductivity of Portland cements and MTA, as well as the amount of arsenic and calcium released from these materials. In Teflon molds, samples of each material were agitated and added to plastic flasks containing distilled water for 3, 24, 72 and 168 h. The results were analyzed with a Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test for global comparisons and a Dunn-Tukey test for pairwise comparisons. The results revealed no significant differences in the pH of the materials (p > 0.05. The electrical conductivity of the cements were not statistically different (p > 0.05. White non-structural cement and MTA BIO released the largest amount of calcium ions into solution (p 0.05. The results indicated that the physico-chemical properties of Portland cements and MTA were similar. Furthermore, all materials produced an alkaline environment and can be considered safe for clinical use because arsenic was not released. The electrical conductivity and the amount of calcium ions released into solution increased over time.

  5. Physicochemical properties of whole fruit plum powders obtained using different drying technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Lech, Krzysztof; Łysiak, Grzegorz P; Figiel, Adam

    2016-09-15

    Physicochemical quality parameters of plum powders obtained by applying conventional drying methods and their combination devised to process plums were evaluated. The effect of freeze-drying (FD), vacuum drying (VD), convective drying (CD), microwave-vacuum drying (MVD) and combination of convective pre-drying and microwave finish-drying (CPD-MVFD) affected physical (bulk density, porosity, colour, solubility) and chemical (polyphenolic compounds determined by UPLC and antioxidant capacity by TEAC ABTS and FRAP methods) properties of plum powders. The MVD at 1.2 W g(-1) and a novel combination for plum powders production - CPD-MVFD at 70 °C/1.2 W g(-1) allowed the best preservation of phenolic compounds and increased the efficiency of production. Results obtained support the use of MVD and its combination for better quality of dried plum products. The study proved that the determination of the browning index and HMF level (formed via Maillard reaction) might be good tool for monitoring the thermal processing of plum powders. PMID:27080900

  6. Effect of γ-irradiation on the physicochemical and sensory properties of hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study evaluated the quality of hazelnuts as a function of irradiation dose to determine dose levels causing minimal undesirable changes to hazelnuts. Physicochemical (color, peroxide value (PV), hexanal content, fatty acid composition and volatile compounds) and sensory (color, texture, odor and taste) properties were determined. Results showed a twenty fold increase in peroxide value and twenty-eight fold increase in hexanal content after irradiation at a dose of 7 kGy. An increase was also observed in saturated fatty acids (10%-23%) with a parallel decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (90-77%). Volatile compounds such as ketones, alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes, furans, aromatic hydrocarbons, bicyclic monoterpenes and acids were produced mostly comprising secondary oxidation products of hazelnut lipids after irradiation. Color parameter b* increased (p<0.05) after irradiation at a dose of ≥5 kGy, while color parameters L* and a* remained unchanged by irradiation. Sensory evaluation showed that texture and color were not affected by irradiation. Taste, the most sensitive sensory attribute showed that hazelnuts retain acceptable sensory quality when irradiated up to a dose of 1.5 kGy.

  7. Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa (mucuna deeringiana and soybean (glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Chaparro Acuña

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa flour (Mucuna deeringiana and soybean flour (Glycine max were determined. Oil absorption capacity was higher in vitabosa. Water absorption capacity was higher in soy and it was affected by the change in the ionic strength of the medium. Emulsifying Activity (EA decreased with increasing concentration of flour, while Emulsifying Stability (ES showed an increased. EA and ES of flours have more ionic strength in the range between 0.0 and 0.4 M, but it is reduced afterwards with the higher concentration of NaCl. Foaming stability varied with the concentration of flour solution reaching maximum values of 39 and 33% for vitabosa and soybean, respectively at 10% flour concentration.Vitabosa had the best foaming capacity (56% to 0.6 M compared with soybeans (47% to 0.4 M. Maximum capacity of gelation was observed in vitabosa at 10% flour concentration. Increases in ionic strength of the flour solution, at low salt concentrations (<0.4 M, improved the gelation of flours.

  8. Proposal for a risk banding framework for inhaled low aspect ratio nanoparticles based on physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwijk, Mattheus T T; Feber, Maaike Le; Burello, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    We present a conceptual framework that can be used to assign risk bands to inhaled low aspect ratio nanoparticles starting from exposure bands assigned to a specific exposure situation. The framework mimics a basic physiological scheme that captures the essential mechanisms of fate and toxicity of inhaled nanoparticles and is composed of several models and rules that estimate the result of the following processes: the deposition of particles in the respiratory tract, their (de-)agglomeration, lung burden and clearance, their diffusion through the lung mucus layer, translocation and cellular uptake and local and systemic toxicity. Each model is based on a set of particle's physicochemical properties, including the size and size distribution(s), the zeta potential (or net charge at a specific pH), the surface hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, the conduction band energy (for metals, metal oxides, quantum dots, etc.) and the solubility at a specific pH. The framework takes the exposure bands as input and predicts, using the above-mentioned models, an internal dose band (module 1). Module 2 assigns a relative hazard ranking depending on the region of particle deposition in the respiratory tract, the likelihood of uptake and whether the toxicological effects are assumed to be local and/or systemic. By combining the results of Module 1 and 2, the framework provides a relative risk ranking. PMID:26763369

  9. Physicochemical properties and thermal stability of quercetin hydrates in the solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghetti, G.S., E-mail: greicefarm@yahoo.com.br [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga 2752, CEP 90.610-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Carini, J.P. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga 2752, CEP 90.610-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Honorato, S.B.; Ayala, A.P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Caixa Postal 6030, CEP 60.455-970, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Moreira, J.C.F. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2600, CEP 90035-003, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bassani, V.L. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga 2752, CEP 90.610-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin raw materials may present different degree of hydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal stability of quercetin in the solid state depends on its degree of hydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin dehydrate is thermodynamically more stable than the other crystal forms. - Abstract: In the present work three samples of quercetin raw materials (QCTa, QCTb and QCTc), purchased from different Brazilian suppliers, were characterized employing scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, simultaneous thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and variable temperature-powder X-ray diffraction, in order to know their physicochemical properties, specially the thermal stability in solid state. The results demonstrated that the raw materials of quercetin analyzed present distinct crystalline structures, ascribed to the different degree of hydration of their crystal lattice. The thermal stability of these quercetin raw materials in the solid state was highly dependent on their degree of hydration, where QCTa (quercetin dihydrate) was thermodynamically more stable than the other two samples.

  10. Physicochemical property profile for brain permeability: comparative study by different approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raevsky, Oleg A; Grigorev, Veniamin Y; Polianczyk, Daniel E; Sandakov, German I; Solodova, Svetlana L; Yarkov, Alexander V; Bachurin, Sergey O; Dearden, John C

    2016-08-01

    A comparative study of classification models of brain penetration by different approaches was carried out on a training set of 1000 chemicals and drugs, and an external test set of 100 drugs. Ten approaches were applied in this work: seven medicinal chemistry approaches (including "rule of 5" and multiparameter optimization) and also three SAR techniques: logistic regression (LR), random forest (RF) and support vector machine (SVM). Forty-one different medicinal chemistry descriptors representing diverse physicochemical properties were used in this work. Medicinal chemistry approaches based on the intuitive estimation of preference zones of CNS or non-CNS chemicals, with different rules and scoring functions, yield unbalanced models with poor classification accuracy. RF and SVM methods yielded 82% and 84% classification accuracy respectively for the external test set. LR was also successful in CNS/non-CNS (denoted in this study as CNS+/CNS-) classification and yielded an overall accuracy equivalent to that of SVM and RF. At the same time, LR is especially valuable for medicinal chemists because of its simplicity and the possibility of clear mechanistic interpretation. PMID:26755431

  11. Changes in physicochemical and transport properties of a reverse osmosis membrane exposed to chloraminated seawater

    KAUST Repository

    Valentino, Lauren

    2015-02-17

    This study contributed to improving our understanding of how disinfectants, applied to control biofouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, result in membrane performance degradation. We investigated changes in physicochemical properties and permeation performance of a RO membrane with fully aromatic polyamide (PA) active layer. Membrane samples were exposed to varying concentrations of monochloramine, bromide, and iodide in both synthetic and natural seawater. Elemental analysis of the membrane active layer by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) revealed the incorporation of bromine and iodine into the polyamide. The kinetics of polyamide bromination were first order with respect to the concentration of the secondary oxidizing agent Br2 for the conditions investigated. Halogenated membranes were characterized after treatment with a reducing agent and heavy ion probes to reveal the occurrence of irreversible ring halogenation and an increase in carboxylic groups, the latter produced as a result of amide bond cleavage. Finally, permeation experiments revealed increases in both water permeability and salt passage as a result of oxidative damage.

  12. Physicochemical properties and heavy metals leachability of fly ash from coal-fired power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Wei; Han Baoping; Zhou Dong; Nzihou Ange

    2012-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of fly ash from two kinds of coal-fired power plants were studied.Three aspects were examined:the micro-morphology,the mineral composition and the content of heavy met als.The results show that the fly ash from plants using a circulating fluidized bed are more irregular particles,while the particles from the plants using a pulverized coal-fired boiler are mainly spherical in shape.Quartz and mullite are the main crystalline phases in the ash.Clearly,both the technology and the coal used by a power plant can influence the mineral composition of the ash.The mineral composition of fly ash from a circulating fluidized bed is more complex than that from a pulverized coal-fired boiler.The quantity of elements found in the fly ash is greater than that found in the bottom ash for the same plant.Heavy metals are likely to be enriched in the fly ash.Heavy metal leachability was studied using two leaching methods.The results indicate that most of the heavy metals that leached during either batch leaching or column leaching experiments did not exceed the related maximum concentration standards.But Ni concentrations in the leachates from both batch and column tests exceed the standard.The highest excess rates in both tests were 572% and 497%,which levels might threaten the environment.

  13. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Appenzeller Cheese Supplemented with Powdered Microcapsule of Tomato Extract during Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hae-Soo; Chimed, Chogsom; Yoo, Sang-Hun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of Appenzeller cheese supplemented with different concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4%, w/w) of powdered microcapsules of tomato extracts (PMT) during ripening at 14℃ for 6 mon. The particle sizes of PMT ranged from 1 to 10 m diameter with an average particle size of approximately 2 m. Butyric acid (C4) concentrations of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were significantly higher than that of the control. Lactic acid bacteria counts in the cheese were not significantly influenced by ripening time from 0 to 6 mon or the concentrations (0-4%, w/w) of PMT. In terms of texture, the hardness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese was significantly increased compared to the control. The gumminess and chewiness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were similar to those of the control. However, both cohesiveness and springiness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were slightly decreased. In sensory analysis, bitterness and sourness of Appenzeller cheese were not significantly changed after supplementation of PMT, but sweetness of the cheese was significantly increased after increasing the ripening time from 0 to 6 mon and increasing the concentration from 1 to 4% (w/w). Based on these results, the addition of the concentrations (1-4%, w/w) of PMT to Appenzeller cheese can be used to develop functional Appenzeller cheese. PMID:27194934

  14. The fermentation kinetics and physicochemical properties of special beer with addition of Prokupac grape variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Mile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the market of special beers with improved healthy function and/or with new refreshing taste has significantly increased. One of the possible solutions enables grape and mixing beer with bioactive component responsible for well known health promoting action of red wine. The influence of the addition of Prokupac grape on the physicochemical properties and the fermentation kinetics of the grape beer were studied and results were compared with control lager beer. The effect of grape addition on the activity of yeast was also studied. Original extract, alcohol content, degree of fermentation, fermentation rate and yeast growth were significantly higher in beers with grapes as a consequence of higher concentration of simple sugars in grapes compared with pure wort. Based on the CIELab chromatic parameters the color of grape beer samples was yellow with certain proportion of redness, while the control beer was purely yellow. The increase in the concentration of grape mash affects the reduction of lightness and yellowness of beers, while the redness of samples was directly proportional with grape quantity. The phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grape beers was remarkably higher compared with control beer, which indicates that the grape beer is a better source of natural antioxidants than regular lager beer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46001

  15. Optimization of a sponge cake formulation with inulin as fat replacer: structure, physicochemical, and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, Julia; Puig, Ana; Salvador, Ana; Hernando, Isabel

    2012-02-01

    The effects of several fat replacement levels (0%, 35%, 50%, 70%, and 100%) by inulin in sponge cake microstructure and physicochemical properties were studied. Oil substitution for inulin decreased significantly (P cake structure development during baking. Cryo-SEM micrographs of cake crumbs showed a continuous matrix with embedded starch granules and coated with oil; when fat replacement levels increased, starch granules appeared as detached structures. Cakes with fat replacement up to 70% had a high crumb air cell values; they were softer and rated as acceptable by an untrained sensory panel (n = 51). So, the reformulation of a standard sponge cake recipe to obtain a new product with additional health benefits and accepted by consumers is achieved. Practical Application:  In this study, fat is replaced by inulin in cakes, which is a fiber mainly obtained from chicory roots. Sponge cake formulations with reductions in fat content up to 70% are achieved. These high-quality products can be labeled as "reduced in fat" according to U.S. FDA (2009) and EU regulations (European-Union 2006). PMID:22250810

  16. Some physicochemical properties of acetaminophen pediatric suspensions formulated with okra gums obtained from different extraction processes as suspending agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikoni Ogaji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of the extraction process and the potential of okra gum as a suspending agent in pharmaceutical oral formulations containing acetaminophen as a model drug. Clarified mucilage of dried okra was either extracted directly with ethanol 96% (F1 or was first treated with base (F2, acid (F3 or heating in the presence of salt (F4 before extraction with ethanol 96%. The samples were used at 0.5% w/v as suspending agents in acetaminophen acetaminophen suspension to deliver 125 mg/5 mL acetaminophen. A binary mixture of F2 and F4 (1:1 was also used. Similar suspensions of acetaminophen containing either hydroxymethylpropylcellulose (HPMC or tragacanth gum (TRAGA were produced. Some physicochemical properties of the formulations were evaluated. The rheological properties of acetaminophen-containing treated okra gums (F2-F5 were generally similar. Changes in viscosity with storage were slower in the F2-F5 formulations as compared with F1. Particle size and particle size distribution were different for all formulations, and hysteresis was a function of time and the suspending agent used. The re-dispersion time of the formulations with treated okra gums was generally shorter than that observed with the untreated okra gum. The use of a binary mixture of F2 and F4 resulted in different physicochemical properties from those of either F2 or F4. The physicochemical properties of the formulations were comparable to those with HPMC and TRAGA. It can thus be concluded that treating okra gum with acid, base or salt impacted better physicochemical properties on an acetaminophen pediatric suspension when they were used as suspending agents.

  17. Stability, antimicrobial activity, and effect of nisin on the physico-chemical properties of fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Junior, Adelson Alves; de Araújo Couto, Hyrla Grazielle Silva; Barbosa, Ana Andréa Teixeira; Carnelossi, Marcelo Augusto Guitierrez; de Moura, Tatiana Rodrigues

    2015-10-15

    Heat processing is the most commonly used hurdle for inactivating microorganisms in fruit juices. However, this preservation method could interfere with the organoleptic characteristics of the product. Alternative methods have been proposed and bacteriocins such as nisin are potential candidates. However, the approval of bacteriocins as food additives is limited, especially in foods from vegetal origin. We aimed to verify the stability, the effect on physico-chemical properties, and the antimicrobial activity of nisin in different fruit juices. Nisin remained stable in fruit juices (cashew, soursop, peach, mango, passion fruit, orange, guava, and cupuassu) for at least 30 days at room or refrigerated temperature and did not cause any significant alterations in the physico-chemical characteristics of the juices. Besides, nisin favored the preservation of vitamin C content in juices. The antimicrobial activity of nisin was tested against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in cashew, soursop, peach, and mango juices. Nisin caused a 4-log reduction in viable cells of A. acidoterrestris in soursop, peach, and mango juices after 8h of incubation, and no viable cells were detected in cashew juices. After 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin, no viable cells were detected, independently of the juices. To S. aureus, at 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin, viable cells were only detected in mango juices, representing a 4-log decrease as compared with the control treatment. The number of viable cells of B. cereus at 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin represented at least a 4-log decrease compared to the control treatment. When the antimicrobial activity of nisin was tested against L. monocytogenes in cashew and soursop juices, no reduction in the viable cell number was observed compared to the control treatment after 24h of incubation. Viable cells were four and six times less than in the

  18. In vitro digestibility and changes in physicochemical and structural properties of common buckwheat starch affected by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Wang, Lijing; Cao, Rong; Fan, Huanhuan; Wang, Min

    2016-06-25

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP), a non-thermal processing technology, was applied at 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600MPa to assess its effect on the in vitro digestibility, physicochemical, and structural properties of common buckwheat starch (CBS). HHP treatment resulted in CBS granules with more rough surfaces. With the increasing pressure level, amylose content, pasting temperature, and thermal stability substantially increased and relative crystallinity, hardness, swelling power, and viscosity decreased. At 120-480MPa, HHP did not affect the 'A'-type crystalline pattern of CBS. However, at 600MPa, HHP contributed to a similar 'B'-type pattern. Compared with native starch, HHP-modified CBS samples had lower in vitro hydrolysis, reduced content of rapidly digestible starch, and increased levels of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch. These results revealed that the in vitro digestibility, physicochemical, and structural properties of CBS are effectively modified by HHP. PMID:27083786

  19. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Spray Drying Powders from Stropharia rugoso-annulata and Agaricus brunnescens Blanching Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impacts of carrier agents on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant retention rate of spray drying powders from blanching liquids of Stropharia rugoso-annulata (BLS and Agaricus brunnescens (BLA. Physicochemical, nutritional and antioxidant properties of the powder were examined in order to better determine potential applications of powders. Carrier agents could improve the qualities of the spray drying BLS powders and BLA powders and &beta-Cyclodextrin (&beta-CD was more suitable as carrier agent than Maltodextrin (MD. The powder had higher flour yield and antioxidant retention rate while &beta-CD addition rate was 44.44 g/100 g (w/w.Proximate composition and total phenolics were performed. The powder was ranging from 5 and 30 μm in particle size with spherical particle morphology. BLA powders had higher antioxidant activity (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibition ability than BLS powder.

  20. Residual-QSAR. Implications for genotoxic carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Putz Mihai V

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Both main types of carcinogenesis, genotoxic and epigenetic, were examined in the context of non-congenericity and similarity, respectively, for the structure of ligand molecules, emphasizing the role of quantitative structure-activity relationship ((Q)SAR) studies in accordance with OECD (Organization for Economic and Cooperation Development) regulations. The main purpose of this report involves electrophilic theory and the need for meaningful physicochemical parameters...

  1. Replacing sugar with S. rebaudiana extracts on the physicochemical and sensory properties of strawberry ice cream

    OpenAIRE

    Irma Aranda-Gonzalez; Maribel Perera-Pacheco; Enrique Barbosa-Martín; David Betancur-Ancona

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Ice cream is a product whose formulation requires considerable amounts of sugar. In addition to providing flavor, sugar contributes to the physicochemical characteristics of ice cream but its consumption in large quantities is related to chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. For this reason, the food industry seeks to formulate products with sweeteners that preserve the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the original product. Stevia rebaudiana is a plant that na...

  2. On the structural and physicochemical properties of gamma irradiated UHMWPE/silane hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has been carried to investigate the influence of gamma rays on the structural and physicochemical properties of UHMWPE/silane hybrid. UHMWPE was mixed with vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) and compression molded sheets were irradiated at different doses of gamma rays. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the formation of siloxane linkages in hybrids, which were found to be shifted towards lower wave number upon irradiation. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed significant increase in the percentage crystallinity of hybrid upon gamma irradiation, especially at 65 kGy absorbed dose. Scanning electron micrographs showed good consolidation and compaction with no surface defects. Moreover, the rough topography was changed to smooth ripple-like appearance upon γ-irradiation. Thermal analysis revealed that irradiated hybrids exhibited higher onset thermal degradation temperature, peak melting temperature, and crystalline lamellae thickness compared with the water treated hybrid. In addition, the tensile testing confirmed an increase of 41% and 133% in yield strength and Young's modulus in 100 kGy irradiated hybrid respectively than that of water treated hybrid. We hope that the irradiated UHMWPE/silane hybrids can be used in various high-strength applications such as total joint replacements, pickers for textile machinery, lining for coal chutes and dump trucks. - Highlights: • UHMWPE/silane hybrids have been prepared and irradiated using gamma rays. • The structural analysis revealed the formation siloxane linkages in the hybrid. • The crystallinity, thermal stability and mechanical properties of hybrids were improved with irradiation. • The irradiated hybrids can be used in various high-strength applications

  3. Evaluation of various physico-chemical properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa and L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasdhari, M; Parekh, T; Dave, N; Patel, V; Subhash, R

    2008-09-01

    The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract on the physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes, texture and microbial analysis of L. casei incorporated in probiotic yoghurt after manufacture and during storage. Incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract into the probiotic yoghurt resulted into decrease in coagulation time by 25 min. The pH ranged from 4.39 to 4.59, TA 0.81 to 1.14%, moisture 3.05 to 3.37 g%, syneresis 18.85 to 24.90 mL/50 g of sample, % inhibition 12.32 to 59.43, TS 21.27 to 24.90 g% and beta-galactosidase activity 1.041 to 3.277. The protein content ranged between 4.11 and 4.14 g% while the fat content ranged between 3.43 and 3.49 g%. No major changes in sensory evaluation were observed on the day of manufacture and during storage for 7 days. Sabdariffa added yoghurt showed a higher score in almost all sensory attributes. Microbial analysis showed a total plate count ranging from 1.8 x 10(4) to 1.85 x 10(7) cfu mL(-1). Yeast and mold counts were negligible in the Sabdariffa yoghurts. Thus the study concludes that incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract in yoghurt improved the total antioxidant property, organoleptic qualities and decreased the exudation of whey proteins (Syneresis). Thus, Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces has beneficial influence on the quality of L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt. PMID:19266923

  4. Evaluation of Various Physico-Chemical Properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa and L. casei Incorporated Probiotic Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasdhari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract on the physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes, texture and microbial analysis of L. casei incorporated in probiotic yoghurt after manufacture and during storage. Incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract into the probiotic yoghurt resulted into decrease in coagulation time by 25 min. The pH ranged from 4.39 to 4.59, TA 0.81 to 1.14%, moisture 3.05 to 3.37 g%, syneresis 18.85 to 24.90 mL/50 g of sample, % inhibition 12.32 to 59.43, TS 21.27 to 24.90 g% and β-galactosidase activity 1.041 to 3.277. The protein content ranged between 4.11 and 4.14 g% while the fat content ranged between 3.43 and 3.49 g%. No major changes in sensory evaluation were observed on the day of manufacture and during storage for 7 days. Sabdariffa added yoghurt showed a higher score in almost all sensory attributes. Microbial analysis showed a total plate count ranging from 1.8x104 to 1.85x107 cfu mL-1. Yeast and mold counts were negligible in the Sabdariffa yoghurts. Thus the study concludes that incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract in yoghurt improved the total antioxidant property, organoleptic qualities and decreased the exudation of whey proteins (Syneresis. Thus, Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces has beneficial influence on the quality of L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt.

  5. Physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhin, Eleonora; Gualtieri, Maurizio; Capasso, Laura; Bengalli, Rossella; Mollerup, Steen; Holme, Jørn A; Øvrevik, Johan; Casadei, Simone; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Parenti, Paolo; Camatini, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Diesel combustion and solid biomass burning are the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in urbanized areas. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, are possible outcomes of combustion particles exposure, but differences in particles properties seem to influence their biological effects. Here the physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles, produced under controlled laboratory conditions, have been characterized. Diesel UFP were sampled from a Euro 4 light duty vehicle without DPF fuelled by commercial diesel and run over a chassis dyno. Biomass UFP were collected from a modern automatic 25 kW boiler propelled by prime quality spruce pellet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of both diesel and biomass samples showed aggregates of soot particles, but in biomass samples ash particles were also present. Chemical characterization showed that metals and PAHs total content was higher in diesel samples compared to biomass ones. Human bronchial epithelial (HBEC3) cells were exposed to particles for up to 2 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism were observed after exposure to both UFP already after 24 h. However, only diesel particles modulated the expression of genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the release of inflammatory mediators and caused phenotypical alterations, mostly after two weeks of exposure. These results show that diesel UFP affected cellular processes involved in lung and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Biomass particles exerted low biological activity compared to diesel UFP. This evidence emphasizes that the study of different emission sources contribution to ambient PM toxicity may have a fundamental role in the development of more effective strategies for air quality improvement. PMID:27194366

  6. Cellulose reinforced nylon-6 nanofibrous membrane: Fabrication strategies, physicochemical characterizations, wicking properties and biomimetic mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mahesh Kumar; Tiwari, Arjun Prasad; Maharjan, Bikendra; Won, Ko Sung; Kim, Han Joo; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2016-08-20

    The aim of the present study is to develop a facile, efficient approach to reinforce nylon 6 (N6) nanofibers with cellulose chains as well as to study the effect that cellulose regeneration has on the physicochemical properties of the composite fibers. Here, a cellulose acetate (CA) solution (17wt%) was prepared in formic acid and was blended with N6 solution (20%, prepared in formic acid and acetic acid) in various proportions, and the blended solutions were then electrospun to produce hybrid N6/CA nanofibers. Cellulose was regenerated in-situ in the fiber via alkaline saponification of the CA content of the hybrid fiber, leading to cellulose-reinforced N6 (N6/CL) nanofibers. Electron microscopy studies suggest that the fiber diameter and hence pore size gradually decreases as the mass composition of CA increases in the electrospinning solution. Cellulose regeneration showed noticeable change in the polymorphic behavior of N6, as observed in the XRD and IR spectra. The strong interaction of the hydroxyl group of cellulose with amide group of N6, mainly via hydrogen bonding, has a pronounced effect on the polymorphic behavior of N6. The γ-phase was dominant in pristine N6 and N6/CA fibers while α- phase was dominant in the N6/CL fibers. The surface wettability, wicking properties, and the tensile stress were greatly improved for N6/CL fibers compared to the corresponding N6/CA hybrid fibers. Results of DSC/TGA revealed that N6/CL fibers were more thermally stable than pristine N6 and N6/CA nanofibers. Furthermore, regeneration of cellulose chain improved the ability to nucleate bioactive calcium phosphate crystals in a simulated body fluid solution. PMID:27178914

  7. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils. PMID:25007749

  8. Physicochemical, thermal and rheological properties of starches isolated from malting barley varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pycia, Karolina; Gałkowska, Dorota; Juszczak, Lesław; Fortuna, Teresa; Witczak, Teresa

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize physicochemical, thermal and rheological properties of starches isolated from malting barley varieties. The analyzed starches contained 19.6-25.2 g of amylose, 42.47-70.67 mg of phosphorus, 0.50-1.26 g of protein and 0.10-0.61 g of fat per 100 g of starch dry mass. The clarity of the 1 % (w/w) starch pastes ranged from 5.4 to 9.8 %. Values of the characteristic gelatinization temperatures were in the ranges of 56.5-58.5 °C, 61.2-63.0 °C and 66.7-68.7 °C, respectively for TO, TP and TE, whereas values of gelatinization enthalpy were from 6.49 to 9.61 J/g. The barley starches showed various tendency to retrogradation, from 24.52 to 44.22 %, measured as R = ∆HR/∆HG value. The pasting curves showed differences in pasting characteristics of the barley starches, where values of peak (PV) and final (FV) viscosities were 133-230 mPa·s and 224-411 mPa·s, respectively. The barley starch pastes exhibited non-Newtonian, shear thinning flow behaviour and thixotropy phenomenon. After cooling the starch gels showed different viscoelastic properties, however, most of them behaved like weak gels (tan δ = G″/G' > 0.1). Significant linear correlations between the parameters of pasting characteristic and some rheological parameters were found. PMID:26243900

  9. Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Insoluble Dietary Fiber Isolated from Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedericks, Claudine F; Jideani, Victoria A

    2015-09-01

    Bambara groundnut (BGN) is a widely cultivated legume with a rich nutritional profile, yet despite its many benefits it still remains underutilized. To highlight its potential value, 4 BGN varieties-brown, red, black eye, and brown eye were subjected to sequential enzymatic treatments followed by centrifugation to obtain the insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) fraction. The IDFs were vacuum-dried and evaluated for color, hydration properties, fat absorption, polyphenolic compounds, neutral sugars, and uronic acids. An optimized white bread formulation was also determined using brown BGN-IDF in an optimal (IV) mixture design. Three mixture components constrained at lower and upper limits (water: 57% to 60%, yeast: 2.3% to 5.3%, and BGN-IDF: 7% to 10%) were evaluated for their effects on responses of specific loaf volume, gumminess, chewiness, and resilience of the loaves. All BGN-IDFs differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) across all color parameters. Polyphenols were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest in red and brown BGN-IDFs. Arabinose/galactose (31.04% to 37.12%), xylose (16.53% to 27.30%), and mannose (14.48% to 22.24%) were the major sugars identified. Swelling capacity was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest for brown eye BGN-IDF (7.72 ± 0.49 mL/g). Water retention capacity ranged from 1.63 to 2.01 g water/g dry weight. Fat absorption for red BGN-IDF differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the best optimal white bread formulation enriched with brown BGN-IDF was established with numerical optimization at 59.5% water, 4.3% yeast, and 8.5% BGN-IDF. Overall positive physicochemical and functional properties were observed for BGN-IDFs, and it was shown that an optimal white bread enriched with BGN-IDF could be produced. PMID:26256094

  10. Impact of Sulfuric Acid Treatment of Halloysite on Physico-Chemic Property Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayser Sumer Gaaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Halloysite (HNT is treated with sulfuric acid and the physico-chemical properties of its morphology, surface activity, physical and chemical properties have been investigated when HNT is exposed to sulfuric acid with treatment periods of 1 h (H1, 3 h (H3, 8 h (H8, and 21 h (H21. The significance of this and similar work lies in the importance of using HNT as a functional material in nanocomposites. The chemical structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The spectrum demonstrates that the hydroxyl groups were active for grafting modification using sulfuric acid, promoting a promising potential use for halloysite in ceramic applications as filler for novel clay-polymer nanocomposites. From the X-ray diffraction (XRD spectrum, it can be seen that the sulfuric acid breaks down the HNT crystal structure and alters it into amorphous silica. In addition, the FESEM images reveal that the sulfuric acid treatment dissolves the AlO6 octahedral layers and induces the disintegration of SiO4 tetrahedral layers, resulting in porous nanorods. The Bruncher-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area and total pore volume of HNTs showed an increase. The reaction of the acid with both the outer and inner surfaces of the nanotubes causes the AlO6 octahedral layers to dissolve, which leads to the breakdown and collapse of the tetrahedral layers of SiO4. The multi-fold results presented in this paper serve as a guide for further HNT functional treatment for producing new and advanced nanocomposites.

  11. Heat-deproteinated xenogeneic bone from slaughterhouse waste: Physico-chemical properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Murugan; K Panduranga Rao; T S Sampath Kumar

    2003-08-01

    Xenogeneic bone procured from the slaughterhouse waste was deproteinated by heat treatment method intended for use as a bone substitute. The effect of heat treatment was investigated by thermal analysis and by physico-chemical methods such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The heat treatment temperatures for the bovine bone samples were predetermined by thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. The XRD results revealed that the process of heat treatment promoted the crystallinity of bone samples, particularly at 700 and 900°C. There was no secondary phase transformation detected for heat-deproteinated bone except the presence of the hydroxyapatite (HA) phase, which indicated its phase purity even at a higher temperature. The FTIR spectra of raw bone and bone heated at 300°C indicated the presence of organic macromolecules whereas these disappeared in the samples heated at 500, 700 and 900°C, which suggested the removal of antigenic organic matters around 500°C. The same results were also confirmed quantitatively by calculating the amount of collagen using hydroxyproline estimation. There was no significant change in the TG-thermogram of bone heated at 500, 700 and 900°C, which indicated their thermal stability. These findings implied that the heat treated bone at 500°C had properties similar to carbonated HA with low crystallinity, while 700 and 900°C samples had the same with higher crystallinity. As low temperature treatment does not alter morphological and structural properties, we propose that the 500°C heat treated xenogeneic bone may act as an excellent osteogenic bone substitute.

  12. Thermal and physicochemical properties important for the long term behavior of nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High level nuclear waste from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has to be solidified in a stable matrix for safe long-time storage. Vitrification in borosilicate glasses is the technique accepted worldwide. A number of different glasses was developed in different national programs. The criteria and the reasons for selecting the final compositions are briefly described. Emphasis is placed on the French product R7T7 and on thermal and physicochemical properties though glasses developed in other national projects (e.g. the German product GP 98/12 etc.) are also treated. The basic physical and mechanical properties and the chemical durability of the glass in contact with water or other aqueous solutions are described. The basic mechanisms of aqueous corrosion are discussed and the evolving modelling of the leaching process is dealt with, as well as effects of container material, backfill, etc. The thermal behavior has also been studied and extensive data exist on diffusion of glass constituents (Na) and of interesting elements of the waste such as the alkalis Rb and Cs or the actinides U and Pu, as well as on crystallization processes in the glass during storage at elevated temperatures. Emphasis is placed on the radiation stability of the glasses, based on extensive studies using short-lived actinides (e.g. Cm-244) or ion-implantation to produce the damage expected during long storage at an accelerated rate. The radiation stability is shown to be very good, if realistic damage conditions are used. The knowledge accumulated in the past years is used to evaluate and predict the long-term evolution of the glass under storage conditions

  13. On the structural and physicochemical properties of gamma irradiated UHMWPE/silane hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiq, Muhammad [Advanced Polymer Laboratory, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 45650 Islamabad (Pakistan); Mehmood, Malik Sajjad [Advanced Polymer Laboratory, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 45650 Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Basic Sciences and Humanities, University of Engineering and Technology, 47050 Taxila (Pakistan); Yasin, Tariq, E-mail: yasintariq@yahoo.com [Advanced Polymer Laboratory, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 45650 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-12-16

    This study has been carried to investigate the influence of gamma rays on the structural and physicochemical properties of UHMWPE/silane hybrid. UHMWPE was mixed with vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) and compression molded sheets were irradiated at different doses of gamma rays. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the formation of siloxane linkages in hybrids, which were found to be shifted towards lower wave number upon irradiation. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed significant increase in the percentage crystallinity of hybrid upon gamma irradiation, especially at 65 kGy absorbed dose. Scanning electron micrographs showed good consolidation and compaction with no surface defects. Moreover, the rough topography was changed to smooth ripple-like appearance upon γ-irradiation. Thermal analysis revealed that irradiated hybrids exhibited higher onset thermal degradation temperature, peak melting temperature, and crystalline lamellae thickness compared with the water treated hybrid. In addition, the tensile testing confirmed an increase of 41% and 133% in yield strength and Young's modulus in 100 kGy irradiated hybrid respectively than that of water treated hybrid. We hope that the irradiated UHMWPE/silane hybrids can be used in various high-strength applications such as total joint replacements, pickers for textile machinery, lining for coal chutes and dump trucks. - Highlights: • UHMWPE/silane hybrids have been prepared and irradiated using gamma rays. • The structural analysis revealed the formation siloxane linkages in the hybrid. • The crystallinity, thermal stability and mechanical properties of hybrids were improved with irradiation. • The irradiated hybrids can be used in various high-strength applications.

  14. Physicochemical properties of the DMSO-Cu(NO3)2·3H2O system

    OpenAIRE

    MAMYRBEKOVA AIGUL; MAMITOVA AIGUL; MAMYRBEKOVA AIZHAN

    2016-01-01

    PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE DMSO-CU(NO3)2·3H2O SYSTEM ARE STUDIED IN THE CONCENTRATION RANGE OF 0.01-2 M AT 298 K. THE REFRACTION INDEX OF A SOLUTION OF COPPER(II) NITRATE IN DIMETHYLSULFOXIDE (DMSO) IS MEASURED AT 288-318 K. THE EXCESS AND PARTIAL MOLAR VOLUMES OF THE SOLVENT AND DISSOLVED SUBSTANCE ARE CALCULATED ANALYTICALLY.

  15. Preparation, Spectroscopy, Physicochemical Properties and X-ray Structure Analysis of 3,4,5-Trimethoxy N(2-hydroxybenzylidene) aniline

    OpenAIRE

    Kodjo Charles Guillaume; Zabri Herve; Benie Anoubile; Estienne Jacques

    2009-01-01

    3,4,5-Trimethoxy N-(salicylidene) aniline was synthesized and characterized by IR spectroscopy, 1H NMR and x-ray single crystal analysis. UV-visible spectroscopy was used for physicochemical tests. X-ray data reveals that the crystalline network cohesion of this compound is essentially assured by CH/pi type hydrogen bounds. It crystallized in the orthorhombic Pbcn space group. Electronic spectroscopy shows that the title compound doesn't present photochromic property but thermochromic one. In...

  16. Assessment of physico-chemical properties and metal contents of water and sediments of Bodo Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent-Akpu, Ijeoma Favour; Tyler, Andrew N.; Wilson, Clare; MacKinnon, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Some physico-chemical properties and the concentrations of the metals Fe, Mn, Ni, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, and Zn in water and sediments were examined from September 2011 to January 2012 in Bodo Creek, where oil spills have been recurrent. Temperature, pH, total dissolved solid, conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total hardness, sulfate, nitrate, and phosphate were determined in surface water. Particle size, total organic matter ...

  17. Effect of Extraction Solvents and Drying Methods on the Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Helicteres hirsuta Lour. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Ngoc Thuy Pham; Van Tang Nguyen; Quan Van Vuong; Michael C. Bowyer; Scarlett, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Helicteres hirsuta Lour. (H. hirsuta L.) is widely distributed in southeast Asian countries and has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant. However, optimal conditions for preparation of dried materials for further processing and suitable solvents for the extraction of bioactive compounds have not been investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different extraction solvents and different drying conditions on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant ca...

  18. Effect of the Amount and Particle Size of Wheat Fiber on the Physicochemical Properties and Gel Morphology of Starches

    OpenAIRE

    Qingjie Sun; Min Wu; Xianghui Bu; Liu Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Effects of added wheat fiber, with different levels and particle sizes, on the physicochemical properties and gel morphology of wheat starch and mung bean starch were investigated, using rapid visco analyzer (RVA), texture analyzer (TPA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Each starch was added with wheat fiber at 10, 20, 30 and 40% (weight basis, g/100g), and different sizes of 60, 100 and 180 mesh, respectively. The peak viscosity (PV) of starches with wheat fiber were higher than the c...

  19. Evolution of an alumina-magnesia/self-forming spinel castable. Part II: physico-chemical and mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez-Campos D.; Diaz J. I.; Rodriguez R. M.

    1999-01-01

    This study was carried out in conjunction with the investigation, reported in Part I, on the microstructural characteristics of an alumina-spinel castable with several percentages of MgO content. Bulk density and cold crushing strength of samples were evaluated dried and at three fired states (1000, 1200, 1400 °C). Results indicate little influence of MgO additions on physico-chemical properties of the alumina-magnesia/self-forming spinel castable. Characteristics compared with those reported...

  20. Physicochemical Properties and Nutritional Compositions of Foamed Banana Powders (Pisang Awak, Musa sapientum L.) Dehydrated by Various Drying Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Phisut NAKNAEN; Phantipha CHAROENTHAIKIJ; Paramaporn KERDSUP

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the physicochemical properties and nutritional compositions of foamed banana powders, as affected by various drying methods. The foaming process of banana puree was undertaken by using whey protein concentrate (5 %) as a foaming agent. After that, the banana foam was dehydrated by various drying methods, including hot air drying, vacuum drying, and freeze drying. Unfoamed banana puree dried by hot air drying was used as the control treatment. All...

  1. Identification of multiple physicochemical and structural properties associated with soluble expression of eukaryotic proteins in cell-free bacterial extracts

    OpenAIRE

    AlexanderA.Tokmakov

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial extracts are widely used to synthesize recombinant proteins. Vast data volumes have been accumulated in cell-free expression databases, covering a whole range of existing proteins. It makes possible comprehensive bioinformatics analysis and identification of multiple features associated with protein solubility and aggregation. In the present paper, an approach to identify the multiple physicochemical and structural properties of amino acid sequences associated with soluble expressio...

  2. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of water eroded soils of Sharkul area of district Mansehra, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Farmanullah Khan, A. Iqbal; Naveedullah,; M. K. Khattak; W. J. Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Soil degradation is the major threat to agricultural sustainability because it affects the soil productivity. Present study was conducted in 2008 to evaluate physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some eroded soil series of Sharkul area district Manshera, Hazara division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Six soil series including slightly eroded (Dosera and Girari), moderately eroded (Nakholi and Sharkul) and severely eroded (Ahl and Banser) were selected. Soil samples were collecte...

  3. Effects of convective and microwave roasting on the physicochemical properties of cocoa beans and cocoa butter extracted from this material

    OpenAIRE

    Krysiak, W.

    2011-01-01

    The cocoa beans of the Ivory Coast variety were convectively and microwave roasted. The effects of roasting conditions on the principal physicochemical attributes (water and fat contents, total and volatile acidity) of roasted cocoa beans and the properties of fat extracted from this material (acidity, saponification index, iodine index, peroxide value, light refraction coefficient, polar fraction content, and Fatty Acid profile, absorbancy of 1 and 10% solution in hexane) were examined. The ...

  4. Correlation between Evaluation of Palatability by Sensory Test and Physicochemical Properties in Chinese japonica–type Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Jing; Xin ZHANG; Cui, Zhongqiu; Kusutani, Akihito; ITO, Shoichi; Matsue, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    To obtain basic information on the breeding for palatability of japonica–type paddy rice in China, we collected 28 varieties from the northern area of China and examined the correlation between evaluation by sensory test (appearance, aroma, taste, stickiness, hardness and overall eating–quality) and physicochemical properties (amylose content and protein content of polished rice, breakdown value of polished rice flour and hardness/adhesion ratio of cooked rice). The overall eating–quality in ...

  5. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTY CHANGES AND ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS ENHANCEMENT OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES TREATED WITH SUPERHEATED STEAM

    OpenAIRE

    Ezyana Kamal Bahrin,; Azhari Samsu Baharuddin,; Mohamad Faizal Ibrahim,; Mohamad Nafis Abdul Razak,; Alawi Sulaiman; Suraini Abd. Aziz,; Mohd Ali Hassan; Yoshihito Shirai; Haruo Nishida

    2012-01-01

    The effect of superheated steam treatment on oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) was investigated in terms of physicochemical property changes and enzymatic hydrolysis enhancement. The experimental treatment was carried out at different temperatures (140-210°C) and durations (20-90 min). Results showed that as the superheated steam temperature and time increased, the size distribution also changed, resulting in more small particles. Analysis on the surface texture, color, and mechanical prop...

  6. Comparison of amino acids physico-chemical properties and usage of late embryogenesis abundant proteins, hydrophilins and WHy domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspard, Emmanuel; Hunault, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant proteins (LEAPs) comprise several diverse protein families and are mostly involved in stress tolerance. Most of LEAPs are intrinsically disordered and thus poorly functionally characterized. LEAPs have been classified and a large number of their physico-chemical properties have been statistically analyzed. LEAPs were previously proposed to be a subset of a very wide family of proteins called hydrophilins, while a domain called WHy (Water stress and Hypersensitive response) was found in LEAP class 8 (according to our previous classification). Since little is known about hydrophilins and WHy domain, the cross-analysis of their amino acids physico-chemical properties and amino acids usage together with those of LEAPs helps to describe some of their structural features and to make hypothesis about their function. Physico-chemical properties of hydrophilins and WHy domain strongly suggest their role in dehydration tolerance, probably by interacting with water and small polar molecules. The computational analysis reveals that LEAP class 8 and hydrophilins are distinct protein families and that not all LEAPs are a protein subset of hydrophilins family as proposed earlier. Hydrophilins seem related to LEAP class 2 (also called dehydrins) and to Heat Shock Proteins 12 (HSP12). Hydrophilins are likely unstructured proteins while WHy domain is structured. LEAP class 2, hydrophilins and WHy domain are thus proposed to share a common physiological role by interacting with water or other polar/charged small molecules, hence contributing to dehydration tolerance. PMID:25296175

  7. Comparison of amino acids physico-chemical properties and usage of late embryogenesis abundant proteins, hydrophilins and WHy domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Jaspard

    Full Text Available Late Embryogenesis Abundant proteins (LEAPs comprise several diverse protein families and are mostly involved in stress tolerance. Most of LEAPs are intrinsically disordered and thus poorly functionally characterized. LEAPs have been classified and a large number of their physico-chemical properties have been statistically analyzed. LEAPs were previously proposed to be a subset of a very wide family of proteins called hydrophilins, while a domain called WHy (Water stress and Hypersensitive response was found in LEAP class 8 (according to our previous classification. Since little is known about hydrophilins and WHy domain, the cross-analysis of their amino acids physico-chemical properties and amino acids usage together with those of LEAPs helps to describe some of their structural features and to make hypothesis about their function. Physico-chemical properties of hydrophilins and WHy domain strongly suggest their role in dehydration tolerance, probably by interacting with water and small polar molecules. The computational analysis reveals that LEAP class 8 and hydrophilins are distinct protein families and that not all LEAPs are a protein subset of hydrophilins family as proposed earlier. Hydrophilins seem related to LEAP class 2 (also called dehydrins and to Heat Shock Proteins 12 (HSP12. Hydrophilins are likely unstructured proteins while WHy domain is structured. LEAP class 2, hydrophilins and WHy domain are thus proposed to share a common physiological role by interacting with water or other polar/charged small molecules, hence contributing to dehydration tolerance.

  8. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Bangladeshi honeys stored for more than one year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Asiful

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no available information on physicochemical and antioxidant properties on Bangladeshi honey. We investigated five different monofloral and three different multifloral honey samples collected from different parts of Bangladesh. Methods The levels of phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant content (AEAC, proline, protein and antioxidants were determined in the honey samples using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays. Results The highest level of phenolic was 688.5 ± 5.9 mg Gallic acid/kg, and the highest level of flavonoid was 155 ± 6.9 mg Catechin/kg. The highest color intensity was 2034.00 ± 17.5 mAU, and the highest protein content was 8.6 ± 0.0mg/g. High levels of proline (2932.8 ± 3.7 mg/kg, ascorbic acid (154.3 ± 0.3 mg/kg, AEAC (34.1 ± 1.4mg/100 g and FRAP (772.4 ± 2.5 μmol Fe (II/100 g were detected in some of the samples, especially the multifloral honey samples, indicating good antioxidant properties. A strong positive correlation was found between phenolics, flavonoids, DPPH, FRAP and color intensity, indicating that in addition to total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations, color intensity and amino acid are good indicators of the antioxidant potential of honey. Except for a single sample (BDH-6, the honey samples stored for 1.5 years at room temperature still had 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF values within the recommended range (mean = 10.93 mg/kg, indicating that the rate of HMF production in Bangladeshi honey samples is low. Conclusion It is postulated that the low rate of HMF formation could be attributed to the acidic and low moisture content in the samples. In general, multifloral honeys have higher antioxidant properties based on their high levels of phenolics, flavonoids, AEAC, DPPH and FRAP when compared to monofloral honeys. We also found that monofloral honey samples from

  9. Physicochemical properties of Scamorza ewe milk cheese manufactured with different probiotic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Ruggieri, D; Napolitano, F; Sevi, A

    2013-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to produce functional Scamorza cheese from Gentile di Puglia ewe milk by incorporating probiotic strains into the cheese matrix and to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of Scamorza ewe milk cheese. Gentile di Puglia ewe bulk milk was used for Scamorza cheese production. Cheeses were denoted S-CO for control Scamorza cheese, S-BB for Scamorza cheese made using a mix of Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium lactis, and S-LA for Scamorza cheese made using Lactobacillus acidophilus as probiotic strain. Cheeses were analyzed at 1, 7, and 15 d of ripening. Probiotic cell recovery in cheese was 7.55 ± 0.07 log10 cfu/g and 9.09 ± 0.04 log10 cfu/g in S-LA and S-BB cheese, respectively; probiotic cheeses also displayed the highest levels of lactic microflora. Reverse-phase HPLC chromatograms of the water-soluble nitrogen fraction showed a more complex profile in S-BB, with distinctive peaks in the early-eluting zone. The matured Scamorza cheese containing the mix of B. longum and B. lactis was characterized by significantly higher levels of Gln, Ser, Arg, Ile, and Leu, whereas cheese containing Lb. acidophilus was characterized by higher levels of Tyr and Met. Total FFA content was the highest in S-LA, intermediate in S-BB, and the lowest in S-CO cheese; in particular, Scamorza cheese containing Lb. acidophilus showed the highest level of vaccenic acid, oleic acid, and total conjugated linoleic acid. Probiotic bacteria survived through the technological phases of pasta filata cheese production, maintained their specific metabolic pathways, and conferred functional properties to Scamorza ewe milk cheese. PMID:23522678

  10. Evaluation of the physicochemical and functional properties of Colombian bee pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fuenmayor B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To establish current knowledge about Colombian bee-pollen from a point of view nutritional and functional, contributing towards creating national technical standards and the identification of chemical differentiation factors for further researches. Material and methods. One hundred ninety-six samples of dried bee pollen were collected in the center region of Colombia known as Cundi-boyacense high plateau, where nearly 90% of total bee pollen production is concentrated in this country. Performed physicochemical analyses in this study were: moisture, pH, acidity, ash, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, dietary fiber, fatty acid profile and mineral elements. Results. Bee pollen from this region had 7.7±5.2 g/100 g moisture content, and a following centesimal composition based on dry matter: ashes 2.5±0.4 g; lipids 6.90±3.5 g; proteins 23.8±3.2 g and total dietary fiber 14.5±3.5 g. The most abundant fatty acids were α-linolenic, palmitic and linoleic. Carbohydrates were the main components and fructose and glucose the most concentrated sugars. The predominant minerals assessed here were potassium, calcium and magnesium. The results were also discussed in terms of the characteristics found in Colombian bee-pollen in comparison to international regulations and findings for other varieties of commercial bee-pollen from eight different countries. Conclusions. The results found in this study suggest that bee-pollen may be used as a dietary supplement and agree with bibliographical reports and international regulations. Such characterization will enable to be proposed technical standards in line with Colombian bee-pollen properties and it is expected to improve marketing and production chain conditions.

  11. Effect of Grain Size on Selected Physico-Chemical Properties of Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osumanu H. Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mixture of the right proportion of expanding and non-expanding clays to improve plasticity (moldability of clays used in the pot industry of Malaysia is yet to be well investigated. In addition, little is known about the choice of the right clay size to eliminate or reduce the content of undesirable compounds such as Fe2O3, Al2O3 to improve the strength of pots and roofing tiles in the country. The objective of this study was to investigate how selected physico-chemical properties of pottery clay relate to grain size of Nyalau series ((Typic Paleudults. Approach: Soil samples were refined into 25, 20 and 63 µm using size grading method. The mineralogical composition of the samples was determined using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. The chemical composition of the samples was also determined using standard procedures. Firing was done at 800°C in a muffle furnace and the cracks of the samples recorded. Results: The clay particles with sizes 20 and 25 µm were higher in LOI and total C than that those of 63 µm regardless of grain size, the clay investigated had quartz (SiO2, illite-montmorillonite, Anatase ((TiO2 and kaolinite. Grading affected the concentrations of Fe, Al and Si as clays with particle sizes 20 and 25 µm had higher contents of the aforementioned elements compared with those of 63 µm. The clay with particles 63 µm had the best strength and this was so because the clay particles had the lowest amount of Fe, Al and Si. Conclusion: The strength of Malaysian pots could be improved upon proper grading of the clay particles.

  12. Physico-chemical properties of Pd nanoparticles produced by Pulsed Laser Ablation in different organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristoforetti, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.cristoforetti@cnr.it [National Institute of Optics, Research Area of National Research Council, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Pitzalis, Emanuela; Spiniello, Roberto [Institute of Chemistry of OrganoMetallic Compounds, Research Area of National Research Council, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Ishak, Randa [Department of Chem. Eng. And Material Science, University of Pisa, Via Diotisalvi 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Giammanco, Francesco [Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio; Caporali, Stefano [Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    Palladium nanoparticles are arousing an increasing interest because of their strong activity in heterogeneous catalysis in a wide range of reactions. Driven by the interest of producing Pd nanoparticles to be deposited for catalysis over hydrophobic supports, we investigated their synthesis via Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid in several organic solvents, as acetone, ethanol, 2-propanol, toluene, n-hexane. The colloids were produced by using a Nd:YAG ns laser and without the addition of surfactant agents. The morphology, composition, stability and oxidation state of the obtained nanoparticles were investigated by TEM-EDS analysis, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results evidence that the nature of the solvent influences both the yield and the physico-chemical properties of the produced nanoparticles. While in acetone and alcohols spheroidal, non aggregated and stable particles are obtained, in case of toluene and n-hexane few unstable particles surrounded by a gel-like material are produced. Raman/XPS measurements suggest the presence of amorphous or graphitic carbon onto crystalline Pd nanoparticles, which could have hindered their growth and determined the observed smaller sizes if compared to nanoparticles produced in water. The stability of Pd colloids obtained in acetone and alcohols was attributed to adsorbed anions like enolates or alcoholates; non polar solvents like toluene and n-hexane, unable to give rise to adsorbed anionic species, cannot provide any stabilization to the palladium nanoparticles. XPS analyses also evidenced a partial oxidation of particles surface, with a ratio Pd{sup 2+}:Pd{sup 0} of 1:2.5 and 1:4 in acetone and ethanol, respectively.

  13. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties, antioxidant and microbial activities of sour cherry juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjeh, Edris; Barzegar, Mohsen; Ali Sahari, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Recently, due to the beneficial effects of bioactive compounds, demand for minimally processed fruits and fruit juices has increased rapidly in the world. In this study, sour cherry juice (SCJ) was exposed to gamma irradiation at 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 kGy and then stored at 4 °C for 60 days. Total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA), color, total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMC), antioxidant activity, organic acid profile, and microbial analysis were evaluated at regular intervals during the storage. Results indicated that irradiation did not have any significant effect on TSS, while level of TA increased significantly at the dose of 6 kGy (panthocyanin content of the irradiated SCJ was lower than that of the non-irradiated one (24% at 3.0 kGy) and also changed toward a more negative direction during the storage (63% at 3.0 kGy for 60 days). There was a significant decrease in the antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay) in both irradiated and stored SCJs. After irradiation (0-6 kGy), the results showed that the concentration of malic and oxalic acid significantly increased; but, the concentration of ascorbic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids significantly decreased. Gamma irradiation with doses of ≥3 kGy resulted in overall reduction in microbial loads. Based on the results obtained from the changes of physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and microbial analysis, irradiation of SCJ at doses of higher than 3.0 kGy is not recommended.

  14. Effect of physico-chemical properties on metabolism of transuranium oxide aerosols inhaled by beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxides of four transuranium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, and 244Cm), prepared by identical methods of calcining the oxalate at 7500C for two hours, had different physico-chemical properties. For all four oxides the density ranges from 9.8 to 11.4 g cm-3 and initial ultrafilterability (suspended fraction of activity less than 24 A) varied from 0.002 percent for 239PuO2 to 2.24 percent for 238PuO2. Dogs were exposed by nose-only techniques to aerosols generated by nebulizing water suspensions of the oxides. The dogs were sacrificed at intervals from one week to about a year postexposure. The rate of translocation of material from lung to other tissues increased from 239Pu to 238Pu to 241Am to 244Cm, possibly reflecting the decrease in mean particle size from an MMD of 0.7 μm to 239PuO2 to 0.6 μm for 238PuO2 to 0.4 μm for 241AmO2 to 0.1 μm for 244CmO/sub x/. Accumulation of the isotopes in the liver and skeleton as a percentage of final body burden was 1 percent 239Pu and 7 to 23 percent for 238Pu at about a year postexposure, while at 270 days postexposure, values were 40 percent for 241Am and 40 to 30 percent for 244Cm

  15. Physico-chemical properties of Pd nanoparticles produced by Pulsed Laser Ablation in different organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palladium nanoparticles are arousing an increasing interest because of their strong activity in heterogeneous catalysis in a wide range of reactions. Driven by the interest of producing Pd nanoparticles to be deposited for catalysis over hydrophobic supports, we investigated their synthesis via Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid in several organic solvents, as acetone, ethanol, 2-propanol, toluene, n-hexane. The colloids were produced by using a Nd:YAG ns laser and without the addition of surfactant agents. The morphology, composition, stability and oxidation state of the obtained nanoparticles were investigated by TEM-EDS analysis, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results evidence that the nature of the solvent influences both the yield and the physico-chemical properties of the produced nanoparticles. While in acetone and alcohols spheroidal, non aggregated and stable particles are obtained, in case of toluene and n-hexane few unstable particles surrounded by a gel-like material are produced. Raman/XPS measurements suggest the presence of amorphous or graphitic carbon onto crystalline Pd nanoparticles, which could have hindered their growth and determined the observed smaller sizes if compared to nanoparticles produced in water. The stability of Pd colloids obtained in acetone and alcohols was attributed to adsorbed anions like enolates or alcoholates; non polar solvents like toluene and n-hexane, unable to give rise to adsorbed anionic species, cannot provide any stabilization to the palladium nanoparticles. XPS analyses also evidenced a partial oxidation of particles surface, with a ratio Pd2+:Pd0 of 1:2.5 and 1:4 in acetone and ethanol, respectively.

  16. A comparative study of the physicochemical properties of perfluorinated and hydrogenated amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Elena; González-Pérez, Alfredo; Ruso, Juan M; Pedrido, Rosa; Prieto, Gerardo; Sarmiento, Félix

    2005-08-01

    In this work we studied and compared the physicochemical properties of perfluorinated (sodium perfluoroheptanoate, C7FONa, and perfluorooctanoate, C8FONa) and hydrogenated (sodium octanoate, C8HONa, decanoate, C10HONa, and dodecanoate, C12HONa) amphiphiles. First, we determined their Krafft points to study the solubility and appropriate temperature range of micellization of these compounds. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) and ionization degree of micellization (beta) as a function of temperature (T) were estimated from conductivity data. Plots of cmc vs T appear to follow the typical U-shaped curve with a minimum T(min). The results show that the surfactants with CF2/CH2 ratio of 1.5 between alkyl chains (C12HONa-C8FONa and C10HONa-C7FONa) have nearly the same minimum value for cmc against temperature. The comparison between the cmc of hydrogenated amphiphiles and the corresponding perfluorinated amphiphiles must be done at this point. Thermodynamic functions of micellization were obtained by applying different theoretical models and choosing the one that best fit our experimental data. Although perfluorinated and hydrogenated amphiphiles present similar thermodynamic behavior, we have found a variation of 1.3 to 1.7 in the CF2/CH2 ratio, which did not remain constant with temperature. In the second part of this study the apparent molar volumes and adiabatic compressibilities were determined from density and ultrasound velocity measurements. Apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution presented the ratio 1.5 between alkyl chains again. However, apparent molar volumes upon micellization for sodium perfluoroheptanoate indicated a different aggregation pattern. PMID:15927586

  17. Physicochemical properties of pentaglyme-sodium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide solvate ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Shoshi; Mandai, Toshihiko; Nozawa, Risa; Yoshida, Kazuki; Ueno, Kazuhide; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2014-06-21

    The physicochemical properties of pentaglyme (G5) and sodium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (Na[TFSA]) binary mixtures were investigated with respect to salt concentration and temperature. The density, viscosity, ionic conductivity, self-diffusion coefficient, and oxidative stability of a series of binary mixtures were measured, and the mixtures were examined as electrolytes for Na secondary batteries. An equimolar mixture of G5 and Na[TFSA] formed a low melting solvate, [Na(G5)1][TFSA], which exhibited an ionic conductivity of 0.61 mS cm(-1) at 30 °C. The ionicity (Λimp/Λideal) of the glyme-Na[TFSA] mixture was estimated from the molar conductivity of electrochemical impedance measurements (Λimp) and the Walden plot (Λideal). [Na(G5)1][TFSA] possessed a high ionicity of 0.63 at 30 °C, suggesting that [Na(G5)1][TFSA] is highly dissociated into a [Na(G5)1](+) cation and a [TFSA](-) anion, regardless of the extreme salt concentration in the liquid. The oxidative stabilities of G5-Na[TFSA] mixtures were investigated by linear sweep voltammetry, and the higher concentration resulted in higher oxidative stability due to the lowering of the HOMO energy level of G5 by complexation with the Na(+) ion. In addition, battery tests were performed using the mixtures as electrolytes. The [Na|[Na(G5)1][TFSA]|Na0.44MnO2] cell showed good charge-discharge cycle stability, with a discharge capacity of ca. 100 mA h g(-1), while the [Na(G5)1.25][TFSA] system, containing excess G5, showed poor stability. PMID:24810659

  18. Phosphorus sorption capacities and physicochemical properties of nine substrate materials for constructed wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, L.H.; Zhu, X.Z.; Ma, M.; Ouyang, Y.; Dong, M.; Zhu, W.L.; Luo, S.M. [South China Agricultural University, Guangdong (China)

    2008-08-15

    Constructed wetland (CW) is a promising technique for removal of pollutants from wastewater and agricultural runoff. The performance of a CW to remove pollutants, however, hinges on the use of suitable substrate materials. This study examined the physicochemical properties and phosphorus (P) sorption capacities of nine different CW substrate materials using both batch experiments and the Freundlich as well as the Langmuir isotherm. The nine substrate materials used in this study were turf, topsoil, gravel, midsized sand (MSS), blast furnace slag (BFS), coal burn slag (CBS), blast furnace artificial slag (BFAS), coal burn artificial slag (CBAS), and midsized artificial sand (MSAS). Experimental data showed that sorption of P increased with initial solution P concentrations for all nine substrate materials. The maximum P sorption capacity of the substrate materials estimated by Langmuir isotherm was in the following order: turf (4243 mg/kg substrate) > BFAS (2116 mg/kg substrate) > BFS (1598 mg/kg substrate) > CBS (1449 mg/kg substrate) > top soil (1396 mg/kg substrate) > CBAS (1194 mg/kg substrate) > MSAS (519 mg/kg substrate) > gravel (494 mg/kg substrate) > MSS (403 mg/kg substrate). The specific gravity of eight substrate materials (except gravel) had very significant negative correlations with the P sorption, whereas the particle diameter of D-60 and uniformity coefficient (K-60) had positive correlations with the P sorption. The cation exchange capacity, organic matter, available ferrous, and exchangeable aluminum of the eight substrate materials also had very significant positive correlations with the P sorption, while the pH of the substrate materials showed a very significant negative correlation with the P sorption. Our study further suggests that turf and CBAS are the two relatively ideal substrate materials suitable for removal of P from a CW system.

  19. Assessment of physico-chemical and biokinetic properties of uranium peroxide hydrate UO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comprehensive studies on the radiotoxicological risk of an intermediate compound UO4, which is not specified in ICRP Recommendations, were motivated by its increased use in the nuclear fuel cycle and the lack of information such as physico-chemical and biokinetic properties. The aim of this work was to give an experimental basis for assessing the appropriate limits on intake for workers exposed to UO4 and to provide guidance for the interpretation of personal monitoring data. Particle size measurement of the UO4 dust indicated a geometric diameter D of 0.5 microm, which corresponds to an activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1.1 microm. In vitro experiments conducted in culture medium showed that UO4 is a soluble compound with 66.2% dissolved in 1.9 d and 33.8% in 78 d. Results of dissolution obtained with macrophages showed a significant decrease of 50% at 1 d in terms of solubility. Biokinetic data in the rat obtained from two in vivo studies involving intratracheal instillation in rats indicated half-times in the lung of 0.5 d and 27 d for an initial lung deposit (ILD) of 195 microg, and 1.2 d and 38 d for an ILD of 7.6 microg. Absorption parameters to blood as defined in the ICRP Publication 66 human respiratory tract model were calculated with the specific software GIGAFIT and led to the rapid fraction fr, the rapid rate sr, and the slow rate ss. Effective dose coefficients by inhalation for this UO4 compound using the in vivo experimental results were calculated to be between 0.52 and 0.70 x 10-6 Sv Bq-1. Comparison of these values with effective dose coefficients defined in ICRP Publication 68 for workers showed that UO4 could be considered as a fast soluble compound of Type F

  20. Geochemistry Of Lead In Contaminated Soils: Effects Of Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, S.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Andra, S. P.

    2006-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is an environmental contaminant with proven human health effects. When assessing human health risks associated with Pb, one of the most common exposure pathways typically evaluated is soil ingestion by children. However, bioaccessibility of Pb primarily depends on the solubility and hence, the geochemical form of Pb, which in turn is a function of site specific soil chemistry. Certain fractions of ingested soil-Pb may not dissociate during digestion in the gastro-intestinal tract, and hence, may not be available for transport across the intestinal membrane. Therefore, this study is being currently performed to assess the geochemical forms and bioaccessibility of Pb in soils with varying physico-chemical properties. In order to elucidate the level of Pb that can be ingested and assimilated by humans, an in-vitro model that simulates the physiological conditions of the human digestive system has been developed and is being used in this study. Four different types of soils from the Immokalee (an acid sandy soil with minimal Pb retention potential), Millhopper (a sandy loam with high Fe/Al content), Pahokee (a muck soil with more than 80% soil organic matter), and Tobosa series (an alkaline soil with high clay content) were artificially contaminated with Pb as lead nitrate at the rate equivalent to 0, 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg dry soil. Analysis of soils by a sequential extraction method at time zero (immediately after spiking) showed that Immokalee and Millhopper soils had the highest amount of Pb in exchangeable form, whereas Pahokee and Tobosa soils had higher percentages of carbonate-bound and Fe/Al-bound Pb. The results of in-vitro experiment at time zero showed that majority of Pb was dissolved in the acidic stomach environment in Immokalee, Millhopper, and Tobosa, whereas it was in the intestinal phase in Pahokee soils. Because the soil system is not in equilibrium at time zero, the effect of soil properties on Pb geochemistry is not clear as yet. The

  1. Physico-Chemical Properties and Laboratory Hyperspectral Reflectance of Coastal Saline Soil in Shangyu City of Zhejiang Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI ZHOU; HUANG MINGXIANG; LI YAN

    2003-01-01

    45 and 50 composite soil samples were collected, respectively, from two agricultural fields, that wereenclosed and reclaimed fron coastal tidal-flat areas in 1996 and 1984 respectively, in Shangyu of ZhejiangProvince, China, to investigate the physico-chemical properties and the hyperspectral characteristics of thesaline soils and to make an assessment on their relationships. The reflectance spectra of saline soils weremeasured using a spectroradiometer in laboratory. The mean spectral curves of the saline soils from thetwo sites different in reclamation year showed that the saline soil taken from the recently reclaimed landwith higher salinity demonstrated a lower reflectance intensity in the spectral region from about 550 nm to2300 nm. In addition, nine absorption bands, i.e., 488 nm, 530 nm, 670 nm, 880 nm, 940 nm, 1400 nm,1 900 nm, 2 200 nm and 2 300 nm, were chosen as the spectral bands to investigate the relationships betweensoil physico-chemical properties by means of Pearson correlation analysis. Finally, the first two principalcomponents were calculated from nine absorption bands and used to discriminate the saline soil samplestaken from two sampled fields. The results indicate that it is feasible to detect physico-chemical propertiesof saline soils from fields reclaimed for varying time periods on the basis of the hyperspectral data.

  2. Prediction of the residue levels of drugs in eggs, using physicochemical properties and their influence on passive diffusion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schefferlie, G J; Hekman, P

    2016-08-01

    Based on a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model, describing the relationship between the plasma concentration of a drug and its deposition into eggs, general transport constants into yolk and albumen were derived, for a number of compounds, using experimental data from literature. Using only generally accepted concepts in passive diffusion theory, these transport constants were used to derive and calibrate general equations, describing the transport into yolk and albumen, in terms of the physicochemical properties of a drug. It is shown that, in theory, it is possible to calculate/predict the transport constants, using the physicochemical parameters: pKa and plasma protein binding. For a number of sulfonamides, the model was used to predict their distribution between egg yolk and albumen; the outcome was compared to data found in literature. Within this dataset, the lipophilic nature of a drug does not seem to play a major role in explaining the distribution ratio of a drug between albumen and yolk. PMID:26763131

  3. Effect of electron density transfer between the components of Fe-Cr-Si alloys on their physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanism of doping element effect on the change of alloy physicochemical properties is discussed taking Fe-Cr-Si system as an example. It is experimentally ascertained that electron density transfer from Fe-Cr α-solid solution atoms to silicon occurs in Fe-Cr-Si alloys, i.e. silicon in the alloy manifests acceptor properties. The direction of electron density transfer between the alloy components can be qualitatively estimated by the value of their orbital electric negation. 24 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  4. Effect Of Neutron Activation Factor On The Physico-Chemical Properties Of Hydrophilic And Hydrophobic Polymer Formulation Of Matrix Tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was to investigate effect of neutron activation on the physicochemical properties and in vitro dissolution of sustained-release matrix tablets. The tablets incorporation of Samarium oxide (Sm2O3 ) and were compared before and after irradiation with thermal neutron for 5 minutes at 1.2 x 1012 neutron cm-2s-1. The neutron activation factor did not influence the compression properties of the tablets. The dissolution tests showed that irradiation increased the release of the model drug ketoprofen from the tablets. This effect might be explained by polymer degradation. Incorporation of Sm2O3 in the matrix tablets did not influence the release. (author)

  5. Some physicochemical properties of surface layer soils shelterbelts in agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskulska, R.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    Shelterbelts belong to very efficient biogeochemical barriers. They decrease the migration of chemical compounds between ecosystems. The investigations were carried out in the Chlapowski's Agroecological Park in Turew situated 40 km South-West of Poznań, Poland. This area is located on loamy soils, which contains 70% cultivated fields and 14% shelterbelts and small afforestations. The shelterbelts represent different ages and the content of plants as well as humus quantity in surface layer. The first one is 100-year-old shelterbelt, where predominant species is Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Quercus rober L., and Fraxinus excelsior (L.) and is characterized by a well-developed humus level. The other one is 14-year-old shelterbelt. It includes 13 species of trees and revealed a small amount of humus. The soil under both shelterbelts is mineral, grey-brown podzolic in surface layer compound from light loamy sands and weakly loamy sands. The soil samples were taken from surface layer (0-20 cm). pH 1N KCl, hydrolytic acidity, cation-exchange capacity, total proper area, total organic carbon and dissociation constants were determined in soils. The study showed that the soil under shelterbelts revealed acidic properties. It was observed that soils of 100-year-old shelterbelt characterizing lowest values pH = 4.2 revealed highest values of hydrolytic acidity equaled to 7.8 cmol(+)ṡkg-1. The physicochemical properties of investigated soils shoved specific surface areas (22.8 m2ṡg-1), cationic sorptive capacity (12.9 cmol(+)ṡkg-1). TOC (1.6%) 100-year-old shelterbelt was higher than in 14-year-old shelterbelt. The dissociation constants were determined by potentiometric titration. This investigation revealed that the pK value was the highest in the humus of 100-year-old shelterbelt (pKa = 3.1). However, soils of 14-year-old shelterbelt characterized by the lovest pK equaled to 2.8. The surface layer soils shelterbelts in agricultural landscape with good humus development

  6. Physicochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Cocoa Pod Husk Pectin Intended as a Versatile Pharmaceutical Excipient and Nutraceutical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofosua Adi-Dako

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of cocoa pod husk (CPH pectin intended as a versatile pharmaceutical excipient and nutraceutical were studied. Properties investigated include pH, moisture content, ash values, swelling index, viscosity, degree of esterification (DE, flow properties, SEM, FTIR, NMR, and elemental content. Antimicrobial screening and determination of MICs against test microorganisms were undertaken using agar diffusion and broth dilution methods, respectively. CPH pectin had a DE of 26.8% and exhibited good physicochemical properties. Pectin had good microbiological quality and exhibited pseudoplastic, shear thinning behaviour, and high swelling capacity in aqueous media. The DE, FTIR, and NMR results were similar to those of previous studies and supported highly acetylated low methoxy pectin. CPH pectin was found to be a rich source of minerals and has potential as a nutraceutical. Pectin showed dose-dependent moderate activity against gram positive and gram negative microorganisms but weak activity against Listeria spp. and A. niger. The MICs of pectin ranged from 0.5 to 4.0 mg/mL, with the highest activity against E. coli and S. aureus (MIC: 0.5–1.0 mg/mL and the lowest activity against A. niger (MIC: 2.0–4.0 mg/mL. The study has demonstrated that CPH pectin possesses the requisite properties for use as a nutraceutical and functional pharmaceutical excipient.

  7. Physicochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Cocoa Pod Husk Pectin Intended as a Versatile Pharmaceutical Excipient and Nutraceutical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi-Dako, Ofosua; Frimpong Manso, Samuel; Boakye-Gyasi, Mariam EL; Sasu, Clement; Pobee, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of cocoa pod husk (CPH) pectin intended as a versatile pharmaceutical excipient and nutraceutical were studied. Properties investigated include pH, moisture content, ash values, swelling index, viscosity, degree of esterification (DE), flow properties, SEM, FTIR, NMR, and elemental content. Antimicrobial screening and determination of MICs against test microorganisms were undertaken using agar diffusion and broth dilution methods, respectively. CPH pectin had a DE of 26.8% and exhibited good physicochemical properties. Pectin had good microbiological quality and exhibited pseudoplastic, shear thinning behaviour, and high swelling capacity in aqueous media. The DE, FTIR, and NMR results were similar to those of previous studies and supported highly acetylated low methoxy pectin. CPH pectin was found to be a rich source of minerals and has potential as a nutraceutical. Pectin showed dose-dependent moderate activity against gram positive and gram negative microorganisms but weak activity against Listeria spp. and A. niger. The MICs of pectin ranged from 0.5 to 4.0 mg/mL, with the highest activity against E. coli and S. aureus (MIC: 0.5–1.0 mg/mL) and the lowest activity against A. niger (MIC: 2.0–4.0 mg/mL). The study has demonstrated that CPH pectin possesses the requisite properties for use as a nutraceutical and functional pharmaceutical excipient. PMID:27066294

  8. Physicochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Cocoa Pod Husk Pectin Intended as a Versatile Pharmaceutical Excipient and Nutraceutical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi-Dako, Ofosua; Ofori-Kwakye, Kwabena; Frimpong Manso, Samuel; Boakye-Gyasi, Mariam El; Sasu, Clement; Pobee, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of cocoa pod husk (CPH) pectin intended as a versatile pharmaceutical excipient and nutraceutical were studied. Properties investigated include pH, moisture content, ash values, swelling index, viscosity, degree of esterification (DE), flow properties, SEM, FTIR, NMR, and elemental content. Antimicrobial screening and determination of MICs against test microorganisms were undertaken using agar diffusion and broth dilution methods, respectively. CPH pectin had a DE of 26.8% and exhibited good physicochemical properties. Pectin had good microbiological quality and exhibited pseudoplastic, shear thinning behaviour, and high swelling capacity in aqueous media. The DE, FTIR, and NMR results were similar to those of previous studies and supported highly acetylated low methoxy pectin. CPH pectin was found to be a rich source of minerals and has potential as a nutraceutical. Pectin showed dose-dependent moderate activity against gram positive and gram negative microorganisms but weak activity against Listeria spp. and A. niger. The MICs of pectin ranged from 0.5 to 4.0 mg/mL, with the highest activity against E. coli and S. aureus (MIC: 0.5-1.0 mg/mL) and the lowest activity against A. niger (MIC: 2.0-4.0 mg/mL). The study has demonstrated that CPH pectin possesses the requisite properties for use as a nutraceutical and functional pharmaceutical excipient. PMID:27066294

  9. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Cassava Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    concentration had values of 5%, 6% and 8% and swelling power also had values of 13.60g, 7.63g and 9.02g. The setback and breakdown viscosities of native starch samples from Ankra, Bosome nsia and TME 419 were respectively 292BU, 265BU and 262.5BU, 1358BU, 1325.5BU and 1122BU. Analysis of variance treatment means indicated that irradiation significantly decreased amylose content and carbohydrate content,PH, L* and a* values but increased b* values. PH, amylose and carbohydrate contents were 7.98, 20.2% and 48.1% respectively for non-irradiated starch to 7.03, 13.3% and 27.5% for 20kGy starch. L*a*b* values were 96.7,-0.17,1.39 for 0kGy starch and 90.6,-0.38,2.98 for 20kGy starch. All the physicochemical indices were significantly influenced by the variety of cassava. The amyclose content of TME419, Ankra and Bosome nsia wer 14.5%, 16.4% and 18.2% respectively. Irradiation significantly increased starch water absorption capacity, solubility index, fat absorption capacity and least gelation concentration but decreased swelling power. These functional indices of starch were significantly influenced by the variety of the cassava. Irradiation had significant effects on the pasting indices measured. Peak viscosity, breakdown viscosity, setback viscosity and paste stability at 92 degrees celcius were 1822.3BU, 1268.5BU, 273.2BU, 269.5BU for native starch and 483.7BU, 397.5BU, 42.7BU and 185.3BU for starch treated with 20kGy. Paste stability at 50 degrees celcius for native starch was -110.5BU and -33.7BU for starch treated with 20kGy radiation. The properties of irradiated cassava starch were significantly different from non-irradiated starch and could be exploited for specific industrial applications. (au)

  10. Carcinogenesis and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 2-voluem set discusses the problem of inter-relation between carcinogenesis and aging, and the phenomenon of age-related increase in cancer incidence in animals and humans. Covered topics include current concepts in mechanisms of carcinogenesis and aging; data on chemical, radiation, ultraviolet-light, hormonal and viral carcinogenesis in aging; data on the role of age-related shifts in the activity of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes; binding of carcinogens with macromolecules; DNA repair; tissue proliferation; and immunity and homono-metabolic patterns in realization of initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis

  11. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  12. Physicochemical properties and stability of thousand-year-old soil organic matter in boreal paleopodzols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wen-Ting; Klaminder, Jonatan; Boily, Jean-Francois

    2013-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization mechanisms are key to predict carbon (C) cycle responses to climate change, especially in critically sensitive ecosystems, such as the arctic and boreal ecosystems of Scandinavia (IPCC 2007). Interactions between organic matter and soil mineral components can be of particular importance. Their impacts on SOM stability are however not fully resolved. In this study, we present an exhaustive physicochemical characterization of SOM and soil mineral components of boreal paleopodzols formed over several thousands of years in northern Sweden. We also test the hypothesis that old SOM in these environments is strongly associated to mineral surfaces. This work was specifically focused on two relict podzolic profiles capped by more recently developed podzolic profile. Each of the three profiles consisted of a well developed E-horizon and of an underlying B-horizon enriched in secondary weathering products. Soil C age was greater with increasing depth, with the deepest horizon dating from the mid-Holocene. Organic C loadings, expressed in terms of C mass per mineral surface area, decreased from 0.52 to 0.31 mg C m-2 from deep to the deepest B horizons. A monolayer coating model could thus be used to suggest that C was mainly bonded to unsaturated mineral surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that, unlike in younger B-horizon, the oldest C of the deepest B-horizon did not accumulate in clusters. It was instead distributed more homogenously at the micrometer scale with soil mineral particles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy moreover showed that the top 1-10 nm of the mineral surfaces contained proportions of aliphatic-C, ether/alcohol-C, and amide-C that varied greatly amongst the three B horizons but not among the three E horizons. Different composition of SOM remained in deep E and B horizons, thereby suggesting a selective SOM preservation process that is controlled by the properties of

  13. Physico-Chemical and Catalytic Properties of Mesoporous CuO-ZrO2 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman N. Basahel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous CuO-ZrO2 catalysts were prepared and calcined at 500 °C. The performance of the synthesized catalysts for benzylation of benzene using benzyl chloride was studied. The bare support (macroporous ZrO2 offered 45% benzyl chloride conversion after reaction time of 10 h at 75 °C. Significant increase in benzyl chloride conversion (98% was observed after CuO loading (10 wt. % on porous ZrO2 support. The conversion was decreased to 80% with increase of CuO loading to 20 wt. %. Different characterization techniques (XRD, Raman, diffuse reflectance UV-vis, N2-physisorption, H2-TPR, XPS and acidity measurements were used to evaluate physico-chemical properties of CuO-ZrO2 catalysts; the results showed that the surface and structural characteristics of the ZrO2 phase as well as the interaction between CuO-ZrO2 species depend strongly on the CuO content. The results also indicated that ZrO2 support was comprised of monoclinic and tetragonal phases with macropores. An increase of the volume of monoclinic ZrO2 phase was observed after impregnation of 10 wt. % of CuO; however, stabilization of tetragonal ZrO2 phase was noticed after loading of 20 wt. % CuO. The presence of low-angle XRD peaks indicates that mesoscopic order is preserved in the calcined CuO-ZrO2 catalysts. XRD reflections due to CuO phase were not observed in case of 10 wt. % CuO supported ZrO2 sample; in contrast, the presence of crystalline CuO phase was observed in 20 wt. % CuO supported ZrO2 sample. The mesoporous 10 wt. % CuO supported ZrO2 catalyst showed stable catalytic activity for several reaction cycles. The observed high catalytic activity of this catalyst could be attributed to the presence of a higher number of dispersed interactive CuO (Cu2+-O-Zr4+ species, easy reducibility, and greater degree of accessible surface Lewis acid sites.

  14. Physicochemical properties and nutritional quality of raw cereals for newly weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, G A; Doucet, F J; Hill, S E; Wiseman, J

    2008-06-01

    The digestibility of the starch component of raw cereals in newly weaned piglets is highly variable. Reasons for this must be elucidated if the most suitable cereals are to be used. A novel approach was employed, which consisted of assessing the physicochemical properties (rapid visco analysis, water absorption and solubility indices, particle size distribution and in vitro amylolytic digestion) of eight raw cereals contained within piglet diets and subsequently relating this in vitro data to the biological responses of weaned piglets. Trial 1 examined soft and hard wheat, trial 2 - soft wheat, barley, rye and triticale, and trial 3 - soft wheat, naked oats, whole oats and maize. The initial observation was that in vitro testing prior to animal trials is recommended in nutritional evaluation since it indicated fundamental differences between raw cereals, such as for example the levels of endogenous amylase in wheat. Starch and nitrogen digestibility differed between cereals (apparent digestibility coefficients at the 0.5 site of the small intestine ranged from 0.10 to 0.69 for starch and from 0.17 to 0.68 for nitrogen). There is also a probable relationship between the coefficients of ileal apparent starch digestibility, at approximately halfway from the gastric pylorus to the ileocaecal valve, and the presence of endogenous amylase (mean values of 0.53 and 0.62 in trials 2 and 3, respectively, for the higher amylase wheat; 0.38 for the low-amylase wheat used in trial 1). This additional variable (i.e. the unforeseen presence of endogenous amylase) in wheat made it more difficult to draw a firm conclusion about the nutritional suitability of the different cereals. All raw-cereal diets caused atrophy of the villi during the initial week following weaning, but the soft wheat was associated with the highest comparative villi height and might therefore be considered the best of all raw cereals in minimising the post-weaning growth check. For wheat, this might also

  15. Semisynthetic bile acid FXR and TGR5 agonists: physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics, and metabolism in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Aldo; Pellicciari, Roberto; Gioiello, Antimo; Neri, Flavia; Camborata, Cecilia; Passeri, Daniela; De Franco, Francesca; Spinozzi, Silvia; Colliva, Carolina; Adorini, Luciano; Montagnani, Marco; Aldini, Rita

    2014-07-01

    We report on the relationship between the structure-pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and therapeutic activity of semisynthetic bile acid analogs, including 6α-ethyl-3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid (a selective farnesoid X receptor [FXR] receptor agonist), 6α-ethyl-23(S)-methyl-3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid (a specific Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 [TGR5] receptor agonist), and 6α-ethyl-3α,7α-dihydroxy-24-nor-5β-cholan-23-sulfate (a dual FXR/TGR5 agonist). We measured the main physicochemical properties of these molecules, including ionization constants, water solubility, lipophilicity, detergency, and protein binding. Biliary secretion and metabolism and plasma and hepatic concentrations were evaluated by high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry in bile fistula rat and compared with natural analogs chenodeoxycholic, cholic acid, and taurochenodexycholic acid and intestinal bacteria metabolism was evaluated in terms of 7α-dehydroxylase substrate-specificity in anaerobic human stool culture. The semisynthetic derivatives detergency, measured in terms of their critical micellar concentration, was quite similar to the natural analogs. They were slightly more lipophilic than the corresponding natural analogs, evaluated by their 1-octanol water partition coefficient (log P), because of the ethyl group in 6 position, which makes these molecules very stable toward bacterial 7-dehydroxylation. The hepatic metabolism and biliary secretion were different: 6α-ethyl-3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid, as chenodeoxycholic acid, was efficiently conjugated with taurine in the liver and, only in this form, promptly and efficiently secreted in bile. 6α-Ethyl-23(S)-methyl-3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid was poorly conjugated with taurine because of the steric hindrance of the methyl at C23(S) position metabolized to the C23(R) isomer and partly conjugated with taurine. Conversely, 6

  16. The influence of physico-chemical properties of soils on the bioavailability of 65Zn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetkov, Ilia; Anisimov, Vyacheslav

    2014-05-01

    Stability of soils to the effects of man-made origin pollutants is determined by their buffer capaci-ty (the ability to inactivate pollutants in a soil - soil solution - plant system). Soils are character-ized by the same types of stability as the ecosystem as a whole. Increased migration activity of pollutants is a symptom of ecological trouble, due to the soil transformation in an unstable state. Thus, the problem of the stability of soil is one of the fundamental problems of modern science. The aim of the study was to estimate the buffering capacity of soil as a key factor of their ecological and geochemical stability with respect to a relatively long-lived radionuclides 65Zn (T1/2 = 224 days), representing the radiological hazard in the location of nuclear facilities. There was proposed a method for scoring the buffering capacity of soils as for 65Zn contamination. It's based on dependence between the main physico-chemical soil properties and accumulation of the radionuclide in the aboveground plant parts (barley kind of "Zazersky-85"). The role of the considered indicators of soil health in the accumulation of radiozinc by plants was defined. The essence of this technique was to assess the contribution of individual characteristics of the soil condition, which play the most important role in the regulation of mobility (and bioavailability) of radionuclides, using the method of stepwise multiple regression analysis. For this aim representative sampling was compiled (from 20 soil types and varieties belonging to different climatic zones of the European part of the Russian Federation), thus providing a wide range of variation of the studied physical and chemical parameters, and also vegetation model experiments using 65Zn were held. On the basis of the conducted statistical analysis was revealed that the dominant contribution to the variation of the effective trait (accumulation coefficient of 65Zn) make: CaCO3 content, mobile iron (Tamm extract) and pH. As a

  17. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties, antioxidant and microbial activities of sour cherry juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, due to the beneficial effects of bioactive compounds, demand for minimally processed fruits and fruit juices has increased rapidly in the world. In this study, sour cherry juice (SCJ) was exposed to gamma irradiation at 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 kGy and then stored at 4 °C for 60 days. Total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA), color, total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMC), antioxidant activity, organic acid profile, and microbial analysis were evaluated at regular intervals during the storage. Results indicated that irradiation did not have any significant effect on TSS, while level of TA increased significantly at the dose of 6 kGy (p<0.05). Furthermore, irradiation treatment and storage time led to a significant increase in L⁎ and b⁎ values and a decrease in a⁎ values. Total monomeric anthocyanin content of the irradiated SCJ was lower than that of the non-irradiated one (24% at 3.0 kGy) and also changed toward a more negative direction during the storage (63% at 3.0 kGy for 60 days). There was a significant decrease in the antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay) in both irradiated and stored SCJs. After irradiation (0–6 kGy), the results showed that the concentration of malic and oxalic acid significantly increased; but, the concentration of ascorbic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids significantly decreased. Gamma irradiation with doses of ≥3 kGy resulted in overall reduction in microbial loads. Based on the results obtained from the changes of physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and microbial analysis, irradiation of SCJ at doses of higher than 3.0 kGy is not recommended. - Highlights: • Sour cherry juice is an abundant source of functional compounds. • Thermal pasteurization is a common food processing method with some adverse effects. • Gamma irradiation has high potential for keeping fruit juice quality. • This technique improved the shelf life

  18. Physicochemical Properties of Lacquer Oils%漆籽油的物化特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董艳鹤; 王成章; 叶建中; 原姣姣; 周彦; 何源锋

    2012-01-01

    对陕西漆籽在不同处理下漆籽油的物化特征进行了分析,并对日本漆籽及江西引种漆籽嫁接苗与实生苗漆籽的漆籽油进行了化学成分的对比分析,结果表明:经过水洗和石油醚浸泡过的陕西漆籽核提取的漆籽油透明澄清,颜色浅,得率相应的由9.61%提高到14.87%,酸值分别为9.79和6.95,明显低于未经任何处理而直接提取漆籽油的样品,处理后提取的漆籽油的皂化价及过氧化值则比未处理提取的漆籽油低;陕西漆籽油的亚油酸的相对含量则高达72%,具有较高的应用价值.江西引种的漆籽皮核易于分离,漆籽油中亚油酸的相对含量为56.222%.%The physicochemical properties of lacquer oils from Shanxi under different pretreatments were studied in this paper. Chemical constituents of lacquer oils of Rhus Succedanea L. , seeding and grafting Rhus Succedanea L. from,Jiangxi were studied too. The results showed that lacquer oils after aqueous wash or soaked by petroleum ether are light and clarify in color, and its yield improves from 9. 61% to 14. 87% accordingly. Meanwhile, their acid value are 9. 79 and 6. 95 , respectively. This result is clearly lower than the lacquer oils without any pretreatment. The saponification value and peroxide value are lower, too. That the content of linoleic acid in lacquer oils from Shanxi is higher than 72 % results in a high application value. The skin and kernels of the introduced lacquer berries from Jiangxi are easier to be separated. Their relative contents of the linoleic acid are 56.222%.

  19. Effect of different curing systems on the mechanical and physico-chemical properties of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber vulcanizates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The stress -strain behavior of NBr demonstrates a remarkable dependance on the applied curing system. Research highlights: → The cross-link density greatly affect the mechanical properties of vulcanizates. → Hardness, Young's modulus, and tensile modulus increased by increasing the cross-link density. → The radiation/coagent cured system gave higher results in thermal stability and thermal ageing than those of the sulfur cured system. -- Abstract: In the present study, the effect of different curing systems including sulfur, dicumyl peroxide, dicumyl peroxide/coagent and radiation/coagent on the mechanical and physico-chemical properties of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) was studied. In order to correlate, the effect of curing systems on rubber, the comparison was carried out at comparable value of volume fraction of rubber in swollen gel (Vr) for NBR vulcanizates. Mechanical properties like tensile strength, elongation at break, modulus, Young's modulus, tearing strength and abrasion loss of vulcanizates have been followed up for comparison. In addition, physico-chemical properties like swelling ratio, soluble fraction, and cross-link density were investigated. On the other hand, the effects of fuel, thermogravimetric analysis, and thermal ageing have been studied.

  20. Virulence Phenotype, Physicochemical Properties and Biofilm Formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on Polyethylene Used In Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazlane Zineb

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Potable water piping has been demonstrated to serve as a reservoir for opportunistic pathogens bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this report, we describe the characterization of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from water intended for human consumption by the presence of virulence factors. These strains expressed their suitability for adhesion and the formation of biofilms on polyethylene (PE. Also In this work, we were able to elucidate the factors intervening in adhesion and biofilm formation by showing the role of the substrate, the environment and bacteria. Strong correlation was observed between physicochemical properties especially the electron donor property and the surface percentage covered by cells. These results indicate that this property plays a crucial role in Pseudomonas aeruginosa adherence on the PE surface. In addition, if no relationship was found between the adhesion results and hydrophobicity, it means that this property was not involved in the adhesion process of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the PE surface.

  1. SIFAT FISIKO KIMIA BERAS MERAH GOGO LOKAL ENDE [The Physico-chemical Properties of Local Ende High Land Brown Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Herianus J.D Lalel; Zainal Abidin; Lewi Jutomo2)

    2009-01-01

    Ten strains of Ende high land brown rice were assessed to underpin their physico-chemical properties related to their potential uses. Are Ndota has bigger grain size and smoother gel consistency than others (63.50 mm gel length). It potentially can be used as food thickeners and baby foods. Are Kea showed the highest water imbibition ability (90.99%), the fastest wettability (12.11 sec), and the highest dispersibility value (2,50 %) due to its high amylose content (33.21 %). Potentially, Ar...

  2. Synthesis, characterization, photo and physicochemical properties of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and tetraaniline capped CdS quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface modification of quantum dots (QDs) for improved photo and physicochemical properties is a topic of potential technological interest. Herein, we report on the synthesis of aggregation free 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and tetraaniline (TA) capped CdS QDs with narrow size distribution (∼2.3 nm diameter), which are further characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The TA capped CdS QDs show improved photoluminescence and photostability, which is attributed to the effective grafting of TA on CdS QDs through N-atoms, changing the surface chemical environment and facilitating charge transfer.

  3. Synthesis, characterization, photo and physicochemical properties of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and tetraaniline capped CdS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wen-Yin [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Ghule, Anil Vithal, E-mail: anighule@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jia-Yaw; Chen, Bo-Jung; Liu, Jen-Yu; Tzing, Shin-Hwa [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Ling, Yong-Chien, E-mail: ycling@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-01

    Surface modification of quantum dots (QDs) for improved photo and physicochemical properties is a topic of potential technological interest. Herein, we report on the synthesis of aggregation free 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and tetraaniline (TA) capped CdS QDs with narrow size distribution ({approx}2.3 nm diameter), which are further characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The TA capped CdS QDs show improved photoluminescence and photostability, which is attributed to the effective grafting of TA on CdS QDs through N-atoms, changing the surface chemical environment and facilitating charge transfer.

  4. PbO2 based composite materials deposited from suspension electrolytes: electrosynthesis, physico-chemical and electrochemical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Velichenko, Alexander; Knysh, Valentina; Luk’yanenko, Tatiana; Dmitrikova, Larisa; Velichenko, Yulia; Devilliers, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Composite materials based on PbO2 containing TiO2 or ZrO2 were prepared from electrolytes containing a suspension of TiO2 or ZrO2. The contents of foreign oxides in the composite depend on the electrolyte composition and conditions of deposition. When a dispersed phase is incorporated into the composite coating, the dimensions of lead dioxide crystals decrease to submicro- and nano-size. Physico-chemical properties and electrocatalytic activity of composite materials are mainly determin...

  5. Resistant starch content, in vitro starch digestibility and physico-chemical properties of flour and starch from Thai bananas

    OpenAIRE

    Nednapis Vatanasuchart

    2012-01-01

    Flour and starch were prepared from six Thai banana cultivars: Kluai Hom, Kluai Khai,Kluai Lebmuenang, Kluai Namwa, Kluai Hakmuk and Kluai Hin, and their resistant starch (RS), invitro starch digestibility and physico-chemical properties were determined. The RS content of theflour is 52.2-68.1%, with flour from Kluai Hin containing the highest amount of RS, followed by thatfrom Kluai Hakmuk. The starch has a higher RS content (70.1-79.2%), the highest value comingfrom Kluai Hakmuk starch, fol...

  6. A Comparative Study of the Physicochemical Properties of a Virgin Coconut Oil Emulsion and Commercial Food Supplement Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Khor, Yih; Koh, Soo; Long, Kamariah; Long, Shariah; Ahmad, Sharifah; Tan, Chin

    2014-01-01

    Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4). C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a...

  7. Physicochemical, morphological, thermal and IR spectral changes in the properties of waxy rice starch modified with vinyl acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Kalita, Dipankar; Kaushik, Neelima; Mahanta, Charu L.

    2012-01-01

    Waxy rice starch was modified with vinyl acetate at levels of 4, 6, 8, and 10 % with degree of substitution of 0.021, 0.023, 0.032 and 0.056. The modified starches were studied for physicochemical, morphological, thermal and infra red spectral properties. Waxy starch acetates had high water holding capacity and did not sediment. Scanning electron microscopy revealed surface damage of the granules and their fusion. X ray diffractography showed that crystalline peak intensity had increased on a...

  8. Effect of α-Amylase Degradation on Physicochemical Properties of Pre-High Hydrostatic Pressure-Treated Potato Starch

    OpenAIRE

    Tai-Hua Mu; Miao Zhang; Leyla Raad; Hong-Nan Sun; Cheng Wang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the susceptibility of potato starch (25%, w/v) suspended in water to degradation by exposure to bacterial α-amylase (0.02%, 0.04% and 0.06%, w/v) for 40 min at 25°C was investigated. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the structure, morphology and physicochemical properties were observed. HHP-treated potato starch (PS) exposed to α-amylase (0.06%, w/v) showed a significantly greater degree of hydrolysis and amount of reducing sugar released ...

  9. Effect of Dehydration on Several Physico-Chemical Properties and the Antioxidant Activity of Leeks (Allium porrum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet OZGUR; Akpinar-Bayizit, Arzu; Ozcan, Tulay; Yilmaz-Ersan, Lutfiye

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the changes in some physico-chemical properties and variations in antioxidant compounds of leeks (cv. �Inegol-92�) caused by the drying process. The dry matter and ash contents of the fresh leek samples were 8.06 and 0.58 g 100 g-1, respectively. The pH of the fresh leek samples was 6.02, and the titritable acidity in terms of citric acid was 0.14%. As expected, application of hot-air drying significantly increased the dry matter and ash values due to removal of water ...

  10. Effects of Red and Green Glassworts (Salicornia herbacea L.) on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Reduced-salt Cooked Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Yeo, In-Jun; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of red and green glasswort on the physicochemical and textural properties of reduced-salt cooked sausages. The control was formulated with 1.5% NaCl; then, three reduced-salt treatments were prepared, with 0.75% NaCl (RS), 0.75% NaCl+1.0% red glasswort (RSR) and 0.75% NaCl+1.0% green glasswort (RSG), respectively. The addition of glasswort within the added amount of 1% had no influence on the pH value of the reduced-salt cooked sausages, regar...

  11. Modified β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex to improve the physicochemical properties of albendazole. complete in vitro evaluation and characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina García

    Full Text Available The potential use of natural cyclodextrins and their synthetic derivatives have been studied extensively in pharmaceutical research and development to modify certain properties of hydrophobic drugs. The ability of these host molecules of including guest molecules within their cavities improves notably the physicochemical properties of poorly soluble drugs, such as albendazole, the first chosen drug to treat gastrointestinal helminthic infections. Thus, the aim of this work was to synthesize a beta cyclodextrin citrate derivative, to analyze its ability to form complexes with albendazole and to evaluate its solubility and dissolution rate. The synthesis progress of the cyclodextrin derivative was followed by electrospray mass spectrometry and the acid-base titration of the product. The derivative exhibited an important drug affinity. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments demonstrated that the tail and the aromatic ring of the drug were inside the cavity of the cyclodextrin derivative. The inclusion complex was prepared by spray drying and full characterized. The drug dissolution rate displayed exceptional results, achieving 100% drug release after 20 minutes. The studies indicated that the inclusion complex with the cyclodextrin derivative improved remarkably the physicochemical properties of albendazole, being a suitable excipient to design oral dosage forms.

  12. Modified β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex to improve the physicochemical properties of albendazole. complete in vitro evaluation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Agustina; Leonardi, Darío; Salazar, Mario Oscar; Lamas, María Celina

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of natural cyclodextrins and their synthetic derivatives have been studied extensively in pharmaceutical research and development to modify certain properties of hydrophobic drugs. The ability of these host molecules of including guest molecules within their cavities improves notably the physicochemical properties of poorly soluble drugs, such as albendazole, the first chosen drug to treat gastrointestinal helminthic infections. Thus, the aim of this work was to synthesize a beta cyclodextrin citrate derivative, to analyze its ability to form complexes with albendazole and to evaluate its solubility and dissolution rate. The synthesis progress of the cyclodextrin derivative was followed by electrospray mass spectrometry and the acid-base titration of the product. The derivative exhibited an important drug affinity. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments demonstrated that the tail and the aromatic ring of the drug were inside the cavity of the cyclodextrin derivative. The inclusion complex was prepared by spray drying and full characterized. The drug dissolution rate displayed exceptional results, achieving 100% drug release after 20 minutes. The studies indicated that the inclusion complex with the cyclodextrin derivative improved remarkably the physicochemical properties of albendazole, being a suitable excipient to design oral dosage forms. PMID:24551084

  13. Influence of addition of calcium oxide on physicochemical properties of Portland cement with zirconium or niobium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tanomaru-Filho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Calcium oxide (CaO may be added to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA or Portland cement (PC to improve physicochemical and biological properties. Aims: To evaluate the physicochemical properties of PC associated with radiopacifiers and CaO. Materials and Methods: MTA Angelus, PC + 30% zirconium oxide (Zr, or 30% niobium oxide (Nb associated with 10 or 20% of CaO were evaluated. Gilmore needles were used to evaluate initial and final setting time. Compressive strength was evaluated after the periods of 24 hours and 21 days. pH was analyzed after 3, 12, 24 hours, 7, 14, 21 days. Solubility and flow tests were performed based on the ISO 6876. The data obtained were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey tests (P ≤ 0.05. Results: The associations with 10% CaO showed greater strength that the associations with 20% CaO. The shortest initial setting time was observed for the association PC + Zr + 20% CaO and MTA. All the cements presented alkaline pH. The flow of all cements was similar. The highest solubility was found in the associations with 20% CaO. Conclusion: The addition of CaO to PC favored the alkaline property and the PC + Zr + 20% CaO presented setting time similar to MTA.

  14. THE ESTIMATION OF DEPENDENCY OF FRESH BERRIES PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES ON STORAGE AND PROCESSING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sandulachi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available strawberries and raspberries in different level of ripeness. Here are presented: physico-chemical composition of the investigated samples, dry matter content, pH, anthocyanin content, polyphenols, ascorbic acid and K coefficient, which evidence oxido-reducing state of berries. It has been studied, also, the oxido-reducing state of this berries during storage condition.It was found that berries are rich in bioantioxidants. From physico-chemical point of view these fruits are in a reduced state, characterized by high values of index K. Biological value expressed by the oxidation-reducing state of berries depends on the ripeness level. Samples spectral analysis showed that depreciation of strawberries aspect and appearance of brown color is determined by anthocyans and polyphenols degradation and brown compounds formation.

  15. Variation of physicochemical and sensory properties during the aging of yerba mate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Alexi Holowaty

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yerba mate infusion is widely consumed in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. One of the processing steps used in Argentina is aging. The following three methods were used to age yerba mate: 1 air humidity and temperature-controlled aging; 2 temperature-controlled aging and 3 no control. The aim of this research was to determine the physicochemical and sensory attribute differences when yerba mate was aged using these three methods. The concentration of caffeine, glucose, fructose, maltose and phenolic compounds and pH diminished in all three aging methods but by different percentages. The sensory attributes did not exhibit uniform behaviour. Astringency remained constant in the first method and diminished in the other two. Bitterness increased in all three methods but by different percentages. Sweetness  diminished in all three methods. Notably few correlations were determined between physicochemical and sensory attributes.

  16. Biodiversity in Relation to Physicochemical Properties of Keenjhar Lake, Thatta District, Sindh, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Korai, A. L.; Sahato, G. A.; Lashari, K. H.; Arbani, S. N.

    2008-01-01

    Keenjhar Lake is artificial tropical lake. It is located almost 120 km from Karachi; Keenjhar Lake is essential for diverse aspects such as, supply of drinking water, irrigation and wild life intention. Adverse effects of physicochemical parameters on aquatic ecosystem may occur at all levels of biological communities can be wide-ranging or limited, temporary or permanent. Mainly serious effects involve loss in productivity, changes in growth, loss of primary productivity, altered diversity o...

  17. Influence of different hydrocolloids on physicochemical and heat-stable properties of fruit fillings

    OpenAIRE

    Janna CROPOTOVA; Svetlana POPEL

    2013-01-01

    High bakery-stability of fruit fillings during baking at elevated temperatures is a very significant and desirable quality attribute in the manufacturing of filled bakery products. This research was performed with the aim of evaluating the basic physicochemical changes that occur as well as the heat-stability of apple fillings during the baking process in the oven at a temperature of 200°C for 10 minutes. Three different hydrocolloids (xanthan gum, carboxymethyl cellulose and low methoxyl pec...

  18. Studies on Physico-Chemical Properties of Noni Fruit (Morinda Citrifolia ) and Preparation of Noni Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, A. A.; Chilkawar P.M; Jadhav B.A

    2012-01-01

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia linn) fruits are edible but they don’t have nice taste and flavor. In present investigation attempts have been made to standardize the recipes for preparation of noni beverages i.e. RTS, Squash and Syrup and to study the physicochemical characteristics of noni fruit and techno economic feasibility of prepared beverages. The recipe for preparation of Noni RTS beverage was standardized by varying the levels of juice, TSS. Study revealed that the final b...

  19. Effects of Selected Polysorbate and Sucrose Ester Emulsifiers on the Physicochemical Properties of Astaxanthin Nanodispersions

    OpenAIRE

    Navideh Anarjan; Chin Ping Tan

    2013-01-01

    The effects of selected nonionic emulsifiers on the physicochemical characteristics of astaxanthin nanodispersions produced by an emulsification/evaporation technique were studied. The emulsifiers used were polysorbates (Polysorbate 20, Polysorbate 40, Polysorbate 60 and Polysorbate 80) and sucrose esters of fatty acids (sucrose laurate, palmitate, stearate and oleate). The mean particle diameters of the nanodispersions ranged from 70 nm to 150 nm, depending on the emulsifier used. In the pre...

  20. Physicochemical approach to development of metallic materials with preset electric and emission properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors (type of state diagrams, temperature, etc.) affecting electric resistance, work function and coefficient of secondary electron emission of metals and binary alloys are considered from the physico-chemical point of view. The data on anisotropy of work function and secondary emission coefficient for Mo, Nb, Ru, Ir monocrystals and Mo-Nb system alloys are presented. The effect of crystal defects (vacancies, interstitial atoms, dislocations) on specific resistance of molybdenum tungsten, nickel is established

  1. Reactor modeling and physicochemical properties characterization for a polyethylene fluidized bed reactor

    OpenAIRE

    F. A. N. Fernandes; L. M. F. LONA BATISTA

    1999-01-01

    A new steady state model for the fluidized bed reactor and a physicochemical characterization model were developed for the simulation of polyethylene production using gas-phase technology. The association of these models was done in order to predict the characteristics of the polymer produced in the fluidized bed reactor (molecular weight, polydispersity, melt index, and other characteristics) throughout the reactor and also to predict the growth of the polymer particle.

  2. Reactor modeling and physicochemical properties characterization for a polyethylene fluidized bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDES F. A. N.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A new steady state model for the fluidized bed reactor and a physicochemical characterization model were developed for the simulation of polyethylene production using gas-phase technology. The association of these models was done in order to predict the characteristics of the polymer produced in the fluidized bed reactor (molecular weight, polydispersity, melt index, and other characteristics throughout the reactor and also to predict the growth of the polymer particle.

  3. Differences in ecological impacts of systemic insecticides with different physicochemical properties on biocenosis of experimental paddy fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Daisuke; Korenaga, Tomoko; Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    The environmental risks of pesticides are typically determined by laboratory single-species tests based on OECD test guidelines, even if biodiversity should also be taken into consideration. To evaluate how realistic these assessments are, ecological changes caused by the systemic insecticides imidacloprid and fipronil, which have different physicochemical properties, when applied at recommended commercial rates on rice fields were monitored using experimental paddy mesocosms. A total of 178 species were observed. There were no significant differences in abundance of crop arthropods among the experimental paddies. However, zooplankton, benthic and neuston communities in imidacloprid-treated field had significantly less abundance of species than control and fipronil fields. Significant differences in abundance of nekton community were also found between both insecticide-treated paddies and control. Influences on the growth of medaka fish were also found in both adults and their fries. Both Principal Response Curve analysis (PRC) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) showed the time series variations in community structure among treatments, in particular for imidacloprid during the middle stage of the experimental period. These results show the ecological effect-concentrations (LOEC ~ 1 μg/l) of these insecticides in mesocosms, especially imidacloprid, are clearly different from their laboratory tests. We suggest that differences in the duration of the recovery process among groups of species are due to different physicochemical properties of the insecticides. Therefore, realistic prediction and assessment of pesticide effects at the community level should consider not only the sensitivity traits and interaction among species but also the differences in physicochemical characteristics of each pesticide. PMID:21877228

  4. Influence of Chemical Extraction Conditions on the Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Polysaccharide Gum from Durian (Durio zibethinus Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Tabatabaee Amid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Durian seed is an agricultural biomass waste of durian fruit. It can be a natural plant source of non-starch polysaccharide gum with potential functional properties. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of chemical extraction variables (i.e., the decolouring time, soaking temperature and soaking time on the physicochemical properties of durian seed gum. The physicochemical and functional properties of chemically-extracted durian seed gum were assessed by determining the particle size and distribution, solubility and the water- and oil-holding capacity (WHC and OHC. The present work revealed that the soaking time should be considered as the most critical extraction variable affecting the physicochemical properties of crude durian seed gum.

  5. Effect of physico-chemical starch properties on bread quality and ageing (model study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat, rye and triticale starches, both native and those subjected to: segregation according to small granules (type B) and the large ones (type A), defatting with n-propanol and NaOH solution and irradiation by gamma rays at doses 3 and 5 kGy, as well as oat starch were analysed to determine their basic physico-chemical properties. Then all these starches were used in test with baking model pup loaves (40 g) from artificially composed flour, according to starch-gluten system based on recipe (for 4 pup loaves): 80 g starch d.m., 20 g dry vital gluten d.m., 8 g sugar, 3 g salt, 1 g yeast and 70 cm3 water at 30oC. Starch was the only alternative component in baking recipes. Additionally, wheat breads of 250 g were baked, in which part of flour was replaced by wheat and triticale starch fraction of large granules, irradiated rye and wheat starches, as well as by oat starch. Pup loaves and 250 g-loaves were evaluated on the day baking and during 3-day storage. Following parameters were determined: volume, penetration and crumb moisture and content of dry matter in crust. Also, sensory scores were performed. In addition, every day water extract from the pup loaves crumbs was prepared and in it dry matter and blue value as an indicator of soluble amylose were determined as well as carbohydrate substances were identified according to molecular mass using gel chromatography. Based on the results obtained negative effects of small starch granules and of a supplement of oat starch on bread quality were found, in spite of a beneficial effect of fatty substances contained in it, on retardation of the crumb hardening process. Also, a positive share of starch phospholipids was ascertained, not only in the retardation of amylose retrogradation but also in stabilization of crumb pores. It was observed that intensity of amylose retrogradation in crumb is determined by both the content of fatty substances in starch granules and the ratio of bound water by starch and protein

  6. Evaluation of Mixed Probiotic Starter Cultures Isolated from Kimchi on Physicochemical and Functional Properties, and Volatile Compounds of Fermented Hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Joo; Park, Sung Yong; Lee, Hong Chul; Yoo, Seung Seok; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Chin, Koo Bok

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mixed starter cultures isolated from kimchi on physicochemical properties, functionality and flavors of fermented ham. Physicochemical properties, microbial counts, shear force, cholesterol contents and volatile compounds of fermented ham were investigated during processing (curing and ripening time). Curing process for 7 d increased saltiness, however, decreased hunter color values (L, a, and b values). Ripening process for 21 d increased most parameters, such as saltiness, color values, weight loss, shear force and cholesterol content due to the drying process. The mixed starter culture had higher lactic acid bacteria than the commercial one. While eight volatile compounds were identified from fermented hams during curing process, total fiftyeight volatile compounds were identified from fermented hams during ripening process. The main volatile compounds were alcohols, esters and furans. However, no differences in volatile compounds were observed between two batches. Fermented hams (batch B) manufactured with probiotic starter culture (LPP) had higher sensory score in texture, color and overall acceptability than counterparts (batch A), while the opposite trend was observed in flavor. Therefore, mixed probiotic starter culture isolated from kimchi might be used as a starter culture to be able to replace with commercial starter culture (LK-30 plus) for the manufacture of fermented ham. PMID:27499673

  7. Seasonal Variation in Physicochemical Properties of Soil within the Vicinity of an Iron Smelting Factory - Implication on Standing Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusanya Abiodun OLATUNJI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the seasonal variations in the physicochemical properties of soil around the vicinity of an iron smelting factory in Fashina area, Ile-Ife, with the aim of monitoring the impact on the soil characteristics, nutrient availability and its possible consequence on the surrounding vegetation. Four study plots, each measuring 50 × 50 m were selected around the iron and smelting Factory. Soil samples were collected randomly and analysed during the rainy and dry seasons at a depth of 0-20 cm, representing the top soil using soil auger. The soil samples were analysed for particle size, soil texture, pH and availability of some basic soil nutrient such as nitrogen, organic carbon, potassium, phosphorus, etc. The study revealed that the physicochemical properties of soil in focus varied across the plots, which may be a consequence of the gradient created by the citing of iron smelting factory, but the data obtained did not significantly varied within the seasons. Furthermore, high organic matter was recorded in all the plots under study; this might be due to the fact that the study area was rich in clay. More clayey soils generally tend to contain higher levels of organic matter, mainly because of the tendency of clays to slow down microbial degradation of organic matter, as clays form clay-humus complexes with organic matter. Also, the heavy metal distribution varied within the two seasons, as most of the metals showed high level of concentration in the rainy season.

  8. Comparison of some spectroscopic and physico-chemical properties of humic acids extracted from sewage sludge and bottom sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, J.; Bartoszek, M.; Sułkowski, W. W.

    2009-04-01

    Comparison of the physico-chemical properties was carried out for humic acids extracted from sewage sludge and bottom sediments. The isolated humic acids were investigated by means of EPR, IR, UV/vis spectroscopic methods and elementary analysis AE. On the basis of earlier studies it was stated that humic acids extracted from sewage sludge can be divided into humic acids extracted from raw sewage sludge and from sewage sludge after the digestion process. The digestion process was found to have the most significant effect on the physico-chemical properties of humic acids extracted from sludge during sewage treatment. Humic acids extracted from sewage sludge had higher free radical concentration than humic acid extracted from bottom sediments. Values of the g-factor were similar for all studied samples. However, it is noteworthy that g-factor values for humic acid extracted from raw sewage sludge and from bottom sediments were lower in comparison to the humic acid extracted from sewage sludge after the fermentation processes. The IR spectra of all studied humic acids confirmed the presence of functional groups characteristic for humic substances. It was also observed that humic acids extracted from bottom sediments had a more aromatic character and contained less carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen than those extracted from the sewage sludge.

  9. Effects of heavy metals and soil physicochemical properties on wetland soil microbial biomass and bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang; Nie, Shuang; Liang, Jie; Zeng, Guangming; Wu, Haipeng; Hua, Shanshan; Liu, Jiayu; Yuan, Yujie; Xiao, Haibing; Deng, Linjing; Xiang, Hongyu

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metals (HMs) contamination is a serious environmental issue in wetland soil. Understanding the micro ecological characteristic of HMs polluted wetland soil has become a public concern. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of HMs and soil physicochemical properties on soil microorganisms and prioritize some parameters that contributed significantly to soil microbial biomass (SMB) and bacterial community structure. Bacterial community structure was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Relationships between soil environment and microorganisms were analyzed by correlation analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA). The result indicated relationship between SMB and HMs was weaker than SMB and physicochemical properties. The RDA showed all eight parameters explained 74.9% of the variation in the bacterial DGGE profiles. 43.4% (contain the variation shared by Cr, Cd, Pb and Cu) of the variation for bacteria was explained by the four kinds of HMs, demonstrating HMs contamination had a significant influence on the changes of bacterial community structure. Cr solely explained 19.4% (p<0.05) of the variation for bacterial community structure, and Cd explained 17.5% (p<0.05), indicating Cr and Cd were the major factors related to bacterial community structure changes. PMID:27046142

  10. Type II collagen and gelatin from silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) cartilage: isolation, purification, physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevithan, Elango; Bao, Bin; Bu, Yongshi; Zhou, Yu; Zhao, Qingbo; Wu, Wenhui

    2014-07-01

    Type II acid soluble collagen (CIIA), pepsin soluble collagen (CIIP) and type II gelatin (GII) were isolated from silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) cartilage and examined for their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. GII had a higher hydroxyproline content (173 mg/g) than the collagens and cartilage. CIIA, CIIP and GII were composed of two identical α1 and β chains and were characterized as type II. Amino acid analysis of CIIA, CIIP and GII indicated imino acid contents of 150, 156 and 153 amino acid residues per 1000 residues, respectively. Differing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of CIIA, CIIP and GII were observed, which suggested that the isolation process affected the secondary structure and molecular order of collagen, particularly the triple-helical structure. The denaturation temperature of GII (32.5 °C) was higher than that of CIIA and CIIP. The antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and the reducing power of CIIP was greater than that of CIIA and GII. SEM microstructure of the collagens depicted a porous, fibrillary and multi-layered structure. Accordingly, the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of type II collagens (CIIA, CIIP) and GII isolated from shark cartilage were found to be suitable for biomedical applications. PMID:24979271

  11. Type II Collagen and Gelatin from Silvertip Shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus Cartilage: Isolation, Purification, Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elango Jeevithan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Type II acid soluble collagen (CIIA, pepsin soluble collagen (CIIP and type II gelatin (GII were isolated from silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus cartilage and examined for their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. GII had a higher hydroxyproline content (173 mg/g than the collagens and cartilage. CIIA, CIIP and GII were composed of two identical α1 and β chains and were characterized as type II. Amino acid analysis of CIIA, CIIP and GII indicated imino acid contents of 150, 156 and 153 amino acid residues per 1000 residues, respectively. Differing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra of CIIA, CIIP and GII were observed, which suggested that the isolation process affected the secondary structure and molecular order of collagen, particularly the triple-helical structure. The denaturation temperature of GII (32.5 °C was higher than that of CIIA and CIIP. The antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and the reducing power of CIIP was greater than that of CIIA and GII. SEM microstructure of the collagens depicted a porous, fibrillary and multi-layered structure. Accordingly, the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of type II collagens (CIIA, CIIP and GII isolated from shark cartilage were found to be suitable for biomedical applications.

  12. Physicochemical properties of ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents and their electrochemical evaluation using organometallic reference redox systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Physicochemical properties of seven deep eutectic solvents as electrolytes measured. • Walden plot showed ideal ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents. • Potential windows of all deep eutectic solvents determined. • Diffusion coefficients and rate constants of organometallic redox couples measured. • Rate constants of deep eutectic solvents were lower than those of ionic liquids. -- Abstract: Seven deep eutectic solvents (DESs) containing ammonium based salts are prepared by means of hydrogen bonding with acid, amine, amide and nitrate based compounds. The major physicochemical properties of the DESs in terms of density, viscosity, electrical conductivity, molar conductivity and pH are investigated prior to ascertaining their electrochemical characteristics by means of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Nitrate based DESs exhibit higher conductivities but lower viscosities than other DESs, whereas the amide based DES displays the widest electrochemical potential window. Diffusion coefficient, D, of two organometallic redox couples, Fc/Fc+ (ferrocene/ferrocenium) and Cc/Cc+(cobaltocene/cobaltocenium) is found to be of the order of 10−9 to 10−8 cm2 s−1 in all studied DESs while the heterogeneous rate constant for electron transfer across the electrode/DES interface is of the order of 10−4 cm s−1. The Stokes–Einstein products of Fc and Cc+ in the DESs have also been determined

  13. Variability of standard artificial soils: Physico-chemical properties and phenanthrene desorption measured by means of supercritical fluid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study is focused on artificial soil which is supposed to be a standardized “soil like” medium. We compared physico-chemical properties and extractability of Phenanthrene from 25 artificial soils prepared according to OECD standardized procedures at different laboratories. A substantial range of soil properties was found, also for parameters which should be standardized because they have an important influence on the bioavailability of pollutants (e.g. total organic carbon ranged from 1.4 to 6.1%). The extractability of Phe was measured by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at harsh and mild conditions. Highly variable Phe extractability from different soils (3–89%) was observed. The extractability was strongly related (R2 = 0.87) to total organic carbon content, 0.1–2 mm particle size, and humic/fulvic acid ratio in the following multiple regression model: SFE (%) = 1.35 * sand (%) − 0.77 * TOC (%)2 + 0.27 * HA/FA. - Highlights: ► We compared properties and extractability of Phe from 25 different artificial soils. ► Substantial range of soil properties was found, also for important parameters. ► Phe extractability was measured by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at 2 modes. ► Phe extractability was highly variable from different soils (3–89%). ► Extractability was strongly related to TOC, 0.1–2 mm particles, and HA/FA. - Significant variability in physico-chemical properties exists between artificial soils prepared at different laboratories and affects behavior of contaminants in these soils.

  14. Improving drug candidates by design: a focus on physicochemical properties as a means of improving compound disposition and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meanwell, Nicholas A

    2011-09-19

    The development of small molecule drug candidates from the discovery phase to a marketed product continues to be a challenging enterprise with very low success rates that have fostered the perception of poor productivity by the pharmaceutical industry. Although there have been significant advances in preclinical profiling that have improved compound triaging and altered the underlying reasons for compound attrition, the failure rates have not appreciably changed. As part of an effort to more deeply understand the reasons for candidate failure, there has been considerable interest in analyzing the physicochemical properties of marketed drugs for the purpose of comparing with drugs in discovery and development as a means capturing recent trends in drug design. The scenario that has emerged is one in which contemporary drug discovery is thought to be focused too heavily on advancing candidates with profiles that are most easily satisfied by molecules with increased molecular weight and higher overall lipophilicity. The preponderance of molecules expressing these properties is frequently a function of increased aromatic ring count when compared with that of the drugs launched in the latter half of the 20th century and may reflect a preoccupation with maximizing target affinity rather than taking a more holistic approach to drug design. These attributes not only present challenges for formulation and absorption but also may influence the manifestation of toxicity during development. By providing some definition around the optimal physicochemical properties associated with marketed drugs, guidelines for drug design have been developed that are based largely on calculated parameters and which may readily be applied by medicinal chemists as an aid to understanding candidate quality. The physicochemical properties of a molecule that are consistent with the potential for good oral absorption were initially defined by Lipinski, with additional insights allowing further

  15. Physico-chemical properties and the microflora of Moroccan black table olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asehraou, A.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Eleven samples of Moroccan black table olives were analyzed for their microflora and the physico-chemical factors. A survey of the most frequent microorganisms including standard plate count (SPC, counts of the indicator microorganisms (total and fecal coliforms and enterococci, staphylococci. Salmonella, sporeforming bacteria (Clostridium and Bacillus and yeasts and molds was determined. The physico-chemical factors grouped pH, aw, NaCl concentration and the ADV (Acid degree value of the fatty matter. Results reported hereby showed a low microbial load except for the yeasts and molds. The values found for the physico-chemical factors (low for the pH and the aw and high for the ADV and salt content would suggest an inhibitory effect on the initial microflora charge of the black table olives.

    Se estudiaron la microflora y las propiedades físico-químicas de aceitunas negras de mesa en 11 muestras. Los microorganismos más abundantes contados incluyeron: flora mesofila total, indicadores de contaminación fecal (Coliformes totales y fecales, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, esporulados (Bacillus y Clostridium y levaduras y mohos. Los análisis físico-químicos incluyeron: aw (actividad de agua, pH, índice de acidez de la materia grasa y concentración de NaCl. Los resultados nos demuestran perfiles microbianos bajos para todos los microorganismos excepto levaduras y mohos. Los valores bajos de pH y de aw, y otros elevados del índice de acidez y del contenido en sal, nos sugiere una Inhibición de estos factores sobre e! crecimiento y/o la supervivencia de la microflora de las aceitunas negras de mesa.

  16. Effect of Pre-Harvest Sprouting on Physicochemical Properties of Starch in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Senay Simsek; Jae-Bom Ohm; Haiyan Lu; Mory Rugg; William Berzonsky; Alamri, Mohammed S.; Mohamed Mergoum

    2014-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) occurs when physiologically mature kernels begin germinating in the spike. The objective of this study was to provide fundamental information on physicochemical changes of starch due to PHS in Hard Red Spring (HRS) and Hard White Spring (HWS) wheat. The mean values of α-amylase activity of non-sprouted and sprouted wheat samples were 0.12 CU/g and 2.00 CU/g, respectively. Sprouted samples exhibited very low peak and final viscositi...

  17. Antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of an acidic polysaccharide from Morinda officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hualin; Li, Jun; Xia, Jingmin; Lin, Sanqing

    2013-07-01

    An acidic polysaccharide APMO was isolated from Morinda officinalis by alkaline solvent extraction followed by fractionation treatments. Its antioxidant activities were evaluated by various methods in vitro, APMO presented excellent capability in scavenging DPPH radicals, chelating ferrous ions and inhibiting hemolysis of rats erythrocyte induced by H2O2, which was stronger than those of Vc at high concentration. Moreover, APMO displayed moderate reducing power. Physicochemical characteristics of APMO were observed by a combination of chemical and instrumental analysis. APMO predominantly consisted of galacturonic acid, arabinose and galactose. Galacturonic acid was assigned to be 1→4 glycosyl linkage in the skeleton of APMO. PMID:23511058

  18. Effect of hot-air drying on the physicochemical properties of kaffir lime leaves (Citrus hystrix)

    OpenAIRE

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; Lasekan, Ola; Muhammad, Kharidah; Karim, Shahrim

    2013-01-01

    The effect of hot-air drying namely drying time (3-15 h), drying temperature (40-80°C) and loading capacity (0.5-2.0 kg/m2 ) on the physicochemical characteristics of kaffir lime leaves was optimized using Response Surface Methodology. Twenty treatments were assigned based on the second- order CCD including 6 center points, 6 axial points and 8 factorial points. The quality of dried kaffir lime leaves was evaluated by determining moisture content, water activity, texture (brittleness) and Hun...

  19. Assessment of the Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Properties of Borehole Water Samples from Akungba - Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLAJUBU, F. A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Water is very important to the existence of humans, though could also serve as vehicle of pathogenic organisms and dangerous organic and inorganic matters. The physicochemical and microbiological analysis of seven borehole water samples used by Akungba- Akoko residents were carried out with the aim of ascertaining their suitability or otherwise for human consumption. Methods: The total hardness, pH, alkalinity, some common elements and presence of toxic metals were determined. The Most Probable Number (MPN was used for the detection and isolation of the contaminating microorganisms. Results: In the physicochemical analysis of the borehole water samples, the lowest pH (6.54 was recorded in IBK1 sample while AKA water sample gave highest calcium concentration (86.97mg/L. The total hardness ranged between 171.76 and 327.33mg/L. Elements such as manganese, zinc, copper, cadmium were below detectable levels in the water samples. Seven bacteria species, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi and Proteus vulgaris were isolated. AKA sample gave the highest bacteria count of 1.6 X 105 cfu/ml. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated among the bacteria, having been isolated in three of out of the seven samples examined. The antibiotics susceptibility test showed that Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoniae were susceptible to most antibiotics. Conclusion: The physicochemical properties and the bacteria load of most of the water samples were within WHO standard for drinking water hence, the water samples can be declared fit for drinking.

  20. Variability of standard artificial soils: Physico-chemical properties and phenanthrene desorption measured by means of supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielská, Lucie; Hovorková, Ivana; Komprdová, Klára; Hofman, Jakub

    2012-04-01

    The study is focused on artificial soil which is supposed to be a standardized "soil like" medium. We compared physico-chemical properties and extractability of Phenanthrene from 25 artificial soils prepared according to OECD standardized procedures at different laboratories. A substantial range of soil properties was found, also for parameters which should be standardized because they have an important influence on the bioavailability of pollutants (e.g. total organic carbon ranged from 1.4 to 6.1%). The extractability of Phe was measured by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at harsh and mild conditions. Highly variable Phe extractability from different soils (3-89%) was observed. The extractability was strongly related (R(2)=0.87) to total organic carbon content, 0.1-2mm particle size, and humic/fulvic acid ratio in the following multiple regression model: SFE (%)=1.35*sand (%)-0.77*TOC (%)2+0.27*HA/FA. PMID:22325424

  1. Improved classification of lung cancer tumors based on structural and physicochemical properties of proteins using data mining models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Geetha Ramani

    Full Text Available Detecting divergence between oncogenic tumors plays a pivotal role in cancer diagnosis and therapy. This research work was focused on designing a computational strategy to predict the class of lung cancer tumors from the structural and physicochemical properties (1497 attributes of protein sequences obtained from genes defined by microarray analysis. The proposed methodology involved the use of hybrid feature selection techniques (gain ratio and correlation based subset evaluators with Incremental Feature Selection followed by Bayesian Network prediction to discriminate lung cancer tumors as Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC and the COMMON classes. Moreover, this methodology eliminated the need for extensive data cleansing strategies on the protein properties and revealed the optimal and minimal set of features that contributed to lung cancer tumor classification with an improved accuracy compared to previous work. We also attempted to predict via supervised clustering the possible clusters in the lung tumor data. Our results revealed that supervised clustering algorithms exhibited poor performance in differentiating the lung tumor classes. Hybrid feature selection identified the distribution of solvent accessibility, polarizability and hydrophobicity as the highest ranked features with Incremental feature selection and Bayesian Network prediction generating the optimal Jack-knife cross validation accuracy of 87.6%. Precise categorization of oncogenic genes causing SCLC and NSCLC based on the structural and physicochemical properties of their protein sequences is expected to unravel the functionality of proteins that are essential in maintaining the genomic integrity of a cell and also act as an informative source for drug design, targeting essential protein properties and their composition that are found to exist in lung cancer tumors.

  2. Directly Predicting Water Quality Criteria from Physicochemical Properties of Transition Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wu, Fengchang; Mu, Yunsong; Zeng, Eddy Y.; Meng, Wei; Zhao, Xiaoli; Giesy, John P.; Feng, Chenglian; Wang, Peifang; Liao, Haiqing; Chen, Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Transition metals are a group of elements widespread in aquatic environments that can be hazardous when concentrations exceeding threshold values. Due to insufficient data, criteria maximum concentrations (CMCs) of only seven transition metals for protecting aquatic life have been recommended by the USEPA. Hence, it is deemed necessary to develop empirical models for predicting the threshold values of water quality criteria (WQC) for other transition metals for which insufficient information on toxic potency is available. The present study established quantitative relationships between recommended CMCs and physicochemical parameters of seven transition metals, then used the developed relationships to predict CMCs for other transition metals. Seven of 26 physicochemical parameters examined were significantly correlated with the recommended CMCs. Based on this, five of the seven parameters were selected to construct a linear free energy model for predicting CMCs. The most relevant parameters were identified through principle component analysis, and the one with the best correlation with the recommended CMCs was a combination of covalent radius, ionic radius and electron density. Predicted values were largely consistent with their toxic potency values. The present study provides an alternative approach to develop screening threshold level for metals which have insufficient information to use traditional methods.

  3. An investigation of Turkish honeys: their physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacities and phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Zehra; Yildiz, Oktay; Sahin, Huseyin; Turumtay, Emine Akyuz; Silici, Sibel; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated some physico-chemical and biochemical characteristics of different honey types belonging to Turkish flora. Sixty-two honey samples were examined on the basis of pollen analyses, including 11 unifloral honeys (chestnut, heather, chaste tree, rhododendron, common eryngo, lavender, Jerusalem tea, astragalus, clover and acacia), two different honeydew honeys (lime and oak), and 7 different multifloral honeys. Electrical conductivity, moisture, Hunter color values, HMF, proline, diastase number, and sugar analyses of the honey samples were assessed for chemical characterization. Some phenolic components were analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) to determine honeys' phenolic profiles. Total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity were measured as antioxidant determinants. The study results confirm that physico-chemical and biological characteristics of honeys are closely related to their floral sources, and that dark-colored honeys such as oak, chestnut and heather, have a high therapeutic potential. PMID:25766810

  4. Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of Rituximab Related to Its Immunomodulatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana P. Miranda-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody employed for the treatment of CD20-positive B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis. It binds specifically to the CD20 antigen expressed on pre-B and consequently on mature B-lymphocytes of both normal and malignant cells, inhibiting their proliferation through apoptosis, CDC, and ADCC mechanisms. The immunomodulatory activity of rituximab is closely related to critical quality attributes that characterize its chemical composition and spatial configuration, which determine the recognition of CD20 and the binding to receptors or factors involved in its effector functions, while regulating the potential immunogenic response. Herein, we present a physicochemical and biological characterization followed by a pharmacodynamics and immunogenicity study to demonstrate comparability between two products containing rituximab. The physicochemical and biological characterization revealed that both products fit within the same response intervals exhibiting the same degree of variability. With regard to clinical response, both products depleted CD20+ B-cells until posttreatment recovery and no meaningful differences were found in their pharmacodynamic profiles. The evaluation of anti-chimeric antibodies did not show differential immunogenicity among products. Overall, these data confirm that similarity of critical quality attributes results in a comparable immunomodulatory activity.

  5. Analysis of Physicochemical Properties of Mexican Gasoline and Diesel Reformulated with Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porfirio Caballero-Mata

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High energy prices, environmental issues and increasing importation of fossil fuels has provoked, in some countries, a reorientation of resources towards the development of biofuels that can partially substitute the consumption of fossil fuels. Ethanol is one of the biofuels more commonly used in the world; in the United States, Brazil and Australia gasoline blends that reach up to 85% Ethanol are commercialized. This work presents the results of a physicochemical characterization of commercial Mexican gasoline (Magna and Premium and diesel blends with 10% vol. and 15% vol. anhydrous Ethanol. The analytical testing included: Research Octane Number, Motor Octane Number, Cetane Number, Reid Vapor Pressure, Distillation Curve and Heating Value. The stability of the blends was also evaluated. The theoretical emissions of CO2 were calculated based on the results of the physicochemical characterization. The ethanol-gasoline blends increased their Octane Number with respect to the commercial gasoline, while conserving an appropriate Distillation Index. The Cetane Number of the ethanol-diesel blends showed a substantial decrease, while the heating value of gasoline and diesel blends was negatively affected by the addition of ethanol. Nevertheless, taking into account the credits by the use of a renewable fuel, the use of the reformulated gasoline blends would imply a maximum theoretical reduction of 7.5% in CO2 emissions whereas in the case of ethanol-diesel blends it would represent a 9.2% decrease.

  6. Effects of Selected Polysorbate and Sucrose Ester Emulsifiers on the Physicochemical Properties of Astaxanthin Nanodispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navideh Anarjan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of selected nonionic emulsifiers on the physicochemical characteristics of astaxanthin nanodispersions produced by an emulsification/evaporation technique were studied. The emulsifiers used were polysorbates (Polysorbate 20, Polysorbate 40, Polysorbate 60 and Polysorbate 80 and sucrose esters of fatty acids (sucrose laurate, palmitate, stearate and oleate. The mean particle diameters of the nanodispersions ranged from 70 nm to 150 nm, depending on the emulsifier used. In the prepared nanodispersions, the astaxanthin particle diameter decreased with increasing emulsifier hydrophilicity and decreasing carbon number of the fatty acid in the emulsifier structure. Astaxanthin nanodispersions with the smallest particle diameters were produced with Polysorbate 20 and sucrose laurate among the polysorbates and the sucrose esters, respectively. We also found that the Polysorbate 80- and sucrose oleate-stabilized nanodispersions had the highest astaxanthin losses (i.e., the lowest astaxanthin contents in the final products among the nanodispersions. This work demonstrated the importance of emulsifier type in determining the physicochemical characteristics of astaxanthin nano-dispersions.

  7. Effect of higher temperature exposure on physicochemical properties of frozen buffalo meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Vishnuraj

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the changes in various physicochemical parameters of frozen buffalo meat undergone temperature abuse at two different isothermal storage temperatures (37±1°C, 25±1°C using a simulated model. Materials and Methods: Frozen buffalo meat was evaluated after exposing to various temperature abuse conditions over selected durations for different meat quality parameters including pH, extract release volume (ERV, flourescein diacetate (FDA hydrolysis, free amino acid (FAA, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN and D-glucose value and compared against a control sample maintained at 4±1°C. Results: Of the various meat quality parameters evaluated pH, FDA hydrolysis, FAA content and TVBN content showed a significant (p<0.05 increase in temperature abused samples after temperature abuse and on subsequent refrigerated storage. However, ERV and D-glucose content decreased significantly (p<0.05 in temperature abused buffalo meat during the same period of study. Conclusions: The present study featured the influence of exposure temperature and duration in various physicochemical parameters and the rate of spoilage development in frozen buffalo meat after temperature abuse.

  8. Antimicrobial Activity and Physico-Chemical Properties Test of Radiation Sterilized Hydrogel Wound Dressing Containing Mengkudu Extract (Morinda citrifolia L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study on antimicrobial activity and physico-chemical properties of hydrogel wound dressing containing mengkudu extract has been carried out. Hydrogel wound dressing was prepared by irradiating the mixture of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), agar, poly ethylene glycol (PEG) and mengkudu extract with certain composition using gamma ray at a dose of 25 kGy. The extract concentration used was 0 to 4% w/w. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and air microbes isolated from the laboratory at P3TIR-BATAN were used as tested microbe. Water content, water absorption, microbes penetration on hydrogel, water evaporation and tensile strength were determined as physico-chemical parameters. The results show that the minimum concentration of mengkudu extract to eradicate the Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus bacteria is 2%. The results of microbe penetration test show that none of the microbes tested can penetrate the membrane of hydrogel containing mengkudu extract. This mean is the hydrogel membrane is a good barrier against microbe contamination. Water content of Hydrogel with extract concentration of 0, 1, 2 and 4% w/w mengkudu extract is 87%, 85% and 82% respectively. Hydrogel with 4% w/w mengkudu extract shows highest water absorption capacity. Tensile strength of hydrogel depends on concentration of mengkudu extract in the hydrogel. (author)

  9. Characterization of physicochemical and thermal properties and crystallization behavior of krabok (Irvingia Malayana ) and rambutan seed fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Ponprachanuvut, Punnee

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid composition, physicochemical and thermal properties and crystallization behavior of fats extracted from the seeds of krabok (Irvingia Malayana) and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) trees grown in Thailand were studied and compared with cocoa butter (CB). The krabok seed fat, KSF, consisted of 46.9% lauric and 40.3% myristic acids. It exhibited the highest saponification value and slip melting point but the lowest iodine values. The three fats displayed different crystallization behavior at 25°C. KSF crystallized into a mixture of β' and pseudo-β' structures with a one-step crystallization curve and high solid fat content (SFC). The fat showed simple DSC crystallization and melting thermograms with one distinct peak. The rambutan seed fat, RSF, consisted of 42.5% arachidic and 33.1% oleic acids. Its crystallization behavior was more similar to CB than KSF, displaying a two-step crystallization curve with SFC lower than that of KSF. RSF solidified into a mixture of β' and pseudo-β' before transforming to β after 24 h. The large spherulitic microstructures were observed in both KSF and RSF. According to these results, the Thai KSF and RSF exhibited physicochemical, thermal characteristics and crystallization behavior that could be suitable for specific applications in several areas of the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23196867

  10. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. PMID:25839884

  11. Physicochemical properties of honey from Marche, Central Italy: classification of unifloral and multifloral honeys by multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, Cristina; Illuminati, Silvia; Annibaldia, Anna; Finale, Carolina; Rossetti, Monica; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was the physicochemical characterization and classification of Italian honey from Marche Region with a chemometric approach. A total of 135 honeys of different botanical origins [acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), chestnut (Castanea sativa), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), lime (Tilia spp.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Metcalfa honeydew and multifloral honey] were considered. The average results of electrical conductivity (0.14-1.45 mS cm(-1)), pH (3.89-5.42), free acidity (10.9-39.0 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), lactones (2.4-4.5 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), total acidity (14.5-40.9 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), proline (229-665 mg kg(-1)) and 5-(hydroxy-methyl)-2-furaldehyde (0.6-3.9 mg kg(-1)) content show wide variability among the analysed honey types, with statistically significant differences between the different honey types. Pattern recognition methods such as principal component analysis and discriminant analysis were performed in order to find a relationship between variables and types of honey and to classify honey on the basis of its physicochemical properties. The variables of electrical conductivity, acidity (free, lactones), pH and proline content exhibited higher discriminant power and provided enough information for the classification and distinction of unifloral honey types, but not for the classification of multifloral honey (100% and 85% of samples correctly classified, respectively). PMID:25532290

  12. Influence of radiation on some physico-chemical properties of gum acacia. Mitigation of degradation by different class of antioxidants in LDPE expose to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlling of degradation in polysaccharide is also gaining impetus from commercial point of view. Comprehensive studies on the influence of ionizing radiation on the physico-chemical properties of polysaccharides are very important for their applications in different industries. The effect of gamma radiation on gum acacia has been studied and its effect on some physico-chemical properties, as measured by UV spectroscopy and viscometry has been discussed. The gum samples are irradiated in the range of 5 kGy to 25 kGy both in air and vacuum. Samples irradiated under vacuum shows colour stability while viscosity remain unaffected. (author)

  13. Evaluation of physicochemical properties and in-vitro release profile of glipizide-matrix patch

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    Kajal Ghosal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present investigation was to form matrix patches with ethyl cellulose (EC as the base polymer, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP as the copolymer, plasticizer with dibutyl phthalate (DBP or acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC and the drug glipizide (gz by the solvent casting method. Physicochemical properties of the patches and in vitro drug release were determined in a modified Keshary-chien diffusion cell to optimize the patch formulations with the help of experimental data and figures for further studies. TECHNIQUES: EC and PVP of different proportions with different weight percentages of either DBP or ATBC and a fixed amount of glipizide were taken for matrix patch formations. The dried patches were used for measuring their drug contents as well as their thicknesses, tensile strengths, moisture contents and water absorption amounts in percentage. In vitro release amounts at different intervals were measured by UV-spectrophotometer. RESULTS: Drug contents varied from 96 - 99%. Thickness and tensile strength varied due to weight variation of the ingredients in the matrix patches. Moisture content and water absorption in wt % were greater for the patches containing higher amount of PVP due to its hydrophilic nature. Variations in drug release were observed among various formulations. It was found that all of the releases followed diffusion controlled zero order kinetics. Two DBP patches yielded better and more adequate release. CONCLUSIONS: The two formulations with DBP were the preferred choice for making matrix patches for further studies.O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi formar matrizes para bandagens de liberação transdérmica com etilcelulose (EC como polímero base, polivinilpirrolidona (PVP, como copolímero, plastificante com ftalato de dibutila (DBP ou citrato de tributilacetila (ATBC e o fármaco glipizida (gz pelo método de evaporação do solvente (moldagem com solvente. As propriedades físico-químicas das

  14. Effect of the Methylation and N-H Acidic Group on the Physicochemical Properties of Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana S M C; Rocha, Marisa A A; Almeida, Hugo F D; Neves, Catarina M S S; Lopes-da-Silva, José A; Freire, Mara G; Coutinho, João A P; Santos, Luís M N B F

    2015-07-16

    This work presents and highlights the differentiation of the physicochemical properties of the [C1Him][NTf2], [C2Him][NTf2], [(1)C1(2)C1Him][NTf2], and [(1)C4(2)C1(3)C1im][NTf2] that is related with the strong bulk interaction potential, which highlights the differentiation on the physicochemical arising from the presence of the acidic group (N-H) as well as the methylation in position 2, C(2), of the imidazolium ring. Densities, viscosities, refractive indices, and surface tensions in a wide range of temperatures, as well as isobaric heat capacities at 298.15 K, for this IL series are presented and discussed. It was found that the volumetric properties are barely affected by the geometric and structural isomerization, following a quite regular trend. A linear correlation between the glass transition temperature, Tg, and the alkyl chain size was found; however, ILs with the acidic N-H group present a significant higher Tg than the [(1)CN-1(3)C1im][NTf2] and [(1)CN(3)CNim][NTf2] series. It was found that the most viscous ILs, ([(1)C1Him][NTf2], [(1)C2Him][NTf2], and [(1)C1(2)C1Him][NTf2]) have an acidic N-H group in the imidazolium ring in agreement with the observed increase of energy barrier of flow. The methylation in position 2, C(2), as well as the N-H acidic group in the imidazolium ring contribute to a significant variation in the cation-anion interactions and their dynamics, which is reflected in their charge distribution and polarizability leading to a significant differentiation of the refractive indices, surface tension, and heat capacities. The observed differentiation of the physicochemical properties of the [(1)C1Him][NTf2], [(1)C2Him][NTf2], [(1)C1(2)C1Him][NTf2], and [(1)C4(2)C1(3)C1im][NTf2] are an indication of the stronger bulk interaction potential, which highlights the effect that arises from the presence of the acidic group (N-H) as well as the methylation in position 2 of the imidazolium ring. PMID:26082427

  15. Effect of different radiations on some physico-chemical properties of gum Arabic (Acacia senegal (L.) Wild)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven different Acacia senegal gum samples namely A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, and A7 were collected from different trees in the same forest growing in Eldmazein season 1994/ 1995. Some physicochemical and functional properties were investigated i. e. moisture content, nitrogen content, specific rotation, molecular weight, emulsifying stability and water holding capacity. Also the effect of radiation from different sources gammaγ, ultraviolet (UV) and infra-red (IR) radiations with various doses i.e 150, 325 and 500 gray, 2,4 and 6 hours and 80, 105 and 140 C, respectively on some physicochemical and functional properties and component sugars of gum samples in solid from and solution of different concentrations were studied. Statistical analysis showed significant differences (P≤0.05) between all of these seven samples in their physicochemical and functional properties except in ph value. Also Ph values were not affected by different doses of γ, UV and IR radiations used in this study. Results showed that the moisture content, ash, nitrogen content and emulsifying stability were not affected γ(60(Co) irradiation where solid and aqueous solution of gum samples showed significant differences (P≤0.05) in specific rotation, intrinsic and molecular weight when exposed to various doses of γrays. Statistical analysis showed insignificant differences (P≤0.05) between the whole and irradiated solid gum by UV radiation on ash, nitrogen content and emulsifying stability. But there was a little decrease as radiation time increase on the moisture content. Reducing sugars and solubility were decreased from 1.88 % and 97.19 % of whole gum to 0.16 % and 84.1 % of gum irradiated by IR radiation at 140 C, respectively while moisture content reduced from 10.7 % to 0.4 %. Maximum absorbance of UV spectrum of the whole gum was reported at the wave length 280 nm. UV absorbance was not affected by Υand UV radiations while it increased of temperature. Thin layer chromatography

  16. Physicochemical properties and volatile profile of chili shrimp paste as affected by irradiation and heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Choon Yoong; Sobhi, Babak; Mohd Adzahan, Noranizan; Bakar, Jamilah; Abdul Rahman, Russly; Ab Karim, Muhammad Shahrim; Ghazali, Zulkafli

    2017-02-01

    Chili shrimp paste (CSP) is an exotic traditional Southeast Asian condiment prepared using mainly fresh chilies and fermented shrimp paste (belacan) which attributed to strong pungent fishy odor. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of electron beam irradiation (EBI) exposure on CSP for microorganisms decontamination, and its physicochemical qualities changes. Changes in capsaicinoid contents and volatile compounds were analyzed using HPLC and GC-MS. Mesophilic bacteria, yeast, mold and pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae decreased as irradiation dose increasing from 0 to 10kGy. EBI at 10kGy effectively decontaminated the samples with no significant effects on phenolic and capsaicinoids contents compared to the fresh samples. From 24 compounds, irradiated CSP retained 23 volatile compounds, while thermally treated CSP has only 19 compounds. EBI at 10kGy is effective for decontamination in CSP with lesser destructive effect on volatile compounds and texture compared to thermal treatment. PMID:27596386

  17. Influence of solvent addition on the physicochemical properties of Brazilian gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.V. Takeshita; R.V.P. Rezende; S.M.A. Guelli; U. de Souza; A.A. Ulson de Souza [Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil). Chemical Engineering Department

    2008-08-15

    The influence of several solvents (anhydrous ethanol, white spirit, alkylbenzene AB9, diesel) on the physicochemical parameters of gasoline was studied according to ASTM international standard methods. The parameters investigated (distillation curves, density, Reid vapor pressure) showed differentiated behavior, depending on the class of the solvent (oxygenated, light and heavy aliphatic, aromatic) and the quantity added to the gasoline. The azeotropic mixtures formed by ethanol and hydrocarbons showed a strong influence on the behavior of the distillation curves and the location of the point of a sudden change in temperature was shown to be a possible way to detect adulterations and determine the quantity of solvent added to the gasoline. 28 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. SIFAT FISIKO KIMIA BERAS MERAH GOGO LOKAL ENDE [The Physico-chemical Properties of Local Ende High Land Brown Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herianus J.D. Lalel1*

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten strains of Ende high land brown rice were assessed to underpin their physico-chemical properties related to their potential uses. Are Ndota has bigger grain size and smoother gel consistency than others (63.50 mm gel length. It potentially can be used as food thickeners and baby foods. Are Kea showed the highest water imbibition ability (90.99%, the fastest wettability (12.11 sec, and the highest dispersibility value (2,50 % due to its high amylose content (33.21 %. Potentially, Are kea can be used for noodles. The variety also had small repose angle (27.46, therefore it can be easily transported.

  19. Effect of thermal processing on the physicochemical properties of chestnut starch and textural profile of chestnut kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Lina; Li, Qian; Xie, Shuangshuang; Hu, Jiaqi; Wu, Yanwen; Ouyang, Jie

    2016-10-20

    The present study focused on the effect of thermal processing on the physicochemical properties of chestnut starch and textural profile of chestnut kernel. After thermal processing, the total starch content in both boiled and roasted chestnuts decreased significantly (Pstarch in cooked chestnut was gradually destroyed during the thermal processing. The starch in cooked chestnut still exhibited C-type X-ray diffraction patterns, but the intensity of diffraction peaks and the crystallinity were obviously declined compared with those of fresh chestnut. Textural profile analysis of chestnut starch gel and chestnut kernel showed that the main textural characterizations of roasted chestnut were higher than those of boiled chestnuts. These results are helpful for better understanding the texture change in fresh, boiled and roasted chestnuts, which indicated that roasting is an alternative industrial thermal processing method for chestnut kernel. PMID:27474607

  20. Influence of UF4 physico-chemical properties on the assessment of the chronic exposure to this compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method was developed in order to assess uranium exposure hazards at work stations based on the industrial experience acquired by Comurhex Malvesi at Narbonne. Applied to uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) the method involves 4 steps: 1. characterization of the industrial compound, including its physico-chemical properties (density, surface area, X-ray spectrum and uranium enrichment); 2. assessment of work station concentrations and particle size distribution (AMAD); 3. In vitro biological solubility with different synthetic fluids such as Gamble solutions with different gases or compounds added (oxygen or superoxide ions O2-) in order to determine the solubility class D, W or Y; 4. workers' monitoring by routine measurements of urinary excretion completed, if necessary, by fecal excretion and γ-spectrometry. Results and present data on UF4 are presented. 3 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Effects of Chemical Inter esterification on the Physicochemical Properties of Palm Stearin, Palm Kernel Oil and Soybean Oil Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and soybean oil (SBO) blends were formulated according to Design Expert 8.0.4 (2010). All the sixteen oil blends were subjected to chemical inter esterification (CIE) using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The effects of chemical inter esterification on the slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and polymorphism were investigated. Palm based trans-free table margarine containing PS/PKO/SBO [49/20/31, (w/w)], was optimally formulated through analysis of multiple ternary phase diagrams and was found to have quite similar SMP and SFC profiles as compared with commercial table margarine. This study has shown that blending and chemical inter esterification are effective in modifying the physicochemical properties of palm stearin, palm kernel oil, soybean oil and their blends. (author)

  2. Germinated barley as a functional ingredient in chicken sausages: effect on physicochemical and technological properties at different levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of germinated barley (GB) levels on physicochemical and technological properties of cooked chicken sausages. The chicken sausages were formulated with 0-4 % GB. Addition of GB increased pH and yellowness but decreased lightness of the cooked chicken sausages. However, there was no difference in redness among treatments (P > 0.05). Based on the positive effects of GB on measurements related to water and/or fat retention ability, such as emulsion stability, cooking loss, and thawing loss, such results depended upon the added amount of GB. In addition, apparent viscosity increased with increasing levels of GB, resulting in hardness, springiness, and chewiness (P sausages and optimal level of GB was determined as minimum 2 %. PMID:26788010

  3. Effect of Caesalpinia sappan L. extract on physico-chemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Ha, So-Ra; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of extract from heart wood of Caesalpinia sappan on the physico-chemical properties and to find the appropriate addition level in the emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage. The pH of treatments with C. sappan extract was significantly lower than control and T1 during cold storage periods (Psausages containing C. sappan extract were decreased compared to control. Inclusion of the C. sappan extract in sausages resulted in lower lightness and higher yellowness, chroma and hue values. However, the antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, and volatile basic nitrogen in the emulsion-type pork sausages with C. sappan extract showed increased quality characteristics during cold storage. In conclusion, the proper addition level of C. sappan extract was 0.1% on the processing of emulsion-type pork sausage. PMID:26283171

  4. Combined Effect of Monoxide Hemoglobin and Sodium Nitrite on Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Properties of Pork Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjiang Tan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium nitrite (NaNO2 faces a challenge in the meat industry because of its carcinogenicity. The studies about nitrite substitutes have attracted a considerable interest for many years. This study aims at the combined effects of monoxide hemoglobin (COHb and NaNO2 on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of pork sausages. The addition of COHb led to the reductions in L*, b*, TBA, VBN and aerobic plate count as well as the increase in a* (p<0.05. The samples with 0.005% NaNO2 and 0.2% COHb addition had equal even better sensory color, flavor, mouthfeel and slice traits than those with 0.015% NaNO2 addition during storage. Moreover, such sample had less than 30 cfu/100 g Escherichia coli and no detectable Staphylococcus aureus during 29 days storage. Therefore, COHb showed a potential in the manufacture of sausages

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of commercial poly(lactic acid) clamshell for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera-Santana, Tomás J.; Meléndrez, R.; González-García, Gerardo; Quintana-Owen, Patricia; Pillai, Suresh D.

    2016-06-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a well-known biodegradable polymer with strong potential application in food packaging industry. In this paper, samples of PLA clamshell for tomatoes packaging were exposed with 60CO γ-ray's source (1.33 MeV) at different dose levels (0, 10, 60, 150, 300, and 600 kGy), at room temperature and in presence of air. The physicochemical properties of neat PLA and sample exposed to gamma irradiation were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tensile measurements. Results show as the dose increases, the molecular weight (Mw), melting temperature (Tm), tensile strength and elongation at break decreased. However, the tensile modulus increased with increasing doses. The surface of PLA clamshells was degraded (scratches and minor cracks) when samples were exposed to doses greater than 60 kGy.

  6. Sonication-Based Improvement of the Physicochemical Properties of Guar Gum as a Potential Substrate for Modified Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddique Akber Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Guar Gum is a natural polysaccharide that, due to its physicochemical properties, is extensively investigated for biomedical applications as a matrix for modified drug delivery, but it is also used in the food industry as well as in cosmetics. A commercial sample of Guar Gum was sonicated for different periods of time, and the reduction in the average molecular weight was monitored by means of viscometric measurements. At the same time, the rheological behaviour was also followed, in terms of viscoelasticity range, flow curves, and mechanical spectra. Sonicated samples were used for the preparation of gels in the presence of borate ions. The effect of borax on the new samples was investigated by recording mechanical spectra, flow curves, and visible absorption spectra of complexes with Congo Red. The anisotropic elongation, observed in previous studies with tablets of Guar Gum and borax, was remarkably reduced when the sonicated samples were used for the preparation of the gels.

  7. New assay to characterize in vitro physico-chemical properties of (U,Pu)O2 inhalable powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously shown that an inhalable industrial MOX powder was heterogeneous at the nano-metric level. Thus, it corresponded to a mixture of 'pure' UO2, 'pure' PuO2 and some (U, Pu)O2 particles. At this time, no common method is available to study the physico-chemical properties of such a heterogeneous powder. The aim of this study was to develop a new assay to characterize inhalable heterogeneous powders and their behaviour either in vitro, in media simulating different biological compartments, or in vivo after intratracheal administration. The proposed method corresponds to a combined light and electron microscopic observation of the same powder sample. The particles are included within a collodium/carbon or a carbon film which is put on copper or gold 300 mesh grids with reference marks. (authors)

  8. Aerosol-halogen interaction: Change of physico-chemical properties of SOA by naturally released halogen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofner, J.; Balzer, N.; Buxmann, J.; Grothe, H.; Krüger, H.; Platt, U.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Zetzsch, C.

    2011-12-01

    Reactive halogen species are released by various sources like photo-activated sea-salt aerosol or salt pans and salt lakes. These heterogeneous release mechanisms have been overlooked so far, although their potential of interaction with organic aerosols like Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA), Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol (BBOA) or Atmospheric Humic LIke Substances (HULIS) is completely unknown. Such reactions can constitute sources of gaseous organo-halogen compounds or halogenated organic particles in the atmospheric boundary layer. To study the interaction of organic aerosols with reactive halogen species (RHS), SOA was produced from α-pinene, catechol and guaiacol using an aerosol smog-chamber. The model SOAs were characterized in detail using a variety of physico-chemical methods (Ofner et al., 2011). Those aerosols were exposed to molecular halogens in the presence of UV/VIS irradiation and to halogens, released from simulated natural halogen sources like salt pans, in order to study the complex aerosol-halogen interaction. The heterogeneous reaction of RHS with those model aerosols leads to different gaseous species like CO2, CO and small reactive/toxic molecules like phosgene (COCl2). Hydrogen containing groups on the aerosol particles are destroyed to form HCl or HBr, and a significant formation of C-Br bonds could be verified in the particle phase. Carbonyl containing functional groups of the aerosol are strongly affected by the halogenation process. While changes of functional groups and gaseous species were visible using FTIR spectroscopy, optical properties were studied using Diffuse Reflectance UV/VIS spectroscopy. Overall, the optical properties of the processed organic aerosols are significantly changed. While chlorine causes a "bleaching" of the aerosol particles, bromine shifts the maximum of UV/VIS absorption to the red end of the UV/VIS spectrum. Further physico-chemical changes were recognized according to the aerosol size-distributions or the

  9. Physicochemical properties and mineral and protein content of honey samples from Ceará state, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Tavares Cavalcanti Liberato

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the physicochemical properties and protein and mineral content of honey samples from Ceará State, Northeastern Brazil, one of the major honey exporters in the country. Nutritional importance of the minerals detected was also analyzed. Physicochemical properties were examined according to the AOAC and CAC official methods; the protein content was determined using the Bradford method, and the minerals were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. All analyses were performed in triplicate. The levels of macrominerals sodium (Na, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, and magnesium (Mg varied from 1.80-47.20, 21.30-1513.30, 14.58-304.82, and 2.48-28.33 mg/kg, respectively, and the trace elements iron (Fe, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, selenium (Se, and chromium (Cr varied from 0.12-8.76, 0.07-1.29, 0.06-1.96, 0.07-1.85 mg/kg, 0.36 × 10-3-62.00 × 10-3 and 22.50 × 10-3-170.33 × 10-3 µg/kg, respectively. Myracrodruon urundeuva honey sample had high contents of macrominerals (Na, K, Ca, and Mg. Protein content of the Anacardium occidentale honey sample was the highest (1121.00 µg/g among the samples analyzed. Among the minerals detected in the honey samples, K showed the highest concentration, followed by Ca, Na, and Mg. The presence of trace elements can show environmental contamination. The honey samples studied were free of trace elements contamination, except for Mn; the Piptadenia moniliformis was the only honey sample that was in compliance with the law requirements. The variations of the chemical constituents in the honey samples are probably related to differences in the floral origin and mineral and protein contents and confirm the nutritional importance of Ceará State honey.

  10. Dependence of the initial adhesion of biofilm forming Pseudomonas putida mt2 on physico-chemical material properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Dominik; Frant, Marion; Horn, Harald; Liefeith, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion is strongly dependent on the physico-chemical properties of materials and plays a fundamental role in the development of a growing biofilm. Selected materials were characterized with respect to their physico-chemical surface properties. The different materials, glass and several polymer foils, showed a stepwise range of surface tensions (γ(s)) between 10.3 and 44.7 mN m(-1). Measured zeta potential values were in the range between -74.8 and -28.3 mV. The initial bacterial adhesion parameter q(max) was found to vary between 6.6 × 10(6) and 28.1 × 10(6) cm(-2). By correlation of the initial adhesions kinetic parameters with the surface tension data, the optimal conditions for the immobilization of Pseudomonas putida mt2 were found to be at a surface tension of 24.7 mN m(-1). Both higher and lower surface tensions lead to a smaller number of adherent cells per unit surface area. Higher energy surfaces, commonly termed hydrophilic, could constrain bacterial adhesion because of their more highly ordered water structure (exclusion zone) close to the surface. At low energy surfaces, commonly referred to as hydrophobic, cell adhesion is inhibited due to a thin, less dense zone (depletion layer or clathrate structure) close to the surface. Correlation of q (max) with zeta potential results in a linear relationship. Since P. putida carries weak negative charges, a measurable repulsive effect can be assumed on negative surfaces. PMID:22452391

  11. Effect of Extraction Solvents and Drying Methods on the Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Helicteres hirsuta Lour. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ngoc Thuy Pham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Helicteres hirsuta Lour. (H. hirsuta L. is widely distributed in southeast Asian countries and has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant. However, optimal conditions for preparation of dried materials for further processing and suitable solvents for the extraction of bioactive compounds have not been investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different extraction solvents and different drying conditions on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of the H. hirsuta L. leaves. The results showed that both extraction solvents and drying conditions had a significant impact on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of H. hirsuta L. leaves. Among the five solvents investigated, water could extract the highest level of solid content and phenolic compounds, whereas methanol was more effective for obtaining flavonoids and saponins than other solvents. The leaves dried under either hot-air drying at 80 °C (HAD80, or vacuum drying at 50 °C (VD50 yielded the highest amount of total phenolic compounds (7.77 and 8.33 mg GAE/g, respectively and total flavonoid content (5.79 and 4.62 mg CE/g, respectively, and possessed the strongest antioxidant power, while leaves dried using infrared drying at 30 °C had the lowest levels of bioactive compounds. Phenolic compounds including flavonoids had a strong correlation with antioxidant capacity. Therefore, HAD80 and VD50 are recommended for the preparation of dried H. hirsuta L. leaves. Water and methanol are suggested solvents to be used for extraction of phenolic compounds and saponins from H. hirsuta L. leaves for the potential application in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Effect of Dehydration on Several Physico-Chemical Properties and the Antioxidant Activity of Leeks (Allium porrum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet OZGUR

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the changes in some physico-chemical properties and variations in antioxidant compounds of leeks (cv. �Inegol-92� caused by the drying process. The dry matter and ash contents of the fresh leek samples were 8.06 and 0.58 g 100 g-1, respectively. The pH of the fresh leek samples was 6.02, and the titritable acidity in terms of citric acid was 0.14%. As expected, application of hot-air drying significantly increased the dry matter and ash values due to removal of water from the leek slices. The rehydration ratio of dried leeks at 45�C was 5.41, and the coefficient of rehydration was 0.47. The contents of chlorophyll a and b were higher in the dried leeks than in the fresh leeks. The dehydrated leeks showed a high total color difference (?E=12.53 mainly due to the effect of temperature on heat-sensitive compounds. As expected, both fresh and dried leek samples exhibited antioxidant activity with fresh leeks showing a higher capacity of antioxidant activity. Drying the leeks resulted in some ascorbic acid loss. Fresh leeks had much higher phenolic values (26.33 mg rutin eq 100 g DM-1 than the dehydrated samples. The antioxidant capacity of leeks was decreased by more than 50% during the drying process. Although being the most applied method of thermal dehydration, hot air drying causes the degradation of sensitive components, which results in significant losses in sensorial and physico-chemical properties of the dried products.

  13. Physico-chemical properties of the potentially oxidative water and its capability of the instrumentation residual layer remotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Silva-Herzog FLORES

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to elaborate the potentially oxidative water (POW and analyze some of the physico-chemical properties: pH density, superficial stress, contact angle, conductivity and REDOX potential; besides comparing its POW organic as well as non-organic matter removal capacity with hypochlorite sodium at 1% plus 17% EDTA. For the methodology the POW elaboration an electrolysis process was used and the physico-chemical properties were determined in 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. For the removal capacity of teeth tartarevaluation, 30 extracted uniradicular premolars were used, divided in three groups:positive control (NaOCl at 1% + EDTA at 17%, negative control(distilled water and experimental (POW. Afterwards, the samples were observed under electronic microscopy with 2500x magnifying at the middle thirds and apical, analyzing them with the Rome scale (amount of open dental tubes. For the statistical analysis the Chi-square and the Fisher Exact Proofwas used. The results showed that the solution was constantly maintained at all times during the evaluation and there was found statistical difference between negative control and positive control and between negative control and the experimental group. With regards to the dental tartar removal it was found that there was no statistical difference between the control group and the experimental group (POW; reason why it is concluded that the POW has the capacity to remove dental tartar. Nevertheless, to be able to propose the use of the POW as an irrigator solution in Endodontics it is necessary to do further studies to evaluate its cytotoxicity and biocompability.

  14. Physico-chemical properties of smeltery and vitreous ceramic masses in the UO2-SiO2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of original research activities on the physicochemical properties of smeltery and vitreous ceramic masses in the UO2-SiO2 system which describe the operating process for their obtaining as fuel elements. These properties are rendered evident, monitored and correlated in the following way: the equilibrium diagram is determined within the domain of over 60% mol UO2 with technical means for achieving the required temperature, fluidity of smeltery - with mass homogeneity, mechanical properties - with resistance to thermal shock, crystallization of smeltery - with structure interaction of smeltery - with the atmosphere interaction of smeltery - with the smelting pot, interaction of smeltery - with copper or stainless matrices, cooling rate - with the rising rate of the smeltery up a cylindrical column. On the basis of these studies a smelting and casting installation for fire proof materials at temperatures of over 2500 deg K could be designed and achieved. The most beneficial designs for achieving matrices by means of which the above mentioned properties could also be tested at an industrial scale have been, also analysed, as well as the possibility of obtaining these inhousing masses under the form of honeycomb, rods or pipes. (author)

  15. 药物共晶筛选与理化性质研究进展%Progress in Screening Methods and Physicochemical Properties of Pharmaceutical Co-crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学文; 宋菊; 唐海谊; 郑颖

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) can influence manufactory process and quality of final products so that they are the important part of performulation study. Salts formation, solvation and polymorphism screening are traditional methods to improve physicochemical properties of slightly soluble compound. Recently, co-crystal, which is designed by crystal engineering, attracts more attention on improving physicochemical properties and patent protection of API. The screening methods, physicochemical properties, industrial production and prospects of co-crystals are reviewed in this paper.%药物的理化性质是制剂前研究的重要内容,可影响制剂的生产工艺及最终产品质量.对于难溶性药物,常使用成盐、溶剂化和多晶型筛选等方法来改善理化性质.近年共晶技术得到迅速发展,通过晶体工程学设计的共晶,不但可改善药物的理化性质,并可申请专利保护,受到广泛关注.本文综述了共晶的筛选方法及其理化性质的研究进展,并对共晶的工业化生产及未来发展作了展望.

  16. Multivariate analysis of surface physico-chemical properties controlling biofilm formation on orthodontic adhesives prior to and after fluoride and chlorhexidine treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chin, Yeen; Sandham, John; Pratten, Jonathan; de Vries, Jacob; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2006-01-01

    Biofilm formation on orthodontic adhesives is a serious clinical problem, as it leads to enamel demineralization around fixed orthodontic appliances, often leaving white spot lesions after their removal. The aim of this work was to determine the influence of surface physico-chemical properties of fo

  17. Effect of dietary fibers on physico-chemical, sensory and textural properties of Misti Dahi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P Narender; Pal, Dharam

    2014-11-01

    Misti dahi, a popular ethnic delicacy of eastern India analogous to caramel coloured set style sweetened yoghurt, besides several therapeutic virtues, contains high fat and sugar. Alike people elsewhere in the world, people in India too are now becoming health conscious and are aware of the relation between diet and health. Hence, high fat and sugar contents are causes of concern for the successful marketing of misti dahi in India. With a view to enhance the health attributes of misti dahi and improve marketability, three commercial dietary fiber preparations (inulin, soy fiber and oat fiber) were incorporated and their effect on the product's quality in terms of physicochemical, sensory and textural quality was assessed. Standard method was followed for the preparation of fiber fortified misti dahi (FFMD). Among the three dietary fibers, inulin significantly decreased viscosity and instrumental firmness and increased lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), syneresis and work of shear values of FFMD. Oat fiber settled at the bottom and gave a poor appearance. Soy fiber did not affect the flavor of FFMD. Although overall acceptability scores of inulin and soy fiber containing FFMD were significantly lower than control, they were still above the minimum acceptable score. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it was concluded that acceptable quality FFMD could be prepared using inulin and soy fiber at 1.5 % level of fortification. PMID:26396304

  18. Variability in Saponin Content, Cancer Antiproliferative Activity and Physicochemical Properties of Concentrated Agave Sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Zea, Liliana; Rosas-Pérez, Aratza Mireya; Leal-Díaz, Ana María; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-08-01

    Concentrated agave sap (CAS) has gained popularity as an unrefined sweetener. It is obtained by boiling "aguamiel" that contains phytochemicals with diverse bioactivities. Saponins have been the most widely studied agave phytochemicals due to their cancer antiproliferative effect but their concentration may vary due to maturity of the agave plant and collection site. In this study, 18 CAS samples produced in different states of Mexico were analyzed using multivariate methods to determine which physicochemical or phytochemical parameters were responsible for variation. Additionally, extracts with different saponin profiles were tested to determine possible correlations with antiproliferative activity. Total soluble solids, pH, and water activity were similar to those reported for other agave sweeteners. Antioxidant capacity of samples was correlated to browning index. Eleven steroidal saponins were found in CAS samples and they were the main source of variability. Magueyoside B, a kammogenin tetraglycoside, was the most abundant saponin in all samples. With respect to bioactivity, multivariate analysis indicated that magueyoside B and a gentrogenin tetraglycoside were compounds strongly related with bioactivity. CAS from Hidalgo, Puebla, and Veracruz had higher concentration of magueyoside B than from the other kamogenin tetraglycoside found in the samples from other Mexican states. These results could be used as a first approach to characterize and standardize CAS to validate the potential health benefits derived from its consumption. PMID:27376349

  19. Effects of different packaging techniques on the microbiological and physicochemical properties of coated pumpkin slices

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    Filiz AKSU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study the effects of zein film coating along with benzoic acid on the quality of sliced pumpkin samples, which were packaged with different techniques were investigated. The samples were allocated into different groups and were treated with different processes. Following processing, the samples were stored at +4 °C for twenty days. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses were carried out on the samples once every five days during the storage period. According to color analysis, the L* value was observed to have significantly decreased in the processed and packaged samples in comparison with the control group. Besides, a* and b* values increased in all groups. It was determined that zein film alone did not exhibit the expected effectiveness against moisture loss in the samples. According to the results of microbiological analysis, a final decrease at approximately 1.00 log level was determined in total count of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB in the group which was vacuum packaged in PVDC with zein coating when compared with the initial TMAB. Furthermore, no molding occurred in zein-coated group on the last day of the storage period, while massive mold growth was noted in the group which was packaged without any pretreatment procedure.

  20. Approaches to Manipulating the Dimensionality and Physicochemical Properties of Common Cellular Scaffolds

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    Saumendra Bajpai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A major hurdle in studying biological systems and administering effective tissue engineered therapies is the lack of suitable cell culture models that replicate the dynamic nature of cell-microenvironment interactions. Advances in the field of surface chemistry and polymer science have allowed researchers to develop novel methodologies to manipulate materials to be extrinsically tunable. Usage of such materials in modeling tissues in vitro has offered valuable insights into numerous cellular processes including motility, invasion, and alterations in cell morphology. Here, we discuss novel techniques devised to more closely mimic cell-tissue interactions and to study cell response to distinct physico-chemical changes in biomaterials, with an emphasis on the manipulation of collagen scaffolds. The benefits and pitfalls associated with using collagen are discussed in the context of strategies proposed to control the engineered microenvironment. Tunable systems such as these offer the ability to alter individual features of the microenvironment in vitro, with the promise that the molecular basis of mechanotransduction in vivo may be laid out in future.