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Sample records for carcass weight

  1. Genetic parameters for carcass cut weight in Irish beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabiou, T; Fikse, W F; Näsholm, A; Cromie, A R; Drennan, M J; Keane, M G; Berry, D P

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for the weights of different wholesale cuts, using an experimental and a commercial data set. The experimental and commercial data sets included 413 and 635 crossbred Belgian Blue, Charolais, Limousin, Angus, Holstein, and Simmental animals, respectively. Univariate analyses using a mixed linear animal model with relationships were undertaken to estimate the heritability of cold carcass weight, carcass conformation and fat, and the cut weights, whereas a series of bivariate analyses was used to estimate the phenotypic and genetic correlations between carcass weight, carcass conformation, carcass fat, and the major primal cuts. Heritability estimates for cold carcass weight in both data sets were moderate (>0.48), whereas heritability estimates for carcass conformation and fat grading were greater in the commercial data set (>0.63) than in the experimental study (>0.33). Across both data sets, heritability estimates for wholesale cut weight in the forequarter varied from 0.03 to 0.79, whereas heritability estimates of carcass cut weight in the hindquarter varied from 0.14 to 0.86. Heritability estimates for cut weights expressed as a proportion of the entire carcass weight varied from 0.04 to 0.91. Genetic correlations were strong among the different carcass cut weights within the experimental and the commercial studies. Genetic correlations between the weights of selected carcass cuts and carcass weight were moderate to high (minimum 0.45; maximum 0.88) in both data sets. Positive genetic correlations were observed in the commercial data set between the different wholesale cut weights and carcass conformation, whereas these were positive and negative in the experimental data set. Selection for increased carcass weight will, on average, increase the weight of each cut. However, the genetic correlations were less than unity, suggesting a benefit of more direct selection on high value cuts. PMID:19717761

  2. The impact of bone development on final carcass weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.;

    2006-01-01

    Proper development and function of the skeleton is crucial for the optimal growth of an organism, with rapid growth rates often resulting in skeletal disorders in farm animals. Yet, despite clear benefits for breed selection and animal welfare (HARRISON et al., 2004), the impact of bone development...... was removed and its parameters correlated with carcass weight. Results suggest that both femur length and femur weight act as good predictors of final carcass weight in lambs. However, no effect of paternal genetics, on the femur to carcass correlations, was noted....

  3. Carcass and Non-carcass Components of Priangan and Javanese Fat-tailed Rams Slaughtered at Mature Live Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baihaqi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three of indigenous Priangan and Javanese Fat-tailed (JFT ram breeds were used to evaluate its carcass and non carcass components slaughtered at mature live weight. Five Priangan rams and six JFT rams were slaughtered at 32.5 kg of live weight while six other rams of each breeds were also slaughtered at 40 kg of live weight. Before the rams were slaughtered, they were fattened using pellet ration which was formulated according to NRC for fattening 10 kg of lamb, containing 73.3% TDN and 16% protein in dry matter bases. Feed and water were given ad libitum. Rams were slaughtered and dissected when they reached their assigned slaughter weight (32.5 and 40 kg. The results showed that both breeds had high percentage of carcass (53%-55% with no significantly different between breeds (P>0.05 either were slaughtered at 32.5 kg or 40 kg. However, carcass of Priangan rams had significantly more muscle, but less fat than Javanese Fat-tailed rams at mature live weight (P0.05 except for head, tail and testes (P<0.01 and liver (P<0.05. The edible and inedible portion of non-carcass ranged from 30%-32% and 12%-15% of slaughter weight, respectively.

  4. Genetic parameters for carcass weight, conformation and fat in five beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kause, A; Mikkola, L; Strandén, I; Sirkko, K

    2015-01-01

    Profitability of beef production can be increased by genetically improving carcass traits. To construct breeding value evaluations for carcass traits, breed-specific genetic parameters were estimated for carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat in five beef cattle breeds in Finland (Hereford, Aberdeen Angus, Simmental, Charolais and Limousin). Conformation and fat were visually scored using the EUROP carcass classification. Each breed was separately analyzed using a multitrait animal model. A total of 6879-19 539 animals per breed had phenotypes. For the five breeds, heritabilities were moderate for carcass weight (h 2=0.39 to 0.48, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and slightly lower for conformation (h 2=0.30 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and carcass fat (h 2=0.29 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04). The genetic correlation between carcass weight and conformation was favorable in all breeds (r G=0.37 to 0.53, s.e.=0.04 to 0.05), heavy carcasses being genetically more conformed. The phenotypic correlation between carcass weight and carcass fat was moderately positive in all breeds (r P=0.21 to 0.32), implying that increasing carcass weight was related to increasing fat levels. The respective genetic correlation was the strongest in Hereford (r G=0.28, s.e.=0.05) and Angus (r G=0.15, s.e.=0.05), the two small body-sized British breeds with the lowest conformation and the highest fat level. The correlation was weaker in the other breeds (r G=0.08 to 0.14). For Hereford, Angus and Simmental, more conformed carcasses were phenotypically fatter (r P=0.11 to 0.15), but the respective genetic correlations were close to zero (r G=-0.05 to 0.04). In contrast, in the two large body-sized and muscular French breeds, the genetic correlation between conformation and fat was negative and the phenotypic correlation was close to zero or negative (Charolais: r G=-0.18, s.e.=0.06, r P=0.02; Limousin: r G=-0.56, s.e.=0.04, r P=-0.13). The results indicate genetic variation for the genetic

  5. Ultrasonic measurements in live goats. Prediction of weight of carcass joints

    OpenAIRE

    Delfa, R.; González, C.; Teixeira, A.; Vijil, E.

    1996-01-01

    The accuracy of the use of nine ultrasonic measurements of lumbar fat thickness. nine measurements of longissimus dorsi depth. four measurements of sterna! fat thickness. for predicting the weight of carcass joints were assessed in 27 adult Blanca Celtiberica goats ranging in stemal body condition score from 1.5 to 4.5. Comparison between the ultrasonic measurements assessed in live goats with the same measurements taken on carcass were established and the best relationships ...

  6. Effects of weight at slaughter and sex on the carcass characteristics of Florida suckling kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Francisco; Perea, J; García, A; Acero, R

    2007-03-01

    The effect of slaughter weight and sex on some carcass traits of suckling kids of the Florida breed was evaluated. A total of 60 kids (30 male and 30 female), fed exclusively on milk replacers, were slaughtered at 7-8kg (group 1), 10-11kg (group 2) or 14-15kg (group 3) of liveweight (mean weights of 7.6kg, 10.8kg and 14.4kg, respectively). Higher slaughter weights decreased the percentage of subproducts (blood, skin, head, feet) and internal organs (lungs+traquea, heart, liver, spleen, thymus) but significantly increased the percentage of intestine and fat depots (omental fat and mesenteric fat). Higher slaughter weights also increased carcass measures (L 40.5 vs 49.1; F 22.5 vs 25.9; G 10.4 vs 14.2; Wr 10.1 vs 13.9; Wth 8.0 vs 10.5; Th 16.5 vs 199; B 32.3 vs 42.4; PT 41.5 vs 50.8), compactness carcass index (96.6 vs 152.3) and compactness leg index (27.5 vs 44.1). Sex only significantly affected the percentages of feet, internal organs, omental fat, measure L, carcass compactness index and hind limb compactness index. The meat colour and fat colour were mainly scored as pale and white respectively in the carcasses of the lightest animals, whereas heavier kids were scored as pink and cream. Slaughter weight also influenced significantly the carcass fatness (score 1 in lightest kids and 2 or 3 in heavier ones). There were no significant (p>0.05) differences between slaughter weight group and sex in dressing percentages. Percentages corresponding to the long leg, back and neck (30-33%, 18-19% and 8-10%, respectively) decreased when the slaughter weight increased, whereas the ribs (23-25%) and the flank (10-11%) increased slightly. The carcasses comprised 57-58% muscle, 22-25% bone, 5-6% subcutaneous fat and 9-12% intermuscular fat. The percentage muscle stayed the same with increasing slaughter weight, whereas the bone decreased and the fat increased. The carcasses of the heavier females contained less lean and more fat than the males. The bone percentage was

  7. Carcass traits of Nellore, Caracu. Guzerah and Gir bulls selected for postweaning weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Figueiredo Martins Bonilha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from nine studies were compiled to evaluate the effects of selection for postweaning weight on some carcass characteristics in experimental herds of selected Nellore (NeS, control Nellore (NeC, Caracu (CaS, Guzerah (GuS and Gir (GiS breeds from Instituto de Zootecnia genetic selection program. After the feeding performance test (168 days after weaning, samples of bulls (n=490 from the progeny groups born between 1992 and 2000 were selected for finishing period and slaughtered. Treatments were different across studies. Meta-analysis was conducted with a random coefficients model in which herd was considered a fixed effect and treatments within year and progeny groups as random effects. Slaughter, empty body, hot carcass and cold carcass weights were higher for NeS and CaS, intermediate for GuS and lower for NeC e GiS. CaS bulls had higher proportions of forequarter and spare ribs and lower proportion of hindquarter than the other groups. No significant differences were found for percentage of edible portion among the genetic groups. Selection for postweaning weight in Nellore increased carcass, hindquarter, forequarter, and spare ribs weights without altering dressing percentage, carcass quarter, and hindquarter prime meat cuts proportions.

  8. Carcass composition of market weight pigs subjected to heat stress in utero and during finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzen, S M; Boddicker, R L; Graves, K L; Johnson, T P; Arkfeld, E K; Baumgard, L H; Ross, J W; Safranski, T J; Lucy, M C; Lonergan, S M

    2015-05-01

    Objectives were to investigate the effects of prolonged gestational and/or postnatal heat stress on performance and carcass composition of market weight pigs. Pregnant gilts were exposed to gestational heat stress (GHS, 28°C to 34°C, diurnal) or thermal neutral (18°C to 22°C, diurnal) conditions during the entire gestation or during the first or second half of gestation. At 14 wk of age (58 ± 5 kg), barrows were housed in heat stress (32°C, HS) or thermal neutral (21°C, TN) conditions. Feed intake and BW were recorded weekly, and body temperature parameters were monitored twice weekly until slaughter (109 ± 5 kg). Organs were removed and weighed, and loin eye area (LEA) and back fat thickness (BF) were measured after carcass chilling. Carcass sides were separated into lean, separable fat, bone, and skin components and were weighed. Moisture, lipid, and protein content were determined in the LM at the 10th rib. Data were analyzed using a split plot with random effect of dam nested within gestational treatment. Carcass measurements included HCW as a covariate to control for weight. Planned orthogonal contrast statements were used to evaluate the overall effect of GHS in the first half, second half, or any part of gestation. Gestational heat stress did not alter postnatal performance or most body temperature parameters (P > 0.10). However, ADFI in the finishing period was increased (P treatments (P = 0.48). The LM from HS carcasses had a greater moisture to protein ratio (P = 0.04). HS barrows also had decreased heart (P < 0.001) and kidney (P < 0.0001) as a percent of BW compared with TN pigs. In summary, GHS may affect head and bone development, subsequently affecting carcass composition. Chronic HS during finishing results in longer times to reach market weight and a leaner carcass once market weight is achieved. PMID:26020353

  9. Live weight and sex effects on carcass and meat quality of "Borrego terrincho-PDO" suckling lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Virgínia; Silva, Severiano; Mena, Elizabete; Azevedo, Jorge Manuel Teixeira de

    2007-01-01

    Fifty seven suckling lambs (28 males and 29 females) of the Churra da Terra Quente breed were used to evaluate the effects of live weight and sex on carcass composition and meat quality traits. Lambs were slaughtered at three weight classes ( 11 kg) according to "Borrego Terrincho-PDO" specifications. The left sides of the carcasses were totally dissected. The longissimus thoracis and lumborum muscle was used for meat quality determination. Dressing proportion and carcass...

  10. Factors associated with age at slaughter and carcass weight, price, and value of dairy cull cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzoli, I; De Marchi, M; Cecchinato, A; Berry, D P; Bittante, G

    2014-02-01

    The sale of cull cows contributes to the overall profit of dairy herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors associated with slaughter age (mo), cow carcass weight (kg), price (€/kg of carcass weight), and value (€/head) of dairy cull cows. Data included 20,995 slaughter records in the period from 2003 to 2011 of 5 different breeds: 2 dairy [Holstein Friesian (HF) and Brown Swiss (BS)] and 3 dual-purpose [Simmental (Si), Alpine Grey (AG), and Rendena (Re)]. Associations of breed, age of cow (except when the dependent variable was slaughter age), and year and month of slaughter with slaughter age, carcass weight, price, and value were quantified using a mixed linear model; herd was included as a random effect. The seasonal trends in cow price and value traits were inversely related to the number of cows slaughtered, whereas annual variation in external factors affected market conditions. Relative to BS cows, HF cows were younger at slaughter (73.1 vs. 80.7 mo), yielded slightly lighter carcasses (242 vs. 246 kg), and received a slightly lower price (1.69 vs. 1.73 €/kg) and total value (394 vs. 417 €/head). Dual-purpose breeds were older and heavier and received a much greater price and total value at slaughter (521, 516, and 549 €/head, respectively for Si, Re, and AG) than either dairy breed. Of the dual-purpose cows, Si carcasses were heavier (271 kg), whereas the carcasses of local breeds received a higher price (2.05 and 2.18 €/kg for Re and AG, respectively) and Alpine Grey cows were the oldest at slaughter (93.3 mo). The price per kilogram of cull cow carcasses was greatest for very young cows (i.e., carcass value (carcass weight × unit price) among dairy breeds suggest that such a trait could be considered in the breeding objectives of the breeds. PMID:24315325

  11. Response to selection and genetic parameters of body and carcass weights in Japanese quail selected for 4-week body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaldari, M; Pakdel, A; Yegane, H Mehrabani;

    2010-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of short-term selection in Japanese quail for 4-wk BW and estimate genetic parameters of BW, carcass traits, and egg weight. A selected line and control line were randomly selected from a base population. In each generation, 39 sires and 78...

  12. Feedlot performance, feed efficiency and carcass traits in Nellore cattle selected for postweaning weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lucila Sobrinho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlated responses to selection for growth in feed efficiency and carcass traits of Nellore animals. A total of 121 animals of the Nellore control (NeC and selection herds were subjected to performance testing and classified regarding residual feed intake (RFI. Sixty-seven of these animals were selected and finished until reaching 4 mm of subcutaneous fat thickness between the 12th and 13th ribs. The animals were slaughtered at a mean age of 541 days and mean live weight of 423 kg for NeS and of 363 kg for NeC, and carcass traits were measured. Animals in NeS presented higher initial and slaughter weights, dry matter intake, hot and cold carcass weight, weight of retail cuts, and carcass yield than NeC animals for the same slaughter age and feedlot time. No significant differences in RFI were observed between herds, showing that the weight gain from selection for growth did not cause changes in the energy efficiency of the animals.

  13. CARCASS AND MEAT CHARACTERISTICS OF CULL COWS SLAUGHTERED AT DISTINCT WEIGHTS AND DEGREE OF FATNESS – META-ANALYTICAL APPROACH

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    Leonel Da Silva Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a meta-analysis of the carcass and meat characteristics of cull cows slaughtered at different weights and degree of fatness. The treatments were according to slaughter weight, (above 480.5 kg , Heavy, or below 480 kg, Light, of LW; and carcass degree of fatness (fat thickness between 6 and 10 mm, >6, or between 3 and 6 mm, <6. A completely random experimental design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was used with two classes of slaughter weight and two classes of carcass degree of fatness. We evaluated papers about studies on cull cows carcass and meat, performed in Brazil between January 2000 and March 2013, available for access at SciELO and Capes search platforms. The papers were found through the combination of the following keywords: carcass, meat, bovine females, heifers and cows. The increase in cow’s slaughter weight did not affect hot carcass weight (252.3 versus 233.3 kg. There was less hot carcass yield (52.9 versus 56.9% and higher conformation (10.0 against 8.6 points. The highest degree of finishing positively influenced marbling (8.7 versus 5.4 points. The increase in slaughter weight produces better carcass conformation but does not affect meat quality; on the other hand, raising the finishing degree above 6mm changes the sensory characteristics of meat.

  14. Influence of immunocastration (Bopriva® in weight gain, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nellore

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    Nayara Andreo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the effects of immunocastration on body weight gain, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nellore beef cattle. Eighty Nellore beef cattle, with initial body weight of 357±8.63 kg, were placed in feedlots and distributed in two treatments (40 animals per treatments as follow: one - non-vaccinated bulls and two - immunocastrated bulls (Bopriva®, Pfizer Animal Health. The animals placed on treatment two were vaccinated in two doses, first application 30 days before they arrive on the feedlots and second on the day they arrive on feedlots. After 67 days of experimental period, was calculated the daily gain of live weight in kg/day of the 80 animals and selected 20 animals from each treatment for the slaughter and carcass evaluations, and ten from each group for the meat analyzes. The data were submitted to analysis of variance. Immunocastrated animals showed lower daily weight gain, hot carcass weight, carcass yield, pH, leg thickness, muscle depth, loin muscle area, carcass muscle percentage, shear force and moisture. However, this animals had higher concentration of lactate and cortisol blood, chest depth, fat thickness, finishing degree, a *, b * and c*, liquid loss in thawing process, myofibrillar fragmentation index and ether extract of meat when compared to non-vaccinated bulss. The immunocastration (Bopriva® is an alternative for improving the quality of meat by the higher fat deposition and by the reduction of the shear force of the meat when compared to non-vaccinated bulls.

  15. Influence of carcass weight on instrumental and sensory lamb meat quality in intensive production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sañudo, C; Santolaria, M P; María, G; Osorio, M; Sierra, I

    1996-01-01

    The influence of carcass weight (CW) on instrumental and sensory meat quality traits was studied in Rasa Aragonesa lamb carcasses. Forty-six intact male lamb carcasses were divided into three groups: 8.07 (S.D. 0.36) kg (A); 10.22 (S.D. 0.79) kg (B) and 13.42 (S.D. 1.36) kg (C). Results indicate that CW significantly influenced instrumental measurements in all the traits considered, except for waterholding capacity. The weight increase produced higher pH, haem pigment and redness (a (∗)) and lower lightness. Shear values were higher (p ≤ 0.01) in group B. Sensory traits were not influenced by CW with the exception of juiciness. This parameter increased in the order A-B-C, and the subjective colour estimation was darker in groups B and C. The results show that it is possible to produce heavier or lighter lamb carcasses than traditional lamb (Ternasco de Aragón, group B), without significant losses in meat quality. This fact could give flexibility to a system permitting the slaughter weight to be adjusted to variations in seasonal prices.

  16. Influence of immunocastration (Bopriva®) in weight gain, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nellore

    OpenAIRE

    Nayara Andreo; Ana Maria Bridi; Marina Avena Tarsitano; Louise Manha Peres; Ana Paula Ayub da Costa Barbon; Evelyn Lopes de Andrade; Paulo Emílio Fernandes Prohmann

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was evaluate the effects of immunocastration on body weight gain, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nellore beef cattle. Eighty Nellore beef cattle, with initial body weight of 357±8.63 kg, were placed in feedlots and distributed in two treatments (40 animals per treatments) as follow: one - non-vaccinated bulls and two - immunocastrated bulls (Bopriva®, Pfizer Animal Health). The animals placed on treatment two were vaccinated in two doses, first applica...

  17. Sire carcass breeding values affect body composition in lambs--2. Effects on fat and bone weight and their distribution within the carcass as measured by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, F; Williams, A; Pannier, L; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the effect of paternal Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post weaning c-site eye muscle depth (PEMD) and fat depth (PFAT), and post weaning weight (PWWT) on the composition of lamb carcasses. Composition was measured using computed tomography scans of 1665 lambs which were progeny of 85 Maternal, 115 Merino and 155 Terminal sires. Reducing sire PFAT decreased carcass fat weight by 4.8% and increased carcass bone by 1.3% per unit of PFAT (range 5.1 mm). Increasing sire PEMD reduced carcass fat weight by 3.8% in Maternal and 2% in Terminal sired lambs per unit of PEMD (range 4.3 and 7.8 mm), with no impact on bone. Increasing sire PWWT reduced carcass fat weight, but only at some experimental locations. Differences in composition varied between sire types with Maternal sired lambs having the most fat and Merino sired lambs the greatest bone weight. Genetic effects on fatness were greater than the environmental or production factor effects, with the converse true of bone. PMID:26914513

  18. Assessment of beef production from Brahman x Thai native and Charolais x Thai native crossbred bulls slaughtered at different weights. I: growth performance and carcass quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waritthitham, A; Lambertz, C; Langholz, H-J; Wicke, M; Gauly, M

    2010-05-01

    Effects of genotype and slaughter weight on growth performance and carcass quality of Brahman x Thai native (BRA) and Charolais x Thai native (CHA) crossbred bulls were studied. Thirty-four BRA and 34 CHA bulls raised under practical fattening beef farm conditions were randomly selected and slaughtered at 500, 550 and 600 kg live weight, respectively. Parameters of growth performance, carcass quality and commercial prime cuts were determined. Results showed that growth performance and carcass quality of CHA was better, since they showed higher weight gain, better body muscle score, higher carcass weight high dressing percentage, higher carcass muscle, less carcass fat and bone plus connective tissue proportions, better carcass classifications, greater loin eye area and higher commercial prime cut percentage. Slaughter weights up to 600 kg resulted in increased carcass weight, loin eye area and percentage of commercial prime cuts and can therefore be recommended. PMID:20374884

  19. Assessment of beef production from Brahman x Thai native and Charolais x Thai native crossbred bulls slaughtered at different weights. I: growth performance and carcass quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waritthitham, A; Lambertz, C; Langholz, H-J; Wicke, M; Gauly, M

    2010-05-01

    Effects of genotype and slaughter weight on growth performance and carcass quality of Brahman x Thai native (BRA) and Charolais x Thai native (CHA) crossbred bulls were studied. Thirty-four BRA and 34 CHA bulls raised under practical fattening beef farm conditions were randomly selected and slaughtered at 500, 550 and 600 kg live weight, respectively. Parameters of growth performance, carcass quality and commercial prime cuts were determined. Results showed that growth performance and carcass quality of CHA was better, since they showed higher weight gain, better body muscle score, higher carcass weight high dressing percentage, higher carcass muscle, less carcass fat and bone plus connective tissue proportions, better carcass classifications, greater loin eye area and higher commercial prime cut percentage. Slaughter weights up to 600 kg resulted in increased carcass weight, loin eye area and percentage of commercial prime cuts and can therefore be recommended.

  20. Carcass composition of market weight pigs subjected to heat stress in utero and during finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzen, S M; Boddicker, R L; Graves, K L; Johnson, T P; Arkfeld, E K; Baumgard, L H; Ross, J W; Safranski, T J; Lucy, M C; Lonergan, S M

    2015-05-01

    Objectives were to investigate the effects of prolonged gestational and/or postnatal heat stress on performance and carcass composition of market weight pigs. Pregnant gilts were exposed to gestational heat stress (GHS, 28°C to 34°C, diurnal) or thermal neutral (18°C to 22°C, diurnal) conditions during the entire gestation or during the first or second half of gestation. At 14 wk of age (58 ± 5 kg), barrows were housed in heat stress (32°C, HS) or thermal neutral (21°C, TN) conditions. Feed intake and BW were recorded weekly, and body temperature parameters were monitored twice weekly until slaughter (109 ± 5 kg). Organs were removed and weighed, and loin eye area (LEA) and back fat thickness (BF) were measured after carcass chilling. Carcass sides were separated into lean, separable fat, bone, and skin components and were weighed. Moisture, lipid, and protein content were determined in the LM at the 10th rib. Data were analyzed using a split plot with random effect of dam nested within gestational treatment. Carcass measurements included HCW as a covariate to control for weight. Planned orthogonal contrast statements were used to evaluate the overall effect of GHS in the first half, second half, or any part of gestation. Gestational heat stress did not alter postnatal performance or most body temperature parameters (P > 0.10). However, ADFI in the finishing period was increased (P pigs receiving GHS in the first half of gestation. Gestational heat stress during the first half of gestation decreased head weight as a percent of BW (P = 0.02), whereas GHS in the second half of gestation decreased bone weight as a percent of BW (P = 0.02). Heat stress reduced ADG, BW, and HCW (P pigs on both a weight and percentage basis (P pigs. In summary, GHS may affect head and bone development, subsequently affecting carcass composition. Chronic HS during finishing results in longer times to reach market weight and a leaner carcass once market weight is achieved.

  1. Effect of Different Slaughter Weights on Slaughter and Carcass Traits of Male Karayaka Lambs Reared under Intensive Production System

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    Yüksel Aksoy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the carcass traits of Karayaka lambs slaughtered at different slaughter weights (SWs and to find out optimum SWs. Male Karayaka lambs with 20 kg live weight (n=30 constituted the animal material of the study. Lambs were randomly divided into five SW groups; 30 (GI; n=6, 35 (GII; n=6, 40 (GIII; n=6; 45 (GIV; n=6 and 50 (GV; n=6 kg. Lamb fattening feed (concentrate feed, ad libitum and forage (lentil straw, 100g/lamb/day were used as the feed material. Lambs were sent to slaughter at target SWs. Following the slaughter, non-carcass components, tailless hot and cold carcass weights were taken. Carcasses were separated into six sections as leg, foreleg, back, loin, neck and others. Physical dissection was performed to investigate carcass composition. Only the differences in carcass dressing and skin percentages of slaughter groups were not found to be significant. Increasing carcass fat percentages and decreasing carcass lean and bone percentages were observed with increasing SWs. Considering the consumer preferences, current findings revealed that Karayaka lambs should be sent to slaughter at weights between 30-35 kg. However, considering the red meat deficit of the country, current market conditions and producer preferences, the optimum SW for Karayaka lambs were recommended to be between 40-45 kg.

  2. The Effect of Live Weight at Slaughter and Sex on Lambs Carcass Traits and Meat Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvester Žgur

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight (12 male and 16 female of improved Jezersko-solèava lambs with Romanov (JSR were used to evaluate the effect of live weight and sex on carcass traits and meat quality. Lambs were weaned at around 60 days of age. They were fed with commercial concentrate and hay ad libitum and slaughtered at 29 kg or 43 kg of average live weight at 105 or 126 days of age. Daily gain from birth to slaughter was higher than 300 g/day and was very similar for both groups. There were no differences between light and heavy lambs in carcass conformation and dressing percentage. Heavy lambs were longer, wider and fatter. The difference in lungs, head and pelt percentage were statistically significant. With increased live weight at slaughter the percentage of neck, back and rib with flank increased and chuck, shoulder and hindleg decreased. Muscle percentage in hindleg increased and bone percentage decreased as live weight increased. Considering meat quality, heavier lambs had lower lightness and higher redness. Lighter lambs had higher pH45 value. Differences between sexes were statistically significant for dressing percentage and carcass fatness with higher values for females. Males had higher percentage of liver and head, higher proportion of neck, chuck and shoulder and lower proportion of back and loin. Males tended to have higher values for muscle and bone proportion, and lower proportion of fat in hindleg. Males had lighter meat. Sex had no effect on pH values.

  3. The Effect of Live Weight at Slaughter and Sex on Lambs Carcass Traits and Meat Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvester Žgur

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight (12 male and 16 female of improved Jezersko-solèava lambs with Romanov (JSR were used to evaluate the effect of live weight and sex on carcass traits and meat quality. Lambs were weaned at around 60 days of age. They were fed with commercial concentrate and hay ad libitum and slaughtered at 29 kg or 43 kg of average live weight at 105 or 126 days of age. Daily gain from birth to slaughter was higher than 300 g/day and was very similar for both groups. There were no differences between light and heavy lambs in carcass conformation and dressing percentage. Heavy lambs were longer, wider and fatter. The difference in lungs, head and pelt percentage were statistically significant. With increased live weight at slaughter the percentage of neck, back and rib with flank increased and chuck, shoulder and hindleg decreased. Muscle percentage in hindleg increased and bone percentage decreased as live weight increased. Considering meat quality, heavier lambs had lower lightness and higher redness. Lighter lambs had higher pH45 value. Differences between sexes were statistically significant for dressing percentage and carcass fatness with higher values for females. Maleshad higher percentage of liver and head, higher proportion of neck, chuck and shoulder and lower proportion of back and loin. Males tended to have higher values for muscle and bone proportion, and lower proportion of fat in hindleg. Males had lighter meat. Sex had no effect on pH values.

  4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis for the prediction of hot carcass weight in buffalo calf

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    Leopoldo Iannuzzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty young buffalo male calves were fed ad libitum with a total mix ration and with vitamin-mineral integration for 14 months. Seven days before slaughter, the animals were weighed and bioelectrical impedance measurements were collected in live animals. Physical and chemical characteristics were assessed on the Longissimus dorsi muscle after slaughter. Correlations and regression equations were calculated to determine the possible use of bioelectrical impedance for evaluating hot carcass weight. Bioelectrical impedance analysis at different frequencies, simple correlation and analysis of regression were examined for all the data collected, supporting the possibility of hot carcass weight prediction with equation at multifrequency. The results show that, probably due to the variability in animal live weight, the distribution of the colour parameters was not normally distributed. Moreover, using different frequencies of resistance and reactance, hot carcass weight in buffalo may be predicted with the following equation: Y=98.47–8.84(Rs100KHz+4.41(Rs1000 KHz-116.27(Xc5 KHz+51.04(Xc50 KHz+20.30(Xc100 KHz-33.92(Xc500 KHz+9.01(Xc1000 KHz±ε (Adjusted R Square value of .907 and SE of 5.728 However, further studies are required to improve the technique also in buffalo, after standardization of the method.

  5. Effect of Sex, Colour and Weight Group on Carcass Characteristics of Japanese Quail

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    R. Tarhyel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted on Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica to determine the effects of sex, colour and weight group on their carcass characteristics. The birds were housed in deep litter pen at the poultry unit of University of Maiduguri Teaching and Research Farm and fed with broiler starter marsh from 5-8 weeks then later on from 8-52 weeks layer mash were introduced. The birds were divided into various groups (based on sex, colour and weight groups. The experiment lasted for 52 weeks in which the birds were slaughtered and divided into various parts and weighed. Results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of Variance (SPSS 16.0 statistical package and the means were separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test. Effect of sex on carcass characteristics were significant (p

  6. Effects of slaughter weight and carcass electrical stimulation on the quality and palatability of beef from young purebred bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M B; West, R L; Hentges, J F

    1986-12-01

    Seventy-eight purebred Angus and Brahman bulls (10 to 18 mo at slaughter) were used to determine the effects of slaughter weight (60, 80, 90 or 100% of the average mature-cow weight for the respective breed) and carcass electrical stimulation (500 V, 20 2-s impulses on the right side) on carcass and meat characteristics. Angus bulls grazed summer forage (millet) after weaning, while Brahman bulls were fed to stimulate gains achieved on forage by Angus bulls. Bulls were then placed in the feedlot for finishing to their designated slaughter weight (293, 381, 412 and 463 kg for Angus and 316, 420, 463 and 516 kg for Brahman). Coarse dark band formation and lean color problems normally associated with bullock carcasses were either eliminated or reduced by stimulation. Increasing slaughter weight from 60 to 90% was associated with an increase in panel tenderness scores for loin steaks. However, increasing slaughter weight from 90 to 100% little change was detected. On the other hand, shear values for loin steaks decreased with increasing slaughter weight. Stimulation increased the tenderness of loin steaks as determined by both panel scores and shear values, and of bottom round steaks (shear-force values). The data from this study suggest that meat from the bulls slaughtered at lighter weights was generally tough, but was improved when bulls were fed to heavier, yet acceptable weights. This research encourages implementation of electrical stimulation on carcasses from young bulls to improve quality-indicating factors. PMID:3818464

  7. Effects of slaughter weight and carcass electrical stimulation on the quality and palatability of beef from young purebred bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M B; West, R L; Hentges, J F

    1986-12-01

    Seventy-eight purebred Angus and Brahman bulls (10 to 18 mo at slaughter) were used to determine the effects of slaughter weight (60, 80, 90 or 100% of the average mature-cow weight for the respective breed) and carcass electrical stimulation (500 V, 20 2-s impulses on the right side) on carcass and meat characteristics. Angus bulls grazed summer forage (millet) after weaning, while Brahman bulls were fed to stimulate gains achieved on forage by Angus bulls. Bulls were then placed in the feedlot for finishing to their designated slaughter weight (293, 381, 412 and 463 kg for Angus and 316, 420, 463 and 516 kg for Brahman). Coarse dark band formation and lean color problems normally associated with bullock carcasses were either eliminated or reduced by stimulation. Increasing slaughter weight from 60 to 90% was associated with an increase in panel tenderness scores for loin steaks. However, increasing slaughter weight from 90 to 100% little change was detected. On the other hand, shear values for loin steaks decreased with increasing slaughter weight. Stimulation increased the tenderness of loin steaks as determined by both panel scores and shear values, and of bottom round steaks (shear-force values). The data from this study suggest that meat from the bulls slaughtered at lighter weights was generally tough, but was improved when bulls were fed to heavier, yet acceptable weights. This research encourages implementation of electrical stimulation on carcasses from young bulls to improve quality-indicating factors.

  8. Genetic gain for body weight, feed conversion and carcass traits in selected broiler strains

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    GS Schmidt

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Swine and Poultry Research Center (Embrapa Suínos e Aves maintains a chicken breeding program for meat production since 1985. Two control lines (LLc and PPc are maintained, whereas two male lines (TT and ZZ and three female lines (PP, VV and KK have been selected. This paper reports the genetic gain after 15 generations of combined selection (mass and independent culling levels in order to develop the commercial broiler stocks Embrapa 021 and Embrapa 022. Selection pressure has been exerted on weight gain, carcass traits and fertility. In addition, female lines have also been selected for egg production, whereas males have been selected for feed efficiency since 1992. All lines have been selected for breast area instead of carcass traits since 1999. The genetic gain was estimated as the deviation between selected lines and the respective unselected lines at 42 days of age. In female lines, body weight improved 504, 548 and 587 g; average breast area increased 27.60; 16.99 and 26.43 cm²; adjusted feed conversion (42-49 d improved -1.46; -0.97 and 1.76 units, and egg production varied 6.99; 7.12 and -3.43% units for PP, VV and KK, respectively. In male lines, body weight improved 758 and 408 g; average breast area increased 31.95 and 19.38 cm², and adjusted feed conversion improved (42-49 d -0.99 and 1.26 for TT and ZZ, respectively. This breeding program has been effective to generate genetic gain and to develop two commercial products, Embrapa 021 (standard and Embrapa 022 (high yield. Nevertheless, feed efficiency is still not satisfactory.

  9. Effects of Dietary Calcium on Body Weight, Carcass Fat Content and Adipocyte Size in Male Rats

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    J Malekzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Calcium is a micronutrient and now receiving much attention for its doubtful effects on weight and body fatness. A few mechanisms has been suggested for calcium effects on body fatness and the most emphasized one is the reducing of lipolysis and increasing lipogenesis via reducing parathyroid hormone levels. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of nondairy dietary calcium on adipogenesis and adipocyte size in male Sprague dawley rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was done from November to September of 2005 at Tehran school of health, nutrition department. 48 male Spragu-Dawley rats from Damgostar Company were used in three randomly selected groups. The rats were fed low (0.2% W/W, usual (0.5% W/W and high (1.2% W/W dietary calcium based on AIN-93M purified diet. Rats were housed in 12 hours light-dark cycle, 22-25°C room temperature with free access to their respective diets. At the end of the experiment, rats were decapitated and carcass fat content, carcass ash content and mean adipocyte size in testis, peritoneal and subcutaneous fat pads were compared in three groups. The SPSS 11.5 was used as statistical software, running analysis of variance for comparing the effects. Results: weight gain, carcass fat content and adipocyte size, in groups were not significantly different, while serum parathyroid hormone concentrations in high calcium group was significantly lower than low calcium group (p<0.05 and insignificantly lower than usual calcium group [12.36, 23.57 and 42.2 pg/dl respectively]. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol were also insignificantly lower in high calcium group. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that physiological concentration of dietary calcium is not effective on weight gain, body fatness and adipocyte size. Relatively equal fat content beside significant difference in serum parathyroid hormone levels is against the parathyroid theory of calcium

  10. Impact of two myostatin (MSTN mutations on weight gain and lamb carcass classification in Norwegian White Sheep (Ovis aries

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    Blichfeldt Thor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to estimate the effect of two myostatin (MSTN mutations in Norwegian White Sheep, one of which is close to fixation in the Texel breed. Methods The impact of two known MSTN mutations was examined in a field experiment with Norwegian White Sheep. The joint effect of the two MSTN mutations on live weight gain and weaning weight was studied on 644 lambs. Carcass weight gain from birth to slaughter, carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat classes were calculated in a subset of 508 lambs. All analyses were carried out with a univariate linear animal model. Results The most significant impact of both mutations was on conformation and fat classes. The largest difference between the genotype groups was between the wild type for both mutations and the homozygotes for the c.960delG mutation. Compared to the wild types, these mutants obtained a conformation score 5.1 classes higher and a fat score 3.0 classes lower, both on a 15-point scale. Conclusions Both mutations reduced fatness and increased muscle mass, although the effect of the frameshift mutation (c.960delG was more important as compared to the 3'-UTR mutation (c.2360G>A. Lambs homozygous for the c.960delG mutation grew more slowly than those with other MSTN genotypes, but had the least fat and the largest muscle mass. Only c.960delG showed dominance effects.

  11. Pastures, calf production and carcass weights of reindeer calves in the Oraniemi co-operative, Finnish Lapland

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    Jouko Kumpula

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climatic and density-dependent factors on calf production and carcass weights of reindeer calves were studied between the years 1965-87 in the Oraniemi co-operative, Finnish Lapland (67°50´N. The Oraniemi area is divided into five pasture regions, in which the annual home range of the reindeer varied from 300 to 600 km2. The more than trebled reindeer density over the period 1965-87 in Oraniemi had no detrimental effect on calf production (range 15-74 calves/100 females, nor on the mean carcass weight of the calves in 1974-87 (range 16.8-23.2 kg. The annual variations in calf% were explained best by snow conditions during the previous winter and spring and their effects on the nutritional status of the females. The carcass weights of the calves were greater following a warm, rainy May and lower following a warm, rainy June and July. The weather in spring affects the emergence of green vegetation, which is reflected in the condition of females and their milk production, while the weather in early and mid-supper probably affects the quantities of blood-sucking insects and their activity. Carcass weights upon slaughtering rose from September to the beginning of December but then fell quickly. The differences in reindeer densities between the five pasture regions was not reflected in the calf% over the period 1984-87, but the carcass weights of calves were lower following high densities in the pasture regions, especially in the winter pastures.

  12. The effect of slaughter weight and fattening intensity on changes in carcass fatness in young Holstein-Friesian bulls

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    Zenon Nogalski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of body weight (BW at slaughter and fattening intensity on carcass fatness and meat fatty acid profile in young Holstein- Friesian bulls. One-hundred bulls fattened on two levels of intensity a semi-intensive (SI and an intensive (I were used. Fattening was carried out to BW of 500, 550, 600, 650 and 700 kg. Live ultrasound measurements were performed to determine back fat thickness. Carcass dressing percentage, carcass conformation and fatness, intramuscular fat content of m. longissimus dorsi and fatty acid profile (by gas chromatography were determined after slaughter. Intensively fattened bulls were characterised by a greater carcass dressing percentage – by 1.17% on average, greater carcass conformation scores, greater external fat thickness and a greater intramuscular fat content than bulls SI fattened. Fat from intensively fattened bulls contained higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs – by 0.96/100 g on average. Semi-intensive fattening contributed to a decrease in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and to a significant increase in the concentrations of C18:2 and C20:4 fatty acids. Regardless of the fattening intensity, the n- 6/n-3 ratio was greater in heavier animals. The best results were achieved when young Holstein-Friesian bulls were fattened intensively to BW of 650 kg.

  13. Study on the association between tail lesion score, cold carcass weight and viscera condemnations in slaughter pigs

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    Dayane Lemos Teixeira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tail lesions, cold carcass weight and viscera condemnations in an Irish abattoir. The following data were collected at the evisceration point from every 3rd pig slaughtered over 7 days: farm identification, sex, tail lesion score, viscera inspection outcome and cold carcass weight. Tail lesions were scored according to a 5 point scale. Disease lesions responsible for lung (pleurisy, pneumonia and abscess, heart (pericarditis and liver (ascariasis condemnation were recorded based on the decision of the veterinary inspector. Data on 3,143 pigs from 61 batches were available. The relationship between disease lesions, tail lesion score and cold carcass weight was studied at individual carcass level, whereas the relationship between disease lesions and tail lesion score was studied at both carcass and batch level. Tail lesions (score ≥ 1 were found in 72% of the study population, with 2.3% affected by severe tail lesions (scores ≥ 3. Pleurisy (13.7% followed by pneumonia (10.4% showed the highest prevalence, whereas the prevalence of ascariasis showed the greatest variation between batches (0 to 75%. Tail lesion score, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia and pericarditis were associated with reductions in carcass cold weight (P ≤ 0.05 ranging from 3 to 6.6 kg. Tail lesion score was associated with condemnations for pleurisy, pneumonia and pleuropneumonia (P ≤ 0.05 at a batch level. Veterinary inspector shift was associated with condemnations for pneumonia, pleuropneumonia and pericarditis (P ≤ 0.05 at a carcass level and with pneumonia at a batch level. Sex was not associated with viscera condemnations but males were more likely to be affected by tail lesions. The relationship between overall tail lesion score and the lung diseases at batch level supports the relationship between poor health and poor welfare of pigs on farms. The inclusion of tail lesion scores at post mortem meat

  14. Study on the Association between Tail Lesion Score, Cold Carcass Weight, and Viscera Condemnations in Slaughter Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Harley, Sarah; Hanlon, Alison; O'Connell, Niamh Elizabeth; More, Simon John; Manzanilla, Edgar Garcia; Boyle, Laura Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tail lesions, cold carcass weight, and viscera condemnations in an Irish abattoir. The following data were collected at the evisceration point from every third pig slaughtered over 7 days: farm identification, sex, tail lesion score, viscera inspection outcome, and cold carcass weight. Tail lesions were scored according to a 5-point scale. Disease lesions responsible for lung (pleurisy, pneumonia, and abscess), heart (pericarditis), and liver (ascariasis) condemnation were recorded based on the decision of the veterinary inspector (VI). Data on 3,143 pigs from 61 batches were available. The relationship between disease lesions, tail lesion score, and cold carcass weight was studied at individual carcass level, while the relationship between disease lesions and tail lesion score was studied at both carcass and batch level. Tail lesions (score ≥1) were found in 72% of the study population, with 2.3% affected by severe tail lesions (scores ≥3). Pleurisy (13.7%) followed by pneumonia (10.4%) showed the highest prevalence, whereas the prevalence of ascariasis showed the greatest variation between batches (0-75%). Tail lesion score, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis were associated with reductions in carcass cold weight (P ≤ 0.05) ranging from 3 to 6.6 kg. Tail lesion score was associated with condemnations for pleurisy, pneumonia, and pleuropneumonia (P ≤ 0.05) at a batch level. VI shift was associated with condemnations for pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis (P ≤ 0.05) at a carcass level and with pneumonia at a batch level. Sex was not associated with viscera condemnations but males were more likely to be affected by tail lesions. The relationship between overall tail lesion score and the lung diseases at batch level supports the relationship between poor health and poor welfare of pigs on farms. The inclusion of tail lesion scores at post-mortem meat inspection

  15. Study on the Association between Tail Lesion Score, Cold Carcass Weight, and Viscera Condemnations in Slaughter Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Harley, Sarah; Hanlon, Alison; O’Connell, Niamh Elizabeth; More, Simon John; Manzanilla, Edgar Garcia; Boyle, Laura Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tail lesions, cold carcass weight, and viscera condemnations in an Irish abattoir. The following data were collected at the evisceration point from every third pig slaughtered over 7 days: farm identification, sex, tail lesion score, viscera inspection outcome, and cold carcass weight. Tail lesions were scored according to a 5-point scale. Disease lesions responsible for lung (pleurisy, pneumonia, and abscess), heart (pericarditis), and liver (ascariasis) condemnation were recorded based on the decision of the veterinary inspector (VI). Data on 3,143 pigs from 61 batches were available. The relationship between disease lesions, tail lesion score, and cold carcass weight was studied at individual carcass level, while the relationship between disease lesions and tail lesion score was studied at both carcass and batch level. Tail lesions (score ≥1) were found in 72% of the study population, with 2.3% affected by severe tail lesions (scores ≥3). Pleurisy (13.7%) followed by pneumonia (10.4%) showed the highest prevalence, whereas the prevalence of ascariasis showed the greatest variation between batches (0–75%). Tail lesion score, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis were associated with reductions in carcass cold weight (P ≤ 0.05) ranging from 3 to 6.6 kg. Tail lesion score was associated with condemnations for pleurisy, pneumonia, and pleuropneumonia (P ≤ 0.05) at a batch level. VI shift was associated with condemnations for pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis (P ≤ 0.05) at a carcass level and with pneumonia at a batch level. Sex was not associated with viscera condemnations but males were more likely to be affected by tail lesions. The relationship between overall tail lesion score and the lung diseases at batch level supports the relationship between poor health and poor welfare of pigs on farms. The inclusion of tail lesion scores at post-mortem meat inspection

  16. Visceral organ weights, digestion and carcass characteristics of beef bulls differing in residual feed intake offered a high concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; McGee, M

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) with digestion, body composition, carcass traits and visceral organ weights in beef bulls offered a high concentrate diet. Individual dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and growth were measured in a total of 67 Simmental bulls (mean initial BW 431 kg (s.d.=63.7)) over 3 years. Bulls were offered concentrates (860 g/kg rolled barley, 60 g/kg soya bean meal, 60 g/kg molasses and 20 g/kg minerals per vitamins) ad libitum plus 0.8 kg grass silage DM daily for 105 days pre-slaughter. Ultrasonic muscle and fat depth, body condition score (BCS), muscularity score, skeletal measurements, blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and total tract digestibility (indigestible marker) were determined. After slaughter, carcasses and perinephric and retroperitoneal fat were weighed, carcasses were graded for conformation and fat score and weight of non-carcass organs, liver, heart, kidneys, lungs, gall bladder, spleen, reticulo-rumen full and empty and intestines full, were determined. The residuals of the regression of DMI on average daily gain (ADG), mid-test metabolic BW (BW0.75) and the fixed effect of year, using all animals, were used to compute individual RFI coefficients. Animals were ranked on RFI and assigned to high (inefficient), medium or low groupings. Overall mean ADG and daily DMI were 1.6 kg (s.d.=0.36) and 9.4 kg (s.d.=1.16), respectively. High RFI bulls consumed 7 and 14% more DM than medium and low RFI bulls, respectively (P0.05) for ADG, BW, BCS, skeletal measurements, muscularity scores, ultrasonic measurements, carcass weight, perinephric and retroperitoneal fat weight, kill-out proportion and carcass conformation and fat score. However, regression analysis indicated that a 1 kg DM/day increase in RFI was associated with a decrease in kill-out proportion of 20 g/kg (Pcarcass conformation of 0.74 units (Pcarcass organs did not differ (P>0.05) between RFI groups except for the empty weight of reticulo

  17. Carcass Performance, Muscle Fiber, Meat Quality, and Sensory Quality Characteristics of Crossbred Pigs with Different Live Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hee Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In order to attain heavier live weight without impairing pork or sensory quality characteristics, carcass performance, muscle fiber, pork quality, and sensory quality characteristics were compared among the heavy weight (HW, average live weight of 130.5 kg), medium weight (MW, average weight of 111.1 kg), and light weight (LW, average weight of 96.3 kg) pigs at time of slaughter. The loin eye area was 1.47 times greater in the HW group compared to the LW group (64.0 and 43.5 cm2, p0.05). This greater performance by the HW group compared to the LW group can be explained by a greater total number (1,436 vs. 1,188, ×103, p0.05), and higher live weights did not influence sensory quality attributes, including tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. Therefore, these findings indicate that increased live weights in this study did not influence the technological and sensory quality characteristics. Moreover, muscles with a higher number of medium or large size fibers tend to exhibit good carcass performance without impairing meat and sensory quality characteristics. PMID:27433110

  18. Carcass Performance, Muscle Fiber, Meat Quality, and Sensory Quality Characteristics of Crossbred Pigs with Different Live Weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Min; Oh, Hee Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In order to attain heavier live weight without impairing pork or sensory quality characteristics, carcass performance, muscle fiber, pork quality, and sensory quality characteristics were compared among the heavy weight (HW, average live weight of 130.5 kg), medium weight (MW, average weight of 111.1 kg), and light weight (LW, average weight of 96.3 kg) pigs at time of slaughter. The loin eye area was 1.47 times greater in the HW group compared to the LW group (64.0 and 43.5 cm(2), p0.05). This greater performance by the HW group compared to the LW group can be explained by a greater total number (1,436 vs. 1,188, ×10(3), p0.05), and higher live weights did not influence sensory quality attributes, including tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. Therefore, these findings indicate that increased live weights in this study did not influence the technological and sensory quality characteristics. Moreover, muscles with a higher number of medium or large size fibers tend to exhibit good carcass performance without impairing meat and sensory quality characteristics. PMID:27433110

  19. Nutritive value of three tropical forage legumes and their influence on growth performance, carcass traits and organ weights of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambashi, Bienvenu; Kalala, Gaetan; Dochain, Denis; Mafwila, Jacques; Rollin, Xavier; Boudry, Christelle; Picron, Pascale; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    The effects of tropical forage legumes on feed intake, growth performance and carcass traits were investigated in 16 groups of two Large White × Duroc pigs. The diets consisted of a commercial corn-soybean meal diet as the basal diet and three forage-supplemented diets. Four groups of control pigs received daily 4 % of body weight of the basal diet, and 12 groups of experimental pigs were fed the basal diet at 3.2 % of body weight completed with fresh leaves of one of the three forage legumes (Psophocarpus scandens, Stylosanthes guianensis and Vigna unguiculata) ad libitum. The study lasted 90 days. The in vitro digestion and fermentation of the forage legumes were also determined. The in vitro digestible energy content of the legumes was between 0.72 and 0.77 that of the basal diet (14.4 MJ/kg dry matter (DM)). V . unguiculata was the most digestible forage legume expected for crude protein digestibility. Feeding forage legumes lowered the dry matter intake by 4.5 to 9.6 % (P < 0.05), final body weight (P = 0.013), slaughter weight, average daily gain and hot carcass weight (P < 0.05) without affecting the feed conversion ratio (FCR), dressing percentage and back fat thickness. In conclusion, using forage to feed pig could be interesting in pig smallholder production with limited access to concentrate, as FCR was not significantly affected. PMID:27154216

  20. Effect of propolis alcoholic extract on the weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseli Alves Ferreira Zanato

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of different rates of propolis alcoholic extract (PAE on the weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH of growing rabbits. Forty White New Zealand rabbits were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of four treatments and ten replicates per treatment. The rabbits were allocated individually in wire cages containing a nipple drinker and a semi-automatic feeder. The treatments were: T1 = control, T2 = 1ml of ethanol, T3 = 0.8ml of PAE, and T4 = 1.5ml of PAE. Commercial feed and water were provided ad libitum to the animals, and the treatment with cereal alcohol and PAE was administered orally using a 2ml syringe. It was concluded that the addition of PAE to the rabbits’ feeding resulted in weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH similar to those of animals which received the diets with ethanol without any addition, except for the paw weight, that was higher in the rabbits which were given PAE, and for the gastric system, that had a higher weight in the rabbits which received no addition to their diet.

  1. Divergent selection on 63-day body weight in the rabbit: response on growth, carcass and muscle traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combes Sylvie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of selection for growth rate on weights and qualitative carcass and muscle traits were assessed by comparing two lines selected for live body weight at 63 days of age and a cryopreserved control population raised contemporaneously with generation 5 selected rabbits. The animals were divergently selected for five generations for either a high (H line or a low (L line body weight, based on their BLUP breeding value. Heritability (h2 was 0.22 for 63-d body weight (N = 4754. Growth performance and quantitative carcass traits in the C group were intermediate between the H and L lines (N = 390. Perirenal fat proportion (h2 = 0.64 and dressing out percentage (h2 = 0.55 ranked in the order L Semitendinosus muscle, and the mean diameter of the constitutive myofibres were reduced in the L line only (N = 140. In the Longissimus muscle (N = 180, the ultimate pH (h2 = 0.16 and the maximum shear force reached in the Warner-Braztler test (h2 = 0.57 were slightly modified by selection.

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study for Certain Carcass Traits and Organ Weights in a Large White×Minzhu Intercross Porcine Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; WANG Li-gang; LIANG Jing; YAN Hua; ZHAO Ke-bin; LI Na; ZHANG Long-chao; WANG Li-xian

    2014-01-01

    Porcine carcass traits and organ weights have important economic roles in the swine industry. A total of 576 animals from a Large White×Minzhu intercross population were genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60K Beadchip and were phenotyped for 10 traits, speciifcally, backfat thickness (6-7 libs), carcass length, carcass weight, foot weight, head weight, heart weight, leaf fat weight, liver weight, lung weight and slaughter body weight. The genome-wide association study (GWAS) was assessed by Genome Wide Rapid Association using the mixed model and regression-genomic control approach. A total of 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (with the most signiifcant SNP being MARC0033464, P value=6.80×10-13) were located in a 9.76-Mb (31.24-41.00 Mb) region on SSC7 and were found to be signiifcantly associated with one or more carcass traits and organ weights. High percentage of phenotypic variance explanation was observed for each trait ranging from 31.21 to 67.42%. Linkage analysis revealed one haplotype block of 495 kb, in which the most signiifcant SNP being MARC0033464 was contained, on SSC7 at complete linkage disequilibrium. Annotation of the pig reference genome suggested 6 genes (GRM4, HMGA1, NUDT3, RPS10, SPDEF and PACSIN1) in this candidate linkage disequilibrium (LD) interval. Functional analysis indicated that the HMGA1 gene presents the prime biological candidate for carcass traits and organ weights in pig, with potential application in breeding programs.

  3. Polymorphism at the ovine beta3-adrenergic receptor locus: associations with birth weight, growth rate, carcass composition and cold survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, R H; Hickford, J G H; Hogan, A; Frampton, C

    2003-02-01

    The beta3-adrenergic receptors (ADRB3s) are predominantly found on the surface of adipocytes and are the major mediators of the lipolytic and thermogenic effects of high catecholamine concentrations. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis of part of the ovine beta3-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB3) intron was used to screen 12 large Merino half-sib families for sequence variation. Six different alleles that segregated in a Mendelian fashion were observed. The genetic basis for the allelic differences were identified by sequencing the ADRB3 (coding and non-coding regions) from animals that were homozygous for each of the alleles. Five sire lines (two Merino x Merino, two Merino x Coopworth, one Dorset Down x Coopworth) provided phenotypic and genotypic data used to ascertain the effects of allelic variation at the ADRB3 locus on birth weight, weaning weight, growth rate (up until weaning), carcass composition at 63 days post-weaning and cold survival. Statistical analyses within each half-sib family showed that in some sire lines (S13, S15, and S17) the inheritance of a particular allele was associated with increased birth weights and/or increased growth rates up until weaning. The inheritance of a particular sire allele was associated with fatter carcasses in sire line S16. Chi-squared analysis revealed the association of the E allele with cold survival and the D allele with cold-related mortality in sire line S14. Such associations support the hypothesis that ADRB3s are involved in energy homeostasis. With more research, the variation detected at the ADRB3 locus may assist in the genetic selection for desirable animal production traits.

  4. Alternative growth functions for predicting body, carcass, and breast weight in ducks: Lomolino equation and extreme value function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, A; Murawska, D; Golian, A; Mottaghitalab, M; Gitoee, A; Lopez, S; France, J

    2014-04-01

    In this study, 2 alternative growth functions, the Lomolino and the extreme value function (EVF), are introduced and their ability to predict body, carcass, and breast weight in ducks evaluated. A comparative study was carried out of these equations with standard growth functions: Gompertz, exponential, Richards, and generalized Michaelis-Menten. Goodness of fit of the functions was evaluated using R(2), mean square error, Akaike information criterion, and Bayesian information criterion, whereas bias factor, accuracy factor, Durbin-Watson statistic, and number of runs of sign were the criteria used for analysis of residuals. Results showed that predictive performance of all functions was acceptable, though the Richards and exponential equations failed to converge in a few cases for both male and female ducks. Based on goodness-of-fit statistics, the Richards, Gompertz, and EVF were the best equations whereas the worst fits to the data were obtained with the exponential. Analysis of residuals indicated that, for the different traits investigated, the least biased and the most accurate equations were the Gompertz, EVF, Richards, and generalized Michaelis-Menten, whereas the exponential was the most biased and least accurate. Based on the Durbin-Watson statistic, all models generally behaved well and only the exponential showed evidence of autocorrelation for all 3 traits investigated. Results showed that with all functions, estimated final weights of males were higher than females for the body, carcass, and breast weight profiles. The alternative functions introduced here have desirable advantages including flexibility and a low number of parameters. However, because this is probably the first study to apply these functions to predict growth patterns in poultry or other animals, further analysis of these new models is suggested.

  5. Carcass physical composition and meat quality of holstein calves, terminated in different finishing systems and slaughter weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Vincenzi dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazil sacrifices many dairy calves at birth, which can become a very serious problem merchandising. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the physical carcass composition and meat quality characteristics of Holstein calves in feedlot or pasture with supplementation, slaughtered at 140, 180, 220 or 260 kg body weight. In the early termination calves had on average 57 kg and 58 days of age. The confined animals were fed forage (corn and concentrated, in the ratio of 40:60 and concentrated pasture supplemented with 1% body weight. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 2 x 4 (two feeding systems x four slaughter weights. It was observed a significant interaction between slaughter weight and finishing system only for the texture of the meat. The finished animals on pasture showed improved texture with increased weight, whereas the confined animals did not affect the weight. Animals finished on pasture had higher muscle percentage (69.48% vs 66.57%, and lower fat percentage (9.58% and 9.75 kg vs 13.20% and 13.08 kg compared to confined animals. There was a linear increase in the total amount of muscle, bone and fat, muscle / bone ratio, compared edible portion / bone, palatability and juiciness when increased slaughter weight. The percentage of bone and meat coloring decreased linearly with the increase of slaughter weight. The proportion of muscle and fat, showed quadratic behavior. The animals of dairy breeds are excellent producers of lean meat, with good smoothness, flavor and juiciness.

  6. Evaluation of Columbia, USMARC-Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: V. Postfabrication carcass component weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postfabrication carcass component weights of 517 crossbred wether lambs were analyzed to evaluate 4 terminal-sire breeds. Wethers were produced over 3 yr from single-sire matings of 22 Columbia, 22 USMARC-Composite (Composite), 21 Suffolk, and 17 Texel rams to adult Rambouillet ewes. Lambs were rais...

  7. Phenotypic and Genetic Correlations of Feed Efficiency Traits with Growth and Carcass Traits in Nellore Cattle Selected for Postweaning Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceacero, Thais Matos; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely Dos Santos Gonçalves; Canesin, Roberta Carrilho; Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated phenotypic (rph) and genetic correlations (rg) between 8 feed efficiency traits and other traits of economic interest including weight at selection (WS), loin-eye area (LEA), backfat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF) in Nellore cattle. Feed efficiency traits were gain:feed, residual feed intake (RFI), residual feed intake adjusted for backfat thickness (RFIb) and for backfat and rump fat thickness (RFIsf), residual body weight gain (RG), residual intake and body weight gain (RIG), and residual intake and body weight gain using RFIb (RIGb) and RFIsf (RIGsf). The variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using a two-trait animal model. The heritability estimates (h2) were 0.14, 0.24, 0.20, 0.22, 0.19, 0.15, 0.11 and 0.11 for gain:feed, RFI, RFIb, RFIsf, RG, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf, respectively. All rph values between traits were close to zero, except for the correlation of feed efficiency traits with dry matter intake and average daily gain. High rg values were observed for the correlation of dry matter intake, average daily gain and metabolic weight with WS and hip height (>0.61) and low to medium values (0.15 to 0.48) with the carcass traits (LEA, BF, RF). Among the feed efficiency traits, RG showed the highest rg with WS and hip height (0.34 and 0.25) and the lowest rg with subcutaneous fat thickness (-0.17 to 0.18). The rg values of RFI, RFIb and RFIsf with WS (0.17, 0.23 and 0.22), BF (0.37, 0.33 and 0.33) and RF (0.30, 0.31 and 0.32) were unfavorable. The rg values of gain:feed, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf with WS were low and favorable (0.07 to 0.22), while medium and unfavorable (-0.22 to -0.45) correlations were observed with fat thickness. The inclusion of subcutaneous fat thickness in the models used to calculate RFI did not reduce the rg between these traits. Selecting animals for higher feed efficiency will result in little or no genetic change in growth and will decrease subcutaneous fat thickness

  8. Evaluation of Columbia, USMARC-Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: IV. Postfabrication carcass component weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousel, M R; Notter, D R; Leeds, T D; Zerby, H N; Moeller, S J; Lewis, G S

    2013-05-01

    Postfabrication carcass component weights of 517 crossbred wether lambs were analyzed to evaluate 4 terminal-sire breeds. Wethers were produced over 3 yr from single-sire matings of 22 Columbia, 22 USMARC-Composite (Composite), 21 Suffolk, and 17 Texel rams to adult Rambouillet ewes. Lambs were reared to weaning in an extensive western rangeland production system and finished in a feedlot on a high-energy finishing diet. When wethers reached a mean BW of 54.4, 61.2, or 68.0 kg, they were transported to The Ohio State University abattoir for harvest. After refrigeration for approximately 24 h, chilled carcass weight (CCW) was measured, carcasses were fabricated according to Style A of Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications, and postfabrication weights were recorded. At comparable numbers of days on feed, Suffolk-sired lambs had heavier (P wholesale cut weights) and high-value trimming loss were greatest (P 0.06) flank weight. Data adjusted to comparable CCW reduced the number of significant sire-breed effects and changed sire-breed rankings of carcass component weights, for which sire breeds differed. After adjusting, Suffolk-sired lambs had lighter (P < 0.05) loins than Columbia- and Composite-sired lambs, Composite-sired lambs had heavier (P < 0.05) high-value cuts than Suffolk-sired lambs, and Suffolk- and Columbia-sired lambs had heavier (P < 0.05) necks than Texel-sired lambs. At predicted backfat thickness of 6.6 mm, Composite-sired lambs had a greater (P < 0.05) percentage of high-value cuts than Suffolk-sired lambs before but not after trimming. Producers can use these results to select terminal-sire breeds that will complement their production system and improve lamb value.

  9. Evaluation of Columbia, USMARC-Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: IV. Postfabrication carcass component weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousel, M R; Notter, D R; Leeds, T D; Zerby, H N; Moeller, S J; Lewis, G S

    2013-05-01

    Postfabrication carcass component weights of 517 crossbred wether lambs were analyzed to evaluate 4 terminal-sire breeds. Wethers were produced over 3 yr from single-sire matings of 22 Columbia, 22 USMARC-Composite (Composite), 21 Suffolk, and 17 Texel rams to adult Rambouillet ewes. Lambs were reared to weaning in an extensive western rangeland production system and finished in a feedlot on a high-energy finishing diet. When wethers reached a mean BW of 54.4, 61.2, or 68.0 kg, they were transported to The Ohio State University abattoir for harvest. After refrigeration for approximately 24 h, chilled carcass weight (CCW) was measured, carcasses were fabricated according to Style A of Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications, and postfabrication weights were recorded. At comparable numbers of days on feed, Suffolk-sired lambs had heavier (P wholesale cut weights) and high-value trimming loss were greatest (P 0.06) flank weight. Data adjusted to comparable CCW reduced the number of significant sire-breed effects and changed sire-breed rankings of carcass component weights, for which sire breeds differed. After adjusting, Suffolk-sired lambs had lighter (P < 0.05) loins than Columbia- and Composite-sired lambs, Composite-sired lambs had heavier (P < 0.05) high-value cuts than Suffolk-sired lambs, and Suffolk- and Columbia-sired lambs had heavier (P < 0.05) necks than Texel-sired lambs. At predicted backfat thickness of 6.6 mm, Composite-sired lambs had a greater (P < 0.05) percentage of high-value cuts than Suffolk-sired lambs before but not after trimming. Producers can use these results to select terminal-sire breeds that will complement their production system and improve lamb value. PMID:23463555

  10. Effects of Dietary Calcium on Body Weight, Carcass Fat Content and Adipocyte Size in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    J Malekzadeh; SA Keshavarz; F Siassi; M Kadkhodaei; Eshraghian MR; AR Dorosti Motlagh; A Aliehpoor; M Chamari

    2006-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Calcium is a micronutrient and now receiving much attention for its doubtful effects on weight and body fatness. A few mechanisms has been suggested for calcium effects on body fatness and the most emphasized one is the reducing of lipolysis and increasing lipogenesis via reducing parathyroid hormone levels. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of nondairy dietary calcium on adipogenesis and adipocyte size in male Sprague dawley rats. Materials ...

  11. Non-synonymous FGD3 Variant as Positional Candidate for Disproportional Tall Stature Accounting for a Carcass Weight QTL (CW-3 and Skeletal Dysplasia in Japanese Black Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Takasuga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recessive skeletal dysplasia, characterized by joint- and/or hip bone-enlargement, was mapped within the critical region for a major quantitative trait locus (QTL influencing carcass weight; previously named CW-3 in Japanese Black cattle. The risk allele was on the same chromosome as the Q allele that increases carcass weight. Phenotypic characterization revealed that the risk allele causes disproportional tall stature and bone size that increases carcass weight in heterozygous individuals but causes disproportionately narrow chest width in homozygotes. A non-synonymous variant of FGD3 was identified as a positional candidate quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN and the corresponding mutant protein showed reduced activity as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Cdc42. FGD3 is expressed in the growth plate cartilage of femurs from bovine and mouse. Thus, loss of FDG3 activity may lead to subsequent loss of Cdc42 function. This would be consistent with the columnar disorganization of proliferating chondrocytes in chondrocyte-specific inactivated Cdc42 mutant mice. This is the first report showing association of FGD3 with skeletal dysplasia.

  12. Days on feed and sex effects on live weight and carcass traits measured by ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Saulo da Luz e; Titto Evaldo Antonio Lencioni; Leme Paulo Roberto; Martello Luciane Silva; Pereira Angélica Simone Cravo; Titto Rafael Martins; Nogueira Filho José Carlos Machado; Luchiari Filho Albino

    2005-01-01

    There is a paucity of information in the literature on body composition changes in Nellore cattle and its crosses, mainly on heifers and intact males. Ultrasound is a useful, low cost tool to easily obtain this information, with minimal animal stress. Effects of sex and days on feed on live weight (LW) and ultrasound Longissimus muscle area (ULMA) and subcutaneous fat thickness (UFAT) measurements were evaluated in F1 Piedmont Nelore, 27 heifers (HF) and 27 intact males (IM). HF and IM had a...

  13. Genetic parameters for carcass traits and body weight using a Bayesian approach in the Canchim cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirelles, S L C; Mokry, F B; Espasandín, A C; Dias, M A D; Baena, M M; de A Regitano, L C

    2016-06-10

    Correlation between genetic parameters and factors such as backfat thickness (BFT), rib eye area (REA), and body weight (BW) were estimated for Canchim beef cattle raised in natural pastures of Brazil. Data from 1648 animals were analyzed using multi-trait (BFT, REA, and BW) animal models by the Bayesian approach. This model included the effects of contemporary group, age, and individual heterozygosity as covariates. In addition, direct additive genetic and random residual effects were also analyzed. Heritability estimated for BFT (0.16), REA (0.50), and BW (0.44) indicated their potential for genetic improvements and response to selection processes. Furthermore, genetic correlations between BW and the remaining traits were high (P > 0.50), suggesting that selection for BW could improve REA and BFT. On the other hand, genetic correlation between BFT and REA was low (P = 0.39 ± 0.17), and included considerable variations, suggesting that these traits can be jointly included as selection criteria without influencing each other. We found that REA and BFT responded to the selection processes, as measured by ultrasound. Therefore, selection for yearling weight results in changes in REA and BFT.

  14. Replacing cottonseed meal with ground Prosopis juliflora pods; effect on intake, weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed pasture hay basal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Mohammed; Animut, Getachew

    2014-08-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the supplementary feeding value of ground Prosopis juliflora pod (Pjp) and cottonseed meal (CSM) and their mixtures on feed intake, body weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed a basal diet of pasture hay. Twenty-five yearling fat-tailed Afar rams with mean initial live weight 17.24 ± 1.76 kg (mean ± SD) were used in a randomized complete block design. Animals were blocked on their initial body weight. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks and carcass evaluation followed. Treatments were hay alone ad libitum (T 1) or with 300 g CSM (T 2), 300 g Pjp (T 5), 2:1 ratio (T 3) and 1:2 ratio of CSM : Pjp (T 4). The CP contents of the hay, CSM and Pjp were 10.5, 44.5 and 16.7 %, respectively. Hay DM intake was higher (P < 0.05) for non-supplemented and total DM intake was lower in non-supplemented. Average daily weight gain (ADG) was lower (P < 0.05) for T 1 compared to all supplemented treatments except T 5. Hot carcass weight and rib-eye muscle area also followed the same trend like that of ADG. Compared with feeding hay alone, supplementing with CSM or a mixture of CSM and Pjp appeared to be a better feeding strategy, biologically, for yearling Afar rams.

  15. Peso de carcaça e idade dos bovinos abatidos em Minas Gerais Carcass weight and age of bovines slaughtered in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Baptista

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O peso médio da carcaça quente de 505.005 bovinos abatidos em Minas Gerais, de janeiro a dezembro de 1997, foi de 222,31kg. Esses bovinos repartiram-se por sete categorias, com os seguintes pesos médios de carcaça: touro 235,58kg, novilhão 236,31kg, novilho intermediário 235,32kg, novilho 237,64kg, vaca 176,90kg, novilhona 176,86kg e novilha 148,60kg. Com base nos pesos médios de carcaça quente de categorias próximas, tomadas duas a duas, novilhões, novilhos intermediários e novilhos foram mensalmente comparados entre si. Da mesma forma, as novilhonas foram comparadas com as vacas. Os novilhos apresentaram sempre peso médio de carcaça significativamente superior ao dos novilhos intermediários (P0,05. Setenta e três por cento dos bovinos abatidos tinham idade igual ou superior a quatro anos. Tendo-se como indicador o binômio idade-peso ao abate, constatou-se um ainda insuficiente progresso qualitativo na produção de bovinos de abate em Minas Gerais.The mean carcass weight of 505,005 bovines, slaughtered at Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from January to December 1997, was 222.31kg. The bovines, belonging to seven categories, had the following mean carcass weights: bull 235.58kg, old bullock 236.31kg, intermediate bullock 235.32kg, bullock 237.64kg, cow 176.90kg, old heifer 176.86kg and heifer 148.60kg. Regarding hot carcass, mean weight of each two close classes such as old bullocks, intermediate bullocks and bullocks were compared. Cows and old heifers were also compared. Bullocks, when compared to intermediate bullocks, always presented significant higher carcass, mean weight (P0.05. Seventy three percent of these bovines were four-year-old or over. Concerning age and weight at slaughter, no qualitative progress in cattle breeding in the State of Minas Gerais was observed.

  16. Crescimento de regiões da carcaça de cordeiros abatidos com diferentes pesos Growth of carcass parts in slaughter lambs with different weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Furtado da Silva

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado no Setor de Ovinocultura do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, objetivando determinar o crescimento das principais partes da carcaça e suas proporções em relação ao peso de corpo vazio e peso de carcaça fria de cordeiros abatidos com diferentes pesos. Foram utilizados 22 cordeiros machos inteiros, filhos de carneiros Texel e ovelhas cruzas (Texel x Ideal. Destes, quatro foram abatidos no início do experimento (24 horas após o nascimento, seis ao desmame (45 dias de idade e os remanescentes aos 28 (6 animais ou 33 kg (6 animais. Os cordeiros foram confinados em baias individuais, com suas respectivas mães, até o desmame. A determinação do crescimento dos cortes da carcaça foi realizada através de equações alométricas, utilizando-se o logaritmo do peso de cada região da carcaça, em função do logaritmo do PCF ou PCV. As proporções de quarto, paleta e pescoço, em relação ao PCV, foram semelhantes (P>0,05 nos pesos de abates estudados, no entanto, houve diferença (PThis work was performed at the Ovine Section of Animal Science Department, at Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the growth of the carcass cuts and percentages in relation to the empty body weight and cold carcass weight of lambs slaughtered at different weights. Twenty-two intact male lambs, sired by Texel males, from crossbreed Texel-Ideal dams were used. Four lambs were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment (24 hours after birth and three groups of six lambs were slaughtered at weaning and when reaching the weight of 28 and 33kg. The lambs were confined in individual stall together, with their respective mothers until weaning (45 days of age. To study the growth of the different cuts of the carcass, regression equation of the log. of the weight of each part, as a function of the log. of the empty body weight or cold carcass weight were

  17. Effect of gender on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat and fat composition of pigs slaughtered at 125 kg of live weight destined to Teruel (Spain ham production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Garitano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Duroc x (Landrace x Large White barrows (n=60 and gilts (n=72, that consumed the same feed during the experimental period (25-125 kg of live weight were used. The duration of experimental period was 130 and 143 days for barrows and gilts respectively. The average daily gain and average daily feed intake were significantly higher (P<0.05 in barrows than in gilts, but no significant differences between sexes were observed for the feed conversion efficiency. The gender had not significant influence on carcass weight, carcass yield, carcass inner length, ham length and perimeter, but fat thickness at the level of Gluteus medius muscle and the last rib were significantly higher (P <0.05 in barrows than in gilts. The number of thighs removed per pig in the slaughterhouse was significantly higher in gilts than in barrows. The intramuscular fat (IMF percentage in Longissimus dorsi muscle was significantly higher in barrows than in gilts. The C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1 n-9, C20:1 and Σ MUFA proportions were significantly higher (P<0.05 in barrows than in gilts, while C10:0, C18:2 n-6, Σ n-6 and Σ PUFA proportions were higher in gilts than in barrows. Positive relations among IMF and C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 n-9, Σ SFA and Σ MUFA fatty acids were observed, whereas negative relations among IMF and C18:2 n-6 and PUFA fatty acids were detected. These results indicate that meat and fat quality was slightly better in barrows than in gilts.

  18. Impact of changes in weight, fat depth, and loin muscle depth on carcass yield and value and implications for selection and pricing of rams from terminal-sire sheep breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding objectives and selection indexes are necessary to support comprehensive genetic improvement programs. This study used off-test body weights (OTBW) or chilled carcass weights (CCW), ultrasonic measurements of fat depth (USFD, mm), and predicted ultrasound loin muscle depths (USLMD, mm) from ...

  19. Características das carcaças e componentes do peso vivo de cordeiros terminados em pastagem ou confinamento = Carcass characteristics and live weight components in lambs finished on pasture or feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Machado Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar as características da carcaça e os não-componentes da carcaça de cordeiros em quatro sistemas: cordeiros desmamados aos 60 dias mantidos em pastagem; cordeiros + ovelhas em pastagem; cordeiros + ovelhas em pastagem + concentrado em creep feeding (1% PV; cordeiros desmamados aos 60 dias e confinados. Os cordeiros foram abatidos quando a média de peso vivo do tratamento alcançou entre 32-34 kg. Após o abate, foram coletados e pesados os não-componentes da carcaça. Obtiveram-se pesos, rendimentos emedidas objetivas das carcaças e por cálculos a compacidade de perna e carcaça. A metodologia para determinar o momento de abate promoveu grande variação (7 a 14 kg no peso vivo final entre os animais do mesmo tratamento. Houve correlação significativa (p This experiment had the objective to evaluate the carcass characteristics and the non-carcass components of lambs on four systems: lambs weaned at 60 days of age kept on pasture; lambs + ewes kept on pasture; lambs + ewe + concentrate in creep feeding; lambs weaned at 60 days and kept on feedlot. Lambs were slaughteredwhen mean live weight from the tratament reached 32-34 kg. After slaughter, the noncarcass components were collected and weighed. The weight, yield and carcass measures were obtained, while leg and carcass compacity was calculated. The elected methodology fordetermining slaughter time resulted in large variation (7 to 14 kg in the slaughter weight of lambs from the same treatments. There was a significant (p < 0.05 positive correlation between hot (r = 0.83 and cold (r = 0.85 carcass weights, and slaughtered weight. Lambsweaned and finished on pasture showed lower (p < 0.05 hot carcass dressing (42.3%, cold carcass dressing (40.2%, carcass biological dressing (51.8% and thorax width (22.99 cm and higher (p < 0.05 gastrointestinal content (5.6 kg. The presence of dams had aninfluence in systems were there was no weaning, in regard to carcass

  20. Direct and social genetic effects on body weight at 270 days and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostellato, R; Sartori, C; Bonfatti, V; Chiarot, G; Carnier, P

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate covariance components for BW at 270 d (BW270) and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs using models accounting for social effects and to compare the ability of such models to fit the data relative to models ignoring social interactions. Phenotypic records were from 9,871 pigs sired by 293 purebred boars mated to 456 crossbred sows. Piglets were born and reared at the same farm and randomly assigned at 60 d of age to groups (6.1 pigs per group on average) housed in finishing pens, each having an area of 6 m(2). The average additive genetic relationship among group mates was 0.11. Pigs were slaughtered at 277 ± 3 d of age and 169.7 ± 13.9 kg BW in groups of nearly 70 animals each. Four univariate animal models were compared: a basic model (M1) including only direct additive genetic effects, a model (M2) with nonheritable social group (pen) effects in addition to effects in M1, a model (M3) accounting for litter effects in addition to M2, and a model (M4) accounting for social genetic effects in addition to effects in M3. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of covariance components were obtained for BW270; carcass backfat depth; carcass lean meat content (CLM); iodine number (IOD); and linoleic acid content (LIA) of raw ham subcutaneous fat; subcutaneous fat depth in the proximity of semimembranosus muscle (SFD1) and quadriceps femoris muscle (SFD2); and linear scores for ham round shape (RS), subcutaneous fat (SF), and marbling. Likelihood ratio tests indicated that, for all traits, M2 fit the data better than M1 and that M3 was superior to M2 except for SFD1 and SFD2. Model M4 was significantly better than M3 for BW270 (P manufacturing. Such effects should be exploited and taken into account in design of breeding programs for heavy pigs.

  1. IDENTIFICATIONS OF CARCASS CHARACTERISTIC FOR ESTIMATING THE COMPOSITION OF BEEF CARCASS

    OpenAIRE

    H. Hafid; R.E. Gurnadi; R. Priyanto; A. Saefuddin

    2014-01-01

    The research aimed to identify carcass characteristic that can be used for estimating composition ofbeef carcass. It was used 165 Brahman crossbred cattle in this research. Carcass characteristics wereweight of a half cold carcass (WC) ranged from 96 to 151 kg, loin eye area (LEA) ranged from 22.09 to304.8 mm2, 12th rib fat thickness (FT12) ranged from 0.80 to 2.90 mm, meat ranged from 53.55 to 90.10kg and carcass fat ranged from 5.54 to 39.72 kg. Result showed that a half weight cold carcass...

  2. SID tryptophan levels and B6 vitamin supplementation do not change blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and meat quality of barrows (70-100kg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilha, L D; Huepa, L M D; Fachinello, M R; Pozza, M S S; Vasconcellos, R S; Bonagurio, L P; Marcato, S M; Pozza, P C

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of standardized ileal digestible (SID) tryptophan and B6 on blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and longissimus lumborum quality of barrows (70-100kg). Sixty-four crossbred barrows averaging 70.77±2.07kg were distributed in a 4×2 factorial with four SID tryptophan levels (0.130, 0.155, 0.180, and 0.205%) and two B6 levels (1 and 5mg/kg) in eight replicates of one animal each. The meat lightness degree answered linearly (P=0.015) to SID tryptophan levels and the shear force answered quadratically (P=0.050), with estimates of a higher value (31.67N) at 0.163% SID tryptophan. Although B6 showed positive effects (PB6. PMID:27054283

  3. Effect of Carcass Traits on Carcass Prices of Holstein Steers in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, M; Cho, K.H.; S. S. Lee; Choy, Y. H.; Kim, H S; Cho, C. I.; Choi, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of carcass traits on carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea. Phenotypic data consisted of 76,814 slaughtered Holsteins (1 to 6 yrs) from all over Korea. The means for live body weight at slaughter (BWT), chilled carcass weight (CWT), dressing percentage (DP), quantity grade index (QGI), eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS), carcass unit price (CUP), and carcass sell prices (CSP) were 729.0 kg, 414.2 kg, 56.79...

  4. 不同屠宰体重商品猪胴体性能、肉品质及相关关系研究%Studies on carcass performance, meat quality and correlation of different slaughter weights in finishing pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建凤; 王继英; 蔺海朝; 李永刚; 王诚

    2012-01-01

    测定了体重70~140 kg阶段120头商品猪的胴体品质和肉质特性,分析了商品猪胴体性能、肉质性状随体重的变化规律及相关程度,为确定适宜上市屠宰体重提供依据.结果表明:70~100 kg体重阶段,随体重增大,平均背膘厚、眼肌面积、皮脂率、肉色和大理石纹显著升高,后腿比例、瘦肉率、骨骼率、L和b值显著降低.胴体和肉质性状间相关程度有强有弱,相关系数有正有负.相同性状间有较强的正相关,相反性状间有较强的负相关.在70~140 kg阶段,胴体重、胴体直长、胴体斜长、眼肌面积、平均背膘厚、瘦肉率、皮脂率、骨骼率、肉色和L值与体重之间呈显著的回归关系,其他指标与体重间的线性相关不显著.%Carcass performance and meat quality of 120 finishing pigs at 70 ~ 140 kg body weigh stages were studied. In addition, the change pattern and the relativity of dressed carcass and meat quality accompanying body weight were analyzed for investigating the appropriate body weight of market slaughter in finishing pigs. Results showed that weight 70 ~ 100 kg stages, with the weight increase, average fatback thickness, eye muscle area, skin and fat percentage, meat color and marbling score increased significantly, while, ham percentage, lean meat percentage, bone percentage, L and b value decreased significantly. The correlation degree of carcass traits and meat traits were strong or weakness, either positive or negative correlation coefficients exsited. The same traits had strong positive correlation, the adverse traits had strong negative correlation. At the 70 - 140 kg body weight stage, carcass weight, carcass straight length, carcass slanting length, eye muscle area, average fatback thickness, lean percentage, skin and fat percentage, bone percentage, meat color, L and the body weight assumed extremely remarkable or remarkable return relations, while, the linear correlation of other indexes and

  5. Effects of age, weight, and fat slaughter end points on estimates of breed and retained heterosis effects for carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Utrera, A; Cundiff, L V; Gregory, K E; Koch, R M; Dikeman, M E; Koohmaraie, M; Van Vleck, L D

    2006-01-01

    The influence of different levels of adjusted fat thickness (AFT) and HCW slaughter end points (covariates) on estimates of breed and retained heterosis effects was studied for 14 carcass traits from serially slaughtered purebred and composite steers from the US Meat Animal Research Center (MARC). Contrasts among breed solutions were estimated at 0.7, 1.1, and 1.5 cm of AFT, and at 295.1, 340.5, and 385.9 kg of HCW. For constant slaughter age, contrasts were adjusted to the overall mean (432.5 d). Breed effects for Red Poll, Hereford, Limousin, Braunvieh, Pinzgauer, Gelbvieh, Simmental, Charolais, MARC I, MARC II, and MARC III were estimated as deviations from Angus. In addition, purebreds were pooled into 3 groups based on lean-to-fat ratio, and then differences were estimated among groups. Retention of combined individual and maternal heterosis was estimated for each composite. Mean retained heterosis for the 3 composites also was estimated. Breed rankings and expression of heterosis varied within and among end points. For example, Charolais had greater (P or = 0.05) at a constant age. The MARC III composite produced 9.7 kg more (P < 0.01) fat than Angus at AFT of 0.7 cm, but 7.9 kg less (P < 0.05) at AFT of 1.5 cm. For MARC III, the estimate of retained heterosis for HCW was significant (P < 0.05) at the lowest level of AFT, but at the intermediate and greatest levels estimates were nil. The pattern was the same for MARC I and MARC III for LM area. Adjustment for age resulted in near zero estimates of retained heterosis for AFT, and similarly, adjustment for HCW resulted in nil estimates of retained heterosis for LM area. For actual retail product as a percentage of HCW, the estimate of retained heterosis for MARC III was negative (-1.27%; P < 0.05) at 0.7 cm but was significantly positive (2.55%; P < 0.05) at 1.5 cm of AFT. Furthermore, for MARC III, estimates of heterosis for some traits (fat as a percentage of HCW as another example) also doubled in magnitude

  6. Effects of age, weight, and fat slaughter end points on estimates of breed and retained heterosis effects for carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Utrera, A; Cundiff, L V; Gregory, K E; Koch, R M; Dikeman, M E; Koohmaraie, M; Van Vleck, L D

    2006-01-01

    The influence of different levels of adjusted fat thickness (AFT) and HCW slaughter end points (covariates) on estimates of breed and retained heterosis effects was studied for 14 carcass traits from serially slaughtered purebred and composite steers from the US Meat Animal Research Center (MARC). Contrasts among breed solutions were estimated at 0.7, 1.1, and 1.5 cm of AFT, and at 295.1, 340.5, and 385.9 kg of HCW. For constant slaughter age, contrasts were adjusted to the overall mean (432.5 d). Breed effects for Red Poll, Hereford, Limousin, Braunvieh, Pinzgauer, Gelbvieh, Simmental, Charolais, MARC I, MARC II, and MARC III were estimated as deviations from Angus. In addition, purebreds were pooled into 3 groups based on lean-to-fat ratio, and then differences were estimated among groups. Retention of combined individual and maternal heterosis was estimated for each composite. Mean retained heterosis for the 3 composites also was estimated. Breed rankings and expression of heterosis varied within and among end points. For example, Charolais had greater (P or = 0.05) at a constant age. The MARC III composite produced 9.7 kg more (P < 0.01) fat than Angus at AFT of 0.7 cm, but 7.9 kg less (P < 0.05) at AFT of 1.5 cm. For MARC III, the estimate of retained heterosis for HCW was significant (P < 0.05) at the lowest level of AFT, but at the intermediate and greatest levels estimates were nil. The pattern was the same for MARC I and MARC III for LM area. Adjustment for age resulted in near zero estimates of retained heterosis for AFT, and similarly, adjustment for HCW resulted in nil estimates of retained heterosis for LM area. For actual retail product as a percentage of HCW, the estimate of retained heterosis for MARC III was negative (-1.27%; P < 0.05) at 0.7 cm but was significantly positive (2.55%; P < 0.05) at 1.5 cm of AFT. Furthermore, for MARC III, estimates of heterosis for some traits (fat as a percentage of HCW as another example) also doubled in magnitude

  7. Procedures for evaluating pork carcass and cut composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five studies were completed to investigate various production and evaluation procedures related to pork carcass composition and meat quality. A comparison of market hog characteristics of pigs selected by feeder pig frame size or current USDA feeder pig standards was made. In general, feeder pig frame size did differentiate between carcass skeletal traits (i.e., carcass length, radius length). However, frame sizing did not improve on current feeder pig grades in discriminating between carcass composition characteristics. Liquid scintillation of potassium-40 was used to estimate pork carcass composition of 124 boars barrows and gilts, ranging from 23 to 114 kg live weight. Pigs were counted live, slaughtered and one side of the carcass was counted. The side was then ground and sampled for percent protein, fat and moisture. Carcass weight and 40K determined potassium of the carcass explain more of the variation in carcass composition than live animal traits. Carcass measurements were used to determine value and percentages of fat standardized lean, protein, fat and moisture in the carcass using 265 barrow and gilt carcasses. In a separate study, belly composition was estimated from carcass and belly parameters (n = 338). Ribbed carcasses measurements were almost always superior to unribbed carcass measurements when estimating carcass or belly composition. Tenth rib fat depth was the most useful single variable for predicting belly fat, protein, moisture and lean. Some precision and accuracy were lost when using parameters from unribbed carcasses to estimate carcass or belly composition as compared to including parameters from ribbed carcasses. The sensory and nutritive value of cooked pork center loin chops and roasts were investigated. Levels of fat cover and internal temperature did not greatly affect cholesterol content

  8. Estudo de carcaça do bagre africano (Clarias gariepinus em diferentes categorias de peso Study of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus carcass in different weight categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Aparecida Pinto

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar carcaças de Clarias gariepinus, em três categorias de peso (P1=inferior a 1kg; P2=de 1 a 2kg e P3=superior a 2kg, para analisar o rendimento de carcaça com cabeça (RCC, sem cabeça (RCS, filé (RFI, músculos abdominais (RMA, partes comestíveis (RPC, tronco limpo (RTL, porcentagem de pele (PPE, cabeça (PCA, vísceras (PVI, resíduos totais (PRE e determinar a composição proximal do filé (proteína bruta, umidade, gordura e cinza. Foram utilizados 60 bagres, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, 3 tratamentos com 20 repetições, em nível de significância de 5%. O rendimento de filé foi maior para P2 (38,61% que para P1 e P3. O rendimento das partes comestíveis e tronco limpo foram superiores para P2 (RPC=46,27% e RTL=56,67%, mas sem diferirem do P3. O rendimento de carcaça sem cabeça foi maior para P3, não diferindo de P2. O P2 foi inferior para PPE (4,64%, PCA (23,62% e PRE (53,73%, sem diferir de P3, para porcentagem de cabeça e de resíduos totais. Não houve diferença significativa para rendimentos dos músculos abdominais, carcaça com cabeça e vísceras. P2 (2,25% e 77,49% não diferiu do P1 (1,51% e 77,78% e P3 (3,03% e 76,39%, para gordura e umidade, respectivamente, enquanto, para proteína bruta, não houve diferença significativa. Conclui-se que P2 apresentou melhores rendimentos de filetagem, ao passo que a composição proximal do filé, nas três categorias de peso, foi relativamente similar, com aumento de deposição de gordura nos peixes acima de 1kg de peso vivo.The aim of this experiment was to study Clarias gariepinus carcass in three weight categories (P1=below 1kg; P2= 1 to 2kg and P3=over 2kg to analyze yield of carcass with head (YCH, without head (YCW, fillet (YF, abdominal muscles (YAM, eatable parts (YEP, dressed out (YDO and percentages of skin (PSK, head (PHE, viscera (PVI, total residues (PTR; and to determine the proximate composition of fillet (crude

  9. Virtual dissection of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann;

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of computed tomography (CT) as a reference method for estimating the lean meat percentage (LMP) of pig carcasses. The current reference is manual dissection which has a limited accuracy due to variability between butchers. A contextual Bayesian classification scheme...... is applied to classify volume elements of full body CT-scans of pig carcasses into three tissue types. A linear model describes the relation between voxels and the full weight of the half carcass, which can be determined more accurately than that of the lean meat content. Two hundred and ninety-nine half pig...... carcasses were weighed and CT-scanned. The explained variance of the model was R-2 = 0.9994 with a root-mean-squared error of prediction of 83.6 g. Applying this method as a reference will ensure a more robust calibration of sensors for measuring the LMP, which is less prone to variation induced by manual...

  10. Prediction of lean meat proportion of lamb carcasses

    OpenAIRE

    Cadavez, Vasco

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify a reduced pertinent set of variables from an original set of 18 carcass measurements and the development of linear regression models to predict lean meat yield of lamb carcasses. Forty- six male lambs, 26 of Churro Galego Bragançano Portuguese local breed and 20 of Suffolk breed were used. Lambs were slaughtered and carcasses were weighed approximately 30 min after slaughter in order to obtain hot carcass weight (HCW). After cool...

  11. Genetic parameters for EUROP carcass traits within different groups of cattle in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hickey, J.M.; Keane, M.G.; Kenny, D.A.; Cromie, A.R.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to test the ability of systems of weighing and classifying bovine carcasses used in commercial abattoirs in Ireland to provide information that can be used for the purposes of genetic evaluation of carcass weight, carcass fatness class, and carcass conformation

  12. Influência do peso vivo, da idade e do sexo sobre características de carcaças de equinos Influence of body weight, age and sex on characteristics of carcasses of equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Furtado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar as características quantitativas de carcaças de equinos, classificaram-se 72 equinos sem raça definida segundo o peso vivo, a idade e o sexo. Foram determinados o peso de carcaça fria, a quebra ao resfriamento, o rendimento de carcaça, os pesos de dianteiro e traseiro e a relação músculo/ossos. O modelo estatístico foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3 x 3, com dois sexos, três faixas etárias e três faixas de peso vivo. A maior faixa de peso correspondeu a maior peso de carcaça, com média de 201,71 kg; e a maior relação músculo/osso, com 77,69%. A menor quebra ao resfriamento foi observada na menor faixa de peso, com 2,03%. A média para rendimento de carcaça foi de 51,20%, para dianteiro 54,86% e para traseiro 45,06%. Houve interação entre sexo e idade dos animais para a variável rendimento de carcaça, que foi maior nos machos jovens (até 8 anos que nos mais velhos e nas fêmeas. Portanto, no abate de equinos, é recomendável priorizar animais jovens e mais pesados, por apresentarem maior quantidade de carne tipo exportação.With the objective of evaluating the quantitative characteristics of carcasses of equines, 72 undefined breed equines were classified by body weight, age and sex. It was determined cold carcass weight, cooling loss, carcass yield, front and back weight and muscle/bone ratio. The statistical model used was a completely randomized design in a 2 x 3 x 3 factorial scheme, with the two sexes, three age ranges and three ranges of body weights. The highest weight range corresponded to the highest carcass weight with average of 201.71 kg, and the highest muscle/bone ratio with 77.69%. The lowest cooling loss was observed in the lowest weight range, with 2.03%. The average for carcass yield was of 51.20%, for front and back, 54.86% and 45.06%, respectively. There was an interaction between sex and age of the animals for carcass yield variable, which was higher in

  13. Large Pelagic Carcass Weights (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Swordfish have been a commercially caught species since the early 1800s. During this early stage of the fishery, harpoon was the principal gear and the fishing was...

  14. Ganho de peso, características da carcaça e componentes não-carcaça de cordeiros da raça Texel terminados em diferentes sistemas alimentares Weight gain, carcass characteristics and non carcass components of lambs of breed Texel finished in different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Carvalho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes sistemas alimentares sobre o ganho de peso, as características da carcaça e os componentes não-carcaça de cordeiros em fase de terminação. Foram utilizados 18 cordeiros, machos castrados, da raça Texel, distribuídos aleatoriamente nos seguintes tratamentos: T1 = confinamento; T2 = pastagem com suplementação e T3 = pastagem sem suplementação. Os animais confinados foram alimentados com uma dieta contendo feno de Tifton-85 e concentrado na proporção de 40:60 na matéria seca. A pastagem utilizada foi Tifton-85. Os animais suplementados receberam o mesmo alimento concentrado oferecido no confinamento na proporção de 2% do peso vivo. Aos 144 dias de idade, após jejum de 12 horas, realizaram-se os abates. Foram verificados menores peso final (PThe objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of different feeding systems on the weight gain, characteristics of the carcass and non carcass components of lambs in termination phase. Eighteen lambs were used, castrated males, of the breed Texel, distributed randomly in the following treatments: T1 = confinement; T2 = pasture with supplementation and T3 = pasture without supplementation. The confined animals had been fed with a diet containing Tifton-85 hay and concentrated in the ratio of 40:60 in dry matter. The used pasture was Tifton-85. The supplemented animals received the same concentrated feed offered in the confinement in the ratio from 2% of live weight. To the 144 days of age, after fastening of 12 hours, the lambs were slaughtered. It was verified lesser final weight (P<0.05, daily weight gain, hot carcass weight, hot carcass yield, weight and proportion of rib and weights of hindquarter, shoulder and neck (P<0.01, in the lambs finished in the pasture, when compared with those confined or supplemented in condition of grazing. The proportions of hindquarter and shoulder had been bigger in the lambs finished in

  15. Crescimento de cordeiros abatidos com diferentes pesos: osso, músculo e gordura da carcaça e de seus cortes Growth of lambs slaughtered at different weights: bone, muscle and fat of the carcass and its cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Furtado da Silva

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado no Setor de Ovinocultura do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, objetivando determinar as quantidades de osso, músculo e gordura da carcaça e o crescimento de osso e músculo da carcaça e dos diferentes cortes da mesma. Foram utilizados 22 cordeiros machos inteiros, filhos de carneiros Texel e ovelhas cruza (Texel x Ideal. Desses, quatro/oram abatidos no início do experimento (24 horas após o nascimento, e os restantes, ao desmame (45 dias de idade e aos 28 e 33kg. Os cordeiros foram confinados em baias individuais, com suas respectivas mães, até o desmame (45 dias de idade. A determinação do crescimento dos tecidos da carcaça e de seus cortes (quarto, paleta, costela, espinhaço e pescoço foi realizada através de equações alométricas, utilizando-se o logaritmo do peso de osso ou músculo, em função do logaritmo do peso de corpo vazio (PCV ou peso de carcaça fria (PCF. As quantidades de osso e músculo aumentaram (P0,05 com a elevação do peso de carcaça fria. A proporção de gordura aumentou do nascimento ao desmame (PThis experiment was developed at the Ovine Section of Animal Science Department, at Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil- The purpose of this experiment was to determine the quantity of bone, muscle and fat of the carcass, and the growth ofbone and muscle of the carcass, and of the carcass cuts. Twenty-two intact mate lambs, sired by Texel males, from crossbreed Texel -Ideal dams were used. Four lambs were siaughtered at the beginning of the experiment (24 hours after birth and groups of six lambs were siaughtered at weaning and when reaching 28 and 33kg. The lambs were kept in individual stalls together with their respective mothers until weaning (45 days of age. To study the growth of the carcass tissues and carcass cuts (hindquarter, shoulder, rib, backbone, neck, regression equations of the log of weight of each tissue, as a function of the log of

  16. Effect of chick weight on performance and carcass yield of broilers Influência do peso inicial sobre o desempenho e o rendimento de carcaça e cortes de frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J.C. Lara

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of weight classes (light, medium and heavy of Ross chicks on performance and carcass yield and main cuts, was studied using a completely randomized design with six replicates of 30 males and 30 females each. The chicks were fed on the same diets during the growing period (1-43 days. The live weight, feed intake, feed:weight gain ratio, viability, carcass yield and main cuts (breast, whole leg, wing and back and percentages of giblets (gizzard, liver, heart and guts were analyzed. The heavy weight class chicks were heavier (P0.05. The males showed higher carcass yield than the females of medium and heavy weight classes chicks. The whole leg yield of heavy weight class chicks was higher than the medium weight class chicks (PEstudou-se a influência do peso de pintos da linhagem Ross sobre o desempenho de 1 a 43 dias de idade e sobre os rendimentos de carcaça e de cortes nobres. Pintos das categorias de peso leve, média e pesada foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em seis repetições de 30 machos e 30 fêmeas cada. As rações utilizadas foram as mesmas para todos os tratamentos. Avaliaram-se o peso vivo, o consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar, a viabilidade, os rendimentos de carcaça e de cortes (peito, coxa, asa e dorso e a porcentagem de vísceras (moela, coração, fígado e intestinos. As aves da categoria pesada apresentaram maior peso (P0,05. Quanto ao rendimento de carcaça, os machos foram superiores às fêmeas nas categorias média e pesada. O rendimento de coxa mais sobrecoxa na categoria pesada foi maior do que na categoria média (P<0,05. Os tratamentos influenciaram o peso corporal, o consumo de ração, os rendimentos de carcaça e coxa mais sobrecoxa e não influenciaram a conversão alimentar, a viabilidade, o rendimento de peito e a porcentagem de vísceras.

  17. Electromagnetic scanning to estimate carcass lean content of Taiwan native broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R S; Chen, L R; Huang, S C; Liu, C Y

    2002-07-01

    To estimate lean content of Taiwan native broiler carcasses accurately, objectively and rapidly, electrical conductivity measurements of broiler carcasses and other relative factors (carcass weight, length and temperature) were used in multiple linear regression analysis for lean prediction. Forty native broiler carcasses, with average market weight 2477.5±465.5 g, were scanned through a 10 MHz electromagnetic field created by an electromagnetic scanner (SA-3203) to measure the total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) index. After scanning, each broiler carcass was separated into wing, breast, leg and back. Each primal cut was dissected into lean, fat and bone. The weight, length, temperature and TOBEC index of broiler carcass were significantly correlated with lean weight of broiler carcass (Pindex showed higher coefficient of determination (R(2)=0.968) and lower coefficient of variation (CV=4.178) with an equation using beheaded carcass weight, temperature and TOBEC index as variables. PMID:22060853

  18. Yield of warm beef carcass meat from simmental breed

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzelov, Aco

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of live weight upon yield of warm beef carcass meat from Simmental breed. Twenty 12 - 18 month-old male bullocks were assigned with average live weight 450,52 ± 4,68 kg. The yield of warm beef carcass meat, edible and non-edible by-products was determined

  19. Evaluation of Simmental carcass EPD estimated using live and carcass data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, D H; Pollak, E J; Quaas, R L

    2004-03-01

    This study was conducted to compare carcass EPD predicted using yearling live animal data and/or progeny carcass data, and to quantify the association between the carcass phenotype of progeny and the sire EPD. The live data model (L) included scan weight, ultrasound fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and percentage of intramuscular fat from yearling (369 d of age) Simmental bulls and heifers. The carcass data model (C) included hot carcass weight, fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and marbling score from Simmental-sired steers and cull heifers (453 d of age). The combined data model (F) included live animal and carcass data as separate but correlated traits. All data and pedigree information on 39,566 animals were obtained from the American Simmental Association, and all EPD were predicted using animal model procedures. The genetic model included fixed effects of contemporary group and a linear covariate for age at measurement, and a random animal genetic effect. The EPD from L had smaller variance and range than those from either C or F. Further, EPD from F had highest average accuracy. Correlations indicated that evaluations from C and F were most similar, and L would significantly (P carcass data. Progeny (n = 824) with carcass data collected subsequent to evaluation were used to quantify the association between progeny phenotype and sire EPD using a model including contemporary group, and linear regressions for age at slaughter and the appropriate sire EPD. The regression coefficient was generally improved for sire EPD from L when genetic regression was used to scale EPD to the appropriate carcass trait basis. The EPD from C and F had similar linear associations with progeny phenotype, although EPD from F may be considered optimal because of increased accuracy. These data suggest that carcass EPD based on a combination of live and carcass data predict differences in progeny phenotype at or near theoretical expectation. PMID:15032422

  20. Contextual Analysis of CT Scanned Pig Carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Larsen, Rasmus; Christensen, Lars Bager;

    2006-01-01

    knowledge about the weight of other tissue types from CT. Knowing the weight of individual tissue types will directly give access to other measures such as the weight of the carcass and the Lean Meat Percentage (LMP). Until now, most analyses of CT scans have been based on the Hounsfield spectra that does...... not consider the spatial context in CT scan. Applying contextual methods from the field of image analysis we hope to make a virtual dissection of pig carcasses.......Knowledge of the weight of tissue types in pig carcasses is generally only available after manual dissection. The use of computed tomography (CT) has demonstrated to be a promising approach to gain knowledge on the lean meat weight (Romvari, 2005), but less effort has been put into gaining...

  1. Estimação pelo método Bayesiano de parâmetros genéticos de peso vivo e características de carcaça em avestruzes Estimation by the Bayesian method of genetic parameters of live weight and carcass traits of ostrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar parâmetros genéticos de características de desempenho e carcaça de avestruzes criados comercialmente, foi utilizado o método Bayesiano, por meio do algoritmo amostrador de Gibbs, disponível no programa MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampling for Animal Models. Foram estimadas as herdabilidades e correlações genéticas para: peso vivo ao nascer (PN; peso vivo corrigido aos 190 dias (P190 e aos 360 dias (P360 de idade; peso vivo pré-abate (PVO; perda de peso durante o transporte e jejum (PTA; peso de carcaça (PCA; e rendimento de carcaça (RCA. As herdabilidades respectivas foram 0,11; 0,12; 0,33; 0,05; 0,04; 0,20; 0,05. Para as correlações, foram encontrados os valores de -0,11 entre rendimento de carcaça e peso ao nascer; 0,84 e 0,68 para peso de carcaça com peso aos 190 dias e peso de carcaça com peso aos 360 dias; 0,61 e 0,33 para rendimento de carcaça com peso aos 190 dias e rendimento de carcaça com peso aos 360 dias. Não é viável selecionar para peso ao nascer ou para rendimento de carcaça como é para peso aos 360 dias de idade e peso de carcaça. A seleção para peso aos 360 dias de idade pode melhorar o peso da carcaça, ao passo que a seleção para peso aos 190 dias pode aumentar o rendimento de carcaça.With the objective of estimating genetic parameters of performance and carcass characteristics of commercially reared ostriches in Ourinhos, SP, it was used the Bayesian method, by using Gibbs sampling algorithm, available in the program MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampling in Animal Models. It was estimated the heritabilities and genetic correlations for: birth live weight (BW, corrected live weight at 190 days (W190 and at 360 days (W360 of age; pre-slaughter live weight (PSW, weight loss during transport and fasting (WLT, carcass weight (CW and carcass dressing (CD. The respective heritabilities were 0.11, 0.12, 0.33, 0.05, 0.04, 0.20, 0.05. For the correlations, it was found values of

  2. IDENTIFICATIONS OF CARCASS CHARACTERISTIC FOR ESTIMATING THE COMPOSITION OF BEEF CARCASS

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    H. Hafid

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to identify carcass characteristic that can be used for estimating composition ofbeef carcass. It was used 165 Brahman crossbred cattle in this research. Carcass characteristics wereweight of a half cold carcass (WC ranged from 96 to 151 kg, loin eye area (LEA ranged from 22.09 to304.8 mm2, 12th rib fat thickness (FT12 ranged from 0.80 to 2.90 mm, meat ranged from 53.55 to 90.10kg and carcass fat ranged from 5.54 to 39.72 kg. Result showed that a half weight cold carcass as asingle indicator major may be used to predict meat weight and carcass fat with regression linearequation: Meat (kg = 10.64 + 0.49 WC (R2=0.728 and SE=3.58, and Fat (kg = -21.70 + 0.36 WC**(R2=0.582 and SE=3.65. Multiple regression to predict meat weight based on fat percentage of kidney,pelvic and heart (KPH was Meat (kg = 7.99 + 0.58 WC** - 4.41 KPH** (R2=0.751 and SE=3.43.

  3. Peso de la canal en corderos parasitados y desparasitados por estrongilidos digestivos suplementados con follaje de Leucaena - Carcass weight of lambs with and without digestive strongilides parasites supplemented with Leucaena foliage

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    Sánchez Alexander

    2010-03-01

    protein, energy and minerals, production of meat and / or milk. In Venezuela, have been very few investigations in sheep using Leucaena as a supplement, but when it comes to the performance of the carcass. In order to evaluate the carcass weight of sheep parasites and dewormed gastrointestinal parasite, supplemented and not supplemented with Leucaena leucocephala foliage, we selected 24 lamb of 2.5 months, with an average weight of 11.94 kg, mixed breed tropical and sex divided randomly into four treatments with six animals each. The experimental design was completely random with six replications. The investigation lasted for 135 days. The lambs received a basal diet of grass Pennisetum purpureum and supplemented received Leucaena foliage. The weighing of the lambs and the determination ofparasitic loads are performed weekly. The slaughter was done after fasting for 24 hours. The study variables were: body weight at 120 days, carcass weight (hot and cold and parasitic loads. For the analysis of results used the Duncan test. The results favor the supplemented treatments, demonstrating the feasibility of the use of Leucaena. In relation to the average weights of the carcass in the different treatments, parasites and supplemented (PCL with Leucaena obtained the highest average with 8.09 kg, treatments followed dewormed and supplemented with Leucaena (DPCL, dewormed without supplementation with Leucaena (DPSL and parasites without supplementation with Leucaena (PSL with 7.93, 6.41 and6.05 kg respectively.

  4. Efecto del peso al sacrificio sobre la calidad de la canal y de la carne de corderos Corriedale puros y cruza Effect of live weight at slaughter on carcass and meat quality in pure Corriedale and crossbred lambs

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    G Bianchi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del peso al sacrificio (45 corderos livianos: 22,3 ± 2,8 kg y 60 ± 2,4 días de edad y 21 corderos pesados: 43,1 ± 6,3 kg de peso vivo y 169 ± 8,9 días de edad sobre la calidad de la canal y de la carne de 24 hembras, 23 machos criptórquidos y 19 corderos castrados Corriedale puros (n= 21, Hampshire Down x Corriedale (n= 23 y Southdown x Corriedale (n= 22. El peso al sacrificio afectó (P=0,05 todas las características de la canal evaluadas. Los corderos pesados presentaran mejor conformación (0,320 vs. 0,190 kg/cm, 1,09 vs. 1,07, 55,7 vs. 51,9 compacidad de la canal y de la pierna de corderos pesados y livianos, respectivamente, superior grado de engrasamiento (15,7 vs. 7,3 mm punto GR de canales de corderos pesados y livianos, respectivamente y composición tisular más favorable (2,8 vs. 1,8 carne/ hueso, 2,4 vs. 2,1 carne/ grasa, corderos pesados y livianos, respectivamente. Sin embargo, las canales de corderos livianos presentaron un mejor rendimiento comercial de cortes nobles que las de los corderos pesados. De las características de calidad instrumental de la carne sólo el pH resultó modificado por efecto del peso al sacrificio. Sensorialmente el sexo del cordero y el tipo genético afectaron sólo la variable terneza, resultando más tierna la carne de corderas hembras o machos castrados versus corderos criptórquidos, particularmente si eran cruza. El peso al sacrificio afectó todas las características organolépticas, recibiendo la carne de corderos pesados mejor puntaje en terneza, calidad de sabor y aceptabilidad por los consumidores.The effects of slaughter weights on light lambs (n=45: 22.3 ± 2. 8 kg and 60 ± 2.4 days of age and heavy lambs (n=21: 43. 1 ± 6.3 kg and 169 ± 8.9 days of age on carcass and meat quality of 24 females, 23 cripthorchid and 19 castrated Corriedale (n=21 and Hampshire Down x Corriedale (n=23 and Southdown x Corriedale (n=22 lambs was studied. Slaughter weights

  5. Effect of fermented Banana peel on Broiler Carcass

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    Koni TNI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to examine effect of inclusion of fermented banana peel by Rhyzopus oligosporus in diets on slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass percentage, weight and percentage abdominal fat of broiler. The experiment was done based on Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and four replications and each replication consisted of six chickens. The treatment were R0 = without banana peel fermented, R1 = 5% banana peel fermented, R2 = 10% banana peel fermented, R3 = 15% banana peel fermented. Data of the experiment were analyzed, using ANOVA and then continued with Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Result showed that level of fermented banana peel affected slaughter weight and carcass weight. However carcass persentage, weight and percentage of abdominal fat was not affected by treatment. Banana peel fermented by Rhizopus oligosporus could can be used maximally 10% in broiler ration.

  6. PRICE DEVELOPMENTS OF BEEF CARCASSES IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

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    IOANA BĂLAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of the classification of cattle carcasses (beef and veal are represented by the correct payment to cattle breeders, according to carcass weight and quality, and standardization, the common language in the international meat trade. The European Union set uniform procedures for quality assessment (the EUROP system, defined by the same parameters in the whole continent. Romania is at the beginning of cattle carcass classification; it is in the third year of reporting on the classification results to the European Commission. In this context, we consider it is very important to analyze these results, for a continuous improvement of carcass quality.

  7. Classification of Pig Carcasses in Romania between 2007-2008

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    Diana Marin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The classification of pig carcasses aims at a correct payment for big breeders, depending on carcass weight and quality, and standardization, the common language of the international meat trade. The European Union set uniform procedures of quality assessment (the EUROP system, defined by the same parameters in the entire continent. The pig livestock whose carcasses were classified in 2008 was almost 2.5 million, compared to the value below 2 million carcasses classified in 2007. Of the total livestock, in 2008, about 98% could be classified in the superior quality classes E and U. In the previous year, only 94% of the classified carcasses could be introduced into these superior quality classes. The increase of 4%, related to the number of 2.5 millions corresponding to 2008, represent more than 97.000 pigs whose carcasses belong to the superior classes, compared with the previous year.

  8. Estimativa do peso e do rendimento de carcaça de tourinhos Brangus e Nelore, por medidas de ultra-sonografia Prediction of carcass weight and dressing percentage in Nellore and Brangus young bulls, by ultrasound measurements

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    Saulo da Luz e Silva

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi obter equações para estimar o peso de carcaça quente (PCQ e o rendimento de carcaça (RC a partir de medidas de ultra-som (US de 48 machos inteiros, das raças Brangus e Nelore, confinados com dietas com 20, 40, 60 ou 80% de concentrado. As medidas de US obtidas com um equipamento PieMedical Scanner 200 Vet com transdutor linear de 178 mm foram a área de olho de lombo (AOLU e a espessura de gordura subcutânea (EGSU entre a 12ª e 13ª costelas e a espessura de gordura sobre o músculo Biceps femoris (EGPU, além do peso vivo (PV, a cada intervalo de aproximadamente 28 dias. Foram estimadas equações de regressão para cada raça e também uma equação geral. As melhores equações foram selecionadas através da estatística Cp. A correlação entre as medidas por US antes do abate e na carcaça foram de 0,83 entre AOLU e a medida da área na carcaça e de 0,86 entre EGSU e espessura de gordura na carcaça. As equações para estimar o PCQ foram mais acuradas quando realizadas mais próximas ao abate, entretanto, as equações para estimativa do RC foram praticamente constantes durante todos os períodos e com menor acurácia. A equação geral apresentou acuracidade semelhante ou menor para ambas as características, comparadas às equações específicas para cada raça. A estimativa do PCQ e RC usando medidas por US foram semelhantes àquelas em que foram utilizadas as mesmas medidas tomadas diretamente na carcaça. A EGPU não aumentou a acurácia das estimativas, quando a EGSU já estava presente no modelo.The objective of this work was to obtain equations to estimate hot carcass weight (PCQ and dressing percentage (RC from ultrasound measurements (US of 48 young bulls of the Brangus and Nellore breeds, fed diets with 20, 40, 60 or 80% of concentrate. Ultrasonic measurements made with a PieMedical Scanner 200 Vet equipment, with linear array transducer of 178 mm coupled with standoff guide, were ribeye

  9. Effect of water and feed withdrawal and health status on blood and serum components, body weight loss, and meat and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, K D; Claus, J R; Grandin, T; Oetzel, G R; Schaefer, D M

    2011-02-01

    During marketing, cattle may be exposed to periods of water deprivation. The impact of water and feed access and health status on the physiological well-being and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows during preslaughter marketing was studied through analysis of serum components, BW loss percentage, and fresh meat composition. Ninety-one multiparous Holstein cows (609 ± 89 kg mean BW, 2.9 ± 0.5 mean BCS, varying stage of lactation) were purchased over 3 wk in 3 groups (n = 31, 29, and 31) at a terminal market in central Wisconsin. Each cow was screened to determine health status (sick or not sick) and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 water and feed withdrawal treatment pens (AL, ad libitum access to water for 36 h; 18H, 18 h of ad libitum access to water followed by 18 h of water withdrawal; 36H, 36 h of water withdrawal; all 3 treatments included 36 h of feed withdrawal) in a randomized complete block arrangement with repeated measures for serum components. Blood samples were collected by tail venipuncture at 0, 9, 18, 27, and 36 h of each treatment. Ambient temperatures were 1.9 ± 6.2°C during the trial period, which occurred over a 3-wk period in March and April 2007 near Arlington, WI. No difference (P > 0.05) was observed in mean serum cortisol in AL (18.41 ± 2.17 ng/mL) or 36H (22.98 ± 2.17 ng/mL). Mean serum glucose was greater (P water and feed access treatment. Based on these results, water and feed withdrawal in lairage should not exceed 18 h during the marketing of Holstein slaughter cows acclimated to springtime conditions to maintain BW, serum component concentrations, and fresh meat composition.

  10. Animal Carcass Pricing Grid. Evidences from the Romanian Pigmeat Market

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    Savescu Roxana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Until the introduction of SEUROP system, price negotiation between pig producers and slaughterhouses was based on two subjective criteria: animal weight and visual inspection of the quality of pigs. To ensure producers a fair payment, European Union created the possibility of binding the price on two objective factors: carcass weight and carcass composition. This paper describes the pricing mechanism developed by Romania in order to respond to European Union requirements for ensuring a fair payment to pig producers. It raises the attention on the difficulties encountered by the producers in understanding the way the commercial value of a pig carcass is calculated in case the selling price is negotiated on a flat rate basis or on a lean content basis (per kg of carcass weight or per kg of live weight.

  11. Beef cuts yield of steer carcasses graded according to conformation and weight Rendimento de cortes cárneos de carcaças de novilhos classificadas de acordo com a conformação e o peso de carcaça

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    Leonir Luiz Pascoal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment evaluated total and individual yield of commercial cuts, bones, and trimmings of carcasses from 38 Braford steers at 22 months of age finished in a feedlot. Carcasses were ranked according to three conformation classes (good minus = score 10; good = score 11; good plus = score 12, and three weight classes (heavy = 229.4 kg, intermediate = 205.0 kg, and light = 184.0 kg, ranging from 222.9 to 250.4, 201.5 to 209.0, and 170.0 to 190.3 kg, respectively. Carcass cold shrinkage was not affected by conformation, but it was significantly lower in heavy (1.83% than in intermediate (2.53% and in light carcasses (2.30%, which were not different among each other. Carcass flank percentage was not affected by conformation, but it was significantly higher in heavy (13.93% and intermediate carcasses (13.87% as compared to light carcasses (13.07%. Deboned beef cuts (78.08% of carcasses of steers, bone (16.57%, and trimmings (5.23% yields and losses due to deboning (0.12% were not significantly affected by carcass weight. However, when they were evaluated according to conformation classes, those with better conformation showed higher meat cut yield (78.75 vs 77.92 and 77.29%. Conformation affects meat cut yield of carcasses of young steers while carcass weight does not show this characteristic.Avaliaram-se os rendimentos cárneos total e individual de cortes comerciais, de osso e de retalho de carcaças de 38 novilhos Braford com 22 meses de idade terminados em confinamento. As carcaças foram classificadas de acordo com três classes de conformação (boa menos = 10 pontos; boa = 11 pontos; e boa mais = 12 pontos e três classes de peso (pesadas = 229,40 kg; medianas = 205,04 kg; e leves = 184,00 kg com variação, 222,9 a 250,4; 201,5 a 209,0; e 170,0 a 190,3 kg, respectivamente. A quebra no resfriamento não foi influenciada pela conformação, mas foi significativamente menor nas carcaças pesadas (1,83% em comparação às medianas (2,53% e

  12. Use of expected progeny differences for marbling in beef: II. Carcass and palatability traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwartney, B L; Calkins, C R; Rasby, R J; Stock, R A; Vieselmeyer, B A; Gosey, J A

    1996-05-01

    A 2-yr study was conducted to determine the effect of EPD for marbling on marbling score, palatability traits, and carcass fatness in beef. Steer (n = 122) and heifer (n = 123) carcasses were obtained by mating Angus bulls having a high ( > .4) or low ( Simmental, and 1/4 Gelbvieh). Carcass traits, composition of primals, quarters, and sides, palatability, and shear force data were obtained and adjusted to the mean number of days on feed, equal marbling score (Small50), fat thickness (1.0 cm), and carcass weight (318 kg) end points. Steer carcasses from the high marbling EPD group, adjusted to the mean number of days on feed, had significantly more marbling (P carcasses. Heifer carcasses from the high marbling EPD group had better (P carcass without compromising palatability. PMID:8726733

  13. Carcass Quality and Hematological Alterations Associated with Lung Lesions in Slaughter Pigs

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    Nikola Dj Čobanović

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine effects of lung lesions on carcass quality and hematological parameters of slaughter pigs. The group of pigs with lung lesion score 2 had significantly lower live weight, hot carcass weight and cold carcass weight compared to the group of pigs with lung lesion score 0 (P0.05. The total number of red blood cells, concentrations of hemoglobin and hematocrit showed significantly lower mean values in the group of pigs with lung lesions score 2 (P0.05. In conclusion, the results showed that lung lesions in fattening pigs had negative impact on carcass quality and hematological parameters.

  14. Carcass and carcass' cuts of F1 crossbred chickens of Pelung x Kampung given diets varied in protein content

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    Sofjan Iskandar

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Observation on carcass and carcass' cuts of F1 crossbred of Pelung x Kampung chickens influenced by dietary protein (15%, 17%, 19%, and 21% crude protein=CP was carried out at the Research Institute for Animal Production, Ciawi Bogor. There were 360-day-old chicks of the crossbred, allocated to 9 dietary-protein treatments. The treatments were P1 (21%-17% CP, which was the ration with 21% CP given to chicks aged of 0-6 weeks, then continued with 17% CP ration up to 12 week of age; P2 was 21%-15% CP; P3 was 19%-19% CP; P4 was 19%-17% CP; P5 was 19%-15% CP; P6 was 17%-17% CP; P7 was 17%- 15% CP; P8 was 15%-19% CP and P9 was 15%-15% CP. At 6 and 12 weeks of age each two out of 10 birds per cage were randomly picked for carcass and carcass portion analysis. Results showed that carcass and wings of 6 weeks of age birds were not significantly (P>0.05 influenced by dietary protein, whilst breast and thighs & drumsticks were significantly (P<0.05 lower on lower dietary protein. The weight of carcass and carcass parts were 256, 58, 71, 32, 44, 8.6, 9.7 and 2.09 g/bird, for carcass, breast, thighs and drumsticks, wings, oval; liver, gizzard and abdominal fat, respectively. At 12 weeks of age, weight of carcass and carcass cuts were not affected by dietary protein. The weight of carcass and carcass' cuts of 12 weeks of age were 803, 189, 251, 102, 123, 20, 25 and 21 g/bird, for carcass, breast, thighs and drumsticks, wings, oval, liver, gizzard and abdominal fat, respectively. The results indicated that ration with 15% CP given up to 12 weeks of age was recommended to be optimum without any reduction in carcass quality.

  15. Genetic parameters for EUROP carcass traits within different groups of cattle in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, J M; Keane, M G; Kenny, D A; Cromie, A R; Veerkamp, R F

    2007-02-01

    The first objective of this study was to test the ability of systems of weighing and classifying bovine carcasses used in commercial abattoirs in Ireland to provide information that can be used for the purposes of genetic evaluation of carcass weight, carcass fatness class, and carcass conformation class. Secondly, the study aimed to test whether genetic and phenotypic variances differed by breed of sire. Variance components for carcass traits were estimated for crosses between dairy cows and 8 breeds of sire commonly found in the Irish cattle population. These 8 breeds were Aberdeen Angus, Belgian Blue, Charolais, Friesian, Hereford, Holstein, Limousin, and Simmental. A multivariate animal model was used to estimate genetic parameters within the Holstein sire breed group. Univariate analyses were used to estimate variance components for the remaining 7 sire breed groups. Multivariate sire models were used to formally test differences in genetic variances in sire breed groups. Field data on 64,443 animals, which were slaughtered in commercial abattoirs between the ages of 300 and 875 d, were analyzed in 8 analyses. Carcass fat class and carcass conformation class were measured using the European Union beef carcass classification system (EUROP) scale. For all 3 traits, the sire breed group with the greatest genetic variance had a value of more than 8 times the sire breed group with least genetic variance. Heritabilities ranged from zero to moderate for carcass fatness class (0.00 to 0.40), from low to moderate for carcass conformation class (0.04 to 0.36), and from low to high for carcass weight (0.06 to 0.65). Carcass weight was the most heritable (0.26) of the 3 traits. Carcass conformation class and carcass fatness class were equally heritable (0.17). Genetic and phenotypic correlations were all positive in the Holstein sire breed group. The genetic correlations varied from 0.11 for the relationship between carcass weight and carcass fatness class to 0.44 for the

  16. Effects of Water Restriction on the Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Organ Weights of Naked Neck and Ovambo Chickens of Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Chikumba, N.; Chimonyo, M.

    2014-01-01

    In semi-arid areas of Southern Africa, dehydration can compromise the performance and welfare of local chickens, particularly during the growing period when confinement is curtailed and birds are left to scavenge for feed and water. The effect of water restriction on the growth performance was compared in Naked Neck (NNK) and Ovambo (OVB) chickens that are predominant in Southern Africa. A total of 54 eight-wk-old pullets each of NNK and OVB chickens with an initial average weight of 641±10 g...

  17. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle V): carcass traits and longissimus palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2001-05-01

    Carcass (n = 854) and longissimus thoracis palatability (n = 802) traits from F1 steers obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III cows to Hereford or Angus (HA), Tuli (Tu), Boran (Bo), Brahman (Br), Piedmontese (Pm), or Belgian Blue (BB) sires were compared. Data were adjusted to constant age (444 d), carcass weight (333 kg), fat thickness (1.0 cm), fat trim percentage (21%), and marbling (Small00) end points. Results presented in this abstract are for age-constant data. Carcasses from BB- and HA-sired steers were heaviest (P carcasses from Bo- and Tu-sired steers were lightest (P carcasses from HA-sired steers and least (P carcasses from BB- and Pm-sired steers. Numerical USDA yield grades were lowest (P carcasses from Pm- and BB-sired steers and highest (P carcasses from HA- and Br-sired steers. Marbling scores were highest (P carcasses from HA- and Tu-sired steers and lowest (P carcasses from Br-, BB-, and Pm-sired steers. Longissimus thoracis from carcasses of HA-, Pm-, and Tu-sired steers had the lowest (P Carcasses from HA-sired steers had longissimus thoracis with the highest (P carcasses of Br- and Bo-sired steers had the highest (P carcass traits but had little effect on palatability traits. Carcasses from BB- and Pm-sired steers provided the most desirable combination of yield grade and longissimus palatability, but carcasses from HA-cross steers provided the most desirable combination of quality grade and longissimus palatability. Tuli, a breed shown to be heat-tolerant, had longissimus tenderness similar to that of the non-heat-tolerant breeds and more tender longissimus than the heat-tolerant breeds in this study.

  18. The Breed and Sex Effect on the Carcass Size Performance and Meat Quality of Yak in Different Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Li; Sun, Baozhong; Yu, Qunli; Ji, Qiumei; Xie, Peng; Li, Haipeng; Wang, Li; Zhou, Yuchun; Li, Yongpeng; Huang, Caixia; Liu, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    The carcass size performances and the meat quality of Gannan and Sibu yak were determined using M. supraspinatus (SU), M. longissimus thoracis (LT) and M.quadriceps femoris (QF). It is found that Sibu yak had significantly higher carcass weight (CW) than Gannan yak with difference of nearly 40 kg, as well as significantly higher eye muscle area (EMA), carcass thorax depth (CTD), round perimeter (RP), etc. The carcass performances of steer yak were significantly higher than heifer yak except m...

  19. Performance and carcass yield of crossbred dairy steers fed diets with different levels of concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gabriel Santana; Chaves Véras, Antônia Sherlanea; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Moreira Dutra, Wilson; Menezes Wanderley Neves, Maria Luciana; Oliveira Souza, Evaristo Jorge; Ramos de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando; de Lima, Dorgival Morais

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of diets with increasing concentrate levels (170, 340, 510 and 680 g/kg of total dry matter) on dry matter intake, digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics of 25 Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers in a feedlot. A completely randomized design was used, and data were submitted to analysis of variance and regression. The dry matter intake and digestibility coefficients of all nutrients increased linearly. The total weight gain and average daily gain added 1.16 kg and 9.90 g, respectively, for each 10 g/kg increase in concentrate. The empty body weight, hot carcass weight and cold carcass weight responded linearly to increasing concentrate. The hot carcass yield and cold carcass yield, gains in empty body weight and carcass gain were also influenced, as were the efficiencies of carcass deposition and carcass deposition rate. It is concluded that increasing concentrate levels in feedlot diets increase the intake and digestibility of dry matter and other nutrients, improving the feed efficiency, performance and physical characteristics of the carcass. Furthermore and of importance concerning the climate change debate, evidence from the literature indicates that enteric methane production would be reduced with increasing concentrate levels such as those used. PMID:26065699

  20. Crude glycerin in diets for wethers in feedlot: intake, digestibility, performance, carcass and meat traits

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    Mauriceia Costa Carvalho Barros

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the effects of crude glycerin levels (CG (0, 2.65, 5.33, 8.06 and 10.84% in dry matter basis on intake, digestibility, performance, carcass morphometric measurements and meat quality of sheep finished in feedlot. Twenty five crossbred Dorper x St. Ines wethers, with 24 ± 2.0 kg average weight were housed in individual pens. The experimental design was completely randomized. Levels of CG in gross diet caused a decreasing linear effect (P 0.05 levels of glycerin on animal performance. For morphometric measurements of carcass and meat characteristics, no significant difference (P>0.05 levels of glycerin for hot carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, hot carcass yield, Chilled carcass yields, loss cooling, state of greasing, carcass length, leg length, depth of leg, chest depth, loin eye area, texture, marbling and color. However, the influence was observed (P<0.05 of increasing levels of crude glycerin on carcass conformation and carcass fat thickness. The use of crude glycerin reduced nutrient intake of the animals, however, did not influence the performance and carcass characteristics and is indicated its use in the diet of sheep

  1. The Effect of the Abattoir on Beef Carcass Classification Results

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    Maja Prevolnik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to test a possible way of monitoring cattle carcass classification using a statistical approach. For that purpose the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA by SAS was used with the fixed effect of the abattoir, carcass weight (as a covariate and their interaction. The analysis was based on the relationship between carcass weight and conformation or fatness grades. We tested if the regression lines of individual abattoirs differ from the average. The analysis comprised data for young bulls of Simmental breed slaughtered in Slovenia in the period from 2007 to 2010 (52,624 records. Results showed that in many abattoirs the assessment of conformation and fatness deviates significantly from the average, i.e. regression lines for several abattoirs differ significantly from the average (population line. Differences were more important for the conformation than fatness. The statistical process control using the analysis of covariance can be used for additional monitoring of cattle carcass classification.

  2. The Effect of the Abattoir on Beef Carcass Classification Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Prevolnik

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to test a possible way of monitoring cattle carcass classification using a statistical approach. For that purpose the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA by SAS was used with the fixed effect of the abattoir, carcass weight (as a covariate and their interaction. The analysis was based on the relationship between carcass weight and conformation or fatness grades. We tested if the regression lines of individual abattoirs differ from the average. The analysis comprised data for young bulls of Simmental breed slaughtered in Slovenia in the period from 2007 to 2010 (52,624 records. Results showed that in many abattoirs the assessment of conformation and fatness deviates significantly from the average, i.e. regression lines for several abattoirs differ significantly from the average (population line. Differences were more important for the conformation than fatness. The statistical process control using the analysis of covariance can be used for additional monitoring of cattle carcass classification.

  3. QUALIDADE DA CARCAÇA E DA CARNE DE NOVILHOS ABATIDOS COM PESOS SIMILARES, TERMINADOS EM DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE ALIMENTAÇÃO CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY FROM STEERS SLAUGHTERED WITH SIMILAR WEIGHTS, FINISHED IN DIFFERENT FEEDING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Moletta

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as características qualitativas da carcaça e da carne de novilhos Aberdeen Angus terminados em confinamento, com canade-açúcar + concentrado, ou em pastagem cultivada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum + sal comum como suplemento mineral. Abateram-se os novilhos aos 24 meses de idade com pesos similares de 394 e 396 kg, respectivamente. Alimentaram-se os animais confinados com dieta contendo, na matéria seca, 72,3% de cana-de-açúcar e 27,7% de concentrado. Os novilhos apresentaram no início da terminação peso médio de 320 kg e idade média de vinte meses. Não houve diferença nas percentagens de músculo e de osso. A percentagem de gordura foi similar, sendo de 22,8% e 20,7%, respectivamente, para animais terminados em pastagem e confinamento. A suculência, o sabor, a força de cisalhamento e a quebra no descongelamento mostraram-se maiores nos animais terminados em pastagem cultivada, sendo, respectivamente, 6,93 pontos, 6,60 pontos, 9,23 kgf e 8,28%, contra 5,93 pontos, 5,77 pontos, 7,27 kgf e 5,27%, na mesma ordem, para novilhos alimentados em confinamento. Contudo, outras características qualitativas da carne como cor, textura, marmoreio, maciez e quebra na cocção foram similares entre os tratamentos. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Aberdeen Angus, cana-de-açúcar, confinamento, pastagem hibernal. The objective of this work was to study the carcass and meat characteristics of Aberdeen Angus steers finished in feedlot, with sugar cane + concentrate, or on cultivated pasture of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum + common salt as mineral supplement. The steers was slaughtered at 24 months of age with similar weights of 394 and 396 kg, respectively. Confined animals were fed with a diet containing 72.3% chopped sugar cane and 27.7% concentrate, dry matter basis. At the beginning of finishing the average weight of the steers was 320 kg and the age was 20 months. No difference was observed for carcass muscle and bone

  4. Effects of Duroc Breeding Lines on Carcass Composition and Meat Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jung-Seok; Jin, Sang-Keun; Choi, Yang-Il; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the carcass composition and pork quality of Duroc breeding lines in Korea. A total of 200 Duroc pigs were used, and those were originated from four different great-grandparent (GGP) breeding stock farms (L1: N farm, L2: W farm, L3: S farm, L4: R farm). The carcasses of pigs from these farms were collected, and meat quality traits were evaluated. L1 and L2 had smaller carcass weights and thin backfat, whereas L3 and L4 had heavy carcass weights and thick...

  5. THE USE OF ULTRASONOGRAPHY TO PREDICT CARCASS COMPOSITION IN KIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cadavez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyse the use of ultrasounds to predict carcass composition in kids. Twenty kids from Serrana Portuguese local breed with a mean live weight of 12.6 ± 2.99 kg were scanned by ultrasonography to determine longissimus muscle depth (LD, subcutaneous fat thickness (SF between the 12th and 13th vertebrae (D12, 1st and 2nd (L1 and 3rd and 4th (L3 lumbar vertebra and breast bone tissue thickness at 1st (BT1, 2nd (BT2, 3rd (S3 and 4th (BT4 sternebrae. Lambs were slaughtered after 24-h fasting and carcasses were cooled at 4 ºC for 24 hours. Carcass left side was dissected into muscle, subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat and bone and remainder (major blood vessels, ligaments, tendons, and thick connective tissue sheets associated with some muscles. Tissues measurements plus hot carcass weight were fitted as independent variables to predict carcass composition by stepwise regression analysis. Models developed 96.7% of muscle, 64.6% of subcutaneous fat, 95.0% of intermuscular fat, and 85.0% of bone weight variation, respectively. Ultrasound measurements were admitted in the models, improving the determination coefficient (R2 and reducing the residual standard deviation. The HCW and tissues measurements taken by ultrasounds in live kids can be used to develop models to predict carcass composition at slaughter-house level.

  6. Genetic parameters and trends of meat quality, carcass composition and performance traits in two selected lines of large white pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonesson, A.K.; Greef, de K.H.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.

    1998-01-01

    Meat quality, carcass composition and performance traits were measured in two selection lines selected for either low backfat thickness (BF) at a fixed live weight or high live weight (WEIGHT) at a fixed age. The performance traits were measured on 3966 to 3985, carcass composition trait on 278 and

  7. The chilling of carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, J W; Mueller, S L; Baird, B E

    2005-07-01

    Biochemical processes and structural changes that occur in muscle during the first 24h postmortem play a great role in the ultimate quality and palatability of meat and are influenced by the chilling processes that carcasses are subjected to after slaughter. For beef and lamb, employing chilling parameters that minimize cold shortening is of greatest importance and can be best addressed by ensuring that muscle temperatures are not below 10°C before pH reaches 6.2. For pork, because of the impact of high muscle temperatures and low pH on the development of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) pork, a more rapid chilling process is needed to reduce PSE with the recommended internal muscle temperature of 10°C at 12h and 2-4°C at 24h. Spray chilling, a system whereby chilled water is applied to carcasses during the early part of postmortem cooling, is used to control carcass shrinkage and to improve chilling rates through evaporative cooling. Delayed chilling can be used to reduce or prevent the negative effects of cold shortening; however, production constraints in high-volume facilities and food safety concerns make this method less useful in commercial settings. Electrical stimulation and alternative carcass suspension programs offer processors the opportunity to negate most or all of the effects of cold shortening while still using traditional chilling systems. Rapid or blast chilling can be an effective method to reduce the incidence of PSE in pork but extreme chilling systems may cause quality problems because of the differential between the cold temperatures on the outside of the carcass compared to the warm muscle temperatures within the carcass (i.e., muscles that are darker in color externally and lighter in color internally).

  8. The effect of breed, sire and sex on the quality of carcass sides

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Milica; Pušić Milovan; Radojković Dragan; Mijatović Milan; Kosovac Olga; Radović Čedomir

    2006-01-01

    Investigation of quality variability of pig carcass was carried out on 1443 fatlings (gilts and barrows). They were progenies of 22 (Farm A) and 12 sires (Farm B), 5 breeds-crossbreds (Swedish Landrace, Large White, Duroc Hampshire, Duroc x Hampshire). Animals were fed with standardized feed mixture semi ad libitum. The quality of carcass sides was determined on the slaughter-line according to Regulation (1985). Investigation included following traits: weight of warm carcass (MTP, kg), meat i...

  9. Correlations among Stress Parameters, Meat and Carcass Quality Parameters in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Dokmanovic, Marija; Baltic, Milan Z.; Duric, Jelena; Ivanovic, Jelena; Popovic, Ljuba; Todorovic, Milica; Markovic, Radmila; Pantic, Srdan

    2015-01-01

    Relationships among different stress parameters (lairage time and blood level of lactate and cortisol), meat quality parameters (initial and ultimate pH value, temperature, drip loss, sensory and instrumental colour, marbling) and carcass quality parameters (degree of rigor mortis and skin damages, hot carcass weight, carcass fat thickness, meatiness) were determined in pigs (n = 100) using Pearson correlations. After longer lairage, blood lactate (p

  10. Instrumental colour measurement as a tool for light veal carcasses online evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Horcada Ibáñez, Alberto Luis; Molina, Antonio de; Valera Córdoba, María Mercedes; Beriain, María José; Juárez Dávila, Manuel María

    2013-01-01

    Eight-hundred and forty-five veal carcasses (535 males and 310 females) from Pirenaica breed and its crosses with Charolais and Limousin were used to compare carcass colour visual assessments 60min post-mortem with the values obtained using a spectrocolorimeter (CIE Lab colour system) on the pectoralis superficialis muscle. Carcass weights ranged between 240 and 360 kg. Visual colour was subjectively evaluated by two trained assessors. The best correlation between visual apprai...

  11. Effects of age and period of fattening on carcass and non-carcass characteristics of one-humped camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghi, Davoud Ali; Shahdadi, Ali Reza; Mokhtarpour, Amir

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to compare the carcass characteristics and quantity of carcass and non-carcass components of 2- and 3-year-old male camels fattened for either 3 or 6 months. Twelve 2-year-old camels with an average body live weight of 268.5 ± 21.4 kg and twelve 3-year-old camels with an average body live weight of 307.5 ± 29.9 kg were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. For carcass analysis, three camels from each group were selected and slaughtered. The results showed that camel age and fattening period had no significant effect on average daily gain (ADG). Older camels and a longer fattening period resulted in heavier hot and cold carcass weights. Three-year-old camels had a higher dressing percentage compared to 2-year-old camels, regardless of the period of fattening. Analysis of non-carcass components showed that the heaviest component was the hide and 2-year-old camels fattened for 90 days had the greatest weight of hide as percentage of cold carcass weight. Total muscle weight was greater for the 3-year-old camels compared to the 2-year-old ones, regardless of the fattening period, and camels fattened for 180 days had heavier weight than those fattened for 90 days, regardless of age at fattening. However, the greatest weight of total muscle was detected in camels at 2 years of age fattened for 180 days when it was expressed as percentage of carcass weight. The highest and the lowest total fat content as kilogram or as percentage of cold carcass was observed in 3-year-old camels fattened for 180 days and 2-year-old camels fattened for 180 days, respectively. Our results suggested that the best age for slaughtering is 2 years old with the fattening period of 180 days. PMID:27256367

  12. Common factors method to predict the carcass composition tissue in kid goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fernanda Barros Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the interrelations among weights and carcass measures of the longissimus lumborum muscle thickness and area, and of sternum tissue thickness, measured directly on carcass and by ultrasound scan. Measures were taken on live animals and after slaughter to develop models of multiple linear regression, to estimate the composition of shoulder blade, from selected variables in 89 kids of both genders and five breed groups, raised in feedlot system. The variables considered relevant and not redundant on the information they carry, for the common factor analysis, were used in the carcass composition estimate development models. The presuppositions of linear regression models relative to residues were evaluated, the estimated residues were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were compared by the Student t test. Based in these results, the group of 32 initial variables could be reduced to four variables: hot carcass weight, rump perimeter, leg length and tissue height at the fourth sternum bone. The analysis of common factors was shown as an effective technique to study the interrelations among the independent variables. The measures of carcass dimension, alone, did not add any information to hot carcass weight. The carcass muscle weight can be estimated with high precision from simple models, without the need for information related to gender and breed, and they could be built based on carcass weight, which makes it easy to be applied. The fat and bones estimate models were not as accurate.

  13. CARCASS MARKET VALUE OF FATTENER GILTS AND PRIMIPAROUS GILTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena BIEGNIEWSKA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Study comprised 60 crossbred gilts F1 (PLW x PL, 30 fattener gilts (A and 30 littermate primiparous gilts (B. The fattening was conducted in standard condition from 30 to 108 kg body weight. The primiparous gilts were mated at second oestrus. During pregnancy and lactation period they were reared in standard condition adopted for pregnant and lactating sows. Fattener sows as well as primiparous sows were slaughtered after end of the experiment. Market carcass value was estimated on carcass jointing basis. It was assumed that market value is a function of percentage share of main parts in carcass and their unitary price (PLN/kg. Market carcass value of fattener sows and primiparous sows counted on 100 kg was comparable.

  14. Prediction of lean and fat composition in swine carcasses from ham area measurements with image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jiancheng; Schinckel, Allan P; Forrest, John C; Chen, Way; Wagner, Jeffrey R

    2010-06-01

    Video images of ham cross-sections were recorded from 71 pork carcasses (ranging in weight from 72 to 119kg). Three sets of prediction equations were developed to estimate pork carcass lean and fat composition from video image analysis (VIA) of ham cross-sectional area measurements, 10th rib back fat depth (TENFAT) and hot carcass weight (HCKg). Carcass data of dissected lean and fat in the four primal cuts (ham, loin, Boston button and picnic shoulder) were used as dependent variables in establishing regression equations. The first set of equations combined VIA ham measurements and total ham weight (HTKg). Regression models containing the single variable HTKg times ham percentage lean area (Vol. 1) or HTKg times ham percentage fat area (Vol. 2) accounted for 88% and 68% of the variation in total carcass lean weight (CLKg) and total carcass fat weight (CFKg) from the right side of each carcass, respectively. The second set of equations combined VIA ham measurements and TENFAT (cm). Multiple regression models involving TENFAT, Vol. 1, and Vol. 2 accounted for 91% and 90% of the variation in CLKg and CFKg. The third set of equations used VIA ham measurements, TENFAT and HCKg. Carcass lean weight was best predicted by HCKg, TENFAT, and ham lean area (HLA) (R(2)=.92). Carcass fat weight was best predicted by HCKg, TENFAT, and Vol. 2 (R(2)=.91). Overall correlations showed a high association between Vol. 1 and CLKg (r=.94, PVol. 2 and CFKg (r=.83, P<.0001). Ham lean area was related to CLKg (r=.74, P<.0001) and ham fat area to CFKg (r=.81, P<.0001). The results of this study indicated video image analysis of ham cross-section slices combined with backfat depth at the 10th rib can be used for accurate estimation of total carcass lean or fat composition.

  15. Carcass and non-carcass characteristics of sheep fed on cassava (Manihot pseudoglaziovii Pax & K. Hoffm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel V Maciel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sheep production systems installed in the semi-arid region of Brazil depend on the forage support the 'caatinga' biome. This study aimed at evaluating the substitution of hybrid 'Tifton 85' (Cynodon spp. by cassava (Manihotpseudoglaziovii Pax & K. Hoffm. hay or silage on the components of sheep's' body weight. Twenty-four animals, with no defined breed, were used for the study, with an initial body weight of 19.77 ± 1.95 kg and an average age of 6-mo, being divided into three treatments ('Tifton 85' hay, cassava silage, and cassava hay. The animals were slaughtered at 56 d and all the body parts of the animals were weighed. Data were subjected to ANOVA and mean comparison test (P = 0.05. Means were superior (P 0.05 for body weight at slaughter and cold carcass weight, which had means of 28.10 and 12.38 kg, respectively. The hot carcass and leg yields showed values of 58% and 34%, respectively, and were not influenced (P > 0.05 by different forages. The constituents that were not components of the carcass, organs, offal, and by-products were not affected by the replacement of 'Tifton 85' hay by cassava hay or silage. Cassava hay or silage can replace 'Tifton 85' hay for feeding sheep in complete diets without compromising their body components' yields and weights.

  16. Efectos del transporte prolongado por vía terrestre y cruce marítimo en transbordador sobre pérdidas de peso vivo y características de la canal en corderos Effects of long distance transport by road and sea crossing on ferry on live weight losses and carcass characteristics in lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM Carter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó el efecto de un transporte local terrestre de 12 h y de uno prolongado terrestre marítimo de 46 h sobre las pérdidas de peso y características de calidad de la canal en corderos Corriedale de una misma procedencia, destinados a un matadero regional o extrarregional, respectivamente. Se utilizaron cuatro viajes comerciales (2 locales y 2 prolongados en que se transportó un total de 2.106 corderos. En cada viaje se individualizaron 25 corderos al azar en los cuales se registró el peso vivo antes y después del transporte, el peso de canal caliente y la presencia de contusiones, y se recolectaron muestras de hígado y músculo para determinar las concentraciones de glucógeno respectivas. Se midió el pH en lomo y pierna en las canales refrigeradas a 4 °C por 24 h. Los datos fueron analizados de manera descriptiva y luego sometidos a un análisis de varianza, excepto registro de contusiones que fue sólo descriptivo. Con 46 h de transporte se registró una mayor pérdida de peso vivo y canales de menor peso y rendimiento centesimal comparado con 12 h (P 0,05 para las concentraciones de glucógeno hepático, glucógeno muscular y pH; sin embargo, tanto los altos promedios de pH como las bajas concentraciones de glucógeno encontradas indicarían que incluso el transporte local de 12 h produjo un alto nivel de estrés y desgaste energético.The effect of local terrestrial transport for 12 h and prolonged terrestrial plus sea crossing on ferry transport for 46 h on weight loss and carcass quality characteristics was studied in Corriedale lambs from the same origin, destined to a regional or extraregional slaughterhouse, respectively. Four commercial journeys (2 local and 2 prolonged transporting a total of 2,106 lambs were used. In each load, 25 randomly chosen lambs were individualized; live weight before and after transport, hot carcass weight and carcass bruising were registered, and samples of liver and muscle tissue were

  17. Genetic parameters for carcass traits and their live animal indicators in Simmental cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, D H; Pollak, E J; Weaber, R L; Quaas, R L; Lipsey, R J

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate parameters required for genetic evaluation of Simmental carcass merit using carcass and live animal data. Carcass weight, fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and marbling score were available from 5,750 steers and 1,504 heifers sired by Simmental bulls. Additionally, yearling ultrasound measurements of fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and estimated percentage of intramuscular fat were available on Simmental bulls (n = 3,409) and heifers (n = 1,503). An extended pedigree was used to construct the relationship matrix (n = 23,968) linking bulls and heifers with ultrasound data to steers and heifers with carcass data. All data were obtained from the American Simmental Association. No animal had both ultrasound and carcass data. Using an animal model and treating corresponding ultrasound and carcass traits separately, genetic parameters were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood. Heritability estimates for carcass traits were 0.48 +/- 0.06, 0.35 +/- 0.05, 0.46 +/- 0.05, and 0.54 +/- 0.05 for carcass weight, fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and marbling score, respectively. Heritability estimates for bull (heifer) ultrasound traits were 0.53 +/- 0.07 (0.69 +/- 0.09), 0.37 +/- 0.06 (0.51 +/- 0.09), and 0.47 +/- 0.06 (0.52 +/- 0.09) for fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and intramuscular fat percentage, respectively. Heritability of weight at scan was 0.47 +/- 0.05. Using a bivariate weight model including scan weight of bulls and heifers with carcass weight of slaughter animals, a genetic correlation of 0.77 +/- 0.10 was obtained. Models for fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and marbling score were each trivariate, including ultrasound measurements on yearling bulls and heifers, and corresponding carcass traits of slaughter animals. Genetic correlations of carcass fat thickness with bull and heifer ultrasound fat were 0.79 +/- 0.13 and 0.83 +/- 0.12, respectively. Genetic correlations of

  18. Effect of age at feedlot entry on performance and carcass characteristics of bulls and steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonmaker, J P; Loerch, S C; Fluharty, F L; Zerby, H N; Turner, T B

    2002-09-01

    Seventy Angus x Simmental calves (BW = 166.3 +/- 4.2 kg) were used in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement to determine the effect of age at feedlot entry and castration on growth, performance, and carcass characteristics. At 82 d of age, steers were castrated. Calves were placed in the feedlot at 111 (early-weaned), 202, or 371 (yearling) d of age. Steers were implanted with Synovex-S followed 93 d later with Revalor-S. Calves were harvested on an individual basis when fat thickness was estimated to be 1.27 cm. During the feedlot phase, yearlings gained faster (P carcass weight (413, 358, 314 kg, respectively; P carcasses than yearlings (25, 13, 48%, respectively; P carcass weight (370 vs 354 kg) and a larger (P carcass weights. PMID:12350001

  19. Effect of protein level on performance, nitrogen utilisation and carcass composition in finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Assadi Soumeh, Elham;

    2014-01-01

    cages. Feed intake, gain and feed utilisation were not significantly affected. Plasma urea (P nitrogen (P = 0.01) decreased linearly by lowering CP. The weight of the carcass tended to increase linearly by reducing CP, but neither nitrogen retention nor carcass meat percentage...

  20. Evaluation of a commercially available organic acid product on body weight loss, carcass yield, and meat quality during preslaughter feed withdrawal in broiler chickens: a poultry welfare and economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menconi, A; Kuttappan, V A; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Urbano, T; Matté, F; Layton, S; Kallapura, G; Latorre, J; Morales, B E; Prado, O; Vicente, J L; Barton, J; Andreatti Filho, R L; Lovato, M; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2014-02-01

    The effect of a commercial organic acid (OA) product on BW loss (BWL) during feed withdrawal and transportation, carcass yield, and meat quality was evaluated in broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in Brazil. Commercial houses were paired as control groups receiving regular water and treated groups receiving OA in the water. Treated birds had a reduction in BWL of 37 g in experiment 1 and 32.2 g in experiment 2. In experiment 2, no differences were observed in carcass yield between groups. Estimation of the cost benefit suggested a 1:16 ratio by using the OA. In experiment 3, conducted in Mexico, significant differences on water consumption, BWL, and meat quality characteristics were observed in chickens that were treated with the OA (P animal welfare and economic concerns in the poultry industry by reducing BWL and improving meat quality attributes.

  1. Evaluation of a commercially available organic acid product on body weight loss, carcass yield, and meat quality during preslaughter feed withdrawal in broiler chickens: a poultry welfare and economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menconi, A; Kuttappan, V A; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Urbano, T; Matté, F; Layton, S; Kallapura, G; Latorre, J; Morales, B E; Prado, O; Vicente, J L; Barton, J; Andreatti Filho, R L; Lovato, M; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2014-02-01

    The effect of a commercial organic acid (OA) product on BW loss (BWL) during feed withdrawal and transportation, carcass yield, and meat quality was evaluated in broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in Brazil. Commercial houses were paired as control groups receiving regular water and treated groups receiving OA in the water. Treated birds had a reduction in BWL of 37 g in experiment 1 and 32.2 g in experiment 2. In experiment 2, no differences were observed in carcass yield between groups. Estimation of the cost benefit suggested a 1:16 ratio by using the OA. In experiment 3, conducted in Mexico, significant differences on water consumption, BWL, and meat quality characteristics were observed in chickens that were treated with the OA (P poultry industry by reducing BWL and improving meat quality attributes. PMID:24570468

  2. Pendugaan Produksi Karkas Dan Daging Kelelawar Pemakan Buah (Pteropus alecto ) Asal Sulawesi (ESTIMATION OF CARCASS AND MEAT PRODUCTION OF CELEBES NATIVE FRUIT BATS (Pteropus alecto))

    OpenAIRE

    Tiltje Andretha Ransaleleh; Rarah Ratih Adjie Maheswari; Purwantiningsih Sugita; Wasmen Manalu

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted in North Sulawesi, Gorontalo, and Central Sulawesi during March untilOctober 2011. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of fruit bats  (P. alecto) as sourceof meat. Observed variables were body weight, carcass weight, noncarcass weight, the bone weight, meatweight, fat weight, and skin weight, respectively. To estimate the growth rate of the bats, analysis of therelationship between body weight and carcass components was done, while estimation of  g...

  3. THE EFFECT OF TRANSITION FROM EUROP 5-POINT SCALE TO 15-POINT SCALE BEEF CARCASS CLASSIFICATION ON CARCASS DISTRIBUTION OF YOUNG SLAUGHTERED BULLS IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvester Žgur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the EUROP 15-point scale of carcass conformation and fatness classification system was introduced in Slovenia and replaced existing 5-point scale. Data (carcass weight, carcass conformation and fatness from Slovenian commercial slaughterhouses were collected from January 2005 to December 2013. In total, data from 374,122 animals were used. The analysis was conducted for the category of young bulls from 12 to less than 24 months of age. In the first year after the transition, the classifiers preferentially used 0 classes in classification of carcass conformation and carcass fatness as well. In period 2008 - 2009 the classifiers adapted the new scale and started to use + and – subclasses more frequently. The distribution of conformation and fatness subclasses was brought near normal distribution.

  4. Desempenho, características de carcaça e resultado econômico de cordeiros criados em creep feeding com silagem de grãos úmidos de milho Live weight gain, carcass traits and economic results on lambs fed with high moisture corn silage in creep feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gercílio Alves de Almeida Júnior

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, estudar níveis de substituição (0; 50 e 100% do milho grão seco moído pela silagem de grãos úmidos de milho na ração de cordeiros alimentados em creep feeding. Vinte e quatro cordeiros Suffolk foram avaliados quanto ao desempenho, pesos e rendimentos das carcaças. Também foi realizada uma análise econômica. As rações foram fornecidas ad libitum, sendo suas sobras pesadas para o cálculo do consumo médio por animal. Ao atingirem 28 kg de peso vivo, os cordeiros foram submetidos a jejum por 16 horas e, então, novamente pesados para se obter o peso vivo ao abate. Após o abate, os animais foram eviscerados para se obterem os pesos e rendimentos de carcaça quente. As carcaças permaneceram por 24 horas em câmara de refrigeração, sendo novamente pesadas para se obterem os rendimentos de carcaça fria e as perdas por resfriamento. Os resultados revelaram que não houve efeito dos níveis de substituição sobre ganho médio diário de peso vivo, idade ao abate, pesos e rendimentos das carcaças quentes e frias, indicando que a silagem de grãos úmidos de milho pode ser utilizada em substituição ao milho moído na alimentação de cordeiros. Como o peso ao abate foi pré-fixado, as variações nas idades ao abate fizeram com que essa variável exercesse influência sobre os desempenhos, pesos e rendimentos e, quanto maiores essas idades, piores os resultados dos parâmetros avaliados. O tratamento com 50% de silagem de grãos úmidos apresentou os melhores resultados econômicos e o tratamento sem silagem de grãos úmidos foi o de menor rentabilidade.The experiment was carried to study three levels (0, 50 e 100% of high moisture corn silage replacing dry corn grain in rations of lambs fed in creep feeding. Twenty four Suffolk lambs were evaluated to live weight (LW gain and carcasses dressing-outs percentage. It was performed an economical analysis too. Rations in creep feeding were fed ad

  5. CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF DESERT SHEEP UNDER RANGE CONDITIONS IN NORTH KORDOFAN STATE, SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.M. TIBIN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality attributes of desert sheep raised under range conditions around El Nuhood. Thirty desert sheep (15 males and 15 females of almost the same age (about 8 months were used in a 16 weeks study period. The sheep were randomly allocated to three groups (treatments of ten animals (5 males and 5 females. The three groups were allowed to graze on natural range grasses at night only and were kept under shade during the day from 7:00 am to 6:00 pm. The first group was allowed water every 2-3 days and was considered as control. The second group was allowed access to water daily. The third group was allowed daily access to water and received concentrates supplement. At the end of the experimental period, eighteen animals (nine males and nine females were randomly taken, weighed and slaughtered to study the carcass characteristics. The results included that were significant (P<0.05 differences among the treatment groups with regard to the warm carcass, cold carcass and empty body weight. There were significant (P<0.05 differences between females and males of the three treatments in slaughter weight, warm carcass weight and cold carcass weight. Males obtained higher weights than females. The dressing percentage on the basis of warm carcass and cold carcass was significantly (P<0.05 different in the three treatments. The gut fill expressed as a percentage of empty body weight was significantly (P<0.05 different among the three treatments. These results concluded that management strategy which involves shorter watering intervals and feed supplementation will probably reflect positively on the performance, carcass characteristic of Hamari sheep under range conditions.

  6. Relationships between carcass traits and offal components in local poultry populations (gallus gallus) of Benin

    OpenAIRE

    P.U. Tougan; M. Dahouda; C.F.A. Salifou; G.S. Ahounou; Kpodekon, M. T.; G.A. Mensah; Kossou, D.N.F.; Kogbeto, C.E.; Lognay, Georges; Thewis, André; Youssao, I.A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : The current work was carried out to determine the relationships between live weight, carcass traits and the offal components traits in Holli, Fulani, Sahoue, North and Southe indigenous chicken ectoypes of Benin. Peer reviewed

  7. Relationship between phenotype, carcass characteristics and the incidence of dark cutting in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, S; Basarab, J A; Dixon, W T; Bruce, H L

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has suggested that cattle predisposed to dark cutting can be identified from live animal or carcass characteristics. This hypothesis was tested using production and phenotype data from an existing data set collected from heifers (n=467) on study at three farms. Carcasses in the data set graded Canada AAA (n=136), AA (n=296), A (n=14), and B4 (dark cutting, n=21). Farm was identified as significant (P=0.0268) by CATMOD analysis and slaughter weight and carcass weight accounted for the variation in dark cutting frequency across the farms. Analysis of variance indicated that dark cutting heifers had reduced weight at weaning (Pslaughter (Pslaughtered at live weight greater than 550kg and in carcasses weighing greater than 325kg. PMID:27376250

  8. Crescimento relativo e composição do ganho de tecidos na carcaça de bubalinos Mediterrâneo jovens abatidos com diferentes pesos Relative growth and gain composition of carcass tissues from young Mediterranean buffaloes slaughtered at different weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Aline Bregion dos Santos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 32 bubalinos machos não-castrados, da raça Mediterrâneo, divididos aleatoriamente em cinco categorias. Os animais de uma categoria foram abatidos imediatamente, enquanto os demais foram alimentados, à vontade, com ração contendo 70% de concentrado (na matéria seca e abatidos ao atingirem 450, 480, 510 ou 540 kg de peso corporal. Adotou-se a equação de regressão do logaritmo da quantidade corporal de carcaça e de seus tecidos (muscular, adiposo e ósseo em função do logaritmo do peso de corpo vazio. A carcaça apresentou valor de alometria, o que indica desenvolvimento proporcionalmente igual ao do peso corporal vazio. Derivando as equações, obtiveram-se as equações de predição da participação dos componentes corporais no ganho de 1 kg de peso de corpo vazio. Na carcaça, o tecido adiposo teve maior impulso de crescimento em idade mais tardia, enquanto os tecidos ósseo e muscular tiveram maior impulso para crescimento em idade mais precoce.Thirty-two non castrated Mediterranean male buffaloes were used, being divided into five groups (categories. One group was randomly assigned to immediate slaughter, four groups were fully fed with ration containing 70% of concentrate, dry matter basis until reaching the slaughter weights of 450, 480, 510 and 540 kg. Regression equations of log content of carcass and their tissues (muscle, adipose tissue and bone were adopted as a function of log empty-body-weight. Carcass presented positive allometry value close to 1, reflecting development proportionally equal to the empty-body-weight. Deriving the equations above, the prediction equations of body components in the body gain of 1 kg of the empty-body-weight were obtained. In the carcass, the adipose tissue presented late growth while bone and muscular tissues developed in an earlier age.

  9. RESULTS OF BEEF CARCASS GRADING IN SLOVENIA FROM 1997 TO 200

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    Nežika Petrič

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Carcass traits (carcass weight, conformation and fatness note and payment class were collected in the commercial slaughterhouses with automatic data collection for the last ten years. On the average more than 80 % of all graded bovine animals in Slovenia were taken into the study. The average carcass weight of calves increased by 20 kg, but was with 79 kg still very low. The carcass weight of young bulls, heifers and cows varied among different years, but no trend could be noticed, whereas carcass weight of old bulls decreased markedly (more than 50 kg. The carcass conformation decreased in all categories, in calves, young bulls and heifers by two thirds and in old bulls and cows by more than 0.9 of conformation class. The carcass fatness decreased in all categories too. The most pronounced decrease was noticed in the category of old bulls (0.6 class and the least in young bulls (0.2 class. Most of the above mentioned changes occurred after the year 2002 in the category of cows and after the year 2001 in all other categories. The main reasons for changes in conformation and fatness were probably the changes in cattle breed structure in Slovenia.

  10. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER YIELD AND CARCASS TISSUE COMPOSITION IN BROILER CHICKENS OF VARIOUS ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARIUSZ KOKOSZYŃSKI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Slaughter yield and carcass tissue composition were compared in three different broiler chicken production sets. The highest body weight (1892.5 g, eviscerated carcass weight with neck (1406.9 g and slaughter yield (74.5% were found in Ross 308 chickens, whilst the lowest values of these traits occurred in JV chickens (respectively: 1753.3; 1288.2 g; 73.3%. The highest muscle contents (45.4% breast muscles and leg muscles in carcass and the lowest fattiness (7.9% skin with subcutaneous fat and 1.5% abdominal fat were found in Hubbard Evolution chickens.

  11. Genome-wide Association Study to Identify Quantitative Trait Loci for Meat and Carcass Quality Traits in Berkshire

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Asif; Kim, You-Sam; Kang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Yun-Mi; Rai, Rajani; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Oh, Dong-Yup; Nam, Ki-Chang; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Meat and carcass quality attributes are of crucial importance influencing consumer preference and profitability in the pork industry. A set of 400 Berkshire pigs were collected from Dasan breeding farm, Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea that were born between 2012 and 2013. To perform genome wide association studies (GWAS), eleven meat and carcass quality traits were considered, including carcass weight, backfat thickness, pH value after 24 hours (pH24), Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage...

  12. Ganho de peso antes e após os sete meses no desenvolvimento e características quantitativas da carcaça de novilhos Nelore abatidos aos dois anos Pre and post seven months weight gain on development and quantitative carcass characteristics of Nellore steers slaughtered at two years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Nunes Vaz

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar o desenvolvimento e as características de carcaça de novilhos Nelore abatidos aos dois anos de idade, classificados em quatro grupos conforme o ganho de peso médio diário (GMD antes e após os sete meses de idade: alto-alto = novilhos com GMD > 0,44 kg desde o nascimento até o abate, baixo-baixo = novilhos com GMD 0,44 kg dos sete meses ao abate. Aos sete meses, os animais que tiveram menor ganho de peso (baixo-alto e baixo-baixo apresentaram, na média, 109 kg contra 154 kg dos alto-baixo e alto-alto. Os animais alto-alto e alto-baixo apresentaram maior peso aos 18 meses em relação aos demais grupos, mas ao abate os novilhos alto-alto (396 kg e alto-baixo (382 kg foram superiores somente aos baixo-baixo (335 kg; o mesmo foi verificado com o peso de carcaça, que foi de 221, 207 e 182 kg, citados na mesma ordem. A porcentagem de costilhar foi maior nos novilhos alto-alto (13,8% em relação aos baixo-alto (12,7% e baixo-baixo (12,1%, mas a porcentagem de serrote foi menor nos alto-alto (48,4% do que nos baixo-baixo (50,2%. As análises de contraste comparando o GMD antes e após os sete meses de idade mostraram que somente o GMD antes dos sete meses foi importante para características como peso aos 12 e 18 meses de idade, espessura de gordura subcutânea, porcentagem de costilhar, comprimento de carcaça e comprimento de perna. Ambos os efeitos, GMD antes e após os sete meses, influenciaram os pesos de abate e de carcaça, a porcentagem de serrote e o comprimento de braço.The objective of the experiment was to study the development and carcass characteristics of Nellore steers, slaughtered at two years of age classified in four groups according to the average daily weight gain (ADG pre and post seven months: high-high = steers with ADG ³ .44 kg from birth to slaughter, low-low = steers with ADG .44 kg before seven months, and ADG < .44 kg from seven months to slaughter, and low-high = animals with

  13. Crescimento alométrico dos componentes da carcaça de cordeiros Texel × Ile de France confinados do desmame aos 35kg de peso vivo Allometric growth of the carcass components of feedlot Texel × Ile de France crossbred lambs from weaning to 35kg live weight

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    Diego Barcelos Galvani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o crescimento alométrico de ossos, músculos e gordura, e das regiões da carcaça de cordeiros Texel × Ile de France, terminados em confinamento. Vinte cordeiros, machos não-castrados, foram desmamados aos 42 dias de idade (15,9 ± 2,1kg de peso vivo e confinados em baias individuais recebendo alimentação ad libitum. Destes, cinco foram abatidos 10 dias após o desmame e, os remanescentes, aos 25, 30 ou 35kg de peso vivo. Para determinação do crescimento alométrico dos cortes e tecidos foi utilizada a equação exponencial Y = aXb, transformada logaritmicamente em um modelo linear. Observou-se crescimento precoce (b = 0,89 da paleta, ao passo que a perna, a costela e o pescoço apresentaram crescimento isogônico (b = 1,00, 1,03 e 1,11, respectivamente, ou seja, equivalente ao da carcaça. O aumento do peso da carcaça implicou em redução da taxa de crescimento de ossos e músculos (b = 0,60 e 0,92, respectivamente e aumento da taxa de crescimento da gordura (b = 1,78. O crescimento muscular foi diferenciado nas distintas regiões da carcaça, sendo isogônico na paleta (b = 0,98 e na perna (b = 0,99 e precoce na costela (b = 0,90 e no pescoço (b = 0,79. Recomenda-se que o abate de cordeiros Texel × Ile de France seja realizado com, no máximo, 30kg de peso vivo.Allometric growth of bone, muscle and fat, as well as of the carcass cuts of feedlot Texel × Ile de France crossbred lambs was evaluated. Twenty non-castrated male lambs weaned at 42 days of age (15.9 ± 2.1kg live weight were housed in individual stalls and fed ad libitum. Five lambs were slaughtered ten days after weaning, and the remaining were randomly assigned to one of three slaughter weights: 25, 30 and 35kg live weight. To determine allometric growth of individual cuts and tissues, exponential equation Y = aXb was logarithmically transformed and used. Shoulder presented early maturity (b = 0.89, whereas allometric growth of leg, rib and neck were

  14. The influence of Palm Kernel Cake and Rice Bran Fermentation Product Mixture to the Broiler Carcass Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadi Priabudiman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of the use of palm kernel cake (PKC and rice bran (RB fermentation products mixture to the percentage of broiler carcass weight pieces. Research using completely randomized design (CRD with treatments of the fermentation product usage rate of   0% (P0, 10% (P1, 20% (P2, 30% (P3 and 40% (P4 of the total ration of 4replications.  Variables measured were percentage of carcass weight ratio cut    pieces  of carcass weight (carcass front, rear carcass, breast meat, wings, back, and thigh with carcass weight multiplied by 100%. The results showed that the percentage of carcass weight piece front and rear carcass was shown at P3.

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis in chicken growth hormone gene and its associations with growth and carcass traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Bingxue; DENG Xuemei; FEI Jing; HU Xiaoxiang; WU Changxin; LI Ning

    2003-01-01

    In this experiment, F2 chicken derived from Broilers crossing to Silky are used to study the effect of growth hormone gene on growth and carcass traits. The partial gene is amplified by two pairs of primers, and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) is detected by the technique of PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism), and then confirmed by DNA sequencing. The mutations are found in intron 3 and intron 4 respectively, and can be clarified by digestion with EcoRⅤand MspⅠ. The results of least square analysis indicate that the gene has significant association with some carcass traits, such as breast muscle weight, breast muscle rate, abdominal fat rate, and has no association with other growth and carcass traits, such as live weight, carcass weight, eviscerated yield with giblet, eviscerated yield, leg muscle weight, heart weight, liver weight, abdominal fat weight, chest angle width, head and neck weight, shank and claw weight, wing weight, muscular stomach weight, glandular stomach weight, ovary or testicular weight, shank girth, small intestine length, 1-week body weight, 6-week body weight, 12-week body weight, etc. These results demonstrate that GH gene could be a genetic locus or linked to a major gene significantly affecting the growth and carcass traits in chicken.

  16. Prediction of Carcass Composition Using Carcass Grading Traits in Hanwoo Steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jooyoung; Won, Seunggun; Lee, Jeongkoo; Kim, Jongbok

    2016-09-01

    The prediction of carcass composition in Hanwoo steers is very important for value-based marketing, and the improvement of prediction accuracy and precision can be achieved through the analyses of independent variables using a prediction equation with a sufficient dataset. The present study was conducted to develop a prediction equation for Hanwoo carcass composition for which data was collected from 7,907 Hanwoo steers raised at a private farm in Gangwon Province, South Korea, and slaughtered in the period between January 2009 and September 2014. Carcass traits such as carcass weight (CWT), back fat thickness (BFT), eye-muscle area (EMA), and marbling score (MAR) were used as independent variables for the development of a prediction equation for carcass composition, such as retail cut weight and percentage (RC, and %RC, respectively), trimmed fat weight and percentage (FAT, and %FAT, respectively), and separated bone weight and percentage (BONE, and %BONE), and its feasibility for practical use was evaluated using the estimated retail yield percentage (ELP) currently used in Korea. The equations were functions of all the variables, and the significance was estimated via stepwise regression analyses. Further, the model equations were verified by means of the residual standard deviation and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) between the predicted and observed values. As the results of stepwise analyses, CWT was the most important single variable in the equation for RC and FAT, and BFT was the most important variable for the equation of %RC and %FAT. The precision and accuracy of three variable equation consisting CWT, BFT, and EMA were very similar to those of four variable equation that included all for independent variables (CWT, BFT, EMA, and MAR) in RC and FAT, while the three variable equations provided a more accurate prediction for %RC. Consequently, the three-variable equation might be more appropriate for practical use than the four-variable equation

  17. Carcass and meat quality traits in Nellore and F1 Nellore-Araguaia crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, N V; Aboujaoude, C; Vieira, G S; Paiva, V V; Moraes Neto, R A; Gondim, V S; Alves, L R; Torres, M C L; Antunes, R C

    2015-05-22

    We evaluated and compared carcass traits and meat quality in Nellore cattle and F1 crosses between Nellore and Araguaia, where 17 individuals were from the Nellore group and 19 were ½ Nellore and ½ Araguaia crosses. All animals belonged to the same birth season and were raised in pasture systems under the same nutritional, environmental, and management conditions. When the animals reached slaughter weight, they were taken to an industrial slaughterhouse where food was not provided for 24 h (free access to water); they were then stunned, bled, the leather was removed, and they were eviscerated. The carcasses were weighed (hot weight), kept in chilled storage for approximately 24 h at 4°C, and weighed again to obtain the chilled carcass weight. Carcass yield, carcass length, carcass width, leg length, thigh perimeter, loin eye area (LEA), retail cuts, cooling loss, pH, fat depth, marbling rate, intramuscular fat, color, and shear force were analyzed and sensory analysis of the meat was conducted. Significant differences (P meat's sensory characteristics, but contributed to an improvement in carcass traits, providing an alternative for farmers that aim for good meat quality, with a higher meat percentage.

  18. Concentrate levels of crossbred bulls slaughtered at 16 or 22 months: performance and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pinto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to assess the animal performance of 97 bulls, ½ Purunã vs. ½ Canchim, that were slaughtered at 16 (16M or 22 (22M months with three concentrate levels (0.8, 1.2, and 1.6% of body weight (BW. The initial body weight was lower for the 16M bulls. The final body weight and hot carcass weights were similar between the two slaughter ages. The hot carcass dressing was higher for 22M bulls. The average daily gain was higher for 16M bulls. The feed intake and dry matter feed conversion were similar between 16 and 22M bulls. The carcass length, marbling, and bone percentage were lower for 16M bulls. However, the Longissimus dorsi muscle area was higher for 16M bulls. The leg length, cushion thickness, fat thickness, conformation, colour, texture, muscle percent, and fat percent were similar between 16 and 22M bulls. The final and hot carcass weights were lower for bulls that were fed with 0.8% of BW. The carcass dressing was similar for the three concentrate levels. The average daily gain was higher for bulls that were fed with 1.6% of BW of concentrate and lower for those that were fed with 0.8%. The concentrate levels had no effect on carcass characteristics, feed intake, and dry matter conversion.

  19. Ganho de peso, característica da carcaça e dos demais componentes corporais de cordeiros confinados, alimentados com distintos teores de uréia Weight gain, carcass traits and other body components from feedlot lambs, fed diets with different levels of urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Sobolow de Souza

    2004-08-01

    finished in feedlot randomly allocated in four groups according to urea levels (0.0; 0.4; 0.8 and 1.2% of total dry matter. Animals were slaughtered with 32kg of live weight. There was no difference among urea levels for the following parameters: daily weight gain, live weight at slaughter, hot and chilled carcass weights, percentage of weight losses during chilling, commercial and biological carcass dressing out, non-carcass components weights, body condition and conformation, and fat deposition. However, for the skin weight (kg the 0.0% level was lower than the 0.8% level. There were not observed differences among treatments for the following variables: muscle pH at three moments, morphometric and carcass cut proportions. The leg length of the lambs fed diet with 0.8% urea was lower than that of 0.0% level. For leg compacity, 0.8% was smaller than the leg length of those fed with 0.o% urea. It was concluded that growing levels of urea utilization is viable and did not affect the variables that were analyzed in this work.

  20. Etude statistique de l'appréciation du poids d'une carcasse de bovin en fonction de l'épaisseur de cuisse, de la longueur de carcasse et du sexe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiti, K.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical study for the weight of a bovine carcass as function of the thickness of the thight, length of a carcass and sex. Four hundred cattle coming from four different farms and dealt in proportionnal number for each sex, are used to study the influence of the height, the thickness of the thigh and sex on the weight for to appreciate a carcass. Animals were killed in Lubumbashi (Zaire by the S.A.B. society. The weight is the most important variable for the cow's choice in the commercial channel. In this study, other criteria of appreciation are used for giving a better decision for the butcher.

  1. Concentrate levels of crossbred bulls slaughtered at 16 or 22 months: performance and carcass characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Pinto; Rodrigo Augusto Cortêz Passetti; Ana Guerrero; Dayane Cristina Rivaroli; Daniel Perotto; Ivanor Nunes do Prado

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the animal performance of 97 bulls, ½ Purunã vs. ½ Canchim, that were slaughtered at 16 (16M) or 22 (22M) months with three concentrate levels (0.8, 1.2, and 1.6%) of body weight (BW). The initial body weight was lower for the 16M bulls. The final body weight and hot carcass weights were similar between the two slaughter ages. The hot carcass dressing was higher for 22M bulls. The average daily gain was higher for 16M bulls. The feed intake and dry matter fe...

  2. Carcass characteristics of sheep fed diets with slow-release urea replacing conventional urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanilton Moura Alves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of adding slow-release urea to replace conventional urea in the diet on carcass characteristics of feedlot sheep. We used 20 Santa Ines x SRD rams, with average body weight of 21.1±1.2 kgand average age of 120 days, distributed in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments. The replacement levels used as treatments were 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80%, composing diets of about 12% crude protein, with 50 % Tifton-85 hay and 50% concentrate. There was no influence of slow release urea on weight at slaughter (35.17 kg, and on hot (16.75 kg and cold (16.24 kg carcass weight, but the yield of these carcasses showed quadratic trend, revealing lower percentages at 48.5 and 47.63% replacement levels, respectively. The weights and yields of cuts did not change, except for the posterior arm, whose values showed a cubic trend. Objective measures of carcass, loin eye area, and subjective evaluations of conformation, finishing and marbling of carcasses were not affected. The subcutaneous fat thickness decreased linearly (4.25 to2.48 mm. The inclusion of slow release urea in the diet changes the yield and reduces subcutaneous fat, however, it does not influence other carcass characteristics.

  3. Estimated genetic parameters for carcass traits of Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Hammond, A C; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A; Coleman, S W

    2002-04-01

    Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated from feedlot and carcass data collected from Brahman calves (n = 504) in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Data were analyzed using animal models in MTDFREML. Models included contemporary group (n = 44; groups of calves of the same sex, fed in the same pen, slaughtered on the same day) as a fixed effect and calf age in days at slaughter as a continuous variable. Estimated feedlot trait heritabilities were 0.64, 0.67, 0.47, and 0.26 for ADG, hip height at slaughter, slaughter weight, and shrink. The USDA yield grade estimated heritability was 0.71; heritabilities for component traits of yield grade, including hot carcass weight, adjusted 12th rib backfat thickness, loin muscle area, and percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat were 0.55, 0.63, 0.44, and 0.46, respectively. Heritability estimates for dressing percentage, marbling score, USDA quality grade, cutability, retail yield, and carcass hump height were 0.77, 0.44, 0.47, 0.71, 0.5, and 0.54, respectively. Estimated genetic correlations of adjusted 12th rib backfat thickness with ADG, slaughter weight, marbling score, percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, and yield grade (0.49, 0.46, 0.56, 0.63, and 0.93, respectively) were generally larger than most literature estimates. Estimated genetic correlations of marbling score with ADG, percentage shrink, loin muscle area, percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, USDA yield grade, cutability, retail yield, and carcass hump height were 0.28, 0.49, 0.44, 0.27, 0.45, -0.43, 0.27, and 0.43, respectively. Results indicate that sufficient genetic variation exists within the Brahman breed for design and implementation of effective selection programs for important carcass quality and yield traits. PMID:12008662

  4. Estimated genetic parameters for carcass traits of Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Hammond, A C; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A; Coleman, S W

    2002-04-01

    Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated from feedlot and carcass data collected from Brahman calves (n = 504) in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Data were analyzed using animal models in MTDFREML. Models included contemporary group (n = 44; groups of calves of the same sex, fed in the same pen, slaughtered on the same day) as a fixed effect and calf age in days at slaughter as a continuous variable. Estimated feedlot trait heritabilities were 0.64, 0.67, 0.47, and 0.26 for ADG, hip height at slaughter, slaughter weight, and shrink. The USDA yield grade estimated heritability was 0.71; heritabilities for component traits of yield grade, including hot carcass weight, adjusted 12th rib backfat thickness, loin muscle area, and percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat were 0.55, 0.63, 0.44, and 0.46, respectively. Heritability estimates for dressing percentage, marbling score, USDA quality grade, cutability, retail yield, and carcass hump height were 0.77, 0.44, 0.47, 0.71, 0.5, and 0.54, respectively. Estimated genetic correlations of adjusted 12th rib backfat thickness with ADG, slaughter weight, marbling score, percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, and yield grade (0.49, 0.46, 0.56, 0.63, and 0.93, respectively) were generally larger than most literature estimates. Estimated genetic correlations of marbling score with ADG, percentage shrink, loin muscle area, percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, USDA yield grade, cutability, retail yield, and carcass hump height were 0.28, 0.49, 0.44, 0.27, 0.45, -0.43, 0.27, and 0.43, respectively. Results indicate that sufficient genetic variation exists within the Brahman breed for design and implementation of effective selection programs for important carcass quality and yield traits.

  5. Real-time ultrasound to predict rabbit carcass composition and volume of longissimus dorsi muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Severiano José Cruz da Rocha e Silva; André Mendes Jorge; José Luís Teixeira de Abreu Medeiros Mourão; Cristina Vitória de Miranda Guedes; Victor Manuel Carvalho Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    Real-time ultrasonography (RTU) was used to measure the longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) volume in vivo and to predict the carcass composition of rabbits. For this, 63 New Zealand White × Californian rabbits with 2093±63 g live weight were used. Animals were scanned between the 6th and 7th lumbar vertebrae using an RTU equipment with a 7.5 MHz probe. Measurements of LM volume were obtianed both in vivo and on carcass. Regression equations were used for the prediction of carcass composition and L...

  6. Ganho de peso e características da carcaça de cordeiros terminados em pastagem natural suplementada, pastagem cultivada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. e confinamento Weight gain and carcass characteristics of lambs finished in a natural supplemented pasture, ryegrass pasture (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber José Tonetto

    2004-02-01

    . and CON: confinement. Average daily gain of 0.404 kg of RP lambs was higher than the other treatments, whereas NSP animals showed higher gain (0.325 kg/day than CON animals (0.213 kg/day. The lambs were slaughtered when reached, approximately, 31 kg. The carcass hot weight of NSP animals (15.7 kg was similar to the RP animals (16.8 kg and higher than the confinement ones (14.3 kg. NSP, RP and CON animals showed similar results to the cooling index, with values of 2.3 , 2.1 and 2.5%, respectively. Hot carcass yield of NSP (50.2% and RP (53.7% animals were similar, however those values were higher than those of CON carcass yield (45.9. Carcass compactness showed no difference between NSP and RP, with values of 0.287 and 0.307, respectively, however, these values were higher than the CON animals (0.253. The carcass of NSP and CON animals did not differ in relation to the fat thickness, with values of 1.6 and 1.0 mm, respectively. These values were lower than the ones obtained from RP (3.3 mm. Average daily gain over 0.4 kg/day and hot carcass yield over 52% can be obtained in lambs fed with their mothers in ryegrass pasture, with slaughter weight round 31kg.

  7. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle VII): Carcass, yield, and longissimus palatability traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to provide a current evaluation of the seven most prominent beef breeds in the United States and to determine the relative changes that have occurred in these breeds since they were evaluated with samples of sires born 25 to 30 yr earlier. Carcass (n = 649), yield (n = 569), and longissimus thoracis palatability (n = 569) traits from F(1) steers obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III cows to Hereford (H), Angus (A), Red Angus (RA), Charolais (C), Limousin (L), Simmental (S), or Gelbvieh (G) sires were compared. Data were adjusted to constant age (445 d), carcass weight (363 kg), fat thickness (1.1 cm), fat trim percent (25%), and marbling (Small(35)) endpoints. For Warner-Bratzler shear force and trained sensory panel traits, data were obtained on LM from steaks stored at 2 degrees C for 14 d postmortem. The following comparisons were from the age-constant endpoint. Carcasses from L-, G-, and H-sired steers (361, 363, and 364 kg, respectively) were lighter (P carcasses from steers from all other sire breeds. Adjusted fat thickness for carcasses from A-, RA-, and H-sired steers (1.5, 1.4, and 1.3 cm, respectively) was higher (P carcasses from steers from all other sire breeds (0.9 cm). Longissimus muscle areas were largest (P carcasses from L-, C-, S-, and G-sired steers (89.9, 88.7, 87.6, and 86.5 cm(2), respectively) and smallest for carcasses from H- and RA-sired steers (79.5 and 78.4 cm(2)). A greater (P carcasses from RA- and A-sired steers graded USDA Choice (90 and 88%, respectively) than from carcasses from other sire breeds (57 to 66%). Carcass yield of boneless, totally trimmed retail product was least (P carcasses of A-sired steers (4.0 kg) had lower (P carcasses of G- and C-sired steers (4.5 to 4.3 kg, respectively). Trained sensory panel tenderness and beef flavor intensity ratings for LM did not differ (P carcasses than did British breeds (H, A, and RA), with less marbling than A or RA, although British

  8. Effects of Dietary Zilpaterol Hydrochloride on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Serum Compositions of Hanwoo Bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Kyoo; Chung, Ki Yong; Kim, Hyeong Cheol; Lee, Eun Mi; Chang, Sun Sik; Kwon, Eung Gi; Johnson, Bradley J.; Gotoh, Takafumi; Goto, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo bulls. Twenty Hanwoo bulls (653 ± 22.1) were randomly assigned by body weight (BW) to determine the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (Ten bulls with 8.3 mg/kg ZH and ten bulls without ZH) on the ultrasound measurement, carcass traits, and serum compositions. Treatments comprised diets with and without ZH supplemented for 20 days prior to...

  9. Carcass or Tissue Packaging and Shipping

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP on proper shipping of wildlife tissues to labs. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect and ship wildlife carcasses, carcass parts, or...

  10. Assessing Body Condition from Fat on Carcass

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding assessment of body condition based on carcass fat. Provides stepwise instructions and photos on how to assess body condition from carcass fat

  11. Genetic Parameter Estimates of Carcass Traits under National Scale Breeding Scheme for Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, ChangHee; Park, ByungHo; Kim, SiDong; Choi, TaeJung; Yang, BohSuk; Park, SuBong; Song, HyungJun

    2016-08-01

    Carcass and price traits of 72,969 Hanwoo cows, bulls and steers aged 16 to 80 months at slaughter collected from 2002 to 2013 at 75 beef packing plants in Korea were analyzed to determine heritability, correlation and breeding value using the Multi-Trait restricted maximum likelihood (REML) animal model procedure. The traits included carcass measurements, scores and grades at 24 h postmortem and bid prices at auction. Relatively high heritability was found for maturity (0.41±0.031), while moderate heritability estimates were obtained for backfat thickness (0.20±0.018), longissimus muscle (LM) area (0.23±0.020), carcass weight (0.28±0.019), yield index (0.20±0.018), yield grade (0.16±0.017), marbling (0.28±0.021), texture (0.14±0.016), quality grade (0.26±0.016) and price/kg (0.24±0.025). Relatively low heritability estimates were observed for meat color (0.06±0.013) and fat color (0.06±0.012). Heritability estimates for most traits were lower than those in the literature. Genetic correlations of carcass measurements with characteristic scores or quality grade of carcass ranged from -0.27 to +0.21. Genetic correlations of yield grade with backfat thickness, LM area and carcass weight were 0.91, -0.43, and -0.09, respectively. Genetic correlations of quality grade with scores of marbling, meat color, fat color and texture were -0.99, 0.48, 0.47, and 0.98, respectively. Genetic correlations of price/kg with LM area, carcass weight, marbling, meat color, texture and maturity were 0.57, 0.64, 0.76, -0.41, -0.79, and -0.42, respectively. Genetic correlations of carcass price with LM area, carcass weight, marbling and texture were 0.61, 0.57, 0.64, and -0.73, respectively, with standard errors ranging from ±0.047 to ±0.058. The mean carcass weight breeding values increased by more than 8 kg, whereas the mean marbling scores decreased by approximately 0.2 from 2000 through 2009. Overall, the results suggest that genetic improvement of productivity and

  12. Postweaning performance and carcass merit of F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, D E

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons were made among F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds of bulls for feedlot and carcass traits when steers were produced from Angus- and Hereford-type dams. Brahman-derivative breeds included Brangus, Beefmaster, and Santa Gertrudis. Brangus- and Beefmaster-sired steers weighed less at slaughter, whereas carcasses of Brangus- and Santa Gertrudis-sired steers had more marbling than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area than carcasses of Santa Gertrudis-sired steers. Other Zebu breeds compared to Brahman were Boran, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, Red Brahman, and Sahiwal. Steers by Brahman sires had higher slaughter weights than steers by Boran, Gir, Nellore, or Sahiwal sires. Hot carcass weights of Brahman-sired steers were also higher than those of Boran- and Sahiwal-sired steers. Steer carcasses by Brahman sires had greater longissimus muscle area than those of steers by Sahiwal sires. Non-Zebu breeds included Tuli and Senepol. Steers by Tuli sires grew slower, had lower slaughter weights, and their carcasses weighed less than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area but less marbling than carcasses of Tuli-sired steers. These data suggest that steers by Brahman sires have an advantage for slaughter weight over steers by Brangus, Beefmaster, Boran, Gir, Nellore, Sahiwal, and Tuli sires, but their carcasses are at a disadvantage for marbling score compared with those by Brangus, Boran, Nellore, and Tuli sires. PMID:9331861

  13. Postweaning performance and carcass merit of F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, D E

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons were made among F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds of bulls for feedlot and carcass traits when steers were produced from Angus- and Hereford-type dams. Brahman-derivative breeds included Brangus, Beefmaster, and Santa Gertrudis. Brangus- and Beefmaster-sired steers weighed less at slaughter, whereas carcasses of Brangus- and Santa Gertrudis-sired steers had more marbling than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area than carcasses of Santa Gertrudis-sired steers. Other Zebu breeds compared to Brahman were Boran, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, Red Brahman, and Sahiwal. Steers by Brahman sires had higher slaughter weights than steers by Boran, Gir, Nellore, or Sahiwal sires. Hot carcass weights of Brahman-sired steers were also higher than those of Boran- and Sahiwal-sired steers. Steer carcasses by Brahman sires had greater longissimus muscle area than those of steers by Sahiwal sires. Non-Zebu breeds included Tuli and Senepol. Steers by Tuli sires grew slower, had lower slaughter weights, and their carcasses weighed less than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area but less marbling than carcasses of Tuli-sired steers. These data suggest that steers by Brahman sires have an advantage for slaughter weight over steers by Brangus, Beefmaster, Boran, Gir, Nellore, Sahiwal, and Tuli sires, but their carcasses are at a disadvantage for marbling score compared with those by Brangus, Boran, Nellore, and Tuli sires.

  14. Carcass and meat quality in double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; De Campeneere, S; Van Caelenbergh, W; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M

    2003-03-01

    Carcass and meat quality of 37 bulls and 91 cows of the Belgian Blue breed (double-muscled type) were compared. Age at slaughter averaged 648±73 and 1820±689 days, respectively. Both groups of cattle were finished on maize silage supplemented with concentrate, and were slaughtered at about 750 kg live weight. Females had a lower (P=0.004) cold carcass weight (469.7 kg) in comparison with bulls (500.8 kg), due to a reduced dressing percentage (63.8 vs. 66.6; P waterholding capacity (P⩽0.063) and was slightly more tender (P=0.120) than the LT of bulls. Increasing parity reduced dressing percentage and increased LT lightness (L*-value) in cows. Several carcass (SEUROP-grading, composition, LT-area) and meat quality traits (protein and fat contents, drip and cooking losses, a*-value) were better correlated with carcass weight than parity. It is concluded that meat quality of the aged LT of cows is not negatively affected by age, while some carcass quality traits decreased with advancing age. Carcass quality traits adjusted for age at slaughter were better for bulls, but LT meat quality characteristics were at least as good for females as for males.

  15. Efeitos da seleção para peso pós-desmame sobre características de carcaça e rendimento de cortes cárneos comerciais de bovinos Effects of selection for post weaning weight on carcass traits and meat cut yields of beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Figueiredo Martins Bonilha

    2007-10-01

    herds born in 1999 were used to evaluate the effects of selection for post weaning weight on carcass traits and meat cuts yields at 378 days of age (P 378. The animals were randomly distributed into two experimental classes: restricted feeding (AR and ad libitum feeding (AL including 8 animals from the NeS and Ca groups and 6 animals from the NeC group. Animals of each class were slaughtered in pairs when the animals AL group reached 4 mm of ultrasonic fat thickness on Longissimus dorsi muscle, between the 12th and 13th ribs. The interaction between genetic group and feeding class was not significant for most of the traits evaluated. The genetic group effect was significant. Animals of the Ca and NeS groups were heavier at slaughter and Ca animals required longer feedlot period to reach the desired fat thickness. Higher slaughter weights of these animals changed their carcass, hindquarter, forequarter and spare ribs weights. The selection for P 378 in the Nellore group resulted in heavier weights at slaughter, heavier carcasses and primary cuts, but lower meat tenderness, although within reasonable values of shear force (below 5.0 kgf.

  16. Effect of breed (wool and hair and sex on the carcass quality of suckling lambs under intensive management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Camacho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Carcasses of twenty lambs (10 males and 10 females from the Canaria Hair breed (CHB and another twenty (10 males and 10 females from the Canaria breed (CB of 9.91±0.73 kg and 9.87±0.80 kg live weight, respectively, were studied. In the principal component (PC analysis, the projection of carcass measurement data in the first PC allowed for clearly distinguishing between CB and CHB. In the analysis of variance, breed effect was observed in the morphology of the carcass: CB lambs showed the longest carcasses and CHB lambs showed the widest carcasses. Due to their wider rump and shorter legs, CHB lambs presented a more compact leg index. The carcasses from Canaria lambs had the highest fat score, the heaviest shoulder and the highest total fat percentage. The carcasses from CHB lambs showed a higher lean percentage. The carcass yield, conformation, degree of fatness and tissue composition were similar in both sexes. However, significant differences in the commercial cut yield were observed: males showed heavier shoulders than females. The effect of sex on carcass quality is unimportant. The breeds are different in important characteristics for the market, such as fatness. This fact is of significant interest because it diversifies the offer and means that different markets can be satisfied.

  17. The effect of production system (barn and free-range), slaughtering age and gender on carcass traits and meat quality of partridges (Alectoris chukar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamak, U S; Sarica, M; Boz, M A; Ucar, A

    2016-04-01

    1. A total of 400 Alectoris chukar partridges were reared in either barn or free-range production systems and slaughtered at 14, 16 or 18 weeks of age in order to determine the effects of production system, age and gender on carcass traits (live weight, carcass weight, carcass yield, carcass part and edible inner organ percentages at slaughtering) and meat quality (L*, a* and b* meat colour and pH). 2. Production system had a significant effect on both slaughter traits and meat quality. 3. Partridges raised in barn conditions had higher live weights and carcass weights whereas meat quality was better in birds raised in the free-range system. PMID:26813778

  18. Heterogeneity of variances for carcass traits by percentage Brahman inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, D H; Franke, D E

    1998-07-01

    Heterogeneity of carcass trait variances due to level of Brahman inheritance was investigated using records from straightbred and crossbred steers produced from 1970 to 1988 (n = 1,530). Angus, Brahman, Charolais, and Hereford sires were mated to straightbred and crossbred cows to produce straightbred, F1, back-cross, three-breed cross, and two-, three-, and four-breed rotational crossbred steers in four non-overlapping generations. At weaning (mean age = 220 d), steers were randomly assigned within breed group directly to the feedlot for 200 d, or to a backgrounding and stocker phase before feeding. Stocker steers were fed from 70 to 100 d in generations 1 and 2 and from 60 to 120 d in generations 3 and 4. Carcass traits included hot carcass weight, subcutaneous fat thickness and longissimus muscle area at the 12-13th rib interface, carcass weight-adjusted longissimus muscle area, USDA yield grade, estimated total lean yield, marbling score, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Steers were classified as either high Brahman (50 to 100% Brahman), moderate Brahman (25 to 49% Brahman), or low Brahman (0 to 24% Brahman) inheritance. Two types of animal models were fit with regard to level of Brahman inheritance. One model assumed similar variances between pairs of Brahman inheritance groups, and the second model assumed different variances between pairs of Brahman inheritance groups. Fixed sources of variation in both models included direct and maternal additive and nonadditive breed effects, year of birth, and slaughter age. Variances were estimated using derivative free REML procedures. Likelihood ratio tests were used to compare models. The model accounting for heterogeneous variances had a greater likelihood (P carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, weight-adjusted longissimus muscle area, total lean yield, and Warner-Bratzler shear force, indicating improved fit with percentage Brahman inheritance considered as a source of heterogeneity of variance. Genetic

  19. Carcass Composition of Turopolje Pig, the Autochthonous Croatian Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Đikić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this research was to establish carcass composition in Turopolje pig breed by analyzing the percentage of muscle (M, fat (F and bone (B tissue, percentage of these tissues in different parts of carcass (ham, loin, back, neck, belly-rib part . BRP, as well as share of the parts in carcass. Animals were divided into two groups of different age and slaughtering weight (TI 584 ± 20 days and 81,9 kg; TII 679 ± 20 days and 100,3 kg ± 4,9 kg. Purpose of this investigation was to define the standards for traits mentioned for the remainder of the population of Turopolje pig and to set the selection and production programs, as this breed has been under protection since 1993 and re-establishment since 1996 as cultural and biological heritage of Croatia and the World. In order to define Turopolje pig in production sense, we presented characteristics of the old breeds Mongolitza and Black Slavonian and some selected breeds. Pigs were fattened in the outdoor system of flood forests and marsh meadows biocenosis (Quercus robur . Deschampsietum caespitosae, according to traditional Croatian technology of low input (Ðikić et al., 2002.Slaughtering weight and weight of warm and cold carcass were measured on the slaughtering line. The halves were separately weight and dissected (tissues and parts according to Weninger et al., 1963 and by total dissection. Data were processed by statistical-mathematical procedure GSM and SAS software package (1996 and results were compared within and between the groups ( t-test.In groups TI and TII the percentages tissues in carcass were established to be as follows: M 38.2% and 40.5%, B 10.6% and 9.7%, respectively, and were significantly different ( P< 0.05, while share of F, 34.2% and 33.8% were not significantly different.Fattened pigs in group TI, in relation to TII, had lower relative share of muscle tissue in the carcass of loin, back, neck and BRP and higher share of fat tissue of neck and BRP, as well as

  20. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf, A. L.; Y.M. Goh; Samsudin, A. A.; A. R. Alimon; A. Q. Sazili

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, l...

  1. 葡萄渣对羔羊生产性能、屠宰性能和养分消化代谢的影响%Effect of feeding grape pomace on nutrient digestibility,body weight gain,and car-cass quality in lambs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢珍珍; 郑琛; 李发弟; 李冲; 唐德富; 翁秀秀; 刘婷; 马志远; 马东方

    2015-01-01

    本试验采用单因子完全随机试验设计,选择60只3月龄左右杜寒 F1代公羔进行试验,测定不同水平葡萄渣对羔羊生产性能、屠宰性能和养分消化代谢的影响。本试验设4个饲粮处理组,每个处理15个重复,每个重复一只羊,Ⅰ为基础饲粮,Ⅱ、Ⅲ和Ⅳ处理组为饲粮中分别含有8%,16%和24%的葡萄渣,缩合单宁(condensed tan-nins,CT)含量分别为0,1.5,3.0和4.5 g/kg。结果表明,Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ组羔羊日采食量、日增重、胴体重、屠宰率和胴体脂肪含量都显著高于Ⅰ组(P <0.05),N 表观存留率极显著高于Ⅰ组(P <0.01),但Ⅰ组羔羊的酸性洗涤纤维和N 表观消化率显著高于Ⅳ组(P <0.05);Ⅱ组羔羊的饲料转化率显著高于Ⅰ组(P <0.05),净肉率极显著高于Ⅰ组(P <0.01)。随着 CT 含量的增加,羔羊的 N、中性洗涤纤维和酸性洗涤纤维表观消化率逐渐降低,N 的表观存留率逐渐升高,综合考虑羔羊日增重、饲料转化率、屠宰性能和养分利用率等指标,饲粮中葡萄渣以8%~16%为宜。%A total of 60 hybrid 3-month-old Dorper (♂)× Small Tail Han sheep (♀)F1 male lambs were ran-domly allocated to 4 groups with 15 animals per group to determine the effect of different levels of grape pom-ace on nutrient digestibility,body weight gain,and carcass quality.The control group (group Ⅰ)was fed a base diet without grape pomace,while the trial groups were fed diets with grape pomace added to the base diet at 8%,16% or 24% on a dry weight basis (groups Ⅱ,Ⅲ and Ⅳ),respectively.The condensed tannin (CT) levels in the diets for each group were 0,1.5,3.0 and 4.5 g/kg,respectively.The apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber (ADF)and N of the control group were significantly higher than group Ⅳ(P <0.05).In contrast,the lambs in trial groups had significantly higher average daily feed

  2. Evaluation of carcass characteristics and meat chemical composition of Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in pasture systems

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Fernanda Barros; Souza Nilson Evelázio de; Matsushita Makoto; Prado Ivanor Nunes do; Nascimento Willian Gonçalves do

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcass characteristics (carcass weight, carcass yield, fat thickness, loin area, marbling and colour) and chemical composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle (moisture, ash, crude protein, fat and cholesterol) of cuts with or without fat thickness, of Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in millet (Pennisetum americanum L.) or star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus Pilger) pasture systems, with mineral or mineral prot...

  3. Rendimento de Carcaça, Mensurações e Peso de Cortes Comerciais de Cordeiros Santa Inês e Bergamácia Alimentados com Dejetos de Suínos em Confinamento Dressing Percentage, Measures of Carcass and Weight of Commercial Joint Santa Ines and Bergamacia Lambs Fed with Swine Wastes in Confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Morais de Oliveira

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 21 cordeiros das raças Santa Inês e Bergamácia, confinados por um período de 75 dias, sendo alimentados com dietas contendo 24% de dejetos de suínos, na forma de biju (dejeto obtido pela raspagem e varredura do piso das baias de crescimento e terminação ou dejeto peneirado seco - DPS (dejeto obtido através da peneiração da parte sólida do material contido na lâmina d'água e na água da lavagem das baias. Os animais foram abatidos aos 210 dias de idade, sendo determinados o peso e o rendimento das carcaças, suas mensurações e o peso dos cortes comerciais. As diferentes dietas não afetaram o peso ao abate (PA, peso de carcaça quente (PCQ, rendimento de carcaça quente (RCQ, peso de carcaça fria (PCF, rendimento de carcaça fria (RCF e percentual de perda ao resfriamento (PPR. Os cordeiros da raça Bergamácia apresentaram maior PA, PCQ e PCF. Não foram verificadas diferenças entre as dietas ou entre as raças para os parâmetros: comprimento total, comprimento da perna, comprimento total da perna, comprimento interno, perímetro da garupa e largura de garupa. No entanto, foi verificada maior profundidade de tórax e espessura de gordura subcutânea nos cordeiros da raça Bergamácia. Também não foi encontrado nenhum efeito das dietas e das raças para os cortes paleta, carré, peito/fralda, lombo, pernil, braço anterior e braço posterior.Twenty-one lambs of the Santa Ines and Bergamacia breeds were confined by a period of 75 days and fed diets containing 24% of swine wastes, in biju form (obtained by the scratching and sweeping of the floor of the growth stalls and termination or dry sifted wastes - DSW (obtained through the sifting of the solid part of the material contained in the sheet of water and in the water of the wash of the stalls. The animals were slaughtered at 210 days of age, being determined the weight and measures of carcass, dressing percentage and commercial joints. There was no diet

  4. Composição Física da Carcaça, Qualidade da Carne e Conteúdo de Colesterol no Músculo Longissimus dorsi de Novilhos Red Angus Superprecoces, Terminados em Confinamento e Abatidos com Diferentes Pesos Carcass Composition, Meat Quality and Cholesterol Content in the Longissimus dorsi Muscle of Young Red Angus Steers Confined and Slaughtered with Different Weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Castro da Costa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados a composição física da carcaça, a qualidade da carne e o conteúdo de colesterol no músculo Longissimus dorsi de 24 novilhos Red Angus, terminados em confinamento com diferentes pesos. Os novilhos tinham, em média, 189 kg e oito meses de idade ao início do período de terminação, que foi de 114, 144, 173 e 213 dias, para os respectivos pesos de abate (PA de 340, 373, 400,6 e 433,6 kg . A composição da carcaça foi alterada pelo peso de abate. A percentagem de osso variou de maneira quadrática (%osso= 92,81 -- 0,402PA + 0,0005PA², com valor mínimo de 12% aos 402 kg, enquanto a porcentagem de músculo diminuiu de forma linear (%músc.= 78,38 -- 0,042PA e a porcentagem de gordura aumentou (%gord.= 3,92 + 0,052PA. A relação porção comestível:osso teve resposta quadrática frente aos tratamentos (RPC:O= -31,88 + 0,194PA -- 0,0002PA², apresentando o valor máximo de 6,47 nas carcaças produzidas por animais abatidos com 395 kg. A relação músculo:osso, que não variou com o peso de abate, foi de 4,4 de média para os tratamentos. Cor e textura não foram alteradas pelo aumento do peso de abate, enquanto marmoreio aumentou linearmente (Marm.= -13,35 + 0,051667PA. Maiores pesos de abate resultaram em menor quebra no descongelamento e maior quebra na cocção. A carne foi classificada como macia e muito macia, com suculência e palatabilidade levemente acima da média. Os teores de extrato etéreo e colesterol não foram alterados pelo aumento do peso de abate, sendo a média para os tratamentos de 2,35% e 43,07 mg de colesterol/100 g de músculo, respectivamente.The carcass physical composition, meat quality and cholesterol content in the Longissimus dorsi muscle of 24 Red Angus steers finished in feedlot with different weights were evaluated. Steers average age and weight at the beginning of the feedlot were, respectively, eight months and 189 kg. The number of days on feed was 114, 144, 173 and 213 days to reach

  5. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Validity of methodsExperiments were carried out In which it was assessed which Salmonella isolation method is the most productive one In the examination of broiler carcasses. Refrigerated, refrigerated and radiated (2.50 kGy), frozen and frozen and radiated (2.50 kGy) samples of broile

  6. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis reports investigations using gamma-radiation to decontaminate poultry carcasses. The application to foods of doses of ionizing radiation sufficient to reduce the number of viable specific non-sporeforming pathogenic microorganisms so that none is detectable in the treated food by any standard method is termed radicidation. The doses used in this study were at such a level that no undesirable or unfavourable side-effects occurred. The effects of these doses were studied on salmonellae and other microorganisms present in, or associated with poultry carcasses and in liquid and on solid culture media as well. Decimal reduction (D10) values were estimated. These represent the dose (kGy) required to achieve a reduction in initial colony count from N0 to 0.1 N0. Together with the estimation of the numbers of Salmonella present per carcass the data were used to predict the effect of an ionizing radiation treatment of poultry. Data on the effect of ionizing radiation on the total microflora of poultry carcasses were also collected. (Auth.)

  7. Consumer acceptance and carcass quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    In commodity production systems, beef quality is designated based on the USDA grading criteria which take into account carcass marbling, maturity and yield. Producers are rewarded economically for beef quality grade (QG) of Choice versus Select although the price difference (spread) varies seasonal...

  8. Effect of Housing System, Slaughter Age and Sex on Slaughter and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hrnčár

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of housing system slaughterage and sex on performance and carcass parameters of broiler ducks. Theexperiment was carried out in half-operation conditions experimental base ofDepartment of Poultry Science and Small Animal Husbandry of Slovak Universityof Agriculture in Nitra. A total of 60 one day old ducklings (type Peking DuckWhite were randomly divided to 2 housing groups: three-floor cage system anddeep litter system, both under uniform microclimate conditions. The housingsystem, slaughter age and sex significantly affected the slaughter weights ofbroiler ducks in 49 and 56 day of fattening. The results of this study showed the influenceof housing system, sex and slaughter age on slaughter and carcass parameters.The slaughter and carcass parameters were statistically higher (P<0.05 inthree-floor cage system in comparison with the deep litter system. Breast, things,back and wings weights and carcass yield were significantly affected (P<0.01 by slaughter age. Sex no significantly affected carcass yield(P>0.05. The some slaughterand carcass parameters of male ducks were statistically higher (P<0.05 comparedwith female ducks.

  9. Crambe meal in supplements for culling cows: animal performance and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennyson Alves de Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the replacement of soybean meal by crambe crushed in concentrated supplement at proportions 0, 5, 10, 15%, on the performance and carcass traits of grazing cows is assessed. Within a completely randomized design, twenty Nellore cows, fed on Brachiaria humidicola, were supplemented during the rain-drought transition period and monitored with regard to weight and body conditions every 28 days. Total forage mass and percentages of leaf, stem and senescent material were quantified in loco. The estimation of forage quality consumed by animals was performed by the simulated grazing method. There were no significant differences between the levels of inclusion of crambe crushed on animal performance or carcass characteristics. Replacement did not affect weight, carcass yield, Brazilian commercial cuts, morphometric measures of carcass, characteristics of loins, thickness of carcass fat, perirenal-pelvic fat and total meat. Replacement of soybean meal by crambe crushed up to 15% in the concentrated supplement does not affect performance and carcass characteristics of cows finished on pasture.

  10. Carcass characteristics, meat quality, feeding behavior of Nelore heifers fed diets containing sunflower pie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Regina Alves

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the feeding behavior, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nelore heifers fed sunflower pie replacing cottonseed meal. They were used 30 heifers with average initial weight of 274 kg ± 28 kg and average age of 24 months, confined for 76 days. The design was completely randomized with five treatments (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 g kg-1 DM and six replicates per treatment. By completing 24 hours after slaughter, it evaluated muscle conformation and degree of finish made the longissimus dorsi at the 13th rib. A representative sample between the 10th and 12th ribs was collected for evaluation of the physical components of carcasses. As well as the other variables, the hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, carcass length and rib eye area were not influenced by different pie levels in feed. The mean percentage of muscle, bone and fat from the carcass were 53.45; 16.14 and 29.46%, respectively, similar among treatments. Therefore, the use of up to 600 g kg-1 of sunflower pie replacing cottonseed meal as the main protein source, did not affect the carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nelore heifers.

  11. The effect of Bovine Growth Hormone on Growth, Carcass Composition and Meat Quality of Dairy Heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Foldager, John;

    1993-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of bovine growth hormone (bGH) on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of dairy heifers. Nine monozygotic twin pairs of Friesian or Red Danish cattle were used, and pair-fed diet consisting of grass silage, barley and soybean meal. Within each pair......, one animal was given daily subcutaneous injections of 20 IU of pituitary-derived bGH (15-20 mg), while the other animal was injected with saline (excipient). Treatments started at 179±2 kg body weight and lasted for 15.6 weeks. At slaughter, carcass composition and meat quality were analyzed. b......GH treatment increased gain by 8% (948 vs. 877 g/d; P meat in carcass and lean content of four main carcass cuts were on average increased by 2% (P

  12. Etude de la composition de la carcasse de taurillons Ankole en fonction de l'âge ou poids vif et de l'embouche de courte durée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozy, P.

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of carcass composition of Ankole bulls according to weight or age and to duration of fattening period. Thirty two young bulls divided into 2 categories of live weight were used to study the effect of the initial weight and of an intensive fattening period on the composition of the carcass. The slaughterings were carried out in Bujumbura, according to the techniques usually done for the carving of the carcass. A short period of intensive fattening does not improve the composition of the carcass into pieces of great value in butchery.

  13. Carcass characteristics of lambs fed diets containing silage of different genotypes of sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraci Marcos Alves Suassuna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-five feedlot lambs (without defined breed, aged between 5 and 7 months, with average live weight of 17.7±3.7 kg were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effect of diets containing different genotypes of sorghum on morphometric measurements and qualitative characteristics of carcass and yields of primal cuts. The animals stayed in individual indoor pens for 42 days and slaughtered at an average weight of 26.24 kg. No significant differences were observed on morphometric measurements, hot (11.67 kg and cold (11.39 kg carcass weight, hot (44.46% and cold (43.37% carcass yields, biological yield and on cooling losses. There was also no significant effect of silages of different genotypes of sorghum on the weights and yields of retail cuts (neck, shoulder, rib, loin and leg and on the subjective evaluation of carcasses. It is possible to finish sheep without defined breed feeding them diets based on silages of sorghum, resulting in carcasses with high yield and good conformation.

  14. Carcass yield, meat color and muscle pH evolution in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez-Bautista, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determinate the carcass yield, color and pH evolution of different rabbit breeds (New Zealand G1, California G2, and Nueva ZealandCalifornia G3. Two different studies were performed with animal of 100 days-old and live weight (PV of 2.5 kg. In the study I carcass weight and non-meat components were determined, and the cold carcass weight (CF was recorded. Hot carcass yield (CC was determined, besides pH and color (L*a*b* in B. femoris (BF and L. lumborum (LB muscles. In the study II the L. dorsi (LD muscle pH was monitored. Higher PV, CF, CC and empty carcass weight were found in G2. The L*, a* and b* intensity of LB and BF muscles was higher in G1. In study II the pH decreased with post mortem time and stabilized before 24 h with a 6.16 value for G2 and 6.21 for G1.

  15. The Breed and Sex Effect on the Carcass Size Performance and Meat Quality of Yak in Different Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Sun, Baozhong; Yu, Qunli; Ji, Qiumei; Xie, Peng; Li, Haipeng; Wang, Li; Zhou, Yuchun; Li, Yongpeng; Huang, Caixia; Liu, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    The carcass size performances and the meat quality of Gannan and Sibu yak were determined using M. supraspinatus (SU), M. longissimus thoracis (LT) and M.quadriceps femoris (QF). It is found that Sibu yak had significantly higher carcass weight (CW) than Gannan yak with difference of nearly 40 kg, as well as significantly higher eye muscle area (EMA), carcass thorax depth (CTD), round perimeter (RP), etc. The carcass performances of steer yak were significantly higher than heifer yak except meat thickness at round (MTR) (p0.05). The variation of meat quality of yak from breed is up to 59.46% of total variation according to PCA. It is shown that the difference between breeds, for Gannan yak and Sibu yak, plays an important role in carcass size performance and meat quality. PMID:27194931

  16. Características de carcaça e peso de vísceras em suínos alimentados com rações contendo baixos teores de proteína bruta Characteristics of carcass and weight of visceral in pigs fed diets with low crude protein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir de Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado no Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras com o objetivo principal de avaliar os efeitos de rações com baixos teores de proteína bruta (PB, suplementadas com aminoácidos essenciais e não-essenciais, em características de carcaça e de peso das vísceras de suínos dos 32 aos 57kg de peso. Utilizaram-se 30 suínos divididos em cinco tratamentos, que consistiram de rações contendo diferentes teores de PB (10; 12; 14 e 16% de PB. Foi incluído um quinto tratamento adicionando-se aminoácidos não-essenciais na ração com menor concentração de PB (10+NNE. Após o abate, as vísceras foram retiradas, esvaziadas e pesadas. O consumo de nitrogênio não influenciou (P>0,05 o peso do fígado, do pâncreas, dos rins e do coração. O peso do trato gastrintestinal (TGI e o somatório dos pesos do TGI e do fígado, dos rins, do pâncreas e do coração foram maiores (POne experiment was conducted in the Animal Science Department of University of Lavras (UFLA to evaluate the effects of rations with low crude protein, supplemented with essential and non essential amino acids, in carcass characteristics and weight visceral organs of swine of the 32 to the 57kg. Thirty crossbred barrows were divided in five treatments that had consisted of rations with different crude protein (CP levels (10; 12; 14; and 16%. A fifth treatment added to non essential aminoacid in the ration with less CP level (10+NNE was included. After it slaughter visceral organs had been removed, emptied and weighed. The nitrogen consumption did not influence (P>0.05 the weight of the liver, pancreas, kidneys and heart. The weight of the total gastrointestinal tract and the weights of the TGI plus organs have been bigger (P<0.05 in treatments 14 and 16 in comparison with treatments 10+NNE and 10. It is concluded that crude protein level does not has effect in the weight of viscera intestines, but modifies the weight of the

  17. A primary screen of the bovine genome for quantitative trait loci affecting carcass and growth traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R T; Keele, J W; Shackelford, S D; Kappes, S M; Koohmaraie, M

    1999-06-01

    A primary genomic screen for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting carcass and growth traits was performed by genotyping 238 microsatellite markers on 185 out of 300 total progeny from a Bos indicus x Bos taurus sire mated to Bos taurus cows. The following traits were analyzed for QTL effects: birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WW), yearling weight (YW), hot carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage (DP), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MAR), longissimus muscle area (LMA), rib bone (RibB), rib fat (RibF), and rib muscle (RibM), and the predicted whole carcass traits, retail product yield (RPYD), fat trim yield (FATYD), bone yield (BOYD), retail product weight (RPWT), fat weight (FATWT), and bone weight (BOWT). Data were analyzed by generating an F-statistic profile computed at 1-cM intervals for each chromosome by the regression of phenotype on the conditional probability of receiving the Brahman allele from the sire. There was compelling evidence for a QTL allele of Brahman origin affecting an increase in RibB and a decrease in DP on chromosome 5 (BTA5). Putative QTL at or just below the threshold for genome-wide significance were as follows: an increase in RPYD and component traits on BTA2 and BTA13, an increase in LMA on BTA14, and an increase in BWT on BTA1. Results provided represent a portion of our efforts to identify and characterize QTL affecting carcass and growth traits.

  18. A primary screen of the bovine genome for quantitative trait loci affecting carcass and growth traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R T; Keele, J W; Shackelford, S D; Kappes, S M; Koohmaraie, M

    1999-06-01

    A primary genomic screen for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting carcass and growth traits was performed by genotyping 238 microsatellite markers on 185 out of 300 total progeny from a Bos indicus x Bos taurus sire mated to Bos taurus cows. The following traits were analyzed for QTL effects: birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WW), yearling weight (YW), hot carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage (DP), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MAR), longissimus muscle area (LMA), rib bone (RibB), rib fat (RibF), and rib muscle (RibM), and the predicted whole carcass traits, retail product yield (RPYD), fat trim yield (FATYD), bone yield (BOYD), retail product weight (RPWT), fat weight (FATWT), and bone weight (BOWT). Data were analyzed by generating an F-statistic profile computed at 1-cM intervals for each chromosome by the regression of phenotype on the conditional probability of receiving the Brahman allele from the sire. There was compelling evidence for a QTL allele of Brahman origin affecting an increase in RibB and a decrease in DP on chromosome 5 (BTA5). Putative QTL at or just below the threshold for genome-wide significance were as follows: an increase in RPYD and component traits on BTA2 and BTA13, an increase in LMA on BTA14, and an increase in BWT on BTA1. Results provided represent a portion of our efforts to identify and characterize QTL affecting carcass and growth traits. PMID:10375215

  19. Partial ablation of uropygial gland effect on carcass characteristics of Akar Putra chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Hasan S A; Idris, L H; Bakar, Z B; Kassim, A B

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of partial uropygialectomy (PU) on carcass traits of male and female Akar Putra chickens. Sixty chicks of each sex were evenly distributed into 5 treatment groups with 3 replicates per group containing 4 males and 4 females each, and reared for 12 wk. Homogeneity of the groups was satisfied with regard to the parity. Experimental treatments consisted of a control treatment (T1), and partial ablation of the uropygial gland was applied on the second, third, fourth, and fifth treatments at 3, 4, 5, and 6 wk of age, respectively. The chickens were fed ad libitum the same diets (1 to 13 d: starter; 14 d to slaughter: finisher). On the last d of the experiment, 12 birds were randomly selected from each treatment group (2 males and 2 females per replicate) and slaughtered to determine carcass characteristics, which included carcass weight, dressing percentage with or without eating giblets, and the relative weights of heart, liver, gizzard, thighs, wings, breast, back, and neck. From the results of the study, it was shown that the partial ablation of the uropygial gland at all ages had certain dependent effects concerning some carcass parameters, as shown by higher breast and back relative weights in males and breast relative weight in females. As a consequence, a positive effect also was noticed regarding the carcass morphology in terms of the increase in dressing percentage with or without eating giblets thus leading to an increase in the body weight and carcass weight. Furthermore, the best result was obtained in the second treatment when PU was applied at 3 wk of age compared with other experimental groups. Moreover, the current study provides a novel and economic alternative to enhance the body performance of poultry in general and Akar Putra chicken particularly. PMID:27081194

  20. Evaluation of performance characteristics in a diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle. II. Carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, J W; Benyshek, L L; Bertrand, J K; Johnson, M H

    1988-02-01

    Evaluations of steer and heifer progeny from a diallel mating design of Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle over 5 yr are presented. Traits evaluated included final weight, hot carcass weight, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, dressing percentage and percentage of kidney, pelvic and heart fat. Progeny of Simmental sires were heavier at slaughter than those with Brahman sires (P less than .05), but no differences were found for carcass weight. Dressing percentage was higher for Limousin crosses compared with progeny of other sire breeds (P less than .05). Similar results were found for dam breeds, except that progeny of Limousin dams had heavier carcasses with a higher dressing percentage (P less than .05) than Brahman crosses. Crosses of Limousin and Simmental had larger ribeye areas (P less than .05) compared with calves of the other breeds. Progeny of Polled Hereford dams had higher marbling scores and were fatter than progeny of dams of other breeds (P less than .05). Heterosis estimates were significant for all Brahman crosses for final weight, carcass weight and ribeye area, but these contrasts were negligible for other traits. Estimates of general combining ability were positive and significant for Simmental for final weight, carcass weight, ribeye area and marbling score and were significant and negative for Limousin for final weight, fat thickness and yield grade. Maternal values were generally small. PMID:3372376

  1. Evaluation of performance characteristics in a diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle. II. Carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, J W; Benyshek, L L; Bertrand, J K; Johnson, M H

    1988-02-01

    Evaluations of steer and heifer progeny from a diallel mating design of Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle over 5 yr are presented. Traits evaluated included final weight, hot carcass weight, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, dressing percentage and percentage of kidney, pelvic and heart fat. Progeny of Simmental sires were heavier at slaughter than those with Brahman sires (P less than .05), but no differences were found for carcass weight. Dressing percentage was higher for Limousin crosses compared with progeny of other sire breeds (P less than .05). Similar results were found for dam breeds, except that progeny of Limousin dams had heavier carcasses with a higher dressing percentage (P less than .05) than Brahman crosses. Crosses of Limousin and Simmental had larger ribeye areas (P less than .05) compared with calves of the other breeds. Progeny of Polled Hereford dams had higher marbling scores and were fatter than progeny of dams of other breeds (P less than .05). Heterosis estimates were significant for all Brahman crosses for final weight, carcass weight and ribeye area, but these contrasts were negligible for other traits. Estimates of general combining ability were positive and significant for Simmental for final weight, carcass weight, ribeye area and marbling score and were significant and negative for Limousin for final weight, fat thickness and yield grade. Maternal values were generally small.

  2. Prediction of non-carcass components in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Costa e Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to develop equations to predict chemical composition of head, limbs, hide and blood in cattle. A database containing 335 animals from 10 trials, with 221 Nellore, 38 Nellore-Simmental and 76 Nellore-Angus (96 steers, 118 heifers and 121 bulls animals was used. Models were constructed to estimate water, ether extract (EE, crude protein (CP, ash and macrominerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium in the non-carcass parts of cattle. A stepwise procedure was conducted to determine the most significant variables within each model. Subsequently, a random coefficient model was used to construct the equation using studies as random effect, and sex and breed as fixed effects. The visceral fat was the most important variable in the prediction models developed, affecting EE and water in head and limbs; head CP; and hide and blood water. Carcass dressing affected head EE and water and water in the limbs. Carcass weight had significant influence on head CP and hide EE; it was also affected by hide percentage in empty body weight (EBW. The percentage of OV in EBW influenced hide water. Lastly, EBW had influence only on hide sodium. Sex affected the EE of head and limbs. No breed effect was observed on any of the equations obtained. The estimation of the composition of head, limbs, hind and blood is possible and recommended, once they do not have great relevance to the estimation of EBW composition.

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with carcass traits in a population of Brahman and Brahman-influenced steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, A M; Shivers, C; Riley, D G; Elzo, M A; Garcia, M D

    2016-01-01

    Brahman cattle are important in tropical regions due to their ability to tolerate excessive heat and parasites. However, Brahman cattle exhibit lower carcass quality characteristics when compared to Bos taurus breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six candidate genes for carcass quality and composition traits in a population of Brahman and Brahman-influenced steers. Steers were evaluated through the American Brahman Breeders Association carcass evaluation project in Gonzales, Texas. Carcass traits measured included hot carcass weight, ribeye area, marbling score, yield grade, quality grade, dressing percent, and Warner-Bratzler shear force score. Six previously described candidate genes were chosen for SNP analysis based on their previous association with growth and carcass traits. Candidate genes utilized in the current study included calpastatin (CAST), calpain (CAPN3), thyroglobulin (TG), growth hormone, insulin growth factor 1, and adiponectin. Six unique SNPs from three candidate genes (TG, CAST, and CAPN3) were significantly associated (P carcass quality traits (marbling score and quality grade). A genotypic effect was observed for all significant SNPs, with differing levels of performance observed for animals inheriting different genotypes. Although multiple SNPs in the current study were significantly (P carcass traits, they should be validated in larger populations prior to implementation in selection strategies.

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with carcass traits in a population of Brahman and Brahman-influenced steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, A M; Shivers, C; Riley, D G; Elzo, M A; Garcia, M D

    2016-06-21

    Brahman cattle are important in tropical regions due to their ability to tolerate excessive heat and parasites. However, Brahman cattle exhibit lower carcass quality characteristics when compared to Bos taurus breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six candidate genes for carcass quality and composition traits in a population of Brahman and Brahman-influenced steers. Steers were evaluated through the American Brahman Breeders Association carcass evaluation project in Gonzales, Texas. Carcass traits measured included hot carcass weight, ribeye area, marbling score, yield grade, quality grade, dressing percent, and Warner-Bratzler shear force score. Six previously described candidate genes were chosen for SNP analysis based on their previous association with growth and carcass traits. Candidate genes utilized in the current study included calpastatin (CAST), calpain (CAPN3), thyroglobulin (TG), growth hormone, insulin growth factor 1, and adiponectin. Six unique SNPs from three candidate genes (TG, CAST, and CAPN3) were significantly associated (P carcass quality traits (marbling score and quality grade). A genotypic effect was observed for all significant SNPs, with differing levels of performance observed for animals inheriting different genotypes. Although multiple SNPs in the current study were significantly (P carcass traits, they should be validated in larger populations prior to implementation in selection strategies.

  5. Efectos del tiempo de transporte de novillos previo al faenamiento sobre el comportamiento, las pérdidas de peso y algunas características de la canal Effects of transport time of steers before slaughter on behaviour, weight loss and some carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GALLO S

    2000-01-01

    fue de 28,5ª, 27,5ab, 26,2ab y 24,5c en OI y 23,7ª, 25,9b, 26,1b y 25,8b en PV, en los tratamientos con 3, 6, 12 y 24 h de transporte respectivamente (P0,05. Se concluye que el transporte de novillos por 24 h en camión provoca mayores pérdidas de peso vivo, mayor presentación de contusiones y más caídas de animales durante el viaje, que el transporte por menor tiempo, por lo cual debería evitarse. Los resultados para pH y luminosidad (L indican que tanto los viajes prolongados como los viajes cortos pueden provocar aumentos del pH final y oscurecimiento de la carne, dependiendo de las condiciones particulares de cada viajeThe effects of 4 road transport times (3, 6, 12 and 24 hr of steers before slaughter on behaviour patterns, live and carcass weight losses, and some carcass characteristics such as dressing yield, frequency and grade of bruising, pH and muscle colour were evaluated. Two experiments were carried out, one in autumn-winter (OI and another in spring-summer (PV, with a total of 139 steers of the Friesian breed, all of similar age, live weight and fat cover. Two lorries of similar structure and capacity were used, giving a space allowance of 1m² for every 500 kg liveweight; according to the weight of the steers this was equivalent to 17 or 18 animals per load, and each load corresponded to one treatment. The steers were weighed on the farm just before loading, at their arrival at the slaughterhouse and prior to slaughter (after 12 +/- 1 hr lairage. The carcasses were weighed immediately after slaughter; pH and colour (Hunterlab were measured on the Longissimus thoracis muscle, 24 h after slaughter. Descriptive statistics, an analysis of variance and Tukey test were used to determine differences between treatments within each experiment. Weight losses during transport were 6.5ª; 5.0b; 6.0ª and 10.5c% in OI; and 4.6ª; 7.3b; 8.9c and 11.9d % in PV, for 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours, respectively (P 0.05. No losses in terms of carcass yield were registered

  6. RESEARCHES ON THE PHENOTYPIC CORRELATION BETWEEN DIFFERENT MEASUREMENTS ON THE CARCASS OF RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA MARCELA TOBĂ (GOINA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to get more experimental data on newmethodologies for rabbit meat production evaluation. The trial was carried out on30 rabbits. The rabbits were weaned at 35 days, having an average live weight of499.11+25.98 g. Rabbits were all slaughtered on the same day, that was on the 84th day of living (at this time the average live weight was 1701.7+34.07, andsome linear measurements (body length, loin width, chest width, carcass lengthchest dept and hind leg length were performed on cold carcasses. The rabbitshave been kept in wire fattening cages: 6 rabbits / cage.

  7. The crossbreeding of improved Jezersko-Solcˇava sheep with Charollais to improve carcass traits

    OpenAIRE

    Dragomir Kompan; Silvester Zgur; Angela Cividini

    2010-01-01

    Thirteen improved Jezersko-Solcˇava lambs (JSR) and 16 crossbreds with Charollais (JSRxCH) were used to evaluate the effect of genotype and sex on carcass traits. Lambs were weaned at around 60 days of age. They were fed with commercial concentrate and hay ad libitum and slaughtered at 30 kg of average live weight at 103 days of age. Crossbred lambs had at the same live weight at slaughter better conformation (9.19 on 15 points scale) than JSR lambs (7.58). Carcasses of crossbred lambs had lo...

  8. Características da carcaça e da carne de cordeiros terminados com dietas contendo diferentes proporções de silagens de grãos de milho - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i2.3451 Components of live weight, carcass and meat caracteristics of lambs fed with diets containing corn grain silage - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i2.3451

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gasparino

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados componentes do peso vivo, características objetivas e subjetivas da carcaça, características físico-químicas do músculo Longissimus lumborum e a proporção dos principais tecidos que compõem o lombo de 24 cordeiros, machos não castrados, mestiços Hampshire Down, terminados em confinamento e alimentados com dietas diferentes à base de silagem de grãos de milho úmidos, com inclusão de girassol ou ureia. Os tratamentos não afetaram: peso vivo ao abate, peso da carcaça quente, rendimentos de carcaça, sangue, pele, aparelho reprodutor com bexiga, aparelho respiratório, baço, rins e gordura perirrenal, fígado, coração, trato gastrintestinal vazio, cabeça e patas. Não houve diferença significativa para peso da carcaça fria, condição corporal, conformação de carcaça, cobertura de gordura, consistência de gordura, cor da carne, espessura de gordura, área de olho de lombo, proteína bruta; proporções de: músculo, ossos, gordura e outros tecidos do músculo Longissimus lumborum. Perda por cozimento, índice de fragmentação miofibrilar e índices de cores L*, a* e b* não diferiram quanto aos tratamentos. Os cordeiros podem ser terminados com qualquer uma das dietas, pois apresentaram semelhanças para as características analisadasThe study evaluated the live weight components, objective and subjective carcass characteristics and physical-chemical characteristics of the Longissimus lumborum muscle and the proportion of tissues that constitute the loin of twenty-four intact males lambs, Hampshire Down crossbreed, fattened in a drylot system. The lambs were fed with different diets based on corn grain silage with the addition of sunflower seeds or urea. The treatments did not affect live weight and hot carcass weight at slaughter, carcass yield, blood, skin, reproductive system with bladder, respiratory system, spleen, kidneys and perineal fat, liver, heart, empty gastrointestinal tract, head or feet

  9. Effects of suckling duration on growth, slaughtering and carcass quality characteristics of Kivircik lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiz, Bulent; Kocak, Omur; Yalcintan, Hulya; Yilmaz, Alper

    2016-02-01

    Effects of suckling length (45, 75 and 120 days) and birth type (single and twin) on lamb growth, slaughtering and carcass quality characteristics were investigated using 40 Kivircik lambs. SC-45 and SC-75 lambs were weaned at 45 and 75 days of age, respectively, whilst SC-120 lambs remained with their mothers until the end of the experimental period. Lambs from all studied groups were slaughtered at 120 days of age. Weaning treatment caused a decrease in average daily gain in SC-45 and SC-75 lambs, and therefore, final weight was higher in SC-120 lambs than lambs from weaned groups. SC-120 lambs had higher empty body weight, cold carcass weight, dressing percentage, carcass measurements, carcass fatness (proportions of the kidney knob and channel fat, subcutaneous and intramuscular fat in pelvic limb) and non-carcass fatness (omental and mesenteric fat proportion) than weaned lambs. As a conclusion, the potential losses in meat production due to weaning should be considered before deciding the weaning of lambs at early ages. PMID:26676241

  10. WATER SPRAY-CHILLING OF BEEF CARCASSES AND MEAT AGEING ON WEIGHT LOSS, COLOR AND LONGISSIMUS LUMBORUM ACCEPTANCE ASPERSÃO DE ÁGUA FRIA NO INÍCIO DO RESFRIAMENTO DE CARCAÇAS BOVINAS E MATURAÇÃO DA CARNE SOBRE O PESO, COR E ACEITAÇÃO DO MÚSCULO LONGISSIMUS LUMBORUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO EDUARDO DE FELÍCIO

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of spray-chilling in carcasses weight loss, purge loss, color and appearance of aged striploin (m. Longissi-mus lumborum steaks. Two lots of intact male, nearly 12 month old, grain finished cattle, were slaughtered, being 16 of the Montana composite breed, in the first slaughter, and 24 crossbreds (½ Nelore X ½ Simental in the second one. After bleeding, electrical stimulation, skinning and evisceration, the carcasses submitted to one of the two cooling systems: (1 Without spray-chilling (SA; (2 With spray-chilling (CA. Carcasses were weighted before and after cooling. In the boning room steaks of 2.5 cm thick from the striploin were taken, vacuum packaged, and aged for 7, 14, 30 and 60 days. Samples were then removed from the package, placed in an expanded polystyrene trays covered with a PVC film, and exposed in refrigerated displays for 48 hours. CIE Lab color was measured after 24 hours using a hand colorimeter. A visual analysis of the samples was also done for the attributes of color, overall acceptability, and buying option. The spray-chilling was efficient in reducing the weight loss (P<0.05. Effects (P<0.001 of the spray-chilling and aging time on purge loss were observed. The samples from the CA carcasses had higher (P<0.001 purge loss, which had an increase at 30 or more days of aging in this treatment but not in the SA. No effect (P>0.05 of the spray-chilling treatment and aging time was observed on the color visual analysis.

    Key-words:  Beef quality purge loss,  spray-chilling, striploin, vacuum package.

    O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar os efeitos da aspersão de água gelada, nas primeiras seis horas de resfriamento, nas perdas de peso por evaporação das carcaças e, também, do tempo de maturação em embalagem a vácuo, nas perdas por exsudação da carne, e na cor e aceita

  11. Carcass characteristics of feedlot-finished Zebu and Caracu cattle

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    Flávio Dutra de Resende

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the chemical carcass characteristics and carcass losses in 86 cattle, both castrated and non-castrated, with an average initial weight of 329 kg and an average age of approximately 20 months, including 12 Gyr, 20 Guzerat, 20 Nellore, and 20 Caracu among the herds selected for weight determination at 378 days of age, as well as 14 Nellore cattle that were not selected. The diet contained a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 60:40 in terms of dry matter (DM, with 14.8% crude protein as a percentage of DM and corn silage as roughage. A completely randomized 5 × 2 factorial experimental design was used, including five breeds and two sex classes. The following values were determined: losses due to the trimming of commercial cuts and cooking; shear force; the temperature and pH of the meat; and the chemical composition of the Hankins and Howe section (HH section. The castrated animals exhibited greater losses from the front trimmings compared with the non-castrated cattle. There were no differences in the final pH values of the carcasses among the breeds, although the noncastrated animals exhibited higher values than the castrated ones, likely because non-castrated animals were more susceptible to stress. The final pH remained within the range considered optimal for all of the carcasses studied. No differences were observed in the shear force among the breeds or between the two sexes. When appropriately managed, zebu breeds are capable of producing tender meat, thus meeting the demands of the consumer market.

  12. The chemical composition of carcasses can be predicted from proxy traits in finishing male beef cattle: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jammas, M; Agabriel, J; Vernet, J; Ortigues-Marty, I

    2016-09-01

    Management practices can contribute to improving carcass quality if carcass quality could be simply evaluated under a wide range of conditions. The objective of this study was to derive quantitative relationships between the most accurate (but laborious) measurements of carcass chemical composition and proxy traits easily obtainable at slaughter (yield grade, subcutaneous fat thickness, marbling, ribeye area and hot carcass weight) by meta-analysis. Data from 34 publications using male beef cattle were used to develop and validate the models. The breeds were characterized according to origin, rate of maturity, production purpose and frame size. The results indicated that the changes in carcass fat and protein can be predicted from the yield grade or subcutaneous fat thickness, and hot carcass weight, with prediction errors ranging between 9 and 12%. Including the breed characteristics in the models did not improve the fit. The relationships are applicable to group values of male beef cattle having light and fatty carcasses from early-maturing British breeds. PMID:27206053

  13. Composição física da carcaça e qualidade da carne de vacas de descarte de diferentes grupos genéticos terminadas em confinamento com distintos pesos Carcass physical composition and meat quality of cull cows of different genetic groups feedlot finished and slaughtered with distinct weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Kuss

    2005-08-01

    , feedlot finished and slaughtered at 465, 507 and 566 kg. At the beginning of the experiment, the average age, weight and body condition were, respectively, 8.5 years, 388.6 kg and 2.35 points. The diet, with 48:52 roughage:concentrate ratio, contained 12.5% crude protein and 2.99 Mcal of digestible energy per kg of dry matter. Carcass bone (16.55, 15.84 and 12.72% and muscle percentages (63.5, 60.05 and 60.69% decreased, whereas fat percentage increased (19.85; 24.32; 28.08%, respectively as slaughter weight increased. The weight gain of the carcass edible portion between the extreme slaughter weights was 77.36 kg, being 37.32 kg of muscle (48.24% and 40.04 kg of fat (51.76%. Meat tenderness evaluated by shear force, was significantly improved in animals slaughter at higher weight (4.94, 4.89 and 3.89 kgf/cm³, respectively. Meat color of 5/8NC cows was darker (2.87 points in relation to 5/8CN cows (4.0 points. Meat of G3 animals was tender than G2 (4.16 vs 4.99 kgf/cm³. Higher juiciness was observed for 5/8NC meat than for 5/8CN (6.49 vs 4.16 points, as result of lower cooking loss of 5/8NC meat (17.61% vs 23.33%. Increasing cull cows slaughter weight is a method to increase rapidly beef meat production, inclusively improving their quality.

  14. Performance and carcass quality of lambs evaluated in two feeding systems

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    Jaqueline Freitas Motta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive performance and carcass quality of Corriedale crossbred lambs (n=28 in two feeding systems during finishing: a weaned and grazing on annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. in late season; b maintained with their mothers and grazing on May-deferred native pasture. The following measurements were made at the beginning of the experimental period and at intervals of 20 days: body weight, front height, rear height, body length, chest circumference, and body condition. Additionally, body structure was evaluated by the frame size index [FSI = (front height + rear height + body length + body weight/4], and compactness as body weight/body length. Eight animals were slaughtered at the end of the experimental period, four per treatment, for the evaluation of carcass traits (body and regional components, cooking loss, and carcass yields (commercial, slaughter, and farm. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the F test or by the nonparametric Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test (P0.05. However, animals maintained with their mothers on deferred native pasture showed better productive performance characterized by higher total gains in weight, body condition, chest circumference, and compactness. Postslaughter evaluation showed significantly higher (P<0.05 hot and cold carcass weight and better commercial and slaughter carcass yields, in addition to longer carcasses with greater depth and leg proportion in lambs kept with their mothers on native pasture compared to those kept on annual ryegrass, which only exhibited a greater percentage of gastrointestinal tract.

  15. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle V): carcass traits and longissimus palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2001-05-01

    Carcass (n = 854) and longissimus thoracis palatability (n = 802) traits from F1 steers obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III cows to Hereford or Angus (HA), Tuli (Tu), Boran (Bo), Brahman (Br), Piedmontese (Pm), or Belgian Blue (BB) sires were compared. Data were adjusted to constant age (444 d), carcass weight (333 kg), fat thickness (1.0 cm), fat trim percentage (21%), and marbling (Small00) end points. Results presented in this abstract are for age-constant data. Carcasses from BB- and HA-sired steers were heaviest (P carcass traits but had little effect on palatability traits. Carcasses from BB- and Pm-sired steers provided the most desirable combination of yield grade and longissimus palatability, but carcasses from HA-cross steers provided the most desirable combination of quality grade and longissimus palatability. Tuli, a breed shown to be heat-tolerant, had longissimus tenderness similar to that of the non-heat-tolerant breeds and more tender longissimus than the heat-tolerant breeds in this study.

  16. Levels of digestible isoleucine on performance, carcass traits and organs weight of gilts (15 - 30 KG Níveis de isoleucina digestível sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça e peso de órgãos de fêmeas suínas (15 - 30 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Dalcin Castilha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The ideal protein concept for pigs has allowed reducing levels of crude protein in the diet, since synthetic amino acids are included because the branched chain amino acids may be limiting. In order to determine the digestible isoleucine requirement for gilts from 15 to 30 kg, a performance assay was accomplished, using 40 crossbreed gilts of high genetic potential, averaging 15.00 ± 0.52 kg of body weight, alloted in a randomized blocks design, consisting of five treatments (0.45, 0.52, 0.59, 0.66, 0.73% of digestible isoleucine, four replicates and two animals per experimental unit. Performance traits were determined and at the end of the experiment one animal per experimental unit was slaughtered to determine carcass composition and organs weight. Levels from 0.45 to 0.73% of digestible isoleucine did not affect the carcass traits and organs weight of gilts from 15 to 30 kg. A quadratic effect (PO conceito de proteína ideal, para suínos, tem permitido reduzir os níveis de proteína bruta da dieta, desde que haja a inclusão de aminoácidos sintéticos, pois os aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada podem ser limitantes. Com o objetivo de determinar a exigência de isoleucina digestível para fêmeas suínas dos 15 aos 30 kg, foi realizado um ensaio de desempenho, utilizando-se 40 fêmeas suínas, mestiças de alto potencial genético, com peso vivo inicial de 15,00 ± 0,52kg, distribuídas em um delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, constituído de cinco tratamentos (0,45; 0,52; 0,59; 0,66; 0,73% de isoleucina digestível, quatro repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Foram determinadas características de desempenho e, ao final do experimento, um animal de cada unidade experimental foi abatido, para a determinação da composição de carcaça e peso de órgãos. Níveis de 0,45 a 0,73% de isoleucina digestível não influenciaram as características de carcaça e peso de órgãos dos animais. Houve efeito quadr

  17. Influence of Angus and Belgian Blue bulls mated to Hereford x Brahman cows on growth, carcass traits, and longissimus steak shear force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidner, T D; Humes, P E; Wyatt, W E; Franke, D E; Persica, M A; Gentry, G T; Blouin, D C

    2009-03-01

    Steers and heifers were generated from Angus (A) and Belgian Blue (BB) sires mated to Brahman x Hereford (B x H) F(1) cows to characterize their growth, carcass traits, and LM shear force. A total of 120 B x H cows purchased from 2 herds and 35 bulls (14 A and 21 BB) produced calves during the 5-yr project. After the stocker phase, a representative sample of A- and BB-sired heifers and steers were transported to the Iberia Research Station to be fed a high-concentrate diet. The remaining cattle were transported to a commercial feedlot facility. Each pen of cattle from the commercial feedlot was slaughtered when it was estimated that heifers and steers had 10 mm of fat or greater. The BB-sired calves were heavier at birth (P carcass weights than the A-sired calves. This was due to a combination of a heavier final BW and greater dressing percent. Because of their greater muscling and reduced (P carcasses from BB-sired calves had greater yield (P carcasses from A-sired calves. Carcasses from A-sired calves had a greater (P carcasses from BB-sired calves. Tenderness, as measured by shear force of the steaks aged for 7 d, was similar for A- and BB-sired calves. However, steaks aged for 14 d from the A-sired calves had a reduced shear force (P carcasses also had greater marbling scores and quality grades, whereas the heifer carcasses had larger LM area per 100 kg of carcass weight. In conclusion, the BB-sired calves had heavier carcass weights and greater cutability, whereas the A-sired calves had a greater degree of marbling and greater quality grade, and steaks from carcasses of A-sired calves were more tender as measured by shear force at 14 d.

  18. Residual feed intake and its effect on carcass and meat characteristics of feedlot Zebu cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julimar do Sacramento Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the residual feed intake (RFI and its relation with performance, carcass and meat characteristics of Zebu animals. A total of 40 Zebu steers with initial age of 18 months and initial live weight of 350 kg were confined in feedlot for 112 days. The average daily gain (ADG and dry matter intake (DMI were obtained every 14 days. Residual feed intake was determined by the difference between observed and predicted DMI, based on the metabolic weight and the ADG. Animals were classified into the RFI groups: high (>0.5 standard deviation of the mean - least efficient, medium (±0.5 standard deviation of the mean and low (<0.5 standard deviation of the mean - most efficient. Daily cost with feeding and per kilogram of weight gain was determined. Characteristics of carcass (weight, yield, subcutaneous fat meat (pH, shear force and color were assessed. Animals with low RFI presented lower DMI. The variation in DMI between the low and the high RFI groups promoted difference in the daily cost with feeding and per kilogram of weight gain, with animals of low RFI presenting costs 5 and 9% lower, respectively. Carcass and meat characteristics differed over the RFI groups. The knowledge of the RFI of the animals enables a more efficient system, with reduction in the costs with feeding, without promoting alterations on the performance and carcass characteristics of the meat from Zebu animals.

  19. The Effect of Choice Feeding Based on Threonine on Performance and Carcass Parameters of Male Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugay Ayasan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of choice feeding based on threonine on performance characteristics and carcass parameters of male broiler chicks. Day old, thirty Ross 308 male chicks were divided into two dietary treatment groups. In the experiment, choice feding did not affect on body weight gain, feed conversion ratio. Feed intake and carcass parameters significantly affected by experimental treatments.

  20. Preliminary Evaluation of Slaughter Value and Carcass Composition of Indigenous Sheep and Goats from Traditional Production System in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Shija, Dismas S.; Mtenga, Louis A.; Kimambo, Abiliza E.; Laswai, Germana H.; Mushi, Daniel E.; Mgheni, Dynes M.; Mwilawa, Angello J.; Shirima, Eligy J. M.; Safari, John G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the pilot study was to evaluate slaughter characteristics and carcass composition of indigenous long fat tailed sheep and Small East African goats purchased from the auction markets slaughtered at 1.5 to 2 yrs of age and 20 kg to 25 kg live weight. The animals were slaughtered according to halal standard procedures. The left half carcasses were jointed into eight wholesale joints, and dissected into muscles, fat and bone, which were weighed separately. Sheep had greater (p

  1. Carcass records of autumn-slaughtered reindeer as indicator of long-term changes in animal condition

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Anna; Danell, Öje; Åhman, Birgitta; Forslund, Pär

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the possibility of using carcass records from the commercial slaughter of reindeer as indicator of long-term changes in animal condition and, thus, the condition and use of their snow-free pasture. The aim was to assess the suitability of this indicator for use within adaptive management programmes for reindeer husbandry grazing resources. Data comprising measurements of carcass weight, conformation and fatness taken from commercial reindeer slaughter between 1994 and ...

  2. Características morfométricas, rendimentos de carcaça, filé, vísceras e resíduos em tilápias-do-nilo em diferentes faixas de peso Morphometric characteristics, carcass, filet, viscera and residues in different weight categories of the Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredson Vieira e Silva

    2009-08-01

    ; length of the head; height of the body measured at the front of the 1° ray of pectoral, dorsal, anal and tail fins; width of the body measured at the front of the insertion of 1º ray of pectoral, dorsal and anal fins; perimeter measured at the front of the insertion of the 1° ray of pectoral, dorsal and anal fins and minor circumference of the peduncle and yield of carcass, filet, head, fin, skin, viscera and residues of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Eighty tilapia were used, in a completely randomized design, with four treatments (weight categories 250 the 300 g; 350 the 400 g; 450 the 500 g and 550 the 600 g and 20 replications. Each fish was considered an experimental unit. The Nile tilapia presented minors variations in the morphometric characteristics in the weight category 450 to 600 g, when compared with the category 250 to 400 g. The weight category 250 the 300 g, 350 the 400 g, 450 the 500 g and 550 the 600 g provided the same yield of carcass, filet and percentages of head, fin, skin and residues. The percentage of viscera in the 550 the 600 g category (10.98% was significantly lower when compared to 250 the 300 g (12.77%, 350 the 400 g (13.26% and 450 the 500 g (12.69%. The weight of filet in the 350 the 400 g category (260.50 g was higher than the 250 the 300 g category (239.95 g. There was no difference in the weight of fillet between the 450 the 500 g category (284.20 g and 550 the 600 g (292.80 g. The category 450 the 500 g and 550 the 600 g presented higher values of weight of fillet when compared to 250 the 300 g and 350 the 400 g. According to the weight of fillet found, the ideal weight of slaughter of the tilapia is between 450 and 500 g in a range of 250-600 g.

  3. Maternal grandsire, granddam, and sire breed effects on growth and carcass traits of crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2003-04-01

    Postweaning growth, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were analyzed on 1,422 animals obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British breeds) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC IIIHereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Breed groups were fed in replicated pens and slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr. Postweaning average daily gain; live weight; hot carcass weight; fat depth; longissimus area; estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (percentage); percentage Choice; marbling score; USDA yield grade; retail product yield (percentage); retail product weight; fat yield (percentage); fat weight; bone yield (percentage); and bone weight were analyzed in this population. Quadratic regressions of pen mean weight on days fed and of cumulative ME consumption on days fed were used to estimate gain, ME consumption and efficiency (Mcal of ME/kg of gain) over time (0 to 200 d on feed), and weight (300 to 550 kg) intervals. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P carcass weight, longissimus area, and bone weight. Sex class was a significant (P < 0.001) source of variation for all traits except for percentage Choice, marbling score, retail product yield, and fat yield. Interactions between maternal grandsire and sire breed were nonexistent. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems.

  4. Carcass Composition and Cuts of Bulls and Steers Fed with Three Concentrate Levels in the Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Ivanor Nunes; Passetti, Rodrigo Augusto Cortêz; Rivaroli, Dayane Cristina; Ornaghi, Mariana Garcia; de Souza, Kennyson Alves; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; Perotto, Daniel; Moletta, José Luiz

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, weight, carcass dressing, weights of the primary cuts, weights of the physical components of the primary cuts, and weights of the main commercial cuts of 66 Purunã animals, of which 33 were bulls and 33 were steers were evaluated. These animals, with an average age of 19 months at the beginning of the experiment, were finished in a feedlot system during 116 days, and were fed with diets containing three levels of concentrate (0.8%, 1.1%, and 1.4% of body weight). The concentrate was formulated with 25% soybean meal, 73% ground corn grain, 1% of a mineral mix, and 1% of limestone. The interaction between sexual groups and the concentrate level was not significant for any of the variables. Likewise, no effect of the concentrate level was detected on the same variable traits. The bulls demonstrated higher hot carcass weights (265.1 vs 221.7 kg) and a higher proportion of forequarter (38.4% vs 36.1%) however the steers presented with higher proportions of side (19.7% vs 18.5%) and hindquarter (44.2% vs 43.1%). The bulls produced higher yields of muscle in the three primary cuts, there by resulting in higher yields of edible portions of the carcass. The bulls also produced higher weights of tenderloin, knuckle, topside, flat, eye round, rump, and rump cover. The finishing of young bulls in feedlot is to be recommended, since the animals produce carcasses with higher amounts of edible meat and higher yields of commercial cuts, thus allowing for a better price for the carcass. Low concentrate level could be used due to the lower cost of production for farmers. PMID:26194216

  5. USDA yield grades and various carcass traits as predictors of carcass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, D K; Smith, G C; Savell, J W; Murphey, C E; Carpenter, Z L; McKeith, F K; Johnson, D D

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five carcasses from each of three breedtypes (Brahman, Angus and Brahman × Angus) were physically separated into fat, lean and bone. Several muscles from the round and the femur were used to derive equations to predict carcass composition and muscle-to-bone ratio. The femur (as a percentage of the carcass) was shown to predict percentage carcass bone with 90% accuracy. All of the muscles studied were highly related to total carcass lean but the percentage of carcass as M. biceps femoris was the best single muscle indicator of carcass lean of the muscles studied. More variation in carcass lean could be accounted for by a multiple regression equation, involving all four muscles studied, than by any single muscle. M. biceps femoris-to-femur ratio was found to predict carcass muscle-to-bone ratio with a high degree of accuracy. The USDA yield grades were found to be reliable indicators of carcass composition. A two-variable equation involving adjusted fat thickness and biceps femoris accounted for 88·6% of the variation (RSD = 1/·64) in percentage of carcass as separable lean.

  6. USDA yield grades and various carcass traits as predictors of carcass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, D K; Smith, G C; Savell, J W; Murphey, C E; Carpenter, Z L; McKeith, F K; Johnson, D D

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five carcasses from each of three breedtypes (Brahman, Angus and Brahman × Angus) were physically separated into fat, lean and bone. Several muscles from the round and the femur were used to derive equations to predict carcass composition and muscle-to-bone ratio. The femur (as a percentage of the carcass) was shown to predict percentage carcass bone with 90% accuracy. All of the muscles studied were highly related to total carcass lean but the percentage of carcass as M. biceps femoris was the best single muscle indicator of carcass lean of the muscles studied. More variation in carcass lean could be accounted for by a multiple regression equation, involving all four muscles studied, than by any single muscle. M. biceps femoris-to-femur ratio was found to predict carcass muscle-to-bone ratio with a high degree of accuracy. The USDA yield grades were found to be reliable indicators of carcass composition. A two-variable equation involving adjusted fat thickness and biceps femoris accounted for 88·6% of the variation (RSD = 1/·64) in percentage of carcass as separable lean. PMID:22055934

  7. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass characteristics in commercial crossbred pigs.

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    Younes Miar

    Full Text Available Genetic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass traits were estimated on 6,408 commercial crossbred pigs with performance traits recorded in production systems with 2,100 of them having meat quality and carcass measurements. Significant fixed effects (company, sex and batch, covariates (birth weight, cold carcass weight, and age, random effects (additive, litter and maternal were fitted in the statistical models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASREML to estimate heritability, phenotypic, and genetic correlations between performance traits (n = 9 with meat quality (n = 25 and carcass (n = 19 traits. The animals had a pedigree compromised of 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Performance traits had low-to-moderate heritabilities (±SE, ranged from 0.07±0.13 to 0.45±0.07 for weaning weight, and ultrasound backfat depth, respectively. Genetic correlations between performance and carcass traits were moderate to high. The results indicate that: (a selection for birth weight may increase drip loss, lightness of longissimus dorsi, and gluteus medius muscles but may reduce fat depth; (b selection for nursery weight can be valuable for increasing both quantity and quality traits; (c selection for increased daily gain may increase the carcass weight and most of the primal cuts. These findings suggest that deterioration of pork quality may have occurred over many generations through the selection for less backfat thickness, and feed efficiency, but selection for growth had no adverse effects on pork quality. Low-to-moderate heritabilities for performance traits indicate that they could be improved using traditional selection or genomic selection. The estimated genetic parameters for performance, carcass and meat quality traits may be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations.

  8. FAT SOURCES IN DIETS FOR FEEDLOT-FINISHED STEERS - CARCASS AND MEAT CHARACTERISTICS

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    PATRICIA ALESSANDRA MENEGUZZI METZ DONICHT

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to compare the effect of different sources of fat in the diet for feedlot steers on carcass and meat characteristics. Twenty steers were distributed into four treatments: BC – basic concentrate; IRB – basic concentrate + rice bran + rice oil; M3 - basic concentrate + 3% of fatty acids calcium salts; and M6 – basic concentrate + 6% of fatty acids calcium salts. Previously to slaughter, the animals were submitted to a 14-hour fasting and were weighted to obtain slaughter weight. The slaughter was carried out in a commercial slaughterhouse and followed normal slaughter flow. Thecomplete randomized block experimental design was used, with four treatments and four replications (blocks, being the animals’ genetic group the blocking criteria. The highest fat accumulation was found in carcasses of animals from M6 treatments (5.21mm. Animals thatconsumed 6% of fatty acid calcium salts showed carcass with higher edible portion (6.31 vs. average of 5.7, respectively, for M6 and others treatments. The inclusion of fatty acids calcium salts in the diet improved carcass finishing and increased carcass total fat content. The inclusion of rice bran and oil or fatty acid calcium salts did not change animal’s meat characteristics.

  9. Effect of fecal material on carcass microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broiler carcass bacterial counts are increased by visible fecal material, therefore further treatment of these carcasses is necessary. Inside-outside bird washers (IOBWs) are used by many processors to remove feces and possibly reduce bacterial counts. A series of studies have shown that IOBWs hav...

  10. Heterogeneity of variances for carcass traits by percentage Brahman inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, D H; Franke, D E

    1998-07-01

    Heterogeneity of carcass trait variances due to level of Brahman inheritance was investigated using records from straightbred and crossbred steers produced from 1970 to 1988 (n = 1,530). Angus, Brahman, Charolais, and Hereford sires were mated to straightbred and crossbred cows to produce straightbred, F1, back-cross, three-breed cross, and two-, three-, and four-breed rotational crossbred steers in four non-overlapping generations. At weaning (mean age = 220 d), steers were randomly assigned within breed group directly to the feedlot for 200 d, or to a backgrounding and stocker phase before feeding. Stocker steers were fed from 70 to 100 d in generations 1 and 2 and from 60 to 120 d in generations 3 and 4. Carcass traits included hot carcass weight, subcutaneous fat thickness and longissimus muscle area at the 12-13th rib interface, carcass weight-adjusted longissimus muscle area, USDA yield grade, estimated total lean yield, marbling score, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Steers were classified as either high Brahman (50 to 100% Brahman), moderate Brahman (25 to 49% Brahman), or low Brahman (0 to 24% Brahman) inheritance. Two types of animal models were fit with regard to level of Brahman inheritance. One model assumed similar variances between pairs of Brahman inheritance groups, and the second model assumed different variances between pairs of Brahman inheritance groups. Fixed sources of variation in both models included direct and maternal additive and nonadditive breed effects, year of birth, and slaughter age. Variances were estimated using derivative free REML procedures. Likelihood ratio tests were used to compare models. The model accounting for heterogeneous variances had a greater likelihood (P yield, and Warner-Bratzler shear force, indicating improved fit with percentage Brahman inheritance considered as a source of heterogeneity of variance. Genetic covariances estimated from the model accounting for heterogeneous variances resulted in genetic

  11. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER, CARCASS VALUES OF SUDAN GOAT ECOTYPES FED DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ENERGY/PROTEIN

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    A.A. TAMEEM ELDAR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to assess the slaughter and carcass values of different Sudan goat ecotypes (Nubian, Desert and Swiss Nubian fed different levels of energy/protein. Nine male goat kids (2-3 months and average weight 9.23 kg of either ecotypes were used in a 3x3x3 arrangement, fed three experimental diets A (control, B and C, with varying energy: protein 1:0.14, 1:0.16 and 1:0.18 respectively. The study showed that Nubian goats possessed heavier slaughter weight; empty body weight, warm and cold carcass weight than the Desert and Swiss Nubian goats in the ration B and C. Dressing percentage on both basis (slaughter weight and empty body weight of Nubian were higher for ration B and C. Warm carcass weights of all goat ecotypes increased directly with energy: protein ratio. Highest weight of leg, loin, rack and neck and shoulder were recorded by Nubian goats for ration B and C. It was concluded that, all ecotype kids respond well to increasing energy protein levels. According to the results obtained local goat ecotypes, mainly Nubian goats, responded well to improved nutrition, therefore results obtained can be applied for the local goat ecotypes studied to encourage goat meat consumption and exportation.

  12. The use of probiotic in the diet to improve carcass characteristics and meat quality of sheep

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    Budi Haryanto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment has been carried out to investigate the effect of probiotic and ruminally less-degradable protein supplementation on the growth and efficiency of feed utilization in sheep. Thirty two male sheep with an average liveweight of 23 kg were divided into 4 groups of 8 individuals to test four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were a basal concentrate diet, b basal concentrate diet supplemented with ruminally less degradable protein in proportion of 90:10%, c basal concentrate supplemented with probiotic at 0.5%, and d basal concentrate diet supplemented with ruminally less degradable protein and probiotic in proportion of 89.5:10:0.5% consequtively. The concentrate was fed at 1.5% of the liveweight, and adjusted every week after weighing the individuals. Napier grass was fed ad libitum after being chopped into 5 cm length. Drinking water was available adequately. The animals were individually caged. The experiment was carried out for 7-day adaptation to the dietary treatments and 42-day period of feeding trials. The parameters being observed include weekly liveweight changes, slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass characteristics. The results indicated that the liveweight changes were relatively the same for all treatment groups, which ranged from 89 to 94 g/d. However, the dry matter intakes ranged from 856 to 925 g/d. The slaughter weight ranged from 26.9 to 27.3 kg with carcass weight ranged from 12.0 to 12.8 kg indicating that the carcass percentage were in the range from 55.8 to 57.1% of the empty body weight. Probiotic supplement resulted in reduction of fat content in the meat from these observation, it is reasonable to assume that the use of probiotic in the diet reduced the carcass fat without affecting the daily weight gain.

  13. ACROSS-BREED ADJUSTMENT FACTORS FOR EXPECTED PROGENY DIFFERENCES FOR CARCASS TRAITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjustment factors to allow comparison of EPD from several breed associations for birth, weaning and yearling weights have been available for more than 10 years. This paper describes steps to calculate adjustment factors for EPD for four carcass traits: marbling score (MAR), fat thickness (FAT), rib...

  14. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

  15. Small Ruminant Performance and Carcass Parameters when Finished on Pasture With and Without Whole Cottonseed Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The meat goat industry is growing rapidly in the U.S., particularly on small farms. Weight gain and carcass parameters were determined for traditional lambs (Suffolk, SX), hair sheep lambs (Katahdin, KA), and Boer x Kiko meat goats (GX) finished on a mixed pasture of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerat...

  16. Carcass characteristics and fat depots in Iberian and F Large White × Landrace pigs intensively finished or raised outdoors in oak-tree forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, M C; Almeida, J; Santos Silva, J; Bettencourt, C; Francisco, A; Gama, L T

    2016-06-01

    A factorial experiment was performed with 117 barrows belonging to the Iberian (IB) and crossbred F Large White × Landrace (F) genetic groups, either intensively finished (IN) or finished outdoors on pasture in an oak and cork tree forest (EX). Information was collected on carcass weight, yield, and dimensions; weight of organs, carcass cuts, and abdominal fat depots; backfat depth; measurements of the longissimus thoracis (LT); and yield of different leg tissues. For the 41 slaughter and carcass traits analyzed, the interaction between genetic group and finishing system was significant ( 0.05), indicating that it is feasible to reduce subcutaneous and abdominal fat without compromising IMF and meat quality.

  17. Effect of gender on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat and fat quality of calves of Avileña-Negra Ibérica breed fattened under free-range conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Argimiro Daza; Ana I. Rey; Celia Lopez-Carrasco; Lopez-Bote, Clemente J.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of gender (entire males vs females) on growth performance, carcass traits and meat and fat quality of Avileña-Negra Ibérica calves, fattened under free range conditions and supplemented with concentrate, were investigated. The average daily gain, leg width and thorax depth were higher in males than in females. Carcass conformation score, fore-quarter weight and percentage in carcass were higher in males than in females, whereas dressing percentege, loins and flank percentages in ca...

  18. Effects of Enzyme Supplementation on Performance, Carcass characteristics, Carcass Composition and Some Blood Parameters of Broiler Chicken

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    H. Hajati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Endogenous enzymes of broilers cannot adequately digest nonstarch polysaccharides and subsequently the ingestion of high levels of soluble NSP leads to increased digesta viscosity and reduced nutrient digestibility and absorption. Supplementation of NSPs degrading enzymes may remove the anti nutritive effects of NSPs and release some nutrients (starch, protein from these elements. Therefore, in a completely randomized design the effects of a multi-enzyme (Endofeed W produced from Aspergillus niger, with minimum activity of 2250 u g−1 xylanase and 700 u g−1 β-glucanase supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics, carcass composition and some blood parameters in Cobb 500 broilers fed on corn-soybean meal-wheat diets were studied. Approach: A total of 150 one-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500 were used in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments and 3 replicates. The main ingeridients of diets included corn, soybean meal and wheat. The enzyme levels added to the diets were 0.00 (control and 500 mg kg−1 DM. Results: Enzyme supplementation significantly improved relative growth, energy efficiency and protein efficiency from 11-28 days of age. Adding enzyme significantly decreased body weight gain, feed intake and improved feed to gain ratio, energy efficiency and protein efficiency from 29-44 days of age (pConclusion: Results of this study indicated that supplementation diets with 500 mg kg−1 multi-enzyme (Endofeed W in corn-soybean meal-wheat based diet improved broiler chickens feed to gain ratio, carcass yield and it can change the concentrations of thyroid hormones and some metabolites in blood, but it had not significant effect on carcass composition.

  19. Ratio of meat preparates to carcass in cattle slaughtered in Istanbul

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    Koçak Ömür

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the relationship between the ratio of the bones and valuable meat preparates to the carcass, the age and the sex parameters in Holstein and Swiss Braun race cattle which are widely breaded in our country. The half and quarter carcasses of the cattle that are slaughtered in Istanbul were used as working material. The carcasses were separated into 4 groups as above 3 years of age group (n=24, under 3 years of age group (n=46, male group (n=53 and female group (n=17. Totally 140 carcasses were evaluated. According to the obtained results, hind quarter weight, fillet, loin, rump, tranche, sirloin, round, flank, shank, brisket, fore loin, sticking, chuck and total bones parameters were significantly different at (p<0.001 level between above the 3 years of age and under the 3 years of age group. Between the same groups the sirloin tip parameter was significantly different at p<0.01 level. At the parameters of leg weight, shank and half carcasses there was no significant difference between the groups. We could not determine any significant differences in the percentage ratio of all meat parameters to the carcass between the groups of above 3 years of age and under 3 years of age. In the male and female groups, all the parameters except loin, leg weight and shank were significantly different between the 2 groups. Hind quarter and shank parameters were significantly different at p<0.05 level, round parameter was significantly different at p<0.01 level, and the other valuable meat propagates were significantly different at p<0.001 level. Rump parameter was evaluated as significantly different at p<0.05 level between male and female groups. The other parameters were not significantly different between the mentioned groups.

  20. Performance, carcass characteristics and gain cost of feedlot cattle fed a high level of concentrate and different feed additives

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    Érico Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding cattle with isoprotein and isoenergetic diets, with and without the addition of polyclonal antibody preparation (PAP, yeasts (YST or monensin sodium (MON on performance, carcass characteristics and gain cost in feedlot. Ninety-five 20-month old bullocks (323.3±21.8 kg were distributed in 25 pens. The completely randomized experimental design had a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement and the treatments were replicated 5 times. There was no effect of MON for DMI throughout the feedlot period; however, MON reduced the dry matter intake (DMI in g/kg of BW in the first 28 days when compared with the other treatments. The gain cost decreased with MON addition in relation to the other treatments. Inclusion of YST decreased average daily gain (ADG, final body weight, hot carcass weight, carcass weight, gain to feed ratio and DMI in g/kg body weight, worsening feed conversion and increasing the gain cost in the feeding periods. Inclusion of PAP increased ADG and decreased the gain cost, besides improving feed conversion. For MON and PAP, a difference was found for kidney-pelvic fat and kidney-pelvic fat per 100 kg of hot carcass weight. For MON and YST, there was a difference in ADG, feed conversion, gain cost and carcass yield and kidney-pelvic fat per 100 kg of hot carcass. Treatment YST worsened performance in relation to the non-supplemented treatments. Feeding PAP to animals did not influence performance and carcass characteristics of bullocks in feedlot negatively. Thus, PAP shows potential to substitute MON in cattle feeding using isoprotein and isoenergetic diets.

  1. Do termites avoid carcasses? Behavioral responses depend on the nature of the carcasses.

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    Kok-Boon Neoh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Undertaking behavior is a significant adaptation to social life in enclosed nests. Workers are known to remove dead colony members from the nest. Such behavior prevents the spread of pathogens that may be detrimental to a colony. To date, little is known about the ethological aspects of how termites deal with carcasses. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we tested the responses to carcasses of four species from different subterranean termite taxa: Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe (lower termites and Microcerotermes crassus Snyder and Globitermes sulphureus Haviland (higher termites. We also used different types of carcasses (freshly killed, 1-, 3-, and 7-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses and mutilated nestmates to investigate whether the termites exhibited any behavioral responses that were specific to carcasses in certain conditions. Some behavioral responses were performed specifically on certain types of carcasses or mutilated termites. C. formosanus and R. speratus exhibited the following behaviors: (1 the frequency and time spent in antennating, grooming, and carcass removal of freshly killed, 1-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses were high, but these behaviors decreased as the carcasses aged; (2 the termites repeatedly crawled under the aging carcass piles; and (3 only newly dead termites were consumed as a food source. In contrast, M. crassus and G. sulphureus workers performed relatively few behavioral acts. Our results cast a new light on the previous notion that termites are necrophobic in nature. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the behavioral response towards carcasses depends largely on the nature of the carcasses and termite species, and the response is more complex than was previously thought. Such behavioral responses likely are associated with the threat posed to the colony by the carcasses and the feeding habits and nesting ecology of a given species.

  2. Consumo, conversão alimentar, ganho de peso e características da carcaça de bovinos F1 Simental x Nelore Intake, feed: gain ratio, weight gain and characteristics of the carcass of F1 Simental x Nellore bulls

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    Marcelo de Andrade Ferreira

    1999-04-01

    were evaluated. The live weight (LWG and the empty body gains (EBG, feed:gain ratio (F:G, carcass gain (CG and the carcass productivity in relation to live weight (LWCP and to empty body weight (EBW were also evaluated. Twenty nine F1 Simental x Nelore bulls, averaging 17 months of age and initial live weight of 354 kg, were used. In the beginning of the experiment, five animals were slaughtered, as reference, to estimate the initial empty body weight (IVBW. The remaining animals were allotted to a completely randomized design according to the concentrate level in the diets: 25, 37.5, 50, 62.5, and 75%. Animals were fed full until a pre-established slaughter weight of 500 kg. As forage, the coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon and brachiaria (Brachiaria decumbens hays were used. The intakes of DM, CP, EE and TDN increased while that of NDF reduced linearly with the concentrate increase in the diets. The intakes of P, Mg and K were influenced linearly and that of Ca on a quadratic way by the dietary concentrate levels. LWG, VBG and CG increased and FC decreased linearly as a function of the dietary concentrate levels, whereas LWCP and VBCP were not affected by the dietary concentrate levels. The animal performance was improved with the use of higher concentrate contents in the diets

  3. Parâmetros genéticos para características de carcaça avaliadas por ultrassonografia em bovinos da raça Guzerá Genetic parameters for body weight and real-time ultra sound carcass traits of Guzera cattle

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    H.R. Lima Neto

    2009-02-01

    características área de olho de lombo e espessura de gordura na carcaça.Genetic parameters were estimated for body weight and real-time ultra-sound loin-eye area, rump fat thickness, and back fat thickness using data from 1,325 yearling Guzera cattle (90.4% bulls and 9.6% heifers and pedigree structure with 6,642 animals. Variance and covariance components were estimated using REML methodology and MTDFREML software. Single trait animal models were used to estimate repeatability and heritability for the four traits. Multiple traits animal models were used to estimate genetic correlations among the traits. Repeatability estimates (standard errors were 0.44(0.10 for body weight, 0.39(0.10 for loin-eye area, 0.75(0.06 for rump fat thickness, and 0.49(0.08 for back fat thickness. Heritability estimates were 0.42(0.11 and 0.41(0.11 for body weight, 0.35(0.09 and 0.34(0.09 for loin-eye area, 0.20(0.08 and 0.32(0.08 for back fat thickness, and 0.05(0.06 and 0.10(0.08 for rump fat thickness, respectively from single and multiple traits models. Genetic correlation estimates were 0.79(0.09 between body weight and loin-eye area, 0.20(0.08 between body weight and back fat thickness, 0.05(0.06 between loin-eye area and rump fat thickness, 0.02(0.27 between loin-eye area and back fat thickness and 0.64(0.22 between the two measurements of fat thickness. In order to evaluate carcass traits, results suggested that repeated real-time ultra-sound measurements are not needed and that direct selection for these traits might be effective. In addition, there is no genetic antagonism between selection for body weight and carcass traits.

  4. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle VIII): carcass, yield, and longissimus palatability traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate alternative sources of tropically adapted cattle germplasm and compare them with Angus- (AN) and Hereford- (HE) sired steers. Carcass, yield, and longissimus thoracis palatability traits from F(1) steers (n = 621) obtained from mating AN and MARC III cows to HE, AN, Brangus (BR), Beefmaster (BM), Bonsmara (BO), or Romosinuano (RO) sires were compared. Data were adjusted to constant age (426 d), carcass weight (340 kg), fat thickness (1.0 cm), fat trim percentage (25%), and marbling (Small(00)) endpoints. For Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force and trained and untrained sensory panel traits, data were obtained on LM from ribeye steaks stored at 2 degrees C for 14 or 15 d postmortem. The following comparisons were from the age-constant endpoint. Carcasses from BM-, AN-, and BR-sired steers (358, 355, and 351 kg, respectively) were heavier (P < 0.05) than carcasses from steers from HE (343 kg) and BO (331 kg) sires; RO-sired steers (318 kg) had the lightest (P < 0.05) carcasses. Adjusted fat thicknesses for AN- and BM-sired steers (1.3 and 1.2 cm, respectively) were greater (P < 0.05) than for steers from BR (1.0 cm) and BO (0.9 cm) sires; RO-sired steers (0.8 cm) had the least fat thickness. Longissimus areas were larger (P < 0.05) for BO- and BR-sired steers (84.4 and 84.1 cm(2), respectively) than for BM- and HE-sired steers (80.8 and 80.2 cm(2), respectively). A greater (P < 0.05) percentage of carcasses from AN-sired steers graded USDA Choice (69%) than other sire breeds (17 to 47%) except HE (52%). Carcass yield of boneless, totally trimmed retail product was least (P < 0.05) for AN-sired steers (60.1%) and greatest (P < 0.05) for RO- and BO-sired steers (64.4 to 63.5%). Considering all measurements, AN LM tended to be more tender and BM LM tended to be least tender. American composite breeds BM and BR were heavier, fatter, lesser yielding, with similar marbling scores but less tender LM than BO and RO. Angus

  5. Carcass and meat palatability breed differences and heterosis effects in an Angus-Brahman multibreed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; Johnson, D D; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2012-01-01

    Additive genetic Angus-Brahman differences, heterosis effects, and least squares means for six carcass and six meat palatability traits were estimated using data from 1367 steers from the Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of the University of Florida collected from 1989 to 2009. Brahman carcasses had higher dressing percent (Pcarcasses. Brahman beef was less tender (Pcarcass weight (PBrahman crossbred steers. Results indicated that crossbred animals with up to 50% Brahman showed limited negative impact on meat quality while maximizing meat yield due to heterosis.

  6. Carcass and meat palatability breed differences and heterosis effects in an Angus-Brahman multibreed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; Johnson, D D; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2012-01-01

    Additive genetic Angus-Brahman differences, heterosis effects, and least squares means for six carcass and six meat palatability traits were estimated using data from 1367 steers from the Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of the University of Florida collected from 1989 to 2009. Brahman carcasses had higher dressing percent (PBrahman beef was less tender (Pcarcass weight (PBrahman crossbred steers. Results indicated that crossbred animals with up to 50% Brahman showed limited negative impact on meat quality while maximizing meat yield due to heterosis.

  7. Impact of sorting before feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of yearling steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilscher, F H; Hussey, E M; Nuttelman, B L; Burken, D B; Griffin, W A; Vander Pol, K J; Hutcheson, J P; Erickson, G E

    2015-05-01

    Two studies evaluated sorting and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics in randomized block-designed finishing trials. In Exp. 1 (initial BW 342 ± 10 kg, = 1,000), 5 treatments included an unsorted non-ZH fed negative control (-CON), an unsorted ZH fed positive control (+CON), and 3 treatments in which the heaviest 20% within the pen were sorted and marketed 28 d early and the remaining 80% were fed ZH. The 20% were identified at the beginning (EARLY), 100 d from slaughter (MIDDLE), or 50 d from slaughter (LATE). Because of sorting, the remaining steers in sorted treatments were fed 14 d longer than -CON and +CON. Average days on feed for control treatments were 165 and 173 d for the EARLY, MIDDLE, and LATE treatments. In Exp. 2 (initial BW 376 ± 29 kg, = 1,400), 4 treatments included -CON; +CON; an early weight sort fed ZH (1-SORT) with the heaviest 20% identified at d 1 and sorted 50 d from harvest and marketed 14 d before -CON and +CON, with the remaining 80% of the pen fed 7 d longer than -CON and +CON; and a 4-way sort 50 d from harvest fed ZH (4-SORT) with steers sorted into HEAVY, MID-HEAVY, MID-LIGHT, and LIGHT groups marketed -14, 0, +7, and +28 d from -CON and +CON, respectively. Average days on feed for control treatments were 154 and 157 d for the 1-SORT and 159 d for 4-SORT. Steers were fed Zilmax at 8.3 mg/kg DM for 20 d followed by a 3 d withdrawal. In Exp. 1, steers fed +CON had 13 kg greater (P treatments. Percentage of overweight carcasses (454 kg) was greater (P ≤ 0.05) in sorted treatments than in -CON. In Exp. 2, HCW for +CON was 15 kg heavier (P 0.10) between +CON and -CON, whereas carcass weight SD of 4-SORT was reduced (P < 0.01) compared with that of -CON and +CON. Steers fed ZH had a greater percentage of carcasses over 454 kg than steers fed -CON (P < 0.01). Although not statistically different (P = 0.27), the percentage of carcasses over 454 kg was reduced by 28% for 4-SORT compared

  8. Avaliação das proporções dos cortes da carcaça, características da carne e avaliação dos componentes do peso vivo de cordeiros Evaluation of carcass cuttings proportion, meat characteristics and evaluation of live weight components of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Batista Medeiros Frescura

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a composição física da carcaça, as características da carne e a proporção dos não-componentes da carcaça do peso vivo de cordeiros abatidos aos 28 kg submetidos a diferentes sistemas alimentares. Dezoito cordeiros (Ile de France x Texel foram distribuídos aleatoriamente, com as respectivas mães, em três tratamentos: PCA - pastagem cultivada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., CON - confinamento sem alimentação privativa e CCF - confinamento com alimentação privativa para os cordeiros. A alimentação privativa foi oferecida aos cordeiros pelo sistema de creep feeding. Não houve diferença para o percentual do pescoço entre PCA, CON e CCF, com valores de 9,27; 9,17 e 8,72%, respectivamente. Para o percentual de perna, os animais da CON (34,02% e CCF (34,17% apresentaram valores semelhantes entre si e superiores aos da PCA (31,73%. A maciez medida na porção do Longissimus dorsi entre a 9ª e 12ª costelas foi semelhante entre os animais dos três tratamentos, de 2,33; 3,03 e 3,08 para PCA, CON e CCF, respectivamente. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre a palatabilidade e suculência da carne. O percentual de pele dos animais da PCA (11,05% e do CON (10,50% foram semelhantes entre si, enquanto o PCA apresentou valores mais elevados que o percentual dos animais do CCF (9,70%. Para o percentual do conteúdo gástrico, os valores observados para os animais do CCF (11,47% foram superiores àqueles da PCA (5,09% e semelhantes aos obtidos para os animais do CON (8,72%.This study aimed to evaluate carcass physical comp0sition, meat characteristics and live weight carcass no component of lambs slaughter at 28 kg under different feeding systems. Eighteen lambs (Ile de France X Texel were randomly allotted, with their respective mothers, to three treatments: RP - ryegrass pasture (Lolium multiflorum Lam., COM - confinament of lamb and sheep together and CCF - confinament with creep feeding. A

  9. Efeitos do tamanho da partícula e da forma física da ração sobre o desempenho, rendimento de carcaça e peso dos órgãos digestivos de frangos de corte Effects of particle size and physical form of ration on performance, carcass yield and weight of digestive organs of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.A. López

    2004-04-01

    grinding rations, feed conversion was lower and mortality was higher with the expanded-pellet diet. This pattern did not show up with the coarse grinding rations. The physical form and particle size of rations did not affect carcass yield (% body weight. The relative weight (% body weight of gizzard was lower and that of liver was higher (P<0.05 with the expanded-pellet and pellet rations.

  10. 9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anthrax; carcasses not to be...-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.9 Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses...; general cleanup and disinfection. (a) Carcasses found before evisceration to be affected with...

  11. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle VIII): carcass, yield, and longissimus palatability traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate alternative sources of tropically adapted cattle germplasm and compare them with Angus- (AN) and Hereford- (HE) sired steers. Carcass, yield, and longissimus thoracis palatability traits from F(1) steers (n = 621) obtained from mating AN and MARC III cows to HE, AN, Brangus (BR), Beefmaster (BM), Bonsmara (BO), or Romosinuano (RO) sires were compared. Data were adjusted to constant age (426 d), carcass weight (340 kg), fat thickness (1.0 cm), fat trim percentage (25%), and marbling (Small(00)) endpoints. For Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force and trained and untrained sensory panel traits, data were obtained on LM from ribeye steaks stored at 2 degrees C for 14 or 15 d postmortem. The following comparisons were from the age-constant endpoint. Carcasses from BM-, AN-, and BR-sired steers (358, 355, and 351 kg, respectively) were heavier (P Carcass yield of boneless, totally trimmed retail product was least (P < 0.05) for AN-sired steers (60.1%) and greatest (P < 0.05) for RO- and BO-sired steers (64.4 to 63.5%). Considering all measurements, AN LM tended to be more tender and BM LM tended to be least tender. American composite breeds BM and BR were heavier, fatter, lesser yielding, with similar marbling scores but less tender LM than BO and RO. Angus carcasses were similar in size, fatter, lesser yielding, with more marbling and more tender LM compared with BM and BR. Bonsmara and RO provide tropically adapted germplasm and produce carcasses that are lighter, leaner, greater yielding, with similar marbling and LM that tend to be more tender than carcasses from BM and BR.

  12. Influence of body condition score on live and carcass value of cull beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, J K

    1999-10-01

    Mature beef cows (n = 88) were slaughtered to determine the influence of body condition score (BCS) on carcass and live animal value. Cows were weighed and assigned a BCS (9-point scale), 24 h before slaughter. Hide and by-products weights were recorded during harvest. After a 48-h chill period, the right side of each carcass was fabricated into boneless subprimal cuts, minor cuts, lean trim, fat, and bone. Weights were recorded at all stages of fabrication. Carcass values (U.S.$/100 kg of hot carcass weight) were calculated for U.S. Utility and U.S. Cutter grades, as well as for the Utility/Cutter mix for each BCS. Gross value included the carcass value and the value of the hide and byproducts, whereas net value was calculated after harvest and fabrication costs and by-product value were considered. Live value (U.S.$/100 kg of live weight) was computed by dividing the net value by the animal's live weight 24 h before harvest. The value of the hide and by-products for BCS-2 cows was greater (Pmix, cows designated with a BCS of 7 and 8 had greater (P.05) to BCS-7 cows. Information from this study can be used by the non-fed beef industry to establish a value-based marketing system. Data from this study would indicate that marketing cull beef cows at a BCS of 6 could optimize economic returns to both cow-calf producers and non-fed beef packers.

  13. Accuracy of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in assessing carcass composition from different pig populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soladoye, O P; López Campos, Ó; Aalhus, J L; Gariépy, C; Shand, P; Juárez, M

    2016-11-01

    The accuracy of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in assessing carcass composition from pigs with diverse characteristics was examined in the present study. A total of 648 pigs from three different sire breeds, two sexes, two slaughter weights and three different diets were employed. DXA estimations were used to predict the dissected/chemical yield for lean and fat of carcass sides and primal cuts. The accuracy of the predictions was assessed based on coefficient of determination (R(2)) and residual standard deviation (RSD). The linear relationships for dissected fat and lean for all the primal cuts and carcass sides were high (R(2)>0.94, P0.94, Pvariation in the pig population, except for sire breed, where the coefficient of determination decreased when carcasses were classified based on this variable. PMID:27395824

  14. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover or orchardgrass pastures: carcass merit and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; OGR) pastures. Carcass conformation score was greater (P=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on ALF compared to OGR with RCG intermediate. Chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash, intramuscular fat, or crude protein content or in concentrations of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids, or the omega6 to omega3 ratio. Goats finished on OGR had higher (Pmeat-goat kids finished on ALF, RCG, or ORG produced desirable carcass weights for most niche markets in the USA. Chevon is a low-fat meat option with high desirable fatty acids for human diets. PMID:25089787

  15. Two-, three-, and four-breed rotational crossbreeding of beef cattle: carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, S M; Franke, D E; Bidner, T D; Blouin, D C

    1992-12-01

    Carcass data from 1,494 straightbred and rotational crossbred steers were collected over four generations. Mating systems included straightbreds (Angus [A], Brahman [B], Charolais [C], and Hereford [H]); two-breed rotations (A-B, C-B, and H-B); three-breed rotations (A-B-C, A-B-H, and B-C-H); and a four-breed rotation (A-B-C-H). Steers were randomly allocated to one of four postweaning treatments that varied in length of grazing and feeding periods. Treatment and breed group (four straightbreds and seven rotational combinations) significantly influenced hot carcass weight (HCWT), retail yield (RY), longissimus muscle area (LM), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MS), USDA quality grade (QG), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS). Feeding for longer periods resulted in greater (P carcass traits except MS.

  16. Factors affecting carcass value and profitability in early-weaned Simmental steers: II. Days on feed endpoints and sorting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatt, N A; Berger, L L; Faulkner, D B; Walker, P M; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2005-12-01

    In a 4-yr study, early-weaned Simmental steers (n = 192) of known genetics were individually fed to determine EPD, performance, and carcass measurements explaining variation in carcass value and profitability across incremental days on feed (DOF) when sorted by HCW, calculated yield grade (YG), or at their highest profit endpoint (BEST). Steers were weaned at 88.0 +/- 1.1 d of age, pen-fed a high-concentrate diet for 84.5 +/- 0.4 d, individually fed for 249.7 +/- 0.7 d, and slaughtered at 423.3 +/- 1.4 d of age. Carcass weight, YG, and marbling score (MS) were predicted using real-time ultrasound throughout the finishing period to calculate carcass value and profitability at 90, 60, 30 d preslaughter and under three individual sorting strategies. Sorting strategies included marketing the 25 and 50% heaviest HCW, the highest YG at d 60 and 30, or the remaining 25% at 0-d endpoints. Independent variables were year, weaning weight EPD, yearling weight EPD, marbling EPD, DMI, ADG, HCW, YG, and MS. Profit was quadratic in response to increased DOF; the greatest economic return was noted on d 30 (pre-slaughter). Final weight, DMI, HCW, MS, and YG increased (linear; P carcass value and profitability. PMID:16282633

  17. Characterization of two Pro-opiomelanocortin gene variants and their effects on carcass traits in beef cattle

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    Deobald Heather M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcass quantity (lean meat yield and quality (degree of marbling in beef cattle determines much of their economic value. Consequently, it is important to study genes that are part of the appetite pathway and that may ultimately affect carcass composition. Pro-opiomelanocortin is a prohormone that codes for many different peptides, several of which are involved in the appetite pathway. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP c.288C>T in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC has previously been associated with hot carcass weight (HCW and shipping weight (Ship wt in beef cattle. Results While developing a commercial real time PCR test for POMC c.288C>T a 12 bp deletion (POMC c.293_304delTTGGGGGCGCGG was identified. The deletion results in the removal of four amino acids (a valine, two glycines, and an alanine. Both the POMC c.288C>T and the deletion were genotyped in 386 crossbred steers and evaluated for associations with carcass traits. The animals with one copy of the deletion had a significantly smaller carcass rib-eye area (7.91 cm2; P = 0.02 in comparison to homozygous normal animals. Significant associations were observed between POMC c.288C>T with start-of-finishing weight (SOF WT; P = 0.04, hot carcass weight (HCW; P = 0.02, average fat and grade fat (both P = 0.05, carcass rib-eye area (REA; P = 0.03 and marbling (P = 0.02. Conclusions These results suggest that it could be beneficial for beef producers to know both the deletion and POMC c.288C>T genotypes when making marketing and culling decisions.

  18. Performance and carcass characteristics of young cattle fed with soybean meal treated with tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Rafael; Paulino, Pedro Veiga Rodrigues; Barbosa, Marcília Medrado; da Silva Martins, Taiane; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Dos Santos Monnerat, João Paulo Ismério

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of replacement of soybean meal (SBM) with soybean meal treated with tannin (SBMT) on the intake, digestibility, performance and characteristics of the carcasses of young cattle fed a high-concentrate diet. Forty-two Nellore bulls with body weight of 244.5 ± 4.99 kg were used. Diets had the inclusion of 7.5% SBM, with a proportion of that SBM (0, 33, 66 or 100%) replaced for SBMT; and other treatment (SBMT + urea) just with 2.5% of SBM which was treated with tannins. Seven animals were randomly selected and slaughtered, and the remaining animals were distributed on treatments and remained for 112 days. After, all animals were slaughtered. There was a linear decline in dry matter intake (P = 0.026) when SBM was replaced with SBMT. No decrease in carcass weight (P > 0.05) was observed. The efficiency of carcass weight gain showed a quadratic function effect (P = 0.049). There were changes in carcass gain composition when SBMT was added (P < 0.05), with an increase in muscle and reduction in fat deposition. The use of SBMT in place of SBM causes changes in body gain composition in animals and reduces DM intake by the animals, achieving a better feed conversion efficiency. PMID:26355192

  19. Productivity and carcass characteristics of pure and crossbred Chinese Yellow Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G H; Liu, L; Xiu, X L; Jian, H M; Wang, L Z; Sun, B Z; Tong, B S

    2001-08-01

    The carcass characteristics of 334 Chinese Yellow Cattle, and their Simmental and Limousin crosses, were investigated in abattoirs in Hebei and Sandong provinces of China. The overall slaughter age was 4.8±2.2 years at a mean liveweight of 527.28±77.0 kg. Mean ages and liveweights for Yellow Cattle and its crosses were, respectively, 5.29±2.03 and 2.85±1.71 years and 519.43±78.7 and 563.13±56.8 kg. Carcass weights varied considerably and, consequently, so did subcutaneous fat depths and dressing percentages. Overall, mean carcass weights, subcutaneous fat depths and, dressing percentages and eyemuscle areas were 283.9±64.1 kg, 14.0±8.0 mm, 54.0±4.0%, and 62.7 ±13.3 cm(2), respectively. Compared with pure Yellow Cattle, the crosses were slaughtered at younger age, and had larger live and carcass weights, higher dressing percentages, less subcutaneous fat depth and bigger eyemuscle areas. It is concluded that crossbreeding can significantly improve Yellow Cattle' meat productivity, however feeding systems need to be improved and an appropriate grading system developed to improve beef production and quality in China. PMID:22062425

  20. Performance, carcass and meat quality of ewes supplemented with magnesium oxide

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    Camila Constantino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance, the carcass and meat characteristics of ewes supplemented with magnesium oxide. Eighteen 6-year-old Santa Ines ewes were used in a completely randomized experimental design, where three levels of supplementation (0.0, 0.1 and 0.2% magnesium oxide in the concentrate were tested, with six replicates. Final weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were not affected by levels of magnesium supplementation. Hot and cold carcass weights showed linear increasing and quadratic responses, respectively, according to supplementation with magnesium. Carcass measurements such as length, depth, and measures of arm and leg were not affected by supplementation. Depth and width of the longissimus muscle and rib-eye area were not affected; however, marbling and ether extract increased linearly with supplementation. Water loss and color were not affected. Lipid oxidation and shear force were not affected by supplementation, while the myofibrillar fragmentation index showed a quadratic regression. There was a linear decrease in pH with magnesium supplementation. Supplementation with magnesium can improve carcass and meat pH, but can act negatively by increasing the amount of marbling and ether extract of meat.

  1. Validation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Carcass Traits in a Commercial Hanwoo Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudrajad, Pita; Sharma, Aditi; Dang, Chang Gwon; Kim, Jong Joo; Kim, Kwan Suk; Lee, Jun Heon; Kim, Sidong; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Four carcass traits, namely carcass weight (CW), eye muscle area (EMA), back fat thickness (BF), and marbling score (MS), are the main price decision parameters used for purchasing Hanwoo beef. The development of DNA markers for these carcass traits for use in a beef management system could result in substantial profit for beef producers in Korea. The objective of this study was to validate the association of highly significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) with the four carcass traits in a commercial Hanwoo population. We genotyped 83 SNPs distributed across all 29 autosomes in 867 steers from a Korean Hanwoo feedlot. Six SNPs, namely ARS-BFGL-NGS-22774 (Chr4, Pos:4889229), ARS-BFGL-NGS-100046 (Chr6, Pos:61917424), ARS-BFGL-NGS-39006 (Chr27, Pos:38059196), ARS-BFGL-NGS-18790 (Chr10, Pos:26489109), ARS-BFGL-NGS-43879 (Chr9, Pos:39964297), and BTB-00775794 (Chr20, Pos:20476265), were found to be associated with CW, EMA, BF, and MS. The ARS-BFGL-NGS-22774, BTB-00775794, and ARS-BFGL-NGS-39006 markers accounted for 1.80%, 1.72%, and 1.35% (p<0.01), respectively, of the phenotypic variance in the commercial Hanwoo population. Many genes located in close proximity to the significant SNPs identified in this study were previously reported to have roles in carcass traits. The results of this study could be useful for marker-assisted selection programs. PMID:26954199

  2. Effect of Supplementing Spirulina on Live Performance, Carcass Composition and Meat Quality of Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Swee Weng CHEONG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis inclusion in feed on live performance, carcass composition and meat quality of Japanese quails during growing stage to identify the best inclusion range for Japanese quails without affecting the growth and carcass parameters. Three hundred Japanese quails of 15 days of age were used in this experiment, randomly divided into 5 groups with 3 replication comprised of 30 males and 30 females. The quails were fed with a basal diet as a control and 4 levels of Spirulina inclusion diet 1, 2, 4 and 8 %. Diets were fed to birds from 15 days to 35 days of age. Body weight gain (BWG, Feed intake (FI, Feed conversion ratio (FCR and Mortality rate (MR were recorded weekly during the experiment. Carcass composition and meat quality tests were done after slaughtering. BWG, FI, FCR and MR were significantly different (p < 0.05 in the experiment. Carcass composition was found to be significantly different in the leg percentage (p < 0.05. Meat color and meat shear force value were also found to differ significantly (p < 0.05 with the Spirulina inclusion diet showing a better result than the control. Therefore, the result of this experiment suggests that diets up to 4 % of Spirulina achieve the best live performance, carcass composition and meat quality.

  3. Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Rabbits Fed Oil Supplemented Diets

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    Jamal Abo OMAR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feeding different dietary fat supplements in the finisher rations of Baladi rabbits, including sesame oil (SO, olive oil sediments (OOS, and poultry grease (PG, in comparison to the traditional oil supplement, the soybean soap stock oil (SS, on growth performance, blood lipid profile, dressing percentage and carcass cut, and meat quality: water holding capacity (WHC and cell forming unit (CFU. A total of 48 Baladi rabbits were used, with individual body weights (BW of 519 ± 22 g at the beginning of the experiment. Rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12, and those in each group were individually fed cereal grain-soybean meal (SBM with a fixed amount (i.e. 30 g/kg dry matter (DM of oil, being either soybean oil (SOY, olive oil sediments (OOS, recycled restaurant oil (RRO, or poultry grease (PG. All rations were isonitrogenous and contained iso-metabolizable energy (ME. At the end of the 44 day feeding trial, all animals were slaughtered. Rabbits fed a SOY supplemented diet consumed more (P < 0.05 feed than those fed the OOS, RRO, or PG supplemented diets. However, rabbits fed the SOY had a better (P < 0.05 feed conversion ratio than rabbits fed the OOS, PG, or RRO diets. Oil source had no effect on carcass components weights. Liver was heavier (P < 0.05 in rabbits fed the SOY supplemented diet. However, the RRO fed rabbits had heavier (P < 0.05 small intestine, large intestine and cecum. In conclusion, the positive effects of the tested oil supplements (i.e. RRO, OOS, PG on the studied performance and carcass traits is encouraging, but more investigation is needed to identify the optimal levels for these supplements in various diets of local rabbits.

  4. Carcass parameters and meat quality in meat-goat kids finished on chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, or red clover pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N; Brown, M A

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted during the 2009 and 2010 grazing seasons to assess carcass parameters and chevon (goat meat) quality when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on pastures of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCL), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT), or chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; CHIC). Final live weight (P0.10) among treatments when adjusted for the covariate of carcass weight. Finishing meat-goat kids on RCL, BFT, or CHIC impacted concentrations of fatty acids (FAs) 18:1 trans-10, 18:1 cis-11, 18:2, 18:3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), omega-6, omega-3, and PUFA:saturated fatty acid ratio in longissimus lumborum samples. Finishing meat-goat kids on CHIC, RCL, or BFT pastures produced carcass weights acceptable for most ethnic markets in the USA. PMID:25817803

  5. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Hereford sired steers born to beef-cross-dairy and Angus breeding cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lucy W; Hickson, Rebecca E; Schreurs, Nicola M; Martin, Natalia P; Kenyon, Paul R; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Steers from Angus, Angus×Holstein Friesian, Angus×Holstein Friesian-Jersey and Angus×Jersey cows and a Hereford sire were measured for their carcass and meat quality characteristics. Steers from the Angus×Holstein Friesian cows had a greater final body weight and carcass weight (Ppercentage (Pfat depth over the rump at 12 and 18months of age for the steers from Angus cows (P<0.05) but, not at 24months of age. The steers had similar meat quality characteristics across the breed groups. Steers from Angus×Holstein Friesian and Angus×Jersey cows had a higher ratio of n6 to n3 fatty acids. Using beef-cross-dairy cows to produce steers for meat production does not impact on meat quality. Using Jersey in the breed cross reduced the carcass tissues in the live weight and the potential meat yield. PMID:27448194

  6. Avaliação da carcaça de cordeiros da raça Texel sob diferentes métodos de alimentação e pesos de abate Carcass evaluation of Texel lambs, under different feeding systems and slaughter weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacílio Silva da Motta

    2001-12-01

    . The lambs (males and females in each method and Sex were slaughtered with 25 or 33kg of live weight. There was a significant influence (P or = 0.5 between sexes. The feeding method was not significant (P > or = 0.5 for fat thickness, marbling and fatness cover; however, those characteristcs were influenced (P<0.5 by sex and slaughter weight, being the fatness cover not significant at different weights. The results showed that a best income of not castred male lambs carcasses slaughtered with 25kg, is obtained when they are submited to a good nutrition level during the growing and finishing periods.

  7. Carcass traits of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at maintenance or ad libitum with two concentrate levels in the diet

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    Ivanna Moraes de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This trial was conducted to evaluate the quantitative carcass traits of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at maintenance level or ad libitum with 1% and 2% of the body weight in concentrate. The animals were allotted to the treatments in a completely randomized experimental design, in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. The animals fed the ad libitum diet with more concentrate had greater cold carcass weight, cold carcass yield and longissimus muscle area/100 kg of cold carcass weight when compared with animals fed the diet with low concentrate allowance. There was no difference between the ad libitum diets for all of the carcass cuts yields, except for top sirloin. Crossbred animals had cold carcass yield larger than the Nellore animals. F1 Angus × Nellore animals had greater rib fat thickness and smaller longissimus muscle area/100 kg than the F1 Simmental × Nellore cattle. The yield of commercial carcass cuts was not influenced by genetic group, except for the shoulder clod yield, which was smaller in crossbred animals compared with Nellore animals. The longissimus muscle area, rib fat thickness and rump fat, taken by ultrasound were influenced by the body weight of the animals. Crossbred animals fed diets with higher concentrate level produce carcasses most suitable for the requirements of the market.

  8. Effect of dietary supplementation of herbal seeds on carcass traits of turkey poults

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    Darshana B. Bhaisare

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find the effect of four herbal seeds on carcass traits of turkey poults. Materials and Methods: A biological study using Nandanam turkey poults (Meleagris gallapavo for 8 weeks duration was carried out to evaluate the effect of phytobiotics-containing four herbal seeds influence on production performances like biweekly body weight and on carcass traits. 150 poults were randomly subjected to five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with basal diet (T1, 0.5% (5 g/kg level of each seeds thyme (Thymus vulgaris (T2, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum (T3, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare (T4 and cumin (Cuminum cyminum (T5. Carcass traits like blood loss, feather loss, dressed weight, New York dressed weight, ready to cook yield and cut-up parts yield were studied. Results: The body weight at 8th week was higher (p<0.05 in poults fed with thyme; whereas at 6th week, fennel and cumin fed birds had better (p<0.05 body weight. Inclusion of herbal seeds did not affect the blood loss, dressed weight and ready to cook yield but it significantly (p<0.05 affected the feathered loss, New York dressed weight and giblet percentages. Feeding of fenugreek has improved New York dressed weight of poults. Feeding of fennel had depressive (p<0.05 effect on liver and gizzard weights. All the four phytobiotic seeds in feed had significant (p<0.05 reduction in breast weight with a compensatory improvement in drumstick and neck weights. Conclusion: The present study revealed that supplementation of phytobiotic herbal seeds has resulted in numerical improvement of body weight of poults throughout the study period whereas these seeds had negative effect on the yield of breast, with increased proportion of drumstick and neck.

  9. Estimation of Genetic Gain on Growth and Carcass Traits over Direct and Index Selection for Growth and Feed Efficiency of Japanese Black Cattle by computer simulation(Animal Production Science Animal Breeding and Genetics)

    OpenAIRE

    HOQUE,Md. Azharul / SUZUKI,Keiichi / OIKAWA,Takuro

    2007-01-01

    A simulation study was performed for performance traits on 740 bulls and carcass traits on 1,774 progeny in Japanese Black cattle to compare the efficiency of direct and index selection. Performance traits included average daily gain (ADG), final body weight (BWF), metabolic body weight (MWT), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI). Progeny traits were carcass weight (CWT), rib eye area (REA), rib thickness (RBT), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), marblin...

  10. Breed effects and retained heterosis for growth, carcass, and meat traits in advanced generations of composite populations of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M; Dikeman, M E; Koohmaraie, M

    1994-04-01

    Retained heterosis for growth, carcass, and meat traits was estimated in F3 generation castrate male progeny in three composite populations finished on two levels of dietary energy density (2.82 Mcal of ME and 3.07 Mcal of ME and 11.50% CP) and serially slaughtered at four end points at intervals of 20 to 22 d. Breed effects were evaluated in nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C] that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, and 1/4 A). Breed effects were important (P .05) from Limousin in retail product weight or carcass lean weight because of higher dressing percentage, lower fat trim percentage, and lower bone percentage of Limousin. The effects of dietary energy density were important (P < .01) for most traits. The interaction of breed group x dietary energy density generally was not important. Retained heterosis generally was significant for each composite population for weight of retail product, fat trim, bone, and carcass lean, fat, and bone. For percentage of retail product, fat trim, carcass lean, carcass fat, and chemical fat in the 9-10-11th rib cut, generally, heterosis was significant for composites MARC II and MARC III but not for composite MARC I (i.e., composites MARC II and MARC III had a lower percentage of retail product and carcass lean and a higher percentage of fat trim, carcass fat, and chemical fat in the 9-10-11th rib cut than the mean of contributing purebreds).

  11. Postweaning growth and carcass traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano maternal grandsires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A; Cundiff, L V

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for postweaning growth and carcass composition traits in terminal crossbred cattle. Postweaning growth and carcass traits were analyzed on 464 steers and 439 heifers obtained by mating F(1) cows to Charolais and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) sires. The F(1) cows were obtained from mating Angus and MARC III dams to Hereford, Angus, Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano sires. Traits evaluated were postweaning ADG, slaughter weight, HCW, dressing percentage, percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, retail product yield (percentage), and retail product weight. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P carcass weights, the least percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, and the least amount of marbling and fat thickness. Animals with inheritance from these 2 breeds had a more desirable yield grade with the greatest retail product yield. Maternal granddam breed was significant (P < 0.05) for marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, and retail product yield. Sex class was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits except for retail product yield. Steers grew faster, were heavier, had heavier carcasses, and were leaner than heifers. Heifers had a greater dressing percentage, a greater percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, a greater LM area, and a decreased yield grade when compared with steers. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems.

  12. The single nucleotide polymorphisms of chicken melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene and their association analysis with carcass traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU; Xuemei; LI; Ning; DENG; Xuemei; ZHAO; Xingbo; MENG; Qingyong; WANG; Xiuli

    2006-01-01

    Mutations of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene are associated with the appetite, obesity and growth in pig, mice and human. But little is known about the function of chicken MC4R gene. In this study, F2 chicken resource population derived from broilers crossing to Silky was screened for the polymorphisms of the MC4R gene using PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing methods. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) sites were found. The mutation (C→T) in the 5′ regulation region of chicken MC4R gene results in one more NF-E2 and cap transcription factor binding sites in the mutation allele than in the wild allele. One missense mutation (G→A) occurs in the coding region (61nt), which changes the glycine to arginine. Moreover, in the coding region there are 2 synonymous mutations, one G→T mutation at 315nt and one C→T mutation at 336nt. Least square analysis of the SNPs and carcass traits showed that BB, DD and FF genotypes are significantly associated with body weight, carcass weight (or half carcass weight), and leg muscle weight (P<0.05 or P<0.01). But no significant association between the genotypes and abdominal fat weight is found. The results present the evidence that the chicken MC4R gene can be selected as the major candidate gene for the carcass traits such as body weight and growth.

  13. Carcass Characteristics of Growing Male Pig in Different Level of Clenbuterol Addition

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    Wayan Sukarya Dilaga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Abstract - Nowadays, pig has becomes an important role in meat supply chain and demand in the world. However, in the intensive maintenance system, raising pig still has problems especially in feed supplements. The investigation on carcass characteristics of growing male pig in different level of clenbuterol addition in feed was conducted. CRD factorial 2 x 3 with 4 repetitions was used in the experiment. The first factor is the nation's pig (L = local pigs & pig off spring K=imports and the second factor is the level of clenbuterol (T0 = 0 mg/kg feed; T1 = 0.20 mg/kg feed & T2 = 0.40 mg/kg feed. The materials were 24 male grower pigs (12 local & 12 imported pigs with 52.5 ± 28.27 kg body weight. Pigs were reared in individual cages for 6 weeks consisting 2 weeks for adaptation and 4 weeks for data collection. The pigs were given the same feed consisting of rice bran 27.8%, 55.5% and 16.7% corn concentrate. Feeding pigs was given in appropriate growth phase as much as 2 times a day. Drink provided using ad-libitum method. At the end of the study, the pigs were slaughtered. The meat was then analyzed based on the weight of the cut meat, weight of hot carcass, carcass percentage and carcass components (meat, bones and fat. The data was analyzed in variety followed by various orthogonal polynomial tests. Results shown that there were a real interaction between carcass weight and weight cut with quadratic pattern. Clenbuterol also found out to give an reduction effect on carcass percentage in both local and imported pig. In fact the local pigs give the lower carcass percentage than the imported one. Key Words – clenbuterol; weight cut; carcass percentag; carcass component /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso

  14. Babassu mesocarp bran levels associated with whole or ground corn grains in the finishing of young bulls: carcass and meat characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Evangelista Machado Santana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grinding corn and inclusion of babassu mesocarp bran (BMB in the diet of crossbred dairy young bulls finished in feedlot on their carcass and meat characteristics. Twenty-four young bulls were fed four experimental diets containing two BMB inclusion levels (0 and 41.24% and corn in two forms of processing (ground and whole grains for 98 days, and then slaughtered in a commercial packing plant. Among the quantitative carcass characteristics, there was interaction only in fat trimmings/whole hot carcass weight and cold carcass yield. The whole hot carcass and hot carcass weights showed reduced means with the use of whole corn. The other quantitative variables were not separately affected by BMB inclusion levels or by the form corn was processed. There was interaction between the factors for pistol cut weight, edible portion and weight of the cuts of the pistol cut, in which the use of whole corn and BMB promoted reduction in the mean values. The use of the whole corn grain reduced the participation of flank cut and elevated the participation of the bone fraction in the carcass. Inclusion of 41.24% of BMB did not change the qualitative meat characteristics, but the use of corn grain resulted in darker meat. The use of whole corn resulted in alteration in the weight of cuts like eye of rump and striploin, which have a high commercial value. There was interaction between factors for the percentages of moisture and minerals of the meat, whereas the crude protein content was affected by the two factors. The use of diets with whole corn or with babassu mesocarp bran may modify the carcass and meat characteristics of finishing crossbred young bulls.

  15. Genetic analysis of carcass traits in beef cattle using random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englishby, T M; Banos, G; Moore, K L; Coffey, M P; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-04-01

    Livestock mature at different rates depending, in part, on their genetic merit; therefore, the optimal age at slaughter for progeny of certain sires may differ. The objective of the present study was to examine sire-level genetic profiles for carcass weight, carcass conformation, and carcass fat in cattle of multiple beef and dairy breeds, including crossbreeds. Slaughter records from 126,214 heifers and 124,641 steers aged between 360 and 1,200 d and from 86,089 young bulls aged between 360 and 720 d were used in the analysis; animals were from 15,127 sires. Variance components for each trait across age at slaughter were generated using sire random regression models that included quadratic polynomials for fixed and random effects; heterogeneous residual variances were assumed across ages. Heritability estimates across genders ranged from 0.08 (±0.02) to 0.34 (±0.02) for carcass weight, from 0.24 (±0.02) to 0.42 (±0.01) for conformation, and from 0.16 (±0.03) to 0.40 (±0.02) for fat score. Genetic correlations within each trait across ages weakened as the interval between ages compared lengthened but were all >0.64, suggesting a similar genetic background for each trait across different ages. Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the additive genetic covariance matrix revealed genetic variability among animals in their growth profiles for carcass traits, although most of the genetic variability was associated with the height of the growth profile. At the same age, a positive genetic correlation (0.60 to 0.78; SE ranged from 0.01 to 0.04) existed between carcass weight and conformation, whereas negative genetic correlations existed between fatness and both conformation (-0.46 to 0.08; SE ranged from 0.02 to 0.09) and carcass weight (-0.48 to -0.16; SE ranged from 0.02 to 0.14) at the same age. The estimated genetic parameters in the present study indicate genetic variability in the growth trajectory in cattle, which can be exploited through breeding programs and

  16. Meat and carcass characteristics of free-living capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele A. Felix

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate carcass and meat characteristics of free-living capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris from agricultural areas of Grande Dourados, MS, Brazil. Carcass weight, yield and measures, as well as of commercial cuts weight of five animals (2 males and 3 females, body weight between 63.4-100 kg were determined. The following parameters: moisture, protein, fat, ash, Ca, P and Fe, water holding capacity, cooking losses, shear force and color Instrumental color in CIE-Lab coordinates were determined to meat cuts (Loin, ribs, L. dorsi, chuck/brisket, ham and bottom sirloin. The dressing percentage average value was 62.47% of body weight and cold carcass yield was 57.89% of body weight, with no difference between sexes. The mean percentage of cold loss was 4.10%. Cuts yielding (ribs 24.98% and ham 27.29% were not statistically different (P>0.05. There was no significantly (P> 0.05 difference between the moisture, protein and minerals content between the different cuts, but lipids content was significantly (P< 0.05 lower in loin. The results shown that free-living capybara have characteristics appropriate for commercialization, thus it is possible to development projects for the sustainable management of rural populations.

  17. Effects of testosterone hormone and ages on carcass characteristics of Kacang doe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Rudiono

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Forty Kacang doe (average initial BW, 10.2 kg were used in 4x2 factorial arrangement to determine carcass characteristics. Dose of the testosterone as first factor were assigned to four levels, i.e.: control (T0, 1 dose of testosterone propionate (T1, 2 doses of TP (T2, and 3 doses of TP (T3. The age of animals as the second factor, i.e.: 7-8 months of age (U1 and 9-12 months of age (U2, referred to chevon method. The treatment combinations were replicated 5 times, respectively, so that there were 40 heads of doe. Animals were injected with 0.77 mg of TP/kg BW/d weekly for first dose and the goats were fed for 90 days. The diet were assigned to met or exceed 50 g ADG. The variables included slaughter weight, carcass weight, pelt weight, and Kidney Pelvic Heart (KPH fat weight. There were significant interaction (P<0.01, except on KPH weight. The best carcass characteristics were significantly resulted from injection of 49 mg TP head-1 week-1 treated on 9 kg of Kacang doe.

  18. Effects of Duroc Breeding Lines on Carcass Composition and Meat Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Seok; Jin, Sang-Keun; Choi, Yang-Il; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the carcass composition and pork quality of Duroc breeding lines in Korea. A total of 200 Duroc pigs were used, and those were originated from four different great-grandparent (GGP) breeding stock farms (L1: N farm, L2: W farm, L3: S farm, L4: R farm). The carcasses of pigs from these farms were collected, and meat quality traits were evaluated. L1 and L2 had smaller carcass weights and thin backfat, whereas L3 and L4 had heavy carcass weights and thick backfat. L3 and L4 had higher contents of fat and protein than L1 and L2. For the meat quality characteristics, L1, L2, and L4 had higher pH values than L3. In addition, L4 had higher water holding capacity than the other lines. L4 had the highest sensory evaluation scores with regard to both juiciness and flavor. Consequently, the study results indicate that pork quality information from domestic Duroc breeding stock lines could be used to effectively improve pork quality in Korea. PMID:26761803

  19. Influence of dietary supplementation of chromium on the carcass traits of crossbred pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guikinglung Pamei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the influence of chromium on the carcass traits in crossbred (Large White Yorkshire X Landrace pigs fed with swill feeding for a period of 5 months. Early-weaned crossbred piglets (n=24 were selected for this study, and the piglets were randomly divided into three equal groups; Group I, II, and III. The piglets were reared by following standard health coverage protocols. The feeds of Group I and II were supplemented with chromium in the form of chromium tripicolinate at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg of swill feed respectively, and Group III was kept as control. Carcass weight, carcass length, and bone percentage showed no significant difference among the three groups. However, better dressing percentage was observed in Group I (p<0.05. Liver and kidney weights were reduced in chromium supplemented groups (p<0.05. Chromium supplemented groups showed lower backfat thickness and fat percentage (p<0.01; whereas, loin eye areas and muscle percentage were increased as compared to the control group. Thus, it was concluded that chromium supplementation in feed of crossbred piglets influenced positively in their carcass traits.

  20. Correlations of visual scores, carcass traits, feed efficiency and retail product yield in Nellore cattle

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    Paulo Henrique Cancian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of visual scores (VS and ultrasound (US for carcass evaluation in breeding programs, calls for a knowledge of the relationships between these traits and other relevant characteristics, such as feed efficiency and production of commercial cuts. The objective of this study was to evaluate correlations between body visual scores and carcass traits identified by ultrasound (US and feed efficiency (FE, carcass weight (HCW, dressing percentage (DP and retail product yield (RPY in beef cattle. Nellore cattle (male, 42 non-castrated [NCAST] and 44 castrated [CAST] were evaluated by both VS and US, at the postweaning (15-month old and finishing phases (21-month old. Visual scores of conformation (C, precocity (P and muscling (M were assessed and the backfat thickness (UBFT, rump fat thickness (URFT and ribeye area (UREA were measured by ultrasound. Gain-to-feed (G:F ratio and residual feed intake (RFI were measured in feedlot. Hot carcass weight, DP and RPY were determined at harvest. Non-castrated cattle had greater HCW and RPY but lower UBFT and URFT than CAST. Postweaning VS and US were poorly correlated with FE in both sexual conditions. Finishing VS were negatively correlated with G:F in CAST and finishing URFT was negatively correlated with RPY in NCAST. The relationship of VS and US with feed efficiency and meat yield is affected by age at the date of evaluation and by castration. Feed efficiency is not related to the yield of meat cuts in Nellore cattle

  1. SLOVENIAN EXPERIENCE IN PIG CARCASS CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO SEUROP DURING THE YEARS 1996 TO 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta ČANDEK-POTOKAR

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Slovenian results on pig carcass classifi cation according to SEUROP (average lean meat percentage, carcass weight, measurements of fat and muscle and their variability are presented for years from 1996 to 2004. In these years, an important increase of average lean meat percentage was noted (51.9 % in year 1996 vs. 55.9 % in year 2004. As a consequence the percentage of pig carcasses being graded into S and E classes was almost tripled from 1996 to 2004 (21.3 to 58.2%, respectively. This improvement was initiated by the payment according to the lean meat percentage, to which pig breeders responded by better management of herds and partly by increased use of pietrain breed. Potential for further improvement remains in attaining genetically more uniform herds and reduction of carcass weight variability. A new method, introducing an optic probe Hennessy, adapted to changes of the EU legislation, is expected to shift up the average meat percentage close to 57%, which places Slovenian pigs into the EU average.

  2. Performance and carcass traits in the diallel crossing of pacu and tambaqui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vilhena Reis Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of evaluating the changes and the degree of heterosis on performance and carcass traits of fish from the diallel crossing between Pacu and Tambaqui, four genetic groups were generated through hormonal induction: pacu, tambaqui, tambacu and paqui. For 196 days, 400 juveniles of each genetic group were stocked in a pond divided into four parts of equal size, one for each group. At the end of this period, when the fish weighed on average 1024 g (±115.52 g, 20 specimens of each genetic group were sampled, weighed, measured: head length; standard length; body height; and width; and also processed resulting in following body yield: viscera; carcass; head; fillet; rib; residue and skin yields. There was positive heterosis for body weight, viscera and skin yield and head measures and negative heterosis for carcass and filet yield and body width, indicating that the hybrids have better performance on weight gain, but are inferior in relation to the carcass conformation.

  3. Genetic parameter estimates for carcass and yearling ultrasound measurements in Brangus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D W; Bertrand, J K; Misztal, I; Kriese, L A; Benyshek, L L

    1998-10-01

    Carcass measurements of 12th-rib fat thickness (CARCFAT), longissimus muscle area (CARCLMA), and weight (CARCWT) on 2,028 Brangus and Brangus-sired fed steers and heifers, as well as yearling weights (YWT) and ultrasound measures of 12th-rib fat thickness (USFAT) and longissimus muscle area (USLMA) on 3,583 Brangus bulls and heifers were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters. Data were analyzed using a six-trait animal model and an average information REML algorithm. The model included fixed effects for contemporary group and breed of dam, covariates for age at slaughter or measurement, and random animal and residual effects. Heritabilities for CARCFAT, CARCLMA, CARCWT, USFAT, USLMA, and YWT were .27+/-.05, .39+/-.05, .59+/-.06, .11+/-.03, .29+/-.04, and .40+/-.04, respectively. Genetic correlations between CARCFAT and USFAT, CARCLMA and USLMA, and CARCWT and YWT were .69+/-.18, .66+/-.14, and .61+/-.11, respectively. The favorable and moderately strong genetic correlations between carcass measurements and similar yearling breeding-animal ultrasound measurements indicate that such measurements of 12th-rib fat and longissimus muscle area are useful in predicting genetic values for carcass leanness and longissimus muscle area. Selection using yearling ultrasound measurements of breeding cattle should result in predictable genetic improvement for carcass characteristics. Inclusion of yearling ultrasound measurements for fat thickness and longissimus muscle area should enhance national cattle evaluation programs. PMID:9814892

  4. Performance and carcass characteristics of free-range broiler chickens fed diets containing alternative feedstuffs

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    PB Faria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alternative feedstuffs as partial substitutes of corn and soybean in free-range broiler diets on performance, carcass yield and technical-economic viability. A total of 400 Pescoço Pelado broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design (CRD, with four treatments (treatment 1:Control; treatment 2: 10% rice bran inclusion; treatment 3: 10% ground cassava leaves; and treatment 4: 10% ground lead tree hay with four replicates per treatment. Each replicate consisted of a group of 25 birds per paddock, separated per sex. Initial weight (IW, final weight (FW, body weight (BW, daily weight gain (DWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated. Carcass, cuts (breast, thigh, drumstick, back, neck, leg and wings, abdominal fat and giblets (gizzard, heart and liver yields were determined. The technical-economic viability of each treatment was assessed by determining the cost of feed per kg body weight, economic efficiency index and cost. The highest final weights were obtained with the use of rice bran. Rice bran and cassava leaves promoted higher carcass yield, as well as lower back and abdominal fat yields. The use of cassava leaves showed better economic efficiency among the treatments with alternative feedstuffs. The use of alternative feedstuffs at 10% inclusion in substitution of corn and soybean meal did not not result in major changes in performance and carcass parameters, and economic efficiency, and therefore, their use is recommended when the availability or the price of key ingredients, such as soybean meal and corn, increase.

  5. Impact comparative study of phone carcasses behavior by FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Cărăuşu; Plăvănescu, Simona; Dumitru, Nedelcu

    2015-07-01

    A constant concern of scientific research is based on plastics replace with biodegradable materials that reduce the adverse impact of waste on the environment. A biodegradable material that arouses interest lately is Arboform which is made of lignin, a component of wood and woody plants. Replacing plastic with Arboform in carrying components of products requires technical and economic studies on the implications of such replacement. Numerical simulation methods are a fast and economical way of analyzing the behavior of a product in various mechanical, thermal, electromagnetic and so on. The paper presents comparative results of numerical simulation using the software package SolidWorks impact behavior through the “Drop Test” of half shells made of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and of the Arboform LV3 Nature. Simulation watched the half-carcass behavior in three cases of accidental impact, “head”, “corner” and the “back side”. We analyzed the size and location of the maximum voltage and maximum deformation resulting from impact. Simulations have shown for all three cases a maximum voltage increase when using Arboform to use PEDH 93% for impact “forward” and “corner” and only 48.77% “back side” impact. If the maximum displacement, it increasing from carcasses of Arboform 4% for impact “head” and 6% for impact “corner”, but fell by 2.7% for the “back side” impact. The significant increase of stress can be attributed to the higher density of Arboform to PEDH, which led to different weights of the two half-carcasses.

  6. Impact of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth, efficiency, and carcass traits of finishing pigs in a three-phase marketing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlemann, G D; Allee, G L; Rincker, P J; Ritter, M J; Boler, D D; Carr, S N

    2014-03-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) in a 3-phase marketing strategy. One thousand seven hundred forty pigs were used in 80 single-sex pens in 2 blocks. Each pen housed approximately 22 pigs. Sixteen percent of the total population of pigs was sold during the first marketing period, 18% was sold during the second marketing period, and the remaining 66% was sold during the third marketing period. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design of 2 treatments. Pigs in the second marketing group had greater growth performance indicators than pigs in the first marketing group. Over the entire feeding period, pigs fed RAC were 2.73 kg heavier (P < 0.0001), had 0.11 kg/d greater (P < 0.0001) ADG, and had 0.04 greater (P < 0.0001) G:F than pigs not fed RAC. Hot carcass weights were 3.3% greater (P < 0.0001), carcass yields were 0.68 (% units) greater (P < 0.0001), fat depth was 7.2% less (P < 0.0001), loin depth was 5.6% greater (P < 0.0001), and estimated carcass lean was 0.97% units greater (P < 0.0001) in RAC-fed pigs when compared with pigs not fed RAC. By the end of the first marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (89.73 kg) were 2.1% heavier (P = 0.04) and gained 0.19 kg/d more (P = 0.03) carcass weight than carcasses from pigs not fed RAC (87.89 kg). By the end of the second marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (99.00 kg) were 3.1% heavier (P < 0.001) and gained 0.14 kg/d more (P < 0.001) carcass weight than carcasses from pigs not fed RAC (96.02 kg). By the end of the third marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (102.75 kg) were 3.7% heavier (P < 0.0001) and gained 0.10 kg/d more (P < 0.0001) carcass weight than carcasses from pigs not fed RAC (99.06 kg). Although carcass gain per day decreased with extended RAC feeding duration, HCW advantages continued to increase as feeding duration was increased from 7 d to 35 d. Growth benefits were evident during the initial marketing period, but as

  7. Relationships between lamb carcass quality traits measured by X-ray computed tomography (CT) and current UK-hill sheep breeding goals.

    OpenAIRE

    Lambe, N. R.; Conington, J.; Bishop, S.C.; McLean, K A; Bünger, L.; McLaren, A.; Simm, G.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic parameters were estimated between current UK hill sheep breeding goals and lamb carcass composition and muscularity traits derived using X-ray computed tomography (CT). To produce these estimates, a total of 648 lambs from two hill farms were CT scanned at weaning (ca 120 days of age), over 3 years, and total weights of carcass muscle (MUSC), fat (CFAT) and bone (BONE) and internal fat (IFAT) were predicted. Previously derived muscularity indices were also calculated for the hind leg ...

  8. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphism marker density on degree of genetic variance explained and genomic evaluation for carcass traits in Japanese Black beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Shinichiro; Matsuda, Hirokazu; Taniguchi, Yukio; Watanabe, Toshio; Nishimura, Shota; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Iwaisaki, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    [Background]Japanese Black cattle are a beef breed whose meat is well known to excel in meat quality, especially in marbling, and whose effective population size is relatively low in Japan. Unlike dairy cattle, the accuracy of genomic evaluation (GE) for carcass traits in beef cattle, including this breed, has been poorly studied. For carcass weight and marbling score in the breed, as well as the extent of whole genome linkage disequilibrium (LD), the effects of equally-spaced single nucleoti...

  9. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphism marker density on degree of genetic variance explained and genomic evaluation for carcass traits in Japanese Black beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Shinichiro; Matsuda, Hirokazu; Taniguchi, Yukio; Watanabe, Toshio; Nishimura, Shota; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Iwaisaki, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Background Japanese Black cattle are a beef breed whose meat is well known to excel in meat quality, especially in marbling, and whose effective population size is relatively low in Japan. Unlike dairy cattle, the accuracy of genomic evaluation (GE) for carcass traits in beef cattle, including this breed, has been poorly studied. For carcass weight and marbling score in the breed, as well as the extent of whole genome linkage disequilibrium (LD), the effects of equally-spaced single nucleotid...

  10. Haematology, Blood Chemistry and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Rabbits Fed Grasshopper Meal as a Substitute for Fish Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Njidda* and C. E. Isidahomen1

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with grasshopper meal on haematology, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits. Forty rabbits of mixed breeds, aged 6-10 weeks, were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments in a complete randomized design with eight rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were fed with diets containing 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5% grasshopper meal in diets designated as T1 (control, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period of nine weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three rabbits per treatment were slaughtered for carcass evaluation, while blood samples were collected for analysis. The result of the experiment showed significant differences (P0.05 on haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC. The results also revealed significant differences (P0.05 on serum albumin and total protein. The results of carcass characteristics showed significant differences among treatments (P<0.05 for slaughter weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, skin pelt, tail, feet and abdominal fat. The slaughter weight and carcass weight were better in groups receiving 2.5% grass hopper meal (50% fish meal replacement. From the results, it can be concluded that inclusion of 2.50% grasshopper meal as a replacement for fish meal (50% replacement has no adverse effects on the haematological parameters, serum biochemistry and carcass characteristics of rabbits.

  11. Detection of quantitative trait loci for carcass composition traits in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renard Christine

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis of carcass composition data from a three-generation experimental cross between Meishan (MS and Large White (LW pig breeds is presented. A total of 488 F2 males issued from six F1 boars and 23 F1 sows, the progeny of six LW boars and six MS sows, were slaughtered at approximately 80 kg live weight and were submitted to a standardised cutting of the carcass. Fifteen traits, i.e. dressing percentage, loin, ham, shoulder, belly, backfat, leaf fat, feet and head weights, two backfat thickness and one muscle depth measurements, ham + loin and back + leaf fat percentages and estimated carcass lean content were analysed. Animals were typed for a total of 137 markers covering the entire porcine genome. Analyses were performed using a line-cross (LC regression method where founder lines were assumed to be fixed for different QTL alleles and a half/full sib (HFS maximum likelihood method where allele substitution effects were estimated within each half-/full-sib family. Additional analyses were performed to search for multiple linked QTL and imprinting effects. Significant gene effects were evidenced for both leanness and fatness traits in the telomeric regions of SSC 1q and SSC 2p, on SSC 4, SSC 7 and SSC X. Additional significant QTL were identified for ham weight on SSC 5, for head weight on SSC 1 and SSC 7, for feet weight on SSC 7 and for dressing percentage on SSC X. LW alleles were associated with a higher lean content and a lower fat content of the carcass, except for the fatness trait on SSC 7. Suggestive evidence of linked QTL on SSC 7 and of imprinting effects on SSC 6, SSC 7, SSC 9 and SSC 17 were also obtained.

  12. Effects of dietary lysine levels on carcass performance and biochemical characteristics of Chinese local broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuncong Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lysine is typically the second-limiting amino acid in poultry diets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary lysine concentration on carcass and meat quality traits, and serum parameters in two lines – SD02 and SD03 – which originated from a Chinese local breed, the Erlang Mountainous chicken. Live body weight, carcass traits, meat quality traits (myofibre diameter and density, and serum metabolic markers were measured in high and low dietary lysine groups (HL and LL, respectively at the end of the starter (1-28 days, grower (29-49 days and finisher (50-70 days periods. The results showed that mortality, live weight (LW, myofibre diameter of leg muscle (LFDM and serum cholesterol (CHO were greater in HL than LL (P<0.05. The chickens from HL had reduced subcutaneous fat thickness and heart weight than LL (P<0.05. The chickens from line SD02 had greater leg muscle weight, myofibre diameter in breast, and LFDM than line SD03 (P<0.05. The chickens from line SD02 had more serum urea nitrogen and less total proteins than line SD03 (P<0.05. In conclusion, high lysine diets improved slaughter performance and muscle fibre diameter, and SD02 chickens had greater carcass yield and superior meat quality compared with chickens from line SD03.

  13. Genetic association of growth traits with carcass and meat traits in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonussi, R L; Espigolan, R; Gordo, D G M; Magalhães, A F B; Venturini, G C; Baldi, F; de Oliveira, H N; Chardulo, L A L; Tonhati, H; de Albuquerque, L G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic associations of growth traits with carcass and meat traits in Nellore cattle. Data from male and female animals were used for weaning weight (WW; N = 241,416), yearling weight (YW, N = 126,596), weight gain from weaning to yearling (GWY, N = 78,687), and yearling hip height (YHH, N = 90,720), respectively; 877 male animals were used for hot carcass weight (HCW) and 884 for longissimus muscle area (LMA), backfat thickness (BT), marbling score (MS), and shear force (SF). The variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using three-trait animal models that included WW. The model for WW included direct and maternal additive genetic, maternal permanent environmental, and residual effects as random effects; contemporary group as fixed effects; and age of dam at calving and age of animal as covariates (linear and quadratic effects). For the other traits, maternal effects and the effect of age of dam at calving were excluded from the model. Heritability ranged from 0.10 ± 0.12 (LMA) to 0.44 ± 0.007 (YW). Genetic correlations ranged from -0.40 ± 0.38 (WW x LMA) to 0.55 ± 0.10 (HCW x YW). Growth, carcass, and meat traits have sufficient genetic variability to be included as selection criteria in animal breeding programs. PMID:26782521

  14. Identification of quantitative trait loci for growth and carcass composition in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Keele, J W; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Stone, R T

    2004-02-01

    A genomic screening to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits was pursued. Two hundred nineteen microsatellite markers were genotyped on 176 of 620 (28%) progeny from a Brahman x Angus sire mated to mostly MARC III dams. Selective genotyping, based on retail product yield (%) and fat yield (%), was used to select individuals to be genotyped. Traits included in the study were birth weight (kg), hot carcass weight (kg), retail product yield, fat yield, marbling score (400 = slight00 and 500 = small00), USDA yield grade, and estimated kidney, heart and pelvic fat (%). The QTL were classified as significant when the expected number of false positives (ENFP) was less than 0.05 (F-statistic greater than 17.3), and suggestive when the ENFP was carcass weight at 49 cM, and for estimated kidney, heart and pelvic fat at 62 cM on chromosome 16, and for fat yield at 35 cM on chromosome 17. Two suggestive QTL for birth weight were identified, one at 12 cM on chromosome 20 and the other at 56 cM on chromosome 21. An additional suggestive QTL was detected for retail product yield, for fat yield, and for USDA yield grade at 26 cM on chromosome 26. Results presented here represent the initial search for quantitative trait loci in this family. Validation of detected QTL in other populations will be necessary.

  15. Postweaning growth and carcass traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano maternal grandsires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A; Cundiff, L V

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for postweaning growth and carcass composition traits in terminal crossbred cattle. Postweaning growth and carcass traits were analyzed on 464 steers and 439 heifers obtained by mating F(1) cows to Charolais and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) sires. The F(1) cows were obtained from mating Angus and MARC III dams to Hereford, Angus, Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano sires. Traits evaluated were postweaning ADG, slaughter weight, HCW, dressing percentage, percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, retail product yield (percentage), and retail product weight. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P yield grade with the greatest retail product yield. Maternal granddam breed was significant (P yield grade, fat thickness, and retail product yield. Sex class was significant (P yield. Steers grew faster, were heavier, had heavier carcasses, and were leaner than heifers. Heifers had a greater dressing percentage, a greater percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, a greater LM area, and a decreased yield grade when compared with steers. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems. PMID:19820064

  16. Effect of fermented noni leaf (Morinda citrifolia L. in diets on cholesterol content of broiler chicken carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erman Syahruddin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken meat is very nutritious. It is sometimes blamed to cause strock attack and coronary heart disease in human, because of high fat and cholesterol contents in the chicken meat. Therefore, the aim of this experiment is to evaluate the effect of fermented noni leaf levels in diets on the cholesterol content of broiler chicken carcass. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with eight experimental diets containing 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21% of fermented noni leaf powder. All diets were formulated to contain 22% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg. Each treatment had three replicates with ten chickens per replicate. Two hundred and forty day old unsex broiler chicks Arbor Acress were fed ad lib. for eight weeks and then sacrificed. Feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and cholesterol content of carcass were taken as variable responses. Data were analyzed based on analysis of variance and orthogonal comparisons. Results showed that feed consumption, daily weight gain, FCR and carcass content were not affected by the levels of fermented noni leaf in the diet. However, cholesterol content of broiler carcass was significantly (P < 0.05 affected by the dietary treatments. Cholesterol content of the carcass was reduced processed 26.18% 73.06 to 53.76 mg/100g mg/100g chicken meat. The lowest cholesterol level was obtained by feeding the chickens with diets containing 21% fermented noni leaf.

  17. The impact of cooling methods on microbiological quality of broiler carcasses

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    Peter Popelka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare two chilling methods, combined (aerosol and water chilling, in terms of their effectiveness in chilling of different weight categories of broiler chickens. At the same time microbial associations of different weight categories of broiler chickens were evaluated. Samples were collected in an approved establishment and poultry carcasses were divided according to weight and chilling methods into five categories. The first four categories were chilled using combined chilling method and fifth category was chilled with water. The temperature of the breast muscle before and after chilling and microbiological parameters (total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella was measured. By comparing the temperature of the breast muscle after combined chilling method was not achieved in the breast muscles temperature below 4 °C in all weight categories. In any case, the lowest average temperature has been reached in the weight category <1.2 kg (4.9 °C and with increasing weight, the average temperature was rising, and the highest was in weight category 1.8 to 2.5 kg (10.8 °C. Poultry carcasses were subsequently divided into portions and after cutting were chilled up to a temperature below 4 °C. In poultry carcasses chilled by water, the average temperature of the breast muscle after 20 minutes in the water bath was even higher (19.6 °C compared to combine chilling. Thus chilled poultry carcasses were frozen up to -18 °C in a core of muscles. Comparing the microbiological contamination in different weight categories and chilling techniques, we found that the lowest total viable count (TVC before and after chilling was in the lowest category and the difference before chilling was significantly lower comparing with all other categories. Conversely TVC after chilling by water was decreased. In comparing the number of Enterobacteriaceae before and after chilling, a similar pattern of contamination as above was found

  18. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... received with livestock for slaughter at an official establishment, no dead animal or part of the carcass... circumstances shall the carcasses of any animal which has died otherwise than by slaughter, or any part thereof... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8...

  19. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER, CARCASS VALUES OF SUDAN GOAT ECOTYPES FED DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ENERGY/PROTEIN

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. TAMEEM ELDAR; K.M. ELAMIN; A E Amin; H E Hassan

    2012-01-01

    This experiment aimed to assess the slaughter and carcass values of different Sudan goat ecotypes (Nubian, Desert and Swiss Nubian) fed different levels of energy/protein. Nine male goat kids (2-3 months and average weight 9.23 kg) of either ecotypes were used in a 3x3x3 arrangement, fed three experimental diets A (control), B and C, with varying energy: protein 1:0.14, 1:0.16 and 1:0.18 respectively. The study showed that Nubian goats possessed heavier slaughter weight; empty body weight, wa...

  20. The crossbreeding of improved Jezersko-Solcˇava sheep with Charollais to improve carcass traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragomir Kompan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen improved Jezersko-Solcˇava lambs (JSR and 16 crossbreds with Charollais (JSRxCH were used to evaluate the effect of genotype and sex on carcass traits. Lambs were weaned at around 60 days of age. They were fed with commercial concentrate and hay ad libitum and slaughtered at 30 kg of average live weight at 103 days of age. Crossbred lambs had at the same live weight at slaughter better conformation (9.19 on 15 points scale than JSR lambs (7.58. Carcasses of crossbred lambs had lower proportion of fat in hind leg and lower proportion of kidney fat. Female lambs had better dressing proportion (46.25% than male lambs (42.72%. Females had also higher scores for both internal and subcutaneous fatness and higher percentage of kidney fat. They had higher proportion of fat and lower proportion of bone in hind leg.

  1. Maternal grandsire, granddam, and sire breed effects on growth and carcass traits of crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2003-04-01

    Postweaning growth, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were analyzed on 1,422 animals obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British breeds) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC IIIHereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Breed groups were fed in replicated pens and slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr. Postweaning average daily gain; live weight; hot carcass weight; fat depth; longissimus area; estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (percentage); percentage Choice; marbling score; USDA yield grade; retail product yield (percentage); retail product weight; fat yield (percentage); fat weight; bone yield (percentage); and bone weight were analyzed in this population. Quadratic regressions of pen mean weight on days fed and of cumulative ME consumption on days fed were used to estimate gain, ME consumption and efficiency (Mcal of ME/kg of gain) over time (0 to 200 d on feed), and weight (300 to 550 kg) intervals. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P yield grade, retail product yield, fat yield, fat weight, and bone yield. Sire breed was significant (P yield, and fat yield. Interactions between maternal grandsire and sire breed were nonexistent. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems.

  2. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Hereford sired steers born to beef-cross-dairy and Angus breeding cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lucy W; Hickson, Rebecca E; Schreurs, Nicola M; Martin, Natalia P; Kenyon, Paul R; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Steers from Angus, Angus×Holstein Friesian, Angus×Holstein Friesian-Jersey and Angus×Jersey cows and a Hereford sire were measured for their carcass and meat quality characteristics. Steers from the Angus×Holstein Friesian cows had a greater final body weight and carcass weight (P<0.05). Steers from Angus×Jersey cows had the lowest carcass weight and dressing-out percentage (P<0.05). There was a greater fat depth over the rump at 12 and 18months of age for the steers from Angus cows (P<0.05) but, not at 24months of age. The steers had similar meat quality characteristics across the breed groups. Steers from Angus×Holstein Friesian and Angus×Jersey cows had a higher ratio of n6 to n3 fatty acids. Using beef-cross-dairy cows to produce steers for meat production does not impact on meat quality. Using Jersey in the breed cross reduced the carcass tissues in the live weight and the potential meat yield.

  3. Performance and carcass parameters when meat goats were finished on chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, or red clover pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The meat goat industry is growing rapidly in the eastern U.S., particularly on small farms, to supply ethnic market demands. Body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), and carcass parameters were determined when meat goat kids were finished on pastures of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; CHIC), bird...

  4. Comparison of different strategies to analyze growth and carcass traits in a crossbred pig population: Finite and infinitesimal polygenic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraes Gonçalves, de T.; Nunes de Oliveira, H.; Bovenhuis, H.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A Bayesian marker-free segregation analysis was applied for the estimation of variance components and to search for evidence of segregation genes affecting two carcass traits: intramuscular fat (IMF), %, and backfat thickness (BF), mm ; and one growth trait: body weight gain (LG) from 25 to 90 kg, a

  5. Identification and association of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in calpain3 (CAPN3 gene with carcass traits in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Hua-Rui

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to screen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP of chicken Calpain3 (CAPN3 gene and to analyze the potential association between CAPN3 gene polymorphisms and carcass traits in chickens. We screened CAPN3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in 307 meat-type quality chicken from 5 commercial pure lines (S01, S02, S03, S05, and D99 and 4 native breeds from Guangdong Province (Huiyang Huxu chicken and Qingyuan Ma chicken and Sichuan Province (Caoke chicken and Shandi Black-bone chicken, China. Results Two SNPs (11818T>A and 12814T>G were detected by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP method and were verified by DNA sequencing. Association analysis showed that the 12814T>G genotypes were significantly associated with body weight (BW, carcass weight (CW, breast muscle weight (BMW, and leg muscle weight (LMW. Haplotypes constructed on the two SNPs (H1, TG; H2, TT; H3, AG; and H4, AT were associated with BW, CW (P P Conclusion We speculated that the CAPN3 gene was a major gene affecting chicken muscle growth and carcass traits or it was linked with the major gene(s. Diplotypes H1H2 and H2H2 might be advantageous for carcass traits.

  6. INFLUENCE OF BREED ON CARCASS CUTS COMPOSITION

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    Silvester Žgur

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Carcass from 260 Simmental and 159 Brown bulls were dissected first to different cuts (chuck, shoulder, front shank, rib roast, back, loin, tenderloin, brisket, rib, flank, leg and hind shank and then to lean, fat, tendon and bone. The comparison between two breeds was made at 12.5 % carcass fat. Simmental breed had statistically significantly higher share of leg and brisket with rib and lower share of chuck, front and hind shank, rib roast, tenderloin and flank, with higher lean and lower bone percentage, but the differences were relatively small compared to Brown breed.

  7. INFLUENCE OF BREED ON CARCASS CUTS COMPOSITION

    OpenAIRE

    Silvester Žgur; Marko Čepon

    2000-01-01

    Carcass from 260 Simmental and 159 Brown bulls were dissected first to different cuts (chuck, shoulder, front shank, rib roast, back, loin, tenderloin, brisket, rib, flank, leg and hind shank) and then to lean, fat, tendon and bone. The comparison between two breeds was made at 12.5 % carcass fat. Simmental breed had statistically significantly higher share of leg and brisket with rib and lower share of chuck, front and hind shank, rib roast, tenderloin and flank, with higher lean and lower b...

  8. Romanian Quality Pork Carcasses in 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Mihaela Balan; Cornelia Petroman; Ioan Petroman; Diana Marin; Ramona Ciolac; Loredana Heber; Dora Manuela Orboi

    2010-01-01

    Romanian husbandry is better and better every year. In this context, the most representative results are in pig production, where the quality of carcasses is comparative to that of the other E.U. member states with high performances in this field. The methods of classification we have used were acknowledged by the Commission of Classification of Swine, Bovine, and Sheep Carcasses in Romania, i.e. optic probe (the apparatuses Fat-o-meat’er and OptiGrade-Pro), as well as the ZP (Zwei Punkte) me...

  9. Carcass traits of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at maintenance or ad libitum with two concentrate levels in the diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanna Moraes de Oliveira; Pedro Veiga Rodrigues Paulino; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; Edenio Detmann; Mário Fonseca Paulino; Lúcio Alberto de Miranda Gomide; Marcio de Souza Duarte; Victor Rezende Moreira Couto

    2011-01-01

    This trial was conducted to evaluate the quantitative carcass traits of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at maintenance level or ad libitum with 1% and 2% of the body weight in concentrate. The animals were allotted to the treatments in a completely randomized experimental design, in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. The animals fed the ad libitum diet with more concentrate had greater cold carcass weight, cold carcass yield and longissimus muscle area/100 kg of ...

  10. Evaluation of carcass traits and meat characteristics of Guzerat-crossbred bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Frederico B; Villela, Severino D J; Mourthé, Mário H F; Paulino, Pedro V R; Boari, Cleube A; Ribeiro, Julimar S; Barroso, Jorge A; Pires, Aldrin V; Martins, Paulo G M A

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to evaluate carcass and meat characteristics of Guzerat-crossbred bulls finished in feedlot. Carcasses from 18 bulls, randomly selected from a larger group of 36 bulls, consisting of F1 Guzerat×Holstein ("Guzholstein"); F1 Guzerat×Nellore ("Guzonell"); and 1/2 Simmental+1/4 Guzerat+1/4 Nellore (Three-Cross; n=6 each group) were used. Cold carcass weight was greater (P=0.01) for Three-Cross compared with "Guzonell" and "Guzholstein". Three-Cross carcasses had greater (P0.05) among groups, but depth was greater (P<0.01) for Three-Cross compared with other groups. "Guzholtein" had lesser (P=0.05) shear force compared with "Guzonell", with Three-Cross being intermediate. We conclude that "Guzholstein" is an adequate option for producers willing to finish this kind of genetic group, as it is comparable or better than Bos indicus crosses and B. indicus×Bos taurus bulls. PMID:26546913

  11. Chronological age and breed-type effects on carcass characteristics and palatability of bull beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, R R; Smith, G C; Cross, H R; Savell, J W; Long, C R; Cartwright, T C

    1986-01-01

    Bulls (n = 115) of four slaughter ages (9, 12, 15 or 18 months) and of 15 genotypes were studied. In this analysis, each bullock was assigned to one of four breed groups-British and British crosses, Brahman and Brahman crosses. Jersey and Jersey crosses or Holstein and Holstein crosses. Slaughter age had an (P carcasses with the thickest subcutaneous fat, the highest marbling score and the highest USDA quality grade while Jersey and Jersey cross bullocks yielded carcasses with the lowest weight, smallest longissimus muscle area and the lowest USDA quality grade of the four breed-type groups. Increases in chronological age (from 9 to 18 months) were generally associated with a decrease in USDA maturity score, and increases in marbling score, USDA quality grade, longissimus muscle area, subcutaneous fat thickness and USDA yield grade. Shear force values decreased as bulls matured from 9 to 18 months of age. The meat from Brahman-type bulls had higher shear force values (P carcasses received the highest numerical ratings for sustained juiciness and flavor while steaks from the Brahman-type carcasses were assigned the lowest numerical ratings for juiciness. Breed-type had a greater effect on tenderness of bull beef than did chronological age.

  12. Decreasing vitamin premix on chicken carcass composition and blood chemistry in floor and battery cage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Shivazad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted the to compare the effect of a decreasing amount of vitamin premix in diets inbroilers from 29 to 42 days of age on carcass composition and blood chemistry in floor (Experiment 1 and battery cage (Experiment 2 systems. At 35 and 42 days of ages, one bird of each replicate was slaughtered and carcass composition was measured. Blood concentrations of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Ca were used to diagnose vitamin D3 deficiency and enzymes aspartate amino transferase (AST to identify vitamin E deficiency. Floor raised birds showed that vitamin premix reduction/withdrawal at 29 days of age did not impair body weight (BW, carcass composition, ALP and Ca during the final rearing period. However, diet without vitamin premix (T1 had a higher AST at 42 days of age than the other diets. Birds reared in cages were slightly more sensitive to vitamin premix reduction/withdrawal, probably due to the impracticality of performing coprophagy. Diet without vitamin premix (T1 had a lower BW, carcass breast and thigh yield at 42 days of age; also serum ALP, AST and Ca were impaired. In conclusion, the withdrawal of vitamins is not a reasonable option but it is possible to reduce vitamin premix in finisher broilers’ diets without negative effects on performance and on some metabolic traits during the finisher period with both methods of rearing.

  13. Relationship of polymorphisms within metabolic genes and carcass traits in crossbred beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, L A; Casas, E; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L

    2012-04-01

    Feed intake has been shown to alter neurological signaling related to feeding behavior and subsequent activation of adipogenic mechanisms. Fat characteristics are pivotal for carcass and meat quality, including marbling score, flavor, and tenderness. The objective of this study was to establish the association of SNP, from genes functionally related to fat metabolism and obesity, with growth, fat, and carcass traits in steers. A total of 33 informative SNP from candidate genes [cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), DNA-protein kinase (DNA-PK), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and fat mass and obesity associated (FTO)] were used to genotype crossbred steers (n = 620), and associations with growth and carcass traits were assessed. Five markers within the DNA-PK gene were associated (P grade, and retail product yield. Additionally, 2 unique DNA-PK SNP were associated (P < 0.05) with marbling score. Three haplotypes were observed using these SNP and were significantly (P = 0.0014) associated with marbling score. Slaughter weight, ADG, and HCW were associated (P < 0.05) with SNP from CART, FTO, and FASN. Data from this study indicate that polymorphisms within candidate genes have an indirect relationship with lipogenesis. Replication of these results within other populations will be necessary to establish if these markers will be successful as predictors of fatness components and carcass traits in cattle. PMID:22100592

  14. Direct and maternal genetic effects for carcass traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, S M; Franke, D E; Bidner, T D; Blouin, D C

    1992-12-01

    Carcass measurements were taken on 1,537 steers produced over four generations in a rotational crossbreeding study. Breed direct and maternal additive and heterotic genetic effects were estimated for hot carcass weight (HCWT), retail yield (RY), longissimus muscle area (LM), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MS), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS). Angus (A), Brahman (B), Charolais (C), and Hereford (H) breeds were involved in straightbred, first-cross, and two-, three-, and four-breed rotational crossbred matings with each crossbred combination including the B. Breed direct (Ig) and maternal (Mg) additive genetic effects and direct (Ih) and maternal (Mh) heterotic genetic effects were estimated using a multiple-regression model. The Ig and Mg effects were expressed as deviations from the overall mean. The IgC effects (Ig for C breed) were significant for HCWT, RY, and LM and resulted in leaner, heavier carcasses. The IgA and IgH effects were, in general, negative (P carcass traits studied.

  15. Modeling the water uptake by chicken carcasses during cooling by immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Dias Martins

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, water uptake by poultry carcasses during cooling by water immersion was modeled using artificial neural networks. Data from twenty-five independent variables and the final mass of the carcass were collected in an industrial plant to train and validate the model. Different network structures with one hidden layer were tested, and the Downhill Simplex method was used to optimize the synaptic weights. In order to accelerate the optimization calculus, Principal Component Analysis (PCA was used to preprocess the input data. The obtained results were: i PCA reduced the number of input variables from twenty-five to ten; ii the neural network structure 4-6-1 was the one with the best result; iii PCA gave the following order of importance: parameters of mass transfer, heat transfer, and initial characteristics of the carcass. The main contributions of this work were to provide an accurate model for predicting the final content of water in the carcasses and a better understanding of the variables involved.

  16. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in chicken lmbr1 gene were associated with chicken growth and carcass traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lmbr1 is the key candidate gene controlling vertebrate limb development, but its effects on animal growth and carcass traits have never been reported. In this experiment, lmbr1 was taken as the candi-date gene affecting chicken growth and carcass traits. T/C and G/A mutations located in exon 16 and one A/C mutation located in intron 5 of chicken lmbr1 were detected from Silky, White Plymouth Rock broilers and their F2 crossing chickens by PCR-SSCP and sequencing methods. The analysis of vari-ance (ANOVA) results suggests that T/C polymorphism of exon 16 had significant association with eviscerated yield rate (EYR), gizzard rate (GR), shank and claw rate (SCR) and shank girth (SG); A/C polymorphism of intron 5 was significantly associated with SCR, liver rate and head-neck weight (HNW), while both sites had no significant association with other growth and carcass traits. These results demonstrate that lmbr1 gene could be a genetic locus or linked to a major gene significantly affecting these growth and carcass traits in chicken.

  17. Direct and maternal genetic effects for carcass traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, S M; Franke, D E; Bidner, T D; Blouin, D C

    1992-12-01

    Carcass measurements were taken on 1,537 steers produced over four generations in a rotational crossbreeding study. Breed direct and maternal additive and heterotic genetic effects were estimated for hot carcass weight (HCWT), retail yield (RY), longissimus muscle area (LM), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MS), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS). Angus (A), Brahman (B), Charolais (C), and Hereford (H) breeds were involved in straightbred, first-cross, and two-, three-, and four-breed rotational crossbred matings with each crossbred combination including the B. Breed direct (Ig) and maternal (Mg) additive genetic effects and direct (Ih) and maternal (Mh) heterotic genetic effects were estimated using a multiple-regression model. The Ig and Mg effects were expressed as deviations from the overall mean. The IgC effects (Ig for C breed) were significant for HCWT, RY, and LM and resulted in leaner, heavier carcasses. The IgA and IgH effects were, in general, negative (P carcass traits studied. PMID:1474007

  18. Effects of Dietary Herbal Antioxidants Supplemented on Feedlot Growth Performance and Carcass Composition of Male Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Karami; Abd R. Alimon; Yong M. Goh; Awis Q. Sazili; Michael Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: In goats production, chevon, meat quality and shelf life are very important, dietary herbs and synthetic antioxidants as dietary supplementation, may be can improve growth performance and carcass characteristics of goats. Approach: Thirty-two male (mean live weight 13.0 kg and 8 months old) were assigned to four dietary treatments, namely, basal diet (control, CN) and basal diet supplemented with Vitamin E (VE), Turmeric powder (TU) or Andrographis paniculata Powder (AP). T...

  19. STEER AND HEIFER PRICE DIFFERENCES IN THE LIVE CATTLE AND CARCASS MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Robert W.; Marsh, John M.

    1985-01-01

    A dynamic model is used to estimate quarterly price differences between steers and heifers in the feeder, slaughter, and carcass markets. For cattle within the same weight and grade range, their price differences are hypothesized to be influenced by seasonal, economic, and partly reflecting time changes in evaluation of steer and heifer quality in the live cattle and dressed meat trades. Stochastic factors are less prevalent at the feeder level, although risk of placing pregnant heifers in fe...

  20. EFFECT OF TRANSPORT DURATION AND GENDER ON RABBIT CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    A. Trocino; Xiccato, G.; P.I Queaque; Sartori, A.

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of transport duration and gender on carcass and meat quality, 204 rabbits were reared in individual cages from 35 d of age until slaughter at 77 d (average live weight at shipping: 2662±189 g). Before slaughter, four groups of rabbits were formed and transported for 2, 4, 6, or 8 hours from the breeding unit to the slaughterhouse. Increasing the duration of transport increased transport losses (2.44% to 4.59%; P

  1. Correlations among carcass traits taken by ultrasound and after slaughter in Mediterranean (Bubalus bubalis young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Bonilha Pinheiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the correlations among measurements taken in vivo with ultrasound equipment with some carcass traits measured after slaughter. Twenty eight Mediterranean bulls, with average shrunk body weight of 330 kg and 14 months of age, were fed by 120 days with high concentrate diets. The shrunk body weight, the ribeye area (REAU, the back fat thickness (FTU over the Longissimus dorsi muscle between 12ª and 13ª ribs and rump fat (EGP8U, were measured at 28 days intervals. Real-time ultrasound equipment Piemedical Scanner 200 VET, with 18 cm linear array transducer was utilized. After the slaughter, the hot carcass weight (PCQ and the kidney, pelvic and inguinal fat (GRPI were weighted and the dressing percentage (DP calculated. After 24 hours of cooling the ribeye area (REAC, backfat thickness (FTC and rump fat (EGP8C were measured. Both the REAC, FTC and EGP8C were underestimated by ultrasound measurements. The Pearson correlation coefficients for ribeye area, backfat thickness and rump fat measured in the carcass and with ultrasound, were 0.96, 0.99 and 0.91, respectively. The coefficient between DP and REAU was 0.47; 0.45 between DP and REAC, 0.56 between DP and FTU and 0.58 between DP and FTC. DP presented a 0.59 correlation coefficient with EGP8U. The Spearman correlation was estimated between REAU and REAC, FTU and FTC, EGP8U and EGP8C, and the values were 0.96, 0.99 and 0.91 , respectively. The ultrasound measures could be used to estimate carcass traits in buffaloes with good accuracy.

  2. Performance, body measurements, carcass and cut yields, and meat quality in lambs fed residues from processing agroindustry of fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcilene Maria de Figueiredo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with the objective to evaluate the use of residue dry matter (DM from pineapple (Ananas comosus L., banana (Musa sp., mango (Mangifera indica and passion fruit (Passiflora spp. in feeding of the feedlot on productive performance, carcass yield and qualitative and quantitative characteristics of meat. Twenty-five crossbred lamps with Santa Inês breed and mixed breed were used. The treatments consisted of the replacement of 75% of sorghum silage by respective residue DM, whereas in the control treatment forage had only sorghum silage the diets had a houghageto- concentrate ratio of 40:60 interns of DM being isonitrogenous and isoenergetics. The animals were slaughtered at 32 kg liveweight. Before slaughter were obtained biometric measurements, after the same, was performed the hot carcasses weight and morphometric measurements. After 24 hours in a cold chamber at 4 ° C, was determined the cold carcass weight and yield calculation. The left half carcass was divided into five sections: neck, shoulder, shank, rib and loin, by performing the calculation of income cuts. Analyses meat quality such as pH, color (L, a, b, chroma and Ho, by cooking weight loss, water retention capacity and shear strength were carried out in the Longissimus dorsi sample. The completely randomized design was adapted. The data were interpreted using analysis of variance with the test a Tukey 5% probability. There was no effect of diet (P> 0.05 according to the parameters: growth performance, body measurements, and meat quality of lambs. There was also no effect of the diets (P> 0.05 on the loin eye area assuming that carcasses remained similar muscularity important fact to market acceptance standard. It is concluded that replacing up to 75% of sorghum silage by residues fruit (pineapple, banana, mango and passion fruit in lambs feeding becomes feasible not to change the productive performance, body measurements, yields carcass and cuts and meat

  3. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bianco Benedeti, Pedro; Paulino, Pedro Veiga Rodrigues; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Maciel, Ivan França Smith; da Silva, Matheus Custódio; Faciola, Antonio Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo) were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis) of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P 0.05) intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P change the intake of digestible dry matter, average daily gain, final body weight, carcass gain, carcass dressing, gain-to-feed ratio, Longissimus thoracis muscle area, and back and rump fat thicknesses (P > 0.05). These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics. PMID:26820725

  4. Effect of gender on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of calves of Avilena-Negra Iberica breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daza, A.; Rey, A. I.; Lopez Carrasco, C.; Lopez-Bote, C. J.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of gender on growth performance and carcass and meat quality of calves of Avilena-Negra Iberica breed. Sixteen calves, eight males and eight females, were used. The calves were fattened under intensive conditions, housed in confinement and fed with the same feed and cereal straw from 230.7 to 478.3 kg. The males grew more than the females (1.390 vs 0.932 kg day{sup 1} respectively). Carcass weight, carcass length, leg length, leg perimeter, carcass and leg compactness, legs, fore-quarters and loins weights and forequarters percentage regarding carcass weight were higher (p < 0.05) in males than in females. The gender had not significant influence on CIE a*, b*, chroma and hue variables but CIE L* value was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in males than in females. The a* value decreased and b* and hue values increased with ageing time. The subcutaneous back fat from the females had significantly (p < 0.05) higher C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1 n-9, S MUFA and lower C10:0, C18:0, C18:2 n-6, C18:3 n-3, C20:0, C20:3 n-9, C20:4 n-6, C22:5 n-3, {Sigma} n-6, {Sigma} n-3 and {Sigma} PUFA proportions than that from males. It is concluded that the gender has influence on growth performance, carcass traits and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous backfat; gender does not have effect on instrumental colour variables; and meat colour can reach acceptable values for consumers until four days after slaughter. (Author) 34 refs.

  5. Genetic relationships and expected responses for genetic improvement of carcass traits of Berkshire pigs

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    Masamitsu Tomiyama

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Berkshire pig (Sus domestica L. breed has thin muscle fibers and excellent water-holding capacity. The Berkshire meat makes it widely accepted in the Japanese premium pork market. This study evaluates the accuracy of improving carcass quality with the use of live animal records of Berkshire pigs. Traits analyzed in live animals were: body weight at 60 days of age (W60, age at finish (AGF, daily weight gain from birth to finish (DG, back fat thickness at finish (BFTF, and loin eye area at finish (LEAF, and in carcasses were: carcass weight, loin eye area (LEA, and subcutaneous fat thickness (SCF at some points, using the records of 4,773 purebred Berkshire pigs. Variance components for the traits were estimated according to the animal model by the Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML procedure using the VCE6 program (Neumaier and Groeneveld, 1998. Correlated responses were also calculated. Genetic correlations of back fat thickness (BFT in live animals with SCF in slaughtered animals were strong, whereas that of LEA between live and slaughtered animals was low. The expected gains by actual selection including W60 and BFTF as selection criterion were superior to other selections. Therefore, selection of live animals at an early stage of growth would be conducive to the production of high quality meat.

  6. Allometric growth of non-carcass components in crossed lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraides Ferreira Furusho Garcia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Males and females, including purebred Santa Inês lamb (SI and crosses between Santa Inês dams and Texel (TxSI, Ile de France (IFxSI and Bergamasca (BxSI sires were feedlot finished and slaughtered at 15, 25, 35 and 45kg live weight. After slaughter, the following non- carcass components were weighed and calculated the allometric growth. Lungs of BxSI males grew faster than those of SI and TxSI. Trachea/esophagus in SI and TxSI males grew slower than IFxSI and BxSI. Kidneys BxSI males grew faster than TxSI and IFxSI. Livers of female TxSI lamb grew more rapidly than those of females in the other genetic groups. In both males and females, the rumen/reticulum grew faster in the TxSI group than SI and BxSI groups.

  7. The use of ultrasonic measurements assessed with two probes in live lambs for predicting the carcass composition

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Delfa, R.

    1997-01-01

    The accuracy of the use of two probes (UST-586-5 MHz and UST-556 tu-7.5 MHz) for predicting the carcass composition were used in 36 lambs of Churra Bragançana breed ranging in body weight from 26 to 47kg. Comparison between the ultrasonic measurements assessed in live lambs with the same measurements taken on carcass were established. The best relationship obtained were between the ultrasonic measurements assessed with 7.5 MHz probe on last rib and the same fat thickness measur...

  8. Performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of male calves fed starter concentrate with crude glycerin

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    Raylon Pereira Maciel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the effects of including crude glycerin in the diet on intake, performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of dairy crossbred veal calves fed starter concentrate containing 0, 80, 160, and 240 g kg−1 crude glycerin. Twenty-eight calves with an average weight of 38.03±6.7 kg and five days of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments with seven replications. Calves were individually housed in covered stalls equipped with feeders and drinkers for 56 days. The calf response to inclusion of crude glycerin in the concentrate changed over the weeks and the inclusion level of 240 g kg−1 resulted in greater dry matter intake and average daily gain. There was no effect on the final weight and total weight gain of the animals, with mean values of 73.60 and 35.16 kg, respectively. The weight of the rumen-reticulum adjusted for body weight, empty body weight, and total stomach weight increased linearly with the inclusion of crude glycerin. Blood total protein, globulin, urea, cholesterol, gamma glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations did not differ among treatments. Carcass traits and meat color were not affected. Crude glycerin can be added to dairy calf starter concentrate up to 240 g kg−1 dry matter because it benefits concentrate intake, performance, and rumen development without affecting animal health.

  9. Qualitative aspects of the carcass and meat of young steers Devon finished in tropical pasture, receiving different levels of concentrate

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    Luis Fernando Glasenapp de Menezes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the carcass and meat characteristics of young steers Devon, finished in tropical pasture (association of millet pasture - Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke and Alexander grass – Brachiaria plantaginea, receiving different levels of supplementation (0; 0,5% or 1,0% of body weight. The animals had an average initial weight of 300 kg and 15 months of age, and were slaughtered at an average weight of 353.0 kg. Supplementation with concentrate ration to the level of 1.0% of body weight (BW of animal provided carcasses with better quality (higher hot and cold carcass, and greater fat thickness, which resulted in lower cooling loss; carcasses more compact (less long, with better conformation and thicker cushion when compared to non-supplemented. Furthermore, animals fed only pasture, showed a lower percentage of carcasses forequarter (37.6 vs 38.9 e 38.8%, with a higher percentage of muscle (65.5 vs 59.6 e 59.5 %, which resulted in greater relative muscle tissue: bone and edible portion: bone than those supplemented. As the sensory and organoleptic qualities, it was found that meat from animals supplemented with up to 1.0% of body weight, showed greater losses to cooking (24.1 % vs 18.0 % and required greater force to shear the fiber (3.37 vs 2.05 (kgf/ cm3 compared to meat non-supplemented animals. However, the increased level of supplementation of 0.5% to 1.0% of BW improved palatability and reduced meat texture.

  10. Romanian Quality Pork Carcasses in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Mihaela Balan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Romanian husbandry is better and better every year. In this context, the most representative results are in pig production, where the quality of carcasses is comparative to that of the other E.U. member states with high performances in this field. The methods of classification we have used were acknowledged by the Commission of Classification of Swine, Bovine, and Sheep Carcasses in Romania, i.e. optic probe (the apparatuses Fat-o-meat’er and OptiGrade-Pro, as well as the ZP (Zwei Punkte method. Most Romanian pork carcasses (over 99.0% range among E and U high-quality classes. This is more than satisfactory from the point of view of the qualitative evolution of pork in Romania. The results obtained by the Romanian pig breeders were remarkable in 2009, i.e. superior compared to those of the previous years. The implementation of the EUROP system for pork carcass classification in Romania has largely generated expected results.

  11. Perlemakan pada Sapi Bali dan Sapi Madura Meningkatkan Bobot Komponen Karkas dan Menurunkan Persentase Komponen Nonkarkas. (EFFECT OF BODY FATNESS TO CARCASS AND NON CARCASS PRODUCTIVITY OF SMALL FRAME SIZE BEEF CATTLE (BALI AND MADURA CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ismail

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian has a potentially local beef cattle population but it also has a high slaughtering level ofanimal which tends to increase each years. The main problem of the cattle industry is the diverse conditionof cattle fatness slaughtered in the processing plant. The differences in cattle fatness may influenceproductivity of the local beef cattle. The study was aimed to evaluate the effect of fatness score on carcassand non carcass productivities of small frame size beef cattle. This study used 48 male local beef cattleobtained from eight slaughterhouses from five provinces in Indonesia. The experiment used CompletelyRandomized Design with three level of body fatness that is lean, moderate, and fat. The collected datawere analyzed using analysis of variance and further between treatment differences were tested by DuncanMultiple Range Test. The results showed that fatness score of local beef cattle had significant influence(p<0.05 on slaughter weight, carcass weight, and carcass percentage. The effect of fatness score on weightsand percentages of non carcass components showed varying results. Nevertheless, it was suggested theincreased fatness score would be followed by increased weights and decreased percentages of non carcasscomponents.

  12. Impacts of temperament on Nellore cattle: physiological responses, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, C L; Resende, F D; Benatti, J M B; Castilhos, A M; Cooke, R F; Jorge, A M

    2015-11-01

    Forty-four feedlot-finished Nellore cattle were used to evaluate the impacts of temperament on performance, meat and carcass traits, and serum concentrations of hormones, proteins, enzymes, and immunoglobulins. Individual temperament was assessed at feedlot entry (d 0), 67 d, and 109 d, utilizing chute score (CS; 5-point scale) and exit velocity (EV). Temperament scores were calculated averaging CS and EV scores, and cattle were subsequently classified according to their temperament (an average of ≤3 = adequate temperament [ADQ], or an average of >3 = excitable temperament [EXC]). At the end of the experiment (d 109), all 44 animals were slaughtered, and 16 were randomly selected for final empty body weight (EBW) estimation. Blood samples were collected at 0, 67, and 109 d and analyzed for serum variables (cortisol, insulin, haptoglobin, total protein, lactate, creatinine kinase [CK], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], and IgA). The incidence of carcass bruises was verified immediately after the hide was removed. Carcass pH was obtained at 0 and 24 h postmortem. Samples of the LM were collected for meat quality analyses. Cattle classified as ADQ had greater final BW ( = 0.03), final EBW ( = 0.02), metabolic weight ( = 0.03), ADG ( = 0.02), feed efficiency ( = 0.03), HCW ( = 0.02), cold carcass weight ( = 0.02), and LM area ( Cattle classified as ADQ tended to have a lower percentage of cooler shrink ( = 0.06) compared to that of EXC cattle. No temperament effects were detected for initial BW ( = 0.70), DMI ( = 0.14), cold dressing percentage ( = 0.98), or backfat thickness ( = 0.29). Cattle classified as ADQ had greater marbling ( = 0.02) and meat fat content ( = 0.05) compared with that of EXC cattle. No temperament effects ( > 0.05) were detected for unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), SFA, MUFA, PUFA, and n-6:n-3 ratio. For blood parameters, EXC cattle had greater values of cortisol ( = 0.04) and haptoglobin ( = 0.05) and tended ( = 0.06) to have reduced serum insulin

  13. Intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance, performance, and carcass yield of lambs fed licuri cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J B; Oliveira, R L; Silva, T M; Ribeiro, R D X; Silva, A M; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R; Rocha, T C

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of the inclusion of licuri cake in the diets of crossbred Santa Inês lambs, based on intake, digestibility, N balance, urea N, and performance. We used 44 male lambs that were vaccinated and wormed, with an average age of 6 mo and an average BW of 21.2 kg ± 2.7 kg. The lambs were fed a mixture of Tifton-85 hay (40%) and a concentrated mixture (60%) composed of ground corn, soybean meal, and mineral premix. For the treatments, licuri cake was added at levels of 0, 8, 16, and 24% of DM, with the licuri cake replacing soybean meal and ground corn. We used 11 lambs per treatment in a randomized design. The lambs were confined for 70 d, and the digestibility trial occurred between Day 40 and Day 55. The increased level of licuri cake inclusion promoted a linear reduction in DM intake ( = 0.00) with a 39% reduction between treatments with the 0 and 24% cakes. On the other hand, ether extract () consumption showed an initial quadratic increase ( = 0.00). The total weight gain and ADG showed a linear decrease ( = 0.00) with the addition of licuri cake. The inclusion of licuri cake linearly enhanced ( = 0.02) the digestibility of CP and EE, whereas the digestibility of other nutrients in lambs remained unchanged ( > 0.05). The licuri cake increase led to a linear decrease ( < 0.05) in the N intake, fecal N, and retained N in lambs. Urinary N was not changed. The slaughter carcass weight, HCW, cold carcass weight, hot carcass yield, and cold carcass yield showed linear decreases ( < 0.05) with the addition of licuri cake. Carcass morphometric measurements were influenced by experimental diets, showing linear decreases ( < 0.05) with the addition of licuri cake to diets. The fat thickness, conformation, external length, internal length, leg length, rump width, and chest circumference showed linear decreases ( < 0.05) with the inclusion of licuri cake in diets. The inclusion of licuri cake decreased DMI and digestibility, reflecting

  14. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Brahman cross bulls and steers finished on tropical pastures in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Julio; Unruh, John; Villarreal, Milton; Murillo, Olger; Rojas, Sailim; Camacho, Jorge; Jaeger, John; Reinhardt, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Forty-eight male calves (3/4 Brahman×1/4 Charolais) were used to determine carcass cutability and meat tenderness of Longissimus lumborum (LL), Gluteus medius (GM), Semitendinosus (ST) and Psoas major (PM) steaks from lighter weight carcasses of bulls and steers castrated at 3, 7, or 12 mo of age grown under tropical pasture conditions. Steaks from steers had lower (more tender) LL Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values than those from bulls. Steaks from steers castrated at 3 mo had lower GM WBSF than those from bulls. For PM steaks, those aged 28 d had lower WBSF than those aged 2d. Steaks aged 28 d had the lowest LL and GM WBSF and steaks aged 2d had the highest LL, GM, and ST WBSF. Castration at younger ages is recommended because it provides improvement in LL and GM tenderness over bulls with no differences in carcass traits or subprimal yields. PMID:24342184

  15. Carcass characteristics and composition of Brahman, angus and Brahman x Angus steers fed for different times-on-feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, D K; Smith, G C; Murphey, C E; Savell, J W; Carpenter, Z L; Petersen, H D

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five steers of each of three breedtypes (Angus, Brahman and F(1) Brahman x Angus) were sorted by frame size and muscle thickness, assigned to groups (five steers of each breedtype) to be fed for 0, 56, 112, 168 or 224 days, slaughtered and compared for various carcass traits. Steers of each breedtype had similar dressing percentages. Carcasses from all three breedtypes merited similar USDA quality and yield grades; breedtypes differences in quality grade were slight. Differences were found in the fat deposition patterns exhibited by the three breedtypes. Brahman steers tended to deposit more of their total fat as subcutaneous fat early in the feeding period. Angus steers had more (P carcass weight at all five feeding periods and more (P Brahman steers. Brahman steers had a higher percentage of their separable lean in the muscles of the round than did steers of the other breedtypes.

  16. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Brahman cross bulls and steers finished on tropical pastures in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Julio; Unruh, John; Villarreal, Milton; Murillo, Olger; Rojas, Sailim; Camacho, Jorge; Jaeger, John; Reinhardt, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Forty-eight male calves (3/4 Brahman×1/4 Charolais) were used to determine carcass cutability and meat tenderness of Longissimus lumborum (LL), Gluteus medius (GM), Semitendinosus (ST) and Psoas major (PM) steaks from lighter weight carcasses of bulls and steers castrated at 3, 7, or 12 mo of age grown under tropical pasture conditions. Steaks from steers had lower (more tender) LL Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values than those from bulls. Steaks from steers castrated at 3 mo had lower GM WBSF than those from bulls. For PM steaks, those aged 28 d had lower WBSF than those aged 2d. Steaks aged 28 d had the lowest LL and GM WBSF and steaks aged 2d had the highest LL, GM, and ST WBSF. Castration at younger ages is recommended because it provides improvement in LL and GM tenderness over bulls with no differences in carcass traits or subprimal yields.

  17. Kualitas Karkas Babi Potong yang Dilahirkan dari Induk yang Disuperovulasi Sebelum Pengawinan (CARCASS QUALITIES OF FINISHER PIG BORN TO SUPEROVULATED SOWS BEFORE MATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mien Theodora Rossesthellinda Lapian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of superovulation of the sows before mating on thecarcass quality of the finishing piglets.  Forty two gilts were divided into two treatments i.e., 1nonsuperovulate gilts and 2 superovulate gilts.  At parturition, each group of sows were divided into threelitter size ranges i.e., 6-8 (low, 9-11 (medium, and 12-14 (high, with three replications.  Each replicationwas represented by two offsprings, one male and one female.  Therefore, the total samples were 36 piglets.During growing to finishing periods, the experimental piglets were fed commercial feed.  The experimentalpiglets were slaughtered at average weight of 92,5- 94 kg.  The results showed that piglets born tosuperovulated sows reached the slaughter weight at 185 days as compared to 200 days in control piglets.Piglets born to superovulated sows had higher carcass weight (70,25 ± 2,70 kg and carcass percentage(74,73 ± 3,09% as compared to control piglets (64,18 ± 3,58 kg carcass weight and 68,28 ± 3,90% carcasspercentage, respectively.  Carcass length and  backfat thickness were not affected by superovulation.Piglets born to superovulated sows had 74,56 ± 4,72 cm carcass length and 3,07 ± 0.35 cm backfatthickness, while control piglets had 74,00 ± 2,81 cm carcass length and 3.20 ± 0.35 cm backfat thickness.Piglets born to superovulated sows had higher  loin eye area (44,81 ± 3,55 cm² as compared to control(39,97 ± 4,29 cm².  It was concluded that superovulation of sows prior to mating could produce fastergrowing piglets with better carcass qualities

  18. Effect of cattle breed on finishing performance, carcass characteristics and economic benefits under typical beef production system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Ren

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the finishing performance carcass characteristics and economic benefits of two imported (Limousin and Simmental and three local (Luxi, Jinnan and Qinchuan cattle breeds slaughtered at 18.5 months of age under thetypical Chinese beef production system. All cattle (n=71 were reared under the same production system and fed the same finishing diet for 105 days. Eight bulls from each breed were randomly selected for slaughtering. Compared with the three local breeds, the two imported breeds had higher average daily gain, dry matter intake and gain efficiency. Regarding carcass characteristics, the two imported breeds had higher carcass weight, bone weight, net meat weight, and ribeye area (P<0.001. However, the local breeds had higher (P<0.01 marbling scores than the imported breeds. The imported breeds showed higher economic benefits (P<0.001 than the local breeds. In conclusion, the imported cattle breeds had better growth performance, carcass traits and economic benefits compared with the local cattle breeds at 18.5 months old under the typical Chinese feeding conditions whereas, in this study, the local breeds may have some advantage in terms of meat quality.

  19. The effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Rajabiyan Moghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens. A total of 200 broilers (Ross 308, 10 days old, were randomly allotted to five experimental equal groups with four replicates of 10 chickens (five male and five female and fed with basal diet + ground wheat (without grit; basal diet + whole wheat (without grit and basal diet contain 1.5% grit of diet with sizes of 2, 3 and 4 mm. Growth performance (evaluated through weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio was determined on day 24 and 42. Also, carcass traits (relative weights of carcass, breast, thigh, liver, heart, gizzard and intestine and intestine length were assessed on day 42. Weight gains and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in broilers added with grit 2 mm compared to the control group (p<0.05, whereas; carcass traits were not significantly altered. These data suggest that grit with size of 2 mm improve growth performance in broiler chickens.

  20. Relationships between in vivo Measurements of Backfat Thickness and Several Carcass and Ham Traits in Heavy Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Cecchinato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between ultrasound measurements of backfat thickness (UBF taken on live heavy pigs and several carcass composition and ham quality traits. Before slaughter 240 pigs were weighed (average BW: 167 ±10 kg and assessed for UBF using an A-mode ultrasonic device (placed above the last rib at approximately 5.5 to 8.0 cm from midline, with increasing distance with increasing BW. At slaughterhouse backfat thickness and weight of carcass and of commercial lean and fat cuts were collected. Aft er 24-h chilling, hams were trimmed, weighed, scored and measured for several quality traits. A sample of trimmed fat was taken to assess iodine number and linoleic acid content. All hams were cured, and weight losses during curing were recorded. The measures of UBF were correlated with all carcass and ham traits available. The strongest relationships with UBF were detected for backfat depth at loin (0.54, backfat weight and yield (0.69, overall yield of lean and fat cuts (-0.59 and 0.51, respectively, score or measure of ham fat covering thickness (0.62 and 0.53, respectively, and linoleic acid content of ham subcutaneous fat (- 0.48. Magnitude of correlations does not provide reliable prediction of carcass, but ultrasound assessment on live animals could be useful to support selection programs of heavy pigs aimed to dry-cured ham production. Further studies are needed to investigate genetic relationships between these traits and UBF.

  1. Production of Ceratonova shasta Myxospores from Salmon Carcasses: Carcass Removal Is Not a Viable Management Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foott, J S; Stone, R; Fogerty, R; True, K; Bolick, A; Bartholomew, J L; Hallett, S L; Buckles, G R; Alexander, J D

    2016-06-01

    Severe infection by the endemic myxozoan parasite, Ceratonova (synonym, Ceratomyxa) shasta, has been associated with declines in and impaired recovery efforts of populations of fall-run Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Klamath River, California. The parasite has a complex life cycle involving a polychaete worm host as well as a salmon host. Myxospore transmission of this parasite, from salmon to polychaete, is a life cycle step during which there is a potential for applied disease management. A 3-year data set on prevalence, intensity, and spore characteristics of C. shasta myxospores was obtained from adult Chinook Salmon carcasses surveyed in the main stem of the Klamath River and three of its tributaries, Bogus Creek and the Shasta and Trinity rivers. Annual prevalence of myxospore detection in salmon intestines ranged from 22% to 52%, and spore concentration values per intestinal scraping ranged from 3.94 × 10(2) to 1.47 × 10(7) spores. A prevalence of 7.3% of all carcasses examined produced >5.0 × 10(5) spores, and these carcasses with "high" spore counts accounted for 76-95% of the total spores in a given spawning season. Molecular analysis of visually negative carcasses showed that 45-87% of these samples had parasite DNA, indicating they contained either low spore numbers or presporogonic stages of the parasite. Myxospores were rarely found in carcasses of freshly spawned adults but were common in decomposed carcasses of both sexes. The date of collection or age (based indirectly on FL) did not influence detection. The longer prespawn residence time for spring-run Chinook Salmon compared with that for fall-run Chinook Salmon in the Trinity River was associated with higher spore loads. The dye exclusion method for assessing spore viability in fresh smears indicated an inverse relationship in spore integrity and initial spore concentration. A carcass-removal pilot project in Bogus Creek for 6 weeks in the fall of 2008 (907 carcasses removed

  2. Production of Ceratonova shasta Myxospores from Salmon Carcasses: Carcass Removal Is Not a Viable Management Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foott, J S; Stone, R; Fogerty, R; True, K; Bolick, A; Bartholomew, J L; Hallett, S L; Buckles, G R; Alexander, J D

    2016-06-01

    Severe infection by the endemic myxozoan parasite, Ceratonova (synonym, Ceratomyxa) shasta, has been associated with declines in and impaired recovery efforts of populations of fall-run Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Klamath River, California. The parasite has a complex life cycle involving a polychaete worm host as well as a salmon host. Myxospore transmission of this parasite, from salmon to polychaete, is a life cycle step during which there is a potential for applied disease management. A 3-year data set on prevalence, intensity, and spore characteristics of C. shasta myxospores was obtained from adult Chinook Salmon carcasses surveyed in the main stem of the Klamath River and three of its tributaries, Bogus Creek and the Shasta and Trinity rivers. Annual prevalence of myxospore detection in salmon intestines ranged from 22% to 52%, and spore concentration values per intestinal scraping ranged from 3.94 × 10(2) to 1.47 × 10(7) spores. A prevalence of 7.3% of all carcasses examined produced >5.0 × 10(5) spores, and these carcasses with "high" spore counts accounted for 76-95% of the total spores in a given spawning season. Molecular analysis of visually negative carcasses showed that 45-87% of these samples had parasite DNA, indicating they contained either low spore numbers or presporogonic stages of the parasite. Myxospores were rarely found in carcasses of freshly spawned adults but were common in decomposed carcasses of both sexes. The date of collection or age (based indirectly on FL) did not influence detection. The longer prespawn residence time for spring-run Chinook Salmon compared with that for fall-run Chinook Salmon in the Trinity River was associated with higher spore loads. The dye exclusion method for assessing spore viability in fresh smears indicated an inverse relationship in spore integrity and initial spore concentration. A carcass-removal pilot project in Bogus Creek for 6 weeks in the fall of 2008 (907 carcasses removed

  3. Growth, puberty, and carcass characteristics of Brahman-, Senepol-, and Tuli-sired F1 Angus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J; Larsen, R E; Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; West, R L; Johnson, D D

    2001-08-01

    Postweaning growth, sexual development, libido, and carcass data were collected from two consecutive calf crops using 31 Brahman x Angus (B x A), 41 Senepol x Angus (S x A), and 38 Tuli x Angus (T x A) F1 bulls. Following weaning (by mid-September) and preconditioning, at the start of the study (late September) bulls were fed concentrate (three times each week at a rate equivalent to 4.5 kg/d) on bahiagrass pasture for approximately 250 d. At the start of the study and at 28-d intervals, BW, hip height, and scrotal circumference (SC) were measured. Concurrently at 28-d intervals, when the SC of a bull was > or = 23 cm, semen collection was attempted using electroejaculation. Ejaculates were evaluated for presence of first spermatozoa (FS), 50 x 10(6) sperm with at least 10% motility (PU), and 500 x 10(6) sperm with at least 50% motility (PP). After all bulls reached PP they were subjected to two libido tests. Carcass data were collected on all bulls (n = 110) and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values were assessed on a subset (n = 80). For both years, B x A bulls were heavier (P 0.10) gain in BW or hip height during the study. Scrotal circumference of T x A bulls was larger (P 0.10) of breed type by the end of the study. At PU and PP, B x A bulls were older (P carcass traits; B x A bulls had the heaviest (P carcass weight, greatest (P 0.10) USDA quality grade. In conclusion, tropically adapted F1 bulls produced from Senepol (Bos taurus) and Tuli (Sanga) sires bred to Angus cows in Florida had lighter BW, shorter hip heights, and smaller carcasses than those from Brahman sires but reached puberty earlier and had higher libido scores and lower WBS force values.

  4. Association of myostatin on early calf mortality, growth, and carcass composition traits in crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L; Cundiff, L V

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a potential association of an inactive myostatin allele with early calf mortality, and evaluate its effect on growth and carcass traits in a crossbred population. Animals were obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British Breed) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford, Angus, Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Belgian Blue was the source of the inactive myostatin allele. Myostatin genotypes were determined for all animals including those that died before weaning. Early calf mortality was examined in the F2 subpopulation (n = 154), derived from the F1 sires mated to F1 cows from Belgian Blue sires, to evaluate animals with zero, one, or two copies of inactive myostatin allele. An overall 1:2:1 ratio (homozygous active myostatin allele:heterozygous:homozygous inactive myostatin allele) was observed in the population; however, a comparison between calves dying before weaning and those alive at slaughter showed an unequal distribution across genotypes (P Carcass composition traits analyzed were hot carcass weight, fat thickness, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, retail product yield and weight, fat yield and weight, bone yield and weight, and percentage of carcasses classified as Choice. Charolais lack the inactive myostatin allele segregating in Belgian Blue; thus, in the population sired by Charolais (n = 645), only animals with zero or one copy of the inactive myostatin allele were evaluated. Animals carrying one copy were heavier at birth and at weaning, and their carcasses were leaner and more muscled. In the population sired by Belgian Blue x British Breed (n = 725), animals with two copies of inactive myostatin allele were heavier at birth, leaner, and had a higher proportion of muscle mass than animals with zero or one copies

  5. Carcass Type Affects Local Scavenger Guilds More than Habitat Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Zachary H; Beasley, James C; Rhodes, Olin E

    2016-01-01

    Scavengers and decomposers provide an important ecosystem service by removing carrion from the environment. Scavenging and decomposition are known to be temperature-dependent, but less is known about other factors that might affect carrion removal. We conducted an experiment in which we manipulated combinations of patch connectivity and carcass type, and measured responses by local scavenger guilds along with aspects of carcass depletion. We conducted twelve, 1-month trials in which five raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus spp.) carcasses (180 trials total) were monitored using remote cameras in 21 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA. Of 143 trials with complete data, we identified fifteen species of vertebrate scavengers divided evenly among mammalian (N = 8) and avian species (N = 7). Fourteen carcasses (9.8%) were completely consumed by invertebrates, vertebrates exhibited scavenging behavior at 125 carcasses (87.4%), and four carcasses (2.8%) remained unexploited. Among vertebrates, mammals scavenged 106 carcasses, birds scavenged 88 carcasses, and mammals and birds scavenged 69 carcasses. Contrary to our expectations, carcass type affected the assemblage of local scavenger guilds more than patch connectivity. However, neither carcass type nor connectivity explained variation in temporal measures of carcass removal. Interestingly, increasing richness of local vertebrate scavenger guilds contributed moderately to rates of carrion removal (≈6% per species increase in richness). We conclude that scavenger-specific differences in carrion utilization exist among carcass types and that reliable delivery of carrion removal as an ecosystem service may depend on robust vertebrate and invertebrate communities acting synergistically. PMID:26886299

  6. Improving smallholder food security through investigations of carcass composition and beef marketing of buffalo and cattle in northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampanya, Sonevilay; Khounsy, Syseng; Phonvisay, Aloun; Bush, Russell David; Windsor, Peter Andrew

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the carcass composition of Lao indigenous buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos indicus), then examined trends in bovine meat marketing following review of records of beef production and prices in the two major cities of Luang Prabang (LPB) and Xieng Khoung (XK) provinces in northern Laos. Samples from 41 buffalo and 81 cattle (n = 122) were collected from animals slaughtered in May-June 2014, with live weights, carcass weights and other carcass-related variables collected. The animals were classified into four age cohort groups (6 years) with quantitative and dichotomous qualitative traits determined. There were significant differences in buffalo and cattle predicted mean carcass weights between age classification categories (p = 0.003 and 0.001) but not in dressing percentages (p = 0.1 and 0.1). The carcass weight of buffalo was 104 (±23.1)-176 (±12.0) kg compared to 65 (±8.7)-84 (±6.5) kg of cattle, with dressing percentages of 37-40 and 39-42 %, respectively. Despite an average bovine meat price increase of 42-48 % between 2011 and 2013, there was a reduction in the numbers of large ruminants slaughtered in the surveyed cities of LPB (11 %) and XK (7 %), with bovine meat availability per person of 5.2-6.6 kg (LPB) and 3.0-3.8 kg (XK). Improving the sustainability of the bovine meat supply in Laos requires a systems approach involving improvements to animal health and production, livestock marketing, plus the critical development of improved slaughterhouse facilities enabling a meat-processing sector to emerge. This development pathway is of particular importance for building the capacity of Laos to reduce food insecurity and alleviate the poverty of its largely rural smallholder community.

  7. [Relationship between genotypes at MyoD locus and carcass traits in cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lu; Xu, Shang-Zhong; Yue, Wen-Bin; Li, Jun-Ya; Gao, Xue; Ren, Hong-Yan

    2007-03-01

    A 261 bp sequence of the bovine MyoD gene intron 2 was cloned and was found to bear no similarities to the human MyoD gene sequence. Polymorphisms of the Myod gene in cattle including three Chinese breeds (Luxi cattle, Jinnan cattle and Qinchuan cattle) and four cross-breeding populations (Limousin x Luxi cattle, Simmental x Luxi cattle, Charolais x Luxi cattle and Angus x Luxi cattle) were detected by PCR-SSCP. Two SSCP alleles (A and B) were detected, which caused by a C-->T at 39 bp and a C-->G transition at 112 bp. Only two genotypes AA and AB occurred in the population. In Chinese local cattle, B allele was dominant, and this locus was at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except for the Charolais x Luxi cattle and Angus x Luxi cattle. The association of these polymorphisms with cattle carcass traits was analyzed using the general linear model (GLM). Statistical analysis revealed a higher value of living weight, carcass weight and loin eye area for individuals with genotype AA than AB (P carcass quality traits. PMID:17369152

  8. FTO gene variants are associated with growth and carcass traits in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevsinek Skok, D; Kunej, T; Kovac, M; Malovrh, S; Potocnik, K; Petric, N; Zgur, S; Dovc, P; Horvat, S

    2016-04-01

    An important aim in animal breeding is the improvement of growth and meat quality traits. Previous studies have demonstrated that genetic variants in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have a relatively large effect on human obesity as well as on body composition in rodents and, more recently, in livestock. Here, we examined the effects of the FTO gene variants on growth and carcass traits in the Slovenian population of Simmental (SS) and Brown (SB) cattle. To validate and identify new polymorphisms, we used sequencing, PCR-RFLP analysis and TaqMan assays in the SS breed and FTO gene variants data from the Illumina BovineSNP50 v1 array for the SB breed. Sequencing of the eight samples of progeny-tested SS sires detected 108 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine FTO gene. Statistical analyses between growth and carcass traits and 34 FTO polymorphisms revealed significant association of FTO variants with lean meat percentage in both breeds. Additionally, FTO SNPs analyzed in SS cattle were associated with fat percentage, bone weight and live weight at slaughter. The FTO gene can thus be regarded as a candidate gene for the marker-assisted selection programs in our and possibly other populations of cattle. Future studies in cattle might reveal novel roles for the FTO gene in shaping carcass traits in livestock species as well as body composition control in other mammals. PMID:26708680

  9. Feeding soywaste or pellet on performance and carcass characteristics of post-weaning kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur; Khadijah, Wan Embong Wan; Abdullah, Ramli Bin

    2016-08-01

    Twelve Jermasia kids were individually housed in pens to study the effects of soywaste on growth performance and carcass characteristics and to compare such effects with commercial pellet. Kids were divided into a pellet group and a soywaste group, including six kids (3 males and 3 females) in each group. Pellet or soywaste was offered to kids at a rate of 2.0 % dry matter (DM) of body weight/day in addition to Napier grass ad libitum. In last 10 days of experiment, kids were housed in metabolism crates for faeces collection. At the end of the experiment, three males from each group were slaughtered. Kids fed soywaste diet consumed more grass and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) than those fed pellet. The same trend was found for the digestibilities of DM, organic matter (OM) and NDF. Conversely, kids fed soywaste diet consumed less soywaste supplement than kids fed pellet. No treatment effects were observed on total intakes of DM, OM and crude protein (CP) including CP digestibility. Similarly, no effects were found on carcass and non-carcass components, except for lean, lean to fat ratio and kidney weight which were higher for kids fed soywaste diet. Results indicate that soywaste is effective as a feed for growing kids. PMID:27116608

  10. FTO gene variants are associated with growth and carcass traits in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevsinek Skok, D; Kunej, T; Kovac, M; Malovrh, S; Potocnik, K; Petric, N; Zgur, S; Dovc, P; Horvat, S

    2016-04-01

    An important aim in animal breeding is the improvement of growth and meat quality traits. Previous studies have demonstrated that genetic variants in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have a relatively large effect on human obesity as well as on body composition in rodents and, more recently, in livestock. Here, we examined the effects of the FTO gene variants on growth and carcass traits in the Slovenian population of Simmental (SS) and Brown (SB) cattle. To validate and identify new polymorphisms, we used sequencing, PCR-RFLP analysis and TaqMan assays in the SS breed and FTO gene variants data from the Illumina BovineSNP50 v1 array for the SB breed. Sequencing of the eight samples of progeny-tested SS sires detected 108 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine FTO gene. Statistical analyses between growth and carcass traits and 34 FTO polymorphisms revealed significant association of FTO variants with lean meat percentage in both breeds. Additionally, FTO SNPs analyzed in SS cattle were associated with fat percentage, bone weight and live weight at slaughter. The FTO gene can thus be regarded as a candidate gene for the marker-assisted selection programs in our and possibly other populations of cattle. Future studies in cattle might reveal novel roles for the FTO gene in shaping carcass traits in livestock species as well as body composition control in other mammals.

  11. Estimation of Genetic Parameters, and Genetic and Environmental Effects on Progeny Carcass Traits of a Nucleus Breeding Population in Japanese Black Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    SAKATA, Ken; Hoque, Azharul; Hirai, Tomokazu; TSUKAGUCHI, Daisuke; TOMARU, Mayuko; Suzuki, Keiichi; Oikawa, Takuro

    2004-01-01

    Genetic parameters of body weight at the start of fattening (BSF), carcass weight (CWT), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), rib thickness (RBT), meat quality grade (MQG), beef marbling score (BMS) and rib eye area (REA) in Japanese Black cattle were estimated. The effects of genetic and environmental factors on fattening performance and carcass quality traits of the progeny were also analyzed. The averages of BSF, CWT, SFT, RBT and REA were 189 kg, 408 kg, 24.9 mm, 69.3 mm and 47.5 cm^2, respe...

  12. Influence of Angus and Belgian Blue bulls mated to Hereford x Brahman cows on growth, carcass traits, and longissimus steak shear force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidner, T D; Humes, P E; Wyatt, W E; Franke, D E; Persica, M A; Gentry, G T; Blouin, D C

    2009-03-01

    Steers and heifers were generated from Angus (A) and Belgian Blue (BB) sires mated to Brahman x Hereford (B x H) F(1) cows to characterize their growth, carcass traits, and LM shear force. A total of 120 B x H cows purchased from 2 herds and 35 bulls (14 A and 21 BB) produced calves during the 5-yr project. After the stocker phase, a representative sample of A- and BB-sired heifers and steers were transported to the Iberia Research Station to be fed a high-concentrate diet. The remaining cattle were transported to a commercial feedlot facility. Each pen of cattle from the commercial feedlot was slaughtered when it was estimated that heifers and steers had 10 mm of fat or greater. The BB-sired calves were heavier at birth (P carcass weights than the A-sired calves. This was due to a combination of a heavier final BW and greater dressing percent. Because of their greater muscling and reduced (P carcass weight. In conclusion, the BB-sired calves had heavier carcass weights and greater cutability, whereas the A-sired calves had a greater degree of marbling and greater quality grade, and steaks from carcasses of A-sired calves were more tender as measured by shear force at 14 d.

  13. In take, performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed diets containing dried cassava peel meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Juliano Valério Geron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of inclusion of 0, 10, 20 and 30% dried cassava peel meal (DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens over the period from 1 to 42 days of age on nutrient intake, animal performance, and carcass yield. Two hundred Cobb broiler chickens (1 day old were allocated in a completely randomized design consisting of four inclusion levels of DCPM (treatment, with 10 animals per box and 5 boxes per treatment. The different levels of DCPM did not alter (P>0.05 dietary dry matter (DM or organic matter intake, expressed as g/animal/day, kg DMS/kg0.75, and percentage of body weight. However, the addition of DCPM resulted in a linear increase (P<0.05 in crude protein intake and in a quadratic increase (P<0.05 in neutral detergent fiber intake. Furthermore, the different DCPM levels led to a linear decrease (P<0.05 in average daily gain, average total gain, and feed efficiency of broiler chickens during the period studied. Feed conversion increased linearly (P<0.05 in broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age with inclusion of DCPM in the diets. The inclusion of increasing levels of DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens slaughtered at 42 days of age exerted a linear decreasing effect (P<0.05 on slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and chest, wing, thigh and back weight. The inclusion of more than 10% DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age reduces feed and nutrient intake, weight gain, and carcass and noble cut yield.

  14. ESTIMATION OF GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR CARCASS TRAITS FOR SIMMENTAL CATTLE IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Špehar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was an estimation of genetic parameters for carcass weight, conformation, fatness class and net gain for Simmental cattle in Croatia. Data of young bulls slaughtered in years 2005 and 2006 with 12 to 24 months of age was taken from the central database of the Croatian Livestock Centre. Three data sets were constructed as follows: 1 data set 1 (DS1 included 80462 records of bulls with known and unknown parents; 2 data set 2 (DS2 had 26245 records of bulls with at least one known parents; 3 data set 3 (DS3 with 6272 records of bulls slaughtered between 12 and 14 months of age. Pedigree for DS1 included a total of 118595 animals, 70415 animals and 19319 animals in pedigree for DS2 and DS3, respectively. Variance components were estimated by REML method as implemented in the VCE-5 program package. Statistical model included region, calving season, abattoir-supervisor interaction as fixed class effects and slaughter age as quadratic regression. Direct additive genetic effect was included in the model as random effect. For carcass weight heritability estimates were 0.10 ± 0.006, 0.13 ± 0.02 and 0.11 ± 0.03 for DS1, DS2 and DS3, respectively. Heritability estimates for net gain were 0.09 ± 0.006, 0.16 ± 0.03 and 0.13 ± 0.03, and for carcass conformation were 0.05 ± 0.006, 0.03 ± 0.01 and 0.05 ± 0.006 for DS1, DS2 and DS3, respectively. Results attained indicate that DS2 can be used for genetic evaluation of the Simmental carcass traits in Croatia. However, in the future more improvement should be done, concerning the constitution of contemporary groups, and special attention should be given to data collection.

  15. SIRE EFFECTS ON CARCASS TRAITS OF JAPANESE BROWN COW

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Rachma, Aprilita Bugiwati

    2005-01-01

    The present research aims to obtain more fundamental knowledge of genetic effect (sire effect) on carcass traits of Japanese Brown cow. This experiment was done at Kumamoto Prefecture Japan. The field data of ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits of 9468 head of Japanese Brown cow, which had born from January 3rd 1988 to December 25th 1993 and representing by 88 head of sires were collected. All data were included of pedigree status. Cows data of ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits wer...

  16. Animal performance and carcass characteristics from confined lambs fed on concentrate feed and additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Tayrone F; França, Aldi F S; Meirinhos, Maria Lúcia G; Peron, Hugo J M C; Ferreira, Reginaldo N; Oliveira, Leonardo G; Corrêa, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    The number of sheep flocks in Brazil is increasing. It is known that lambs must be slaughtered when young for producing quality meat. The current study evaluated the inclusion of protected methionine, protected lysine, lysophospholipid and amylolytic enzymes in a diet to lambs and their effects on weight gain and quantitative carcass traits at slaughtering. Eighty non-castrated male crossbred Dorper x Santa Inês lambs, 20.57 ± 4.33 kg live weight, were used. The feedlot lasted 64 days and 60 animals were slaughtered. There were no differences for live weight, daily feed intake, feed conversion and average daily weight gain at the first 28 days of feedlot. From the 28th day lysophospholipid treatment presented the highest live weight. Lysophospholipid and amylolytic enzyme presented the best performance in average daily gain, followed by protected methionine, control and protected lysine. Lysophospholipid treatment presented higher daily feed intake rates than protected lysine and protected methionine. Feed conversion was lower for amylolytic enzyme and higher for control. No changing in carcass traits was reported due to additives. Better performance may be achieved with feedlot lambs fed on diets with the addition of amylolytic enzyme and lysophospholipid at the finishing phase.

  17. Relative growth of carcass tissues of goat kids from five breed Types finished on pasture or feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Vasconcelos Lourençon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cross breeding, finishing system, and gender on the relative growth of carcass tissues of dairy kids. Seventy eight kids (39 male and 39 female from five breed types were used: Alpine; ½ Boer + ½ Alpine (½ BA; ½ Nubian + ½ Alpine (½ ANA; ¾ Boer + ¼ Alpine (¾ BA; and ½ Nubian + ¼ Boer + ¼ Alpine (TC. Kids were distributed into two finishing systems: in pasture with doe (FS1 and weaned in feedlot (FS2. Kids were slaughtered at a mean age of 128.4 ± 7.9 days and mean live weight of 22.07 kg. The mean weight of half carcasses was 5.09 kg. To determine allometric growth, we used the exponential equation Y= aXb. In the half carcass, muscle tissue showed comparatively early growth in group ½ BA, whereas fat tissue of animals in FS1 had relatively late growth. Females exhibited early growth of muscle tissue, while in males this tissue was intermediate. The ½ BA first-cross improved carcass characteristics by enhancing the growth of muscle tissue.

  18. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Del Bianco Benedeti

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P 0.05 intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P 0.05. These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics.

  19. Microbiological analysis of dried goose carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Kamber

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological studies on chicken meat and carcasses are well documented, but very few studies exist on goose meat and carcasses. Therefore, in this study, dried goose carcass samples were collected from the local households in Kars/Turkey and microbiologically analyzed in terms of public health risks. The total mesophilic viable count was found to be 6.58 (mean log10 CFU g-1 (100%. The number of Enterobacteriaceae was 4.85 (92.8%. Coliform bacteria was counted at the numbers of 2.98 (67.8%, while it was 3.95 (91.1% for the enterococci, 0.42 (26.7% for the clostridia, 0.04 (3.5% for the Clostridium perfringens, and 0.41 (12.5% for the coagulase positive staphylococci. The numbers of mould and yeast were 0.93 (25% and 4.81 (94.6%, respectively. Salmonellae and Bacillus cereus could not be isolated in the samples. The results indicate that the dried goose meat samples had poor hygienic quality, contained some of the pathogen microorganisms that are likely to pose a potential health risk.

  20. ESCHERICHIA COLI O157 IN WITHE VEAL CALVES CARCASSES

    OpenAIRE

    V. D’Orio; M. Conter; G. Colavita; M. Paoletti

    2013-01-01

    During 2006 one hundred and three white veal calves slaughtered at an abattoir in Isernia (Italy) were examined for E. coli O157 intestinal carriage and carcass contamination, using Immuno-Magnetic Separation (IMS) and multiplex PCR. Faecal material before slaughtering and carcass samples, using sponge-bag, were collected. E. coli O157 isolates were found in 10 (9,71%) faecal and 9 (8,7%) carcass samples. PCR analysis showed that all the strains from faecal and from carcass samples carried ea...

  1. Carcass and physical meat characteristics of thin tail sheep (TTS based on calpastatin gene (CAST (Locus intron 5 – exon 6 genotypes variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ihsan Andi Dagong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of sheep carcass is mostly determined by the total lean meat production, meat distribution on the carcass and the quality of meat. Calpastatin gene (CAST is known to have an association with carcass and meat quality traits. The objective of this research was to identify the association between CAST polymorphisms and carcass characteristics in Thin Tail Sheep (TTS. Thirty three heads of sheep representing three genotypes of CAST (CAST-11, CAST-12 and CAST-22 were identified for carcass and meat characterisation. There was no significant difference between CAST polymorphisms with meat tenderness, pH, water holding capacity and cooking loss, neither with carcass weight and dressing percentage among genotypes. Shoulder proportion of CAST-11 genotype was larger than that of CAST-12 or CAST-22, but the lean meat proportion of CAST-22 genotype in shoulder, rack and loin were higher than those of CAST-11 but not different from CAST-12. The fat percentage of CAST-11 was the highest among the genotypes. CAST-22 genotype has higher lean meat percentage than the CAST-11. Variation in CAST gene could be used as marker assisted selection in sheep for higher lean meat proportion.

  2. Simulated influence of postweaning production system on performance of different biological types of cattle: II. Carcass composition, retail product, and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L; Keele, J W

    1995-03-01

    A computer simulation model was used to characterize the response in carcass composition, retail product, and quality of steers from F1 crosses of 16 sire breeds (Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Chianina, Brahman, Sahiwal, Pinzgauer, and Tarentaise) mated to Hereford and Angus dams, grown under nine backgrounding systems, and finished at either a low (1.0 kg) or high (1.36 kg) ADG. The backgrounding systems were a high ADG (.9 kg) for 111, 167, or 222 d, a medium ADG (.5 kg) for 200, 300, or 400 d, a low ADG (.25 kg) for 300 or 400 d and 0 d backgrounding. For specific genotype x production system combinations, results showed that carcasses of compensating steers may be either leaner, not different in fatness, or fatter than carcasses of steers put on a finishing diet directly after weaning. Systems in which steers gained a greater proportion of the final slaughter weight over long durations of growth restriction resulted in leaner carcasses. There were 12 common production systems in which 13 of the genotypes produced a carcass with a maximum of 28% fat or with a marbling score of 11 or greater. These results suggest sire breeds used to produce these steers can be used over a wide range of nutritional and management environments, and that a mixed group of steers can be fed and managed similarly from weaning to slaughter to produce a carcass with a specified composition, retail product, or quality.

  3. Characterization of relative growth of empty body and carcass components for bulls from a five-breed diallel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J F; Bryson, W L; Sanders, J O; Dahm, P F; Cartwright, T C; Ellis, W C; Long, C R

    1991-08-01

    Slaughter and carcass data were obtained on 197 bulls produced in a diallel involving Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey that were slaughtered at either 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, or 30 mo of age. Bulls were given ad libitum access to a 72% TDN diet on an individual basis from 6 mo of age until slaughter. Empty body weight (EBWT) was determined as the sum of the weights of blood, hide, hard drop, soft drop (minus contents of the digestive tract), and carcass weight (CWT), which were recorded at slaughter. Carcass protein (CPROT) and fat (CFAT) were based on weights and chemical analyses of lean and fat tissue and bone of the carcass. Empty body protein (EBPROT) and fat (EBFAT) were based on weights and chemical estimates of the components of the empty body. Growth of EBWT, EBPROT, EBFAT, CWT, CPROT, and CFAT relative to either live weight (LWT), EBWT, or CWT were investigated using the allometric equation. Breed-type differences existed (P less than .01) for the growth of EBWT relative to LWT. Comparisons of general combining abilities revealed that Angus, Hereford, and Jersey generally had lower maturing rates of EBWT relative to LWT and that Brahman and Holstein had higher maturing rates. Across breed-type, relative growth rates indicated that fat and protein were later-maturing components relative to LWT, EBWT, or CWT, which implies that other components mature relatively earlier. Relative maturing rates of components studied were not important in explaining differences in body composition that have been previously reported for these breed-types. PMID:1894551

  4. Characterization of relative growth of empty body and carcass components for bulls from a five-breed diallel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J F; Bryson, W L; Sanders, J O; Dahm, P F; Cartwright, T C; Ellis, W C; Long, C R

    1991-08-01

    Slaughter and carcass data were obtained on 197 bulls produced in a diallel involving Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey that were slaughtered at either 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, or 30 mo of age. Bulls were given ad libitum access to a 72% TDN diet on an individual basis from 6 mo of age until slaughter. Empty body weight (EBWT) was determined as the sum of the weights of blood, hide, hard drop, soft drop (minus contents of the digestive tract), and carcass weight (CWT), which were recorded at slaughter. Carcass protein (CPROT) and fat (CFAT) were based on weights and chemical analyses of lean and fat tissue and bone of the carcass. Empty body protein (EBPROT) and fat (EBFAT) were based on weights and chemical estimates of the components of the empty body. Growth of EBWT, EBPROT, EBFAT, CWT, CPROT, and CFAT relative to either live weight (LWT), EBWT, or CWT were investigated using the allometric equation. Breed-type differences existed (P less than .01) for the growth of EBWT relative to LWT. Comparisons of general combining abilities revealed that Angus, Hereford, and Jersey generally had lower maturing rates of EBWT relative to LWT and that Brahman and Holstein had higher maturing rates. Across breed-type, relative growth rates indicated that fat and protein were later-maturing components relative to LWT, EBWT, or CWT, which implies that other components mature relatively earlier. Relative maturing rates of components studied were not important in explaining differences in body composition that have been previously reported for these breed-types.

  5. Carcass and meat characteristics of steers or bulls, finished in feedlot and fed with diets containing three levels of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Moletta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate quantitative and qualitative characters of carcass and meat from bulls and steers finished in feedlot during a 116 day period, in individual stalls and fed with a diet of corn silage and three levels of concentrate (0.70; 0.97 and 1.23% of body weight. The concentrate was formulated with 25% soybean meal, 73% of ground corn grain 1% of a mineral mix and 1% of limestone. A total of 169 composite Purunã animals, being 94 bulls and 75 steers with average age of 20 months. The interaction between physiological condition and level of concentrate was not significant (P>0.05 for any of the studied variables. Likewise, no effect of level of concentrate was detected upon the same traits. The bulls presented heavier slaughter weight (493.1 kg in comparison with the steers (450.0 kg as well as higher carcass yield (55.2 vs. 53.5%, resulting in a hot carcass weight 12.1% heavier than bulls animals, though with a lower degree of carcass finishing (3.6 vs. 4.2 mm, respectively. Bulls produced carcasses with better conformation and higher area of Longissimus dorsi (68.6 vs. 63.3 cm2, and higher percentage of muscle in comparison with castrated (66.5 vs. 62.8%. The meat from bulls was darker and with lower degree of marbling in relation to steers. Nevertheless, no differences were observed for tenderness nor for juiciness, though steers had more palatable meat.

  6. PREDICTION OF CARCASS TRAITS OF JAPANESE BLACK BULLS AT SEVERAL AGES USING BODY MEASUREMENTS AND ULTRASONIC ESTIMATE OF CARCASS TRAITS

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Rachma, Aprilita Bugiwati

    2008-01-01

    The present research aims to estimate the mathematical equations for predicting ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits at ten months after performance test (about 20 months of age) using body measurements and ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits at earlier stages of performance test of Japanese Black bulls. This research was done at Kagoshima and Miyazaki prefecture Livestock Experimental Stations Japan to collect the ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits and body measurements data of Jap...

  7. Impact of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth, efficiency, and carcass traits of finishing pigs in a three-phase marketing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlemann, G D; Allee, G L; Rincker, P J; Ritter, M J; Boler, D D; Carr, S N

    2014-03-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) in a 3-phase marketing strategy. One thousand seven hundred forty pigs were used in 80 single-sex pens in 2 blocks. Each pen housed approximately 22 pigs. Sixteen percent of the total population of pigs was sold during the first marketing period, 18% was sold during the second marketing period, and the remaining 66% was sold during the third marketing period. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design of 2 treatments. Pigs in the second marketing group had greater growth performance indicators than pigs in the first marketing group. Over the entire feeding period, pigs fed RAC were 2.73 kg heavier (P marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (89.73 kg) were 2.1% heavier (P = 0.04) and gained 0.19 kg/d more (P = 0.03) carcass weight than carcasses from pigs not fed RAC (87.89 kg). By the end of the second marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (99.00 kg) were 3.1% heavier (P marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (102.75 kg) were 3.7% heavier (P marketing period, but as duration increased differences diminished. Therefore, RAC can provide the expected growth performance benefits when included in the diet for up to 21 d, but HCW advantages continue to increase throughout the entire 35 d feeding period. Even though carcass benefits were not as evident in pigs sold during the first marketing period, advantages (particularly HCW) continued to increase with each marketing period.

  8. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY REPLACEMENT OF SUNFLOWER OIL WITH MILK THISTLE (SILYBUM MARIANUM OIL ON FATTENING CHARACTERISTICS AND MARKET VALUE OF BROILER CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kralik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the influence of dietary replacement of 3% sunflower oil (SO group with 3% milk thistle oil (MTO group in broiler diets on fattening characteristics and carcass quality. During 42 days of fattening, MTO group achieved insignificantly higher live weight(2.21 kg: 2.19 kg; P>0.05, significantly better feed conversion (1.80 kg: 1.83 kg; P = 0.034 and production number (292.33:285.33; P = 0.013 compared to the SO broiler group. Carcass weight and portion of main parts did not statistically significantly differ between the groups (P>0.05. Market value of carcass cuts and breast fillets was higher in MTO group than in SO group. Lipids of breast and thigh muscles in the SO group contained significantly higher concent.

  9. Pork and Carcasses Quality in Swine Exploited in Family Farms

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    Loredana Heber

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Maximum values of dry matter and fat (% of the carcass weight is achieved in swine exploited on small private family farms at 137 kg of dry matter and 115 kg of protein. Slaughtering swine at higher weight results in an increase of the dry matter and of the caloric value because of the increase of the amount of fat in the muscular fibber; thus, pork is of low quality because of the massive accumulation fat substance and the economic efficiency of producing pork is improper, with supplementary expenses on feed. Fattening swine on small family exploitations up to over 11 kg results in changes of the meat /fat ratio, detrimental to pork meat because of both thickening of lard on the animals' back and of fat depositions in the muscular fibber; though this improves pork quality, it is done with high expenses of energy, resulting in inefficient exploitation on private family farms that in most cases only supply for their families and rarely sell extra production.

  10. Seasonal carcass composition and energy balance of female black ducks in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, K.J.; Stone, T.L.; Owen, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Female Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) collected in Maine during the summer, fall, and winter of 1974-1976 showed significant seasonal variation in body weight, nonfat dry weight, gizzard and pectoral muscle weight, and fat, moisture, and protein content. Variation of body weight within and among seasons was correlated more strongly with carcass protein content, and with fat content during seasons of heavy lipid deposition, than with three structural size variables (culmen, tarsus, and sternum). Regression equations including fat and protein as independent variables accounted for 80-90% of the annual and seasonal variation in body weight; structural size variables alone accounted for less than 30%. Immature females averaged 54 and 99 g lighter, and carried 54 and 59 g less fat than adults during the fall and winter. Ducks of both age classes lost weight in December and January. Adult and immature females metabolized 59 and 64 g of fat and 17 and 25 g of protein in winter compared with 46 g of fat during the nesting season. Nutrient reserves are thus equally as important for the winter survival of these birds as for successfurl eproduction. Seasonal changes in carcass composition suggest that (1) fat deposited in late fall provides an energy reserve during winter, (2) a reduction in lean weight during winter may lower daily energy requirements and increase the effective amount of energy reserves, and (3) declining body weights during late winter may be an endogenous rhythm that reflects a shift in the expected benefits of an energy reserve compared to the costs of carrying additional weight,

  11. Identification of quantitative trait loci for growth and carcass composition in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Keele, J W; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Stone, R T

    2004-02-01

    A genomic screening to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits was pursued. Two hundred nineteen microsatellite markers were genotyped on 176 of 620 (28%) progeny from a Brahman x Angus sire mated to mostly MARC III dams. Selective genotyping, based on retail product yield (%) and fat yield (%), was used to select individuals to be genotyped. Traits included in the study were birth weight (kg), hot carcass weight (kg), retail product yield, fat yield, marbling score (400 = slight00 and 500 = small00), USDA yield grade, and estimated kidney, heart and pelvic fat (%). The QTL were classified as significant when the expected number of false positives (ENFP) was less than 0.05 (F-statistic greater than 17.3), and suggestive when the ENFP was yield at 50 cM, for retail product yield at 53 cM, and for USDA yield grade at 63 cM on chromosome 1, for marbling score at 56 cM, for retail product yield at 70 cM, and for estimated kidney, heart and pelvic fat at 79 cM on chromosome 3, for marbling score at 44 cM, for hot carcass weight at 49 cM, and for estimated kidney, heart and pelvic fat at 62 cM on chromosome 16, and for fat yield at 35 cM on chromosome 17. Two suggestive QTL for birth weight were identified, one at 12 cM on chromosome 20 and the other at 56 cM on chromosome 21. An additional suggestive QTL was detected for retail product yield, for fat yield, and for USDA yield grade at 26 cM on chromosome 26. Results presented here represent the initial search for quantitative trait loci in this family. Validation of detected QTL in other populations will be necessary.

  12. Fatal inanition in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus: Pathological findings in completely emaciated carcasses

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    Mørk Torill

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a project to determine the causes of winter mortality in reindeer in Finnmark County, northern Norway, the most frequent diagnosis turned out to be complete emaciation, despite several of the reindeer having been given silage for up to 4 weeks before they died. The present paper describes autopsy results and other findings in these animals. Methods Autopsies were made of 32 reindeer carcasses, and 28 of these were diagnosed as completely emaciated based on lack of visible fat and serous atrophy of subepicardial and bone marrow fat. Other investigations of the carcasses included histology, bacteriology, parasitology (counting of macro parasites and faecal egg counting, analysis of vitamin E and selenium in liver, chemical and botanical analysis of rumen content, analysis of lipid content in femur bone marrow and estimation of muscle atrophy by use of a muscle index. Results Main findings were: Low carcass weight, severe muscle atrophy, hemosiderosis in liver and spleen, subcutaneous oedema (18% and effusions to body cavities (18%. Two types of lipofuscin granula were identified in the liver: One type occurred in liver endothelial cells of all carcasses, while the other type occurred in hepatocytes, and prevailed in adult animals. Abomasal haemorrhages, consistent with previously described stress lesions, was present in 68% of the carcasses. Diarrhoea occurred in 2 cases, and loose faecal consistency was associated with silage feeding. Rumen content was low in crude protein. Grass dominated rumen content in silage-fed carcasses, while reindeer on natural pastures had mainly woody plants, mosses and litter in rumen. Stem dominated the grass fraction in rumens with high grass content, indicating ruminal indigestion as a cause of emaciation in silage fed animals. Some cases had heavy infestation of parasites such as warble fly larvae (Hypoderma tarandi, throat bot larvae (Cephenemyiae trompe and lung nematodes. Conclusion Lack

  13. Pendugaan Produksi Karkas Dan Daging Kelelawar Pemakan Buah (Pteropus alecto Asal Sulawesi (ESTIMATION OF CARCASS AND MEAT PRODUCTION OF CELEBES NATIVE FRUIT BATS (Pteropus alecto

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    Tiltje Andretha Ransaleleh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in North Sulawesi, Gorontalo, and Central Sulawesi during March untilOctober 2011. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of fruit bats  (P. alecto as sourceof meat. Observed variables were body weight, carcass weight, noncarcass weight, the bone weight, meatweight, fat weight, and skin weight, respectively. To estimate the growth rate of the bats, analysis of therelationship between body weight and carcass components was done, while estimation of  growth rate ofcarcass components were analyzed by multiple linear regression. The results showed that the carcassproduction of  P. alecto in the three locations was 54.49%-56.55%, meat production was 45.37% -54.07%,and the coefficient of determination was 0.65-0.99.  Conclusions of this study is that the body weight  canbe used for  prediction  of growth rate, and weight of carcass, meat, bone, fat, and skin of the fruit bats,respectively.

  14. Genetic variation and prediction of additive and nonadditive genetic effects for six carcass traits in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Wakeman, D L

    1998-07-01

    Estimates of covariances and sire expected progeny differences of additive and nonadditive genetic effects for six carcass traits were obtained using records from 486 straightbred and crossbred steers from 121 sires born between 1989 and 1995 in the Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of the University of Florida. Steers were slaughtered at a similar carcass composition end point. Covariances were estimated by REML procedures, using a generalized expectation-maximization algorithm applied to multibreed populations. Straightbred and crossbred estimates of heritabilities and additive genetic correlations were within ranges found in the literature for steers slaughtered on an age- or weight-constant basis for hot carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, and shear force but equal to or less than the lower bound of these ranges for fat-related traits. Maximum values of interactibilities (i.e., ratios of nonadditive variances to phenotypic variances in the F1) and nonadditive genetic correlations were smaller than heritabilities and additive genetic correlations in straightbreds and crossbred groups. Sire additive and total direct genetic predictions for longissimus muscle area, marbling, and shear force tended to decrease with the fraction of Brahman alleles, whereas those for hot carcass weight and fat thickness over the longissimus were higher, and those for kidney fat were lower in straightbreds and F1 than in other crossbred groups. Nonadditive genetic predictions were similar across sire groups of all Angus and Brahman fractions. These results suggest that slaughtering steers on a similar carcass composition basis reduces variability of fat-related traits while retaining variability for non-fat-related traits comparable to slaughtering steers on a similar age or weight basis. Selection for carcass traits within desirable (narrow) ranges and slaughter of steers at similar compositional end point seems to be a good combination to help produce meat products of consistent

  15. Genetic variation and prediction of additive and nonadditive genetic effects for six carcass traits in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Wakeman, D L

    1998-07-01

    Estimates of covariances and sire expected progeny differences of additive and nonadditive genetic effects for six carcass traits were obtained using records from 486 straightbred and crossbred steers from 121 sires born between 1989 and 1995 in the Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of the University of Florida. Steers were slaughtered at a similar carcass composition end point. Covariances were estimated by REML procedures, using a generalized expectation-maximization algorithm applied to multibreed populations. Straightbred and crossbred estimates of heritabilities and additive genetic correlations were within ranges found in the literature for steers slaughtered on an age- or weight-constant basis for hot carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, and shear force but equal to or less than the lower bound of these ranges for fat-related traits. Maximum values of interactibilities (i.e., ratios of nonadditive variances to phenotypic variances in the F1) and nonadditive genetic correlations were smaller than heritabilities and additive genetic correlations in straightbreds and crossbred groups. Sire additive and total direct genetic predictions for longissimus muscle area, marbling, and shear force tended to decrease with the fraction of Brahman alleles, whereas those for hot carcass weight and fat thickness over the longissimus were higher, and those for kidney fat were lower in straightbreds and F1 than in other crossbred groups. Nonadditive genetic predictions were similar across sire groups of all Angus and Brahman fractions. These results suggest that slaughtering steers on a similar carcass composition basis reduces variability of fat-related traits while retaining variability for non-fat-related traits comparable to slaughtering steers on a similar age or weight basis. Selection for carcass traits within desirable (narrow) ranges and slaughter of steers at similar compositional end point seems to be a good combination to help produce meat products of consistent

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar Ranjan Sarangi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementations of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 360 1-day-old Vencobb broiler chickens of either sex were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each consisting of three replicates and each replicate having 30 birds for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were (1 control group with basal diet, (2 basal diet supplemented with prebiotic (at 400 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration, (3 basal diet supplemented with probiotic (at 100 g/tonne of starter ration and 50 g/tonne of finisher ration, and (4 basal diet supplemented with synbiotic(at 500 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration. The birds were provided with ad-libitum feed and drinking water during the entire experimental period. Results: The highest body weight observed in asynbiotic group, which was non-significantly (p>0.05 higher than thecontrol group. Prebiotic and probiotic groups showed lower body weight than synbiotic and control groups. A total feed intake did not show any significant (p>0.05 difference between experimental groups. There were no significant (p>0.05 differences in feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens in prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic groups as compared with control group. There was no significant (p>0.05 difference in the carcass traits with respect to dressing percentage, carcass percentage, heart weight, liver weight and gizzard weight, wing percentage, breast percentage, back percentage, thigh percentage, and drumstick percentage in Cobb broilers under study. Conclusion: The growth performance and percentage of carcass yield did not show any significant increase by the dietary inclusion of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic compared with unsupplemented control in a commercial broiler chicken.

  17. The capability of alfalfa grazing- and concentrate-based feeding systems to produce homogeneous carcass quality in light lambs over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Ripoll

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of grazing on the carcasses and meat of light lambs are unclear, mainly due to variations in weather conditions and pasture production, which affect the growth of lambs and the quality of their carcasses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding systems, which varied in intensification due to the use of concentrate, on the growth and carcass traits of light lambs and the capability of these feeding systems to produce homogeneous lamb carcasses over the course of several years. The average daily weight gain of grazing lambs, but not lambs fed indoors was affected over years. The colour of the Rectus abdominis muscle and the amount of fat were more variable in grazing lambs (from 2.7 to 6.3 than indoor lambs (from 4.5 to 5.1. Grazing feeding systems without concentrate supplementation are more dependent than indoor feeding systems on the year. This climatologic dependence could lead to slaughter of older grazing lambs (77 days to achieve the target slaughter weight when temperatures are low or the rainfall great. All feeding systems evaluated produced light lambs carcasses with a conformation score from O to R- that is required by the market. Even the potential change in fat colour found in both grazing treatments was not enough to change the subjective evaluation of fat colour.

  18. The capability of alfalfa grazing- and concentrate-based feeding systems to produce homogeneous carcass quality in light lambs over time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripoll, G.; Alvarez-Rodriguez, J.; Sanz, A.; Joy, M.

    2014-06-01

    The effects of grazing on the carcasses and meat of light lambs are unclear, mainly due to variations in weather conditions and pasture production, which affect the growth of lambs and the quality of their carcasses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding systems, which varied in intensification due to the use of concentrate, on the growth and carcass traits of light lambs and the capability of these feeding systems to produce homogeneous lamb carcasses over the course of several years. The average daily weight gain of grazing lambs, but not lambs fed indoors was affected over years. The colour of the Rectus abdominis muscle and the amount of fat were more variable in grazing lambs (from 2.7 to 6.3) than indoor lambs (from 4.5 to 5.1). Grazing feeding systems without concentrate supplementation are more dependent than indoor feeding systems on the year. This climatologic dependence could lead to slaughter of older grazing lambs (77 days) to achieve the target slaughter weight when temperatures are low or the rainfall great. All feeding systems evaluated produced light lambs carcasses with a conformation score from O to R that is required by the market. Even the potential change in fat colour found in both grazing treatments was not enough to change the subjective evaluation of fat colour. (Author)

  19. THE EFFECTS OF SPRAY-CHILLING ASSOCIATED TO CONVENTIONAL CHILLING ON MASS LOSS, BACTERIOLOGYCAL AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL QUALITY OF BEEF CARCASS

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    Moacir Evandro Lage

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of conventional air chilling associated to intermittent spray-chilling treatment, on weight loss, physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of beef carcasses. Two plants of commercial beef slaughterhouse located in Goiânia and fiscalized by the Federal Inspection Service were used to develop the research. The spray-chilling treatment was accomplished in an intermittent way, commanded by acontrolled logical program, with cycles of 90 seconds, in intervals of 30 minutes, during the first 4 hours of the chilling process. Physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis were made in spray-chilled water and carcasses samples, according to recommendation of the effective legislation.The average values of carcasses weight loss of treatment group were lower to the ones verified for the control group,in both plants, A and B, (P < 0,001, showing a high economic potential. As a conclusion of physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis results of water and meat samples, it is clear that the technology of chilling beef carcasses inthe conventional system associated to spraying did not interfere in the quality of meat, and it can become an analysis object on part of official organs for sanitary regulation and fiscalization, for its definitive adoption. KEY WORDS: Spray-chilling, shrinkage, beef carcass.

  20. Ultrasonography as a predicting tool for carcass traits of young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguisawa Liliane

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable resources have been allocated to support research in the development of non-invasive and non-destructive techniques for carcass composition and quality evaluation. Ultrasonography is a reliable and relatively low-cost technique that can be used. In the present study, real-time ultrasonography was used to predict ribeye area (REA and subcutaneous fat thickness (FT in live animals as compared to carcass measurements. Animals used were 115 yearling bull calves (initial body weight, 329 kg, kept under feedlot conditions, of four genetic groups (30, ½ Angus x Nellore; 30, ½ Canchim x Nellore; 30, ½ Simmental x Nellore, and 25 Nellore, and two finishing frame sizes (small and large. Four ultrasonographic measurements were taken every 28 days until slaughter. Predictive precision of ultrasonographic measurements increased as animals approached slaughter, reaching maximum values at the last measurement (R²=0.68 and 0.82 for REA and FT, respectively. FT carcass measurements was influenced by genetic group and live measurements (P < 0.05. Frame size did not influence REA and FT, probably due to small, but distinctive differences among genetic groups.

  1. Two-, three-, and four-breed rotational crossbreeding of beef cattle: carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, S M; Franke, D E; Bidner, T D; Blouin, D C

    1992-12-01

    Carcass data from 1,494 straightbred and rotational crossbred steers were collected over four generations. Mating systems included straightbreds (Angus [A], Brahman [B], Charolais [C], and Hereford [H]); two-breed rotations (A-B, C-B, and H-B); three-breed rotations (A-B-C, A-B-H, and B-C-H); and a four-breed rotation (A-B-C-H). Steers were randomly allocated to one of four postweaning treatments that varied in length of grazing and feeding periods. Treatment and breed group (four straightbreds and seven rotational combinations) significantly influenced hot carcass weight (HCWT), retail yield (RY), longissimus muscle area (LM), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MS), USDA quality grade (QG), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS). Feeding for longer periods resulted in greater (P < .05) HCWT, RY, FT, and MS, higher QG, and lower (P < .05) WBS values. Among the straightbreds, C was heavier and larger for HCWT, RY, and LM (P < .01), whereas A and H had greater (P < .01) FT and MS. The B was similar to H for HCWT, RY, and LM and to C for FT but ranked last (P < .01) for MS and WBS. Three- and four-breed rotational mating systems were superior (P < .05) to the two-breed rotation for HCWT, RY, and LM but were similar for FT, MS, and WBS. Rotational combinations exceeded (P < .05) the straightbreds for all carcass traits except MS.

  2. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing bulls fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Chaves Françozo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of Longissimusmuscle (LM of the bulls. Twenty-four Nellore bulls were used in a complete randomised design. The bulls were randomly assigned to one of the three diets containing 0, 5 or 12% glycerin. Final BW and ADG were similar (P>0.05 between the bulls fed with 5 or 12% of glycerin but were higher (P0.05 by glycerin level. Hot carcass weight increased (P0.05 the conformation, colour, texture, marbling and pH. There was difference (P>0.05 for moisture, ashes and crude protein among glycerin levels. Bulls fed 12% glycerin present the highest (P<0.03 total lipids on LM. The percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, monounsaturated acids (MUFA, polyunsaturated acids (PUFA, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and PUFA/SFA and n-6:n-3 ratios of the LM were similar among the diets. In conclusion, glycerin level did not affect the animal performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot.

  3. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH polymorphisms associated with carcass traits of meat in Korean cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheong Il-Cheong

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cold carcass weight (CW and longissimus muscle area (EMA are the major quantitative traits in beef cattle. In this study, we found several polymorphisms of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH gene and examined the association of polymorphisms with carcass traits (CW and EMA in Korean native cattle (Hanwoo. Results By direct DNA sequencing in 24 unrelated Korean cattle, we identified 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms within the 9 kb full gene region, including the 1.5 kb promoter region. Among them, six polymorphic sites were selected for genotyping in our beef cattle (n = 428 and five marker haplotypes (frequency > 0.1 were identified. Statistical analysis revealed that -4241A>T showed significant associations with CW and EMA. Conclusion Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in GHRH might be one of the important genetic factors that influence carcass yield in beef cattle. Sequence variation/haplotype information identified in this study would provide valuable information for the production of a commercial line of beef cattle.

  4. Copepod carcasses as microbial hot spots for pelagic denitrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Ronnie N.; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Larsen, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    Copepods are exposed to a high non-predatory mortality and their decomposing carcasses act as microniches with intensified microbial activity. Sinking carcasses could thereby represent anoxic microenvironment sustaining anaerobic microbial pathways in otherwise oxic water columns. Using non-invas...

  5. Effects of Diet Dilution during the Finishing Period on the Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the response of broiler to diet dilution during the finishing period. Sixty 29-day-old commercial Avian male broiler chicks were assigned to two groups randomly, with 30 broilers each. Birds were offered a conventional finishing diet or with 10% dilution diet with ground rice hulls from 29 to 49 days of age. The result showed that there were no significant differences between the effects of diet dilution and the control on final body weight, growth rate and feed conversion efficiency. Diet dilution led to a reduction in abdominal fat weight, whereas carcass and breast muscle weight were not affected.

  6. Feedlot performance, carcass traits, and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbeck, J A; Tatum, J D; Field, T G; Morgan, J B; Smith, G C

    1995-12-01

    Short-yearling steer of known genotypes-straightbred Hereford (100H, n = 80) 75% Hereford x 25% Brahman (75H:25B, n = 80), and 50% Hereford x 50% Brahman (50H:50B, n = 80) were sampled serially at four time-on-feed endpoints (84, 98, 112, 126 d) to compare feedlot performance and carcass and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers. After slaughter, USDA yield grade and quality grade factors were recorded, and a portion of the longissimus muscle was removed from the left side of each carcass and fabricated into four 2.54-cm steaks for palatability analyses. Paired steaks from each carcass were aged (6 and 18 d after death), and sensory panel and shear force evaluations were performed. At a constant live weight, 100H steers had higher ADG and produced less mature carcasses with smaller longissimus muscle areas and higher marbling scores than did 75H:25B and 50H:50B steers. The 50H:50B steers had the highest (P Brahman breeding increased. EXtending the postmortem aging period from 6 to 18 d improved shear force values by 20% and panel tenderness ratings by approximately 14%. Beef from steers of the three breeds responded similarly to aging. When Certified Hereford Beef (CHB) specifications were applied, steaks from 100H steers and 75H:25B steers had similar shear force values, suggesting that beef from quarter-blood Brahman crossbred steers could be included in the CHB Program without detrimental effects on product tenderness. PMID:8655435

  7. Feedlot performance, carcass traits, and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbeck, J A; Tatum, J D; Field, T G; Morgan, J B; Smith, G C

    1995-12-01

    Short-yearling steer of known genotypes-straightbred Hereford (100H, n = 80) 75% Hereford x 25% Brahman (75H:25B, n = 80), and 50% Hereford x 50% Brahman (50H:50B, n = 80) were sampled serially at four time-on-feed endpoints (84, 98, 112, 126 d) to compare feedlot performance and carcass and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers. After slaughter, USDA yield grade and quality grade factors were recorded, and a portion of the longissimus muscle was removed from the left side of each carcass and fabricated into four 2.54-cm steaks for palatability analyses. Paired steaks from each carcass were aged (6 and 18 d after death), and sensory panel and shear force evaluations were performed. At a constant live weight, 100H steers had higher ADG and produced less mature carcasses with smaller longissimus muscle areas and higher marbling scores than did 75H:25B and 50H:50B steers. The 50H:50B steers had the highest (P Brahman breeding increased. EXtending the postmortem aging period from 6 to 18 d improved shear force values by 20% and panel tenderness ratings by approximately 14%. Beef from steers of the three breeds responded similarly to aging. When Certified Hereford Beef (CHB) specifications were applied, steaks from 100H steers and 75H:25B steers had similar shear force values, suggesting that beef from quarter-blood Brahman crossbred steers could be included in the CHB Program without detrimental effects on product tenderness.

  8. Genetic relationships between internal diseases diagnosed at slaughter and carcass traits in Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Honda, T; Oyama, K

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this paper was to estimate the genetic parameters of certain internal diseases (multifocal necrosis in the liver [MNL], bovine abdominal fat necrosis [BFN], and inflammation of the large intestine [ILI]) and to investigate relationships between the internal diseases and carcass traits (carcass weight [CW], rib eye area [REA], rib thickness [RT], subcutaneous fat thickness, and beef marbling score [BMS]). Records of the internal diseases and the carcass traits of 5,788 Japanese Black cattle were used for this study. The data for all the diseases were recorded as binary data as to whether the disease was observed (1) or not (0). Genetic parameters were estimated using linear and threshold animal models. The prevalence rates of MNL, BFN, and ILI were 16.1, 23.0, and 6.8%, respectively, and heritability estimates ± posterior SD were 0.18 ± 0.06, 0.28 ± 0.06, and 0.18 ± 0.06, respectively. The genetic correlations of MNL with BFN and ILI were -0.23 (P = 0.19) and -0.49 (P genetic correlations of MNL with the carcass traits were all weak and not significant. In contrast, the genetic correlations of BFN and ILI with CW, REA, and RT were all negative and significant (P genetic correlations for BFN and ILI with BMS were all positive at 0.21 P( = 0.16) and 0.39 (P genetically improved. Genetic relationships of BFN and ILI with meat quantity traits were favorable for beef cattle breeding, because lower disease liabilities were associated with improved CW, REA, and RT for BFN and ILI. However, rather strong and unfavorable genetic relationships were found between BFN or ILI and BMS, which is related to meat quality. This suggests that selection for animals with superior BMS would increasingly lead to animals with higher liability to the internal diseases.

  9. Effects of the Sheep Polyclonal Antibodies Against the Porcine Adipocyte Plasma Membrane Proteins on Porcine Carcass Composition and Meat Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shi-zheng; HU Hong-mei; LIU Ling-yun; ZHANG Xi; LIU Yong-gang; GE Chang-rong

    2007-01-01

    To detect the effects of the polyclonal antibodies raised in sheep against porcine adipocyte plasma membranes on the porcine carcass composition and meat quality, 30 pigs assigned into 6 treatment groups were given intraperitoneal injections of sheep antipig adipocyte plasma membrane immunoglobulin (ASIg) or sheep nonimmune serum immunoglobulin (NSIg). At the end of the experiment, the pigs were slaughtered at 90 kg body weight, and carcasses and meat quality were evaluated. The results showed that when pigs intraperitoneally immunized with 20 or 30 mg ASIg at 15 kg body weight, 20 mg purified ASIg twice at 15 and 60 kg body weight, or 20 mg purified ASIg at 60 kg body weight, respectively, their lean meat percentage, fat meat percentage, backfat thickness, loin eye area leaf fat weight, caul fat weight, heart weight, liver weight, and kidney weight were significantly affected. However, the kidney weight, lung weight, dressing percentage,and spleen weight did not remarkably change. Our results indicated that pigs intraperitoneally immunized with 20 or 30 mg ASIg at 15 kg body weight, and 20 mg ASIg twice at 15 and 60 kg body weight, have significantly different drip loss rate,cooked meat ratio, tenderness, storage loss rate, muscle fiber diameter, moisture content, dry matter content, crude protein content, and crude fat content from the control group that received 20 mg NSIg at 15 kg body weight. However, meat pH,meat color value, meat marbling score, inosinate, and myohemoglobin were not significantly affected. Our results indicated ASIg could not significantly affect the content of most muscular amino acids and intramuscular fatty acids.

  10. Microbiological contamination of lamb carcasses at abattoirs of Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Kahraman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of a hundred lamb carcasses were sampled over a 12 month period at abattoirs in Istanbul, Turkey. Each sample examined for total aerobic mesophilic counts (TMC, Enterobacteriaceae count (EC, Salmonella spp. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes was obtained from 100 cm2 areas on four sides of lamb carcasses using the wet and dry cotton swab technique. The study revealed that total aerobic mesophilic counts in all carcasses ranged between 4.18 and 5.95 log/cm2; Enterobacteriaceae counts between 1.60 and 2.30 CFU/cm2. All samples were negative for Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. Furthermore Salmonella spp. was detected on four carcasses. The data confirms bacteriological monitoring of lamb carcasses as a useful criteria for the verification of slaughter hygiene.

  11. ESCHERICHIA COLI O157 IN WITHE VEAL CALVES CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D’Orio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During 2006 one hundred and three white veal calves slaughtered at an abattoir in Isernia (Italy were examined for E. coli O157 intestinal carriage and carcass contamination, using Immuno-Magnetic Separation (IMS and multiplex PCR. Faecal material before slaughtering and carcass samples, using sponge-bag, were collected. E. coli O157 isolates were found in 10 (9,71% faecal and 9 (8,7% carcass samples. PCR analysis showed that all the strains from faecal and from carcass samples carried eaeA, hlyA and stx2 genes, while five strains stx1 gene. The results confirm that the slaughter practices can largely influence the rate of E. coli O157 carcasses contamination and suggest that white veal calves meat could be an important risk for human health.

  12. Genetic markers of body composition and carcass quality in grazing Brangus steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, M C; Corva, P M; Soria, L A; Rincon, G; Medrano, J F; Pavan, E; Villarreal, E L; Schor, A; Melucci, L; Mezzadra, C; Miquel, M C

    2011-01-01

    The somatotropic axis is a major regulatory pathway of energy metabolism during postnatal growth in mammals. Genes involved in this pathway influence many economically important traits. The association of selected SNPs in these genes with carcass traits was examined in grazing Brangus steers. These traits included final live weight, ultrasound backfat thickness (UBFT), rib-eye area, kidney fat weight, hot carcass weight, and intramuscular fat percentage (%IMF). Genomic DNA (N = 246) was genotyped for a panel of 15 tag SNPs located in the growth hormone receptor (GHR), insulin-like growth factor I, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 6, pro-melanin-concentrating hormone, suppressor of cytokine signaling 2, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) genes. Allelic and haplotype frequencies were compared with those of a sample of European breeds (N = 177 steers). Two tag SNPs in the GHR affected %IMF; one of them (ss86273136) was also strongly associated with UBFT (P Brangus steers. Moreover, the haplotype carrying two unfavorable alleles was present at a frequency of 31% in this group. Four tag SNPs on STAT6 had a significant effect on UBFT. One of these, SNP ss115492467, was also associated with %IMF. The STAT6 haplotype, including all the alleles favoring UBFT, was the most abundant variant (34%) in the European cattle, while it had a frequency of 14% in the Brangus steers. The four less favorable variants (absent in the European cattle) were found at a frequency of 38% in the Brangus steers. These results support the association of GHR and STAT6 SNP with carcass traits in composite breeds, such as Brangus, under grazing conditions. PMID:22194170

  13. Effects of feeding a return chewing gum/packaging material mixture on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, B W; Berger, L L; Fahey, G C

    1996-11-01

    Seventy-two Simmental-cross growing steers (219 +/- 2.4 kg initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of feeding a return chewing gum/packaging material mixture (G/P) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, sensory attributes of meat, and mineral content of beef liver and muscle. Animals were allotted by weight to 12 pens (six/pen). Each pen was assigned one of three dietary treatments: 1) 0% G/P (control), 2) 20% G/P, or 3) 30% G/P (% G/P on a DM basis). Steers were fed their respective diets for an 84-d growing phase and a 112-d finishing phase. The G/P replaced corn silage and corn in the growing and finishing phases, respectively. Eighteen steers (six/treatment) were randomly selected for slaughter at the end of the finishing phase, and carcass measurements, sensory attributes of meat, and mineral content of liver and longissimus muscle were measured. During the growing phase, steers fed G/P-containing diets had improved (P .05) on carcass characteristics. Steaks from steers fed 20% G/P had improved (P carcass merit. PMID:8923170

  14. Whole-carcass residues of the rodenticide difenacoum in anticoagulant-resistant and -susceptible rat strains (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atterby, Helen; Kerins, Gerard M; MacNicoll, Alan D

    2005-02-01

    The present study investigated the whole-carcass residue carried by resistant and susceptible laboratory rat strains following 5, 10, or 20 d of feeding on a diet of 25 mg difenacoum/kg bait. The mean whole-carcass residue of difenacoum was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography to be between 0.52 and 0.74 mg/kg body weight in all three rat strains tested. These values were considerably lower than some comparable data previously reported for other species and second-generation rodenticides as well as from mathematical models. The whole-carcass residue of extractable (i.e., nonrefractory) parent compound carried by highly resistant rats fed for 20 d (0.74 mg/kg body wt) is unlikely to present a significantly increased risk to predators compared to the amount carried by susceptible rats after 5 d of feeding (0.52 mg/kg body wt). However, resistant rats are more likely to be available for predation and to be carrying a whole-carcass residue of anticoagulant throughout the duration of a control program. PMID:15719991

  15. CFX Analysis of the Heat and Mass Transfer During the Chilling of a Lamb Carcass using a 3D Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hannon, Joseph; Keane, Garrett; O'Flaherty, Micheal

    2013-01-01

    Lamb meat is a popular red meat which must go through a complex refrigeration process before being served at the dinner table to reduce bacterial growth and retain meat quality. A major disadvantage of chilling is the drip losses which are losses in weight by evaporation of water contained within the meat. The aim of this work is to simulate the conventional chilling process of a lamb carcass using a three dimensional model.

  16. VARIATION OF THE ECONOMICAL EFFICIENCY OF PIG CARCASSES ACCORDING QUALITY CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PETROMAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The profitability of pork disjoint-packing activity depends on the carcass quality. Carcasses of superior types, respectively „E” and „U” generate higher profit on the kilogram of disjoint carcass, in comparison with the carcasses of medium type „R” and inferior types „O” and „P”.

  17. 9 CFR 311.8 - Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle carcasses affected with... ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.8 Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema. (a) Carcasses of cattle found on post-mortem inspection to be affected with anasarca in advanced stages...

  18. ESTIMATION OF GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR CARCASS TRAITS FOR SIMMENTAL CATTLE IN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Špehar; Špela Malovrh; Vesna Bulić; Ivkić, Z.; Milena Kovač

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper was an estimation of genetic parameters for carcass weight, conformation, fatness class and net gain for Simmental cattle in Croatia. Data of young bulls slaughtered in years 2005 and 2006 with 12 to 24 months of age was taken from the central database of the Croatian Livestock Centre. Three data sets were constructed as follows: 1) data set 1 (DS1) included 80462 records of bulls with known and unknown parents; 2) data set 2 (DS2) had 26245 records of bulls wi...

  19. Crude glycerin in diets for wethers in feedlot: intake, digestibility, performance, carcass and meat traits

    OpenAIRE

    Mauriceia Costa Carvalho Barros; Jair de Araújo Marques; Fabiano Ferreira da Silva; Robério Rodrigues Silva; Gilmara Santos Guimarães; Luciano Lemos da Silva; Fabiana Lana de Araújo

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effects of crude glycerin levels (CG) (0, 2.65, 5.33, 8.06 and 10.84% in dry matter basis) on intake, digestibility, performance, carcass morphometric measurements and meat quality of sheep finished in feedlot. Twenty five crossbred Dorper x St. Ines wethers, with 24 ± 2.0 kg average weight were housed in individual pens. The experimental design was completely randomized. Levels of CG in gross diet caused a decreasing linear effect (P

  20. GROWTH EFFICIENCY AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF GROWING MALE COWS FED DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH ORGANIC CHROMIUM YEAST

    OpenAIRE

    Amata, I.A; D.O. Adejumo

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the effect of organic chromium yeast supplementation in feedlot diets of growing male cows on growth efficiency and carcass characteristics. The experiment was conducted in Ibadan (7.380 N and 3.930 E), in the South Western region of Nigeria. The study lasted six months (180 days). A total of seventy-five Ndama Ndama growing male cows with average weights ranging between 280 and 284kg were kept outdoors in feedlot pens of 15 cows per treatment. The...

  1. Nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics and plasma metabolites in kids fed diets supplemented with chromium methionine

    OpenAIRE

    Emami, A.; A. Zali; M. GANJKHANLOU; A. AKBARI AFJANI

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of different levels of chromium methionine (CrMet) on nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics and plasma metabolites of male kids. Thirty-two male Mahabadi goat kids (average initial body weight (BW) = 22±2 kg, 4 months) were allocated in a completely randomized design with four treatments: 1) control (without Cr), 2) 0.5, 3) 1 and 4) 1.5 mg Cr as Cr-Met/animal/day. Diets were same (ratio of forage: concentrate was 30:70) except for t...

  2. Growth and carcass characteristics of three Ethiopian indigenous goats fed concentrate at different supplementation levels

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse, Dereje; Urge, Mengistu; Animut, Getachew; Mekasha, Yoseph

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of genotypes and concentrate levels on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Bati, Hararghe highland (HH) and Short eared Somali (SS) goat types found in Ethiopia. A 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (3 genotype × 2 concentrate levels) was used to randomly allocate 36 goats (15.2 ± 0.30 kg initial weight); 12 goats from each genotype with age about 1 year were divided randomly into two groups for a feeding trial of 90 days. The two concen...

  3. Effect of source of dietary fat on pig performance, carcass characteristics and carcass fat content, distribution and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, C E; Duran-Montgé, P; Lizardo, R; Gispert, M; Oliver, M A; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2010-08-01

    Seventy gilts were used to compare the effect of including 10% tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO), linseed oil (LO), a fat blend (FB), or an oil blend (OB) in finishing diets vs. feeding a semi-synthetic diet with no added fat (NF) on pig performance, carcass traits and carcass fatty acid (FA) composition. Carcasses from SFO-fed gilts had greater fat and lower lean compositions than carcasses from T-fed gilts. Gilts fed NF had greater loin fat than FB-fed gilts, and greater flare fat, loin intermuscular fat and fat:lean than T-fed gilts. Bellies from NF-fed gilts had lower lean and higher intermuscular fat and fat:lean than other diets except HOSF. Fat source had minor effects on animal performance, carcass characteristics and carcass fat content and distribution, whereas feeding NF resulted in carcasses and major cuts with higher fat content. Diets rich in polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) did not reduce fat deposition in separable fat depots with respect to monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and saturated FA (SFA). Carcasses from gilts fed NF had a high degree of saturation (40.6% SFA) followed by carcasses of T- and FB-fed gilts. Feeding HOSF, SFO and LO enriched diets elevated the percentages of MUFA (56.7%), n-6 (30.0%) and n-3 (16.6%) PUFA, respectively, whereas carcasses from gilts fed OB had greater percentages of n-3 FA (14.8% n-3, 0.9% EPA, 1.0% DPA, 3.1% DHA) than gilts fed FB (6.72% n-3, 0.1% EPA, 0.4% DPA, 0.1% DHA).

  4. Allometric Growth Patterns of Body and Carcass Components in Ardhi Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Owaimer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the developmental trends and the allometric growth values of various body parts and fat depots of the most prevailing indigenous Saudi goat. Thirty male Ardhi kids were serially slaughtered at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 kg live weight. As the kids grew, the bones of hind limb grew at slower rates than the bones of the forelimb and within each limb, the cannon bone grew relatively at a slower rate than the upper skeletal bones. The allometric coefficients for the growth of hot and cold carcass, liver, stomach compartments and lean relative to empty body weight were isogonic (b = 1.00, whereas coefficients of all internal fat depots, intermuscular and subcutaneous fat weights were heterogonic with the high growth impetus of b values greater than 1.00 (p<0.01. The developmental rates of the intestines and separated bones from cold carcass side were heterogonic with medium growth impetus. These results, showed that the highest growth coefficients were obtained for omental and perirenal fat indicating the late maturing characteristics of these depots, followed in a decreasing order by mesenteric and intermuscular fat, channel fat and finally subcutaneous and pericardial fat, which were the earliest developing depots.

  5. Live animal performance, carcass traits, and meat palatability of calf- and yearling-fed cloned steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J J; Lunt, D K; Smith, S B; Mies, W L; Hale, D S; Koohmaraie, M; Savell, J W

    1997-04-01

    Two groups of Brangus steers produced by nuclear transplantation cloning were used in parallel studies investigating the impact of calf- and yearling-feeding. The first group (n = 8) were fed as calves (CF; n = 4) or yearlings (YF; n = 4) to a constant age end point of 16 mo. The second group (n = 10) were fed as calves (CF; n = 5) or yearlings (YF; n = 5) to a constant live weight end point (530 kg). When slaughtered at the same age, CF and YF steers did not differ (P > .05) in feedlot ADG, but the CF steers were heavier and had higher dressing percentages, numeric yield grades, and quality grades (P .05) in palatability traits. When fed to a constant live weight, the YF steers gained more rapidly (P .05) between the treatments in carcass quality grade or meat palatability characteristics. Thus, when finished to a constant weight end point, YF steers gained more rapidly, with no adverse effects on carcass quality grade or palatability traits; however, CF steers consistently produced higher dressing percentages, largely due to greater external fatness. PMID:9110211

  6. Carcass and meat quality traits of Iberian pig as affected by sex and crossbreeding with different Duroc genetic lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Robina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 144 pigs were used to study the effects of sex (barrows or gilts and terminal sire line (Iberian or three genetic lines of Duroc: Duroc 1, Duroc 2 and Duroc 3 on performance and carcass and meat quality traits. Gilts showed slightly lower average daily gain, shoulder weight and trimming losses, but slightly better primal cuts yields and higher loin weight, while there was no significant effect of sex on meat quality traits or on the fatty acid composition of lard and muscle. There were important differences in performance and in carcass and primal cuts quality traits between pure Iberian pigs and all Iberian × Duroc crossbreeds evaluated, partly due to the lower slaughter weights reached by the formers. The different sire lines showed differences in several traits; Duroc 1 group showed lower backfat thickness and ham and shoulder trimming losses, and higher primal cut yields than Duroc 2 and Duroc 3 groups. Intramuscular fat (IMF content remained unaffected by crossbreeding, but meat color resulted more intense and redder in crosses from the Duroc 1 sire line. The accumulation of fatty acids in lard was not affected by Duroc sire line, while animals of the group Duroc 2 showed higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acid and lower of polyunsaturated ones in IMF. These results highlight the importance of considering not only performance, but also carcass and meat quality traits when deciding the Duroc sire line for crossbreeding in Iberian pig production.

  7. Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a protein source for organic chickens: performance and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Castellini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of transgenic feed and synthetic amino acids in organic chicken diets has made necessary to find protein-rich feedstuffs which do not alter productive performance. The effect of the faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a partial substitute for soybean on the performance and carcass traits of slow-growing chickens of both sexes reared under the organic method was assessed. The experiment was carried out in the spring and autumn; one thousand birds per season were split into 8 groups (4 groups of males and 4 groups of females, each duplicated and fed a double phase diet: a common starter diet for 20 days and two different growing-finisher diets containing either soybean (24%; S or faba bean (16%; F till the end of the rearing period (120 d. Average values of final live weight, feed intake and daily weight gain were significantly affected by sex, being higher in males than in females; the diets affected performance only in the 21-60 days of age period when the F group grew less and had poorer feed efficiency compared to the S group. Successively, the compensatory growth eliminated differences in slaughter weight. Regarding carcass traits, the diet affected only the ready- to-cook carcass percentage and the carena length, both of which were higher in S birds. Faba beans could be a valuable protein source in the diet of organic chickens when used after the critical starter period.

  8. Effects of Selection for Four Week Body Weight on Some Parameters in Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) 2. Production Traits and Genetic Gains

    OpenAIRE

    Oğuz, İsmail; TÜRKMUT, Levent

    1999-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine the genetic effects of divergent selection under two different selection under two different selection pressure for 4 week body weight over 3 generations on 4 week body weight and related characters such as slaughter weight, carcass weight, breast weight and leg weight in Japanese quail. Birds were weighted individuay. Individual selection for body weight was carried out at 4 weeks, separately for each sex. The proportion kept was 10% for males a...

  9. [Association between single nucleotide polymorphism of MC4R gene and carcass traits in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mei-Shan; Chen, Shi-Yi; Lai, Song-Jia; Deng, Xiao-Song; Chen, Yun; Wan, Jie

    2008-12-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding sequence of melanoeortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene were detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing method in Harbin white rabbit, Tianfu black rabbit, Belgian hare, ZIKA rabbit, and California rabbit breeds. A-->G conversion mutation at base position 237 was found with high frequency in Harbin white rabbit, Belgian hare, and Zika rabbit and low frequency in Tianfu black rabbit and California rabbit. The allele A was pre-dominant allele for each of meat rabbit breeds. AA genotype frequency was higher than AG genotype in the five studied rabbit breeds. GLM analysis for the effect of genotypes on performance traits demonstrated that AG genotype was significantly associated with body weight, eviscerated weight and feed conversion efficiency (P0.05). It was concluded from the results that MC4R gene could be a candidate modifier gene that affects or controls body weight and carcass traits of rabbit.

  10. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of heavy swine fed different citrus pulp levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.H. Watanabe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An assay with 36 swine initially weighting 83.7±5.1kg body weight (BW was carried out to evaluate the effects of the use of different dietary citrus pulp levels, 0, 10%, 20%, and 30%, upon digestive organs weights, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of animals subjected to qualitative feed restriction program, and slaughtered at 130kg BW. Linear response (P0.05. Higher levels of citrus pulp neither decreased backfat thickness nor increased amount of lean meat, indicative that qualitative feed restriction was not efficient. Positive linear effect (P<0.05 on pH measured 24 hours after slaughter and negative linear effect (P<0.05 on color characteristics as function of citrus pulp dietary levels were verified. Citrus pulp addition in qualitative feed restriction program may not be effective. As no deleterious effects upon meat qualities were observed, citrus pulp can be used as an alternative feedstuff for finishing swine.

  11. Effects of dried cassava pulp as a main source of energy in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Yimmongkol

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding dried cassava pulp (DCP as a main source of energy at a higher level in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle. Fifteen Brahman-native crossbred young bulls at an average age of 2 years and initial weight of 277±10.36 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups in a completely randomized trial. The animals received either control concentrate(CTRL, concentrate in which cassava meal was replaced by DCP at 50 (DCP50 or 100% (DCP100 by weight. Experimental diets were fed to the animals ad libitum and supplemented with 3 kg of para grass (Brachiaria mutica. The feeding period was 150 days. The results indicated that feedlot cattle on CTRL showed the best feedlot performance and carcass quality as compared to the other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05. The DCP50 had highereconomic return compared to the CTRL and DCP100, while DCP100 can be potentially incorporated into the ration when the cassava price is too high to be used. Carcass composition (slaughtering weight, carcass weight, carcass percentage, lean weight and lean percentage of the experimental feedlot cattle were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100, respectively. Some beef eating qualities (shear force, tenderness, juiciness, meat flavor and overall satisfaction were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100 total, respectively.

  12. The variation in the eating quality of beef from different sexes and breed classes cannot be completely explained by carcass measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Hocquette, J-F; Pethick, D W; Farmer, L J; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Polkinghorne, R J; Gardner, G E

    2016-06-01

    Delivering beef of consistent quality to the consumer is vital for consumer satisfaction and will help to ensure demand and therefore profitability within the beef industry. In Australia, this is being tackled with Meat Standards Australia (MSA), which uses carcass traits and processing factors to deliver an individual eating quality guarantee to the consumer for 135 different 'cut by cooking methods' from each carcass. The carcass traits used in the MSA model, such as ossification score, carcass weight and marbling explain the majority of the differences between breeds and sexes. Therefore, it was expected that the model would predict with eating quality of bulls and dairy breeds with good accuracy. In total, 8128 muscle samples from 482 carcasses from France, Poland, Ireland and Northern Ireland were MSA graded at slaughter then evaluated for tenderness, juiciness, flavour liking and overall liking by untrained consumers, according to MSA protocols. The scores were weighted (0.3, 0.1, 0.3, 0.3) and combined to form a global eating quality (meat quality (MQ4)) score. The carcasses were grouped into one of the three breed categories: beef breeds, dairy breeds and crosses. The difference between the actual and the MSA-predicted MQ4 scores were analysed using a linear mixed effects model including fixed effects for carcass hang method, cook type, muscle type, sex, country, breed category and postmortem ageing period, and random terms for animal identification, consumer country and kill group. Bulls had lower MQ4 scores than steers and females and were predicted less accurately by the MSA model. Beef breeds had lower eating quality scores than dairy breeds and crosses for five out of the 16 muscles tested. Beef breeds were also over predicted in comparison with the cross and dairy breeds for six out of the 16 muscles tested. Therefore, even after accounting for differences in carcass traits, bulls still differ in eating quality when compared with females and steers

  13. Carcass yield of surubins Pseudoplatystoma spp. reared in ponds under different stocking densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Emiliani Fantini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate carcass yield of surubins Pseudoplatystoma spp. reared in ponds under different stocking densities. We performed a completely randomized design, with three treatments (density and nine repetitions. The densities were: density 1 (1peixe/5m2, density 2 (1 fish/3m2 and 3 density (1 fish/2.14 m2. Surubins total average weight of 1.144 ± 0.340 kg, were slaughtered by thermal shock in ice for determining yields of eviscerated fish with and no head (YEFWH; YEFWNH, the lateral fillet with and with no skin (YLFWS; YLFWNS of abdominal fillet with and with no skin (YAFWS; YAFWNS, head (YH, skin (YS, viscera (YV of residues (YR. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and average was compared by Tukey test at 5%. In order to steeming the relation among income on percentage of carcass components depending on the final weight of the fish we reckoned regression equations. There was no difference (P>0.05 of treatment through the variables of income. Average values for YEFWH, YH, YLFWNS, YAFWNS, YS, YV and YR were 91.44 ± 2.20%, 21.17 ± 1.57%, 30.01 ± 2.48%, 12.74 ± 1, 17%, 6.71 ± 1.21%, 7.61% ± 2.23, 20.11 ± 3.01%, respectively. The correlations of weight of fish yields were trivial, thus, they showed that the final weight is not a reliable indicator of yield cuts. The principal component analysis (PC indicated that four of those tests were sufficient to explain 90% of the total variation, resulting from the combination of the variables final weight and yields. The performance evaluation of income on percentage of participation in the fish total weight of the different components of carcass depending on the final weight of the animals showed linear manner for (YEFWH, YH and YV. Surubim yields processing does not depend on stocking density and they have similar values.

  14. Effect of restricted feeding and realimentation on feed performance and carcass characteristics of growing lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abouheif

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Forty Najdi ram lambs weighing 26.6±0.3 kg were utilized in this experiment to determine the effects of feed restriction followed by realimentation and body weight at the onset of feed restriction (30 and 36 kg body weights on performance and carcass characteristics; feeding and restriction levels were ad libitum, 0.75 and 0.60 of the ad libitum intake. All lambs were slaughtered after 14 weeks of experimentation. The results showed that, during the feed restriction phase, average daily gain (ADG and feed efficiency decreased as the level of restriction increased. During the realimentation phase, the 30 kg lambs gained weights and consumed dry matter (DM similarly to the ad libitum group, whereas the ADG for the 36 kg lambs of both 0.75 and 0.60 ad libitum groups were 20 and 43.8% faster than the ad libitum group, respectively. At the end of the trial, final body weight and overall ADG of the realimented 30 kg groups were lower than ad libitum group, whereas the ADG of the 36 kg groups were not different compared with the ad libitum group. Although empty body, hot and cold carcass, empty stomach compartments, empty intestines and liver weights for the 36 kg groups were not affected by feed restriction followed by realimentation, weights of visceral fat depots, subcutaneous fat and tail fat decreased much more than those of the ad libitum group. Carcass composition of the realimented 0.75 and 0.60 ad libitum groups tended to have 5.1 and 8.8% less lean tissue than the ad libitum group when the restriction started at 30 kg, respectively. On the other hand, the realimented lambs of both 0.75 and 0.60 ad libitum groups tended to be 5.1 and 2.8% leaner than those of the ad libitum group when restriction started at 36 kg body weight, respectively. Feed restriction of up to 40% for a 5-week period followed by a 4-week period of refeeding in 36 kg lambs is economically feasible and does not offset production.

  15. Growth Performance, Carcass and Organ Characteristics of Pullets Fed Plantain Ash Supplemented Commercial Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinwe M. Nwogu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of different plantain ash sources (plantain root base ash (PRA and plantain stalk ash (PSA supplementation on the performance of pullets fed commercial diets. Ninety six Isa brown pullets aged 15 weeks were therefore used to assess the effect of supplementing commercial diets with plantain root base (PRA and stalk ashes (PSA on growth performance, carcass and organ characteristics of pullets during 4 weeks before point of laying (19 weeks of age and 6 weeks of laying period (25 weeks of age. The pullets were divided into two groups of 48 each for supplementation with either PSA or PRA. Each group was divided into four groups of 12, which were further replicated 3 times with 4 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. At each developmental stage, the feed offered to the birds was supplemented with 0 (control, 1, 2, and 3 g/kg body weight of PSA or PRA. One g/kgBW of PRA supplementation elicited observable growth performance effects on the birds, while for PSA it was 2 g/kgBW. The 2 g/kgBW PSA supplemented birds gained significantly (P<0.05 more weight than the other groups except the control, which consumed significantly (P<0.05 more feed. At point of laying, the 1g/kgBW PRA group recorded significantly (P<0.05 higher body weight and weight gain than the control. Plantain root base ash affected dressing percentage significantly (P<0.05 resulting in higher thigh weights, while organ weights decreased with increasing ash supplementation levels. Plantain ash therefore has positive effect on growth and edible carcass cut.

  16. From the Field: Carbofuran detected on weathered raptor carcass feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Bauer, W.; Olson, S.

    2005-01-01

    The cause of death for raptors poisoned at illegal carbofuran-Iaced predator baits is often not confirmed because the carcass matrices that are conventionally analyzed are not available due to decomposition and scavenging. However, many such carcasses retain intact feet that may have come into contact with carbofuran. Eastern screech owls (Otus asio) were exposed to carbofuran via simulated predator baits. Detection of carbofuran from owl feet weathered for 28 days demonstrated the temporal reliability of using feet during a forensic investigation. Raptor carcasses previously not submitted for residue analysis because of a lack of the conventional matrices may now be salvaged for their feet.

  17. PIG CARCASS CLASSIFICATION IN ROMANIA: A DISSECTION TRIAL FOR THE APPROVAL OF THE “FAT-O-MEAT’ER” AND OF THE “OPTIGRADE-PRO”EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Esperance GĂUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to obtain new regression formulas for optical equipment Fat-O-Meat’er and OptiGrade-PRO in pig carcass classification in Romania. The estimation of lean mean content in pig carcasses by means of SEUROP system and following fair payment based on the weight and composition of the carcass pigs in the main objective of classification. Dissection of four main cuts (shoulder, loin, ham, belly of pig carcasses (n = 145 were performed. The measurement of backfat and muscle depths using probes were taken from the carcasses within 45 min. after slaughter of pigs. Lean meat content estimated using different methods and determined from dissections was equal (56,3 % . There were calculated new regression formulas using the multiplied regression analysis. Correct regression formulas for classification equipments have a big importance. The requirements on accuracy of regression formulas are laid out in the Commission Regulation No 3127 / 94 and means of dissection according to the method by Walstra and Merkus (1996

  18. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Santa Inês lambs fed with sunflower cake replacing cottonseed meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fernandes Júnior

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed sunflower cake to replace the protein of cottonseed meal. The experiment was conducted at the sheep sector at the Farm School, State University of Londrina. Thirty Santa Inês lambs, intact males, with age and weight at the beginning of the experiment of 80 days and 21.45 ± 2.16 kg, respectively, were used. It was used a completely randomized experimental design. The animals were divided into 5 treatments, with 6 replicates per treatment, according to the amount of protein of cottonseed meal replaced by protein of the sunflower cake (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of replacement. Carcasses were evaluated and the Longissimus dorsi was removed for analyzes of shear force, color, pH, marbling, water loss by pressure, sensory analysis, chemical analyses and lipid oxidation. Hot and cold carcass yields showed quadratic distributions, where the best values were found for treatments with low inclusion of sunflower cake. Carcass measurements, as well as cut yields were not affected by the content of sunflower cake. Regarding the parameters of lamb meat, only water losses during cooking and shear force were affected, being quadratic and linear, respectively. The meat was more tender in animals fed higher amounts of sunflower cake. The tasters of the sensory panel did not identify differences between treatments, and classified the meat with moderate odor intensity, good tenderness, low to moderate juiciness and medium acceptability. The replacement of cottonseed meal protein by sunflower cake protein in the levels used, did not affect the majority of the carcass characteristics and the meat quality.

  19. Carcass Characteristics of Kacang Goats Fed Ration Containing MH-1 Variety of Kapok Seed Meal (Ceiba pentandra, GAERTN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hidjaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the carcass characteristics of Kacang goats fed ration containing kapok seed meal (KSM as a component of the concentrate. The experiment was conducted in two stages. The first stage was to find out the best variety of kapok that will be used in the second experiment; the second stage was to determine the benefits of KSM on carcass characteristics. Twenty-five, 8 months old Kacang goats with initial body weight of 11.71±1.08 kg, were used in this experiment. The animals were housed individually based on completely randomized design (CRD with 5 treatments and 5 replications. The rations were based on forage:concentrate ratio of 50:50 dry matter basis. The ration contained concentrates, with increasing levels of KSM, i.e.: R0 (napier grass + concentrate: rice bran, coconut cake, corn, urea + 0% KSM; R5 (R0 + KSM 5%; R10 (R0 + KSM 10%; R15 (R0 + KSM 15%; and R20 (R0 + KSM 20%. Drinking water was provided ad libitum. The result of first stage showed that KSM variety of MH-1 would be used as a component of the concentrate on the second experiment. The increasing level of KSM in the rations had significant effect (P<0.05 on physical characteristics of the carcass, such as dressing percentage (44.35%, carcass length (54.006 cm, fleshing index (130.59 g/cm, plumpness of leg (87.48%, loin eye area (5.06 cm2, and percentage of carcass meat (64.69%. It is concluded that MH-1 variety of KSM can be used as a feed component up to 20 % in the goat ration.

  20. Effect of split marketing on the welfare, performance, and carcass traits of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, S; Lawlor, P G; O'Connell, N; Boyle, L A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a split marketing (SM) strategy, in which the heaviest pigs in a group are removed and slaughtered earlier than the others, with an all-out (AO) marketing strategy, in which all pigs are removed from the pen simultaneously and slaughtered on the same day, in terms of welfare, performance, and carcass traits of noncastrated (i.e., intact) male and female pigs. The experimental treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial array with 1) marketing strategy (SM vs. AO) and 2) sex (males vs. females), which yielded 4 treatment groups of 14 pigs (73.1 ± 4.8 kg): male SM, male AO, female SM, and female AO (7 replicates/group). Pigs in AO groups were all slaughtered after 6 wk on trial, whereas in SM groups the 3 heaviest pigs were removed and slaughtered 2 wk before the remainder of the group, which were slaughtered at the same time as the AO pigs. Pigs were fed a liquid diet from a long trough 3 times daily. Behavioral observations were conducted before and after SM, the day of SM, and 1 and 2 wk later. Behavior was recorded both during and between feed events, and skin lesions were scored on all, except the 3 pigs removed from SM groups before and 2 wk after SM. Growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were recorded. The number of aggressive interactions during feed events decreased after the 3 pigs were removed from SM groups. This reduction in aggressive interactions was observed on the day of SM in male groups (before SM: 24.3 vs. the day of SM: 14.7, SED = 3.31, P 0.10). There were no differences between the 11 remaining pigs in SM groups and the 14 pigs in AO groups in terms of growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass traits of female or intact male pigs (P > 0.10). However, reduced within-pen CV in carcass weight was detected in pigs from SM groups compared with pigs from AO groups (8.6 vs. 10.9, SEM = 0.72, P < 0.05). Therefore, in restrictively fed pigs, a SM strategy improved the welfare of both

  1. Effect of butyric acid on the performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, S; Namkung, H; Antongiovanni, M; Lee, E H

    2005-09-01

    Short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate are considered potential alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters. The efficacy of butyric acid on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens was tested in two studies. The effect of dietary butyrate on the ability to withstand coccidial oocyte challenge also was investigated. In experiment 1, male broiler chickens were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 11 ppm virginiamycin or 0.2 or 0.4% butyric acid (as mono-, di-, and triglyceride). In experiment 2, broilers were fed bacitracin methylene disalicylate or 0.1 or 0.2% butyric acid. In another trial, birds vaccinated against coccidiosis were challenged with oocytes at 21 d and examined 6 d later. In experiment 1, diet treatments had no effect on body weight gain. Feed intake of the birds fed 0.4% butyric acid was decreased (P < 0.01) compared with birds fed the nonmedicated diet during the starter period, whereas birds fed 0.2% butyric acid had similar feed intake to the control birds. In experiment 2, diet treatments did not affect the performance of broiler chicks while carcass weight and breast meat yield increased (P < 0.01) in birds fed 0.2% butyric acid. With oocyte challenge, birds that had received butyric acid before challenge showed higher growth rate following the challenge compared with birds that received nonmedicated feed. Bacitracin decreased (P < 0.05%) duodenal villi crypt depth, whereas villus length was similar in birds fed butyric acid or the nonmedicated control diet. These results show that 0.2% butyric acid can help to maintain the performance and carcass quality of broilers, especially in vaccinated birds challenged with coccidiosis. PMID:16206563

  2. Effect of feed protein on carcass composition and meat quality in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, P; Culioli, J; Renerre, M; Touraille, C; Micol, D; Geay, Y

    1993-01-01

    Forty-five Charolais steers were fed one of four experimental regimes containing maize silage and maize grain supplemented with either protected soyabean-rapessed meal or linseed meal. The first three regimes were formulated to supply the same energy and different protein levels with soyabean-rapessed meal: low (L-SRM), medium (M-SRM) and high (H-SRM). The fourth regime consisted in feeding the same amount (kg/day) of linseed meal as that of soyabean-rapessed meal in the H-SRM regime (LSM). As the protein level increased from L-SRM to H-SRM, the daily weight gain of steers increased and the carcass composition was changed towards higher muscle and lower fat proportions. Though the actual supply of feed protein by regime LSM was close to that achieved with M-SRM, the effect of linseed meal supplementation on weight gain and carcass composition was comparable to that obtained by feeding the high protein level (H-SRM). The dry matter content increased and the heme pigments and lipids contents decreased in longissimus thoracis muscle as the protein supply increased from the low to the high level. Again the amplitude of the differences in meat quality with L-SRM were similar in H-SRM and LSM. Muscle colour, connective tissue and mechanical strength remained practically unaffected by the protein treatments. However, meat was scored less tender in H-SRM and less juicy in treatment LSM than in treatment L-SRM. The results obtained with linseed meal suggest a specific effect of type of feed protein on beef carcass composition and meat quality. PMID:22060838

  3. Effects of ractopamine supplementation on growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers differing in biological type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, S L; Tatum, J D; Engle, T E; Mitchell, M A; Laudert, S B; Schroeder, A L; Platter, W J

    2007-07-01

    Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) supplementation on growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers differing in biological type were investigated using British, Continental crossbred, and Brahman crossbred calf-fed steers (n = 420). Steers of each type were weighed at reimplantation [British, mean BW = 375 kg (SD = 38 kg); Continental crossbred, mean BW = 379 kg (SD = 42 kg); Brahman crossbred, mean BW = 340 (SD = 32 kg)] and sorted into 7 BW blocks, each block consisting of 2 pens (10 steers per pen) per type. Pens within a block x type subclass were randomly assigned to RAC treatments (0 or 200 mg x steer(-1) x d(-1) fed during the final 28 d of the finishing period). The type x RAC interaction did not affect (P > 0.05) any of the traits evaluated in this study. Feeding RAC improved (P = 0.001) ADG (1.50 vs. 1.73 +/- 0.09 kg) and G:F (0.145 vs. 0.170 +/- 0.005), but did not affect (P = 0.48) DMI of steers. Dressing percentage, adjusted fat thickness, KPH percentage, and yield grade were not affected by RAC supplementation. Carcasses of steers fed RAC had heavier (P = 0.01) HCW (359 vs. 365 +/- 4.9 kg), larger (P = 0.046) LM areas (81.7 vs. 84.0 +/- 1.1 cm(2)), and tended (P = 0.07) to have lower mean marbling scores (487 vs. 477 +/- 5.2; Slight = 400, Small = 500) than did carcasses of control steers. Among the 3 biological types, Brahman crossbred steers had the lowest DMI and produced the lightest-weight carcasses that had the lowest mean marbling score (P Brahman crossbred steers, British steers produced carcasses with the greatest (P = 0.001) mean marbling scores. Continental crossbred steers had the heaviest BW and greatest dressing percentages and produced the heaviest carcasses with the largest LM areas (P Brahman crossbred steers. In the present study, 28 d of supplementation with RAC at a dosage rate of 200 mg x steer(-1) x d(-1) elicited consistent responses in growth performance and carcass traits among 3 diverse biological

  4. Effects of ractopamine supplementation on growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers differing in biological type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, S L; Tatum, J D; Engle, T E; Mitchell, M A; Laudert, S B; Schroeder, A L; Platter, W J

    2007-07-01

    Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) supplementation on growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers differing in biological type were investigated using British, Continental crossbred, and Brahman crossbred calf-fed steers (n = 420). Steers of each type were weighed at reimplantation [British, mean BW = 375 kg (SD = 38 kg); Continental crossbred, mean BW = 379 kg (SD = 42 kg); Brahman crossbred, mean BW = 340 (SD = 32 kg)] and sorted into 7 BW blocks, each block consisting of 2 pens (10 steers per pen) per type. Pens within a block x type subclass were randomly assigned to RAC treatments (0 or 200 mg x steer(-1) x d(-1) fed during the final 28 d of the finishing period). The type x RAC interaction did not affect (P > 0.05) any of the traits evaluated in this study. Feeding RAC improved (P = 0.001) ADG (1.50 vs. 1.73 +/- 0.09 kg) and G:F (0.145 vs. 0.170 +/- 0.005), but did not affect (P = 0.48) DMI of steers. Dressing percentage, adjusted fat thickness, KPH percentage, and yield grade were not affected by RAC supplementation. Carcasses of steers fed RAC had heavier (P = 0.01) HCW (359 vs. 365 +/- 4.9 kg), larger (P = 0.046) LM areas (81.7 vs. 84.0 +/- 1.1 cm(2)), and tended (P = 0.07) to have lower mean marbling scores (487 vs. 477 +/- 5.2; Slight = 400, Small = 500) than did carcasses of control steers. Among the 3 biological types, Brahman crossbred steers had the lowest DMI and produced the lightest-weight carcasses that had the lowest mean marbling score (P Brahman crossbred steers, British steers produced carcasses with the greatest (P = 0.001) mean marbling scores. Continental crossbred steers had the heaviest BW and greatest dressing percentages and produced the heaviest carcasses with the largest LM areas (P Brahman crossbred steers. In the present study, 28 d of supplementation with RAC at a dosage rate of 200 mg x steer(-1) x d(-1) elicited consistent responses in growth performance and carcass traits among 3 diverse biological

  5. The effects of finishing diet and postmortem ageing on the eating quality of the M. longissimus thoracis of electrically stimulated Brahman steer carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, H L; Stark, J L; Beilken, S L

    2004-06-01

    Beef from cattle finished on grass will be of similar quality to that from cattle finished on grain when their carcasses are processed using best practice protocols. To test this hypothesis, carcasses of twenty Brahman steers, finished to 400 kg live weight on either Buffel grass pasture (n=10) or grain (n=10), were electrically stimulated with 400 V for 50 s 45 min postmortem, and their beef quality assessed 1 and 14 days postmortem. Hot weight, rump subcutaneous fat thickness and animal rate of growth in the 205 days preceding slaughter were recorded for each carcass as potential influences on beef quality. Quality of the M. longissimus thoracis (LT) at 1 and 14 days postmortem was evaluated using peak Warner-Bratzler shear force, compression, pH, cooking loss and taste panel acceptability, as well as by moisture and crude fat contents measured at 1 day postmortem. Results showed that steers finished on pasture grew the slowest and had the least subcutaneous fat at the same carcass weight. LT from carcasses of steers finished on pasture also had the shortest mean sarcomere lengths, suggesting these muscles may have been cold-affected, but there was no effect of diet on peak shear force. LT from carcasses of steers finished on pasture had the highest mean compression value, possibly because of increased collagen cross-linking associated with slow growth or increased exercise. Ageing significantly decreased LT peak shear force and compression values and increased cooking loss, L (∗), a (∗) and b (∗) values. Taste panellists rated the aged, grass-finished beef the most tender and the best quality; however, the taste panel in this study may have favoured LT from grass-finished steers because it was significantly juicier than LT from the grain-finished steer carcasses. These results indicated that carcass composition and processing conditions interact to exert a greater effect on LT toughness and sensory acceptability than finishing diet. Ageing LT from steers

  6. The effects of finishing diet and postmortem ageing on the eating quality of the M. longissimus thoracis of electrically stimulated Brahman steer carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, H L; Stark, J L; Beilken, S L

    2004-06-01

    Beef from cattle finished on grass will be of similar quality to that from cattle finished on grain when their carcasses are processed using best practice protocols. To test this hypothesis, carcasses of twenty Brahman steers, finished to 400 kg live weight on either Buffel grass pasture (n=10) or grain (n=10), were electrically stimulated with 400 V for 50 s 45 min postmortem, and their beef quality assessed 1 and 14 days postmortem. Hot weight, rump subcutaneous fat thickness and animal rate of growth in the 205 days preceding slaughter were recorded for each carcass as potential influences on beef quality. Quality of the M. longissimus thoracis (LT) at 1 and 14 days postmortem was evaluated using peak Warner-Bratzler shear force, compression, pH, cooking loss and taste panel acceptability, as well as by moisture and crude fat contents measured at 1 day postmortem. Results showed that steers finished on pasture grew the slowest and had the least subcutaneous fat at the same carcass weight. LT from carcasses of steers finished on pasture also had the shortest mean sarcomere lengths, suggesting these muscles may have been cold-affected, but there was no effect of diet on peak shear force. LT from carcasses of steers finished on pasture had the highest mean compression value, possibly because of increased collagen cross-linking associated with slow growth or increased exercise. Ageing significantly decreased LT peak shear force and compression values and increased cooking loss, L (∗), a (∗) and b (∗) values. Taste panellists rated the aged, grass-finished beef the most tender and the best quality; however, the taste panel in this study may have favoured LT from grass-finished steers because it was significantly juicier than LT from the grain-finished steer carcasses. These results indicated that carcass composition and processing conditions interact to exert a greater effect on LT toughness and sensory acceptability than finishing diet. Ageing LT from steers

  7. Modeling the Biological Diversity of Pig Carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen

    extracting and modeling meaningful information from the vast amount of information available from non-invasive imaging data. The lean meat percentage (LMP) is a common standard for measuring the quality of pig carcasses. Measuring the LMP using CT and using this as a reference for calibration of online...... equipment is investigated, without the need for a calibration against a less accurate manual dissection. The rest of the contributions regard the construction and use of point distribution models (PDM). PDM’s are able to capture the shape variation of a population of shapes, in this case a 3D surface of a...... specific bone structure in the ham. These models can assist developers of robotic tools by enabling population based testing before actual construction of the tools. Sparse models are compared to the standard PCA based model and a method for fitting PDM’s to sparse data is proposed. The former provides...

  8. Postweaning growth and carcass traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Wagyu maternal grandsires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for postweaning growth and carcass composition traits in terminal crossbred cattle. Postweaning growth and carcass traits were analyzed on 434 steers and 373 heifers obtained by mating F1 cows to Charolais sires. Maternal grandsires represented Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British Breeds), Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, or Friesian breeds. Breed groups were slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr (2002 and 2003). Postweaning ADG, slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, percentage Choice, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, retail product yield (percentage), retail product weight, fat yield (percentage), fat weight, bone yield (percentage), and bone weight were analyzed. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits except dressing percentage, percentage Choice, and LM area. Marbling score for animals with Norwegian Red, Wagyu, Swedish Red and White, British Breeds, and Friesian inheritance was 550, 544, 532, 530, and 515, respectively (SEM = 8). Retail product weight for these animals was 224, 211, 227, 223, and 223 kg, respectively (SEM = 2 kg). Maternal granddam breed was not significant for any of the traits analyzed. Grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems. PMID:16424257

  9. Weighted Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, Margareta; Branzei, Simina; Loker, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate clustering in the weighted setting, in which every data point is assigned a real valued weight. We conduct a theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in each of the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterising the precise conditions under which such algorithms react to weights, and classifying clustering methods into three broad categories: weight-responsive, weight-considering, and weight-robust. Our analysis raises several interesting questions and can be directly mapped to the classical unweighted setting.

  10. Carcass and meat characteristics from dairy-origin steers fed with diets based on ground pearl millet grain, containing inclusion levels of babassu mesocarp meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Martins Alencar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate carcass and meat characteristics of feedlot-finished steers of dairy origin fed with pearl millet grain-based diets, containing inclusion levels of babassu mesocarp bran (BMB (0, 12, 24, 36 and 48%. A total of 30 Holstein-Zebu crossbred steers with an average initial weight of 371.02 ± 27 kg were randomly divided into six groups fed with different experimental diets (five pearl millet-based diets containing inclusion levels of BMB and one standard corn-based diet. Each diet had five replications. Isonitrogenous diets had a roughage/concentrate ratio of 20/80. BMB inclusion level in the diet reduced slaughter and carcass weight from 488.4 and 242.2 kg to 454.0 and 226.7 kg, respectively. The subcutaneous fat thickness, conformation, and pistol cut weight were also reduced to 38.8, 13.6, and 9%, respectively, as the BMB inclusion level in the diet increased. Meat characteristics were not affected by BMB inclusion levels in the diet. Regarding carcass and meat characteristics, no difference was observed in the analysis of contrasts between BMB diets and corn- or millet-based diets, or between corn- or millet-based diets. The inclusion of BMB in millet-based diets should consider the cost/benefit ratio, as it reduces slaughter and carcass weight, while the main meat characteristics remain unchanged. However, total substitution of corn by millet grains in feedlot diets does not alter bovine carcass and meat characteristics.

  11. Purebred-crossbred performance and genetic evaluation of postweaning growth and carcass traits in Bos indicus x Bos taurus crosses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S; Reverter, A; Johnston, D J

    2002-07-01

    Growth and carcass data on 7,154 cattle from a purebred project and 1,241 cattle from a crossbred project, comprising 916 first-crosses and 325 purebred Brahman controls, were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters, including the genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performance (rpc). The data also allowed the estimation of sire breed means for various growth and carcass traits. Crossbred calves were produced using 9 Angus, 8 Hereford, 7 Shorthorn, 14 Belmont Red, and 8 Santa Gertrudis sires bred to Brahman dams. These same sires produced 1,568 progeny in a separate purebreeding project. Cattle in both projects were managed under two finishing regimens (pasture and feedlot) to representative market live weights of 400 (domestic), 520 (Korean), and 600 kg (Japanese). The traits studied included live weight at around 400 d of age (400W), hot carcass weight (CWT), retail beef yield percentage (RBY), intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat depth (P8), and preslaughter ultrasound scanned eye muscle area (SEMA). Estimated breeding values (EBV) of sires from their BREEDPLAN genetic evaluations were used to assess their value in predicting crossbred performance. Regressions of actual crossbred calf performance on sire EBV for each of the traits differed little from their expectation of 0.5. Angus sires produced crossbred carcasses with the highest P8 and lowest RBY but highest IMF. In contrast, crossbred progeny from Belmont Red sires had the lightest 400W and CWT, lowest P8, and highest RBY. Estimates of rpc were 0.48, 0.48, 0.83, 0.95, 1.00, and 0.78 for 400W, CWT, RBY, IMF, P8, and SEMA, respectively. Commercial breeders selecting sires for crossbreeding programs with Brahman females, based on EBV computed from purebred data, might encounter some reranking of sire's performance for weight-related traits, with little expected change in carcass traits.

  12. Purebred-crossbred performance and genetic evaluation of postweaning growth and carcass traits in Bos indicus x Bos taurus crosses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S; Reverter, A; Johnston, D J

    2002-07-01

    Growth and carcass data on 7,154 cattle from a purebred project and 1,241 cattle from a crossbred project, comprising 916 first-crosses and 325 purebred Brahman controls, were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters, including the genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performance (rpc). The data also allowed the estimation of sire breed means for various growth and carcass traits. Crossbred calves were produced using 9 Angus, 8 Hereford, 7 Shorthorn, 14 Belmont Red, and 8 Santa Gertrudis sires bred to Brahman dams. These same sires produced 1,568 progeny in a separate purebreeding project. Cattle in both projects were managed under two finishing regimens (pasture and feedlot) to representative market live weights of 400 (domestic), 520 (Korean), and 600 kg (Japanese). The traits studied included live weight at around 400 d of age (400W), hot carcass weight (CWT), retail beef yield percentage (RBY), intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat depth (P8), and preslaughter ultrasound scanned eye muscle area (SEMA). Estimated breeding values (EBV) of sires from their BREEDPLAN genetic evaluations were used to assess their value in predicting crossbred performance. Regressions of actual crossbred calf performance on sire EBV for each of the traits differed little from their expectation of 0.5. Angus sires produced crossbred carcasses with the highest P8 and lowest RBY but highest IMF. In contrast, crossbred progeny from Belmont Red sires had the lightest 400W and CWT, lowest P8, and highest RBY. Estimates of rpc were 0.48, 0.48, 0.83, 0.95, 1.00, and 0.78 for 400W, CWT, RBY, IMF, P8, and SEMA, respectively. Commercial breeders selecting sires for crossbreeding programs with Brahman females, based on EBV computed from purebred data, might encounter some reranking of sire's performance for weight-related traits, with little expected change in carcass traits. PMID:12162647

  13. Restrição alimentar em caprinos: rendimento, cortes comerciais e composição da carcaça Feed restriction in goats: carcass yield, commercial cuts, and carcass composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Alejandro Yáñez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da restrição alimentar sobre as características da carcaça de caprinos leiteiros, realizou-se um experimento utilizando 27 cabritos castrados da raça Saanen. Os animais (PV inicial de 20 kg foram distribuídos nos tratamentos alimentação à vontade e 30 e 60% de restrição, sendo abatidos aos 35 kg de PV. Foram avaliados o rendimento comercial e biológico, os cortes comerciais, a área de olho-de-lombo e a composição tecidual da perna. O rendimento biológico não foi afetado pela restrição alimentar, mas o comercial diminuiu com o aumento da restrição. A elevação no nível de restrição alimentar promoveu diminuição do lombo e da 6ª a 13ª costelas e aumento da paleta e do pescoço, proporcionalmente à meia-carcaça. A proporção de ossos aumentou e a de gordura total diminuiu com o aumento da restrição. O tecido muscular não foi afetado pela restrição. A restrição alimentar de até 30% não prejudicou a qualidade da carcaça de caprinos leiteiros.Twenty-seven Saanen male kids averaging 20 kg of body weight (BW at the beginning of the trial were used to study the effects of feed restriction on carcass characteristics. Animals were assigned to one of the following three treatments: control (fed ad libitum, 30 or 60% of feed restriction. A completely randomized design was used and data were submitted to regression analysis; animals were slaughtered when they reached 35 kg of BW. The following traits were measured in this trial: carcass commercial and biological yields, commercial cuts, tissue composition of hind leg, rib eye area (REA, and carcass compactness. Increasing feed restriction reduced carcass and commercial cut weights as well as loin and fat proportions in the carcass. Conversely, proportions of bone, neck, and shoulder clod all increased when the feed restriction went from 0 to 60%. Muscle tissue proportion was not changed by feed restriction in this study. It can be

  14. Analysis and Optimisation of Carcass Production for Flexible Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe

    structure that provides mechanical and collapse strength for the flexible pipe. The manufacturing process of carcass is a combination of roll forming stainless steel strips and helical winding the profiles around a mandrel interlocking the profiles with themselves. The focus of the present project...... is the analysis and optimisation of the carcass manufacturing process by means of a fundamental investigation in the fields of formability, failure modes / mechanisms, Finite Element Analysis (FEA), simulative testing and tribology. A study of failure mechanisms in carcass production is performed by being present...... strip thickness deep. Simulative tribo-testing in the strip-reduction-test showed that biodegradable rapeseed oil is an acceptable lubricant for the carcass process. Testing of two lean duplex stainless steel surfaces showed that a EN 2E brushed surface had better lubricant entrapment capabilities than...

  15. Liver Contaminants in Bald eagles Carcasses from Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fifty-one livers were extracted from bald eagle carcasses recovered in Maine between 2001 and 2007. Approximately 50% of the birds were collected during the spring...

  16. Test procedure for the moisture measurement in tyre carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention pertains generally to a procedure for the moisture measurement in tyre carcasses with textile insertions by means of neutrons. It allows a permanent control during manufacturing. The invention is applicable to the retreading of tyres

  17. Bacteria recovered from whole-carcass rinsates of broiler carcasses washed in a spray cabinet with lauric acid-potassium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of spray washing carcasses with lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) on bacteria recovered from whole-carcass-rinsates (WCR) was examined. Skin of carcasses was inoculated with a cecal paste containing antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimirum, and Camp...

  18. Prevalence and serogroup diversity of Salmonella for broiler neck skin, whole carcass rinse, and whole carcass enrichment sampling methodologies following air or immersion chilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck skin (NS), whole carcass rinse (WCR), and whole carcass enrichment (WCE) sampling procedures for Salmonella isolation and serogroup from the same broiler carcass following either air or immersion chilling. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler ...

  19. Effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation level on productivity, mortality, and carcass characteristics of Venda chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malebane, Ingrid M; Ng'ambi, Jones Wilfred; Norris, David; Mbajiorgu, Christian

    2010-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality of indigenous Venda chickens. The first experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity and mortality rate of 175 unsexed Venda chickens between 1 and 6 weeks old. The second experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality rate of 140 female Venda chickens between 8 and 13 weeks old. A completely randomized design was used in both experiments. Supplementation of grower diets with ascorbic acid ranged from 0 to 2,000 mg per kg DM feed in both experiments. Levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed intake, feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were determined using a quadratic equation. The optimal dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens during the starter phase were 1,050, 1,301, and 1,500 mg/kg DM feed, while, at the grower phase, the optimal supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were 1,000, 1,250, 1,482, and 769 mg/kg DM feed, respectively. Results indicate that different levels of ascorbic acid supplementation optimized feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens at each growth phase. However, levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight were higher than that for breast meat yield. These findings have implications on ration formulation for Venda chickens.

  20. Sex effect on productive parameters, carcass and body fat composition of two commercial broilers lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rondelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate sex effect on behavior of two commercial broilers lines. Productive parameters, carcass composition and yield, amount and quality of fat deposited in the meat and skin and total body fat were studied. A completely randomized design with four treatments (MR-Male Ross, HR-Female Ross, MAF-Male Avian Farm and HAF-Female Avian Farm and eight repetitions of 40 chickens was used. Animals received water and food ad libitum. After 50 days, two birds (a male and a female per repetition were chosen at random and slaughtered for carcass evaluation. Samples of breast, leg, skin and abdominal fats were analyzed to determine the percentage of intramuscular fat, total cholesterol and fatty acid composition. The Ross line showed higher final weight and weight gain, better intake and feed conversion rate. Also, it was observed that females of both lines had similar results in relation to these parameters. Better yield of breast with bone was found in Ross males and females. In relation to legs and thigh, Ross males showed better results and no differences were observed among females of both lines. Males deposited less fat than females. Finally, differences in percentage of intramuscular fat, content of cholesterol in breast with skin, leg with skin and skin, percentage of saturated, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed between sex and lines.

  1. Characteristics of carcasses and meat from feedlot lambs fed with sunflower cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the characteristics of the carcasses and meat of feedlot lambs that received diets supplemented with sunflower cake; correlations among the variables were also performed. The experimental design was a randomized block design with four treatments (sunflower cake added at 0, 10, 20, and 30% dry matter to the base diet and seven replications per treatment. The diets were formulated with genotypes of Cynodon hay and corn- and soybean meal-based concentrate that were premixed at the ratio of 50:50 (hay:concentrate and were fed to the lambs in two portions daily at 08:00 and 14:00. The feed conversion of the animals was adversely affected (P<0.05 by the increase in the feedlot period in the individual stalls. For each additional day of confinement, the feed conversion increased by 0.0096 kg DM/kg of weight gain. Based on the linear regression model for the average loin pH, one hour after slaughter, the pH was reduced by 0.04 units. The marginal change in pH between the longest and the shortest times after slaughter was 14.11%. The weights of the animals at slaughter were not significantly correlated with the carcass yields. Sunflower cake is a suitable dietary supplement for lambs in intensive production systems and can be a substitute for soybean meal at up to 20%.

  2. Influence of Early Quantitative Feed Restriction on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Baoming; SHAN Anshan; CHAN Long

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the influence of early quantitative feed restriction on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Two hundred 8-day-old commercial Avian male broiler chicks were assigned to four groups randomly, with 50 broilers each. At the age of 8 days the broilers were restricted to 90%, 80% or 70% of the ad libitum intake for 7 days. When the restricion was finished, all birds received feed ad libitum again. The results showed that diet restriction resulted in a reduction in body weight and daily gain during the restriction period (P <0.05). The birds restricted to 90% of the ad libitum intake showed the occurring of growth compensation in the 3rd week. The birds restricted to 80% and 70% of the ad libitum intake had growth compensation in the 4th week. No significant differences between the effects of the restriction and the control on final body weight,growth rate, feed conversion efficiency and carcass characteristics (P >0.05).

  3. Interference from high-grain diet on carcass and meat characteristics of Texel lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Dorneles de Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of diets with different proportions of concentrate in finishing lambs Texel on carcass characteristics and meat sheep. Twelve Texel lambs with an initial weight of 20.1 ± 2.34 kg were used. The treatments consisted of three levels of concentrate in the total ration (60, 80 and 100% and four replicates per treatment.As the values of loin eye area, finish and weight of rib and ham were higher (P <0.05 for animals receiving 80 and 100% concentrate diet compared to animals consuming 60%. Lambs receiving 100% of the diet with high grain had higher incomes, loin eye area and carcass finish, these characteristics relevant to the issue by providing animals most productive portion of edible meat and satisfactory quality to the consumer market. The levels of concentrate in the diet did not alter the qualitative parameters and sensory from lamb feedlot these characteristics that may ensure greater acceptance of the final product, so it is recommended the use of diets containing high concentrate to sheep.

  4. Performance, carcass and palatability characteristics of Longhorn and other types of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, N J; Smith, G C; Carpenter, Z L

    1982-07-01

    Performance, carcass and palatability characteristics of Longhorn steers were compared with those of cattle currently popular in the United States-Hereford, Angus, Brahman, Holstein, two-breed crossbred (British beef breed crosses) and three-breed crossbred (1 4 dairy , 1 4 British beef and 1 2 European beef ) steers. Steers were fed roughage, then a growing diet (42 days), then a high energy (89% concentrate) diet (153 to 179 days by breed group) and slaughtered, individually, at USDA Choice finish or, failing that, after 186 days on the finishing diet. Data suggest that Longhorns, compared with types of cattle currently used: (1) are less desirable in physical appearance; (2) gain weight less rapidly, reaching the desired finish and slaughter weight as older animals; (3) convert feed to liveweight less efficiently; (4) deposit less subcutaneous fat, more internal fat, but essentially the same amount of intramuscular fat; (5) are as muscular (longissimus muscle area, estimated percentage of carcass muscle, muscle to bone ratio, muscle to fat ratio); (6) are as desirable in USDA quality grade and yield grade and (7) produce beef that is a palatable. PMID:22055071

  5. Performance, carcass and palatability characteristics of Longhorn and other types of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, N J; Smith, G C; Carpenter, Z L

    1982-07-01

    Performance, carcass and palatability characteristics of Longhorn steers were compared with those of cattle currently popular in the United States-Hereford, Angus, Brahman, Holstein, two-breed crossbred (British beef breed crosses) and three-breed crossbred (1 4 dairy , 1 4 British beef and 1 2 European beef ) steers. Steers were fed roughage, then a growing diet (42 days), then a high energy (89% concentrate) diet (153 to 179 days by breed group) and slaughtered, individually, at USDA Choice finish or, failing that, after 186 days on the finishing diet. Data suggest that Longhorns, compared with types of cattle currently used: (1) are less desirable in physical appearance; (2) gain weight less rapidly, reaching the desired finish and slaughter weight as older animals; (3) convert feed to liveweight less efficiently; (4) deposit less subcutaneous fat, more internal fat, but essentially the same amount of intramuscular fat; (5) are as muscular (longissimus muscle area, estimated percentage of carcass muscle, muscle to bone ratio, muscle to fat ratio); (6) are as desirable in USDA quality grade and yield grade and (7) produce beef that is a palatable.

  6. Effect of floor type on carcass and meat quality of pen raised growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Dal Bosco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to compare the carcass and meat quality traits of growing rabbits housed on different floor types. At the age of 35 d, rabbits (n=126 were randomly sorted into 3 groups and housed in pens with different floor types: plastic-mesh, deep-litter straw or wire-mesh. Slaughter weight, carcass and its parts’ weight, meat (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum [LL] muscle and hind leg pH and colour, oxidative status and fatty acid profile were measured and correlations calculated. The deep-litter straw rabbits showed the lowest pHu and b* values of LL muscle and oxidation of the both muscles. The fatty acid profile of LL muscle of deep-litter straw rabbits showed a higher percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids and long chain n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids, whereas the content of  18:2n-6 and total PUFA was lower. We concluded that housing the growing rabbits on wire- or plastic-mesh floors showed no substantial differences, while housing rabbits on deep-litter negatively affected certain qualitative traits.

  7. Performance, carcass and meat quality of pigs fed diets with antioxidants and ractopamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Abrami Monteiro Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was evaluated the effects of the use of additives antioxidants associated or not with ractopamine in feed for finishing pigs. Were used 51 crossbred pigs, 27 barrows and 24 females with initial weight of 83.38 kg. Three experimental treatments were established based on the inclusion of two complexes to feed: complex 1 (4g de vitamin E + 1g de vitamin C/kg of product and complex 2 (0.2g de ractopamine + 4g de vitamin E + 2g de vitamin C/kg of product, defining the ration control (free of complexes, ration control + complex 1 (0.1% and ration control + complex 2 (0.05%. The experimental design was blocked randomically, presenting a factorial model 3x2 (3 treatments and 2 sexes. Were observed difference (P<0.05 for daily feed intake, feed, hot and cold carcass weight to the treatment with ractopamine. The values of vitamin E in meat were higher (P <0.05 in muscle of animals in groups receiving the vitamin. There was a difference (P <0.05 in the values of oxidation and marbling in the treatments with antioxidant. The inclusion of ractopamine, with the antioxidants, resulted in improvement in performance and carcass characteristics, and supplementation with the antioxidant, alone, showed improvement in parameters related to meat quality

  8. An exploratory observational study to develop an improved method for quantifying beef carcass salable meat yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, R L; Loneragan, G H; Pauli, J W; Lawrence, T E

    2009-06-01

    Eighty-seven grain-finished steers were harvested, evaluated, and fabricated into wholesale cuts to determine what measured composition indicators most accurately describe the percentage of closely trimmed salable meat yield. Indicators of lean and fat composition present at the cross-section between the 12th and 13th ribs were objectively evaluated using Assess image analysis software. Salable meat yield ranged from 50.18% to 72.92%, trimmable fat yield ranged from 12.87% to 36.69%, and bone yield ranged from 10.07% to 19.21%. Regression models were developed to estimate percentage of total salable meat yield. Composition indicators chosen to predict salable meat yield included hot carcass weight (HCW), perinephric fat weight, longissimus muscle area (LMA), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), ratio of LMA to subcutaneous fat area, and ratio of subcutaneous fat depth to HCW. These results indicate that prediction of beef carcass salable meat yield can be improved via modification to current measures used in the USDA yield grade equation and addition of new measures. PMID:20416776

  9. Effects of feeding intensity and time on feed on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Simmental bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, A S; Augustini, C; Schwarz, F J

    2004-06-01

    Seventy two Simmental bulls, weighing 489 kg and approximately 15 months old fed extensively or intensively on maize silage and concentrate mixture for 100 or 138 days, were divided into four groups to assess the effect of time on feed and feeding intensity on the performance, carcass and meat quality traits. Bulls intensively fed for 138 days before slaughter had higher final body weight (673.7 kg) compared with the other three groups (610.6 kg, as overall mean). Intensive feeding significantly increased the average daily gain (1371 g/day) and improved the feed efficiency (6.95 kg DM/kg gain) compared with extensive feeding (943 g/day and 7.97 kg DM/kg gain). No significant differences were detected by time on feed. Hot carcass and kidney fat weights were significantly higher for intensively fed bulls compared with extensive ones. Dressing percentage significantly increased for 138 day groups compared with 100 day groups. Carcass conformation and fatness scores significantly improved by intensive feeding. L and b(*) values were not affected by time on feed or feeding intensity. Slaughtering after 138 days on feed significantly elevated the meat redness value (a(*)). Intensive feeding significantly decreased moisture and increased fat content of the longissimus dorsi muscle. Shear force, collagen content, juiciness, flavour and sarcomere length did not differ by time on feed or feeding intensity, while inconsistent effects were observed on tenderness and solubility of collagen. PMID:22061314

  10. Relationship of transport distance, sex on live weight loss of pigs during transit to slaughter house

    OpenAIRE

    P H G J DeSilva; A Kalubowila

    2012-01-01

    The transport distance have a significant impact on the levels of stress burden on animals before slaughter and have an impact on veterinary decision-making about meat edibility and also on the quality of slaughtered animal meat. The objective of the study was to determine live weight, dress weight and body weight loss during transportation of different sex group of pigs into the Slaughtering house. The body weight loss during pre-slaughter treatment of animals was recorded and carcass value ...

  11. Factors affecting carcass value and profitability in early-weaned Simmental steers: I. Five-year average pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatt, N A; Berger, L L; Faulkner, D B; Walker, P M; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2005-12-01

    In a 4-yr study, early-weaned Simmental steers (n = 192) of known genetics were individually fed to determine genetic, performance, and carcass factors explaining variation in carcass value and profitability. Steers were weaned at 88.0 +/- 1.1 d of age and pen-fed a high-concentrate diet (108.99 dollars/t) for 84.5 +/- 0.4 d before allotment. Calves were implanted with Synovex C at weaning and successively with Synovex S (Fort Dodge Animal Health, Fort Dodge, IA) and Revalor S (Intervet, Inc., Millsboro, DE). Steers consumed a 90% concentrate diet (98.93 dollars/t), consisting primarily of coarse cracked corn and corn silage, for 249.7 +/- 0.7 d and slaughtered at 423.3 +/- 1.4 d of age. Five-year price data were collected for feedstuffs, dressed beef, and grid premiums, and discounts. Average dressed beef price was 110.67 dollars/45.4 kg. Premiums (dollars/45.4 kg) were given for Prime (5.62 dollars), Average Choice (1.50 dollars), and yield grades (YG) 1 (2.46 dollars), 2A (1.31 dollars), and 2B (1.11 dollars). Discounts (dollars/45.4 kg) were given for Standard (-16.85 dollars), Select (-8.90 dollars), and YG 3A (-0.12 dollars), 3B (-0.19 dollars), 4 (-14.16 dollars), and 5 (-19.56 dollars). Discounts were given for HCW extremes as well (409 to 431 kg, -0.64 dollars; 432 to 454 kg -11.39 dollars; > 454 kg, -19.71 dollars). Input costs included annual cow costs (327.77 dollars), veterinary/medical and labor (35 dollars per animal), feed markup (22 dollars/t), yardage (0.25 dollars/d per animal), and interest (10%). Dependent variables were carcass value and profit per steer. Independent variables were year, weaning weight EPD, yearling weight EPD, marbling EPD, DMI, ADG, G:F, HCW, calculated YG, and marbling score (MS). Carcass value was correlated (P factor contributing to carcass value, whereas BW and carcass quality were the primary factors affecting steer profitability. These models represent the relative importance of factors contributing to value and

  12. Necrophagous diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ândrio Z. da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous Diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge concerning the diversity of necrophagous Diptera that develop on wild animal carcasses. For this purpose, the decomposition of six wild animal carcasses was observed in order to collect and identify the main species of necrophagous flies associated with the decomposition process. The carcasses were found on highways near the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão in the initial stage of decomposition, with no significant injuries or prior larval activity. Four wild animal models were represented in this study: two specimens of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840; two Tupinambis merianae Linnaeus, 1758; one Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815; and one Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. A total of 16,242 flies from 14 species were reared in the laboratory, where Muscidae presented the greatest diversity of necrophagous species. Overall, (i carcasses with larger biomass developed a higher abundance of flies and (ii the necrophagous community was dominated by Calliphoridae, two patterns that were predicted from published literature; and (iii the highest diversity was observed on the smaller carcasses exposed to the lowest temperatures, a pattern that may have been caused by the absence of the generalist predator Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. (iv An UPGMA analysis revealed a similar pattern of clusters of fly communities, where the same species were structuring the groupings.

  13. Performance, carcass characteristics, and lipid metabolism in growing and finishing Simmental steers fed varying concentrations of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, T E; Spears, J W

    2001-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary copper (Cu) on performance, carcass characteristics, and lipid metabolism in Simmental steers. Thirty-six Simmental steers (329.3 +/-11.4 kg) were stratified by weight and randomly assigned to treatments. Treatments consisted of the following: control (no supplemental Cu) and 10 or 40 mg Cu/kg DM from Cu sulfate. Each treatment consisted of six replicate pens, with each pen containing two steers. A corn silage-soybean meal-based diet was fed for 56 d. Steers were then switched to a high concentrate diet. Performance was not affected by treatment during the growing or finishing phases. Plasma Cu concentrations were higher (P Simmental steers increased Cu status but had no effect on performance, carcass characteristics, or lipid or cholesterol metabolism. PMID:11768123

  14. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed high concentrations of crude glycerin in low-starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, V B; Leite, R F; Almeida, M T C; Paschoaloto, J R; Carvalho, E B; Lanna, D P D; Perez, H L; Van Cleef, E H C B; Homem Junior, A C; Ezequiel, J M B

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of total corn replacement with crude glycerin on carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot lambs fed high-concentrate diets with low starch. Forty non-castrated Santa Ines lambs (23.5 ± 3.56 kg BW) were assigned to a randomized complete block design with five dietary treatments: 0%, 7.5%, 15%, 22.5%, or 30% crude glycerin, replacing corn. Animals were slaughtered at a BW of 38 kg after 72 ± 20 days. The addition of up to 30% crude glycerin reduced carcass weight and yield (P ≤ 0.02). Odd-chain fatty acids, oleic, palmitoleic, total unsaturated, and monounsaturated fatty acids were increased (P ≤ 0.01) while CLA tended to increase in glycerin-fed lambs (P = 0.06). Crude glycerin decreased stearic, palmitic, transvaccenic, total saturated fatty acids, and atherogenicity index (P odd-chain fatty acid contents. PMID:26319309

  15. Fattening performance, carcass traits and meat quality characteristics of calves sired by Charolais, Simmental and Eastern Anatolian Red sires mated to Eastern Anatolian Red dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozlütürk, Abdülkadir; Tüzemen, Naci; Yanar, Mete; Esenbuga, Nurinisa; Dursun, Ensar

    2004-07-01

    Comparisons were made among calves sired by Charolais (C), Simmental (S) and Eastern Anatolian Red (EAR) breeds of bulls for fattening, carcass and meat quality traits when mated to EAR dams. C- and S-sired calves had 43.1% and 36.4% higher daily weight gain, 44.5% and 43.9% heavier final weight in fattening, respectively. Calves produced by C sires had best feed efficiency value (6.51 vs. 7.44 and 7.22) compared to the S and EAR sire breed groups. Carcasses of C- and S-sired calves had heavier weight, higher dressing percentage and greater Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle area than those of EAR-sired calves. USDA yield grades were lower (Pmeat quality characteristics might be considerably improved by using C sires in the crossbreeding program as sire breed. PMID:22061521

  16. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses or maize grain with rice or maize by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, L.; Kimambo, A. E.; Laswai, G. H.;

    2015-01-01

    , salt and urea. Both hay and concentrate were fed ad libitum and with free access to drinking water for 90 days. Feed intake, body weights and carcass characteristics were recorded. The daily total dry matter intake (DMI, kg/day) was greater (P7.64 for RPMO and 7...... DMI/kg gain) was lower (P7.87) and HFMO (8.09) than those fed on MMMO (10.4), RPMM (11.0) and RPMO (11.5). Steers fed on HFMO had the highest (P... carcass weight (151 kg). The proportion of internal fat to empty body weight (2.7%) in steers fed on HFMO was higher (P

  17. Performance and carcass quality of forage-fed steers as an alternative to concentrate-based beef production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Blanco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the performance and carcass quality of Parda de Montaña cattle under different management systems to find alternatives to concentrate feed indoor beef production. Treatments were: i Control, with 8 bulls (216±34.3 kg initial weight; 282±45.6 days fed concentrate and straw ad libitum during winter housing period until reaching 500 kg; ii G-supp, with 8 steers (204±31.2 kg initial weight; 271±47.5 days fed a total mixed ration (TMR (50% alfalfa hay, 10% straw, 40% corn ad libitum during winter housing period (from mid-April steers rotationally grazed on a mountain meadow supplemented with 1.8 kg dry matter corn/d until reaching 500 kg; iii TMR, with 8 steers (200±42.5 kg initial weight; 261±39.0 days managed as G-supp steers until mid-July, when they were housed and fed TMR ad libitum until reaching 500 kg. Control bulls had 45% greater weight gain than TMR and G-supp steers during housing period (P<0.001. In the finishing period, TMR had 31% greater weight gain than steers finished on pasture (P<0.01. At slaughter, Controls were 97-127 days younger than others (P<0.001. Steers finished on TMR had worse conformed carcasses, greater fat and fewer edible meat proportions than G-supp and Control (P<0.01. Total cost of TMR and Gsupp was greater than Control, with a similar income for G-supp and Control. TMR steers were paid less because of their worse carcass quality. Hence, finishing of steers on pasture with a supplement can be a feasible alternative to fattening bulls on concentrates, depending on the relative availability and price of feedstuff.

  18. Weight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  19. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina;

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both the...... partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  20. Comparison of two- and three-way rotational crossing, beef x beef and beef x Brown Swiss composite breed production: postweaning growth and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urick, J J; Pahnish, O F; Knapp, B W; Reynolds, W L; Milmine, W L

    1989-10-01

    Data collected from steer and bull progeny, fed to a constant final feedlot weight over 11 yr, were used to estimate heterosis in post-weaning feedlot growth and carcass traits in two-way and three-way rotational crossing systems and a breed composite from crossing Hereford, Angus and Charolais breeds. Steer and bull progeny from matings of beef x Brown Swiss-cross sires and dams also were compared with the straight beef breeds and beef crosses. Growth traits evaluated were initial weight on test, 112-d weight, total feedlot average daily gain and total days from initial to final weight. Carcass traits included hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib eye area, 12th-rib fat thickness, kidney, pelvic and heart fat, yield grade and marbling score. Heterosis estimates for calves of all crossing systems were significant for initial and 112-d weight and for saving of days in the feedlot, but not for average daily feedlot gain. Heterosis estimates were small and nonsignificant for most carcass traits except for fat traits in specific crosses. Males from Hereford and Angus sires mated to Angus x Hereford dams had higher (P less than .10) backfat than did the parental average. Male progeny from Charolais ranked higher (P less than .10 to P less than .01) than calves from Hereford and Angus sires for most growth traits. Progeny from Charolais sires were more desirable (P less than .10 to P less than .01) for traits related to cutability, but they had less (P less than .05 to P less than .01) marbling than calves of Angus sires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2808166

  1. The Growth and Distribution of Carcass Fat in Fattening Steer of Different Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Priyanto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth and distribution patterns of carcass fat were investigated in three breeds of beef cattle entering fattening phase. The study involved 23 grass-fed steer Brahman, 24 Hereford and 22 Brahmanx Hereford crosses with a live weight range from 300-600 kg. An allometric Huxley model was used to study the growth and distribution patterns of fat tissue within wholesale cut. In most cases, Brahmans had significantly higher growth coefficients than Herefords and/or BrahmanxHereford crosses while Herefords and BrahmanxHereford crosses had similar growth coefficients in wholesale cuts. At log natural of 75 kg side muscle+bone weight (4.313 kg, Herefords had significantly a higher fat weight within wholesale cuts than Brahmans and BrahmanxHereford crosses. Comparison at log natural of 114 kg side muscle+bone weight (4.733 kg, whilst Brahmans and Herefords were similar in fat weight distribution, the cross-bred steer had lower fat weights than the other two breed groups in almost all wholesale cuts.

  2. Effect of season and stocking density during transport on carcass and meat quality of suckling lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sanchez-Sanchez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Many factors related to transport to abattoir affects meat quality, but scarce information is available in suckling lambs. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of season and stocking density on carcass and meat quality of suckling lambs during commercial transport to the abattoir. A factorial design (2 × 3 was used: two seasons (winter and summer and three stocking densities (SD; 0.08, 0.12 and 0.20 m2 animal-1. Meat quality variables were measured in the M. longissimus at 24 h post-mortem and after 5 days of refrigerated storage. Lambs transported in summer showed lower liver weight (p<0.001, h* (p<0.05, deoxymyoglobin content (p<0.001, pressed juice (p<0.01, shear force (p<0.001 and firmness (p<0.001, and higher initial pH (p<0.001, L*, b*, C* (p<0.001 and a* (p<0.01, as well as metmyoglobin and oxymyoglobin content (p<0.001, than those transported in winter. The effect of season was dependent on storage time, being colour changes more evident at 24 h than after 5 days of storage, whereas lipid oxidation was only observed in stored meat, which may be explain because the natural antioxidative system decreases with time after slaughter. Scarce effect of SD was found on the carcass and meat quality parameters, thus under our experimental conditions the three SD studied appear to be suitable for suckling lambs transport. However, both carcass and meat quality were within the normal commercial range.

  3. GROWTH EFFICIENCY AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF GROWING MALE COWS FED DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH ORGANIC CHROMIUM YEAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amata, I.A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to examine the effect of organic chromium yeast supplementation in feedlot diets of growing male cows on growth efficiency and carcass characteristics. The experiment was conducted in Ibadan (7.380 N and 3.930 E, in the South Western region of Nigeria. The study lasted six months (180 days. A total of seventy-five Ndama Ndama growing male cows with average weights ranging between 280 and 284kg were kept outdoors in feedlot pens of 15 cows per treatment. The different treatment groups received organic chromium yeast mix of 9%, 18%, 27% and 36%, representing 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 ppm organic chromium yeast respectively. Each cow was replicated 3 times with 5 cows per replicate. Parameters recorded during the experimental period include average daily gain, feed: gain ratio and feed consumption. Carcass characteristics studied at the end of the experiment include final yield grade, marbling scores, dressing percentage, quality grade and longissimus muscle area. Statistical analysis revealed significant (P<0.05 differences between the means. Cows fed diets supplemented with 0.3 ppm organic chromium yeast showed higher performance characteristics than cows fed the control diet and the other experimental diets. Treatment with 0.3 ppm organic chromium yeast in the diet of the cows significantly (P<0.05 increased carcass characteristics and these values were higher than the values obtained from cows fed the control diet and the other experimental diets.

  4. Roasted sesame hulls improve broiler performance without affecting carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Z. Mahmoud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of using graded levels of roasted sesame hulls (RSH on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in broiler chickens. A total of 360 day-old Lohmann chicks were randomly allocated into 24 floor pens and raised over 42 days. One of four dietary treatments was assigned to each group of six pens in a completely randomized fashion. The chicks in the control group were fed a corn-soybean based diet (RSH-0, while the chicks in treatments two, three, and four were fed graded levels of RSH at 4% (RSH-4, 8% (RSH-8, and 12% (RSH-12, respectively. Diets were formulated to meet broiler chicks’ requirements according to the National Research Council for both starter and finisher rations. The results showed that RSH inclusion increased (P<0.05 feed intake and final body weight without adversely affecting the feed conversion ratio. Broiler chicks fed RSH-12 had heavier (P<0.05 breast and leg cuts compared to the control-fed group with no change to their chemical composition. Water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL, and shear force (SF reported similar results in all dietary groups. The chemical composition of both thigh and breast cuts was not affected by the RSH. After one day of thawing, colour coordinates of breast cuts behaved similarly in all dietary groups. The results of this study suggest that the addition of RSH to broiler diets up to 12% improves their growth performance; nevertheless, carcass characteristics and meat quality showed no alterations compared to the control-fed group.

  5. Association of myostatin on early calf mortality, growth, and carcass composition traits in crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L; Cundiff, L V

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a potential association of an inactive myostatin allele with early calf mortality, and evaluate its effect on growth and carcass traits in a crossbred population. Animals were obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British Breed) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford, Angus, Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Belgian Blue was the source of the inactive myostatin allele. Myostatin genotypes were determined for all animals including those that died before weaning. Early calf mortality was examined in the F2 subpopulation (n = 154), derived from the F1 sires mated to F1 cows from Belgian Blue sires, to evaluate animals with zero, one, or two copies of inactive myostatin allele. An overall 1:2:1 ratio (homozygous active myostatin allele:heterozygous:homozygous inactive myostatin allele) was observed in the population; however, a comparison between calves dying before weaning and those alive at slaughter showed an unequal distribution across genotypes (P yield grade, estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, retail product yield and weight, fat yield and weight, bone yield and weight, and percentage of carcasses classified as Choice. Charolais lack the inactive myostatin allele segregating in Belgian Blue; thus, in the population sired by Charolais (n = 645), only animals with zero or one copy of the inactive myostatin allele were evaluated. Animals carrying one copy were heavier at birth and at weaning, and their carcasses were leaner and more muscled. In the population sired by Belgian Blue x British Breed (n = 725), animals with two copies of inactive myostatin allele were heavier at birth, leaner, and had a higher proportion of muscle mass than animals with zero or one copies. Heterozygous animals were heaviest at weaning and had the highest live weight, whereas animals with zero

  6. Simulated influence of postweaning production system on performance of different biological types of cattle: II. Carcass composition, retail product, and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L; Keele, J W

    1995-03-01

    A computer simulation model was used to characterize the response in carcass composition, retail product, and quality of steers from F1 crosses of 16 sire breeds (Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Chianina, Brahman, Sahiwal, Pinzgauer, and Tarentaise) mated to Hereford and Angus dams, grown under nine backgrounding systems, and finished at either a low (1.0 kg) or high (1.36 kg) ADG. The backgrounding systems were a high ADG (.9 kg) for 111, 167, or 222 d, a medium ADG (.5 kg) for 200, 300, or 400 d, a low ADG (.25 kg) for 300 or 400 d and 0 d backgrounding. For specific genotype x production system combinations, results showed that carcasses of compensating steers may be either leaner, not different in fatness, or fatter than carcasses of steers put on a finishing diet directly after weaning. Systems in which steers gained a greater proportion of the final slaughter weight over long durations of growth restriction resulted in leaner carcasses. There were 12 common production systems in which 13 of the genotypes produced a carcass with a maximum of 28% fat or with a marbling score of 11 or greater. These results suggest sire breeds used to produce these steers can be used over a wide range of nutritional and management environments, and that a mixed group of steers can be fed and managed similarly from weaning to slaughter to produce a carcass with a specified composition, retail product, or quality. PMID:7608000

  7. Live Performance, Carcass Yield, and Welfare of Broilers of Different Genetic Strains Reared at Different Housing Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JNT Arruda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the performance, carcass yield and quality, and physiological stress indicators of broilers of three genetic strains reared at three housing densities for 29 days. A total of 828 day-old male chicks, with average initial weight of 40.0± 2.0g were used. Three genetic strains (Cobb 500, Ross 808, and Ross 508, with 276 birds each and three housing densities (17, 19, and 21 broilers/m² were tested. A completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, with four replicates of 23 birds each, was applied. The following responses were evaluated: performance parameters (average weekly body weight, average daily gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, physiological stress indicators (blood glucose levels, blood cell counts, and carcass yield and quality (dermatosis, bruising, dermatitis, and femoral degeneration scores. Average weekly body weight (BW and daily weight gain (DWG were not influenced by rearing density (p≥0.05, but Cobb 500 broilers were the heaviest during the analyzed period. In the second week, Ross 508 birds showed better feed conversion ratio (FCR when housed at the density of 17 broilers/m² (p≤0.001, whereas the best FCR of Ross 808 and Cobb 500 broilers was obtained at 21 broilers/m² (p≤0.001. Carcass yield was not influenced by the treatments (p≥0.05. Physiological stress indicators were not affected by the treatments, and remained within normal ranges (p≥0.05. Dermatosis scores (scratches increased (p≤0.05 when housing density increased from 17 to 19 broilers /m².

  8. Performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore young bulls fed different sources of oils, protected or not from rumen degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Laurindo Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the addition of vegetable oils protected or not from rumen degradation in the diet of feedlot-finished young bulls and their effects on performance and carcass characteristics. Thirty-five Nellore males of 402.69±14.90 kg initial weight and 18±2 months of age were utilized. The animals were confined for 96 days, after 28 days of adaptation, and slaughtered at 532.17±30.25 kg. Experimental diets were: control (715 g total digestible nutrients - TDN/kg of dry matter - DM, with addition of soybean oil or fresh linseed oil, and with the addition of the same oils protected from rumen degradation (765 g TDN/kg DM. All diets were formulated with the same amount of protein and with a roughage:concentrate ratio of 40:60, with sugarcane as the only roughage. The addition of oil, regardless of the type and processing, resulted in greater body weight gain (1.17 and 1.41 kg/animal/day, better feed (0.11 and 0.14 kg weight gain/kg DM ingested and protein efficiency (0.86 and 1.09 kg weight gain/kg crude protein ingested, heavier carcasses (280.3 and 298.0 kg, with better yield (54.5 and 55.5% and thicker subcutaneous fat (5.1 and 7.5 mm backfat thickness and with heavier prime cuts, for control diet and the other treatments, respectively. The use of soybean or linseed oil protected or not from rumen degradation only changed the intake of a few nutrients and carcass yield and depth. Thus the addition of energy sources in the diet is beneficial for finishing feedlot bulls. For this addition, either soybean or linseed oils can be used, and the processing of these oils is only useful to facilitate the mixing with the other ingredients of the diet.

  9. Crescimento alométrico de osso, músculo e gordura em cortes da carcaça de cordeiros Texel segundo os métodos de alimentação e peso de abate Muscle, fat and bone allometric growth in Texel lambs carcasses cuts in relation to the feeding methods and slaughter weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Teixeira da Rosa

    2005-08-01

    sexo com coeficientes de alometria variando de 1,80 a 2,12.The experiment aimed at studying the allometric growth of the different tissues of neck, rib, shoulder blade and leg in relation to the cutting weight of male and female lambs. Twenty-two intact Texel males and 23 Texel females were used. Seven of them were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment and the others at the weight of 25 or 33kg. Sheep and lambs were distributed into three methods of feeding: M1 - Corn silage and concentrate, only to lambs until weaning at 60 days old; M2 - Corn silage and concentrate, only to lambs until weaning at 45 days old and M3 - Corn silage and concentrate to ewe and lamb until weaning at 60 days old. After weaning, lambs were fed with silage plus concentrate. A completely randomized design outlined in a factorial arrangement 3 x 2 x 2 (3 methods, 2 sexes and 2 slaughter weights was used. Determination of growth was obtained through the equation log y = log.a + b log.x, by using the logarithm of bone, muscle and fat weight in function of cutting weight logarithm. It was observed that neck and rib bone was precocious (b1, regardless of sex and feeding method with allometry coefficients varying from 1.78 to 2.15 (neck and 1.51 to 1.65 (rib. In shoulder blade, bone was precocious in both sexes, with allometry coefficients varying from 0.76 to 0.79 and 0.54 to 0.58 for males and females, respectively. Muscle presented isometric growth (b = 1, regardless of sex and slaughter weight. Fat was late (b>1, regardless of slaughter weight and sex, with allometry coefficients varying from 1.80 to 2.12. In leg, bone growth was precocious in females and isometric in males, with allometry coefficients varying from 0.57 to 0.63 and 0.78 to 0.80, respectively, for both sexes. Muscle presented isometric growth (b = 1, regardless of sex and slaughter weight. Fat was late (b>1, regardless of slaughter weight and sex, with allometry coefficients varying from 1.80 to 2.12.

  10. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and dietary protein content on performance, carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cônsolo, N R B; Mesquita, B S; Rodriguez, F D; Rizzi, V G; Silva, L F P

    2016-03-01

    Ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) alters protein metabolism and improves growth performance in Bos taurus cattle with high carcass fat. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of RH, dietary CP and RH×CP interaction on performance, blood metabolites, carcass characteristics and meat quality of young Nellore bulls. A total of 48 bulls were randomly assigned to four treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The factors were two levels of dietary CP (100% and 120% of metabolizable protein requirement, defined as CP100 and CP120, respectively), and two levels of RH (0 and 300 mg/animal·per day). Treated animal received RH for the final 35 days before slaughter. Animals were weighed at the beginning of the feedlot period (day 63), at the beginning of ractopamine supplementation (day 0), after 18 days of supplementation (day 18) and before slaughter (day 34). Animals were slaughtered and hot carcass weights recorded. After chilling, carcass data was collected and longissimus samples were obtained for determination of meat quality. The 9-11th rib section was removed for carcass composition analysis. Supplementation with RH increased ADG independently of dietary CP. There was a RH×CP interaction on dry matter intake (DMI), where RH reduced DMI at CP120, with no effect at CP100. Ractopamine improved feed efficiency, without RH×CP interaction. Ractopamine had no effect on plasma creatinine and urea concentration. Greater dietary CP tended to increase blood urea, and there was a RH×CP interaction for plasma total protein. Ractopamine supplementation increased plasma total protein at CP120, and had no effect at CP100. Ractopamine also decreased plasma glucose concentration at CP100, but had no effect at CP120. Ractopamine increased alkaline phosphatase activity at CP120 and had no effect at CP100. There was a tendency for RH to increase longissimus muscle area, independently of dietary CP. Ractopamine did not alter fat thickness; however, fat thickness was reduced by

  11. Crescimento alométrico de componentes da carcaça de bezerros de origem leiteira na fase inicial do crescimento pós-natal Alometric growth of carcass components of new born male dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso Carvalho

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o crescimento diferencial de componentes da carcaça de bezerros de origem leiteira, na fase inicial da vida produtiva. Foram abatidos 18 bezerros da raça Holandesa, sendo seis ao nascimento, seis aos 50 e seis aos 110 dias de idade. Foi avaliada a composição da carcaça, em função do peso da carcaça fria. O estudo do crescimento alométrico foi realizado utilizando-se a equação Y=aXb, transformada logaritmamente em regressão linear. Houve acréscimo (P1. Foi observado crescimento precoce (b1 para o traseiro. Os componentes da carcaça apresentaram distintos padrões de crescimento, merecendo especial atenção no estabelecimento de um sistema de produção de carcaças oriundas de bezerros de origem leiteira.This study was aimed at evaluating the differential growth of carcass components of new born dairy calves. Eighteen Friesian calves were slaughtered, at birth or at 50 or 110 days of age; six at each age. The alometric growth of carcass components in relation to cold carcass weight was studied by the use of the equation Y=aXb adjusting linear regressions to the log of the data. From birth to 110 days of age the weight of cold carcass, bone, muscle and fat, forequarter, rib and hindquarter increased (P1 for fat; about carcass components, growth was early for forequarter (b1. It was concluded that the characteristic growth pattern of carcass components should be considered at developing a system of calves’ carcasses production.

  12. Effect of different concentrations of aqueous extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale on performance and carcass characteristics of male broiler chickens in wheat-soybean meal based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajab Fakhim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of using different concentrations of ginger extract (Zingiber officinale on performance and carcass characteristics of male broiler chickens. Three hundred one-day-old commercial male broilers (Cobb-500 were randomly allocated in 20 floor pens (15 chicks each. Animals of each pen were supplemented with five different concentrations of ginger and the experiment was performed in quadruplicate. The broilers were fed a wheat-soybean meal based diet containing different concentrations of ginger extract (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% supplemented to drinking water. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured during 1 to 10, 11 to 21, 22 to 42 and 1 to 42 days of age. At 42 days of age, two birds from each pen were selected and after weighing and slaughtered were dissected manually. Carcass yield, liver, abdominal fat and gut weight is expressed as percentage of live body weight. The results showed that there is no significant difference in the feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio between the different treatments except the feed conversion ratio of the period 1 to 10 days of age (p<0.05. Also, different supplemented concentrations of ginger extract to drinking water of broilers influenced the carcass yield (p<0.05.

  13. Cattle temperament: persistence of assessments and associations with productivity, efficiency, carcass and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafe, L M; Robinson, D L; Ferguson, D M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Greenwood, P L

    2011-05-01

    that the average values were a more reliable assessment of cattle temperament than any single measure. In Brahman cattle, increased average FS and CS were associated with significant (P carcass weight, and objective measures of meat quality. In Angus cattle, the associations between temperament and growth rates, feed intake, and carcass traits were weaker than in Brahmans, although the strength of relationships with meat quality were similar.

  14. Carcass and meat traits of Morada Nova, Santa Ines and ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs finished in feedlot

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    Juliano Issakowicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the carcass and meat traits of Morada Nova, Santa Ines and ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs finished in feedlot. Weight and proportion of meatcuts, measures of carcass size and color, tenderness, cooking loss and ultimate pH of meat from 10 Morada Nova, 6 Santa Ines and 10 ½ Ile de France ½ Texel were evaluated. The lambs were finished in collective pens, fed ad libitum with 50% corn silage and 50% concentrate and slaughtered at about six months old. Analysis of variance was performed by the procedure PROC GLM of SAS (SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% significance. The Morada Nova lambs had values of 14.1 kg, 13.9 kg, 0.240 kg/cm, 56.2 cm and 35.8 cm for hot and cold carcass weight, compactness index, hip and leg circumference respectively and these values were lower (P <0.05 to values observed in Santa Ines (19.4 kg, 18.8 kg, 0.283 cm/kg, 64.6 cm and 40.0 cm and in ½ Ile de France ½ Texel (18.6 kg, 18.2 kg, 0.305 cm/kg; 65.4 cm and 41.6 cm lambs. The hot and cold carcass yield did not differ (P> 0.05 among genetic groups. The scores for conformation and fat cover were higher (P <0.05 in ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs (2.4 and 3.0 and the carcass length was greater in Santa Ines lambs (66.3 cm. The ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs had smaller (P<0.05 proportion of neck and greater of leg (9.10% and 33.1% compared to Morada Nova lambs (10.3% and 30.4% and Santa Inês (10.9% and 31.6%. The weight of shoulder, leg, rack, ribs and flank was lower (P<0.05 in Morada Nova (1.306, 2.127 kg, 0.999 kg, 0.775 kg and 0.433 kg respectively compared to Santa Inês (1.820 kg, 2.972 kg, 1.355 kg, 0.959 and 0.509 kg and ½ Ile de France ½ Texel (1.791 kg, 3.007 kg, 1.212 kg, 1.016 kg and 0.563 kg. The neck was heavier in Santa Ines (1.038 kg which differed (P <0.05 from the other genetic groups (0.725 kg for Morada Nova and 0.830 kg for ½ Ile de France x ½ Texel lambs. The ½ Ile de

  15. Prebiotic and antimicrobials on performance, carcass characteristics, and antibody production in broilers

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    Maíra Fomentini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of supplementation with mannan oligosaccharides, avilamycin and halquinol, alone or in combination, on the performance, carcass characteristics and antibody production in broilers (1-49 days old, male broiler chicks (n=1440; Cobb 500; one day old were housed and distributed into a completely randomized design into six treatments (eight replicates; 30 animals per pen. To produce the experimental diets, three types of performance enhancer additives were used. Halquinol (HAL, avilamycin (AVI and mannan oligosaccharides (MOS were included (alone or in combination in the basal diet (instead of corn starch. Effects of diet were observed on results of animal performance in the period 1-21 and 1-42 days old. Broilers fed with a diet without growth promoter showed lower weight gain in relation to those fed with diets with antimicrobials, MOS or a combination of them. In the period 1-49 days old, feed conversion increased in broilers fed with rations without promoter. At the end of the experimental period no influence of diets was observed on the carcass yield and cuts, and titles of specific antibodies to avian infectious bronchitis. The use of MOS and/or antimicrobials (AVI or HAL, alone or in combination, improves feed conversion of broilers reared until 49 days of age.

  16. Mapping carcass and meat quality QTL on Sus Scrofa chromosome 2 in commercial finishing pigs

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    van Kampen Tony A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting carcass and meat quality located on SSC2 were identified using variance component methods. A large number of traits involved in meat and carcass quality was detected in a commercial crossbred population: 1855 pigs sired by 17 boars from a synthetic line, which where homozygous (A/A for IGF2. Using combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium mapping (LDLA, several QTL significantly affecting loin muscle mass, ham weight and ham muscles (outer ham and knuckle ham and meat quality traits, such as Minolta-L* and -b*, ultimate pH and Japanese colour score were detected. These results agreed well with previous QTL-studies involving SSC2. Since our study is carried out on crossbreds, different QTL may be segregating in the parental lines. To address this question, we compared models with a single QTL-variance component with models allowing for separate sire and dam QTL-variance components. The same QTL were identified using a single QTL variance component model compared to a model allowing for separate variances with minor differences with respect to QTL location. However, the variance component method made it possible to detect QTL segregating in the paternal line (e.g. HAMB, the maternal lines (e.g. Ham or in both (e.g. pHu. Combining association and linkage information among haplotypes improved slightly the significance of the QTL compared to an analysis using linkage information only.

  17. Effect of Andrographis paniculata and Psidium guajava leaves on growth performance and carcass of broiler chicken

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    Watanasit, S.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A six-week experiment was conducted to study the effects of Andrographis paniculata (AP and Psidium guajava (PG on the growth performance and carcass quality of broiler chickens. Six hundred one-day-old (mixed sex broiler chicks were used in ten dietary treatments, in a completely randomized design experiment. There were three replications in each treatment with 20 chicks per pen. The dietary treatments were 1 basal diet (control, 2 basal diet + antibiotic, 3 basal diet + 0.2% AP, 4 basal diet + 0.4% AP, 5 basal diet + 0.2% PG, 6 basal diet + 0.4% PG, 7 basal diet + 0.2% AP + 0.2% PG, 8 basal diet + 0.2% AP + 0.4% PG, 9 basal diet + 0.4% AP + 0.2% PG and 10 basal diet + 0.4% AP + 0.4% PG From 0-3, 3-6 and 0-6 weeks, feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and mortality rate were not significantly different (P>0.05 among treatments. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 in percentages of eviscerated carcass, breast and leg among chicken fed different diets However, percentage of abdominal fat of male chicken fed basal diet + 0.2% AP + 0.2% PG were lower (P<0.05 than other treatments while female chickens fed the same diet were not statistically different.

  18. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B. P.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J.; Garcia, José F.

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway. PMID:27410030

  19. Duodenal histology and carcass quality of feedlot cattle supplemented with calcium butyrate and Bacillus subtilis

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    Thiago Simas de Oliveira Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out at the Comigo Technology Center, in Rio Verde, State of Goiás, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the effects of supplementation with calcium butyrate, as a growth promoting agent for the duodenal mucosa and Bacillus subtilis as a probiotic performance enhancer in feedlot cattle. Calcium butyrate (5 and 10 g per animal per day and Bacillus (10 g per animal per day were added to a basal diet. There were used 85 Nelore bulls, with average weight of 315 ± 7 kg. The experiment lasted 118 days, including the adaptation period, until slaughter at 30 months of age. Diets were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments, where: T1 = control (basal diet; T2 = basal diet + 5 g calcium butyrate; T3 = basal diet + 10 g calcium butyrate and T4 = basal diet + 10 g calcium butyrate + 10 g probiotic with four replications and five to six animals per replication. It was used a forage: concentrate ratio of 30:70, the roughage used was the corn silage. Height and width measurements of intestinal villi were taken, and carcass and meat quality were evaluated. The supplementation of calcium butyrate and Bacillus subtilis positively influenced (p < 0.05 the carcass marbling level and calcium butyrate increased the villus height in the small intestine.

  20. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore Cattle Are Modulators of Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirene G T Pereira

    Full Text Available Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS, were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1 as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1, IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2, GH1 (growth hormone 1, IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor and GHR (growth hormone receptor, suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway.

  1. Effects of feeding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), organic selenium and chromium mixed on growth performance and carcass traits of hair lambs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro A Hernndez-Garca; Alejandro Lara-Bueno; Germn D Mendoza-Martnez; Jos R Brcena-Gama; Fernando X Plata-Prez; Ruifno Lpez-Ordaz; Jos A Martnez-Garca

    2015-01-01

    Yeasts and organic minerals are used in diets to improve health, productive performance and some carcass characteristics of ruminants and non-ruminants. Thirty-two lambs (Pelibuey×Katahdin;BW=(30.55±1.67) kg;n=8) were used in a 56-d feeding experiment to study the effects of different levels of live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae;yeast), selenium (Se) and chromium (Cr) mixed (Se-Cr), and a mixture of yeast-Se-Cr on growth performance and carcass traits. Animals were stratiifed by body weight (BW) and randomly assigned to one of four treatments:1) control group (0.0 g kg–1 yeast);2) yeast (1.50 g kg–1 dry matter intake (DMI) d–1);3) Se-Cr premix (1.5 mg kg–1 DMI d–1 for each mineral);and 4) yeast-Se-Cr mixture. There were no treatment effects on ifnal BW;whereas lambs fed Se-Cr or yeast-Se-Cr had higher (P0.05) among treatment groups. In conclusion, supplementation with yeast, Se-Cr mixed or yeast-Se-Cr did not improve ADG, ifnal BW, back fat content and carcass yield of growing of Pelibuey×Katahdin lambs. Supplementation with Se-Cr and yeast-Se-Cr increased DMI, and approximately 250 g ADG animal–1 d–1 was produced with no negative effects on growth and health of the animals.

  2. Effects of energy level in finisher diets and slaughter age of on the performance and carcass yield in broiler chickens

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    R de Albuquerque

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Male broilers were used to evaluate the effects of different energy levels in finisher diets and age of slaughter on performance, production pattern and carcass yield. Experimental design was a 2x3 factorial arrangement: energy level (ME in the finisher diet (3,200 and 3,600 kcal ME/kg and age of slaughter (42, 49 and 56 days, resulting in six treatments with four replicates. The finisher diet was fed only in the last week of the growing period. Characteristics evaluated were feed consumption (FC, body weight gain (WG, feed conversion (FC, energy intake (EI, caloric conversion (CC, efficiency production index, production pattern, and carcass yield. The results showed better WG and CC for broilers fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg finisher diet. Broilers slaughtered at 42 and 49 days of age had better performance and higher annual production than broilers slaughtered at 56 days of age. Carcass yield was influenced by slaughter age and better breast yield was seen at 49 and 56 days than at 42 days of age. It was concluded that 3,200 kcal ME/kg induced the best overall performance. Poultry houses were efficiently used when broilers were slaughtered at 42 days of age. Meat:bone ratio was improved for broilers slaughtered at 49 and 56 days of age.

  3. Effects of crossbreeding and gender on the carcass traits and meat quality of korean native black pig and duroc crossbred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlisin; Panjono; Lee, Sung-Jin; Lee, Jeong Koo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to observe the effects of crossbreeding and gender on the carcass traits and meat quality of Korean Native Black Pig (KNP) and KNP×Duroc crossbred (KNP×D). A total of 50 pigs comprising seven KNP barrows, eight KNP gilts, twenty KNP×D barrows and fifteen KNP×D gilts were used in this study. Animals were reared in the same housing condition with same feed diet for six months prior to slaughter. After an overnight chilling, the carcasses were graded, and samples of Musculus longissimus dorsi were obtained for meat quality analysis. The slaughter and carcass weights and dressing percentage of KNP×D were higher (pquality grade between KNP and KNP×D as well as barrow and gilt. Fat content of KNP×D was higher (pmeat of KNP×D were lower (pmeat of barrow were lower (pmeat fat but decreases meat color values and preference. Crossbreeding of KNP with Duroc produces a better fat deposition in meat of barrows than in gilts. PMID:25050045

  4. Growth and carcass production responses of EPMp broiler ducks to various levels of crude fiber and protein in the diet

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    Maijon Purba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion of crude fiber in diet is important for duck growth, but there is a limit in its use in order for the ducks to grow normally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth and carcass production responses of EPMp broiler ducks under different levels of crude fiber and protein in diets. Four hundreds and twenty day old ducklings were allocated into 7 treatments with 6 replications and each replication consisted of 10 ducks. The treatments were the factorial combinations of crude fiber content of 6 or 9% and protein content of 19, 21, or 23%; and BR-1 (starter diet as positive control. The variables observed were: feed intake, weekly body weight, and percentage of carcass production. The results showed that all variables observed were not significantly affected by CF content, but highly significantly affected by crude protein levels in diet. Protein content of 19 or 21% in diet resulted in a better performance for EPMp ducks. The inclusion of high CF in diet did not affect carcass percentage, except for reduced abdominal fat. The study implies that administration of high CF (6 or 9% with a protein content of 19 or 21% in the diet are still acceptable to EPMp ducks at 12 weeks.

  5. Carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore cattle fed different non-fiber carbohydrates sources associated with crude glycerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, V R; Ezequiel, J M B; Almeida, M T C; D'Aurea, A P; Paschoaloto, J R; van Cleef, E H C B; Carvalho, V B; Junqueira, N B

    2016-08-01

    Crude glycerin, a potential energy source for ruminant animals, has been evaluated, mainly, in diets with high starch content. However, a limit number of studies have evaluated the inclusion of crude glycerin in low starch diets. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the association of crude glycerin with corn grain or citrus pulp on carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls (n=30, 402±31 kg initial weight). The treatment consisted of: CON=control, without crude glycerin; CG10=10% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CG15=15% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CP10=10% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp; CP15=15% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp. The performance parameters and carcass traits were not affected by treatments (P>0.05). The inclusion of crude glycerin decreased yellow color intensity and increased fatty acids pentadecanoic and heptadecenoic in meat (P<0.05), without affecting neither the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids nor the relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The association of crude glycerin with corn or citrus pulp has no adverse effects on carcass characteristics and meat quality. PMID:26857157

  6. Effect of low or high stress in pre-slaughter handling on pig carcass and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Manha Peres

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequences of low or high stress during pre-slaughter handling of pigs on their carcass and meat quality. Forty-four animals of a commercial lineage, with an average weight of 107.23±5.23 kg, were used. At lairage the animals were randomly divided into two groups, the least and the most stressed. At slaughter, during bleeding, blood samples were collected for later cortisol and lactate tests. Forty-five minutes after slaughter the initial pH of th carcasses was measured and samples of the semitendinosus muscle were collected for R-value calculation. After 24 hours of cooling, the final pH was measured, damage scores were assessed and samples of the longissimus dorsi muscle were collected to evaluate drip loss, liquid loss from defrosting and cooking, shear force, lipid oxidation, and color. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey´s test. It was found that cortisol, lactate and R-value were lower and initial pH was higher for the least stressed animals, whereas the other parameters were not significantly affected. Thus, low stress in the pre-slaughter handling of pigs is effective in reducing stress and carcass damage, but has no effect on meat quality.

  7. Growth performances and carcass characteristics of veal calves fed acidified whole milk and milk replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedprasit, S.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the growth performances and carcass characteristics of male veal calves fed at different levels of acidified whole milk and milk replacer. Twenty-four male Holstein- Friesian 75% crossbred calves with an initial average live weight of 35.44±1.73 kg were allotted into 4 groups under a completely randomized design (CRD for 90 days. Group 1 received 100% whole acidified milk (AM, group 2 received 75% AM and 25% milk replacer (MR, group 3 received 50% AM and 50% MR and group 4 received 100% MR. All groups received 10% body weight of liquid diet, 2% live weight of starter feed and ad libitum of rice straw. After 90 days, the calves in group 1 showed the best final live weight (98.33 kg followed by groups 2 (75.08 kg, 3 (70.00 kg and 4 (57.36 kg (P0.05 in the percentage of fore-quarter and hind-quarter between the treatments. Considering production costs, calves in group 1 showed the lowest cost per live weight gain (53.31 baht/kg gain, followed by group 2 (64.39 baht/kg gain, 3 (77.74 baht/kg gain and 4 (116.82 baht/kg gain, respectively.

  8. Detection of quantitative trait loci for growth and carcass composition in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Shackelford, S D; Keele, J W; Koohmaraie, M; Smith, T P L; Stone, R T

    2003-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci for economically important traits in a family from a Bos indicus x Bos taurus sire. A Brahman x Hereford sire was used to develop a half-sib family (n = 547). The sire was mated to Bos taurus cows. Traits analyzed were birth (kg) and weaning weights (kg); hot carcass weight (kg); marbling score; longissimus area (cm2); USDA yield grade; estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (%); fat thickness (cm); fat yield (%); and retail product yield (%). Meat tenderness was measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force (kg) at 3 and 14 d postmortem. Two hundred and thirty-eight markers were genotyped in 185 offspring. One hundred and thirty markers were used to genotype the remaining 362 offspring. A total of 312 markers were used in the final analysis. Seventy-four markers were common to both groups. Significant QTL (expected number of false-positives carcass weight, QTL were detected on chromosomes 10, 18, and 29. Four QTL for yield grade were identified on chromosomes 2, 11, 14, and 19. Three QTL for fat thickness were detected on chromosomes 2, 3, 7, and 14. For marbling score, QTL were identified on chromosomes 3, 10, 14, and 27. Four QTL were identified for retail product yield on chromosomes 12, 18, 19, and 29. A QTL for estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat was detected on chromosome 15, and a QTL for meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force at 3 d postmortem was identified on chromosome 20. Two QTL were detected for meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force at 14 d postmortem on chromosomes 20 and 29. These results present a complete scan in all available progeny in this family. Regions underlying QTL need to be assessed in other populations.

  9. Características de carcaça e dos componentes não-carcaça de cabritos Moxotó e Canindé submetidos a dois níveis de alimentação Characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of Moxotó and Canindé male kids under two feeding levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Wanderley Mattos

    2006-10-01

    . Animals fed AL had greater yields of hot carcass, cold carcass, and carcass edible parts compared to those fed FR. It was not observed a significant feeding level effect on true carcass yield. After slaughter and cooling of the carcasses the following cuts were done: neck, shoulder clod, ribs (1st-5th and 6th-13th, loin, leg and breast. Although animals fed AL had greater body weights than FR kids, no significant differences were found between treatments for the different carcass cuts when expressed as percentage of cold carcass weight. Hind leg yield was affected by feeding level being lower in animals fed AL. Yields of liver, head, and gut, as percentage of empty body weight, were also affected by feeding level. Feed restriction had a negative effect on development and tissue deposition leading to lower cold carcass yield and weight. It can be concluded that when size and mature weight were similar, breed was not responsible for the differences on carcass characteristics, non-carcass components, and commercial cuts.

  10. Spray washing carcasses with alkaline solutions of lauric acid to reduce bacterial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of spray washing carcasses with lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) on bacteria recovered from whole-carcass-rinsates (WCR) was examined. Skin of carcasses was inoculated with a cecal paste containing antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimirum, and Camp...

  11. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. 311.28 Section 311.28 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves,...

  12. Effect of increasing distillers grains inclusion on performance and carcass characteristics of early-weaned steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonmaker, J P; Claeys, M C; Lemenager, R P

    2013-04-01

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) contain elevated concentrations of CP, oil, and S, which can negatively impact performance and carcass characteristics in steers weaned at 205 d of age. Early weaned (EW) cattle, however, consume less DM and require increased CP. Furthermore, the energy required to dispose of excess N may actually decrease excessive fat accumulation, which can occur in EW cattle. Thus, we hypothesized that feeding diets with increased concentrations of DDGS to EW steers for the first 99 d would decrease fat thickness and increase harvest weights, and would not inhibit performance or marbling deposition. To test this hypothesis, 90 Angus × Simmental steers (199.7 ± 12.2 kg) were weaned at 134 d of age (EW) and allotted to 3 high concentrate diets (20% corn silage) containing either 0%, 30%, or 60% DDGS (15.7%, 15.8% and 21.7% CP, respectively). Dietary treatments were fed for 99 d, after which steers were placed on a common diet containing no DDGS (12.9% CP) until harvest at a common weight of 599 kg. Concentration of dietary DDGS did not affect ADG, DMI, or G:F during the growing phase (P > 0.41), did not produce any carryover effects on ADG, DMI, or G:F during the finishing phase (P > 0.26), and resulted in similar overall performance (P > 0.52). Dressing percentage (P 0.46) by DDGS inclusion, but there was a tendency (P = 0.08) for the ratio of subcutaneous (SC) to intramuscular (IM) fat to be altered by DDGS inclusion. The ratio of IM to SC fat decreased from 0 to 30% DDGS inclusion and increased from 30 to 60% DDGS inclusion. These data suggest that inclusion of increased concentrations of dietary DDGS early in the feedlot phase does not negatively impact growth and performance of EW cattle, but does partition energy from carcass to noncarcass components. However, increased concentrations of DDGS did not negatively impact IM fat deposition. Utilization of energy for disposal of excess N may be responsible for changes in carcass

  13. THE EFFECT OF PRODUCTION SYSTEM AND WEANING ON LAMB CARCASS TRAITS AND MEAT CHARACTERISTICS OF AUTOCHTHONOUS JEZERSKO-SOLČAVA BREED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cividini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two Jezersko-Solčava lambs were used in a 2X2 factorial design to evaluate the effect of production system (fattening in stable with hay and cereals ad libitum or on the pasture and weaning (suckling or weaned lambs on carcass and meat traits of lambs. Suckling lambs were slaughtered at 125 days of age (30 kg of live weight and weaned lambs were slaughtered at 165 days (38 kg of live weight. No significant differences in daily gain and dressing percentage compared to the production system or weaning were observed. Lambs from pasture had greater percentage of liver, heart and spleen. They had longer and wider carcasses and lower carcass fatness as indicated by lower percentage of kidney fat (1.16 vs. 1.99 and lower percentage of fat in leg than lambs from stable. They also had higher percentage of shoulder and leg and lower percentage of back, loin and rib with flank. Production system also affected meat color. Lambs from pasture had higher CIE L, a and b values of Longissimus dorsi muscle. Mostly, weaning influenced carcass fatness and related traits. Suckling lambs had lower fatness score (4.94 vs. 6.25, lower percentage of kidney fat and fat in leg (8.66 vs. 10.31 and lower percentage of rib with flank than weaned lambs. Meat from suckling lambs was also of lighter colour. There was no significant interaction between production system and weaning on studied carcass or meat traits.

  14. Effects of organic chromium supplementation to ifnishing lambs diet on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura Moreno-Camarena; Ignacio Domnguez-Vara; Jos Brquez-Gastelum; Juan Snchez-Torres; Juan Pinos-Rodrguez; Antonia Mariezcurrena-Berasain; Ernesto Morales-Almarz; Abdelfattah Z M Salem

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate supplemental organic chromium (Cr) to ifnishing lambs on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Eighteen Suffolk lambs (age (4.5±0.2) mon;(25.8±3.6) kg body weight (BW)) were randomly assigned to three levels of supplemental organic Cr (0.0, 0.2 and 0.4 mg kg–1 dry matter (DM)) in a com-plete random design. Growth performance was evaluated for 70 d, and then lambs were slaughtered to study carcass characteristics and chemical composition of meat. Orthogonal contrasts were performed (contrast one-average level 0.2 ppm Cr vs. average level 0.4 ppm Cr;contrast two-level 0 vs. average levels (0.2+0.4) ppm Cr). Orthogonal polynomials were used to estimate the linear and quadratic effects of Cr concentrations. Growth and carcass performance were not affected by supplemental organic Cr. Muscle conformation and leg perimeter linearly increased (P<0.05) as organic Cr level increased in the diet. Kidney fat decreased linearly (P<0.05) as supplemental Cr increased. In Longissimus dorsi (LD), the ash content decreased linearly, and shear force (kg cm–2) increased (P<0.05) as organic Cr level increased in the diet. It is concluded that organic Cr did not affect growth performance, but it improved positively the muscle conformation, reduced kidney fat, whereas in LD there was an increment in shear force in ifnishing carcass lambs.

  15. Effect of energy concentration on growth performance and carcass quality of Iberian pigs reared under intensive conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Serrano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In total, 192 Iberian pigs were used to investigate the effects of net energy (NE concentration of the diet on growth performance and carcass quality of castrated females (CF and castrated males (CM. From 30 to 112 kg body weight (BW, three diets were formulated with similar digestible amino acid content per kcal of NE but differing in energy concentration (2,045, 2,175 and 2,305 kcal NE kg-1 from 30 to 81 kg BW and 2,175, 2,305 and 2,445 kcal NE kg-1 from 81 to 112 kg BW. From 112 kg to slaughter (148 kg BW, all pigs received a common finisher diet. Each treatment was replicated eight times and the experimental unit was a pen with four pigs. A decrease in NE concentration of the diet increased feed intake (p<0.05 and tended to impaired feed conversion ratio (p<0.10, whereas carcass and meat quality traits were not affected. Castrated males ate more feed and grew faster but had less fat thickness at the gluteus medius muscle than CF (p<0.05. However, no differences in carcass and meat quality traits between genders were detected. We conclude that a reduction in NE content of the grower diets did not affect growth rate and therefore, it not a valuable alternative to avoid excess of BW at slaughter in Iberian pigs reared under intensive management conditions. Also, both genders can be used for the production of high quality carcasses destined to the dry-cured industry.

  16. Carcass, sensory, and adipose tissue traits of Brangus steers fed casein-formaldehyde-protected starch and/or canola lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, C D; Lunt, D K; Miller, R K; Smith, S B

    2003-10-01

    We predicted that providing rumen-protected starch to the small intestine would increase adiposity of intramuscular adipose tissue, and hence marbling scores. Eighteen 15-mo-old Brangus steers were assigned randomly to one of three dietary treatment groups: 1) cracked corn (Corn); 2) casein-formaldehyde-protected lipid (Canola Lipid); or 3) casein-formaldehyde-protected starch (Marble Plus). All diets were equally balanced for ME (2.91 Mcal/kg), CP (12.5%), and DM (89%). Ether extract was 3.7, 6.9, and 6.9% for the Corn, Canola Lipid, and Marble Plus diets, respectively, and the Marble Plus also contained 3.7% protected starch. Steers were fed the diets for 126 d before slaughter. Average daily feed intake (as-fed basis), ADG, and feed:gain ratio (P > or = 0.23) did not differ among treatments. Carcasses across treatments did not differ (P = 0.26) in adjusted fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, marbling scores, or USDA quality grade. Percentage of kidney, pelvic, and heart fat was higher (P or = 0.33) by diet in i.m. adipose tissue. Fatty acid synthetase activity tended (P = 0.08) to be higher in s.c. adipose tissue of Marble Plus steers, and NADP-malic dehydrogenase activity was higher (P = 0.03) in i.m. adipose tissue of Canola Lipid steers. We conclude that Marble Plus did not improve carcass quality, but also did not reduce beef sensory attributes. Any differences we observed in carcass characteristics, adipose tissue cellularity, or lipogenesis apparently were caused by the protected lipid rather than the protected starch. PMID:14552372

  17. EFFECTS OF FEEDING SYSTEM AND BREED ON LAMB PRODUCTIVE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS IN THE SOUTH MEDITERRANEAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naziha Atti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding regimes and breed type on growth, non-carcass components and carcass characteristics of light lambs. Twenty four light lambs from the rustic fat-tailed Barbarine (BB breed and 21 from the thin-tailed Sicilo-Sarde (SS breed were used. For each breed, animals were divided into 3 groups (8 BB and 7 SS breed, each by live weight (LW. Two groups were conducted on rotational grazing of barley grass (GB or perennial ryegrass (GR and received daily 350 g of concentrate per lamb. The last group was conducted on feedlot system (FL with 450 g of ryegrass hay and 650 g of the same concentrate per lamb per day. The whole grass yield was 5 t DM/ha for ryegrass prairie and 4.2 for barley one. The final LW was higher for GB and GR lambs (28.3 kg than for FL ones (26.9 kg. Irrespective to breed, the average daily gain was higher for both grazing groups than FL system, 144, 137 and 121 g for GR, GB and FL regimes, respectively. Slaughter LW was higher for BB (29.0 kg than SS breed (26.5 kg. Barbarine lambs had more fat (23 vs. 17% and less muscle (53 vs. 57% than SS ones. FL lambs carcasses were more adipose (26% than those of both grass groups (18%, while grass lambs had more muscle (57 vs. 51%. Grazing grass based diets increased carcass muscle and decreased fat proportions, which could be a useful feeding strategy to naturally manipulate lamb meat nutritional characteristics.

  18. Effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and the fat and meat fatty acid profile of rabbits fed diets with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, P G; Meineri, G

    2008-12-01

    The effects of three levels (0%, 10%, or 15%) of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed (SHS) included in the diet on the growth performance, some carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat and perirenal fat was studied. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences among the groups in live weight, live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, carcass yield or the percentages of edible organs. The percentage values of hind legs, fore legs, loin and abdominal wall, breast and ribs, skin and limbs, and head were not affected by the inclusion level of SHS. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat was significantly increased with increasing SHS inclusion, while the saturated fatty acid (SFA) decreased. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of the rabbit meat decreased from 4.55 in the control group, to 1.03 in the 15% SHS group.

  19. Composição centesimal e teor de colesterol na carne de eqüinos (Equus caballus, Linneaus, 1758 machos e fêmeas agrupados por peso de carcaça Proximate composition and content of cholesterol in the meat of female and male equines (Equus cabalus, Linneaus 1758 with diferent carcasse weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Andrade Junqueira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi conduzido em frigorífico comercial e as análises no Setor de Tecnologia de Carnes do Departamento de Ciências dos Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do sexo e categoria de peso sobre a composição centesimal e teor de colesterol, 20 eqüinos (10 machos castrados e 10 fêmeas foram abatidos e agrupados em categorias de peso ao abate preestabelecidas, sendo: C1( 88,82 a 97,88 kg; C2( 102,20 a 115,80 kg; C3(129,71 a 160,69 kg; C4(162,80 a 236,40 kg; com 5 animais por categoria. Os músculos longissimus dorsi (LD e semimembranosus (SM, após o abate, foram coletados e analisados: umidade, gordura, proteína e cinzas (AOAC, 1990 e o colesterol foi determinado por colorimetria (Bragagnolo, 1997. O modelo estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2X4, e os dados foram analisadas pelo programa estatístico SAS. O fator sexo influenciou (pThe present study was conducted in a packing house, with the assays being done in the Sector of Meat Technology/Food Science Department of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA. With the objective of evaluating the effect of sex and category of weight on the meat proximate composition and content of cholesterol, 20 equines (10 castrated males and 10 females were slaughtered and grouped in pre-established categories of weight: C1 (88.82 to 97.88 kg; C2 (102.20 to 115.80 kg, C3 (129.7 to 160.69 kg and C4 (162.80 to 236.40 kg; with 5 animals for each category. The muscles longissimus dorsi (LD and semimembranosus (SM were collected and analyzed for: moisture, fat, protein and ashes (AOAC, 1990 and the cholesterol was determined by colorimetry (Bragagnolo, 1997. The statistical model was completely randomized, in factorial scheme 2X4, and the data were analyzed through the statistical program SAS. The factor sex influenced (p<0,05 the contents of cholesterol in LD muscle, with average values (in base of dry natural material

  20. Effect of Calf Health on Feedlot Performance and Carcass Value

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Shana

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses if calf health does affect feedlot performance and carcass value. The physiological aspects of this question as well as a regression analysis to further evaluate this problem will be addressed in this paper. A large set of data that can help to explain this health and value question has been made available for this study. These data were collected from the years 1990 - 2005 from a cattle feeding and carcass program in Coyle, Oklahoma as part of an Oklahoma State Universit...

  1. Classication Methods for CT-Scanned Carcass Midsections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus;

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has successfully been applied in medical environments for decades. In recent years CT has also made its entry to the industrial environments, including the slaughterhouses. In this paper we investigate classication methods for an online CT system, in order to assist...... in the segmentation of the outer fat layer in the mid- section of CT-scanned pig carcasses. Prior information about the carcass composition can potentially be applied for a fully automated solution, in order to optimize the slaughter line. The methods comprise Markov Random Field and contextual Bayesian classication...

  2. Evaluation of carcass, live, and real-time ultrasound measures in feedlot cattle: I. Assessment of sex and breed effects.

    Science.