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Sample records for carcinogenesis long-term effect

  1. Transformation of human mesenchymal stem cells in radiation carcinogenesis: long-term effect of ionizing radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rikke; Alsner, Jan; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt;

    2008-01-01

    Increasing evidence on cancer stem cells suggest that stem cells are susceptive to carcinogenesis and consequently can be the origin of many cancers. We have recently established a telomerase-transduced human mesenchymal stem cell line and subsequently irradiated this in order to achieve malignant...

  2. Effects of long term feeding of raw soya bean flour on virus- induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in guinea fowl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirev, T.; Woutersen, R.A.; Kiril, A.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of a diet enriched with 25% raw soya bean flour (RSF) on the pancreas and on the avian retrovirus Pts 56-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in guinea fowl were studied. It has been shown that prolonged RSF feeding of new-hatched virus-infected and uninfected guinea fowl-poults induced enl

  3. Long-term effects of forced migration

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Jäntti; Matti Sarvimäki; Roope Uusitalo

    2009-01-01

    We study the long-term effects of human displacement using individual level panel data on forced migrants and comparable non-migrants. After World War II, Finland ceded a tenth of its territory to the Soviet Union and resettled the entire population living in these areas in the remaining parts of the country. We find that displacement increased the long-term income of men, but had no effect on that of women. We attribute a large part of the effect to faster transition from traditional (rural)...

  4. Long-Term Effects of Forced Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Sarvimäki, Matti; Uusitalo, Roope; Jäntti, Markus

    2009-01-01

    We study the long-term effects of human displacement using individual-level panel data on forced migrants and comparable non-migrants. After World War II, Finland ceded a tenth of its territory to the Soviet Union and resettled the entire population living in these areas in the remaining parts of the country. We find that displacement increased the long-term income of men, but had no effect on that of women. We attribute a large part of the effect to faster transition from traditional (rural)...

  5. Long-term effects of forced migration

    OpenAIRE

    Sarvimäki, Matti; Uusitalo, Roope; Jäntti, Markus

    2009-01-01

    We study the long-term effects of human displacement using individual-level panel data on forced migrants and comparable non-migrants. After World War II, Finland ceded a tenth of its territory to the Soviet Union and resettled the entire population living in these areas in the remaining parts of the country. We find that displacement increased the long-term income of men, but had no effect on that of women. We attribute a large part of the effect to faster transition from traditional (rural)...

  6. Long-term effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper approaches the long-term effects of ionizing radiation considering the common thought that killing of cells is the basis for deterministic effects and that the subtle changes in genetic information are important in the development of radiation-induced cancer, or genetic effects if these changes are induced in germ cells

  7. Long-term effects of class size

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Peter; Öckert, Björn; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term effects of class size in primary school. We use rich administrative data from Sweden and exploit variation in class size created by a maximum class size rule. Smaller classes in the last three years of primary school (age 10 to 13) are not only beneficial for cognitive test scores at age 13 but also for non-cognitive scores at that age, for cognitive test scores at ages 16 and 18, and for completed education and wages at age 27 to 42. The estimated effect on...

  8. Long-Term Effects of Class Size

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Peter; Öckert, Björn; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term effects of class size in primary school. We use rich administrative data from Sweden and exploit variation in class size created by a maximum class size rule. Smaller classes in the last three years of primary school (age 10 to 13) are not only beneficial for cognitive test scores at age 13 but also for non-cognitive scores at that age, for cognitive test scores at ages 16 and 18, and for completed education and wages at age 27 to 42. The estimated effect on...

  9. Long-term effects of class size

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Peter; Öckert, Björn; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term effects of class size in primary school. We use rich administrative data from Sweden and exploit variation in class size created by a maximum class size rule. Smaller classes in the last three years of primary school (age 10 to 13) are not only beneficial for cognitive test scores at age 13 but also for non-cognitive scores at that age, for cognitive test scores at ages 16 and 18, and for completed education and wages at age 27 to 42. The estimated effect on...

  10. Long-term effects of class size

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Peter; Öckert, Björn; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term effects of class size in primary school. We use rich data from Sweden and exploit variation in class size created by a maximum class size rule. Smaller classes in the last three years of primary school (age 10 to 13) are beneficial for cognitive and non-cognitive ability at age 13, and improve achievement at age 16. Most importantly, we find that smaller classes have positive effects on completed education, wages, and earnings at age 27 to 42. The estimated ...

  11. Estimating long-term health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term health effects from iodine 131 and cesium 137 as a result of the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the USSR are discussed. Computer-generated radiation exposure distributions to the population in Europe have resulted in the following estimates: 2000-40,000 thyroid tumor cases from iodine 131 inhalation of which a few percent might be fatal; 10,000-250,000 potential thyroid tumor cases from iodine 131 absorbed via the grass-cow-milk route in the absence of actions by the public health authorities to block this exposure route; 3500-70,000 cancer cases from whole-body doses of cesium 137 (external and internal), of which approximately half might be fatal. Although there are uncertainties in these estimates they serve to indicate the magnitude of the problem

  12. Effective long term operation for Dukovany NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukovany NPP now started third decade of service that is also its last decade of design life time. It is clear that the NPP has all considerations for service past the design life time called Long Term Operation (LTO). This LTO has two main aspects, technical and economical, that influence each other. From technical view the age of NPP systems, structures and components (SSCs) affects negatively the ability to perform necessary design changes in a good quality and also the long lived SSC reliability. These possible impacts have also their safety aspects and to obtain regulatory body agreement with LTO of NPP it is necessary to show that these impacts are acceptable. It means to show that all applied design changes are done in agreement with NPP design bases (DB) and all ageing impacts on SSCs functions important for safety are properly managed. From economical view that is significant for NPP owner it is necessary to demonstrate a required profitability of investment for effective LTO. These are reasons why Dukovany NPP performs three following projects: - Safety design bases collation and reconstitution, - Enhancement of plant life management program (New program preparation), - Technical-economical (TE) study of NPP LTO. All of these projects are managed by Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (NRI) and performed in close cooperation with NPP staff and different co-operaters. This presentation will be concentrated to the last named project.

  13. Intermediate and long-term health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the health effects caused by immune suppression, infectious diseases, and food supplies and starvation in the aftermath of a nuclear war. It has been concluded that starvation will be essentially global - a consequence of a major nuclear war that at present seems likely to cause more deaths than all the direct effects of nuclear war combined. 68 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Human sperm chromosomes. Long-term effect of cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term cytogenetic effect of radio- or chemotherapy or both on male germ cells was evaluated by study of the chromosomal abnormalities in spermatozoa of four men treated for cancer 5-18 years earlier. The cytogenetic analysis of 422 sperm metaphases showed no differences in the aneuploidy rate. The incidence of structural chromosome aberrations was 14.0%, however, which is much higher than in controls. Thus, the high incidence of structurally aberrant spermatozoa observed in our long-term study indicates that antitumoral treatments affect stem-cell spermatogonia and that aberrant cells can survive germinal selection and produce abnormal spermatozoa

  15. Long-term Advertising Effects and Optimal Budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Using pure single-source data, this paper provides evidence for theexistence and magnitude of long-term advertising effects across FMCG productcategories. Furthermore, we focus on the difficulties that arise for wellestablishedbrands when new products are introduced into the market andproduct...

  16. Long-Term Effects of Adderall XR in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term tolerability and effectiveness of extended release mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall XR in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD were evaluated in a 24-month, multicenter, open-label extension of 2 placebo-controlled studies at UCLA, Massachusetts General Hospital, UC-Irvine, Maitland, FL, and Shire Pharmaceutical, Wayne, PA.

  17. Acute and long-term psychiatric side effects of mefloquine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringqvist, Asa; Bech, Per; Glenthøj, Birte;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the profile of acute and long-term psychiatric side effects associated with mefloquine. METHODS: Subjects (n = 73) reported to a Danish national register during five consecutive years for mefloquine associated side effects were included. Acute...... psychiatric side effects were retrospectively assessed using the SCL-90-R and questions based on Present State Examination (PSE). Subjects reporting suspected psychotic states were contacted for a personal PSE interview. Electronic records of psychiatric hospitalizations and diagnoses were cross-checked. Long......-term effects were evaluated with SF-36. SCL-90-R and SF-36 data were compared to age- and gender matched controls. RESULTS: In the SCL-90-R, clinically significant scores for anxiety, phobic anxiety and depression were found in 55%, 51%, and 44% of the mefloquine group. Substantial acute phase psychotic...

  18. Long-Term Effects of School Size on Students' Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria Knoth; Smith, Nina

    school size and alternative measures of long-term success in the educational system and the labor market. The positive impact of school size seems mainly to be driven by boys, students from families with a low educational level and students attending schools in urban areas.......We estimate the effect of school size on students' long-term outcomes such as high school completion, being out of the labor market, and earnings at the age of 30. We use rich register data on the entire population of Danish children attending grade 9 in the period 1986-2004. This allows us to...... compare the results of different fixed effect and instrumental variables estimators. We use the natural population variation in the residentail catchment areas and school openings and closures to instrument for actual school size. We find a robust positive but numerically fairly small relationship between...

  19. Long-Term Effects of Early Childhood Care and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhm, Christopher J.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This paper critically reviews what we know about the long-term effects of parental leave and early childhood education programs. We find only limited evidence that expansions of parental leave durations improved long-run educational or labor market outcomes of the children whose parents were affected by them, perhaps because benefits are hard to measure or confined to sub-groups, or because leave entitlements were sufficiently long, even before recent extensions, to yield most potential benef...

  20. Long-term effects of early childhood care and education

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This paper critically reviews what we know about the long-term effects of parental leave and early childhood education programs. We find only limited evidence that expansions of parental leave durations improved long-run educational or labor market outcomes of the children whose parents were affected by them, perhaps because benefits are hard to measure or confined to sub-groups, or because leave entitlements were sufficiently long, even before recent extensions, to yield most potential benef...

  1. Long-term Advertising Effects and Optimal Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Using pure single-source data, this paper provides evidence for the existence and magnitude of long-term advertising effects across FMCG product categories. Furthermore, we focus on the difficulties that arise for wellestablished brands when new products are introduced into the market and product innovations take place. Our research shows that such occurrences drastically alter the relationship between share of voice and share of market in any given FMCG market, hence making...

  2. The Long Term Effects of Legalizing Divorce on Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Libertad; Viitanen, Tarja

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the effect of divorce legalization on the long-term well-being of children. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the different timing of divorce legalization across European countries. Using European Community Household Panel data, we compare the adult outcomes of cohorts who were raised in an environment where divorce was banned with cohorts raised after divorce was legalized in the same country. We also have "control" countries where all cohorts were exposed (or not ...

  3. The long term effects of legalizing divorce on children

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz??lez Luna, Libertad; Viitanen, Tarja

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the effect of divorce legalization on the long-term well-being of children. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the different timing of divorce legalization across European countries. Using European Community Household Panel data, we compare the adult outcomes of cohorts who were raised in an environment where divorce was banned with cohorts raised after divorce was legalized in the same country. We also have ?control? countries where all cohorts were e...

  4. The long term effects of legalizing divorce on children

    OpenAIRE

    González, Libertad; Viitanen, Tarja K.

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the effect of divorce legalization on the long-term well-being of children. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the different timing of divorce legalization across European countries. Using European Community Household Panel data, we compare the adult outcomes of cohorts who were raised in an environment where divorce was banned with cohorts raised after divorce was legalized in the same country. We also have control countries where all cohorts were exposed (or not ex...

  5. The long term effects of legalizing divorce on children

    OpenAIRE

    Libertad González Luna; Tarja Viitanen

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the effect of divorce legalization on the long-term well-being of children. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the different timing of divorce legalization across European countries. Using European Community Household Panel data, we compare the adult outcomes of cohorts who were raised in an environment where divorce was banned with cohorts raised after divorce was legalized in the same country. We also have “control” countries where all cohorts were exposed (or not ...

  6. The Long Term Effects of Legalizing Divorce on Children

    OpenAIRE

    Libertad Gonzalez; Tarja Viitanen

    2009-01-01

    We estimate the effect of divorce legalization on the long-term well-being of children. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the different timing of divorce legalization across European countries. Using European Community Household Panel data, we compare the adult outcomes of cohorts who were raised in an environment where divorce was banned with cohorts raised after divorce was legalized in the same country. We also have "control" countries where all cohorts were exposed (or not ...

  7. Long-term effects of marijuana use on the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Filbey, Francesca M; Aslan, Sina; Calhoun, Vince D.; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Damaraju, Eswar; Caprihan, Arvind; Segall, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on the long-term effects of marijuana on the brain provides an inconsistent picture (i.e., presence or absence of structural changes) due to methodological differences across studies. We overcame these methodological issues by collecting multimodal measures in a large group of chronic marijuana using adults with a wide age range that allows for characterization of changes across lifespan without developmental or maturational biases as in other studies. Our findings sug...

  8. The Long-Term Effect of Childhood Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    This paper uses variation among siblings to identify the effect of childhood poverty on long-term outcomes such as income, earnings, job type, employment, and having children. Childhood poverty is found to have large negative effects on labour market outcome and small effects on non-labour market...... outcomes. The marginal effect of one additional year of childhood poverty from the age of 13 to 15 is found to decrease the disposable income of the individual by 6.4% around the age of 30. The effect size is found to have an inverse u-shape in the age of the child, peaking in the early teens...

  9. The Long-Term Effect of Childhood Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses variation among siblings to identify the effect of childhood poverty on long-term outcomes such as income, earnings, job type, employment, and having children. Childhood poverty is found to have large negative effects on labour market outcome and small effects on non-labour market outcomes. The marginal effect of one additional year of childhood poverty from the age of 13 to 15 is found to decrease the disposable income of the individual by 6.4% around the age of 30. The effec...

  10. Biochemical effects on long-term frozen human costal cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Stefany P.; Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Yoshito, Daniele; Soares, Fernando A.N.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: mathor@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Currently, the progresses on treatment of musculoskeletal diseases with the evolving of artificial implants and the success of tissue transplantation between genetically different individuals have conducted to an increase in radiosterilization. Regarding to tissue transplantation, it is essential to have sterile tissue and many tissue banks use radiosterilization as an effective method to sterilize these tissues. However, high doses of ionizing radiation and the preservation method may induce structural modifications in the tissues, as degradation of structural scaffold, decreasing its mechanical properties. Particularly, cartilage have been preserved in high concentrations of glycerol or deep-frozen at -70 degree C for storage after radiosterilization. Therefore, it is important to study the modifications induced in cartilage by preservation methods and by radiosterilization to determine the appropriated parameters for high quality of human allografts. Costal cartilages were obtained from cadaveric donors and were frozen at -20 degree C for 2 years long in order to compare with previous studies for fresh, deep-frozen and glycerolised cartilages. The mechanical tests were carried out in a universal testing machine until sample failure. According our results, there is no significant statistical difference between stress at break of fresh, long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages and deep-frozen cartilage. This early result suggests, regarding to tensile property, that long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages corresponds to glycerolised costal cartilages irradiated with 25 kGy or deep-frozen cartilages irradiated with 25 and 50 kGy. Thus, this long-term frozen cartilages may be used for tissue banks, but more studies about effects of ionizing radiation are necessary. (author)

  11. Biochemical effects on long-term frozen human costal cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, the progresses on treatment of musculoskeletal diseases with the evolving of artificial implants and the success of tissue transplantation between genetically different individuals have conducted to an increase in radiosterilization. Regarding to tissue transplantation, it is essential to have sterile tissue and many tissue banks use radiosterilization as an effective method to sterilize these tissues. However, high doses of ionizing radiation and the preservation method may induce structural modifications in the tissues, as degradation of structural scaffold, decreasing its mechanical properties. Particularly, cartilage have been preserved in high concentrations of glycerol or deep-frozen at -70 degree C for storage after radiosterilization. Therefore, it is important to study the modifications induced in cartilage by preservation methods and by radiosterilization to determine the appropriated parameters for high quality of human allografts. Costal cartilages were obtained from cadaveric donors and were frozen at -20 degree C for 2 years long in order to compare with previous studies for fresh, deep-frozen and glycerolised cartilages. The mechanical tests were carried out in a universal testing machine until sample failure. According our results, there is no significant statistical difference between stress at break of fresh, long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages and deep-frozen cartilage. This early result suggests, regarding to tensile property, that long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages corresponds to glycerolised costal cartilages irradiated with 25 kGy or deep-frozen cartilages irradiated with 25 and 50 kGy. Thus, this long-term frozen cartilages may be used for tissue banks, but more studies about effects of ionizing radiation are necessary. (author)

  12. Effects of long-term price increases for oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the effects of higher oil prices in the long-term. Scenarios examined include those with high oil prices of 80 to 140 dollars per barrel and those with drastic shortages resulting from peak extraction in the years 2010 and 2020. Long-term economic balances form the basis of the report, short-term influences and psychological effects are not addressed. The possible dangers for the earth's climate caused by the substitution of oil by coal-based products are discussed, as well as the sequestration of carbon dioxide. Ethanol and the associated conflicts of land use are examined and the decreasing cost-effectiveness of co-generation power generation is looked at. Alternatives such as atomic power, hydropower, solar energy, geothermal energy, biogas and wind power are discussed. The effect of the changing energy scene on economic growth and welfare aspects in Switzerland are examined. The authors conclude that high oil prices have considerable impacts on the economy and are not a substitute for an internationally co-ordinated climate policy

  13. Long term use of thalidomide: Safe and effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To assess the efficacy and safety of high dose thalidomide therapy for longer duration of time in relapsed or refractory Multiple Myeloma (MM patients. Materials and Methods : Twelve relapsed/refractory MM patients (7 Males, 5 Females, who received thalidomide for more than 2 years were selected from the Out Patient Department of Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital (IRCH, AIIMS, India. Patients received thalidomide beginning at a dose of 200 mg/day with fortnightly increment to a maximum dose of 800 mg/day. Patients were assessed for response on the basis of M proteins (MP, bone marrow biopsy with touch preparation and skeletal X-rays. Results : Nine patients tolerated a maximum dose of 800 mg/day whereas three patients were given 600 mg/day. All patients showed ≥ 25-50% decline in serum /urine M proteins. Complete response/ near complete response was seen in 50%, partial response in 17% and minimal response (SD in 34% patients. Median duration of thalidomide therapy was 47 months (range 29-60 months. Currently 11 patients are alive. Toxicity : Varying degree of constipation and sedation were seen universally. One patient had DVT, which responded to anti-coagulant therapy. Other toxic effects included infections, skin reactions. There was no toxic death. Conclusion : long-term use of thalidomide is safe, effective and feasible. We feel that this is one of few reports describing safety and efficacy of long-term thalidomide in relapsed and refractory MM.

  14. Effects of long-term low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To clarify the long-term effects of occupational exposure to low doses of radiation, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibody titers in sera from 104 radiological technologists (R.T.) and 118 controls in Kumamoto prefecture were measured by the immunofluorescence method. Antibody titers to viral capsid antigen (VCA)-IgG increased with the years of experience as R.T., and the prevalence of abnormal antibody titers to both VCA-IgG and early antigen (EA)-IgG were significantly higher in R.T. with over 15 years of experience or 30 rads of cumulative radiation dose than in the controls. However, there was no correlation between exposure and the frequency of abnormal EBV-associated nuclear antigen (EBNA) antibody titers. The EBV-specific antibody titers of 24 Hiroshima atomic-bomb survivors were also measured. They were similar to those of the R.T. with over 30 years of experience. The EBV-specific antibody titers of R.T. suggest that there may be an impairment of immunologic competence after continuous long-term exposure to low doses of radiation. Also, the correlation of EBV-specific antibody titers and frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations in 53 R.T. was studied. Some correlations were found between the antibody titers to both of the VCA-IgG and EBNA and the frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations. (author)

  15. Effect of long-term fertilization on soil nitrate distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A thirteen years long-term field fertilizer experiment was conducted to monitor the effect of different fertilization on soil nitrate distribution. The results showed: (1) Applying relative excessive N fertilizer could result large quantities of NO3- residue and NO3- movement downward in soil profiles; amending phosphate fertilizer or organic manure with nitrogen fertilizer together could significantly improve the status of NO3- leaching downward due to the balanced uptake of nutrients by crops. (2) Appropriate amounts of nitrogen fertilizer which was equal or smaller than the optimal fertilization rate could not result in more NO3- leaching in Northern China. (3) Precipitation influenced the amounts and depth of soil NO3- leaching: NO3- could move to 80 cm depth or below at autumn or at the next spring when rainfall was higher during the rainy season through July to September in North China.

  16. Long term effects of irrigation with petrochemical industry wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, O.; Inam, A.; Samiullah; Siddiqi, R.H. [Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India)

    1996-11-01

    Split plot designed field trials were conducted during 1988-1995 to study the long term effects of petrochemical industry wastewater on six crops and agricultural soils. It was observed that wastewater irrigation resulted in increased seed yield of all the crops selected, viz. wheat, triticale, chickpea, lentil and pigeonpea, except summer moong which showed a decrease in seed yield. Soil receiving the wastewater showed no significant changes in pH, total organic carbon, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, micro- and macro-nutrients and SAR. Thus, it may be concluded that treated refinery wastewater met the irrigational quality requirements as its physico-chemical characteristics were within the permissible limits. The same could be said for the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil as well as in the grains making the latter safe for human consumption. 28 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Propofol effects on cerebellar long-term depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan Young; Kim, Young Im; Kim, Se Hoon; Park, Hyung Seo; Park, Youn Joon; Ha, Myung Sook; Jin, Yunju; Kim, Dong Kwan

    2015-11-16

    Propofol is an intravenously administered anesthetic that induces γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated inhibition in the central nervous system. It has been implicated in prolonged movement disorders. Since the cerebellum is important for motor coordination and learning, we investigated the potential effects of propofol on cerebellar circuitry. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique in Wister rat cerebellar slices, we demonstrated that propofol administration impaired long-term depression from the parallel fiber (PF) to Purkinje cell (PC) synapses (PF-LTD). Also, propofol reduced metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1)-mediated and group I mGluR agonist-induced slow currents in PCs. These results suggest that the propofol-induced PF-LTD impairment may be related to an alteration in mGluR1 signaling, which is essential to motor learning. PMID:26455962

  18. Immunosuppressant Effect of Long Term and Subtherapeutic Chlortetracycline in Broiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Jian-ming; ZHANG Ri-jun; SA Ren-na; PAN Shu-yuan; HUANG Yan

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with 270 Abore Acre male broilers to study the influence of dietary chlortetracycline (CTC) on the bursal, thymus and spleen weight index and T, B cell proliferation and antibody responses of broilers. Results show that 50mg/kg CTC had no significant inhibitory effect on thymus and spleen weight index, and T, B cell proliferation of broilers at 21 days old. 150mg/kg CTC had significant inhibitory effect on bursal, thymus and spleen, and T, B cell proliferation (P<0.05). Dietary CTC had a direct inhibitory effect on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. 50mg/kg and 150mg/kg CTC had a significant inhibitory effect on the antibody responses to BSA (P<0.01). Results demonstrated that subtherapeutic and long term CTC had significant inhibitory effects on immune organs and antibody response. The immunosuppressant effect became higher when the level of CTC increased. 150mg/kg CTC increased the growth rate of broilers significantly.

  19. Long term health effects in Sweden from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morning of 28 April 1986 was the beginning of an intensive period of radiation protection work in Sweden. During that morning the Chernobyl accident became known in the western world through the detection of radioactive contamination in Sweden and at the Forsmark nuclear power plant in particular. The environmental consequences of the fallout have been studied in various research projects. The effects on agriculture in Sweden was mainly limited to the first year after the accident. The long term effects are instead seen in products from the semi-natural ecosystems: in moose, roedeer, reindeer, mushrooms and fish from lakes in areas with a high deposition of radioactive caesium. High concentrations of 137Cs in reindeer meat in combination with an estimated effective ecological half-life of about 4 years, will cause problems for reindeer husbandry in the most contaminated parts for many years to come. In moose, roedeer and mushrooms, the ecological half-lives are very long and in some compartments seem to approach the physical half-life of 137Cs. 22 refs, 3 figs

  20. Effects of long-term low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To clarify the late effects of long-term exposure to low doses of radiation, chromosomal aberrations in the lymphocytes of radiological technologists (RT) were analyzed by the trypsin G-banding method. Structural aberrations were identified in 384 (2.5%) of 15,442 cells analyzed from 53 RT as compared to 177 (1.6%) of 11,136 cells from 36 healthy controls. Most of structural aberrations in both groups was translocations, and this frequency was significantly higher in the RT than in the controls. Translocations of chromosomes, such as Nos. 1, 2, 7 and 14 in RT and Nos. 1, 3, 7 and 14 in controls, was observed in over 7% of the cells. 7/14 translocations were the most frequent reciprocal translocations in RT. However, the frequency of 7/14 translocations was not significantly different between the RT and controls. In these cases, most of the break points were localized in band 14q11-12 and 7q32-36. At the chromosomal sites which were related to the sites of ski, abl, myb, mos, myc, N-myc oncogenes, very low incidences of translocation were detected in RT. However, none of the RT demonstrated abnormal clones of cells with identical chromosomal aberrations. (author)

  1. Long-term effects of radiation exposure on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kenji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Akiba, Suminori; Niwa, Ohstura; Kodama, Kazunori; Takamura, Noboru; Zaharieva, Elena K; Kimura, Yuko; Wakeford, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Late-onset effects of exposure to ionising radiation on the human body have been identified by long-term, large-scale epidemiological studies. The cohort study of Japanese survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (the Life Span Study) is thought to be the most reliable source of information about these health effects because of the size of the cohort, the exposure of a general population of both sexes and all ages, and the wide range of individually assessed doses. For this reason, the Life Span Study has become fundamental to risk assessment in the radiation protection system of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and other authorities. Radiation exposure increases the risk of cancer throughout life, so continued follow-up of survivors is essential. Overall, survivors have a clear radiation-related excess risk of cancer, and people exposed as children have a higher risk of radiation-induced cancer than those exposed at older ages. At high doses, and possibly at low doses, radiation might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and some other non-cancer diseases. Hereditary effects in the children of atomic bomb survivors have not been detected. The dose-response relation for cancer at low doses is assumed, for purposes of radiological protection, to be linear without a threshold, but has not been shown definitively. This outstanding issue is not only a problem when dealing appropriately with potential health effects of nuclear accidents, such as at Fukushima and Chernobyl, but is of growing concern in occupational and medical exposure. Therefore, the appropriate dose-response relation for effects of low doses of radiation needs to be established. PMID:26251392

  2. Learning auditory space: generalization and long-term effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Mendonça

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous findings have shown that humans can learn to localize with altered auditory space cues. Here we analyze such learning processes and their effects up to one month on both localization accuracy and sound externalization. Subjects were trained and retested, focusing on the effects of stimulus type in learning, stimulus type in localization, stimulus position, previous experience, externalization levels, and time. METHOD: We trained listeners in azimuth and elevation discrimination in two experiments. Half participated in the azimuth experiment first and half in the elevation first. In each experiment, half were trained in speech sounds and half in white noise. Retests were performed at several time intervals: just after training and one hour, one day, one week and one month later. In a control condition, we tested the effect of systematic retesting over time with post-tests only after training and either one day, one week, or one month later. RESULTS: With training all participants lowered their localization errors. This benefit was still present one month after training. Participants were more accurate in the second training phase, revealing an effect of previous experience on a different task. Training with white noise led to better results than training with speech sounds. Moreover, the training benefit generalized to untrained stimulus-position pairs. Throughout the post-tests externalization levels increased. In the control condition the long-term localization improvement was not lower without additional contact with the trained sounds, but externalization levels were lower. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that humans adapt easily to altered auditory space cues and that such adaptation spreads to untrained positions and sound types. We propose that such learning depends on all available cues, but each cue type might be learned and retrieved differently. The process of localization learning is global, not limited to

  3. Long-Term Effects of Neurofeedback Treatment in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated significant improvement of executive functions and social behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated with 40 sessions of EEG neurofeedback in a nonrandomized waiting list control group design. In this paper we extend these findings by reporting the long-term results of neurofeedback treatment in…

  4. Long-Term Psychosomatic Effects of Biofeedback vs. Relaxation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowlis, David P.; Borzone, Ximena C.

    Differences were compared in the short-term and long-term responses of subjects with headache, insomnia, or hypertension to biofeedback training, relaxation, or a combination of both. Headache sufferers, insomniacs, and hypertensives were randomly assigned in equal numbers to biofeedback, relaxation training or a record-keeping control. Over 2…

  5. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: natural history and long term treatment effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Marc A

    2006-03-01

    risks of major surgery, a 6 to 29% chance of requiring re-operation, and the remote possibility of developing a pain management problem. Knowledge of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis natural history and long-term treatment effects is and will always remain somewhat incomplete. However, enough is know to provide patients and parents the information needed to make informed decisions about management options.

  6. Long-term effects of manipulated natal brood size on metabolic rate in zebra finches

    OpenAIRE

    Verhulst, Simon; Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Riebel, Katharina

    2006-01-01

    Long-term effects of developmental conditions on health, longevity and other fitness components in humans are drawing increasing attention. In evolutionary ecology, such effects are of similar importance because of their role in the trade-off between quantity and quality of offspring. The central role of energy consumption is well documented for some long-term health effects in humans (e.g. obesity), but little is known of the long-term effects of rearing conditions on energy requirements lat...

  7. Long-term side effects of adjuvant CNS therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adjuvant CNS therapy is nowadays carried out almost as a rule in patients with acute lymphatic leukaemia (ALL), and to a lesser extent also in patients with small-cell lung cancer. The present investigations of the potential long-term toxicity of these measures, however, still lack sufficient biometrical substantiation, the more so as a required quantity of random sample is not reached. Moreover, many conclusions are biased by inadequately defined patient selection. Due to the inconstancy of the phenomena observed clinically, therefore, it is particularly the relevance of cerebral maturity at the beginning of treatment to the development of intelligence, of academic achievement and of social behaviour, which remains undecided despite the defects of the white substance verified both by histopathological investigations and imaging procedures. (orig.)

  8. Effect of long term dexamethasone treatment on the glucocorticoid receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of dexamethasone(dex) to induce alkaline phosphatase activity was found to decrease with chronic hormone exposure. In order to better understand this adaptive resistance, the structure of the receptor from control cells and cells under long term dex (10-6M) treatment was analyzed. Native isoelectric focusing showed that receptor from dex treated cells focused at more basic pI than receptor from control cells. Denaturing two-dimensional gel analysis resulted in the characteristic 4-5 spots of [3H]dexamethasone mesylate (DM) binding of receptor from control cells, but no [3H]DM binding could be seen for receptor from dex treated cells. In order to study DNA-binding characteristics, gels were renatured, transferred to nitrocellulose and probed with [32P]MMTV-GRE. Receptor from control cells showed 5 spots of DNA-binding at 101 kDa molecular weight and a pI range of 7.42 to 7.32. However, receptor from dex treated cells showed less intense DNA-binding which occurred only at the more basic range of pIs (7.42 to 7.39). Furthermore, no nuclear receptor sites could be measured in the dex treated cells, whereas 20,000 sites were measured in control cells. Even after being taken off hormone treatment for 12 days, cells could regenerate only 50% of their receptors. In conclusion, this system is conducive to studying the mechanism of receptor regulation

  9. Input and Long-Term Effects of Starting Age in Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the long-term effects of starting age and the effects of input in an instructed language learning setting. First, with respect to the effects of starting age, the findings suggest that in the long term and after similar amounts of input, starting age is not a predictor of language outcomes. Second, the study examines the…

  10. Effects of long-term aerobic exercise on EPOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCheminant, J D; Jacobsen, D J; Bailey, B W; Mayo, M S; Hill, J O; Smith, B K; Donnelly, J E

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine the influence of 16 months of progressive aerobic exercise on excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) and the extent EPOC contributed to weight management. Twenty-five overweight/obese women and 16 overweight/obese men participated in a 16-month exercise program (moderate-intensity treadmill walking) that progressed across the first 26 weeks to 5 days.wk(-1), 45 min.session(-1), and 75% HRR. Three-hour EPOC was measured at baseline, 9 months, and 16 months by indirect calorimetry in response to an exercise session (treadmill walking), in which energy expenditure (EE) was estimated from the participant's previous 10 exercise sessions. For women, EPOC was 7.5 +/- 4.9, 9.6 +/- 7.6, and 6.5 +/- 6.5 L at baseline, 9 months, and 16 months, respectively (p > 0.05). For men, EPOC increased from baseline (11.8 +/- 6.8 L) to 9 months (13.5 +/- 8.6 L) (p < 0.05) with no further increase at 16 months (13.5 +/- 11.0 L). Change in EPOC was correlated with change in EE at 9 months (r = 0.65; p < 0.05) and 16 months (r = 0.58; p < 0.05) for men but not women. Progressive long-term exercise significantly influenced EPOC in overweight/obese men but not women. Change in volume of exercise likely explained the increase in energy expenditure during EPOC in men. EPOC contributed modestly to EE compared to the exercise itself. PMID:17879880

  11. Long-term Effects of Topsoil Removal on Soil Productivity Factors, Wheat Yield and Protein Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantifying long term effects of soil erosion on plant production and soil quality factors can aid in restoring degraded soils to production. The objectives of this study were to determine the long-term effects of topsoil removal (artificial erosion) on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield, gra...

  12. Long-term tillage frequency effects on dryland soil physical and hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term tillage influences physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil environment and thereby crop production and quality. We evaluated the effect of long-term (> 22 years) tillage frequency [no-till (NT), spring till (ST), and fall and spring till (FST)] under continuous spring whe...

  13. Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Rob; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Stafoggia, Massimo;

    2013-01-01

    Few studies on long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality have been reported from Europe. Within the multicentre European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we aimed to investigate the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to several air pollu...

  14. Effectiveness of Continuing Education in Long-Term Care: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Sandra; Stolee, Paul; Keat, Nancy; Johncox, Van

    2003-01-01

    This review of the literature examines the effectiveness of continuing education programs in long-term care facilities. Because of the lack of follow-up evaluation, there is minimal evidence that knowledge gained from training programs in sustained in the long term. Concludes that there is a need for further rigorous research on the effectiveness…

  15. Effects of long-term dietary nitrate supplementation in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hezel, Michael P.; Ming Liu; Tomas A. Schiffer; Larsen, Filip J.; Antonio Checa; Wheelock, Craig E; Mattias Carlström; Lundberg, Jon O.; Eddie Weitzberg

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inorganic nitrate (NO3-) is a precursor of nitric oxide (NO) in the body and a large number of short-term studies with dietary nitrate supplementation in animals and humans show beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, exercise efficiency, host defense and ischemia reperfusion injury. In contrast, there is a long withstanding concern regarding the putative adverse effects of chronic nitrate exposure related to cancer and adverse hormonal effects. To address these concerns we p...

  16. Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on studies at the molecular, biochemical, and immunological level of carcinogenesis induced in mice by viruses, radiation, or environmental chemicals alone or in combinations. Emphasis was placed on the identification and assessments of cocarcinogens and studies on their mechanisms of action. Data are included on mechanisms of carcinogenesis in the liver, thyroid, Harderian glands, skin, and lungs. The effects of the food additive butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), phenobarbitol, DDT, uv irradiation, the herbicide 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole(AT), the pituitary hormone prolactin, topically applied 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and benzo(a) pyrene(BaP) on tumor induction or enhancement were studied

  17. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTANTS: IN CANINE SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act of 1970 as amended in 1977 requires that a comprehensive data base be established to assess human health effects caused by air pollution from mobile sources. The spectrum of potential toxic effects can be viewed from two perspectives: The first is the identifica...

  18. Long-term aging effects in RPV steel. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BMWi project 1501393 aimed at contributing to the clarification of flux effects and late blooming effects in irradiated RPV steels by means of experimental techniques of sensitivity at the nm scale. The investigation of these effects was focussed on RPV steels, both base metal and weld of German reactors selected according to the objectives of the present project from two previous projects performed at AREVA GmbH. The complementary techniques of small-angle neutron scattering, atom probe tomography and positron annihilation spectroscopy were applied to detect and characterize the irradiation-induced nm-scale defect-solute clusters. A flux effect on the size of the irradiation-induced clusters but no flux effect on both cluster volume fraction and mechanical properties was found. For a low-Cu RPV weld, a late blooming effect was observed, which results in a steep slope of both cluster volume fraction and transition temperature shift after an initial stage of small or no change.

  19. Short and long-term effects of unemployment on fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, Janet; Schwandt, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Scholars have been examining the relationship between fertility and unemployment for more than a century. Most studies find that fertility falls with unemployment in the short run, but it is not known whether these negative effects persist since women may simply postpone child bearing to better economics times. Using over 140 million U.S. birth records for the period 1975 to 2010, we analyze both the short and long-run effects of unemployment on fertility. We follow fixed cohorts of U.S. born...

  20. Long-term toxicological effects of paracetamol in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Majeed,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The analgesic and antipyretic properties of paracetamol were first described in 1893, then it has been widely available as a non-prescription drug, with a therapeutic profile that reflects widespread safety and efficacy as well as paracetamol became the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. It is the most frequently used over-the counter medicine in young children and is nearly universally used in infants. The drug is used by millions of children every day. The study was designed to study the toxicological effect of therapeutic dose of paracetamol after oral administration for three months in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicous on the heart, kidney and liver. Results showed oral administration of the paracetamol for three months in laboratory rats showed that this drug has a severe damaging effect on most of the vital organs in the body like kidney, liver and heart.

  1. Long-term effects of subliminal priming on academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lowery, BS; Eisenberger, NI; Hardin, CD; Sinclair, S.

    2006-01-01

    This research examines the temporal range of subliminal priming effects on complex behavior. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were subliminally primed with words either related or unrelated to intelligence before completing a practice exam, administered 1 to 4 days before an actual course midterm. Results revealed that the intelligence primes increased performance on the midterm compared to neutral primes. Experiment 1 demonstrated that being told that the priming task was designed to hel...

  2. Measuring long-term effects of a school improvement initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Svärdh, Joakim

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing demand for studies applying quantitative methods to large-scale data sets for the purpose of evaluating the effects of educational reforms (UVK, 2010). In this thesis the statistical method, Propensity Score Analysis (PSA), is presented and explored in the evaluating context of an extensive educational initiative within science and technology education; the Science and Technology for All-program (NTA). The research question put forward reads; under what conditions are PSA-a...

  3. Long-term cytotoxic effects of contemporary root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Joao Nogueira Leal da SILVA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of root canal sealers on the cytotoxicity of 3T3 fibroblasts during a period of 5 weeks. Material and Methods Fibroblasts (3T3, 1×105 cells per well were incubated with elutes of fresh specimens from eight root canal sealers (AH Plus, Epiphany, Endomethasone N, EndoREZ, MTA Fillapex, Pulp Canal Sealer EWT, RoekoSeal and Sealapex and with elutes of the same specimens for 5 succeeding weeks after immersing in simulated body fluid. The cytotoxicity of all root canal sealers was determined using the MTT assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results RoekoSeal was the only sealer that did not show any cytotoxic effects (p<0.05. All the other tested sealers exhibited severe toxicity initially (week 0. MTA Fillapex remained moderately cytotoxic after the end of experimental period. Toxicity of the other tested sealers decreased gradually over time. The evaluated root canal sealers presented varying degrees of cytotoxicity, mainly in fresh mode. Conclusions RoekoSeal had no cytotoxic effect both freshly mixed and in the other tested time points. MTA Fillapex was associated with significantly less cell viability when compared to the other tested root canal sealers.

  4. Long-term effects of radiotherapy in childhood and adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The records of 50 selected pediatric patients who were treated and followed at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center were reviewed to study the late effects of nonsurgical treatment of cancer in children. There were 26 girls and 24 boys ranging in age between 2 months and 16 years. Patients with head and neck cancer received chemotherapy and radiotherapy for rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 27), retinoblastoma (n = 8), or nasopharynx cancer (n = 2). Median follow-up was 13 years. The most severe side effects were noted in the fields of radiation and included hypoplasia of the jaw, orbit, or hemi-face with varying degrees of atrophy of the overlying soft tissues. A wide range of endocrine, dental, and psychologic abnormalities was also documented. Since 1 in every 1,000 adults older than 20 years today is likely to be a survivor of childhood cancer, recommendations are made for this new class of patients whom the head and neck surgeon will be seeing in the future

  5. Post-Chernobyl scientific perspectives: Long-term health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the experience of the survivors of the Japan atomic bombing and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major expected radiological impact of the Chernobyl accident will be deaths from cancer. The total lifetime numbers of excess cancer deaths will be greatest among the ''liquidators'' (emergency and recovery workers employed in 1986-87) and among the residents of ''contaminated'' territories. Any estimate of this excess is very unclear because of uncertainties in individual doses and in the exact magnitude of effects of low-dose protracted radiation exposure. Currently, however, our best estimates are: some 2000 extra cancer deaths lifetime among almost 200,000 liquidators from 1986 and 1987; and 4600 deaths among some 6.8 million residents of contaminated territories. Increases of this magnitude would be extremely difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41,500 and 800,000 cancer deaths, respectively, among the two groups

  6. EFFECT OF MOBILITY ON SINR IN LONG TERM EVOLUTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Parikh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To meet the ongoing demands for high speed broadband communications, network providers are opting for the next generation of mobile technologies like LTE and LTE-Advanced. Standardized by 3GPP, these technologies aim to meet the requirements of higher data rates, low latency, and wider mobility, in varying environments without affecting the quality of service of a network. With higher mobility, the various network performance parameters like signal to interference to noise ratio, throughput, received signal strength indicator etc. get affected. This paper highlights the effect of mobility on signal to interference to noise ratio (SINR characteristics of an IMT-A system in various test environments like In-house (INH, Urban Micro (UMi, Urban Macro (UMa, Rural Macro (RMa, and Suburban Macro (SMa. Simulations have been carried out to obtain spatial plots and SINR vs CDF plots in various test environments, at different user equipment speeds, emphasizing the effects of user equipment speed on the fast fading channel gainsand SINR of the system. By varying the UE speeds from 0 km/hr to 360 km/hr there was an increase in the minimum SINR value required for acceptable performance in a system. It was observed that for given system parameters, the minimum SINR required in RMa environment increased from -5dB to 1dB, in SMa environment it increased from -6dB to -2dB, and in case of UMa environment it increased from -4dB to 1dB, when the UE speed was increased from 0km/hr to 360km/hr. To address the problem of poor SINR in high mobility systems, 3GPP has introduced the technique of Moving Relays. It is used to improve the SINR and hence the channel quality for UEs moving at high speeds in LTE systems.

  7. Long-term effects of supervised physical training in secondary prevention of low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, Irina; LÄUBLI, Thomas; Oliveri, Michael; Krueger, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Background and objectives: In the last few years, several studies have focused on short-term treatment effects of exercise therapy. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the long-term treatment effects recorded after several years. Hence, this study was performed to investigate the short- and long-term effects of supervised physical training on functional ability, self-rated pain and disability in secondary prevention of low back pain. Methods: One hundred and eighty-three hospital...

  8. Long-term effects of cranial irradiation on the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranial irradiation and chemotherapy may have significant long-term deleterious effects on children with brain tumors. Intellectual deterioration, endocrinopathies, leukoencephalopathy, extraneural metastases, and oncogenesis may all complicate the treatment of central nervous system neoplasia. These long-term effects of therapy have important implications, as some are amenable to treatment and others may be prevented by the careful monitoring of drug and radiation administration. Until recently, the survivals of children with brain tumors were limited, so that concerns over long-term effects of therapy were unnecessary. As children with certain types of brain tumors now have a better prognosis, these long-term and possibly remediable effects have important implications. This article emphasizes radiation effects on intellect, endocrine function, and oncogenesis. Recommendations for baseline and longitudinal evaluations of children with brain tumors are suggested

  9. Long-Term Health Effects of Atom Bomb on Japan Not as Bad as Feared: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News) -- The long-term health effects of the atomic bombs dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and ... should not cause complacency about the threat of nuclear weapons and nuclear accidents. The meltdowns that occurred in ...

  10. Estrogen Therapy Has No Long-Term Effect on Cognition in Younger Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has no long-term effect on cognition in younger postmenopausal women NIH-funded study finds neither benefit ... A randomized clinical trial of estrogen therapy in younger postmenopausal women, aged 50–55, has found no ...

  11. Effects of Short- and Long-Term Unemployment on Health Satisfaction: Evidence from German Data.

    OpenAIRE

    Romeu Gordo, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of short- and long-term unemployment on health satisfaction. The data source used for the analysis is the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) which, given its longitudinal structure, allows us to better overcome the problem of endogeneity. Three different models are used in order to assess the effect of short and long-term unemployment and reemployment on health satisfaction. The results show that short-term unemployme...

  12. The steroid-sparing effect of long-term plasmapheresis in pemphigus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Klaus; Carstens, Jan; Jørgensen, Jan;

    1995-01-01

    Glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents can induce remission in most patients with pemphigus, but mortality remains at 5 to 15% due to complications from these drugs. We reviewed the adjunctive effect of long-term plasmapheresis in 8 patients with pemphigus. Four cases had been resistant to ...... where cyclosporine was introduced. This first report of long-term plasmapheresis demonstrates clinical efficacy in pemphigus and a considerable steroid-sparing effect....

  13. Social environment determines the long-term effects of social defeat

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, JG; Van Der Vegt, BJ; Buwalda, B.; KOOLHAAS, JM

    2005-01-01

    A single social defeat by a dominant conspecific induces long-term changes in several physiological and behavioral parameters in rats. These changes may represent an increased vulnerability to subsequent stress and stress-related pathology. Environmental factors, in particular possibilities for social interactions, could modulate these effects. Therefore, we assessed the influence of social environment on susceptibility for the long-term effects of social defeat. Socially housed males of an u...

  14. The shear-induced alpha-effect and long-term variations in solar dynamo

    OpenAIRE

    Pipin, V. V.

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of the shear-induced alpha effect to the long-term modulation of magnetic activity are examined with the help of the axisymmetric numerical dynamo model that includes the self-consistent description of the angular momentum balance, heat transport and magnetic field generation in the spherical shell. We find that the shear contributions to alpha effect can complicate the long-term behaviour of the large-scale magnetic activity and differential rotation in nonlinear dynamo. Add...

  15. Long-Term Residents' Perception of the Effect Newcomers are Having on Nonmetropolitan Utah Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholm, Michael Carl

    1981-01-01

    This study compares the perceptions of long-term residents in rapidly and moderately growing nonmetropolitan communities regarding the effect of newcomers on the community. Data for the study came from a 1975 survey of 1,065 adults in seven Utah communities. Results show that a significantly larger proportion of long-term residents in rapidly growing communities than in moderately growing communities feel that newcomers are having a bad effect on the community. The relationship between per...

  16. Long-Term Effects of an Internet-Based Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Knaevelsrud, C; Maercker, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Advances in communication technology offer additional strategies for providing psychological treatment. Previous trials of Internet-based treatment approaches reported significant reductions in posttraumatic stress and related symptoms in response to Internet-based treatments relative to control groups. However, empirical data on the long-term effects of those approaches are sparse. In order to evaluate the long-term effect of an Internet-based intervention, the authors conducted an 18-month ...

  17. Long-term effects of neonatal single or multiple isoflurane exposures on spatial memory in rats

    OpenAIRE

    MarkGBaxter; KathyLMurphy

    2013-01-01

    General anesthetics are neurotoxic to neonatal rodents and nonhuman primates. Neonatal exposure to general anesthetics has been associated with long-term cognitive deficits in animal models. Some data from humans are consistent with long-term deleterious effects of anesthetic exposure early in life on cognitive development, with multiple exposures to general anesthetics being particularly damaging. We sought to determine whether repeated exposure of neonatal rats to anesthesia was associated...

  18. Long-Term Effects of Neonatal Single or Multiple Isoflurane Exposures on Spatial Memory in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Kathy L.; Baxter, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    General anesthetics are neurotoxic to neonatal rodents and non-human primates. Neonatal exposure to general anesthetics has been associated with long-term cognitive deficits in animal models. Some data from humans are consistent with long-term deleterious effects of anesthetic exposure early in life on cognitive development, with multiple exposures to general anesthetics being particularly damaging. We sought to determine whether repeated exposure of neonatal rats to anesthesia was associated...

  19. The Long-Term Effects of Childhood Music Instruction on Intelligence and General Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effects of music instruction on general cognitive abilities. The review of more than 75 reports shows (1) the consistency in results pertaining to the short-term effects of music instruction on cognitive abilities and the lack of clear evidence on the long-term effects on intelligence; (2) the complex nature of…

  20. A Review of the Long-Term Effects of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitchman, Joseph H.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Evidence suggests that sexual abuse has serious long-term effects; but specific effects, independent of force, threatened force, or family variables such as parental psychopathology, are not yet clarified. Effects among adults in terms of their relationship to sexual dysfunction, depression, anxiety, fear, multiple or borderline personality…

  1. Effectiveness of India ink as a long-term colonic mucosal marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennerty, M B; Sampliner, R E; Hixson, L J; Garewal, H S

    1992-01-01

    We prospectively studied the use of India ink as a long-term or "permanent" mucosal marker as part of a study investigating the natural history of diminutive distal colorectal polyps. Twenty-six patients had 32 India ink tatoos implanted. The tatoo sites of the 19 patients who were followed at least 6 months continued to display intensely stained mucosa at the original sites. No side effects or complications were encountered. India ink appears to be a safe and effective long-term marker for colonic mucosal lesions. PMID:1370188

  2. Helium irradiation effects on tritium retention and long-term tritium release properties in polycrystalline tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DT+ ion irradiation with energy of 0.5 and 1.0 keV was performed on helium pre-irradiated tungsten and the amount of retained tritium and the long-term release of retained tritium in vacuum was investigated using an IP technique and BIXS. Tritium retention and long-term tritium release were significantly influenced by helium pre-irradiation. The amount of retained tritium increased until it reached 1 × 1017 He/cm2, and at 1 × 1018 He/cm2 it became smaller compared to 1 × 1017 He/cm2. The amount of retained tritium in tungsten without helium pre-irradiation largely decreased after several weeks preservation in vacuum, and the long-term release rate during vacuum preservation was retarded by helium pre-irradiation. The results indicate that the long-term tritium release and the helium irradiation effect on it should be taken into account for more precise estimation of tritium retention in the long-term use of tungsten in fusion devices

  3. Long-term effects of manipulated natal brood size on metabolic rate in zebra finches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, Simon; Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Riebel, Katharina

    2006-01-01

    Long-term effects of developmental conditions on health, longevity and other fitness components in humans are drawing increasing attention. In evolutionary ecology, such effects are of similar importance because of their role in the trade-off between quantity and quality of offspring. The central ro

  4. Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils: effects of long-term poultry litter application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequential fractionation techniques, coupled with phosphatase hydrolysis, have allowed for greater understanding of manure/litter effects on soil P distribution. We evaluated the effect of long-term (greater than 10 years) poultry litter (broiler and turkey litter) application at annual rates of 4.5...

  5. Long-term effects of a home-visiting intervention for depressed mothers and their infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten-Alvarez, L.E.; Hosman, C.M.H.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Hoefnagels, C.C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Whereas preventive interventions for depressed mothers and their infants have yielded positive short-term outcomes, few studies have examined their long-term effectiveness. The present follow-up of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) is one of the first to examine the longer-term effect

  6. Sustainability of teacher expectation bias effects on long-term student performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Hester; Bosker, R.J.; Van der Werf, M.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we address the relationship between teacher expectation bias and student characteristics, its effect on long-term student performance, and the development of this effect over time. Expectation bias was defined as the difference between observed and predicted teacher expectation. The

  7. Long-term effects of ionizing radiation on gene expression in a zebrafish model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahcen Jaafar

    Full Text Available Understanding how initial radiation injury translates into long-term effects is an important problem in radiation biology. Here, we define a set of changes in the transcription profile that are associated with the long-term response to radiation exposure. The study was performed in vivo using zebrafish, an established radiobiological model organism. To study the long-term response, 24 hour post-fertilization embryos were exposed to 0.1 Gy (low dose or 1.0 Gy (moderate dose of whole-body gamma radiation and allowed to develop for 16 weeks. Liver mRNA profiles were then analyzed using the Affymetrix microarray platform, with validation by quantitative PCR. As a basis for comparison, 16-week old adults were exposed at the same doses and analyzed after 4 hours. Statistical analysis was performed in a way to minimize the effects of multiple comparisons. The responses to these two treatment regimes differed greatly: 360 probe sets were associated primarily with the long-term response, whereas a different 2062 probe sets were associated primarily with the response when adults of the same age were irradiated 4 hours before exposure. Surprisingly, a ten-fold difference in radiation dose (0.1 versus 1.0 Gy had little effect. Analysis at the gene and pathway level indicated that the long-term response includes the induction of cytokine and inflammatory regulators and transcription and growth factors. The acute response includes the induction of p53 target genes and modulation of the hypoxia-induced transcription factor-C/EBP axis. Results help define genes and pathways affected in the long-term, low and moderate dose radiation response and differentiate them from those affected in an acute response in the same tissue.

  8. Reduced height effect on the PWR's integral test facility during long term cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of scaling analysis approach, the reduced height test facility, such as APEX and PUMA in US, and ATLAS in Korea, have been successfully used for the NPP safety test. In this paper, the distortion originated from the reduced height effect is analyzed for the long term cooling phase based on the Natural Circulation. First, based on the NC scaling performed at a loop level and a component level, it shows the pressure drop through a specific component is scaled down, which could change the fluid property especially during the long term cooling phase for its low atmospheric pressure. Then, the scaling analysis of long term cooling loop is performed by cutting the loop into the three control volume sections, and it shows the reduced height will change the pressure at the core, which causes the fluid property slightly bias from the similitude condition and is conservative for the test result. (author)

  9. Long-term effects of manipulated natal brood size on metabolic rate in zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Simon; Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Riebel, Katharina

    2006-09-22

    Long-term effects of developmental conditions on health, longevity and other fitness components in humans are drawing increasing attention. In evolutionary ecology, such effects are of similar importance because of their role in the trade-off between quantity and quality of offspring. The central role of energy consumption is well documented for some long-term health effects in humans (e.g. obesity), but little is known of the long-term effects of rearing conditions on energy requirements later in life. We manipulated the rearing conditions in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) using brood size manipulation and cross-fostering. It has previously been shown in this species that being reared in a large brood has negative fitness consequences, and that such effects are stronger in daughters than in sons. We show that, independent of mass, standard metabolic rate of 1-year-old birds was higher when they had been reared in a large brood, and this is to our knowledge the first demonstration of such an effect. Furthermore, the brood size effect was stronger in daughters than in sons. This suggests that metabolic efficiency may play a role in mediating the long-term fitness consequences of rearing conditions. PMID:17148435

  10. Long-term antidepressant use: patient perspectives of benefits and adverse effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Claire; Gibson, Kerry; Read, John; Cowan, Ondria; Dehar, Tamsin

    2016-01-01

    Long-term antidepressant treatment has increased and there is evidence of adverse effects; however, little is known about patients’ experiences and views of this form of treatment. This study used mixed methods to examine patients’ views and experiences of long-term antidepressant treatment, including benefits and concerns. Data from 180 patients, who were long-term users of antidepressants (3–15 years), were extracted from an anonymous online survey of patients’ experiences of antidepressants in New Zealand. Participants had completed rating scales about the effectiveness of antidepressants, levels of depression before and during antidepressant use, quality of life, and perceived adverse effects. Two open-ended questions allowed participants to comment on personal experiences. The majority (89.4%) reported that antidepressants had improved their depression although 30% reported moderate-to-severe depression on antidepressants. Common adverse effects included withdrawal effects (73.5%), sexual problems (71.8%), and weight gain (65.3%). Adverse emotional effects, such as feeling emotionally numb (64.5%) and addicted (43%), were also common. While the majority of patients were pleased with the benefits of antidepressant treatment, many were concerned about these adverse effects. Some expressed a need for more information about long-term risks and increased information and support to discontinue. PMID:27528803

  11. Sulfur Poisoning of Ni/stabilized-zirconia Anodes – Effect on Long-Term Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Hagen, Anke; Hjelm, Johan;

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur impurities in carbon containing fuels for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), e.g. natural gas and biogas, can lead to significant losses in performance due to the sulfur sensitivity of Ni/YSZ SOFC anodes. Full cells having Ni/YSZ and Ni/ScYSZ anodes have been characterized during long-term gal...... focus on the long-term effect over a few hundred of hours. This work describes and correlates the observed evolution of anode performance, over hundreds of hours, with sulfur poisoning with the different operating conditions....

  12. Long-term effects of cropping system on N2O emission potential

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Søren O; Ambus, Per; Elsgaard, Lars; Schjønning, P.; Jørgen E. Olesen

    2013-01-01

    The potential for N2O emissions outside the main growing season may be influenced by long-term effects of cropping system. This was investigated by collecting intact soil cores (100 cm3, 0-4 cm depth) under winter wheat in three organic cropping systems and a conventional reference within a long-term crop rotation experiment. Average annual inputs of C in crop residues and manure ranged from 1.7 to 3.3 Mg ha-1. A simulated freeze-thaw cycle resulted in a flush of CO2 during the first 48 h, wh...

  13. Autoimmune hepatitis as an adverse effect of long-term methotrexate therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilia Ksouda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methotrexate (MTX is one of the most commonly used medicines in the treatment of psoriatic arthritis. The drug can produce steatosis and cirrhosis. Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare and serious adverse effect. We describe the case of a 53-year-old woman who developed autoimmune hepatitis after a long-term use of MTX for psoriatic arthritis. Hepatitis was completely resolved 4 months after stopping this drug. The pathophysiologic mechanisms of a drug-induced autoimmunity are unclear and complex. This report confirms the need to monitor liver enzymes carefully in patients using long-term treatment with MTX for psoriasis or rheumatoid arthritis.

  14. Effects of Long-Term Ayahuasca Administration on Memory and Anxiety in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Vanessa Manchim; Yonamine, Maurício; Soares, Juliana Carlota Kramer; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that combines the action of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from Psychotria viridis with the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) induced by beta-carbonyls from Banisteriopsis caapi. Previous investigations have highlighted the involvement of ayahuasca with the activation of brain regions known to be involved with episodic memory, contextual associations and emotional processing after ayahuasca ingestion. Moreover long term users show better performance in neuropsychological tests when tested in off-drug condition. This study evaluated the effects of long-term administration of ayahuasca on Morris water maze (MWM), fear conditioning and elevated plus maze (EPM) performance in rats. Behavior tests started 48h after the end of treatment. Freeze-dried ayahuasca doses of 120, 240 and 480 mg/kg were used, with water as the control. Long-term administration consisted of a daily oral dose for 30 days by gavage. The behavioral data indicated that long-term ayahuasca administration did not affect the performance of animals in MWM and EPM tasks. However the dose of 120 mg/kg increased the contextual conditioned fear response for both background and foreground fear conditioning. The tone conditioned response was not affected after long-term administration. In addition, the increase in the contextual fear response was maintained during the repeated sessions several weeks after training. Taken together, these data showed that long-term ayahuasca administration in rats can interfere with the contextual association of emotional events, which is in agreement with the fact that the beverage activates brain areas related to these processes. PMID:26716991

  15. Effects of Long-Term Ayahuasca Administration on Memory and Anxiety in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Manchim Favaro

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that combines the action of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT from Psychotria viridis with the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs induced by beta-carbonyls from Banisteriopsis caapi. Previous investigations have highlighted the involvement of ayahuasca with the activation of brain regions known to be involved with episodic memory, contextual associations and emotional processing after ayahuasca ingestion. Moreover long term users show better performance in neuropsychological tests when tested in off-drug condition. This study evaluated the effects of long-term administration of ayahuasca on Morris water maze (MWM, fear conditioning and elevated plus maze (EPM performance in rats. Behavior tests started 48h after the end of treatment. Freeze-dried ayahuasca doses of 120, 240 and 480 mg/kg were used, with water as the control. Long-term administration consisted of a daily oral dose for 30 days by gavage. The behavioral data indicated that long-term ayahuasca administration did not affect the performance of animals in MWM and EPM tasks. However the dose of 120 mg/kg increased the contextual conditioned fear response for both background and foreground fear conditioning. The tone conditioned response was not affected after long-term administration. In addition, the increase in the contextual fear response was maintained during the repeated sessions several weeks after training. Taken together, these data showed that long-term ayahuasca administration in rats can interfere with the contextual association of emotional events, which is in agreement with the fact that the beverage activates brain areas related to these processes.

  16. Long-Term Effect of Prefrontal Lobotomy on Verbal Fluency in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stip, Emmanuel; Bigras, Marie-Josee.; Mancini-Marie, Adham; Cosset, Marie-Eve.; Black, Deborah; Lecours, Andre-Roch

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the long-term effects of bilateral prefrontal leukotomy on lexical abilities in schizophrenia subjects. Method: We compared performances of leukotomized (LSP), non-leukotomized schizophrenia patients (NLSP) and normal controls, using a test of verbal fluency. Multiple case and triple comparison design were…

  17. Long-term tillage and cropping sequence effects on dryland residue and soil carbon fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryland soil N conservation and mineralization as influenced by long-term management practices is needed to reduce N fertilization rate, N leaching, and N2O (a greenhouse gas) emission. We evaluated the 21-yr effects of combinations of tillage and cropping sequences on dryland crop biomass (stems + ...

  18. Long-term tillage frequency and cropping intensity effects on dryland residue and soil carbon fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term soil and crop management practices are needed to increase dryland C sequestration for C trading and C fractions to improve soil quality. We evaluated the 21-yr effects of combinations of three tillage frequencies and three cropping systems on dryland crop biomass returned to the soil, resi...

  19. Bancroftian filariasis: long-term effect of the DEC provocative day test on microfilaraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Poul Erik; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Makunde, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    The diethylcarbamazine (DEC) provocative day test has been widely used for daytime diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti infections in areas where microfilariae exhibit nocturnal periodicity. Since DEC is also the primary drug for treatment of bancroftian filariasis, we examined the long term effect...

  20. Long-term effects of climate change on carbon budgets of forests in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.; Mohren, G.M.J.

    2001-01-01

    The EU-funded project Long-term regional effects of climate change on European forests: impact assessment and consequenses for carbon budgets (LTEEF-II, ENV4-CT97-0577) aimed to: i) assess likely responses of European forests to climate change; ii) quantify the fluxes of carbon and water between the

  1. Cytogenetic effects in the bone marrow of rats with long-term domestic revenue 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic effects in the rats bone marrow after long-term ingestion of 131I were studied. Significant increase of chromosomal aberrations by dicentric aberrations with and without fragments, acentric fragments, atypical chromosomes and polyploidies was found. Chromatid-type aberrations in exposed animals were present at the same level as in the control

  2. Long-term health effects on the next generation of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Ewijk

    2009-01-01

    Each year, many pregnant women fast from dawn to sunset during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan. Medical theory suggests that this may have negative long-term health effects on their offspring. Building upon the work of Almond and Mazumder (2008), and using Indonesian crosssectional data, I show th

  3. Long-Term Effects of Methylphenidate Transdermal Delivery System Treatment of ADHD on Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Giefer, Eldred E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the long-term effects of the methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) on the growth of children being treated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Method: Height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were measured in 127 children ages 6 to 12 at longitudinal assessments for up to 36 months of treatment with MTS. These…

  4. Long-term effects of climate change on Europe's water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domnisoru, A.

    2006-01-01

    Climate variations from last century show a global warming trend. Evidence from the past reveals that the anthropogenic greenhouse effect caused changes in climate parameters (temperature, precipitation and evaporation) at the European scale as well. On long-term this might have essential impact on

  5. Long-term effects of home rehabilitation on physical performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkstra, PJ; vanderMark, TW; Kraan, J; vanAltena, R; Koeter, GH; Postma, DS

    1996-01-01

    A pilot study was set up to assess the long-term effects of once weekly versus once monthly follow-up of pulmonary rehabilitation after a comprehensive home rehabilitation program on physical performance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during an 18-mo period. Thirty-six

  6. Nuclear Winter: Uncertainties Surround the Long-Term Effects of Nuclear War. Report to the Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Nuclear winter, a term used to describe potential long-term climate and environmental effects of nuclear war, has been a subject of debate and controversy. This report examines and presents scientific and policy implications of nuclear winter. Contents include: (1) an executive summary (highlighting previous and current studies on the topic); (2)…

  7. The Short- and Long-Term Effects of Secondary Schools upon Students' Academic Success and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Panayiotis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the short- and long-term effects of secondary schools upon student academic success and development. A questionnaire was administered to a randomly selected sample of 15% of Cypriot students who graduated in June 2004 and June 2005 from secondary schools. A good response rate (i.e., 66%) was…

  8. Insights into Fluency Instruction: Short- and Long-Term Effects of Two Reading Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Kuhn, Melanie R.; Morris, Robin D.; Morrow, Lesley Mandel; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Woo, Deborah Gee; Quirk, Matthew; Sevcik, Rose

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine short- and long-term effects of two instructional approaches designed to improve the reading fluency of second-grade children: Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction (or FORI; Stahl & Heubach, 2005) and a wide reading approach (Kuhn et al., 2006). By the end of second grade, children in the wide reading…

  9. The Long-Term Effects of Bilingualism on Children of Immigration: Student Bilingualism and Future Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirdag, Orhan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine the largely neglected long-term effects of bilingualism for students with roots in immigration. Our central research question is whether students' bilingual proficiencies have an impact on their future earnings in the USA. For this purpose, we used two different data-sets, i.e. the National Education Longitudinal…

  10. Effect of long-term idle periods on the performance of sequencing batch reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, Eberhard Friedrich; Obermayer, A.; Arnold, E.; Brühl, A.; Wagner, M.; Wilderer, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    , repeated long-term idle phases had only a minor effect on ammonia oxidation. The nitrite oxidation process was more sensitive to long idle phases resulting in temporary nitrite accumulation in the SBRs. Quantitative gene probe analyses demonstrated that the decay of ammonia oxidizers was slower than the...... decay of nitrite oxidizers which in turn decayed slower than heterotrophic bacteria....

  11. Long-term effects of pravastatin and fosinopril on peripheral endothelial function in albuminuric subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselbergs, Folkert W.; van der Harst, Pim; van Roon, Arie M.; Hillege, Hans L.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Smit, Andries J.; van Gilst, Wiek H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was to determine the long-term effects of pravastatin and fosinopril treatment on peripheral endothelial function in subjects with albuminuria. Subjects (mean age 51 years, 63% male) were randomized to pravastatin 40 mg or matchi

  12. The Long Term Effect on Children of Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

        The length of parents' total birth related leave was increased with almost 50% in 1984 in Denmark. The previous length of the Danish maternity leave was long, especially compared to e.g. the U.S. today. This paper investigates the long term effects on children of increasing length of birth...

  13. Long-term effects of pediatric extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy on renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akin Y

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Yigit Akin,1 Selcuk Yucel21Department of Urology, Harran University School of Medicine, Sanliurfa, Turkey; 2Department of Urology, Acibadem University School of Medicine, Istanbul, TurkeyIntroduction: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL is a well-known and successful treatment modality. In addition, it can be used in premature infants. ESWL is used to treat kidney and ureter stones in children. However, although it is a preferred noninvasive treatment in that setting, there is debate about its long-term effects on growing kidneys in children.Objectives: To investigate the long-term effects of pediatric ESWL on renal function in light of updated literature.Methods: PubMed and Medline were searched for studies on ESWL in a pediatric population with keywords including efficacy, child, kidney calculi, ureter calculi, lithotripsy, injury, vascular trauma, and shock waves. The research was limited to the English literature during a period from 1980 to 2014. In total, 3,000 articles were evaluated, but only 151 papers were considered. Only the manuscripts directly related to the reviewed subjects were included in the current study.Results: However, the acute effects of ESWL in kidney are well-described. Although there are limited studies on the long-term effects of ESWL in children, there is a widespread opinion that ESWL is not affecting renal functions in the long-term.Conclusion: ESWL is a safe, effective, and noninvasive treatment option in children. Although ESWL can cause some acute effects in the kidney, there is no long-term effect on the growing kidneys of children.Keywords: child, lithotripsy, nephrolithiasis, renal injury, vascular trauma

  14. Quality of life in Brazilian obese adolescents: effects of a long-term multidisciplinary lifestyle therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufik Sergio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has adverse physical, social, and economic consequences that can negatively affect quality of life (QOL. Thus the aim of this study was to verify the effects of a long-term multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention on QOL, body image, anxiety, depression and binge eating in obese adolescents. Methods Sixty-six obese adolescents (41 girls and 25 boys; BMI: 35.62 ± 4.18 kg/m2 were recruited from the Multidisciplinary Obesity Intervention Program outpatient clinic, and were submitted to a multidisciplinary lifestyle therapy (short-term = 12 weeks and long-term = 24 weeks, composed of medical, dietary, exercise and psychological programs. Validated self-report questionnaires were used to assess symptoms of anxiety Trait/State (STAI; depression (BDI; binge eating (BES, body image dissatisfaction (BSQ and QOL (SF-36. Data were analyzed by means of scores; comparisons were made by ANOVA for repeated measures, and Tukey's test as post-hoc and Students T test. Results Long-term therapy decreased depression and binge eating symptoms, body image dissatisfaction, and improved QOL in girls, whereas, for boys, 24 weeks, were effective to reduce anxiety trait/state and symptoms of binge eating, and to improve means of dimensions of QOL (p Conclusion A long-term multidisciplinary lifestyle therapy is effective to control psychological aspects and to improve QOL in obese adolescents.

  15. Some long term effects on land application of sewage sludge on soil fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metals may affect the growth of plants, soil microbial activity, and soil fertility in the long term. Less is known of the adverse long-term effects of metals on soil microorganisms than on crop yields, since the effects of metals added to soils in sewage sludge are difficult to assess, and few long-term experiments exist. This paper reviews evidence from controlled long-term field experiments with sewage sludges in the UK, Sweden, Germany and the USA. Adverse effects on microbial activity and populations of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, mycorrhiza, and total microbial biomass have been detected, in some cases below the European Community's maximum allowable concentration limits for metals in sludge-treated soils. For example, N2-fixation by free- living heterotrophic bacteria was found to be inhibited at concentrations (mg kg-1) of 127 Zn, 37 Cu, 21 Ni, 3.4 Cd, 52 Cr and 71 Pb. Fixation by free-living cyanobacteria was reduced by 50% at concentrations (mg kg-1) of 114 Zn, 33 Cu, 17 Ni, 2.9 Cd, 80 Cr and 40 Pb. Numbers of Rhizobium Leguminosarum bv. trifolii were decreased by several orders of magnitude at metal concentrations (mg kg-1) of 130-200 Zn, 27-48 Cu, 11-15 Ni, and 0.8-1.0 Cd. Important factors influencing the severity of toxicity are soil texture and pH; higher pH and clay and organic C contents decrease metal toxicity considerably. The evidence presented in this review of long-term field experiments suggests that adverse effects on microbial parameters occur at modest concentrations of metals in soils. It is concluded that prevention of adverse effects on soil microbial processes, and ultimately on soil fertility, should be a factor that influences soil-protection legislation. (author)

  16. Effects of trawl selectivity and genetic parameters on fish body length under long-term trawling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Sun, Peng; Cui, He; Sheng, Huaxiang; Zhao, Fenfang; Tang, Yanli; Chen, Zelin

    2015-10-01

    Long-term fishing pressure affects the biological characteristics of exploited fish stocks. The biological characteristics of hairtail ( Trichiurus lepturus) in the East China Sea are unable to recover because of long-term trawling. Fishing induces evolutionary effects on the fish's biological characteristics. Evidence of these changes includes small size at age, a shift to earlier age structure, and early maturation. Natural and artificial selection usually affect the fish's life history. Selection can induce different chances of reproduction, and individual fish can give a different genetic contribution to the next generation. In this study, analysis of time-dependent probability of significance and test of sensitivity were used to explore the effects of fish exploitation rate, mesh size, and heritability with long-term trawling. Results showed that fishing parameters were important drivers to exploited fish population. However, genetic traits altered by fishing were slow, and the changes in biological characteristics were weaker than those caused by fishing selection. Exploitation rate and mesh size exhibited similar evolutionary trend tendency under long-term fishing. The time-dependent probability of significance trend showed a gradual growth and tended to be stable. Therefore, the direction of fishing-induced evolution and successful management of fish species require considerable attention to contribute to sustainable fisheries in China.

  17. Glucose effects on long-term memory performance : duration and domain specificity.

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Laura; Finnegan, Yvonne; Hu, Henglong; Scholey, Andrew B.; Sünram-Lea, Sandra I.

    2010-01-01

    Rational; Previous research has suggested that long term- verbal declarative memory is particularly sensitive to enhancement by glucose loading, however investigation of glucose effects on certain memory domains has hitherto been neglected. Therefore domain specificity of glucose effects merits further elucidation. Objectives; The aim of the present research was to provide a more comprehensive investigation of the possible effects of glucose administration on different aspects of memory by i)...

  18. Effect of long-term storage of LWR spent fuel on Pu-thermal fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Long-term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy (June, 1994) in Japan, the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant will be operated shortly after the year 2000, and the planning of the construction of the second commercial plant will be decided around 2010. Also, it is described that spent fuel storage has a positive meaning as an energy resource for the future utilization of Pu. Considering the balance between the increase of spent fuels and the domestic reprocessing capacity in Japan, it can be expected that the long-term storage of UO2 spent fuels will be required. Then, we studied the effect of long-term storage of spent fuels on Pu-thermal fuel cycle. The burnup calculation were performed on the typical Japanese PWR fuel, and the burnup and criticality calculations were carried out on the Pu-thermal cores with MOX fuel. Based on the results, we evaluate the influence of extending the spent fuel storage term on the criticality safety, shielding design of the reprocessing plant and the core life time of the MOX core, etc. As the result of this work on long-term storage of LWR spent fuels, it becomes clear that there are few demerits regarding the lifetime of a MOX reactor core, and that there are many merits regarding the safety aspects of the fuel cycle facilities. Furthermore, long-term storage is meaningful as energy storage for effective utilization of Pu to be improved by technological innovation in future, and it will allow for sufficient time for the important policymaking of nuclear fuel cycle establishment in Japan. (author)

  19. Adults' Perceptions of the Long-Term Effects of Participation in High School Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Bechtol, Susan Smith

    2001-01-01

    (ABSTRACT) The long-term effects of participation in high school sports were the focus of this study. Ten top-level managers in Fortune 500 companies were asked about participation in high school sports and the enduring effects of that participation. Five men (one black) and five women (one Asian) participated in the study. Interviewing, observing offices, and reviewing high school yearbooks were the methods of data collection. The data were analyzed using the constant-comparative me...

  20. Long-term effects of a climate change teaching campaign – a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruys-Bagger, Søren Ib; Daugbjerg, Peer

    2008-01-01

    The authors perform in association with School of Education, Aarhus University an evaluation of the long term effects of the campaign visit. We are investigating the sustainable effect of science campaigns for schools by collecting teachers reflection on the value of the visit of “Klimakaravanen”...... doing experiments c) Relations to technological companies and the civil society d) Skills of planning, performing and evaluating teaching...

  1. Enhanced acoustic cavitation following laser-induced bubble formation : long-term memory effect

    OpenAIRE

    Yavaṣ, Oğuz; Leiderer, Paul; Park, Hee K.; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Poon, Chie C.; Tam, Andrew C.

    1994-01-01

    The enhancement of acoustic caviation at a liquid-solid interface following laser-induced bubble formation is studied. The experiment results indicate that metastable ultramicroscopic bubbles formed on the solid surface cause a long-term memory effect on acoustic cavitation. By performing a double-pulse experiment using two excimer lasers, the temporal decay of this memory effect is determined for two different liquids on a chromium surface. An explanation of the observed decay mode by a ...

  2. Long-Term Effect of TMD on Vibration Control of An MDOF Offshore Fixed Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiang(石湘); Tetsuya MATSUI; WU Minger

    2003-01-01

    A three-dimensional fixed offshore platform in deep water modeled by the finite element method is studied in this paper. Analysis of the dynamic response of the MDOF structure is realized taking the non-linearity of the wave drag force and the wave-structure interaction into account. The structural response statistics, which have Gaussian distributions, are used to evaluate the vibration effect of the structure without TMD and with TMD. And an optimal method to design TMD controlling the first mode of the multi-mode structure is proposed. Moreover, the probabilities of occurrence of sea states at the platform site are considered for prediction of the long-term effect of a TMD. Simulation results demonstrate that the long-term effect of a well-designed TMD is good and the practical use is possible due to the good stability of its optimal parameters under different sea states.

  3. Long-term versus short-term warming effects on microbial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tom; Leblans, Niki; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Richter, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Rapid warming in high latitude ecosystems is predicted to drive massive losses of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soils to the atmosphere, raising concerns that it will create a positive feedback to climate change. However, such predictions expect that temperature effects on soil microbes, as chief producers of CO2, will persist over time scales meaningful to the climate system (i.e. decades to centuries). There is increasing awareness that the soil microbial community can acclimate to temperature change over time scales from months to years, resulting in attenuating responses of CO2 release to the atmosphere. Despite this, nothing is currently known about long-term warming effects on the activity or physiology of high latitude soil microbes, and, through this, the longevity of CO2 losses from these ecosystems. We conducted a study at a unique research site that makes use of natural (geothermal) gradients in soil temperature that have been in place for over 35 years as a natural warming treatment. We determined long-term warming effects (+0.5 °C, +1.5 °C, +3 °C and +6 °C) on soil CO2 release through microbial respiration in a laboratory incubation experiment, and explored microbial carbon use efficiency and soil carbon and nitrogen pools as mechanisms. We also performed a companion experiment to compare long-term warming effects on microbial processes to those caused by six weeks of warming of ambient soil to +3 °C and +6 °C. We show that while six weeks of warming consistently increased microbial respiration by up to 30%, this effect did not persist in soils exposed to 35 years of warming. We present further data linking such long-term thermal acclimation to shifts in microbial carbon use efficiency and soil carbon and nitrogen availability, and discuss our findings in the context of warming-driven feedbacks from high latitude soils to future climate change.

  4. Acute and long-term in vitro effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annangi, Balasubramanyam; Rubio, Laura; Alaraby, Mohamed; Bach, Jordi; Marcos, Ricard; Hernández, Alba

    2016-09-01

    Since most of the toxic studies of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) focused on acute and high-dose exposure conditions, the aim of the present study was to fill the existing knowledge gap of long-term effects of ZnO NPs at sub-toxic doses. To overcome this point, we have evaluated the toxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic effects of ZnO NPs under long-term treatments (12 weeks), using a sub-toxic dose (1 µg/mL) according to acute 48-h exposure. Preliminarily, oxidative stress and genotoxic/oxidative DNA damage were determined under acute exposure and high-dose conditions. To determine the role of oxidative DNA damage, a wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF Ogg1 (+/+)) and its isogenic 8-oxo-guanine DNA glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) knockout partner (MEF Ogg1 (-/-)) cell lines were used. Although short-term exposure (24-h) experiments demonstrated that ZnO NPs were able to induce ROS, genotoxicity, and oxidative DNA damage in both cell lines, no effects were obtained under long-term exposure scenario. Thus, 1 µg/mL exposure over 12 weeks was unable to induce genotoxicity as well as cellular transformation in both cell types, as indicated by the lack of observed morphological cell changes, variations in the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases, and anchorage-independent cell growth ability, regarded as cancer-like phenotypic hallmarks. Our results indicate that short-term effects of ZnO NP exposure are not replicated under long-term and sub-toxic dose conditions. All together, the lack of genotoxic/carcinogenic effects after chronic treatments seem to indicate a reduced risk associated with ZnO NP exposure. PMID:26449478

  5. Effect of the Danish return-to-work program on long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Otto M; Aust, Birgit; Bjørner, Jakob;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Danish return-to-work (RTW) program on long-term sickness absence in a randomized controlled trial in three municipalities. METHODS: The intervention group comprised 1948 participants while the control group comprised 1157...... participant receiving ordinary sickness benefit management (OSM). Study participants were working-age adults receiving long-term (≥8 weeks or more) benefits, included regardless of reason for sickness absence or employment status. Each beneficiary was followed-up for a maximum period of 52 weeks. Cox...... proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for return to work (RTW) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: The intervention effect differed significantly between the municipalities (P=0.00005). In one municipality (M2) the intervention resulted in a statistically significant...

  6. A comparative analysis of two community stressors' long-term mental health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, M A; Bromet, E J; Schulberg, H C

    1987-04-01

    The investigation directly compared the long-term mental health consequences of two community-wide stressors, the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear accident and widespread unemployment due to layoff, in demographically comparable samples of women. Results showed a marked degree of similarity in the stressors' effects: Levels of subclinical symptomatology were elevated to similar degrees in each sample during the year following stressor onset, and symptom levels remained elevated in each sample 2 to 3 1/2 years later. Moreover, variables identified as predictors of enduring psychological distress were virtually identical for the two samples. Additional analyses revealed that the mental health status of unemployed husbands mediated the negative psychological effects of layoff on their wives. Implications of these results for understanding the long-term consequences of exposure to community-wide stress are discussed. PMID:3604998

  7. Comparative analysis of two community stressors' long-term mental health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dew, M.A.; Bromet, E.J.; Schulberg, H.C.

    1987-04-01

    The investigation directly compared the long-term mental health consequences of two community-wide stressors, the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear accident and widespread unemployment due to layoff, in demographically comparable samples of women. Results showed a marked degree of similarity in the stressors' effects: Levels of subclinical symptomatology were elevated to similar degrees in each sample during the year following stressor onset, and symptom levels remained elevated in each sample 2 to 3 1/2 years later. Moreover, variables identified as predictors of enduring psychological distress were virtually identical for the two samples. Additional analyses revealed that the mental health status of unemployed husbands mediated the negative psychological effects of layoff on their wives. Implications of these results for understanding the long-term consequences of exposure to community-wide stress are discussed.

  8. Comparative analysis of two community stressors' long-term mental health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation directly compared the long-term mental health consequences of two community-wide stressors, the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear accident and widespread unemployment due to layoff, in demographically comparable samples of women. Results showed a marked degree of similarity in the stressors' effects: Levels of subclinical symptomatology were elevated to similar degrees in each sample during the year following stressor onset, and symptom levels remained elevated in each sample 2 to 3 1/2 years later. Moreover, variables identified as predictors of enduring psychological distress were virtually identical for the two samples. Additional analyses revealed that the mental health status of unemployed husbands mediated the negative psychological effects of layoff on their wives. Implications of these results for understanding the long-term consequences of exposure to community-wide stress are discussed

  9. The effect of financial constraints, technological progress and long-term contracts on tradable green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tradable green certificates (TGCs) have recently become a diffuse instrument to support renewable electricity in OECD countries. Although it is perhaps too early to draw a conclusive judgement on the effectiveness of this instrument in increasing renewable capacity and decreasing the price of certificates, one view in the literature maintains that long-term contracts are of particular importance for TGCs to be effective. This paper contributes to this debate by analysing how financial constraints and technological progress can induce investors to hold pessimistic expectations of their ability to sell green certificates and still make a profit. Clearly, these expectations will prevent investors from building new capacity to fulfil the quota comprised in TGCs and will keep the price of certificates traded in the market high. As this kind of expectation is not influenced by most design features of TGCs, one can conclude that long-term contracts are particularly important in determining the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these instruments. Some attention should therefore be paid to the features of the TGCs, which induce obliged parties to offer long-term contracts to renewable generators

  10. Acute kidney injury: short-term and long-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, James F; Forni, Lui G

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most common cause of organ dysfunction in critically ill adults, with a single episode of AKI, regardless of stage, carrying a significant morbidity and mortality risk. Since the consensus on AKI nomenclature has been reached, data reflecting outcomes have become more apparent allowing investigation of both short- and long-term outcomes.Classically the short-term effects of AKI can be thought of as those reflecting an acute deterioration in renal function per se. However, the effects of AKI, especially with regard to distant organ function ("organ cross-talk"), are being elucidated as is the increased susceptibility to other conditions. With regards to the long-term effects, the consideration that outcome is a simple binary endpoint of dialysis or not, or survival or not, is overly simplistic, with the reality being much more complex.Also discussed are currently available treatment strategies to mitigate these adverse effects, as they have the potential to improve patient outcome and provide considerable economic health savings. Moving forward, an agreement for defining renal recovery is warranted if we are to assess and extrapolate the efficacy of novel therapies. Future research should focus on targeted therapies assessed by measure of long-term outcomes. PMID:27373891

  11. Adaptive Use of Information during Growth Can Explain Long-Term Effects of Early Life Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Sinead; Fawcett, Tim W; Higginson, Andrew D; Trimmer, Pete C; Uller, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    Development is a continuous process during which individuals gain information about their environment and adjust their phenotype accordingly. In many natural systems, individuals are particularly sensitive to early life experiences, even in the absence of later constraints on plasticity. Recent models have highlighted how the adaptive use of information can explain age-dependent plasticity. These models assume that information gain and phenotypic adjustments either cannot occur simultaneously or are completely independent. This assumption is not valid in the context of growth, where finding food results both in a size increase and learning about food availability. Here, we describe a simple model of growth to provide proof of principle that long-term effects of early life experiences can arise through the coupled dynamics of information acquisition and phenotypic change in the absence of direct constraints on plasticity. The increase in reproductive value from gaining information and sensitivity of behavior to experiences declines across development. Early life experiences have long-term impacts on age of maturity, yet-due to compensatory changes in behavior-our model predicts no substantial effects on reproductive success. We discuss how the evolution of sensitive windows can be explained by experiences having short-term effects on informational and phenotypic states, which generate long-term effects on life-history decisions. PMID:27104994

  12. The effect of financial constraints, technological progress and long-term contracts on tradable green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tradable green certificates (TGCs) have recently become a diffuse instrument to support renewable electricity in OECD countries. Although it is perhaps too early to draw a conclusive judgement on the effectiveness of this instrument in increasing renewable capacity and decreasing the price of certificates, one view in the literature maintains that long-term contracts are of particular importance for TGCs to be effective. This paper contributes to this debate by analysing how financial constraints and technological progress can induce investors to hold pessimistic expectations of their ability to sell green certificates and still make a profit. Clearly, these expectations will prevent investors from building new capacity to fulfil the quota comprised in TGCs and will keep the price of certificates traded in the market high. As this kind of expectation is not influenced by most design features of TGCs, one can conclude that long-term contracts are particularly important in determining the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these instruments. Some attention should therefore be paid to the features of the TGCs, which induce obliged parties to offer long-term contracts to renewable generators. (author)

  13. Long-Term Effects of Super Heavy-Weight Vehicles on Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Scott M.; Akinci, Necip Onder; Liu, Judy; Bowman, Mark D

    2007-01-01

    A permit truck which exceeds the predefined limit of 108 kips is defined as a superload in Indiana. This study was conducted to examine the long-term effects of superload trucks on the performance of typical slab-on-girder bridges and to assess the likelihood of causing immediate damage. Typical steel and prestressed concrete slab-on-girder type bridges were analyzed using both beam line analysis and detailed finite element models. Furthermore, one prestressed concrete bridge and one steel br...

  14. Short and long term effects of caesarean section and vaginal delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study short and long term effects after caesarean section (CS) and vaginal delivery. We also studied the difficulty in estimating blood loss at delivery and birth experience estimated nine months after delivery. In Study I blood loss during delivery was measured in two ways, visually, according to the routine of the hospital, and with a laboratory method, the alkaline hematin method. The visual estimation tended to over-estimate the bleeding. ...

  15. Sense of Community as a Protective Factor against Long-Term Psychological Effects of Childhood Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Marks, Nadine F.

    2010-01-01

    This study uses a risk and resilience framework for conceptualizing the long-term effects of childhood family violence on mental health. It examines sense of community as a protective factor against adult psychological distress associated with experiences of physical or psychological violence in childhood from parents. Regression models are estimated using data from the 1995 National Survey of Midlife Development in the U.S. and from the 1996–97 National Study of Daily Experiences. Reported e...

  16. Long-term effects of growth hormone (GH) on body fluid distribution in GH deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Sidse; Rosenfalck, A M; Frandsen, E;

    1999-01-01

    Short-term growth hormone (GH) treatment normalises body fluid distribution in adult GH deficient patients, but the impact of long-term treatment on body fluid homeostasis has hitherto not been thoroughly examined in placebo controlled trials. To investigate if the water retaining effect of GH...... persists for a longer time we examined the impact of 4 months GH treatment on extracellular volume (ECV) and plasma volume (PV) in GH deficient adults....

  17. Long-term Orientation, Perceived Consumer Effectiveness, and Environmentally Conscious Consumer Behavior: The Case of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Misra C. Gul

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of long-term orientation and perceived consumer effectiveness onenvironmentally/ecologically conscious consumer behavior in the context of Turkey. Turkey is a collectivist,high-context culture of significant geo-political importance with unique socio-cultural traits. The population isyoung and natural resources are rich. In Turkey, environmental consciousness is a relatively less internalizedconcept to which people are just recently beginning to adjust. All of t...

  18. Long term somatic effects of radioactive iodine administration in persons with thyroid gland diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term effects of iodine-131 administration under the conditions of endemic areas were studied in 1055 patients who had received therapeutic doses of I-131 within the range of 185-555 MBq. It has been found out that after 20 - 30 years the incidence of postradiation hypothyroidism reaches 18%. One of its main causes is autoimmune process in the thyroid gland. Possibility of leukemia development is statistically insignificant. Tendency to moderate leukopenia is observed

  19. Long-term effects of chronic light pollution on seasonal functions of European blackbirds (turdus merula)

    OpenAIRE

    Quetting, M.; Dominoni, D.M.; Partecke, J.

    2013-01-01

    Light pollution is known to affect important biological functions of wild animals, including daily and annual cycles. However, knowledge about long-term effects of chronic exposure to artificial light at night is still very limited. Here we present data on reproductive physiology, molt and locomotor activity during two-year cycles of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) exposed to either dark nights or 0.3 lux at night. As expected, control birds kept under dark nights exhibited two regular te...

  20. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Light Pollution on Seasonal Functions of European Blackbirds (Turdus merula)

    OpenAIRE

    Dominoni, Davide M.; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

    2013-01-01

    Light pollution is known to affect important biological functions of wild animals, including daily and annual cycles. However, knowledge about long-term effects of chronic exposure to artificial light at night is still very limited. Here we present data on reproductive physiology, molt and locomotor activity during two-year cycles of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) exposed to either dark nights or 0.3 lux at night. As expected, control birds kept under dark nights exhibited two regular te...

  1. Long-term physical and psychological effects of the Vajont disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Zaetta; Paolo Santonastaso; Angela Favaro

    2011-01-01

    Background: Few studies to date investigated the long-term consequences of disasters on physical health. Objective : The aim of the present report was to study the consequence on physical health of exposure to the Vajont disaster after 40 years. We also explored the effects of severity of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and major depression disorder on physical health and health-related quality of life. Method: Sixty survivors of the Vajont disaster and 48 control subjects of si...

  2. Long-term physical and psychological effects of the Vajont disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Zaetta, Cristina; Santonastaso, Paolo; Favaro, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Background Few studies to date investigated the long-term consequences of disasters on physical health. Objective The aim of the present report was to study the consequence on physical health of exposure to the Vajont disaster after 40 years. We also explored the effects of severity of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and major depression disorder on physical health and health-related quality of life. Method Sixty survivors of the Vajont disaster and 48 control subjects of simila...

  3. Long-term physical and psychological effects of the Vajont disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Zaetta, Cristina; Santonastaso, Paolo; Favaro, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Background: Few studies to date investigated the long-term consequences of disasters on physical health. Objective: The aim of the present report was to study the consequence on physical health of exposure to the Vajont disaster after 40 years. We also explored the effects of severity of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and major depression disorder on physical health and health-related quality of life. Method: Sixty survivors of the Vajont disaster and 48 control subjects of sim...

  4. Long-term effects of population growth on aggregate investment dynamics: selected country evidence for Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2011-01-01

    The role of Africa in world demographic change is primary and consequences on future investment dynamics could provide some insight on how unemployment, economic migration and other issues resulting there-from could be addressed. Using Johansen and Granger-causality models on data from 1977 to 2007, we investigate long-term effects of population growth on investment. Our study reinforces the lack of consensus over the impact of demographic change on economic growth. Main findings are, in the ...

  5. The effects of landscape modifications on the long-term persistence of animal populations

    OpenAIRE

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Sibly, Richard M.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Forbes, Valery E.; Topping, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The effects of landscape modifications on the long-term persistence of wild animal populations is of crucial importance to wildlife managers and conservation biologists, but obtaining experimental evidence using real landscapes is usually impossible. To circumvent this problem we used individual-based models (IBMs) of interacting animals in experimental modifications of a real Danish landscape. The models incorporate as much as possible of the behaviour and ecology of ...

  6. Long-term effects of ionizing radiation - lessons from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper approaches the long-term effects of ionizing radiation based on the lessons from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The paper also presents the current research program being conducted by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which began as a series of platform protocols based on a fixed cohort of 120,000 survivors listed in the Japan National Census of 1950

  7. The long-term fertilization effect on biological activity of different genesis soils

    OpenAIRE

    Grigaliūnienė, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    The effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on biological activity of different genesis soils in long-term crop rotation trials was determined. Biological activity was diverse in the soils of different genesis and it activity correlated with some soil chemical properties. Organic and mineral fertilizers and their combinations more increased biological activity in the soil than only mineral fertilizers. Mineral fertilizers suppressed dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activity (180 kg ha...

  8. Long term effects of doping in sporting records: 1886-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann, Aaron; Henneberg, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Best life times of top athletes, Olympic records, world records, and any doping information were collected from the IOC, IAAF, WADA and national anti-doping associations. About 1560 records of male and female athletes in 22 disciplines of summer and 4 winter sports were collected. Data were analysed for long-term effects of doping using non-linear regression techniques. Comparisons were made of pre-1932 records (when steroids became available) and post. Analyses were repeated using 1967, when...

  9. The effect of denture base surface pretreatments on bond strengths of two long term resilient liners

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Rahul Shyamrao; Parkhedkar, Rambhau

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Purpose of this study was to evaluate effect of two surface treatments, sandblasting and monomer treatment, on tensile bond strength between two long term resilient liners and poly (methyl methacrylate) denture base resin. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two resilient liners Super-Soft and Molloplast-B were selected.Sixty acrylic resin (Trevalon) specimens with cross sectional area of 10×10 mm were prepared and divided into two groups of 30 specimens each. Each group was surface treated (n = 10...

  10. Short- and long-term effects of (−)-epicatechin on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury

    OpenAIRE

    Yamazaki, Katrina Go; Romero-Perez, Diego; Barraza-Hidalgo, Maraliz; Cruz, Michelle; Rivas, Maria; Cortez-Gomez, Brenda; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between flavonoid-rich diets and improved cardiovascular prognosis. Cocoa contains large amounts of flavonoids, in particular flavanols (mostly catechins and epicatechins). Flavonoids possess pleiotropic properties that may confer protective effects to tissues during injury. We examined the ability of epicatechin to reduce short-and long-term ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) myocardial injury. Epicatechin (1 mg·kg−1·day−1) pretreatment (Tx) was admin...

  11. Understanding Long-Term Variations in an Elephant Piosphere Effect to Manage Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Marietjie Landman; David S Schoeman; Anthony J Hall-Martin; Kerley, Graham I. H.

    2012-01-01

    Surface water availability is a key driver of elephant impacts on biological diversity. Thus, understanding the spatio-temporal variations of these impacts in relation to water is critical to their management. However, elephant piosphere effects (i.e. the radial pattern of attenuating impact) are poorly described, with few long-term quantitative studies. Our understanding is further confounded by the complexity of systems with elephant (i.e. fenced, multiple water points, seasonal water avail...

  12. Metabolomics Insights into the Modulatory Effects of Long-Term Low Calorie Intake in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junfang; Yang, Liu; Li, Shoufeng; Huang, Ping; Liu, Yong; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that calorie restriction without malnutrition can extend longevity and delay the onset of age-associated disorders. Identifying the biochemical perturbations associated with different dietary habits would provide valuable insights into associations between metabolism and longevity. To reveal the effects of long-term dietary interventions on metabolic perturbations, we investigated serum and urinary metabolic changes induced by interactive high/low fat diet in combination with/without reduced caloric intake over a life span in mice using NMR-based metabonomics. We found that the high calorie dietary regime disturbed lipid metabolism, suppressed glycolysis and TCA cycles, stimulated oxidative stress, promoted nucleotide metabolism and gluconeogenesis, and perturbed gut microbiota-host interactions. Such changes could be modified by long-term low calorie intake. Most importantly, we found that the calorie intake index exerts a dominant effect on metabolic perturbations irrespective of dietary regime. Our investigation provides a holistic view of the metabolic impact of long-term dietary interventions, which are important for detecting physiological changes and dietary effects on mammalian metabolism. PMID:27267303

  13. Cold Temperature Effects on Long-Term Nitrogen Transformation Pathway in a Tidal Flow Constructed Wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yunmeng; Zhang, Yan; Yan, Xingjun; Ji, Guodong

    2015-11-17

    The present study investigated long-term treatment performance and nitrogen transformation mechanisms in tidal flow constructed wetlands (TFCWs) under 4, 8, and 12 °C temperature regimes. High and stable ammonium (NH4(+)-N) removal efficiency (93-96%) was achieved in our TFCWs, whereas nitrate (NO3(-)-N) was accumulated at different levels under different temperatures. Quantitative response relationships showed anammox/amoA, (narG+napA)/amoA, and (narG+napA)/bacteria were the respective key functional gene groups determining 4, 8, and 12 °C NO3(-)-N reduction. Pathway analysis revealed the contribution of these functional gene groups along a depth gradient. In addition, denitrification process increased, while anammox process decreased consistent with a rise in temperature from 4 to 12 °C. Furthermore, cold temperatures exhibited different effects on anammox and denitrification and their long-term acclimatization capacities changed with temperature. PMID:26460580

  14. Effects of long-term contracts on firms exercising market power in transmission constrained electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity markets with only few large firms are often vulnerable to less competitive behaviors than the desired. The presence of transmission constraints further restrict the competition among firms and provide more opportunities for firms to exercise market power. While it is generally acknowledged that the long-term contracts provide good measures for mitigating market power in the spot market (thus reducing undesired price spikes), it is not even more clear how effective these contracts are if the market is severely limited due to transmission constraints. In this paper, an analytical approach through finding a Nash equilibrium is presented to investigate the effects of long-term contracts on firms exercising market power in a bid-based pool with transmission constraints. Surprisingly the analysis in this paper shows that the presence of long-term contracts may result in the reduced expected social welfare. A straightforward consequence of the analysis presented in this paper will be helpful for the regulators in Korea to reconsider offering vesting contracts to generating companies in the near future. (author)

  15. Mutual long-term effects of school bullying, victimization, and justice sensitivity in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondü, Rebecca; Rothmund, Tobias; Gollwitzer, Mario

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, we investigate long-term relations between experiences of aggression at school and the development of justice sensitivity as a personality disposition in adolescents. We assessed justice sensitivity (from the victim, observer, and perpetrator perspective), bullying, and victimization among 565 German 12- to 18-year-olds in a one-year longitudinal study with two measurement points. Latent path analyses revealed gender differences in long-term effects of bullying and victimization on observer sensitivity and victim sensitivity. Experiences of victimization at T1 predicted an increase in victim sensitivity among girls and a decrease in victim sensitivity among boys. Bullying behavior at T1 predicted an increase in victim sensitivity among boys and a decrease in observer sensitivity among girls. We did not find long-term effects of justice sensitivity on bullying and victimization. Our findings indicate that experiences of bullying and victimization have gender-specific influences on the development of moral personality dispositions in adolescents. PMID:26874784

  16. The Effect of Long-Term Carbamazepine Monotherapy on Serum Lipid Levels in Epilepsy Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Apak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of carbamazepine on serum lipid levels in epileptic patients who were on long-term carbamazepine monotherapy. The study group were comprised of 30 epileptic patients (10 female, 20 male who have been on carbamazepine monotherapy for at least one year whereas control group consisted of 30 age and sex matched healthy controls. Serum cholesterol (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured and LDL/HDL ratio was calculated in all subjects. Serum HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels of study group were significantly higher than control group whereas serum LDL cholesterol levels and LDL/HDL ratios of study group were lower than control group. Mean total cholesterol level of study group was lower than control group, however the difference did not reach statistical significance level. Because of its effect on cholesterol levels, long term carbamazepine could possibly have a positive influence in decreasing the risk of developing aterosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Long term prospective follow-up studies would be helpful to us in enlightening this issue definitely.

  17. A random-effects model for long-term degradation analysis of solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrochemical devices converting the chemical energy into electricity with high efficiency and low pollutant emissions. Tough very promising, this technology is still in a developing phase, and degradation at the cell/stack level with operating time is still an issue of major concern. Methods to directly observe degradation modes and to measure their evolution over time are difficult to implement, and indirect performance indicators are adopted, typically related to voltage measurements in long-term tests. In order to describe long-term degradation tests, three components of the voltage measurements should be modelled: the smooth decay of voltage over time for each single unit; the variability of voltage decay among units; and the high-frequency small fluctuations of voltage due to experimental noise and lack of fit. In this paper, we propose an empirical random-effects regression model of polynomial type enabling to evaluate separately these three types of variability. Point and interval estimates are also derived for some performance measures, such as the mean voltage, the prediction of cell voltage, the reliability function and the cell-to-cell variability in SOFC stacks. Finally, the proposed methodology is applied to two real case-studies of long-term degradation tests of SOFC stacks. - Highlights: • We propose an empirical random-effects model for SOFC cells voltage in long runs. • Some SOFC performance and manufacturing quality measures are derived. • An application to two real case-studies of long-term degradation tests is provided. • The reliability function of SOFCs and its lower confidence limit are computed

  18. Effect of long-term drainage of peatland on whole-profile microbial community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpamah, Promise; Taipale, Sami; Rissanen, Antti; Biasi, Christina; Nykänen, Hannu

    2015-04-01

    Peatlands are crucial global carbon stores largely due to prevailing hydrological regime leading to higher rate of carbon input than loss. Like other changes in environmental conditions, alteration in peatland water table, which causes increased aeration in the upper layer, does not only cause a shift in this exchange rates, but leads to changes in plant species cover, litter quality as well as the niches of microbes, by affecting their functions and activities. Effects of changes in peatland hydrology are therefore complex, and play a key role in peat carbon cycles. Changed peat hydrology may especially affect the inter-play between methanogens and methanotrophs which are important members of the microbial community taking part in anaerobic/aerobic peatland carbon cycles. We provide more information on the effect of long-term (more than 33 years) changes in hydrology on the whole-peat-profile microbes, from top to bottom. We studied drained and adjacent non-drained peatlands in Lakkasuo mire complex and Lammi area of Finland, which differed in vegetation cover and management history. We focused majorly on the phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) analysis as an indicator of the overall microbial community structure, but also used DNA analysis to mainly compare the methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) of the different peatland types with different vegetation. Our PLFA results showed that peat mire complexes are more similar in their microbial community, within location and profiles than between locations irrespective of hydrological changes and types or vegetation covers. PLFA and DNA analysis also showed that MOB species belonging to type II were more dominant than those of type I in both locations studied. Our study also showed that long-term draining of peatlands does not change the biomass of soil microbial communities, but alters their structural or relative composition. The effect of long-term peatland drainage is mostly located at the surface. Depth gradient effects

  19. Long-term RF burn-in effects on dielectric charging of MEMS capacitive switches

    KAUST Repository

    Molinero, David G.

    2013-03-01

    This paper experimentally quantified the long-term effects of RF burn-in, in terms of burn-in and recovery times, and found the effects to be semipermanent. Specifically, most of the benefit could be realized after approximately 20 min of RF burn-in, which would then last for several months. Additionally, since similar effects were observed on both real and faux switches, the effects appeared to be of electrical rather than mechanical nature. These encouraging results should facilitate the application of the switches in RF systems, where high RF power could be periodically applied to rejuvenate the switches. © 2001-2011 IEEE.

  20. Concordance between Results of Medium-term Liver Carcinogenesis Bioassays and Long-term Findings for Carcinogenic 2-Nitropropane and Non-carcinogenic 1-Nitropropane in F344 Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Doi, Yuko; Tamano, Seiko; Kawabe, Mayumi; Sano,Masashi; Imai, Norio; Nakashima, Hironao; Furukawa, Fumio; Hagiwara, Akihiro; OTSUKA,MASANORI; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concordance of results for a pair of structural isomers, 2-nitropropane (2-NP) and 1-nitropropane (1-NP), using the rat medium-term liver carcinogenesis bioassay (Ito test) and previously published long-term carcinogenicity tests. Male F344 rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of DEN (200 mg/kg b.w.) to initiate hepatocarcinogenesis. After 2 weeks, they received per os 0, 0.8, 4 or 20 mg/kg/day of 2-NP or 1-NP six times a week and were s...

  1. Long-term Effects of Shrub Encroachment and Grazing on Soil Microbial Composition and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallery, R. E.; O'Shea, C.; Kwiecien, A.; Predick, K.; Archer, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Drylands account for ca. 35% of terrestrial net primary productivity and thus play a significant role in global water and biogeochemical cycles. Replacement of grasses by shrubs has been widespread in these systems and has altered rates of erosion and native plant biodiversity and productivity. The net effect of these changes on biogeochemical cycling is not well understood. Projected warmer and drier conditions may further alter the function and stability of these ecosystems and soil resources through direct effects on soil microbiota and plant-microbe interactions. We quantified microbial community responses to long-term livestock grazing and shrub encroachment in a Sonoran Desert grassland. We sought to characterize tipping points where biotic controls over ecosystem processes shift from being 'grass-driven' to 'shrub-driven.' We asked: How do livestock grazing (the predominant land use in dryland ecosystems) and shrub invasion (a predominant land cover change) interact to influence microbial biomass and the relative abundance of bacteria, archaea, and fungi and their extracellular enzyme activities? Surface soil from bare-ground patches, native and invasive grass rhizospheres, and bole and canopy dripline locations in patches of mature mesquite trees in long-term grazed and long-term (70+ y) protected pastures were collected and analyzed for microbial community composition, biomass, potential exoenzyme activities, and a suite of biogeochemical characteristics. We found no differences in microbial communities or the soils associated with native vs. exotic grasses. Overall, mesquite bole patches differed from other patches in all soil characteristics except potential enzyme activity: soil temperature was significantly lower, and total carbon (C) and soil moisture were significantly higher. Potential activities were lowest for bare ground and highest at shrub dripline patches for all seven exoenzymes tested. Mean potential activities for C and phosphorous (P

  2. Do psychosocial working conditions modify the effect of depressive symptoms on long-term sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarsbech, Pernille U.; Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Rikke Voss;

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to investigate whether work unit-levels of psychosocial working conditions modify the effect of depressive symptoms on risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Methods: A total of 5,416 Danish female eldercare workers from 309 work units were surveyed...... psychosocial working conditions, predicted LTSA. Psychosocial working conditions did not statistically significantly modify the effect of depressive symptoms on LTSA. Conclusions: Psychosocial working conditions did not modify the effect of depressive symptoms on LTSA. The results, however, need to be...

  3. Long-term benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms from a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes S.; Sørensen, J; Søgaard, R; Henneberg, E W

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to estimate long-term mortality benefits and cost-effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in men aged 64-73 years.......The aim was to estimate long-term mortality benefits and cost-effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in men aged 64-73 years....

  4. Long-term effects of traffic-related air pollution on mortality in a Dutch cohort (NLCS-AIR study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, R.; Hoek, G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Fischer, P.; Schouten, L.J.; Jerrett, M.; Hughes, E.; Armstrong, B.; Brunekreef, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Several studies have found an effect on mortality of between-city contrasts in long-term exposure to air pollution. The effect of within-city contrasts is still poorly understood. Objectives: We studied the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and morta

  5. Investigations of long-term effects of air pollutants on young forest trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1983 model ecosystems in open-top chambers were designed to investigate long-term effects of air pollutants (ozone and/or sulphur dioxide, simulated acidic rain) at realistic concentrations on mineral cycling, biochemistry and physiology of young forest trees. The chambers contain soil lysimeters and are protected against the intrusion of ambient rain. In the course of the exposure, alterations in mineral cycling and metabolic plant processes caused by sulphur dioxide and ozone could be observed. The combination of both pollutants often resulted in responses that were greater than the single effects. (orig.)

  6. Effect of long-term idle periods on the performance of sequencing batch reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, Eberhard Friedrich; Obermayer, A.; Arnold, E.; Brühl, A.; Wagner, M.; Wilderer, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    Sludge storage can be used as an effective control handle to adjust plant capacity to large influent variations. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology is well suited for temporary sludge storage because reactors can easily be switched off individually and operated in an idle mode. In this...... study experimental results on the effect of long term (weeks) idle periods on nitrogen removal are presented. The SBRs were operated with idle times ranging from 6 to 20 days. Batch experiments were performed where sludge was stored without the addition of any substrate for 7 weeks. In the SBRs...

  7. The long-term effect of 1550 nm erbium:glass fractional laser in acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yale; Zeng, Weihui; Hu, Die; Jha, Smita; Ge, Qin; Geng, Songmei; Xiao, Shengxiang; Hu, Guanglei; Wang, Xiaoxiao

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated the short-term and long-term effects of the 1550 nm erbium:glass (Er:glass) fractional laser in the treatment of facial acne vulgaris. Forty-five (9 male and 36 female) acne patients were treated 4 times at 4-week intervals with the following parameters: 169 spot density and 15-30 mJ/cm(2) fluence. There was no control group. The laser spots were adjustable (maximum overlap: 20%) according to the treatment area, and delivered in rows in order to cover all the face. Clinical photographs were taken. The IGA scores and lesion counts were performed for each treatment. Their current state was obtained by phone call follow-up to determine the long-term effect and photographs were offered by themselves or taken in hospital. After four treatments, all patients had an obvious reduction of lesion counts and IGA score and the peak lesion counts decreased to 67.7% after the initial four treatment sessions. For long-term effect, 8 patients lost follow-up, hence 37 patients were followed-up. 8 patients were 2-year follow up, 27 at the 1-year follow-up, and all patients at the half-year follow-up. The mean percent reduction was 72% at the half-year follow-up, 79 at the 1-year follow-up and 75% at the 2-year follow-up. Side effects and complications were limited to transient erythema and edema, and few patients suffered from transient acne flare-ups and sensitivity. All patients responded that their skin was less prone to oiliness. In conclusion, acne can be successfully treated by 1550 nm Er:glass fractional laser, with few side effects and prolonged acne clearing. PMID:26796708

  8. Effects of High Dose and Long Term Montelukast Treatment on Skin:An Experimental Rat Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel Kükner; Tülin Fırat; Mualla Polat; Kaan Gideroğlu

    2008-01-01

    Background and Design: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of long term, high dose montelukast administration on normal rat skin by histological examination.Material and Method: Sixteen rats were randomly divided into 2 groups-the control and the montelukast treated (study) group (n=8). In the control group 0.2ml of 0.9% NaCl was administered intraperitonealy (i.p.) daily for 6 weeks. In the study group the same amount of solution containing 1 mg/kg montelukast was administered i....

  9. SHORT- AND LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF THE 9/11 EVENT: THE INTERNATIONAL EVIDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    VINCENT RICHMAN; Santos, Michael R.; John T. Barkoulas

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the short- and long-term effects of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on a comprehensive sample of stock market indices from 33 industrial and emerging economies. From a finance-theoretic point of view, we employ the international capital asset pricing model (ICAPM) to analyze the incidence of the 9/11 event. Consistent with expectations, we document statistically negative short-term stock market reactions to the 9/11 event for 28 countries. More importantly, we fin...

  10. Long term effects of cover crops on weeds in Mediterranean low input arable management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Carlesi, Stefano; Antichi, Daniele; Bigongiali, Federica; Mazzoncini, Marco; Barberi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of cover crops (CC) in crop rotations is a key tool to control weed and ameliorate soil conditions in low input arable systems. In 1992 a long term experiment (LTE) was set up at Centre for Agri-environmental Research “E. Avanzi (CIRAA), University of Pisa to determine the combined effect of tillage intensity, nitrogen fertilization levels and CC types on soil quality, crop yield and weed communities. The LTE is based on 4-year crop rotation (maize, durum wheat, sunflowe...

  11. Long term effects on potential repository sites: the alteration of the Lower Oxford Clay during weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is one of a short series describing work carried out to investigate the long-term effects of various geological processes on the performance of both shallow and deep repositories for low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. This paper deals with the alteration as a result of weathering of the Lower Oxford Clay, a potential host rock for shallow disposal of wastes. A description of the Lower Oxford Clay is given, along with the weathering of argillaceous rocks. Investigations of the weathering at the Elstow Storage Depot are described, as well as the implications for radioactive waste disposal. (U.K.)

  12. The effects of long-term administration of guarana on the cognition of normal, elderly volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galduróz, J C; Carlini, E A

    1996-01-01

    Paulinia cupana (guarana) is a Brazilian plant given great prestige in popular medicine, for example as being a potent stimulator of brain functions. The authors assessed the effects of the long-term administration of guarana on the cognition of normal, elderly volunteers. Forty-five volunteers were studied, with a random distribution in three experimental groups: placebo (n = 15), caffeine (n = 15), and guarana (n = 15), in a double-blind study. There were no significant cognitive alterations in these volunteers. PMID:8984582

  13. Effect of Polypropylene Fibers on the Long-term Tensile Strength of Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Wu; ZHONG Wenhui

    2007-01-01

    The influence of low volume fraction of polypropylene(PP) fibers on the tensile properties of normal and high strength concretes was studied. The experimental results indicate that the addition of PP fibers in concrete leads to a reduction in tensile strength during the age of 28 d. Whereas, after 28 days, there is a notable effect in tensile strength due to PP fibers restraining the formation and growth of microcracks in concrete, which improves the continuity and integrality of concrete structure. Thus, a low volume fraction of PP fibers is beneficial to enhancing the long-term tensile strength of concrete materials and improving the durability of concrete structures.

  14. SNSA surveillance over the ageing effects and ability for long term operation at Krsko NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) tools used for verification the adequacy of management of ageing effects and assuring suitability for long term operation at the Krsko NPP. In addition to tools commonly used as PSR (Periodic Safety Review), assessment of plant modifications, regular inspections, the SNSA applies some special methods like monitoring the condition of important plant structures, systems and components (SSC) through special designed software, review and assessment of important plant programmes and its own set of performance indicators

  15. Long-term Effect of TCM Decoctions in Treatment of Nephrotic Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏连波; 叶任高; 栾图; 吕瑞和; 陈保田

    2002-01-01

    Fifty-seven cases of nephrotic syndrome were treated with TCM decoctions as accessory treatment for prednisone and cyclophosphamide, and the effects were observed in a follow-up period of 5-15 years. The long-term complete remission rate of 68.4% and recurrence rate of 26.3% in the treatment group were respectively higher and lower than those in the control group (P<0.01, and P<0.01). The results suggested that the TCM decoctions were very helpful in treating this condition.

  16. Long-term clinical and bacterial effects of xylitol on patients with fixed orthodontic appliances

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud, Mohamed I; Allarakia, Reem; Alamoudi, Najlaa M.; Nalliah, Romesh; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term clinical and bacterial effects of using 6 g of xylitol per day for 3 months on patients with full fixed orthodontic appliances. Methods The study was a pilot clinical trial that included 41 subjects who were undergoing orthodontic treatment. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups. Group A received xylitol chewing gum, group B received xylitol dissolvable chewable tablets, and Group C served as the control group and...

  17. Long-term antihypertensive effect of a soluble cocoa fiber product in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Vallinas, Sandra; Miguel, Marta; Aleixandre, Amaya

    2016-01-01

    Background and Methods: This study evaluates the antihypertensive effect of long-term intake of a soluble cocoa fiber product (SCFP). Different doses of SCFP were evaluated (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day) and a dose of 800 mg/kg/day of beta-glucan 0.75 (BETA-G) was used as a standard fiber. Water, a neutral vehicle, was used as negative control, and 50 mg/kg/day captopril was used as positive control. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured weekly by the tail cuff method. Body weight, food, ...

  18. Long-term effects of an offshore wind farm in the North Sea on fish communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenberg, Claus; Støttrup, Josianne; Deurs, Mikael van;

    2015-01-01

    but declined in the control area 6 km away. None of the key fish species or functional fish groups showed signs of negative long-term effects due to the OWF. Whiting and the fish group associated with rocky habitats showed different distributions relative to the distance to the artificial reef structures...... introduced by the turbines. Rocky habitat fishes were most abundant close to the turbines while whiting was most abundant away from them. Species diversity was significantly higher close to the turbines. Overall, these results indicate that the artificial reef structures were large enough to attract fish...

  19. Effect of long-term drought on carbon allocation and nitrogen uptake of Pinus sylvestris seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpanen, Jukka; Aaltonen, Heidi; Lindén, Aki; Köster, Kajar; Biasi, Christina; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2015-04-01

    Weather extremes such as drought events are expected to increase in the future as a result of climate change. The drought affects the allocation of carbon assimilated by plants e.g. by modifying the root to shoot ratio, amount of fine roots and the amount of mycorrhizal fungal hyphae. We studied the effect of long term drought on the allocation of carbon in a common garden experiment with 4-year-old Pinus sylvestris seedlings. Half of the seedlings were exposed to long-term drought by setting the soil water content close to wilting point for over two growing seasons whereas the other half was grown in soil close to field capacity. We conducted a pulse labelling with 13CO2 in the end of the study by injecting a known amount of 13C enriched CO2 to the seedlings and measuring the CO2 uptake and distribution of 13C to the biomass of the seedlings and to the root and rhizosphere respiration. In addition, we studied the effect of drought on the decomposition of needle litter and uptake of nitrogen by 15N labelled needles buried in the soil in litter bags. The litterbags were collected and harvested in the end of the experiment and the changes in microbial community in the litterbags were studied from the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition. We also determined the 15N isotope concentrations from the needles of the seedlings to study the effect of drought on the nitrogen uptake of the seedlings. Our results indicate that the drought had a significant effect both on the biomass allocation of the seedlings and on the microbial species composition. The amount of carbon allocated belowground was much higher in the seedlings exposed to drought compared to the control seedlings. The seedlings seemed to adapt their carbon allocation to long-term drought to sustain adequate needle biomass and water uptake. The seedlings also adapted their osmotic potential and photosynthesis capacity to sustain the long-term drought as was indicated by the measurements of osmotic potential

  20. Long-term safety and effectiveness of style 410 highly cohesive silicone breast implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedén, Per; Bronz, Giorgio; Elberg, Jens Jørgen;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2006, a single-center Swedish study demonstrated a low rupture rate and high patient satisfaction with the Style 410 shaped, form-stable gel implant. The current study aimed to validate the accuracy of the previously published results across multiple European sites. METHODS: A tota...... lower than the preimplantation rates. Breast implantation surgery was considered advantageous by 91% of the subjects, demonstrating high patient satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: The Style 410 anatomically shaped, form-stable gel breast implants demonstrated long-term safety and effectiveness....

  1. Effect of long-term simulated weightlessness on surfactant and water balance in mouse lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryndina, I G; Vasilieva, N N; Krivonogova, Yu A; Baranov, V M

    2013-07-01

    Weightlessness produces adaptive and maladaptive changes in the respiratory system. We assessed the effects of 30-day antiorthostatic hanging as a model of microgravity on the water balance in the lungs and surface activity and phospholipid composition of pulmonary surfactant in C57Bl/6 mice. Long-term antiorthostatic hanging increased water content in the lungs and reduced surface-active properties of the surfactant. This was accompanied by an increase in the content of alveolar phospholipids and changes in their fractional composition (increase in the relative content of lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine). PMID:24137589

  2. Effect of Clickers "versus" Online Homework on Students' Long-Term Retention of General Chemistry Course Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebru, Misganaw T.; Phelps, Amy J.; Wulfsberg, Gary

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the effects of student response systems (clickers) "versus" online homework on students' long-term retention of General Chemistry I course material. Long-term content retention was measured by a comprehensive yearlong American Chemical Society (ACS) GC97 exam administered seven months after students had completed the General…

  3. Long-term effects of in utero Doppler ultrasound scanning--a developmental programming perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, C E; Lees, C C

    2012-04-01

    Ultrasound scanning has been used as a diagnostic and screening tool in obstetric practice for over 50 years. There is no evidence of immediate or long-term harm to the developing fetus from exposure to B mode ultrasound. However, exposure to high levels of Doppler ultrasound during early development is increasingly common, and the full safety implications of this exposure are not clear. Doppler ultrasound exposure in utero gives rise to increased apoptosis in animal models, and there is evidence of the effects of exposure to Doppler ultrasound persisting throughout life, with increased non-right-handedness observed in human epidemiological studies. We consider the idea that there may be long-term developmental implications for fetuses exposed to Doppler ultrasound early in gestation. These effects may be mediated via thermal or mechanical disruption to the developing conceptus, giving rise to free radical damage. Excess free radical exposure early in gestation is a strong candidate for the final common pathway underlying developmental programming effects, and gives rise to concern that fetuses exposed to high levels of ultrasound are at risk of a developmental programming effect. It is suggested that there is a need for animal studies of developmental programming using exposure to Doppler ultrasound scanning as the exposure of interest, and for more observational data to be collected in the clinical setting. While these data are collected, it seems prudent to continue to adhere to the principle of 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) when exposing first-trimester fetuses to Doppler ultrasound. PMID:22325988

  4. Short and long term effects of root and shoot chilling of ransom soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, R L; Thomas, S A; Kramer, P J

    1983-11-01

    The immediate short term effects on some physiological processes and the long term effects on morphology and reproductive development of root- and shoot-chilled soybeans (Glycine max L. cv Ransom) were studied. Roots or shoots of 16- or 17-day-old plants were chilled at 10 degrees C for one week, and then rewarmed to 25 degrees C. Leaf elongation rate, net CO(2) uptake rate, and stomatal conductance decreased during root or shoot chilling. Root chilling had only temporary effects on water relations, while shoot chilling caused large changes in potentials during chilling. Most processes measured returned to control levels after two days of rewarming. Root-chilled plants harvested 90 days after emergence were similar in morphology and seed weight to controls. Shoot-chilled plants showed a large increase over controls in axillary branch growth, but an early abortion of flowers and a delayed resumption of flowering caused a 78% reduction in seed weight. Root chilling in this study was found to have little or no long term effect on the plants, while shoot chilling caused significant changes in vegetative morphology, and a delay in flowering and subsequent pod filling. PMID:16663300

  5. NEREC, an effective brain mapping protocol for combined language and long-term memory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Girard, Cléa; Cousin, Emilie; Vidal, Juan Ricardo; Pichat, Cédric; Kahane, Philippe; Baciu, Monica

    2015-12-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy can induce functional plasticity in temporoparietal networks involved in language and long-term memory processing. Previous studies in healthy subjects have revealed the relative difficulty for this network to respond effectively across different experimental designs, as compared to more reactive regions such as frontal lobes. For a protocol to be optimal for clinical use, it has to first show robust effects in a healthy cohort. In this study, we developed a novel experimental paradigm entitled NEREC, which is able to reveal the robust participation of temporoparietal networks in a uniquely combined language and memory task, validated in an fMRI study with healthy subjects. Concretely, NEREC is composed of two runs: (a) an intermixed language-memory task (confrontation naming associated with encoding in nonverbal items, NE) to map language (i.e., word retrieval and lexico-semantic processes) combined with simultaneous long-term verbal memory encoding (NE items named but also explicitly memorized) and (b) a memory retrieval task of items encoded during NE (word recognition, REC) intermixed with new items. Word recognition is based on both perceptual-semantic familiarity (feeling of 'know') and accessing stored memory representations (remembering). In order to maximize the remembering and recruitment of medial temporal lobe structures, we increased REC difficulty by changing the modality of stimulus presentation (from nonverbal during NE to verbal during REC). We report that (a) temporoparietal activation during NE was attributable to both lexico-semantic (language) and memory (episodic encoding and semantic retrieval) processes; that (b) encoding activated the left hippocampus, bilateral fusiform, and bilateral inferior temporal gyri; and that (c) task recognition (recollection) activated the right hippocampus and bilateral but predominant left fusiform gyrus. The novelty of this protocol consists of (a) combining two tasks in one (language

  6. EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON CARDIAC STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: A TWIN STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urho M.Kujala

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that athletic training or other physical activity causes structural and functional adaptations in the heart, but less is known how long-term physical activity affects heart when genetic liability and childhood environment are taken into account. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term physical activity vs. inactivity on cardiac structure and function in twin pairs discordant for physical activity for 32 years. Twelve same-sex twin pairs (five monozygotic and seven dizygotic, 50-67 years were studied as a part of the TWINACTIVE study. Discordance in physical activity was initially determined in 1975 and it remained significant throughout the follow-up. At the end of the follow-up in 2007, resting echocardiographic and electrocardiographic measurements were performed. During the follow-up period, the active co-twins were on average 8.2 (SD 4.0 MET hours/day more active than their inactive co-twins (p < 0.001. At the end of the follow-up, resting heart rate was lower in the active than inactive co-twins [59 (SD 5 vs. 68 (SD 10 bpm, p=0.03]. The heart rate-corrected QT interval was similar between the co-twins. Also, there was a tendency for left ventricular mass per body weight to be greater and T wave amplitude in lead II to be higher in the active co-twins (18% and 15%, respectively, p=0.08 for both. Similar trends were found for both monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. In conclusion, the main adaptation to long- term physical activity is lowered resting heart rate, even after partially or fully controlling for genetic liability and childhood environment

  7. Effects of long-term treatment on brain volume in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hosung; Joo, EunYeon; Suh, Sooyeon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Sung Tae; Hong, Seung Bong

    2016-01-01

    We assessed structural brain damage in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) patients (21 males) and the effects of long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment (18.2 ± 12.4 months; 8-44 months) on brain structures and investigated the relationship between severity of OSA and effects of treatment. Using deformation-based morphometry to measure local volume changes, we identified widespread neocortical and cerebellar atrophy in untreated patients compared to controls (59 males; Cohen's D = 0.6; FDR 64) presented with prefrontal atrophy and displayed an additional volume increase in this area following treatment. Higher impairment of working memory in patients prior to treatment correlated with prefrontal volume increase after treatment. The large overlap between the initial brain damage and the extent of recovery after treatment suggests partial recovery of nonpermanent structural damage. Volume increases in the dentate gyrus and the dentate nucleus possibly likely indicate compensatory neurogenesis in response to diminishing oxidative stress. Such changes in other brain structures may explain gliosis, dendritic volume increase, or inflammation. This study provides neuroimaging evidence that revealed the positive effects of long-term CPAP treatment in patients with OSA. PMID:26503297

  8. Prediction analysis of long-term memory effect for calamity gray series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhaonan(CHEN Chaonan); LI Zongyang(LEE Tzongyean)

    2004-01-01

    It is adequate to use the gray theory for modeling and forecasting short-term calamity series. The forecast of calamity gray series is equivalent to predicting an extraordinary event in nature. In order to look for the regularity, the calamity date series, created from the threshold for a fixed time-interval series, are studied. In this paper, the Hurst exponent is applied to defining the long-term memory effect of the simulated calamity series, and is tested for the feasibility of using it as pre-requisite information before the gray modeling and forecasting. Based on the fractional Brownian motion (fBm) model, the time series with a definite length or quantity of data are derived assuming that various kinds of memory effect exist. Different threshold values are defined to yield or to analogize the calamity date series that are required in the prediction of the gray calamity events. After case study, both of the simulated and real seismic data show that the Hurst exponents are greater than 0.5 and, therefore, indicate that the long-term memory effect exists. The correlation between the Hurst exponent and the gray modeling parameter, a, provides criteria for the classification of the forecast.

  9. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with 252Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from 252Cf and 7000 rad from 226Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for 252Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from 252Cf and 5000 rad from 226Ra

  10. Investigation of the long-term effects of unilateral hearing loss in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, V; Fiorino, F G; Carner, M; Rizzi, R

    1988-05-01

    The recent audiological literature has put forward the hypothesis that children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) show delays in educational achievement and academic progress and some behavioural difficulties. This motivated us to investigate the long-term effects of monaural auditory deprivation in a group of adults who had suffered from UHL since childhood. A group of subjects, ranging in age from 30 to 55 years, suffering from sensorineural UHL since early childhood, has been examined for psychosocial and psychoacoustical effects and statistically compared with a control group matched for age and sex. We prepared a questionnaire directed to provide some objective and subjective indices of psychosocial disability and handicap. Some questions were directed towards specific aspects of auditory function; others assessed the degree of education and the type of working performed. The results of the investigation confirmed the superiority of binaural v. monaural hearing. This was clearly demonstrated in psycho-acoustical performance in sound localisation, speech recognition in noise, together with the appreciation of music. On the other hand, the parameters concerned with educational, social and employment achievement did not support the existence of any significant difference between binaurally and monaurally hearing subjects. The data obtained in the present study thus do not support the existence of non-auditory, long-term effects of monaural hearing loss. PMID:3390628

  11. Effects of long-term grazing on sediment deposition and salt-marsh accretion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elschot, Kelly; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Temmerman, Stijn; Bakker, Jan P.

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have attempted to predict whether coastal marshes will be able to keep up with future acceleration of sea-level rise by estimating marsh accretion rates. However, there are few studies focussing on the long-term effects of herbivores on vegetation structure and subsequent effects on marsh accretion. Deposition of fine-grained, mineral sediment during tidal inundations, together with organic matter accumulation from the local vegetation, positively affects accretion rates of marsh surfaces. Tall vegetation can enhance sediment deposition by reducing current flow and wave action. Herbivores shorten vegetation height and this could potentially reduce sediment deposition. This study estimated the effects of herbivores on 1) vegetation height, 2) sediment deposition and 3) resulting marsh accretion after long-term (at least 16 years) herbivore exclusion of both small (i.e. hare and goose) and large grazers (i.e. cattle) for marshes of different ages. Our results firstly showed that both small and large herbivores can have a major impact on vegetation height. Secondly, grazing processes did not affect sediment deposition. Finally, trampling by large grazers affected marsh accretion rates by compacting the soil. In many European marshes, grazing is used as a tool in nature management as well as for agricultural purposes. Thus, we propose that soil compaction by large grazers should be taken in account when estimating the ability of coastal systems to cope with an accelerating sea-level rise.

  12. Long-Term Effects and Prognosis in Acute Heart Failure Treated with Tolvaptan: The AVCMA Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suzuki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diuresis is a major therapy for the reduction of congestive symptoms in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF patients. We previously reported the efficacy and safety of tolvaptan compared to carperitide in hospitalized patients with ADHF. There were some reports of cardio- and renal-protective effects in carperitide; therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the long-term effects of tolvaptan and carperitide on cardiorenal function and prognosis. Methods and Results. One hundred and five ADHF patients treated with either tolvaptan or carperitide were followed after hospital discharge. Levels of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide, serum sodium, potassium, creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were measured before administration of tolvaptan or carperitide at baseline, the time of discharge, and one year after discharge. These data between tolvaptan and carperitide groups were not different one year after discharge. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated that the event-free rate regarding all events, cardiac events, all cause deaths, and rehospitalization due to worsening heart failure was not significantly different between tolvaptan and carperitide groups. Conclusions. We demonstrated that tolvaptan had similar effects on cardiac and renal function and led to a similar prognosis in the long term, compared to carperitide.

  13. Long term cardioprotective action of trimetazidine and potential effect on the inflammatory process in patients with ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Di Napoli, P; Taccardi, A A; Barsotti, A

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the long term effects of trimetazidine in patients with dilated ischaemic cardiomyopathy. The effects of trimetazidine on left ventricular function as well as its tolerability profile and potential anti-inflammatory effects were studied.

  14. The long-term effect of increasing the albedo of urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar reflective urban surfaces (white rooftops and light-colored pavements) can increase the albedo of an urban area by about 0.1. Increasing the albedo of urban and human settlement areas can in turn decrease atmospheric temperature and could potentially offset some of the anticipated temperature increase caused by global warming. We have simulated the long-term (decadal to centennial) effect of increasing urban surface albedos using a spatially explicit global climate model of intermediate complexity. We first carried out two sets of simulations in which we increased the albedo of all land areas between ±20° and ±45° latitude respectively. The results of these simulations indicate a long-term global cooling effect of 3 × 10−15 K for each 1 m2 of a surface with an albedo increase of 0.01. This temperature reduction corresponds to an equivalent CO2 emission reduction of about 7 kg, based on recent estimates of the amount of global warming per unit CO2 emission. In a series of additional simulations, we increased the albedo of urban locations only, on the basis of two independent estimates of the spatial extent of urban areas. In these simulations, global cooling ranged from 0.01 to 0.07 K, which corresponds to a CO2 equivalent emission reduction of 25–150 billion tonnes of CO2. (letter)

  15. The Effect of Long-term Freezing on Renneting Properties of Sarda Sheep Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pazzola

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cold storage is a well-known strategy to limit concerns about seasonality for sheep dairy productions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term freezing on milk renneting properties from the Sarda sheep, an autochthonous breed from Italy. Two-hundred milk samples from 50 pluriparous Sarda ewes were collected at monthly intervals throughout the lactation from April to July. Each sample of fresh milk was analysed for composition and subsamples were obtained and frozen for one, three and five months. Renneting properties, both from the fresh and frozen subsamples, were achieved using the Formagraph instrument and results were submitted to a mixed model statistical analysis. The storage effect significantly affected (P<0.01 the renneting parameters. A large amount of non coagulating subsamples was registered after a long-term frozen storage. Furthermore, milk clotting time was longer in frozen subsamples and curd firmness diminished after a freezing period of five months. In conclusion, the remarkable decreasing of sheep milk renneting characteristics after frozen storage can predict a worse yield and quality of cheese-making and suggests that freezing of Sarda raw milk should be limited to shorter periods.

  16. Long term fuel price elasticity: effects on mobility tool ownership and residential location choice - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erath, A.; Axhausen, K. W.

    2010-04-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the long-term effects of fuel price elasticity. The study analyses how mobility tool usage and ownership as well as residence location choice are affected by rising fuel costs. Based on econometric models, long-term fuel price elasticity is derived. The authors quote that the demand reactions to higher fuel prices mainly observed are the reduction of mileage and the consideration of smaller-engined and diesel-driven cars. As cars with natural gas powered engines and electric drives were hardly considered in the survey, the results of the natural gas model can, according to the authors, only serve as a trend. No stable model could be estimated for the demand and usage of electric cars. A literature overview is presented and the design of the survey is discussed, whereby socio-demographical variables and the effects of price and residence changes are discussed. Modelling of mobility tool factors and results obtained are looked at. Finally, residence choice factors are modelled and discussed. Several appendices complete the report.

  17. Long-term radiation effects on commercial cable-insulating materials irradiated at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term irradiation damage tests have been carried out on a variety of flexible cable-insulating materials offered to CERN by different European cable manufacturers. Tensile test specimens were exposed for a maximum of three years in high-level radiation areas of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and for comparison at high dose rates in a nuclear reactor. The degradation of mechanical properties after irradiation in air depends not only on the total absorbed dose, but also on the dose rate for most of these polymer compounds. These dose-rate effects vary between material types and for different compounds. The results presented here illustrate the difference in radiation damage between short-term and long-term irradiation conditions in a typical service application for the various materials tested. They also allow safety factors to be estimated for the extrapolation of the limiting exposure in service from accelerated material tests in the range of dose rates covered. A discussion of the available models of the dose-rate effects results in a conservative estimate for extrapolation to low dose rates from measured values at intermediate dose rates of the order of 0.1 Gy/s. Based on short-term irradiation tests only, the safety factors to be applied depend on the end-point criterion used, and may vary between 1 and 10 for the range of dose rates and materials considered here. (orig.)

  18. Lake restoration by fish removal: Short and Long-term effects in 36 Danish lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Martin; Liboriussen, Lone; Pedersen, Asger Roer;

    2008-01-01

    -1360 kg fish ha-1 in 36 mainly shallow and eutrophic lakes. In lakes in which less than 200 kg fish ha-1 were removed within a 3-year period only minor effects were observed, but at higher removal rates both chemical and biological variables were markedly affected. The concentrations of chlorophyll a...... (Chla), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and suspended solids (SS) decreased to 50-70% of the level prior to removal. The most significant and long-lasting effects were found for SS and Secchi depth, whereas the most modest effects were seen for Chla. This probably reflects an efficient and......-restoration conditions, probably mainly because of consistently high external and internal phosphorus loading. We conclude that a sufficiently extensive removal of plankti- and benthivorous fish is an efficient tool to create clear water; however, repeated fish removal is presumably required to obtain long-term effects...

  19. Effectiveness of a social robot, "Paro," in a VA long-term care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Geoffrey W; Noronha, Delilah; Rivera, Alexandra; Craig, Kathy; Yee, Christina; Mills, Brent; Villanueva, Eimee

    2016-08-01

    Interest in animal assisted interventions (AAI) has grown over the years, but acceptance of AAI by the clinical and research community has been hampered by safety, hygiene, and logistical concerns. Advances in the field of social robotics have provided a promising route to deliver AAI while avoiding these aforementioned obstacles. Although there has been promising initial research on social robotics in older adults, to date there has been no such research conducted with a veteran population. The present pilot study followed 23 veteran residents of a Veterans Affairs (VA) geropsychiatric long-term care facility over the span of approximately a year and a half. It was found that use of Paro, a social robot, resulted in increased observed positive affective and behavioral indicators, with concomitant decreases observed in negative affective and behavioral indicators. The authors concluded that Paro is likely an effective nonpharmacological approach for managing dementia-related mood and behavior problems with veterans in VA long term care facilities. They additionally observed that Paro is best presented to residents who are relatively calm and approachable, as opposed to actively exhibiting behavior or mood problems. Future research directions are discussed in light of both the positive results noted and the inherent limitations of our pilot study. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27195530

  20. Effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on Pinus ponderosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surano, K.A.; Kercher, J.R. [eds.

    1993-10-01

    This report details the results from an experiment of the effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) saplings and seedlings. The study began in 1983 as a pilot study designed to explore the feasibility of using open-top chambers for continuous multi-year exposures on sapling-sized trees and to examine possible CO{sub 2} responses so that future research could be adequately designed. however, following the first year of exposure, preliminary results from the study indicated that measurements of CO{sub 2} responses should be intensified. Open-top chambers proved suitable for use in multiyear exposures of mature trees. With respect to the preliminary examination of CO{sub 2} responses, many interesting observations were made. The nature of the preliminary results suggests that future long-term field CO{sub 2} exposures on perennial species may be critical to the understanding and preparation for future environments. Other research reported here attempted to adapt an existing western coniferous forest growth and succession model for use in elevated CO{sub 2} scenarios using differential species responses, and assessed the usefulness of the model in that regard. Seven papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  1. The long-term effects of invasive signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) on instream macroinvertebrate communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Kate L; Chadd, Richard P; Dunbar, Michael J; Extence, Chris A; Reeds, Jake; Rice, Stephen P; Wood, Paul J

    2016-06-15

    Non-native species represent a significant threat to indigenous biodiversity and ecosystem functioning worldwide. It is widely acknowledged that invasive crayfish species may be instrumental in modifying benthic invertebrate community structure, but there is limited knowledge regarding the temporal and spatial extent of these effects within lotic ecosystems. This study investigates the long term changes to benthic macroinvertebrate community composition following the invasion of signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, into English rivers. Data from long-term monitoring sites on 7 rivers invaded by crayfish and 7 rivers where signal crayfish were absent throughout the record (control sites) were used to examine how invertebrate community composition and populations of individual taxa changed as a result of invasion. Following the detection of non-native crayfish, significant shifts in invertebrate community composition were observed at invaded sites compared to control sites. This pattern was strongest during autumn months but was also evident during spring surveys. The observed shifts in community composition following invasion were associated with reductions in the occurrence of ubiquitous Hirudinea species (Glossiphonia complanata and Erpobdella octoculata), Gastropoda (Radix spp.), Ephemeroptera (Caenis spp.), and Trichoptera (Hydropsyche spp.); although variations in specific taxa affected were evident between regions and seasons. Changes in community structure were persistent over time with no evidence of recovery, suggesting that crayfish invasions represent significant perturbations leading to permanent changes in benthic communities. The results provide fundamental knowledge regarding non-native crayfish invasions of lotic ecosystems required for the development of future management strategies. PMID:26974569

  2. Effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on Pinus ponderosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the results from an experiment of the effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) saplings and seedlings. The study began in 1983 as a pilot study designed to explore the feasibility of using open-top chambers for continuous multi-year exposures on sapling-sized trees and to examine possible CO2 responses so that future research could be adequately designed. however, following the first year of exposure, preliminary results from the study indicated that measurements of CO2 responses should be intensified. Open-top chambers proved suitable for use in multiyear exposures of mature trees. With respect to the preliminary examination of CO2 responses, many interesting observations were made. The nature of the preliminary results suggests that future long-term field CO2 exposures on perennial species may be critical to the understanding and preparation for future environments. Other research reported here attempted to adapt an existing western coniferous forest growth and succession model for use in elevated CO2 scenarios using differential species responses, and assessed the usefulness of the model in that regard. Seven papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  3. Preoperative High-Dose Steroid Has Long-Term Beneficial Effects for Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuichi Tetsuka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies addressing preoperative steroid treatment have revealed that control of myasthenia gravis (MG with steroids prior to surgery appeared to stabilize postoperative status. The purpose of our study was to clarify the clinical benefits of the preoperative programmed high-dose steroid treatment on the long-term outcomes of MG patients. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 171 MG patients who were followed up after undergoing thymectomy in our hospital between 1988 and 2006. One hundred and thirteen patients in the programmed treatment group had received preoperative steroid treatment, while 58 patients received no steroid treatment during the preoperative period. Clinical remission, which was defined as the achievement of the modified pharmacologic remission (PR for at least 1 year, and clinical benefits were compared between the two groups. With regard to the remission after thymectomy, Kaplan-Meier life-table curves for patients in the preoperative steroid treatment group versus those for patients in the no steroid preoperative treatment group revealed a significantly higher probability of the PR in the preoperative steroid treatment group (log-rank test, P<0.01. This study might be the first, as per our knowledge, to indicate that preoperative programmed high-dose steroid treatment has long-term beneficial effects for MG patients.

  4. Long-Term Effects of Maternal Deprivation on Cholinergic System in Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Marković

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated an association between early stressful life events and adult life psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. In rodents, early life exposure to stressors such as maternal deprivation (MD produces numerous hormonal, neurochemical, and behavioral changes and is accepted as one of the animal models of schizophrenia. The stress induces acetylcholine (Ach release in the forebrain and the alterations in cholinergic neurotransmitter system are reported in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine long-term effects of maternal separation on acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in different brain structures and the density of cholinergic fibers in hippocampus and retrosplenial (RS cortex. Wistar rats were separated from their mothers on the postnatal day (P 9 for 24 h and sacrificed on P60. Control group of rats was bred under the same conditions, but without MD. Brain regions were collected for AChE activity measurements and morphometric analysis. Obtained results showed significant decrease of the AChE activity in cortex and increase in the hippocampus of MD rats. Density of cholinergic fibers was significantly increased in CA1 region of hippocampus and decreased in RS cortex. Our results indicate that MD causes long-term structure specific changes in the cholinergic system.

  5. Double Crowding-Out Effects of Means-Tested Public Provision for Long-Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Courbage

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Publicly provided long-term care (LTC insurance with means-tested benefits is suspected to crowd out either private saving or informal care. This contribution predicts crowding-out effects for both private saving and informal care for policy measures designed to relieve the public purse from LTC expenditure such as more stringent means testing and increased taxation of inheritance. These effects result from the interaction of a parent who decides on the amount of saving in retirement and a caregiver who decides on the effort devoted to informal care which lowers the probability of admission to a nursing home. Double crowding-out effects are also found to be the consequence of exogenous influences, notably a higher opportunity cost of caregiving.

  6. Long-term effects of music therapy on elderly with moderate/severe dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Takiko; Matsushita, Hiroko

    2006-01-01

    Over a period of 2 years we assessed the long-term effects of group music therapy carried out once weekly on the elderly (mean age: 83 years) suffering from moderate or severe dementia by observing changes in the cortisol level in saliva and in blood pressure and by an intelligence assessment. Systolic blood pressure determined 1 and 2 years after the start of therapy increased significantly in the nonmusic therapy group compared with that in music therapy group (p effect of once-a-week continuous music therapy. Even the elderly with moderate or severe dementia were able to participate in the group music therapy, and results suggest that enjoying singing and playing musical instruments in a concert was effective in preventing cardiac and cerebral diseases. PMID:17348758

  7. The middle-long term effect of TAE with pingyangmycin-lipiodol emulsion for hepatic hemangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the middle-long term effect of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with pingyangmycin-lipiodol emulsion (PLE) in the treatment of hepatic hemangioma. Methods: Collected 116 hepatic hemangioma cases underwent interventional treatment with PLE in our hospital from April 2000 to September 2010. According to WHO solid tumors reference standard, evaluate clinical efficacy by the reduction rate of tumor; the changes of the clinical symptoms and complications were all recorded in the follow-up data. Results: 139 lesions of 116 cases were treated successfully. Follow-up 6 months to 10 years, the clinical symptoms disappeared in 79 cases, relieved in 6 cases and no change in 2 cases, effective rate is 97.7%. The size of the lesions reduced in different degrees. The effective rate of 6 months to 1 year, 1 to 3 years, 3 to 5 years and 5 to 10 years were 84.2%, 85.4%, 88.1% and 96.4% respectively. The largest cross-sectional areas of long-term follow-up 28 lesions were (30.54±23.98) cm2, (24.89±19.48) cm2, (20.73±17.78) cm2, (17.30±15.21) cm2 respectively, compared with preoperative [(89.44±67.93) cm2] respectively with a significant difference (P<0.05). There were no serious complications in all cases. Conclusion: TAE with PLE in hepatic hemangioma proves to be effective, safe and little side-effects. It has broad indications and is an ideal method in the treatment of hepatic hemangioma. (authors)

  8. Understanding long-term variations in an elephant piosphere effect to manage impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Marietjie; Schoeman, David S; Hall-Martin, Anthony J; Kerley, Graham I H

    2012-01-01

    Surface water availability is a key driver of elephant impacts on biological diversity. Thus, understanding the spatio-temporal variations of these impacts in relation to water is critical to their management. However, elephant piosphere effects (i.e. the radial pattern of attenuating impact) are poorly described, with few long-term quantitative studies. Our understanding is further confounded by the complexity of systems with elephant (i.e. fenced, multiple water points, seasonal water availability, varying population densities) that likely limit the use of conceptual models to predict these impacts. Using 31 years of data on shrub structure in the succulent thickets of the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa, we tested elephant effects at a single water point. Shrub structure showed a clear sigmoid response with distance from water, declining at both the upper and lower limits of sampling. Adjacent to water, this decline caused a roughly 300-m radial expansion of the grass-dominated habitats that replace shrub communities. Despite the clear relationship between shrub structure and ecological functioning in thicket, the extent of elephant effects varied between these features with distance from water. Moreover, these patterns co-varied with other confounding variables (e.g. the location of neighboring water points), which limits our ability to predict such effects in the absence of long-term data. We predict that elephant have the ability to cause severe transformation in succulent thicket habitats with abundant water supply and elevated elephant numbers. However, these piosphere effects are complex, suggesting that a more integrated understanding of elephant impacts on ecological heterogeneity may be required before water availability is used as a tool to manage impacts. We caution against the establishment of water points in novel succulent thicket habitats, and advocate a significant reduction in water provisioning at our study site, albeit with greater

  9. Understanding long-term variations in an elephant piosphere effect to manage impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietjie Landman

    Full Text Available Surface water availability is a key driver of elephant impacts on biological diversity. Thus, understanding the spatio-temporal variations of these impacts in relation to water is critical to their management. However, elephant piosphere effects (i.e. the radial pattern of attenuating impact are poorly described, with few long-term quantitative studies. Our understanding is further confounded by the complexity of systems with elephant (i.e. fenced, multiple water points, seasonal water availability, varying population densities that likely limit the use of conceptual models to predict these impacts. Using 31 years of data on shrub structure in the succulent thickets of the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa, we tested elephant effects at a single water point. Shrub structure showed a clear sigmoid response with distance from water, declining at both the upper and lower limits of sampling. Adjacent to water, this decline caused a roughly 300-m radial expansion of the grass-dominated habitats that replace shrub communities. Despite the clear relationship between shrub structure and ecological functioning in thicket, the extent of elephant effects varied between these features with distance from water. Moreover, these patterns co-varied with other confounding variables (e.g. the location of neighboring water points, which limits our ability to predict such effects in the absence of long-term data. We predict that elephant have the ability to cause severe transformation in succulent thicket habitats with abundant water supply and elevated elephant numbers. However, these piosphere effects are complex, suggesting that a more integrated understanding of elephant impacts on ecological heterogeneity may be required before water availability is used as a tool to manage impacts. We caution against the establishment of water points in novel succulent thicket habitats, and advocate a significant reduction in water provisioning at our study site

  10. Long-term environmental effects and flight service evaluation of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, H. Benson

    1987-01-01

    Results of a NASA-Langley sponsored research program to establish the long term effects of realistic flight environments and ground based exposure on advanced composite materials are presented. The effects of moisture, ultraviolet radiation, aircraft fuels and fluids, sustained stress, and fatigue loading are reported. Residual strength and stiffness as a function of exposure time and exposure location are reported for seven different material systems after 10 years of worldwide outdoor exposure. Flight service results of over 300 composite components installed on rotorcraft and transport aircraft are included. Over 4 million total component flight hours were accumulated on various aircraft since initiation of flight service in 1973. Service performance, maintenance characteristics, and residual strength of numerous composite components installed on commercial and military aircraft are reported as a function of flight hours and years in service. Residual strength test results of graphite/epoxy spoilers with 10 years of worldwide service and over 28,000 flight hours are reported.

  11. A cost-effectiveness analysis of long-term intermittent catheterisation with hydrophilic and uncoated catheters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, J F; Mealing, S J; Scott, D A; Vogel, L C; Krassioukov, A; Spinelli, M; Bagi, P; Wyndaele, J-J

    2016-01-01

    includes the long-term sequelae of impaired renal function and urinary tract infection (UTI). SETTING: Analysis based on a UK perspective. METHODS: A probabilistic Markov decision model was constructed, to compare lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years, taking renal and UTI health states into......STUDY DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysisObjective:To establish a model to investigate the cost effectiveness for people with spinal cord injury (SCI), from a lifetime perspective, for the usage of two different single-use catheter designs: hydrophilic-coated (HC) and uncoated (UC). The model...... consideration, as well as other catheter-related events. UTI event rates for the primary data set were based on data from hospital settings to ensure controlled and accurate reporting. A sensitivity analysis was applied to evaluate best- and worst-case scenarios. RESULTS: The model predicts that a 36-year...

  12. Effects of long-term ozone exposure and dietary vitamin E in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, S.; Shimura, S.; Hirose, T.; Maeda, S.; Kawakami, M.; Takishima, T.; Kimura, S.

    1980-02-01

    Rats fed on a vitamin E-deficient diet (E-depleted group) and a vitamin E-supplemented diet (E-supplemented group) were exposed to 0.3 ppm ozone for three hours daily, five days a week for seven months. Then animals from each group were sacrificed, and electron microscopic studies on the lung and biochemical examinations on the lung and liver were performed. The defensive effect of vitamin E on ozone toxicity induced by long-term exposure to ozone was not made clear by the morphological or biochemical examination of the lung. However, biochemical findings in liver of rats exposed to ozone suggested the possibility that vitamin E deficiency permits the damaging effects of lipid peroxidation on biological membranes. (JMT)

  13. Biological effects of long term fine limestone tailings discharge in a fjord ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lucy; Melsom, Fredrik; Glette, Tormod

    2015-07-15

    Benthic infaunal data collected from 1993 to 2010 were analysed to examine the effect of long term discharge of fine limestone tailings on macrofaunal species assemblages in a fjord. Relative distance from the outfall and proportion of fine tailings in the sediment were correlated with benthic community structure. Diversity decreased with increasing proportion of fine tailings. Biological Traits Analysis (BTA) was used to explore the temporal and spatial effects of the tailings gradient on macrofaunal functional attributes. BTA revealed that all stations along a pressure gradient of fine limestone tailings were dominated by free-living species. As the proportion of fine tailings in the sediment increased, there was an increase in fauna that were smaller, highly mobile, living on or nearer the surface sediment, with shorter lifespans. There was a decrease in permanent tube dwellers, those fauna with low or no mobility, that live deeper in the sediment and have longer lifespans (>5 yrs). PMID:25960275

  14. Long-term effects of soil management practices on selected indicators of chemical soil quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Pecio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in scope of Catch-C project “Compatibility of agricultural management practices and types of farming in the EU to enhance climate change mitigation and soil health” (7FP, realized in 2012–2014 by the consortium of partners from 10 European countries (http://www.catch-c.eu. This work reports the effects of soil management practices – under different soil and climatic conditions – on the selected soil chemical quality indicators, based on the analysis of data extracted from literature on long term experiments (LTEs in Europe, as well as from LTEs held by the Catch-C consortium partners. The dataset related to soil chemical quality indicators consisted of 1044 records and referred to 59 long-term trials. The following indicators of chemical soil quality were analyzed: pH, N total content, N total stock, C:N ratio, N mineral content, P and K availability. They are the most frequently used indicators in the European literature on long-term experiments collected in the Catch-C project database. Soil organic carbon, however, the most important indicator was not presented here, due to it was covered by a separate study on indicators for climate change mitigation. The indicators were analyzed using their response ratio (RR to a management practice. For a given treatment (management practice, this ratio was calculated as the quotient between the indicator value obtained in the treatment, and the indicator value in the reference treatment. The examples were: rotation (with cereals, with legume crops, with tuber or root crops, with grassland vs. adequate monoculture, catch/cover crops vs. no catch/cover crops, no-tillage and no-inversion tillage vs. conventional tillage, mineral fertilization vs. no fertilization, organic fertilization (compost, farmyard manure, slurry vs. mineral fertilization at the same available nitrogen input, crop residue incorporation vs. removal. All tested practices influenced soil chemical quality

  15. Long-Term Effects of Prenatal Hypoxia on Schizophrenia-Like Phenotype in Heterozygous Reeler Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kristy R; Pillai, Anilkumar

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal hypoxia (PHX) is a well-known environmental factor implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the long-term effects of PHX on schizophrenia-related neuroplasticity are poorly understood. Using behavioral tasks, MRI imaging, and biochemical studies, we examined the long-term effects of PHX in heterozygous reeler mice (HRM; mice deficient for reelin, a candidate gene for schizophrenia). PHX at E17 failed to induce any significant deficits in prepulse inhibition, spatial memory, anxiety-like behavior, or blood flow in wild type (WT) and HRM at 6 months of age. However, PHX induced a significant increase in frontal cortex volume in WT whereas the higher frontal cortical volume found in HRM was significantly reduced by PHX. A significant decrease in reelin levels was observed in frontal cortex of WT and HRM and hippocampus of HRM following PHX. In addition, PHX induced significant reductions in hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) levels in frontal cortex and hippocampus of HRM. Although no significant effect of PHX was observed in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WT and HRM, serum VEGF levels were found higher in HRM following PHX. Moreover, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels were significantly lower in frontal cortex of WT and HRM and hippocampus of HRM following PHX. We found a significant reduction in serum corticosterone levels of PHX-treated WT mice. These findings suggest that future experiments addressing gene-environment interaction in schizophrenia should consider age-dependent effects of the environmental factor, in addition to the specificity of the gene of interest. PMID:26059812

  16. Effects of long-term pioglitazone treatment on peripheral and central markers of aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Blalock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thiazolidinediones (TZDs activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma and are used clinically to help restore peripheral insulin sensitivity in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM. Interestingly, long-term treatment of mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD with TZDs also has been shown to reduce several well-established brain biomarkers of AD including inflammation, oxidative stress and Abeta accumulation. While TZD's actions in AD models help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying their potentially beneficial effects in AD patients, little is known about the functional consequences of TZDs in animal models of normal aging. Because aging is a common risk factor for both AD and T2DM, we investigated whether the TZD, pioglitazone could alter brain aging under non-pathological conditions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the F344 rat model of aging, and monitored behavioral, electrophysiological, and molecular variables to assess the effects of pioglitazone (PIO-Actos(R a TZD on several peripheral (blood and liver and central (hippocampal biomarkers of aging. Starting at 3 months or 17 months of age, male rats were treated for 4-5 months with either a control or a PIO-containing diet (final dose approximately 2.3 mg/kg body weight/day. A significant reduction in the Ca(2+-dependent afterhyperpolarization was seen in the aged animals, with no significant change in long-term potentiation maintenance or learning and memory performance. Blood insulin levels were unchanged with age, but significantly reduced by PIO. Finally, a combination of microarray analyses on hippocampal tissue and serum-based multiplex cytokine assays revealed that age-dependent inflammatory increases were not reversed by PIO. CONCLUSIONS: While current research efforts continue to identify the underlying processes responsible for the progressive decline in cognitive function seen during normal aging, available medical treatments are still very limited

  17. The long-term effect of ambulatory oxygen in normoxaemic COPD patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbaek, Thomas; Martinez, Gerd; Lange, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To study the long-term benefits of ambulatory oxygen (AO) in combination with pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients experiencing exertional desaturation.......To study the long-term benefits of ambulatory oxygen (AO) in combination with pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients experiencing exertional desaturation....

  18. Neonatal Pain in Very Preterm Infants: Long-Term Effects on Brain, Neurodevelopment and Pain Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Eckstein Grunau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of early life psychosocial adversity have received a great deal of attention, such as maternal separation in experimental animal models and abuse/neglect in young humans. More recently, long-term effects of the physical stress of repetitive procedural pain have begun to be addressed in infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care. Preterm infants are more sensitive to pain and stress, which cannot be distinguished in neonates. The focus of this review is clinical studies of long-term effects of repeated procedural pain-related stress in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU in relation to brain development, neurodevelopment, programming of stress systems, and later pain sensitivity in infants born very preterm (24–32 weeks’ gestational age. Neonatal pain exposure has been quantified as the number of invasive and/or skin-breaking procedures during hospitalization in the NICU. Emerging studies provide convincing clinical evidence for an adverse impact of neonatal pain/stress in infants at a time of physiological immaturity, rapidly developing brain microstructure and networks, as well as programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Currently it appears that early pain/stress may influence the developing brain and thereby neurodevelopment and stress-sensitive behaviors, particularly in the most immature neonates. However, there is no evidence for greater prevalence of pain syndromes compared to children and adults born healthy at full term. In addressing associations between pain/stress and outcomes, careful consideration of confounding clinical factors related to prematurity is essential. The need for pain management for humanitarian care is widely advocated. Non-pharmacological interventions to help parents reduce their infant’s stress may be brain-protective.

  19. Long-term health effect of 25 persons overexposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the long-term health effects of overexpose to radiation. Methods: The 32 -41-year medical followed-up observations were performed for 25 persons exposed to ionizing radiation in the dose range of 0.10 -0.33 Gy. Observations were made of clinical symptom,eye lens, cytogenetics, immune function and endocrine function for these persons. Results: The incidence of neurasthenic symptom was higher in exposed group than that in control group. 2 cases suffered from liver cancer and esophageal cancer, respectively. Posterior capsule punctuate phacoscotasmus of the lens were observed in 7 cases. There was I case of cataract in the exposed group. The frequencies of chromosome aberration and micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocyte in the exposed group were significantly higher than those in control group (χ2=8.88, 8.71, 40.60, 45.63, P<0.05). The average value of serum IgG was higher (t=2.16, P<0.05), while that of IgM was obviously lower in the exposed group (t=2.03, P<0.05). The average values of serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the exposed group were obviously lower than those in the control group (t=2.40, 3.54, 2.13, P<0.05). Conclusions: Overexposure has effect on lens,immune function, cytogenetics to some degree. It is important to observe the long-term health effect on overexposed persons. (authors)

  20. Long-Term Safety and Effectiveness of the “OptEase” Vena Cava Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the long-term safety and effectiveness of the OptEase inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. Materials and Methods: In this Institutional Review Board-approved, retrospective study, we reviewed data of 71 patients who received an OptEase filter at our institution from 2002 to 2007. Thirty-nine (55%) patients had symptoms of venous thromboembolism before filter placement. The indications for filter included contraindication to anticoagulation in 31 (44%) patients, prophylaxis against pulmonary embolism (PE) in 29 (41%) patients, and failure of anticoagulation in 11 (15%) patients. Procedure-related complications, such as symptomatic post-filter PE, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), IVC occlusion, and incidental imaging-evident filter-related complications, were recorded. Safety was assessed by the occurrence of filter-related complications during placement and follow-up. Effectiveness was assessed by the occurrence of post-filter PE. Results: Sixty-five (92%) filters were placed under fluoroscopy, and 6 (8%) were placed using intravascular ultrasound guidance. Seventy (99%) filters were placed successfully. Seven (10%) filters were placed in the suprarenal cava. Retrieval was attempted in 14 (20%) patients, and 12 filters were successfully retrieved. Clinical follow-up was available for 20 ± 21 months. Symptoms of postfilter PE and DVT occurred in 15% (n = 11) and 10% (n = 7) patients, respectively. None of these patients had computed tomography (CT)-proven PE, and only one had ultrasound-proven new DVT. One patient had symptomatic IVC occlusion. Follow-up abdominal CT in 20 patients showed thrombus in the filter in two of them. There were no instances of filter migration, filter tilt, or caval wall penetration. Conclusion: The OptEase filter appears to have an acceptable long-term safety profile. The filter was effective against PE.

  1. Gap between short- and long-term effects of patient education in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedermann, K.; Fransen, J.; Knols, R.H.; Uebelhart, D.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically review educational or psychoeducational interventions for patients with rheumatoid arthritis focusing on long-term effects, especially health status. METHODS: Two independent reviewers appraised the methodologic quality of the included randomized controlled trials, publi

  2. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Treating Long-Term Gastrointestinal Adverse Effects Caused by Radiation Therapy in Patients With Pelvic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    Bladder Cancer; Cervical Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Gastrointestinal Complications; Long-term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Adults; Ovarian Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Radiation Toxicity; Sarcoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Vaginal Cancer

  3. Long-term effects of oral clefts on health care utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Saaby; Wehby, George L; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind;

    2015-01-01

    Oral clefts are among the most common birth defects affecting thousands of newborns each year, but little is known about their potential long-term consequences. In this paper, we explore the impact of oral clefts on health care utilization over most of the lifespan. To account for time......-invariant unobservable parental characteristics, we compare affected individuals with their own unaffected siblings. The analysis is based on unique data comprising the entire cohort of individuals born with oral clefts in Denmark tracked until adulthood in administrative register data. We find that children with oral...... clefts use more health services than their unaffected siblings. Additional results show that the effects are driven primarily by congenital malformation-related hospitalizations and intake of anti-infectives. Although the absolute differences in most health care utilization diminish over time, affected...

  4. The reactivity effects of nuclide buildup and decay during long-term fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of spent fuel reactivity over a 100,000-year cooling time. The goal of this work was to study the changes in reactivity and to recognize which nuclides contribute to such changes. The analysis employs the use of the effective one-group cross-section data of each nuclide studied. The primary contributors to K∞ changes during long-term spent fuel storage were identified as 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 241Am, and 235U. The approach presented here can be processed simply by spreadsheet-type calculations on a personal computer after performing only one SAS2H calculation to obtain one-group cross-section data and nuclide densities

  5. Therapeutic control of plasma concentrations and long-term effect of nortriptyline in recurrent affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh-Sørensen; Hansen, C E; Baastrup, P C; Hvidberg, E F

    1976-07-01

    Based on the evidence that therapeutic plasma concentration range in fact exists for the tricyclic antidepressant drug, Nortriptyline (range 50-150 ng/ml), three different investigations were under taken in order to clarify some clinical pharmacological problems during long-term treatment with this drug. The possible prophlactic effect of the drug in recurrent affective disorders was specially examined in a group of patients with a high risk of episodes in their unipolar manic-depressive disease. The results highly demonstrate the value of monitoring plasma levels in achieving therapeutic control. Depressive relapses during treatment, for months and years, were only related to therapeutic insufficient plasma levels of the drug. PMID:981330

  6. The Effect of Long Term Mercury Pollution on the Soil Microbial Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, A.K.; Westergaard, K.; Christensen, Søren;

    2001-01-01

    bacterial and protozoan populations was reduced in the most contaminated soil, whereas there was no significant difference in fungal biomass measured as chitinase activity. Based on the number of colony morphotypes, moreover, the culturable bacterial population was structurally less diverse and contained a......The effect of long-term exposure to mercury on the soil microbial community was investigated in soil from three different sites along a pollution gradient. The amount of total and bioavailable mercury was negatively correlated to the distance from the center of contamination. The size of the...... higher proportion of resistant and fast-growing forms. The profiles of amplified 16S rDNA sequences obtained from community DNA by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) also reflected the altered community structure and decreased diversity along the mercury gradient as expressed in terms of...

  7. A quantitative model for presynaptic free calcium dynamics during the induction of long-term effects

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, F; Soff, G; Erler, Frido; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Soff, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    The presynaptic free calcium dynamics of neurons due to various stimulation protocols is investigated in a mathematical model. Especially, connections between free calcium dynamics and the induction of synaptic long-term effects are considered. The model includes calcium influx through voltage-directed calcium channels, calcium buffering by endogenous and exogenous buffers as well as calcium efflux through ATP-driven plasma membrane calcium pumps and sodium/calcium exchangers. A classification of parameters into universal (widely independent of neuron types) and specific ones (depending on neuron type and experimental setup) allows the applications of the model to different classes of neurons and experiments. This is demonstrated for single boutons of pyramidal neurons of the rat neocortex. The model parameters are determined using corresponding fluorescence measurements. The model enables us to reconstruct the free calcium dynamics in neurons as it would have been without fluorescence indicators starting fro...

  8. Long-term effect of nitrate on Cr(VI) removal by Fe(0): column studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Minghai; Yuan, Fang; Huang, Guoxin; Chen, Honghan; Liu, Fei

    2016-05-01

    Lab-scale parallel continuous-flow column experiments were performed to assess the long-term effect of nitrate (NO3 (-)) on hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) removal by scrap iron (Fe(0)). The first column (L1) was fed with the Cr(VI) solution and the second column (L2) was loaded with the Cr(VI) + NO3 (-) solution. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray analyses (SEM-EDS) were conducted to investigate the changes of the iron oxides on Fe(0). The results showed that the process of Cr(VI) removal by Fe(0) was divided into three different stages in the presence of NO3 (-): inhibition period (film on the Fe(0) surface as well as an electron mediator that facilitated electron transport from Fe(0) to adsorbed Cr(VI). PMID:26797949

  9. Long-term fat diet adaptation effects on performance, training capacity, and fat utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    performance enhancement after long-term fat-rich diet adaptation. Attainment of optimal performance is among other factors dependent also on the quality and quantity of the training performed. When exercise intensity is increased, there is an increased need for carbohydrates. On the other hand, consumption of......It is well known that adaptation to a fat-rich carbohydrate-poor diet results in lower resting muscle glycogen content and a higher rate of fat oxidation during exercise when compared with a carbohydrate-rich diet. The net effect of such an adaptation could potentially be a sparing of muscle...... glycogen, and because muscle glycogen storage is coupled to endurance performance, it is possible that adaptation to a high-fat diet potentially could enhance endurance performance. Therefore, the first issue in this review is to critically evaluate the available evidence for a potential endurance...

  10. Long-term effects of prenatal diagnostic x-rays on childhood physical and intellectual development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-term follow-up study has been conducted on the physical and intellectual development of 1026 children exposed in utero to diagnostic x-rays and of 1191 non-exposed controls in Beijing, Shanghai and Changchun. The fetal absorbed doses ranged from 11.75 to 42.70 mGy. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups in body height, weight and head circumference compared by standard deviations of individual measured parameters from local normal means. The mean score of an intelligence test in the exposed group was slightly lower than that in the control group with a statistically significant difference. However, the residual radiation effects on IQ were no longer significant on the Hotelling T2-test and Student's t-test when confounding factors were identified and taken into account by backward stepwise regression analyses. (author)

  11. Effect of Long-Term Fertilization on Soil Productivity and Nitrate Accumulation in Gansu Oasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Sheng-mao; LI Feng-min; SUO Dong-rang; GUO Tian-wen; WANG Jian-guo; SONG Bing-ling; JIN Shao-ling

    2006-01-01

    A long-term (1982-2001) field experiment was conducted in a calcareous soil under wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-maize (Zea mays L.) rotation system at Zhangye, Gansu Province, China to determine the effects of long-term fertilization on crop yield, nutrients interactions, content and accumulation of nitrate-N in soil profiles. Twentyfour plots in a split-plot factorial with a combination of eight treatments (from nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and farmyard manure (M) applications) and 3 replications were selected. Main treatments were M and without M, and the sub-treatments were no-fertilizer (CK), N, NP and NPK. When P and K fertilizers were part of treatments, their ratio to N was 1N:0.22P:0.42K. All M, P and K fertilizers were applied as the basal dressing. The grain yield was harvested each experimental period and straw yield for the period from 1988 to 1997. After crop harvest in 2000, the soil was sampled from the 0-20, 20-60, 60-100, 100-140 and 140-180 cm depths to determine NO3--N content. Maize yie ld of CK in 2000 was only 28.2% of that in 1984, and wheat in 2001 was 25.7% of that observed in 1982. Average impact of fertilizers on grain yield decreased in the order of N > M > P > K. Yield response to N and P fertilizers increased with progress of the experiment. The impact of K fertilizer showed no increase in grain yield during the initial 6 years (1982-1987), moderate increase in the next 5 years (1988-1992), and considerable increase in the last 9 years (1993-2001). The straw yield trend was similar to grain yield. Accumulation and distribution of NO3--N in soil was significantly affected by annual fertilizations. Mineral fertilizers (NP and NPK) led to NO3--N accumulation in most subsoil layers, with major impact in the 20-140 cm depth. The combination of mineral fertilizers and farmyard manure (MNP and MNPK) reduced soil NO3--N accumulation in comparison to mineral fertilizers. It can be argued that

  12. Long term effects of ash recycling on soil and water chemistry in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute has studied the long-term need of compensatory fertilisation (e.g. wood ash recycling) after whole tree harvest in coniferous forests in Sweden. The study is based on dynamic model calculations with scenarios including reduced atmospheric deposition of air pollutants and different intensity of forest management. The possibilities to counteract acidification in soil and water with application of stabilised wood ash are discussed. The reduction in deposition of acidifying air pollutants in Sweden up to 2010 is expected to contribute to a significant recovery from acidification in soil- and runoff water in forests. The recovery of the forest soil (e.g. base saturation ) will, however, be slow according to the model calculations, especially if compensatory fertilisation is not carried out in managed areas. The model calculations indicate that the harvest of stemwood will have limited impact on the future acidity of soil and run off water from well drained forest soils. This conclusion is based on a comparison with a scenario where no harvest is assumed. More important for recovery from acidification is further reduction of acidifying air pollutants, even after 2010. Harvest of stemwood in combination with extraction of harvest residues has the potential to cause significant and long term acidification of soils in the future, especially in areas with high forest production and slow weathering rate. The results of the study indicate a need of compensatory fertilisation in these areas if whole tree harvest is applied, especially if the deposition of air pollutants have been high in the past. Field studies have shown that acidification effects of whole tree harvest can be counteracted by wood ash recycling to forest soils, due to the high content of calcium- and magnesium-rich minerals in the ashes. However, the dose should be adjusted to the need of increasing the acid neutralising capacity in the soil and runoff and the actual

  13. Insight into the short- and long-term effects of Cu(II) on denitrifying biogranules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Chen, Qian-Qian; Jiang, Xiao-Yan; Hu, Hai-Yan; Shi, Man-Ling; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the short- and long-term effects of Cu(2+) on the activity and performance of denitrifying bacteria. The short-term effects of various concentrations of Cu(2+) on the denitrifying bacteria were evaluated using batch assays. The specific denitrifying activity (SDA) decreased from 14.3 ± 2.2 (without Cu(2+)) to 6.1 ± 0.1 mg N h(-1)g(-1) VSS (100 mg Cu(2+)L(-1)) when Cu(2+) increased from 0 to 100 mg L(-1) with an increment of 10 mg Cu(2+)L(-1). A non-competitive inhibition model was used to calculate the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of Cu(2+) on denitrifying sludge (30.6 ± 2.5 mg L(-1)). Monod and Luong models were applied to investigate the influence of the initial substrate concentration, and the results suggested that the maximum substrate removal rate would be reduced with Cu(2+) supplementation. Pre-exposure to Cu(2+) could lead to an 18.2-46.2% decrease in the SDA and decreasing percentage of the SDA increased with both exposure time and concentration. In the continuous-flow test, Cu(2+) concentration varied from 1 to 75 mg L(-1); however, no clear deterioration was observed in the reactor, and the reactor was kept stable, with the total nitrogen removal efficiency and total organic carbon efficiency greater than 89.0 and 85.0%, respectively. The results demonstrated the short-term inhibition of Cu(2+) upon denitrification, and no notable adversity was observed during the continuous-flow test after long-term acclimation. PMID:26610098

  14. Long-Term Aging Effects on Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Ni-base Superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various alloying elements such as Mo, Co, W, Cr, Al, Mn and others are added in Ni-base superalloys to improve strength, creep, and oxidation resistance at high temperature. Some elements would form carbides such as M23C6, M6C and Ti(C,N) at grain boundaries and within grain. Strength and creep resistance are increased when intergranular carbides are present as discrete particles by pinning grain boundaries and thereby inhibit grain boundary sliding. Meanwhile, after long term exposure at high temperature, additional carbides are developed and diffused then coarsened at grain boundary. It could deteriorate mechanical properties. In this study, the effects of long-term ageing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ni-base superalloys were investigated. From the microstructure observation and tensile tests of Ni-base superalloy, Alloy 617 and Haynes 230, aged at 800 .deg. C and 900 .deg. C for 10000 h, the following conclusions were drawn; - During high temperature aging process for long time, additional carbides were developed and coarsened at grain boundary and inside grain. - Depending on the aging temperature, behaviors of carbides were different. In Alloy 617, linked carbides were formed at 900 .deg. C while discrete one was developed at 800 .deg. C at grain boundary. In case of Haynes 230, coarsened pool-like carbides surrounded by carbide depleted area were formed at 900 .deg. C, but it was not observed at 800 .deg. C. - Tensile strength of Alloy 617 and Haynes 230 were increased after aging at 800 .deg. C though it was decreased aging temperature at 900 .deg. C due to more carbide formation at 800 .deg. C. - Elongations of aged Ni-base superalloys were decreased by the effect of coarsened brittle carbide at grain boundary

  15. Long-term subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 as maintenance therapy: biological effects and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, M; Abbate, I; Casamassima, A; Musci, M D; Latorre, A; Lorusso, V; Correale, M; De Lena, M

    1995-01-01

    Several trials have evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of rIL-2 combined with more traditional treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, but the use of IL-2 as adjuvant therapy for minimal residual disease or to maintain clinical response obtained with other standard treatments has yet to be investigated. The aim of the present trial was to study the biological effects of maintenance long-term treatment (6 months) with subcutaneous low-dose IL-2 in 16 patients with different neoplasms previously treated with chemo-immuno therapeutic regimens or with surgery (7 metastatic renal cancers, 5 locally advanced renal cancers previously subjected to radical nephrectomy, 2 metastatic breast cancers, 1 small cell lung cancer, and 1 metastatic melanoma). Clinical tolerability, feasibility and therapeutic implications are also discussed. The IL-2 schedule was as follows: 4.5 million IU/day, 3 times weekly for 6 months. A total of 14 patients completed therapy without requiring dose modifications and are free of progression after a median duration of 8+ months (range: 7+ to 34+) while two patients progressed during therapy (one inflammatory breast cancer and one renal cancer). Important and persistent hemato-immunostimulating effects in both soluble (IL-2, sIL-2R, IL-6) and cellular (lymphocyte subsets, monocytes, eosinophils) parameters were noted during the entire treatment. The IL-2 related toxicity was quite low. Moreover, this long-term IL-2 therapy could control neoplastic growth and thus prolong clinical response obtained with standard treatments. Prospective randomized studies regarding the clinical efficacy have been initiated. PMID:8547958

  16. Simulating long-term effectiveness and efficiency of management scenarios for an invasive grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S. Jarnevich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Resource managers are often faced with trade-offs in allocating limited resources to manage plant invasions. These decisions must often be made with uncertainty about the location of infestations, their rate of spread and effectiveness of management actions. Landscape level simulation tools such as state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs can be used to evaluate the potential long term consequences of alternative management strategies and help identify those strategies that make efficient use of resources. We analyzed alternative management scenarios for African buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare syn. Cenchrus ciliaris at Ironwood Forest National Monument, Arizona using a spatially explicit STSM implemented in the Tool for Exploratory Landscape Scenario Analyses (TELSA. Buffelgrass is an invasive grass that is spreading rapidly in the Sonoran Desert, affecting multiple habitats and jurisdictions. This invasion is creating a novel fire risk and transforming natural ecosystems. The model used in this application incorporates buffelgrass dispersal and establishment and management actions and effectiveness including inventory, treatment and post-treatment maintenance. We simulated 11 alternative scenarios developed in consultation with buffelgrass managers and other stakeholders. The scenarios vary according to the total budget allocated for management and the allocation of that budget between different kinds of management actions. Scenario results suggest that to achieve an actual reduction and stabilization of buffelgrass populations, management unconstrained by fiscal restrictions and across all jurisdictions and private lands is required; without broad and aggressive management, buffelgrass populations are expected to increase over time. However, results also suggest that large upfront investments can achieve control results that require relatively minimal spending in the future. Investing the necessary funds upfront to control the invasion

  17. Long term effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulin in Churg-Strauss syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, M; Cappelli, M; Malcangi, G; Logullo, F; Salvi, A; Danieli, G

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the long term effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis associated with prednisone and cyclophosphamide in Churg-Strauss syndrome. Subjects and methods: We studied 18 subjects with new onset Churg-Strauss syndrome. All received the "standard" treatment based on prednisone (1 mg/kg/day for 1 month and then slowly tapered) and cyclophosphamide (2 mg/kg/day for 6 months in severe cases). In nine patients, synchronised cycles with plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg) were repeated monthly for 6 months and every other month for a further three cycles. Clinical (disease activity monitored by Birmingham vasculitis activity score (BVAS) and damage index (modified Rankin score)) and functional (C reactive protein, blood eosinophil count, and electromyogram-electoneurogram) parameters were collected during treatment and the 3 year follow up period. Results: After 12 months, all patients in the treatment group and four (44%) in the control group were in remission. At the end of the 3 year follow up period, we documented significant differences in BVAS (p<0.01), global damage (p<0.02), modified Rankin score (p<0.04), and the daily maintenance prednisone dose (p<0.002) between the two groups. We found a tendency towards lower frequency of relapse and incidence of osteoporosis in the treatment group. Conclusion: Complete clinical and functional recovery with a long term stable remission and a low incidence of side effects can be achieved by intravenous immunoglobulin associated with plasmapheresis in patients with Churg-Strauss syndrome. PMID:15547090

  18. Static strain aging effects on structural integrity of containers for long term interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the 91-1381 law voted in December 1991 by the French Parliament, it is envisaged for the conditioning, long term interim storage of nuclear reactor fuel waste, to use cladding and containers made of austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels respectively. These containers will be stored for several centuries and should not be subject to any mechanical loading; however, due to disintegration of radioactive elements during this period and the consequent heating, they will be subject to temperatures up to 450 C for the stainless steel of the cladding and 250 C for the ferritic steels of the container. Moreover, taking into account manipulation of the packages during recovery at the end of the storage must consider the risks of collision and falling of the containers. These risks must be taken into account in the structural integrity assessment. However, these analyses can be conducted only if the mechanical behaviour of the materials after several hundreds of years of storage can be forecast. From the metallurgical and mechanical points of view, the potential phenomena leading to a loss of strength at these temperatures are: reheat cracking of stainless steels in the heat affected zones (HAZ) of welds, impurities segregation in coarse grain HAZ (e.g. due to phosphorus), strain aging and especially static strain aging. The ''Service de Recherches Metallurgiques Appliquees'' of the ''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'' is in charge of evaluating the effect of this last phenomenon on the integrity of the containers. Starting from a bibliographic review of the static strain aging of ferritic and stainless steels, thermo-mechanical testing of representative materials are performed in order to be able to forecast long term effects of static strain aging. (author)

  19. The Long-Term Effects of Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lens Wear on Corneal Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda Yıldız

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the effects of silicone hydrogel contact lenses (SHCL on central corneal thickness (CCT, corneal endothelial cell morphology, and tear functions. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Fifty-five eyes of 28 SHCL wearers (Group 1 and 52 eyes of 26 healthy subjects (Group 2 were included in this study’. According to their contact lens wearing time, the contact lens wearing subjects were divided into 2 groups: Group 1a - wearing time less than 1 year and Group 1b - wearing time more than 1 year. CCT, epithelial thickness, corneal endothelial cell morphology, ocular surface disease index score (OSDI, and tear break-up time (TBUT were evaluated. Re sults: In Group 1 and Group 2, the mean CCT was 561.85±39.98 µm and 537.25±27.12 µm, respectively (p: 0.001.The epithelial thickness was 50.38±5.41 µm and 55.64±5.32 µm, respectively (p: 0.001. In Group 1a and Group1 b, the mean CCT was 573.39±33.86 µm and 546.96±42.98 µm (p: 0.014 and the epithelial thickness was 49.51±4.78 µm and 51.50±6.04 µm (p>0.05, respectively. In Group 1, the percentage of endothelial cells larger than 700µ was low, while the percentage of endothelial cells between 200 and 400µ was high (p<0,05. Dis cus si on: With SHCL wear, the corneal morphology is more affected in the short-term period. During long-term contact lens wear, the cornea enters an adaptation period and shows near-normal morphology. Tear functions are not affected by short- or long-term SHCL wear. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 91-6

  20. PROUD: Effects of preoperative long-term immunonutrition in patients listed for liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büchler Markus W

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with end stage liver disease are characteristically malnourished which is associated with poor outcome. Formulas enriched with arginine, ω-3 fatty acids, and nucleotides, "immunonutrients", potentially improve their nutritional status. This study is designed to evaluate the clinical outcome of long-term "immunonutrition" of patients with end-stage liver disease while on the waiting list for liver transplantation. Methods/design A randomized controlled double blind multi-center clinical trial with two parallel groups comprising a total of 142 newly registered patients for primary liver transplantation has been designed to assess the safety and efficacy of the long-term administration of ORAL IMPACT®, an "immunonutrient" formula, while waiting for a graft. Patients will be enrolled the day of registration on the waiting list for liver transplantation. Study ends on the day of transplantation. Primary endpoints include improved patients' nutritional and physiological status, as measured by mid-arm muscle area, triceps skin fold thickness, grip strength, and fatigue score, as well as patients' health related quality of life. Furthermore, patients will be followed for 12 postoperative weeks to evaluate anabolic recovery after transplantation as shown by reduced post-transplant mechanical ventilation, hospital stay, wound healing, infectious morbidities (pneumonia, intraabdominal abscess, sepsis, line sepsis, wound infection, and urinary tract infection, acute and chronic rejection, and mortality. Discussion Formulas enriched with arginine, ω-3 fatty acids, and nucleotides have been proven to be beneficial in reducing postoperative infectious complications and length of hospital stay among the patients undergoing elective gastrointestinal surgery. Possible mechanisms include downregulation of the inflammatory responses to surgery and immune modulation rather than a sole nutritional effect. Trial registration Clinical

  1. Effects of long-term low atmospheric pressure on gas exchange and growth of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongkang; Guo, Shuangsheng; Dong, Wenping; Qin, Lifeng; Ai, Weidang; Lin, Shan

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and growth of lettuce at long-term low atmospheric pressure. Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L . cv. Youmaicai) plants were grown at 40 kPa total pressure (8.4 kPa p) or 101 kPa total pressure (20.9 kPa p) from seed to harvest for 35 days. Germination rate of lettuce seeds decreased by 7.6% at low pressure, although this was not significant. There was no significant difference in crop photosynthetic rate between hypobaria and ambient pressure during the 35-day study. The crop evapotranspiration rate was significantly lower at low pressure than that at ambient pressure from 20 to 30 days after planting (DAP), but it had no significant difference before 20 DAP or after 30 DAP. The growth cycle of lettuce plants at low pressure was delayed. At low pressure, lettuce leaves were curly at the seedling stage and this disappeared gradually as the plants grew. Ambient lettuce plants were yellow and had an epinastic growth at harvest. The shoot height, leaf number, leaf length and shoot/root ratio were lower at low pressure than those at ambient pressure, while leaf area and root growth increased. Total biomass of lettuce plants grown at two pressures had no significant difference. Ethylene production at low pressure decreased significantly by 38.8% compared with ambient pressure. There was no significant difference in microelements, nutritional phytochemicals and nitrate concentrations at the two treatments. This research shows that lettuce can be grown at long-term low pressure (40 kPa) without significant adverse effects on seed germination, gas exchange and plant growth. Furthermore, ethylene release was reduced in hypobaria.

  2. Long-term Effects of Multiple Glucocorticoid Exposures in Neonatal Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E. Maloney

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids (GCs such as dexamethasone (DEX or betamethasone are repeatedly administered for up to a month to prematurely born infants as a treatment for chronic lung dysfunction. Results of clinical trials have shown that the use of GCs in these infants induces long-term deficits in neuromotor function and cognition. We have previously shown that a single exposure to clinically relevant doses of DEX or other GCs in the mouse during a period corresponding to the human perinatal period produces a dramatic increase in apoptotic cell death of neural progenitor cells in the developing cerebellum. To provide a model approximating more chronic clinical dosing regimens, we evaluated possible behavioral effects resulting from repeated exposures to DEX and subsequent GC-induced neuronal loss where neonatal mouse pups were injected with 3.0 mg/kg DEX or saline on postnatal days 7, 9, and 11 (DEX3 treatment. Adult, DEX3-treated mice exhibited long-term, possibly permanent, neuromotor deficits on a complex activity wheel task, which requires higher-order motor co-ordination skills. DEX3 mice exhibited impaired performance on this task relative to saline controls in each of two independent studies involving separate cohorts of mice. Histopathology studies utilizing stereological neuronal counts conducted in behaviorally-tested mice showed that the DEX3 treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the number of neurons in the internal granule layer (IGL of the cerebellum, although the number of neurons in the Purkinje cell layer were unchanged. The results suggest that multiple neonatal DEX exposures can produce chronic deficits in fine motor co-ordination that are associated with cerebellar IGL neuronal loss.

  3. Stent implantation of left main coronary artery stenosis in an infant: Effective long-term treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Paech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery stenosis is a rare phenomenon in children. Coronary stent implantation is generally not considered a standard treatment option due to technical difficulties and potential complications in this group of patients. Nevertheless, several pediatric cases reporting successful implantation with acceptable short-term experiences have been described. The following case presents a successful stent implantation for left main coronary artery (LMCA stenosis early after surgery for anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery (ALCAPA at the age of 6 months. The excellent mid-term results and notably the procedure′s potential as a long-term treatment in small children are highlighted. A 6-month-old infant underwent surgery for ALCAPA. Due to sudden postoperative deterioration, cardiac catheterization was performed. Coronary angiography revealed severe (90% ostial LMCA stenosis. A PROMUS drug-eluting stent (Promus Element AL3.0 Χ 8 mm, Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts, USA was implanted. The procedure was performed without complications. Antiplatelet therapy with acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel was initiated. Subsequently, cardiac function improved slowly. Cardiac catheterization 3 years 8 months after stent implantation showed no restenosis with a proximal LMCA diameter still at the 50 th percentile for age. Neither were signs of heart failure reported at the last follow-up at 7 years of age. Presupposing normal growth, the implanted stent would thus provide sufficient myocardial perfusion with a LMCA lumen at the 40 th percentile at the age of 16 years. In selected cases, coronary stent implantation may be an effective mid- to long-term treatment of coronary artery stenosis even in very young children.

  4. Transient and long-term effects of bicarbonate on the ANAMMOX process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ren-Cun; Yu, Jin-Jin; Ma, Chun; Yang, Guang-Feng; Zhang, Jue; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Ji, Yu-Xin; Hu, Bao-Lan

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the effects of both transient and long-term inorganic carbon (IC) addition on the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) process under pseudo-steady-state and substrate inhibitions were analyzed using reactor performance and measures of sludge activity. Compared with the nitrogen removal rate (NRR) of 3.42 kg N m(-3) day(-1) in the control bioreactor (ICDR) without IC, the peak NRR reached 21.0 kg N m(-3) day(-1) in the reactor (ICAR) with sufficient IC added. It was revealed that the long-term addition of bicarbonate significantly enhanced the performance of the ANAMMOX reactor. The optimum HCO3 (-)/TN ratio was considered to be 1.20, which is lower than that in normal conditions. The IC concentration affected biomass activity, and the transient addition or removal of IC to differing sludge media caused a significant loss of activity. Sufficient addition of IC alleviated the inhibition of excess substrates, while the inhibition was aggravated by the IC limitation. The half-maximal (50 %) inhibitory concentrations of substrate for the sludge were 295 mg L(-1) NO2 (-)-N and 361 mg L(-1) NH4 (+)-N with 120 mg L(-1) of fixed HCO3 (-) and 346 mg L(-1) NO2 (-)-N and 456 mg L(-1) NH4 (+)-N with unlimited IC, respectively. Changing the HCO3 (-)/TN (in milligrams per milligram) ratio resulted in the variation of ANAMMOX stoichiometric ratios. Sludge characterization parameters in the ICDR, including biomass, extracellular polymeric substances, heme C, and so on, were lower than those in ICAR. Filamentous bacteria and spherical bacteria were also observed in the reactor with limited IC. PMID:23780583

  5. Long-term effects of colostrum intake in piglet mortality and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declerck, I; Dewulf, J; Sarrazin, S; Maes, D

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the long-term effects of colostrum intake on performance and mortality in pigs. A total of 1,455 live-born piglets in 10 commercial herds were followed from birth until 22 wk of age. Pigs were individually weighed at birth, at weaning, at onset (intermediate weight), and during the fattening period (finishing weight). Colostrum intake was calculated by the mechanistic model developed by Theil et al. (see text for citation). One linear mixed model was fitted to model the possible associations between colostrum intake and weight at the weaning, intermediate, and finishing periods. In addition to colostrum intake as the main predictor of interest, other predictor variables were also tested, namely birth weight, birth order, sex, breed, and the interval between birth and first suckling (t). Colostrum intake and birth weight were positively associated with weaning ( Birth order was positively associated with weight at each measurement time ( = 0.01). Sex affected only finishing weight ( birth order, sex, breed, and t were tested. Preweaning mortality was negatively associated with colostrum intake ( < 0.001) and birth weight ( = 0.004) and positively associated with t ( < 0.001). Mortality during the nursery period was negatively associated with colostrum intake ( < 0.001) and birth weight ( = 0.002). The negative association between colostrum intake and mortality during the suckling ( < 0.001) and the nursery ( = 0.008) periods was more pronounced in small versus heavy piglets. Mortality during fattening was associated with weaning ( = 0.04) and intermediate ( = 0.006) weight. In conclusion, colostrum intake significantly influences piglets' short-term and long-term performance and mortality. As colostrum yield is reported to be independent of litter size, sufficient colostrum intake per piglet is crucial, especially in hyperprolific sows. PMID:27136022

  6. Long-Term Effects of Induced Hypothermia on Local and Systemic Inflammation - Results from a Porcine Long-Term Trauma Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, K.; Eschbach, D.; Pfeifer, R.; Relja, B.; Sassen, M.; Steinfeldt, T.; Wulf, H.; Vogt, N.; Frink, M.; Ruchholtz, S.; Pape, H. C.; Hildebrand, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypothermia has been discussed as playing a role in improving the early phase of systemic inflammation. However, information on the impact of hypothermia on the local inflammatory response is sparse. We therefore investigated the kinetics of local and systemic inflammation in the late posttraumatic phase after induction of hypothermia in an established porcine long-term model of combined trauma. Materials & Methods Male pigs (35 ± 5kg) were mechanically ventilated and monitored over the study period of 48 h. Combined trauma included tibia fracture, lung contusion, liver laceration and pressure-controlled hemorrhagic shock (MAP fracture hematoma) cytokine levels (IL-6, -8, -10) and alarmins (HMGB1, HSP70) were measured via ELISA. Results Severe signs of shock as well as systemic and local increases of pro-inflammatory mediators were observed in both trauma groups. In general the local increase of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediator levels was significantly higher and prolonged compared to systemic concentrations. Induction of hypothermia resulted in a significantly prolonged elevation of both systemic and local HMGB1 levels at 48 h compared to the NT-T group. Correspondingly, local IL-6 levels demonstrated a significantly prolonged increase in the HT-T group at 48 h. Conclusion A prolonged inflammatory response might reduce the well-described protective effects on organ and immune function observed in the early phase after hypothermia induction. Furthermore, local immune response also seems to be affected. Future studies should aim to investigate the use of therapeutic hypothermia at different degrees and duration of application. PMID:27144532

  7. Long-Term Effects of Induced Hypothermia on Local and Systemic Inflammation - Results from a Porcine Long-Term Trauma Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Horst

    Full Text Available Hypothermia has been discussed as playing a role in improving the early phase of systemic inflammation. However, information on the impact of hypothermia on the local inflammatory response is sparse. We therefore investigated the kinetics of local and systemic inflammation in the late posttraumatic phase after induction of hypothermia in an established porcine long-term model of combined trauma.Male pigs (35 ± 5kg were mechanically ventilated and monitored over the study period of 48 h. Combined trauma included tibia fracture, lung contusion, liver laceration and pressure-controlled hemorrhagic shock (MAP < 30 ± 5 mmHg for 90 min. After resuscitation, hypothermia (33°C was induced for a period of 12 h (HT-T group with subsequent re-warming over a period of 10 h. The NT-T group was kept normothermic. Systemic and local (fracture hematoma cytokine levels (IL-6, -8, -10 and alarmins (HMGB1, HSP70 were measured via ELISA.Severe signs of shock as well as systemic and local increases of pro-inflammatory mediators were observed in both trauma groups. In general the local increase of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediator levels was significantly higher and prolonged compared to systemic concentrations. Induction of hypothermia resulted in a significantly prolonged elevation of both systemic and local HMGB1 levels at 48 h compared to the NT-T group. Correspondingly, local IL-6 levels demonstrated a significantly prolonged increase in the HT-T group at 48 h.A prolonged inflammatory response might reduce the well-described protective effects on organ and immune function observed in the early phase after hypothermia induction. Furthermore, local immune response also seems to be affected. Future studies should aim to investigate the use of therapeutic hypothermia at different degrees and duration of application.

  8. Radiobiology in clinical radiation therapy - Part IV: Long term risks - Carcinogenic, hereditary, and teratogenetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term risks induced by radiation are of much concern to patients and clinicians alike. As an example, perceived radiation risks are frequently cited in a woman's decision to choose a radical mastectomy over lumpectomy + radiation. In consequence, the actual radiation risks are often considerably overstated, or unreasonably downplayed. In this lecture we will discuss just what is known about the long term risks following radiotherapy, both from the human experience and from the laboratory. We will discuss risks both to the patient and to radiotherapy personnel. A good deal is known about the carcinogenic effects of high and low doses of radiation, in large part thanks to the careful study of the survivors of the atomic bombing in Japan, as well as studies of individuals exposed to medical x rays. It is possible to make an estimate, which is probably good to within a factor of, perhaps, three to five, of the cancer risks faced by a patient of a particular age and sex who is going to undergo a particular radiotherapeutic regimen. It is also possible to make an estimate of the risks faced by radiotherapy and nursing staff exposed to low doses. Brachytherapy related risk estimates are likely to be somewhat more uncertain, due to the poorly known sparing effects of the low dose rates used; for the radiotherapy personnel in brachytherapy, because of the doses which can be received, the risks can be quite significant. A recent complication in external-beam radiotherapy is the advent of high-energy linacs, which can produce a significant fast neutron dose which, dose for dose, may be ten to fifty times more carcinogenic than gamma rays. Data relating to the risks of hereditary effects of radiation come almost entirely from laboratory experiments in animals. Studies involving several million mice form the basis of most of our current understanding of hereditary effects. The results of these studies indicate that radiation is a relatively inefficient mutagen. The

  9. Radiobiology in clinical radiation therapy: Long term risks - Carcinogenic, hereditary, and teratogenetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term risks induced by radiation are of much concern to patients and clinicians alike. As an example, perceived radiation risks are frequently cited in a woman's decision to choose a radical mastectomy over lumpectomy + radiation. In consequence, the actual radiation risks are often considerably overstated, or unreasonably downplayed. In this lecture we will discuss just what is known about the long term risks following radiotherapy, both from the human experience and from the laboratory. We will discuss risks both to the patient and to radiotherapy personnel. A good deal is known about the carcinogenic effects of high and low doses of radiation, in large part thanks to the careful study of the survivors of the atomic bombing in Japan, as well as studies of individuals exposed to medical x rays. It is possible to make an estimate, which is probably good to within a factor of, perhaps, three to five, of the cancer risks faced by a patient of a particular age and sex who is going to undergo a particular radiotherapeutic regimen. It is also possible to make an estimate of the risks faced by radiotherapy and nursing staff exposed to low doses. Brachytherapy related risk estimates are likely to be somewhat more uncertain, due to the poorly known sparing effects of the low dose rates used; for the radiotherapy personnel in brachytherapy, because of the doses which can be received, the risks can be quite significant. A recent complication in external-beam radiotherapy is the advent of high-energy linacs, which can produce a significant fast neutron dose which, dose for dose, may be ten to fifty times more carcinogenic than gamma rays. Data relating to the risks of hereditary effects of radiation come almost entirely from laboratory experiments in animals. Studies involving several million mice form the basis of most of our current understanding of hereditary effects. The results of these studies indicate that radiation is a relatively inefficient mutagen. The

  10. A long-term assessment of pesticide mixture effects on aquatic invertebrate communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenbein, Simone; Lawler, Sharon P; Geist, Juergen; Connon, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    To understand the potential effects of pesticide mixtures on aquatic ecosystems, studies that incorporate increased ecological relevance are crucial. Using outdoor mesocosms, the authors examined long-term effects on aquatic invertebrate communities of tertiary mixtures of commonly used pesticides: 2 pyrethroids (permethrin, λ-cyhalothrin) and an organophosphate (chlorpyrifos). Application scenarios were based on environmentally relevant concentrations and stepwise increases of lethal concentrations from 10% (LC10) to 50% (LC50) based on laboratory tests on Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus; repeated applications were meant to generally reflect runoff events in a multiple-grower or homeowner watershed. Pyrethroids rapidly dissipated from the water column, whereas chlorpyrifos was detectable even 6 wk after application. Twelve of 15 macroinvertebrate and 10 of 16 zooplankton taxa responded to contaminant exposures. The most sensitive taxa were the snail Radix sp., the amphipod H. azteca, the water flea Daphnia magna, and copepods. Environmentally relevant concentrations had acute effects on D. magna and H. azteca (occurring 24 h after application), whereas lag times were more pronounced in Radix sp. snails and copepods, indicating chronic sublethal responses. Greatest effects on zooplankton communities were observed in environmentally relevant concentration treatments. The results indicate that insecticide mixtures continue to impact natural systems over multiple weeks, even when no longer detectable in water and bound to particles. Combinations of indirect and direct effects caused consequences across multiple trophic levels. PMID:26565581

  11. Effect of ageing under gamma radiations on the long term behaviour of bitumen material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The referential scenario considered for bituminized waste drums is an intermediate storage likely to be followed by a deep geological disposal. Under geological disposal conditions, when site will be re-saturated with water and containers will be corroded, the main phenomenon likely to alter bituminized waste is linked to the presence of water. During intermediate storage conditions, drums will be submitted to the effect of irradiation, and for the external part of the wasteform to the effect of oxidation by surrounding air. The combined effect of air and radiation may increase bitumen oxidation. In further disposal conditions, alteration phenomena of drums will concern aged drums. The aim of these studies dealing with ageing, is to characterise the effect of alteration factors such as irradiation and radio-oxidation on the potential release of radionuclides from bituminized waste in disposal conditions. Radio-oxidation depends on: - the diffusion of O2 in the matrix (diffusion coefficient, solubility), -the intensity of radiation (dose rate), -the time of exposure to radiations. Low dose rates of radiation, near realistic dose rates are here investigated in order to characterise the effect of ageing phenomena on the long term behaviour of bitumen properties. Results concern Infra-red characterization of oxidized bitumen, gases evolution and diffusion of water. The evolution of the thickness of the oxidized layer with the dose and the dose rate for bitumen sample can be deduced from profiles of oxidised compounds concentration obtained with FTIR (Fourier transformed Infrared Spectroscopy). (authors)

  12. From exposure to effect: a comparison of modeling approaches to chemical carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, I M; Zonneveld, C

    2001-10-01

    Standardized long-term carcinogenicity tests aim to reveal the relationship between exposure to a chemical and occurrence of a carcinogenic response. The analysis of such tests may be facilitated by the use of mathematical models. To what extent current models actually achieve this purpose is difficult to evaluate. Various aspects of chemically induced carcinogenesis are treated by different modeling approaches, which proceed very much in isolation of each other. With this paper we aim to provide for the non-mathematician a comprehensive and critical overview of models dealing with processes involved in chemical carcinogenesis. We cover the entire process of carcinogenesis, from exposure to effect. We succinctly summarize the biology underlying the models and emphasize the relationship between model assumptions and model formulations. The use of mathematics is restricted as far as possible with some additional information relegated to boxes. PMID:11673088

  13. The Effects of ACMI Flight Crew’s Long Term Outstation Hotel Stay on Accumulated Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislason Sigurdur Hrafn

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ACMI flight crews spend considerable time away from home on outstations. This manuscript suggests that long term stay carries its own considerations in regards to rest recovery with practical implications for Fatigue Risk Management. Four recovery factors are identified and are to be correlated with 28 crew behaviors. The end result might indicate improvement considerations for airline management organizing a long term contract with ACMI crews.

  14. The Effects of Salt on Rheological Properties of Asphalt after Long-Term Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Yu; Ying Wang; Yilin Luo; Long Yin

    2013-01-01

    Limited studies in recent years have shown that asphalt pavement subject to seawater in coastal regions or deicing salt in cold regions may be seriously damaged after being soaked in saline water for a long time. However, there is limited research into the influence of salt on rheological properties of asphalt after long-term aging. In this study, rheological properties of unmodified and polymer-modified asphalt after long-term aging were tested after being soaked in different concentrations ...

  15. Long-term effects of HIV treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: from access to quality

    OpenAIRE

    Boender, T.S.

    2016-01-01

    As HIV treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa mature, there are rising concerns about the long-term sustainability and quality of these programs. Increasing levels of HIV drug resistance have been measured in sub-Saharan Africa, and could jeopardize long-term treatment success. This thesis presents the results of prospective cohort studies in adults and children, assessing the quality of HIV treatment programmes and the emergence of HIV drug resistance in sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. Effect of environment on the long-term consequences of chronic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Bushnell, MC; Case, LK; Ceko, M; Cotton, VA; Gracely, JL; Low, LA; Pitcher, MH; Villemure, C

    2015-01-01

    Much evidence from pain patients and animal models shows that chronic pain does not exist in a vacuum, but has varied co-morbidities and far-reaching consequences. Patients with long-term pain often develop anxiety and depression and can manifest changes in cognitive functioning, particularly with working memory. Longitudinal studies in rodent models also show the development of anxiety-like behavior and cognitive changes weeks to months after an injury causing long-term pain. Brain imaging s...

  17. Effect of strengthening rate on durability and long-term plasticity of semifinished metal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A connection between the changes of long-term properties of a metal of different melting and intermediate products of one and the same material with the features of their real tension diagram, is ascertained on the base of plastic instability model. The value of deviation by the level of long-term strength and plasiticity is characterized by a simple parameter-strengthening rate, which is determined by the Ludwick strengthening equation coefficients

  18. Effects of long-term chronic exposure to radionuclides in plant populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of field studies carried out on different plant species (winter rye and wheat, spring barley, oats, Scots pine, wild vetch, crested hairgrass) in various radioecological situations (nuclear weapon testing, the Chernobyl accident, uranium and radium processing) to investigate the effects of long-term chronic exposure to radionuclides are discussed. Plant populations growing in areas with relatively low levels of pollution are characterized by an increased level of both cytogenetic disturbances and genetic diversity. Although ionizing radiation causes primary damage at the molecular level, there are emergent effects at the level of populations, non-predictable from the knowledge of elementary mechanisms of cellular effects formation. Accumulation of cellular alterations may afterward influence biological parameters important for populations such as health and reproduction. Presented data provide evidence that in plant populations inhabiting heavily contaminated territories cytogenetic damage could be accompanied by a decrease in reproductive capacity. However, in less contaminated sites, because of the scarcity of data available, a steady relationship between cytogenetic effects and reproductive capacity was not revealed. Under radioactive contamination of the plant's environment, a population's resistance to exposure may increase. However, there are radioecological situations where an enhanced radioresistance has not evolved or has not persisted

  19. The effects of landscape modifications on the long-term persistence of animal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Nabe-Nielsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effects of landscape modifications on the long-term persistence of wild animal populations is of crucial importance to wildlife managers and conservation biologists, but obtaining experimental evidence using real landscapes is usually impossible. To circumvent this problem we used individual-based models (IBMs of interacting animals in experimental modifications of a real Danish landscape. The models incorporate as much as possible of the behaviour and ecology of four species with contrasting life-history characteristics: skylark (Alauda arvensis, vole (Microtus agrestis, a ground beetle (Bembidion lampros and a linyphiid spider (Erigone atra. This allows us to quantify the population implications of experimental modifications of landscape configuration and composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Starting with a real agricultural landscape, we progressively reduced landscape complexity by (i homogenizing habitat patch shapes, (ii randomizing the locations of the patches, and (iii randomizing the size of the patches. The first two steps increased landscape fragmentation. We assessed the effects of these manipulations on the long-term persistence of animal populations by measuring equilibrium population sizes and time to recovery after disturbance. Patch rearrangement and the presence of corridors had a large effect on the population dynamics of species whose local success depends on the surrounding terrain. Landscape modifications that reduced population sizes increased recovery times in the short-dispersing species, making small populations vulnerable to increasing disturbance. The species that were most strongly affected by large disturbances fluctuated little in population sizes in years when no perturbations took place. SIGNIFICANCE: Traditional approaches to the management and conservation of populations use either classical methods of population analysis, which fail to adequately account for the spatial configurations

  20. Dynamic analysis of long-term seismicity effects on the Piz Dora DSGSD (E Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Federico; Agliardi, Federico; Battista Crosta, Giovanni; Zanchi, Andrea; Scotti, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Deep seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSD) evolve over several thousands of years in changing environmental conditions, under the influence of multiple triggering processes. Although glacial and fluvial erosion, deglaciation processes and slope hydrology perturbations are recognized to be common drivers of these phenomena in alpine environment, there is evidence of possible effects of seismicity on their initiation and development. A major difficulty in quantifying such effects is related to the involved timescales. In fact, while earthquake-induced, instantaneous slope instabilities can be studied with reference to specific earthquake scenarios, a considerably large number of seismic events of different magnitude and recurrence may contribute to slope instability and displacements on the typical DSGSD timescale, possibly leading to catastrophic rock slope instabilities over the long-term. In this work, we used numerical modelling to investigate the effects of long-term seismicity on a DSGSD, affecting the Piz Dora (Val Müstair, E Switzerland) over an area of 12 Km2 and with a 1500 m local relief. The slope is made of a sequence of Austroalpine conglomerates, meta-conglomerates and phyllites, folded into a kilometre-scale anticline setting geometrical and geomechanical constraints on the large slope instability. The area has been experiencing tectonic uplift and fault activity since the Pliocene, and is characterized by frequent present-day shallow seismicity with maximum magnitude Mw>5 and dominant dip-slip mechanisms. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the slope experienced the removal of about 1000 m of ice. Morpho-structural characterization of DSGSD features and their relationships with glacial deposits and different generations of periglacial features (rock glaciers and protalus ramparts) allowed reconstructing a complex relative chronology of slope displacements and establishing local constraints on deglaciation. We used these constraints to

  1. Long-term effectiveness of ranibizumab for age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong AH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Angie HC Fong,1 Timothy YY Lai1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Eye Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong; 22010 Retina and Macula Centre, Tsimshatsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract: Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD and diabetic macular edema (DME are major causes of visual impairment in the elderly population worldwide. With the aging population, the prevalence of neovascular AMD and DME has increased substantially over the recent years. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has been implicated as playing an important role in the pathogenesis of both neovascular AMD and DME. Since its introduction in 2006, ranibizumab, a recombinant, humanized, monoclonal antibody fragment against all isoforms of VEGF-A, has revolutionized the treatment of neovascular AMD and DME. The efficacy and safety of ranibizumab in neovascular AMD has been demonstrated in the ANCHOR and MARINA trials. Further studies including the PIER, PrONTO, and SUSTAIN trials have also evaluated the optimal dosing regimen of ranibizumab in neovascular AMD. The CATT and IVAN trials compared the safety and efficacy of ranibizumab with off-label use of bevacizumab. Studies such as SUSTAIN and HORIZON have shown that ranibizumab has a good safety profile and is well tolerated for over 4 years with very few serious ocular and systemic adverse events. For DME, Phase II RESOLVE study and Phase III RISE and RIDE studies have demonstrated superiority of ranibizumab treatment in improving vision over placebo controls. Phase II READ and Phase III RESOLVE and REVEAL studies have shown that ranibizumab is more effective both as monotherapy and in combination with laser compared with laser monotherapy. The 3-year results from the DRCRnet protocol I study found that ranibizumab with deferred laser resulted in better long-term visual outcome compared with ranibizumab with prompt laser. This review summarizes various

  2. Long-Term Effects of Induced Hypothermia on Local and Systemic Inflammation - Results from a Porcine Long-Term Trauma Model

    OpenAIRE

    Horst, K.; Eschbach, D.; Pfeifer, R.; Relja, B; Sassen, M.; T. Steinfeldt; Wulf, H; N Vogt; Frink, M.; Ruchholtz, S.; Pape, H. C.; F. Hildebrand

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypothermia has been discussed as playing a role in improving the early phase of systemic inflammation. However, information on the impact of hypothermia on the local inflammatory response is sparse. We therefore investigated the kinetics of local and systemic inflammation in the late posttraumatic phase after induction of hypothermia in an established porcine long-term model of combined trauma. Materials & Methods Male pigs (35 ± 5kg) were mechanically ventilated and monitored ove...

  3. Effects of High Dose and Long Term Montelukast Treatment on Skin:An Experimental Rat Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysel Kükner

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of long term, high dose montelukast administration on normal rat skin by histological examination.Material and Method: Sixteen rats were randomly divided into 2 groups-the control and the montelukast treated (study group (n=8. In the control group 0.2ml of 0.9% NaCl was administered intraperitonealy (i.p. daily for 6 weeks. In the study group the same amount of solution containing 1 mg/kg montelukast was administered i.p. daily for six weeks. At the end of the 6 weeks skin biopsies were taken and histologically examined.Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding the dermal and epidermal thickness. Histologic examination of collagen fiber structure did not show difference between two groups. Toluidin blue stained specimens showed that the number of mast cells in dermis significantly decreased in montelukast treated group (p=0.001. Conclusion: Montelukast treatment has significantly decreased the number of mast cells in dermis without any effect on the dermal or epidermal thickness and collagen fiber structure. We think that with the support of further studies, high dose montelukast may have an effective role on the treatment of inflammatory skin disease. (Turkderm 2008; 42: 118-21

  4. Effects of Long-Term Mineral Block Supplementation on Antioxidants, Immunity, and Health of Tibetan Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Zhiqi; Huang, Meizhou; Wang, Shengyi; Cui, Dongan; Dong, Shuwei; Li, Shengkun; Qi, Zhiming; Liu, Yongming

    2016-08-01

    Tibetan sheep have been observed with mineral deficiencies and marginal deficiencies in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Adequate amounts of essential minerals are critical to maximize the productivity and health of livestock. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of 6 months of mineral block supplementation on the antioxidants, immunity, and health of Tibetan sheep. The study was conducted in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The consumed values of mineral blocks were measured. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment to evaluate the trace elements, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) activities, and antioxidant enzyme activities. Additionally, levels of IgA, IgG, IgM, IL-2, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), triiodothyronine (T3), tyroxine (T4), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were determined. The toxic effects of the mineral block were also monitored. For Tibetan sheep, the average consumed value of mineral block was 13.09 g per day per sheep. Mineral block supplementation significantly increased the serum levels of Mn, Fe, and Se (P IGF-1 (P long-term treatment with the mineral block. The results demonstrated that the mineral block was non-toxic and safe; the protective effects of the mineral block might be caused by an increase in the antioxidant defense system, as well as an increase in the benefits from immunity-related parameters. PMID:26689930

  5. Climate Effects and Feedback Structure Determining Weed Population Dynamics in a Long-Term Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Mauricio; Navarrete, Luis; González-Andujar, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Pest control is one of the areas in which population dynamic theory has been successfully applied to solve practical problems. However, the links between population dynamic theory and model construction have been less emphasized in the management and control of weed populations. Most management models of weed population dynamics have emphasized the role of the endogenous process, but the role of exogenous variables such as climate have been ignored in the study of weed populations and their management. Here, we use long-term data (22 years) on two annual weed species from a locality in Central Spain to determine the importance of endogenous and exogenous processes (local and large-scale climate factors). Our modeling study determined two different feedback structures and climate effects in the two weed species analyzed. While Descurainia sophia exhibited a second-order feedback and low climate influence, Veronica hederifolia was characterized by a first-order feedback structure and important effects from temperature and rainfall. Our results strongly suggest the importance of theoretical population dynamics in understanding plant population systems. Moreover, the use of this approach, discerning between the effect of exogenous and endogenous factors, can be fundamental to applying weed management practices in agricultural systems and to controlling invasive weedy species. This is a radical change from most approaches currently used to guide weed and invasive weedy species managements. PMID:22272362

  6. Long-term physical and psychological effects of the Vajont disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Zaetta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies to date investigated the long-term consequences of disasters on physical health. Objective : The aim of the present report was to study the consequence on physical health of exposure to the Vajont disaster after 40 years. We also explored the effects of severity of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and major depression disorder on physical health and health-related quality of life. Method: Sixty survivors of the Vajont disaster and 48 control subjects of similar gender, education, and age participated in the study. Physician-reported and subjective measures of physical health have been employed. Results: Survivors reported a greater number of physical complaints than controls (p<0.001, and some type of diseases showed a significant relationship with PTSD or PTSD symptoms. Quality of life differed between the two groups as regards the perception of physical health. The number of intrusive PTSD symptoms showed a significant negative effect on the quality of life of survivors. Conclusions: Our study shows that large-scale disasters such as the Vajont one may have deleterious effects on both psychological and physical health.

  7. Short- and long-term effects of single and repetitive glove occlusion on the epidermal barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzky, Ulrike; Bock, Meike; Wulfhorst, Britta; John, Swen Malte

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the occlusive effects of glove materials (polyvinyl chloride, natural rubber latex) on epidermal barrier function and to relate the findings to the definitions of wet work in the current German ordinance on hazardous substances (2007) and in the German technical regulations on hazardous substances (TRGS 401; 2008). Short-term effects of wearing gloves once for 4 h, as well as the long-term effects of wearing gloves for 4 h daily for 7 days were assessed in a group of 20 healthy volunteers using non-invasive methods (transepidermal water loss (TEWL), capacitance, skin colour, skin surface pH). Data were collected 30 min and 3 h after single use, as well as 1 day after a 1-week application. TEWL and capacitance data showed hyperhydration of the horny layer 30 min after a 4-h occlusion as compared to baseline (p glove occlusion. This study could not verify significant damage to skin barrier after 7 days of repeated occlusion 4 h daily in healthy volunteers. These findings require further discussion regarding the definitions in the current German ordinance on hazardous substances and in the TRGS 401. PMID:19582471

  8. Countermeasure of the negative effects of weightlessness on physical systems in long-term space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Grigoriev, A. I.; Stepantzov, V. I.

    The system of countermcasure of microgravity effects has been developed in Russia that allowed to perform safely long-term space flights. This system that includes different means and methods such as special regimens of physical exercises, axial loading ("Pingiun") and antigravity suits, low body negative pressure device (LBNP, "Chibis") and "cuffs" and others has been used with certain variations at certain stages of flight in 27 successfully accomplished space flights that lasted from 60 to 439 days. The pre-, in- and postflight studies performed in 57 crew members of these flights have shown that the system of countermeasure is effective in preventing or diminishing to a great extent almost all the negative effects of weightlessness in flights of a year and more duration and that the intensity and duration of changes recorded in different body systems after flights do not correlate significantly to flight durations, correlating strongly to the volume and intensity of physical exercises used during flight and especially during concluding stage of it.

  9. Long term effects of traffic noise on mortality in the city of Barcelona, 2004-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, Maria Antònia; Varga, Diego; Tobias, Aurelio; Diaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Saez, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Numerous studies showing statistically significant associations between environmental noise and adverse health effects already exist for short-term (over one day at most) and long-term (over a year or more) noise exposure, both for morbidity and (albeit to a lesser extent) mortality. Recently, several studies have shown this association to be independent from confounders, mainly those of air pollutants. However, what has not been addressed is the problem of misalignment (i.e. the exposure data locations and health outcomes have different spatial locations). Without any explicit control of such misalignment inference is seriously compromised. Our objective is to assess the long-term effects of traffic noise on mortality in the city of Barcelona (Spain) during 2004-2007. We take into account the control of confounding, for both air pollution and socioeconomic factors at a contextual level and, in particular, we explicitly address the problem of misalignment. We employed a case-control design with individual data. We used deaths resulting from myocardial infarction, hypertension, or Type II diabetes mellitus in Barcelona between 2004 and 2007 as cases for the study, while for controls we used deaths (likewise in Barcelona and over the same period of time) resulting from AIDS or external causes (e.g. accidental falls, accidental poisoning by psychotropic drugs, drugs of abuse, suicide and self-harm, or injuries resulting from motor vehicle accidents). The controls were matched with the cases by sex and age. We used the annual average equivalent A-weighted sound pressure levels for daytime (7-21h), evening-time (21-23h) and night-time (23-7h), and controlled for the following confounders: i) air pollutants (NO2, PM10 and benzene), ii) material deprivation (at a census tract level) and iii) land use and other spatial variables. We explicitly controlled for heterogeneity (uneven distribution of both response and environmental exposures within an area), spatial dependency

  10. Estimating long-term effects of disease-modifying drug therapy in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudick, R A; Cutter, G R; Baier, M; Weinstock-Guttman, B; Mass, M K; Fisher, E; Miller, D M; Sandrock, A W

    2005-12-01

    Two methods were used to estimate the long-term impact of disease-modifying drug therapy (DMDT) in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) who completed a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of interferon beta-1a (IFNbeta-1a). The study cohort consisted of patients with ambulatory relapsing MS who had previously participated in a placebo-controlled clinical trial for two years. At its end, patients were managed in an unstructured fashion by their neurologists and re-evaluated at an average of 6.1 years after the end of the trial. Follow-up evaluation was obtained for 93% of the 172 eligible patients. Because study inclusion criteria required that all patients have an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of or = 6.0. Two methods were used to estimate the expected proportions that reached EDSS > or = 6.0 at follow-up. Estimates were compared with observed proportions. Method 1 used progression rates observed during the two-year phase III clinical trial and the percentage of time that patients were on DMDT during the follow-up period. Method 2 used progression rates from a natural history comparison group of relapsing-remitting MS patients. At the eight-year follow-up, 42.0% of the original placebo patients and 29.1% of the original IFNbeta-1a patients reached an EDSS > or = 6.0, an observed treatment effect of approximately 30%. Using method 1, it was estimated that 36.3% of the original placebo patients and 27.6% of the original IFNbeta-1a patients should have reached an EDSS > or = 6.0. Use of the natural history control group (method 2) predicted less plausible outcomes. Estimated proportions of patients reaching the endpoint were 63.3% for the original placebo group and 55.8% for the original IFNbeta-1a group. Treatment effect sizes of 75-90% would be required to match estimates from method 2 with the observed outcome. The paucity of data on the long-term treatment of patients with MS may be aided by applying these or similar methods to

  11. Long-term effects of radium exposure in female dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hematocrit readings and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were analyzed in women first employed as radium dial workers in 1913-1929 and in 1930-1954. Internal comparisons on these variables were made by dose groups, using average skeletal dose estimated some years after exposure to radium, and external comparisons were made using normative data from the U. S. National Health Survey. In women exposed from 1913 to 1929, a possible long-term effect of high-dose radium exposure on hematocrit was evident. Statistically significant results were obtained using univariate and multivariate (multiple regression) analyses for women aged 65-84. This effect appeared to be greatest in the highest-dose groups (especially 1000 + rad), but did not involve a higher frequency of ''low'' hematocrit suggestive of anemia. No association between dose and blood pressure was evident in the women exposed in 1913-1929. In women exposed in 1930-1954, dose was a significant predictor of systolic blood pressure in those 45-54 years old but not in those 55-64 years old. Analysis of longitudinal data on these populations will be required

  12. Toxicological effect of long-term exposure to mixed dust containing radiothorium rare earth on workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the toxicological effects of long-term exposure to mixed dust containing radiothorium rare earth on workers. Methods: Single cell gel electrophoresis was used to examine the DNA comet length of peripheral blood lymphocytes, and then to evaluate the DNA damage degree according to the comet length. The lymphocyte cell method was used to examine the micronucleus formation rate of peripheral blood lymphocyte. Lung function instrumental MiCROSPRO HI-198 was used to determine the lung ventilation function. Result: For exposure group and control group, the average values of comet length were (40.2±4.14) μm and (39.5±2.54) μm, respectively, while the frequency of micronucleus formation were [(2.71±2.04) x 0.1]% and [(0.79±0.91) x 0.1]%. The lung fraction barrier formation were 70.9% and 64.9%, which means the exposure group was higher than that of control. Conclusions: Mine mixed dust containing radiothorium rare earth may have certain toxicology effects on the professional workers. (authors)

  13. Effect of pullulan on the short-term and long-term retrogradation of rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Ren, Fei; Zhang, Zipei; Tong, Qunyi; Rashed, Marwan M A

    2015-01-22

    The effect of pullulan (PUL) on the retrogradation of rice starch (RS) was investigated by means of rapid visco-analyzer (RVA), rotational rheometer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). RVA results showed that addition of pullulan significantly decreased the breakdown and setback values, which meant that the short-term retrogradation of RS was inhibited. The dynamic time sweep of samples also proved the retarding effect of pullulan on the retrogradation of RS. DSC curves showed clearly that pullulan significantly reduced the retrogradation enthalpy of amylopectin, and the kinetics of retrogradation was analyzed using the Avrami model. XRD results showed that recrystallinity of RS was reduced from 11.565% to 8.841% with the addition of pullulan and this was in line with the DSC results. It could be concluded that the addition of pullulan apparently influenced not only the short-term retrogradation of amylose, but also the long-term retrogradation of amylopectin. PMID:25439913

  14. Long-term effect of tobacco on unstimulated salivary pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Grover

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the effects of tobacco on salivary pH between tobacco chewers, smokers and controls. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 subjects (males and females aged 25-40 years, were divided equally into three groups: Tobacco smokers (Group A, chewers (Group B and controls (Group C. Saliva of each subject was collected under resting condition. Salivary pH was determined using the specific salivary pH meter. Results: The mean (±standard deviation pH for Group A was 6.75 (±0.11, Group B was 6.5 (±0.29 and Group C was 7.00 (±0.28 after comparison. The significant results showed lower salivary pH in Groups A and B as compared to controls. Salivary pH was lowest in Group B compared to Group A and Group C. Conclusion : This study indicates that a lower (acidic salivary pH was observed in tobacco users as compared with control. These alterations in pH due to the long-term effect of tobacco use can render oral mucosa vulnerable to various oral and dental diseases.

  15. Assessing airborne pollution effects on bryophytes - lessons learned through long-term integrated monitoring in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zechmeister, H.G. [Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna (Austria) and ecotox-Austria, Fleschgasse 22, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: harald.zechmeister@univie.ac.at; Dirnboeck, T. [Umweltbundesamt, Spittelauer Laende 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: thomas.dirnboeck@umweltbundesamt.at; Huelber, K. [VINCA, Giessergasse 6/7, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: karl.huelber@vinca.at; Mirtl, M. [Umweltbundesamt, Spittelauer Laende 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: michael.mirtl@umweltbundesamt.at

    2007-06-15

    The study uses measured and calculated data on airborne pollutants, particularly nitrogen (ranges between 28 to 43 kg N*ha{sup -1}*yr{sup -1}) and sulphur (10 to 18 kg SO{sub 4}-S*ha{sup -1}*yr{sup -1}), in order to assess their long-term (1992 to 2005) effects on bryophytes at the UN-ECE Integrated Monitoring site 'Zoebelboden' in Austria. Bryophytes were used as reaction indicators on 20 epiphytic plots using the IM monitoring method and on 14 terrestrial plots using standardised photography. The plots were recorded in the years 1992, 1993, 1998, and 2004/2005. Most species remained stable in terms of their overall population size during the observed period, even though there were rapid turnover rates of a large percentage of species on all investigated plots. Only a few bryophytes (Hypnum cupressiforme, Leucodon sciuroides) responded unambiguously to N and S deposition. Nitrogen deposition had a weak but significant effect on the distribution of bryophyte communities. However, the time shifts in bryophyte communities did not depend on total deposition of N and S. - Bryophytes show ambiguous response to airborne pollutants during 14 years of monitoring in a forest ecosystem.

  16. Assessing airborne pollution effects on bryophytes - lessons learned through long-term integrated monitoring in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study uses measured and calculated data on airborne pollutants, particularly nitrogen (ranges between 28 to 43 kg N*ha-1*yr-1) and sulphur (10 to 18 kg SO4-S*ha-1*yr-1), in order to assess their long-term (1992 to 2005) effects on bryophytes at the UN-ECE Integrated Monitoring site 'Zoebelboden' in Austria. Bryophytes were used as reaction indicators on 20 epiphytic plots using the IM monitoring method and on 14 terrestrial plots using standardised photography. The plots were recorded in the years 1992, 1993, 1998, and 2004/2005. Most species remained stable in terms of their overall population size during the observed period, even though there were rapid turnover rates of a large percentage of species on all investigated plots. Only a few bryophytes (Hypnum cupressiforme, Leucodon sciuroides) responded unambiguously to N and S deposition. Nitrogen deposition had a weak but significant effect on the distribution of bryophyte communities. However, the time shifts in bryophyte communities did not depend on total deposition of N and S. - Bryophytes show ambiguous response to airborne pollutants during 14 years of monitoring in a forest ecosystem

  17. Effects of electric field treatment on microstructures of GH4199 superalloy after long-term aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang; WANG Lei; WANG Shuai; QIAO Xue-ying; WANG Yan-qing

    2006-01-01

    The effects of electric field intensity and treatment temperature on the microstructures of GH4199 superalloy after long-term aging were investigated. The results show that the number and size of carbides and TCP(σ phase and μ phase) phase in the alloy increase with increasing electric field intensity at the same heat treatment temperature and holding time. While the number and size of carbides and TCP phase are weekly influenced by treatment temperature with lower electric field intensity of 2 kV/cm. When the treat temperature is up to 1 093 K, annealing twins appear in the alloy, and the number of twins increases with increasing holding time. Since the electric field can provide the enough energy for the movement of vacancies and atom, it is considered that the nucleus of the twins formed with formation stack faults due to the mismatch of local atom in crystal caused by the vacancies, and the twins will grow with the increase of holding time. Meanwhile, such promoting effects on atom movement of the electric field increase with the increase of the electric field intensity, meantime the carbides and TCP phase grow fast with the increase of electric field intensity.

  18. Long-term effects of ionizing radiation on the rat spinal cord: intramedullary connective tissue formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light microscopy was used to evaluate the effects of ionizing radiation on spinal cords of rats irradiated when three days of age and killed at intervals up to 28 months after irradiation. The amounts of x-rays administered (2,000 R; 1,000 R; 500 R) were those which had been demonstrated by short-term studies to cause either no histopathologic changes or only transient, reparable alterations. The most significant and previously unreported finding was the development, usually restricted to the gray matter, of elongated, spindle-shaped cells that produce prodigious amounts of fibers clearly demonstrated by the Wilder's reticular stain. In cases where extensive cellular development had occurred, these cells were oriented around the perikarya of the large ventral motor neurons and formed a well-developed capsule of reticular fibers. This phenomenon occurred more frequently in rats receiving the greater amounts of radiation and killed 12 months or more after exposure. The other observation of interest was the development of lesser amounts of connective tissue-producing cells in the dorsal gray matter, where these cells were seen initially in the substantia gelatinosa. The significance of these changes is discussed in relation to previously reported long-term effects of ionizing radiation on the central nervous system

  19. Effective long term adaptation and metabolic state regulation of ski-racers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhareva A.S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to scientifically substantiate effective mechanisms of organism’s bio-chemical adaptation of ski-racers in competition period with the help of lipid peroxidation indicators, oxidative modification of proteins and activity of hypothalamus pituitary adrenocortical system. Material: in the research 14 sportsmen of 18-25 years’ age (combined team of university with different level of sportsmanship participated. Assessment of free radical oxidation, anti-oxidant system, cortisol level was fulfilled with the help of indicators’ quantitative analysis by bio-chemical methods applied to blood serum samples. Results: it was found that in the basis of bio-chemical changes under intensive physical loads is increase of catabolic processes’ speed. Change of organism’s metabolic orientation of ski racers at optimal level results in working muscles’ energy supply improvement, increase of energy systems’ power and sports efficiency. Conclusions: Application of interval trainings at stages of preparation to special significant competitions results in expected adaptation and increase of sports efficiency. We also showed their effective role in ensuring long term reactions, conditioning high sports efficiency.

  20. Long-Term Effect of an Aqueous Fraxinus excelsior L. Seed Extract in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi López-Carreras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of long-term intake of different doses (20, 40, and 60 mg/kg/day of a Fraxinus excelsior L. seed extract (FESE on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR was evaluated. Water was used as control and captopril (50 mg/kg/day was used as positive control. Systolic blood pressure, body weight, and food and liquid intake were registered weekly in SHR. The antioxidant and vascular relaxing properties of FESE were also studied in these animals. The development of hypertension was attenuated in the groups treated with captopril or FESE. The antihypertensive effect was more accentuated in the captopril group than in the FESE groups, and it was paradoxically more accentuated in the groups treated with 20 mg/kg/day or 40 mg/kg/day of FESE than in the group treated with the highest dose of this extract. Body weight gain and food intake increased in the FESE groups. After removing the corresponding antihypertensive treatment, the arterial blood pressure and the body weight of the FESE treated animals returned to control values. In addition, FESE increased plasma antioxidant capacity and decreased plasma and liver malondialdehyde levels. Moreover, acetylcholine relaxation improved in the aorta rings from the FESE treated rats.

  1. Integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective biosolids management at a large Canadian wastewater treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, R J; Allain, C J; Laughton, P J; Henry, J G

    2004-01-01

    The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission's 115,000 m3/d advanced, chemically assisted primary wastewater treatment facility located in New Brunswick, Canada, has developed an integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective programme for the management and beneficial utilization of biosolids from lime stabilized raw sludge. The paper overviews biosolids production, lime stabilization, conveyance, and odour control followed by an indepth discussion of the wastewater sludge as a resource programme, namely: composting, mine site reclamation, landfill cover, land application for agricultural use, tree farming, sod farm base as a soil enrichment, topsoil manufacturing. The paper also addresses the issues of metals, pathogens, organic compounds, the quality control program along with the regulatory requirements. Biosolids capital and operating costs are presented. Research results on removal of metals from primary sludge using a unique biological process known as BIOSOL as developed by the University of Toronto, Canada to remove metals and destroy pathogens are presented. The paper also discusses an ongoing cooperative research project with the Université de Moncton where various mixtures of plant biosolids are composted with low quality soil. Integration, approach to sustainability and "cumulative effects" as part of the overall biosolids management strategy are also discussed. PMID:15259950

  2. Long term effect of metal pollution in the catchment area of Tisza River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Győri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In January and March 2000 two tailings dam failures occurred in the upper Tisza catchment area near Baia Mare and Baia Borsa (Romania. These accidents focused attention on the metal pollution of the Tisza catchment area, and the short term effects of them were studied by many researchers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effects of these pollutions by determining the Lakanen-Erviö extractable easily available metal contents of samples collected in 2011 from floodplains and pastures along the Tisza (Tivadar, Vásárosnamény, Rakamaz, Tiszacsege, and comparing them to our earlier results. Cu and Zn contents were measured by Optima 3300 DV ICP-OES (Perkin-Elmer. The measurement of Pb and Cd was conducted by QZ 939 GF-AAS (Unicam in 2000 and by an X7 ICP-MS (Thermo Fisher in 2011. We found that the Cd, Zn and Pb contents of the pasture near Vásárosnamény exceed limit values and natural background values. In addition, during a 11 year period the easily available Cd, Zn and Pb contents increased significantly, suggesting that the hazard of this pollution should not be neglected.

  3. Effects of regional differences in the long term carbon balance on predicted net CO2 fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehn, Tilo; Scholze, Marko; Knorr, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    impact it has on the long term carbon balance. We therefore investigate the effects of regional differences in the long term carbon balance on predicted net CO2 fluxes by varying the key carbon storage parameter β according to both, the 11 land regions as defined in the Transcom Atmospheric Inversion Intercomparison Experiment and the 13 PFTs as used in BETHY. This results in an extended set of 155 control parameters. We compare these results with the base case, where we assume that β is a universal parameter with no regional differences. We find that the β parameter is sensitive to the regionalisation process. Optimised parameter values differ for both scenarios which also results in differences in the spatial flux pattern. The results using the extended set of control parameters confirms, that regional differences exist and therefore the same PFT can act as a sink or a source, depending on the region where they occur. The results also demonstrate the capability of CCDAS to combine process modelling and parameter regionalisation in one tool.

  4. ORTHODONTIC RETENTION. Studies of retention capacity, cost-effectiveness and long-term stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynelius, Gudrun Edman

    2014-01-01

    Retention strategies, cost-effectiveness and long-term stability of treatment outcome are essential aspects of orthodontic treatment planning. The overall aim of this thesis was to compare and evaluate three different retention strategies, with special reference to short- and long-term clinical stability and cost-effectiveness. The approach was evidence-based, hence randomized controlled methodology was used in order to generate high levels of evidence. This thesis is based on four studies: Papers I and II are based on randomized controlled trials, evaluating the stability of treatment outcome after one and two years of retention, using three different retention strategies: a maxillary vacuum-formed retainer combined with a mandibular canine-to-canine retainer; a maxillary vacuum-formed retainer combined with stripping of the mandibular anterior teeth and a prefabricated positioner. Paper III presents a cost-minimization analysis of two years of retention treatment. Paper IV is based on a randomized controlled trial documenting the results five years post-retention. The following conclusions were drawn: Papers I and II. From a clinical perspective, asssessment after one year of retention disclosed that the three retention methods were successful in retaining the orthodontic treatment results. After two years of retention, all three retention methods were equally effective in controlling relapse at a clinically acceptable level. Most of the relapse occurred during the first year of retention; only minor or negligible changes were found during the second year. The subjects were grouped according to the level of compliance (excellent or good). After two years of retention there was a negative correlation between growth in body height and relapse of mandibular LII in the group of subjects with excellent compliance. The group with good compliance showed a positive correlation (Paper II, Figure 3). After two years of retention, growth in body height, initial crowding and

  5. Effect of long-term thermal aging on the mechanical properties of casting duplex stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The micro-hardness change tendency of ferrite and austenite by aging was studied. ► Embrittlement behavior of Z3CN20-09M CDSSs by aging was investigated by SP test. ► The crack propagation energy Wt − Wiu slightly changes with the thermal aging time. ► Spinodal decomposition and spinodally coarsening take place in ferrite by aging. ► Z3CN20-09M CDSSs become embrittlement after long-term thermal aging treatment. - Abstract: Casting duplex stainless steels (CDSSs) used for pressurized water reactor (PWR) pipes are susceptible to thermal aging brittleness during long-term service at its working temperature from 288 °C to 327 °C. In order to investigate its thermal aging behavior, Z3CN20-09M CDSSs have been thermally aged at 400 °C up to 15,000 h. The micro-hardness of austenite and ferrite phases, conventional tensile properties, impact properties and SPT properties at different aging duration have been measured. The results show that the micro-hardness in ferrite gradually increases with increase of long thermal aging time, while the effect of the long aging time on the micro-hardness in austenite is negligible. The tensile strength and yield strength progressively and slightly increase with the long aging time, respectively. The impact property test confirms that there is the same change tendency as the percentage of elongation which decreases with the long aging time. The changes of SPT ultimate strength, SPT yield strength and SPT specific fracture energy by aging individually show that there is an almost same tendency as the tensile strength, the yield strength and the percentage of elongation with the thermal aging time. All above the mechanical properties changes of Z3CN20-09M CDSSs are associated with the changes of the dislocation configurations in austenite, the precipitation of G-phase on the dislocation line and in ferrite phase, the spinodal decomposition and the coarsening of the spinodally decomposed structure in ferrite

  6. Long-term effect of primary combined tissue transplantation on hand reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the long-term effect of primary combined tissue transplantation on hand reconstruction.Methods:The data of8Kinds of combined tissue transplantations employed to reconstruct the severely injured hands of 26 patients over the past2to 11years were studied retrospectively.Among them,combined tissue transplantation taking the anterior-lateral femoral flap as the main tissue unit was applied in 21cases and taking the second toe as the main tissue unit was applied in 5cases.Blood vessel anastomosis was performed in parallel in 16cases,series in6cases and both in4cases.Results:Among the60free tissue units employed on 26patients,58 survived completely and the other2survived after dressing change because of postoperative partial necrosis.The patients were followed up for2-11 years postoperatively,with an average of 3.5years.According to the standard for function of reconstructed hands by Chinese Medical Association,excellent results were obtained in10cases,good in12cases,fair in3cases and bad in1case.Conclusions:Primary combined tissue transplantation,which may preserve the tissue vitality of injured hands to the maximum and thus facilitate function restoration of the hands,is a promising method in recostructing severely-injured hands.

  7. Long Term Effects of Tear Gases on Respiratory System: Analysis of 93 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peri Arbak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study aimed to assess the long-term respiratory effects of tear gases among the subjects with history of frequent exposure. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire by NIOSH and pulmonary function tests was performed in 93 males exposed to the tear gases frequently and 55 nonexposed subjects. Results. The mean numbers of total exposure and last 2 years exposure were 8.4±6.4 times, 5.6±5.8 times, respectively. Tear gas exposed subjects were presented with a higher rate for cough and phlegm more than 3 months (24.7% versus 11.3%, P>0.05. Mean FEV1/FVC and % predicted MMFR in smoker exposed subjects are significantly lower than those in smoker controls (81.7% versus 84.1%, P=0.046 and 89.9% versus 109.6%, P=0.0004, resp.. % predicted MMFR in nonsmoker exposed subjects is significantly lower than that in nonsmoker controls (99.4% versus 113.1%, P=0.05. Odds ratios for chest tightness, exercise dyspnea, dyspnea on level ground, winter morning cough, phlegm, and daily phlegm were increased almost 2 to 2.5 folds among tear gas exposed subjects. Conclusion. The rates for respiratory complaints were high in the case of the exposure to the tear gases previously. Tears gas exposed subjects were found to be under the risk for chronic bronchitis.

  8. Long term effects of crude oil on common murres (Uria aalge) following rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil spilled or discharged at sea is known to contaminate and cause mortality in seabirds and in some instances, these losses can be substantial as reported recently following an oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Alaskan waters. Crude petroleum alters the arrangement of the feather barbules causing a loss of buoyancy and hypothermia. Attempts to rehabilitate birds with light to moderate amounts of oil exposure have met with modest success. Following cleaning and release, many of these birds never recovered and little is known of their survival rate in nature subsequently. A number of oiled sea birds, primarily common murres (Uria aalge), were retrieved recently by the Canadian Coast Guard and attempts to rehabilitate them were conducted. Since the majority of birds were retained longer than the usual 4 to 5 days recommended by the Bird Rescue International Centre after retrieval, it soon became apparent that many were suffering from problems other than diet or thermoregulation. Following autopsy/necropsy, extensive organ damage was observed in all of the birds. The purpose of this communication is to report the long term effects of crude oil on common murres

  9. Effects of long-term radiation exposure on chromosomal aberrations in radiological technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosomal aberrations in the lymphocytes of radiation technologists (RT) were analyzed by the trypsin G-banding method to study the late effects of long-term exposure to low doses of radiation. Structural aberrations were identified in 384 (2.5%) of 15442 cells analyzed from 53 RT as compared to 177 (1.6%) of 11136 cells from 36 healthy controls. Stable aberrations were the most frequent in both groups and were either translocations or deletions. Unstable aberrations were mainly acentric fragments in both groups. The frequency of translocations and acentric fragments was significantly higher in the RT than in the controls and was highest in the RT over 50 years. The highest frequency observed in the >50 age group was attributed to the unknown for cumulative dose prior to introduction of film badges. Frequency of chromosomal aberrations correlated with the estimated dose from the film badges and years of experience of each RT based on the equation y=0.22+0.37D+4.35D2, where y is overall frequency of chromosomal aberrations and D is the estimated radiation dose in Sv. (author)

  10. Long-Term Effects of Maternal Deprivation on the Neuronal Soma Area in the Rat Neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Aksić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early separation of rat pups from their mothers (separatio a matrem is considered and accepted as an animal model of perinatal stress. Adult rats, separated early postnatally from their mothers, are developing long-lasting changes in the brain and neuroendocrine system, corresponding to the findings observed in schizophrenia and affective disorders. With the aim to investigate the morphological changes in this animal model we exposed 9-day-old (P9 Wistar rats to a 24 h maternal deprivation (MD. At young adult age rats were sacrificed for morphometric analysis and their brains were compared with the control group bred under the same conditions, but without MD. Rats exposed to MD had a 28% smaller cell soma area in the prefrontal cortex (PFCX, 30% in retrosplenial cortex (RSCX, and 15% in motor cortex (MCX compared to the controls. No difference was observed in the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the neocortex of MD rats compared to the control group. The results of this study demonstrate that stress in early life has a long-term effect on neuronal soma size in cingulate and retrosplenial cortex and is potentially interesting as these structures play an important role in cognition.

  11. [Effects of long term mental arithmetic on physiological parameters, subjective indices and task performances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shimpei; Miyake, Shinji

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the effects of long term mental arithmetic on physiological parameters, subjective indices and task performances to investigate the psychophysiological changes induced by mental tasks. Fifteen male university students performed six successive trials of a ten-minute mental arithmetic task. They took a five-minute resting period before and after the tasks. CFF (Critical Flicker Fusion frequency) and subjective fatigue scores using a visual analog scale, POMS (Profiles of Mood States) and SFF (Subjective Feelings of Fatigue) were obtained after each task and resting period. The voices of participants who were instructed to speak five Japanese vowels ('a', 'i', 'u', 'e', 'o') were recorded after each block to investigate a chaotic property of vocal signals that is reported to be changed by fatigue. Subjective workload ratings were also obtained by the NASA-TLX (National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index) after the task. Physiological signals of ECG (Electrocardiogram), PTG (Photoelectric Plethysmogram), SCL (Skin Conductance Level), TBV (Tissue Blood Volume) and Respiration were recorded for all experimental blocks. The number of answers, correct rates and average levels of task difficulty for each ten-minute task were used as task performance indices. In this experiment, the task performance did not decrease, whereas subjective fatigue increased. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system was suggested by physiological parameters. PMID:17380727

  12. Toward an effective long-term strategy for preventing motor vehicle crashes and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Anthony R; Walley, E Kenneth

    2014-08-01

    Casualties due to motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) include some 40,000 deaths each year in the United States and one million deaths worldwide. One strategy that has been recommended for improving automobile safety is to lower speed limits and enforce them with speed cameras. However, motor vehicles can be hazardous even at low speeds whereas properly protected human beings can survive high-speed crashes without injury. Emphasis on changing driver behavior as the focus for road safety improvements has been largely unsuccessful; moreover, drivers today are increasingly distracted by secondary tasks such as cell phone use and texting. Indeed, the true limiting factor in vehicular safety is the capacity of human beings to sense and process information and to make rapid decisions. Given that dramatic reductions in injuries and deaths from MVCs have occurred over the past century due to improvements in safety technology, despite increases in the number of vehicles on the road and miles driven per vehicle, we propose that an effective long-term strategy for reducing MVC-related injury would be continued technological innovation in vehicle design, aimed at progressively removing the driver from routine operational decision-making. Once this is achieved, high rates of speed could be achieved on open highways, with minimal risk of crashes and injury to occupants and pedestrians. PMID:25116634

  13. Toward an Effective Long-Term Strategy for Preventing Motor Vehicle Crashes and Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Mawson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Casualties due to motor vehicle crashes (MVCs include some 40,000 deaths each year in the United States and one million deaths worldwide. One strategy that has been recommended for improving automobile safety is to lower speed limits and enforce them with speed cameras. However, motor vehicles can be hazardous even at low speeds whereas properly protected human beings can survive high-speed crashes without injury. Emphasis on changing driver behavior as the focus for road safety improvements has been largely unsuccessful; moreover, drivers today are increasingly distracted by secondary tasks such as cell phone use and texting. Indeed, the true limiting factor in vehicular safety is the capacity of human beings to sense and process information and to make rapid decisions. Given that dramatic reductions in injuries and deaths from MVCs have occurred over the past century due to improvements in safety technology, despite increases in the number of vehicles on the road and miles driven per vehicle, we propose that an effective long-term strategy for reducing MVC-related injury would be continued technological innovation in vehicle design, aimed at progressively removing the driver from routine operational decision-making. Once this is achieved, high rates of speed could be achieved on open highways, with minimal risk of crashes and injury to occupants and pedestrians.

  14. The effect of long term combined yoga practice on the basal metabolic rate of healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra HR

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different procedures practiced in yoga have stimulatory or inhibitory effects on the basal metabolic rate when studied acutely. In daily life however, these procedures are usually practiced in combination. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the net change in the basal metabolic rate (BMR of individuals actively engaging in a combination of yoga practices (asana or yogic postures, meditation and pranayama or breathing exercises for a minimum period of six months, at a residential yoga education and research center at Bangalore. Methods The measured BMR of individuals practicing yoga through a combination of practices was compared with that of control subjects who did not practice yoga but led similar lifestyles. Results The BMR of the yoga practitioners was significantly lower than that of the non-yoga group, and was lower by about 13 % when adjusted for body weight (P Conclusion This study shows that there is a significantly reduced BMR, probably linked to reduced arousal, with the long term practice of yoga using a combination of stimulatory and inhibitory yogic practices.

  15. Does beach nourishment have long-term effects on intertidal macroinvertebrate species abundance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leewis, Lies; van Bodegom, Peter M.; Rozema, Jelte; Janssen, Gerard M.

    2012-11-01

    Coastal squeeze is the largest threat for sandy coastal areas. To mitigate seaward threats, erosion and sea level rise, sand nourishment is commonly applied. However, its long-term consequences for macroinvertebrate fauna, critical to most ecosystem services of sandy coasts, are still unknown. Seventeen sandy beaches - nourished and controls - were sampled along a chronosequence to investigate the abundance of four dominant macrofauna species and their relations with nourishment year and relevant coastal environmental variables. Dean's parameter and latitude significantly explained the abundance of the spionid polychaete Scolelepis squamata, Beach Index (BI), sand skewness, beach slope and latitude explained the abundance of the amphipod Haustorius arenarius and Relative Tide Range (RTR), recreation and sand sorting explained the abundance of Bathyporeia sarsi. For Eurydice pulchra, no environmental variable explained its abundance. For H. arenarius, E. pulchra and B. sarsi, there was no relation with nourishment year, indicating that recovery took place within a year after nourishment. Scolelepis squamata initially profited from the nourishment with "over-recolonisation". This confirms its role as an opportunistic species, thereby altering the initial community structure on a beach after nourishment. We conclude that the responses of the four dominant invertebrates studied in the years following beach nourishment are species specific. This shows the importance of knowing the autecology of the sandy beach macroinvertebrate fauna in order to be able to mitigate the effects of beach nourishment and other environmental impacts.

  16. Long Term Positive Effect of Grassland Restoration on Plant Diversity - Success or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindborg, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Restoration is important for biodiversity conservation worldwide, but surprisingly little is known about its efficiency in a long-term perspective. In this study, we re-examined Swedish semi-natural grasslands 12–20 years after the restoration, by comparing field inventories of vascular plant species diversity made in 2001 with follow-up inventories in 2012. We also analysed restoration effect in relation to six environmental factors and used continuously managed semi-natural grasslands as references of desired state after restoration. We found that total species richness increased over time but not to reference levels, while there were no significant changes in species density or number of grassland specialists. However, the overall species composition in the restored sites, as well as grassland specialist composition, now largely resembled reference conditions. Fertilisation and time between abandonment and restoration were the only environmental variables that affected total species composition change, while site area affected change in grassland specialist composition. Our results show that restoration of semi-natural grasslands can contribute to conservation of semi-natural habitats and their associated biodiversity. Yet, due to the vague restoration goals for these sites, it is difficult to evaluate the restoration success, which emphasise the general need for clear and measurable goals. PMID:27196748

  17. Neighborhood effects on the long-term well-being of low-income adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Jens; Duncan, Greg J; Gennetian, Lisa A; Katz, Lawrence F; Kessler, Ronald C; Kling, Jeffrey R; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa

    2012-09-21

    Nearly 9 million Americans live in extreme-poverty neighborhoods, places that also tend to be racially segregated and dangerous. Yet, the effects on the well-being of residents of moving out of such communities into less distressed areas remain uncertain. Using data from Moving to Opportunity, a unique randomized housing mobility experiment, we found that moving from a high-poverty to lower-poverty neighborhood leads to long-term (10- to 15-year) improvements in adult physical and mental health and subjective well-being, despite not affecting economic self-sufficiency. A 1-standard deviation decline in neighborhood poverty (13 percentage points) increases subjective well-being by an amount equal to the gap in subjective well-being between people whose annual incomes differ by $13,000--a large amount given that the average control group income is $20,000. Subjective well-being is more strongly affected by changes in neighborhood economic disadvantage than racial segregation, which is important because racial segregation has been declining since 1970, but income segregation has been increasing. PMID:22997331

  18. Long term effect of curcumin in regulation of glycolytic pathway and angiogenesis via modulation of stress activated genes in prevention of cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmidhar Das

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress, an important factor in modulation of glycolytic pathway and induction of stress activated genes, is further augmented due to reduced antioxidant defense system, which promotes cancer progression via inducing angiogenesis. Curcumin, a naturally occurring chemopreventive phytochemical, is reported to inhibit carcinogenesis in various experimental animal models. However, the underlying mechanism involved in anticarcinogenic action of curcumin due to its long term effect is still to be reported because of its rapid metabolism, although metabolites are accumulated in tissues and remain for a longer time. Therefore, the long term effect of curcumin needs thorough investigation. The present study aimed to analyze the anticarcinogenic action of curcumin in liver, even after withdrawal of treatment in Dalton's lymphoma bearing mice. Oxidative stress observed during lymphoma progression reduced antioxidant enzyme activities, and induced angiogenesis as well as activation of early stress activated genes and glycolytic pathway. Curcumin treatment resulted in activation of antioxidant enzyme super oxide dismutase and down regulation of ROS level as well as activity of ROS producing enzyme NADPH:oxidase, expression of stress activated genes HIF-1α, cMyc and LDH activity towards normal level. Further, it lead to significant inhibition of angiogenesis, observed via MMPs activity, PKCα and VEGF level, as well as by matrigel plug assay. Thus findings of this study conclude that the long term effect of curcumin shows anticarcinogenic potential via induction of antioxidant defense system and inhibition of angiogenesis via down regulation of stress activated genes and glycolytic pathway in liver of lymphoma bearing mice.

  19. Long-term effects of timber harvesting on hemicellulolytic microbial populations in coniferous forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Hilary T C; Maas, Kendra R; Wilhelm, Roland C; Mohn, William W

    2016-02-01

    Forest ecosystems need to be sustainably managed, as they are major reservoirs of biodiversity, provide important economic resources and modulate global climate. We have a poor knowledge of populations responsible for key biomass degradation processes in forest soils and the effects of forest harvesting on these populations. Here, we investigated the effects of three timber-harvesting methods, varying in the degree of organic matter removal, on putatively hemicellulolytic bacterial and fungal populations 10 or more years after harvesting and replanting. We used stable-isotope probing to identify populations that incorporated (13)C from labeled hemicellulose, analyzing (13)C-enriched phospholipid fatty acids, bacterial 16 S rRNA genes and fungal ITS regions. In soil microcosms, we identified 104 bacterial and 52 fungal hemicellulolytic operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Several of these OTUs are affiliated with taxa not previously reported to degrade hemicellulose, including the bacterial genera Methylibium, Pelomonas and Rhodoferax, and the fungal genera Cladosporium, Pseudeurotiaceae, Capronia, Xenopolyscytalum and Venturia. The effect of harvesting on hemicellulolytic populations was evaluated based on in situ bacterial and fungal OTUs. Harvesting treatments had significant but modest long-term effects on relative abundances of hemicellulolytic populations, which differed in strength between two ecozones and between soil layers. For soils incubated in microcosms, prior harvesting treatments did not affect the rate of incorporation of hemicellulose carbon into microbial biomass. In six ecozones across North America, distributions of the bacterial hemicellulolytic OTUs were similar, whereas distributions of fungal ones differed. Our work demonstrates that diverse taxa in soil are hemicellulolytic, many of which are differentially affected by the impact of harvesting on environmental conditions. However, the hemicellulolytic capacity of soil communities appears

  20. Long-term effects with ambrisentan monotherapy in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文莉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate long-term efficacy and safety of ambrisentan monotherapy in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension(PAH).Methods Patients with PAH who received 2.5 mg or 5 mg of ambrisentan once daily between July 10,2011 and August 30,2012for at least 6 months were enrolled.The efficacy endpoints were changes in exercise capacity,World Health Organization(WHO)functional class and N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide(NT-pro BNP)level,echocardiographic parameters.The safety endpoint was the safety of long-term ambrisentan administration,as defined by

  1. Carboxylic Esterase and Its Associations With Long-term Effects of Organophosphorus Pesticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine a) the effect of organophosphorus pesticide exposure on activity of carboxylic esterases, namely butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), carboxylesterase (CarbE) and paraoxonase (PonE); and b) the association of polymorphisms of BChE and PonE with individual genetic susceptibility to organophosphorus pesticide exposure. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 75 workers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides and 100 non-exposed controls. The serum activity of these enzymes was measured. Variant forms of BCHE-K, PON-192, and PON-55 were detected. A symptom score was developed as a proxy measure of clinical outcomes. Results Activities of both BChE and CarbE were lower in exposed exposed workers with BCHE-K genotype UU (61 cases), genotype UK (12 cases) and genotype KK (2 cases) was 105.05, 84.42 activity in the exposed workers with PON-192 genotype BB (37), genotype AB (27) and genotype AA (11) was 116.8, 91.2, and 9.20. The symptom score was the highest in individuals with abnormal homozygote for each of the three gene loci. Conclusions Long-term exposure to organophosphorus pesticides can inhibit BChE and CarbE activity, but exerts no inhibitory effect on PonE activity. Different genotypes of BCHE-K, PON-192, and PON-55 may be related to the severity of adverse health effects of organophosphorus pesticide exposure. Implications of potentially higher susceptibility of workers with mutant homozygotes should be evaluated to reduce health risks.

  2. Long-term effect of Prolotherapy on symptomatic rotator cuff tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suad Trebinjac

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to assess a long-term clinical effect of Prolotherapy on chronic symptomatic rotator cuff tendinopathy.Methods: We conducted a retrospective, uncontrolled study in the outpatient setting with 12 months follow-up. Adults diagnosed clinically and radiologically with rotator cuff tendinopathy that has been persisting for a minimum of six months were included. Patients received 15% extra-articular and 25% intra-articular hyperosmolar dextrose injections, repeated at weeks 5, 9, 13, 17 and 21. Primary outcome measure was validated Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI. Secondary outcome measure was validated visual pain analogue scale (VAS 0-10. The third outcome measures were patient’s satisfaction with Prolotherapy and adverse reactions after injections.Results: Twenty-one patients, 14 male and 7 female were treated with 6 sessions of hyperosmolar dextrose Prolotherapy repeated every 4 weeks. Average SPADI before starting the treatment was 73.995 ± 13.6, while 12 months after completed treatment was 20.84 ± 26.03 (P< 0.0001. Average VAS score before starting the treatment was 8.14 ± 1.2, while 12 months after completed treatment was 2.29 ± 2.8 (P<0.0001. Out of 21 patients, 18 (85.71% would recommend Prolotherapy to other people with the similar condition, and no one participant reported any side effect that was not resolved within one week after the treatment.Conclusion: Hyperosmolar dextrose Prolotherapy may result in significant reduction of pain and disability index in adult patients with chronic rotator cuff tendinopathy, without eliciting long-lasting side effects. Results of this pilot study need to be validated in prospective controlled randomized trials.

  3. Short- and long-term effects of nutrient enrichment on microbial exoenzyme activity in mangrove peat

    KAUST Repository

    Keuskamp, Joost A.

    2015-02-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Mangroves receive increasing quantities of nutrients as a result of coastal development, which could lead to significant changes in carbon sequestration and soil subsidence. We hypothesised that mangrove-produced tannins induce a nitrogen (N) limitation on microbial decomposition even when plant growth is limited by phosphorus (P). As a result, increased N influx would lead to a net loss of sequestered carbon negating the ability to compensate for sea level rise in P-limited mangroves. To examine this, we quantified the short- and long-term effects of N and P enrichment on microbial biomass and decomposition-related enzyme activities in a Rhizophora mangle-dominated mangrove, which had been subjected to fertilisation treatments for a period of fifteen years. We compared microbial biomass, elemental stoichiometry and potential enzyme activity in dwarf and fringe-type R. mangle-dominated sites, where primary production is limited by P or N depending on the proximity to open water. Even in P-limited mangroves, microbial activity was N-limited as indicated by stoichiometry and an increase in enzymic activity upon N amendment. Nevertheless, microbial biomass increased upon field additions of P, indicating that the carbon supply played even a larger role. Furthermore, we found that P amendment suppressed phenol oxidase activity, while N amendment did not. The possible differential nutrient limitations of microbial decomposers versus primary producers implies that the direction of the effect of eutrophication on carbon sequestration is nutrient-specific. In addition, this study shows that phenol oxidase activities in this system decrease through P, possibly strengthening the enzymic latch effect of mangrove tannins. Furthermore, it is argued that the often used division between N-harvesting, P-harvesting, and carbon-harvesting exoenzymes needs to be reconsidered.

  4. A long-term satellite study of aerosol effects on convective clouds in Nordic background air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Sporre

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol-cloud interactions constitute a~major uncertainty in future climate predictions. This study combines 10 yr of ground-based aerosol particle measurements from 2 Nordic background stations (Vavihill and Hyytiälä with MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite data of convective clouds. The merged data are used to examine the indirect aerosol effects on convective clouds over the Nordic countries. From the satellite scenes, vertical profiles of cloud droplet effective radius (re are created by plotting re against cloud top temperature. The profiles have been divided according to aerosol loading but also modeled meteorological parameters from the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts. Furthermore, weather radar data from the BALTEX (Baltic Sea Experiment and ground based precipitation measurements from several ground-based meteorological measurement stations have been investigated to determine whether aerosols affect precipitation intensity and amount. Higher aerosol number concentrations result in smaller re throughout the entire profiles at both stations. Profiles associated with no or little precipitation have smaller droplets than those associated with more precipitation. Furthermore, an increase in aerosol loadings results in a suppression of precipitation rates, when the vertical extent of the clouds has been taken into account. Clouds with greater vertical extent have the highest precipitation rates and are most sensitive to aerosol perturbations. Nevertheless, meteorological parameters such as the vertical extent of the clouds, the atmospheric instability and the relative humidity in the lower atmosphere affect the amount of precipitation that reaches the ground more than the aerosols do. The combination of these ground-based and remote sensing datasets provides a unique long-term study of the effects of aerosols on convective clouds over the Nordic countries.

  5. Fire Effects on Soils in Lake States Forests: A Compilation of Published Research to Facilitate Long-Term Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    David M. Hix; Jessica R Miesel; P. Charles Goebel; Randall Kolka; Brian Palik; R. Gregory Corace; David Mladenoff

    2012-01-01

    Fire-adapted forests of the Lake States region are poorly studied relative to those of the western and southeastern United States and our knowledge base of regional short- and long-term fire effects on soils is limited. We compiled and assessed the body of literature addressing fire effects on soils in Lake States forests to facilitate the re-measurement of previous studies for the development of new long-term datasets, and to identify existing gaps in the regional knowledge of fire effects o...

  6. Long-term effects of weight reduction on the severity of psoriasis in a cohort derived from a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Christensen, Robin; Zachariae, Claus;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight reduction may reduce the severity of psoriasis, but little is known about the long-term effects. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate long-term effects of weight reduction in psoriasis. DESIGN: We previously conducted a randomized trial (n = 60) involving patients with psoriasis...... randomized phase with an LED for 8 wk and 8 wk of normal food intake combined with 2 LED products/d, followed by a 48-wk period of weight maintenance with the latter diet. After the randomization phase, the control group received the same 8 + 8-wk LED intervention, and all patients were then followed for 48...... maintained at -2.9 (95% CI: -3.9, -1.9) and -1.9 (95% CI: -3.0, -0.9), respectively. CONCLUSION: Long-term weight loss in patients with psoriasis has long-lasting positive effects on the severity of psoriasis. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01137188....

  7. Long-term effects of soil redistribution by tillage on the landscapes transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alba, S.

    2012-04-01

    During the last decade, soil redistribution due to tillage practices has been identified as an intensive soil erosion process. All the empirical tillage translocation models available in the literature demonstrate high rates of soil translocation for the more commonly used tillage implements. The long-term effects of this intensive soil redistribution within agricultural fields has resulted in a drastic modification of the bio-physical dynamics of the soil as well as the total land-system. A better understanding of the implications of soil redistribution by tillage may require reinterpretation of current agricultural landscapes. This reveal the need for studies for identifying current landscape features produced by past repeated tillage practices, as well as for documenting the bio-physical implications (hydrology, water erosion, soil variability, soil quality, productivity…) derived of such landscape transformations. This communication presents several examples of field evidences observed in agricultural fields of Central Spain, Tuscany (Italy) and Central Minnesota (USA). The collection of field evidences are presented grouped according to the nature of the effects, into the following four classes: i) Landscape leveling and smoothing - Features of change of the soil surface level. Ii) Modification of morphology of slope profiles - Formation of banks at the lower field edges. - Landscape benching by the formation of slope profile breaks at borders between adjacent fields located at mid-slope positions. iii) Spatial variability of soil properties - Patterns of distribution of areas of degraded soils (truncated soils) and of soil accumulations. - Spatial variability of soil properties in the superficial soil horizons. - Variability of soil profiles morphology along the slope profiles. iv) Spatial variability of productivity - Relationships between relieve and spatial variability of soil properties and productivity. Key Words: soil redistribution, tillage erosion

  8. Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition and Instructed Vocabulary Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghobadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present empirical study was conducted to compare instructed vocabulary teaching and incidental vocabulary acquisition that are two common approaches to teaching second language (L2 vocabulary in the literature.  For this purpose, 53 Iran learners of English as a Foreign Language were selected from a larger sample and were then randomly assigned into a control group and two experimental groups as the participants of the study.  The participants in the groups received placebo instruction while those in the experimental groups were either explicitly instructed or incidentally exposed to a number of targeted words (TWs selected for the purposes of the study.  The results of an immediate posttest of the TWs demonstrated that the participants in both experimental groups benefited from instruction on/exposure to the TWs compared to the participants in the control group who were neither instructed on nor exposed to the TWs.  The results of a delayed posttest indicated that, though there was a difference between the two experimental groups in the immediate posttest with respect to the acquisition of the TWs, the difference faded away in five-week interval as the experimental groups performed rather similarly on the delayed posttest.  At the end, the implication of these findings for L2 vocabulary research and pedagogy would be discussed, along with some suggestions for researchers who wish to follow this trend of research.Keywords: Intentional Vocabulary Teaching, Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition, Short-Term Effects, Long-Term Effects, Target Words  

  9. Long-term effects of nanoscaled titanium dioxide on the cladoceran Daphnia magna over six generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the impact of nanoscaled titanium dioxide (nTiO2) on Daphnia magna populations in a multi-generational study over six generations (F0–F5). Each generation was exposed for 21 days to nTiO2 (AEROXIDE® TiO2 P25, primary particle size 21 nm) while mortality, individual growth, reproduction and population growth rates (PGR) were assessed as endpoints. The size distribution of nTiO2 in the single test media was analysed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). nTiO2 concentrations were measured using ICP-MS. Mortality and individual growth of D. magna were significantly affected with increasing exposure duration and concentration. Daphnids demonstrated decreasing reproduction over generations in all treatment groups (1.19–6 mg/L) but not in the control. At concentration levels of 1.78 mg/L chronic exposure resulted in a population collapse after five generations. This study indicates that multi-generational studies are suitable for evaluating long-term effects of nanoparticles since they reflect potential effects more accurately than single generation tests. -- Highlights: • Chronic exposure of daphnids resulted in population collapse after five generations. • PNEC was in the range of calculated environmental concentrations of nanoscaled TiO2. • Multigenerational studies have great relevance for environmental risk assessment. -- Chronic exposure of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna to nanoscaled titanium dioxide (AEROXIDE® TiO2 P25) resulted in a population collapse after five generations

  10. Sustainability of healthcare innovations (SUSHI: long term effects of two implemented surgical care programmes (protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ament Stephanie M C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two healthcare innovations were successfully implemented using different implementation strategies. First, a Short Stay Programme for breast cancer surgery (MaDO was implemented in four early adopter hospitals, using a hospital-tailored implementation strategy. Second, the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS programme for colonic surgery was implemented in 33 Dutch hospitals, using a generic breakthrough implementation strategy. Both strategies resulted in a shorter hospital length of stay without a decrease in quality of care. Currently, it is unclear to what extent these innovative programmes and their results have been sustained three to five years following implementation. The aim of the sustainability of healthcare innovations (SUSHI study is to analyse sustainability and its determinants using two implementation cases. Methods This observational study uses a mixed methods approach. The study will be performed in 14 hospitals in the Netherlands, from November 2010. For both implementation cases, the programme aspects and the effects will be evaluated by means of a follow-up measurement in 160 patients who underwent breast cancer surgery and 300 patients who underwent colonic surgery. A policy cost-effectiveness analysis from a societal perspective will be performed prospectively for the Short Stay Programme for breast cancer surgery in 160 patients. To study determinants of sustainability key professionals in the multidisciplinary care processes and implementation change agents will be interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Discussion The concept of sustainability is not commonly studied in implementation science. The SUSHI study will provide insight in to what extent the short-term implementation benefits have been maintained and in the determinants of long-term continuation of programme activities.

  11. LONG TERM EFFECT OF CHROMIUM ON LIPID PROFILE AND SOME HORMONES IN OBESE RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the long term effect of chromium picolinate (intake 30 and 60 days) on lipid profile, testosterone, thyroid hormones, corticosterone and insulin was studied in obese male rats. A total of 48 male albino rats were arranged into four equal groups. The rats were distributed into four equal main groups: 1- Normal rats left without any treatment and served as a control group. 2- Normal rats treated with chromium picolinate at a dose of 40 μg/kg/day. 3-Obese rats (after the induction of obesity) using fed high fat diet. 4- Obese rats treated with chromium picolinate. The results obtained showed that normal rats treated with chromium picolinate for 30 or 60 days had no changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, total lipids, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) when compared with the control group. The testosterone and corticosterone levels were significantly decreased in rats treated with chromium picolinate for 60 days. Insulin level was significantly increased in treated rats for 60 days when compared with the control ones. In obese rats, the lipid profile and corticosterone were significantly increased at 30 and 60 days, while the insulin levels were increased in obese rats fed on high fat diet for 30 days as compared with the control rats. The administration of chromium picolinate to obese rats succeeded to decrease the lipid profile, corticosterone (at 60 days) and insuline (at 30 days) when compared with the obese rats. It could be concluded from this study that chromium picolinate possess beneficial effects in decreasing lipid profile in obese rats. Therefore, additional of chromium picolinate may be useful in obese rats to burn excess body fat and in treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Since it cause decrease in testosterone level, its use was advised to restrict to relatively old age

  12. Predicting nitrogen and acidity effects on long-term dynamics of dissolved organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes may relate to changes in sulphur and nitrogen pollution. We integrated existing models of vegetation growth and soil organic matter turnover, acid–base dynamics, and organic matter mobility, to form the ‘MADOC’ model. After calibrating parameters governing interactions between pH and DOC dissolution using control treatments on two field experiments, MADOC reproduced responses of pH and DOC to additions of acidifying and alkalising solutions. Long-term trends in a range of acid waters were also reproduced. The model suggests that the sustained nature of observed DOC increases can best be explained by a continuously replenishing potentially-dissolved carbon pool, rather than dissolution of a large accumulated store. The simulations informed the development of hypotheses that: DOC increase is related to plant productivity increase as well as to pH change; DOC increases due to nitrogen pollution will become evident, and be sustained, after soil pH has stabilised. -- Highlights: • A model of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was developed by integrating simple models • MADOC simulates effects of sulphur and nitrogen deposition and interactions with pH. • Responses of DOC and pH to experimental acidification and alkalisation were reproduced. • The persistence of DOC increases will depend on continued supply of potential DOC. • DOC fluxes are likely determined by plant productivity as well as soil solution pH. -- Effects of changes in sulphur and nitrogen pollution on dissolved organic carbon fluxes are predicted by simulating soil organic matter cycling, the release of potentially-dissolved carbon, and interactions with soil pH

  13. Long-term antihypertensive effect of a soluble cocoa fiber product in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fernández-Vallinas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Methods: This study evaluates the antihypertensive effect of long-term intake of a soluble cocoa fiber product (SCFP. Different doses of SCFP were evaluated (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day and a dose of 800 mg/kg/day of beta-glucan 0.75 (BETA-G was used as a standard fiber. Water, a neutral vehicle, was used as negative control, and 50 mg/kg/day captopril was used as positive control. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured weekly by the tail cuff method. Body weight, food, and liquid intake were also registered weekly in the rats from 10 to 24 weeks of life. Glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels; redox status; and the angiotensin-converting enzyme activity were also studied in the plasma samples of these animals. Results: Throughout the 10 weeks of treatment, captopril and SCFP (400 mg/kg/day demonstrated blood pressure lowering effects in the spontaneously hypertensive rats (p0.05; n=8. When the corresponding antihypertensive treatment, was disrupted the SBP values of the 400 mg/kg/day SCFP treated animals returned to control values (p>0.05; n=8. In addition, the SCFP significantly decreased (p<0.05; n=4 the glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and also the liver and plasma malondaldehyde levels. Moreover, the SCFP slightly increased the reduced glutathione levels in the liver. Conclusion: The SCFP could be used to control the blood pressure of hypertensive subjects for a long period of time and could improve metabolic complications associated to cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Short- and long-term effects of a quality improvement collaborative on diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niessen Louis W

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This study examined the short- and long-term effects of a quality improvement collaborative on patient outcomes, professional performance, and structural aspects of chronic care management of type 2 diabetes in an integrated care setting. Methods Controlled pre- and post-intervention study assessing patient outcomes (hemoglobin A1c, cholesterol, blood pressure, weight, blood lipid levels, and smoking status, professional performance (guideline adherence, and structural aspects of chronic care management from baseline up to 24 months. Analyses were based on 1,861 patients with diabetes in six intervention and nine control regions representing 37 general practices and 13 outpatient clinics. Results Modest but significant improvement was seen in mean systolic blood pressure (decrease by 4.0 mm Hg versus 1.6 mm Hg and mean high density lipoprotein levels (increase by 0.12 versus 0.03 points at two-year follow up. Positive but insignificant differences were found in hemoglobin A1c (0.3%, cholesterol, and blood lipid levels. The intervention group showed significant improvement in the percentage of patients receiving advice and instruction to examine feet, and smaller reductions in the percentage of patients receiving instruction to monitor blood glucose and visiting a dietician annually. Structural aspects of self-management and decision support also improved significantly. Conclusions At a time of heightened national attention toward diabetes care, our results demonstrate a modest benefit of participation in a multi-institutional quality improvement collaborative focusing on integrated, patient-centered care. The effects persisted for at least 12 months after the intervention was completed. Trial number http://clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT 00160017

  15. Acute and long-term effects of exposure to sodium monofluoroacetate (1080 in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Gooneratne

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute and long-term effects of a single, relative lyhigh oral dose (0.25a nd 0.30 mg/kg of sodium monofluoroacetate (1080 on the survival and productivity of sheep were evaluated to establish a better understanding of 1080 poisoning and identify more specific changes diagnostic of toxicosis. In survivors, clinical signs of acute 1080 toxicosis such as salivation and lethar gywere generally very mild. Fasted animals were more prone to 1080 toxicity. In animals that died, more severe signs, including tachypnoea, dyspnoea, and tremors occurred for 15-20 min prior to death. 1080 concentrations were highest in the blood> heart> skeletal muscle> liver. 1080 could not be detected in any of these organs of the animals that survived. Serum citratec oncentratione were elevated for 4 days after dosing. No clinical or biochemical abnormalities were found in any animal after 4 days. Histopathological lesions were most marked in the heart and lung with inflammation, necrosis, and scattered foci of fibrous tissue in the myocardium, pulmonary oedema and inflammation of the lung. No adverse longterm effects on general health or reproductive performance were observed in any sheep that survived the first 4 days following exposure to 1080. The most reliable diagnostic in dicators of 1080 exposure in sheep were measurement of its residues in blood, skeletal muscle and ruminal contents, increased serum citratec oncentratione; l evated heart rate,and characteristic electrocardiograpchh anges(up to 4 days after exposure. Death from 1080 is most likely to occur within 96 h, and animals that survived this period appeared normal.

  16. Long-term effects of organized violence on young Middle Eastern refugees' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Edith

    2008-11-01

    The pre- and post-displacement factors associated with psychological problems among young refugees are not clear. From the existing research it appears that refugee children and adolescents are vulnerable to the effects of pre-migration exposure to trauma, but the long-term effects of such exposure are mediated by certain risk and protective factors at the individual, family and community level. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of traumatic experiences before emigration, as well as social life after immigration, on the mental health of young Middle Eastern refugees 8-9 years after immigration into Denmark. The study group comprises 131 young refugees (76 girls and 55 boys; mean age 15.3 years) from 67 families. They were assessed in 2000-2001 as part of a follow-up study of 311 children, who in 1992-1993 were consecutively registered in Denmark as asylum seekers with at least one parent. Predictors of more externalizing behaviour were: witnessing attack on others after arrival, more schools attended, less attending school or work, lower mother's education in the home country and lower age. Predictors of more internalizing behaviour were: numbers of types of traumatic events before arrival, numbers of types of stressful events after arrival, and numbers of types of experiences of discrimination, lower mother's education in the home country, fewer Danish friends, not Muslim or Christian religion, less Danish proficiency and female gender. It is concluded that aspects of social life in Denmark, including mother's education and indicators of adaptation, as well as a stressful life context in exile, including discrimination, predicted psychological problems 8-9 years after arrival, more than traumatic experiences before arrival. Thus, the prevention of psychopathology in young refugees depends to a large extent on the political will to make provision for the necessary changes regarding reception and treatment of refugees. PMID:18755530

  17. Effect of long term ageing on the photoelectrochemical properties and composition of passive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long term aged passive films formed on a 17%Cr ferritic steel by annealing in H2/H2O atmosphere are investigated by using both Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Photoelectrochemistry (PEC). Ageing in pure water (up to 16 months) significantly modifies the thickness, composition and electronic properties of the film. AES shows that no film thickening occurs until at least two months ageing, but that the silicon segregation sharply decreases during the same period. On the contrary, long term ageing results in a noticeable film thickening, Cr enrichment and Fe depletion in the outer part of the film. The optical band gaps determined by PEC on long term aged passive films are close to that found on passive films formed on chromium under potentiostatic control. A transition from p- to n-type is evidenced after ''long enough'' water ageing, depending on the water content of the annealing atmosphere. Long term ageing is necessary to observe a ''true'' steady-state anodic photoresponse indicating a n-type conductivity. The potential dependence of the photoresponse still reflects the initial annealing conditions, even after one year. It is concluded that the initial formation conditions still control the PEC behaviour of the films after one year of ageing, independently of the remarkable composition changes having occurred in the film during such a long ageing period in water

  18. Long-term rotation history and previous crop effects on corn seedling health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse rotations provide benefits to agroecosystems through changes in the soil environment. A long term experiment was established to study four different four-year rotation sequences in which the crop phase prior to corn was sampled. Soils from rotations ending with soybean, sunflower, corn and p...

  19. An Evaluation of Persistence of Treatment Effects during Long-Term Treatment of Destructive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay W.; Berg, Wendy K.; Lee, John F.; Schieltz, Kelly M.; Padilla, Yaniz C.; Nevin, John A.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Eight young children who displayed destructive behavior maintained, at least in part, by negative reinforcement received long-term functional communication training (FCT). During FCT, the children completed a portion of a task and then touched a communication card attached to a microswitch to obtain brief breaks. Prior to and intermittently…

  20. Long-term effect of maternal xylitol exposure on their children's caries prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorild, I; Lindau, B; Twetman, S

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the long-term outcome of a motherchild project in which mothers (n=173) with high counts of salivary mutans streptococci were randomly assigned to daily chewing gums containing xylitol (A), chlorhexidine/ xylitol/sorbitol (B), or sodium fluoride/xylitol/sorbitol (C) for one year...

  1. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Cumulative Finals on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Maya M.; Brack, Amy S. Badura; Finken, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined the benefits of cumulative and noncumulative finals on students' short- and long-term course material retention. In Experiment 1, we examined results from course content exams administered immediately after course finals. Course sections including cumulative finals had higher content exam scores than sections…

  2. Long-term musculoskeletal and cardiac health effects of recreational football and running for premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Hansen, Peter Riis; Andersen, Lars Juel;

    2010-01-01

    We examined long-term musculoskeletal and cardiac adaptations elicited by recreational football (FG, n=9) and running (RG, n=10) in untrained premenopausal women in comparison with a control group (CG, n=9). Training was performed for 16 months ( approximately 2 weekly 1-h sessions). For FG, right...

  3. Long-term rotation and tillage effects on soil structure and crop yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Heck, R; Deen, B

    2013-01-01

    long-term rotation and tillage treatment experiment on a Canadian silt loam soil. Topsoil measurements were carried out for three different rotations: R1, (C–C–C–C) continuous corn (Zea mays L.), R6, (C–C–O(RC), B(RC)) corn, corn, oats (Avena fatua L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and R8, (C...

  4. Long-Term Evolution Studies of E. Coli under Combined Effects of Simulated Microgravity and Antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Tirumalai, Madhan R.; Ott, Mark C.; Pierson, Duane L.; Fox, George E.; Tran, Quyen

    2016-07-01

    Multiple spaceflight and simulated microgravity experiments have shown changes in phenotypic microbial characteristics such as microbial growth, morphology, metabolism, genetic transfer, antibiotic and stress susceptibility, and an increase in virulence factors. However, while these studies have contributed to expand our understanding of the short-term effects of spaceflight or simulated microgravity on biological systems, it remains unclear the type of responses subsequent to long-term exposure to space environment and microgravity in particular. As such, organisms exposed to the space environment for extended periods of time may evolve in unanticipated ways thereby negatively impacting long duration space missions. We report here for the first time, an experimental study of microbial evolution in which the effect of long-term exposure to Low Shear Modeled MicroGravity (LSMMG) on microbial gene expression and physiology in Escherichia coli (E. coli) MG1655 was examined using functional genomics, and molecular techniques with and without simultaneous exposure to broad spectrum antibiotic chloramphenicol. E. coli cells were grown under simulated microgravity for 1000 generations in High Aspect Ratio Vessels (HARVs) that were either heat-sterilized (115 deg C, 15 min) or by using/rinsing the HARVs with a saturated solution of the broad-spectrum antibiotic chloramphenicol. In the case of the cells evolved using the antibiotic sterilized HARVs, the expression levels of 357 genes were significantly changed. In particular, fimbriae encoding genes were significantly up-regulated whereas genes encoding the flagellar motor complex were down-regulated. Re-sequencing of the genome revealed that a number of the flagellar genes were actually deleted. The antibiotic resistance levels of the evolved strains were analyzed using VITEK analyzer. The evolved strain was consistently resistant to the antibiotics used (viz., Ampicillin, Cefalotin, Cefurox-ime, Cefuroxime Axetil

  5. Long-term side effects in irradiated patients with Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and thirty-five out of 168 patients with Hodgkin's disease in complete remission who had received radiotherapy with tumor doses between 3000 and 5000 rad in the years 1948 to 1974 were investigated with regard to long-term side effects. The results obtained so far are as follows: catamnestic results: Deteriorated general condition and reduced performance in 23% and 28%, spontaneous restriction of the daily routine in 45% and increase in susceptibility to infections (common cold) in 15% of the patients; hematological investigations, peripheral blood: no indication of severe anemia. Granulocytopenia with less than 3000 cells/mm3 in 18.5%, lymphocytopenia with less than 2000 cells/mm3 in 37%, no incidence of thrombocytopenia with less than 100,000 platelets/mm3 or leukemia. Sternal marrow cytology (locally irradiated): aplasia in 76%, hypoplasia in 18%, no signs of leukemia, iliac crest cytology (not directly irradiated): slight hypoplasia in 38%, severe hypoplasia in 8%, no signs of leukemia; pulmonary investigations: slight paramediastinal fibrosis in 44%, distinct in 36% and severe in 9%. Restrictive ventilation disorder in 84%, increase in residual volume in 61%, O2-diffusion disorder in 18% and obstructive ventilation disorder in 7% of the patients; cardiological investigations: Under stress pulmonary hypertension in 18%, right ventricular function disorder in 9%, left ventricular function disorder in 9%, cardiac insufficiency2%, restriction of the maximum ergometer cycling exercise capacity in 53% of the patients; thyroid function investigations: hypothyroidal or latent hypothyroidal thyroid insufficiency in 16.5%; neurological symptomatology (excluding herpes zoster): slight to moderately severe double-sided cross section symptomatology in 3 of 122 patients (2.5%), bilateral or unilateral plexus paresis in 4 of 122 patients (3.5%); genito-urinary tract (male) investigations

  6. Torture and Long-Term Health Effects Among Lebanese Female Political Prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Ali; Elsouri, Ghadier; Abboud, Zeinab

    2016-02-01

    Lebanese prisoners during the Israeli occupation of Lebanon (1981-1999) were subject to regular torture. We examined the association between torture events and post-traumatic stress and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) among former women political prisoners. We conducted a retrospective survey and performed health check-ups among 108 former women prisoners. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was measured through the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), and CVDs were assessed by physicians' diagnoses. The study was conducted between September 2008 and March 2010. All 67 participants in the study reported having been subjected to a variety of torture events. The prevalence of PTSD was 28.4% and that of CVD was 16.42%, respectively. PTSD and CVD were more likely to occur among women who had had longer imprisonment periods, and PTSD specifically was associated with exposure to torture (beating: OR = 1.49; 95% CI [0.48, 4.27] and threatening by rape: OR = 1.43; 95% CI [0.82, 9.30]). CVD was associated with asphyxia with water (OR = 3.86; 95% CI [0.03, 2.28]). Devoutness decreased the risk of PTSD (OR = 0.24; 95% CI [0.08, 1.41]). Torture had adverse long-term effects on prisoners' physiological and psychological health; devoutness played a significant protective role. This study highlights the importance of documenting torture events and identifying the indicators of associated morbidity among surviving political prisoners for the provision of additional resources to care. PMID:25381274

  7. Long-term effects of methadone maintenance treatment with different psychosocial intervention models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lirong; Wei, Xiaoli; Wang, Xueliang; Li, Jinsong; Li, Hengxin; Jia, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term effects of different psychosocial intervention models in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Xi'an China. Patients from five MMT clinics were divided into three groups receiving MMT only, MMT with counseling psychology (CP) or MMT with contingency management (CM). A five-year follow-up was carried out with daily records of medication, monthly random urine morphine tests, and tests for anti-HIV and anti-HCV every six months. Drug use behavior was recorded six months after initial recruitment using a survey. Adjusted RRs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using an unconditional logistic regression model or a Cox proportional hazard model. A total of 2662 patients were recruited with 797 in MMT, 985 in MMT with CP, and 880 in MMT with CM. Following six months of treatment, the injection rates of MMT with CP and MMT with CM groups were significantly lower than that of MMT (5.1% and 6.9% vs. 16.3%, x²  =  47.093 and 29.908, respectively; PHCV incidences were 18.35, 4.42 and 6.61 per hundred person-years, respectively, demonstrating that CP and CM were protective factors for HCV incidence (RR  =  0.209 and 0.414, with range of 0.146-0.300 and 0.298-0.574, respectively). MMT supplemented with CP or CM can reduce heroin use and related risk behaviors, thereby reducing the incidence of HIV and HCV. PMID:24498406

  8. Active Motor Training Has Long-term Effects on Infants' Object Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesen, Sarah E; Watkins, Rachel M; Needham, Amy Work

    2016-01-01

    Long-term changes in infants' behavior as a result of active motor training were studied. Thirty-two infants completed three visits to the laboratory. At the first visit, infants were 3 months old and completed an object exploration assessment. Then the experimenter demonstrated the motor training procedures appropriate for the infant's experimental condition, and parents took home custom infant mittens (either sticky or non-sticky) and a bag of lightweight toys to practice with their infants. Over the course of the following 2 weeks, infants participated in 10 sessions of either active (sticky) or passive (non-sticky) mittens training at home with their parents. Infants who participated in active mittens training wore mittens with the palms covered in Velcro, allowing them to pick up and move around small toys. Infants who participated in passive mittens training wore non-sticky mittens, and their parents moved the toys through their visual fields on their behalf. After completing the training, infants returned to the lab for the second visit. At visit two, infants participated in another object exploration assessment as well as a reaching assessment. Parents returned the training materials to the lab at the second visit, and were told not to continue any specific training regimen from this point forward. Two months later, when infants were about 5.5 months of age, they returned to the lab for a third visit. At the third visit, infants completed the same two assessments as during the second visit. The results of this study indicate that infants who participated in active motor training engaged in more sophisticated object exploration when compared to infants who received passive training. These findings are consistent with others in the literature showing that active motor training at 3 months of age facilitates the processes of object exploration and engagement. The current results and others reveal that the effects of early experience can last long after

  9. Effects of long-term heat stress in an experimental model of avian necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Honda, Bruno Takashi Bueno; Costola-de-Souza, Carolina; de Siqueira, Adriana; Namazu, Lilian Bernadete; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley Moreno; Fonseca, Juliana Garcia da Silva; Aloia, Thiago Pinheiro Arrais; Piantino-Ferreira, Antonio José; Palermo-Neto, João

    2014-06-01

    Stressful conditions are predisposing factors for disease development. Heat stress is one of the most important stressors in poultry production. The reemergence of some previously controlled diseases [e.g., avian necrotic enteritis (NE)] has been extensively reported. The combination of bacterial infection and certain environmental factors have been reported to trigger the disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of long-term heat stress (35 ± 1°C) on the development of NE in broiler chickens. For this purpose, 60 male broiler chickens were divided into the following 6 groups: control group (C), heat stressed control group (C/HS35), thioglycolate group (T), thioglycolate heat-stressed group (T/HS35), infected group (I), and infected heat-stressed group (I/HS35). The poultry of groups I and I/HS35 were experimentally infected with Clostridium perfringens via their feed from 15 to 21 d of life. Heat stress (35 ± 1°C) was constantly applied to the birds of the stressed groups from 14 to 21 d of life. The infected and heat-stressed broiler chickens presented a trend toward a decrease in gross lesion scores and significantly lower microscopic scores of necrosis in the duodenum and jejunum (P chickens. Broilers of I/HS35 group also exhibited small number of heterophils in the duodenum and jejunum compared with those of the I group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the duodenum and jejunum of infected and heat-stressed broilers showed lower number of clostridia on the intestinal mucosa (P < 0.05). Data were discussed in light of a heat stress induced reduction on intestinal inflammation via a decrease in heterophil migration to the intestinal mucosa, which in turn might have reduced tissue damage during inflammation, hence preventing the development of a more severe form of NE. PMID:24879684

  10. Addition of Urban Waste to Semiarid Degraded Soil: Long-term Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The addition of municipal solid wastes (MSW) is considered as a possible strategy for soil rehabilitation in southeast Spain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term (17 years) effect of five doses of MSW addition on the microbiological, biochemical, and physical properties of semiarid soil. Increased values of several parameters that serve as indicators of general microbiological activity, such as, basal respiration, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or dehydrogenase activity; microbial population size (microbial biomass C), and extracellular hydrolase activity related to macronutrient cycles, such as, urease, β-glucosidase, and N-α-benzoyl-L-argininamide protease, were observed in the amended soils. The highest MSW doses showed the highest values in these hydrolase activities. The incorporation of municipal waste resulted in a more dense development of the plant cover, 50% greater in higher doses than in the control treatment, which generated a substantial increase in several C fractions. Total organic carbon reached 12 g kg-1 soil with the highest MSW doses,compared to 4.30 g kg-1 soil in the control treatment. The physical properties of the soil were also improved, showing greater percentage of stable aggregates and water holding capacity. Positive correlation coefficients between C fractions and parameters related to microbial activity and aggregate stability were observed. Although these improvements were greater in the soils receiving the highest doses of organic amendment, the increases were not proportional to the amount added, demonstrating the existence of a threshold, above which an increase in the amount of organic matter added is not reflected in an increase in the soil's physical, biochemical, and microbiological properties. However, the addition of municipal solid wastes proved its suitability for improving soil quality, thereby indicating the potential of such an amendment, to prevent desertification in Mediterranean areas such as

  11. Effects of long-term space flight on erythrocytes and oxidative stress of rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Angela Maria; Corsetto, Paola Antonia; Montorfano, Gigliola; Milani, Simona; Zava, Stefania; Tavella, Sara; Cancedda, Ranieri; Berra, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Erythrocyte and hemoglobin losses have been frequently observed in humans during space missions; these observations have been designated as "space anemia". Erythrocytes exposed to microgravity have a modified rheology and undergo hemolysis to a greater extent. Cell membrane composition plays an important role in determining erythrocyte resistance to mechanical stress and it is well known that membrane composition might be influenced by external events, such as hypothermia, hypoxia or gravitational strength variations. Moreover, an altered cell membrane composition, in particular in fatty acids, can cause a greater sensitivity to peroxidative stress, with increase in membrane fragility. Solar radiation or low wavelength electromagnetic radiations (such as gamma rays) from the Earth or the space environment can split water to generate the hydroxyl radical, very reactive at the site of its formation, which can initiate chain reactions leading to lipid peroxidation. These reactive free radicals can react with the non-radical molecules, leading to oxidative damage of lipids, proteins and DNA, etiologically associated with various diseases and morbidities such as cancer, cell degeneration, and inflammation. Indeed, radiation constitutes on of the most important hazard for humans during long-term space flights. With this background, we participated to the MDS tissue-sharing program performing analyses on mice erythrocytes flown on the ISS from August to November 2009. Our results indicate that space flight induced modifications in cell membrane composition and increase of lipid peroxidation products, in mouse erythrocytes. Moreover, antioxidant defenses in the flight erythrocytes were induced, with a significant increase of glutathione content as compared to both vivarium and ground control erythrocytes. Nonetheless, this induction was not sufficient to prevent damages caused by oxidative stress. Future experiments should provide information helpful to reduce the effects

  12. The long-term effects of space weather on satellite operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Welling

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated lifetime radiation damage may cause spacecraft to become more susceptible to operational anomalies by changing material characteristics of electronic components. This study demonstrates and quantifies the impact of these effects by examining the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC satellite anomaly database. Energetic particle data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES is used to construct the total lifetime particle exposure a satellite has received at the epoch of an anomaly. These values are compared to the satellite's chronological age and the average exposure per year (calculated over two solar cycles. The results show that many anomalies occur on satellites that have received a total lifetime high-energy particle exposure that is disproportionate to their age. In particular, 10.8% of all events occurred on satellites that received over two times more 20 to 40 MeV proton lifetime particle exposure than predicted using an average annual mean. This number inflates to 35.2% for 40 to 80 MeV protons and 33.7% for ≥2 MeV electrons. Overall, 73.5% of all anomalies occurred on a spacecraft that had experienced greater than two times the expected particle exposure for one of the eight particle populations used in this study. Simplistically, this means that the long term radiation background exposure matters, and that if the background radiation is elevated during the satellite's lifetime, the satellite is likely to experience more anomalies than satellites that have not been exposed to the elevated environment.

  13. Radiation effects on the mechanical properties and long term ageing of spent fuel storage containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CEA is presently studying a spent fuel container which has to insure the insulation of the radio-nucleides and the retrieval of the spent fuel during a storage period covering several centuries. The container is a 50 mm thick low carbon steel cylinder with a welded lid (by TIG or electron beam). An alternative solution is a ferritic ductile cast iron container. Each container contains seven 4 mm stainless steel 304L individual fuel holders. The temperatures at the beginning of the storage are about 250 C at the fuel holder and 150 C at the container. As the duration of the storage can exceed those that are generally accepted for industrial containers, investigations must be carried out to insure that the materials performance will be kept sufficiently high during the whole storage period. A ten years experimental program has been undertaken by the CEA in order to predict the behaviour of the container and of the fuel holder in storage conditions [1]. In order to model the long term behaviour of the materials, the radiation- induced damages in the materials must also be evaluated. In this paper, the damage flux from neutron and gamma radiation on the low carbon steel container are estimated. The influence of the irradiation on the container's ageing is estimated by a Cluster-Dynamics Model, developed for the reactor vessel. This model takes into account the hardening due to point defects clustering (vacancies and self interstitial atoms (SIA) created by irradiation develop cavities and loops which harden the materials) and copper precipitation: the copper mobility is enhanced by DP in excess and then precipitates. The increase of the shear stress is calculated for different storage conditions. The influence of some parameters is discussed. Conclusions are drawn on the effects of the irradiation and the Cu content on the mechanical properties of the container

  14. Radiation effects on the mechanical properties and long term ageing of spent fuel storage containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissonneau, L. [DEN/DTEC/S2EC, CEA Valrho, Bagnols/Ceze (France); Barbu, A.; Bocquet, J.L. [DEN/DMN/SRMP, CEA Saclay, Gif/Yvette (France)

    2004-07-01

    The CEA is presently studying a spent fuel container which has to insure the insulation of the radio-nucleides and the retrieval of the spent fuel during a storage period covering several centuries. The container is a 50 mm thick low carbon steel cylinder with a welded lid (by TIG or electron beam). An alternative solution is a ferritic ductile cast iron container. Each container contains seven 4 mm stainless steel 304L individual fuel holders. The temperatures at the beginning of the storage are about 250 C at the fuel holder and 150 C at the container. As the duration of the storage can exceed those that are generally accepted for industrial containers, investigations must be carried out to insure that the materials performance will be kept sufficiently high during the whole storage period. A ten years experimental program has been undertaken by the CEA in order to predict the behaviour of the container and of the fuel holder in storage conditions [1]. In order to model the long term behaviour of the materials, the radiation- induced damages in the materials must also be evaluated. In this paper, the damage flux from neutron and gamma radiation on the low carbon steel container are estimated. The influence of the irradiation on the container's ageing is estimated by a Cluster-Dynamics Model, developed for the reactor vessel. This model takes into account the hardening due to point defects clustering (vacancies and self interstitial atoms (SIA) created by irradiation develop cavities and loops which harden the materials) and copper precipitation: the copper mobility is enhanced by DP in excess and then precipitates. The increase of the shear stress is calculated for different storage conditions. The influence of some parameters is discussed. Conclusions are drawn on the effects of the irradiation and the Cu content on the mechanical properties of the container.

  15. Ecological effects of a long-term flood program in a flow-regulated river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Mannes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Le régime hydrologique naturel de la grande majorité des rivières du globe a été modifié par une régulation artificielle, qui a profondément affecté la morphologie fluviale et la vie aquatique. L’intégration de critères hydrologiques comme le débit et la température dans les programmes de restauration constitue une étape importante pour la gestion de rivière. Cet article synthétise les observations, en terme de qualité physicochimique de l’eau et de biocénose aquatique, des effets d’une programmation de crues sur le long terme (15 crues artificielles en huit ans sur la rivière Spöl, dans le Parc National Suisse. Du fait des lâchers d’eau hypolimnétiques (issues des eaux profondes, ces crues ont peu d’impact sur les paramètres physiques et chimiques. La biomasse du périphyton a été réduite par les premières crues, puis s’est maintenue à des niveaux faibles pendant toute la période étudiée. La richesse spécifique, la biomasse et la densité de macro-invertébrés ont aussi été significativement réduites, et l’association de macroinvertébrés a évolué vers des taxons plus résistants aux perturbations. La qualité des habitats piscicoles, en particulier pour les zones de frai, a été sensiblement améliorée par les inondations. Une analyse plus approfondie a montré que la réponse de la biocénose à des crues d’ampleur similaire a changé pendant la période d’étude en parallèle avec la modification de la composition des associations biotiques.The natural flow regime of many rivers on the globe has been altered by regulation, strongly influencing river morphology and aquatic biota. The incorporation of regimebased criteria such as flow and temperature regimes in restoration plans is an important step in river management. This paper summarizes the effects of a long-term flood program (15 floods over 8 years on the river Spöl, Swiss National Park, on water physico-chemistry and river

  16. Immediate and long-term effects of polysaccharides-based formulations on human skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Bueno de Camargo Junior

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new trend in cosmetic formulations is the use of biotechnological raw materials as the polysaccharides from Klebsiella pneumoniae, which are supposed to enhance cell renewal, improve skin hydration and micro-relief. Botanical extracts of Myrtus communis leaves contain different sugars, which may provide the same benefits. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate through objective and subjective analysis the immediate and long-term effects of cosmetic formulations containing polysaccharides biotechnologically-originated and / or the ones contained in Myrtus communis extracts. Three polysaccharide-based and placebo formulations were applied on the forearm skin of 40 volunteers. Skin hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL, viscoelasticity and skin micro-relief measurements were made before and 2 hours after a single application and after 15 and 30 day-periods of daily applications. Answers to a questionnaire about perceptions of formulation cosmetic features constituted the subjective analysis. All polysaccharide-based formulations enhanced skin hydration. Formulations with isolated or combined active substances improved skin barrier function as compared to placebo, in the short and long term studies. Formulations containing Myrtus communis extracts had the highest acceptance. Results suggest that daily use of formulations containing these substances is important for protection of the skin barrier function.Uma nova tendência em formulações cosméticas é a utilização de matérias-primas biotecnológicas como os polissacarídeos de Klebsiella pneumoniae, que pode aumentar a renovação celular e melhor a hidratação e micro-relevo da pele. Por outro lado, o extrato vegetal de Myrtus communis contém diferentes polissacarídeos, que também podem proporcionar benefícios à pele. Assim, o objetivo do estudo foi a avaliação dos efeitos imediatos e em longo prazo, de formulações cosméticas contendo polissacarídeos obtidos por

  17. Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils: effects of long-term poultry litter application on phosphorus distribution in Texas Blackland Vertisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequential fractionation techniques, coupled with phosphatase hydrolysis, have allowed for greater understanding of manure/litter effects on soil phosphorus (P) distribution. We evaluated the effect of long-term (> 10 years) poultry litter (broiler and turkey litter) application at rates of 4.5, 6.7...

  18. Long-term effects of frequent cannabis use on working memory and attention : an fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, G; Kahn, RS; Van den Brink, W; Van Ree, JM; Ramsey, NF

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Excessive use of cannabis may have long-term effects on cognitive abilities. Mild impairments have been found in several cognitive domains, particularly in memory and attention. It is not clear, however, whether these effects also occur with moderate, recreational use of cannabis. Further

  19. Fire Effects on Soils in Lake States Forests: A Compilation of Published Research to Facilitate Long-Term Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Hix

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fire-adapted forests of the Lake States region are poorly studied relative to those of the western and southeastern United States and our knowledge base of regional short- and long-term fire effects on soils is limited. We compiled and assessed the body of literature addressing fire effects on soils in Lake States forests to facilitate the re-measurement of previous studies for the development of new long-term datasets, and to identify existing gaps in the regional knowledge of fire effects on forest soils. Most studies reviewed addressed fire effects on chemical properties in pine-dominated forests, and long-term (>10 years studies were limited. The major gaps in knowledge we identified include: (1 information on fire temperature and behavior information that would enhance interpretation of fire effects; (2 underrepresentation of the variety of forest types in the Lake States region; (3 information on nutrient fluxes and ecosystem processes; and (4 fire effects on soil organisms. Resolving these knowledge gaps via future research will provide for a more comprehensive understanding of fire effects in Lake States forest soils. Advancing the understanding of fire effects on soil processes and patterns in Lake States forests is critical for designing regionally appropriate long-term forest planning and management activities.

  20. Halos vs. Stigmas: Long-Term Effects of Parent's Death or Divorce on College Students' Concepts of the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozendal, Frederick G.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effect of parental death or divorce on 351 college students. Results showed children of divorce rated father less favorably and rated divorce more favorably than other students. Results suggested long-term stigmas attached to family among children of divorce but no halo effect for children of deceased parents. (JAC)

  1. Long-term effectiveness of exercise therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of hip or knee: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisters, M.F.; Veenhof, C.; Meeteren, N.L.U. van; Ostelo, R.W.; Bakker, D. de; Schellevis, F.G.; Dekker, J.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the long-term effectiveness (= 6 months after treatment) of exercise therapy on pain, physical function and patient global assessment of effectiveness in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and/or knee. METHODS: An extensive literature search in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL,

  2. Long-term effectiveness of exercise therapy in patients with Osteoarthritis of the hip or knee : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisters, Martijn F.; Veenhof, Cindy; Van Meeteren, Nico L. U.; Ostelo, Raymond W.; De Bakker, Dinny H.; Schellevis, Franicois G.; Dekkers, Joost

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To determine the long-term effectiveness (>= 6 months after treatment) of exercise therapy on pain, physical function, and patient global assessment of effectiveness in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and/or knee. Methods. We conducted an extensive literature search in PubMed

  3. The Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Head Start Education and No Child Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Dayana; Duenas, Monica; LeBlanc, Patrice

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore questions about the effects of Head Start. Among these questions are the following: What is Head Start? What are the short-term and long-term effects of Head Start education? Does Head Start meet the expectations of No Child Left Behind (NCLB)? The methodology used to answer the research questions was a…

  4. Medroxyprogesterone acetate attenuates long-term effects of 17 beta-estradiol in coronary arteries from hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susan H.; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Mortensen, Alicja;

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The progestin component in hormone replacement treatment may oppose the effects of estrogen on vascular function. This study examined the effect of long-term treatment with 17 beta-estradiol (E-2) alone and in combination with two progestins on K+ and Ca2+-mediated mechanisms in coronary...

  5. Medroxyprogesterone acetate attenuates long-term effects of 17beta-estradiol in coronary arteries from hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. H.; Nielsen, L. B.; Mortensen, A;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The progestin component in hormone replacement treatment may oppose the effects of estrogen on vascular function. This study examined the effect of long-term treatment with 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) alone and in combination with two progestins on K(+) and Ca(2+)-mediated mechanisms in...

  6. Long-term effects of frequent cannabis use on working memory and attention: an fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Jager; R.S. Kahn; W. van den Brink; J.M. van Ree; N.F. Ramsey

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Excessive use of cannabis may have long-term effects on cognitive abilities. Mild impairments have been found in several cognitive domains, particularly in memory and attention. It is not clear, however, whether these effects also occur with moderate, recreational use of cannabis. Further

  7. Long-term effects in children treated with radiotherapy for head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine the long-term effects of treatment in children receiving radiotherapy for head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma. Methods: From 1967 to 1994, a total of 30 children with head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma received megavoltage radiotherapy at one institution. Seventeen patients (57%) have survived and have at least a 5-year follow-up. There were 11 males and 6 females, with a median age of 5.7 years (range 2.2-11.6) at the time of radiotherapy. Tumor location was orbit in 6 patients, infratemporal fossa in 4, paranasal sinuses in 2, and supraglottic larynx in 2; the nasopharynx, pterygopalatine fossa, and parotid gland were sites for the remaining children. All but 2 patients had tumors of embryonal histology. The Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS) Group was I in 2, II in 3, and III in 11 children; 1 patient had a recurrent tumor after surgery alone. Radiotherapy volume was the primary tumor or tumor bed in 13, tumor and whole brain in 3, and tumor and craniospinal axis in 1. Median radiotherapy dose to the primary site was 5,040 cGy (range 4,140-6,500) and to the whole brain was 3,000 cGy. All but 1 were treated with 150-200-cGy fractions; 1 patient received 250-cGy fractions for a tumor in the larynx. Chemotherapy was vincristine (V), actinomycin-D (A), and cyclophosphamide (C) in 10 patients, VAC + adriamycin in 2, VA in 1, VA + ifosfamide in 1, VC + adriamycin in 1, and none in 2. One patient had salvage chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin and etoposide. Median follow-up time was 20 years (range 7.5-33). Results: Late effects of treatment were seen in all patients and included facial growth retardation in 11, neuroendocrine dysfunction in 9, visual/orbital problems in 9, dental abnormalities in 7, hearing loss in 6, and hypothyroidism in 3. Intellectual and academic delays were documented in 3 patients who had received whole brain radiotherapy. While neuroendocrine, thyroid, dental, and cognitive sequelae were primarily attributed to radiotherapy

  8. THE IMMEDIATE AND LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF KINESIOTAPE® ON BALANCE AND FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Peter; Fukuroku, Taryn; Kuzniewski, Michael; Dias, Joe; Figueiredo, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background The application of Kinesio Tex® tape (KT) results, in theory, in the improvement of muscle contractibility by supporting weakened muscles. The effect of KT on muscle strength has been investigated by numerous researchers who have theorized that KT facilitates an immediate increase in muscle strength by generating a concentric pull on the fascia. The effect of KT on balance and functional performance has been controversial because of the inconsistencies of tension and direction of pull required during application of KT and whether its use on healthy individuals provides therapeutic benefits. Hypotheses/Purpose The purpose of the present study was to investigate the immediate and long-term effects of the prescribed application (for facilitation) of KT when applied to the dominant lower extremity of healthy individuals. The hypothesis was that balance and functional performance would improve with the prescribed application of KT versus the sham application. Study Design Pretest-posttest repeated measures control group design. Methods Seventeen healthy subjects (9 males; 8 females) ranging from 18-35 years of age (mean age 23.3 ± 0.72), volunteered to participate in this study. KT was applied to the gastrocnemius of the participant's dominant leg using a prescribed application to facilitate muscle performance for the experimental group versus a sham application for the control group. The Biodex Balance System and four hop tests were utilized to assess balance, proprioception, and functional performance beginning on the first day including pre- and immediately post-KT application measurements. Subsequent measurements were performed 24, 72, and 120 hours after tape application. Repeated measures ANOVA's were performed for each individual dependent variable. Results There were no significant differences for main and interaction effects between KT and sham groups for the balance and four hop tests. Conclusion The results of the present study did not

  9. The long-term effect of treatment with interferon-alpha 2a in chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, K

    1998-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the long-term effects of interferon-alpha 2a (IFN-alpha 2a) vs no treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B and to determine whether viral clearance, following therapy or occurring spontaneously, was sustained. Patients originating from three previously...... published multicentre, randomized, controlled trials were analysed. Information about survival and response during long-term follow-up was available in 340 (73%) and 308 (66%) of 469 randomized patients respectively. Response to therapy (viral clearance) was defined as: loss of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA...... and loss of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and improvement in alanine aminotransferase level. Scheduled treatment-free follow-up was 12 months in all studies. Median long-term follow-up time after inclusion in the individual studies was 4.7 years (range: 0.2-7.5 years). Viral clearance after IFN...

  10. Effectiveness of PET Scan in Postoperative Long Term Follow up of Patients with Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Atilla Pekcolaklar; Murat Sezer; Adnan Sayar; Okan Solak; Makbule Ergin; Muzaffer Metin; Atilla Gürses

    2012-01-01

    Aim: There is very few data about the use of positron emission tomography [PET] in the long term follow up of patients operated for lung cancer. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of PET scan in detecting distant metastases in the long term follow up of asymptomatic patients operated for non-small cell lung cancer [NSCLC]. Material and Method: PET scan was performed to sixty five asymptomatic patients. The patients who had a positive PET scan for metastasis underwent MRI and/or biopsy to ...

  11. Potential Effect of Conservation Tillage on Sustainable Land Use: A Review of Global Long-Term Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Bin; CAI Dian-Xiong; W. B. HOOGMOED; O. OENEMA; U. D. PERDOK

    2006-01-01

    Although understood differently in different parts of the world, conservation tillage usually includes leaving crop residues on the soil surface to reduce tillage. Through a global review of long-term conservation tillage research, this paper discusses the long-term effect of conservation tillage on sustainable land use, nutrient availability and crop yield response. Research has shown several potential benefits associated with conservation tillage, such as potential carbon sequestration, nutrient availability, and yield response. This research would provide a better perspective of the role of soil conservation tillage and hold promise in promoting application of practical technologies for dryland farming systems in China.

  12. [Radiation-induced damage of mitochondrial genome and its role in long-term effects of irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berogovskaia, N N; Savich, A V

    1994-01-01

    The role of mt-genome mutations in radiation-induced carcinogenesis has been hypothesized. The data on radiation chemistry of nucleic acids has been used to evaluate mutagenic effect of carcinogenic doses of ionizing radiation. The assumptions about the ways of biological augmentation of primary radiation-induced lesions in mt-genome has been given. PMID:8069366

  13. Boundary extension effect during long-term isolation and repeated testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukavský, Jiří; Šikl, Radovan; Šimeček, Michal

    London : Pion, 2010. s. 105-105. [Thirty-third European Conference on Visual Perception. 22.08.2010-26.08.2010, Lausanne] R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP407/10/P607 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : boundary extension * scene perception * long-term isolation Subject RIV: AN - Psychology http://www.perceptionweb.com/abstract.cgi?id=v100137

  14. Effects of Long-Term Ayahuasca Administration on Memory and Anxiety in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Manchim Favaro; Maurício Yonamine; Juliana Carlota Kramer Soares; Maria Gabriela Menezes de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that combines the action of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from Psychotria viridis with the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) induced by beta-carbonyls from Banisteriopsis caapi. Previous investigations have highlighted the involvement of ayahuasca with the activation of brain regions known to be involved with episodic memory, contextual associations and emotional processing after ayahuasca ingestion. Moreover long term users show ...

  15. Nobody Home: The Effect of Maternal Labor Force Participation on Long-Term Child Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Haaland, Venke Furre; Rege, Mari; Votruba, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how mother’s employment during childhood affects long term child outcomes. We utilize rich longitudinal data from Norway covering the entire Norwegian population between the years 1970 to 2007. The data allows us to match all family members and to measure maternal labor force participation throughout the child’s entire childhood. Our empirical approach exploits the variation in exposure to a working mother that exists across older and younger siblings in different family types....

  16. Long-term effects of riparian-plant diversity loss on a stream invertebrate shredder

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Isabel Rodrigues; Duarte, Sofia; Pascoal, Cláudia; Cássio, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    We used a pool of 3 common riparian-plant species in Portugal (alder, oak and eucalyptus) to examine the potential long-term impacts of riparian diversity loss on the feeding behaviour and body composition of a stream invertebrate shredder (Limnephilidae). Fine-mesh bags containing mixtures of the 3 leaf species were immersed in a mixed-forested stream to allow microbial colonization. After 2 weeks, colonized leaves were transferred to microcosms contain...

  17. Long-term effects of oppositional child treatment with mothers as therapists and therapist trainers.

    OpenAIRE

    Strain, P S; Steele, P.; Ellis, T; Timm, M A

    1982-01-01

    The follow-up data reported represent a long-term (3 to 9 years out of treatment) evaluation of 40 children who were clients of the Regional Intervention Program (RIP) from 1969 to 1978. As 3-, 4-, and 5-year olds, these youngsters exhibited severe and prolonged tantrums, continual opposition to adults' requests and commands, and physical aggression toward parents. Each child and mother participated in a standardized intervention package modeled after Wahler's Opposition Child Treatment. Resu...

  18. The effect of long-term isolation in the confined space on the ground dominance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šikl, Radovan; Šimeček, Michal; Lukavský, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 40, Suppl. (2011), s. 148-148. ISSN 0301-0066. [European Conference on Visual Perception /34./. 28.08.2011-01.09.2011, Toulouse] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/09/2003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : visual space perception * ground dominance * long-term isolation Subject RIV: AN - Psychology http://www.perceptionweb.com/abstract.cgi?id=v110655

  19. Long-term effects of forgotten biliary stents: a case series and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Odabasi, Mehmet; Arslan, Cem; Akbulut, Sami; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Ozkan, Erkan; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Eris, Cengiz; Gunay, Emre; Tekesin, Kemal; Muftuoglu, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies about the biliary stents, however there is a little information about the long-term stayed forgotten biliary stents except a few case reports. We have reported the results of a number of cases with biliary stents that were forgotten or omitted by the patient and the endoscopist. During February 2010 to May 2013, five patients were referred to the general surgery clinic of Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul Turkey. Past history and medical documen...

  20. Protein Aggregation in E. coli : Short Term and Long Term Effects of Nutrient Density

    OpenAIRE

    Baig, Ulfat I.; Bhadbhade, Bharati J.; Mariyam, Dincy; Watve, Milind G

    2014-01-01

    During exponential growth some cells of E. coli undergo senescence mediated by asymmetric segregation of damaged components, particularly protein aggregates. We showed previously that functional cell division asymmetry in E. coli was responsive to the nutritional environment. Short term exposure as well as long term selection in low calorie environments led to greater cell division symmetry and decreased frequency of senescent cells as compared to high calorie environments. We show here that ...

  1. Long-Term Effects of Early-Life Otitis Media on Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumach, Anne; Gerrits, Ellen; Chenault, Michelene; Anteunis, Lucien

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to examine the long-term consequences of early-life otitis media (OM) and the associated hearing loss (HL) on language skills of school-aged children. Method: In a prospective study, the middle-ear status of 65 Dutch healthy-born children was documented every 3 months during their first 2 years of life;…

  2. Exploring the long term effects of educational policies on the income redistribution processes

    OpenAIRE

    Calero, Jorge, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    Public finance of post-compulsory education modifies substantially the supply of educational qualifications. Such modification has crucial implications for the long-term income distribution processes: in a context of sustained increases of demand for educational qualifications (brought about by various factors, among which the incorporation of new technologies and international competition may be emphasized), growth in supply reduces the increasing trend of the educational wage premium, contr...

  3. Are NBA Policies that Promote Long-Term Competitive Balance Effective? What is the Price?

    OpenAIRE

    Corral Cuervo, Julio Florentino del; García Unanue, Jorge Fernando; Herencia Quintanar, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines competitive balance in the most prominent basketball league in the world: the NBA. Two types of graphs are used. First, long-term competitive balance is studied based on actual positions achieved by the teams on the Regu-lar Season. On the other hand, the competitive balance levels for each season are analyzed using sport betting odds data and through the use of two alternative strategies. In the first approach, density functions for the number of victories for al...

  4. Short term and long term effects of pulmonary rehabilitation on physical activity in COPD.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Egan, Claire

    2012-12-01

    The central purpose of pulmonary rehabilitation is to reduce morbidity by improving functional capacity through exercise. It is still unknown if improvements in functional capacity are maintained in the long-term and if this leads to increased physical activity levels as measured by a free-living activity monitor. The hypothesis of this study was that pulmonary rehabilitation would lead to a sustained increase in standard outcome measures and in daily physical activity.

  5. Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Long-term Patterns of Litter Decomposition in Two Humid Tropical Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, D. F.; Silver, W. L.; Torn, M. S.; McDowell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition is known to impact decomposition in temperate ecosystems, but less is known about the effects of added N in tropical forests, where background soil N availability is relatively high. We examined changes in patterns and drivers of long-term litter decomposition with N fertilization in a lower elevation rainforest and an upper elevation cloud forest in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. We hypothesized that increased N would accelerate initial decomposition rates, while slowing later stages of decomposition. We predicted that litterfall chemistry would not change with N fertilization in these forests, but rather that N addition to the forest floor would directly alter the activity of microbial decomposers. We measured decomposition rates over three years for mixed native litter and a common substrate. We used 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess effects of N addition on initial litter chemical characteristics. Carbon and N concentrations of initial litter and decomposing litter were measured at multiple time points over the three years. As indices of microbial activity, we measured hydrolytic enzymes that degrade simpler C substrates, and oxidative enzymes that degrade more complex compounds, in decomposing litter over the three years. Decomposition rates for the common substrate were significantly higher in fertilized versus control plots in the lower elevation forest (p < 0.05), with similar trends for native litter and decomposition in the upper elevation forest. In the lower forest, decomposition rate constants (k values) for the common substrate were 1.6 ± 0.2 in fertilized plots versus 0.7 ± 0.2 in control plots (per year, mean ± one s.e., n = 3). Initial litterfall C:N ratios and 13C-NMR chemistry did not respond significantly to N fertilization. Litter N concentrations were significant predictors of decomposition rates, and N fertilization did significantly alter C:N ratios of litter over the course of

  6. Short- and long-term effects of T-cell modulating agents in experimental autoimmunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the easy and reliable induction of a disease condition with many of the features present in human autoimmunity, mercury-induced autoimmunity (mHgAI) in rodents is a favourable autoimmune model. Genetically susceptible (H-2s) mice develop in response to mercury (Hg) a systemic autoimmune condition with antinucleolar antibodies (ANoA) targeting the protein fibrillarin, transient polyclonal B-cell activation, hyperimmunoglobulinemia, and systemic immune-complex (IC) deposits. In order to study the short- and long-term effects of treatment with immunomodulating agents on the disease parameters in HgAI, groups of B10.S (H-2s) mice were given 6 mg HgCl2/l drinking water for 22 weeks. Three weeks initial treatment with cyclosporin A (CyA), a high dose of tacrolimus (HD tacrolimus), or anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (a-CD4) inhibited induction of ANoA and IC deposit by Hg. This effect persisted for the subsequent 19 weeks when the mice were only treated with Hg. Initial treatment with anti-IL-4 monoclonal antibody (a-IL-4) for 3 weeks inhibited induction of IgE and IC deposits by Hg, but not ANoA. However, subsequent treatment with Hg without a-IL-4 for 19 weeks induced IC deposits. The T-cell modulating agents aggravated some of the HgAI disease parameters: a-CD4 stimulated the polyclonal B-cell activation, a-IL-4 increased the IgG antichromatin antibody response, and a low dose of tacrolimus (LD tacrolimus) enhanced the ANoA, the polyclonal B-cell activation, and the IC deposits. We conclude that a short initial treatment with a-CD4 or CyA efficiently protects against induction of systemic autoimmunity for an extended period of time. However, some of the T-cell modulating agents, especially a low dose of tacrolimus, aggravate autoimmune manifestations not only during ongoing treatment, but also after treatment with these agents has ceased

  7. The effect of long-term danazol prophylaxis on liver function in hereditary angioedema?a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Farkas, Henriette; Czaller, Ibolya; Csuka, Dorottya; Vas, Anikó; Valentin, Szilvia; Varga, Lilian; Széplaki, Gábor; Jakab, László; Füst, George; Prohászka, Zoltán; Harmat, George; Visy, Beata; Karádi, István

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Danazol is a drug most widely used for the prophylaxis of hereditary angioedema resulting from the deficiency of the C1-inhibitor. Potential hepatotoxic or liver tumor-inducing side effects of long-term danazol prophylaxis have been investigated during the follow-up of hereditary angioedema patients. Methods Characteristic parameters of liver function (including bilirubin, GOT, GPT, ?GT...

  8. Long-Term Effects of Stressors on Relationship Well-Being and Parenting among Rural African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma M.; Harrell, Amanda W.; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Simons, Ronald L.; Black, Angela R.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation of the effects of stressful life events on rural African American women's relationship well-being, psychological functioning, and parenting included 361 married or long-term cohabiting women. Associations among stressful events, socioeconomic status, perceived racial discrimination, coping strategies, psychological functioning,…

  9. Long-term effects and colectomy rates in ulcerative colitis patients treated with infliximab: A Danish single center experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teisner, A.S.; Ainsworth, M.A.; Brynskov, J.

    2010-01-01

    provide further data on the long-term effect of IFX for acute, severe and chronic, refractory UC in unselected patients treated at a single center. Material and Methods. A retrospective analysis of all patients (n = 52) treated with IFX for UC before February 2009 was performed. The material comprised 19...

  10. Toxic effects caused by a long-term exposure of Danio rerio to TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Pecoraro

    2015-11-01

    In conclusion, the current study confirmed only a slight cytotoxicity of TiO2 NPs on zebrafish adults after a long-term exposure, however, further and wider studies are required to establish their effects on other organs and to evaluate the severity of their toxicity.

  11. Effects of Different Types of True-False Questions on Memory Awareness and Long-Term Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Lydia; Verkoeijen, Peter; Schmidt, Henk

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two different true-false questions on memory awareness and long-term retention of knowledge. Participants took four subsequent knowledge tests on curriculum learning material that they studied at different retention intervals prior to the start of this study (i.e. prior to the first test). At the first and…

  12. Women's Perceptions of Immediate and Long-Term Effects of Failed Infertility Treatment on Marital and Sexual Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Margaret V.; Byrne, T. Jean

    1991-01-01

    Examined immediate and long-term effects of infertility treatment on the marital and sexual relationship, as perceived by women (n=40) who failed to become pregnant during treatment. Results indicated infertility treatment significantly affected both marital and sexual satisfaction after treatment was terminated, as well as during treatment. (ABL)

  13. Long-term effects of a binary mixture of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and bisphenol A (BPA) in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiter, Susanne; Baumann, Lisa; Farber, H;

    2012-01-01

    aimed at evaluating the long-term effects and toxicity-increasing behavior of PFOS in vivo using the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish were maintained in flow-through conditions and exposed to single and binary mixtures of PFOS and the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) at nominal concentrations of 0...

  14. Management Development Training; Multiple Measurement of Its Effect When Used to Increase the Impact of a Long Term Motivational Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camealy, John Bremer

    This field investigation applied multiple measures to determine effects of management development training when used to increase the benefits from a long term motivational program. Two experimental groups and a control group were used. Instruments applied included the Miner Sentence Completion Scale, the Leadership Opinion Questionnaire (LOQ), and…

  15. Long-Term Effects of Child Corporal Punishment on Depressive Symptoms in Young Adults: Potential Moderators and Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Heather A.; Muller, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Based on a sample of 649 students from 3 New England colleges, this study examined the long-term effects of childhood corporal punishment on symptoms of depression and considered factors that may moderate or mediate the association. Similar to national studies, approximately 40% of the sample reported experiencing some level of corporal punishment…

  16. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Long-Term Effects on Anxiety and Secondary Disorders in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Lissette M.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Kurtines, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study's aim was to examine the long-term effects (8 to 13 years post-treatment; M = 9.83 years; SD = 1.71) of the most widely used treatment approaches of exposure-based cognitive behavioral treatment for phobic and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents (i.e., group treatment and two variants of individual…

  17. Long-term polyacrylamide formulation effects on soil erosion, water infiltration, and yields of furrow-irrigated crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water soluble anionic polyacrylamide (WSPAM) is an important tool employed by producers to reduce erosion associated with furrow irrigation. Two formulations of WSPAM are used in agriculture, although few if any reports comparing their effectiveness are published. A long-term field study was condu...

  18. The effect of long-term treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on hematopoiesis in HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Sørensen, T U; Aladdin, H;

    2000-01-01

    This randomized, placebo-controlled trial examine the long-term effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on absolute numbers of CD34+ progenitor cells and progenitor cell function in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. G-CSF (300 microg filgrastim) or placebo was ...

  19. A controlled study of the short- and long-term effects of a Train the Trainers course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubak, S.; Mortensen, L.; Ringsted, C.;

    2008-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to establish the longterm effects of a 3-day 'Training for Trainers' course (TTC) on doctors' knowledge, teaching behaviour and clinical learning climate. Methods The study was designed as an intervention study with pre-, post- and long-term measurements. The...

  20. Refurbishing - A cost effective option for long term operation of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    building a replacement reactor of similar capabilities. After refurbishment, the reactor is expected to operate with enhanced safety for a period of 20 years or even more. It can therefore be stated that refurbishing, based on Cirus experience, is a cost-effective option for long term operation of a research reactor facility

  1. Effect of seasonal and long-term changes in stress on sources of water to wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Pollock, David W.

    1995-01-01

    The source of water to wells is ultimately the location where the water flowing to a well enters the boundary surface of the ground-water system . In ground-water systems that receive most of their water from areal recharge, the location of the water entering the system is at the water table . The area contributing recharge to a discharging well is the surface area that defines the location of the water entering the groundwater system. Water entering the system at the water table flows to the well and is eventually discharged from the well. Many State agencies are currently (1994) developing wellhead-protection programs. The thrust of some of these programs is to protect water supplies by determining the areas contributing recharge to water-supply wells and by specifying regulations to minimize the opportunity for contamination of the recharge water by activities at the land surface. In the analyses of ground-water flow systems, steady-state average conditions are frequently used to simplify the problem and make a solution tractable. Recharge is usually cyclic in nature, however, having seasonal cycles and longer term climatic cycles. A hypothetical system is quantitatively analyzed to show that, in many cases, these cyclic changes in the recharge rates apparently do not significantly affect the location and size of the areas contributing recharge to wells. The ratio of the mean travel time to the length of the cyclic stress period appears to indicate whether the transient effects of the cyclic stress must be explicitly represented in the analysis of contributing areas to wells. For the cases examined, if the ratio of the mean travel time to the period of the cyclic stress was much greater than one, then the transient area contributing recharge to wells was similar to the area calculated using an average steady-state condition. Noncyclic long-term transient changes in water use, however, and cyclic stresses on systems with ratios less than 1 can and do affect the

  2. Concordance between Results of Medium-term Liver Carcinogenesis Bioassays and Long-term Findings for Carcinogenic 2-Nitropropane and Non-carcinogenic1-Nitropropane in F344 Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yuko; Tamano, Seiko; Kawabe, Mayumi; Sano, Masashi; Imai, Norio; Nakashima, Hironao; Furukawa, Fumio; Hagiwara, Akihiro; Otsuka, Masanori; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concordance of results for a pair of structural isomers, 2-nitropropane (2-NP) and 1-nitropropane (1-NP), using the rat medium-term liver carcinogenesis bioassay (Ito test) and previously published long-term carcinogenicity tests. Male F344 rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of DEN (200 mg/kg b.w.) to initiate hepatocarcinogenesis. After 2 weeks, they received per os 0, 0.8, 4 or 20 mg/kg/day of 2-NP or 1-NP six times a week and were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy at week 3. Non-initiated groups receiving 0 or 20 mg/kg/day were also included. The animals were sacrificed for quantitative analysis of GST-P-positive foci at week 8. With the highest dose of 2-NP, significantly increased numbers and areas of GST-P-positive foci were demonstrated as compared with the respective control but were not noted with 1-NP. In the non-DEN-initiated groups, many small GST-P-positive foci of less than 0.2 mm in diameter were also induced in the rats treated with 2-NP at 20 mg/kg/day but were lacking with 1-NP. These results strongly support that 2-NP is a complete hepatocarcinogen with a potent initiation activity, whereas 1-NP is not. PMID:22319232

  3. Short-term effects of long-term policies : climate policies in power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosnes, Orvika

    2007-07-01

    effect of climate policies in a market - in other words, the aggregated effect on emissions and costs when the changes in the production patterns of all producers are taken into account. Essay 2 analyzes the importance of the flexibility of power plants in the presence of CO{sub 2} cost, while Essay 3 analyzes the impact of different subsidy schemes on wind power in an inflexible market context. A numerical market model that takes the short-term start-up constraints into account is developed to this end. The numerical model (developed for and applied in Essays 2 and 3 of the thesis) is a mixed integer linear programming optimization model that simulates the Danish power market in detail. Denmark is part of the Nordic power exchange Nord Pool, where the market is cleared simultaneously for each of the 24 hours of the following day. (Real-time market, that operates close to the actual hour of operation, ensures that deviations between the planned and actual production and demand are balanced). Therefore, hourly time resolution and discrete time framework are appropriate. The distinct weekly pattern in power demand is likely to form the basis for producers' short-term planning. The numerical model therefore assumes simultaneous optimization over a week in the context of an infinite number of weeks, that is, a week is followed by an identical week ad infinitum. (This is different from Nord Pool's simultaneous consideration of 24 hours.) Given that the weekly demand pattern is identical for all weeks, it can be shown that optimization over a week solves the full intertemporal optimization problem. The detailed time resolution required for the proper modeling of start-up costs, combined with the computationally demanding integer modeling, is hardly feasible with long-term models. Adding a new feature that improves the realism of the model points out areas where the climate policy outcome may differ from the expectations originating from more simplistic models

  4. Effects of long-term compost application on carbon content and soil physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Marie; Houot, Sabine

    2013-04-01

    Biological treatment through composting of organic wastes fulfils multiple purposes: it not only reduces the amount of waste stored in landfills but can also provide agricultural soils with organic amendments, which affect physicochemical soil properties and reduce the use of mineral fertilizers. However, the impacts of different types of amendments are not yet fully understood, as quantity and quality of the exogenous organic matter (EOM) applied vary greatly and numerous other parameters are affected as well, such as pH, heavy metal content, or nutrient availability. The objective of this project was to investigate the effect of different organic amendments - via simulations - on water holding capacity (WHC) and particularly plant available water (PAW), in regard to irrigation needs. The long-term field experiment "Qualiagro" (INRA - Veolia Environment collaboration) was established in Feucherolles, France in 1998, where five treatments were designed, each with two levels of mineral nitrogen (N) addition: minimal and optimal. Farmyard manure (FYM) and three types of compost - all applied every other year at a rate of 4 t carbon ha-1 - gave rise to varying organic carbon (OC) contents and were compared to a control treatment. The treatments changed the soil's OC content from initially ~10.5 g kg-1 to a range of 9.35 to 15.58 g kg-1. An increased OC content can enhance WHC by increasing total porosity/ reducing bulk density. The PAW - the difference between field capacity (FC) and permanent wilting point (WP); predicted with pedotransfer functions related to OC - increases, if the increase at FC is larger than that at WP. With a higher amount of PAW, the need to irrigate fields - to ensure sufficient water availability for plant growth - decreases. At the same time, soil bulk density (ρd) affects root growth; denser soils can lead to reduced rooting depth. Both of these effects were considered when employing a simple soil water balance model (BUDGET; http

  5. Long-term effects as the cause of failure in electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief presentation of the utilisation properties of electronic components, their failure rates are discussed with particular reference to the socalled bath-tub curve. The main emphasis is on the construction and manufacture of integrated circuits and the possible types and causes of failure arising from the individual manufacturing stages (layout faults, internal corrosion, masking and etching errors, leakage currents, inadequate heat removal, etc.). A technical insurance assessment is then provided of the long-term failures associated with technological matters. (orig.)

  6. Measured and modelled long-term effects of whole-tree harvest

    OpenAIRE

    Zetterberg, Therese

    2015-01-01

    This thesis examines the impact of whole-tree harvest (WTH) on soils and surface waters acid-base status in coniferous forests compared with conventional harvesting (CH). A combination of field observations (up to four decades) and dynamic modelling was used to describe the impact on soil calcium (Ca²⁺) pools and surface water acid neutralizing capacity (ANC). The studies were undertaken in northern and southern Sweden at sites belonging to the long-term wood fuel experiment (HELTRAD) and the...

  7. Pregnancy following breast cancer using assisted reproduction and its effect on long-term outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldrat, Oranite; Kroman, Niels; Peccatori, Fedro A; Cordoba, Octavi; Pistilli, Barbara; Lidegaard, Oejvind; Demeestere, Isabelle; Azim, Hatem A

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: We have previously shown that pregnancy is safe following breast cancer, even in endocrine sensitive disease. Yet infertility remains common following systemic treatment. To date, no study has evaluated the safety of assisted reproductive technology (ART) after breast cancer...... were eligible. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether ART following primary systemic therapy was performed to achieve pregnancy. We evaluated the association between ART use and clinic-pathological characteristics, pregnancy outcome and long-term breast cancer outcome. RESULTS: A...

  8. Effects Of Very Intensive Forest Biomass Harvesting On Short And Long Term Site Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Stupak, Inge; Clarke, Nicholas;

    2008-01-01

    Intensified forest biomass utilisation causes export of substantial amounts of nutrients from the forest ecosystem. Compared to conventional stems-only harvesting, the most intensive biomass sce nario causes increases in nutrient exports of up to 6-7 times whereas the biomass export increases only...... up to 2 times (Stupak et al. 2007a). High concentrations of nutrients in small branches, twigs, and leaves compared to stems are the main reason. The extensive export of nutrients related to intensive biomass extraction have for many years caused concern for the long-term fertility of the system...

  9. Effects of Radiation and Long-Term Thermal Cycling on EPC 1001 Gallium Nitride Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Scheick, Leif; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Electronics designed for use in NASA space missions are required to work efficiently and reliably under harsh environment conditions. These include radiation, extreme temperatures, and thermal cycling, to name a few. Data obtained on long-term thermal cycling of new un-irradiated and irradiated samples of EPC1001 gallium nitride enhancement-mode transistors are presented. This work was done by a collaborative effort including GRC, GSFC, and support the NASA www.nasa.gov 1 JPL in of Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program

  10. Novel effects of demand side management data on accuracy of electrical energy consumption modeling and long-term forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Novel effects of DSM data on electricity consumption forecasting is examined. • Optimal ANN models based on IPSO and SFL algorithms are developed. • Addition of DSM data to socio-economic indicators data reduces MAPE by 36%. - Abstract: Worldwide implementation of demand side management (DSM) programs has had positive impacts on electrical energy consumption (EEC) and the examination of their effects on long-term forecasting is warranted. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of historical DSM data on accuracy of EEC modeling and long-term forecasting. To achieve the objective, optimal artificial neural network (ANN) models based on improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) and shuffled frog-leaping (SFL) algorithms are developed for EEC forecasting. For long-term EEC modeling and forecasting for the U.S. for 2010–2030, two historical data types used in conjunction with developed models include (i) EEC and (ii) socio-economic indicators, namely, gross domestic product, energy imports, energy exports, and population for 1967–2009 period. Simulation results from IPSO-ANN and SFL-ANN models show that using socio-economic indicators as input data achieves lower mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) for long-term EEC forecasting, as compared with EEC data. Based on IPSO-ANN, it is found that, for the U.S. EEC long-term forecasting, the addition of DSM data to socio-economic indicators data reduces MAPE by 36% and results in the estimated difference of 3592.8 MBOE (5849.9 TW h) in EEC for 2010–2030

  11. Long-term environmental stewardship.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Michael David

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

  12. Effects of long term perinatal administration of Bupropion on population spike amplitude in neonatal rat hippocampal slices

    OpenAIRE

    Soomaayeh Heysieattalab; Samad Zare; Firouz Ghaderi Pakdel

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The perinatal effects of antidepressants on CNS due to its common usage are importantissues in neuroscience research. Bupropion is an atypical antidepressant that is used in smoke cessationunder FDA approve widely. The study of synaptic effects of bupropion can reveal its mechanism fornicotine dependence cessation. In this study the long term effects of perinatal bupropion on populationspike (PS) amplitudes were investigated. The PS amplitude is a good parameter for synaptic pla...

  13. Effects of urbanisation on the water balance - A long-term trajectory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of land consumption required for housing and transport severely conflicts with both the necessity and the legal obligation to maintain the ecological potential afforded by open spaces to meet the needs of current and future generations with regards to the protection of resources and climate change. Owing to an increasing intensity of soil use, soil conditions appear to have deteriorated in most city regions around the world, namely their filter and runoff regulating functions are impaired by land surfacing. As such soil functions depend on the soil's biophysical properties and the degree of imperviousness, the impact on the water balance caused by urban growth varies considerably. In response to the demand for sustainably secure urban water resources, it needs to be assessed exactly how land surfacing affects the functions concerned. Analysing and evaluating urban land use change on the long-term water balance should improve our understanding of the impact of urbanisation on the water household. Therefore, this paper analyses the impact of urban land use change and land surfacing on the long-term urban water balance over a 130-year trajectory by using simple model approaches that are based on data available to the public. The test site is the city of Leipzig. In particular, attention is to be paid to estimating changes of evapotranspiration, direct runoff and groundwater recharge.

  14. MODELLING THE EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM URBAN LAND USE CHANGE ON THE WATER BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAGMAR HAASE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of land consumption for housing and transport contrasts sharply with both the necessity and the legal obligation to maintain the ecological potential afforded by open spaces to meet the needs ofcurrent and future generations in terms of resource protection and climate change. Owing to the increasing intensity of soil usage, in many urban landscapes the soil conditions has deteriorated. The natural filter and run-off regulating functions of soils are impaired or even disappeared altogether by land surfacing. Since such soil functions closely depend on the soil’s biophysical properties, thedecline of water balance functionality caused by urbanisation and increasing imperviousness varies. In response to the demand to sustainably secure urban water resources, it needs to be assessed exactly how land surfacing affects the functions concerned. Analysing and evaluating the urban land use change and the respective imperviousness on the long-term water balance ought to improve ourgeneral understanding of the water household related impact of urbanisation. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to assess the impact of urban land use change and land surfacing on the long-term waterbalance over a 130-year trajectory using the example of Leipzig. In particular, attention is to be paid to evapotranspiration, direct runoff and groundwater recharge.

  15. The effects of salt on rheological properties of asphalt after long-term aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Wang, Ying; Luo, Yilin; Yin, Long

    2013-01-01

    Limited studies in recent years have shown that asphalt pavement subject to seawater in coastal regions or deicing salt in cold regions may be seriously damaged after being soaked in saline water for a long time. However, there is limited research into the influence of salt on rheological properties of asphalt after long-term aging. In this study, rheological properties of unmodified and polymer-modified asphalt after long-term aging were tested after being soaked in different concentrations of salt (0.3%~5%) for different durations (1 day~30 days). Orthogonal array based on the Taguchi method was used for experimental design. The frequency sweep tests were performed on the specimens of aged asphalt after being soaked for complex modulus and phase angle master curves and ultimate fatigue temperature. BBR tests were performed for stiffness. The test results indicate that saline water appears to reduce low temperature properties and fatigue resistance properties and improved high temperature properties of aged asphalt, and it also affects the sensitivity of complex modulus and phase angles at low frequencies. PMID:24459450

  16. The Scorpion An ideal animal model to study long-term microgravity effects on circadian rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewe, Pascal C.; Horn, Eberhard R.

    2000-01-01

    The temporal pattern of light and darkness is basic for the coordination of circadian rhythms and establishment of homoeostasis. The 24th frequency of zeitgebers is probably a function of the Earth's rotation. The only way to eliminate its influence on organisms is to study their behavior in space because the reduced day length during orbiting the Earth might disrupt synchronizing mechanisms based on the 24th rhythm. The stability of microgravity induced disturbances of synchronization as well as the extent of adaptation of different physiological processes to this novel environment can only be studied during long-term exposures to microgravity, i.e., on the International Space Station. Biological studies within the long-term domain on ISS demand the use of experimental models which can be exposed to automatic handling of measurements and which need less or no nutritional care. Scorpions offer these features. We describe a fully automatic recording device for the simultaneous collection of data regarding the sensorimotor system and homoeostatic mechanisms. In particular, we record sensitivity changes of the eyes, motor activity and heart beat and/or respiratory activity. The advantage of the scorpion model is supported by the fact that data can be recorded preflight, inflight and postflight from the same animal. With this animal model, basic insights will be obtained about the de-coupling of circadian rhythms of multiple oscillators and their adaptation to the entraining zeitgeber periodicity during exposure to microgravity for at least three biological parameters recorded simultaneously. .

  17. Long-term horizontal vocal directivity of opera singers: effects of singing projection and acoustic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Densil; Davis, Pamela J; Connolly, Anna

    2011-11-01

    Vocal directivity refers to how directional the sound is that comes from a singer's mouth, that is, whether the sound is focused into a narrow stream of sound projecting in front of the singers or whether it is spread out all around the singer. This study investigates the long-term vocal directivity and acoustic power of professional opera singers and how these vary among subjects, among singing projections, and among vastly different acoustic environments. The vocal sound of eight professional opera singers (six females and two males) was measured in anechoic and reverberant rooms and in a recital hall. Subjects sang in four different ways: (1) paying great attention to intonation; (2) singing as in performance, with all the emotional connection intended by the composer; (3) imagining a large auditorium; and (4) imagining a small theatre. The same song was sung by all singers in all conditions. A head and torso simulator (HATS), radiating sound from its mouth, was used for comparison in all situations. Results show that individual singers have quite consistent long-term average directivity, even across conditions. Directivity varies substantially among singers. Singers are more directional than the standard HATS (which is a physical model of a talking person). The singer's formant region of the spectrum exhibits greater directivity than the lower-frequency range, and results indicate that singers control directivity (at least, incidentally) for different singing conditions as they adjust the spectral emphasis of their voices through their formants. PMID:20728309

  18. Neutrophil superoxide-anion generating capacity in chronic smoking: effect of long-term -tocopherol therapy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lambertus J Hvan Tits; Frouwkje De Waart; Heidi L M Hak-Lemmers; Jacqueline De Graaf; Pierre N M Demacker; Anton F H Stalenhoef

    2003-02-01

    We investigated whether long-term -tocopherol therapy in chronic smoking affects superoxide generating capacity of neutrophils ex vivo. To this purpose, we randomly assigned 128 male chronic smokers (37 ± 21 pack years of smoking) to treatment with placebo ( = 64) or -tocopherol (400 IU dL--tocopherol daily, = 64). After two years of therapy, we measured phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced superoxide production of isolated neutrophils and of diluted whole blood by monitoring reduction of ferricytochrome and luminolenhanced peroxidase-catalyzed chemiluminescence. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins were not different between the two treatment groups. As expected, concentrations of -tocopherol in plasma and in low-density lipoproteins were markedly elevated in the supplemented group compared to the placebo group (+ 120%, P < 0.0001 and + 83%, < 0.0001, respectively). Consequently, resistance to in vitro oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (reflected by lag time of conjugated diene formation) was higher in the supplemented group than in the placebo group (+ 22%, < 0.0001). Superoxide generating capacity of neutrophils and superoxide production in diluted whole blood did not differ between -tocopherol and placebo group. It is concluded that in chronic smoking long-term supranormal -tocopherol intake does not reduce neutrophil superoxide-anion generating capacity, despite large increases in the concentrations of -tocopherol in plasma and in low-density lipoproteins.

  19. The Effects of Salt on Rheological Properties of Asphalt after Long-Term Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited studies in recent years have shown that asphalt pavement subject to seawater in coastal regions or deicing salt in cold regions may be seriously damaged after being soaked in saline water for a long time. However, there is limited research into the influence of salt on rheological properties of asphalt after long-term aging. In this study, rheological properties of unmodified and polymer-modified asphalt after long-term aging were tested after being soaked in different concentrations of salt (0.3%~5% for different durations (1 day~30 days. Orthogonal array based on the Taguchi method was used for experimental design. The frequency sweep tests were performed on the specimens of aged asphalt after being soaked for complex modulus and phase angle master curves and ultimate fatigue temperature. BBR tests were performed for stiffness. The test results indicate that saline water appears to reduce low temperature properties and fatigue resistance properties and improved high temperature properties of aged asphalt, and it also affects the sensitivity of complex modulus and phase angles at low frequencies.

  20. Oil price shocks and their short- and long-term effects on the Chinese economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A considerable body of economic literature shows the adverse economic impacts of oil-price shocks for the developed economies. However, there has been a lack of similar empirical study on China and other developing countries. This paper attempts to fill this gap by answering how and to what extent oil-price shocks impact China's economy, emphasizing on the price transmission mechanisms. To that end, we develop a structural vector auto-regressive model. Our results show that an oil-price increase negatively affects output and investment, but positively affects inflation rate and interest rate. However, with price control policies in China, the impact on real economy, represented by real output and real investment, lasts much longer than that to price/monetary variables. Our decomposition results also show that the short-term impact, namely output decrease induced by the cut in capacity-utilization rate, is greater in the first 6 periods (namely half a year), but the portion of the long-term impact, defined as the impact realized through an investment change, increases steadily and exceeds that of short-term impact in the 7th period. Afterwards, the long-term impact dominates, and maintains for quite some time. (author)

  1. Do Investments in Universal Early Education Pay Off? Long-term Effects of Introducing Kindergartens into Public Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Cascio, Elizabeth U.

    2009-01-01

    In the 1960s and 1970s, many states introduced grants for school districts offering kindergarten programs. This paper exploits the staggered timing of these initiatives to estimate the long-term effects of a large public investment in universal early education. I find that white children aged five after the typical state reform were less likely to be high school dropouts and had lower institutionalization rates as adults. I rule out similar positive effects for blacks, despite comparable incr...

  2. Long-term cost-effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of adults with schizophrenia in the US

    OpenAIRE

    O'Day K; Rajagopalan K; Meyer K; Pikalov A; Loebel A

    2013-01-01

    Ken O'Day,1 Krithika Rajagopalan,2 Kellie Meyer,1 Andrei Pikalov,2 Antony Loebel21Xcenda, Palm Harbor, FL, 2Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Marlborough, MA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness (including hospitalizations and cardiometabolic consequences) of atypical antipsychotics among adults with schizophrenia.Methods: A 5-year Markov cohort cost-effectiveness model, from a US payer perspective, was developed to compare lurasidone, generic...

  3. Long-term cost-effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of adults with schizophrenia in the US

    OpenAIRE

    O'Day, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Ken O'Day,1 Krithika Rajagopalan,2 Kellie Meyer,1 Andrei Pikalov,2 Antony Loebel21Xcenda, Palm Harbor, FL, 2Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Marlborough, MA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness (including hospitalizations and cardiometabolic consequences) of atypical antipsychotics among adults with schizophrenia.Methods: A 5-year Markov cohort cost-effectiveness model, from a US payer perspective, was developed to compare lurasidone, gen...

  4. Long-term cost-effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of adults with schizophrenia in the US

    OpenAIRE

    O’Day, Ken; Rajagopalan, Krithika; Meyer, Kellie; Pikalov, Andrei; Loebel, Antony

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness (including hospitalizations and cardiometabolic consequences) of atypical antipsychotics among adults with schizophrenia. Methods A 5-year Markov cohort cost-effectiveness model, from a US payer perspective, was developed to compare lurasidone, generic risperidone, generic olanzapine, generic ziprasidone, aripiprazole, and quetiapine extended-release. Health states included in the model were patients: on an ...

  5. Effect of long-term exposure to mobile phone radiation on alpha-Int1 gene sequence of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Shahin-jafari, Ariyo; Bayat, Mansour; Shahhosseiny, Mohammad Hassan; Tajik, Parviz; Roudbar-mohammadi, Shahla

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, communication industries have witnessed a tremendous expansion, while, the biological effects of electromagnetic waves have not been fully elucidated. Current study aimed at evaluating the mutagenic effect of long-term exposure to 900-MHz radiation on alpha-Int1 gene sequences of Candida albicans. A standard 900 MHz radiation generator was used for radiation. 10 ml volumes from a stock suspension of C. albicans were transferred into 10 polystyrene tubes. Five tubes were ...

  6. Long-term effects of husbandry procedures on stress-related parameters in male mice of two strains

    OpenAIRE

    Van Loo, PLP; Meer, E. van der; Kruitwagen, CLJJ; Koolhaas, JM; Van Zutphen, LFM; Baumans, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    In socially unstable groups of male laboratory mice, individuals may experience a chronic stress situation. Previous experiments have shown that the transfer of specific olfactory cues during cage cleaning, and the provision of nesting material decrease aggression and stress in group-housed male mice. In this study, the combined effect of these husbandry procedures were tested for their long-term effect on stress in groups of moderately aggressive (BALB/c) and severely aggressive (CD-1) male ...

  7. Long-term therapy related side effect on endocrine system among survivor with paediatric brain tumour and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Shu-wing, Sophia; 陳舒穎

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and brain tumours are frequently seen in childhood malignancies. With the improved effectiveness of treatments, approximately 70–80% patients can be cured of their primary illness. However, therapy-related long-term sequelae among survivors are becoming a major concern. Traditional treatments include surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, and these have been shown to have prolonged side effects on the endocrine system, and symptoms may develop mon...

  8. The short and long term effects of exercise training in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis – a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Annemarie L; Hill, Catherine J; Cecins, Nola; Jenkins, Sue; McDonald, Christine F; Burge, Angela T; Rautela, Linda; Stirling, Robert G; Thompson, Philip J.; Holland, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise training is recommended for non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis, but the long-term effects are unclear. This randomised controlled trial aimed to determine the effects of exercise training and review of airway clearance therapy (ACT) on exercise capacity, health related quality of life (HRQOL) and the incidence of acute exacerbations in people with non-CF bronchiectasis. Methods Participants were randomly allocated to 8 weeks of supervised exercise training and review ...

  9. Effects of long-term greywater disposal on soil: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siggins, Alma; Burton, Vanessa; Ross, Craig; Lowe, Hamish; Horswell, Jacqui

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the environmental health risks to soil and potential risks to groundwater associated with long term (8-18years) greywater disposal practices. Land application of greywater is likely to have environmental impacts, which may be positive or negative. Greywater can contain plant macronutrients that may benefit plant growth. Conversely, high levels of surfactants, oils, grease, sodium and potentially pathogenic organisms may negatively impact environmental and human health. In this study, land disposal of untreated greywater was practiced at five coastal domestic properties. At each property, soil samples were collected at two depths from areas used for greywater disposal and from control areas that were not exposed to greywater. Soils were analysed for chemical and biological responses to greywater exposure. Generally, greywater irrigated soils had higher pH, Olsen P, base saturation, and increased soil microbial activity (as measured by biomass carbon, basal respiration and dehydrogenase activity). A pH of >9 was recorded for some greywater treated soil samples. Escherichia coli (E. coli) were detected at up to 10(3)MPN/g in the greywater exposed surface soils at some sites. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis revealed that greywater affected the soil microbial community structure, which may have implications for soil health and fertility. Overall, this study shows that the long-term application of greywater at the investigated sites had a moderate impact on the soil environment. This may have been due to the sandy soils and high rainfall that would flush the soil. Increases in microbial biomass and dehydrogenase indicate that greywater application may be beneficial for plant growth. However, high levels of E. coli in some soils may be a risk to human health and sub-surface irrigation should be the recommended application method. PMID:27037884

  10. Effects of Long Term Antibiotic Therapy on Human Oral and Fecal Viromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira R Abeles

    Full Text Available Viruses are integral members of the human microbiome. Many of the viruses comprising the human virome have been identified as bacteriophage, and little is known about how they respond to perturbations within the human ecosystem. The intimate association of phage with their cellular hosts suggests their communities may change in response to shifts in bacterial community membership. Alterations to human bacterial biota can result in human disease including a reduction in the host's resilience to pathogens. Here we report the ecology of oral and fecal viral communities and their responses to long-term antibiotic therapy in a cohort of human subjects. We found significant differences between the viral communities of each body site with a more heterogeneous fecal virus community compared with viruses in saliva. We measured the relative diversity of viruses, and found that the oral viromes were significantly more diverse than fecal viromes. There were characteristic changes in the membership of oral and fecal bacterial communities in response to antibiotics, but changes in fecal viral communities were less distinguishing. In the oral cavity, an abundance of papillomaviruses found in subjects on antibiotics suggests an association between antibiotics and papillomavirus production. Despite the abundance of papillomaviruses identified, in neither the oral nor the fecal viromes did antibiotic therapy have any significant impact upon overall viral diversity. There was, however, an apparent expansion of the reservoir of genes putatively involved in resistance to numerous classes of antibiotics in fecal viromes that was not paralleled in oral viromes. The emergence of antibiotic resistance in fecal viromes in response to long-term antibiotic therapy in humans suggests that viruses play an important role in the resilience of human microbial communities to antibiotic disturbances.

  11. Effect of Long-Term Rice Straw Return on Soil Glomalin, Carbon and Nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Jun; ZHOU Jian-Min; WANG Huo-Yan; CHEN Xiao-Qin; DU Chang-Wen

    2007-01-01

    A long-term experiment was conducted to investigate how long-term fertilization and rice straw incorporation into soil affect soil glomalin, C and N. The combined application of chemical fertilizer and straw resulted in a significant increase in both soil easily extractable glomalin (EEG) and total glomalin (TG) concentrations, as compared with application of only chemical fertilizer or no fertilizer application. The EEG and TG concentrations of the NPKS (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizer application + rice straw return) plot were 4.68% and 5.67% higher than those of the CK (unfertilized control) plot, and 9.87% and 6.23% higher than those of the NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizer applied annually) plot, respectively. Application of only chemical fertilizer did not cause a statistically significant change of soil glomalin compared with no fertilizer application. The changes of soil organic C (SOC) and total N (TN) contents demonstrated a similar trend to soil glomalin in these plots. The SOC and TN contents of NPKS plot were 15.01% and 9.18% higher than those of the CK plot, and 8.85% and 14.76% higher than those of the NPK plot, respectively. Rice straw return also enhanced the contents of microbial biomass C (MBC) and microbial biomass N (MBN) in the NPKS plot by 7.76% for MBC and 31.42% for MBN compared with the CK plot, and 12.66% for MBC and 15.07% for MBN compared with the NPK plots, respectively. Application of only chemical fertilizer, however, increased MBN concentration, but decreased MBC concentration in soil.

  12. The importance of phrenic nerve preservation and its effect on long-term postoperative lung function after pneumonectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocher, Gregor J; Poulson, Jannie Lysgaard; Blichfeldt-Eckhardt, Morten Rune;

    2015-01-01

    , decided to investigate the effect of temporary ipsilateral cervical phrenic nerve block on dynamic lung volumes in mid- to long-term pneumonectomy patients. METHODS: We investigated 14 patients after a median of 9 years post pneumonectomy (range: 1-15 years). Lung function testing (spirometry) and...... fluoroscopic and/or sonographic assessment of diaphragmatic motion on the pneumonectomy side were performed before and after ultrasonographic-guided ipsilateral cervical phrenic nerve block by infiltration with lidocaine. RESULTS: Ipsilateral phrenic nerve block was successfully achieved in 12 patients (86......OBJECTIVES: The importance of phrenic nerve preservation during pneumonectomy remains controversial. We previously demonstrated that preservation of the phrenic nerve in the immediate postoperative period preserved lung function by 3-5% but little is known about its long-term effects. We, therefore...

  13. Long-Term Effects of Stressors on Relationship Well-Being and Parenting Among Rural African American Women*

    OpenAIRE

    Murry, Velma M.; Harrell, Amanda W.; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Simons, Ronald L.; Black, Angela R.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation of the effects of stressful life events on rural African American women’s relationship well-being, psychological functioning, and parenting included 361 married or long-term cohabiting women. Associations among stressful events, socioeconomic status, perceived racial discrimination, coping strategies, psychological functioning, relationship well-being, and parenting were tested. Stressful events were related directly to diminished relationship well-being and heightened psyc...

  14. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Razavi Seyed Mansour; Ghanei Mostafa; Salamati Payman; Safiabadi Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    【Abstract】To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion. The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Preva-lence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complicat...

  15. Spacing Effect: SHP2 Phosphatase Regulates Resting Intervals Between Learning Trials in Long-Term Memory Induction

    OpenAIRE

    Pagani, Mario R.; Oishi, Kimihiko; Gelb, Bruce D.; Zhong, Yi

    2009-01-01

    A common property of long-term memory (LTM) induction is the requirement for repeated training sessions spaced over time. The phenomena of better memory being formed with resting intervals between training sessions is called the spacing effect, for which the underlying molecular and neural bases are largely unknown. Our study reveals that the duration of resting intervals required for inducing LTM can be regulated by activity levels of the protein tyrosine phosphatase corkscrew (CSW) in Droso...

  16. Current and Long-Term Effects of Delta Water Quality on Drinking Water Treatment Costs from Disinfection Byproduct Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Haunschild, Kristine; Lund, Jay R.; Fleenor, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Sea level rise and the failure of subsided western islands are likely future conditions for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. This study explores the current and long-term effects of changes in the Delta’s water quality on drinking treatment costs for alternative disinfection and additional disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursor removal. Current and likely future Delta water qualities were investigated for electrical conductivity and the concentrations of bromide, and organic carbon. With rou...

  17. The Long-Term Effective Mechanism of Rural Poverty Alleviation in China from the Perspective of Ecological Management

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Jun-Si

    2010-01-01

    Based on the ecological environmental situation of poverty-stricken areas in China and the domestic and foreign research results, the long-term effective mechanism of sustainable poverty alleviation in China is established(the ideological premise is ecological culture, the material base is ecological economy and the basic guarantee is ecological system ) from the perspective of ecological management. To be specific, ecological culture, the ideological premise of rural sustainable poverty alle...

  18. Long-term effects of the Mediterranean lifestyle program: a randomized clinical trial for postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ritzwoller Debra P; Barrera Manuel; Strycker Lisa A; Glasgow Russell E; Toobert Deborah J; Weidner Gerdi

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Multiple-risk-factor interventions offer a promising means for addressing the complex interactions between lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial factors, and the social environment. This report examines the long-term effects of a multiple-risk-factor intervention. Methods Postmenopausal women (N = 279) with type 2 diabetes participated in the Mediterranean Lifestyle Program (MLP), a randomized, comprehensive lifestyle intervention study. The intervention targeted healthful eat...

  19. Long-term effects of the Mediterranean lifestyle program: a randomized clinical trial for postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Toobert, Deborah J.; Glasgow, Russell E.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Barrera, Manuel; Ritzwoller, Debra P; Weidner, Gerdi

    2007-01-01

    Background Multiple-risk-factor interventions offer a promising means for addressing the complex interactions between lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial factors, and the social environment. This report examines the long-term effects of a multiple-risk-factor intervention. Methods Postmenopausal women (N = 279) with type 2 diabetes participated in the Mediterranean Lifestyle Program (MLP), a randomized, comprehensive lifestyle intervention study. The intervention targeted healthful eating, phys...

  20. A Meta-Analysis of Long-Term Outpatient Treatment Effects for Children and Adolescents with Conduct Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Fossum, Sturla; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Adolfsen, Frode; Vis, Svein Arild; Wynn, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Accepted manuscript version. The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10826-015-0221-8. The present meta-analytic review explored long-term treatment effects in children and adolescents, age ranging from 2 to 17 years, treated because of conduct problems. The presumed mediators were examined. Various treatments, in all 56 studies including 2589 participants, were included. 32 studies involved an untreated control condition, whereas 24 studies did no...

  1. Long-Term Effects of Complex Decongestive Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients With Arm Lymphedema After Axillary Dissection

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jung Min; Hwang, Ji Hye; Kim, Tae Won; Lee, Seung Yeol; Chang, Hyun Ju; Chu, In Ho

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the long-term effects of complex decongestive therapy (CDT) on edema reduction in breast cancer-related lymphedema patients after axillary dissection, according to the initial volume of edema. Methods A retrospective review of 57 patients with unilateral arm after an axillary dissection for breast cancer was performed. The patients, treated with two weeks of CDT and self-administered home therapy, were followed for 24 months. Arm volume was serially measured by using ...

  2. Long term effects of ash fertilization of reed canary grass; Laangtidseffekter av askgoedsling vid roerflensodling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmborg, Cecilia; Lindvall, Eva

    2011-03-15

    harvest. The main component of the ash is silica and silica concentrations are higher when reed canary grass is grown on clay soil than on peat soil. In an earlier project within the department of agricultural research for northern Sweden, SLU Umea, reed canary grass growing on peat soil was fertilized with ash from cocombustion of reed canary grass and sorted municipal waste. This ash was beneficial for the growth of the grass and did not give increased heavy metal contents. However the experiment only lasted two years so no conclusions could be drawn about long-term effects. Crop yields and elemental composition of the crop: The yields varied very much from year to year. The first two production years, 2004 and 2005 the yield was at expected levels, 6000-7000 kg dry matter per ha and year. After that, 2006-2009 the yields have been lower than expected, 1500 - 4000 kg dry matter per ha and year. The reason for this is not known, but it could be related to climate or pests. There were no significant differences in yield between the treatments. Samples from each plot from the last harvest and stored samples from 2004 were analyzed for nutrient and heavy metal content. There were only minor significant differences between the treatments: The ash and the potassium and calcium concentrations 2009 in grass from treatment A, ash from co-combustion of reed canary grass and waste, was slightly higher than in the NPK fertilized control. The magnesium concentration in 2009 was slightly higher in grass fertilized with reed canary grass ash than in the control grass. Element balances and soil concentrations of elements: Because of the low yield levels the amounts of P and K applied were much higher than the removal with harvests (Table 2). This resulted in an increase in plant available P and K in the top soil between 2003 and 2008 (Table 3). However, in the subsoil there was a decrease especially in plant available P. The only significant differences in soil nutrients between the

  3. New findings of long-term radiation effects on cancer and non-cancer risks among atomic bomb survivors and the need for animal experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 50 years of studies important new findings are continuing to emerge from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's ongoing epidemiological studies of the long term health effects of radiation exposure on the atomic-bomb survivors. Recent analyses of cancer risks have made it clear that the dose-related increases in cancer risk continues throughout life following acute exposure to radiation and that the excess rates appear to increase with attained age. These observations may provide some useful clues about the nature of radiation carcinogenesis. The survivor data also indicate that, with current dose estimates, the solid cancer dose response is remarkably linear in dose. In recent years it is also becoming clear that increasing dose is associated with increases in death and incidence rates for a variety of noncancer diseases in the survivors. While there are considerable uncertainties about the nature of the dose of the dose response at low doses (less than 0.5 Sv), these elevated risks are not limited to the highest doses (say above 1.5 Sv) as was thought in the past and cannot be explained on the basis of confounding with other factors (e.g. smoking). There is clearly a need for animal experiments and other studies that can help further our understanding of the mechanisms for radiation effects on non-neoplastic diseases. (author)

  4. Percutaneous vertebroplasty in 1,253 levels: results and long-term effectiveness in a single centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mastrangeli, Roberta; Petrella, Maria Chiara; Massari, Francesco; Ursone, Antonio; Simonetti, Giovanni [Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, Rome (Italy)

    2009-01-15

    Several authors claim that vertebroplasty (PVT) is a successful technique, but long-term effectiveness is still debated. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of PVT in patients with symptomatic vertebral fractures that had not responded to conservative treatment. In our centre, 624 patients with 1,253 compression fractures were treated by PVT. Imaging studies, clinical visits and short- and long-term follow-up were assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) testing of pain. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate pain response after PVT (paired two-tailed t-test) and to assess any differences in pain due to different lesions (ANOVA test). We found a statistically significant improvement in the patients' quality of life, particularly in pain (P<0.001). The average VAS value pre-PVT was 8.0{+-}2.5, which significantly dropped to 1.5{+-}0.4 by 12 months. There were no significant differences in pain response between the groups of patients with different underlying disease. There was a low complication rate in our study. PVT should be considered the treatment of choice in vertebral fractures with refractory pain. With strict evaluation of the clinical indications and subspecialised operators, long-term effectiveness is probable. (orig.)

  5. Short-term and long-term effects of psychosocial therapy for people after deliberate self-harm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Lind, Bertel Dam; Stuart, Elizabeth A;

    2015-01-01

    of repeated deliberate self-harm and general mortality in recipients of psychosocial therapy after short-term and long-term follow-up, and a protective effect for suicide after long-term follow-up, which favour the use of psychosocial therapy interventions after deliberate self-harm. FUNDING: Danish......-harm than was no psychosocial therapy (odds ratio [OR] 0·73, 95% CI 0·65-0·82) and death by any cause (0·62, 0·47-0·82) within a year. Long-term effects were identified for repeated self-harm (0·84, 0·77-0·91; absolute risk reduction [ARR] 2·6%, 1·5-3·7; numbers needed to treat [NNT] 39, 95% CI 27......BACKGROUND: Although deliberate self-harm is a strong predictor of suicide, evidence for effective interventions is missing. The aim of this study was to examine whether psychosocial therapy after self-harm was linked to lower risks of repeated self-harm, suicide, and general mortality. METHODS: In...

  6. Percutaneous vertebroplasty in 1,253 levels: results and long-term effectiveness in a single centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several authors claim that vertebroplasty (PVT) is a successful technique, but long-term effectiveness is still debated. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of PVT in patients with symptomatic vertebral fractures that had not responded to conservative treatment. In our centre, 624 patients with 1,253 compression fractures were treated by PVT. Imaging studies, clinical visits and short- and long-term follow-up were assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) testing of pain. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate pain response after PVT (paired two-tailed t-test) and to assess any differences in pain due to different lesions (ANOVA test). We found a statistically significant improvement in the patients' quality of life, particularly in pain (P<0.001). The average VAS value pre-PVT was 8.0±2.5, which significantly dropped to 1.5±0.4 by 12 months. There were no significant differences in pain response between the groups of patients with different underlying disease. There was a low complication rate in our study. PVT should be considered the treatment of choice in vertebral fractures with refractory pain. With strict evaluation of the clinical indications and subspecialised operators, long-term effectiveness is probable. (orig.)

  7. [Effects of long-term isolation and anticipation of significant event on sleep: results of the project "Mars-520"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavalko, I M; Rasskazova, E I; Gordeev, S A; Palatov, S Iu; Kovrov, G V

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to study effect of long-term isolation on night sleep. The data were collected during international ground simulation of an interplanetary manned flight--"Mars-500". The polysomnographic recordings of six healthy men were performed before, four times during and after 520-days confinement. During the isolation sleep efficiency and delta-latency decreased, while sleep latency increased. Post-hoc analysis demonstrate significant differences between background and the last (1.5 months before the end of the experiment) measure during isolation. Frequency of nights with low sleep efficiency rose on the eve of the important for the crew events (simulation of Mars landing and the end of the confinement). Two weeks after the landing simulation, amount of the nights with a low sleep efficiency significantly decreased. Therefore, anticipation of significant event under condition of long-term isolation might result in sleep worsening in previously healthy men, predominantly difficulties getting to sleep. PMID:25509171

  8. Effects of Long-Term Application of Inorganic Fertilizers on Biochemical Properties of a Rice-Planting Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Wen-Hui; CAI Zu-Cong; ZHANG He

    2007-01-01

    A long-term experiment was set up in Yingtan of Jiangxi Province to investigate the effects of long-term application of inorganic fertilizers on the biochemical properties of a rice-planting soil derived from Quaternary red earth. Noncultivated soils are extremely eroded and characterized by a low pH and deficiencies in available nutrients, in particular P and N. After 13 years of inorganic fertilization in cultivation for double-cropped rice, the biochemical properties of the soil were changed. The nitrification potential and urease activity were higher in the treatments with N application than those without N application. Acid phosphatase activity and dehydrogenase activity were also higher in the treatments with P application than in those without P application. The dehydrogenase activity correlated well with the concentrations of both total P and hydrolysable N and with rice crop yield, suggesting that dehydrogenase activity might be a suitable indicator for improvement in soil fertility.

  9. Monitoring the Long-Term Effectiveness of Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Implementation Through Use of a Performance Dashboard Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This session will examine a method developed by Federal and Contractor personnel at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) to examine long-term maintenance of DOE Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) criteria, including safety culture attributes, as well as identification of process improvement opportunities. This process was initially developed in the summer of 2000 and has since been expanded to recognize the importance of safety culture attributes, and associated safety culture elements, as defined in DOE M 450.4-1, 'Integrated Safety Management System Manual'. This process has proven to significantly enhance collective awareness of the importance of long-term ISMS implementation as well as support commitments by NNSA/NSO personnel to examine the continued effectiveness of ISMS processes

  10. The characteristics of soft rocks and their effect on the long term stability of abandoned room and pillar lignite mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that some caving, collapses and subsidence take place from time to time in the areas where abandoned room and pillar type mines exist. The authors have been involved with the stability of abandoned mines beneath urbanized residential areas in Tokai region and there is a great concern about the stability of these abandoned mines during large earthquakes as well as in long term. The 2003 Miyagi Hokubu earthquake caused great damage to abandoned mines and resulted in many collapses. The authors present the experimental results on the characteristics of soft rocks from abandoned lignite mines in Tokai Region as well as the results of some analyses of their effects on the long-term stability of abandoned lignite mines. (authors)

  11. Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Zaccara

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Gaetano Zaccara1, Luigi M Specchio21Unit of Neurology, Palagi Hospital, Firenze, Italy; 2University of Foggia, Ospedali Riuniti, Foggia, ItalyAbstract: Zonisamide (ZNS efficacy and safety in epilepsy have been demonstrated in four double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. In the present article, we examined all long-term studies performed with this drug. Nine open-label studies, in which ZNS had been administered as an add-on or as monotherapy to epileptic patients for at least 6 months, were selected for our analysis. Four outcome measures were searched. Retention of this drug after 1 year varied between 45% and 65%. The percentages of patients achieving a 50% seizure reduction, with respect to baseline, ranged between 37% and 65%. In patients with drug-resistant forms of epilepsy, the percentage of patients reaching a 6-month seizure freedom period was 9%. The percentages of patients who discontinued the experimental drug due to adverse effects ranged between 4% and 24%. Somnolence and dizziness were the most frequently reported adverse effects. Long-term studies demonstrate that ZNS has a good efficacy and tolerability profile, and support its use as adjunctive therapy for epileptic patients.Keywords: antiepileptic drugs, zonisamide, long-term treatment, review, epilepsy

  12. Effects of Patterned Sound Deprivation on Short- and Long-Term Plasticity in the Rat Thalamocortical Auditory System In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe N. Soutar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal sensory experience plays a significant role in the maturation and synaptic stabilization of sensory cortices, such as the primary auditory cortex (A1. Here, we examined the effects of patterned sound deprivation (by rearing in continuous white noise, WN during early postnatal life on short- and long-term plasticity of adult male rats using an in vivo preparation (urethane anesthesia. Relative to age-matched control animals reared under unaltered sound conditions, rats raised in WN (from postnatal day 5 to 50–60 showed greater levels of long-term potentiation (LTP of field potentials in A1 induced by theta-burst stimulation (TBS of the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN. In contrast, analyses of short-term plasticity using paired-pulse stimulation (interstimulus intervals of 25–1000 ms did not reveal any significant effects of WN rearing. However, LTP induction resulted in a significant enhancement of paired-pulse depression (PPD for both rearing conditions. We conclude that patterned sound deprivation during early postnatal life results in the maintenance of heightened, juvenile-like long-term plasticity (LTP into adulthood. Further, the enhanced PPD following LTP induction provides novel evidence that presynaptic mechanisms contribute to thalamocortical LTP in A1 under in vivo conditions.

  13. Effect of desliming of sulphide-rich mill tailings on the long-term strength of cemented paste backfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercikdi, Bayram; Baki, Hakan; İzki, Muhammet

    2013-01-30

    This paper presents the effect of desliming on the short- and long-term strength, stability and rheological properties of cemented paste backfill (CPB) produced from two different mill tailings. A 28-day unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of ≥1.0 MPa and the maintenance of stability over 224 days of curing were selected as the design criteria for the evaluation of paste backfill performance. Desliming induced some changes in the physical, chemical, mineralogical and rheological properties of the tailings. CPB mixture of the deslimed tailings achieved the required consistency at a lower water to cement ratio. The short-term UCSs of CPB samples of the deslimed tailings were found to be 30-100% higher than those samples of the reference tailings at all the binder dosages and curing times. CPB samples of the deslimed tailings achieved the long-term stability at relatively low binder dosages (e.g. 5 wt% c.f. ≥6.1% for the reference tailings). It was also estimated that desliming could allow a 13.4-23.1% reduction in the binder consumption depending apparently on the inherent characteristics of the tailings. Over the curing period, generation of sulphate and acid by the oxidation of pyrite present in the tailings was also monitored to correlate with the strength losses observed in the long term. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP) analyses provided an insight into the microstructure of CPB and the formation of secondary mineral phases (i.e. gypsum) confirming the beneficial effect of desliming. These findings suggest that desliming can be suitably exploited for CPB of sulphide-rich mill tailings to improve the strength and stability particularly in the long term and to reduce binder consumption. PMID:23220652

  14. Scaling short-term effects of soil wetness on soil respiration to long-term soil carbon storage (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    Soil CO2 efflux (often called “soil respiration”) responds quickly to short-term variation in climatic factors, including soil wetness. Generally, the highest rates of soil respiration have been observed at intermediate water contents, with declining rates observed toward the dry and wet extremes. Drought limits diffusion of substrates and extracellular enzymes in thin water films, thereby reducing rates of microbial respiration. Excess soil water limits diffusion of oxygen, thereby reducing rates of aerobic respiration. However, these short-term responses of CO2 production and flux should not be confused with longer-term effects of climate on soil C storage. While a short-term drought (weeks to years) reduces soil respiration and may cause a transient accumulation of undecomposed soil organic matter that may be important for understanding seasonal and interannual variation in net C sequestration, long-term dry conditions (decades to centuries) result in lower plant productivity and lower C inputs to soils, and the net effect is generally lower soil C storage. Across the grasslands of the American Midwest, soil C storage is generally positively correlated with precipitation. This trend is probably due to a combination of differential responses of primary productivity, microbial decomposition, and mineral weathering across this precipitation gradient. Similar interactions of plant, microbial, and soil weathering processes are important for understanding responses to variation in temperature. Hence, short-term responses of soil CO2 fluxes to climatic variation cannot be scaled to long-term inferences of soil C storage unless the long-term responses of plant productivity and C inputs to soils are also simultaneously considered. In the very long term (millennia), weathering processes also affect the soil properties that determine stabilization of soil C stocks.

  15. Tracking Plasticity: Effects of Long-Term Rehearsal in Expert Dancers Encoding Music to Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Rachel J.; DeSouza, Joseph F. X.

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge of neural plasticity suggests that neural networks show adaptation to environmental and intrinsic change. In particular, studies investigating the neuroplastic changes associated with learning and practicing motor tasks have shown that practicing such tasks results in an increase in neural activation in several specific brain regions. However, studies comparing experts and non-experts suggest that experts employ less neuronal activation than non-experts when performing a familiar motor task. Here, we aimed to determine the long-term changes in neural networks associated with learning a new dance in professional ballet dancers over 34 weeks. Subjects visualized dance movements to music while undergoing fMRI scanning at four time points over 34-weeks. Results demonstrated that initial learning and performance at seven weeks led to increases in activation in cortical regions during visualization compared to the first week. However, at 34 weeks, the cortical networks showed reduced activation compared to week seven. Specifically, motor learning and performance over the 34 weeks showed the typical inverted-U-shaped function of learning. Further, our result demonstrate that learning of a motor sequence of dance movements to music in the real world can be visualized by expert dancers using fMRI and capture highly significant modeled fits of the brain network variance of BOLD signals from early learning to expert level performance. PMID:26824475

  16. Tracking Plasticity: Effects of Long-Term Rehearsal in Expert Dancers Encoding Music to Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Rachel J; DeSouza, Joseph F X

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge of neural plasticity suggests that neural networks show adaptation to environmental and intrinsic change. In particular, studies investigating the neuroplastic changes associated with learning and practicing motor tasks have shown that practicing such tasks results in an increase in neural activation in several specific brain regions. However, studies comparing experts and non-experts suggest that experts employ less neuronal activation than non-experts when performing a familiar motor task. Here, we aimed to determine the long-term changes in neural networks associated with learning a new dance in professional ballet dancers over 34 weeks. Subjects visualized dance movements to music while undergoing fMRI scanning at four time points over 34-weeks. Results demonstrated that initial learning and performance at seven weeks led to increases in activation in cortical regions during visualization compared to the first week. However, at 34 weeks, the cortical networks showed reduced activation compared to week seven. Specifically, motor learning and performance over the 34 weeks showed the typical inverted-U-shaped function of learning. Further, our result demonstrate that learning of a motor sequence of dance movements to music in the real world can be visualized by expert dancers using fMRI and capture highly significant modeled fits of the brain network variance of BOLD signals from early learning to expert level performance. PMID:26824475

  17. Effect of radiolysis on long-term corrosion system formed on low-alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, for nuclear waste management, it is planned to build a storage device with a barrier system composed of steel container. Corrosion is evaluated for the safety of anoxic storage over the long term. With radiation, water radiolysis generates oxidizing and reducing species that can change the corrosion. Three aspects are developed in this thesis. The first concerns iron coupon samples experimented in carbonate deaerated water and subjected to gamma irradiation. It is shown that irradiation can increase corrosion rates within the parameters of dose. Identified crystalline phases are little changed with irradiation. Solution chemistry shows a decrease in pH with dose related to iron. Organic species are identified. The second axis is archaeological analogues irradiation with an old corrosion products layer. Structural analysis verified the phase stability with radiolysis, only the newly formed products changes. The third axis is a kinetic simulation approach. It checks the pH drop under irradiation. Taken together, these results allow us to provide new data for the anoxic corrosion under irradiation. (author)

  18. Analyzing the Long Term Cohesive Effect of Sector Specific Driving Forces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonatan Berman

    Full Text Available Financial markets are partially composed of sectors dominated by external driving forces, such as commodity prices, infrastructure and other indices. We characterize the statistical properties of such sectors and present a novel model for the coupling of the stock prices and their dominating driving forces, inspired by mean reverting stochastic processes. Using the model we were able to explain the market sectors' long term behavior and estimate the coupling strength between stocks in financial markets and the sector specific driving forces. Notably, the analysis was successfully applied to the shipping market, in which the Baltic dry index (BDI, an assessment of the price of transporting the major raw materials by sea, influences the shipping financial market. We also present the analysis of other sectors-the gold mining market and the food production market, for which the model was also successfully applied. The model can serve as a general tool for characterizing the coupling between external forces and affected financial variables and therefore for estimating the risk in sectors and their vulnerability to external stress.

  19. Tracking Plasticity: Effects of Long-Term Rehearsal in Expert Dancers Encoding Music to Movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J Bar

    Full Text Available Our knowledge of neural plasticity suggests that neural networks show adaptation to environmental and intrinsic change. In particular, studies investigating the neuroplastic changes associated with learning and practicing motor tasks have shown that practicing such tasks results in an increase in neural activation in several specific brain regions. However, studies comparing experts and non-experts suggest that experts employ less neuronal activation than non-experts when performing a familiar motor task. Here, we aimed to determine the long-term changes in neural networks associated with learning a new dance in professional ballet dancers over 34 weeks. Subjects visualized dance movements to music while undergoing fMRI scanning at four time points over 34-weeks. Results demonstrated that initial learning and performance at seven weeks led to increases in activation in cortical regions during visualization compared to the first week. However, at 34 weeks, the cortical networks showed reduced activation compared to week seven. Specifically, motor learning and performance over the 34 weeks showed the typical inverted-U-shaped function of learning. Further, our result demonstrate that learning of a motor sequence of dance movements to music in the real world can be visualized by expert dancers using fMRI and capture highly significant modeled fits of the brain network variance of BOLD signals from early learning to expert level performance.

  20. Effects of aqueous environment on long-term durability of phosphate-bonded ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last few years, Argonne National Laboratory has been developing room-temperature-setting chemically-bonded phosphate ceramics for solidifying and stabilizing low-level mixed wastes. This technology is crucial for stabilizing waste streams that contain volatile species and off-gas secondary waste streams generated by high-temperature treatment of such wastes. Magnesium phosphate ceramic has been developed to treat mixed wastes such as ash, salts, and cement sludges. Waste forms of surrogate waste streams were fabricated by acid-base reactions between the mixtures of magnesium oxide powders and the wastes, and phosphoric acid or acid phosphate solutions. Dense and hard ceramic waste forms are produced in this process. The principal advantage of this technology is that the contaminants are immobilized by both chemical stabilization and subsequent microencapsulation of the reaction products. This paper reports the results of durability studies conducted on waste forms made with ash waste streams spiked with hazardous and radioactive surrogates. Standard leaching tests such as ANS 16.1 and TCLP were conducted on the final waste forms. Fates of the contaminants in the final waste forms were established by electron microscopy. In addition, stability of the waste forms in aqueous environments was evaluated with long-term water-immersion tests

  1. Analyzing the Long Term Cohesive Effect of Sector Specific Driving Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Yonatan; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Zhang, Xin; Shapira, Yoash

    2016-01-01

    Financial markets are partially composed of sectors dominated by external driving forces, such as commodity prices, infrastructure and other indices. We characterize the statistical properties of such sectors and present a novel model for the coupling of the stock prices and their dominating driving forces, inspired by mean reverting stochastic processes. Using the model we were able to explain the market sectors' long term behavior and estimate the coupling strength between stocks in financial markets and the sector specific driving forces. Notably, the analysis was successfully applied to the shipping market, in which the Baltic dry index (BDI), an assessment of the price of transporting the major raw materials by sea, influences the shipping financial market. We also present the analysis of other sectors-the gold mining market and the food production market, for which the model was also successfully applied. The model can serve as a general tool for characterizing the coupling between external forces and affected financial variables and therefore for estimating the risk in sectors and their vulnerability to external stress. PMID:27031230

  2. Effects of Magnetic Field Topology in Black Hole-Neutron Star Mergers: Long-Term Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Wan, Mew-Bing

    2016-01-01

    We report long-term simulations of black hole-neutron star binary mergers where the neutron star possesses an asymmetric magnetic field dipole. Focusing on the scenario where the neutron star is tidally disrupted by the black hole, we track the evolution of the binary up to $\\approx 100$ms after merger. We uncover more than one episode of thermally driven winds being launched along a funnel wall in all these cases beginning from $\\approx 25$ms after merger. The emission rate of the second wind episode is found to increase with the degree of asymmetry. A large-scale poloidal magnetic field configuration is formed along the funnel wall accompanied by the generation of a large Poynting flux. The magnetic field in the accretion disk around the black hole remnant is amplified by the non-axisymmetric magneto-rotational instability. However, the asymmetry in the magnetic field leads to increased turbulence which causes the poloidal magnetic field in the accretion disk to grow largely in a non-linear manner.

  3. Effect of Sump Clogging in Post-LOCA Long Term Cooling Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the important concerns on the safety analysis of nuclear power plant (NPP) is to confirm the adequacy of design provision and operational procedure related to the long term cooling (LTC) process following a loss-of- coolant accident (LOCA). The post-LOCA LTC capability of NPP is specified at the licensing requirements in most countries such as 10 CFR 50.46 in USA. Recently a potential to loss of recirculation due to containment recirculation sump (CRS) blockage have been issued in regulatory review on the LTC in Korea. In the course of LOCA, debris generated by the LOCA could accumulate and block the screen of the sump so that the flow to ECCS could be lost at the recirculation actuation signal (RAS) indicating the water of the refueling water storage tank (RWST) was emptied. To evaluate if this issue is significant in Korean NPP and to provide the guidance to further in-depth analysis, an analysis has been performed for the LTC process for a selected plant. A LTC behavior in RCS and core following a double ended hot leg guillotine (DEHLG) break was calculated with RELAP5/MOD3.3, a best estimate system thermal-hydraulic analysis code. The DEHLG break is selected that could generate the largest amount of debris. The significance of the CRS blockage was evaluated through blocking the ECCS source after RAS

  4. The long-term effects of wall attached microalgal biofilm on algae-based wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yanyan; Mennerich, Artur; Urban, Brigitte

    2016-10-01

    The influence of the reactor wall attached biofilm on the nutrient removal performance was investigated in an open photobioreactor during long-term operation. Total nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies were statistically similar between reactor with (reactor A) and without (reactor B) biofilm at the Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of 18, 13.5 and 9days. When the HRT reduced to 8days, total nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies in the reactor A were 42.95±5.11% and 97.97±1.12%, respectively, while significant lower removal efficiencies (38.06±5.80% for total nitrogen and 83.14±8.16% for phosphorus) were obtained in the reactor B. The VSS concentrations throughout the test were statistically similar for the two reactors, with a mean value of 0.63±0.25g/l for reactor A and 0.69±0.20g/l for reactor B. This study indicated that the reactor wall attached biofilm supported high phosphorus and nitrogen removal, which may provide insight into the practical implementation of microalgae-based wastewater treatment. PMID:27374070

  5. Effects of long-term repeated topical fluoride applications and adhesion promoter on shear bond strengths of orthodontic brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Toshiya; Ishida, Rieko; Komatsuzaki, Akira; Sanpei, Shinya; Tanaka, Satoshi; Sekimoto, Tsuneo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of long-term repeated topical application of fluoride before bonding and an adhesion promoter on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 bovine incisors were collected and divided equally into four groups. In group 1, the brackets were bonded without topical fluoride application or adhesion promoter. In group 2, before bonding, the adhesion promoter was applied to nonfluoridated enamel. In group 3, the brackets were bonded without the application of the adhesion promoter to enamel, which had undergone long-term repeated topical fluoride treatments. Teeth in group 4 received the long-term repeated topical applications of fluoride, and the brackets were bonded using the adhesion promoter. All the brackets were bonded using BeautyOrtho Bond self-etching adhesive. The shear bond strength was measured and the bond failure modes were evaluated with the use of the adhesive remnant index (ARI) after debonding. Results: The mean shear bond strength was significantly lower in group 3 than in groups 1, 2, and 4, and there were no significant differences between the groups except for group 3. There were significant differences in the distribution of ARI scores between groups 2 and 3, and between groups 3 and 4. Conclusions: The adhesion promoter can recover the bond strength reduced by the long-term repeated topical applications of fluoride to the prefluoridation level and had a significantly great amount of adhesives left on either fluoridated or nonfluoridated enamel. PMID:25512720

  6. The effects of long-term stress on neural dynamics of working memory processing: An investigation using ERP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yiran; Leung, Ada W S; Duan, Hongxia; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui; Qin, Shaozheng

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the neural dynamics of working memory (WM) processing under long-term stress. Forty participants who had been exposed to a long period of major exam preparation (six months) and twenty-one control participants performed a numerical n-back task (n = 1, 2) while electroencephalograms were recorded. Psychological and endocrinal measurements confirmed significantly higher levels of long-term stress for participants in the exam group. The exam group showed significantly increased P2 amplitude in the frontal-central sites in the 1-back and 2-back conditions, whereas other ERP components, including the P1, N1 and P3 and behavioral performance, were unchanged. Notably, the P2 effect was most pronounced in participants in the exam group who reported perceiving high levels of stress. The perceived stress scores positively correlated with the P2 amplitude in the 1-back and 2-back conditions. These results suggest that long-term stress has an impact on attention and the initiation of the updating process in WM. PMID:27000528

  7. A Natural Electromagnetic Fields Effect on Healthy Volunteers During Long-Term Experiment with Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Yury I.; Mikhailov, Valery M.; Ushakov, Boris B.

    2008-06-01

    There were investigated four healthy volunteers at the age of 37, 40, 41 and 48 during the baseline 240-d isolation period starting from July 3, 1999 in the frame of SFINCSS-99 - "SIMULATION OF FLIGHT OF INTERNATIONAL CREW ON SPACE STATION". Before a starting of experiment with long-term isolation were carried out measurements of magnetic properties of module and sleeping places. With the regularity of 3 times a week each subject made records of no less then 3 video episodes with the total length of one minute minimum at the same time between 1 and 2 p.m. Applying vital non-invasive computer capillaroscopy of nailbed has allowed quantitatively estimating a capillary blood velocity (CBV). The microcirculation parameters obtained during experiment were compared to local indexes of geomagnetic activity. About 1500 episodes were recorded on laser disks and analyzed. Parameters of microcirculation were compared with other physiological parameters monitored in the experiment. CBV investigation during the most intensive magnetic storm for the period of isolation (A-index- 44) show, that CBV at all volunteers was considerably slowed down. The greatest delay of blood flow velocity revealed at the subject which the factor of shielding of a constant magnetic field at the level of the sleeping berth has made 2,0. CBV at the subject has made 498 ± 46 μm/s with (- 65,8 % from base line). Least delay of a CBV is revealed at the subject which the factor of shielding of a constant magnetic field at the level of the sleeping berth has made 3, 15 (-12 % from base line).

  8. Effect of long-term conservation tillage on soil quality and productivity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongwen, Li; Jin, He; Qingjie, Wang

    2010-05-01

    Traditional farming systems in China are characterized by conventional cultivation, mouldboard plows and rotary hoes, and the removal of crop residues from the fields for animal fodder and household fuel. To support the nation's population of over 1,300 million, the pressure on farmland to maintain high productivity has been increasing at a phenomenal rate. Conversely, the area of farmland available for production has been decreasing due to the fast growing economy and urbanization. This pressure, coupled with harsh conventional cultivation practices, has led to soil, water and nutrient losses, and degraded soils with low organic matter. The drylands became the most affected areas; they constitute 52% of the nation's total land area and are occupied by 43% of the nation's population. These lands are inherently fragile due to their low soil fertility and low annual rainfall that can cause low productivity in most years. The severe land degradation and serious environmental problems have led the Chinese government to emphasize the need for the implementation of farming practices which contribute to the conservation of soil and water, with tillage as an important component of these practices. A vital approach is the use of conservation tillage, defined as "All conservation farm practices that leave a minimum of 30% of crop organic residues in the field". The studies in China and world have shown that conservation tillage can improve soil chemical properties, reduce wind and water erosion and increase crop yields. This paper investigates the impacts of long-term conservation tillage on soil quality and productivity in several typical farming areas and discusses the development conservation tillage in China.

  9. Long-term effect of a short interprofessional education interaction between medical and physical therapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytsma, Terin T; Haller, Elizabeth P; Youdas, James W; Krause, David A; Hellyer, Nathan J; Pawlina, Wojciech; Lachman, Nirusha

    2015-01-01

    Medicine is increasingly focused on team-based practice as interprofessional cooperation leads to better patient care. Thus, it is necessary to teach teamwork and collaboration with other health care professionals in undergraduate medical education to ensure that trainees entering the workforce are prepared to work in teams. Gross anatomy provides an opportunity to expose students to interprofessional education (IPE) early in their training. The purpose of this study is to describe an IPE experience and report if the experience has lasting influence on the participating students. The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) questionnaire was administered to first year medical (MD) and physical therapy (PT) students at Mayo Medical School and Mayo School of Health Sciences. Results demonstrated an openness on the part of the students to IPE. Interprofessional education experiences were incorporated into gross anatomy courses in both medical and PT curricula. The IPE experiences included a social event, peer-teaching, and collaborative clinical problem-solving sessions. These sessions enhanced gross anatomy education by reinforcing previous material and providing the opportunity to work on clinical cases from the perspective of two healthcare disciplines. After course completion, students again completed the RIPLS. Finally, one year after course completion, students were asked to provide feedback on their experience. The post-curricular RIPLS, similar to the pre-curricular RIPLS, illustrated openness to IPE from both MD and PT students. There were however, significant differences in MD and PT perceptions of roles and responsibilities. One-year follow-up indicated long-term retention of lessons learned during IPE. PMID:26040635

  10. Long-term effects of forgotten biliary stents: a case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabasi, Mehmet; Arslan, Cem; Akbulut, Sami; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Ozkan, Erkan; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Eris, Cengiz; Gunay, Emre; Tekesin, Kemal; Muftuoglu, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies about the biliary stents, however there is a little information about the long-term stayed forgotten biliary stents except a few case reports. We have reported the results of a number of cases with biliary stents that were forgotten or omitted by the patient and the endoscopist. During February 2010 to May 2013, five patients were referred to the general surgery clinic of Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul Turkey. Past history and medical documents submitted by the patient did not indicate a replacement of the biliary stent in 3 patients. Two patients knew that they had biliary stents. We also conducted a literature review via the PubMed and Google Scholar databases of English language studies published until March 2014 on forgotten biliary stent. There were 3 men and 2 women ranging in age from 22 to 68 years (mean age 41.6 years). Patients presented with pain in the upper abdomen, jaundice, fever, abnormal liver function tests or dilatation of the biliary tract alone or in combination. Patients' demographic findings are presented in Table 1. A review of three cases reported in the English medical literature also discussed. The mean duration of the patency of the stent is about 12 months. The biliary stenting is performed either with plastic or metal stents, studies recommending their replacement after 3-6 months. Patients with long stayed forgotten biliary stents are inevitably treated with surgical intervention. We recommend for all endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography units provide a stent registry system that the stents placed for various therapeutic procedures are not forgotten both by the patient as well as the physician. There should be a deadline for biliary stents in the registry system for each patient. PMID:25232385

  11. Long-term effects of forgotten biliary stents: a case series and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabasi, Mehmet; Arslan, Cem; Akbulut, Sami; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Ozkan, Erkan; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Eris, Cengiz; Gunay, Emre; Tekesin, Kemal; Muftuoglu, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies about the biliary stents, however there is a little information about the long-term stayed forgotten biliary stents except a few case reports. We have reported the results of a number of cases with biliary stents that were forgotten or omitted by the patient and the endoscopist. During February 2010 to May 2013, five patients were referred to the general surgery clinic of Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul Turkey. Past history and medical documents submitted by the patient did not indicate a replacement of the biliary stent in 3 patients. Two patients knew that they had biliary stents. We also conducted a literature review via the PubMed and Google Scholar databases of English language studies published until March 2014 on forgotten biliary stent. There were 3 men and 2 women ranging in age from 22 to 68 years (mean age 41.6 years). Patients presented with pain in the upper abdomen, jaundice, fever, abnormal liver function tests or dilatation of the biliary tract alone or in combination. Patients’ demographic findings are presented in Table 1. A review of three cases reported in the English medical literature also discussed. The mean duration of the patency of the stent is about 12 months. The biliary stenting is performed either with plastic or metal stents, studies recommending their replacement after 3-6 months. Patients with long stayed forgotten biliary stents are inevitably treated with surgical intervention. We recommend for all endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography units provide a stent registry system that the stents placed for various therapeutic procedures are not forgotten both by the patient as well as the physician. There should be a deadline for biliary stents in the registry system for each patient. PMID:25232385

  12. Long-term effects of lamivudine treatment in Japanese chronic hepatitis B patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masayuki Murata; Norihiro Furusyo; Mami Unno; Eiichi Ogawa; Kazuhiro Toyoda; Hiroaki Taniai; Hachiro Ohnishi; Jun Hayashi

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the association between the emergence of tyrosine-methionine-asparatate-asparatate (YMDD) mutants (reverse transcription; rtM204I/V) and deterioration of liver function during long-term lamivudine treatment of Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. METHODS: The data of 61 consecutive Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis B who underwent continuous lamivudine treatment for more than 24 mo and had a virological response were analyzed. Analysis of YMDD mutants was done by real-time polymerase chain reaction with LightCycler probe hybridization assay for up to 90 mo (mean, 50.8 mo; range, 24-90 mo). RESULTS: A mixed mutant-type (YMDD + tyrosine-isoleucine- asparatate-asparatate: YIDD or tyrosine-valineasparatate- asparatate: YVDD) or a mutant-type (YIDD or YVDD) were found in 57.4% of 61 patients at 1 year, 78.7% of 61 patients at 2 years, 79.6% of 49 patients at 3 years, 70.5% of 34 patients at 4 years, 68.4% of 19 patients at 5 years, 57.1% of 14 patients at 6 years, and 33.3% of 6 patients at 7 years. Of the 61 patients, 56 (92%) had mixed mutant- or a mutant-type. Only 5 (8%) had no mutants at each observation point. Virological breakthrough was found in 26 (46.4%) of 56 patients with YMDD mutants, 20 of whom had a hepatitis flare-up: the remaining 30 (53.6%) had neither a virological breakthrough nor a flare-up. All 20 patients who developed a hepatitis flare-up had a biochemical and virological response after adefovir was added to the lamivudine treatment.

  13. Biologic effects of millimetric waves (94 GHz). Are there long term consequences?; Effets biologiques des rayonnements millimetriques (94 GHz). Quelles consequences a long terme?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debouzy, J.C.; Crouzier, D.; Dabouis, V.; Bachelet, C.; Perrin, A. [Centre de Recherche du Service de Sante des Armees (CRSSA/BCM), Unite de Biophysique Cellulaire et Moleculaire, 38 - La Tronche (France); Malabiau, R. [DGA/DET/CTSN, 83 - Toulon Armees (France)

    2007-06-15

    Active Denial Systems (ADS) is a millimetric wave radiation emitting technology now included in the non lethal weapon arsenal. Such devices emit electromagnetic, thus agitating water in the skin and causing feeling of heat enough that target individual retreats from the beam. They can be used at up to 1 km from the target. We have reviewed the literature on the interactions of millimetric waves (MMW) with biological systems. An opposition appears between the observations performed in the Former Soviet Union and Russia showing potential interaction some-times deleterious while generally of good influence and used in therapy. By way of contrast, most of the other studies, performed in USA. address local acute effects, exclusively located on the skin and eyes of the target, and considered as completely reversible. (authors)

  14. The effects of long term strength training on hemodynamic parameters and resistin level in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Tardivo Marin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Investigate the influence of strength training (ST on serum resistin levels and blood pressure of postmenopausal women. Methods: Longitudinal study conducted at the Federal University of São Carlos with twenty-three sedentary postmenopausal women. The ST lasted 13 months (Dec./2008 to Jan./2010 and consisted of two weekly sessions with three sets of 8-12 maximum repetitions and one exercise for each main muscle group. Maximum muscular strength was tested in the following exercises: bench press, 45° leg press, and standing arm curl. Serum resistin level was determined using the ELISA method. ANOVA (with repeated measures was used for the comparisons between periods Pre-, 6 months and 13 months (p < 0.05; Pearson’s correlation test was used to evaluate the correlations between resistin × blood pressure, resistin × muscle strength and strength × blood pressure. Results: Women presented the following anthropometric profile: 61.33±3.8 years; height 148.5±32.7 cm; body mass 67.56±10.85 kg. The ST decreased resistin levels (30272.4 ± 8100.1 to 16350.6 ± 2404.6 pg/mL and systolic blood pressure (120.5 ± 11.8 to 115.8 ± 1.6 mmHg, and increased muscular strength in the leg press 45o (172.3 ± 27.3 to 348.6 ± 40.8kg, bench press (31.9 ± 4.1 to 41.8 ± 5.6 kg and arm curl (21.0 ± 2.4 to 26.5 ± 2.9 kg after 13 months (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that long-term ST increases maximum muscular strength, decreases systolic blood pressure and serum resistin levels, which are beneficial physiological alterations that reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p325

  15. The Long-Term Effects of Childhood Bullying Experiences on Female Adults as It Relates to Their Perception of Themselves and Their Relationships with Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcalow, Julia M.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood bullying is a phenomenon that affects many individuals well beyond their childhood. This study looked specifically at female adults, and how the bullying they experienced in their childhood continues to have long-term effects on them in their adult lives. The purpose of this study was to explore the long-term effects that bullying has on…

  16. Effects of climate and mineral supply rates on long-term chemical weathering rates in granitic landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebe, C. S.; Kirchner, J. W.; Finkel, R. C.

    2003-12-01

    We used cosmogenic nuclide and geochemical mass balance methods to measure long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion of granitic terrain. Our 43 study sites encompass widely varying climates and denudation rates; mean annual temperatures vary from 2 to 32\\deg C, average annual precipitation spans a 20-fold range (from 22 to 420 cm/yr), and denudation rates vary by 32-fold across our sites. Long-term chemical weathering rates for these 43 sites range from 0 to 173 t km-2 yr-1, in several cases exceeding the highest granitic weathering rates on record from previous work. Chemical weathering rates are highest at sites with rapid denudation rates, consistent with strong coupling between rates of chemical weathering and mineral supply from physical erosion of rock. To account for effects of mineral supply in analyzing how climate affects chemical weathering, we introduce the "Weathering Intensity Factor" (WIF), the ratio of chemical weathering rate to physical erosion rate. WIF's increase systematically with average annual precipitation and mean annual temperature, both for the soil as a whole, and for individual component elements including Si, Na, and Ca. Between 59 and 79 percent of the variance in WIF's can be explained by a simple Arrhenius-like relationship based on mean annual temperature and average annual precipitation. Moreover, when we couple this Arrhenius relationship with our measurements of long-term erosion rates, we obtain a simple prediction equation that explains between 79 and 93 percent of the variance in long-term chemical weathering rates. The temperature-dependence of WIF is roughly half what one would expect from laboratory measurements of activation energies for feldspar weathering. Our results imply that the strength of climate change feedbacks between temperature and silicate weathering rates may be weaker than previously thought, at least in actively eroding, unglaciated terrain similar to our study sites. Our results

  17. The effects of a long-term care walking program on balance, falls and well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Bello-Haas Vanina PM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of a regular and graduated walking program as a stand-alone intervention for individuals in long-term care are unclear. Exercise and fall prevention programs typically studied in long-term care settings tend to involve more than one exercise mode, such as a combination of balance, aerobic, strengthening, and flexibility exercises; and, measures do not always include mental health symptoms and behaviors, although these may be of even greater significance than physical outcomes. Methods/design We are randomly assigning residents of long-term care facilities into one of three intervention groups: (1 Usual Care Group - individuals receive care as usual within their long-term care unit; (2 Interpersonal Interaction Group - individuals receive a comparable amount of one-on-one stationary interpersonal interaction time with study personnel administering the walking program; and, (3 Walking Program Group – individuals participate in a supervised, progressive walking program five days per week, for up to half an hour per day. Assessments completed at baseline, 2 and 4 months during intervention, and 2 and 4 months post-intervention include: gait parameters using the GAITRite® computerized system, grip strength, the Berg Balance Scale, the Senior Fitness Test, the Older Adult Resource Services Physical Activities of Daily Living, the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist, the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire, the Coloured Analogue Scale, pain assessment scales, and the number and nature of falls. Sophisticated data analytic procedures taking into account both the longitudinal nature of the data and the potential for missing data points due to attrition, will be employed. Discussion Residents in long-term care have a very high number of comorbidities including physical, mental health, and cognitive. The presence of

  18. Long-term effects of repeated social stress on the conditioned place preference induced by MDMA in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pardo, M P; Blanco-Gandía, M C; Valiente-Lluch, M; Rodríguez-Arias, M; Miñarro, J; Aguilar, M A

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that social defeat stress increases the rewarding effects of psychostimulant drugs such as cocaine and amphetamine. In the present study we evaluated the long-term effects of repeated social defeat (RSD) on the rewarding effects of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) hydrochloride in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Adolescent and young adult mice were exposed to four episodes of social defeat (on PND 29-40 and PND 47-56, respectively) and were conditioned three weeks later with 1.25 or 10mg/kg i.p. of MDMA (experiment 1). The long-term effects of RSD on anxiety, social behavior and cognitive processes were also evaluated in adult mice (experiment 2). RSD during adolescence enhanced vulnerability to priming-induced reinstatement in animals conditioned with 1.25mg/kg of MDMA and increased the duration of the CPP induced by the 10mg/kg of MDMA. The latter effect was also observed after RSD in young adult mice, as well as an increase in anxiety-like behavior, an alteration in social interaction (reduction in attack and increase in avoidance/flee and defensive/submissive behaviors) and an impairment of maze learning. These results support the idea that RSD stress increases the rewarding effects of MDMA and induces long-term alterations in anxiety, learning and social behavior in adult mice. Thus, exposure to stress may increase the vulnerability of individuals to developing MDMA dependence, which is a factor to be taken into account in relation to the prevention and treatment of this disorder. PMID:26093344

  19. Meaningful public participation in scientific research: How to build an effective site-based long-term education program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, L.

    2013-12-01

    Many site-based educators (Wildlife Refuges, nature centers, Cooperative Extension Programs, schools, arboretums) struggle with developing and implementing cohesive long-term scientific monitoring projects into their existing outreach programming. Moreover, projects that are not meaningful to participants often have little or no sustainable long-term impact. Programs proven most effective are those which 1.) engage the participants in the study design and implementation process, 2.) answer a scientific question posed by site leaders; the data collected supports USA-NPN efforts as well as related site management and monitoring questions, 3.) are built into existing outreach and education programs, using phenology as a lens for understanding both natural and cultural history, and 4.) consistently share outcomes and results with the participants. The USA National Phenology Network's (USA-NPN) Education Program provides phenology curriculum and outreach to educators in formal, non-formal, and informal settings. Materials are designed to serve participants in grades 5-12, higher education, and adult learners. Phenology, used as a lens for place-based education, can inform science, environmental, and climate literacy, as well as other subject areas including cultural studies, art, and language arts. The USA-NPN offers consultation with site leaders on how to successfully engage site-based volunteers and students in long-term phenological studies using Nature's Notebook (NN), the professional and citizen science phenology monitoring program. USA-NPN education and educator instruction materials are designed and field-tested to demonstrate how to implement a long-term NN phenology-monitoring program at such sites. These curricula incorporate monitoring for public visitors, long-term volunteers, and school groups, while meeting the goals of USA-NPN and the site, and can be used as a model for other public participation in science programs interested in achieving similar

  20. Long-term effect of a four-drugs induction regimen for patients with high baseline viral load

    OpenAIRE

    Maggiolo, Franco; Masini,Giulia; Astuti, Noemi; Di Filippo, Elisa; Benatti, Simone; Valenti, Daniela; Callegaro, Anna Paola; Rizzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The long-term effects of an intensified induction regimen are unknown. In this pilot, randomized, prospective study we evaluate the effect of a short-term four-drugs induction regimen in patients with high baseline viral load. Methods Naive patients with HIV-RNA>100.000 copies/ml receiving TDF+FTC+EFV+RAL (group ER) for 4 months and were then simplified to TDF+FTC+EFV. Two randomized control groups treated ab-initio with TDF+FTC+EFV (E) or TDF+FTC+RAL (R) were used. Results 19 pa...

  1. Long-term effect of a four-drugs induction regimen for patients with high baseline viral load

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Maggiolo; Giulia Masini; Noemi Astuti; Elisa Di Filippo; Simone Benatti; Daniela Valenti; Anna Paola Callegaro; Marco Rizzi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The long-term effects of an intensified induction regimen are unknown. In this pilot, randomized, prospective study we evaluate the effect of a short-term four-drugs induction regimen in patients with high baseline viral load. Methods: Naive patients with HIV-RNA>100.000 copies/ml receiving TDF+FTC+EFV+RAL (group ER) for 4 months and were then simplified to TDF+FTC+EFV. Two randomized control groups treated ab-initio with TDF+FTC+EFV (E) or TDF+FTC+RAL (R) were used. Results: 19...

  2. Long-term effects of corn, soybean meal, wheat bran, and fish meal on manganese utilization in the chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, K M; Baker, D H

    1986-07-01

    A 7-week assay was conducted to investigate the long-term effects of several natural feed ingredients on Mn utilization. Chicks were fed a Mn-deficient casein-dextrose diet supplemented with fish meal, wheat bran, or a corn-soybean meal mixture. Although these feed ingredients contain significant quantities of Mn, they actually depressed performance and reduced the Mn concentration in key tissues when dietary Mn was near the chick's minimal requirement. At deficient levels of dietary Mn, fish meal also had detrimental effects on those parameters, and it increased the severity of perosis as well. PMID:3748949

  3. Minor long-term effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on methane dynamics of a subarctic fen in Northern Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mörsky, Sami K.; Haapala, Jaana K.; Rinnan, Riikka;

    2012-01-01

    The effects of elevated ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation on methane dynamics was studied in a natural fen in Northern Finland for three growing seasons (2003–2005). This is the first in situ study on the effects of elevated UV-B radiation on methane dynamics in a natural fen. The experimental setup....... The results emphasize the need for long-term field studies under moderately enhanced exposures to estimate whether the function and feedbacks of mire ecosystems change under increased UV-B radiation....

  4. Assessment of the potential for long-term toxicological effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on birds and mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the potential for direct long-term toxicological effects of exposures to oils in birds and mammals by tracing exposures and effects form the initial cute phases through the sub-chronic to the eventual long-term exposures. The immediate effects of oil spills are physical, the oil acting on the plumage of birds or the fur of mammals. This causes a loss of entrained air and a concomitant reduction in buoyancy and thermal insulation. Animals that escape the immediate impacts may be isolated from their food supply and often ingest large amounts of oil while attempting to clean themselves. At the comparatively high dose levels involved, these exposures can result in toxicologically significant responses in many organ systems. In the course of an oil pollution incident, the amounts of biologically available oils decrease steadily, and simultaneously the composition of the oils shifts towards those components that have low volatility, and that resist photo- and bio-degradation. As this occurs, the primary pathways of exposure change from direct intakes to indirect routes involving the food supply. Although laboratory studies often report finding some adverse effects, the dose rates employed in many of these studies are extremely high when compared with those that are potentially available to animals in the wild, and very few actually use weathered oils. An assessment of the toxicological literature and of the available empirical data on the Exxon Valdez oil spill leads to the conclusion that long-term sub-lethal toxic effects of crude oils on wildlife in such marine spills appear to be very unlikely. 111 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Long-Term and Transgenerational Effects of Stress Experienced during Different Life Phases in Chickens (Gallus gallus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélteky, Johan; Sundman, Ann-Sofie; Shionoya, Kiseko; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Stress in animals causes not only immediate reactions, but may affect their biology for long periods, even across generations. Particular interest has been paid to perinatal stress, but also adolescence has been shown to be a sensitive period in mammals. So far, no systematic study has been performed of the relative importance of stress encountered during different life phases. In this study, groups of chickens were exposed to a six-day period of repeated stress during three different life phases: early (two weeks), early puberty (eight weeks) and late puberty (17 weeks), and the effects were compared to an unstressed control group. The short-term effects were assessed by behaviour, and the long-term and transgenerational effects were determined by effects on behavior and corticosterone secretion, as well as on hypothalamic gene expression. Short-term effects were strongest in the two week group and the eight week group, whereas long-term and transgenerational effects were detected in all three stress groups. However, stress at different ages affected different aspects of the biology of the chickens, and it was not possible to determine a particularly sensitive life phase. The results show that stress during puberty appears to be at least equally critical as the previously studied early life phase. These findings may have important implications for animal welfare in egg production, since laying hens are often exposed to stress during the three periods pinpointed here. PMID:27105229

  6. Long-term response to genomic selection: effects of estimation method and reference population structure for different genetic architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastiaansen John WM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic selection has become an important tool in the genetic improvement of animals and plants. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of breeding value estimation method, reference population structure, and trait genetic architecture, on long-term response to genomic selection without updating marker effects. Methods Three methods were used to estimate genomic breeding values: a BLUP method with relationships estimated from genome-wide markers (GBLUP, a Bayesian method, and a partial least squares regression method (PLSR. A shallow (individuals from one generation or deep reference population (individuals from five generations was used with each method. The effects of the different selection approaches were compared under four different genetic architectures for the trait under selection. Selection was based on one of the three genomic breeding values, on pedigree BLUP breeding values, or performed at random. Selection continued for ten generations. Results Differences in long-term selection response were small. For a genetic architecture with a very small number of three to four quantitative trait loci (QTL, the Bayesian method achieved a response that was 0.05 to 0.1 genetic standard deviation higher than other methods in generation 10. For genetic architectures with approximately 30 to 300 QTL, PLSR (shallow reference or GBLUP (deep reference had an average advantage of 0.2 genetic standard deviation over the Bayesian method in generation 10. GBLUP resulted in 0.6% and 0.9% less inbreeding than PLSR and BM and on average a one third smaller reduction of genetic variance. Responses in early generations were greater with the shallow reference population while long-term response was not affected by reference population structure. Conclusions The ranking of estimation methods was different with than without selection. Under selection, applying GBLUP led to lower inbreeding and a smaller reduction of

  7. Development of a cost-effective and flexible vibration DAQ system for long-term continuous structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Theanh; Chan, Tommy H. T.; Thambiratnam, David P.; King, Les

    2015-12-01

    In the structural health monitoring (SHM) field, long-term continuous vibration-based monitoring is becoming increasingly popular as this could keep track of the health status of structures during their service lives. However, implementing such a system is not always feasible due to on-going conflicts between budget constraints and the need of sophisticated systems to monitor real-world structures under their demanding in-service conditions. To address this problem, this paper presents a comprehensive development of a cost-effective and flexible vibration DAQ system for long-term continuous SHM of a newly constructed institutional complex with a special focus on the main building. First, selections of sensor type and sensor positions are scrutinized to overcome adversities such as low-frequency and low-level vibration measurements. In order to economically tackle the sparse measurement problem, a cost-optimized Ethernet-based peripheral DAQ model is first adopted to form the system skeleton. A combination of a high-resolution timing coordination method based on the TCP/IP command communication medium and a periodic system resynchronization strategy is then proposed to synchronize data from multiple distributed DAQ units. The results of both experimental evaluations and experimental-numerical verifications show that the proposed DAQ system in general and the data synchronization solution in particular work well and they can provide a promising cost-effective and flexible alternative for use in real-world SHM projects. Finally, the paper demonstrates simple but effective ways to make use of the developed monitoring system for long-term continuous structural health evaluation as well as to use the instrumented building herein as a multi-purpose benchmark structure for studying not only practical SHM problems but also synchronization related issues.

  8. Early intervention with probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei F19 has no long-term effect on caries experience

    OpenAIRE

    Hasslöf, P.; West, C. E.; Karlsson Videhult, F.; Brandelius, C.; Stecksén-Blicks, C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate possible long-term effects of a cereal diet supplemented with Lactobacillus paracasei F19 (LF19) during weaning on caries experience, mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LBC) in a group of 9-year-old children. A secondary aim was to evaluate if the intervention resulted in the permanent integration of LF19 as part of the oral microbiota. The study followed up on a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial. Among 179 infants that were randomis...

  9. Ethanol, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) and their combination: long-term behavioral, neurochemical and neuropharmacological effects in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Riegert, Céline; Rutz, Susanne; Koenig, Julie; Rothmaier, Katharina; Cosquer, Brigitte; Lazarus, Christine; Birthelmer, Anja; Jeltsch, Hélène; Jones, Byron C; Jackisch, Rolf

    2005-10-01

    This study investigated long-term behavioral, neurochemical, and neuropharmacological effects of ethanol-(+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) combinations. Over 4 consecutive days, male Long-Evans rats received 1.5 g/kg ethanol and/or 10 mg/kg MDMA, or saline. Rectal temperatures were taken in some rats. Starting 4 days after the last injection, we tested working memory, sensory-motor coordination, and anxiety. Subsequently, we measured cortical, striatal, septal, and hippocampal monoamines (last MDMA injection-euthanasia delay: 20 days), or electrically evoked release of serotonin (5-HT) in cortical and hippocampal slices, and its modulation in the presence of CP 93,129 (3-(1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyrid-4-yl)pyrrollo[3,2-b]pyrid-5-one) or methiotepin (last MDMA injection-euthanasia delays: 3-6 weeks). Ethanol attenuated the MDMA-induced hyperthermia, but only on the first day. In the long-term, MDMA reduced 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) content in most brain regions. The behavioral and neurochemical effects of the ethanol-MDMA combination were comparable to those of MDMA alone; sensory-motor coordination was altered after ethanol and/or MDMA. In hippocampal slices from rats given ethanol and MDMA, the CP 93,129-induced inhibition and methiotepin-induced facilitation of 5-HT release were stronger and weaker, respectively, than in the other groups. This is the first study addressing long-term effects of repeated MDMA and EtOH combined treatments in experimental animals. Whereas the drug combination produced the same behavioral and neurochemical effects as MDMA alone, our neuropharmacological results suggest that MDMA-EtOH interactions may have specific long-term consequences on presynaptic modulation of hippocampal 5-HT release, but not necessarily related to MDMA-induced depletion of 5-HT. Thus, it is likely that the psycho(patho)logical problems reported by ecstasy users drinking alcohol are not solely due to the consumption of MDMA

  10. Long-term effects of alendronate on fracture healing and bone remodeling of femoral shaft in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Ling-jie; Tang, Ting-ting; Hao, Yong-qiang; Dai, Ke-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the long-term effects of alendronate (Aln), a widely used oral bisphosphonate, on fracture healing and bone remodeling in ovariectomized rats. Methods: Adult female SD rats underwent ovariectomy, and then bilateral femoral osteotomy at 12 weeks post-ovariectomy. From d 2 post-ovariectomy, the animals were divided into 3 groups, and treated with Aln (3 mg·kg−1·d−1, po) for 28 weeks (Aln/Aln), Aln for 12 weeks and saline for 16 weeks (Aln/Saline) or saline for 28 weeks (Sali...

  11. Long-term effects of watershed management on surface runoff and sediment loss in the Ethiopian Highlands

    OpenAIRE

    Hurni, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Data on rainfall, runoff and sediment loss from different land use types have been collected by the Soil Conservation Research Programme in seven small catchments (73-673 hectares) throughout the Ethiopian Highlands since the early 1980s. Monitoring was carried out on a storm-to-storm basis for extended periods of 10-20 years, and the data are analysed here to assess long-term effects of changes. Soil and water conservation technologies were introduced in the early years in the catchments in ...

  12. Development of an accelerated aging method for evaluation of long-term irradiation effects on UHMWPE implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general scheme for developing an accelerated aging method for irradiated biomaterials is proposed. Using UHMWPE implants as an example, an accelerated thermal diffusion oxidative aging (ATDOA) method has been developed. The method requires an optimum initial heating rate and an optimum aging temperature to accelerate oxidation reactions. Based upon oxidation-induced material property changes (crystallinity by DSC, tensile properties by ASTM D638 tensile test, and oxidation index by FTIR), correlations between accelerated aging time, shelf aging time, and implantation time can be obtained. The new ATDOA method allows a rapid evaluation of long-term irradiation effects on the material properties of UHMWPE implants

  13. The Effect of Long-term Grazing Sheep in the Cotton Stubble on the Blood Biochemicals and Free Gossypol Residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Halida; Y.Aibibula

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term grazing sheep in cotton stubble on variation of biochemistry components and free gossypol residual in the blood. The survey found that 15% ewe of grazing group suffered miscarriage or premature birth,compared with the captive group ewes without this phenomenon. Blood test result shows that the free gossypol concentration in serum of grazing group was significantly higher than in indoor captive feeding group( P < 0. 01). In order to ensure the health of sheep grazing on cotton stubble and improve breeding rate,there is a need to do further reasonable research of grazing and feeding methods.

  14. The effects of long-term noninvasive ventilation in hypercapnic COPD patients: a randomized controlled pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    De Backer, Lieve

    2011-01-01

    L De Backer¹, W Vos², B Dieriks¹, D Daems¹, S Verhulst¹, S Vinchurkar², K Ides¹, J De Backer², P Germonpre¹, W De Backer¹1Antwerp University Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, 2FluidDa, Antwerp, BelgiumIntroduction: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is a well-established treatment for acute-on-chronic respiratory failure in hypercapnic COPD patients. Less is known about the effects of a long-term ...

  15. Long-term effect of radiotherapy on the immune status of patients cured of a gynecologic malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term effect of radiotherapy on the immune system was evaluated in 52 patients cured for a gynecologic malignancy from 3 to 15 years. Eighty-seven percent of the patients had no depression in cell-mediated immunity as determined by delayed hypersensitivity reaction to DNCB. The absolute lymphocyte count, as well as the circulating immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), were within the normal range. Thus, there were no significant changes in cell-mediated immunity and circulating immunoglobulins several years after radical wide-field radiotherapy

  16. Long-term effect of organic and inorganic nitrogen Fertilizers on soil N balance and crop productivity

    OpenAIRE

    López-Fando, Cristina; Pardo, Mª Teresa

    2008-01-01

    The combined effect of organic amendments (farmyard manure and barley straw) and increasing rates of mineral nitrogen fertilizer is being tested from 1990 to 2005 in a long term field experiment established in the sern i-arid Central Spain. The soil is a Ca lcic Luvi sol and the crop rot ation co nsis ts of sorghum (Sorghum vulgare L.)-wheat tTriticum aestiv utn L. )barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ). The results obtained showed that, in thi s soil with low inherent fert ility , the ...

  17. Long-term effect of dexfenfluramine on amino acid profiles and food selection in obese patients during weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, L; Møller, S E; Andersen, T;

    1996-01-01

    obesity and to elucidate the long-term effect of dexfenfluramine (dF) on plasma amino acid profiles and macronutrient selection, we examined 29 obese patients participating in a 12 months double-blind weight loss trial with either dexfenfluramine (dF) (30 mg/day) or placebo (PL) in conjunction with 4...... the variation in weight loss (p < 0.0005), whereas no correlation could be shown in the dF group. Pre-treatment plasma Trp/LNAA or Tyr/LNAA and weight loss were not correlated. In conclusion, neither food selection nor basal plasma amino acid profiles were predictors of weight loss during long...

  18. The effect of acute and long-term physical activity on extracellular matrix and serglycin in human skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Hjorth, Marit; Norheim, Frode; Meen, Astri Jeanette; Pourteymour, Shirin; Lee, Sindre; Holen, Torgeir; Jensen, Jørgen; Birkeland, Kåre I; Martinov, Vladimir Nikolkaev; Langleite, Torgrim Mikal; Eckardt, Kristin; Drevon, Christian A.; Kolset, Svein Olav

    2015-01-01

    Remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM), including regulation of proteoglycans in skeletal muscle can be important for physiological adaptation to exercise. To investigate the effects of acute and long-term exercise on the expression of ECM-related genes and proteoglycans in particular, 26 middle-aged, sedentary men underwent a 12 weeks supervised endurance and strength training intervention and two acute, 45 min bicycle tests (70% VO2max), one at baseline and one after 12 weeks of training....

  19. Effects of Joint Attention on Long-Term Memory in 9-Month-Old Infants: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Franziska; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-01-01

    Joint attention develops during the first year of life but little is known about its effects on long-term memory. We investigated whether joint attention modulates long-term memory in 9-month-old infants. Infants were familiarized with visually presented objects in either of two conditions that differed in the degree of joint attention (high…

  20. Effect of long-term outdoor air pollution and noise on cognitive and psychological functions in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzivian, Lilian; Winkler, Angela; Dlugaj, Martha; Schikowski, Tamara; Vossoughi, Mohammad; Fuks, Kateryna; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that air pollution and ambient noise might impact neurocognitive function. Early studies mostly investigated the associations of air pollution and ambient noise exposure with cognitive development in children. More recently, several studies investigating associations with neurocognitive function, mood disorders, and neurodegenerative disease in adult populations were published, yielding inconsistent results. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence on air pollution and noise effects on mental health in adults. We included studies in adult populations (≥18 years old) published in English language in peer-reviewed journals. Fifteen articles related to long-term effects of air pollution and eight articles on long-term effects of ambient noise were extracted. Both exposures were separately shown to be associated with one or several measures of global cognitive function, verbal and nonverbal learning and memory, activities of daily living, depressive symptoms, elevated anxiety, and nuisance. No study considered both exposures simultaneously and few studies investigated progression of neurocognitive decline or psychological factors. The existing evidence generally supports associations of environmental factors with mental health, but does not suffice for an overall conclusion about the independent effect of air pollution and noise. There is a need for studies investigating simultaneously air pollution and noise exposures in association mental health, for longitudinal studies to corroborate findings from cross-sectional analyses, and for parallel toxicological and epidemiological studies to elucidate mechanisms and pathways of action. PMID:25242804

  1. Effects of Long-Term Fertilization on Distribution of Organic Matters and Nitrogen in Cinnamon Soil Macro-Aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Soil samples collected from a 25-year long-term fertilizer experiment carried out on the Earth-cumulic-Orthic Anthrosols in semi-humid farmland ecological system, were used to study the distribution of soil organic matters, total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, and ammoniate nitrogen in different grades of soil macro-aggregates in order to study the effects of long-term application of organic manures in combination with chemical fertilizers. It is showed that the percentage of mass of the soil macro-aggregates with long-term application of fertilizers with sizes of 5-2 mm is increased compared with that of the samples with no fertilizer. It is easier to form lager size soil macro-aggregates by the long-term application of organic manures in combination with chemical fertilizers. The contents of organic matters, total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen are all higher after treatments with different combinations of fertilizers, while there is a little effect on the contents of ammoniate nitrogen. The contents of organic matters, total nitrogen in the grades of soil macro-aggregates from the plough layers of the treated farmland exhibited significant difference. Moreover, the contents of organic matters and total nitrogen in the soil macro-aggregates with the size of 1-0.25 mm is the highest in all treated soil samples. The contents of nitrate nitrogen in soil macro-aggregates increased with the increasing of soil macro-aggregate size except those applied with chemical fertilizer and lower amount of corn stover. The results of correlation analysis revealed that there exists a significantly positive correlation between the percentage of mass of soil macro-aggregates with the size of 5-2 mm and the contents of organic matters, total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in the soil samples. However, the correlation between the percentage of mass of soil macro-aggregates with the size of 1-0.25 mm and the contents of total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen is significantly negative. The

  2. Effect of long-term application of treated sewage water on heavy metal accumulation in vegetables grown in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amlan Kr; Bhatt, M A; Agrawal, H P

    2012-01-01

    Use of industrial and wastewater for irrigation is on the rise in India and other developing countries because of scarcity of good-quality irrigation water. Wastewaters contain plant nutrients that favour crop growth but leave a burden of heavy metals which can enter the food chain and is a cause of great concern. The present study was undertaken on the long-term impact of irrigation with treated sewage water for growing vegetables and the potential health risk associated with consumption of such vegetable. Treated sewage water (TSW), groundwater (GW), soil and plant samples were collected from peri urban vegetable growing areas of Northern India (Varanasi) and analysed to assess the long-term effect of irrigation with TSW on Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb build-up in soils and its subsequent transfer into commonly grown vegetable crops. Results indicate that TSW was richer in essential plant nutrients but contained Cd, Cr and Ni in amounts well above the permissible limits for its use as irrigation water. Long-term application of TSW resulted in significant build-up of total and DTPA extractable Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb over GW irrigated sites. TSW also resulted in slight lowering in pH, increase in organic carbon (1.6 g kg(-1)) and cation exchange capacity (5.2 cmol kg(-1)). The tissue metal concentration and relative efficiency of transfer of heavy metals from soil to plant (transfer factor) for various groups of vegetables were worked out. Radish, turnip and spinach were grouped as hyper accumulator of heavy metals whereas brinjal and cauliflower accumulated less heavy metals. Health risk assessment by consumption of vegetables grown with TSW indicated that all the vegetables were safe for human consumption. However, significant accumulation of these heavy metals in soil and plant needs to be monitored. PMID:21494830

  3. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on age-related cognitive decline in long-term-care institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; Soares, Fernanda Cabral; De Macedo, Liliane Dias E Dias; Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present report was to evaluate the effectiveness and impact of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on improving cognition in elderly persons living in long-term-care institutions (institutionalized [I]) or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized [NI]). We compared neuropsychological performance using language and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test scores before and after 24 and 48 stimulation sessions. The two groups were matched by age and years of schooling. Small groups of ten or fewer volunteers underwent the stimulation program, twice a week, over 6 months (48 sessions in total). Sessions were based on language and memory exercises, as well as visual, olfactory, auditory, and ludic stimulation, including music, singing, and dance. Both groups were assessed at the beginning (before stimulation), in the middle (after 24 sessions), and at the end (after 48 sessions) of the stimulation program. Although the NI group showed higher performance in all tasks in all time windows compared with I subjects, both groups improved their performance after stimulation. In addition, the improvement was significantly higher in the I group than the NI group. Language tests seem to be more efficient than the MMSE to detect early changes in cognitive status. The results suggest the impoverished environment of long-term-care institutions may contribute to lower cognitive scores before stimulation and the higher improvement rate of this group after stimulation. In conclusion, language tests should be routinely adopted in the neuropsychological assessment of elderly subjects, and long-term-care institutions need to include regular sensorimotor, social, and cognitive stimulation as a public health policy for elderly persons. PMID:24600211

  4. Long term effect of reduced dietary phosphorus on feed intake and milk yield in dry and lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puggaard, Liselotte; Lund, Peter; Liesegang, A.;

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen multiparous Holstein cows were used to study the long term effect of reducing dietary P concentration on intake of DM and milk yield, on blood levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi), Ca, vitamin D3, parathyroid hormone (PTH) as well as assessing bone turnover by the use of bone formation mar...... concentration in early and late lactation from the current recommendations of 3.4 to 2.8g P/kg DM without effects on performance, but this level of dietary P might not allow for repletion of bone P mobilized in early lactation.......Eighteen multiparous Holstein cows were used to study the long term effect of reducing dietary P concentration on intake of DM and milk yield, on blood levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi), Ca, vitamin D3, parathyroid hormone (PTH) as well as assessing bone turnover by the use of bone formation......) (2.1g P/kg DM) and High P (HP) (2.5g P/kg DM). After parturition and throughout lactation treatments were LP (2.3g P/kg DM), MP (2.8g P/kg DM) and HP (3.4g P/kg DM). Differences in dietary P were obtained by adding 0.60 and 1.19% mono-sodium phosphate per kg DM to MP and HP, respectively. The cows...

  5. Low frequency electromagnetic fields long-term exposure effects on testicular histology, sperm quality and testosterone levels of male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aminollah Bahaodini; Maryam Owjfard; Amin Tamadon; Seyedeh Marzieh Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects of long-term exposure to low frequency EMF on the testicular function and structure.Methods:Fourteen adult male rats were randomly and equally divided into sham and experimental groups. Experimental group was exposed to 1 mT, 50 Hz EMF, continuously for 85 days in a solenoid. Sham group was kept under conditions same as experimental group, without EMF. At the end of the exposure period, weight and size of testes, sperm evaluation (sperm counts, motility and viability), histological testicular sections and serum total testosterone were determined.Results:Long-term exposure to low frequency EMF significantly decreased the diameter of the seminiferous tubules and increased number of seminiferous tubules per unit area of testes. In addition, low frequency EMF significantly reduced sperm motility and testosterone levels. However, it had no effect on the weight and size of testes, sperm concentration, and viability. Conclusion:Prolonged exposure to 50 Hz EMF has an adverse effect on male fertility.

  6. Effect of long-term exposure to mobile phone radiation on alpha-Int1 gene sequence of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin-Jafari, Ariyo; Bayat, Mansour; Shahhosseiny, Mohammad Hassan; Tajik, Parviz; Roudbar-Mohammadi, Shahla

    2016-05-01

    Over the last decade, communication industries have witnessed a tremendous expansion, while, the biological effects of electromagnetic waves have not been fully elucidated. Current study aimed at evaluating the mutagenic effect of long-term exposure to 900-MHz radiation on alpha-Int1 gene sequences of Candida albicans. A standard 900 MHz radiation generator was used for radiation. 10 ml volumes from a stock suspension of C. albicans were transferred into 10 polystyrene tubes. Five tubes were exposed at 4 °C to a fixed magnitude of radiation with different time periods of 10, 70, 210, 350 and 490 h. The other 5 tubes were kept far enough from radiation. The samples underwent genomic DNA extraction. PCR amplification of alpha-Int1 gene sequence was done using one set of primers. PCR products were resolved using agarose gel electrophoresis and the nucleotide sequences were determined. All samples showed a clear electrophoretic band around 441 bp and further sequencing revealed the amplified DNA segments are related to alpha-Int1 gene of the yeast. No mutations in the gene were seen in radiation exposed samples. Long-term exposure of the yeast to mobile phone radiation under the above mentioned conditions had no mutagenic effect on alpha-Int1 gene sequence. PMID:27081370

  7. Long-term effects of pesticide exposure at various life stages of the southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    Amphibian larvae are commonly exposed to low levels of pesticides during their development. Chronic studies generally examine the effects of long-term exposure, but they often disregard the importance of the individual life stage at which tadpoles are exposed. I determined the point during development at which carbaryl effects are manifested by exposing southern leopard frog tadpoles (Rana sphenocephala) to the pesticide carbaryl at five different times during development. Metamorphs exposed throughout the tadpole stage and throughout development (egg, embryo, tadpole) experienced significant mortality at all chemical levels. Although the length of the larval period was the same for all experimental groups, metamorphs exposed during the egg stage were smaller than their corresponding controls, independent of whether they were exposed at any other stage. Nearly 18% of individuals exposed to carbaryl during development exhibited some type of developmental deformity (including both visceral and limb malformities), compared to a single deformed (exposure to nonpersistent chemicals may last for only a short period of time, it is important to examine the long-term effects that short-term exposure has on larval amphibians and the existence of any sensitive life stage. Any delay in metamorphosis or decrease in size at metamorphosis can impact demographic processes of the population, potentially leading to declines or local extinction.

  8. Effects of pre-encoding stress on brain correlates associated with the long-term memory for emotional scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Wirkner

    Full Text Available Recent animal and human research indicates that stress around the time of encoding enhances long-term memory for emotionally arousing events but neural evidence remains unclear. In the present study we used the ERP old/new effect to investigate brain dynamics underlying the long-term effects of acute pre-encoding stress on memory for emotional and neutral scenes. Participants were exposed either to the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressure Test (SECPT or a warm water control procedure before viewing 30 unpleasant, 30 neutral and 30 pleasant pictures. Two weeks after encoding, recognition memory was tested using 90 old and 90 new pictures. Emotional pictures were better recognized than neutral pictures in both groups and related to an enhanced centro-parietal ERP old/new difference (400-800 ms during recognition, which suggests better recollection. Most interestingly, pre-encoding stress exposure specifically increased the ERP old/new-effect for emotional (unpleasant pictures, but not for neutral pictures. These enhanced ERP/old new differences for emotional (unpleasant scenes were particularly pronounced for those participants who reported high levels of stress during the SECPT. The results suggest that acute pre-encoding stress specifically strengthens brain signals of emotional memories, substantiating a facilitating role of stress on memory for emotional scenes.

  9. Immediate and long-term effects of radiation on the immune system of specific-pathogen-free mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the immediate and long-term effects of radiation on the immune system of specific-pathogen-free mice are summarized in this paper. There was a striking difference in the radiation response of lymphocyte subsets; B cells consist of a fairly radiosensitive homogeneous population, whereas T cells consist of a large percentage (> 90%) of radiosensitive and a small percentage (+ and Ly 2+ lymphocytes appear equally radiosensitive, although the percentage of radioresistant cells was slightly larger for the former (∼ 5.5%) than the latter (∼ 2.5%). There was a significant strain difference in the radiosensitivity of immune-response potential in mice; immunocompetent cells of C3H mice were more radioresistant than those of BALB/c, C57BL/6, and B10.BR mice. Studies on the long-term effect of radiation on immune system in mice indicated no evidence for accelerated ageing of the immunologic functions when radiation exposure was given to young adults. Preliminary results on the enhancing effect of low dose radiation on cytotoxic T cell response in vitro are also discussed. (author)

  10. Investigation on the long term behaviour of damage effects and corresponding defects in detector grade silicon after neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of silicon detectors in high energy experiments has become common practice. However, the extremely high luminosities of the next generation experiments (e.g. Atlas and Hera-B) require systematic investigation on the radiation hardness of silicon detectors to guarantee a reasonable long term stability of their operational properties. This thesis investigates the evolution of damage effects in a long time range after neutron irradiation and characterises the induced defects. In contrast to charged particles, neutrons cause damage mainly to the bulk of the silicon and affect the surface properties only to a minor degree. The defects generated in the bulk have considerable influence on the leakage current and the operational voltage which is governed by the effective doping concentration, respectively the space charge. The short term post-irradiation annealing of the effective doping concentration is known to be followed by a pronounced long term reverse annealing. This process has been investigated by the use of isothermal heat treatments in the temperature range between 5 C and 80 C. It is shown that the reverse annealing can be described best by a second order reaction as known from chemical processes. At temperatures below 5 C the reverse annealing is completely frozen. Besides the defects which undergo annealing, a further type of defect has been found to contribute to the space charge. The number of the defects is found to be constant in time after irradiation. (orig./WL)

  11. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue. [Swine, /sup 226/Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Beamer, J.L.; Mahony, T.D.; Cross, F.T.; Lund, J.E.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1976-01-01

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with /sup 252/Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 7000 rad from /sup 226/Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for /sup 252/Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 5000 rad from /sup 226/Ra.

  12. Principal Leadership Long-Term Indirect Effects on Learning Growth in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumay, Xavier; Boonen, Tinneke; Van Damme, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In both the school effectiveness and the educational administration literature, growing attention has been paid to the extent of principal leadership effects and the means by which they affect school performance. The main goal of this study is to estimate the effects of principal leadership on students' achievement growth in mathematics over…

  13. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on age-related cognitive decline in long-term-care institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira TCG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Thaís Cristina Galdino De Oliveira,1 Fernanda Cabral Soares,1 Liliane Dias E Dias De Macedo,1 Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço Diniz,1 Natáli Valim Oliver Bento-Torres,1,2 Cristovam Wanderley Picanço-Diniz1 1Laboratory of Investigations in Neurodgeneration and Infection, Biological Sciences Institute, University Hospital João de Barros Barreto, 2College of Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Brazil Abstract: The aim of the present report was to evaluate the effectiveness and impact of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on improving cognition in elderly persons living in long-term-care institutions (institutionalized [I] or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized [NI]. We compared neuropsychological performance using language and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE test scores before and after 24 and 48 stimulation sessions. The two groups were matched by age and years of schooling. Small groups of ten or fewer volunteers underwent the stimulation program, twice a week, over 6 months (48 sessions in total. Sessions were based on language and memory exercises, as well as visual, olfactory, auditory, and ludic stimulation, including music, singing, and dance. Both groups were assessed at the beginning (before stimulation, in the middle (after 24 sessions, and at the end (after 48 sessions of the stimulation program. Although the NI group showed higher performance in all tasks in all time windows compared with I subjects, both groups improved their performance after stimulation. In addition, the improvement was significantly higher in the I group than the NI group. Language tests seem to be more efficient than the MMSE to detect early changes in cognitive status. The results suggest the impoverished environment of long-term-care institutions may contribute to lower cognitive scores before stimulation and the higher improvement rate of this group after stimulation. In conclusion

  14. Assessment of long-term effects of climate change on biodiversity and vulnerability of terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in CO2 levels, temperature and precipitation patterns are expected to have important effects on natural ecosystems. In the title project, different approaches are combined to analyse these effects. Subproject 1 is directed to the effects of climate change on plant species distribution and diversity in Europe. Subproject 2 analyses the effects of climatic change and nitrogen (N) deposition on ecosystem dynamics. Subproject 3 integrates the two other subprojects by analysing the effects of climatic change and N deposition on ecosystem processes and plant species distribution on a regional level

  15. Atherosclerotic effects of long-term old and new antiepileptic drugs monotherapy: a cross-sectional comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Farahaty, Reham M; El-Mitwalli, Ashraf; Azzam, Hanan; Wasel, Yasser; Elrakhawy, Mohamed M; Hasaneen, Bothina Mohammed

    2015-03-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the metabolic and atherogenic effects of long-term antiepileptic drugs in a group of Egyptian epileptic patients. Sixty-nine epileptic patients on antiepileptic drug monotherapy for at least 2 years and 34 control subjects were recruited in this study. Patients were divided into 5 subgroups according to antiepileptic drugs used (valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, topiramate, and levetiracetam). Fasting lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), lipoprotein(a), homocysteine, free thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and common carotid artery intima-media thickness were measured for all subjects. Significant higher mean values of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein / high-density lipoprotein ratio, lipoprotein(a), homocysteine, significantly lower mean value of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and significantly larger diameter of common carotid artery intima-media thickness were observed in each drug-treated group versus control group. Our study supports that long-term monotherapy treatment with valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and topiramate had altered markers of vascular risk that might enhance atherosclerosis, whereas levetiracetam exerted minimal effect. PMID:25342306

  16. Long-term joint effect of nutrients and temperature increase on algal growth in Lake Taihu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Ye; Zhemin Shen; Tao Zhang; Maohong Fan; Yangming Lei; Jianda Zhang

    2011-01-01

    To study how global warming and eutrophication affect water ecosystems, a multiplicative growth Monod model, modified by incorporating the Arrhenius equation, was applied to Lake Taihu to quantitatively study the relationships between algal biomass and both nutrients and temperature using long-term data. To qualitatively assess which factor was a limitation of the improved model,temperature variables were calculated using annual mean air temperature (AT), water temperature (WT), and their average temperature (ST), while substrate variables were calculated using annual mean total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and their weighted aggregate (R), respectively. The nine fitted curves showed that TN and AT were two important factors influencing algal growth; AT limited growth as algal photosynthesis is mainly carried out near the water surface; N leakage of phytoplankton and internal phosphorus load from sediment explains why TN was the best predictor of peak biomass using the Monod model. The fitted results suggest that annual mean algal biomass increased by 0.145 times when annual mean AT increased by 1.0C. Results also showed that the more eutrophic the lake, the greater the effect AT had on algal growth. Subsequently, the long-term joint effect of annual temperature increase and eutrophication to water ecosys te.ms can be qu antitatively assessed and predicted.

  17. Long-term effects of delayed fatherhood in mice on postnatal development and behavioral traits of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palomares, Silvia; Pertusa, José F; Miñarro, José; García-Pérez, Miguel A; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Rausell, Francisco; Cano, Antonio; Tarín, Juan J

    2009-02-01

    This study aims to analyze, in mice, the long-term effects of delayed fatherhood on postnatal development, spontaneous motor activity, and learning capacity of offspring. Hybrid parental-generation (F(0)) males, at the age of 12, 70, 100, and 120 wk, were individually housed with a randomly selected 12-wk-old hybrid female. The resulting first-generation (F(1)) offspring were tested for several developmental and behavioral variables. Cumulative percentage of F(1) pups that attained immediate righting in the 120-wk group was lower than that found in the 12-, 70-, and 100-wk groups. Furthermore, the postnatal day of attaining immediate righting was higher in pups from the 120-wk group when compared to pups from the other age-groups. At the age of 20 wk, F(1) offspring from the 120-wk group displayed lower counts of motor activity than offspring from the 12-, 70-, and 100-wk groups. One week later, a higher percentage of offspring from the 100- and 120-wk groups entered the dark compartment during the retention trial of the passive-avoidance test when compared to offspring from the 12-wk group. Offspring from the 120-wk group exhibited also lower step-through latency in the retention trial than offspring from the 12-, 70-, and 100-wk groups. These results show that advanced paternal age at conception has long-term effects on preweaning development, spontaneous motor activity, and reduced passive-avoidance learning capacity of mouse offspring. PMID:18923158

  18. Effects of long-term, elevated ultraviolet-B radiation on phytochemicals in the bark of silver birch (Betula pendula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegelberg, Riitta; Aphalo, Pedro J; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2002-12-01

    Long-term outdoor experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation on secondary metabolites (phenolics and terpenoids) and the main soluble sugars (sucrose, raffinose and glucose) in the bark of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) saplings. Saplings were exposed to a constant 50% increase in erythemal UV irradiance (UV-B(CIE); based on the CIE (International Commission on Illumination) erythemal action spectrum) and a small increase in UV-A radiation (320-400 nm) for three growing seasons in an irradiation field in central Finland. Two control groups were used: saplings exposed to ambient radiation and saplings exposed to slightly increased UV-A radiation. Concentrations of sucrose, raffinose and glucose in bark were higher in UV-treated saplings than in saplings grown in ambient radiation, indicating that stem carbohydrate metabolism was changed by long-term elevated UV radiation. Saplings in the elevated UV-A + UV-B radiation treatment and the UV-A radiation control treatment had significantly increased concentrations of certain UV-absorbing phenolics, such as salidroside, 3,4'-dihydroxypropiophenone-3-glucoside, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin compared with saplings in ambient radiation. In contrast, the radiation treatments had no effect on the non-UV-B-absorbing terpenoids, papyriferic acid and deacetylpapyriferic acid. We conclude that plant parts, in addition to leaves, accumulate specific phenolic UV-filters in response to UV radiation exposure. PMID:12464579

  19. Differential effects of long-term exposure to Aroclor 1254 on lipid secretion by primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza-Figueroa, T.; Hernandez, A.; Lopez, L. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico)

    1992-06-01

    PCBs produce hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation (fatty liver) in experimental animals and humans exposed accidentally and occupationally. It has been suggested that this effect could be due to a block in TG secretion. On the other hand, increased levels of plasmatic TG and cholesterol have been described in rats after dietary exposure to Aroclor 1254 (Aro) and other PCBs; hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension have been also described in humans exposed for long periods to low concentrations of PCBs. Since the study of hepatic lipid metabolism and its alteration by toxic chemicals is complicated in the whole animal, short term cultures of adult rat hepatocytes have been used. We have described a system for the long term culture of adult rat hepatocytes which for several weeks maintain differentiated functions, like fatty acid and TG synthesis and their export to the culture medium. In this paper we used this culture system to study the effect of long-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of Aro on the secretion of lipids by cultured hepatocytes. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. High resolution numerical investigation on the effect of convective instability on long term CO2 storage in saline aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CO2 sequestration (capture, separation, and long term storage) in various geologic media including depleted oil reservoirs, saline aquifers, and oceanic sediments is being considered as a possible solution to reduce green house gas emissions. Dissolution of supercritical CO2 in formation brines is considered an important storage mechanism to prevent possible leakage. Accurate prediction of the plume dissolution rate and migration is essential. Analytical analysis and numerical experiments have demonstrated that convective instability (Rayleigh instability) has a crucial effect on the dissolution behavior and subsequent mineralization reactions. Global stability analysis indicates that a certain grid resolution is needed to capture the features of density-driven fingering phenomena. For 3-D field scale simulations, high resolution leads to large numbers of grid nodes, unfeasible for a single workstation. In this study, we investigate the effects of convective instability on geologic sequestration of CO2 by taking advantage of parallel computing using the code PFLOTRAN, a massively parallel 3-D reservoir simulator for modeling subsurface multiphase, multicomponent reactive flow and transport based on continuum scale mass and energy conservation equations. The onset, development and long-term fate of a supercritical CO2 plume will be resolved with high resolution numerical simulations to investigate the rate of plume dissolution caused by fingering phenomena