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Sample records for carcass weight

  1. Spray chilling of deer carcasses--effects on carcass weight, meat moisture content, purge and microbiological quality.

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    Wiklund, E; Kemp, R M; leRoux, G J; Li, Y; Wu, G

    2010-12-01

    Twenty red deer carcasses were included in the study. Two treatments were applied to the carcasses; control (air chilling) and spray chilling (n=10 for each treatment). Carcass weight and temperature change were registered during over-night chilling. Meat moisture content was measured in the shoulder, loin, flap and leg before and after the chilling treatments; purge, cooking loss and tenderness were measured in loin samples stored at -1.5 °C for 3 and 9 weeks. Microbiological status was assessed on swabs taken at the lumbar end of the loin before and after the chilling treatments. Spray chilling reduced carcass weight loss significantly; air chilled and spray chilled carcasses lost 1 kg and less than 0.01 kg, respectively. No effects of spray chilling on tenderness, purge and cooking loss were found. Bacterial levels were low in general even after 9 weeks of vacuum packaged chilled storage.

  2. Genetic analysis of calf market weight and carcass traits in Japanese Black cattle.

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    Shojo, M; Okanishi, T; Anada, K; Oyama, K; Mukai, F

    2006-10-01

    Heritabilities of and genetic correlations between additive direct and maternal genetic effects for calf market weight, and additive direct genetic effects for carcass traits, were estimated for Japanese Black cattle by REML procedures under 2-trait animal models. Data were collected from calf and carcass markets in Hyogo and Tottori prefectures and analyzed separately by prefecture. Calf market weight was measured on 42,745 and 23,566 calves in Hyogo and Tottori, respectively. Only the fattening animals with calf market weight were extracted from the carcass database and used for estimation. The carcass traits analyzed were carcass weight, ribeye area, rib thickness, subcutaneous fat thickness, yield estimate, beef marbling score, and 4 meat characters (color, brightness, firmness, and texture). Direct and maternal heritabilities for calf market weight were estimated to be 0.22 and 0.07 in Hyogo, and 0.37 and 0.15 in Tottori, respectively. The estimates of heritabilities for carcass traits were moderate to high in both prefectures. The estimates of direct-maternal genetic correlations for calf market weight were positive (0.17) in Hyogo and negative (-0.63) in Tottori. The direct effect for calf market weight was positively correlated with the direct effect for carcass weight (0.87 and 0.56 in Hyogo and Tottori, respectively) but negatively correlated with the direct effect for beef marbling score (-0.10 in both prefectures). The estimates of genetic correlations between the maternal effect for calf market weight and the direct effects for carcass traits varied from -0.13 to 0.34 in Hyogo and from -0.14 to 0.15 in Tottori. Because direct and maternal genetic effects for early growth traits can be evaluated from calf market weight data in the production system of Japanese Black cattle, this information should be incorporated into selection and mating schemes of the breed.

  3. WEIGHT LOSS DETERMINATION OF LAMB CARCASSES DURING THE PRECOOLING AND FREEZING PROCESS

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    İbrahim YILMAZ

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Total weight loss of Morkaraman breed lamb carcasses were determined during the precooling and also during the freezing process of the carcasses. Research was carried out in the cooling and freezing rooms of Turkish State Slaughter House (EBK of Erzurum. Determined results were compared with the literature values given by different researches. Some suggestions were made to optimize the precooling and frozen process. In each trial, 64 lambs were selected randomly from different herds had been come to slaughter. After slaughter and dressing carcasses were showered with cold water, and removing the kidney and peripheral fats, the carcasses were used in precooling and freezing experiments. Precooling, freezing and all the other treatments were done in the practical handling conditions of EBK, that is none of those conditions were rearranged or altered, and what had been happening in those conditions were aimed to be determined. Experiment was repeated 7 times, thus total of 448 whole carcasses were used in the entire research work. At the end of this study, the average precooling and freezing weight losses were 1.88% and 1.3% respectively and their sum was 3.18%. It was determined that duration of precooling and freezing, average carcass weight, relative humidity, air circulation and loading percentage of the rooms were very effective on the weight losses.

  4. Carcass composition of market weight pigs subjected to heat stress in utero and during finishing.

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    Cruzen, S M; Boddicker, R L; Graves, K L; Johnson, T P; Arkfeld, E K; Baumgard, L H; Ross, J W; Safranski, T J; Lucy, M C; Lonergan, S M

    2015-05-01

    Objectives were to investigate the effects of prolonged gestational and/or postnatal heat stress on performance and carcass composition of market weight pigs. Pregnant gilts were exposed to gestational heat stress (GHS, 28°C to 34°C, diurnal) or thermal neutral (18°C to 22°C, diurnal) conditions during the entire gestation or during the first or second half of gestation. At 14 wk of age (58 ± 5 kg), barrows were housed in heat stress (32°C, HS) or thermal neutral (21°C, TN) conditions. Feed intake and BW were recorded weekly, and body temperature parameters were monitored twice weekly until slaughter (109 ± 5 kg). Organs were removed and weighed, and loin eye area (LEA) and back fat thickness (BF) were measured after carcass chilling. Carcass sides were separated into lean, separable fat, bone, and skin components and were weighed. Moisture, lipid, and protein content were determined in the LM at the 10th rib. Data were analyzed using a split plot with random effect of dam nested within gestational treatment. Carcass measurements included HCW as a covariate to control for weight. Planned orthogonal contrast statements were used to evaluate the overall effect of GHS in the first half, second half, or any part of gestation. Gestational heat stress did not alter postnatal performance or most body temperature parameters (P > 0.10). However, ADFI in the finishing period was increased (P heat stress during the first half of gestation decreased head weight as a percent of BW (P = 0.02), whereas GHS in the second half of gestation decreased bone weight as a percent of BW (P = 0.02). Heat stress reduced ADG, BW, and HCW (P < 0.0001). Lean tissue was increased in HS pigs on both a weight and percentage basis (P < 0.0001), but LEA was similar to TN carcasses (P = 0.38). Carcasses from HS barrows also had less carcass separable fat (P < 0.01) and tended to have less BF (P = 0.06) compared with those from TN barrows, even after controlling for HCW. However, percent

  5. Effects of lowering dietary fiber before marketing on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights.

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    Asmus, M D; Derouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Houser, T A; Nelssen, J L; Goodband, R D

    2014-01-01

    A total of 264 pigs (initially 41.0 kg BW) were used in a 90-d study to determine the effects of lowering dietary fiber before market on pigs fed high dietary fiber [provided by wheat middlings (midds) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)] on growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights of growing-finishing pigs. Pens of pigs were randomly allotted by initial BW and sex to 1 of 6 treatments with 6 replications per treatment and 7 or 8 pigs per pen. A positive control (corn-soybean meal-based) diet containing no DDGS or midds (9.3% NDF) and a negative control diet with 30% DDGS and 19% midds (19% NDF) were fed throughout the entire trial (d 0 to 90). The other 4 treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with the main effects of length of fiber reduction (23 or 47 d before marketing) and fiber level fed during the reduction period (low or medium). Pigs on these treatments were fed the negative control before the reduction treatment. The medium-fiber diet contained 15% DDGS and 9.5% midds (14.2% NDF) with the low-fiber diet was the positive control diet. Increasing the feeding duration of the low-fiber diets lowered overall ADFI (linear, P = 0.03) and improved G:F (linear, P fiber level for the last 23 d did not influence growth performance; however, lowering the fiber level improved carcass yield (P = 0.002), with a greater response (P fiber diet was fed for 23 d. Jowl fat iodine value (IV) decreased when the longer lower fiber diets were fed (linear, P fiber diet during the fiber reduction period than pigs fed the medium-fiber diet during the same time period; however, increasing the time lower fiber diets were fed from 23 to 47 d further reduced (P fiber level decreased full large intestine weight (linear, P = 0.005) with a greater response (P = 0.04) when the low-fiber diet was fed during the reduction period instead of the medium-fiber diet. In summary, lowering the fiber level before marketing can

  6. Effects of weight at slaughter and sex on the carcass characteristics of Florida suckling kids.

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    Peña, Francisco; Perea, J; García, A; Acero, R

    2007-03-01

    The effect of slaughter weight and sex on some carcass traits of suckling kids of the Florida breed was evaluated. A total of 60 kids (30 male and 30 female), fed exclusively on milk replacers, were slaughtered at 7-8kg (group 1), 10-11kg (group 2) or 14-15kg (group 3) of liveweight (mean weights of 7.6kg, 10.8kg and 14.4kg, respectively). Higher slaughter weights decreased the percentage of subproducts (blood, skin, head, feet) and internal organs (lungs+traquea, heart, liver, spleen, thymus) but significantly increased the percentage of intestine and fat depots (omental fat and mesenteric fat). Higher slaughter weights also increased carcass measures (L 40.5 vs 49.1; F 22.5 vs 25.9; G 10.4 vs 14.2; Wr 10.1 vs 13.9; Wth 8.0 vs 10.5; Th 16.5 vs 199; B 32.3 vs 42.4; PT 41.5 vs 50.8), compactness carcass index (96.6 vs 152.3) and compactness leg index (27.5 vs 44.1). Sex only significantly affected the percentages of feet, internal organs, omental fat, measure L, carcass compactness index and hind limb compactness index. The meat colour and fat colour were mainly scored as pale and white respectively in the carcasses of the lightest animals, whereas heavier kids were scored as pink and cream. Slaughter weight also influenced significantly the carcass fatness (score 1 in lightest kids and 2 or 3 in heavier ones). There were no significant (p>0.05) differences between slaughter weight group and sex in dressing percentages. Percentages corresponding to the long leg, back and neck (30-33%, 18-19% and 8-10%, respectively) decreased when the slaughter weight increased, whereas the ribs (23-25%) and the flank (10-11%) increased slightly. The carcasses comprised 57-58% muscle, 22-25% bone, 5-6% subcutaneous fat and 9-12% intermuscular fat. The percentage muscle stayed the same with increasing slaughter weight, whereas the bone decreased and the fat increased. The carcasses of the heavier females contained less lean and more fat than the males. The bone percentage was

  7. Feedlot performance, feed efficiency and carcass traits in Nellore cattle selected for postweaning weight

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    Tatiana Lucila Sobrinho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlated responses to selection for growth in feed efficiency and carcass traits of Nellore animals. A total of 121 animals of the Nellore control (NeC and selection herds were subjected to performance testing and classified regarding residual feed intake (RFI. Sixty-seven of these animals were selected and finished until reaching 4 mm of subcutaneous fat thickness between the 12th and 13th ribs. The animals were slaughtered at a mean age of 541 days and mean live weight of 423 kg for NeS and of 363 kg for NeC, and carcass traits were measured. Animals in NeS presented higher initial and slaughter weights, dry matter intake, hot and cold carcass weight, weight of retail cuts, and carcass yield than NeC animals for the same slaughter age and feedlot time. No significant differences in RFI were observed between herds, showing that the weight gain from selection for growth did not cause changes in the energy efficiency of the animals.

  8. Assessing beef carcass tissue weights using computed tomography spirals of primal cuts.

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    Navajas, E A; Glasbey, C A; Fisher, A V; Ross, D W; Hyslop, J J; Richardson, R I; Simm, G; Roehe, R

    2010-01-01

    More than 800 beef primal cuts from 44 Aberdeen Angus and Limousin-cross steers carcasses were scanned using spiral computed tomography (CT) and dissected. Thresholds for the segmentation of fat, muscle and bone in the CT spirals were estimated with the objective of assessing the weight of these tissues in the primal cuts and in the entire carcasses. Thresholds were estimated using half of the dataset (DBE) and then validated in the other half (DBV). Automatic image analysis procedures were used to assess tissue weights. The R(2) of the regression between primal tissue weight by dissection and CT were high in both datasets for fat (DBE, 0.89; DBV, 0.92), muscle (DBE, 0.99; DBV, 0.99) and bone (DBE, 0.95; DBV, 0.97). The estimation of total carcass tissue weights were also very accurate for the three tissues (R(2) values of 0.95 to 0.96), indicating that CT scanning may deliver very accurate information on beef carcass composition faster and with lower cost than physical dissection and without damaging or depreciating the primal joints.

  9. Influence of immunocastration (Bopriva® in weight gain, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nellore

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    Nayara Andreo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the effects of immunocastration on body weight gain, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nellore beef cattle. Eighty Nellore beef cattle, with initial body weight of 357±8.63 kg, were placed in feedlots and distributed in two treatments (40 animals per treatments as follow: one - non-vaccinated bulls and two - immunocastrated bulls (Bopriva®, Pfizer Animal Health. The animals placed on treatment two were vaccinated in two doses, first application 30 days before they arrive on the feedlots and second on the day they arrive on feedlots. After 67 days of experimental period, was calculated the daily gain of live weight in kg/day of the 80 animals and selected 20 animals from each treatment for the slaughter and carcass evaluations, and ten from each group for the meat analyzes. The data were submitted to analysis of variance. Immunocastrated animals showed lower daily weight gain, hot carcass weight, carcass yield, pH, leg thickness, muscle depth, loin muscle area, carcass muscle percentage, shear force and moisture. However, this animals had higher concentration of lactate and cortisol blood, chest depth, fat thickness, finishing degree, a *, b * and c*, liquid loss in thawing process, myofibrillar fragmentation index and ether extract of meat when compared to non-vaccinated bulss. The immunocastration (Bopriva® is an alternative for improving the quality of meat by the higher fat deposition and by the reduction of the shear force of the meat when compared to non-vaccinated bulls.

  10. Influence of carcass weight on instrumental and sensory lamb meat quality in intensive production systems.

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    Sañudo, C; Santolaria, M P; María, G; Osorio, M; Sierra, I

    1996-01-01

    The influence of carcass weight (CW) on instrumental and sensory meat quality traits was studied in Rasa Aragonesa lamb carcasses. Forty-six intact male lamb carcasses were divided into three groups: 8.07 (S.D. 0.36) kg (A); 10.22 (S.D. 0.79) kg (B) and 13.42 (S.D. 1.36) kg (C). Results indicate that CW significantly influenced instrumental measurements in all the traits considered, except for waterholding capacity. The weight increase produced higher pH, haem pigment and redness (a (∗)) and lower lightness. Shear values were higher (p ≤ 0.01) in group B. Sensory traits were not influenced by CW with the exception of juiciness. This parameter increased in the order A-B-C, and the subjective colour estimation was darker in groups B and C. The results show that it is possible to produce heavier or lighter lamb carcasses than traditional lamb (Ternasco de Aragón, group B), without significant losses in meat quality. This fact could give flexibility to a system permitting the slaughter weight to be adjusted to variations in seasonal prices.

  11. Assessment of beef production from Brahman x Thai native and Charolais x Thai native crossbred bulls slaughtered at different weights. I: growth performance and carcass quality.

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    Waritthitham, A; Lambertz, C; Langholz, H-J; Wicke, M; Gauly, M

    2010-05-01

    Effects of genotype and slaughter weight on growth performance and carcass quality of Brahman x Thai native (BRA) and Charolais x Thai native (CHA) crossbred bulls were studied. Thirty-four BRA and 34 CHA bulls raised under practical fattening beef farm conditions were randomly selected and slaughtered at 500, 550 and 600 kg live weight, respectively. Parameters of growth performance, carcass quality and commercial prime cuts were determined. Results showed that growth performance and carcass quality of CHA was better, since they showed higher weight gain, better body muscle score, higher carcass weight high dressing percentage, higher carcass muscle, less carcass fat and bone plus connective tissue proportions, better carcass classifications, greater loin eye area and higher commercial prime cut percentage. Slaughter weights up to 600 kg resulted in increased carcass weight, loin eye area and percentage of commercial prime cuts and can therefore be recommended.

  12. Effect of Different Slaughter Weights on Slaughter and Carcass Traits of Male Karayaka Lambs Reared under Intensive Production System

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    Yüksel Aksoy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the carcass traits of Karayaka lambs slaughtered at different slaughter weights (SWs and to find out optimum SWs. Male Karayaka lambs with 20 kg live weight (n=30 constituted the animal material of the study. Lambs were randomly divided into five SW groups; 30 (GI; n=6, 35 (GII; n=6, 40 (GIII; n=6; 45 (GIV; n=6 and 50 (GV; n=6 kg. Lamb fattening feed (concentrate feed, ad libitum and forage (lentil straw, 100g/lamb/day were used as the feed material. Lambs were sent to slaughter at target SWs. Following the slaughter, non-carcass components, tailless hot and cold carcass weights were taken. Carcasses were separated into six sections as leg, foreleg, back, loin, neck and others. Physical dissection was performed to investigate carcass composition. Only the differences in carcass dressing and skin percentages of slaughter groups were not found to be significant. Increasing carcass fat percentages and decreasing carcass lean and bone percentages were observed with increasing SWs. Considering the consumer preferences, current findings revealed that Karayaka lambs should be sent to slaughter at weights between 30-35 kg. However, considering the red meat deficit of the country, current market conditions and producer preferences, the optimum SW for Karayaka lambs were recommended to be between 40-45 kg.

  13. Bioelectrical impedance analysis for the prediction of hot carcass weight in buffalo calf

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    Leopoldo Iannuzzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty young buffalo male calves were fed ad libitum with a total mix ration and with vitamin-mineral integration for 14 months. Seven days before slaughter, the animals were weighed and bioelectrical impedance measurements were collected in live animals. Physical and chemical characteristics were assessed on the Longissimus dorsi muscle after slaughter. Correlations and regression equations were calculated to determine the possible use of bioelectrical impedance for evaluating hot carcass weight. Bioelectrical impedance analysis at different frequencies, simple correlation and analysis of regression were examined for all the data collected, supporting the possibility of hot carcass weight prediction with equation at multifrequency. The results show that, probably due to the variability in animal live weight, the distribution of the colour parameters was not normally distributed. Moreover, using different frequencies of resistance and reactance, hot carcass weight in buffalo may be predicted with the following equation: Y=98.47–8.84(Rs100KHz+4.41(Rs1000 KHz-116.27(Xc5 KHz+51.04(Xc50 KHz+20.30(Xc100 KHz-33.92(Xc500 KHz+9.01(Xc1000 KHz±ε (Adjusted R Square value of .907 and SE of 5.728 However, further studies are required to improve the technique also in buffalo, after standardization of the method.

  14. Effect of Sex, Colour and Weight Group on Carcass Characteristics of Japanese Quail

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    R. Tarhyel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted on Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica to determine the effects of sex, colour and weight group on their carcass characteristics. The birds were housed in deep litter pen at the poultry unit of University of Maiduguri Teaching and Research Farm and fed with broiler starter marsh from 5-8 weeks then later on from 8-52 weeks layer mash were introduced. The birds were divided into various groups (based on sex, colour and weight groups. The experiment lasted for 52 weeks in which the birds were slaughtered and divided into various parts and weighed. Results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of Variance (SPSS 16.0 statistical package and the means were separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test. Effect of sex on carcass characteristics were significant (p

  15. The impact of bone development on final carcass weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.;

    2006-01-01

    Proper development and function of the skeleton is crucial for the optimal growth of an organism, with rapid growth rates often resulting in skeletal disorders in farm animals. Yet, despite clear benefits for breed selection and animal welfare (HARRISON et al., 2004), the impact of bone development...... on final livestock characteristics remains largely undetermined. Male Shropshire lambs, sired by a ram with a high genetic potential for daily live weight gain (n=11), or a ram with a high genetic potential for both daily gain and lean content (n=12), were slaughtered at a mean age of 146 days. The femur...

  16. Quality of Italian Istrian Milk lamb meat. Influence of carcass weight and feeding system

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    Drago Kompan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Istrian Milk sheep is an endangered breed of the Pramenka group raised in the North-Adriatic Karst region. Carcass and meat characteristics of 46 suckling, 6- to 14- week-old intact male light lambs from two feeding systems were analysed. Thirty-two lambs were raised in a flock fed only with forage (hay supplied in stall during winter or fresh herbage directly grazed during the other seasons. The lambs had free access to the forage supplied to their dams (feeding sys- tem: milk and forage; MF. The other fourteen suckling ovine were grown on a farm with a feeding system incorporat- ing a concentrated supply of the forage base. The lambs were stabled and creep fed on a concentrate (20% CP at a daily rate of 100 g/head, in addition to the suckled milk (feeding system: milk and concentrate; MC. The carcasses were divid- ed into three categories of weight, following the Community scale of light lambs classification: A (lesser than or equal to 7 kg, n=17, B (7.1-10 kg, n=15 and C (10.1-13 kg, n=14. The frequency of 1st quality carcasses increased with carcass weight, reaching 100% in category C. On average, 72% of the carcasses were scored as 1st quality, without significant differences between feeding systems. The lightness of lamb meat from A carcasses was higher than that from the heaviest ones. Cooking losses showed a pattern opposite to that of pH (mean 5.44; SE 0.058, increasing where pH decreased (cate- gories A and B and concentrate-fed lambs. Shear force values were significantly affected by factors linked to the feed- ing system; in fact, MC lambs provided more tender meat than MF ones (32.6 vs 46.6 N. As carcass weight increased, moisture concentration decreased steadily (from 77.8% to 75.5%, while lipid content increased progressively (from 1.58% to 3.14%. In agreement with these patterns, the contribution of individual fatty acids (FA to muscle weight gen- erally increased with carcass weight. A similar trend was observed for the

  17. Effects of slaughter weight and carcass electrical stimulation on the quality and palatability of beef from young purebred bulls.

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    Solomon, M B; West, R L; Hentges, J F

    1986-12-01

    Seventy-eight purebred Angus and Brahman bulls (10 to 18 mo at slaughter) were used to determine the effects of slaughter weight (60, 80, 90 or 100% of the average mature-cow weight for the respective breed) and carcass electrical stimulation (500 V, 20 2-s impulses on the right side) on carcass and meat characteristics. Angus bulls grazed summer forage (millet) after weaning, while Brahman bulls were fed to stimulate gains achieved on forage by Angus bulls. Bulls were then placed in the feedlot for finishing to their designated slaughter weight (293, 381, 412 and 463 kg for Angus and 316, 420, 463 and 516 kg for Brahman). Coarse dark band formation and lean color problems normally associated with bullock carcasses were either eliminated or reduced by stimulation. Increasing slaughter weight from 60 to 90% was associated with an increase in panel tenderness scores for loin steaks. However, increasing slaughter weight from 90 to 100% little change was detected. On the other hand, shear values for loin steaks decreased with increasing slaughter weight. Stimulation increased the tenderness of loin steaks as determined by both panel scores and shear values, and of bottom round steaks (shear-force values). The data from this study suggest that meat from the bulls slaughtered at lighter weights was generally tough, but was improved when bulls were fed to heavier, yet acceptable weights. This research encourages implementation of electrical stimulation on carcasses from young bulls to improve quality-indicating factors.

  18. Genetic gain for body weight, feed conversion and carcass traits in selected broiler strains

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    GS Schmidt

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Swine and Poultry Research Center (Embrapa Suínos e Aves maintains a chicken breeding program for meat production since 1985. Two control lines (LLc and PPc are maintained, whereas two male lines (TT and ZZ and three female lines (PP, VV and KK have been selected. This paper reports the genetic gain after 15 generations of combined selection (mass and independent culling levels in order to develop the commercial broiler stocks Embrapa 021 and Embrapa 022. Selection pressure has been exerted on weight gain, carcass traits and fertility. In addition, female lines have also been selected for egg production, whereas males have been selected for feed efficiency since 1992. All lines have been selected for breast area instead of carcass traits since 1999. The genetic gain was estimated as the deviation between selected lines and the respective unselected lines at 42 days of age. In female lines, body weight improved 504, 548 and 587 g; average breast area increased 27.60; 16.99 and 26.43 cm²; adjusted feed conversion (42-49 d improved -1.46; -0.97 and 1.76 units, and egg production varied 6.99; 7.12 and -3.43% units for PP, VV and KK, respectively. In male lines, body weight improved 758 and 408 g; average breast area increased 31.95 and 19.38 cm², and adjusted feed conversion improved (42-49 d -0.99 and 1.26 for TT and ZZ, respectively. This breeding program has been effective to generate genetic gain and to develop two commercial products, Embrapa 021 (standard and Embrapa 022 (high yield. Nevertheless, feed efficiency is still not satisfactory.

  19. Effects of Dietary Calcium on Body Weight, Carcass Fat Content and Adipocyte Size in Male Rats

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    J Malekzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Calcium is a micronutrient and now receiving much attention for its doubtful effects on weight and body fatness. A few mechanisms has been suggested for calcium effects on body fatness and the most emphasized one is the reducing of lipolysis and increasing lipogenesis via reducing parathyroid hormone levels. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of nondairy dietary calcium on adipogenesis and adipocyte size in male Sprague dawley rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was done from November to September of 2005 at Tehran school of health, nutrition department. 48 male Spragu-Dawley rats from Damgostar Company were used in three randomly selected groups. The rats were fed low (0.2% W/W, usual (0.5% W/W and high (1.2% W/W dietary calcium based on AIN-93M purified diet. Rats were housed in 12 hours light-dark cycle, 22-25°C room temperature with free access to their respective diets. At the end of the experiment, rats were decapitated and carcass fat content, carcass ash content and mean adipocyte size in testis, peritoneal and subcutaneous fat pads were compared in three groups. The SPSS 11.5 was used as statistical software, running analysis of variance for comparing the effects. Results: weight gain, carcass fat content and adipocyte size, in groups were not significantly different, while serum parathyroid hormone concentrations in high calcium group was significantly lower than low calcium group (p<0.05 and insignificantly lower than usual calcium group [12.36, 23.57 and 42.2 pg/dl respectively]. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol were also insignificantly lower in high calcium group. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that physiological concentration of dietary calcium is not effective on weight gain, body fatness and adipocyte size. Relatively equal fat content beside significant difference in serum parathyroid hormone levels is against the parathyroid theory of calcium

  20. Effect of slaughter weight on the carcass value of young crossbred ('Polish Holstein Friesian' x 'Limousin' steers and bulls

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    Zenon Nogalski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apart from others factors, carcass quality is determined by the animal's age and body weight (BW at the end of the fattening period. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum finishing weight of young crossbred 'Polish Holstein Friesian' (PHF x 'Limousin' (LIM steers and bulls, based on their slaughter value. The experimental materials comprised 60 animals, including 30 bulls and 30 steers, fed farm-made feeds. At 2 or 3 wk of age, one half of calves were castrated. Bloodless castration was carried out using a rubber elastrator. Calves were reared under a conventional system, and were fattened semi-intensively. Daily gains ranged from 800 to 950 g. Calves were fattened to 450, 500, 550, or 600 kg BW. Carcass value was estimated after slaughter. Fatty acid profile was determined by gas chromatography in fat extracted from samples of muscle longissimus dorsi (MLD. Bulls, compared with steers, were characterized by a higher slaughter value, including a higher carcass dressing percentage by 1.07-2.60%, higher carcass conformation, and lower carcass fatness. In steers, an increase in live BW was accompanied by a considerable increase in fat content (higher than bulls, as confirmed by a significant (p ≤ 0.01 interaction. The intramuscular fat of bulls was characterized by higher concentrations of fatty acids delivering health benefits, and a more desirable polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA ratio. Fat from bulls contained higher levels of PUFAs by 2.34 g 100 g-1 on average. Semi-intensive fattening of PHF x LIM bulls to slaughter weight of 600 kg BW is recommended due to an increase in carcass value. Steers should be fattened to slaughter weight of 500-550 kg BW to prevent excessive fat deposition.

  1. Impact of two myostatin (MSTN mutations on weight gain and lamb carcass classification in Norwegian White Sheep (Ovis aries

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    Blichfeldt Thor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to estimate the effect of two myostatin (MSTN mutations in Norwegian White Sheep, one of which is close to fixation in the Texel breed. Methods The impact of two known MSTN mutations was examined in a field experiment with Norwegian White Sheep. The joint effect of the two MSTN mutations on live weight gain and weaning weight was studied on 644 lambs. Carcass weight gain from birth to slaughter, carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat classes were calculated in a subset of 508 lambs. All analyses were carried out with a univariate linear animal model. Results The most significant impact of both mutations was on conformation and fat classes. The largest difference between the genotype groups was between the wild type for both mutations and the homozygotes for the c.960delG mutation. Compared to the wild types, these mutants obtained a conformation score 5.1 classes higher and a fat score 3.0 classes lower, both on a 15-point scale. Conclusions Both mutations reduced fatness and increased muscle mass, although the effect of the frameshift mutation (c.960delG was more important as compared to the 3'-UTR mutation (c.2360G>A. Lambs homozygous for the c.960delG mutation grew more slowly than those with other MSTN genotypes, but had the least fat and the largest muscle mass. Only c.960delG showed dominance effects.

  2. The effect of slaughter weight and fattening intensity on changes in carcass fatness in young Holstein-Friesian bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenon Nogalski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of body weight (BW at slaughter and fattening intensity on carcass fatness and meat fatty acid profile in young Holstein- Friesian bulls. One-hundred bulls fattened on two levels of intensity a semi-intensive (SI and an intensive (I were used. Fattening was carried out to BW of 500, 550, 600, 650 and 700 kg. Live ultrasound measurements were performed to determine back fat thickness. Carcass dressing percentage, carcass conformation and fatness, intramuscular fat content of m. longissimus dorsi and fatty acid profile (by gas chromatography were determined after slaughter. Intensively fattened bulls were characterised by a greater carcass dressing percentage – by 1.17% on average, greater carcass conformation scores, greater external fat thickness and a greater intramuscular fat content than bulls SI fattened. Fat from intensively fattened bulls contained higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs – by 0.96/100 g on average. Semi-intensive fattening contributed to a decrease in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and to a significant increase in the concentrations of C18:2 and C20:4 fatty acids. Regardless of the fattening intensity, the n- 6/n-3 ratio was greater in heavier animals. The best results were achieved when young Holstein-Friesian bulls were fattened intensively to BW of 650 kg.

  3. Study on the association between tail lesion score, cold carcass weight and viscera condemnations in slaughter pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Lemos Teixeira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tail lesions, cold carcass weight and viscera condemnations in an Irish abattoir. The following data were collected at the evisceration point from every 3rd pig slaughtered over 7 days: farm identification, sex, tail lesion score, viscera inspection outcome and cold carcass weight. Tail lesions were scored according to a 5 point scale. Disease lesions responsible for lung (pleurisy, pneumonia and abscess, heart (pericarditis and liver (ascariasis condemnation were recorded based on the decision of the veterinary inspector. Data on 3,143 pigs from 61 batches were available. The relationship between disease lesions, tail lesion score and cold carcass weight was studied at individual carcass level, whereas the relationship between disease lesions and tail lesion score was studied at both carcass and batch level. Tail lesions (score ≥ 1 were found in 72% of the study population, with 2.3% affected by severe tail lesions (scores ≥ 3. Pleurisy (13.7% followed by pneumonia (10.4% showed the highest prevalence, whereas the prevalence of ascariasis showed the greatest variation between batches (0 to 75%. Tail lesion score, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia and pericarditis were associated with reductions in carcass cold weight (P ≤ 0.05 ranging from 3 to 6.6 kg. Tail lesion score was associated with condemnations for pleurisy, pneumonia and pleuropneumonia (P ≤ 0.05 at a batch level. Veterinary inspector shift was associated with condemnations for pneumonia, pleuropneumonia and pericarditis (P ≤ 0.05 at a carcass level and with pneumonia at a batch level. Sex was not associated with viscera condemnations but males were more likely to be affected by tail lesions. The relationship between overall tail lesion score and the lung diseases at batch level supports the relationship between poor health and poor welfare of pigs on farms. The inclusion of tail lesion scores at post mortem meat

  4. Study on the Association between Tail Lesion Score, Cold Carcass Weight, and Viscera Condemnations in Slaughter Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Harley, Sarah; Hanlon, Alison; O’Connell, Niamh Elizabeth; More, Simon John; Manzanilla, Edgar Garcia; Boyle, Laura Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tail lesions, cold carcass weight, and viscera condemnations in an Irish abattoir. The following data were collected at the evisceration point from every third pig slaughtered over 7 days: farm identification, sex, tail lesion score, viscera inspection outcome, and cold carcass weight. Tail lesions were scored according to a 5-point scale. Disease lesions responsible for lung (pleurisy, pneumonia, and abscess), heart (pericarditis), and liver (ascariasis) condemnation were recorded based on the decision of the veterinary inspector (VI). Data on 3,143 pigs from 61 batches were available. The relationship between disease lesions, tail lesion score, and cold carcass weight was studied at individual carcass level, while the relationship between disease lesions and tail lesion score was studied at both carcass and batch level. Tail lesions (score ≥1) were found in 72% of the study population, with 2.3% affected by severe tail lesions (scores ≥3). Pleurisy (13.7%) followed by pneumonia (10.4%) showed the highest prevalence, whereas the prevalence of ascariasis showed the greatest variation between batches (0–75%). Tail lesion score, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis were associated with reductions in carcass cold weight (P ≤ 0.05) ranging from 3 to 6.6 kg. Tail lesion score was associated with condemnations for pleurisy, pneumonia, and pleuropneumonia (P ≤ 0.05) at a batch level. VI shift was associated with condemnations for pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis (P ≤ 0.05) at a carcass level and with pneumonia at a batch level. Sex was not associated with viscera condemnations but males were more likely to be affected by tail lesions. The relationship between overall tail lesion score and the lung diseases at batch level supports the relationship between poor health and poor welfare of pigs on farms. The inclusion of tail lesion scores at post-mortem meat inspection

  5. Body weight and carcass dressing as affected by sex class, breed type, muscle thickness, age and provenance of Venezuelan cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Huerta-Leidnez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two data sets of 439 fed males (bulls and steers (MALES and 155 fed cattle (bulls, steers and heifers (MIXED chosen by their good finish and cutting-out potential were used to study variation in body weight (BW, carcass weight (CW and carcass dressing (DRESSING according to muscle thickness score (MUSCLING, breed-type, region of provenance (PROVENANCE, sex class, and age by dentition. Correlations between the dependent variables and carcass conformation were analyzed. In MALES, MUSCLING and PROVENANCE affected DRESSING (P<0.05, 1.4% in favor of cattle with thicker MUSCLING, and 1.6% in favor of cattle originated from the Andean region versus their Mid-Western region counterparts. Sex class (in MIXED, and PROVENANCE (in MALES, affected both BW and CW (P<0.01. In MIXED, an age exceeding 36 months, raised the CW (P<0.05. In MALES, MUSCLING was associated (P<0.01 with carcass conformation (r=0.53 and DRESSING (r=0.18. In MIXED, sex class  breed-type interaction tended to affect DRESSING (P=0.055 with the Zebu type surpassing the Dairy type in DRESSING (64% vs. 54%, respectively while bulls and steers performed different in DRESSING, depending on breed-type (P<0.06.

  6. Response to selection and genetic parameters of body and carcass weights in Japanese quail selected for 4-week body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaldari, M; Pakdel, A; Yegane, H Mehrabani

    2010-01-01

    .55, reflecting the accuracy of selection. However the estimated heritability by using pedigree information was 0.26 ± 0.05. The genetic correlation among BW and carcass traits was relatively high (ranging from 0.85 to 0.91). Inbreeding caused a decline in the mean for all of the traits, but its effect was only...... to improve carcass traits. Also, intense selection resulting in high rates of inbreeding might result in decreased response to selection due to inbreeding depression....

  7. Nutritive value of three tropical forage legumes and their influence on growth performance, carcass traits and organ weights of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambashi, Bienvenu; Kalala, Gaetan; Dochain, Denis; Mafwila, Jacques; Rollin, Xavier; Boudry, Christelle; Picron, Pascale; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    The effects of tropical forage legumes on feed intake, growth performance and carcass traits were investigated in 16 groups of two Large White × Duroc pigs. The diets consisted of a commercial corn-soybean meal diet as the basal diet and three forage-supplemented diets. Four groups of control pigs received daily 4 % of body weight of the basal diet, and 12 groups of experimental pigs were fed the basal diet at 3.2 % of body weight completed with fresh leaves of one of the three forage legumes (Psophocarpus scandens, Stylosanthes guianensis and Vigna unguiculata) ad libitum. The study lasted 90 days. The in vitro digestion and fermentation of the forage legumes were also determined. The in vitro digestible energy content of the legumes was between 0.72 and 0.77 that of the basal diet (14.4 MJ/kg dry matter (DM)). V . unguiculata was the most digestible forage legume expected for crude protein digestibility. Feeding forage legumes lowered the dry matter intake by 4.5 to 9.6 % (P < 0.05), final body weight (P = 0.013), slaughter weight, average daily gain and hot carcass weight (P < 0.05) without affecting the feed conversion ratio (FCR), dressing percentage and back fat thickness. In conclusion, using forage to feed pig could be interesting in pig smallholder production with limited access to concentrate, as FCR was not significantly affected.

  8. Divergent selection on 63-day body weight in the rabbit: response on growth, carcass and muscle traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combes Sylvie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of selection for growth rate on weights and qualitative carcass and muscle traits were assessed by comparing two lines selected for live body weight at 63 days of age and a cryopreserved control population raised contemporaneously with generation 5 selected rabbits. The animals were divergently selected for five generations for either a high (H line or a low (L line body weight, based on their BLUP breeding value. Heritability (h2 was 0.22 for 63-d body weight (N = 4754. Growth performance and quantitative carcass traits in the C group were intermediate between the H and L lines (N = 390. Perirenal fat proportion (h2 = 0.64 and dressing out percentage (h2 = 0.55 ranked in the order L Semitendinosus muscle, and the mean diameter of the constitutive myofibres were reduced in the L line only (N = 140. In the Longissimus muscle (N = 180, the ultimate pH (h2 = 0.16 and the maximum shear force reached in the Warner-Braztler test (h2 = 0.57 were slightly modified by selection.

  9. Effect of propolis alcoholic extract on the weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseli Alves Ferreira Zanato

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of different rates of propolis alcoholic extract (PAE on the weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH of growing rabbits. Forty White New Zealand rabbits were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of four treatments and ten replicates per treatment. The rabbits were allocated individually in wire cages containing a nipple drinker and a semi-automatic feeder. The treatments were: T1 = control, T2 = 1ml of ethanol, T3 = 0.8ml of PAE, and T4 = 1.5ml of PAE. Commercial feed and water were provided ad libitum to the animals, and the treatment with cereal alcohol and PAE was administered orally using a 2ml syringe. It was concluded that the addition of PAE to the rabbits’ feeding resulted in weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH similar to those of animals which received the diets with ethanol without any addition, except for the paw weight, that was higher in the rabbits which were given PAE, and for the gastric system, that had a higher weight in the rabbits which received no addition to their diet.

  10. Innovative retail merchandising strategies to accommodate for the growing trend of heavier carcass weights in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, S E; Nicholson, K L; Nicholson, J D W; Griffin, D B; Lawrence, T E; Wasser, B E; Savell, J W

    2011-08-01

    Three subprimals from beef carcasses, Average (mean=340.6kg) and Heavy weight (mean=461.6kg), were cut using Innovative versus Conventional cutting styles. Longer (PInnovative compared to Conventional. Total saleable yields were lower for the Innovative compared to Conventional for the top sirloin butt (P=0.0025) and ribeye (PInnovative compared to Conventional were 11.6% for top sirloin butt, 26.9% for ribeye, and 2.6% for strip loin. Retailers adopting innovative cutting styles to more effectively merchandise heavyweight beef must account for the decreased primary saleable yields and increased labor requirements through increased retail pricing.

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study for Certain Carcass Traits and Organ Weights in a Large White×Minzhu Intercross Porcine Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; WANG Li-gang; LIANG Jing; YAN Hua; ZHAO Ke-bin; LI Na; ZHANG Long-chao; WANG Li-xian

    2014-01-01

    Porcine carcass traits and organ weights have important economic roles in the swine industry. A total of 576 animals from a Large White×Minzhu intercross population were genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60K Beadchip and were phenotyped for 10 traits, speciifcally, backfat thickness (6-7 libs), carcass length, carcass weight, foot weight, head weight, heart weight, leaf fat weight, liver weight, lung weight and slaughter body weight. The genome-wide association study (GWAS) was assessed by Genome Wide Rapid Association using the mixed model and regression-genomic control approach. A total of 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (with the most signiifcant SNP being MARC0033464, P value=6.80×10-13) were located in a 9.76-Mb (31.24-41.00 Mb) region on SSC7 and were found to be signiifcantly associated with one or more carcass traits and organ weights. High percentage of phenotypic variance explanation was observed for each trait ranging from 31.21 to 67.42%. Linkage analysis revealed one haplotype block of 495 kb, in which the most signiifcant SNP being MARC0033464 was contained, on SSC7 at complete linkage disequilibrium. Annotation of the pig reference genome suggested 6 genes (GRM4, HMGA1, NUDT3, RPS10, SPDEF and PACSIN1) in this candidate linkage disequilibrium (LD) interval. Functional analysis indicated that the HMGA1 gene presents the prime biological candidate for carcass traits and organ weights in pig, with potential application in breeding programs.

  12. Alternative growth functions for predicting body, carcass, and breast weight in ducks: Lomolino equation and extreme value function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, A; Murawska, D; Golian, A; Mottaghitalab, M; Gitoee, A; Lopez, S; France, J

    2014-04-01

    In this study, 2 alternative growth functions, the Lomolino and the extreme value function (EVF), are introduced and their ability to predict body, carcass, and breast weight in ducks evaluated. A comparative study was carried out of these equations with standard growth functions: Gompertz, exponential, Richards, and generalized Michaelis-Menten. Goodness of fit of the functions was evaluated using R(2), mean square error, Akaike information criterion, and Bayesian information criterion, whereas bias factor, accuracy factor, Durbin-Watson statistic, and number of runs of sign were the criteria used for analysis of residuals. Results showed that predictive performance of all functions was acceptable, though the Richards and exponential equations failed to converge in a few cases for both male and female ducks. Based on goodness-of-fit statistics, the Richards, Gompertz, and EVF were the best equations whereas the worst fits to the data were obtained with the exponential. Analysis of residuals indicated that, for the different traits investigated, the least biased and the most accurate equations were the Gompertz, EVF, Richards, and generalized Michaelis-Menten, whereas the exponential was the most biased and least accurate. Based on the Durbin-Watson statistic, all models generally behaved well and only the exponential showed evidence of autocorrelation for all 3 traits investigated. Results showed that with all functions, estimated final weights of males were higher than females for the body, carcass, and breast weight profiles. The alternative functions introduced here have desirable advantages including flexibility and a low number of parameters. However, because this is probably the first study to apply these functions to predict growth patterns in poultry or other animals, further analysis of these new models is suggested.

  13. Polymorphism at the ovine beta3-adrenergic receptor locus: associations with birth weight, growth rate, carcass composition and cold survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, R H; Hickford, J G H; Hogan, A; Frampton, C

    2003-02-01

    The beta3-adrenergic receptors (ADRB3s) are predominantly found on the surface of adipocytes and are the major mediators of the lipolytic and thermogenic effects of high catecholamine concentrations. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis of part of the ovine beta3-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB3) intron was used to screen 12 large Merino half-sib families for sequence variation. Six different alleles that segregated in a Mendelian fashion were observed. The genetic basis for the allelic differences were identified by sequencing the ADRB3 (coding and non-coding regions) from animals that were homozygous for each of the alleles. Five sire lines (two Merino x Merino, two Merino x Coopworth, one Dorset Down x Coopworth) provided phenotypic and genotypic data used to ascertain the effects of allelic variation at the ADRB3 locus on birth weight, weaning weight, growth rate (up until weaning), carcass composition at 63 days post-weaning and cold survival. Statistical analyses within each half-sib family showed that in some sire lines (S13, S15, and S17) the inheritance of a particular allele was associated with increased birth weights and/or increased growth rates up until weaning. The inheritance of a particular sire allele was associated with fatter carcasses in sire line S16. Chi-squared analysis revealed the association of the E allele with cold survival and the D allele with cold-related mortality in sire line S14. Such associations support the hypothesis that ADRB3s are involved in energy homeostasis. With more research, the variation detected at the ADRB3 locus may assist in the genetic selection for desirable animal production traits.

  14. Carcass physical composition and meat quality of holstein calves, terminated in different finishing systems and slaughter weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Vincenzi dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazil sacrifices many dairy calves at birth, which can become a very serious problem merchandising. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the physical carcass composition and meat quality characteristics of Holstein calves in feedlot or pasture with supplementation, slaughtered at 140, 180, 220 or 260 kg body weight. In the early termination calves had on average 57 kg and 58 days of age. The confined animals were fed forage (corn and concentrated, in the ratio of 40:60 and concentrated pasture supplemented with 1% body weight. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 2 x 4 (two feeding systems x four slaughter weights. It was observed a significant interaction between slaughter weight and finishing system only for the texture of the meat. The finished animals on pasture showed improved texture with increased weight, whereas the confined animals did not affect the weight. Animals finished on pasture had higher muscle percentage (69.48% vs 66.57%, and lower fat percentage (9.58% and 9.75 kg vs 13.20% and 13.08 kg compared to confined animals. There was a linear increase in the total amount of muscle, bone and fat, muscle / bone ratio, compared edible portion / bone, palatability and juiciness when increased slaughter weight. The percentage of bone and meat coloring decreased linearly with the increase of slaughter weight. The proportion of muscle and fat, showed quadratic behavior. The animals of dairy breeds are excellent producers of lean meat, with good smoothness, flavor and juiciness.

  15. Phenotypic and Genetic Correlations of Feed Efficiency Traits with Growth and Carcass Traits in Nellore Cattle Selected for Postweaning Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceacero, Thais Matos; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; Canesin, Roberta Carrilho; Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated phenotypic (rph) and genetic correlations (rg) between 8 feed efficiency traits and other traits of economic interest including weight at selection (WS), loin-eye area (LEA), backfat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF) in Nellore cattle. Feed efficiency traits were gain:feed, residual feed intake (RFI), residual feed intake adjusted for backfat thickness (RFIb) and for backfat and rump fat thickness (RFIsf), residual body weight gain (RG), residual intake and body weight gain (RIG), and residual intake and body weight gain using RFIb (RIGb) and RFIsf (RIGsf). The variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using a two-trait animal model. The heritability estimates (h2) were 0.14, 0.24, 0.20, 0.22, 0.19, 0.15, 0.11 and 0.11 for gain:feed, RFI, RFIb, RFIsf, RG, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf, respectively. All rph values between traits were close to zero, except for the correlation of feed efficiency traits with dry matter intake and average daily gain. High rg values were observed for the correlation of dry matter intake, average daily gain and metabolic weight with WS and hip height (>0.61) and low to medium values (0.15 to 0.48) with the carcass traits (LEA, BF, RF). Among the feed efficiency traits, RG showed the highest rg with WS and hip height (0.34 and 0.25) and the lowest rg with subcutaneous fat thickness (-0.17 to 0.18). The rg values of RFI, RFIb and RFIsf with WS (0.17, 0.23 and 0.22), BF (0.37, 0.33 and 0.33) and RF (0.30, 0.31 and 0.32) were unfavorable. The rg values of gain:feed, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf with WS were low and favorable (0.07 to 0.22), while medium and unfavorable (-0.22 to -0.45) correlations were observed with fat thickness. The inclusion of subcutaneous fat thickness in the models used to calculate RFI did not reduce the rg between these traits. Selecting animals for higher feed efficiency will result in little or no genetic change in growth and will decrease subcutaneous fat thickness

  16. Evaluation of Columbia, USMARC-Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: IV. Postfabrication carcass component weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousel, M R; Notter, D R; Leeds, T D; Zerby, H N; Moeller, S J; Lewis, G S

    2013-05-01

    Postfabrication carcass component weights of 517 crossbred wether lambs were analyzed to evaluate 4 terminal-sire breeds. Wethers were produced over 3 yr from single-sire matings of 22 Columbia, 22 USMARC-Composite (Composite), 21 Suffolk, and 17 Texel rams to adult Rambouillet ewes. Lambs were reared to weaning in an extensive western rangeland production system and finished in a feedlot on a high-energy finishing diet. When wethers reached a mean BW of 54.4, 61.2, or 68.0 kg, they were transported to The Ohio State University abattoir for harvest. After refrigeration for approximately 24 h, chilled carcass weight (CCW) was measured, carcasses were fabricated according to Style A of Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications, and postfabrication weights were recorded. At comparable numbers of days on feed, Suffolk-sired lambs had heavier (P wholesale cut weights) and high-value trimming loss were greatest (P 0.06) flank weight. Data adjusted to comparable CCW reduced the number of significant sire-breed effects and changed sire-breed rankings of carcass component weights, for which sire breeds differed. After adjusting, Suffolk-sired lambs had lighter (P < 0.05) loins than Columbia- and Composite-sired lambs, Composite-sired lambs had heavier (P < 0.05) high-value cuts than Suffolk-sired lambs, and Suffolk- and Columbia-sired lambs had heavier (P < 0.05) necks than Texel-sired lambs. At predicted backfat thickness of 6.6 mm, Composite-sired lambs had a greater (P < 0.05) percentage of high-value cuts than Suffolk-sired lambs before but not after trimming. Producers can use these results to select terminal-sire breeds that will complement their production system and improve lamb value.

  17. Effects of strain and light intensity on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers grown to heavy weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanrewaju, H A; Miller, W W; Maslin, W R; Collier, S D; Purswell, J L; Branton, S L

    2014-08-01

    Effects of genetic strain and light intensity on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers grown to heavy weights were investigated. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design. Treatment structure was a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement with the main factors being strain (Ross × Ross 308, Ross × Ross 708) and light intensity (25, 10, 5, 2.5, and 0.2 lx) with trial as replicates. In each of the 5 trials, chicks of 2 different strains of the same commercial hatchery were equally and randomly distributed into 10 environmentally controlled rooms (5 rooms/strain) at 1 d of age at 50% RH. Each room was randomly assigned 1 of 5 light intensities from 22 to 56 d of age. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Birds and feed were weighed on 0, 14, 28, 42, and 56 d of age for growth performance. Humoral immune response was determined on d 28, whereas ocular and blood samples were performed on d 42 and 55, respectively. On d 56, 20 (10 males and 10 females) birds/strain from each room were processed to determine weights and yields. Genetic strain was significant (P ≤ 0.05) for most of the examined variables, where Ross × Ross 308 had better growth performance and meat yield in comparison with Ross × Ross 708. Although, there was no main effect of light intensity on growth performance and meat yield, results indicated that birds under 10 and 5 lx intensities showed slightly better growth performance and meat yield compared with birds under 25, 2.5, and 0.2 lx in both strains. There was no effect of strain and light intensity on ocular indices, immune response, plasma corticosterone levels, and mortality. This study shows the positive influence on profits to commercial poultry facilities that are using a low lighting environment to reduce energy cost, optimize feed conversion, and maximize production without compromising the welfare of the broilers.

  18. Non-synonymous FGD3 Variant as Positional Candidate for Disproportional Tall Stature Accounting for a Carcass Weight QTL (CW-3 and Skeletal Dysplasia in Japanese Black Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Takasuga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recessive skeletal dysplasia, characterized by joint- and/or hip bone-enlargement, was mapped within the critical region for a major quantitative trait locus (QTL influencing carcass weight; previously named CW-3 in Japanese Black cattle. The risk allele was on the same chromosome as the Q allele that increases carcass weight. Phenotypic characterization revealed that the risk allele causes disproportional tall stature and bone size that increases carcass weight in heterozygous individuals but causes disproportionately narrow chest width in homozygotes. A non-synonymous variant of FGD3 was identified as a positional candidate quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN and the corresponding mutant protein showed reduced activity as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Cdc42. FGD3 is expressed in the growth plate cartilage of femurs from bovine and mouse. Thus, loss of FDG3 activity may lead to subsequent loss of Cdc42 function. This would be consistent with the columnar disorganization of proliferating chondrocytes in chondrocyte-specific inactivated Cdc42 mutant mice. This is the first report showing association of FGD3 with skeletal dysplasia.

  19. Genetic parameters for carcass traits and body weight using a Bayesian approach in the Canchim cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirelles, S L C; Mokry, F B; Espasandín, A C; Dias, M A D; Baena, M M; de A Regitano, L C

    2016-06-10

    Correlation between genetic parameters and factors such as backfat thickness (BFT), rib eye area (REA), and body weight (BW) were estimated for Canchim beef cattle raised in natural pastures of Brazil. Data from 1648 animals were analyzed using multi-trait (BFT, REA, and BW) animal models by the Bayesian approach. This model included the effects of contemporary group, age, and individual heterozygosity as covariates. In addition, direct additive genetic and random residual effects were also analyzed. Heritability estimated for BFT (0.16), REA (0.50), and BW (0.44) indicated their potential for genetic improvements and response to selection processes. Furthermore, genetic correlations between BW and the remaining traits were high (P > 0.50), suggesting that selection for BW could improve REA and BFT. On the other hand, genetic correlation between BFT and REA was low (P = 0.39 ± 0.17), and included considerable variations, suggesting that these traits can be jointly included as selection criteria without influencing each other. We found that REA and BFT responded to the selection processes, as measured by ultrasound. Therefore, selection for yearling weight results in changes in REA and BFT.

  20. Replacing cottonseed meal with ground Prosopis juliflora pods; effect on intake, weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed pasture hay basal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Mohammed; Animut, Getachew

    2014-08-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the supplementary feeding value of ground Prosopis juliflora pod (Pjp) and cottonseed meal (CSM) and their mixtures on feed intake, body weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed a basal diet of pasture hay. Twenty-five yearling fat-tailed Afar rams with mean initial live weight 17.24 ± 1.76 kg (mean ± SD) were used in a randomized complete block design. Animals were blocked on their initial body weight. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks and carcass evaluation followed. Treatments were hay alone ad libitum (T 1) or with 300 g CSM (T 2), 300 g Pjp (T 5), 2:1 ratio (T 3) and 1:2 ratio of CSM : Pjp (T 4). The CP contents of the hay, CSM and Pjp were 10.5, 44.5 and 16.7 %, respectively. Hay DM intake was higher (P < 0.05) for non-supplemented and total DM intake was lower in non-supplemented. Average daily weight gain (ADG) was lower (P < 0.05) for T 1 compared to all supplemented treatments except T 5. Hot carcass weight and rib-eye muscle area also followed the same trend like that of ADG. Compared with feeding hay alone, supplementing with CSM or a mixture of CSM and Pjp appeared to be a better feeding strategy, biologically, for yearling Afar rams.

  1. Peso de carcaça e idade dos bovinos abatidos em Minas Gerais Carcass weight and age of bovines slaughtered in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Baptista

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O peso médio da carcaça quente de 505.005 bovinos abatidos em Minas Gerais, de janeiro a dezembro de 1997, foi de 222,31kg. Esses bovinos repartiram-se por sete categorias, com os seguintes pesos médios de carcaça: touro 235,58kg, novilhão 236,31kg, novilho intermediário 235,32kg, novilho 237,64kg, vaca 176,90kg, novilhona 176,86kg e novilha 148,60kg. Com base nos pesos médios de carcaça quente de categorias próximas, tomadas duas a duas, novilhões, novilhos intermediários e novilhos foram mensalmente comparados entre si. Da mesma forma, as novilhonas foram comparadas com as vacas. Os novilhos apresentaram sempre peso médio de carcaça significativamente superior ao dos novilhos intermediários (P0,05. Setenta e três por cento dos bovinos abatidos tinham idade igual ou superior a quatro anos. Tendo-se como indicador o binômio idade-peso ao abate, constatou-se um ainda insuficiente progresso qualitativo na produção de bovinos de abate em Minas Gerais.The mean carcass weight of 505,005 bovines, slaughtered at Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from January to December 1997, was 222.31kg. The bovines, belonging to seven categories, had the following mean carcass weights: bull 235.58kg, old bullock 236.31kg, intermediate bullock 235.32kg, bullock 237.64kg, cow 176.90kg, old heifer 176.86kg and heifer 148.60kg. Regarding hot carcass, mean weight of each two close classes such as old bullocks, intermediate bullocks and bullocks were compared. Cows and old heifers were also compared. Bullocks, when compared to intermediate bullocks, always presented significant higher carcass, mean weight (P0.05. Seventy three percent of these bovines were four-year-old or over. Concerning age and weight at slaughter, no qualitative progress in cattle breeding in the State of Minas Gerais was observed.

  2. Crescimento de regiões da carcaça de cordeiros abatidos com diferentes pesos Growth of carcass parts in slaughter lambs with different weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Furtado da Silva

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado no Setor de Ovinocultura do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, objetivando determinar o crescimento das principais partes da carcaça e suas proporções em relação ao peso de corpo vazio e peso de carcaça fria de cordeiros abatidos com diferentes pesos. Foram utilizados 22 cordeiros machos inteiros, filhos de carneiros Texel e ovelhas cruzas (Texel x Ideal. Destes, quatro foram abatidos no início do experimento (24 horas após o nascimento, seis ao desmame (45 dias de idade e os remanescentes aos 28 (6 animais ou 33 kg (6 animais. Os cordeiros foram confinados em baias individuais, com suas respectivas mães, até o desmame. A determinação do crescimento dos cortes da carcaça foi realizada através de equações alométricas, utilizando-se o logaritmo do peso de cada região da carcaça, em função do logaritmo do PCF ou PCV. As proporções de quarto, paleta e pescoço, em relação ao PCV, foram semelhantes (P>0,05 nos pesos de abates estudados, no entanto, houve diferença (PThis work was performed at the Ovine Section of Animal Science Department, at Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the growth of the carcass cuts and percentages in relation to the empty body weight and cold carcass weight of lambs slaughtered at different weights. Twenty-two intact male lambs, sired by Texel males, from crossbreed Texel-Ideal dams were used. Four lambs were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment (24 hours after birth and three groups of six lambs were slaughtered at weaning and when reaching the weight of 28 and 33kg. The lambs were confined in individual stall together, with their respective mothers until weaning (45 days of age. To study the growth of the different cuts of the carcass, regression equation of the log. of the weight of each part, as a function of the log. of the empty body weight or cold carcass weight were

  3. Effect of gender on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat and fat composition of pigs slaughtered at 125 kg of live weight destined to Teruel (Spain ham production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Garitano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Duroc x (Landrace x Large White barrows (n=60 and gilts (n=72, that consumed the same feed during the experimental period (25-125 kg of live weight were used. The duration of experimental period was 130 and 143 days for barrows and gilts respectively. The average daily gain and average daily feed intake were significantly higher (P<0.05 in barrows than in gilts, but no significant differences between sexes were observed for the feed conversion efficiency. The gender had not significant influence on carcass weight, carcass yield, carcass inner length, ham length and perimeter, but fat thickness at the level of Gluteus medius muscle and the last rib were significantly higher (P <0.05 in barrows than in gilts. The number of thighs removed per pig in the slaughterhouse was significantly higher in gilts than in barrows. The intramuscular fat (IMF percentage in Longissimus dorsi muscle was significantly higher in barrows than in gilts. The C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1 n-9, C20:1 and Σ MUFA proportions were significantly higher (P<0.05 in barrows than in gilts, while C10:0, C18:2 n-6, Σ n-6 and Σ PUFA proportions were higher in gilts than in barrows. Positive relations among IMF and C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 n-9, Σ SFA and Σ MUFA fatty acids were observed, whereas negative relations among IMF and C18:2 n-6 and PUFA fatty acids were detected. These results indicate that meat and fat quality was slightly better in barrows than in gilts.

  4. Effect of gender, housing density and the interaction on growth performance and carcass and meat quality of pigs slaughtered at 110 kg body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Serrano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 228 crossbred pigs were used to investigate the effect of gender (gilts and barrows, density at housing (0.84 and 0.76 m2/pig and the interaction on growth performance and carcass and merit from 19.4 to 110 kg body weight. Feed intake of gilts increased as the space allowance decreased but no effect was observed in barrows (p<0.05 for the interaction. However, no interaction was observed for average daily gain or feed-to-gain ratio. Barrows had 2.4% less (p<0.01 carcass lean percentage but 9% more (p<0.05 intramuscular fat content than gilts. The concentration of linoleic acid in the outer layer of backfat was higher (p<0.05 for gilts than for barrows when pigs were allocated at 0.84 m2/pig, but no differences were observed at 0.76 m2/pig. Also, barrows had 2.7% more (p<0.05 total saturated fatty acids (SFA in the outer layer of backfat and lower monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA (p<0.01 and linoleic acid (p<0.05 content in the inner layer than gilts. Housing density did not affect any of the carcass quality traits studied but an increase in space allowance decreased (p<0.05 MUFA content in both layers. Pigs allocated at 0.84 m2/pig tended (p<0.10 to have higher SFA content in the inner layer than pigs allocated at 0.76 m2/pig. We concluded that gilts and barrows respond differently to space allocation in respect to feed intake and unsaturation of backfat. Housing density did not affect growth performance of pigs slaughtered at 110 kg but MUFA content decreased with increases in space allowance.

  5. Influência da raça, sexo e peso/idade sobre o rendimento da carcaça em cordeiros The influence of breed, sex and weight/age on carcass yield in lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Moreira Osório

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou quantificar e comparar o rendimento da carcaça em cordeiros machos e fêmeas, abatidos com 63-73 dias de idade (peso de carcaça fria entre 6,5 kg e 7,9 kg e 80-90 dias de idade (peso de carcaça fria entre 8,0 kg e 9,5 kg, procedentes das raças Rasa Aragonesa, Ojinegra de Teruel e Roya Bilbilitana. Não foi verificada diferença de rendimentos de carcaça entre as raças; por outro lado, as fêmeas apresentaram rendimentos superiores aos machos; assim como os cordeiros de maior idade/peso de carcaça apresentaram rendimentos superiores aos de menor idade/peso de carcaça. As raças que participam da denominação específica de qualidade "Ternasco de Aragón" (Rasa Aragonesa, Ojinegra de Teruel e Roya Bilbilitana apresentam rendimentos de carcaça semelhantes. Entretanto, o sexo e a idade/peso de carcaça são fatores de variação do rendimento de carcaça que devem ser considerados para uma uniformização e comercialização de um produto de qualidade.This study aimed to compare and quantify carcass yield of male and female lambs of the following breeds: Rasa Aragonesa, Ojinegra de Teruel and Roya Bilbilitana. Animals were slaughtered, one group at 63-73 days of age (cool carcass weight between 6.5 and 7.3 kg and another when 80-90 days of age (cool carcass weight between 8.0 and 9.5 kg. Carcass yield has not been influenced by breed. On the other hand, females have shown yields higher than the males; as well as lambs of higher age/weight of carcass did show higher yields than those of lower age/weight of carcass. These breeds, which comprise the ones that receive the specific denomination for quality "Ternasco de Aragón", show similar carcass yields. However, sex and age/weight of carcass are variation factors of carcass yields which should be considered for a standardization and selling of a quality product.

  6. Características das carcaças e componentes do peso vivo de cordeiros terminados em pastagem ou confinamento = Carcass characteristics and live weight components in lambs finished on pasture or feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Machado Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar as características da carcaça e os não-componentes da carcaça de cordeiros em quatro sistemas: cordeiros desmamados aos 60 dias mantidos em pastagem; cordeiros + ovelhas em pastagem; cordeiros + ovelhas em pastagem + concentrado em creep feeding (1% PV; cordeiros desmamados aos 60 dias e confinados. Os cordeiros foram abatidos quando a média de peso vivo do tratamento alcançou entre 32-34 kg. Após o abate, foram coletados e pesados os não-componentes da carcaça. Obtiveram-se pesos, rendimentos emedidas objetivas das carcaças e por cálculos a compacidade de perna e carcaça. A metodologia para determinar o momento de abate promoveu grande variação (7 a 14 kg no peso vivo final entre os animais do mesmo tratamento. Houve correlação significativa (p This experiment had the objective to evaluate the carcass characteristics and the non-carcass components of lambs on four systems: lambs weaned at 60 days of age kept on pasture; lambs + ewes kept on pasture; lambs + ewe + concentrate in creep feeding; lambs weaned at 60 days and kept on feedlot. Lambs were slaughteredwhen mean live weight from the tratament reached 32-34 kg. After slaughter, the noncarcass components were collected and weighed. The weight, yield and carcass measures were obtained, while leg and carcass compacity was calculated. The elected methodology fordetermining slaughter time resulted in large variation (7 to 14 kg in the slaughter weight of lambs from the same treatments. There was a significant (p < 0.05 positive correlation between hot (r = 0.83 and cold (r = 0.85 carcass weights, and slaughtered weight. Lambsweaned and finished on pasture showed lower (p < 0.05 hot carcass dressing (42.3%, cold carcass dressing (40.2%, carcass biological dressing (51.8% and thorax width (22.99 cm and higher (p < 0.05 gastrointestinal content (5.6 kg. The presence of dams had aninfluence in systems were there was no weaning, in regard to carcass

  7. Feed intake, digestibility, body weight and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, Tesfay; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-04-01

    The experiment was conducted at Alamata Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia using 20 Afar rams with an initial body weight (BW) of 18.2 +/- 1.76 (mean +/- SD) kg. The objectives were to study the effect of supplementation with concentrate mix consisting of wheat bran (WB), noug seed cake (NSC) and sesame seed cake (SSC) at the ratio of 2:1:1 on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively on feed intake, digestibility, BW gain and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw basal diet. The experiment was arranged with four treatments and five replications in a randomized complete block design. The treatments included feeding sole tef straw (T1, control), and daily supplementation with the concentrate mix offered at 150 (T2, low), 250 (T3, medium) and 350 (T4, high) g DM per head. Total DM intake, crude protein (CP) digestibility, daily BW gain (P mix supplementation. Moreover, the medium level of supplementation did not substitute tef straw intake. Therefore, it is concluded that the medium level of concentrate mix supplement maintained the utilization of the roughage feed and resulted in better carcass parameters.

  8. IDENTIFICATIONS OF CARCASS CHARACTERISTIC FOR ESTIMATING THE COMPOSITION OF BEEF CARCASS

    OpenAIRE

    H. Hafid; R.E. Gurnadi; R. Priyanto; A. Saefuddin

    2014-01-01

    The research aimed to identify carcass characteristic that can be used for estimating composition ofbeef carcass. It was used 165 Brahman crossbred cattle in this research. Carcass characteristics wereweight of a half cold carcass (WC) ranged from 96 to 151 kg, loin eye area (LEA) ranged from 22.09 to304.8 mm2, 12th rib fat thickness (FT12) ranged from 0.80 to 2.90 mm, meat ranged from 53.55 to 90.10kg and carcass fat ranged from 5.54 to 39.72 kg. Result showed that a half weight cold carcass...

  9. Direct and social genetic effects on body weight at 270 days and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostellato, R; Sartori, C; Bonfatti, V; Chiarot, G; Carnier, P

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate covariance components for BW at 270 d (BW270) and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs using models accounting for social effects and to compare the ability of such models to fit the data relative to models ignoring social interactions. Phenotypic records were from 9,871 pigs sired by 293 purebred boars mated to 456 crossbred sows. Piglets were born and reared at the same farm and randomly assigned at 60 d of age to groups (6.1 pigs per group on average) housed in finishing pens, each having an area of 6 m(2). The average additive genetic relationship among group mates was 0.11. Pigs were slaughtered at 277 ± 3 d of age and 169.7 ± 13.9 kg BW in groups of nearly 70 animals each. Four univariate animal models were compared: a basic model (M1) including only direct additive genetic effects, a model (M2) with nonheritable social group (pen) effects in addition to effects in M1, a model (M3) accounting for litter effects in addition to M2, and a model (M4) accounting for social genetic effects in addition to effects in M3. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of covariance components were obtained for BW270; carcass backfat depth; carcass lean meat content (CLM); iodine number (IOD); and linoleic acid content (LIA) of raw ham subcutaneous fat; subcutaneous fat depth in the proximity of semimembranosus muscle (SFD1) and quadriceps femoris muscle (SFD2); and linear scores for ham round shape (RS), subcutaneous fat (SF), and marbling. Likelihood ratio tests indicated that, for all traits, M2 fit the data better than M1 and that M3 was superior to M2 except for SFD1 and SFD2. Model M4 was significantly better than M3 for BW270 (P manufacturing. Such effects should be exploited and taken into account in design of breeding programs for heavy pigs.

  10. Effects of light sources and intensity on broilers grown to heavy weights. Part 1: Growth performance, carcass characteristics, and welfare indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanrewaju, H A; Miller, W W; Maslin, W R; Collier, S D; Purswell, J L; Branton, S L

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of light sources and light intensity on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and welfare indices of heavy broilers (>3.0 kg) in 4 trials with 2 replications per trial. A total of 960 one-day-old Ross×Ross 708 chicks (30 males/30 females/room) were randomly distributed into 16 environmentally controlled rooms at 50% RH. A 4×2 factorial treatment structure evaluated 4 light sources (incandescent [ICD, standard], compact fluorescent [CFL], neutral light emitting diode [Neutral-LED], and cool poultry specific filtered LED [Cool-PSF-LED]) and 2 levels (5 lx, 20 lx) of light intensities. Each of the 4 light sources was paired with one of the 2 light intensities. Birds were fed the same diet with a 4-phase feeding program (starter, grower, finisher, and withdrawal). Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Birds and feed were weighed on one, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 d of age for growth performance. All mortality was recorded daily and feed conversion was adjusted for mortality. Immune response was determined on d 28 to d 35, whereas other welfare indices were performed on d 42 and 49, respectively. At d 56 of each trial, 20 (10 males and 10 females) birds from each room were processed to determine weights and yields. The BW, BW gain, live weight, and carcass weights of birds reared under Cool-PSF-LED were different (P≤0.05) in comparison to birds reared under ICD. However, FI, FCR, and mortality were not affected by treatments. There was no effect of treatments on fat or breast and tender weights and yields. In addition, there was no effect of treatments on ocular development, immune response, and other welfare indices, suggesting that the light sources evaluated did not compromise welfare of heavy broilers. It was concluded that the 3 light sources evaluated in this study may be suitable for replacement of ICD light source in poultry facilities to reduce energy cost and optimize production efficiency.

  11. Virtual dissection of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann;

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of computed tomography (CT) as a reference method for estimating the lean meat percentage (LMP) of pig carcasses. The current reference is manual dissection which has a limited accuracy due to variability between butchers. A contextual Bayesian classification scheme...... is applied to classify volume elements of full body CT-scans of pig carcasses into three tissue types. A linear model describes the relation between voxels and the full weight of the half carcass, which can be determined more accurately than that of the lean meat content. Two hundred and ninety-nine half pig...

  12. Genome-Wide Association Study for Identifying Loci that Affect Fillet Yield, Carcass, and Body Weight Traits in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianelys Gonzalez-Pena

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fillet yield (FY, % is an economically-important trait in rainbow trout aquaculture that affects production efficiency. Despite that, FY has received little attention in breeding programs because it is difficult to measure on a large number of fish and cannot be directly measured on breeding candidates. The recent development of a high-density SNP array for rainbow trout has provided the needed tool for studying the underlying genetic architecture of this trait. A genome-wide association study (GWAS was conducted for FY, body weight at 10 (BW10 and 13 (BW13 months post-hatching, head-off carcass weight (CAR, and fillet weight (FW in a pedigreed rainbow trout population selectively bred for improved growth performance. The GWAS analysis was performed using the weighted single-step GBLUP method (wssGWAS. Phenotypic records of 1,447 fish (1.5 kg at harvest from 299 full-sib families in three successive generations, of which 875 fish from 196 full-sib families were genotyped, were used in the GWAS analysis. A total of 38,107 polymorphic SNPs were analyzed in a univariate model with hatch year and harvest group as fixed effects, harvest weight as a continuous covariate, and animal and common environment as random effects. A new linkage map was developed to create windows of 20 adjacent SNPs for use in the GWAS. The two windows with largest effect for FY and FW were located on chromosome Omy9 and explained only 1.0 to 1.5% of genetic variance, thus suggesting a polygenic architecture affected by multiple loci with small effects in this population. One window on Omy5 explained 1.4% and 1.0% of the genetic variance for BW10 and BW13, respectively. Three windows located on Omy27, Omy17 and Omy9 (same window detected for FY explained 1.7%, 1.7%, and 1.0%, respectively, of genetic variance for CAR. Among the detected 100 SNPs, 55% were located directly in genes (intron and exons. Nucleotide sequences of intragenic SNPs were blasted to the Mus musculus

  13. Genome-Wide Association Study for Identifying Loci that Affect Fillet Yield, Carcass, and Body Weight Traits in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pena, Dianelys; Gao, Guangtu; Baranski, Matthew; Moen, Thomas; Cleveland, Beth M; Kenney, P Brett; Vallejo, Roger L; Palti, Yniv; Leeds, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    Fillet yield (FY, %) is an economically-important trait in rainbow trout aquaculture that affects production efficiency. Despite that, FY has received little attention in breeding programs because it is difficult to measure on a large number of fish and cannot be directly measured on breeding candidates. The recent development of a high-density SNP array for rainbow trout has provided the needed tool for studying the underlying genetic architecture of this trait. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted for FY, body weight at 10 (BW10) and 13 (BW13) months post-hatching, head-off carcass weight (CAR), and fillet weight (FW) in a pedigreed rainbow trout population selectively bred for improved growth performance. The GWAS analysis was performed using the weighted single-step GBLUP method (wssGWAS). Phenotypic records of 1447 fish (1.5 kg at harvest) from 299 full-sib families in three successive generations, of which 875 fish from 196 full-sib families were genotyped, were used in the GWAS analysis. A total of 38,107 polymorphic SNPs were analyzed in a univariate model with hatch year and harvest group as fixed effects, harvest weight as a continuous covariate, and animal and common environment as random effects. A new linkage map was developed to create windows of 20 adjacent SNPs for use in the GWAS. The two windows with largest effect for FY and FW were located on chromosome Omy9 and explained only 1.0-1.5% of genetic variance, thus suggesting a polygenic architecture affected by multiple loci with small effects in this population. One window on Omy5 explained 1.4 and 1.0% of the genetic variance for BW10 and BW13, respectively. Three windows located on Omy27, Omy17, and Omy9 (same window detected for FY) explained 1.7, 1.7, and 1.0%, respectively, of genetic variance for CAR. Among the detected 100 SNPs, 55% were located directly in genes (intron and exons). Nucleotide sequences of intragenic SNPs were blasted to the Mus musculus genome to create a

  14. Influência do peso vivo, da idade e do sexo sobre características de carcaças de equinos Influence of body weight, age and sex on characteristics of carcasses of equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Furtado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar as características quantitativas de carcaças de equinos, classificaram-se 72 equinos sem raça definida segundo o peso vivo, a idade e o sexo. Foram determinados o peso de carcaça fria, a quebra ao resfriamento, o rendimento de carcaça, os pesos de dianteiro e traseiro e a relação músculo/ossos. O modelo estatístico foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3 x 3, com dois sexos, três faixas etárias e três faixas de peso vivo. A maior faixa de peso correspondeu a maior peso de carcaça, com média de 201,71 kg; e a maior relação músculo/osso, com 77,69%. A menor quebra ao resfriamento foi observada na menor faixa de peso, com 2,03%. A média para rendimento de carcaça foi de 51,20%, para dianteiro 54,86% e para traseiro 45,06%. Houve interação entre sexo e idade dos animais para a variável rendimento de carcaça, que foi maior nos machos jovens (até 8 anos que nos mais velhos e nas fêmeas. Portanto, no abate de equinos, é recomendável priorizar animais jovens e mais pesados, por apresentarem maior quantidade de carne tipo exportação.With the objective of evaluating the quantitative characteristics of carcasses of equines, 72 undefined breed equines were classified by body weight, age and sex. It was determined cold carcass weight, cooling loss, carcass yield, front and back weight and muscle/bone ratio. The statistical model used was a completely randomized design in a 2 x 3 x 3 factorial scheme, with the two sexes, three age ranges and three ranges of body weights. The highest weight range corresponded to the highest carcass weight with average of 201.71 kg, and the highest muscle/bone ratio with 77.69%. The lowest cooling loss was observed in the lowest weight range, with 2.03%. The average for carcass yield was of 51.20%, for front and back, 54.86% and 45.06%, respectively. There was an interaction between sex and age of the animals for carcass yield variable, which was higher in

  15. Large Pelagic Carcass Weights (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Swordfish have been a commercially caught species since the early 1800s. During this early stage of the fishery, harpoon was the principal gear and the fishing was...

  16. Effects of light sources and intensity on broilers grown to heavy weights. Part 1: growth performance, carcass characteristics, and welfare indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effects of light sources and light intensity on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and welfare indices of heavy broilers (> 3.0 kg) in 4 trials with 2 replications per trial. A total of 960 1-d-old Ross × Ross 708 chicks (30 males/30 females/room) were randomly ...

  17. Predicting Acorn-Grass Weight Gain Index using non-destructive Near Infrared Spectroscopy in order to classify Iberian pig carcasses according to feeding regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Marín, D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The classification of Iberian pig carcasses into different commercial categories according to feeding regime was evaluated by means of a non-destructive analysis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS. A quantitative approach was used to predict the Acorn-Grass Weight Gain Index (AGWGI, and a set of criteria was established for commercial classification purposes. A total of 719 animals belonging to various batches, reflecting a wide range of feeding regimes, production systems and years, were analyzed with a view to developing and evaluating quantitative NIRS models. Results for the external validation of these models indicate that NIRS made clear differentiation of batches as a function of three feeding regimes possible with high accuracy (Acorn, Recebo and Feed, on the basis of the mean representative spectra of each batch. Moreover, individual analysis of the animals showed a broad consensus between field inspection information and the classification based on the AGWGI NIRS prediction, especially for extreme categories (Acorn and Feed.La clasificación en distintas categorías comerciales según régimen alimenticio de canales de cerdo Ibérico fue evaluada mediante el análisis no destructivo de muestras de tejido adiposo subcutáneo por Espectroscopía del Infrarrojo Cercano (NIRS. Partiendo de una aproximación cuantitativa para predecir el Índice de Reposición en Montanera (IRM se establecieron una serie de criterios para proceder a su clasificación comercial. Se analizaron un total de 719 animales pertenecientes a diversas partidas, que recogen una amplia variabilidad de muestras de distintos regímenes alimenticios, campañas y sistemas productivos, para el desarrollo y evaluación de los modelos NIRS cuantitativos. Los resultados de validación externa de los modelos indicaron que es posible discriminar con una gran exactitud entre partidas de distintos categorías (Bellota, Recebo y Cebo, en base

  18. Proteomic profiling of bovine M. longissimus lumborum from Crossbred Aberdeen Angus and Belgian Blue sired steers varying in genetic merit for carcass weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keady, Sarah M; Kenny, David A; Ohlendieck, Kay; Doyle, Sean; Keane, M G; Waters, Sinéad M

    2013-02-01

    Bovine skeletal muscle is a tissue of significant value to the beef industry and global economy. Proteomic analyses offer the opportunity to detect molecular mechanisms regulating muscle growth and intramuscular fat accumulation. The current study aimed to investigate differences in protein abundance in skeletal muscle tissue of cattle from two breeds of contrasting maturity (early vs. late maturing), adiposity, and muscle growth potential, namely, Belgian Blue (BB) × Holstein Friesian and Aberdeen Angus (AA) × Holstein Friesian. Twenty AA (n = 10) and BB (n = 10) sired steers, the progeny of sires of either high or low genetic merit, expressed as expected progeny difference for carcass weight (EPDcwt), and bred through AI, were evaluated as 4 genetic groups, BB-High, BB-Low, AA-High, and AA-Low (n = 5 per treatment). Chemical composition analysis of M. longissimus lumborum showed greater protein and moisture and decreased lipid concentrations for BB-sired compared with AA-sired steers. To investigate the effects of both sire breed and EPDcwt on M. longissimus lumborum, proteomic analysis was performed using 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. Proteins were identified from their peptide sequences, using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and Swiss-prot databases. Metabolic enzymes involved in glycolysis (glycogen phosphorylase, phosphoglycerate mutase) and the citric acid cycle (aconitase 2, oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) were increased in AA- vs. BB-sired steers. Expression of proteins involved in cell structure, such as myosin light chain isoforms and troponins I and T, were also altered due to sire breed. Furthermore, heat shock protein β-1 and peroxiredoxin 6, involved in cell defense, had increased abundance in muscle of AA-sired relative to BB-sired steers. Protein abundance of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, enolase-3, and pyruvate kinase was greater in AA-sired animals of High compared with Low

  19. Crescimento de cordeiros abatidos com diferentes pesos: osso, músculo e gordura da carcaça e de seus cortes Growth of lambs slaughtered at different weights: bone, muscle and fat of the carcass and its cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Furtado da Silva

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado no Setor de Ovinocultura do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, objetivando determinar as quantidades de osso, músculo e gordura da carcaça e o crescimento de osso e músculo da carcaça e dos diferentes cortes da mesma. Foram utilizados 22 cordeiros machos inteiros, filhos de carneiros Texel e ovelhas cruza (Texel x Ideal. Desses, quatro/oram abatidos no início do experimento (24 horas após o nascimento, e os restantes, ao desmame (45 dias de idade e aos 28 e 33kg. Os cordeiros foram confinados em baias individuais, com suas respectivas mães, até o desmame (45 dias de idade. A determinação do crescimento dos tecidos da carcaça e de seus cortes (quarto, paleta, costela, espinhaço e pescoço foi realizada através de equações alométricas, utilizando-se o logaritmo do peso de osso ou músculo, em função do logaritmo do peso de corpo vazio (PCV ou peso de carcaça fria (PCF. As quantidades de osso e músculo aumentaram (P0,05 com a elevação do peso de carcaça fria. A proporção de gordura aumentou do nascimento ao desmame (PThis experiment was developed at the Ovine Section of Animal Science Department, at Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil- The purpose of this experiment was to determine the quantity of bone, muscle and fat of the carcass, and the growth ofbone and muscle of the carcass, and of the carcass cuts. Twenty-two intact mate lambs, sired by Texel males, from crossbreed Texel -Ideal dams were used. Four lambs were siaughtered at the beginning of the experiment (24 hours after birth and groups of six lambs were siaughtered at weaning and when reaching 28 and 33kg. The lambs were kept in individual stalls together with their respective mothers until weaning (45 days of age. To study the growth of the carcass tissues and carcass cuts (hindquarter, shoulder, rib, backbone, neck, regression equations of the log of weight of each tissue, as a function of the log of

  20. Estimativa do peso da carcaça e dos cortes dianteiro, costilhar e serrote a partir do peso vivo em novilhos hereford Estimate of carcass weight and cuts fore quarter, ribs and hind pistol from live weight in hereford steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Osório Jardim

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de verificar a utilização do peso vivo (PV como estimador do peso da carcaça quente (PCQ, dos cortes dianteiro (PD, costilhar (PC e serrote (PS, assim como, quantificar a relação do PV com o PCQ e principais cortes da carcaça (PD, PC e PS. Foram utilizados 58 novilhos Hereford, criados em campo nativo e abatidos com 36 meses de idade. As equações de regressão obtidas foram: PCQ=-3,97+0,474(PV; PS=4,32+0,050(PV; PC=-5,26+0,092(PV e PD=-0,54+0.043(PV, todas altamente significativas (PFifty eight Hereford steers, raised under native pasture conditions, slaughtered with an average age of thirty months, were used to study the feasibility of the use of live wheight (PV as an estimator of the hot carcass weight (PCQ and of cuts such as fore quarter (PD, ribs (PC and hind pistol (PS, as well as to quantify the relationship of live weight with hot carcass weight and the main carcass cuts (PD, PC and PS. The regression equations obtained were: PCQ =-3.7 + 0.474 (PV; PS = 4.32 + 0.50 (PV; PC = -5.6 + 0.92 (PV and PD =-0.4 + 0.43 (PV, all of them highly significant (P<0.001, showing, respectively, the following determination coefficients: 90.6%, 86.6%, 72.6% and 87.0%. According to these values one might conclude that live weight is a good estimator of hot carcass weight and of its cuts, and may be utilized to sort animals for slaughter and when to sell them.

  1. Effect of chick weight on performance and carcass yield of broilers Influência do peso inicial sobre o desempenho e o rendimento de carcaça e cortes de frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J.C. Lara

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of weight classes (light, medium and heavy of Ross chicks on performance and carcass yield and main cuts, was studied using a completely randomized design with six replicates of 30 males and 30 females each. The chicks were fed on the same diets during the growing period (1-43 days. The live weight, feed intake, feed:weight gain ratio, viability, carcass yield and main cuts (breast, whole leg, wing and back and percentages of giblets (gizzard, liver, heart and guts were analyzed. The heavy weight class chicks were heavier (P0.05. The males showed higher carcass yield than the females of medium and heavy weight classes chicks. The whole leg yield of heavy weight class chicks was higher than the medium weight class chicks (PEstudou-se a influência do peso de pintos da linhagem Ross sobre o desempenho de 1 a 43 dias de idade e sobre os rendimentos de carcaça e de cortes nobres. Pintos das categorias de peso leve, média e pesada foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em seis repetições de 30 machos e 30 fêmeas cada. As rações utilizadas foram as mesmas para todos os tratamentos. Avaliaram-se o peso vivo, o consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar, a viabilidade, os rendimentos de carcaça e de cortes (peito, coxa, asa e dorso e a porcentagem de vísceras (moela, coração, fígado e intestinos. As aves da categoria pesada apresentaram maior peso (P0,05. Quanto ao rendimento de carcaça, os machos foram superiores às fêmeas nas categorias média e pesada. O rendimento de coxa mais sobrecoxa na categoria pesada foi maior do que na categoria média (P<0,05. Os tratamentos influenciaram o peso corporal, o consumo de ração, os rendimentos de carcaça e coxa mais sobrecoxa e não influenciaram a conversão alimentar, a viabilidade, o rendimento de peito e a porcentagem de vísceras.

  2. 朝鲜鹌鹑屠宰性能及其与体重的相关性分析%Correlation Analysis on Carcass Performances and Body Weights of Korean Quails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明丽

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 300 Korean quails (half of male and female) were raised from 7 days to 38 days under the same feeding condition. During the experiment, the body weights of the quails were measured once a week from 10 days old. At the end of raising experiment, 150 quails (half of male and female) were randomly selected for slaughtering, and the body weights and carcass performances were analyzed. The results showed that the body weights of female quails were very significantly higher than those of males ( P 〈 0.01), except the body weight at 10 days; the slaughter weight, bloodletting weight, carcass weight, half eviscerated weight, eviscerated weight, percentage of half eviscerated yield, weight of chest muscle and weight of thigh muscle of females were significantly higher than those of males ( P 〈 0.05 or P 〈 0.01 ). The results of correlation analysis indicated that there were very significantly positive correla- tions among the body weights at different ages (P 〈 0.01) ; and the positive correlations were showed a- mong the different aged body weights and carcass traits ( P 〈 0.05 or P 〈 0.01 ), except percentage of haft eviscerated yield, percentage of eviscerated yield, weight of chest muscle, weight of thigh muscle in females and dressing percentage, percentage of half eviscerated yield, weight of chest muscle, weight of thigh muscle in males.%选择7日龄的朝鲜鹌鹑300只(公、母各半),在相同管理条件下饲养至38日龄,每周定期称重,并在38日龄时随机抽取150只(公、母各半)进行屠宰,系统分析公、母鹑的体重及主要屠宰性能指标。结果表明,除10日龄体重外,朝鲜母鹌鹑的体重均极显著地高于公鹌鹑(P〈0.01);母鹑的宰前重、放血重、屠体重、半净膛重、全净膛重、半净膛率、胸肌率、腿肌重和胸肌重显著高于公鹑(P〈0.05或P〈0.01);相关分析显示,公、母鹑不同日龄体重间均呈极显著的正相关(P〈0.01);

  3. Contextual Analysis of CT Scanned Pig Carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Larsen, Rasmus; Christensen, Lars Bager;

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of the weight of tissue types in pig carcasses is generally only available after manual dissection. The use of computed tomography (CT) has demonstrated to be a promising approach to gain knowledge on the lean meat weight (Romvari, 2005), but less effort has been put into gaining...... knowledge about the weight of other tissue types from CT. Knowing the weight of individual tissue types will directly give access to other measures such as the weight of the carcass and the Lean Meat Percentage (LMP). Until now, most analyses of CT scans have been based on the Hounsfield spectra that does...... not consider the spatial context in CT scan. Applying contextual methods from the field of image analysis we hope to make a virtual dissection of pig carcasses....

  4. IDENTIFICATIONS OF CARCASS CHARACTERISTIC FOR ESTIMATING THE COMPOSITION OF BEEF CARCASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hafid

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to identify carcass characteristic that can be used for estimating composition ofbeef carcass. It was used 165 Brahman crossbred cattle in this research. Carcass characteristics wereweight of a half cold carcass (WC ranged from 96 to 151 kg, loin eye area (LEA ranged from 22.09 to304.8 mm2, 12th rib fat thickness (FT12 ranged from 0.80 to 2.90 mm, meat ranged from 53.55 to 90.10kg and carcass fat ranged from 5.54 to 39.72 kg. Result showed that a half weight cold carcass as asingle indicator major may be used to predict meat weight and carcass fat with regression linearequation: Meat (kg = 10.64 + 0.49 WC (R2=0.728 and SE=3.58, and Fat (kg = -21.70 + 0.36 WC**(R2=0.582 and SE=3.65. Multiple regression to predict meat weight based on fat percentage of kidney,pelvic and heart (KPH was Meat (kg = 7.99 + 0.58 WC** - 4.41 KPH** (R2=0.751 and SE=3.43.

  5. Effects of preslaughter feed withdrawal time on finishing pig carcass, body weight gain, and food safety characteristics in a commercial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobose, H L; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; Prusa, K J; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L

    2014-08-01

    The effects of feed withdrawal time before slaughter on finishing pig carcass composition were evaluated in 2 studies. In Exp. 1, 728 pigs (BW = 128.9 ± 1.2 kg) were allotted to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized design with number of pigs per pen and location within barn balanced across treatment. The 4 treatments were feed withdrawal times of 8, 24, 36, or 48 h and there were 12 replicate pens per treatment. Before feed withdrawal, pigs were fed a standard corn-soybean meal diet containing dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), bakery coproducts, and 5.0 mg/kg ractopamine HCl. Feed withdrawal time decreased (linear; P pigs (BW = 125.4 ± 1.6 kg) were used to determine the impact of feed withdrawal on growth, carcass, blood lactate, and meat quality. There were 4 treatments: withholding feed for 8, 12, 24, or 36 h, with 10 replicates per treatment. Pigs were fed a common corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 20% DDGS and 5.0 mg/kg ractopamine HCl. Withholding feed decreased (linear; P blood lactate, visual color score, and purge loss were unaffected. Withholding feed increased 45-min pH (quadratic; P > 0.02) and ultimate pH (linear; P pig. Although several heavyweight pigs were removed before trial commencement and the variable number of remaining pigs per pen may have influenced the response to feed withdrawal, the present data indicates that finishing pigs can experience between 24 and 36 h of feed withdrawal without negatively affecting carcass composition. However, the increased incidence of leaking ingesta beyond 12 h of feed withdrawal is concerning.

  6. Effect of substitution of concentrate mix with Sesbania sesban on feed intake, digestibility, body weight change, and carcass parameters of Arsi-Bale sheep fed a basal diet of native grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Wondwosen; Melaku, Solomon; Mekasha, Yoseph

    2013-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of substitution of concentrate mix with Sesbania sesban on feed intake, digestibility, average daily gain (ADG), and carcass parameters of Arsi-Bale sheep. The experiment employed 25 male sheep with mean (±standard error) initial body live weight (BLW) of 19.1 ± 0.09 kg. The experiment consisted of 7 days of digestibility and 90 days of feeding trials followed by carcass evaluation. The experiment employed a randomized complete block design with five treatments and five blocks. Treatments comprised of grass hay alone fed ad libitum (GHA; control), GHA + 100 % concentrate mix (CM) consisting of wheat bran and noug seed cake at a ratio of 2:1 (0 S. sesban), GHA + 67 % CM + 33 % S. sesban (33 S. sesban), GHA + 33 % CM + 67 % S. sesban (67 S. sesban), and GHA + 100 % S. sesban (100 S. sesban). Total dry matter intake (DMI) was higher (p mix.

  7. Peso de la canal en corderos parasitados y desparasitados por estrongilidos digestivos suplementados con follaje de Leucaena - Carcass weight of lambs with and without digestive strongilides parasites supplemented with Leucaena foliage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Alexander

    2010-03-01

    protein, energy and minerals, production of meat and / or milk. In Venezuela, have been very few investigations in sheep using Leucaena as a supplement, but when it comes to the performance of the carcass. In order to evaluate the carcass weight of sheep parasites and dewormed gastrointestinal parasite, supplemented and not supplemented with Leucaena leucocephala foliage, we selected 24 lamb of 2.5 months, with an average weight of 11.94 kg, mixed breed tropical and sex divided randomly into four treatments with six animals each. The experimental design was completely random with six replications. The investigation lasted for 135 days. The lambs received a basal diet of grass Pennisetum purpureum and supplemented received Leucaena foliage. The weighing of the lambs and the determination ofparasitic loads are performed weekly. The slaughter was done after fasting for 24 hours. The study variables were: body weight at 120 days, carcass weight (hot and cold and parasitic loads. For the analysis of results used the Duncan test. The results favor the supplemented treatments, demonstrating the feasibility of the use of Leucaena. In relation to the average weights of the carcass in the different treatments, parasites and supplemented (PCL with Leucaena obtained the highest average with 8.09 kg, treatments followed dewormed and supplemented with Leucaena (DPCL, dewormed without supplementation with Leucaena (DPSL and parasites without supplementation with Leucaena (PSL with 7.93, 6.41 and6.05 kg respectively.

  8. PRICE DEVELOPMENTS OF BEEF CARCASSES IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA BĂLAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of the classification of cattle carcasses (beef and veal are represented by the correct payment to cattle breeders, according to carcass weight and quality, and standardization, the common language in the international meat trade. The European Union set uniform procedures for quality assessment (the EUROP system, defined by the same parameters in the whole continent. Romania is at the beginning of cattle carcass classification; it is in the third year of reporting on the classification results to the European Commission. In this context, we consider it is very important to analyze these results, for a continuous improvement of carcass quality.

  9. Animal Carcass Pricing Grid. Evidences from the Romanian Pigmeat Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savescu Roxana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Until the introduction of SEUROP system, price negotiation between pig producers and slaughterhouses was based on two subjective criteria: animal weight and visual inspection of the quality of pigs. To ensure producers a fair payment, European Union created the possibility of binding the price on two objective factors: carcass weight and carcass composition. This paper describes the pricing mechanism developed by Romania in order to respond to European Union requirements for ensuring a fair payment to pig producers. It raises the attention on the difficulties encountered by the producers in understanding the way the commercial value of a pig carcass is calculated in case the selling price is negotiated on a flat rate basis or on a lean content basis (per kg of carcass weight or per kg of live weight.

  10. Beef cuts yield of steer carcasses graded according to conformation and weight Rendimento de cortes cárneos de carcaças de novilhos classificadas de acordo com a conformação e o peso de carcaça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonir Luiz Pascoal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment evaluated total and individual yield of commercial cuts, bones, and trimmings of carcasses from 38 Braford steers at 22 months of age finished in a feedlot. Carcasses were ranked according to three conformation classes (good minus = score 10; good = score 11; good plus = score 12, and three weight classes (heavy = 229.4 kg, intermediate = 205.0 kg, and light = 184.0 kg, ranging from 222.9 to 250.4, 201.5 to 209.0, and 170.0 to 190.3 kg, respectively. Carcass cold shrinkage was not affected by conformation, but it was significantly lower in heavy (1.83% than in intermediate (2.53% and in light carcasses (2.30%, which were not different among each other. Carcass flank percentage was not affected by conformation, but it was significantly higher in heavy (13.93% and intermediate carcasses (13.87% as compared to light carcasses (13.07%. Deboned beef cuts (78.08% of carcasses of steers, bone (16.57%, and trimmings (5.23% yields and losses due to deboning (0.12% were not significantly affected by carcass weight. However, when they were evaluated according to conformation classes, those with better conformation showed higher meat cut yield (78.75 vs 77.92 and 77.29%. Conformation affects meat cut yield of carcasses of young steers while carcass weight does not show this characteristic.Avaliaram-se os rendimentos cárneos total e individual de cortes comerciais, de osso e de retalho de carcaças de 38 novilhos Braford com 22 meses de idade terminados em confinamento. As carcaças foram classificadas de acordo com três classes de conformação (boa menos = 10 pontos; boa = 11 pontos; e boa mais = 12 pontos e três classes de peso (pesadas = 229,40 kg; medianas = 205,04 kg; e leves = 184,00 kg com variação, 222,9 a 250,4; 201,5 a 209,0; e 170,0 a 190,3 kg, respectivamente. A quebra no resfriamento não foi influenciada pela conformação, mas foi significativamente menor nas carcaças pesadas (1,83% em comparação às medianas (2,53% e

  11. The effect of birth weight and feeding of supplemental milk replacer to piglets during lactation on preweaning and postweaning growth performance and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, B F; Ellis, M; Corrigan, B P; DeDecker, J M

    2002-02-01

    The effects of piglet birth weight and liquid milk replacer supplementation of piglets during lactation on growth performance to slaughter weight was evaluated in a study carried out with 32 sows (PIC C-22) and their piglets (n = 384; progeny of PIC Line 337 sires). A randomized block design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. Treatments were birth weight (Heavy vs Light) and liquid milk replacer (Supplemented vs Unsupplemented). The study was divided into two periods. At the start of period 1 (birth to weaning), pigs were assigned to either Heavy or Light (1.8 [SD = 0.09] vs 1.3 kg [SD = 0.07] BW, respectively, P sex subclasses and placed in pens of four pigs. Pigs were given ad libitum access to diets that met or exceeded nutrient requirements. Pigs in heavy litters were heavier at weaning (6.6 vs 5.7 kg BW; SE = 0.14; P 0.05), and required seven fewer days (P 0.05) on growth performance from weaning to slaughter. However, pigs fed milk replacer required three fewer days (P 0.05) by either birth weight or milk replacer treatment. In conclusion, birth weight has a substantially greater impact on pig growth performance after weaning than increasing nutrient intake during lactation.

  12. Carcass Quality and Hematological Alterations Associated with Lung Lesions in Slaughter Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Dj Čobanović

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine effects of lung lesions on carcass quality and hematological parameters of slaughter pigs. The group of pigs with lung lesion score 2 had significantly lower live weight, hot carcass weight and cold carcass weight compared to the group of pigs with lung lesion score 0 (P0.05. The total number of red blood cells, concentrations of hemoglobin and hematocrit showed significantly lower mean values in the group of pigs with lung lesions score 2 (P0.05. In conclusion, the results showed that lung lesions in fattening pigs had negative impact on carcass quality and hematological parameters.

  13. The chilling of carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, J W; Mueller, S L; Baird, B E

    2005-07-01

    Biochemical processes and structural changes that occur in muscle during the first 24h postmortem play a great role in the ultimate quality and palatability of meat and are influenced by the chilling processes that carcasses are subjected to after slaughter. For beef and lamb, employing chilling parameters that minimize cold shortening is of greatest importance and can be best addressed by ensuring that muscle temperatures are not below 10°C before pH reaches 6.2. For pork, because of the impact of high muscle temperatures and low pH on the development of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) pork, a more rapid chilling process is needed to reduce PSE with the recommended internal muscle temperature of 10°C at 12h and 2-4°C at 24h. Spray chilling, a system whereby chilled water is applied to carcasses during the early part of postmortem cooling, is used to control carcass shrinkage and to improve chilling rates through evaporative cooling. Delayed chilling can be used to reduce or prevent the negative effects of cold shortening; however, production constraints in high-volume facilities and food safety concerns make this method less useful in commercial settings. Electrical stimulation and alternative carcass suspension programs offer processors the opportunity to negate most or all of the effects of cold shortening while still using traditional chilling systems. Rapid or blast chilling can be an effective method to reduce the incidence of PSE in pork but extreme chilling systems may cause quality problems because of the differential between the cold temperatures on the outside of the carcass compared to the warm muscle temperatures within the carcass (i.e., muscles that are darker in color externally and lighter in color internally).

  14. QUALIDADE DA CARCAÇA E DA CARNE DE NOVILHOS ABATIDOS COM PESOS SIMILARES, TERMINADOS EM DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE ALIMENTAÇÃO CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY FROM STEERS SLAUGHTERED WITH SIMILAR WEIGHTS, FINISHED IN DIFFERENT FEEDING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Moletta

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as características qualitativas da carcaça e da carne de novilhos Aberdeen Angus terminados em confinamento, com canade-açúcar + concentrado, ou em pastagem cultivada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum + sal comum como suplemento mineral. Abateram-se os novilhos aos 24 meses de idade com pesos similares de 394 e 396 kg, respectivamente. Alimentaram-se os animais confinados com dieta contendo, na matéria seca, 72,3% de cana-de-açúcar e 27,7% de concentrado. Os novilhos apresentaram no início da terminação peso médio de 320 kg e idade média de vinte meses. Não houve diferença nas percentagens de músculo e de osso. A percentagem de gordura foi similar, sendo de 22,8% e 20,7%, respectivamente, para animais terminados em pastagem e confinamento. A suculência, o sabor, a força de cisalhamento e a quebra no descongelamento mostraram-se maiores nos animais terminados em pastagem cultivada, sendo, respectivamente, 6,93 pontos, 6,60 pontos, 9,23 kgf e 8,28%, contra 5,93 pontos, 5,77 pontos, 7,27 kgf e 5,27%, na mesma ordem, para novilhos alimentados em confinamento. Contudo, outras características qualitativas da carne como cor, textura, marmoreio, maciez e quebra na cocção foram similares entre os tratamentos. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Aberdeen Angus, cana-de-açúcar, confinamento, pastagem hibernal. The objective of this work was to study the carcass and meat characteristics of Aberdeen Angus steers finished in feedlot, with sugar cane + concentrate, or on cultivated pasture of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum + common salt as mineral supplement. The steers was slaughtered at 24 months of age with similar weights of 394 and 396 kg, respectively. Confined animals were fed with a diet containing 72.3% chopped sugar cane and 27.7% concentrate, dry matter basis. At the beginning of finishing the average weight of the steers was 320 kg and the age was 20 months. No difference was observed for carcass muscle and bone

  15. Common factors method to predict the carcass composition tissue in kid goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fernanda Barros Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the interrelations among weights and carcass measures of the longissimus lumborum muscle thickness and area, and of sternum tissue thickness, measured directly on carcass and by ultrasound scan. Measures were taken on live animals and after slaughter to develop models of multiple linear regression, to estimate the composition of shoulder blade, from selected variables in 89 kids of both genders and five breed groups, raised in feedlot system. The variables considered relevant and not redundant on the information they carry, for the common factor analysis, were used in the carcass composition estimate development models. The presuppositions of linear regression models relative to residues were evaluated, the estimated residues were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were compared by the Student t test. Based in these results, the group of 32 initial variables could be reduced to four variables: hot carcass weight, rump perimeter, leg length and tissue height at the fourth sternum bone. The analysis of common factors was shown as an effective technique to study the interrelations among the independent variables. The measures of carcass dimension, alone, did not add any information to hot carcass weight. The carcass muscle weight can be estimated with high precision from simple models, without the need for information related to gender and breed, and they could be built based on carcass weight, which makes it easy to be applied. The fat and bones estimate models were not as accurate.

  16. Prediction of lean and fat composition in swine carcasses from ham area measurements with image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jiancheng; Schinckel, Allan P; Forrest, John C; Chen, Way; Wagner, Jeffrey R

    2010-06-01

    Video images of ham cross-sections were recorded from 71 pork carcasses (ranging in weight from 72 to 119kg). Three sets of prediction equations were developed to estimate pork carcass lean and fat composition from video image analysis (VIA) of ham cross-sectional area measurements, 10th rib back fat depth (TENFAT) and hot carcass weight (HCKg). Carcass data of dissected lean and fat in the four primal cuts (ham, loin, Boston button and picnic shoulder) were used as dependent variables in establishing regression equations. The first set of equations combined VIA ham measurements and total ham weight (HTKg). Regression models containing the single variable HTKg times ham percentage lean area (Vol. 1) or HTKg times ham percentage fat area (Vol. 2) accounted for 88% and 68% of the variation in total carcass lean weight (CLKg) and total carcass fat weight (CFKg) from the right side of each carcass, respectively. The second set of equations combined VIA ham measurements and TENFAT (cm). Multiple regression models involving TENFAT, Vol. 1, and Vol. 2 accounted for 91% and 90% of the variation in CLKg and CFKg. The third set of equations used VIA ham measurements, TENFAT and HCKg. Carcass lean weight was best predicted by HCKg, TENFAT, and ham lean area (HLA) (R(2)=.92). Carcass fat weight was best predicted by HCKg, TENFAT, and Vol. 2 (R(2)=.91). Overall correlations showed a high association between Vol. 1 and CLKg (r=.94, PVol. 2 and CFKg (r=.83, P<.0001). Ham lean area was related to CLKg (r=.74, P<.0001) and ham fat area to CFKg (r=.81, P<.0001). The results of this study indicated video image analysis of ham cross-section slices combined with backfat depth at the 10th rib can be used for accurate estimation of total carcass lean or fat composition.

  17. Effects of pasture on carcass composition in Cinta Senese pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giuliotti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The trial was performed to investigate on the effects of different periods of grass pasture in fattening Cinta Senese pigs; growth performances, carcass characteristics and meat quality were studied. Control group was reared in paddock and fed concentrate, while experimental group grazed on grass pasture with an integration of 1.4 kg/pig/d of concentrate. Initial live weight was not different between the two groups and individual weights were periodically recorded. Animals were slaughtered from 36 to 160 days from the trial beginning. Carcass weight, body measures, backfat thickness, pH45 and pH24 were recorded. After 24 hours of refrigeration, each carcass was dissected into lean, fat and bone cuts. Results didn’t show differences between the two groups, revealing that Cinta Senese pigs can profitably utilize pasture on grass even in fattening period.

  18. Produção de carne em ovinos de cinco genótipos. 5. Estimativas de qualidade e peso de carcaça através do peso vivo Meat production in sheep of five genotypes. 5. Quality and carcass weight estimation through liveweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Manzoni de Oliveira

    1998-12-01

    containing 17% of crude protein and 75% of dry matter basis, until slaughtering at 7,5 months of age. The between breed relationship of liveweight with carcass weight and some indicators of carcass quality were examined. The results showed that the regression coefficients of carcass weight on slaughtering weight were similar, however, there were differences on the height of the regression lines, derived from values of both Texel and Romney lambs. By increasing liveweight: a there was no effect on carcass fat content; but carcass cover fat varied in the Romney breed, b carcass conformation was not affect in Corriedale and Romney Marsh lambs and c carcass compacity was affected in Polwarth, Corriedale, Romney Marsh and Texel lambs.

  19. [Genetic variance of duck preproinsulin gene and its correlations to the traits of carcasses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Wu, Yan; Wang, Jie

    2008-06-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of exon 2 and partial intron of preproinsulin gene were studied in Peking duck and Cherry Valley duck by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing technologies. Two single nucleotide mutations, T179C and C195T, were found, respectively. chi2 test reflects that the tested population of Peking duck and Cherry Valley duck were in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium state (P>0.05). The relationships between SNPs and the traits of carcasses were analyzed by the least square analysis, which showed that the genotype BB in three lines of Peking duck was significantly higher in carcass weight, carcass net weight and breast muscle weight than AA and BB (P<0.01) and significantly higher in leg muscle weight and sebum weight than AB (P<0.01). In addition, the genotype AA was significantly greater than AB in sebum rate (P<0.01) and carcass net weight (P<0.05), respectively. However, for Cherry Valley duck, only the genotype AB was significantly higher than AA in sebum weight and abdomen fat weight (P<0.05). The results indicated that there was significant correlation between the genetic polymorphisms of preproinsulin gene and the traits of duck carcasses and the allele B was valuable for increasing the carcass weight and breast muscle weight.

  20. Efectos del transporte prolongado por vía terrestre y cruce marítimo en transbordador sobre pérdidas de peso vivo y características de la canal en corderos Effects of long distance transport by road and sea crossing on ferry on live weight losses and carcass characteristics in lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM Carter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó el efecto de un transporte local terrestre de 12 h y de uno prolongado terrestre marítimo de 46 h sobre las pérdidas de peso y características de calidad de la canal en corderos Corriedale de una misma procedencia, destinados a un matadero regional o extrarregional, respectivamente. Se utilizaron cuatro viajes comerciales (2 locales y 2 prolongados en que se transportó un total de 2.106 corderos. En cada viaje se individualizaron 25 corderos al azar en los cuales se registró el peso vivo antes y después del transporte, el peso de canal caliente y la presencia de contusiones, y se recolectaron muestras de hígado y músculo para determinar las concentraciones de glucógeno respectivas. Se midió el pH en lomo y pierna en las canales refrigeradas a 4 °C por 24 h. Los datos fueron analizados de manera descriptiva y luego sometidos a un análisis de varianza, excepto registro de contusiones que fue sólo descriptivo. Con 46 h de transporte se registró una mayor pérdida de peso vivo y canales de menor peso y rendimiento centesimal comparado con 12 h (P 0,05 para las concentraciones de glucógeno hepático, glucógeno muscular y pH; sin embargo, tanto los altos promedios de pH como las bajas concentraciones de glucógeno encontradas indicarían que incluso el transporte local de 12 h produjo un alto nivel de estrés y desgaste energético.The effect of local terrestrial transport for 12 h and prolonged terrestrial plus sea crossing on ferry transport for 46 h on weight loss and carcass quality characteristics was studied in Corriedale lambs from the same origin, destined to a regional or extraregional slaughterhouse, respectively. Four commercial journeys (2 local and 2 prolonged transporting a total of 2,106 lambs were used. In each load, 25 randomly chosen lambs were individualized; live weight before and after transport, hot carcass weight and carcass bruising were registered, and samples of liver and muscle tissue were

  1. Evaluation of a commercially available organic acid product on body weight loss, carcass yield, and meat quality during preslaughter feed withdrawal in broiler chickens: a poultry welfare and economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menconi, A; Kuttappan, V A; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Urbano, T; Matté, F; Layton, S; Kallapura, G; Latorre, J; Morales, B E; Prado, O; Vicente, J L; Barton, J; Andreatti Filho, R L; Lovato, M; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2014-02-01

    The effect of a commercial organic acid (OA) product on BW loss (BWL) during feed withdrawal and transportation, carcass yield, and meat quality was evaluated in broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in Brazil. Commercial houses were paired as control groups receiving regular water and treated groups receiving OA in the water. Treated birds had a reduction in BWL of 37 g in experiment 1 and 32.2 g in experiment 2. In experiment 2, no differences were observed in carcass yield between groups. Estimation of the cost benefit suggested a 1:16 ratio by using the OA. In experiment 3, conducted in Mexico, significant differences on water consumption, BWL, and meat quality characteristics were observed in chickens that were treated with the OA (P animal welfare and economic concerns in the poultry industry by reducing BWL and improving meat quality attributes.

  2. THE EFFECT OF TRANSITION FROM EUROP 5-POINT SCALE TO 15-POINT SCALE BEEF CARCASS CLASSIFICATION ON CARCASS DISTRIBUTION OF YOUNG SLAUGHTERED BULLS IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvester Žgur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the EUROP 15-point scale of carcass conformation and fatness classification system was introduced in Slovenia and replaced existing 5-point scale. Data (carcass weight, carcass conformation and fatness from Slovenian commercial slaughterhouses were collected from January 2005 to December 2013. In total, data from 374,122 animals were used. The analysis was conducted for the category of young bulls from 12 to less than 24 months of age. In the first year after the transition, the classifiers preferentially used 0 classes in classification of carcass conformation and carcass fatness as well. In period 2008 - 2009 the classifiers adapted the new scale and started to use + and – subclasses more frequently. The distribution of conformation and fatness subclasses was brought near normal distribution.

  3. Relationship between phenotype, carcass characteristics and the incidence of dark cutting in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, S; Basarab, J A; Dixon, W T; Bruce, H L

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has suggested that cattle predisposed to dark cutting can be identified from live animal or carcass characteristics. This hypothesis was tested using production and phenotype data from an existing data set collected from heifers (n=467) on study at three farms. Carcasses in the data set graded Canada AAA (n=136), AA (n=296), A (n=14), and B4 (dark cutting, n=21). Farm was identified as significant (P=0.0268) by CATMOD analysis and slaughter weight and carcass weight accounted for the variation in dark cutting frequency across the farms. Analysis of variance indicated that dark cutting heifers had reduced weight at weaning (Pcutting was decreased in heifers slaughtered at live weight greater than 550kg and in carcasses weighing greater than 325kg.

  4. Desempenho, características de carcaça e resultado econômico de cordeiros criados em creep feeding com silagem de grãos úmidos de milho Live weight gain, carcass traits and economic results on lambs fed with high moisture corn silage in creep feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gercílio Alves de Almeida Júnior

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, estudar níveis de substituição (0; 50 e 100% do milho grão seco moído pela silagem de grãos úmidos de milho na ração de cordeiros alimentados em creep feeding. Vinte e quatro cordeiros Suffolk foram avaliados quanto ao desempenho, pesos e rendimentos das carcaças. Também foi realizada uma análise econômica. As rações foram fornecidas ad libitum, sendo suas sobras pesadas para o cálculo do consumo médio por animal. Ao atingirem 28 kg de peso vivo, os cordeiros foram submetidos a jejum por 16 horas e, então, novamente pesados para se obter o peso vivo ao abate. Após o abate, os animais foram eviscerados para se obterem os pesos e rendimentos de carcaça quente. As carcaças permaneceram por 24 horas em câmara de refrigeração, sendo novamente pesadas para se obterem os rendimentos de carcaça fria e as perdas por resfriamento. Os resultados revelaram que não houve efeito dos níveis de substituição sobre ganho médio diário de peso vivo, idade ao abate, pesos e rendimentos das carcaças quentes e frias, indicando que a silagem de grãos úmidos de milho pode ser utilizada em substituição ao milho moído na alimentação de cordeiros. Como o peso ao abate foi pré-fixado, as variações nas idades ao abate fizeram com que essa variável exercesse influência sobre os desempenhos, pesos e rendimentos e, quanto maiores essas idades, piores os resultados dos parâmetros avaliados. O tratamento com 50% de silagem de grãos úmidos apresentou os melhores resultados econômicos e o tratamento sem silagem de grãos úmidos foi o de menor rentabilidade.The experiment was carried to study three levels (0, 50 e 100% of high moisture corn silage replacing dry corn grain in rations of lambs fed in creep feeding. Twenty four Suffolk lambs were evaluated to live weight (LW gain and carcasses dressing-outs percentage. It was performed an economical analysis too. Rations in creep feeding were fed ad

  5. RESULTS OF BEEF CARCASS GRADING IN SLOVENIA FROM 1997 TO 200

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    Nežika Petrič

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Carcass traits (carcass weight, conformation and fatness note and payment class were collected in the commercial slaughterhouses with automatic data collection for the last ten years. On the average more than 80 % of all graded bovine animals in Slovenia were taken into the study. The average carcass weight of calves increased by 20 kg, but was with 79 kg still very low. The carcass weight of young bulls, heifers and cows varied among different years, but no trend could be noticed, whereas carcass weight of old bulls decreased markedly (more than 50 kg. The carcass conformation decreased in all categories, in calves, young bulls and heifers by two thirds and in old bulls and cows by more than 0.9 of conformation class. The carcass fatness decreased in all categories too. The most pronounced decrease was noticed in the category of old bulls (0.6 class and the least in young bulls (0.2 class. Most of the above mentioned changes occurred after the year 2002 in the category of cows and after the year 2001 in all other categories. The main reasons for changes in conformation and fatness were probably the changes in cattle breed structure in Slovenia.

  6. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER YIELD AND CARCASS TISSUE COMPOSITION IN BROILER CHICKENS OF VARIOUS ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARIUSZ KOKOSZYŃSKI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Slaughter yield and carcass tissue composition were compared in three different broiler chicken production sets. The highest body weight (1892.5 g, eviscerated carcass weight with neck (1406.9 g and slaughter yield (74.5% were found in Ross 308 chickens, whilst the lowest values of these traits occurred in JV chickens (respectively: 1753.3; 1288.2 g; 73.3%. The highest muscle contents (45.4% breast muscles and leg muscles in carcass and the lowest fattiness (7.9% skin with subcutaneous fat and 1.5% abdominal fat were found in Hubbard Evolution chickens.

  7. The influence of Palm Kernel Cake and Rice Bran Fermentation Product Mixture to the Broiler Carcass Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadi Priabudiman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of the use of palm kernel cake (PKC and rice bran (RB fermentation products mixture to the percentage of broiler carcass weight pieces. Research using completely randomized design (CRD with treatments of the fermentation product usage rate of   0% (P0, 10% (P1, 20% (P2, 30% (P3 and 40% (P4 of the total ration of 4replications.  Variables measured were percentage of carcass weight ratio cut    pieces  of carcass weight (carcass front, rear carcass, breast meat, wings, back, and thigh with carcass weight multiplied by 100%. The results showed that the percentage of carcass weight piece front and rear carcass was shown at P3.

  8. Crescimento alométrico dos componentes da carcaça de cordeiros Texel × Ile de France confinados do desmame aos 35kg de peso vivo Allometric growth of the carcass components of feedlot Texel × Ile de France crossbred lambs from weaning to 35kg live weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Barcelos Galvani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o crescimento alométrico de ossos, músculos e gordura, e das regiões da carcaça de cordeiros Texel × Ile de France, terminados em confinamento. Vinte cordeiros, machos não-castrados, foram desmamados aos 42 dias de idade (15,9 ± 2,1kg de peso vivo e confinados em baias individuais recebendo alimentação ad libitum. Destes, cinco foram abatidos 10 dias após o desmame e, os remanescentes, aos 25, 30 ou 35kg de peso vivo. Para determinação do crescimento alométrico dos cortes e tecidos foi utilizada a equação exponencial Y = aXb, transformada logaritmicamente em um modelo linear. Observou-se crescimento precoce (b = 0,89 da paleta, ao passo que a perna, a costela e o pescoço apresentaram crescimento isogônico (b = 1,00, 1,03 e 1,11, respectivamente, ou seja, equivalente ao da carcaça. O aumento do peso da carcaça implicou em redução da taxa de crescimento de ossos e músculos (b = 0,60 e 0,92, respectivamente e aumento da taxa de crescimento da gordura (b = 1,78. O crescimento muscular foi diferenciado nas distintas regiões da carcaça, sendo isogônico na paleta (b = 0,98 e na perna (b = 0,99 e precoce na costela (b = 0,90 e no pescoço (b = 0,79. Recomenda-se que o abate de cordeiros Texel × Ile de France seja realizado com, no máximo, 30kg de peso vivo.Allometric growth of bone, muscle and fat, as well as of the carcass cuts of feedlot Texel × Ile de France crossbred lambs was evaluated. Twenty non-castrated male lambs weaned at 42 days of age (15.9 ± 2.1kg live weight were housed in individual stalls and fed ad libitum. Five lambs were slaughtered ten days after weaning, and the remaining were randomly assigned to one of three slaughter weights: 25, 30 and 35kg live weight. To determine allometric growth of individual cuts and tissues, exponential equation Y = aXb was logarithmically transformed and used. Shoulder presented early maturity (b = 0.89, whereas allometric growth of leg, rib and neck were

  9. Carcass and meat quality traits in Nellore and F1 Nellore-Araguaia crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, N V; Aboujaoude, C; Vieira, G S; Paiva, V V; Moraes Neto, R A; Gondim, V S; Alves, L R; Torres, M C L; Antunes, R C

    2015-05-22

    We evaluated and compared carcass traits and meat quality in Nellore cattle and F1 crosses between Nellore and Araguaia, where 17 individuals were from the Nellore group and 19 were ½ Nellore and ½ Araguaia crosses. All animals belonged to the same birth season and were raised in pasture systems under the same nutritional, environmental, and management conditions. When the animals reached slaughter weight, they were taken to an industrial slaughterhouse where food was not provided for 24 h (free access to water); they were then stunned, bled, the leather was removed, and they were eviscerated. The carcasses were weighed (hot weight), kept in chilled storage for approximately 24 h at 4°C, and weighed again to obtain the chilled carcass weight. Carcass yield, carcass length, carcass width, leg length, thigh perimeter, loin eye area (LEA), retail cuts, cooling loss, pH, fat depth, marbling rate, intramuscular fat, color, and shear force were analyzed and sensory analysis of the meat was conducted. Significant differences (P meat's sensory characteristics, but contributed to an improvement in carcass traits, providing an alternative for farmers that aim for good meat quality, with a higher meat percentage.

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis in chicken growth hormone gene and its associations with growth and carcass traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Bingxue; DENG Xuemei; FEI Jing; HU Xiaoxiang; WU Changxin; LI Ning

    2003-01-01

    In this experiment, F2 chicken derived from Broilers crossing to Silky are used to study the effect of growth hormone gene on growth and carcass traits. The partial gene is amplified by two pairs of primers, and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) is detected by the technique of PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism), and then confirmed by DNA sequencing. The mutations are found in intron 3 and intron 4 respectively, and can be clarified by digestion with EcoRⅤand MspⅠ. The results of least square analysis indicate that the gene has significant association with some carcass traits, such as breast muscle weight, breast muscle rate, abdominal fat rate, and has no association with other growth and carcass traits, such as live weight, carcass weight, eviscerated yield with giblet, eviscerated yield, leg muscle weight, heart weight, liver weight, abdominal fat weight, chest angle width, head and neck weight, shank and claw weight, wing weight, muscular stomach weight, glandular stomach weight, ovary or testicular weight, shank girth, small intestine length, 1-week body weight, 6-week body weight, 12-week body weight, etc. These results demonstrate that GH gene could be a genetic locus or linked to a major gene significantly affecting the growth and carcass traits in chicken.

  11. Performance, carcass traits and costs of Suffolk lambs finishing systems with early weaning and controlled suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rodrigo Fernandes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The performance, carcass traits and finishing costs of Suffolk lambs were evaluated in three systems: (1 lambs weaned with 22 kg of body weight (BW and supplemented with concentrate on pasture until slaughter; (2 lambs weaned with 22 kg BW and fed in feedlot until slaughter; (3 lambs maintained in controlled nursing after 22 kg BW and creep fed in feedlot until slaughter. Average daily gain (ADG was 224 g/d for lambs weaned and supplemented with concentrate on pasture, 386 g/d for lambs weaned in feedlot and 481 g/d for lambs under controlled nursing. Empty body weight and visceral fat deposition were highest in lambs from feedlot systems. Carcass weights and carcass yields were highest for lambs in controlled nursing. Finishing total costs were highest in controlled nursing and lowest in the system with weaning in feedlot. High concentrate diet associated with controlled nursing in feedlot allowed lambs to reach the growth potential and carcasses with higher weights, higher yields and higher fat content. After weaning, lambs in feedlot fed with high concentrate diet had higher weight gain than lambs supplemented with concentrate on pasture. Carcasses produced under these two systems presented the same characteristics. The system with weaning in feedlot showed the lowest cost per kg carcass.

  12. METHODS OF LABORATORY ANIMALS" CARCASSES COLLECTION, STORAGE AND DESTRUCTION IN ISFAHAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES

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    N SHAMANSOURI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Environmental problems due to hazardous wastes production are increasing everyday. Laboratories of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences produce hazardous wastes in their daily research avtivities. These hazardous wastes are produced from laboratory animals" carcasses, which were used in educational and research activities. These carcasses are mixed with other wastes while they are contaminated with pathogenic organisms, toxic and chemical agents. These wastes can contaminate environment and threaten human s health. So, carcasses produced in laboratories should be collected and handle with a specific method in order to destruct in an incinerator. Methods: In this study, methods of collection, storge and destruction of laboratory animals" carcasses in Isfahan university of medical Sciences were evaluated during four months. Specific questionnaires were used for data collection. The mean weight of carcasses of each labratories, produced within a week, were calculated. DRE (Destruction and Removal Efficacy in different Temperatures in the incinerator were calculated. Results: Mean weight of laboratory animals" carcasses produced during a week in all the laboratories were 20kg. DRE in the incinerator were 9S.39% in 750.C temperature during 1 hour, 94.20% in 850°c temperature during 30 minutes, 94.10% in 950°c temperature during 20 minutes and 94.80% in 1000°c temperature during 15 minutes. Discussion: According to laboratory animals" carcasses contamination with pathogenic organisms, toxic and chemical agents, present methods of collection, storage and destruction aren"t standard and healthy. Also, due to low amout of carcasses daily production, everyday destruction of these carcasses isn"t economic. As a result, carcasses produced everyday should be stored in a collecting box under zero temperature and destruct at the end of the week in the designed incinerator in 1000°c temperature .

  13. Etude statistique de l'appréciation du poids d'une carcasse de bovin en fonction de l'épaisseur de cuisse, de la longueur de carcasse et du sexe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiti, K.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical study for the weight of a bovine carcass as function of the thickness of the thight, length of a carcass and sex. Four hundred cattle coming from four different farms and dealt in proportionnal number for each sex, are used to study the influence of the height, the thickness of the thigh and sex on the weight for to appreciate a carcass. Animals were killed in Lubumbashi (Zaire by the S.A.B. society. The weight is the most important variable for the cow's choice in the commercial channel. In this study, other criteria of appreciation are used for giving a better decision for the butcher.

  14. Ganho de peso, característica da carcaça e dos demais componentes corporais de cordeiros confinados, alimentados com distintos teores de uréia Weight gain, carcass traits and other body components from feedlot lambs, fed diets with different levels of urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Sobolow de Souza

    2004-08-01

    finished in feedlot randomly allocated in four groups according to urea levels (0.0; 0.4; 0.8 and 1.2% of total dry matter. Animals were slaughtered with 32kg of live weight. There was no difference among urea levels for the following parameters: daily weight gain, live weight at slaughter, hot and chilled carcass weights, percentage of weight losses during chilling, commercial and biological carcass dressing out, non-carcass components weights, body condition and conformation, and fat deposition. However, for the skin weight (kg the 0.0% level was lower than the 0.8% level. There were not observed differences among treatments for the following variables: muscle pH at three moments, morphometric and carcass cut proportions. The leg length of the lambs fed diet with 0.8% urea was lower than that of 0.0% level. For leg compacity, 0.8% was smaller than the leg length of those fed with 0.o% urea. It was concluded that growing levels of urea utilization is viable and did not affect the variables that were analyzed in this work.

  15. Estimated genetic parameters for carcass traits of Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Hammond, A C; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A; Coleman, S W

    2002-04-01

    Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated from feedlot and carcass data collected from Brahman calves (n = 504) in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Data were analyzed using animal models in MTDFREML. Models included contemporary group (n = 44; groups of calves of the same sex, fed in the same pen, slaughtered on the same day) as a fixed effect and calf age in days at slaughter as a continuous variable. Estimated feedlot trait heritabilities were 0.64, 0.67, 0.47, and 0.26 for ADG, hip height at slaughter, slaughter weight, and shrink. The USDA yield grade estimated heritability was 0.71; heritabilities for component traits of yield grade, including hot carcass weight, adjusted 12th rib backfat thickness, loin muscle area, and percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat were 0.55, 0.63, 0.44, and 0.46, respectively. Heritability estimates for dressing percentage, marbling score, USDA quality grade, cutability, retail yield, and carcass hump height were 0.77, 0.44, 0.47, 0.71, 0.5, and 0.54, respectively. Estimated genetic correlations of adjusted 12th rib backfat thickness with ADG, slaughter weight, marbling score, percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, and yield grade (0.49, 0.46, 0.56, 0.63, and 0.93, respectively) were generally larger than most literature estimates. Estimated genetic correlations of marbling score with ADG, percentage shrink, loin muscle area, percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, USDA yield grade, cutability, retail yield, and carcass hump height were 0.28, 0.49, 0.44, 0.27, 0.45, -0.43, 0.27, and 0.43, respectively. Results indicate that sufficient genetic variation exists within the Brahman breed for design and implementation of effective selection programs for important carcass quality and yield traits.

  16. Dual X-ray absorptiometry accurately predicts carcass composition from live sheep and chemical composition of live and dead sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, K L; Ferguson, M; Gardner, G; Smith, N; Greef, J; Pethick, D W

    2009-01-01

    Fifty merino wethers (liveweight range from 44 to 81kg, average of 58.6kg) were lot fed for 42d and scanned through a dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as both a live animal and whole carcass (carcass weight range from 15 to 32kg, average of 22.9kg) producing measures of total tissue, lean, fat and bone content. The carcasses were subsequently boned out into saleable cuts and the weights and yield of boned out muscle, fat and bone recorded. The relationship between chemical lean (protein+water) was highly correlated with DXA carcass lean (r(2)=0.90, RSD=0.674kg) and moderately with DXA live lean (r(2)=0.72, RSD=1.05kg). The relationship between the chemical fat was moderately correlated with DXA carcass fat (r(2)=0.86, RSD=0.42kg) and DXA live fat (r(2)=0.70, RSD=0.71kg). DXA carcass and live animal bone was not well correlated with chemical ash (both r(2)=0.38, RSD=0.3). DXA carcass lean was moderately well predicted from DXA live lean with the inclusion of bodyweight in the regression (r(2)=0.82, RSD=0.87kg). DXA carcass fat was well predicted from DXA live fat (r(2)=0.86, RSD=0.54kg). DXA carcass lean and DXA carcass fat with the inclusion of carcass weight in the regression significantly predicted boned out muscle (r(2)=0.97, RSD=0.32kg) and fat weight, respectively (r(2)=0.92, RSD=0.34kg). The use of DXA live lean and DXA live fat with the inclusion of bodyweight to predict boned out muscle (r(2)=0.83, RSD=0.75kg) and fat (r(2)=0.86, RSD=0.46kg) weight, respectively, was moderate. The use of DXA carcass and live lean and fat to predict boned out muscle and fat yield was not correlated as weight. The future for the DXA will exist in the determination of body composition in live animals and carcasses in research experiments but there is potential for the DXA to be used as an online carcass grading system.

  17. Carcass or Tissue Packaging and Shipping

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP on proper shipping of wildlife tissues to labs. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect and ship wildlife carcasses, carcass parts, or...

  18. Assessing Body Condition from Fat on Carcass

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding assessment of body condition based on carcass fat. Provides stepwise instructions and photos on how to assess body condition from carcass fat

  19. Ganho de peso e características da carcaça de cordeiros terminados em pastagem natural suplementada, pastagem cultivada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. e confinamento Weight gain and carcass characteristics of lambs finished in a natural supplemented pasture, ryegrass pasture (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber José Tonetto

    2004-02-01

    . and CON: confinement. Average daily gain of 0.404 kg of RP lambs was higher than the other treatments, whereas NSP animals showed higher gain (0.325 kg/day than CON animals (0.213 kg/day. The lambs were slaughtered when reached, approximately, 31 kg. The carcass hot weight of NSP animals (15.7 kg was similar to the RP animals (16.8 kg and higher than the confinement ones (14.3 kg. NSP, RP and CON animals showed similar results to the cooling index, with values of 2.3 , 2.1 and 2.5%, respectively. Hot carcass yield of NSP (50.2% and RP (53.7% animals were similar, however those values were higher than those of CON carcass yield (45.9. Carcass compactness showed no difference between NSP and RP, with values of 0.287 and 0.307, respectively, however, these values were higher than the CON animals (0.253. The carcass of NSP and CON animals did not differ in relation to the fat thickness, with values of 1.6 and 1.0 mm, respectively. These values were lower than the ones obtained from RP (3.3 mm. Average daily gain over 0.4 kg/day and hot carcass yield over 52% can be obtained in lambs fed with their mothers in ryegrass pasture, with slaughter weight round 31kg.

  20. Developmental changes of carcass composition, meat quality and organs in the Jinhua pig and Landrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Z-G; Wang, L-J; Xu, Z-R; Huang, J-F; Wang, Y-R

    2009-03-01

    The present study was aimed to compare the developmental changes of carcass composition, meat quality characteristics and organ weight in pigs of different breeds. Six pigs (sex balance) of each breed were slaughtered at 35, 80 and 125 days of age, respectively. The carcass was chilled and the left carcass side was dissected into bone, lean meat, fat and skin; additionally, organ weight and meat quality parameters were observed. Carcasses of the Jinhua pig were lighter (P Landrace. L*-values were lower in Jinhua pigs than in Landrace at 125 days of age (P Landrace at the age of 80 days (P Landrace. For organ weight, Jinhua pigs had higher relative heart weight at the age of 80 days (P Landrace. In addition, the relative kidney weight was heavier (P Landrace during the whole experiment. These results indicated that developmental changes of carcass composition, meat quality parameters and organ weight displayed breed differences. Jinhua pigs were fatter than Landrace but the former had better quality characteristics in the meat.

  1. Carcass and meat quality in double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; De Campeneere, S; Van Caelenbergh, W; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M

    2003-03-01

    Carcass and meat quality of 37 bulls and 91 cows of the Belgian Blue breed (double-muscled type) were compared. Age at slaughter averaged 648±73 and 1820±689 days, respectively. Both groups of cattle were finished on maize silage supplemented with concentrate, and were slaughtered at about 750 kg live weight. Females had a lower (P=0.004) cold carcass weight (469.7 kg) in comparison with bulls (500.8 kg), due to a reduced dressing percentage (63.8 vs. 66.6; P waterholding capacity (P⩽0.063) and was slightly more tender (P=0.120) than the LT of bulls. Increasing parity reduced dressing percentage and increased LT lightness (L*-value) in cows. Several carcass (SEUROP-grading, composition, LT-area) and meat quality traits (protein and fat contents, drip and cooking losses, a*-value) were better correlated with carcass weight than parity. It is concluded that meat quality of the aged LT of cows is not negatively affected by age, while some carcass quality traits decreased with advancing age. Carcass quality traits adjusted for age at slaughter were better for bulls, but LT meat quality characteristics were at least as good for females as for males.

  2. Postweaning performance and carcass merit of F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, D E

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons were made among F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds of bulls for feedlot and carcass traits when steers were produced from Angus- and Hereford-type dams. Brahman-derivative breeds included Brangus, Beefmaster, and Santa Gertrudis. Brangus- and Beefmaster-sired steers weighed less at slaughter, whereas carcasses of Brangus- and Santa Gertrudis-sired steers had more marbling than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area than carcasses of Santa Gertrudis-sired steers. Other Zebu breeds compared to Brahman were Boran, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, Red Brahman, and Sahiwal. Steers by Brahman sires had higher slaughter weights than steers by Boran, Gir, Nellore, or Sahiwal sires. Hot carcass weights of Brahman-sired steers were also higher than those of Boran- and Sahiwal-sired steers. Steer carcasses by Brahman sires had greater longissimus muscle area than those of steers by Sahiwal sires. Non-Zebu breeds included Tuli and Senepol. Steers by Tuli sires grew slower, had lower slaughter weights, and their carcasses weighed less than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area but less marbling than carcasses of Tuli-sired steers. These data suggest that steers by Brahman sires have an advantage for slaughter weight over steers by Brangus, Beefmaster, Boran, Gir, Nellore, Sahiwal, and Tuli sires, but their carcasses are at a disadvantage for marbling score compared with those by Brangus, Boran, Nellore, and Tuli sires.

  3. Leaching of mercury from seal carcasses into Antarctic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvěřina, Ondřej; Coufalík, Pavel; Brat, Kristián; Červenka, Rostislav; Kuta, Jan; Mikeš, Ondřej; Komárek, Josef

    2017-01-01

    More than 400 seal mummies and skeletons are now mapped in the northern part of James Ross Island, Antarctica. Decomposing carcasses represent a rare source of both organic matter and associated elements for the soil. Owing to their high trophic position, seals are known to carry a significant mercury body burden. This work focuses on the extent of the mercury input from seal carcasses and shows that such carcasses represent locally significant sources of mercury and methylmercury for the environment. Mercury contents in soil samples from the surrounding areas were determined using a single-purpose AAS mercury analyzer. For the determination of methylmercury, an ultra-sensitive isotopic dilution HPLC-ICP-MS technique was used. In the soils lying directly under seal carcasses, mercury contents were higher, with levels reaching almost 40 μg/kg dry weight of which methylmercury formed up to 2.8 % of the total. The spatial distribution implies rather slow vertical transport to the lower soil layers instead of a horizontal spread. For comparison, the background level of mercury in soils of the investigated area was found to be 8 μg/kg dry weight, with methylmercury accounting for less than 0.1 %. Apart from the direct mercury input, an enhanced level of nutrients in the vicinity of carcasses enables the growth of lichens and mosses with accumulative ability with respect to metals. The enhanced capacity of soil to retain mercury is also anticipated due to the high content of total organic carbon (from 1.6 to 7.5 %). According to the results, seal remains represent a clear source of mercury in the observed area.

  4. Effect of breed (wool and hair and sex on the carcass quality of suckling lambs under intensive management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Camacho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Carcasses of twenty lambs (10 males and 10 females from the Canaria Hair breed (CHB and another twenty (10 males and 10 females from the Canaria breed (CB of 9.91±0.73 kg and 9.87±0.80 kg live weight, respectively, were studied. In the principal component (PC analysis, the projection of carcass measurement data in the first PC allowed for clearly distinguishing between CB and CHB. In the analysis of variance, breed effect was observed in the morphology of the carcass: CB lambs showed the longest carcasses and CHB lambs showed the widest carcasses. Due to their wider rump and shorter legs, CHB lambs presented a more compact leg index. The carcasses from Canaria lambs had the highest fat score, the heaviest shoulder and the highest total fat percentage. The carcasses from CHB lambs showed a higher lean percentage. The carcass yield, conformation, degree of fatness and tissue composition were similar in both sexes. However, significant differences in the commercial cut yield were observed: males showed heavier shoulders than females. The effect of sex on carcass quality is unimportant. The breeds are different in important characteristics for the market, such as fatness. This fact is of significant interest because it diversifies the offer and means that different markets can be satisfied.

  5. Heterogeneity of variances for carcass traits by percentage Brahman inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, D H; Franke, D E

    1998-07-01

    Heterogeneity of carcass trait variances due to level of Brahman inheritance was investigated using records from straightbred and crossbred steers produced from 1970 to 1988 (n = 1,530). Angus, Brahman, Charolais, and Hereford sires were mated to straightbred and crossbred cows to produce straightbred, F1, back-cross, three-breed cross, and two-, three-, and four-breed rotational crossbred steers in four non-overlapping generations. At weaning (mean age = 220 d), steers were randomly assigned within breed group directly to the feedlot for 200 d, or to a backgrounding and stocker phase before feeding. Stocker steers were fed from 70 to 100 d in generations 1 and 2 and from 60 to 120 d in generations 3 and 4. Carcass traits included hot carcass weight, subcutaneous fat thickness and longissimus muscle area at the 12-13th rib interface, carcass weight-adjusted longissimus muscle area, USDA yield grade, estimated total lean yield, marbling score, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Steers were classified as either high Brahman (50 to 100% Brahman), moderate Brahman (25 to 49% Brahman), or low Brahman (0 to 24% Brahman) inheritance. Two types of animal models were fit with regard to level of Brahman inheritance. One model assumed similar variances between pairs of Brahman inheritance groups, and the second model assumed different variances between pairs of Brahman inheritance groups. Fixed sources of variation in both models included direct and maternal additive and nonadditive breed effects, year of birth, and slaughter age. Variances were estimated using derivative free REML procedures. Likelihood ratio tests were used to compare models. The model accounting for heterogeneous variances had a greater likelihood (P carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, weight-adjusted longissimus muscle area, total lean yield, and Warner-Bratzler shear force, indicating improved fit with percentage Brahman inheritance considered as a source of heterogeneity of variance. Genetic

  6. Carcass Composition of Turopolje Pig, the Autochthonous Croatian Breed

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    Marija Đikić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this research was to establish carcass composition in Turopolje pig breed by analyzing the percentage of muscle (M, fat (F and bone (B tissue, percentage of these tissues in different parts of carcass (ham, loin, back, neck, belly-rib part . BRP, as well as share of the parts in carcass. Animals were divided into two groups of different age and slaughtering weight (TI 584 ± 20 days and 81,9 kg; TII 679 ± 20 days and 100,3 kg ± 4,9 kg. Purpose of this investigation was to define the standards for traits mentioned for the remainder of the population of Turopolje pig and to set the selection and production programs, as this breed has been under protection since 1993 and re-establishment since 1996 as cultural and biological heritage of Croatia and the World. In order to define Turopolje pig in production sense, we presented characteristics of the old breeds Mongolitza and Black Slavonian and some selected breeds. Pigs were fattened in the outdoor system of flood forests and marsh meadows biocenosis (Quercus robur . Deschampsietum caespitosae, according to traditional Croatian technology of low input (Ðikić et al., 2002.Slaughtering weight and weight of warm and cold carcass were measured on the slaughtering line. The halves were separately weight and dissected (tissues and parts according to Weninger et al., 1963 and by total dissection. Data were processed by statistical-mathematical procedure GSM and SAS software package (1996 and results were compared within and between the groups ( t-test.In groups TI and TII the percentages tissues in carcass were established to be as follows: M 38.2% and 40.5%, B 10.6% and 9.7%, respectively, and were significantly different ( P< 0.05, while share of F, 34.2% and 33.8% were not significantly different.Fattened pigs in group TI, in relation to TII, had lower relative share of muscle tissue in the carcass of loin, back, neck and BRP and higher share of fat tissue of neck and BRP, as well as

  7. Efeitos da seleção para peso pós-desmame sobre características de carcaça e rendimento de cortes cárneos comerciais de bovinos Effects of selection for post weaning weight on carcass traits and meat cut yields of beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Figueiredo Martins Bonilha

    2007-10-01

    herds born in 1999 were used to evaluate the effects of selection for post weaning weight on carcass traits and meat cuts yields at 378 days of age (P 378. The animals were randomly distributed into two experimental classes: restricted feeding (AR and ad libitum feeding (AL including 8 animals from the NeS and Ca groups and 6 animals from the NeC group. Animals of each class were slaughtered in pairs when the animals AL group reached 4 mm of ultrasonic fat thickness on Longissimus dorsi muscle, between the 12th and 13th ribs. The interaction between genetic group and feeding class was not significant for most of the traits evaluated. The genetic group effect was significant. Animals of the Ca and NeS groups were heavier at slaughter and Ca animals required longer feedlot period to reach the desired fat thickness. Higher slaughter weights of these animals changed their carcass, hindquarter, forequarter and spare ribs weights. The selection for P 378 in the Nellore group resulted in heavier weights at slaughter, heavier carcasses and primary cuts, but lower meat tenderness, although within reasonable values of shear force (below 5.0 kgf.

  8. Effects of birth type and family on the variation of carcass and meat traits in Santa Ines sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jucá, Adriana de Farias; Faveri, Juliana Cantos; Melo Filho, Geraldo Magalhães; Ribeiro Filho, Antônio de Lisboa; Azevedo, Hymerson Costa; Muniz, Evandro Neves; Pedrosa, Victor Breno; Pinto, Luís Fernando Batista

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of birth type and family on quantitative and qualitative meat traits in Santa Ines lambs and to do a descriptive study of variation inside of breed. A total of 50 carcass and meat traits were evaluated in up to 101 lambs slaughtered at 424 days of age. Random effect of family, the fixed effect of birth type (single or double) and year, and the covariates of dam's weight at weaning and age (in days) at slaughter were inserted in the model. This study shows that some carcass and meat traits in Santa Ines raised on pasture has large variability, specially for meat cut yields, several carcass non-components yields, and rib eye area, subcutaneous fat thickness, shear force, cooking losses, and b* color parameter. The birth type effect influenced (P < 0.05) rump width; reticulum, leg, heart and kidney yields; and the carcass pH at 24 h after slaughter. The family effect was significant (P < 0.05) for cold carcass weight; hot, cold and true carcass yields; external carcass and leg lengths; perimeter and width of the rump; kidney, liver and tail yields; and carcass pH at slaughter.

  9. Influência do peso inicial de pintos de corte sobre o desempenho e o rendimento de carcaça de frangos e a viabilidade econômica da produção Effect of broiler chicken initial weight on performance, carcass yield and economic viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Susana Mogyca Leandro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do peso corporal ao primeiro dia de idade sobre o desempenho, o rendimento de carcaça e dos cortes e a viabilidade econômica da produção de frangos de corte. Foram utilizados 1.984 pintos AgRoss 308, machos e fêmeas, com diferentes pesos iniciais (32, 35, 40 e 49 g, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial com oito tratamentos (dois sexos x quatro pesos iniciais, quatro repetições e 62 aves por parcela. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey a 5% para os diferentes pesos iniciais. Não houve interação significativa sexo ´ peso inicial do pinto. Os frangos machos apresentaram melhor desempenho em todos os tratamentos e períodos estudados. O peso inicial do pinto influenciou o peso vivo, o ganho de peso e o consumo de ração nos diferentes períodos de crescimento, além do índice de eficiência produtiva (pintos mais pesados apresentaram, aos 47 dias de idade, melhores resultados de desempenho, mas não alterou o rendimento de carcaça ou de partes. Quanto aos aspectos econômicos, pintos mais pesados proporcionaram maior rendimento econômico.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body weight (BW of 1-d chicks on performance, yields of carcass and prime cuts and economic viability. One thousand, nine hundred and eight-four AGRoss 308 chicks (males and females with different initial BW (32, 35, 40 and 49 g were allotted to a randomized block design with a 2 x 4 (two sexes and four initial BW factorial arrangement with eight treatments, four replicates and 62 birds per experimental per plot. Data were submitted to variance analyses and the means, compared by Tukey test (5%. No significant sex ´ chick initial BW interaction was observed. Males showed better performance than females in all treatments and periods. Treatment effect on body weight, weight gain and

  10. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Validity of methodsExperiments were carried out In which it was assessed which Salmonella isolation method is the most productive one In the examination of broiler carcasses. Refrigerated, refrigerated and radiated (2.50 kGy), frozen and frozen and radiated (2.50 kGy) samples of broile

  11. 葡萄渣对羔羊生产性能、屠宰性能和养分消化代谢的影响%Effect of feeding grape pomace on nutrient digestibility,body weight gain,and car-cass quality in lambs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢珍珍; 郑琛; 李发弟; 李冲; 唐德富; 翁秀秀; 刘婷; 马志远; 马东方

    2015-01-01

    本试验采用单因子完全随机试验设计,选择60只3月龄左右杜寒 F1代公羔进行试验,测定不同水平葡萄渣对羔羊生产性能、屠宰性能和养分消化代谢的影响。本试验设4个饲粮处理组,每个处理15个重复,每个重复一只羊,Ⅰ为基础饲粮,Ⅱ、Ⅲ和Ⅳ处理组为饲粮中分别含有8%,16%和24%的葡萄渣,缩合单宁(condensed tan-nins,CT)含量分别为0,1.5,3.0和4.5 g/kg。结果表明,Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ组羔羊日采食量、日增重、胴体重、屠宰率和胴体脂肪含量都显著高于Ⅰ组(P <0.05),N 表观存留率极显著高于Ⅰ组(P <0.01),但Ⅰ组羔羊的酸性洗涤纤维和N 表观消化率显著高于Ⅳ组(P <0.05);Ⅱ组羔羊的饲料转化率显著高于Ⅰ组(P <0.05),净肉率极显著高于Ⅰ组(P <0.01)。随着 CT 含量的增加,羔羊的 N、中性洗涤纤维和酸性洗涤纤维表观消化率逐渐降低,N 的表观存留率逐渐升高,综合考虑羔羊日增重、饲料转化率、屠宰性能和养分利用率等指标,饲粮中葡萄渣以8%~16%为宜。%A total of 60 hybrid 3-month-old Dorper (♂)× Small Tail Han sheep (♀)F1 male lambs were ran-domly allocated to 4 groups with 15 animals per group to determine the effect of different levels of grape pom-ace on nutrient digestibility,body weight gain,and carcass quality.The control group (group Ⅰ)was fed a base diet without grape pomace,while the trial groups were fed diets with grape pomace added to the base diet at 8%,16% or 24% on a dry weight basis (groups Ⅱ,Ⅲ and Ⅳ),respectively.The condensed tannin (CT) levels in the diets for each group were 0,1.5,3.0 and 4.5 g/kg,respectively.The apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber (ADF)and N of the control group were significantly higher than group Ⅳ(P <0.05).In contrast,the lambs in trial groups had significantly higher average daily feed

  12. Rendimento de Carcaça, Mensurações e Peso de Cortes Comerciais de Cordeiros Santa Inês e Bergamácia Alimentados com Dejetos de Suínos em Confinamento Dressing Percentage, Measures of Carcass and Weight of Commercial Joint Santa Ines and Bergamacia Lambs Fed with Swine Wastes in Confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Morais de Oliveira

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 21 cordeiros das raças Santa Inês e Bergamácia, confinados por um período de 75 dias, sendo alimentados com dietas contendo 24% de dejetos de suínos, na forma de biju (dejeto obtido pela raspagem e varredura do piso das baias de crescimento e terminação ou dejeto peneirado seco - DPS (dejeto obtido através da peneiração da parte sólida do material contido na lâmina d'água e na água da lavagem das baias. Os animais foram abatidos aos 210 dias de idade, sendo determinados o peso e o rendimento das carcaças, suas mensurações e o peso dos cortes comerciais. As diferentes dietas não afetaram o peso ao abate (PA, peso de carcaça quente (PCQ, rendimento de carcaça quente (RCQ, peso de carcaça fria (PCF, rendimento de carcaça fria (RCF e percentual de perda ao resfriamento (PPR. Os cordeiros da raça Bergamácia apresentaram maior PA, PCQ e PCF. Não foram verificadas diferenças entre as dietas ou entre as raças para os parâmetros: comprimento total, comprimento da perna, comprimento total da perna, comprimento interno, perímetro da garupa e largura de garupa. No entanto, foi verificada maior profundidade de tórax e espessura de gordura subcutânea nos cordeiros da raça Bergamácia. Também não foi encontrado nenhum efeito das dietas e das raças para os cortes paleta, carré, peito/fralda, lombo, pernil, braço anterior e braço posterior.Twenty-one lambs of the Santa Ines and Bergamacia breeds were confined by a period of 75 days and fed diets containing 24% of swine wastes, in biju form (obtained by the scratching and sweeping of the floor of the growth stalls and termination or dry sifted wastes - DSW (obtained through the sifting of the solid part of the material contained in the sheet of water and in the water of the wash of the stalls. The animals were slaughtered at 210 days of age, being determined the weight and measures of carcass, dressing percentage and commercial joints. There was no diet

  13. Crambe meal in supplements for culling cows: animal performance and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennyson Alves de Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the replacement of soybean meal by crambe crushed in concentrated supplement at proportions 0, 5, 10, 15%, on the performance and carcass traits of grazing cows is assessed. Within a completely randomized design, twenty Nellore cows, fed on Brachiaria humidicola, were supplemented during the rain-drought transition period and monitored with regard to weight and body conditions every 28 days. Total forage mass and percentages of leaf, stem and senescent material were quantified in loco. The estimation of forage quality consumed by animals was performed by the simulated grazing method. There were no significant differences between the levels of inclusion of crambe crushed on animal performance or carcass characteristics. Replacement did not affect weight, carcass yield, Brazilian commercial cuts, morphometric measures of carcass, characteristics of loins, thickness of carcass fat, perirenal-pelvic fat and total meat. Replacement of soybean meal by crambe crushed up to 15% in the concentrated supplement does not affect performance and carcass characteristics of cows finished on pasture.

  14. Carcass characteristics, meat quality, feeding behavior of Nelore heifers fed diets containing sunflower pie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Regina Alves

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the feeding behavior, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nelore heifers fed sunflower pie replacing cottonseed meal. They were used 30 heifers with average initial weight of 274 kg ± 28 kg and average age of 24 months, confined for 76 days. The design was completely randomized with five treatments (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 g kg-1 DM and six replicates per treatment. By completing 24 hours after slaughter, it evaluated muscle conformation and degree of finish made the longissimus dorsi at the 13th rib. A representative sample between the 10th and 12th ribs was collected for evaluation of the physical components of carcasses. As well as the other variables, the hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, carcass length and rib eye area were not influenced by different pie levels in feed. The mean percentage of muscle, bone and fat from the carcass were 53.45; 16.14 and 29.46%, respectively, similar among treatments. Therefore, the use of up to 600 g kg-1 of sunflower pie replacing cottonseed meal as the main protein source, did not affect the carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nelore heifers.

  15. The effect of Bovine Growth Hormone on Growth, Carcass Composition and Meat Quality of Dairy Heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Foldager, John

    1993-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of bovine growth hormone (bGH) on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of dairy heifers. Nine monozygotic twin pairs of Friesian or Red Danish cattle were used, and pair-fed diet consisting of grass silage, barley and soybean meal. Within each pair......, one animal was given daily subcutaneous injections of 20 IU of pituitary-derived bGH (15-20 mg), while the other animal was injected with saline (excipient). Treatments started at 179±2 kg body weight and lasted for 15.6 weeks. At slaughter, carcass composition and meat quality were analyzed. b......GH treatment increased gain by 8% (948 vs. 877 g/d; P meat in carcass and lean content of four main carcass cuts were on average increased by 2% (P

  16. Characteristics of the carcass of goats of different genotypes fed pineapple (Ananas comosus L. stubble hay

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    Rosângela Maria Brito Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the substitution of Tifton hay (0, 33, 66, 100 g/100 g for pineapple (Ananas comosus L. stubble hay was evaluated in the characteristics of the carcasses of goats of an unknown breed (UB in feedlot. Thirty-two bucks with an average initial live weight of 17.5±1.3 kg, at approximately 150 days of age, were housed in individual stalls provided with feeding and drinking troughs. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight replications. There was a quadratic effect on the weights of hot carcass and cold carcass, empty body, and loin eye area. A linear increase was observed for losses by carcass cooling. The weights of commercial cuts and the weights of total muscle, total bone, intramuscular fat, and total fat decreased linearly. All morphometric measurements were influenced by the inclusion of pineapple stubble hay in the .diets. Substitution of Tifton hay for pineapple stubble hay at the level of 33 g/100 g improves the carcasses of UB goats qualitatively and quantitatively

  17. Carcass characteristics of lambs fed diets containing silage of different genotypes of sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraci Marcos Alves Suassuna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-five feedlot lambs (without defined breed, aged between 5 and 7 months, with average live weight of 17.7±3.7 kg were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effect of diets containing different genotypes of sorghum on morphometric measurements and qualitative characteristics of carcass and yields of primal cuts. The animals stayed in individual indoor pens for 42 days and slaughtered at an average weight of 26.24 kg. No significant differences were observed on morphometric measurements, hot (11.67 kg and cold (11.39 kg carcass weight, hot (44.46% and cold (43.37% carcass yields, biological yield and on cooling losses. There was also no significant effect of silages of different genotypes of sorghum on the weights and yields of retail cuts (neck, shoulder, rib, loin and leg and on the subjective evaluation of carcasses. It is possible to finish sheep without defined breed feeding them diets based on silages of sorghum, resulting in carcasses with high yield and good conformation.

  18. Ractopamine hydrochloride on performance and carcass traits of confined Nellores cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luis Kill

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four levels of inclusion (0; 450; 900 and 1,350g T-1 of Ractopamine hydrochloride was assessed concerning weight gain, feed conversion, dry matter intake, carcass traits and quality of castrated male cattle meat in confinement. Forty Nellore steers were used, with an average age of 26 months and initial average weight of 423.4±2.7kg, in a randomized block experimental design with four treatments and ten replications. The diet was fixed with the ratio of forage to concentrate dry matter of 75.3:24.7. A Linear positive effect observed was the inclusion of Ractopamine on daily weight gain and linear negative effect on feed conversion, highlighting the improvements with the increasing inclusion of Ractopamine hydrochloride. In relation to carcass traits, the linear effect was negative for fat thickness and no differences were found regarding the hot carcass weight ; carcass yield; area, width and depth of rib eye area of the Longissimus dorsi muscle, and noble courts. In relation to dry matter intake, the comparison of the treatments demonstrated that Ractopamine didn't influence negatively, which highlights its positive effect on the animal performance. The use of Ractopamine improves performance and decreases de amount of superficial fat in male nellore carcass in confinement.

  19. Carcass yield, meat color and muscle pH evolution in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez-Bautista, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determinate the carcass yield, color and pH evolution of different rabbit breeds (New Zealand G1, California G2, and Nueva ZealandCalifornia G3. Two different studies were performed with animal of 100 days-old and live weight (PV of 2.5 kg. In the study I carcass weight and non-meat components were determined, and the cold carcass weight (CF was recorded. Hot carcass yield (CC was determined, besides pH and color (L*a*b* in B. femoris (BF and L. lumborum (LB muscles. In the study II the L. dorsi (LD muscle pH was monitored. Higher PV, CF, CC and empty carcass weight were found in G2. The L*, a* and b* intensity of LB and BF muscles was higher in G1. In study II the pH decreased with post mortem time and stabilized before 24 h with a 6.16 value for G2 and 6.21 for G1.

  20. Carcass yield traits of kids from a complete diallel of Boer, Kiko, and Spanish meat goat breeds semi-intensively managed on humid subtropical pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R; Phelps, O; Chisley, C; Getz, W R; Hollis, T; Leite-Browning, M L

    2012-03-01

    Bucklings (n = 275) from a complete diallel of Boer, Kiko, and Spanish meat goats were slaughtered at 7 mo of age (4 mo postweaning) to evaluate genetic effects on carcass yield. Breed of sire did not affect (P > 0.05) live, carcass, and primal weights. Conversely, breed of dam was a consistently significant source of variation for carcass weight traits. Kiko dams produced kids with heavier (P Kiko with the significance of differences varying by trait. Cold carcass dressing percent was affected (P Kiko and Spanish sires. Dressing percent was also less (P Kiko dams; Spanish dams were intermediate and did not differ (P > 0.05) from Boer or Kiko. Subjective conformation scores for muscularity were affected (P Kiko-sired kids. Progeny of Boer dams had better (P Kiko-sired and Spanish-sired kids. Breed differences for primal cut proportions were negligible. Proportional boneless meat yields did not vary (P > 0.05) by breeds of sire or dam. Direct effects of Boer were negative for carcass weight, dressing percent, and shoulder weight and positive for proportional leg weight. Direct effects of Kiko were positive for carcass weight and shoulder weight and negative for proportional leg weight. Direct effects of Spanish did not differ (P > 0.10) from 0 for any trait tested. Heterosis levels were similar among breed pairings. Heterosis was substantial (P ≤ 0.05) for live, carcass, and primal weights (5 to 9%) but not for dressing percent, proportional boneless meat yield, or primal weight proportions (Kiko or Spanish germplasm for carcass yield when semi-intensively managed on humid, subtropical pasture. Results emphasize the importance of comparative breed evaluations to provide industry with reliable information on carcass yield among goat genotypes.

  1. Etude de la composition de la carcasse de taurillons Ankole en fonction de l'âge ou poids vif et de l'embouche de courte durée

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    Pozy, P.

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of carcass composition of Ankole bulls according to weight or age and to duration of fattening period. Thirty two young bulls divided into 2 categories of live weight were used to study the effect of the initial weight and of an intensive fattening period on the composition of the carcass. The slaughterings were carried out in Bujumbura, according to the techniques usually done for the carving of the carcass. A short period of intensive fattening does not improve the composition of the carcass into pieces of great value in butchery.

  2. A primary screen of the bovine genome for quantitative trait loci affecting carcass and growth traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R T; Keele, J W; Shackelford, S D; Kappes, S M; Koohmaraie, M

    1999-06-01

    A primary genomic screen for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting carcass and growth traits was performed by genotyping 238 microsatellite markers on 185 out of 300 total progeny from a Bos indicus x Bos taurus sire mated to Bos taurus cows. The following traits were analyzed for QTL effects: birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WW), yearling weight (YW), hot carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage (DP), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MAR), longissimus muscle area (LMA), rib bone (RibB), rib fat (RibF), and rib muscle (RibM), and the predicted whole carcass traits, retail product yield (RPYD), fat trim yield (FATYD), bone yield (BOYD), retail product weight (RPWT), fat weight (FATWT), and bone weight (BOWT). Data were analyzed by generating an F-statistic profile computed at 1-cM intervals for each chromosome by the regression of phenotype on the conditional probability of receiving the Brahman allele from the sire. There was compelling evidence for a QTL allele of Brahman origin affecting an increase in RibB and a decrease in DP on chromosome 5 (BTA5). Putative QTL at or just below the threshold for genome-wide significance were as follows: an increase in RPYD and component traits on BTA2 and BTA13, an increase in LMA on BTA14, and an increase in BWT on BTA1. Results provided represent a portion of our efforts to identify and characterize QTL affecting carcass and growth traits.

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with carcass traits in a population of Brahman and Brahman-influenced steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, A M; Shivers, C; Riley, D G; Elzo, M A; Garcia, M D

    2016-06-21

    Brahman cattle are important in tropical regions due to their ability to tolerate excessive heat and parasites. However, Brahman cattle exhibit lower carcass quality characteristics when compared to Bos taurus breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six candidate genes for carcass quality and composition traits in a population of Brahman and Brahman-influenced steers. Steers were evaluated through the American Brahman Breeders Association carcass evaluation project in Gonzales, Texas. Carcass traits measured included hot carcass weight, ribeye area, marbling score, yield grade, quality grade, dressing percent, and Warner-Bratzler shear force score. Six previously described candidate genes were chosen for SNP analysis based on their previous association with growth and carcass traits. Candidate genes utilized in the current study included calpastatin (CAST), calpain (CAPN3), thyroglobulin (TG), growth hormone, insulin growth factor 1, and adiponectin. Six unique SNPs from three candidate genes (TG, CAST, and CAPN3) were significantly associated (P carcass quality traits (marbling score and quality grade). A genotypic effect was observed for all significant SNPs, with differing levels of performance observed for animals inheriting different genotypes. Although multiple SNPs in the current study were significantly (P carcass traits, they should be validated in larger populations prior to implementation in selection strategies.

  4. Evaluation of performance characteristics in a diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle. II. Carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, J W; Benyshek, L L; Bertrand, J K; Johnson, M H

    1988-02-01

    Evaluations of steer and heifer progeny from a diallel mating design of Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle over 5 yr are presented. Traits evaluated included final weight, hot carcass weight, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, dressing percentage and percentage of kidney, pelvic and heart fat. Progeny of Simmental sires were heavier at slaughter than those with Brahman sires (P less than .05), but no differences were found for carcass weight. Dressing percentage was higher for Limousin crosses compared with progeny of other sire breeds (P less than .05). Similar results were found for dam breeds, except that progeny of Limousin dams had heavier carcasses with a higher dressing percentage (P less than .05) than Brahman crosses. Crosses of Limousin and Simmental had larger ribeye areas (P less than .05) compared with calves of the other breeds. Progeny of Polled Hereford dams had higher marbling scores and were fatter than progeny of dams of other breeds (P less than .05). Heterosis estimates were significant for all Brahman crosses for final weight, carcass weight and ribeye area, but these contrasts were negligible for other traits. Estimates of general combining ability were positive and significant for Simmental for final weight, carcass weight, ribeye area and marbling score and were significant and negative for Limousin for final weight, fat thickness and yield grade. Maternal values were generally small.

  5. Carcass enrichment detects Salmonella from broiler carcasses found to be negative by other sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most frequently used methods to recover Salmonella from processed broiler chicken carcasses involve carcass rinsing or neck skin maceration. These methods are nondestructive and practical, but have limited sensitivity. The standard carcass rinse method uses only 7.5% of the residual rinsate an...

  6. Effects of Beak Trimming, Stocking Density and Sex on Carcass Yield, Carcass Components, Plasma Glucose and Triglyceride Levels in Large White Turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, Turgay; Inci, Hakan; Sengul, Ahmet Y; Sogut, Bunyamin; Kiraz, Selahattin

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of beak trimming, stocking density (D) and sex (S) on live weight (LW), carcass yield and its component, and plasma glucose (PG) and triglyceride levels in Large White turkeys. To accomplish this aims, totally 288 d old large white turkey chicks (144 in each sex) were used. Beaks of 77 male and female poults were trimmed when 8 d old with an electrical beak trimmer. The birds were fed by commercial turkey rasion. Experiment was designed as 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 3 replications in each group. Beak trimming and stocking density did not affect live weight, carcass composition and its components. The higher LW and carcass weight observed in trimmed groups. As expected, male birds are heavier than female, and carcass percentage (CP) would be adverse. However, in this study, CP of male was higher in trimmed, in 0.25 m(2)/bird. (D) × sex (S) interaction had an effect on both CP and thigh weights (pplasma glucose level (p<0.05). Triglyceride level was affected (p<0.05) by sex. Significant relationships were found between percentage of thighs (r=0.447, p<0.01) and percentage of breast (r=0.400, p<0.01). According to this study, it can be said that trimming is useful with density of 0.25 m(2)/bird in turkey fattening.

  7. CARCASS YIELD OF BROILER CHICKENS FED BANANA (Musa paradisiaca LEAVES FERMENTED WITH Trichoderma viride

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    J. S. Mandey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of level of banana (Musa paradisiaca leaves fermented with Trichoderma viride at different days on the carcass yield of broiler chickens. A hundred and eighty 3-weeks-old broiler chicks were used in this present experiment based on factorial design (3×4. The birds were randomly allocated into three experimental diets containing of 5, 10 and 15% of banana leaves fermented within 0, 5, 10 and 15 days. Each treatment was divided into three replicates of five chicks in each. The experiment was terminated after 4 weeks or when the birds were 7-weeks-old. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass yield were measured during the study. The data were subjected to the analysis of variance test followed by least significant difference (LSD test. Results showed that daily feed intake was significantly affected (P˂0.01 by the dietary treatments, in which feed intake was highest in broilers fed diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days. The daily weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass yield were significantly affected (P˂0.01 by the treatments, in which the highest values of daily weight gain, feed efficiency, and carcass yield were observed in birds fed diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days. It can be concluded that diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days can be included in broiler ration without detrimental effects on the performance and carcass yield. 

  8. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle V): carcass traits and longissimus palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2001-05-01

    Carcass (n = 854) and longissimus thoracis palatability (n = 802) traits from F1 steers obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III cows to Hereford or Angus (HA), Tuli (Tu), Boran (Bo), Brahman (Br), Piedmontese (Pm), or Belgian Blue (BB) sires were compared. Data were adjusted to constant age (444 d), carcass weight (333 kg), fat thickness (1.0 cm), fat trim percentage (21%), and marbling (Small00) end points. Results presented in this abstract are for age-constant data. Carcasses from BB- and HA-sired steers were heaviest (P carcass traits but had little effect on palatability traits. Carcasses from BB- and Pm-sired steers provided the most desirable combination of yield grade and longissimus palatability, but carcasses from HA-cross steers provided the most desirable combination of quality grade and longissimus palatability. Tuli, a breed shown to be heat-tolerant, had longissimus tenderness similar to that of the non-heat-tolerant breeds and more tender longissimus than the heat-tolerant breeds in this study.

  9. Características da carcaça e da carne de cordeiros terminados com dietas contendo diferentes proporções de silagens de grãos de milho - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i2.3451 Components of live weight, carcass and meat caracteristics of lambs fed with diets containing corn grain silage - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i2.3451

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    Eliane Gasparino

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados componentes do peso vivo, características objetivas e subjetivas da carcaça, características físico-químicas do músculo Longissimus lumborum e a proporção dos principais tecidos que compõem o lombo de 24 cordeiros, machos não castrados, mestiços Hampshire Down, terminados em confinamento e alimentados com dietas diferentes à base de silagem de grãos de milho úmidos, com inclusão de girassol ou ureia. Os tratamentos não afetaram: peso vivo ao abate, peso da carcaça quente, rendimentos de carcaça, sangue, pele, aparelho reprodutor com bexiga, aparelho respiratório, baço, rins e gordura perirrenal, fígado, coração, trato gastrintestinal vazio, cabeça e patas. Não houve diferença significativa para peso da carcaça fria, condição corporal, conformação de carcaça, cobertura de gordura, consistência de gordura, cor da carne, espessura de gordura, área de olho de lombo, proteína bruta; proporções de: músculo, ossos, gordura e outros tecidos do músculo Longissimus lumborum. Perda por cozimento, índice de fragmentação miofibrilar e índices de cores L*, a* e b* não diferiram quanto aos tratamentos. Os cordeiros podem ser terminados com qualquer uma das dietas, pois apresentaram semelhanças para as características analisadasThe study evaluated the live weight components, objective and subjective carcass characteristics and physical-chemical characteristics of the Longissimus lumborum muscle and the proportion of tissues that constitute the loin of twenty-four intact males lambs, Hampshire Down crossbreed, fattened in a drylot system. The lambs were fed with different diets based on corn grain silage with the addition of sunflower seeds or urea. The treatments did not affect live weight and hot carcass weight at slaughter, carcass yield, blood, skin, reproductive system with bladder, respiratory system, spleen, kidneys and perineal fat, liver, heart, empty gastrointestinal tract, head or feet

  10. Comparação entre medidas ultra-sônicas e da carcaça na predição da composição corporal em bovinos: estimativas do peso e da porcentagem dos cortes comerciais do traseiro Comparison between ultrasonic and carcass measures in body composition prediction in cattle: prediction of weight and percentage hind-quarter retail products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Urdapilleta Tarouco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 102 animais para desenvolver equações de predição a fim de estimar a composição do corte traseiro da carcaça bovina a partir de medidas ultra-sônicas obtidas no animal vivo e comparar estas equações às desenvolvidas a partir de medidas na carcaça. As equações de predição foram desenvolvidas utilizando-se o procedimento estatístico de seleção de variáveis de todas as regressões possíveis e o de seleção de variáveis Stepwise. Os modelos finais utilizando variáveis obtidas no animal vivo incluíram o peso vivo na data do ultra-som (PVUS, a área do músculo Longissimus (AOLUS e a espessura de gordura subcutânea (EGSUS para estimar o peso (PCTT; R² = 0,78 e a porcentagem (RCTT; R² = 0,18 dos cortes do traseiro. As variáveis obtidas a partir de modelos na carcaça incluíram o peso de carcaça quente (PCQ, a área do músculo Longissimus (AOLC, a espessura de gordura subcutânea (EGSC, o acabamento (ACAB e a conformação (CONF para estimação do peso (PCTT; R² = 0,89 e da porcentagem (RCTT; R² = 0,67 dos cortes do traseiro. As equações de predição desenvolvidas a partir de modelos no animal vivo e na carcaça são úteis para estimar os cortes comerciais do traseiro da carcaça.One hundred two animals were evaluated to develop prediction equations for estimating hind-quarter composition from live animal ultrasound measurements and to compare these equations with those developed from carcass measurements. To develop prediction equations used all-possible regressions procedure for variables reductions and stepwise regression. Final models using live animal variables included live weight (PVUS, Longissimus muscle area (ULMA and fat thickness (UFAT for weight (PCTT; R² = 0.78 and percent (RCTT; R² = 0.18 of hind-quarter retail product. The models using variables carcass included hot carcass weight (HCW, carcass Longissimus muscle area (CLMA and carcass fat thickness (CFAT and Conformation (CONF for

  11. WATER SPRAY-CHILLING OF BEEF CARCASSES AND MEAT AGEING ON WEIGHT LOSS, COLOR AND LONGISSIMUS LUMBORUM ACCEPTANCE ASPERSÃO DE ÁGUA FRIA NO INÍCIO DO RESFRIAMENTO DE CARCAÇAS BOVINAS E MATURAÇÃO DA CARNE SOBRE O PESO, COR E ACEITAÇÃO DO MÚSCULO LONGISSIMUS LUMBORUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO EDUARDO DE FELÍCIO

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of spray-chilling in carcasses weight loss, purge loss, color and appearance of aged striploin (m. Longissi-mus lumborum steaks. Two lots of intact male, nearly 12 month old, grain finished cattle, were slaughtered, being 16 of the Montana composite breed, in the first slaughter, and 24 crossbreds (½ Nelore X ½ Simental in the second one. After bleeding, electrical stimulation, skinning and evisceration, the carcasses submitted to one of the two cooling systems: (1 Without spray-chilling (SA; (2 With spray-chilling (CA. Carcasses were weighted before and after cooling. In the boning room steaks of 2.5 cm thick from the striploin were taken, vacuum packaged, and aged for 7, 14, 30 and 60 days. Samples were then removed from the package, placed in an expanded polystyrene trays covered with a PVC film, and exposed in refrigerated displays for 48 hours. CIE Lab color was measured after 24 hours using a hand colorimeter. A visual analysis of the samples was also done for the attributes of color, overall acceptability, and buying option. The spray-chilling was efficient in reducing the weight loss (P<0.05. Effects (P<0.001 of the spray-chilling and aging time on purge loss were observed. The samples from the CA carcasses had higher (P<0.001 purge loss, which had an increase at 30 or more days of aging in this treatment but not in the SA. No effect (P>0.05 of the spray-chilling treatment and aging time was observed on the color visual analysis.

    Key-words:  Beef quality purge loss,  spray-chilling, striploin, vacuum package.

    O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar os efeitos da aspersão de água gelada, nas primeiras seis horas de resfriamento, nas perdas de peso por evaporação das carcaças e, também, do tempo de maturação em embalagem a vácuo, nas perdas por exsudação da carne, e na cor e aceita

  12. USDA yield grades and various carcass traits as predictors of carcass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, D K; Smith, G C; Savell, J W; Murphey, C E; Carpenter, Z L; McKeith, F K; Johnson, D D

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five carcasses from each of three breedtypes (Brahman, Angus and Brahman × Angus) were physically separated into fat, lean and bone. Several muscles from the round and the femur were used to derive equations to predict carcass composition and muscle-to-bone ratio. The femur (as a percentage of the carcass) was shown to predict percentage carcass bone with 90% accuracy. All of the muscles studied were highly related to total carcass lean but the percentage of carcass as M. biceps femoris was the best single muscle indicator of carcass lean of the muscles studied. More variation in carcass lean could be accounted for by a multiple regression equation, involving all four muscles studied, than by any single muscle. M. biceps femoris-to-femur ratio was found to predict carcass muscle-to-bone ratio with a high degree of accuracy. The USDA yield grades were found to be reliable indicators of carcass composition. A two-variable equation involving adjusted fat thickness and biceps femoris accounted for 88·6% of the variation (RSD = 1/·64) in percentage of carcass as separable lean.

  13. The Effect of Choice Feeding Based on Threonine on Performance and Carcass Parameters of Male Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugay Ayasan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of choice feeding based on threonine on performance characteristics and carcass parameters of male broiler chicks. Day old, thirty Ross 308 male chicks were divided into two dietary treatment groups. In the experiment, choice feding did not affect on body weight gain, feed conversion ratio. Feed intake and carcass parameters significantly affected by experimental treatments.

  14. Instrumental colour classification of veal carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, B.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.; Merkus, G.S.M.; Klont, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments, involving over 56 000 veal carcasses, were carried out to develop a method for instrumental colour classification of veal carcasses at 45 min post mortem with the Minolta CR300. The method should produce results similar to those of the 10-point colour-system, which is currently in

  15. Levels of digestible isoleucine on performance, carcass traits and organs weight of gilts (15 - 30 KG Níveis de isoleucina digestível sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça e peso de órgãos de fêmeas suínas (15 - 30 kg

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    Leandro Dalcin Castilha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The ideal protein concept for pigs has allowed reducing levels of crude protein in the diet, since synthetic amino acids are included because the branched chain amino acids may be limiting. In order to determine the digestible isoleucine requirement for gilts from 15 to 30 kg, a performance assay was accomplished, using 40 crossbreed gilts of high genetic potential, averaging 15.00 ± 0.52 kg of body weight, alloted in a randomized blocks design, consisting of five treatments (0.45, 0.52, 0.59, 0.66, 0.73% of digestible isoleucine, four replicates and two animals per experimental unit. Performance traits were determined and at the end of the experiment one animal per experimental unit was slaughtered to determine carcass composition and organs weight. Levels from 0.45 to 0.73% of digestible isoleucine did not affect the carcass traits and organs weight of gilts from 15 to 30 kg. A quadratic effect (PO conceito de proteína ideal, para suínos, tem permitido reduzir os níveis de proteína bruta da dieta, desde que haja a inclusão de aminoácidos sintéticos, pois os aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada podem ser limitantes. Com o objetivo de determinar a exigência de isoleucina digestível para fêmeas suínas dos 15 aos 30 kg, foi realizado um ensaio de desempenho, utilizando-se 40 fêmeas suínas, mestiças de alto potencial genético, com peso vivo inicial de 15,00 ± 0,52kg, distribuídas em um delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, constituído de cinco tratamentos (0,45; 0,52; 0,59; 0,66; 0,73% de isoleucina digestível, quatro repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Foram determinadas características de desempenho e, ao final do experimento, um animal de cada unidade experimental foi abatido, para a determinação da composição de carcaça e peso de órgãos. Níveis de 0,45 a 0,73% de isoleucina digestível não influenciaram as características de carcaça e peso de órgãos dos animais. Houve efeito quadr

  16. Maternal grandsire, granddam, and sire breed effects on growth and carcass traits of crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2003-04-01

    Postweaning growth, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were analyzed on 1,422 animals obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British breeds) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC IIIHereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Breed groups were fed in replicated pens and slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr. Postweaning average daily gain; live weight; hot carcass weight; fat depth; longissimus area; estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (percentage); percentage Choice; marbling score; USDA yield grade; retail product yield (percentage); retail product weight; fat yield (percentage); fat weight; bone yield (percentage); and bone weight were analyzed in this population. Quadratic regressions of pen mean weight on days fed and of cumulative ME consumption on days fed were used to estimate gain, ME consumption and efficiency (Mcal of ME/kg of gain) over time (0 to 200 d on feed), and weight (300 to 550 kg) intervals. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P carcass weight, longissimus area, and bone weight. Sex class was a significant (P < 0.001) source of variation for all traits except for percentage Choice, marbling score, retail product yield, and fat yield. Interactions between maternal grandsire and sire breed were nonexistent. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems.

  17. Relationship between the Porcine Stress Syndrome gene and carcass and performance traits in F2 pigs resulting from divergent crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme de Oliveira Band

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The PSS genotypes of 596 F2 pigs produced by initial mating of Brazilian native boars commercial sows and were characterized by PCR-RFLP and their carcass and performance traits were evaluated. Among the 596 animals analyzed, 493 (82.72% were characterized as NN and 103 (17.28% as Nn. With respect to carcass traits, Nn animals presented higher (p < 0.05 right half carcass weight, left half carcass weight, loin depth and loin eye area, and lower shoulder backfat thickness, backfat thickness between last and next to last but one lumbar vertebrae and backfat thickness after last rib at 6.5 cm from the midline compared to NN animals. Nn animals also showed (p < 0.05 higher values for most of the cut yields, indicating higher cutting yields for animals carrying the n allele and lower values for bacon depth, confirming lower fat deposition in carcass. In addition, Nn animals presented (p < 0.05 lower values for the performance trait weight at 105 days of age. These results indicate that animals carrying the PSS gene generate leaner carcasses, higher cut yields, and that the effects of the gene can be observed even in divergent crosses.

  18. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass characteristics in commercial crossbred pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Miar

    Full Text Available Genetic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass traits were estimated on 6,408 commercial crossbred pigs with performance traits recorded in production systems with 2,100 of them having meat quality and carcass measurements. Significant fixed effects (company, sex and batch, covariates (birth weight, cold carcass weight, and age, random effects (additive, litter and maternal were fitted in the statistical models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASREML to estimate heritability, phenotypic, and genetic correlations between performance traits (n = 9 with meat quality (n = 25 and carcass (n = 19 traits. The animals had a pedigree compromised of 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Performance traits had low-to-moderate heritabilities (±SE, ranged from 0.07±0.13 to 0.45±0.07 for weaning weight, and ultrasound backfat depth, respectively. Genetic correlations between performance and carcass traits were moderate to high. The results indicate that: (a selection for birth weight may increase drip loss, lightness of longissimus dorsi, and gluteus medius muscles but may reduce fat depth; (b selection for nursery weight can be valuable for increasing both quantity and quality traits; (c selection for increased daily gain may increase the carcass weight and most of the primal cuts. These findings suggest that deterioration of pork quality may have occurred over many generations through the selection for less backfat thickness, and feed efficiency, but selection for growth had no adverse effects on pork quality. Low-to-moderate heritabilities for performance traits indicate that they could be improved using traditional selection or genomic selection. The estimated genetic parameters for performance, carcass and meat quality traits may be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations.

  19. Características morfométricas, rendimentos de carcaça, filé, vísceras e resíduos em tilápias-do-nilo em diferentes faixas de peso Morphometric characteristics, carcass, filet, viscera and residues in different weight categories of the Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredson Vieira e Silva

    2009-08-01

    ; length of the head; height of the body measured at the front of the 1° ray of pectoral, dorsal, anal and tail fins; width of the body measured at the front of the insertion of 1º ray of pectoral, dorsal and anal fins; perimeter measured at the front of the insertion of the 1° ray of pectoral, dorsal and anal fins and minor circumference of the peduncle and yield of carcass, filet, head, fin, skin, viscera and residues of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Eighty tilapia were used, in a completely randomized design, with four treatments (weight categories 250 the 300 g; 350 the 400 g; 450 the 500 g and 550 the 600 g and 20 replications. Each fish was considered an experimental unit. The Nile tilapia presented minors variations in the morphometric characteristics in the weight category 450 to 600 g, when compared with the category 250 to 400 g. The weight category 250 the 300 g, 350 the 400 g, 450 the 500 g and 550 the 600 g provided the same yield of carcass, filet and percentages of head, fin, skin and residues. The percentage of viscera in the 550 the 600 g category (10.98% was significantly lower when compared to 250 the 300 g (12.77%, 350 the 400 g (13.26% and 450 the 500 g (12.69%. The weight of filet in the 350 the 400 g category (260.50 g was higher than the 250 the 300 g category (239.95 g. There was no difference in the weight of fillet between the 450 the 500 g category (284.20 g and 550 the 600 g (292.80 g. The category 450 the 500 g and 550 the 600 g presented higher values of weight of fillet when compared to 250 the 300 g and 350 the 400 g. According to the weight of fillet found, the ideal weight of slaughter of the tilapia is between 450 and 500 g in a range of 250-600 g.

  20. Do termites avoid carcasses? Behavioral responses depend on the nature of the carcasses.

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    Kok-Boon Neoh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Undertaking behavior is a significant adaptation to social life in enclosed nests. Workers are known to remove dead colony members from the nest. Such behavior prevents the spread of pathogens that may be detrimental to a colony. To date, little is known about the ethological aspects of how termites deal with carcasses. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we tested the responses to carcasses of four species from different subterranean termite taxa: Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe (lower termites and Microcerotermes crassus Snyder and Globitermes sulphureus Haviland (higher termites. We also used different types of carcasses (freshly killed, 1-, 3-, and 7-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses and mutilated nestmates to investigate whether the termites exhibited any behavioral responses that were specific to carcasses in certain conditions. Some behavioral responses were performed specifically on certain types of carcasses or mutilated termites. C. formosanus and R. speratus exhibited the following behaviors: (1 the frequency and time spent in antennating, grooming, and carcass removal of freshly killed, 1-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses were high, but these behaviors decreased as the carcasses aged; (2 the termites repeatedly crawled under the aging carcass piles; and (3 only newly dead termites were consumed as a food source. In contrast, M. crassus and G. sulphureus workers performed relatively few behavioral acts. Our results cast a new light on the previous notion that termites are necrophobic in nature. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the behavioral response towards carcasses depends largely on the nature of the carcasses and termite species, and the response is more complex than was previously thought. Such behavioral responses likely are associated with the threat posed to the colony by the carcasses and the feeding habits and nesting ecology of a given species.

  1. Effects of Enzyme Supplementation on Performance, Carcass characteristics, Carcass Composition and Some Blood Parameters of Broiler Chicken

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    H. Hajati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Endogenous enzymes of broilers cannot adequately digest nonstarch polysaccharides and subsequently the ingestion of high levels of soluble NSP leads to increased digesta viscosity and reduced nutrient digestibility and absorption. Supplementation of NSPs degrading enzymes may remove the anti nutritive effects of NSPs and release some nutrients (starch, protein from these elements. Therefore, in a completely randomized design the effects of a multi-enzyme (Endofeed W produced from Aspergillus niger, with minimum activity of 2250 u g−1 xylanase and 700 u g−1 β-glucanase supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics, carcass composition and some blood parameters in Cobb 500 broilers fed on corn-soybean meal-wheat diets were studied. Approach: A total of 150 one-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500 were used in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments and 3 replicates. The main ingeridients of diets included corn, soybean meal and wheat. The enzyme levels added to the diets were 0.00 (control and 500 mg kg−1 DM. Results: Enzyme supplementation significantly improved relative growth, energy efficiency and protein efficiency from 11-28 days of age. Adding enzyme significantly decreased body weight gain, feed intake and improved feed to gain ratio, energy efficiency and protein efficiency from 29-44 days of age (pConclusion: Results of this study indicated that supplementation diets with 500 mg kg−1 multi-enzyme (Endofeed W in corn-soybean meal-wheat based diet improved broiler chickens feed to gain ratio, carcass yield and it can change the concentrations of thyroid hormones and some metabolites in blood, but it had not significant effect on carcass composition.

  2. The use of probiotic in the diet to improve carcass characteristics and meat quality of sheep

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    Budi Haryanto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment has been carried out to investigate the effect of probiotic and ruminally less-degradable protein supplementation on the growth and efficiency of feed utilization in sheep. Thirty two male sheep with an average liveweight of 23 kg were divided into 4 groups of 8 individuals to test four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were a basal concentrate diet, b basal concentrate diet supplemented with ruminally less degradable protein in proportion of 90:10%, c basal concentrate supplemented with probiotic at 0.5%, and d basal concentrate diet supplemented with ruminally less degradable protein and probiotic in proportion of 89.5:10:0.5% consequtively. The concentrate was fed at 1.5% of the liveweight, and adjusted every week after weighing the individuals. Napier grass was fed ad libitum after being chopped into 5 cm length. Drinking water was available adequately. The animals were individually caged. The experiment was carried out for 7-day adaptation to the dietary treatments and 42-day period of feeding trials. The parameters being observed include weekly liveweight changes, slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass characteristics. The results indicated that the liveweight changes were relatively the same for all treatment groups, which ranged from 89 to 94 g/d. However, the dry matter intakes ranged from 856 to 925 g/d. The slaughter weight ranged from 26.9 to 27.3 kg with carcass weight ranged from 12.0 to 12.8 kg indicating that the carcass percentage were in the range from 55.8 to 57.1% of the empty body weight. Probiotic supplement resulted in reduction of fat content in the meat from these observation, it is reasonable to assume that the use of probiotic in the diet reduced the carcass fat without affecting the daily weight gain.

  3. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance and carcass characteristics in wool and hair lambs

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    Ángel M. Romero-Maya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics of wool and hair lambs. For this purpose, 48 lambs averaging 31.3 kg body weight, of which twenty were wool (Ramboullet x Suffolk and twenty eight were hair (Tabasco lambs, and four levels of RAC (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg diet, dry matter basis were used. Wool lambs fed 20 and 30 mg RAC had higher (P<0.05 total gain weight and lower feed conversion than 0 and 10 mg RAC. Wool lambs fed 20 mg RAC had the highest carcass weight, dressing, legs weight and longissimus area as compared to 0, 10 and 30 mg RAC.  In hair lambs there were not effect of RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics.It was concluded that addition of RAC to finishing diets offered the best growth performance and carcass traits in wool lambs as compared to hair lambs. 

  4. ASSOCIATION OF SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS IN THE LEPR CANDIDATE GENE WITH CARCASS TRAITS OF PIGS

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    Anton Kováčik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Leptin and leptin receptor genetic variants are associated with obese phenotypes in humans and mice and are expected to influence fat deposition in pigs. This study aimed to investigate the associations of LEPR polymorphism with carcass traits (half carcass weight, lean meat percentage, back-fat thickness, MLT area - musculus longisimus thoracis and evaluation of genotypic values, additive values and dominance deviations. To identify the genotypes of LEPR candidate genes, we used biological material obtained from sows (55 and boars (51 of hybrid combination Large White x Landrace after reaching the slaughter weight. We identified three genotypes using restriction endonuclease HpaII in a group of 106 pigs. The AA genotype was the dominant one (42.45%, AB heterozygotes constituted 39.62%, while the BB genotype was the lowest (17.93%. Analyzing the half carcass weight the highest value detected was the highest in the dominant AA homozygotes together with the highest genotypic value (GAA = 0.3649. The pork genotype AA presented the highest back-fat thickness, A high correlation between the additive genetic effect of the A allele and back-fat thickness (0.8183 has been observed while the effect of the allelic dominance was relatively low (0.1907. Based on our results we may conclude that there is an inverse and antagonistic relationship between the quality of the half carcass weight together with the back-fat thickness and the lean meat marker.

  5. Effect of protein level on performance, nitrogen utilisation and carcass composition in finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Assadi Soumeh, Elham;

    2014-01-01

    and back fat depth differed among treatments. In conclusion, the study indicated that CP could be decreased to 136 g/kg as-fed for growing pigs in the weight range 50–100 kg without negative impact on growth performance and carcass traits. Moreover, leanness was not affected by excess CP....

  6. Estimation of genetic parameters for growth, carcass and overfeeding traits in a white geese strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzul, C; Rouvier, R; Rousselot-Pailley, D; Guy, G

    2000-01-01

    In an experimental strain of white plumage geese created in 1989, two experiments were carried out from 1993 to 1995 in order to estimate genetic parameters for growth, and carcass composition traits in non-overfed animals, and genetic parameters for growth and fatty liver formation in overfed animals. Four hundred and thirty-one non-overfed animals were bred and slaughtered at 11 weeks of age; they were measured for forearm length, keel bone length, chest circumference and breast depth before and after slaughtering. The carcasses were partly dissected in order weigh breast, breast muscle and skin + fat, and abdominal fat. Four hundred and seventy-seven overfed animals were slaughtered at 20 weeks of age; they were measured for "paletot" (breast meat, bone and meat from wings, bone and meat from thigh and legs) weight and liver weight. In these two experiments, the weights had moderate to high heritability values. Breast depth measured on live animals showed a low heritability value. In overfed animals, liver weight showed a high heritability value. Liver weight could be increased by selection without a great effect on "paletot" weight. Thus, obtaining a white plumage geese strain for fatty liver production by selection would be difficult because only 20% of overfed animals had fatty liver. The results did not allow to conclude on the influence of selection on liver weight on carcass traits such as muscle or fatty tissue weight.

  7. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER, CARCASS VALUES OF SUDAN GOAT ECOTYPES FED DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ENERGY/PROTEIN

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    A.A. TAMEEM ELDAR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to assess the slaughter and carcass values of different Sudan goat ecotypes (Nubian, Desert and Swiss Nubian fed different levels of energy/protein. Nine male goat kids (2-3 months and average weight 9.23 kg of either ecotypes were used in a 3x3x3 arrangement, fed three experimental diets A (control, B and C, with varying energy: protein 1:0.14, 1:0.16 and 1:0.18 respectively. The study showed that Nubian goats possessed heavier slaughter weight; empty body weight, warm and cold carcass weight than the Desert and Swiss Nubian goats in the ration B and C. Dressing percentage on both basis (slaughter weight and empty body weight of Nubian were higher for ration B and C. Warm carcass weights of all goat ecotypes increased directly with energy: protein ratio. Highest weight of leg, loin, rack and neck and shoulder were recorded by Nubian goats for ration B and C. It was concluded that, all ecotype kids respond well to increasing energy protein levels. According to the results obtained local goat ecotypes, mainly Nubian goats, responded well to improved nutrition, therefore results obtained can be applied for the local goat ecotypes studied to encourage goat meat consumption and exportation.

  8. Estimation of genetic parameters for growth, carcass and overfeeding traits in a white geese strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Gérard

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In an experimental strain of white plumage geese created in 1989, two experiments were carried out from 1993 to 1995 in order to estimate genetic parameters for growth, and carcass composition traits in non-overfed animals, and genetic parameters for growth and fatty liver formation in overfed animals. Four hundred and thirty-one non-overfed animals were bred and slaughtered at 11 weeks of age; they were measured for forearm length, keel bone length, chest circumference and breast depth before and after slaughtering. The carcasses were partly dissected in order weigh breast, breast muscle and skin + fat, and abdominal fat. Four hundred and seventy-seven overfed animals were slaughtered at 20 weeks of age; they were measured for "paletot" (breast meat, bone and meat from wings, bone and meat from thigh and legs weight and liver weight. In these two experiments, the weights had moderate to high heritability values. Breast depth measured on live animals showed a low heritability value. In overfed animals, liver weight showed a high heritability value. Liver weight could be increased by selection without a great effect on "paletot" weight. Thus, obtaining a white plumage geese strain for fatty liver production by selection would be difficult because only 20% of overfed animals had fatty liver. The results did not allow to conclude on the influence of selection on liver weight on carcass traits such as muscle or fatty tissue weight.

  9. Estimation of genetic parameters for growth, carcass and overfeeding traits in a white geese strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzul, Catherine; Rouvier, Roger; Rousselot-Pailley, Daniel; Guy, Gérard

    2000-01-01

    In an experimental strain of white plumage geese created in 1989, two experiments were carried out from 1993 to 1995 in order to estimate genetic parameters for growth, and carcass composition traits in non-overfed animals, and genetic parameters for growth and fatty liver formation in overfed animals. Four hundred and thirty-one non-overfed animals were bred and slaughtered at 11 weeks of age; they were measured for forearm length, keel bone length, chest circumference and breast depth before and after slaughtering. The carcasses were partly dissected in order weigh breast, breast muscle and skin + fat, and abdominal fat. Four hundred and seventy-seven overfed animals were slaughtered at 20 weeks of age; they were measured for "paletot" (breast meat, bone and meat from wings, bone and meat from thigh and legs) weight and liver weight. In these two experiments, the weights had moderate to high heritability values. Breast depth measured on live animals showed a low heritability value. In overfed animals, liver weight showed a high heritability value. Liver weight could be increased by selection without a great effect on "paletot" weight. Thus, obtaining a white plumage geese strain for fatty liver production by selection would be difficult because only 20% of overfed animals had fatty liver. The results did not allow to conclude on the influence of selection on liver weight on carcass traits such as muscle or fatty tissue weight. PMID:14736387

  10. Carcass characteristics and fat depots in Iberian and F Large White × Landrace pigs intensively finished or raised outdoors in oak-tree forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, M C; Almeida, J; Santos Silva, J; Bettencourt, C; Francisco, A; Gama, L T

    2016-06-01

    A factorial experiment was performed with 117 barrows belonging to the Iberian (IB) and crossbred F Large White × Landrace (F) genetic groups, either intensively finished (IN) or finished outdoors on pasture in an oak and cork tree forest (EX). Information was collected on carcass weight, yield, and dimensions; weight of organs, carcass cuts, and abdominal fat depots; backfat depth; measurements of the longissimus thoracis (LT); and yield of different leg tissues. For the 41 slaughter and carcass traits analyzed, the interaction between genetic group and finishing system was significant ( 0.05), indicating that it is feasible to reduce subcutaneous and abdominal fat without compromising IMF and meat quality.

  11. Swine Carcass Condemnation in Commercial Slaughterhouses

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    Lesley S. Bueno

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The research was conducted to evaluate the main causes of carcass condemnation, as well as the financial loss caused by it, at a commercial slaughterhouse located in Dourados, MS, Brazil. Materials and methods. The data related to carcass condemnation, for the years 2007 to 2009 was obtained from a commercial slaughterhouse, located in the city of Dourados, MS, Brazil, and turned into a percentage of the total number of animals slaughtered during that period. The most frequent causes of carcass condemnation (total or partial were grouped into classes (pleurisy + pneumonia; enteritis; arthritis; abscesses; fractures/hematomas + contusions + death. The financial loss by the slaughterhouse was estimated using the condemnation data. Results. The total rate of carcass condemnation was low and tended to stability (<0.45%. The most prevalent causes of condemnation during the study period were abscesses and death in the transport, which together accounted for approximately 40% of all condemnation. The condemnation due to health problems tended to decrease or to be stable over the years. However, the condemnations caused by management problems (abscesses, fractures, contusions and death showed a significant increase. The average loss to the integrative company according to the carcasses condemnation was exceeding U$1,600,000.00 in the years studied. Conclusions. The main causes of carcass condemnation come from management failure. The annual loss by the company can be invested in the training of manpower in order to reduce the rates of carcass condemnation.

  12. Performance, carcass characteristics and gain cost of feedlot cattle fed a high level of concentrate and different feed additives

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    Érico Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding cattle with isoprotein and isoenergetic diets, with and without the addition of polyclonal antibody preparation (PAP, yeasts (YST or monensin sodium (MON on performance, carcass characteristics and gain cost in feedlot. Ninety-five 20-month old bullocks (323.3±21.8 kg were distributed in 25 pens. The completely randomized experimental design had a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement and the treatments were replicated 5 times. There was no effect of MON for DMI throughout the feedlot period; however, MON reduced the dry matter intake (DMI in g/kg of BW in the first 28 days when compared with the other treatments. The gain cost decreased with MON addition in relation to the other treatments. Inclusion of YST decreased average daily gain (ADG, final body weight, hot carcass weight, carcass weight, gain to feed ratio and DMI in g/kg body weight, worsening feed conversion and increasing the gain cost in the feeding periods. Inclusion of PAP increased ADG and decreased the gain cost, besides improving feed conversion. For MON and PAP, a difference was found for kidney-pelvic fat and kidney-pelvic fat per 100 kg of hot carcass weight. For MON and YST, there was a difference in ADG, feed conversion, gain cost and carcass yield and kidney-pelvic fat per 100 kg of hot carcass. Treatment YST worsened performance in relation to the non-supplemented treatments. Feeding PAP to animals did not influence performance and carcass characteristics of bullocks in feedlot negatively. Thus, PAP shows potential to substitute MON in cattle feeding using isoprotein and isoenergetic diets.

  13. 9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anthrax; carcasses not to be...-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.9 Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses...; general cleanup and disinfection. (a) Carcasses found before evisceration to be affected with...

  14. Carcass and meat palatability breed differences and heterosis effects in an Angus-Brahman multibreed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; Johnson, D D; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2012-01-01

    Additive genetic Angus-Brahman differences, heterosis effects, and least squares means for six carcass and six meat palatability traits were estimated using data from 1367 steers from the Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of the University of Florida collected from 1989 to 2009. Brahman carcasses had higher dressing percent (PBrahman beef was less tender (Pcarcass weight (PBrahman crossbred steers. Results indicated that crossbred animals with up to 50% Brahman showed limited negative impact on meat quality while maximizing meat yield due to heterosis.

  15. CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FIRST FARROWING GILTS IN RELATION TO SIZE OF WEANED LITTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA BOCIAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was an evaluation of carcass slaughter value of fi rst farrowing gilts depending on the number of weaned piglets. The number of born and weaned piglets did not have a negative infl uence on gilt’s slaughter value. Carcasses of fi rst farrowing gilts characterised with a low fatness, large loin eye area and high lean content. Results of ham dissection of first farrowing gilts point high usefulness of this material to long maturing hams production in a view of the fact they have required weight, appropriate lean content and low fatness.

  16. Effect of supplementing crossbred Xhosa lop-eared goat castrates with Moringa oleifera leaves on growth performance, carcass and non-carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Busani; Masika, Patrick J; Muchenje, Voster

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of supplementing Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) on growth performance, carcass and non-carcass characteristics of crossbred Xhosa lop-eared goats. A total of 24 castrated goats aged 8 months, with a mean initial weight of 15.1 ± 2.3 kg, were randomly divided into three diet groups with eight goats in each. The duration of the trial was 60 days. All goats received a basal diet of grass hay (GH) ad libitum and wheat bran (200 g/day each). The MOL and sunflower cake (SC) groups were fed additional 200 g of dried M. oleifera leaves and 170 g of SC, respectively. The third group (GH) did not receive any additional ration. The crude protein of MOL (23.75%) and SC (23.27%) were higher (P < 0.05) than that of the GH diet (14.08%). The attained average daily weight gain for goats fed MOL, SC and GH were 103.3, 101.3 and 43.3 g, respectively (P < 0.05). Higher (P < 0.05) feed intakes observed were in SC (491.5 g) and MOL (490.75 g) compared with GH (404.5 g). The hot carcass weight was higher (P < 0.05) for SC (10.48 kg) and MOL (10.34 kg) than for the GH group (8.59 kg). The dressing percentage in SC (55.8%) and MOL (55.1%) were higher (P < 0.05) than that of the GH (52.9%). The growth performance and carcass characteristics of SC and MOL goats were not different. Feeding MOL or SC improved the growth performance and carcass characteristics of goats in an almost similar way, which indicates that M. oleifera could be used as an alternative protein supplement in goats.

  17. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle VIII): carcass, yield, and longissimus palatability traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate alternative sources of tropically adapted cattle germplasm and compare them with Angus- (AN) and Hereford- (HE) sired steers. Carcass, yield, and longissimus thoracis palatability traits from F(1) steers (n = 621) obtained from mating AN and MARC III cows to HE, AN, Brangus (BR), Beefmaster (BM), Bonsmara (BO), or Romosinuano (RO) sires were compared. Data were adjusted to constant age (426 d), carcass weight (340 kg), fat thickness (1.0 cm), fat trim percentage (25%), and marbling (Small(00)) endpoints. For Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force and trained and untrained sensory panel traits, data were obtained on LM from ribeye steaks stored at 2 degrees C for 14 or 15 d postmortem. The following comparisons were from the age-constant endpoint. Carcasses from BM-, AN-, and BR-sired steers (358, 355, and 351 kg, respectively) were heavier (P Carcass yield of boneless, totally trimmed retail product was least (P < 0.05) for AN-sired steers (60.1%) and greatest (P < 0.05) for RO- and BO-sired steers (64.4 to 63.5%). Considering all measurements, AN LM tended to be more tender and BM LM tended to be least tender. American composite breeds BM and BR were heavier, fatter, lesser yielding, with similar marbling scores but less tender LM than BO and RO. Angus carcasses were similar in size, fatter, lesser yielding, with more marbling and more tender LM compared with BM and BR. Bonsmara and RO provide tropically adapted germplasm and produce carcasses that are lighter, leaner, greater yielding, with similar marbling and LM that tend to be more tender than carcasses from BM and BR.

  18. Effects of feeding and rearing systems on growth, carcass composition and meat quality in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebret, B

    2008-10-01

    Animal growth performance and quality of pork depend on the interactive effects of pig genotype, rearing conditions, pre-slaughter handling, and carcass and meat processing. This paper focuses on the effects of feeding and rearing systems (feeding level and diet composition, housing, production system, etc.) on growth performance, carcass composition, and eating and technological qualities of pork. The feeding level and protein : energy ratio can be used to manipulate growth rate or composition of weight gain. Restricted feed allowance strongly reduces growth rate and carcass fatness and also intramuscular fat (IMF) level, resulting in decreased meat tenderness or juiciness. Expression of compensatory growth due to restricted followed by ad libitum feeding modifies the composition of weight gain at both carcass and muscle levels, and may improve meat tenderness due to higher in vivo protein turnover. Decreasing the protein : energy ratio of the diet actually increases IMF and improves eating quality, but gives fatter carcasses. In contrast, a progressive reduction in the protein : energy ratio leads to similar carcass composition at slaughter but with higher IMF. Technological meat traits (pH1, pHu, colour, drip loss) are generally not affected by the level or protein : energy in feed. Modification of fatty acid composition and antioxidant level in meat can be obtained through diet supplementations (e.g. vegetable sources with high n-3 fatty acids), thereby improving the nutritional quality of pork. Influences of pig rearing system on animal performance, carcass and meat traits result from interactive effects of housing (floor type, space allowance, ambient temperature, physical activity), feeding level and genotype in specific production systems. Indoor enrichment (more space, straw bedding) generally increases growth rate and carcass fatness, and may improve meat juiciness or flavour through higher IMF. Outdoor rearing and organic production system have various

  19. Influence of body condition score on live and carcass value of cull beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, J K

    1999-10-01

    Mature beef cows (n = 88) were slaughtered to determine the influence of body condition score (BCS) on carcass and live animal value. Cows were weighed and assigned a BCS (9-point scale), 24 h before slaughter. Hide and by-products weights were recorded during harvest. After a 48-h chill period, the right side of each carcass was fabricated into boneless subprimal cuts, minor cuts, lean trim, fat, and bone. Weights were recorded at all stages of fabrication. Carcass values (U.S.$/100 kg of hot carcass weight) were calculated for U.S. Utility and U.S. Cutter grades, as well as for the Utility/Cutter mix for each BCS. Gross value included the carcass value and the value of the hide and byproducts, whereas net value was calculated after harvest and fabrication costs and by-product value were considered. Live value (U.S.$/100 kg of live weight) was computed by dividing the net value by the animal's live weight 24 h before harvest. The value of the hide and by-products for BCS-2 cows was greater (Pmix, cows designated with a BCS of 7 and 8 had greater (P.05) to BCS-7 cows. Information from this study can be used by the non-fed beef industry to establish a value-based marketing system. Data from this study would indicate that marketing cull beef cows at a BCS of 6 could optimize economic returns to both cow-calf producers and non-fed beef packers.

  20. Carcass traits of improved and indigenous lamb breeds of North-Western Turkey under an intensive production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omur Kocak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the carcass quality of Turkish Merino, Ramlic, Kivircik, Chios and Imroz breeds in north-western Turkey under an intensive production system. After weaning at approximately 85 days of age, 46 lambs from Turkish Merino, Ramlic, Kivircik, Chios and Imroz breeds were fattened for 56 days. Slaughter weights were 47.39, 45.68, 47.27, 31.08 and 29.82 kg and chilled carcass weights were 23.35, 22.33, 23.51, 14.33 and 13.75 kg, respectively (P<0.001. Improved Turkish Merino and Ramlic and indigenous Kivircik lambs had higher carcass measurements than indigenous Chios and Imroz lambs. Chios lamb carcasses had the highest tail root fat yellowness and tail percentage while having the lowest fatness score, omental and mesenteric fat percentage and kidney knob and channel fat percentage. Turkish Merino lambs had higher shoulder percentage, lean percentage and lean/total fat ratio in the hind leg and produced less total fat in the hind leg than Ramlic and Kivircik lambs. These results indicate that improved Turkish Merino might be used to produce high quality lamb carcasses in north-western Turkey. Among indigenous breeds Kivircik showed an outstanding carcass production performance.

  1. Consumo, conversão alimentar, ganho de peso e características da carcaça de bovinos F1 Simental x Nelore Intake, feed: gain ratio, weight gain and characteristics of the carcass of F1 Simental x Nellore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Andrade Ferreira

    1999-04-01

    were evaluated. The live weight (LWG and the empty body gains (EBG, feed:gain ratio (F:G, carcass gain (CG and the carcass productivity in relation to live weight (LWCP and to empty body weight (EBW were also evaluated. Twenty nine F1 Simental x Nelore bulls, averaging 17 months of age and initial live weight of 354 kg, were used. In the beginning of the experiment, five animals were slaughtered, as reference, to estimate the initial empty body weight (IVBW. The remaining animals were allotted to a completely randomized design according to the concentrate level in the diets: 25, 37.5, 50, 62.5, and 75%. Animals were fed full until a pre-established slaughter weight of 500 kg. As forage, the coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon and brachiaria (Brachiaria decumbens hays were used. The intakes of DM, CP, EE and TDN increased while that of NDF reduced linearly with the concentrate increase in the diets. The intakes of P, Mg and K were influenced linearly and that of Ca on a quadratic way by the dietary concentrate levels. LWG, VBG and CG increased and FC decreased linearly as a function of the dietary concentrate levels, whereas LWCP and VBCP were not affected by the dietary concentrate levels. The animal performance was improved with the use of higher concentrate contents in the diets

  2. Parâmetros genéticos para características de carcaça avaliadas por ultrassonografia em bovinos da raça Guzerá Genetic parameters for body weight and real-time ultra sound carcass traits of Guzera cattle

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    H.R. Lima Neto

    2009-02-01

    características área de olho de lombo e espessura de gordura na carcaça.Genetic parameters were estimated for body weight and real-time ultra-sound loin-eye area, rump fat thickness, and back fat thickness using data from 1,325 yearling Guzera cattle (90.4% bulls and 9.6% heifers and pedigree structure with 6,642 animals. Variance and covariance components were estimated using REML methodology and MTDFREML software. Single trait animal models were used to estimate repeatability and heritability for the four traits. Multiple traits animal models were used to estimate genetic correlations among the traits. Repeatability estimates (standard errors were 0.44(0.10 for body weight, 0.39(0.10 for loin-eye area, 0.75(0.06 for rump fat thickness, and 0.49(0.08 for back fat thickness. Heritability estimates were 0.42(0.11 and 0.41(0.11 for body weight, 0.35(0.09 and 0.34(0.09 for loin-eye area, 0.20(0.08 and 0.32(0.08 for back fat thickness, and 0.05(0.06 and 0.10(0.08 for rump fat thickness, respectively from single and multiple traits models. Genetic correlation estimates were 0.79(0.09 between body weight and loin-eye area, 0.20(0.08 between body weight and back fat thickness, 0.05(0.06 between loin-eye area and rump fat thickness, 0.02(0.27 between loin-eye area and back fat thickness and 0.64(0.22 between the two measurements of fat thickness. In order to evaluate carcass traits, results suggested that repeated real-time ultra-sound measurements are not needed and that direct selection for these traits might be effective. In addition, there is no genetic antagonism between selection for body weight and carcass traits.

  3. Two-, three-, and four-breed rotational crossbreeding of beef cattle: carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, S M; Franke, D E; Bidner, T D; Blouin, D C

    1992-12-01

    Carcass data from 1,494 straightbred and rotational crossbred steers were collected over four generations. Mating systems included straightbreds (Angus [A], Brahman [B], Charolais [C], and Hereford [H]); two-breed rotations (A-B, C-B, and H-B); three-breed rotations (A-B-C, A-B-H, and B-C-H); and a four-breed rotation (A-B-C-H). Steers were randomly allocated to one of four postweaning treatments that varied in length of grazing and feeding periods. Treatment and breed group (four straightbreds and seven rotational combinations) significantly influenced hot carcass weight (HCWT), retail yield (RY), longissimus muscle area (LM), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MS), USDA quality grade (QG), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS). Feeding for longer periods resulted in greater (P carcass traits except MS.

  4. Carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs fed crude glycerin contaminated with high concentrations of crude fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, J F; Paulino, P V R; Pereira, L G R; Duarte, M S; Valadares Filho, S C; Oliveira, A S; Souza, N K P; Lima, J C M

    2014-01-01

    Thirty non-castrated male lambs with 20±2.3 kg average body weight (BW) were randomly assigned to five treatments consisted of different dietary concentrations of crude glycerin (CG; 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12% on DM basis) to evaluate the effects on performance, carcass and meat quality traits. A quadratic effect was observed for performance (P=0.04), final BW (P0.05) on carcass pH neither on shear-force, cooking loss and ether extract content in longissimus. The inclusion of CG tended to reduce the Zn content in meat (P=0.09). The data suggests that CG (36.2% of glycerol and 46.5% of crude fat) may be used in diets of finishing lambs with concentrations up to 3% without negative effects on performance and main carcass traits. Moreover, inclusion of CG seems to not affect quality and safety of meat for human consumption.

  5. Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Rabbits Fed Oil Supplemented Diets

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    Jamal Abo OMAR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feeding different dietary fat supplements in the finisher rations of Baladi rabbits, including sesame oil (SO, olive oil sediments (OOS, and poultry grease (PG, in comparison to the traditional oil supplement, the soybean soap stock oil (SS, on growth performance, blood lipid profile, dressing percentage and carcass cut, and meat quality: water holding capacity (WHC and cell forming unit (CFU. A total of 48 Baladi rabbits were used, with individual body weights (BW of 519 ± 22 g at the beginning of the experiment. Rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12, and those in each group were individually fed cereal grain-soybean meal (SBM with a fixed amount (i.e. 30 g/kg dry matter (DM of oil, being either soybean oil (SOY, olive oil sediments (OOS, recycled restaurant oil (RRO, or poultry grease (PG. All rations were isonitrogenous and contained iso-metabolizable energy (ME. At the end of the 44 day feeding trial, all animals were slaughtered. Rabbits fed a SOY supplemented diet consumed more (P < 0.05 feed than those fed the OOS, RRO, or PG supplemented diets. However, rabbits fed the SOY had a better (P < 0.05 feed conversion ratio than rabbits fed the OOS, PG, or RRO diets. Oil source had no effect on carcass components weights. Liver was heavier (P < 0.05 in rabbits fed the SOY supplemented diet. However, the RRO fed rabbits had heavier (P < 0.05 small intestine, large intestine and cecum. In conclusion, the positive effects of the tested oil supplements (i.e. RRO, OOS, PG on the studied performance and carcass traits is encouraging, but more investigation is needed to identify the optimal levels for these supplements in various diets of local rabbits.

  6. Avaliação das proporções dos cortes da carcaça, características da carne e avaliação dos componentes do peso vivo de cordeiros Evaluation of carcass cuttings proportion, meat characteristics and evaluation of live weight components of lambs

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    Rafael Batista Medeiros Frescura

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a composição física da carcaça, as características da carne e a proporção dos não-componentes da carcaça do peso vivo de cordeiros abatidos aos 28 kg submetidos a diferentes sistemas alimentares. Dezoito cordeiros (Ile de France x Texel foram distribuídos aleatoriamente, com as respectivas mães, em três tratamentos: PCA - pastagem cultivada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., CON - confinamento sem alimentação privativa e CCF - confinamento com alimentação privativa para os cordeiros. A alimentação privativa foi oferecida aos cordeiros pelo sistema de creep feeding. Não houve diferença para o percentual do pescoço entre PCA, CON e CCF, com valores de 9,27; 9,17 e 8,72%, respectivamente. Para o percentual de perna, os animais da CON (34,02% e CCF (34,17% apresentaram valores semelhantes entre si e superiores aos da PCA (31,73%. A maciez medida na porção do Longissimus dorsi entre a 9ª e 12ª costelas foi semelhante entre os animais dos três tratamentos, de 2,33; 3,03 e 3,08 para PCA, CON e CCF, respectivamente. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre a palatabilidade e suculência da carne. O percentual de pele dos animais da PCA (11,05% e do CON (10,50% foram semelhantes entre si, enquanto o PCA apresentou valores mais elevados que o percentual dos animais do CCF (9,70%. Para o percentual do conteúdo gástrico, os valores observados para os animais do CCF (11,47% foram superiores àqueles da PCA (5,09% e semelhantes aos obtidos para os animais do CON (8,72%.This study aimed to evaluate carcass physical comp0sition, meat characteristics and live weight carcass no component of lambs slaughter at 28 kg under different feeding systems. Eighteen lambs (Ile de France X Texel were randomly allotted, with their respective mothers, to three treatments: RP - ryegrass pasture (Lolium multiflorum Lam., COM - confinament of lamb and sheep together and CCF - confinament with creep feeding. A

  7. Validation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Carcass Traits in a Commercial Hanwoo Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudrajad, Pita; Sharma, Aditi; Dang, Chang Gwon; Kim, Jong Joo; Kim, Kwan Suk; Lee, Jun Heon; Kim, Sidong; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Four carcass traits, namely carcass weight (CW), eye muscle area (EMA), back fat thickness (BF), and marbling score (MS), are the main price decision parameters used for purchasing Hanwoo beef. The development of DNA markers for these carcass traits for use in a beef management system could result in substantial profit for beef producers in Korea. The objective of this study was to validate the association of highly significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) with the four carcass traits in a commercial Hanwoo population. We genotyped 83 SNPs distributed across all 29 autosomes in 867 steers from a Korean Hanwoo feedlot. Six SNPs, namely ARS-BFGL-NGS-22774 (Chr4, Pos:4889229), ARS-BFGL-NGS-100046 (Chr6, Pos:61917424), ARS-BFGL-NGS-39006 (Chr27, Pos:38059196), ARS-BFGL-NGS-18790 (Chr10, Pos:26489109), ARS-BFGL-NGS-43879 (Chr9, Pos:39964297), and BTB-00775794 (Chr20, Pos:20476265), were found to be associated with CW, EMA, BF, and MS. The ARS-BFGL-NGS-22774, BTB-00775794, and ARS-BFGL-NGS-39006 markers accounted for 1.80%, 1.72%, and 1.35% (p<0.01), respectively, of the phenotypic variance in the commercial Hanwoo population. Many genes located in close proximity to the significant SNPs identified in this study were previously reported to have roles in carcass traits. The results of this study could be useful for marker-assisted selection programs. PMID:26954199

  8. Effect of Supplementing Spirulina on Live Performance, Carcass Composition and Meat Quality of Japanese Quail

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    Danny Swee Weng CHEONG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis inclusion in feed on live performance, carcass composition and meat quality of Japanese quails during growing stage to identify the best inclusion range for Japanese quails without affecting the growth and carcass parameters. Three hundred Japanese quails of 15 days of age were used in this experiment, randomly divided into 5 groups with 3 replication comprised of 30 males and 30 females. The quails were fed with a basal diet as a control and 4 levels of Spirulina inclusion diet 1, 2, 4 and 8 %. Diets were fed to birds from 15 days to 35 days of age. Body weight gain (BWG, Feed intake (FI, Feed conversion ratio (FCR and Mortality rate (MR were recorded weekly during the experiment. Carcass composition and meat quality tests were done after slaughtering. BWG, FI, FCR and MR were significantly different (p < 0.05 in the experiment. Carcass composition was found to be significantly different in the leg percentage (p < 0.05. Meat color and meat shear force value were also found to differ significantly (p < 0.05 with the Spirulina inclusion diet showing a better result than the control. Therefore, the result of this experiment suggests that diets up to 4 % of Spirulina achieve the best live performance, carcass composition and meat quality.

  9. Performance, carcass and meat quality of ewes supplemented with magnesium oxide

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    Camila Constantino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance, the carcass and meat characteristics of ewes supplemented with magnesium oxide. Eighteen 6-year-old Santa Ines ewes were used in a completely randomized experimental design, where three levels of supplementation (0.0, 0.1 and 0.2% magnesium oxide in the concentrate were tested, with six replicates. Final weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were not affected by levels of magnesium supplementation. Hot and cold carcass weights showed linear increasing and quadratic responses, respectively, according to supplementation with magnesium. Carcass measurements such as length, depth, and measures of arm and leg were not affected by supplementation. Depth and width of the longissimus muscle and rib-eye area were not affected; however, marbling and ether extract increased linearly with supplementation. Water loss and color were not affected. Lipid oxidation and shear force were not affected by supplementation, while the myofibrillar fragmentation index showed a quadratic regression. There was a linear decrease in pH with magnesium supplementation. Supplementation with magnesium can improve carcass and meat pH, but can act negatively by increasing the amount of marbling and ether extract of meat.

  10. Performance and carcass characteristics of young cattle fed with soybean meal treated with tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Rafael; Paulino, Pedro Veiga Rodrigues; Barbosa, Marcília Medrado; da Silva Martins, Taiane; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Dos Santos Monnerat, João Paulo Ismério

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of replacement of soybean meal (SBM) with soybean meal treated with tannin (SBMT) on the intake, digestibility, performance and characteristics of the carcasses of young cattle fed a high-concentrate diet. Forty-two Nellore bulls with body weight of 244.5 ± 4.99 kg were used. Diets had the inclusion of 7.5% SBM, with a proportion of that SBM (0, 33, 66 or 100%) replaced for SBMT; and other treatment (SBMT + urea) just with 2.5% of SBM which was treated with tannins. Seven animals were randomly selected and slaughtered, and the remaining animals were distributed on treatments and remained for 112 days. After, all animals were slaughtered. There was a linear decline in dry matter intake (P = 0.026) when SBM was replaced with SBMT. No decrease in carcass weight (P > 0.05) was observed. The efficiency of carcass weight gain showed a quadratic function effect (P = 0.049). There were changes in carcass gain composition when SBMT was added (P < 0.05), with an increase in muscle and reduction in fat deposition. The use of SBMT in place of SBM causes changes in body gain composition in animals and reduces DM intake by the animals, achieving a better feed conversion efficiency.

  11. Characterization of two Pro-opiomelanocortin gene variants and their effects on carcass traits in beef cattle

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    Deobald Heather M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcass quantity (lean meat yield and quality (degree of marbling in beef cattle determines much of their economic value. Consequently, it is important to study genes that are part of the appetite pathway and that may ultimately affect carcass composition. Pro-opiomelanocortin is a prohormone that codes for many different peptides, several of which are involved in the appetite pathway. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP c.288C>T in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC has previously been associated with hot carcass weight (HCW and shipping weight (Ship wt in beef cattle. Results While developing a commercial real time PCR test for POMC c.288C>T a 12 bp deletion (POMC c.293_304delTTGGGGGCGCGG was identified. The deletion results in the removal of four amino acids (a valine, two glycines, and an alanine. Both the POMC c.288C>T and the deletion were genotyped in 386 crossbred steers and evaluated for associations with carcass traits. The animals with one copy of the deletion had a significantly smaller carcass rib-eye area (7.91 cm2; P = 0.02 in comparison to homozygous normal animals. Significant associations were observed between POMC c.288C>T with start-of-finishing weight (SOF WT; P = 0.04, hot carcass weight (HCW; P = 0.02, average fat and grade fat (both P = 0.05, carcass rib-eye area (REA; P = 0.03 and marbling (P = 0.02. Conclusions These results suggest that it could be beneficial for beef producers to know both the deletion and POMC c.288C>T genotypes when making marketing and culling decisions.

  12. Efeitos do tamanho da partícula e da forma física da ração sobre o desempenho, rendimento de carcaça e peso dos órgãos digestivos de frangos de corte Effects of particle size and physical form of ration on performance, carcass yield and weight of digestive organs of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.A. López

    2004-04-01

    grinding rations, feed conversion was lower and mortality was higher with the expanded-pellet diet. This pattern did not show up with the coarse grinding rations. The physical form and particle size of rations did not affect carcass yield (% body weight. The relative weight (% body weight of gizzard was lower and that of liver was higher (P<0.05 with the expanded-pellet and pellet rations.

  13. Modeling the Biological Diversity of Pig Carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen

    for extracting and modeling meaningful information from the vast amount of information available from non-invasive imaging data. The lean meat percentage (LMP) is a common standard for measuring the quality of pig carcasses. Measuring the LMP using CT and using this as a reference for calibration of online......This thesis applies methods from medical image analysis for modeling the biological diversity of pig carcasses. The Danish meat industry is very focused on improving product quality and productivity by optimizing the use of the carcasses and increasing productivity in the abattoirs. In order...... to achieve these goals there is a need for more detailed information about pig carcasses in relation to measures of quality. Non-invasive imaging such as X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) can provide this very detailed information discerning the major tissue types. Medical image analysis provides the tools...

  14. Effect of dietary supplementation of herbal seeds on carcass traits of turkey poults

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    Darshana B. Bhaisare

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find the effect of four herbal seeds on carcass traits of turkey poults. Materials and Methods: A biological study using Nandanam turkey poults (Meleagris gallapavo for 8 weeks duration was carried out to evaluate the effect of phytobiotics-containing four herbal seeds influence on production performances like biweekly body weight and on carcass traits. 150 poults were randomly subjected to five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with basal diet (T1, 0.5% (5 g/kg level of each seeds thyme (Thymus vulgaris (T2, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum (T3, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare (T4 and cumin (Cuminum cyminum (T5. Carcass traits like blood loss, feather loss, dressed weight, New York dressed weight, ready to cook yield and cut-up parts yield were studied. Results: The body weight at 8th week was higher (p<0.05 in poults fed with thyme; whereas at 6th week, fennel and cumin fed birds had better (p<0.05 body weight. Inclusion of herbal seeds did not affect the blood loss, dressed weight and ready to cook yield but it significantly (p<0.05 affected the feathered loss, New York dressed weight and giblet percentages. Feeding of fenugreek has improved New York dressed weight of poults. Feeding of fennel had depressive (p<0.05 effect on liver and gizzard weights. All the four phytobiotic seeds in feed had significant (p<0.05 reduction in breast weight with a compensatory improvement in drumstick and neck weights. Conclusion: The present study revealed that supplementation of phytobiotic herbal seeds has resulted in numerical improvement of body weight of poults throughout the study period whereas these seeds had negative effect on the yield of breast, with increased proportion of drumstick and neck.

  15. Postweaning growth and carcass traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano maternal grandsires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A; Cundiff, L V

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for postweaning growth and carcass composition traits in terminal crossbred cattle. Postweaning growth and carcass traits were analyzed on 464 steers and 439 heifers obtained by mating F(1) cows to Charolais and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) sires. The F(1) cows were obtained from mating Angus and MARC III dams to Hereford, Angus, Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano sires. Traits evaluated were postweaning ADG, slaughter weight, HCW, dressing percentage, percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, retail product yield (percentage), and retail product weight. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P carcass weights, the least percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, and the least amount of marbling and fat thickness. Animals with inheritance from these 2 breeds had a more desirable yield grade with the greatest retail product yield. Maternal granddam breed was significant (P < 0.05) for marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, and retail product yield. Sex class was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits except for retail product yield. Steers grew faster, were heavier, had heavier carcasses, and were leaner than heifers. Heifers had a greater dressing percentage, a greater percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, a greater LM area, and a decreased yield grade when compared with steers. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems.

  16. The single nucleotide polymorphisms of chicken melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene and their association analysis with carcass traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU; Xuemei; LI; Ning; DENG; Xuemei; ZHAO; Xingbo; MENG; Qingyong; WANG; Xiuli

    2006-01-01

    Mutations of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene are associated with the appetite, obesity and growth in pig, mice and human. But little is known about the function of chicken MC4R gene. In this study, F2 chicken resource population derived from broilers crossing to Silky was screened for the polymorphisms of the MC4R gene using PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing methods. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) sites were found. The mutation (C→T) in the 5′ regulation region of chicken MC4R gene results in one more NF-E2 and cap transcription factor binding sites in the mutation allele than in the wild allele. One missense mutation (G→A) occurs in the coding region (61nt), which changes the glycine to arginine. Moreover, in the coding region there are 2 synonymous mutations, one G→T mutation at 315nt and one C→T mutation at 336nt. Least square analysis of the SNPs and carcass traits showed that BB, DD and FF genotypes are significantly associated with body weight, carcass weight (or half carcass weight), and leg muscle weight (P<0.05 or P<0.01). But no significant association between the genotypes and abdominal fat weight is found. The results present the evidence that the chicken MC4R gene can be selected as the major candidate gene for the carcass traits such as body weight and growth.

  17. Evaluation of carcass scraping to enumerate bacteria on prechill broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D P; Cason, J A; Fletcher, D L; Hannah, J F

    2007-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate a scraping method for enumerating bacteria on broiler carcasses. In experiment 1, coliforms and Escherichia coli were determined by the whole-carcass rinse (WCR) method and by scraping the skin surface and rinsing the blade (BR). In each of 2 replicate trials, 4 prechill broiler carcasses were collected from 2 different commercial processing plants. The WCR method was conducted on each carcass, then a blunt edge blade was used to scrape an area measuring approximately 80 cm(2) of the breast (front) skin and on the back of the carcass. After scraping, each blade and adhering residue was rinsed in 30 mL of 0.1% peptone. One milliliter of rinsate each from the WCR and BR was plated to determine total coliforms and E. coli. In experiment 2, 6 carcasses were collected from a processing plant in each of 2 replicate trials. Carcasses were split, with one half scraped on all skin surfaces, and the other half remaining unscraped as a control; all halves were then subjected to half-carcass rinses using 200 mL of 0.1% peptone. Coliforms and E. coli were enumerated. Results from both experiments are reported as log cfu/mL. In experiment 1, mean coliform WCR counts (5.1) were significantly higher (P scraped carcass halves for coliforms (4.7) or E. coli (4.6). Overall, results showed that scraping either prior to or after rinsing did not increase enumeration of coliforms or E. coli. Scraping could be a viable method to compare the numbers of bacteria on different areas of the same carcass.

  18. Performance and carcass traits in the diallel crossing of pacu and tambaqui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vilhena Reis Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of evaluating the changes and the degree of heterosis on performance and carcass traits of fish from the diallel crossing between Pacu and Tambaqui, four genetic groups were generated through hormonal induction: pacu, tambaqui, tambacu and paqui. For 196 days, 400 juveniles of each genetic group were stocked in a pond divided into four parts of equal size, one for each group. At the end of this period, when the fish weighed on average 1024 g (±115.52 g, 20 specimens of each genetic group were sampled, weighed, measured: head length; standard length; body height; and width; and also processed resulting in following body yield: viscera; carcass; head; fillet; rib; residue and skin yields. There was positive heterosis for body weight, viscera and skin yield and head measures and negative heterosis for carcass and filet yield and body width, indicating that the hybrids have better performance on weight gain, but are inferior in relation to the carcass conformation.

  19. Influence of dietary supplementation of chromium on the carcass traits of crossbred pigs

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    Guikinglung Pamei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the influence of chromium on the carcass traits in crossbred (Large White Yorkshire X Landrace pigs fed with swill feeding for a period of 5 months. Early-weaned crossbred piglets (n=24 were selected for this study, and the piglets were randomly divided into three equal groups; Group I, II, and III. The piglets were reared by following standard health coverage protocols. The feeds of Group I and II were supplemented with chromium in the form of chromium tripicolinate at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg of swill feed respectively, and Group III was kept as control. Carcass weight, carcass length, and bone percentage showed no significant difference among the three groups. However, better dressing percentage was observed in Group I (p<0.05. Liver and kidney weights were reduced in chromium supplemented groups (p<0.05. Chromium supplemented groups showed lower backfat thickness and fat percentage (p<0.01; whereas, loin eye areas and muscle percentage were increased as compared to the control group. Thus, it was concluded that chromium supplementation in feed of crossbred piglets influenced positively in their carcass traits.

  20. SLOVENIAN EXPERIENCE IN PIG CARCASS CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO SEUROP DURING THE YEARS 1996 TO 2004

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    Marjeta ČANDEK-POTOKAR

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Slovenian results on pig carcass classifi cation according to SEUROP (average lean meat percentage, carcass weight, measurements of fat and muscle and their variability are presented for years from 1996 to 2004. In these years, an important increase of average lean meat percentage was noted (51.9 % in year 1996 vs. 55.9 % in year 2004. As a consequence the percentage of pig carcasses being graded into S and E classes was almost tripled from 1996 to 2004 (21.3 to 58.2%, respectively. This improvement was initiated by the payment according to the lean meat percentage, to which pig breeders responded by better management of herds and partly by increased use of pietrain breed. Potential for further improvement remains in attaining genetically more uniform herds and reduction of carcass weight variability. A new method, introducing an optic probe Hennessy, adapted to changes of the EU legislation, is expected to shift up the average meat percentage close to 57%, which places Slovenian pigs into the EU average.

  1. Meat and carcass characteristics of free-living capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris

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    Gisele A. Felix

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate carcass and meat characteristics of free-living capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris from agricultural areas of Grande Dourados, MS, Brazil. Carcass weight, yield and measures, as well as of commercial cuts weight of five animals (2 males and 3 females, body weight between 63.4-100 kg were determined. The following parameters: moisture, protein, fat, ash, Ca, P and Fe, water holding capacity, cooking losses, shear force and color Instrumental color in CIE-Lab coordinates were determined to meat cuts (Loin, ribs, L. dorsi, chuck/brisket, ham and bottom sirloin. The dressing percentage average value was 62.47% of body weight and cold carcass yield was 57.89% of body weight, with no difference between sexes. The mean percentage of cold loss was 4.10%. Cuts yielding (ribs 24.98% and ham 27.29% were not statistically different (P>0.05. There was no significantly (P> 0.05 difference between the moisture, protein and minerals content between the different cuts, but lipids content was significantly (P< 0.05 lower in loin. The results shown that free-living capybara have characteristics appropriate for commercialization, thus it is possible to development projects for the sustainable management of rural populations.

  2. Impact comparative study of phone carcasses behavior by FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Cărăuşu; Plăvănescu, Simona; Dumitru, Nedelcu

    2015-07-01

    A constant concern of scientific research is based on plastics replace with biodegradable materials that reduce the adverse impact of waste on the environment. A biodegradable material that arouses interest lately is Arboform which is made of lignin, a component of wood and woody plants. Replacing plastic with Arboform in carrying components of products requires technical and economic studies on the implications of such replacement. Numerical simulation methods are a fast and economical way of analyzing the behavior of a product in various mechanical, thermal, electromagnetic and so on. The paper presents comparative results of numerical simulation using the software package SolidWorks impact behavior through the “Drop Test” of half shells made of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and of the Arboform LV3 Nature. Simulation watched the half-carcass behavior in three cases of accidental impact, “head”, “corner” and the “back side”. We analyzed the size and location of the maximum voltage and maximum deformation resulting from impact. Simulations have shown for all three cases a maximum voltage increase when using Arboform to use PEDH 93% for impact “forward” and “corner” and only 48.77% “back side” impact. If the maximum displacement, it increasing from carcasses of Arboform 4% for impact “head” and 6% for impact “corner”, but fell by 2.7% for the “back side” impact. The significant increase of stress can be attributed to the higher density of Arboform to PEDH, which led to different weights of the two half-carcasses.

  3. Performance and carcass characteristics of free-range broiler chickens fed diets containing alternative feedstuffs

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    PB Faria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alternative feedstuffs as partial substitutes of corn and soybean in free-range broiler diets on performance, carcass yield and technical-economic viability. A total of 400 Pescoço Pelado broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design (CRD, with four treatments (treatment 1:Control; treatment 2: 10% rice bran inclusion; treatment 3: 10% ground cassava leaves; and treatment 4: 10% ground lead tree hay with four replicates per treatment. Each replicate consisted of a group of 25 birds per paddock, separated per sex. Initial weight (IW, final weight (FW, body weight (BW, daily weight gain (DWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated. Carcass, cuts (breast, thigh, drumstick, back, neck, leg and wings, abdominal fat and giblets (gizzard, heart and liver yields were determined. The technical-economic viability of each treatment was assessed by determining the cost of feed per kg body weight, economic efficiency index and cost. The highest final weights were obtained with the use of rice bran. Rice bran and cassava leaves promoted higher carcass yield, as well as lower back and abdominal fat yields. The use of cassava leaves showed better economic efficiency among the treatments with alternative feedstuffs. The use of alternative feedstuffs at 10% inclusion in substitution of corn and soybean meal did not not result in major changes in performance and carcass parameters, and economic efficiency, and therefore, their use is recommended when the availability or the price of key ingredients, such as soybean meal and corn, increase.

  4. Instructions for collection and shipment of avian and mammalian carcasses

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instructions for collecting and shipping wildlife carcasses, carcass parts, and samples extracted from animals to the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) to...

  5. Haematology, Blood Chemistry and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Rabbits Fed Grasshopper Meal as a Substitute for Fish Meal

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    A. A. Njidda* and C. E. Isidahomen1

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with grasshopper meal on haematology, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits. Forty rabbits of mixed breeds, aged 6-10 weeks, were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments in a complete randomized design with eight rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were fed with diets containing 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5% grasshopper meal in diets designated as T1 (control, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period of nine weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three rabbits per treatment were slaughtered for carcass evaluation, while blood samples were collected for analysis. The result of the experiment showed significant differences (P0.05 on haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC. The results also revealed significant differences (P0.05 on serum albumin and total protein. The results of carcass characteristics showed significant differences among treatments (P<0.05 for slaughter weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, skin pelt, tail, feet and abdominal fat. The slaughter weight and carcass weight were better in groups receiving 2.5% grass hopper meal (50% fish meal replacement. From the results, it can be concluded that inclusion of 2.50% grasshopper meal as a replacement for fish meal (50% replacement has no adverse effects on the haematological parameters, serum biochemistry and carcass characteristics of rabbits.

  6. Detection of quantitative trait loci for carcass composition traits in pigs

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    Renard Christine

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis of carcass composition data from a three-generation experimental cross between Meishan (MS and Large White (LW pig breeds is presented. A total of 488 F2 males issued from six F1 boars and 23 F1 sows, the progeny of six LW boars and six MS sows, were slaughtered at approximately 80 kg live weight and were submitted to a standardised cutting of the carcass. Fifteen traits, i.e. dressing percentage, loin, ham, shoulder, belly, backfat, leaf fat, feet and head weights, two backfat thickness and one muscle depth measurements, ham + loin and back + leaf fat percentages and estimated carcass lean content were analysed. Animals were typed for a total of 137 markers covering the entire porcine genome. Analyses were performed using a line-cross (LC regression method where founder lines were assumed to be fixed for different QTL alleles and a half/full sib (HFS maximum likelihood method where allele substitution effects were estimated within each half-/full-sib family. Additional analyses were performed to search for multiple linked QTL and imprinting effects. Significant gene effects were evidenced for both leanness and fatness traits in the telomeric regions of SSC 1q and SSC 2p, on SSC 4, SSC 7 and SSC X. Additional significant QTL were identified for ham weight on SSC 5, for head weight on SSC 1 and SSC 7, for feet weight on SSC 7 and for dressing percentage on SSC X. LW alleles were associated with a higher lean content and a lower fat content of the carcass, except for the fatness trait on SSC 7. Suggestive evidence of linked QTL on SSC 7 and of imprinting effects on SSC 6, SSC 7, SSC 9 and SSC 17 were also obtained.

  7. Identification of quantitative trait loci for growth and carcass composition in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Keele, J W; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Stone, R T

    2004-02-01

    A genomic screening to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits was pursued. Two hundred nineteen microsatellite markers were genotyped on 176 of 620 (28%) progeny from a Brahman x Angus sire mated to mostly MARC III dams. Selective genotyping, based on retail product yield (%) and fat yield (%), was used to select individuals to be genotyped. Traits included in the study were birth weight (kg), hot carcass weight (kg), retail product yield, fat yield, marbling score (400 = slight00 and 500 = small00), USDA yield grade, and estimated kidney, heart and pelvic fat (%). The QTL were classified as significant when the expected number of false positives (ENFP) was less than 0.05 (F-statistic greater than 17.3), and suggestive when the ENFP was carcass weight at 49 cM, and for estimated kidney, heart and pelvic fat at 62 cM on chromosome 16, and for fat yield at 35 cM on chromosome 17. Two suggestive QTL for birth weight were identified, one at 12 cM on chromosome 20 and the other at 56 cM on chromosome 21. An additional suggestive QTL was detected for retail product yield, for fat yield, and for USDA yield grade at 26 cM on chromosome 26. Results presented here represent the initial search for quantitative trait loci in this family. Validation of detected QTL in other populations will be necessary.

  8. Effects of dietary lysine levels on carcass performance and biochemical characteristics of Chinese local broilers

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    Yuncong Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lysine is typically the second-limiting amino acid in poultry diets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary lysine concentration on carcass and meat quality traits, and serum parameters in two lines – SD02 and SD03 – which originated from a Chinese local breed, the Erlang Mountainous chicken. Live body weight, carcass traits, meat quality traits (myofibre diameter and density, and serum metabolic markers were measured in high and low dietary lysine groups (HL and LL, respectively at the end of the starter (1-28 days, grower (29-49 days and finisher (50-70 days periods. The results showed that mortality, live weight (LW, myofibre diameter of leg muscle (LFDM and serum cholesterol (CHO were greater in HL than LL (P<0.05. The chickens from HL had reduced subcutaneous fat thickness and heart weight than LL (P<0.05. The chickens from line SD02 had greater leg muscle weight, myofibre diameter in breast, and LFDM than line SD03 (P<0.05. The chickens from line SD02 had more serum urea nitrogen and less total proteins than line SD03 (P<0.05. In conclusion, high lysine diets improved slaughter performance and muscle fibre diameter, and SD02 chickens had greater carcass yield and superior meat quality compared with chickens from line SD03.

  9. Effects of gestational maternal undernutrition on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of rabbit offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeon, George K; Goliomytis, Michael; Bizelis, Iosif; Papadomichelakis, George; Pagonopoulou, Olga; Abas, Zafeiris; Deligeorgis, Stelios G; Chadio, Stella E

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of gestational undernutrition of rabbit does on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of the offsprings. Thirty primiparous non lactating rabbit does were artificially inseminated and randomly divided in three treatment groups: Control (C; fed to 100% of maintenance requirements throughout gestation, n = 10), early undernourished (EU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 7-19 of gestation, n = 10) and late undernourished (LU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 20-27 of gestation, n = 10). During the 4th week of the gestation period, LU does significantly lost weight compared to C and EU groups (Ptotal litter size (alive and stillborn kits) was not different among groups (10.7, 12.8 and 12.7 kits in C, EU and LU groups, respectively). Kit birth weight tended to be lower in the LU group. During fattening, body weight and feed intake were not different among offsprings of the three experimental groups. Moreover, the maternal undernutrition did not have any impact on carcass composition of the offsprings in terms of carcass parts and internal organs weights as well as meat quality of L. lumborum muscle (pH24, colour, water holding capacity and shear values) at slaughter (70 days of age). Therefore, it can be concluded that the gestational undernutrition of the mother does not have detrimental effects on the productive and quality traits of the offsprings.

  10. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs that are fed diets with palm kernel cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rozilda da Conceição Dos; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Sacramento, Samara Bianca Moraes; Lima, Elizanne de Moura; Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos de

    2016-11-17

    The aim was to evaluate carcass characteristics, cut yield, and meat quality in lambs that were fed different inclusion levels of palm kernel cake. Forty-five woolless castrated male Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an initial average body weight of 23.16 ± 0.35 kg were used. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments, with palm kernel cake in the proportions of 0.0, 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, and 30.0% with nine replications per treatment. The empty body weight, carcass weight and yield, and fat thickness decreased linearly (Pkernel inclusion in the diet. There was not difference (P>0.05) for the rib eye area of animals that were fed palm kernel cake. There was a reduction in the commercial cut weight (P0.05). The sarcomere length decreased linearly (Pkernel cake was not observed in other meat quality variables. It is worth noting that the red staining intensity, indicated as A, had a tendency to decrease (P=0.050). The inclusion of palm kernel cake up to 30% in the diet does not lead to changes in meat quality characteristics, except for sarcomere length. Nevertheless, carcass quantitative characteristics decrease with the use of palm kernel cake.

  11. Effect of fermented noni leaf (Morinda citrifolia L. in diets on cholesterol content of broiler chicken carcass

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    Erman Syahruddin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken meat is very nutritious. It is sometimes blamed to cause strock attack and coronary heart disease in human, because of high fat and cholesterol contents in the chicken meat. Therefore, the aim of this experiment is to evaluate the effect of fermented noni leaf levels in diets on the cholesterol content of broiler chicken carcass. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with eight experimental diets containing 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21% of fermented noni leaf powder. All diets were formulated to contain 22% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg. Each treatment had three replicates with ten chickens per replicate. Two hundred and forty day old unsex broiler chicks Arbor Acress were fed ad lib. for eight weeks and then sacrificed. Feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and cholesterol content of carcass were taken as variable responses. Data were analyzed based on analysis of variance and orthogonal comparisons. Results showed that feed consumption, daily weight gain, FCR and carcass content were not affected by the levels of fermented noni leaf in the diet. However, cholesterol content of broiler carcass was significantly (P < 0.05 affected by the dietary treatments. Cholesterol content of the carcass was reduced processed 26.18% 73.06 to 53.76 mg/100g mg/100g chicken meat. The lowest cholesterol level was obtained by feeding the chickens with diets containing 21% fermented noni leaf.

  12. Body size, carcass and meat quality of three commercial beef categories of 'Serrana de Teruel' breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripoll, G.; Albertí, P.; Alvarez-Rodríguez, J.; Blasco, I.; Sanz, A.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse three commercial beef categories of the 'Serrana de Teruel breed' to define the appropriate commercial option. Twenty 'Serrana de Teruel' male calves at 9 months were assigned to the commercial beef categories (young bulls, bulls and steers), slaughtered at 12, 22 and 22 months of age, respectively. The in vivo ultrasound backfat thickness was greater than the dorsal fat thickness, and the young bulls and steers had a similar fat thickness, that was greater than the bulls in both areas. The slaughter weight and cold carcass weight were significantly different between the commercial categories. However, the differences were not sufficient to modify the dressing percentage, carcass conformation and fatness degree between the young bulls and bulls. The maximum stress of the muscle at 7 d of ageing was lower in the steers than in the young bulls and bulls. In general, the lightness of the meat in the bulls was lower than that in the young bulls and steers. The subcutaneous fat of the bull carcasses had a vivid colour and stored more carotenoids than that of the young bulls and steers. Hence, bulls produced heavier and better conformed carcasses with more edible meat and less fat than the other categories. However, steers are recommended to produce large carcasses with more trim and cover fat than the other categories. Finally, it seems that bulls are the most suitable commercial category to 'Serrana de Teruel' breed. (Author)

  13. Efeito do sexo e do peso ao abate sobre a produção de carne de cordeiro. I. Velocidade de crescimento, caracteres quantitativos da carcaça, pH da carne e resultado econômico Effects of sex and slaughter weight on meat production of lambs. I. Growth rate, carcass quantitative traits, meat pH and economic results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ramos de Siqueira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o presente estudo com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de sexo (machos inteiros x fêmeas e de quatro pesos ao abate (28, 32, 36 e 40 kg sobre o desempenho, os caracteres da carcaça e resultados econômicos de cordeiros mestiços ½ Ile de France x ½ Corriedale, terminados em sistema de confinamento. Quarenta animais (20 machos e 20 fêmeas foram desmamados aos 60 dias e alimentados à vontade com uma ração contendo 16,46% de PB e 67,63% de NDT. Foram divididos em quatro grupos de machos (G1M, G2M, G3M e G4M e quatro grupos de fêmeas (G1F, G2F, G3F, e G4F, sacrificados, respectivamente, com os pesos supra citados. Determinaram-se o ganho médio de peso diário (GMPD, o peso do corpo vazio (PCV, os pesos de carcaça quente (PCQ e fria (PCF, as perdas ao resfriamento (PR, os rendimentos comercial (RC e verdadeiro (RV e o pH da carne em três momentos. Observou-se efeito de sexo para GMPD, com superioridade dos machos. Houve efeito de peso ao abate sobre PCQ e PCF e também de sexo, tendo as fêmeas superado os machos em G3 e G4, para PCQ, e em G2, G3 E G4, para PCF. Constataram-se maiores valores de RC e RV para as fêmeas, em G3 e G4. Todos os grupos apresentaram-se similares em relação ao pH da carne, o qual descreveu uma curva dentro dos padrões esperados. O estudo econômico destacou G1M como tendo apresentado melhor conversão alimentar e maior renda líquida/animal. Entre as fêmeas, G1F foi o melhor, destacando-se as rendas líquidas negativas constatadas em G3F e G4F. Concluiu-se que o melhor peso ao abate foi 28 kg, tanto para os machos, como para as fêmeas. No caso dos machos, tolerar-se-ia o peso de 32 kg, apesar de ter propiciado renda líquida 12,8% inferior a G1M.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of sex(males x females and four slaughter weights (28, 32, 36 and 40 kg on the perfomance, carcass traits and economic results from crossbred lambs, finished in feedlot. Fourty ½ Ile de France x

  14. Modeling the water uptake by chicken carcasses during cooling by immersion

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    Tiago Dias Martins

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, water uptake by poultry carcasses during cooling by water immersion was modeled using artificial neural networks. Data from twenty-five independent variables and the final mass of the carcass were collected in an industrial plant to train and validate the model. Different network structures with one hidden layer were tested, and the Downhill Simplex method was used to optimize the synaptic weights. In order to accelerate the optimization calculus, Principal Component Analysis (PCA was used to preprocess the input data. The obtained results were: i PCA reduced the number of input variables from twenty-five to ten; ii the neural network structure 4-6-1 was the one with the best result; iii PCA gave the following order of importance: parameters of mass transfer, heat transfer, and initial characteristics of the carcass. The main contributions of this work were to provide an accurate model for predicting the final content of water in the carcasses and a better understanding of the variables involved.

  15. Direct and maternal genetic effects for carcass traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, S M; Franke, D E; Bidner, T D; Blouin, D C

    1992-12-01

    Carcass measurements were taken on 1,537 steers produced over four generations in a rotational crossbreeding study. Breed direct and maternal additive and heterotic genetic effects were estimated for hot carcass weight (HCWT), retail yield (RY), longissimus muscle area (LM), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MS), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS). Angus (A), Brahman (B), Charolais (C), and Hereford (H) breeds were involved in straightbred, first-cross, and two-, three-, and four-breed rotational crossbred matings with each crossbred combination including the B. Breed direct (Ig) and maternal (Mg) additive genetic effects and direct (Ih) and maternal (Mh) heterotic genetic effects were estimated using a multiple-regression model. The Ig and Mg effects were expressed as deviations from the overall mean. The IgC effects (Ig for C breed) were significant for HCWT, RY, and LM and resulted in leaner, heavier carcasses. The IgA and IgH effects were, in general, negative (P carcass traits studied.

  16. Decreasing vitamin premix on chicken carcass composition and blood chemistry in floor and battery cage systems

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    Mahmood Shivazad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted the to compare the effect of a decreasing amount of vitamin premix in diets inbroilers from 29 to 42 days of age on carcass composition and blood chemistry in floor (Experiment 1 and battery cage (Experiment 2 systems. At 35 and 42 days of ages, one bird of each replicate was slaughtered and carcass composition was measured. Blood concentrations of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Ca were used to diagnose vitamin D3 deficiency and enzymes aspartate amino transferase (AST to identify vitamin E deficiency. Floor raised birds showed that vitamin premix reduction/withdrawal at 29 days of age did not impair body weight (BW, carcass composition, ALP and Ca during the final rearing period. However, diet without vitamin premix (T1 had a higher AST at 42 days of age than the other diets. Birds reared in cages were slightly more sensitive to vitamin premix reduction/withdrawal, probably due to the impracticality of performing coprophagy. Diet without vitamin premix (T1 had a lower BW, carcass breast and thigh yield at 42 days of age; also serum ALP, AST and Ca were impaired. In conclusion, the withdrawal of vitamins is not a reasonable option but it is possible to reduce vitamin premix in finisher broilers’ diets without negative effects on performance and on some metabolic traits during the finisher period with both methods of rearing.

  17. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in chicken lmbr1 gene were associated with chicken growth and carcass traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lmbr1 is the key candidate gene controlling vertebrate limb development, but its effects on animal growth and carcass traits have never been reported. In this experiment, lmbr1 was taken as the candi-date gene affecting chicken growth and carcass traits. T/C and G/A mutations located in exon 16 and one A/C mutation located in intron 5 of chicken lmbr1 were detected from Silky, White Plymouth Rock broilers and their F2 crossing chickens by PCR-SSCP and sequencing methods. The analysis of vari-ance (ANOVA) results suggests that T/C polymorphism of exon 16 had significant association with eviscerated yield rate (EYR), gizzard rate (GR), shank and claw rate (SCR) and shank girth (SG); A/C polymorphism of intron 5 was significantly associated with SCR, liver rate and head-neck weight (HNW), while both sites had no significant association with other growth and carcass traits. These results demonstrate that lmbr1 gene could be a genetic locus or linked to a major gene significantly affecting these growth and carcass traits in chicken.

  18. Detection of fecal residue on poultry carcasses by laser-induced fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, B; Kim, M S; Chao, K; Lawrence, K; Park, B; Kim, K

    2009-04-01

    Feasibility of fluorescence imaging technique for the detection of diluted fecal matters from various parts of the digestive tract, including colon, ceca, small intestine, and duodenum, on poultry carcasses was investigated. One of the challenges for using fluorescence imaging for inspection of agricultural material is the low fluorescence yield in that fluorescence can be masked by ambient light. A laser-induced fluorescence imaging system (LIFIS) developed by our group allowed acquisition of fluorescence from feces-contaminated poultry carcasses in ambient light. Fluorescence emission images at 630 nm were captured with 415-nm laser excitation. Image processing algorithms including threshold and image erosion were used to identify fecal spots diluted up to 1: 10 by weight with double distilled water. Feces spots on the carcasses, without dilution and up to 1: 5 dilutions, could be detected with 100% accuracy regardless of feces type. Detection accuracy for fecal matters diluted up to 1: 10 was 96.6%. The results demonstrated good potential of the LIFIS for detection of diluted poultry fecal matter, which can harbor pathogens, on poultry carcasses.

  19. Identification and association of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in calpain3 (CAPN3 gene with carcass traits in chickens

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    Du Hua-Rui

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to screen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP of chicken Calpain3 (CAPN3 gene and to analyze the potential association between CAPN3 gene polymorphisms and carcass traits in chickens. We screened CAPN3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in 307 meat-type quality chicken from 5 commercial pure lines (S01, S02, S03, S05, and D99 and 4 native breeds from Guangdong Province (Huiyang Huxu chicken and Qingyuan Ma chicken and Sichuan Province (Caoke chicken and Shandi Black-bone chicken, China. Results Two SNPs (11818T>A and 12814T>G were detected by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP method and were verified by DNA sequencing. Association analysis showed that the 12814T>G genotypes were significantly associated with body weight (BW, carcass weight (CW, breast muscle weight (BMW, and leg muscle weight (LMW. Haplotypes constructed on the two SNPs (H1, TG; H2, TT; H3, AG; and H4, AT were associated with BW, CW (P P Conclusion We speculated that the CAPN3 gene was a major gene affecting chicken muscle growth and carcass traits or it was linked with the major gene(s. Diplotypes H1H2 and H2H2 might be advantageous for carcass traits.

  20. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Hereford sired steers born to beef-cross-dairy and Angus breeding cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lucy W; Hickson, Rebecca E; Schreurs, Nicola M; Martin, Natalia P; Kenyon, Paul R; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Steers from Angus, Angus×Holstein Friesian, Angus×Holstein Friesian-Jersey and Angus×Jersey cows and a Hereford sire were measured for their carcass and meat quality characteristics. Steers from the Angus×Holstein Friesian cows had a greater final body weight and carcass weight (P<0.05). Steers from Angus×Jersey cows had the lowest carcass weight and dressing-out percentage (P<0.05). There was a greater fat depth over the rump at 12 and 18months of age for the steers from Angus cows (P<0.05) but, not at 24months of age. The steers had similar meat quality characteristics across the breed groups. Steers from Angus×Holstein Friesian and Angus×Jersey cows had a higher ratio of n6 to n3 fatty acids. Using beef-cross-dairy cows to produce steers for meat production does not impact on meat quality. Using Jersey in the breed cross reduced the carcass tissues in the live weight and the potential meat yield.

  1. Comparison of different strategies to analyze growth and carcass traits in a crossbred pig population: Finite and infinitesimal polygenic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraes Gonçalves, de T.; Nunes de Oliveira, H.; Bovenhuis, H.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A Bayesian marker-free segregation analysis was applied for the estimation of variance components and to search for evidence of segregation genes affecting two carcass traits: intramuscular fat (IMF), %, and backfat thickness (BF), mm ; and one growth trait: body weight gain (LG) from 25 to 90 kg, a

  2. Correlations among carcass traits taken by ultrasound and after slaughter in Mediterranean (Bubalus bubalis young bulls

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    R.S. Bonilha Pinheiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the correlations among measurements taken in vivo with ultrasound equipment with some carcass traits measured after slaughter. Twenty eight Mediterranean bulls, with average shrunk body weight of 330 kg and 14 months of age, were fed by 120 days with high concentrate diets. The shrunk body weight, the ribeye area (REAU, the back fat thickness (FTU over the Longissimus dorsi muscle between 12ª and 13ª ribs and rump fat (EGP8U, were measured at 28 days intervals. Real-time ultrasound equipment Piemedical Scanner 200 VET, with 18 cm linear array transducer was utilized. After the slaughter, the hot carcass weight (PCQ and the kidney, pelvic and inguinal fat (GRPI were weighted and the dressing percentage (DP calculated. After 24 hours of cooling the ribeye area (REAC, backfat thickness (FTC and rump fat (EGP8C were measured. Both the REAC, FTC and EGP8C were underestimated by ultrasound measurements. The Pearson correlation coefficients for ribeye area, backfat thickness and rump fat measured in the carcass and with ultrasound, were 0.96, 0.99 and 0.91, respectively. The coefficient between DP and REAU was 0.47; 0.45 between DP and REAC, 0.56 between DP and FTU and 0.58 between DP and FTC. DP presented a 0.59 correlation coefficient with EGP8U. The Spearman correlation was estimated between REAU and REAC, FTU and FTC, EGP8U and EGP8C, and the values were 0.96, 0.99 and 0.91 , respectively. The ultrasound measures could be used to estimate carcass traits in buffaloes with good accuracy.

  3. Effect of gender on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of calves of Avilena-Negra Iberica breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daza, A.; Rey, A. I.; Lopez Carrasco, C.; Lopez-Bote, C. J.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of gender on growth performance and carcass and meat quality of calves of Avilena-Negra Iberica breed. Sixteen calves, eight males and eight females, were used. The calves were fattened under intensive conditions, housed in confinement and fed with the same feed and cereal straw from 230.7 to 478.3 kg. The males grew more than the females (1.390 vs 0.932 kg day{sup 1} respectively). Carcass weight, carcass length, leg length, leg perimeter, carcass and leg compactness, legs, fore-quarters and loins weights and forequarters percentage regarding carcass weight were higher (p < 0.05) in males than in females. The gender had not significant influence on CIE a*, b*, chroma and hue variables but CIE L* value was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in males than in females. The a* value decreased and b* and hue values increased with ageing time. The subcutaneous back fat from the females had significantly (p < 0.05) higher C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1 n-9, S MUFA and lower C10:0, C18:0, C18:2 n-6, C18:3 n-3, C20:0, C20:3 n-9, C20:4 n-6, C22:5 n-3, {Sigma} n-6, {Sigma} n-3 and {Sigma} PUFA proportions than that from males. It is concluded that the gender has influence on growth performance, carcass traits and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous backfat; gender does not have effect on instrumental colour variables; and meat colour can reach acceptable values for consumers until four days after slaughter. (Author) 34 refs.

  4. Effect of Substrate on Identification of Microbial Communities in Poultry Carcass Composting and Microorganisms Associated with Poultry Carcass Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Du, Xueqing; Zhang, Yitao; Li, Ting; Liao, Xindi

    2016-09-14

    Three composting systems, which consisted of different ratios of chicken manure, sawdust, and poultry carcasses, were used to investigate the effect of substrate on the identification of microbial communities and microorganisms associated with poultry carcass decomposition by characterizing the microbial communities and physicochemical parameters. The physicochemical and Miseq Illumina sequencing results showed the composition of substrate had a significant effect on the identification and metabolic capabilities of microbial communities in decomposting process. Poultry carcasses might be the potential driver for the identification of bacterial communities in poultry carcass composting, whereas the initial C/N ratio may mainly contribute to the diversity of fungal communities and the similar dominant microbial communities in treatments. Poultry carcasses and initial C/N ratio could respectively affect the composition and abundance of microorganisms associated with the decomposition of poultry carcasses. Understanding the potential composting driver could allow development of an efficient carcass degradation system.

  5. Performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of male calves fed starter concentrate with crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raylon Pereira Maciel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the effects of including crude glycerin in the diet on intake, performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of dairy crossbred veal calves fed starter concentrate containing 0, 80, 160, and 240 g kg−1 crude glycerin. Twenty-eight calves with an average weight of 38.03±6.7 kg and five days of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments with seven replications. Calves were individually housed in covered stalls equipped with feeders and drinkers for 56 days. The calf response to inclusion of crude glycerin in the concentrate changed over the weeks and the inclusion level of 240 g kg−1 resulted in greater dry matter intake and average daily gain. There was no effect on the final weight and total weight gain of the animals, with mean values of 73.60 and 35.16 kg, respectively. The weight of the rumen-reticulum adjusted for body weight, empty body weight, and total stomach weight increased linearly with the inclusion of crude glycerin. Blood total protein, globulin, urea, cholesterol, gamma glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations did not differ among treatments. Carcass traits and meat color were not affected. Crude glycerin can be added to dairy calf starter concentrate up to 240 g kg−1 dry matter because it benefits concentrate intake, performance, and rumen development without affecting animal health.

  6. Production of Ceratonova shasta Myxospores from Salmon Carcasses: Carcass Removal Is Not a Viable Management Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foott, J S; Stone, R; Fogerty, R; True, K; Bolick, A; Bartholomew, J L; Hallett, S L; Buckles, G R; Alexander, J D

    2016-06-01

    Severe infection by the endemic myxozoan parasite, Ceratonova (synonym, Ceratomyxa) shasta, has been associated with declines in and impaired recovery efforts of populations of fall-run Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Klamath River, California. The parasite has a complex life cycle involving a polychaete worm host as well as a salmon host. Myxospore transmission of this parasite, from salmon to polychaete, is a life cycle step during which there is a potential for applied disease management. A 3-year data set on prevalence, intensity, and spore characteristics of C. shasta myxospores was obtained from adult Chinook Salmon carcasses surveyed in the main stem of the Klamath River and three of its tributaries, Bogus Creek and the Shasta and Trinity rivers. Annual prevalence of myxospore detection in salmon intestines ranged from 22% to 52%, and spore concentration values per intestinal scraping ranged from 3.94 × 10(2) to 1.47 × 10(7) spores. A prevalence of 7.3% of all carcasses examined produced >5.0 × 10(5) spores, and these carcasses with "high" spore counts accounted for 76-95% of the total spores in a given spawning season. Molecular analysis of visually negative carcasses showed that 45-87% of these samples had parasite DNA, indicating they contained either low spore numbers or presporogonic stages of the parasite. Myxospores were rarely found in carcasses of freshly spawned adults but were common in decomposed carcasses of both sexes. The date of collection or age (based indirectly on FL) did not influence detection. The longer prespawn residence time for spring-run Chinook Salmon compared with that for fall-run Chinook Salmon in the Trinity River was associated with higher spore loads. The dye exclusion method for assessing spore viability in fresh smears indicated an inverse relationship in spore integrity and initial spore concentration. A carcass-removal pilot project in Bogus Creek for 6 weeks in the fall of 2008 (907 carcasses removed

  7. Impacts of temperament on Nellore cattle: physiological responses, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, C L; Resende, F D; Benatti, J M B; Castilhos, A M; Cooke, R F; Jorge, A M

    2015-11-01

    Forty-four feedlot-finished Nellore cattle were used to evaluate the impacts of temperament on performance, meat and carcass traits, and serum concentrations of hormones, proteins, enzymes, and immunoglobulins. Individual temperament was assessed at feedlot entry (d 0), 67 d, and 109 d, utilizing chute score (CS; 5-point scale) and exit velocity (EV). Temperament scores were calculated averaging CS and EV scores, and cattle were subsequently classified according to their temperament (an average of ≤3 = adequate temperament [ADQ], or an average of >3 = excitable temperament [EXC]). At the end of the experiment (d 109), all 44 animals were slaughtered, and 16 were randomly selected for final empty body weight (EBW) estimation. Blood samples were collected at 0, 67, and 109 d and analyzed for serum variables (cortisol, insulin, haptoglobin, total protein, lactate, creatinine kinase [CK], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], and IgA). The incidence of carcass bruises was verified immediately after the hide was removed. Carcass pH was obtained at 0 and 24 h postmortem. Samples of the LM were collected for meat quality analyses. Cattle classified as ADQ had greater final BW ( = 0.03), final EBW ( = 0.02), metabolic weight ( = 0.03), ADG ( = 0.02), feed efficiency ( = 0.03), HCW ( = 0.02), cold carcass weight ( = 0.02), and LM area ( Cattle classified as ADQ tended to have a lower percentage of cooler shrink ( = 0.06) compared to that of EXC cattle. No temperament effects were detected for initial BW ( = 0.70), DMI ( = 0.14), cold dressing percentage ( = 0.98), or backfat thickness ( = 0.29). Cattle classified as ADQ had greater marbling ( = 0.02) and meat fat content ( = 0.05) compared with that of EXC cattle. No temperament effects ( > 0.05) were detected for unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), SFA, MUFA, PUFA, and n-6:n-3 ratio. For blood parameters, EXC cattle had greater values of cortisol ( = 0.04) and haptoglobin ( = 0.05) and tended ( = 0.06) to have reduced serum insulin

  8. Carcass characteristics and composition of Brahman, angus and Brahman x Angus steers fed for different times-on-feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, D K; Smith, G C; Murphey, C E; Savell, J W; Carpenter, Z L; Petersen, H D

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five steers of each of three breedtypes (Angus, Brahman and F(1) Brahman x Angus) were sorted by frame size and muscle thickness, assigned to groups (five steers of each breedtype) to be fed for 0, 56, 112, 168 or 224 days, slaughtered and compared for various carcass traits. Steers of each breedtype had similar dressing percentages. Carcasses from all three breedtypes merited similar USDA quality and yield grades; breedtypes differences in quality grade were slight. Differences were found in the fat deposition patterns exhibited by the three breedtypes. Brahman steers tended to deposit more of their total fat as subcutaneous fat early in the feeding period. Angus steers had more (P carcass weight at all five feeding periods and more (P Brahman steers. Brahman steers had a higher percentage of their separable lean in the muscles of the round than did steers of the other breedtypes.

  9. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Brahman cross bulls and steers finished on tropical pastures in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Julio; Unruh, John; Villarreal, Milton; Murillo, Olger; Rojas, Sailim; Camacho, Jorge; Jaeger, John; Reinhardt, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Forty-eight male calves (3/4 Brahman×1/4 Charolais) were used to determine carcass cutability and meat tenderness of Longissimus lumborum (LL), Gluteus medius (GM), Semitendinosus (ST) and Psoas major (PM) steaks from lighter weight carcasses of bulls and steers castrated at 3, 7, or 12 mo of age grown under tropical pasture conditions. Steaks from steers had lower (more tender) LL Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values than those from bulls. Steaks from steers castrated at 3 mo had lower GM WBSF than those from bulls. For PM steaks, those aged 28 d had lower WBSF than those aged 2d. Steaks aged 28 d had the lowest LL and GM WBSF and steaks aged 2d had the highest LL, GM, and ST WBSF. Castration at younger ages is recommended because it provides improvement in LL and GM tenderness over bulls with no differences in carcass traits or subprimal yields.

  10. CARCASS QUALITY, MARBLING AND CHOLESTEROL CONTENT OF MALE BALI CATTLE FED FERMENTED COCOA SHELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Suryanto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of fermented cacao shell on the carcassquality, percentage of non carcass components, marbling and cholesterol content of Bali cattle. NineBali cattle of 1.5-2 year old and 165-175 kg weight were grouped into three feeding trials. The firstgroup P0 was fed ration containing 30% cacao shell fermented with its own microorganism and 70%corn straw, the second group P1 was fed ration containing 30% cacao shell fermented with ruminal fluidand 70% corn straw, and the third group P2 was fed ration containing 30% cacao shell fermented withBioplus and 70% corn straw. All cattle were also given commercial concentrate amounting to 1% oftheir bodyweight. The cattle were slaughtered at the end of feeding trial and their carcasses, meat andnon carcass components were analysed. Experimental design used was completely randomized design.The results showed that carcass percentage, back fat thickness, rib eye area and meat index of Bali cattle were as follows group PO 53.33%, 3.08 mm, 59.65 cm2, 0.79%; group P1 52.64%, 5.31 mm, 58.52 cm,0.82% and group P2 5.32%, 5.7 mm, 57.75 cm, 0.79%, respectively. The marbling and cholesterolcontent of Bali beef were group PO 2.65% and 71.25 mg/100g, group P1 2.12% and 48.75 mg/100g,and P2 2.63% and 74.50 mg/100g. It could be concluded that fermented cacao shell could be used asfeed ingredient without any effect on the carcass and meat quality, marbling and cholesterol contents ofmale Bali beef.

  11. Growth, puberty, and carcass characteristics of Brahman-, Senepol-, and Tuli-sired F1 Angus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J; Larsen, R E; Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; West, R L; Johnson, D D

    2001-08-01

    Postweaning growth, sexual development, libido, and carcass data were collected from two consecutive calf crops using 31 Brahman x Angus (B x A), 41 Senepol x Angus (S x A), and 38 Tuli x Angus (T x A) F1 bulls. Following weaning (by mid-September) and preconditioning, at the start of the study (late September) bulls were fed concentrate (three times each week at a rate equivalent to 4.5 kg/d) on bahiagrass pasture for approximately 250 d. At the start of the study and at 28-d intervals, BW, hip height, and scrotal circumference (SC) were measured. Concurrently at 28-d intervals, when the SC of a bull was > or = 23 cm, semen collection was attempted using electroejaculation. Ejaculates were evaluated for presence of first spermatozoa (FS), 50 x 10(6) sperm with at least 10% motility (PU), and 500 x 10(6) sperm with at least 50% motility (PP). After all bulls reached PP they were subjected to two libido tests. Carcass data were collected on all bulls (n = 110) and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values were assessed on a subset (n = 80). For both years, B x A bulls were heavier (P 0.10) gain in BW or hip height during the study. Scrotal circumference of T x A bulls was larger (P 0.10) of breed type by the end of the study. At PU and PP, B x A bulls were older (P carcass traits; B x A bulls had the heaviest (P carcass weight, greatest (P 0.10) USDA quality grade. In conclusion, tropically adapted F1 bulls produced from Senepol (Bos taurus) and Tuli (Sanga) sires bred to Angus cows in Florida had lighter BW, shorter hip heights, and smaller carcasses than those from Brahman sires but reached puberty earlier and had higher libido scores and lower WBS force values.

  12. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed babassu cake (Orbignya speciosa) as a replacement for elephant grass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Janaina Barros; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Ribeiro Dos Santos Neta, Ernestina; Gomes, Daiany Íris; Sampaio Oliveira, Luis Rennan; Silva, Josiane Costa; Ramos de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of the partial replacement of elephant grass silage with babassu cake (Orbignya speciosa) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot lambs. Forty-five castrated male Santa Ines sheep (19.08 ± 0.41 kg) approximately 4 months old were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments 0.0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50 % (%DM) replacement of babassu cake with silage forming isoproteic diets formulated at a ratio of 40 % roughage to 60 % concentrate. All of the studied animals were slaughtered at the end of the experiment. The liver weights and yields increased with the inclusion of babassu cake. The weight of the shoulder increased from 2.31 to 2.61 kg, while the loin yield decreased from 7.38 to 6.64 % with the inclusion of babassu cake, both linearly. The body length, thoracic perimeter, rump perimeter and carcass compactness index showed high and positive correlations with the hot and cold carcass weights. The myofibrillar fragmentation index decreased linearly as a function of the inclusion level of babassu cake, but other quality variables were not affected. The replacement of up to 50 % of the elephant grass silage with babassu cake in the diet of lambs does not cause negative effects on carcass characteristics or meat quality.

  13. The effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Rajabiyan Moghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens. A total of 200 broilers (Ross 308, 10 days old, were randomly allotted to five experimental equal groups with four replicates of 10 chickens (five male and five female and fed with basal diet + ground wheat (without grit; basal diet + whole wheat (without grit and basal diet contain 1.5% grit of diet with sizes of 2, 3 and 4 mm. Growth performance (evaluated through weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio was determined on day 24 and 42. Also, carcass traits (relative weights of carcass, breast, thigh, liver, heart, gizzard and intestine and intestine length were assessed on day 42. Weight gains and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in broilers added with grit 2 mm compared to the control group (p<0.05, whereas; carcass traits were not significantly altered. These data suggest that grit with size of 2 mm improve growth performance in broiler chickens.

  14. Effect of cattle breed on finishing performance, carcass characteristics and economic benefits under typical beef production system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Ren

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the finishing performance carcass characteristics and economic benefits of two imported (Limousin and Simmental and three local (Luxi, Jinnan and Qinchuan cattle breeds slaughtered at 18.5 months of age under thetypical Chinese beef production system. All cattle (n=71 were reared under the same production system and fed the same finishing diet for 105 days. Eight bulls from each breed were randomly selected for slaughtering. Compared with the three local breeds, the two imported breeds had higher average daily gain, dry matter intake and gain efficiency. Regarding carcass characteristics, the two imported breeds had higher carcass weight, bone weight, net meat weight, and ribeye area (P<0.001. However, the local breeds had higher (P<0.01 marbling scores than the imported breeds. The imported breeds showed higher economic benefits (P<0.001 than the local breeds. In conclusion, the imported cattle breeds had better growth performance, carcass traits and economic benefits compared with the local cattle breeds at 18.5 months old under the typical Chinese feeding conditions whereas, in this study, the local breeds may have some advantage in terms of meat quality.

  15. Biocontained carcass composting for control of infectious disease outbreak in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Tim; Xu, Weiping; Alexander, Trevor W; Gilroyed, Brandon H; Inglis, G Douglas; Larney, Francis J; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A

    2010-05-06

    Intensive livestock production systems are particularly vulnerable to natural or intentional (bioterrorist) infectious disease outbreaks. Large numbers of animals housed within a confined area enables rapid dissemination of most infectious agents throughout a herd. Rapid containment is key to controlling any infectious disease outbreak, thus depopulation is often undertaken to prevent spread of a pathogen to the larger livestock population. In that circumstance, a large number of livestock carcasses and contaminated manure are generated that require rapid disposal. Composting lends itself as a rapid-response disposal method for infected carcasses as well as manure and soil that may harbor infectious agents. We designed a bio-contained mortality composting procedure and tested its efficacy for bovine tissue degradation and microbial deactivation. We used materials available on-farm or purchasable from local farm supply stores in order that the system can be implemented at the site of a disease outbreak. In this study, temperatures exceeded 55 degrees C for more than one month and infectious agents implanted in beef cattle carcasses and manure were inactivated within 14 days of composting. After 147 days, carcasses were almost completely degraded. The few long bones remaining were further degraded with an additional composting cycle in open windrows and the final mature compost was suitable for land application. Duplicate compost structures (final dimensions 25 m x 5 m x 2.4 m; L x W x H) were constructed using barley straw bales and lined with heavy black silage plastic sheeting. Each was loaded with loose straw, carcasses and manure totaling approximately 95,000 kg. A 40-cm base layer of loose barley straw was placed in each bunker, onto which were placed 16 feedlot cattle mortalities (average weight 343 kg) aligned transversely at a spacing of approximately 0.5 m. For passive aeration, lengths of flexible, perforated plastic drainage tubing (15 cm diameter) were

  16. Effects of extensive system versus semi-intensive and intensive systems on growth and carcass quality of dairy kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Zurita Herrera

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effects of three different management systems on growth and carcass quality of 61 Murciano-Granadina breed kids and their interaction with sex. In the extensive system, 21 kids were allocated to suckle from their dams on free-range pasture with no additional feedstuff. In the semi-intensive system, 20 kids were suckled from their dams and had access to alfalfa hay and cereal straw (no free-range pasture. In the intensive system, 20 kids were separated from the dams at birth and then fed with milk replacer and alfalfa hay. Animals were slaughtered at 7.00 ± 1.00 kg of average BW. The semi-intensive system and extensive system kids grew faster than intensive system animals (127, 113 and 96 g/d, respectively. Differences in energy intake may explain these differences. Intensive system kids displayed the lowest real dressing percentages, calculated as 100 × (hot carcass weight/empty body weight, due to high development of empty gastrointestinal tract. The long leg and carcass were larger in extensive system kids than in kids from other management systems, presumably due to high physical activity on the free-range pastures. The carcasses and cuts from semi-intensive system and extensive system kids displayed more fat than those of intensive system kids. Males grew faster than females (122 and 103 g/d, respectively. Carcasses in male kids showed a higher content of bones but a lower content of fat than carcasses in female kids. The extensive system is feasible for producing kid meat from a dairy breed.

  17. Association of myostatin on early calf mortality, growth, and carcass composition traits in crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L; Cundiff, L V

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a potential association of an inactive myostatin allele with early calf mortality, and evaluate its effect on growth and carcass traits in a crossbred population. Animals were obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British Breed) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford, Angus, Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Belgian Blue was the source of the inactive myostatin allele. Myostatin genotypes were determined for all animals including those that died before weaning. Early calf mortality was examined in the F2 subpopulation (n = 154), derived from the F1 sires mated to F1 cows from Belgian Blue sires, to evaluate animals with zero, one, or two copies of inactive myostatin allele. An overall 1:2:1 ratio (homozygous active myostatin allele:heterozygous:homozygous inactive myostatin allele) was observed in the population; however, a comparison between calves dying before weaning and those alive at slaughter showed an unequal distribution across genotypes (P Carcass composition traits analyzed were hot carcass weight, fat thickness, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, retail product yield and weight, fat yield and weight, bone yield and weight, and percentage of carcasses classified as Choice. Charolais lack the inactive myostatin allele segregating in Belgian Blue; thus, in the population sired by Charolais (n = 645), only animals with zero or one copy of the inactive myostatin allele were evaluated. Animals carrying one copy were heavier at birth and at weaning, and their carcasses were leaner and more muscled. In the population sired by Belgian Blue x British Breed (n = 725), animals with two copies of inactive myostatin allele were heavier at birth, leaner, and had a higher proportion of muscle mass than animals with zero or one copies

  18. Improving smallholder food security through investigations of carcass composition and beef marketing of buffalo and cattle in northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampanya, Sonevilay; Khounsy, Syseng; Phonvisay, Aloun; Bush, Russell David; Windsor, Peter Andrew

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the carcass composition of Lao indigenous buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos indicus), then examined trends in bovine meat marketing following review of records of beef production and prices in the two major cities of Luang Prabang (LPB) and Xieng Khoung (XK) provinces in northern Laos. Samples from 41 buffalo and 81 cattle (n = 122) were collected from animals slaughtered in May-June 2014, with live weights, carcass weights and other carcass-related variables collected. The animals were classified into four age cohort groups (4, 4-6 and >6 years) with quantitative and dichotomous qualitative traits determined. There were significant differences in buffalo and cattle predicted mean carcass weights between age classification categories (p = 0.003 and 0.001) but not in dressing percentages (p = 0.1 and 0.1). The carcass weight of buffalo was 104 (±23.1)-176 (±12.0) kg compared to 65 (±8.7)-84 (±6.5) kg of cattle, with dressing percentages of 37-40 and 39-42 %, respectively. Despite an average bovine meat price increase of 42-48 % between 2011 and 2013, there was a reduction in the numbers of large ruminants slaughtered in the surveyed cities of LPB (11 %) and XK (7 %), with bovine meat availability per person of 5.2-6.6 kg (LPB) and 3.0-3.8 kg (XK). Improving the sustainability of the bovine meat supply in Laos requires a systems approach involving improvements to animal health and production, livestock marketing, plus the critical development of improved slaughterhouse facilities enabling a meat-processing sector to emerge. This development pathway is of particular importance for building the capacity of Laos to reduce food insecurity and alleviate the poverty of its largely rural smallholder community.

  19. FTO gene variants are associated with growth and carcass traits in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevsinek Skok, D; Kunej, T; Kovac, M; Malovrh, S; Potocnik, K; Petric, N; Zgur, S; Dovc, P; Horvat, S

    2016-04-01

    An important aim in animal breeding is the improvement of growth and meat quality traits. Previous studies have demonstrated that genetic variants in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have a relatively large effect on human obesity as well as on body composition in rodents and, more recently, in livestock. Here, we examined the effects of the FTO gene variants on growth and carcass traits in the Slovenian population of Simmental (SS) and Brown (SB) cattle. To validate and identify new polymorphisms, we used sequencing, PCR-RFLP analysis and TaqMan assays in the SS breed and FTO gene variants data from the Illumina BovineSNP50 v1 array for the SB breed. Sequencing of the eight samples of progeny-tested SS sires detected 108 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine FTO gene. Statistical analyses between growth and carcass traits and 34 FTO polymorphisms revealed significant association of FTO variants with lean meat percentage in both breeds. Additionally, FTO SNPs analyzed in SS cattle were associated with fat percentage, bone weight and live weight at slaughter. The FTO gene can thus be regarded as a candidate gene for the marker-assisted selection programs in our and possibly other populations of cattle. Future studies in cattle might reveal novel roles for the FTO gene in shaping carcass traits in livestock species as well as body composition control in other mammals.

  20. Divergent selection for shape of growth curve in Japanese quail. 4. Carcass composition and thyroid hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Hyankova, Ludmila; Novotna, Bozena; Darras, Veerle

    2009-01-01

    Abstract 1. Changes in the relative weights of carcass, abdominal fat, breast and leg muscles, and plasma thyroid hormone concentrations occurring during the first six weeks of postnatal growth were analysed in males of HG and LG lines divergently selected for high and low relative body weight (BW) gain between 11 and 28 d of age, respectively, and constant adult BW. 2. The 2nd week of postnatal life was a critical age at which the HG males exhibited a relatively faster growth i...

  1. Effects of beef production system on animal performance and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, C L; Krehbiel, C R; Wilson, B K; Johnson, B T; Bernhard, B C; O'Neill, C F; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Step, D L; Richards, C J

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate conventional (CONV) and natural (NAT) beef production systems from annual pasture through finishing through grazing. Beef steers (n=180, initial BW=250±19 kg) were assigned randomly to 2 treatments in the pasture phase. Steers were implanted with 40 mg of trenbolone acetate (TBA), 8 mg estradiol, and 29 mg tylosin tartrate (CONV), or received no implant (NAT). Steers on the 2 treatments grazed wheat or cereal rye for 109 d. Conventional steers had an 18.5% improvement in ADG (1.22 vs. 1.03 kg/d, Ptylosin, and fed zilpaterol hydrochloride for the last 20 d of the experiment. There were no program×roughage level interactions (P>0.07). The CONV steers ate 6.9% more feed (11.8 vs. 11.0 kg/d, P<0.01), gained 28.4% faster (1.90 vs. 1.48 kg/d, P<0.01), and were 24.2% more efficient (0.164 vs. 0.132, P<0.01) compared with NAT steers. The LOW steers had greater G:F (0.153 vs. 0.144, P<0.01) compared with HIGH steers. There was a 28.3% improvement in estimated carcass weight gain (1.36 vs. 1.06 kg/d), 18.6% improvement in carcass efficiency (0.115 vs. 0.097, P<0.01), and 21.6% improvement (1.52 vs. 1.25 Mcal/kg, P<0.01) in calculated dietary NEg for CONV compared with NAT steers. Hot carcass weight was increased by 62 kg (424 vs. 362 kg, P<0.01) and LM area was increased by 16.9 cm2 (100.9 vs. 84.0 cm2, P<0.01), decreasing USDA yield grade (YG, 3.09 vs. 3.54, P<0.01) for CONV steers compared with NAT steers. Natural steers had a greater percentage of carcasses in the upper 2/3 of USDA Choice grade (48.7 vs. 18.7%, P<0.01), a greater percentage of YG 4 and 5 carcasses (25.4 vs. 9.3%, P<0.01), and a greater percentage of abscessed livers (39.6 vs. 10.5%, P<0.01) compared with CONV steers. The results show that CONV production results in more rapid and efficient production that resulted in heavier carcasses with superior YG and desirable quality grades with both roughage levels.

  2. The interactive effects of high-fat, high-fiber diets and ractopamine HCl on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, A B; Goodband, R D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Nitikanchana, S

    2014-10-01

    A total of 576 mixed-sex pigs (PIC 327 × 1,050; initial BW = 55.8 ± 5.5 kg) were used to determine the effects of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat middlings (midds) withdrawal 24 d before harvest in diets without or with ractopamine HCl (RAC) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality. From d 0 to 49, pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet (CS) or a diet high in unsaturated fat and crude fiber provided by 30% DDGS and 19% wheat midds (HFF) and not balanced for energy. On d 49, pens of pigs previously fed CS diets remained on the CS diet. Half of the HFF-fed pigs were switched to the CS-based diets, which served as the withdrawal regimen. Finally, half of the HFF-fed pigs remained on the same HFF diet. All 3 regimens were fed without or with 10 mg/kg RAC. There were 12 pens per treatment with 8 pigs per pen. No significant diet regimen × RAC interactions were observed. From d 0 to 49, pigs fed the CS diet had increased (P diet. Overall (d 0 to 73), pigs fed the CS diets throughout had greater (P diets throughout. Pigs fed the withdrawal diets had greater (P = 0.014) ADG, but similar G:F to those fed the HFF diets throughout. Pigs fed the CS diets throughout had greater (P = 0.025) carcass yield compared with pigs fed the HFF diets throughout, with those fed the withdrawal diets intermediate. Pigs fed RAC had greater (P diets, highest (P diets throughout, and intermediate for pigs fed the withdrawal diet. There were no differences in either full or rinsed intestine or organ weights between pigs that were fed CS diets throughout and pigs fed the withdrawal diet; however, pigs fed the HFF diets throughout the study had increased (P = 0.002) rinsed cecum and full large intestine weights (P = 0.003) compared with the pigs fed the withdrawal diets. Withdrawing the HFF diet and switching to a CS diet for the last 24 d before harvest partially mitigated negative effects on carcass yield and IV often associated

  3. Isolation of Arcobacter spp from poultry carcasses, in Brazil

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    Oliveira Sérgio José de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourty eight isolates of Arcobacter spp were obtained from 37 poultry carcasses, from abattoir, among 80 carcasses examined. Attempts for culturing were made from the skin and muscle, resulting on 25 positive cultures from muscle and 23 from skin. Classification was achieved by phenotypic characterization and PCR and multiplex PCR, resulting 41 samples of Arcobacter butzleri and 07 Arcobacter sp. This is the first report on the occurrence of Arcobacter in animal carcasses in Brazil.

  4. Microbiological analysis of dried goose carcasses

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    Ufuk Kamber

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological studies on chicken meat and carcasses are well documented, but very few studies exist on goose meat and carcasses. Therefore, in this study, dried goose carcass samples were collected from the local households in Kars/Turkey and microbiologically analyzed in terms of public health risks. The total mesophilic viable count was found to be 6.58 (mean log10 CFU g-1 (100%. The number of Enterobacteriaceae was 4.85 (92.8%. Coliform bacteria was counted at the numbers of 2.98 (67.8%, while it was 3.95 (91.1% for the enterococci, 0.42 (26.7% for the clostridia, 0.04 (3.5% for the Clostridium perfringens, and 0.41 (12.5% for the coagulase positive staphylococci. The numbers of mould and yeast were 0.93 (25% and 4.81 (94.6%, respectively. Salmonellae and Bacillus cereus could not be isolated in the samples. The results indicate that the dried goose meat samples had poor hygienic quality, contained some of the pathogen microorganisms that are likely to pose a potential health risk.

  5. Impact of dietary fat source and concentration and daily fatty acid intake on the composition of carcass fat and iodine value sampled in three regions of the pork carcass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, T A; Prusa, K J; Patience, J F

    2014-12-01

    The increased inclusion of unsaturated fats in pig diets has raised issues related to pork carcass fat quality. The objective of this experiment was to more precisely measure how differing levels of daily fatty acid intake alters the fatty acid composition in 3 different fat depots. A total of 42 gilts and 21 barrows (PIC 337×C22/29) with an average initial weight of 77.80±0.38 kg were allotted randomly based on sex and BW to 7 treatments: 3 and 6% of each of tallow (TAL; iodine value [IV]=41.9), choice white grease (CWG; IV=66.5), or corn oil (CO; IV=123.1) and a control (CNTR) corn-soybean meal-based diet with no added fat. Pigs were individually housed to allow accurate measurement of individual feed intake, in particular, daily dietary fatty acid and energy intake. Fat samples were collected from the jowl, belly, and loin at slaughter. Diet and carcass fat samples were analyzed for IV. Belly weights were recorded at slaughter along with a subjective belly firmness score (1=firmest to 3=least firm). Carcass lipid IV was increased (P0.05) by inclusion levels; however, carcass lipid IV was greater (P<0.001) in pigs fed 6 than 3% CO (80.0 vs. 72.6), and carcasses of gilts had greater IV (P<0.001) than carcasses of barrows (71.5 vs. 69.1). Increasing the level of TAL and CO but not CWG from 3 to 6% decreased the apparent total tract digestibility of GE, resulting in a source×level interaction (P<0.05). Dietary fat source had no effect (P≥0.66) on apparent total tract digestibility of either DM or GE, but feeding 6% dietary fat increased G:F (P=0.006) over pigs fed 3% fat (0.358 vs. 0.337). Of all the fatty acids measured, only linoleic acid intake presented a reasonable coefficient of determination (R2=0.61). Overall, IV product (IVP) was approximately equal to linoleic acid intake as a predictor of carcass IV (R2=0.93 vs. R2=0.94). When inclusion of dietary fat and PUFA intake increased, IVP placed more emphasis on the dietary fat inclusion level rather than

  6. Influence of Angus and Belgian Blue bulls mated to Hereford x Brahman cows on growth, carcass traits, and longissimus steak shear force.

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    Bidner, T D; Humes, P E; Wyatt, W E; Franke, D E; Persica, M A; Gentry, G T; Blouin, D C

    2009-03-01

    Steers and heifers were generated from Angus (A) and Belgian Blue (BB) sires mated to Brahman x Hereford (B x H) F(1) cows to characterize their growth, carcass traits, and LM shear force. A total of 120 B x H cows purchased from 2 herds and 35 bulls (14 A and 21 BB) produced calves during the 5-yr project. After the stocker phase, a representative sample of A- and BB-sired heifers and steers were transported to the Iberia Research Station to be fed a high-concentrate diet. The remaining cattle were transported to a commercial feedlot facility. Each pen of cattle from the commercial feedlot was slaughtered when it was estimated that heifers and steers had 10 mm of fat or greater. The BB-sired calves were heavier at birth (P carcass weights than the A-sired calves. This was due to a combination of a heavier final BW and greater dressing percent. Because of their greater muscling and reduced (P carcass weight. In conclusion, the BB-sired calves had heavier carcass weights and greater cutability, whereas the A-sired calves had a greater degree of marbling and greater quality grade, and steaks from carcasses of A-sired calves were more tender as measured by shear force at 14 d.

  7. In take, performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed diets containing dried cassava peel meal

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    Luiz Juliano Valério Geron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of inclusion of 0, 10, 20 and 30% dried cassava peel meal (DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens over the period from 1 to 42 days of age on nutrient intake, animal performance, and carcass yield. Two hundred Cobb broiler chickens (1 day old were allocated in a completely randomized design consisting of four inclusion levels of DCPM (treatment, with 10 animals per box and 5 boxes per treatment. The different levels of DCPM did not alter (P>0.05 dietary dry matter (DM or organic matter intake, expressed as g/animal/day, kg DMS/kg0.75, and percentage of body weight. However, the addition of DCPM resulted in a linear increase (P<0.05 in crude protein intake and in a quadratic increase (P<0.05 in neutral detergent fiber intake. Furthermore, the different DCPM levels led to a linear decrease (P<0.05 in average daily gain, average total gain, and feed efficiency of broiler chickens during the period studied. Feed conversion increased linearly (P<0.05 in broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age with inclusion of DCPM in the diets. The inclusion of increasing levels of DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens slaughtered at 42 days of age exerted a linear decreasing effect (P<0.05 on slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and chest, wing, thigh and back weight. The inclusion of more than 10% DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age reduces feed and nutrient intake, weight gain, and carcass and noble cut yield.

  8. A comparison of the carcass and meat quality of Martina Franca donkey foals aged 8 or 12 months.

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    Polidori, Paolo; Pucciarelli, Stefania; Ariani, Ambra; Polzonetti, Valeria; Vincenzetti, Silvia

    2015-08-01

    The effects of slaughter age (8 vs 12 months) were investigated on meat and carcass quality obtained from Martina Franca donkey foals. Sixteen male foals were used, eight were slaughtered at 8 months of age with a mean (±s.e.) final body weight of 101±18kg and the remaining 8 foals slaughtered at 12 months of age with a mean final body weight of 122±13kg. Carcass weight and dressing percentage were higher (Pdonkeys slaughtered at 8 months of age (54.03N) compared to the same muscle Longissimus Thoracis et Lumborum (LTL) collected in older animals (62.66N). Muscle glycogen content was higher (PDonkey foal meat showed an interesting content of essential amino acids and a notable percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in both groups of animals, giving a high nutritional value to this alternative red meat.

  9. The effect of the humic acid and garlic (Allium sativum L. on performance parameters and carcass characteristic of broiler chicken

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    Veronika PISTOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of humic acids and humic acids and garlic powder (Allium sativum L. combination on performance parameters and carcass characteristic of broiler chickens were studied. A total of 120 Ross 308 broiler chickens were divided into 3 treatments (n=40. The control group of chickens was fed complete feed mixtures without any additives. Treatment T1 was fed complete feed mixtures containing 1% of humic acid. Treatment T2 was fed complete feed mixtures containing 1.8% of humic acid and 0.2% of garlic powder (Allium sativum L.. At the end of the experiment was average body weight (values in the order of the groups: 1796.4±188.1; 1999.1±355.8 and 1958.6±201.2 g±SD significantly higher (P≤0.05 in both treatments groups compared to control group. In T1 was weight of gizzard (values in the order of the groups: 34.9±5.2; 43.1±9.4 and 38.9±7.0 g±SD significantly higher (P≤0.05 compared to control group. Carcass weight, weight of heart weight of liver and carcass yield of treatments groups was higher, but differences in these indicators were not statistically significant (P≥0.05. The results of this experiment indicate that humic acids may by an alternative replacement of feed antibiotics.

  10. Comparison of fattening performance, carcass characteristics, and egg quality characteristics of Japanese quails with different feather colors

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    Hakan Inci

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare fattening performance, carcass traits, and egg quality of Japanese quails with different feather colors (white, dark brown, golden, and wild-type. In the study, 360 one-day-old quail chicks with 4 different feather colors were used as animal material. Quails were fed ad libitum for 42 days to determine fattening performance and carcass traits. To determine egg traits, 48 hens from each group, in a total of 192, were selected and caged according to feather color. Eggs were collected for four consecutive weeks and egg quality characteristics were measured. Different feather colors had a significant effect on live weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and carcass characteristics. Significant differences between the groups were detected for egg weight, specific gravity, shape index, shell weight, albumen weight, yolk weight, albumen index, and yolk index. Japanese quails with all four feather colors can be reared depending on the choice. However, due to lower feed conversion ratio, white-feathered quails may be preferred for meat production purposes. Color variations should be considered when selecting quails.

  11. Simulated influence of postweaning production system on performance of different biological types of cattle: II. Carcass composition, retail product, and quality.

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    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L; Keele, J W

    1995-03-01

    A computer simulation model was used to characterize the response in carcass composition, retail product, and quality of steers from F1 crosses of 16 sire breeds (Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Chianina, Brahman, Sahiwal, Pinzgauer, and Tarentaise) mated to Hereford and Angus dams, grown under nine backgrounding systems, and finished at either a low (1.0 kg) or high (1.36 kg) ADG. The backgrounding systems were a high ADG (.9 kg) for 111, 167, or 222 d, a medium ADG (.5 kg) for 200, 300, or 400 d, a low ADG (.25 kg) for 300 or 400 d and 0 d backgrounding. For specific genotype x production system combinations, results showed that carcasses of compensating steers may be either leaner, not different in fatness, or fatter than carcasses of steers put on a finishing diet directly after weaning. Systems in which steers gained a greater proportion of the final slaughter weight over long durations of growth restriction resulted in leaner carcasses. There were 12 common production systems in which 13 of the genotypes produced a carcass with a maximum of 28% fat or with a marbling score of 11 or greater. These results suggest sire breeds used to produce these steers can be used over a wide range of nutritional and management environments, and that a mixed group of steers can be fed and managed similarly from weaning to slaughter to produce a carcass with a specified composition, retail product, or quality.

  12. Carcass and physical meat characteristics of thin tail sheep (TTS based on calpastatin gene (CAST (Locus intron 5 – exon 6 genotypes variation

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    Muhammad Ihsan Andi Dagong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of sheep carcass is mostly determined by the total lean meat production, meat distribution on the carcass and the quality of meat. Calpastatin gene (CAST is known to have an association with carcass and meat quality traits. The objective of this research was to identify the association between CAST polymorphisms and carcass characteristics in Thin Tail Sheep (TTS. Thirty three heads of sheep representing three genotypes of CAST (CAST-11, CAST-12 and CAST-22 were identified for carcass and meat characterisation. There was no significant difference between CAST polymorphisms with meat tenderness, pH, water holding capacity and cooking loss, neither with carcass weight and dressing percentage among genotypes. Shoulder proportion of CAST-11 genotype was larger than that of CAST-12 or CAST-22, but the lean meat proportion of CAST-22 genotype in shoulder, rack and loin were higher than those of CAST-11 but not different from CAST-12. The fat percentage of CAST-11 was the highest among the genotypes. CAST-22 genotype has higher lean meat percentage than the CAST-11. Variation in CAST gene could be used as marker assisted selection in sheep for higher lean meat proportion.

  13. Carcass and meat characteristics of steers or bulls, finished in feedlot and fed with diets containing three levels of concentrate

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    José Luis Moletta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate quantitative and qualitative characters of carcass and meat from bulls and steers finished in feedlot during a 116 day period, in individual stalls and fed with a diet of corn silage and three levels of concentrate (0.70; 0.97 and 1.23% of body weight. The concentrate was formulated with 25% soybean meal, 73% of ground corn grain 1% of a mineral mix and 1% of limestone. A total of 169 composite Purunã animals, being 94 bulls and 75 steers with average age of 20 months. The interaction between physiological condition and level of concentrate was not significant (P>0.05 for any of the studied variables. Likewise, no effect of level of concentrate was detected upon the same traits. The bulls presented heavier slaughter weight (493.1 kg in comparison with the steers (450.0 kg as well as higher carcass yield (55.2 vs. 53.5%, resulting in a hot carcass weight 12.1% heavier than bulls animals, though with a lower degree of carcass finishing (3.6 vs. 4.2 mm, respectively. Bulls produced carcasses with better conformation and higher area of Longissimus dorsi (68.6 vs. 63.3 cm2, and higher percentage of muscle in comparison with castrated (66.5 vs. 62.8%. The meat from bulls was darker and with lower degree of marbling in relation to steers. Nevertheless, no differences were observed for tenderness nor for juiciness, though steers had more palatable meat.

  14. Characterization of relative growth of empty body and carcass components for bulls from a five-breed diallel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J F; Bryson, W L; Sanders, J O; Dahm, P F; Cartwright, T C; Ellis, W C; Long, C R

    1991-08-01

    Slaughter and carcass data were obtained on 197 bulls produced in a diallel involving Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey that were slaughtered at either 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, or 30 mo of age. Bulls were given ad libitum access to a 72% TDN diet on an individual basis from 6 mo of age until slaughter. Empty body weight (EBWT) was determined as the sum of the weights of blood, hide, hard drop, soft drop (minus contents of the digestive tract), and carcass weight (CWT), which were recorded at slaughter. Carcass protein (CPROT) and fat (CFAT) were based on weights and chemical analyses of lean and fat tissue and bone of the carcass. Empty body protein (EBPROT) and fat (EBFAT) were based on weights and chemical estimates of the components of the empty body. Growth of EBWT, EBPROT, EBFAT, CWT, CPROT, and CFAT relative to either live weight (LWT), EBWT, or CWT were investigated using the allometric equation. Breed-type differences existed (P less than .01) for the growth of EBWT relative to LWT. Comparisons of general combining abilities revealed that Angus, Hereford, and Jersey generally had lower maturing rates of EBWT relative to LWT and that Brahman and Holstein had higher maturing rates. Across breed-type, relative growth rates indicated that fat and protein were later-maturing components relative to LWT, EBWT, or CWT, which implies that other components mature relatively earlier. Relative maturing rates of components studied were not important in explaining differences in body composition that have been previously reported for these breed-types.

  15. Impact of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth, efficiency, and carcass traits of finishing pigs in a three-phase marketing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlemann, G D; Allee, G L; Rincker, P J; Ritter, M J; Boler, D D; Carr, S N

    2014-03-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) in a 3-phase marketing strategy. One thousand seven hundred forty pigs were used in 80 single-sex pens in 2 blocks. Each pen housed approximately 22 pigs. Sixteen percent of the total population of pigs was sold during the first marketing period, 18% was sold during the second marketing period, and the remaining 66% was sold during the third marketing period. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design of 2 treatments. Pigs in the second marketing group had greater growth performance indicators than pigs in the first marketing group. Over the entire feeding period, pigs fed RAC were 2.73 kg heavier (P marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (89.73 kg) were 2.1% heavier (P = 0.04) and gained 0.19 kg/d more (P = 0.03) carcass weight than carcasses from pigs not fed RAC (87.89 kg). By the end of the second marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (99.00 kg) were 3.1% heavier (P marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (102.75 kg) were 3.7% heavier (P marketing period, but as duration increased differences diminished. Therefore, RAC can provide the expected growth performance benefits when included in the diet for up to 21 d, but HCW advantages continue to increase throughout the entire 35 d feeding period. Even though carcass benefits were not as evident in pigs sold during the first marketing period, advantages (particularly HCW) continued to increase with each marketing period.

  16. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY REPLACEMENT OF SUNFLOWER OIL WITH MILK THISTLE (SILYBUM MARIANUM OIL ON FATTENING CHARACTERISTICS AND MARKET VALUE OF BROILER CARCASSES

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    Zlata Kralik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the influence of dietary replacement of 3% sunflower oil (SO group with 3% milk thistle oil (MTO group in broiler diets on fattening characteristics and carcass quality. During 42 days of fattening, MTO group achieved insignificantly higher live weight(2.21 kg: 2.19 kg; P>0.05, significantly better feed conversion (1.80 kg: 1.83 kg; P = 0.034 and production number (292.33:285.33; P = 0.013 compared to the SO broiler group. Carcass weight and portion of main parts did not statistically significantly differ between the groups (P>0.05. Market value of carcass cuts and breast fillets was higher in MTO group than in SO group. Lipids of breast and thigh muscles in the SO group contained significantly higher concent.

  17. Fatal inanition in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus: Pathological findings in completely emaciated carcasses

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    Mørk Torill

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a project to determine the causes of winter mortality in reindeer in Finnmark County, northern Norway, the most frequent diagnosis turned out to be complete emaciation, despite several of the reindeer having been given silage for up to 4 weeks before they died. The present paper describes autopsy results and other findings in these animals. Methods Autopsies were made of 32 reindeer carcasses, and 28 of these were diagnosed as completely emaciated based on lack of visible fat and serous atrophy of subepicardial and bone marrow fat. Other investigations of the carcasses included histology, bacteriology, parasitology (counting of macro parasites and faecal egg counting, analysis of vitamin E and selenium in liver, chemical and botanical analysis of rumen content, analysis of lipid content in femur bone marrow and estimation of muscle atrophy by use of a muscle index. Results Main findings were: Low carcass weight, severe muscle atrophy, hemosiderosis in liver and spleen, subcutaneous oedema (18% and effusions to body cavities (18%. Two types of lipofuscin granula were identified in the liver: One type occurred in liver endothelial cells of all carcasses, while the other type occurred in hepatocytes, and prevailed in adult animals. Abomasal haemorrhages, consistent with previously described stress lesions, was present in 68% of the carcasses. Diarrhoea occurred in 2 cases, and loose faecal consistency was associated with silage feeding. Rumen content was low in crude protein. Grass dominated rumen content in silage-fed carcasses, while reindeer on natural pastures had mainly woody plants, mosses and litter in rumen. Stem dominated the grass fraction in rumens with high grass content, indicating ruminal indigestion as a cause of emaciation in silage fed animals. Some cases had heavy infestation of parasites such as warble fly larvae (Hypoderma tarandi, throat bot larvae (Cephenemyiae trompe and lung nematodes. Conclusion Lack

  18. Fatal inanition in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus): Pathological findings in completely emaciated carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsen, Terje D; Sørensen, Karen K; Mørk, Torill; Mathiesen, Svein D; Ryeng, Kathrine A

    2007-01-01

    Background In a project to determine the causes of winter mortality in reindeer in Finnmark County, northern Norway, the most frequent diagnosis turned out to be complete emaciation, despite several of the reindeer having been given silage for up to 4 weeks before they died. The present paper describes autopsy results and other findings in these animals. Methods Autopsies were made of 32 reindeer carcasses, and 28 of these were diagnosed as completely emaciated based on lack of visible fat and serous atrophy of subepicardial and bone marrow fat. Other investigations of the carcasses included histology, bacteriology, parasitology (counting of macro parasites and faecal egg counting), analysis of vitamin E and selenium in liver, chemical and botanical analysis of rumen content, analysis of lipid content in femur bone marrow and estimation of muscle atrophy by use of a muscle index. Results Main findings were: Low carcass weight, severe muscle atrophy, hemosiderosis in liver and spleen, subcutaneous oedema (18%) and effusions to body cavities (18%). Two types of lipofuscin granula were identified in the liver: One type occurred in liver endothelial cells of all carcasses, while the other type occurred in hepatocytes, and prevailed in adult animals. Abomasal haemorrhages, consistent with previously described stress lesions, was present in 68% of the carcasses. Diarrhoea occurred in 2 cases, and loose faecal consistency was associated with silage feeding. Rumen content was low in crude protein. Grass dominated rumen content in silage-fed carcasses, while reindeer on natural pastures had mainly woody plants, mosses and litter in rumen. Stem dominated the grass fraction in rumens with high grass content, indicating ruminal indigestion as a cause of emaciation in silage fed animals. Some cases had heavy infestation of parasites such as warble fly larvae (Hypoderma tarandi), throat bot larvae (Cephenemyiae trompe) and lung nematodes. Conclusion Lack of appropriate amounts

  19. Effects of gestational maternal undernutrition on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of rabbit offspring.

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    George K Symeon

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of gestational undernutrition of rabbit does on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of the offsprings. Thirty primiparous non lactating rabbit does were artificially inseminated and randomly divided in three treatment groups: Control (C; fed to 100% of maintenance requirements throughout gestation, n = 10, early undernourished (EU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 7-19 of gestation, n = 10 and late undernourished (LU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 20-27 of gestation, n = 10. During the 4th week of the gestation period, LU does significantly lost weight compared to C and EU groups (P<0.05. At kindling, C does produced litters with higher proportions of stillborn kits (P<0.05 while the total litter size (alive and stillborn kits was not different among groups (10.7, 12.8 and 12.7 kits in C, EU and LU groups, respectively. Kit birth weight tended to be lower in the LU group. During fattening, body weight and feed intake were not different among offsprings of the three experimental groups. Moreover, the maternal undernutrition did not have any impact on carcass composition of the offsprings in terms of carcass parts and internal organs weights as well as meat quality of L. lumborum muscle (pH24, colour, water holding capacity and shear values at slaughter (70 days of age. Therefore, it can be concluded that the gestational undernutrition of the mother does not have detrimental effects on the productive and quality traits of the offsprings.

  20. Genetic variation and prediction of additive and nonadditive genetic effects for six carcass traits in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Wakeman, D L

    1998-07-01

    Estimates of covariances and sire expected progeny differences of additive and nonadditive genetic effects for six carcass traits were obtained using records from 486 straightbred and crossbred steers from 121 sires born between 1989 and 1995 in the Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of the University of Florida. Steers were slaughtered at a similar carcass composition end point. Covariances were estimated by REML procedures, using a generalized expectation-maximization algorithm applied to multibreed populations. Straightbred and crossbred estimates of heritabilities and additive genetic correlations were within ranges found in the literature for steers slaughtered on an age- or weight-constant basis for hot carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, and shear force but equal to or less than the lower bound of these ranges for fat-related traits. Maximum values of interactibilities (i.e., ratios of nonadditive variances to phenotypic variances in the F1) and nonadditive genetic correlations were smaller than heritabilities and additive genetic correlations in straightbreds and crossbred groups. Sire additive and total direct genetic predictions for longissimus muscle area, marbling, and shear force tended to decrease with the fraction of Brahman alleles, whereas those for hot carcass weight and fat thickness over the longissimus were higher, and those for kidney fat were lower in straightbreds and F1 than in other crossbred groups. Nonadditive genetic predictions were similar across sire groups of all Angus and Brahman fractions. These results suggest that slaughtering steers on a similar carcass composition basis reduces variability of fat-related traits while retaining variability for non-fat-related traits comparable to slaughtering steers on a similar age or weight basis. Selection for carcass traits within desirable (narrow) ranges and slaughter of steers at similar compositional end point seems to be a good combination to help produce meat products of consistent

  1. Intramuscular fat in lamb muscle and the impact of selection for improved carcass lean meat yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, F; Pannier, L; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2015-06-01

    Intramuscular fat percentage (IMF%) has been shown to have a positive influence on the eating quality of red meat. Selection of Australian lambs for increased lean tissue and reduced carcass fatness using Australian Sheep Breeding Values has been shown to decrease IMF% of the Muscularis longissimus lumborum. The impact this selection has on the IMF% of other muscle depots is unknown. This study examined IMF% in five different muscles from 400 lambs (M. longissimus lumborum, Muscularis semimembranosus, Muscularis semitendinosus, Muscularis supraspinatus, Muscularis infraspinatus). The sires of these lambs had a broad range in carcass breeding values for post-weaning weight, eye muscle depth and fat depth over the 12th rib (c-site fat depth). Results showed IMF% to be highest in the M. supraspinatus (4.87 ± 0.1, Plambs born as multiples and raised as singles. For each per cent increase in lean meat yield percentage (LMY%), there was a reduction in IMF% of 0.16 in all five muscles examined. Given the drive within the lamb industry to improve LMY%, our results indicate the importance of continued monitoring of IMF% throughout the different carcass regions, given its importance for eating quality.

  2. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing bulls fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

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    Mônica Chaves Françozo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of Longissimusmuscle (LM of the bulls. Twenty-four Nellore bulls were used in a complete randomised design. The bulls were randomly assigned to one of the three diets containing 0, 5 or 12% glycerin. Final BW and ADG were similar (P>0.05 between the bulls fed with 5 or 12% of glycerin but were higher (P0.05 by glycerin level. Hot carcass weight increased (P0.05 the conformation, colour, texture, marbling and pH. There was difference (P>0.05 for moisture, ashes and crude protein among glycerin levels. Bulls fed 12% glycerin present the highest (P<0.03 total lipids on LM. The percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, monounsaturated acids (MUFA, polyunsaturated acids (PUFA, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and PUFA/SFA and n-6:n-3 ratios of the LM were similar among the diets. In conclusion, glycerin level did not affect the animal performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot.

  3. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH polymorphisms associated with carcass traits of meat in Korean cattle

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    Cheong Il-Cheong

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cold carcass weight (CW and longissimus muscle area (EMA are the major quantitative traits in beef cattle. In this study, we found several polymorphisms of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH gene and examined the association of polymorphisms with carcass traits (CW and EMA in Korean native cattle (Hanwoo. Results By direct DNA sequencing in 24 unrelated Korean cattle, we identified 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms within the 9 kb full gene region, including the 1.5 kb promoter region. Among them, six polymorphic sites were selected for genotyping in our beef cattle (n = 428 and five marker haplotypes (frequency > 0.1 were identified. Statistical analysis revealed that -4241A>T showed significant associations with CW and EMA. Conclusion Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in GHRH might be one of the important genetic factors that influence carcass yield in beef cattle. Sequence variation/haplotype information identified in this study would provide valuable information for the production of a commercial line of beef cattle.

  4. Carcass and meet characteristics of very young Angus x Nelore steers in the Agreste Potiguar region

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    Debora Andréa Evangelista Façanha

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the carcass and meat of very young steers, ½ Red Angus x Nelore (NEL and ¾ Red Angus x Nelore (RED. Fifty males were used, 25 from each genetic group, fed in feedlots from weaning (7 months until reaching the age for slaughter (15 months. A difference was observed between the genetic groups for gains at weaning (158.57 kg NEL and 181.60 kg RED but the weight at slaughter showed no statistical differences (412.33 kg NEL and 426.53 kg RED. Cold and hot carcass yield was not affected by the genetic group, with NEL bovines showing a yield of 50.49% and 52.55% and the RED of 50.91% and 52.89% respectively. The percentage of muscle (55% NEL and 53% RED, fat (26% NEL and 27% RED, bone (18% NEL and 18% RED, and thickness of subcutaneous fat (4.1 mm NEL and 4.0 mm RED were similar for both genetic groups. The ¾ Angus x Nelore animals showed a higher loss when thawing (9.05%. There was no difference in such sensory characteristics as overall impression, tenderness, juiciness and shear force in the evaluated genotypes. The genetic groups showed a similarity of characteristics for meat as well as carcass.

  5. FOOD SAFETY AND PROCESS HYGIENE CRITERIONS ON SHEEP CARCASSES

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    R. Mazzette

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hygienic status and the presence of some pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes e Salmonella spp. at slaughterhouses was evaluated in different matrix of sheep and lambs (carcass surface, faeces, fleeces and mesenteric lymph nodes according to the Com. Reg. (EC No 2073/2005. The 48% of sheep and 68.9% of lamb sampled carcasses resulted allocated into the marginal category for Aerobic colony count, while the 28% and 42.2% respectively were allocated into unacceptable category for Enterobacteriaceae. S.aureus was isolated more frequently in fleeces (11.5%, carcasses (12.6% of lambs than sheep. L. monocytogenes was found in fleeces and carcass of two sheep and in faeces of four lambs, while Salmonella spp. was detected only in sheep carcasses of a single plant.

  6. ESCHERICHIA COLI O157 IN WITHE VEAL CALVES CARCASSES

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    V. D’Orio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During 2006 one hundred and three white veal calves slaughtered at an abattoir in Isernia (Italy were examined for E. coli O157 intestinal carriage and carcass contamination, using Immuno-Magnetic Separation (IMS and multiplex PCR. Faecal material before slaughtering and carcass samples, using sponge-bag, were collected. E. coli O157 isolates were found in 10 (9,71% faecal and 9 (8,7% carcass samples. PCR analysis showed that all the strains from faecal and from carcass samples carried eaeA, hlyA and stx2 genes, while five strains stx1 gene. The results confirm that the slaughter practices can largely influence the rate of E. coli O157 carcasses contamination and suggest that white veal calves meat could be an important risk for human health.

  7. Microbiological contamination of lamb carcasses at abattoirs of Istanbul

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    Tolga Kahraman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of a hundred lamb carcasses were sampled over a 12 month period at abattoirs in Istanbul, Turkey. Each sample examined for total aerobic mesophilic counts (TMC, Enterobacteriaceae count (EC, Salmonella spp. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes was obtained from 100 cm2 areas on four sides of lamb carcasses using the wet and dry cotton swab technique. The study revealed that total aerobic mesophilic counts in all carcasses ranged between 4.18 and 5.95 log/cm2; Enterobacteriaceae counts between 1.60 and 2.30 CFU/cm2. All samples were negative for Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. Furthermore Salmonella spp. was detected on four carcasses. The data confirms bacteriological monitoring of lamb carcasses as a useful criteria for the verification of slaughter hygiene.

  8. THE EFFECTS OF SPRAY-CHILLING ASSOCIATED TO CONVENTIONAL CHILLING ON MASS LOSS, BACTERIOLOGYCAL AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL QUALITY OF BEEF CARCASS

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    Moacir Evandro Lage

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of conventional air chilling associated to intermittent spray-chilling treatment, on weight loss, physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of beef carcasses. Two plants of commercial beef slaughterhouse located in Goiânia and fiscalized by the Federal Inspection Service were used to develop the research. The spray-chilling treatment was accomplished in an intermittent way, commanded by acontrolled logical program, with cycles of 90 seconds, in intervals of 30 minutes, during the first 4 hours of the chilling process. Physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis were made in spray-chilled water and carcasses samples, according to recommendation of the effective legislation.The average values of carcasses weight loss of treatment group were lower to the ones verified for the control group,in both plants, A and B, (P < 0,001, showing a high economic potential. As a conclusion of physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis results of water and meat samples, it is clear that the technology of chilling beef carcasses inthe conventional system associated to spraying did not interfere in the quality of meat, and it can become an analysis object on part of official organs for sanitary regulation and fiscalization, for its definitive adoption. KEY WORDS: Spray-chilling, shrinkage, beef carcass.

  9. The capability of alfalfa grazing- and concentrate-based feeding systems to produce homogeneous carcass quality in light lambs over time

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    Guillermo Ripoll

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of grazing on the carcasses and meat of light lambs are unclear, mainly due to variations in weather conditions and pasture production, which affect the growth of lambs and the quality of their carcasses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding systems, which varied in intensification due to the use of concentrate, on the growth and carcass traits of light lambs and the capability of these feeding systems to produce homogeneous lamb carcasses over the course of several years. The average daily weight gain of grazing lambs, but not lambs fed indoors was affected over years. The colour of the Rectus abdominis muscle and the amount of fat were more variable in grazing lambs (from 2.7 to 6.3 than indoor lambs (from 4.5 to 5.1. Grazing feeding systems without concentrate supplementation are more dependent than indoor feeding systems on the year. This climatologic dependence could lead to slaughter of older grazing lambs (77 days to achieve the target slaughter weight when temperatures are low or the rainfall great. All feeding systems evaluated produced light lambs carcasses with a conformation score from O to R- that is required by the market. Even the potential change in fat colour found in both grazing treatments was not enough to change the subjective evaluation of fat colour.

  10. The capability of alfalfa grazing- and concentrate-based feeding systems to produce homogeneous carcass quality in light lambs over time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripoll, G.; Alvarez-Rodriguez, J.; Sanz, A.; Joy, M.

    2014-06-01

    The effects of grazing on the carcasses and meat of light lambs are unclear, mainly due to variations in weather conditions and pasture production, which affect the growth of lambs and the quality of their carcasses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding systems, which varied in intensification due to the use of concentrate, on the growth and carcass traits of light lambs and the capability of these feeding systems to produce homogeneous lamb carcasses over the course of several years. The average daily weight gain of grazing lambs, but not lambs fed indoors was affected over years. The colour of the Rectus abdominis muscle and the amount of fat were more variable in grazing lambs (from 2.7 to 6.3) than indoor lambs (from 4.5 to 5.1). Grazing feeding systems without concentrate supplementation are more dependent than indoor feeding systems on the year. This climatologic dependence could lead to slaughter of older grazing lambs (77 days) to achieve the target slaughter weight when temperatures are low or the rainfall great. All feeding systems evaluated produced light lambs carcasses with a conformation score from O to R that is required by the market. Even the potential change in fat colour found in both grazing treatments was not enough to change the subjective evaluation of fat colour. (Author)

  11. Aging meat at room and cold temperatures on meat quality and aging loss of sheep carcass

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    Roswita Sunarlim

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to compare the quality of meat of local carcass sheep between fresh and aging meat stored at room temperature for 12 hours, at 4oC for one day and one week. For that purpose a study of aging carcass involving 12 local sheep (male and female with different ages was carried out by separating carcass into two parts: (1 the right portion was aged on 4oC for one day and one week, room temperature for 12 hours, and (2 the left portion as control without aging. A factorial design 2x2 (2 sexes and aging vs without aging for three kinds of aging on quality of meat. A factorial design 2x3 (2 sexes and 3 kinds of aging on aging loss. Replicate twice was carried out with different ages (old and young sheep. Parameter measured were pH, warter-holding capacity, cooking loss, color, tenderness, carcass weight loss. There was decrease in pH, increase in tenderness value for aged meat that stored at room temperature for 12 hours (1.84 kg, at cold temperature for one day (2.03 kg, but tenderness value was the most (0.92 kg at cold temperature for one week compared to fresh meat (3.41, 4.06, and 3.66 kg. Lightness color (l, red color (a and yellow color (b for aged meat is usually increase compare to fresh meat, except for aged meat stored at room temperature for 12 hours was decrease significant. Water-holding capacity and cooking loss value of aged meat was not significant compared to fresh meat. Aging loss of aged meat stored at 4oC for one week (13.58% was significant compared to aged meat stored at room temperature (2.42% and 4oC for one day (2.90%.

  12. Feedlot performance, carcass traits, and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbeck, J A; Tatum, J D; Field, T G; Morgan, J B; Smith, G C

    1995-12-01

    Short-yearling steer of known genotypes-straightbred Hereford (100H, n = 80) 75% Hereford x 25% Brahman (75H:25B, n = 80), and 50% Hereford x 50% Brahman (50H:50B, n = 80) were sampled serially at four time-on-feed endpoints (84, 98, 112, 126 d) to compare feedlot performance and carcass and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers. After slaughter, USDA yield grade and quality grade factors were recorded, and a portion of the longissimus muscle was removed from the left side of each carcass and fabricated into four 2.54-cm steaks for palatability analyses. Paired steaks from each carcass were aged (6 and 18 d after death), and sensory panel and shear force evaluations were performed. At a constant live weight, 100H steers had higher ADG and produced less mature carcasses with smaller longissimus muscle areas and higher marbling scores than did 75H:25B and 50H:50B steers. The 50H:50B steers had the highest (P Brahman breeding increased. EXtending the postmortem aging period from 6 to 18 d improved shear force values by 20% and panel tenderness ratings by approximately 14%. Beef from steers of the three breeds responded similarly to aging. When Certified Hereford Beef (CHB) specifications were applied, steaks from 100H steers and 75H:25B steers had similar shear force values, suggesting that beef from quarter-blood Brahman crossbred steers could be included in the CHB Program without detrimental effects on product tenderness.

  13. The estimation of pork carcass primal cuts value based on backfat thickness

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    Kamil Duziński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of pork carcass backfat thickness on the dissection efficiency of four primal cuts (ham, loin, shoulder, belly, including correlation coefficients. The research material consisted of 80 pork carcasses. Backfat thickness (mm was measured on cold half-carcasses using a vernier caliper at 6 points: at the first cervical vertebra (atlas, over shoulder at the thickest point, on the back, at the beginning, center, end of the gluteus medius muscle (CI, CII, CIII. On the basis of the average backfat thickness, measurements from 6 points were separated into two experimental groups: I (<25 mm; II (≥25 mm. Detailed dissection of the elements was performed to define mass (g: total, intermuscular fat, bones and lean meat. The significant effect of fat thickness on intermuscular fat content regardless of the cut was noted. Correlations between the average backfat thickness of 6 points and the total weight of the four main elements were calculated. In addition, the correlation coefficients were compared between the dissection elements and the average backfat thickness of 6 and 5 points. Higher backfat thickness determined the increase in the total mass of loin, shoulder and belly. A statistically proven correlation was shown between the average backfat thickness and the total mass of the analysed elements (r=0.293. When comparing the correlation coefficients of a different number of measurements a specific tendency was observed. Positive correlation coefficients were slightly higher for an average of 5 points of backfat thickness and negative correlation coefficients were slightly higher for an average of 6 points. Statistical differences between groups were recorded at the same level for the same parameters (P≤0.001 and 0.01carcass primal cuts, with no adverse effects compared to

  14. Growth performance, carcass quality, and noncarcass components of indigenous Caribbean goats under varying nutritional densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liméa, L; Boval, M; Mandonnet, N; Garcia, G; Archimède, H; Alexandre, G

    2009-11-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of feeding regimens on growth and carcass quality of the Creole goat, a genotype indigenous to the Caribbean. Forty kids weighing 9.0 +/- 1.2 kg of BW were reared indoors after weaning. Four supplement amounts were compared (10 kids per treatment): the G0 group received the basal diet (tropical forage, 8.8 MJ of ME and 108 g of CP/kg of DM) without concentrate, whereas the G100, G200, and G300 groups were offered 130, 230, and 310 g/d of concentrate (13.6 MJ of ME and 209 g of CP/kg of DM), respectively, in addition to the basal diet. The kids were slaughtered according to the standard procedure at 22 to 24 kg of BW for assessment of carcass traits and meat quality. Total DMI increased significantly, from 51 to 78 g/kg of BW(0.75), for G0 to G300 kids, whereas their ADG doubled from 42 to 84 g/d (P diets and were satisfactory compared with literature values. The carcass weight and dressing percentage (P diet. The conformation score increased significantly (P diet, it was possible to obtain well-conformed and heavy carcasses, with no excessive fattening. Indigenous Creole goats have potential as meat animals when fed to gain more than 80 g/d. The optimal supplement supply with good-quality grass would be approximately 3.69 MJ of ME/d in our conditions. Further studies are required on meat sensory parameters and fatty acid profiles.

  15. Genetic relationships between internal diseases diagnosed at slaughter and carcass traits in Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Honda, T; Oyama, K

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this paper was to estimate the genetic parameters of certain internal diseases (multifocal necrosis in the liver [MNL], bovine abdominal fat necrosis [BFN], and inflammation of the large intestine [ILI]) and to investigate relationships between the internal diseases and carcass traits (carcass weight [CW], rib eye area [REA], rib thickness [RT], subcutaneous fat thickness, and beef marbling score [BMS]). Records of the internal diseases and the carcass traits of 5,788 Japanese Black cattle were used for this study. The data for all the diseases were recorded as binary data as to whether the disease was observed (1) or not (0). Genetic parameters were estimated using linear and threshold animal models. The prevalence rates of MNL, BFN, and ILI were 16.1, 23.0, and 6.8%, respectively, and heritability estimates ± posterior SD were 0.18 ± 0.06, 0.28 ± 0.06, and 0.18 ± 0.06, respectively. The genetic correlations of MNL with BFN and ILI were -0.23 (P = 0.19) and -0.49 (P genetic correlations of MNL with the carcass traits were all weak and not significant. In contrast, the genetic correlations of BFN and ILI with CW, REA, and RT were all negative and significant (P genetic correlations for BFN and ILI with BMS were all positive at 0.21 P( = 0.16) and 0.39 (P genetically improved. Genetic relationships of BFN and ILI with meat quantity traits were favorable for beef cattle breeding, because lower disease liabilities were associated with improved CW, REA, and RT for BFN and ILI. However, rather strong and unfavorable genetic relationships were found between BFN or ILI and BMS, which is related to meat quality. This suggests that selection for animals with superior BMS would increasingly lead to animals with higher liability to the internal diseases.

  16. Effects of Diet Dilution during the Finishing Period on the Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the response of broiler to diet dilution during the finishing period. Sixty 29-day-old commercial Avian male broiler chicks were assigned to two groups randomly, with 30 broilers each. Birds were offered a conventional finishing diet or with 10% dilution diet with ground rice hulls from 29 to 49 days of age. The result showed that there were no significant differences between the effects of diet dilution and the control on final body weight, growth rate and feed conversion efficiency. Diet dilution led to a reduction in abdominal fat weight, whereas carcass and breast muscle weight were not affected.

  17. Genetic markers of body composition and carcass quality in grazing Brangus steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, M C; Corva, P M; Soria, L A; Rincon, G; Medrano, J F; Pavan, E; Villarreal, E L; Schor, A; Melucci, L; Mezzadra, C; Miquel, M C

    2011-12-19

    The somatotropic axis is a major regulatory pathway of energy metabolism during postnatal growth in mammals. Genes involved in this pathway influence many economically important traits. The association of selected SNPs in these genes with carcass traits was examined in grazing Brangus steers. These traits included final live weight, ultrasound backfat thickness (UBFT), rib-eye area, kidney fat weight, hot carcass weight, and intramuscular fat percentage (%IMF). Genomic DNA (N = 246) was genotyped for a panel of 15 tag SNPs located in the growth hormone receptor (GHR), insulin-like growth factor I, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 6, pro-melanin-concentrating hormone, suppressor of cytokine signaling 2, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) genes. Allelic and haplotype frequencies were compared with those of a sample of European breeds (N = 177 steers). Two tag SNPs in the GHR affected %IMF; one of them (ss86273136) was also strongly associated with UBFT (P < 0.003). The frequency of the most favorable GHR haplotype for %IMF was lower in Brangus steers. Moreover, the haplotype carrying two unfavorable alleles was present at a frequency of 31% in this group. Four tag SNPs on STAT6 had a significant effect on UBFT. One of these, SNP ss115492467, was also associated with %IMF. The STAT6 haplotype, including all the alleles favoring UBFT, was the most abundant variant (34%) in the European cattle, while it had a frequency of 14% in the Brangus steers. The four less favorable variants (absent in the European cattle) were found at a frequency of 38% in the Brangus steers. These results support the association of GHR and STAT6 SNP with carcass traits in composite breeds, such as Brangus, under grazing conditions.

  18. VARIATION OF THE ECONOMICAL EFFICIENCY OF PIG CARCASSES ACCORDING QUALITY CLASSES

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    I. PETROMAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The profitability of pork disjoint-packing activity depends on the carcass quality. Carcasses of superior types, respectively „E” and „U” generate higher profit on the kilogram of disjoint carcass, in comparison with the carcasses of medium type „R” and inferior types „O” and „P”.

  19. Effect of source of dietary fat on pig performance, carcass characteristics and carcass fat content, distribution and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, C E; Duran-Montgé, P; Lizardo, R; Gispert, M; Oliver, M A; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2010-08-01

    Seventy gilts were used to compare the effect of including 10% tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO), linseed oil (LO), a fat blend (FB), or an oil blend (OB) in finishing diets vs. feeding a semi-synthetic diet with no added fat (NF) on pig performance, carcass traits and carcass fatty acid (FA) composition. Carcasses from SFO-fed gilts had greater fat and lower lean compositions than carcasses from T-fed gilts. Gilts fed NF had greater loin fat than FB-fed gilts, and greater flare fat, loin intermuscular fat and fat:lean than T-fed gilts. Bellies from NF-fed gilts had lower lean and higher intermuscular fat and fat:lean than other diets except HOSF. Fat source had minor effects on animal performance, carcass characteristics and carcass fat content and distribution, whereas feeding NF resulted in carcasses and major cuts with higher fat content. Diets rich in polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) did not reduce fat deposition in separable fat depots with respect to monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and saturated FA (SFA). Carcasses from gilts fed NF had a high degree of saturation (40.6% SFA) followed by carcasses of T- and FB-fed gilts. Feeding HOSF, SFO and LO enriched diets elevated the percentages of MUFA (56.7%), n-6 (30.0%) and n-3 (16.6%) PUFA, respectively, whereas carcasses from gilts fed OB had greater percentages of n-3 FA (14.8% n-3, 0.9% EPA, 1.0% DPA, 3.1% DHA) than gilts fed FB (6.72% n-3, 0.1% EPA, 0.4% DPA, 0.1% DHA).

  20. Effects of the Sheep Polyclonal Antibodies Against the Porcine Adipocyte Plasma Membrane Proteins on Porcine Carcass Composition and Meat Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shi-zheng; HU Hong-mei; LIU Ling-yun; ZHANG Xi; LIU Yong-gang; GE Chang-rong

    2007-01-01

    To detect the effects of the polyclonal antibodies raised in sheep against porcine adipocyte plasma membranes on the porcine carcass composition and meat quality, 30 pigs assigned into 6 treatment groups were given intraperitoneal injections of sheep antipig adipocyte plasma membrane immunoglobulin (ASIg) or sheep nonimmune serum immunoglobulin (NSIg). At the end of the experiment, the pigs were slaughtered at 90 kg body weight, and carcasses and meat quality were evaluated. The results showed that when pigs intraperitoneally immunized with 20 or 30 mg ASIg at 15 kg body weight, 20 mg purified ASIg twice at 15 and 60 kg body weight, or 20 mg purified ASIg at 60 kg body weight, respectively, their lean meat percentage, fat meat percentage, backfat thickness, loin eye area leaf fat weight, caul fat weight, heart weight, liver weight, and kidney weight were significantly affected. However, the kidney weight, lung weight, dressing percentage,and spleen weight did not remarkably change. Our results indicated that pigs intraperitoneally immunized with 20 or 30 mg ASIg at 15 kg body weight, and 20 mg ASIg twice at 15 and 60 kg body weight, have significantly different drip loss rate,cooked meat ratio, tenderness, storage loss rate, muscle fiber diameter, moisture content, dry matter content, crude protein content, and crude fat content from the control group that received 20 mg NSIg at 15 kg body weight. However, meat pH,meat color value, meat marbling score, inosinate, and myohemoglobin were not significantly affected. Our results indicated ASIg could not significantly affect the content of most muscular amino acids and intramuscular fatty acids.

  1. Fatty acid profile, carcass and quality traits of meat from Nellore young bulls on pasture supplemented with crude glycerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Vito, E; Lage, J F; Ribeiro, A F; Silva, R A; Berchielli, T T

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls (279.5±16.3 initial body weight) raised on pasture supplemented with crude glycerin at 0%, 7%, 14%, 21% or 28% (DM basis). The diets were similar in energy and protein levels, and the glycerin replaced corn in the supplement. After slaughter, the carcass characteristics were measured, and the longissimus muscle was collected to determine the meat quality. The inclusion of crude glycerin in the supplement did not change (P>0.05) any of the carcass characteristics and meat quality assessed; however, the pH decreased linearly (P=0.03), and margaric acid (17:0) increased (P=0.02) in the longissimus muscle with the addition of glycerin in the diet. Our conclusion is that the inclusion of crude glycerin up to the level of 28% of dry matter in the supplement does not alter the carcass characteristics or the meat quality from animals raised on pasture.

  2. Comparison of growth performance and carcass traits of Japanese quails reared in conventional, pasture, and organic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Inci; Gokce Ozdemir; Bunyamin Sogut; Ahmet Yusuf Sengul; Turgay Sengul; Mehmet Resit Taysi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT - This study was conducted to compare live weight, feed intake, feed conversion, mortality rate, and some carcass characteristics of Japanese quails reared under organic and conventional conditions. A total of 180 one-day-old quail chicks were randomly divided into six groups ― Conventional, consuming conventional feed ad libitum; Control (C), consuming organic feed ad libitum; C+P, consuming organic feed ad libitum + pasture; 80C+P, consuming 80% of control + pasture; 70C+P, c...

  3. Carcass and meet characteristics of very young Angus x Nelore steers in the Agreste Potiguar region

    OpenAIRE

    Debora Andréa Evangelista Façanha; Jacinara Hody Gurgel Morais Leite; Rita de Cássia Ramos Egypto Queiroga; Roberto Germano Costa; Déborah dos Santos Garruti; Tâmara Lúcia dos Santos Silva

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the carcass and meat of very young steers, ½ Red Angus x Nelore (NEL) and ¾ Red Angus x Nelore (RED). Fifty males were used, 25 from each genetic group, fed in feedlots from weaning (7 months) until reaching the age for slaughter (15 months). A difference was observed between the genetic groups for gains at weaning (158.57 kg NEL and 181.60 kg RED) but the weight at slaughter showed no statistical differences (412...

  4. Comparative evaluation of carcass traits and meat quality in native Aseel chickens and commercial broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, U; Muthukumar, M; Haunshi, S; Niranjan, M; Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Chatterjee, R N

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to analyse the meat quality attributes, composition and carcass traits in Aseel chickens and commercial broilers at market age on the basis of physiological age. A total of 20 Aseel (26 and 56 weeks) and 20 broiler (6 weeks) chickens were divided into two groups on a live weight basis, i.e. large (≥2.5 kg) and small (cocks had strong legs, lean meat and less abdominal fat, making them a high-value meat bird in addition to their aggressive fighting ability.

  5. Carcass and meat quality traits of Iberian pig as affected by sex and crossbreeding with different Duroc genetic lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Robina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 144 pigs were used to study the effects of sex (barrows or gilts and terminal sire line (Iberian or three genetic lines of Duroc: Duroc 1, Duroc 2 and Duroc 3 on performance and carcass and meat quality traits. Gilts showed slightly lower average daily gain, shoulder weight and trimming losses, but slightly better primal cuts yields and higher loin weight, while there was no significant effect of sex on meat quality traits or on the fatty acid composition of lard and muscle. There were important differences in performance and in carcass and primal cuts quality traits between pure Iberian pigs and all Iberian × Duroc crossbreeds evaluated, partly due to the lower slaughter weights reached by the formers. The different sire lines showed differences in several traits; Duroc 1 group showed lower backfat thickness and ham and shoulder trimming losses, and higher primal cut yields than Duroc 2 and Duroc 3 groups. Intramuscular fat (IMF content remained unaffected by crossbreeding, but meat color resulted more intense and redder in crosses from the Duroc 1 sire line. The accumulation of fatty acids in lard was not affected by Duroc sire line, while animals of the group Duroc 2 showed higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acid and lower of polyunsaturated ones in IMF. These results highlight the importance of considering not only performance, but also carcass and meat quality traits when deciding the Duroc sire line for crossbreeding in Iberian pig production.

  6. Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a protein source for organic chickens: performance and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Castellini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of transgenic feed and synthetic amino acids in organic chicken diets has made necessary to find protein-rich feedstuffs which do not alter productive performance. The effect of the faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a partial substitute for soybean on the performance and carcass traits of slow-growing chickens of both sexes reared under the organic method was assessed. The experiment was carried out in the spring and autumn; one thousand birds per season were split into 8 groups (4 groups of males and 4 groups of females, each duplicated and fed a double phase diet: a common starter diet for 20 days and two different growing-finisher diets containing either soybean (24%; S or faba bean (16%; F till the end of the rearing period (120 d. Average values of final live weight, feed intake and daily weight gain were significantly affected by sex, being higher in males than in females; the diets affected performance only in the 21-60 days of age period when the F group grew less and had poorer feed efficiency compared to the S group. Successively, the compensatory growth eliminated differences in slaughter weight. Regarding carcass traits, the diet affected only the ready- to-cook carcass percentage and the carena length, both of which were higher in S birds. Faba beans could be a valuable protein source in the diet of organic chickens when used after the critical starter period.

  7. From the Field: Carbofuran detected on weathered raptor carcass feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Bauer, W.; Olson, S.

    2005-01-01

    The cause of death for raptors poisoned at illegal carbofuran-Iaced predator baits is often not confirmed because the carcass matrices that are conventionally analyzed are not available due to decomposition and scavenging. However, many such carcasses retain intact feet that may have come into contact with carbofuran. Eastern screech owls (Otus asio) were exposed to carbofuran via simulated predator baits. Detection of carbofuran from owl feet weathered for 28 days demonstrated the temporal reliability of using feet during a forensic investigation. Raptor carcasses previously not submitted for residue analysis because of a lack of the conventional matrices may now be salvaged for their feet.

  8. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of heavy swine fed different citrus pulp levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.H. Watanabe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An assay with 36 swine initially weighting 83.7±5.1kg body weight (BW was carried out to evaluate the effects of the use of different dietary citrus pulp levels, 0, 10%, 20%, and 30%, upon digestive organs weights, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of animals subjected to qualitative feed restriction program, and slaughtered at 130kg BW. Linear response (P0.05. Higher levels of citrus pulp neither decreased backfat thickness nor increased amount of lean meat, indicative that qualitative feed restriction was not efficient. Positive linear effect (P<0.05 on pH measured 24 hours after slaughter and negative linear effect (P<0.05 on color characteristics as function of citrus pulp dietary levels were verified. Citrus pulp addition in qualitative feed restriction program may not be effective. As no deleterious effects upon meat qualities were observed, citrus pulp can be used as an alternative feedstuff for finishing swine.

  9. Free choice feeding of whole grains in meat-type pigeons: 1. effect on performance, carcass traits and organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, P; Jiang, X-Y; Bu, Z; Fu, S-Y; Zhang, S-Y; Tang, Q-P

    2016-10-11

    The effects of 5 different feeding systems on the performance, carcass traits and organ development were studied in pigeon squabs. The 5 treatments were (1) whole grains of maize, pea and wheat plus concentrate feed; (2)whole grains of maize and wheat plus concentrate feed (CWC); (3) whole grains of maize and pea plus concentrate feed; (4)whole grain of maize plus concentrate feed (CC); and (5) compound feed (CF). Feed intake of parent pigeons increased significantly from 0 to 21 d and it was higher in the CF treatment. Body weight of squabs in the CWC treatment was the highest among the 5 treatments in 4 weeks. Body weight losses of parental pigeons during the rearing period were not significantly different among the 5 treatments. Protein intake in CC and CWC treatments was lower than that of the other three treatments. The CWC treatment had the highest daily weight gain and the lowest feed conversion ratio. Treatments were statistically similar in the relative weight of carcass, breast and thigh. CF had the lower relative weight of abdominal fat. Relative weight of gizzard in the CF treatment was significantly lower than that of CWC. It was concluded that the application of free choice feeding of whole grains of maize and wheat plus concentrate feed increased the body weight of 28-d-old pigeon squabs and decreased the feed conversion rate of parent pigeons. This feeding strategy could be commercially interesting in meat-type pigeon production.

  10. Effects of dried cassava pulp as a main source of energy in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Yimmongkol

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding dried cassava pulp (DCP as a main source of energy at a higher level in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle. Fifteen Brahman-native crossbred young bulls at an average age of 2 years and initial weight of 277±10.36 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups in a completely randomized trial. The animals received either control concentrate(CTRL, concentrate in which cassava meal was replaced by DCP at 50 (DCP50 or 100% (DCP100 by weight. Experimental diets were fed to the animals ad libitum and supplemented with 3 kg of para grass (Brachiaria mutica. The feeding period was 150 days. The results indicated that feedlot cattle on CTRL showed the best feedlot performance and carcass quality as compared to the other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05. The DCP50 had highereconomic return compared to the CTRL and DCP100, while DCP100 can be potentially incorporated into the ration when the cassava price is too high to be used. Carcass composition (slaughtering weight, carcass weight, carcass percentage, lean weight and lean percentage of the experimental feedlot cattle were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100, respectively. Some beef eating qualities (shear force, tenderness, juiciness, meat flavor and overall satisfaction were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100 total, respectively.

  11. Effect of restricted feeding and realimentation on feed performance and carcass characteristics of growing lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abouheif

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Forty Najdi ram lambs weighing 26.6±0.3 kg were utilized in this experiment to determine the effects of feed restriction followed by realimentation and body weight at the onset of feed restriction (30 and 36 kg body weights on performance and carcass characteristics; feeding and restriction levels were ad libitum, 0.75 and 0.60 of the ad libitum intake. All lambs were slaughtered after 14 weeks of experimentation. The results showed that, during the feed restriction phase, average daily gain (ADG and feed efficiency decreased as the level of restriction increased. During the realimentation phase, the 30 kg lambs gained weights and consumed dry matter (DM similarly to the ad libitum group, whereas the ADG for the 36 kg lambs of both 0.75 and 0.60 ad libitum groups were 20 and 43.8% faster than the ad libitum group, respectively. At the end of the trial, final body weight and overall ADG of the realimented 30 kg groups were lower than ad libitum group, whereas the ADG of the 36 kg groups were not different compared with the ad libitum group. Although empty body, hot and cold carcass, empty stomach compartments, empty intestines and liver weights for the 36 kg groups were not affected by feed restriction followed by realimentation, weights of visceral fat depots, subcutaneous fat and tail fat decreased much more than those of the ad libitum group. Carcass composition of the realimented 0.75 and 0.60 ad libitum groups tended to have 5.1 and 8.8% less lean tissue than the ad libitum group when the restriction started at 30 kg, respectively. On the other hand, the realimented lambs of both 0.75 and 0.60 ad libitum groups tended to be 5.1 and 2.8% leaner than those of the ad libitum group when restriction started at 36 kg body weight, respectively. Feed restriction of up to 40% for a 5-week period followed by a 4-week period of refeeding in 36 kg lambs is economically feasible and does not offset production.

  12. Effect of split marketing on the welfare, performance, and carcass traits of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, S; Lawlor, P G; O'Connell, N; Boyle, L A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a split marketing (SM) strategy, in which the heaviest pigs in a group are removed and slaughtered earlier than the others, with an all-out (AO) marketing strategy, in which all pigs are removed from the pen simultaneously and slaughtered on the same day, in terms of welfare, performance, and carcass traits of noncastrated (i.e., intact) male and female pigs. The experimental treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial array with 1) marketing strategy (SM vs. AO) and 2) sex (males vs. females), which yielded 4 treatment groups of 14 pigs (73.1 ± 4.8 kg): male SM, male AO, female SM, and female AO (7 replicates/group). Pigs in AO groups were all slaughtered after 6 wk on trial, whereas in SM groups the 3 heaviest pigs were removed and slaughtered 2 wk before the remainder of the group, which were slaughtered at the same time as the AO pigs. Pigs were fed a liquid diet from a long trough 3 times daily. Behavioral observations were conducted before and after SM, the day of SM, and 1 and 2 wk later. Behavior was recorded both during and between feed events, and skin lesions were scored on all, except the 3 pigs removed from SM groups before and 2 wk after SM. Growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were recorded. The number of aggressive interactions during feed events decreased after the 3 pigs were removed from SM groups. This reduction in aggressive interactions was observed on the day of SM in male groups (before SM: 24.3 vs. the day of SM: 14.7, SED = 3.31, P 0.10). There were no differences between the 11 remaining pigs in SM groups and the 14 pigs in AO groups in terms of growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass traits of female or intact male pigs (P > 0.10). However, reduced within-pen CV in carcass weight was detected in pigs from SM groups compared with pigs from AO groups (8.6 vs. 10.9, SEM = 0.72, P < 0.05). Therefore, in restrictively fed pigs, a SM strategy improved the welfare of both

  13. A fenbendazole oral drench in addition to an ivermectin pour-on reduces parasite burden and improves feedlot and carcass performance of finishing heifers compared with endectocides alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, C D; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T

    2006-08-01

    Two studies utilizing 1,862 yearling heifers were conducted to determine the effects of a fenbendazole oral drench in addition to an ivermectin pour-on (SG+IVPO), compared with an ivermectin pour-on (IVPO) or a doramectin injectable (DMX) alone, on parasite burden, feedlot performance, and carcass merit of feedlot cattle. In the first study, heifers receiving the SG+IVPO had fewer (P = 0.02) cattle retreated for disease and 73% fewer (P = 0.06) worm eggs per fecal sample 98 d after treatment than heifers treated with IVPO. Heifers treated with SG+IVPO consumed more DM, had greater ADG, were heavier at slaughter, and had heavier carcasses than IVPO-treated heifers (P fenbendazole oral drench and an ivermectin pour-on reduced parasite burden and increased feed intake, ADG, and carcass weight in feedlot heifers compared with treatment with an endectocide alone.

  14. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Santa Inês lambs fed with sunflower cake replacing cottonseed meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fernandes Júnior

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed sunflower cake to replace the protein of cottonseed meal. The experiment was conducted at the sheep sector at the Farm School, State University of Londrina. Thirty Santa Inês lambs, intact males, with age and weight at the beginning of the experiment of 80 days and 21.45 ± 2.16 kg, respectively, were used. It was used a completely randomized experimental design. The animals were divided into 5 treatments, with 6 replicates per treatment, according to the amount of protein of cottonseed meal replaced by protein of the sunflower cake (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of replacement. Carcasses were evaluated and the Longissimus dorsi was removed for analyzes of shear force, color, pH, marbling, water loss by pressure, sensory analysis, chemical analyses and lipid oxidation. Hot and cold carcass yields showed quadratic distributions, where the best values were found for treatments with low inclusion of sunflower cake. Carcass measurements, as well as cut yields were not affected by the content of sunflower cake. Regarding the parameters of lamb meat, only water losses during cooking and shear force were affected, being quadratic and linear, respectively. The meat was more tender in animals fed higher amounts of sunflower cake. The tasters of the sensory panel did not identify differences between treatments, and classified the meat with moderate odor intensity, good tenderness, low to moderate juiciness and medium acceptability. The replacement of cottonseed meal protein by sunflower cake protein in the levels used, did not affect the majority of the carcass characteristics and the meat quality.

  15. Carcass Characteristics of Kacang Goats Fed Ration Containing MH-1 Variety of Kapok Seed Meal (Ceiba pentandra, GAERTN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hidjaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the carcass characteristics of Kacang goats fed ration containing kapok seed meal (KSM as a component of the concentrate. The experiment was conducted in two stages. The first stage was to find out the best variety of kapok that will be used in the second experiment; the second stage was to determine the benefits of KSM on carcass characteristics. Twenty-five, 8 months old Kacang goats with initial body weight of 11.71±1.08 kg, were used in this experiment. The animals were housed individually based on completely randomized design (CRD with 5 treatments and 5 replications. The rations were based on forage:concentrate ratio of 50:50 dry matter basis. The ration contained concentrates, with increasing levels of KSM, i.e.: R0 (napier grass + concentrate: rice bran, coconut cake, corn, urea + 0% KSM; R5 (R0 + KSM 5%; R10 (R0 + KSM 10%; R15 (R0 + KSM 15%; and R20 (R0 + KSM 20%. Drinking water was provided ad libitum. The result of first stage showed that KSM variety of MH-1 would be used as a component of the concentrate on the second experiment. The increasing level of KSM in the rations had significant effect (P<0.05 on physical characteristics of the carcass, such as dressing percentage (44.35%, carcass length (54.006 cm, fleshing index (130.59 g/cm, plumpness of leg (87.48%, loin eye area (5.06 cm2, and percentage of carcass meat (64.69%. It is concluded that MH-1 variety of KSM can be used as a feed component up to 20 % in the goat ration.

  16. Sequence variants of the LCORL gene and its association with growth and carcass traits in Qinchuan cattle in China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y. J. HAN; Y. CHEN; Y. LIU; X. L. LIU

    2017-03-01

    Molecular marker-assisted selection is a better way to satisfy the growing customer requirement with the development of beef cattle growth and breeding research. For now, quantitative trait locus (QTL) for cattle growth and carcass traits, just like body height, body length and carcass weight have been detected on bovine chromosome 6. In this study, ligand-dependent nuclear receptor corepressor-like (LCORL) was selected as the potential positional candidate gene located in chromosome 6 which is closely connected with the bovine growth and carcass traits. A total of 450 Qinchuan beef cattle were used to detect mutations in exon and its neighbouring region, and the promoter region of the bovine LCORL gene. The methods for SNPs detection werepolymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and created restriction site PCR (CRSPCR), and the results of this study show that there were two variations in intron regions, the other four variations were located in the promoter region. Linkage disequilibrium analysis and haplotype analysis indicated that L78-Q4 had strong linkage disequilibrium, A T G C G C (16.2%) and G C G C A T (16.7%) had higher haplotype frequencies, G C A C A C (0.8%) and G T A C A T (0.7%) had lower haplotype frequencies. Correlation analysis indicated that SNP g. INT+52098A>G was significantly associated with slaughter weight and carcass weight. Based on the research, we selected LCORL as the candidate gene that can contribute to improved marker-assisted selection for the meat performance of Qinchuan beef cattle.

  17. PIG CARCASS CLASSIFICATION IN ROMANIA: A DISSECTION TRIAL FOR THE APPROVAL OF THE “FAT-O-MEAT’ER” AND OF THE “OPTIGRADE-PRO”EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Esperance GĂUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to obtain new regression formulas for optical equipment Fat-O-Meat’er and OptiGrade-PRO in pig carcass classification in Romania. The estimation of lean mean content in pig carcasses by means of SEUROP system and following fair payment based on the weight and composition of the carcass pigs in the main objective of classification. Dissection of four main cuts (shoulder, loin, ham, belly of pig carcasses (n = 145 were performed. The measurement of backfat and muscle depths using probes were taken from the carcasses within 45 min. after slaughter of pigs. Lean meat content estimated using different methods and determined from dissections was equal (56,3 % . There were calculated new regression formulas using the multiplied regression analysis. Correct regression formulas for classification equipments have a big importance. The requirements on accuracy of regression formulas are laid out in the Commission Regulation No 3127 / 94 and means of dissection according to the method by Walstra and Merkus (1996

  18. Effects of ractopamine supplementation on growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers differing in biological type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, S L; Tatum, J D; Engle, T E; Mitchell, M A; Laudert, S B; Schroeder, A L; Platter, W J

    2007-07-01

    Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) supplementation on growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers differing in biological type were investigated using British, Continental crossbred, and Brahman crossbred calf-fed steers (n = 420). Steers of each type were weighed at reimplantation [British, mean BW = 375 kg (SD = 38 kg); Continental crossbred, mean BW = 379 kg (SD = 42 kg); Brahman crossbred, mean BW = 340 (SD = 32 kg)] and sorted into 7 BW blocks, each block consisting of 2 pens (10 steers per pen) per type. Pens within a block x type subclass were randomly assigned to RAC treatments (0 or 200 mg x steer(-1) x d(-1) fed during the final 28 d of the finishing period). The type x RAC interaction did not affect (P > 0.05) any of the traits evaluated in this study. Feeding RAC improved (P = 0.001) ADG (1.50 vs. 1.73 +/- 0.09 kg) and G:F (0.145 vs. 0.170 +/- 0.005), but did not affect (P = 0.48) DMI of steers. Dressing percentage, adjusted fat thickness, KPH percentage, and yield grade were not affected by RAC supplementation. Carcasses of steers fed RAC had heavier (P = 0.01) HCW (359 vs. 365 +/- 4.9 kg), larger (P = 0.046) LM areas (81.7 vs. 84.0 +/- 1.1 cm(2)), and tended (P = 0.07) to have lower mean marbling scores (487 vs. 477 +/- 5.2; Slight = 400, Small = 500) than did carcasses of control steers. Among the 3 biological types, Brahman crossbred steers had the lowest DMI and produced the lightest-weight carcasses that had the lowest mean marbling score (P Brahman crossbred steers, British steers produced carcasses with the greatest (P = 0.001) mean marbling scores. Continental crossbred steers had the heaviest BW and greatest dressing percentages and produced the heaviest carcasses with the largest LM areas (P Brahman crossbred steers. In the present study, 28 d of supplementation with RAC at a dosage rate of 200 mg x steer(-1) x d(-1) elicited consistent responses in growth performance and carcass traits among 3 diverse biological

  19. Analysis and Optimisation of Carcass Production for Flexible Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe

    structure that provides mechanical and collapse strength for the flexible pipe. The manufacturing process of carcass is a combination of roll forming stainless steel strips and helical winding the profiles around a mandrel interlocking the profiles with themselves. The focus of the present project...... is the analysis and optimisation of the carcass manufacturing process by means of a fundamental investigation in the fields of formability, failure modes / mechanisms, Finite Element Analysis (FEA), simulative testing and tribology. A study of failure mechanisms in carcass production is performed by being present...... strip thickness deep. Simulative tribo-testing in the strip-reduction-test showed that biodegradable rapeseed oil is an acceptable lubricant for the carcass process. Testing of two lean duplex stainless steel surfaces showed that a EN 2E brushed surface had better lubricant entrapment capabilities than...

  20. Carcass Search & Recovery Guidelines for Black Tailed Prairie Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of dead or intoxicated prairie dogs above ground will be monitored, recorded and these carcasses will be properly disposed of, in accordance with the procedures described on this page.

  1. 9 CFR 381.77 - Carcasses held for further examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Post Mortem Inspection; Disposition of... thereof, in which there is any lesion of disease, or other condition which might render such carcass...

  2. 9 CFR 354.126 - Carcasses held for further examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Post-Mortem... which there is any lesion of disease or other condition, which might render such carcass or any...

  3. Liver Contaminants in Bald eagles Carcasses from Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fifty-one livers were extracted from bald eagle carcasses recovered in Maine between 2001 and 2007. Approximately 50% of the birds were collected during the spring...

  4. The effects of finishing diet and postmortem ageing on the eating quality of the M. longissimus thoracis of electrically stimulated Brahman steer carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, H L; Stark, J L; Beilken, S L

    2004-06-01

    Beef from cattle finished on grass will be of similar quality to that from cattle finished on grain when their carcasses are processed using best practice protocols. To test this hypothesis, carcasses of twenty Brahman steers, finished to 400 kg live weight on either Buffel grass pasture (n=10) or grain (n=10), were electrically stimulated with 400 V for 50 s 45 min postmortem, and their beef quality assessed 1 and 14 days postmortem. Hot weight, rump subcutaneous fat thickness and animal rate of growth in the 205 days preceding slaughter were recorded for each carcass as potential influences on beef quality. Quality of the M. longissimus thoracis (LT) at 1 and 14 days postmortem was evaluated using peak Warner-Bratzler shear force, compression, pH, cooking loss and taste panel acceptability, as well as by moisture and crude fat contents measured at 1 day postmortem. Results showed that steers finished on pasture grew the slowest and had the least subcutaneous fat at the same carcass weight. LT from carcasses of steers finished on pasture also had the shortest mean sarcomere lengths, suggesting these muscles may have been cold-affected, but there was no effect of diet on peak shear force. LT from carcasses of steers finished on pasture had the highest mean compression value, possibly because of increased collagen cross-linking associated with slow growth or increased exercise. Ageing significantly decreased LT peak shear force and compression values and increased cooking loss, L (∗), a (∗) and b (∗) values. Taste panellists rated the aged, grass-finished beef the most tender and the best quality; however, the taste panel in this study may have favoured LT from grass-finished steers because it was significantly juicier than LT from the grain-finished steer carcasses. These results indicated that carcass composition and processing conditions interact to exert a greater effect on LT toughness and sensory acceptability than finishing diet. Ageing LT from steers

  5. Restrição alimentar em caprinos: rendimento, cortes comerciais e composição da carcaça Feed restriction in goats: carcass yield, commercial cuts, and carcass composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Alejandro Yáñez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da restrição alimentar sobre as características da carcaça de caprinos leiteiros, realizou-se um experimento utilizando 27 cabritos castrados da raça Saanen. Os animais (PV inicial de 20 kg foram distribuídos nos tratamentos alimentação à vontade e 30 e 60% de restrição, sendo abatidos aos 35 kg de PV. Foram avaliados o rendimento comercial e biológico, os cortes comerciais, a área de olho-de-lombo e a composição tecidual da perna. O rendimento biológico não foi afetado pela restrição alimentar, mas o comercial diminuiu com o aumento da restrição. A elevação no nível de restrição alimentar promoveu diminuição do lombo e da 6ª a 13ª costelas e aumento da paleta e do pescoço, proporcionalmente à meia-carcaça. A proporção de ossos aumentou e a de gordura total diminuiu com o aumento da restrição. O tecido muscular não foi afetado pela restrição. A restrição alimentar de até 30% não prejudicou a qualidade da carcaça de caprinos leiteiros.Twenty-seven Saanen male kids averaging 20 kg of body weight (BW at the beginning of the trial were used to study the effects of feed restriction on carcass characteristics. Animals were assigned to one of the following three treatments: control (fed ad libitum, 30 or 60% of feed restriction. A completely randomized design was used and data were submitted to regression analysis; animals were slaughtered when they reached 35 kg of BW. The following traits were measured in this trial: carcass commercial and biological yields, commercial cuts, tissue composition of hind leg, rib eye area (REA, and carcass compactness. Increasing feed restriction reduced carcass and commercial cut weights as well as loin and fat proportions in the carcass. Conversely, proportions of bone, neck, and shoulder clod all increased when the feed restriction went from 0 to 60%. Muscle tissue proportion was not changed by feed restriction in this study. It can be

  6. Prevalence and concentration of Arcobacter spp. on Australian Beef Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Lesley L; Fegan, Narelle

    2012-08-01

    The International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) classified Arcobacter spp. as emerging pathogens in 2002. Arcobacter spp. have been isolated from numerous food products at retail and from animal carcasses and feces at slaughter. A survey was conducted to determine both the prevalence and concentration of Arcobacter spp. on pre-chill beef carcasses. Surface swab samples were collected from 130 beef carcasses at the end of processing, prior to chilling. The concentration of Arcobacter spp. was determined by a most-probable-number per square centimeter (3 by 3) method with a limit of detection of 0.12 CFU/cm(2). Of the 100 carcasses examined from export abattoirs, 20 (20.0%) were contaminated with Arcobacter spp., and 5 of these had quantifiable levels of contamination ranging from 0.12 to 0.31 CFU/cm(2). Of the 30 carcasses examined at a pet food abattoir, 25 (83.3%) were contaminated with Arcobacter spp., and 10 of these had quantifiable levels of contamination ranging from 0.12 to 0.95 CFU/cm(2). Three species of Arcobacter, A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus, and A. skirowii, were identified by PCR. Each of the species was present in an approximately equal ratio from export abattoirs. This study demonstrates that slaughter practices at export abattoirs are sufficient to maintain both low prevalence and low levels of contamination of beef carcasses with Arcobacter spp.

  7. Purebred-crossbred performance and genetic evaluation of postweaning growth and carcass traits in Bos indicus x Bos taurus crosses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S; Reverter, A; Johnston, D J

    2002-07-01

    Growth and carcass data on 7,154 cattle from a purebred project and 1,241 cattle from a crossbred project, comprising 916 first-crosses and 325 purebred Brahman controls, were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters, including the genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performance (rpc). The data also allowed the estimation of sire breed means for various growth and carcass traits. Crossbred calves were produced using 9 Angus, 8 Hereford, 7 Shorthorn, 14 Belmont Red, and 8 Santa Gertrudis sires bred to Brahman dams. These same sires produced 1,568 progeny in a separate purebreeding project. Cattle in both projects were managed under two finishing regimens (pasture and feedlot) to representative market live weights of 400 (domestic), 520 (Korean), and 600 kg (Japanese). The traits studied included live weight at around 400 d of age (400W), hot carcass weight (CWT), retail beef yield percentage (RBY), intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat depth (P8), and preslaughter ultrasound scanned eye muscle area (SEMA). Estimated breeding values (EBV) of sires from their BREEDPLAN genetic evaluations were used to assess their value in predicting crossbred performance. Regressions of actual crossbred calf performance on sire EBV for each of the traits differed little from their expectation of 0.5. Angus sires produced crossbred carcasses with the highest P8 and lowest RBY but highest IMF. In contrast, crossbred progeny from Belmont Red sires had the lightest 400W and CWT, lowest P8, and highest RBY. Estimates of rpc were 0.48, 0.48, 0.83, 0.95, 1.00, and 0.78 for 400W, CWT, RBY, IMF, P8, and SEMA, respectively. Commercial breeders selecting sires for crossbreeding programs with Brahman females, based on EBV computed from purebred data, might encounter some reranking of sire's performance for weight-related traits, with little expected change in carcass traits.

  8. Characteristics of carcasses and meat from feedlot lambs fed with sunflower cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the characteristics of the carcasses and meat of feedlot lambs that received diets supplemented with sunflower cake; correlations among the variables were also performed. The experimental design was a randomized block design with four treatments (sunflower cake added at 0, 10, 20, and 30% dry matter to the base diet and seven replications per treatment. The diets were formulated with genotypes of Cynodon hay and corn- and soybean meal-based concentrate that were premixed at the ratio of 50:50 (hay:concentrate and were fed to the lambs in two portions daily at 08:00 and 14:00. The feed conversion of the animals was adversely affected (P<0.05 by the increase in the feedlot period in the individual stalls. For each additional day of confinement, the feed conversion increased by 0.0096 kg DM/kg of weight gain. Based on the linear regression model for the average loin pH, one hour after slaughter, the pH was reduced by 0.04 units. The marginal change in pH between the longest and the shortest times after slaughter was 14.11%. The weights of the animals at slaughter were not significantly correlated with the carcass yields. Sunflower cake is a suitable dietary supplement for lambs in intensive production systems and can be a substitute for soybean meal at up to 20%.

  9. Performance, carcass and palatability characteristics of Longhorn and other types of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, N J; Smith, G C; Carpenter, Z L

    1982-07-01

    Performance, carcass and palatability characteristics of Longhorn steers were compared with those of cattle currently popular in the United States-Hereford, Angus, Brahman, Holstein, two-breed crossbred (British beef breed crosses) and three-breed crossbred (1 4 dairy , 1 4 British beef and 1 2 European beef ) steers. Steers were fed roughage, then a growing diet (42 days), then a high energy (89% concentrate) diet (153 to 179 days by breed group) and slaughtered, individually, at USDA Choice finish or, failing that, after 186 days on the finishing diet. Data suggest that Longhorns, compared with types of cattle currently used: (1) are less desirable in physical appearance; (2) gain weight less rapidly, reaching the desired finish and slaughter weight as older animals; (3) convert feed to liveweight less efficiently; (4) deposit less subcutaneous fat, more internal fat, but essentially the same amount of intramuscular fat; (5) are as muscular (longissimus muscle area, estimated percentage of carcass muscle, muscle to bone ratio, muscle to fat ratio); (6) are as desirable in USDA quality grade and yield grade and (7) produce beef that is a palatable.

  10. Influence of Early Quantitative Feed Restriction on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Baoming; SHAN Anshan; CHAN Long

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the influence of early quantitative feed restriction on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Two hundred 8-day-old commercial Avian male broiler chicks were assigned to four groups randomly, with 50 broilers each. At the age of 8 days the broilers were restricted to 90%, 80% or 70% of the ad libitum intake for 7 days. When the restricion was finished, all birds received feed ad libitum again. The results showed that diet restriction resulted in a reduction in body weight and daily gain during the restriction period (P <0.05). The birds restricted to 90% of the ad libitum intake showed the occurring of growth compensation in the 3rd week. The birds restricted to 80% and 70% of the ad libitum intake had growth compensation in the 4th week. No significant differences between the effects of the restriction and the control on final body weight,growth rate, feed conversion efficiency and carcass characteristics (P >0.05).

  11. Sex effect on productive parameters, carcass and body fat composition of two commercial broilers lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rondelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate sex effect on behavior of two commercial broilers lines. Productive parameters, carcass composition and yield, amount and quality of fat deposited in the meat and skin and total body fat were studied. A completely randomized design with four treatments (MR-Male Ross, HR-Female Ross, MAF-Male Avian Farm and HAF-Female Avian Farm and eight repetitions of 40 chickens was used. Animals received water and food ad libitum. After 50 days, two birds (a male and a female per repetition were chosen at random and slaughtered for carcass evaluation. Samples of breast, leg, skin and abdominal fats were analyzed to determine the percentage of intramuscular fat, total cholesterol and fatty acid composition. The Ross line showed higher final weight and weight gain, better intake and feed conversion rate. Also, it was observed that females of both lines had similar results in relation to these parameters. Better yield of breast with bone was found in Ross males and females. In relation to legs and thigh, Ross males showed better results and no differences were observed among females of both lines. Males deposited less fat than females. Finally, differences in percentage of intramuscular fat, content of cholesterol in breast with skin, leg with skin and skin, percentage of saturated, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed between sex and lines.

  12. Performance, carcass and meat quality of pigs fed diets with antioxidants and ractopamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Abrami Monteiro Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was evaluated the effects of the use of additives antioxidants associated or not with ractopamine in feed for finishing pigs. Were used 51 crossbred pigs, 27 barrows and 24 females with initial weight of 83.38 kg. Three experimental treatments were established based on the inclusion of two complexes to feed: complex 1 (4g de vitamin E + 1g de vitamin C/kg of product and complex 2 (0.2g de ractopamine + 4g de vitamin E + 2g de vitamin C/kg of product, defining the ration control (free of complexes, ration control + complex 1 (0.1% and ration control + complex 2 (0.05%. The experimental design was blocked randomically, presenting a factorial model 3x2 (3 treatments and 2 sexes. Were observed difference (P<0.05 for daily feed intake, feed, hot and cold carcass weight to the treatment with ractopamine. The values of vitamin E in meat were higher (P <0.05 in muscle of animals in groups receiving the vitamin. There was a difference (P <0.05 in the values of oxidation and marbling in the treatments with antioxidant. The inclusion of ractopamine, with the antioxidants, resulted in improvement in performance and carcass characteristics, and supplementation with the antioxidant, alone, showed improvement in parameters related to meat quality

  13. Effect of floor type on carcass and meat quality of pen raised growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Dal Bosco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to compare the carcass and meat quality traits of growing rabbits housed on different floor types. At the age of 35 d, rabbits (n=126 were randomly sorted into 3 groups and housed in pens with different floor types: plastic-mesh, deep-litter straw or wire-mesh. Slaughter weight, carcass and its parts’ weight, meat (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum [LL] muscle and hind leg pH and colour, oxidative status and fatty acid profile were measured and correlations calculated. The deep-litter straw rabbits showed the lowest pHu and b* values of LL muscle and oxidation of the both muscles. The fatty acid profile of LL muscle of deep-litter straw rabbits showed a higher percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids and long chain n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids, whereas the content of  18:2n-6 and total PUFA was lower. We concluded that housing the growing rabbits on wire- or plastic-mesh floors showed no substantial differences, while housing rabbits on deep-litter negatively affected certain qualitative traits.

  14. Intake, performance, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed spineless cactus replacing wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Sabrina Carla Rodrigues; Pessoa, Ricardo Alexandre Silva; Ferreira, Marcelo de Andrade; Soares, Luciana Felizardo Pereira; Silva, Janaina de Lima; de Abreu, Karen Santos Felix; de Melo, Ana Caroline Cerqueira

    2016-02-01

    To assess the intake, digestibility of nutrients, ingestive behavior, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs, 36 F1 Santa Ines × Dorper male lambs with an initial average weight of 19.5 ± 0.27 kg were fed with different levels of spineless cactus (0, 33, 66, and 100 %) as a replacement of the wheat bran. The replacement diets had no effect on the intake of dry matter (DM) or crude protein (CP), whose average values were 962 and 140 g/day, respectively. There was a quadratic effect on the intake of digestible organic matter (OM) and the digestibility of DM, CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC). The highest average daily gain (ADG) of 168 g/day was achieved at 58.7 % replacement level. The highest hot and cold carcass weights of 15.4 and 14.5 kg were achieved at 62.4 and 56.9 % replacement levels. For lambs in the feedlot, we recommend replacing wheat bran with up to 58.7 % spineless cactus.

  15. Effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation level on productivity, mortality, and carcass characteristics of Venda chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malebane, Ingrid M; Ng'ambi, Jones Wilfred; Norris, David; Mbajiorgu, Christian

    2010-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality of indigenous Venda chickens. The first experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity and mortality rate of 175 unsexed Venda chickens between 1 and 6 weeks old. The second experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality rate of 140 female Venda chickens between 8 and 13 weeks old. A completely randomized design was used in both experiments. Supplementation of grower diets with ascorbic acid ranged from 0 to 2,000 mg per kg DM feed in both experiments. Levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed intake, feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were determined using a quadratic equation. The optimal dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens during the starter phase were 1,050, 1,301, and 1,500 mg/kg DM feed, while, at the grower phase, the optimal supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were 1,000, 1,250, 1,482, and 769 mg/kg DM feed, respectively. Results indicate that different levels of ascorbic acid supplementation optimized feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens at each growth phase. However, levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight were higher than that for breast meat yield. These findings have implications on ration formulation for Venda chickens.

  16. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed high concentrations of crude glycerin in low-starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, V B; Leite, R F; Almeida, M T C; Paschoaloto, J R; Carvalho, E B; Lanna, D P D; Perez, H L; Van Cleef, E H C B; Homem Junior, A C; Ezequiel, J M B

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of total corn replacement with crude glycerin on carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot lambs fed high-concentrate diets with low starch. Forty non-castrated Santa Ines lambs (23.5 ± 3.56 kg BW) were assigned to a randomized complete block design with five dietary treatments: 0%, 7.5%, 15%, 22.5%, or 30% crude glycerin, replacing corn. Animals were slaughtered at a BW of 38 kg after 72 ± 20 days. The addition of up to 30% crude glycerin reduced carcass weight and yield (P ≤ 0.02). Odd-chain fatty acids, oleic, palmitoleic, total unsaturated, and monounsaturated fatty acids were increased (P ≤ 0.01) while CLA tended to increase in glycerin-fed lambs (P = 0.06). Crude glycerin decreased stearic, palmitic, transvaccenic, total saturated fatty acids, and atherogenicity index (P glycerin in low-starch diets reduced carcass weights, nevertheless improved meat quality by increasing unsaturated and odd-chain fatty acid contents.

  17. EFFECTS OF WHOLE COTTON SEED SUPPLEMENTATION ON CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITIES OF THE DJALLONKE SHEEP RAISED ON STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. TEYE

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This on-station study evaluated the effects of whole cotton seed supplementation on the carcass and meat qualities of Djallonke sheep. Twelve sheep of similar age and weight were randomly selected and supplemented with whole cotton seed (WCS for fifteen weeks in a completely randomized design. Three treatment levels of 0 g, 200 g and 400 g were offered with four replicates. Supplementation had no adverse effect on carcass quality but significantly (P<0.001 improved juiciness and overall liking of the meat. The results suggest that whole cotton seed could be used as a supplementary feed with 200 g being enough to ensure the survival and to improve the productivity and meat quality of the Djallonke sheep.

  18. Effect of a ractopamine feeding program on growth performance and carcass composition in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, M T; Armstrong, T A; Weldon, W C

    2004-08-01

    Barrows and gilts (n = 100 per gender) were used to determine the effects of an increasing, decreasing, or constant ractopamine (RAC) dietary concentration on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Pigs, within a gender, were assigned randomly to pens (five pigs per pen and 10 pens per treatment). Pens were assigned randomly to one of four dietary treatments at a starting weight of 71.2 kg, to target an average ending weight of 109 kg. The four dietary treatments (as-fed basis) were 1) control = 0 ppm RAC, wk 0 to 6; 2) RAC step-up = 5.0 ppm, wk 1 to 2; 10.0 ppm, wk 3 to 4; and 20.0 ppm, wk 5 to 6; 3) RAC step-down = 20.0 ppm, wk 1 to 2; 10.0 ppm, wk 3 to 4; and 5.0 ppm, wk 5 to 6; and 4) RAC constant = 11.7 ppm, wk 0 to 6. Feed allocation was recorded daily, and pigs were weighed and feed was weighed back every 2 wk. Jugular blood samples were obtained from two randomly selected pigs per pen on d -3, 7, 21, 35, and 41 for determination of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) concentrations. Two pigs were selected randomly per pen and sent to a commercial slaughter facility at the end of the 6-wk experimental period. Carcass data were evaluated on an equal time basis and on an equal weight basis by using hot carcass weight (HCW) as a covariate. Overall, ADG and G:F were improved (P pigs fed RAC compared with control, with no differences among RAC feeding programs. In wk 3 and 4, improvements (P pigs. The concentrations of PUN were decreased (P pigs fed RAC. If pigs were considered to be on feed for an equal time period, advantages (P < 0.05) were observed for weight of boneless trimmed ham, shoulder and loin for the step-up and constant RAC treatments compared with the controls. Feeding a RAC step-up or constant feeding program resulted in favorable responses in growth performance and yielded more lean pork.

  19. Performance and carcass quality of forage-fed steers as an alternative to concentrate-based beef production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Blanco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the performance and carcass quality of Parda de Montaña cattle under different management systems to find alternatives to concentrate feed indoor beef production. Treatments were: i Control, with 8 bulls (216±34.3 kg initial weight; 282±45.6 days fed concentrate and straw ad libitum during winter housing period until reaching 500 kg; ii G-supp, with 8 steers (204±31.2 kg initial weight; 271±47.5 days fed a total mixed ration (TMR (50% alfalfa hay, 10% straw, 40% corn ad libitum during winter housing period (from mid-April steers rotationally grazed on a mountain meadow supplemented with 1.8 kg dry matter corn/d until reaching 500 kg; iii TMR, with 8 steers (200±42.5 kg initial weight; 261±39.0 days managed as G-supp steers until mid-July, when they were housed and fed TMR ad libitum until reaching 500 kg. Control bulls had 45% greater weight gain than TMR and G-supp steers during housing period (P<0.001. In the finishing period, TMR had 31% greater weight gain than steers finished on pasture (P<0.01. At slaughter, Controls were 97-127 days younger than others (P<0.001. Steers finished on TMR had worse conformed carcasses, greater fat and fewer edible meat proportions than G-supp and Control (P<0.01. Total cost of TMR and Gsupp was greater than Control, with a similar income for G-supp and Control. TMR steers were paid less because of their worse carcass quality. Hence, finishing of steers on pasture with a supplement can be a feasible alternative to fattening bulls on concentrates, depending on the relative availability and price of feedstuff.

  20. Effect of feeding sweet sorghum stover-based complete rations on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of ram lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Jagannatham; Kumari, Nagireddy Nalini; Reddy, Yerradoddi Ramana; Raghunandan, Thirunahari; Sridhar, Kalakuntla

    2015-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of sweet sorghum stover (cost $0.05/kg) supplementation as complete balanced diet (at 60 % level) on sheep performance, carcass characteristics and economics in comparison to maize stover (cost $0.08/kg) and sorghum stover (cost $0.09/kg) (conventional roughage sources). Eighteen Nellore ram lambs aged about 3 months (average body weight 15.65 ± 0.10 kg) were randomly allotted to three complete diets formulated with roughage to concentrate ratio of 60:40 (on dry matter basis) using sorghum stover (SS), maize stover (MS) and sweet sorghum stover (SSS) as roughage sources for a period of 120 days. The average daily dry matter intake (g/kg w(0.75)), average daily gain (grams) and feed conversion efficiency were similar among the experimental diets. No significant differences were observed among the treatment groups for the mean live weight (kg) at slaughter, empty body weight (kg) dressing percentage on live weight basis or on empty body weight basis, proportion of different wholesale cuts, percentage of edible offals and non-edible offals, proportion of meat, meat/bone ratio and chemical composition of meat. Thus, it can be concluded that sweet sorghum stover can be incorporated in the complete diets of lambs by replacing conventional roughages such as sorghum stover and maize stover processed as mash form without affecting the performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics.

  1. Roasted sesame hulls improve broiler performance without affecting carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Z. Mahmoud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of using graded levels of roasted sesame hulls (RSH on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in broiler chickens. A total of 360 day-old Lohmann chicks were randomly allocated into 24 floor pens and raised over 42 days. One of four dietary treatments was assigned to each group of six pens in a completely randomized fashion. The chicks in the control group were fed a corn-soybean based diet (RSH-0, while the chicks in treatments two, three, and four were fed graded levels of RSH at 4% (RSH-4, 8% (RSH-8, and 12% (RSH-12, respectively. Diets were formulated to meet broiler chicks’ requirements according to the National Research Council for both starter and finisher rations. The results showed that RSH inclusion increased (P<0.05 feed intake and final body weight without adversely affecting the feed conversion ratio. Broiler chicks fed RSH-12 had heavier (P<0.05 breast and leg cuts compared to the control-fed group with no change to their chemical composition. Water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL, and shear force (SF reported similar results in all dietary groups. The chemical composition of both thigh and breast cuts was not affected by the RSH. After one day of thawing, colour coordinates of breast cuts behaved similarly in all dietary groups. The results of this study suggest that the addition of RSH to broiler diets up to 12% improves their growth performance; nevertheless, carcass characteristics and meat quality showed no alterations compared to the control-fed group.

  2. Effect of season and stocking density during transport on carcass and meat quality of suckling lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sanchez-Sanchez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Many factors related to transport to abattoir affects meat quality, but scarce information is available in suckling lambs. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of season and stocking density on carcass and meat quality of suckling lambs during commercial transport to the abattoir. A factorial design (2 × 3 was used: two seasons (winter and summer and three stocking densities (SD; 0.08, 0.12 and 0.20 m2 animal-1. Meat quality variables were measured in the M. longissimus at 24 h post-mortem and after 5 days of refrigerated storage. Lambs transported in summer showed lower liver weight (p<0.001, h* (p<0.05, deoxymyoglobin content (p<0.001, pressed juice (p<0.01, shear force (p<0.001 and firmness (p<0.001, and higher initial pH (p<0.001, L*, b*, C* (p<0.001 and a* (p<0.01, as well as metmyoglobin and oxymyoglobin content (p<0.001, than those transported in winter. The effect of season was dependent on storage time, being colour changes more evident at 24 h than after 5 days of storage, whereas lipid oxidation was only observed in stored meat, which may be explain because the natural antioxidative system decreases with time after slaughter. Scarce effect of SD was found on the carcass and meat quality parameters, thus under our experimental conditions the three SD studied appear to be suitable for suckling lambs transport. However, both carcass and meat quality were within the normal commercial range.

  3. Response to family selection and genetic parameters in Japanese quail selected for four week breast weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaldari, Majid; Yeganeh, Hassan Mehrabani; Pakdel, Abbas;

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of short-term selection for 4 week breast weight (4wk BRW), and to estimate genetic parameters of body weight, and carcass traits. A selection (S) line and control (C) line was randomly selected from a base population. Data were collected over...

  4. Weight Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Weight Management English English Español Weight Management Obesity is a chronic condition that affects more ... Liver (NASH) Heart Disease & Stroke Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe ...

  5. The Growth and Distribution of Carcass Fat in Fattening Steer of Different Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Priyanto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth and distribution patterns of carcass fat were investigated in three breeds of beef cattle entering fattening phase. The study involved 23 grass-fed steer Brahman, 24 Hereford and 22 Brahmanx Hereford crosses with a live weight range from 300-600 kg. An allometric Huxley model was used to study the growth and distribution patterns of fat tissue within wholesale cut. In most cases, Brahmans had significantly higher growth coefficients than Herefords and/or BrahmanxHereford crosses while Herefords and BrahmanxHereford crosses had similar growth coefficients in wholesale cuts. At log natural of 75 kg side muscle+bone weight (4.313 kg, Herefords had significantly a higher fat weight within wholesale cuts than Brahmans and BrahmanxHereford crosses. Comparison at log natural of 114 kg side muscle+bone weight (4.733 kg, whilst Brahmans and Herefords were similar in fat weight distribution, the cross-bred steer had lower fat weights than the other two breed groups in almost all wholesale cuts.

  6. Effects of glycerin concentration in steam-flaked corn-based diets with supplemental yellow grease on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttrey, E K; Luebbe, M K; McCollum, F T; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C; Hales, K E

    2015-07-01

    Forty-eight individually fed crossbred steers (initial BW = 381 ± 7.61 kg) were used to determine the effects of glycerin (GLY) concentration in steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets with added yellow grease on animal performance and carcass characteristics. Glycerin was included at 0, 2.5, 5, and 10% dietary DM replacing SFC. A completely randomized design was used with steers as the experimental unit, and the model included the fixed effects of diet. Contrast statements were used to determine linear and quadratic effects of GLY inclusion. Final BW and DMI were not affected (P > 0.27) by GLY concentration. Average daily gain and G:F based on live BW did not differ as GLY level increased in the diet from 0 to 10% of DM (P > 0.33). Carcass-adjusted final BW and carcass-adjusted G:F were also not affected by GLY concentration (P > 0.22); however, carcass-adjusted ADG tended to respond quadratically by decreasing from 2.5 to 5% GLY inclusion and increasing thereafter (P = 0.10). Calculated dietary NEm and NEg did not differ as GLY increased in the diet (P > 0.37). Hot carcass weight tended to respond quadratically, decreasing from 2.5 to 5% GLY and increasing thereafter (P = 0.10). Likewise, dressing percentage tended to respond quadratically by decreasing from 2.5 to 5% GLY inclusion and increasing to 10% GLY inclusion (P = 0.09). Fat thickness decreased linearly as GLY inclusion increased in the diet (P 0.21). Calculated yield grade (YG) decreased linearly as GLY increased in the diet from 0 to 10% of DM (P = 0.04). Based on our results, there was no animal performance benefit for replacing SFC with GLY in diets containing yellow grease, and the only change in carcass merit was a slight improvement in YG.

  7. Effect of bacterial protein meal grown on natural gas on growth performance and carcass traits of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Skrede

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial protein meal (BPM, a new protein feedstuff produced by bacteria (Methylococcus capsulatus, Alcaligenes acidovorans,Bacillus brevis and Bacillus firmus grown on natural gas, was evaluated as a protein source for pigs. Twogrowth trials were conducted, one with growing-finishing pigs and one with pigs from weaning until slaughter. In Exp. 1,18 pigs fed restrictively (26.0 and 109.4 kg initial and final weight were used to determine the effect of dietary inclusionof BPM (0, 60, or 120 g kg-1, replacing protein from soybean meal on growth performance and carcass traits. Adding60 and 120 g kg-1 BPM to diets reduced (P on growth performance during the finishing or overall periods. Both levels of BPM improved amino acid and lysine utilization(P contrast, both levels of BPM tended to increase carcass meatiness. In Exp. 2, 48 pigs (11.4 and 107.2 kg initial andfinal weight were used to evaluate increasing levels of BPM (0, 50, 100, or 150 g kg –1 on growth performance and carcasstraits from weaning at 34.5 days of age until slaughter. Bacterial protein meal reduced ADG (linear P the period from weaning until five weeks post weaning and during the period from weaning until slaughter. Increasinglevels of BPM tended to increase overall feed/gain. Also, BPM increased backfat firmness (linear P percent carcass lean (linear P fat area in cutlet (linear P with the control. In conclusion, up to 120 g kg –1 BPM in diets for pigs from 26 kg live weight until slaughter hadno adverse effect on overall growth performance or carcass lean or fat content. Up to 150 g kg –1 BPM to diets for pigsfrom weaning until slaughter reduced growth rates during the piglet period and increased carcass fat content due tomarginal dietary lysine levels. Bacterial protein meal gave a dose dependent improvement in the utilization of total aminoacids and lysine and the quality of back fat determined as fat firmness and fat color.

  8. 9 CFR 310.8 - Passing and marking of carcasses and parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.8 Passing and marking of carcasses and parts... lesions are passed for food or for cooking and “U.S. Retained” tags are attached to the carcasses,...

  9. Action of Ants on Vertebrate Carcasses and Blow Flies (Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Michele C; Morishita, Gustavo M; Cavarson, Carolina H; Gonçalves, Cristiano R; Tavares, Paulo R A; Mendonça, Angélica; Súarez, Yzel R; Antonialli-Junior, William F

    2016-11-01

    Forensic entomology is a science that uses insect fauna as a tool to assist in criminal investigations and civil proceedings. Although the most researched insects are the Diptera and Coleoptera, ants may be present in all stages of decomposition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ants and their action on blow flies during the decomposition process. Experiments were performed in which four pig carcasses were exposed in the cold and dry season (November/2012 and March/2013) and four in the hot and wet season (May/2013 and August/2013). Flies were the first insects to detect and interact with the carcasses, and six species of the Calliphoridae family were identified. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) were the second group, with six subfamilies identified. Myrmycinae represented 42% of the species, followed by Formicinae (28%), Ectatominae and Ponerinae (both 10%), and Ecitoninae and Dolichoderinae (both 5%). The ants acted on the carcasses as predators of visiting species, omnivores, and necrophagous, in all cases significantly affecting the decomposition time, slowing it down when the ants preyed on adult and immature insects consuming the carcass, or accelerating it by consuming the carcass and creating holes that could serve as gateways for the action of other organisms. The ants also generated artifacts that could lead to forensic misinterpretation.

  10. Live Performance, Carcass Yield, and Welfare of Broilers of Different Genetic Strains Reared at Different Housing Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JNT Arruda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the performance, carcass yield and quality, and physiological stress indicators of broilers of three genetic strains reared at three housing densities for 29 days. A total of 828 day-old male chicks, with average initial weight of 40.0± 2.0g were used. Three genetic strains (Cobb 500, Ross 808, and Ross 508, with 276 birds each and three housing densities (17, 19, and 21 broilers/m² were tested. A completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, with four replicates of 23 birds each, was applied. The following responses were evaluated: performance parameters (average weekly body weight, average daily gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, physiological stress indicators (blood glucose levels, blood cell counts, and carcass yield and quality (dermatosis, bruising, dermatitis, and femoral degeneration scores. Average weekly body weight (BW and daily weight gain (DWG were not influenced by rearing density (p≥0.05, but Cobb 500 broilers were the heaviest during the analyzed period. In the second week, Ross 508 birds showed better feed conversion ratio (FCR when housed at the density of 17 broilers/m² (p≤0.001, whereas the best FCR of Ross 808 and Cobb 500 broilers was obtained at 21 broilers/m² (p≤0.001. Carcass yield was not influenced by the treatments (p≥0.05. Physiological stress indicators were not affected by the treatments, and remained within normal ranges (p≥0.05. Dermatosis scores (scratches increased (p≤0.05 when housing density increased from 17 to 19 broilers /m².

  11. Cattle temperament: persistence of assessments and associations with productivity, efficiency, carcass and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafe, L M; Robinson, D L; Ferguson, D M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Greenwood, P L

    2011-05-01

    that the average values were a more reliable assessment of cattle temperament than any single measure. In Brahman cattle, increased average FS and CS were associated with significant (P carcass weight, and objective measures of meat quality. In Angus cattle, the associations between temperament and growth rates, feed intake, and carcass traits were weaker than in Brahmans, although the strength of relationships with meat quality were similar.

  12. Prebiotic and antimicrobials on performance, carcass characteristics, and antibody production in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Fomentini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of supplementation with mannan oligosaccharides, avilamycin and halquinol, alone or in combination, on the performance, carcass characteristics and antibody production in broilers (1-49 days old, male broiler chicks (n=1440; Cobb 500; one day old were housed and distributed into a completely randomized design into six treatments (eight replicates; 30 animals per pen. To produce the experimental diets, three types of performance enhancer additives were used. Halquinol (HAL, avilamycin (AVI and mannan oligosaccharides (MOS were included (alone or in combination in the basal diet (instead of corn starch. Effects of diet were observed on results of animal performance in the period 1-21 and 1-42 days old. Broilers fed with a diet without growth promoter showed lower weight gain in relation to those fed with diets with antimicrobials, MOS or a combination of them. In the period 1-49 days old, feed conversion increased in broilers fed with rations without promoter. At the end of the experimental period no influence of diets was observed on the carcass yield and cuts, and titles of specific antibodies to avian infectious bronchitis. The use of MOS and/or antimicrobials (AVI or HAL, alone or in combination, improves feed conversion of broilers reared until 49 days of age.

  13. Mapping carcass and meat quality QTL on Sus Scrofa chromosome 2 in commercial finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Kampen Tony A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting carcass and meat quality located on SSC2 were identified using variance component methods. A large number of traits involved in meat and carcass quality was detected in a commercial crossbred population: 1855 pigs sired by 17 boars from a synthetic line, which where homozygous (A/A for IGF2. Using combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium mapping (LDLA, several QTL significantly affecting loin muscle mass, ham weight and ham muscles (outer ham and knuckle ham and meat quality traits, such as Minolta-L* and -b*, ultimate pH and Japanese colour score were detected. These results agreed well with previous QTL-studies involving SSC2. Since our study is carried out on crossbreds, different QTL may be segregating in the parental lines. To address this question, we compared models with a single QTL-variance component with models allowing for separate sire and dam QTL-variance components. The same QTL were identified using a single QTL variance component model compared to a model allowing for separate variances with minor differences with respect to QTL location. However, the variance component method made it possible to detect QTL segregating in the paternal line (e.g. HAMB, the maternal lines (e.g. Ham or in both (e.g. pHu. Combining association and linkage information among haplotypes improved slightly the significance of the QTL compared to an analysis using linkage information only.

  14. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore Cattle Are Modulators of Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirene G T Pereira

    Full Text Available Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS, were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1 as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1, IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2, GH1 (growth hormone 1, IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor and GHR (growth hormone receptor, suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway.

  15. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B. P.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J.; Garcia, José F.

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway. PMID:27410030

  16. Duodenal histology and carcass quality of feedlot cattle supplemented with calcium butyrate and Bacillus subtilis

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    Thiago Simas de Oliveira Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out at the Comigo Technology Center, in Rio Verde, State of Goiás, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the effects of supplementation with calcium butyrate, as a growth promoting agent for the duodenal mucosa and Bacillus subtilis as a probiotic performance enhancer in feedlot cattle. Calcium butyrate (5 and 10 g per animal per day and Bacillus (10 g per animal per day were added to a basal diet. There were used 85 Nelore bulls, with average weight of 315 ± 7 kg. The experiment lasted 118 days, including the adaptation period, until slaughter at 30 months of age. Diets were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments, where: T1 = control (basal diet; T2 = basal diet + 5 g calcium butyrate; T3 = basal diet + 10 g calcium butyrate and T4 = basal diet + 10 g calcium butyrate + 10 g probiotic with four replications and five to six animals per replication. It was used a forage: concentrate ratio of 30:70, the roughage used was the corn silage. Height and width measurements of intestinal villi were taken, and carcass and meat quality were evaluated. The supplementation of calcium butyrate and Bacillus subtilis positively influenced (p < 0.05 the carcass marbling level and calcium butyrate increased the villus height in the small intestine.

  17. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail broiler chicken meat carcasses in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city/department) were collected using a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the ...

  18. Effect of creatine addition in feeds containing animal meals on the performance and carcass yield of broilers

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    CMC Carvalho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed exclusively vegetable diets and diets containing animal meal with the addition of creatine or not after day 8. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments with six replicates each. A control diet based on corn and soybean meal was formulated, to which animal meals and creatine were included or not. Diets were formulated to contain equal mineral (calcium, phosphorus and sodium and amino acid (available methionine + cystine, lysine and threonine levels. The following treatments were applied: A. control (diet based on corn and soybean meal; B. control + creatine (600g/ton; C. inclusion of 5% meat and bone meal (MBM, D. inclusion of 5% MBM + creatine (600g/ton, E. inclusion of 5% blood meal (BM, F. inclusion 5% BM + creatine (600g/ton. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, carcass yield and viability were evaluated. At 42 days of age, BM dietary inclusion impaired weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The inclusion of MBM affected only feed conversion ratio. The addition of creatine ito the diet with BM improved weight gain when compared with the BM diet with no creatine. The addition of creatine to the diet containing 5% BM improved weight gain when compared with the same diet without the use of the additive.

  19. Genetic parameters for carcass and meat quality traits and their relationships to liveweight and wool production in hogget Merino rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeff, J C; Safari, E; Fogarty, N M; Hopkins, D L; Brien, F D; Atkins, K D; Mortimer, S I; van der Werf, J H J

    2008-06-01

    Genetic parameters for carcass and meat quality traits of about 18-month-old Merino rams (n = 5870), the progeny of 543 sires from three research resource flocks, were estimated. The estimates of heritability for hot carcass weight (HCW) and the various fat and muscle dimension measurements were moderate and ranged from 0.20 to 0.37. The brightness of meat (colour L*, 0.18 +/- 0.03 standard error) and meat pH (0.22 +/- 0.03) also had moderate estimates of heritability, although meat relative redness (colour a*, 0.10 +/- 0.03) and relative yellowness (colour b*, 0.10 +/- 0.03) were lower. Heritability estimates for live weights were moderate and ranged from 0.29 to 0.41 with significant permanent maternal environmental effects (0.13 to 0.10). The heritability estimates for the hogget wool traits were moderate to high and ranged from 0.27 to 0.60. The ultrasound measurements of fat depth (FATUS) and eye muscle depth (EMDUS) on live animals were highly genetically correlated with the corresponding carcass measurements (0.69 +/- 0.09 FATC and 0.77 +/- 0.07 EMD). Carcass tissue depth (FATGR) had moderate to low genetic correlations with carcass muscle measurements [0.18 +/- 0.10 EMD and 0.05 +/- 0.10 eye muscle area (EMA)], while those with FATC were negative. The genetic correlation between EMD and eye muscle width (EMW) was 0.41 +/- 0.08, while EMA was highly correlated with EMD (0.89 +/- 0.0) and EMW (0.78 +/- 0.04). The genetic correlations for muscle colour with muscle measurements were moderately negative, while those with fat measurements were close to zero. Meat pH was positively correlated with muscle measurements (0.14 to 0.17) and negatively correlated with fat measurements (-0.06 to -0.18). EMDUS also showed a similar pattern of correlations to EMD with meat quality indicator traits, although FATUS had positive correlations with these traits which were generally smaller than their standard error. The genetic correlations among the meat colour traits were

  20. Carcass and meat traits of Morada Nova, Santa Ines and ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs finished in feedlot

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    Juliano Issakowicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the carcass and meat traits of Morada Nova, Santa Ines and ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs finished in feedlot. Weight and proportion of meatcuts, measures of carcass size and color, tenderness, cooking loss and ultimate pH of meat from 10 Morada Nova, 6 Santa Ines and 10 ½ Ile de France ½ Texel were evaluated. The lambs were finished in collective pens, fed ad libitum with 50% corn silage and 50% concentrate and slaughtered at about six months old. Analysis of variance was performed by the procedure PROC GLM of SAS (SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% significance. The Morada Nova lambs had values of 14.1 kg, 13.9 kg, 0.240 kg/cm, 56.2 cm and 35.8 cm for hot and cold carcass weight, compactness index, hip and leg circumference respectively and these values were lower (P <0.05 to values observed in Santa Ines (19.4 kg, 18.8 kg, 0.283 cm/kg, 64.6 cm and 40.0 cm and in ½ Ile de France ½ Texel (18.6 kg, 18.2 kg, 0.305 cm/kg; 65.4 cm and 41.6 cm lambs. The hot and cold carcass yield did not differ (P> 0.05 among genetic groups. The scores for conformation and fat cover were higher (P <0.05 in ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs (2.4 and 3.0 and the carcass length was greater in Santa Ines lambs (66.3 cm. The ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs had smaller (P<0.05 proportion of neck and greater of leg (9.10% and 33.1% compared to Morada Nova lambs (10.3% and 30.4% and Santa Inês (10.9% and 31.6%. The weight of shoulder, leg, rack, ribs and flank was lower (P<0.05 in Morada Nova (1.306, 2.127 kg, 0.999 kg, 0.775 kg and 0.433 kg respectively compared to Santa Inês (1.820 kg, 2.972 kg, 1.355 kg, 0.959 and 0.509 kg and ½ Ile de France ½ Texel (1.791 kg, 3.007 kg, 1.212 kg, 1.016 kg and 0.563 kg. The neck was heavier in Santa Ines (1.038 kg which differed (P <0.05 from the other genetic groups (0.725 kg for Morada Nova and 0.830 kg for ½ Ile de France x ½ Texel lambs. The ½ Ile de

  1. Weighted Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, Margareta; Branzei, Simina; Loker, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate clustering in the weighted setting, in which every data point is assigned a real valued weight. We conduct a theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in each of the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterising the precise conditions under which such algorithms react to weights, and classifying clustering methods into three broad categories: weight-responsive, weight-considering, and weight-robust. Our analysis raises several interesting questions and can be directly mapped to the classical unweighted setting.

  2. Effects of energy level in finisher diets and slaughter age of on the performance and carcass yield in broiler chickens

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    R de Albuquerque

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Male broilers were used to evaluate the effects of different energy levels in finisher diets and age of slaughter on performance, production pattern and carcass yield. Experimental design was a 2x3 factorial arrangement: energy level (ME in the finisher diet (3,200 and 3,600 kcal ME/kg and age of slaughter (42, 49 and 56 days, resulting in six treatments with four replicates. The finisher diet was fed only in the last week of the growing period. Characteristics evaluated were feed consumption (FC, body weight gain (WG, feed conversion (FC, energy intake (EI, caloric conversion (CC, efficiency production index, production pattern, and carcass yield. The results showed better WG and CC for broilers fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg finisher diet. Broilers slaughtered at 42 and 49 days of age had better performance and higher annual production than broilers slaughtered at 56 days of age. Carcass yield was influenced by slaughter age and better breast yield was seen at 49 and 56 days than at 42 days of age. It was concluded that 3,200 kcal ME/kg induced the best overall performance. Poultry houses were efficiently used when broilers were slaughtered at 42 days of age. Meat:bone ratio was improved for broilers slaughtered at 49 and 56 days of age.

  3. Effects of feeding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), organic selenium and chromium mixed on growth performance and carcass traits of hair lambs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro A Hernndez-Garca; Alejandro Lara-Bueno; Germn D Mendoza-Martnez; Jos R Brcena-Gama; Fernando X Plata-Prez; Ruifno Lpez-Ordaz; Jos A Martnez-Garca

    2015-01-01

    Yeasts and organic minerals are used in diets to improve health, productive performance and some carcass characteristics of ruminants and non-ruminants. Thirty-two lambs (Pelibuey×Katahdin;BW=(30.55±1.67) kg;n=8) were used in a 56-d feeding experiment to study the effects of different levels of live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae;yeast), selenium (Se) and chromium (Cr) mixed (Se-Cr), and a mixture of yeast-Se-Cr on growth performance and carcass traits. Animals were stratiifed by body weight (BW) and randomly assigned to one of four treatments:1) control group (0.0 g kg–1 yeast);2) yeast (1.50 g kg–1 dry matter intake (DMI) d–1);3) Se-Cr premix (1.5 mg kg–1 DMI d–1 for each mineral);and 4) yeast-Se-Cr mixture. There were no treatment effects on ifnal BW;whereas lambs fed Se-Cr or yeast-Se-Cr had higher (P0.05) among treatment groups. In conclusion, supplementation with yeast, Se-Cr mixed or yeast-Se-Cr did not improve ADG, ifnal BW, back fat content and carcass yield of growing of Pelibuey×Katahdin lambs. Supplementation with Se-Cr and yeast-Se-Cr increased DMI, and approximately 250 g ADG animal–1 d–1 was produced with no negative effects on growth and health of the animals.

  4. Growth and carcass production responses of EPMp broiler ducks to various levels of crude fiber and protein in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maijon Purba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion of crude fiber in diet is important for duck growth, but there is a limit in its use in order for the ducks to grow normally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth and carcass production responses of EPMp broiler ducks under different levels of crude fiber and protein in diets. Four hundreds and twenty day old ducklings were allocated into 7 treatments with 6 replications and each replication consisted of 10 ducks. The treatments were the factorial combinations of crude fiber content of 6 or 9% and protein content of 19, 21, or 23%; and BR-1 (starter diet as positive control. The variables observed were: feed intake, weekly body weight, and percentage of carcass production. The results showed that all variables observed were not significantly affected by CF content, but highly significantly affected by crude protein levels in diet. Protein content of 19 or 21% in diet resulted in a better performance for EPMp ducks. The inclusion of high CF in diet did not affect carcass percentage, except for reduced abdominal fat. The study implies that administration of high CF (6 or 9% with a protein content of 19 or 21% in the diet are still acceptable to EPMp ducks at 12 weeks.

  5. Carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore cattle fed different non-fiber carbohydrates sources associated with crude glycerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, V R; Ezequiel, J M B; Almeida, M T C; D'Aurea, A P; Paschoaloto, J R; van Cleef, E H C B; Carvalho, V B; Junqueira, N B

    2016-08-01

    Crude glycerin, a potential energy source for ruminant animals, has been evaluated, mainly, in diets with high starch content. However, a limit number of studies have evaluated the inclusion of crude glycerin in low starch diets. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the association of crude glycerin with corn grain or citrus pulp on carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls (n=30, 402±31 kg initial weight). The treatment consisted of: CON=control, without crude glycerin; CG10=10% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CG15=15% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CP10=10% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp; CP15=15% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp. The performance parameters and carcass traits were not affected by treatments (P>0.05). The inclusion of crude glycerin decreased yellow color intensity and increased fatty acids pentadecanoic and heptadecenoic in meat (Pglycerin with corn or citrus pulp has no adverse effects on carcass characteristics and meat quality.

  6. Effects of supplemental vitamin D3 on feed intake, carcass characteristics, tenderness, and muscle properties of beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karges, K; Brooks, J C; Gill, D R; Breazile, J E; Owens, F N; Morgan, J B

    2001-11-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of supplemental dietary vitamin D3 on DMI, carcass traits, Warner Bratzler shear (WBS) force, calpastatin activity, plasma minerals, pH (0, 3, 12, and 24 h after slaughter), water-holding capacity (WHC), and sensory characteristics of three muscles. Pre-slaughter vitamin D3 treatments included no supplemental vitamin D3, 6 x 106 IU (MIU) of vitamin D3 for 4 d, or 6 MIU of vitamin D3 for 6 d. Cattle were slaughtered and carcasses were chilled for 48 h before removal of steaks from the longissimus, gluteus medius, and biceps femoris muscles. Steaks were aged at 2 degrees C for 7, 14, or 21 d before cooking to a final internal temperature of 70 degrees C for WBS and sensory panel analysis. Dry matter intake was lower for steers supplemented with vitamin D3 for 4 or 6 d. Live and carcass weights were lower (P or = 3.86 kg for all steaks. Feeding vitamin D3 had no effect on palatability traits evaluated by trained panelists. Blood Ca concentrations were greater (P 0.02) after 0 h, 24 h, and 21 d postmortem when vitamin D3 was fed and was greater at 0 and 24 h if vitamin D3 was fed for 6 d rather than 4 d. These data suggest that supplementing 6 MIU of vitamin D3 will decrease DMI and improve beef tenderness through increased blood plasma Ca concentrations and WHC.

  7. Carcass Traits and Immune Response of Broiler Chickens Fed Dietary L-Carnitine, Coenzyme Q10 and Ractopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Asadi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of coenzyme Q10, L-carnitine and ractopamine supplementation, alone and in combinations, on carcass traits and immune response of broiler chickens. Five hundred and twelve one-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens were randomly allocated into eight treatments with four replicates each. A 2×2×2 factorial arrangement was applied, with two levels of coenzyme Q10 (0 and 40 mg/kg, two levels of L-carnitine (0 and 200 mg/kg and two levels of ractopamine (0 and 10 mg/kg. The birds were reared until day 42 of age under standard conditions. Blood samples were collected at the end of grower and finisher periods from the wing vein. Four birds per group were sacrificed at day 42 of age. Except for carcass yield, other carcass traits were not significantly affected (p>0.05 by different levels of coenzyme Q10, L-carnitine, or ractopamine. Immune response parameters were significantly (p<0.05 different between the treatments. The lowest antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus and relative spleen weight were observed in control group. The results of this study suggest that addition of coenzyme Q10 and L-carnitine to broiler diets has benefit effect on immune response of broiler chickens.

  8. Effect of low or high stress in pre-slaughter handling on pig carcass and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Manha Peres

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequences of low or high stress during pre-slaughter handling of pigs on their carcass and meat quality. Forty-four animals of a commercial lineage, with an average weight of 107.23±5.23 kg, were used. At lairage the animals were randomly divided into two groups, the least and the most stressed. At slaughter, during bleeding, blood samples were collected for later cortisol and lactate tests. Forty-five minutes after slaughter the initial pH of th carcasses was measured and samples of the semitendinosus muscle were collected for R-value calculation. After 24 hours of cooling, the final pH was measured, damage scores were assessed and samples of the longissimus dorsi muscle were collected to evaluate drip loss, liquid loss from defrosting and cooking, shear force, lipid oxidation, and color. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey´s test. It was found that cortisol, lactate and R-value were lower and initial pH was higher for the least stressed animals, whereas the other parameters were not significantly affected. Thus, low stress in the pre-slaughter handling of pigs is effective in reducing stress and carcass damage, but has no effect on meat quality.

  9. Effect of halophyte Salicornia bigelovii Torr and graded levels of dietary crude protein on feed performance and carcass traits of camels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed H. Mahmoud

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of source of roughage and crude protein level on feeding performance and carcass traits of Majaheem camels (Camelus dromedarius. Forty-eight male calf-camels weighing 203.3±5.1 kg were equally assigned to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of two sources of roughage (Rhodes grass hay and dry salicornia biomass and three dietary crude protein levels (12, 14.5, and 17%; the feeding trial lasted for 18 weeks. The results showed that slaughter and hot carcass weights, average daily gain, dry matter intake, feed efficiency, and separable fat from 9th-11th rib joint increased as the crude protein in the diets increased from 12 to 14.5%, whereas increasing crude protein to 17% resulted in no further changes. Slaughter weight, average daily gain, hot carcass weight, rib eye area, and separable lean did not differ between Rhodes grass and salicornia diets, but salicornia-fed camels had higher dry matter intake and produced heavier kidney fat and separable fat weights than camels fed Rhodes grass diets. It is suggested that the inclusion of salicornia biomass as a roughage ingredient up to 25% in the diet containing not greater than 14.5% crude protein can be utilized without adverse effect on feeding performance of calf-camels.

  10. Detection of quantitative trait loci for growth and carcass composition in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Shackelford, S D; Keele, J W; Koohmaraie, M; Smith, T P L; Stone, R T

    2003-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci for economically important traits in a family from a Bos indicus x Bos taurus sire. A Brahman x Hereford sire was used to develop a half-sib family (n = 547). The sire was mated to Bos taurus cows. Traits analyzed were birth (kg) and weaning weights (kg); hot carcass weight (kg); marbling score; longissimus area (cm2); USDA yield grade; estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (%); fat thickness (cm); fat yield (%); and retail product yield (%). Meat tenderness was measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force (kg) at 3 and 14 d postmortem. Two hundred and thirty-eight markers were genotyped in 185 offspring. One hundred and thirty markers were used to genotype the remaining 362 offspring. A total of 312 markers were used in the final analysis. Seventy-four markers were common to both groups. Significant QTL (expected number of false-positives carcass weight, QTL were detected on chromosomes 10, 18, and 29. Four QTL for yield grade were identified on chromosomes 2, 11, 14, and 19. Three QTL for fat thickness were detected on chromosomes 2, 3, 7, and 14. For marbling score, QTL were identified on chromosomes 3, 10, 14, and 27. Four QTL were identified for retail product yield on chromosomes 12, 18, 19, and 29. A QTL for estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat was detected on chromosome 15, and a QTL for meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force at 3 d postmortem was identified on chromosome 20. Two QTL were detected for meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force at 14 d postmortem on chromosomes 20 and 29. These results present a complete scan in all available progeny in this family. Regions underlying QTL need to be assessed in other populations.

  11. Effect of different feed restriction regimens on lamb performance and carcass traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abouheif

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fifty Najdi ram lambs weighing an average of 38.1±0.5 kg were utilized in this study to determine the effects of feed restriction level with or without subsequent realimentation on lamb performance and carcass composition. Lambs were allotted randomly and equally into five groups. The groups were fed a control diet ad libitum; two groups fed 0.90 and 0.80 of ad libitum intake throughout the eight-week period of the trial (R, and two groups fed 0.90 and 0.80 of ad libitum intake for a six-week period followed by two weeks of realimentation (RR. All lambs were slaughtered after eight weeks of experimentation. Average daily gain (ADG for the 0.90 and 0.80 ad libitum groups decreased by 7.6 and 26.9% during restriction, whereas the lambs during realimentation period had 35 and 30.5% faster ADG and 27.5 and 21.8% better feed:gain ratios than the control, respectively. At the end of the trial, final, empty and hot carcass weights and overall ADG of the 0.90 ad libitum RR group did not differ from control. Feeding performance values of the 0.80 ad libitum R group were the lowest among the treatments. The studied feed restriction regimens depressed the weights of empty stomach, tail fat, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat; however, two weeks of realimentation were not enough to induce complete weight recovery in these tissues. The 0.90 ad libitum RR restriction routine can be adopted as a nutritional management practice for fattening Najdi lambs.

  12. Relación entre variables morfométricas en canales de la raza equina “Cavall pirinenc català” - Relationships between morphometric values in “Cavall pirinenc català” equine breed carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parés i Casanova, Pere-Miquel.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe analizaron 27 canales de potro (19 machos y 8 hembras de la raza“Cavall Pirinenc Català”. Las variables obtenidas fueron la anchura depecho y de cadera, la longitud de canal y el peso de la canal caliente, que arrojaron unos coeficientes de variación de 1,2 a 11,3%. La anchura de la cadera y la longitud de la canal presentaron una distribución no normal. Las medidas lineales de la anchura de pecho mostraron una correlación positiva baja con el peso de la cana(r=0,476. Este trabajo muestra que deben elegirse otras variablesmorfométricas para la predicción de cortes valiosos en canales equinas.SummaryA test is conducted with 27 young horses (19 males and 8 femalesbelonging to “Cavall Pirinenc Català” breed. Chest and hip width,carcass length and hot carcass weight exhibit variation coefficients that ranged from 1.2 to 11.3 percent. Hip width and carcass length has no normal distribution. Linear measurements of chest width has a low, positive relationship with hot carcass weight (r=0.476. This study shows that other morphometric traits must be used for predictingvaluable cuts in equine carcasses.

  13. Growth performances and carcass characteristics of veal calves fed acidified whole milk and milk replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedprasit, S.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the growth performances and carcass characteristics of male veal calves fed at different levels of acidified whole milk and milk replacer. Twenty-four male Holstein- Friesian 75% crossbred calves with an initial average live weight of 35.44±1.73 kg were allotted into 4 groups under a completely randomized design (CRD for 90 days. Group 1 received 100% whole acidified milk (AM, group 2 received 75% AM and 25% milk replacer (MR, group 3 received 50% AM and 50% MR and group 4 received 100% MR. All groups received 10% body weight of liquid diet, 2% live weight of starter feed and ad libitum of rice straw. After 90 days, the calves in group 1 showed the best final live weight (98.33 kg followed by groups 2 (75.08 kg, 3 (70.00 kg and 4 (57.36 kg (P0.05 in the percentage of fore-quarter and hind-quarter between the treatments. Considering production costs, calves in group 1 showed the lowest cost per live weight gain (53.31 baht/kg gain, followed by group 2 (64.39 baht/kg gain, 3 (77.74 baht/kg gain and 4 (116.82 baht/kg gain, respectively.

  14. Crescimento alométrico de osso, músculo e gordura em cortes da carcaça de cordeiros Texel segundo os métodos de alimentação e peso de abate Muscle, fat and bone allometric growth in Texel lambs carcasses cuts in relation to the feeding methods and slaughter weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Teixeira da Rosa

    2005-08-01

    sexo com coeficientes de alometria variando de 1,80 a 2,12.The experiment aimed at studying the allometric growth of the different tissues of neck, rib, shoulder blade and leg in relation to the cutting weight of male and female lambs. Twenty-two intact Texel males and 23 Texel females were used. Seven of them were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment and the others at the weight of 25 or 33kg. Sheep and lambs were distributed into three methods of feeding: M1 - Corn silage and concentrate, only to lambs until weaning at 60 days old; M2 - Corn silage and concentrate, only to lambs until weaning at 45 days old and M3 - Corn silage and concentrate to ewe and lamb until weaning at 60 days old. After weaning, lambs were fed with silage plus concentrate. A completely randomized design outlined in a factorial arrangement 3 x 2 x 2 (3 methods, 2 sexes and 2 slaughter weights was used. Determination of growth was obtained through the equation log y = log.a + b log.x, by using the logarithm of bone, muscle and fat weight in function of cutting weight logarithm. It was observed that neck and rib bone was precocious (b1, regardless of sex and feeding method with allometry coefficients varying from 1.78 to 2.15 (neck and 1.51 to 1.65 (rib. In shoulder blade, bone was precocious in both sexes, with allometry coefficients varying from 0.76 to 0.79 and 0.54 to 0.58 for males and females, respectively. Muscle presented isometric growth (b = 1, regardless of sex and slaughter weight. Fat was late (b>1, regardless of slaughter weight and sex, with allometry coefficients varying from 1.80 to 2.12. In leg, bone growth was precocious in females and isometric in males, with allometry coefficients varying from 0.57 to 0.63 and 0.78 to 0.80, respectively, for both sexes. Muscle presented isometric growth (b = 1, regardless of sex and slaughter weight. Fat was late (b>1, regardless of slaughter weight and sex, with allometry coefficients varying from 1.80 to 2.12.

  15. Levels of digestible isoleucine on performance, carcass traits and organs weight of gilts (15 - 30 KG) Níveis de isoleucina digestível sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça e peso de órgãos de fêmeas suínas (15 - 30 kg)

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Dalcin Castilha; Paulo Cesar Pozza; Ricardo Vianna Nunes; Doglas Batista Lazzeri; Marcelo Luiz Somensi; Magali Soares dos Santos Pozza

    2012-01-01

    The ideal protein concept for pigs has allowed reducing levels of crude protein in the diet, since synthetic amino acids are included because the branched chain amino acids may be limiting. In order to determine the digestible isoleucine requirement for gilts from 15 to 30 kg, a performance assay was accomplished, using 40 crossbreed gilts of high genetic potential, averaging 15.00 ± 0.52 kg of body weight, alloted in a randomized blocks design, consisting of five treatments (0.45, 0.52, 0.59...

  16. Determination of Coleoptera fauna on carcasses in Ankara province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Senem; Sert, Osman

    2009-01-10

    In this study, 40 species from Staphylinidae, Histeridae, Dermestidae, Silphidae, Nitidulidae and Cleridae families of Coleoptera which were found in 12 pig (Sus scrofa L.) carcasses were identified and recorded during a one-year period at the Hacettepe University Beytepe Campus located in Ankara, Turkey. According to the duration of their presence on the carcasses, 22 of these species were accepted to be important in decomposition. Their distribution over the months and the duration of their presence in the various decomposition stages over the seasons were determined.

  17. Effects of organic chromium supplementation to ifnishing lambs diet on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura Moreno-Camarena; Ignacio Domnguez-Vara; Jos Brquez-Gastelum; Juan Snchez-Torres; Juan Pinos-Rodrguez; Antonia Mariezcurrena-Berasain; Ernesto Morales-Almarz; Abdelfattah Z M Salem

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate supplemental organic chromium (Cr) to ifnishing lambs on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Eighteen Suffolk lambs (age (4.5±0.2) mon;(25.8±3.6) kg body weight (BW)) were randomly assigned to three levels of supplemental organic Cr (0.0, 0.2 and 0.4 mg kg–1 dry matter (DM)) in a com-plete random design. Growth performance was evaluated for 70 d, and then lambs were slaughtered to study carcass characteristics and chemical composition of meat. Orthogonal contrasts were performed (contrast one-average level 0.2 ppm Cr vs. average level 0.4 ppm Cr;contrast two-level 0 vs. average levels (0.2+0.4) ppm Cr). Orthogonal polynomials were used to estimate the linear and quadratic effects of Cr concentrations. Growth and carcass performance were not affected by supplemental organic Cr. Muscle conformation and leg perimeter linearly increased (P<0.05) as organic Cr level increased in the diet. Kidney fat decreased linearly (P<0.05) as supplemental Cr increased. In Longissimus dorsi (LD), the ash content decreased linearly, and shear force (kg cm–2) increased (P<0.05) as organic Cr level increased in the diet. It is concluded that organic Cr did not affect growth performance, but it improved positively the muscle conformation, reduced kidney fat, whereas in LD there was an increment in shear force in ifnishing carcass lambs.

  18. THE EFFECT OF PRODUCTION SYSTEM AND WEANING ON LAMB CARCASS TRAITS AND MEAT CHARACTERISTICS OF AUTOCHTHONOUS JEZERSKO-SOLČAVA BREED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cividini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two Jezersko-Solčava lambs were used in a 2X2 factorial design to evaluate the effect of production system (fattening in stable with hay and cereals ad libitum or on the pasture and weaning (suckling or weaned lambs on carcass and meat traits of lambs. Suckling lambs were slaughtered at 125 days of age (30 kg of live weight and weaned lambs were slaughtered at 165 days (38 kg of live weight. No significant differences in daily gain and dressing percentage compared to the production system or weaning were observed. Lambs from pasture had greater percentage of liver, heart and spleen. They had longer and wider carcasses and lower carcass fatness as indicated by lower percentage of kidney fat (1.16 vs. 1.99 and lower percentage of fat in leg than lambs from stable. They also had higher percentage of shoulder and leg and lower percentage of back, loin and rib with flank. Production system also affected meat color. Lambs from pasture had higher CIE L, a and b values of Longissimus dorsi muscle. Mostly, weaning influenced carcass fatness and related traits. Suckling lambs had lower fatness score (4.94 vs. 6.25, lower percentage of kidney fat and fat in leg (8.66 vs. 10.31 and lower percentage of rib with flank than weaned lambs. Meat from suckling lambs was also of lighter colour. There was no significant interaction between production system and weaning on studied carcass or meat traits.

  19. Effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and the fat and meat fatty acid profile of rabbits fed diets with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, P G; Meineri, G

    2008-12-01

    The effects of three levels (0%, 10%, or 15%) of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed (SHS) included in the diet on the growth performance, some carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat and perirenal fat was studied. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences among the groups in live weight, live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, carcass yield or the percentages of edible organs. The percentage values of hind legs, fore legs, loin and abdominal wall, breast and ribs, skin and limbs, and head were not affected by the inclusion level of SHS. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat was significantly increased with increasing SHS inclusion, while the saturated fatty acid (SFA) decreased. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of the rabbit meat decreased from 4.55 in the control group, to 1.03 in the 15% SHS group.

  20. Development, economic viability and attributes of lamb carcass from confined animals fed on different amounts of crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Cristine de Almeida Rego

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to assess the effect from crude glycerin inclusion (0, 7, 14, and 21% dry matter in the diet of slaughtered lamb on their development, nutrient consumption, biometrical measures, diet economic viability and carcass features. Thirty two (32 non-castrated male Texel lambs were used in the study, they presented mean initial weight 15.9 ± 4.1 kilos and were distributed in casual outlining. They were fed with four treatments, with 8 repetitions. Animals were slaughtered when they reached approximately 35 kilos. The mean total weight gain was 20.72 kilos and mean daily weight gain was 260 grams. No changes resulted from glycerin use. The carcass performance was similar among treatments (P>0.05 and the cold carcass performance (CCP was 44.68%. There were no effects (P>0.05 on the loin eye area (LEA and on fat thickness (FT; they showed averages of 13.66 cm2 and 0.84 mm, respectively. Nutrition cost per animal during the whole confinement period varied between R$82.60 (eighty-two Reais and forty-eight cents to R$92.48. The smallest nutrition amount consisted of 21% crude glycerin. The gross profit ranged from R$30.75 to R$ 34.01 per animal, for feed without glycerin and 21% glycerin, respectively. Animal development was not impacted by glycerin introduction, even with decrease on dry and organic mass consumption. The result showed that crude glycerin inclusion might be used in lambs’ diet. Whenever there are big amounts of feed involved in the process, the 21% crude glycerin addition may be an interesting cost reduction. Seventy eight percent (78% glycerol crude glycerin to replace corn-based feed in confined lambs’ diet appeared to be nutritionally and economically viable. 

  1. Effect of dietary probiotic and high stocking density on the performance, carcass yield, gut microflora, and stress indicators of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Özcan; Köksal, Bekir H; Tatlı, Onur; Sevim, Ömer; Ahsan, Umair; Üner, Aykut G; Ulutaş, Pınar A; Beyaz, Devrim; Büyükyörük, Sadık; Yakan, Akın; Önol, Ahmet G

    2015-10-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary probiotic supplementation and stocking density on the performance, relative carcass yield, gut microflora, and stress markers of broilers. One-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens (n = 480) were allocated to 4 experimental groups for 42 d. Each treatment had 8 replicates of 15 chicks each. Two groups were subjected to a high stocking density (HSD) of 20 birds/m² and the other 2 groups were kept at low stocking density (LSD) of 10 birds/m². A basal diet supplemented with probiotic 1 and 0.5 g/kg of diet (in starter and finisher diets, respectively) was fed to 2 treatments, one with HSD and the other with LSD, thereby making a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. There was no interaction between stocking density (LSD and HSD) and dietary probiotic (supplemented and unsupplemented) for all the variables. Feed intake and weight gain were significantly low and feed conversion ratio was poor in broilers at HSD. Dietary probiotic significantly enhanced the feed intake and weight gain in starter phase only. Dietary probiotic supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on total aerobs, Salmonella sp., and Lactobacilli populations in the intestines of broilers. However, HSD reduced the Lactobacilli population only (P probiotic did not affect the relative carcass yield and weight of lymphoid organs. Serum malondialdehyde, corticosterone, nitric oxide, and plasma heterophil:lymphocyte ratio were not affected either by stocking density or dietary probiotic supplementation. In conclusion, HSD negatively affected the performance and intestinal Lactobacilli population of broilers only, whereas probiotic supplementation enhanced the performance of broilers during the starter phase only. Total aerobes, Salmonella, Lactobacilli carcass yield, and stress indicators of broilers were not affected by the dietary supplementation of probiotic under the conditions of the present study.

  2. The effects of “Beijing grass” in diets on growth performance, humoral antibody and carcass characteristics in quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chethanond, U.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological study on Beijing grass (Bj. grass: Murdannia loriformis showed immunomodulator and anticancer activities. Thus, the effect of Bj. grass in diets was investigated in Japanese quails (aged 0-6 weeks on growth performances, humoral immunity and carcass characteristics. 708 1-day-old quails (Corturnix type which had no vaccination program were used in this study. They were experimented using completely randomized design and were divided into 6 treatments consisted of 4 replications with 27-31 heads each. The treatments were assigned as follows: Treatment 1 (T1 no vaccination and no Bj.grass, Treatment 2 (T2 vaccination and no Bj.grass, Treatment 3 (T3 vaccination and 3% Bj.grass, Treatment 4 (T4 vaccination and 6% Bj.grass, Treatment 5 (T5 vaccination and 9% Bj.grass and Treatment 6 (T6 vaccination and 10% Bj.grass juice (w/v. Vaccination program by 1 Newcastle disease + Infectious Bronchitis and 2 Pox were given at 1 and 3 weeks. Approximately 25% of quails were bled for determination of packed cell volume, gamma globulin levels and ND-HI titers. All male quails were put to sleep at 6 weeks. The results showed weight gain in the 3rd week was different in treatments using Bj. grass and treatments using control diet which body weight gain reduced when the level of Bj. grass increased (p 0.05. It was noted that not more than 6% Bj. grass could be used in quail diet without abnormal clinical signs. However, the more grass showed the tendency of poor weight gain. There were no differences in packed cell volume or gamma IgG level and ND-HI titers did not reach protection level. For carcass characteristics, Bj. grass 3% in diet gave the best carcass characteristics. (p < 0.05 In addition there was a dose-related reduction of abdominal fat (P=0.001.

  3. Weight and yield of non-carcass components of Morada Nova lambs fed with different levels of metabolizable energyPeso e rendimento dos componentes não-carcaça de ovinos Morada Nova alimentados com diferentes níveis de energia metabolizável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo de Araújo Camilo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different metabolizable energy (ME levels on weight of gastrointestinal content, weight and yield of the internal organs and gastrointestinal compartments of Morada Nova growing lambs. Thirty-two animals, non-castrated, with average body weight of 12.12 ± 1.69 kg and two months old approximately, were used. The animals were distributed into four different metabolizable energy (1.28; 1.72; 2.18 and 2.62 Mcal/kg DM levels, in randomized block design with eight replicates per treatment. Tifton 85 hay was used as roughage. There was no effect of energy levels (P > 0.05 on weight of gastrointestinal content. Increased linear effect (P Objetivou-se com o presente estudo avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de energia metabolizável (EM sobre: peso do conteúdo do trato gastrintestinal, peso e rendimento dos órgãos internos e compartimentos gastrintestinais em ovinos Morada Nova em crescimento. Foram utilizados 32 animais, não castrados, com peso corporal médio de 12,12 ± 1,69 kg e, aproximadamente, dois meses de idade. Os animais foram distribuídos em quatro diferentes níveis de EM (1,28; 1,72; 2,18 e 2,62 Mcal/kg de MS, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com oito repetições por nível de EM. O feno de Tifton 85 foi utilizado como volumoso. Não foi observado efeito (P > 0,05 dos níveis de energia sobre o peso do conteúdo gastrintestinal. Verificou-se efeito linear crescente (P < 0,05 dos níveis de EM sobre os pesos do coração, PTEL (pulmões, traqueia, esôfago e língua, fígado e baço, expressos em kg. Em relação aos compartimentos do trato gastrintestinal foi observado efeito linear crescente (P < 0,05 dos níveis de EM somente sobre o rúmen-retículo, em %, e intestino delgado, em kg. As gorduras perirrenal, omental e mesentérica foram influenciadas pelos níveis de EM (P < 0,05, com incremento linear para os pesos em kg e %. O aumento dos níveis de EM das ra

  4. Feeding systems and periods of finishing on the body and carcass measurements of lambs slaughtered in the South Central region of the Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilei Rogerio Prado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the effect of feeding system and time of the year on the in vivo and carcass characteristics of lambs slaughtered at the Cooperative Cooperaliança (Guarapuava-PR. Ile de France lambs and their crossbreds (n=253 were evaluated at slaughter with 39.6 kg of mean body weight in three periods between April and September 2010. Four feeding systems for finishing of lambs were identified: a grazing dams + lambs with creep-feeding for lambs (n=67; b no supplemented, grazing dams + lambs (n=47; c grazing dams + lambs, all of them supplemented with concentrate (n=30; d irregular system of feeding (n=109. Measurements on lambs were carried out in vivo and by ultrasound before slaughter and the carcass measurements were taken before and after chilling. Lambs delivered for slaughter between the end of August and the first half of September showed better results (p <0.05 for muscle development, dressing percentage and fat thickness in the carcass compared to that slaughtered in April and June. It was concluded that the feeding system with supplementation for dams and sucking lambs resulted in better characteristics for body and carcass measurements compared to other systems.

  5. Postweaning and feedlot growth and carcass characteristics of Angus-, gray Brahman-, Gir-, Indu-Brazil-, Nellore-, and red Brahman-sired F1 calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschal, J C; Sanders, J O; Kerr, J L; Lunt, D K; Herring, A D

    1995-02-01

    Postweaning, feedlot, and carcass data from crossbred calves sired by five Bos indicus breeds and one Bos taurus breed were evaluated. Data included records from F1 calves out of multiparous Hereford cows sired by Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman bulls. The Zebu crosses grew faster postweaning and were heavier and taller as yearlings than the Angus crosses (P Brahman crosses were faster gaining and were heavier at a year of age than the Gir, Indu-Brazil, and Nellore. The Nellore crosses were significantly taller than the Gray Brahman- and Gir-sired crosses; the Indu-Brazil and Red Brahman were intermediate. Angus crosses were lightest on and off feed but were not significantly different from Gir, and Red and Gray Brahman were heaviest (P Brahman for final weight. The Angus cross was more desirable (P Brahman, Indu-Brazil, and Angus crosses; Red Brahman crosses were intermediate Angus crosses had the lightest carcasses but not significantly lighter than the Indu-Brazil, Gir, or Nellore. Red Brahman-cross carcasses were heaviest and Gray Brahman-cross carcasses were intermediate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Efficiency of ethanolic extract of peppermint (Mentha piperita) as an antibiotic growth promoter substitution on performance, and carcass characteristics in broiler chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahram Nanekarani; Majid Goodarzi; Mohammad Heidari; Nasir Landy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This trial was conducted to examine the effect of usage different levels of ethanolic extract of peppermint (Mentha piperita) in drinking water in comparison with an antibiotic growth promoter (Virginiamycin) on the growth performance, and carcass traits of broiler chicks.Methods:virginiamycin, and 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 % ethanolic extract of peppermint supplemented to drinking water. Body weights of broilers were determined at d 1, 21 and 42, feed intake was determined at the same periods, and feed conversion ratio was calculated accordingly. At day 42, two birds per replicate were slaughtered for the determination of carcass traits. Results: Performance indices were not significantly influenced by the dietary treatments at day 42. Carcass yield increased in broilers supplemented with 0.3 % peppermint extract in drinking water, also, abdominal fat pad decreased in broilers supplemented with 0.3 % peppermint in drinking water (P>0.05).Conclusions:Birds were assigned to 5 treatments: control feed, antibiotic group receiving 5 mg/kg In conclusion, the results of this study showed that addition of 0.3 % ethanolic extract of peppermint to drinking water seem to have a positive influence on broiler performance productive via more carcass yield and decrease abdominal fat deposition.

  7. Fatty acid profile, carcass and meat quality traits of young Nellore bulls fed crude glycerin replacing energy sources in the concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, J F; Berchielli, T T; San Vito, E; Silva, R A; Ribeiro, A F; Reis, R A; Dallantonia, E E; Simonetti, L R; Delevatti, L M; Machado, M

    2014-03-01

    Carcass and meat quality traits of 60 Nellore young bulls fed diets without crude glycerin (CG); with CG replacing corn (CGc; 10% of dry matter - DM) in the concentrate; and with CG replacing soybean hull (CGsh; 10% of DM) in the concentrate were evaluated. Diets were evaluated at two concentrate levels (CLs). The CL did not affect cold carcass weight (CCW; P=0.6074), cold carcass dressing (CCD; P=0.9636), rib fat thickness (RFT; P=0.8696) and longissimus muscle area (LMA; P=0.7524). Animals fed diets with CGc or CGsh showed meat with greater deposition of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA; P=0.0022) and CLA (18:2 cis-9, trans-11) contents (P=0.0001) than animals fed diets without CG. The inclusion of 10% of CG in diets CGc or CGsh does not affect the carcass and meat quality traits; however, it increases the MUFA and CLA contents in beef, although these changes are very small in nutritional terms.

  8. Pengaruh Penambahan Ampas Virgin Coconut Oil dalam Ransum terhadap Performan dan Produksi Karkas Ayam Broiler (The Effect of Virgin Coconut Oil Waste in the Diet of Broiler Chicken on the Performance and Carcass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Oktaviana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to examine the effect of addition of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO waste on the performance and production of broiler carcass. One hundred and twenty five broiler were divided into 5 treatment groups which were R-O (basal diet, R-0.5 containing (0.5% VCO waste, R-1.0 (1.0% VCO waste, R-1.5 (1.5% VCO waste and R-2.0 (2.0% VCO waste. Each treatments had 5 replications of 5 birds each. The birds were raised for 5 weeks. At the end of experiment, data of production performance such as weight gain, total intake, and feed conversion were taken. The data were analyzed by using Completely Randomized Design (CRD with one way analysis. The difference among treatments were tested using Duncan’s new Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The statistical analysis result showed that the addition of VCO waste at level up to 2.0 % did not affect the production performance, carcass weight and carcass percentage. The addition of VCO waste up to level 2.0% increased body weight (P<0.05 and affected the weight and percentage of abdominal fat (P<0.05 (Key words: Broiler chicken, VCO waste, Performance, and Carcass production

  9. Quantifying the effects of genetic selection and genetic variation for body size, carcass composition, and meat quality in the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandercock, D A; Nute, G R; Hocking, P M

    2009-05-01

    A multistrain experiment was conducted to quantify the extent of genetic differences in carcass and muscle yields, muscle quality, support organs, and taste panel assessments of cooked breast muscle of 296 birds from 37 lines of commercial broiler, layer, and traditional chickens. The birds were reared as broilers and 4 males from each line were slaughtered at 6 and 10 wk of age. The extent of genetic variation was measured as the intraclass correlation. The intraclass correlation for live weight; carcass yields; breast, drum, and wing portions; and associated muscle yields were high, whereas those for the thigh portion and yield were low. Broilers had more breast and thigh muscle but similar drum muscle as a proportion of carcass weight compared with layer and traditional lines. Genetic variation for muscle quality (plasma creatine kinase activity) was high; that for muscle color (L, a, and b) and hemorrhage score were moderate in size and were greater at 10 than at 6 wk of age. Broiler lines had greater creatine kinase activity indicative of greater muscle pathology; breast muscle was lighter, less red and yellow in color, and had a greater hemorrhage score than muscle from layer and traditional lines, which were similar. Intraclass correlations for taste panel scores were low and generally not significant except for texture, chicken flavor intensity, flavor liking, and overall liking at 6 wk of age. Significantly greater scores from broiler compared with layer and traditional lines for texture, chicken flavor intensity, and overall liking were observed. At 10 wk of age, chicken flavor intensity did not differ between broiler or layer birds but was significantly greater in both groups than traditional birds. Genetic variation for relative weight of abdominal fat, spleen, and heart was moderately high and greater at 10 than at 6 wk of age. Broiler carcasses had a relatively high proportion of abdominal fat and smaller spleen and heart weights.

  10. Weight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  11. Carcass mass has little influence on the structure of gravesoil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Sophie; Carter, David O; Metcalf, Jessica L; Knight, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how variables, such as carcass mass, affect the succession pattern of microbes in soils during decomposition. To investigate the effects of carcass mass on the soil microbial community, soils associated with swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcasses of four different masses were sampled until the 15th day of decomposition during the month of June in a pasture near Lincoln, Nebraska. Soils underneath swine of 1, 20, 40, and 50 kg masses were investigated in triplicate, as well as control sites not associated with a carcass. Soil microbial communities were characterized by sequencing the archaeal, bacterial (16S), and eukaryotic (18S) rRNA genes in soil samples. We conclude that time of decomposition was a significant influence on the microbial community, but carcass mass was not. The gravesoil associated with 1 kg mass carcasses differs most compared to the gravesoil associated with other carcass masses. We also identify the 15 most abundant bacterial and eukaryotic taxa, and discuss changes in their abundance as carcass decomposition progressed. Finally, we show significant decreases in alpha diversity for carcasses of differing mass in pre-carcass rupture (days 0, 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 postmortem) versus post-carcass rupture (days 9 and 15 postmortem) microbial communities.

  12. Patterns of seabird and marine mammal carcass deposition along the central California coast, 1980-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, J.L.; Jameson, R.

    1991-01-01

    At monthly intervals from February 1980 through December 1986, a 14.5-km section of central California coastline was systematically surveyed for beach-cast carcasses of marine birds and mammlas. Five hundred and fifty-four bird carcasses and 194 marine mammal carcasses were found. Common murres, western grebes, and Brandt's cormorants composed 45% of the bird total. California sea lions, sea otters, and harbor seals composed 90% of the mammal total. Several factors appeared to affect patterns of carcass deposition. The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) of 1982-1983 was the dominate influence in terms of interannual variation in carcassdeposition. During this ENSO, 56% of the seabirds and 48% of the marine mammals washed ashore. Patterns of intra-annual variation were species specificand were related to animal migration patterns, reproduction, and seasonal changes in weather. Nearshore currents and winds influenced the general area of carcass deposition, while beach subtrate type and local patterns of san deposition influenced the location of carcass carcass deposition on a smaller spatial scale. Weekly surveys along a 1.1-km section of coastline indicated that 62% of bird carcasses and 41% of mammal carcasses remained on the beach less than 9 days. Cause of death determined for only 8% of the carcasses. Oiling was the most common indication of cause of death in birds (6%). Neonates composed 8% of all mammal carcasses.

  13. Effects of replacing maize with mango seed kernel meal on performance, carcass characteristics and economic of production of weaner rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    N. Saleh; K.M. Bello

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of replacing maize with mango seed kernel meal (MSKM) in the diets of Weaner rabbit on performance, carcass characteristics and economic of production. Twenty mongrel rabbits were randomly allocated to four diets in which mango seed kernel meal replaced maize at 0, 33.33, 66.67 and 100% level designed as diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The daily feed intake (42.75-49.76), daily weight gain (8.75-9.72) and feed conversion ratio (4.64-5.19) ob...

  14. Carcass traits and meat quality of crossbred Boer goats fed peanut cake as a substitute for soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T M; de Medeiros, A N; Oliveira, R L; Gonzaga Neto, S; Queiroga, R de C R do E; Ribeiro, R D X; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diets of crossbred Boer goats as determined by carcass characteristics and quality and by the fatty acid profile of meat. Forty vaccinated and dewormed crossbred Boer goats were used. Goats had an average age of 5 mo and an average BW of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. Goats were fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate consisting of corn bran, soybean meal, and mineral premix. Peanut cake was substituted for soybean meal at levels of 0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%. Biometric and carcass morphometric measurements of crossbred Boer goats were not affected by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. There was no influence of the replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake on weight at slaughter ( = 0.28), HCW ( = 0.26), cold carcass weight ( = 0.23), noncarcass components of weight ( = 0.71), or muscularity index values ( = 0.11). However, regression equations indicated that there would be a reduction of 18 and 11% for loin eye area and muscle:bone ratio, respectively, between the treatment without peanut cake and the treatment with total soybean meal replacement. The weights and yields of the commercial cuts were not affected ( > 0.05) by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. Replacing soybean meal with peanut cake did not affect the pH ( = 0.79), color index ( > 0.05), and chemical composition ( > 0.05) of the meat (). However, a quadratic trend for the ash content was observed with peanut cake inclusion in the diet ( = 0.09). Peanut cake inclusion in the diet did not affect the concentrations of the sum of SFA ( = 0.29), the sum of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; = 0.29), or the sum of PUFA ( = 0.97) or the SFA:UFA ratio ( = 0.23) in goat meat. However, there was a linear decrease ( = 0.01) in the sum of odd-chain fatty acids in the meat with increasing peanut cake in the diet. Soybean meal replacement with peanut cake did not affect the n-6:n-3 ratio ( = 0.13) or the

  15. Effects of neonatal androgenization on growth and carcass composition in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventanas, J; López-Bote, C J; García, C; Gázquez, A; Burgos, J

    1989-02-01

    Sixty female mice were injected neonatally with testosterone propionate. This led to an increase in body weight at 56 days (P less than 0.01) and a reduction in carcass fat (P less than 0.005). Food conversion ratio from 28 to 49 days was lower in the treated group than in the controls (P less than 0.01). The data indicate that treated females can reach values similar to those of males. Histological studies revealed a lack of luteal tissue in treated females at 56 days. This effect might be due to a modification in the nervous control of ovarian activity. Growth hormone secretion was higher in treated females than in controls (P less than 0.05). These results suggest that androgenization of females to achieve the performance characteristics of intact males could have important implications in meat production.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for bruises in Chilean bovine carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strappini, A.C.; Frankena, K.; Metz, J.H.M.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Records of cattle slaughtered at two Chilean slaughterhouses (SLH1 and SLH2) were used to determine prevalence and risk factors for carcasses with bruises. Bruise prevalence amounted to 12.3% but differed between slaughterhouses (20.8% for SLH1 and 8.6% for SLH2 respectively). Bruise severity grade

  17. Composição centesimal e teor de colesterol na carne de eqüinos (Equus caballus, Linneaus, 1758 machos e fêmeas agrupados por peso de carcaça Proximate composition and content of cholesterol in the meat of female and male equines (Equus cabalus, Linneaus 1758 with diferent carcasse weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Andrade Junqueira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi conduzido em frigorífico comercial e as análises no Setor de Tecnologia de Carnes do Departamento de Ciências dos Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do sexo e categoria de peso sobre a composição centesimal e teor de colesterol, 20 eqüinos (10 machos castrados e 10 fêmeas foram abatidos e agrupados em categorias de peso ao abate preestabelecidas, sendo: C1( 88,82 a 97,88 kg; C2( 102,20 a 115,80 kg; C3(129,71 a 160,69 kg; C4(162,80 a 236,40 kg; com 5 animais por categoria. Os músculos longissimus dorsi (LD e semimembranosus (SM, após o abate, foram coletados e analisados: umidade, gordura, proteína e cinzas (AOAC, 1990 e o colesterol foi determinado por colorimetria (Bragagnolo, 1997. O modelo estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2X4, e os dados foram analisadas pelo programa estatístico SAS. O fator sexo influenciou (pThe present study was conducted in a packing house, with the assays being done in the Sector of Meat Technology/Food Science Department of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA. With the objective of evaluating the effect of sex and category of weight on the meat proximate composition and content of cholesterol, 20 equines (10 castrated males and 10 females were slaughtered and grouped in pre-established categories of weight: C1 (88.82 to 97.88 kg; C2 (102.20 to 115.80 kg, C3 (129.7 to 160.69 kg and C4 (162.80 to 236.40 kg; with 5 animals for each category. The muscles longissimus dorsi (LD and semimembranosus (SM were collected and analyzed for: moisture, fat, protein and ashes (AOAC, 1990 and the cholesterol was determined by colorimetry (Bragagnolo, 1997. The statistical model was completely randomized, in factorial scheme 2X4, and the data were analyzed through the statistical program SAS. The factor sex influenced (p<0,05 the contents of cholesterol in LD muscle, with average values (in base of dry natural material

  18. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby, taken just after he or she is born. A low birth weight is less than 5.5 pounds. A high ... weight is more than 8.8 pounds. A low birth weight baby can be born too small, too early (premature), or both. This ...

  19. Breed-related number and size of muscle fibres and their response to carcass quality in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunyarat Koomkrong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the number and size of muscle fibre and their relation to carcass quality traits in chickens (slow- and fast-growing chicken strains. A total of 40 one-day-old Arbor Acres broiler (fast-growing and 40 Thai native chickens (slow-growing were reared to 45 and 112 days, respectively. The Arbor Acres broilers had heavier live weight, higher breast and thigh percentage than Thai native chickens (P<0.001. In breast muscle, there was no significant difference in total number of fibres and perimysium thickness. Thai native chickens had smaller fibre diameter and fibre area (P<0.01, and thicker endomysium in comparison with Arbor Acres broiler (P<0.001. The difference between the thigh and breast muscle fibre characteristics was not significant (P>0.05. The fibre diameter was positively correlated with live weight (P<0.05 and breast percentage (P<0.01. Endomysium thickness was correlated with live weight and breast percentage (P<0.05. There was no significant difference for the correlation between muscle fibre characteristics and thigh muscle. These results suggest that muscle fibre characteristics might be related to carcass quality.

  20. Effects of replacing maize with mango seed kernel meal on performance, carcass characteristics and economic of production of weaner rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saleh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of replacing maize with mango seed kernel meal (MSKM in the diets of Weaner rabbit on performance, carcass characteristics and economic of production. Twenty mongrel rabbits were randomly allocated to four diets in which mango seed kernel meal replaced maize at 0, 33.33, 66.67 and 100% level designed as diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The daily feed intake (42.75-49.76, daily weight gain (8.75-9.72 and feed conversion ratio (4.64-5.19 obtained were not significantly (P<0.05 affected by the dietary levels of mango seed kernel meal. Carcass yield and weight of organs expressed as percentage of live weight did not significantly differ between the treatment means. The cost in naira per kilogram gain was highest on diet 1 (0%MSKM and lowest on diet 4 (100% MSKM having N338.84 and 245.58 respectively. The result indicates that mango seed kernel meal can replace maize at 100% level in the diet of Weaner rabbit with better performance and tremendous reduction in feed cost.

  1. Mannan oligosaccharides as growth promoter in finishing rabbit: effect on in vivo performance and carcass traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Nizza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four groups each consisting in 440, 60 days old rabbits, were fed, respectively, four experimental diets: (1 MOS_0.5 (Bio-Mos® at 0.5 g/kg; (2 MOS_1.0 (Bio-Mos® at 1.0 g/kg; (3 MOS_ 1.5 (Bio-Mos® at 1.5 g/kg and (4 antibiotics (AGP, colistin sulphate 144 mg/kg; tylosin 100 mg/kg and oxytetracyclin 1000 mg/kg. Up to slaughter age (82 days of age mortality rate was recorded daily. For each group, 64 rabbits were controlled weekly for live weight to calculate daily weight gain (DWG. Feed intake (and, by consequence feed conversion ratio was measured, weekly, per group. At 82 days 16 rabbits per group were slaughtered and carcass traits were recorded. No differences were recorded among groups in live weight at different age and in daily weight gain but, in particular during the last week, AGP and MOS_0.5 groups showed higher feed intake and less favourable feed conversion ratio. MOS_1.0 group showed significantly higher incidence of empty gastro-intestinal tract but not differences were found for dressing out percentage. Perirenal fat showed a lower incidence in MOS than in AGP groups.

  2. Live performance, carcass quality, and economic assessment of over 100kg slaughtered pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent genetic improvement has developed pigs with maximum potential for protein deposit at higher weights; however, their optimal slaughter weight still needs to be determined. The objective of the study was to evaluate live performance, carcass traits, and economic viability of 417 Agroceres PIC pigs slaughtered with 100, 115, 130, and 145kg live weight. Pigs were reared in pens with 10-11 barrows and gilts each, offered a feed allowance of 2.8kg/pig/day until the following slaughter weights (SW: 99.65±0.82kg, 118.53±0.98kg, 133.97±1.17kg, and 143.90±1.24. There was no interaction between sex and SW (P>0.05. Backfat thickness, fat area, and loin eye area linearly increased with SW (P0.05, and feed conversion ratio (R²=43.29% linearly worsened with SW (P<0.001, but the effect of SW on live production cost (R$/kg was quadratic, with the minimum point at 134.8kg. It was concluded that, under the applied management, increasing SW results in larger amount of lean tissue with no change in its yield and little effect on growth performance.

  3. Effect of dietary protein level on carcass traits and meat properties of Cinta Senese pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, F; Crovetti, A; Acciaioli, A; Pugliese, C; Bozzi, R; Campodoni, G; Franci, O

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of various dietary protein contents (CP) on the carcass traits and the meat quality of Cinta Senese pigs. A total of 60 Cinta Senese pigs were equally distributed in four dietary groups that were balanced for sex (barrows and gilts) and live weight. The animals in the groups were fed one of four diets (80CP, 100CP, 130CP and 160CP) containing different CP contents (80, 100, 130 and 160 g/kg, respectively). The diets were administered to the pigs during the entire growing-fattening period in a controlled dose of 90 g/kg W0.75, to a maximum of 2.5 kg/day per animal. The duration of the trial was ~250 days, ending when the animals reached the target slaughter weight of 145 kg. The 80CP diet produced fatter carcasses than did the other diets; no differences in carcass composition were found among the animals fed the other three diets (total lean cuts: 57.4%, 61.4%, 60.8% and 61.3% for 80CP, 100CP, 130CP and 160CP diet, respectively). The sample joint composition confirmed the highest fatness and the lowest meatiness of pigs fed 80CP. This same pattern was evident for the composition of the muscle (Longissimus lumborum) containing the largest amount of i.m. fat, and the lowest protein content in the 80CP group. Moreover, the 80CP diet resulted in the lightest and yellowest meat with the highest cooking loss. A principal component analysis of the physical and chemical traits of the meat revealed three first factors that explained 56% of the total variance. Among them, only the intersection of Factor1, which combined mainly lower pH at 24 h postmortem and higher drip loss, cooking loss, lightness and yellowness, with Factor2, which associated higher toughness, higher protein and lower fat content, graphically appeared to discriminate the 80CP diet from the other ones. In conclusion, a diet with 80 g/kg of CP content was inadequate for this local breed, while, in consideration of the cost of protein feed and the need to reduce N

  4. Comparison of meat and carcass quality in organically reared and conventionally reared pasture-fed lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prache, S; Gatellier, P; Thomas, A; Picard, B; Bauchart, D

    2011-12-01

    The 'Organic' product label guarantees a production process that avoids the use of synthetic fertilisers, pesticides and hormones and minimises recourse to pharmaceuticals or veterinary drugs; however, the product's quality remains an issue that needs to be addressed in response to consumer demand. Consequently, this study was conducted to compare the sensory and nutritional qualities of meat and carcasses from pasture-fed lambs reared organically (O) or conventionally (C). Mean lamb growth profile was kept similar between the two treatments to avoid confounding effects with lamb age or weight at slaughter. The experiment was conducted over 3 years (2005 to 2007) with 12 O and 12 C lambs each year. The O and C treatments differed in the level of on-pasture mineral N fertilisation inducing a higher proportion of white clover in the organic pasture than the conventional pasture. Lambs were slaughtered when they attained a fat class of 2 to 3, and carcass and meat quality were evaluated. Lambs were slaughtered at an average weight and age of 35.3 kg and 156 days in the O treatment, respectively, and 35.2 kg and 155 days in the C treatment, respectively. Sensory evaluation indicated that loin chops from the O treatment had a higher level of abnormal fat odour compared with the C treatment. Carcasses from the O treatment had a softer subcutaneous fat one among 3 years (2007) compared to the C treatment. These results are probably due to a higher proportion of white clover in the diet. Organically reared lambs did offer the slight advantage of muscle fatty acid containing a higher level of stearic acid, which may have positive effects in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in humans. This may be the result of a higher rumen bio-hydrogenation of C18:3n-3 due to differences in the botanical composition between the O and the C pasture. Production system had no effect on the colour characteristics of the meat and subcutaneous fat, except lightness of subcutaneous dorsal

  5. Effect of hesperidin dietary supplementation on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Simitzis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the dose effects of hesperidin dietary supplementation on fattening rabbits’ growth performance, as well as carcass and meat quality characteristics. Forty-eight Hyla hybrid male weaned (35 d old rabbits were purchased and randomly assigned to 3 dietary groups of 16 rabbits each and fed diets supplemented with the antioxidant hesperidin at 0, 1 and 2 g/kg feed. At 80 d of age, the rabbits were slaughtered and samples of Longissimus lumborum (LL muscle were used to estimate meat quality traits. No significant differences were observed in body weight at the age of 80 d, feed conversion rate (35 to 80 d, or organ weights among the 3 groups. The pH, colour, percentage of released water, shear force values and intramuscular fat content of LL muscle were not significantly influenced by the dietary treatment. Hesperidin dietary supplementation at both levels reduced the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, mainly arachidonic (C20:4n-6, docosapentaenoic (C22:5n-3 and eicosapentaenoic (C20:5n-3 (only at 2 g/kg, and PUFA/SFA ratio (P<0.01. Based on the malondialdehyde (MDA values, hesperidin inclusion did not influence meat antioxidant status during the 9-d refrigerated storage at 4°C. Thus, we may conclude that dietary supplementation with hesperidin at the selected concentration levels did not generally influence growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality or antioxidant capacity in fattening rabbits, although meat values for PUFAs appeared to be decreased.

  6. Effect of alfalfa hay on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of growing lambs with ad libitum access to total mixed rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A. Alhidary

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Forty male Naemi lambs were used to evaluate the effect of total mixed rations (TMR alone or in combination with supplementation of alfalfa hay offered at different schedules on growth, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Lambs at the age of three months, with an average weight of 28.85±1.09 kg, were randomly selected and distributed into four different feeding systems, 10 lambs each, as follows: TMR diet (control; TMR plus 100 g alfalfa hay; TMR plus 200 g alfalfa hay every two days; and TMR plus 300 g alfalfa hay every three days. The TMR and fresh drinking water were offered ad libitum. Lambs in the treated groups (with alfalfa hay had significantly higher body weight, body weight change, dry matter intake, and feed conversion ratio compared with the control. Similarly, slaughter weight, carcass weight (hot and cold, and internal organs weight significantly increased in the treated groups, except for dressing weight percentage, which improved only in the treatment with TMR plus 300 g alfalfa hay. By contrast, mesentery fat, back fat, and body wall fat decreased in treated groups. Meat quality characteristics indicated that cooking loss and pH values did not differ between the control and treated groups; however, meat colour (lightness, yellowness, and redness and pH (1 and 24 h improved in post-slaughter treated groups. Furthermore, no difference was found in texture profile analysis (hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness, although the shear force decreased significantly in treated groups. Addition of alfalfa hay offered at the present plan may not only improve the growth and carcass characteristics, but also enhance the meat quality of Naemi lambs. From the labour and economic point of view, TMR plus 300 g alfalfa hay every three days may be adopted while taking into account the management decision.

  7. Association of polymorphisms in the leptin and thyroglobulin genes with meat quality and carcass traits in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Dutra de Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the polymorphisms E2FB (AY138588.1: c.305C> T, located in the leptin gene (LEP, and TG5 (X05380.1:g.-422C>T, located in the thyroglobulin gene (TG, and evaluate the association of these polymorphisms in crossbred cattle of seven distinct genetic groups with the following traits: slaughter weight (SW, hot carcass weight (HCW, hot carcass yield (HCY, carcass fat thickness (CFT, ribeye area (REA, marbling (MARM and shear force (SF. The animals were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP (Polymorphism Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism technique, using 201 products obtained from F1 Caracu × Nellore, Angus × Nellore and Valdostana × Nellore cows, mated to Canchim, Caracu and Red Angus bulls (only Caracu × Nellore cows were used with Red Angus bulls. The allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared using the Chi-squared test. Associations between the genotype of each polymorphism and the traits were analyzed using the General Linear Model (GLM of statistical software SAS. The least squares means of genotypes of the polymorphisms were compared using Student's t test. The E2FB polymorphism in the LEP gene was associated with CFT, showing the potential for use in national programs for genetic improvement of beef cattle, through the inclusion of SNP in genotyping commercial tests. The TG5 polymorphism in the TG gene was not associated with any of the evaluated traits and was considered ineffective for selection of beef cattle in Brazilian herds.

  8. High levels of whole raw soybean in diets for Nellore bulls in feedlot: effect on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cônsolo, N R B; Gardinal, R; Gandra, J R; de Freitas Junior, J E; Rennó, F P; Santana, M H de A; Pflanzer Junior, S B; Pereira, A S C

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of whole raw soybean (WRS) in the finishing diet of Nellore cattle on productive performance, carcass traits, meat quality, fatty acid profile of meat, and blood parameters. In a completely randomized design, 52 Nellore bulls (mean body weight ± SD: 380 ± 34 kg) were allotted for 84 days. The animals received the following diets with a forage: concentrate ratio of 40/60: (i) WRS0: control diet without soybean grains; (ii) WRS8: diet containing 8% WRS in dry matter basis; (iii) WRS16: diet containing 16% WRS, and (iv) WRS24: diet containing 24% WRS. At intervals of 28 days, the animals were weighed, muscle and adipose tissue was analysed by ultrasound, and blood samples were collected. The animals were slaughtered on day 85 and liver weight and hot carcass weight were measured during slaughter. The pH and carcass dressing were calculated at 24 h after slaughter. Longissimus dorsi muscle samples were collected for the determination of fatty acid profile of meat, ether extract, tenderness and sensory analysis of meat aged for 14 days. Blood cholesterol content increased linearly with increasing proportion of whole raw soybean grains. The diet did not affect performance or carcass attributes. The WRS8 had the highest shear force values. In fatty acid profile, C14:0 decreased (p = 0.05), whereas 16:1, 20:0 and 20:1 fatty acids increased linearly with increasing proportion of WRS (p changes in fatty acid profile and tenderness, in animals fed diets containing 16 or 24% soybean.

  9. MUC1 gene polymorphism in three Nelore lines selected for growth and its association with growth and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fabio Ricardo Pablos; Maione, Sandra; Sartore, Stefano; Soglia, Dominga; Spalenza, Veronica; Cauvin, Elsa; Martelli, Lucia Regina; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Sacchi, Paola; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão; Rasero, Roberto

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the VNTR polymorphism of the mucin 1 gene (MUC1) in three Nelore lines selected for yearling weight to determine whether allele and genotype frequencies of this polymorphism were affected by selection for growth. In addition, the effects of the polymorphism on growth and carcass traits were evaluated. Birth, weaning and yearling weights, rump height, Longissimus muscle area, backfat thickness, and rump fat thickness, were analyzed. A total of 295 Nelore heifers from the Beef Cattle Research Center, Instituto de Zootecnia de Sertãozinho, were used, including 41 of the control line, 102 of the selection line and 152 of the traditional. The selection and traditional lines comprise animals selected for higher yearling weight, whereas control line animals are selected for yearling weight close to the average. Five alleles were identified, with allele 1 being the most frequent in the three lines, especially in the lines selected for higher means for yearling weight. Heterozygosity was significantly higher in the control line. Association analyses showed significant effects of allele 1 on birth weight and weaning weight while the allele 3 exert significant effects on yearling weight and back fat thickness. Despite these findings, application of this marker to marker-assisted selection requires more consistent results based on the genotyping of a larger number of animals in order to increase the accuracy of the statistical analyses.

  10. Effect of investigator disturbance in experimental forensic entomology: carcass biomass loss and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Grant D; Hoback, W Wyatt; Higley, Leon G

    2011-01-01

    Often carrion decomposition studies are conducted using a single carcass or a few carcasses sampled repeatedly through time to reveal trends in succession community composition. Measurements of biomass and other abiotic parameters (e.g., temperature) are often collected on the same carcasses but are rarely a focal point of the studies. This study investigated the effects that repeated sampling during experiments have on the decomposition of carrion, measured as both gross biomass (carcass plus fauna) and net biomass (carcass only), on carcasses disturbed on every visit (with weighing only or also with the collection of fauna) and on carcasses disturbed only once. Each trial lasted at least 21 days, with samples taken in triplicate. Rat carcasses used in this study were placed in the field on the same day and either weighed on every visit or ignored until a given day. Internal and ambient air temperatures were recorded on each carcass at the time of sampling and on undisturbed carcasses using temperature loggers. The presence of succession fauna did not result in significant biomass loss on most days; however, there were individual days early in decomposition (days 3 through 6) when the succession fauna comprised a large portion of the gross biomass. With the exception of biomass loss by the emigration of maggots on days 4 and 5, neither repeated weighing of the carcasses nor repeated weighing and faunal sampling of the carcasses statistically affected the rate of biomass loss. Internal temperatures of carcasses sampled repeatedly were frequently 2-5°C lower than those that had not been disturbed, and ambient temperatures differed significantly depending on the location of measurement device. Results indicate that methods used historically for biomass loss determination in experimental forensic entomology studies are adequate, but further refinements to experimental methodology are desirable.

  11. Scavenger removal: Bird and bat carcass persistence in a tropical wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Patraca, Rafael; Macías-Sánchez, Samuel; MacGregor-Fors, Ian; Muñoz-Robles, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    Energy produced by wind farms has diverse positive environmental effects, but can also be related to negative impacts, including wildlife mortality through collisions with wind turbines. Bird and bat mortality caused by collisions with wind turbines can be estimated indirectly by counting carcasses within wind farms. However, carcass removal by scavengers often biases such measurements. In this study, we identified the main scavengers removing bird and bat carcasses in a tropical wind farm. A known fate analysis was done to assess the effect of carcass type (i.e., small bird, large bird, bat), vegetation type (i.e., secondary vegetation, croplands) and season (dry and rainy seasons of 2009) on carcass persistence rates. We identified three main scavenger groups, with mammals being the most abundant group. Our results show high rates of carcass removal relative to previous studies, especially for bats; there were fewer remaining carcasses after 20 days in our tropical site than in non-tropical environments reported elsewhere. We found a higher carcass persistence rate during the rainy season than in the dry season, possibly due to a greater abundance of food resources for scavenger organisms in the rainy season. Although we found some evidence for higher persistence rates for large bird carcasses than for small bird and bat carcasses during the rainy season, overall carcass type was not a strong predictor of persistence rates. Similarly, we did not find a strong effect of vegetation type on carcass persistence rates. Results suggest that in order to estimate accurate bird and bat mortality in tropical wind farm areas, seasonality should be incorporated to correction factors of carcass removal rates.

  12. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...... algorithms accordingly....

  13. Comparison of neck skin excision and whole carcass rinse sampling methods for determining Salmonella prevalence and E. coli counts on broiler carcasses before and after immersion chilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A regulatory agency (FSIS) in the U.S. rinses whole broiler carcasses with 400 ml of 1% buffered peptone water (BPW) for Salmonella detection, while the European Union (EU) samples a 25g composited neck skin from three carcasses. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the FSIS and EU procedures fo...

  14. Growth performance, carcass and non-carcass characteristics of Mubende and Mubende×Boer crossbred goats under different feeding regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asizua, D.; Mpairwe, D.; Kabi, F.;

    2014-01-01

    evaluated the effects of supplementing grazing Mubende goats and their crossbreds (Mubende×Boer) with concentrates on growth, carcass and non-carcass characteristics. A 2×3 factorial treatment arrangement was used to randomly allocate 96 pure Mubende and Mubende×Boer castrates (mean±SE; 31.3±2.2 kg initial...

  15. Genetic parameters for growth and carcass traits of Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T; Domingue, J D; Paschal, J C; Franke, D E; Bidner, T D; Whipple, G

    2007-06-01

    Spring-born purebred Brahman bull calves (n = 467) with known pedigrees, sired by 68 bulls in 17 private herds in Louisiana, were purchased at weaning from 1996 through 2000 to study variation in growth, carcass, and tenderness traits. After purchase, calves were processed for stocker grazing on ryegrass, fed in a south Texas feedlot, and processed in a commercial facility. Carcass data were recorded 24 h postmortem. Muscle samples and primal ribs were taken to measure calpastatin activity and shear force. An animal model was used to estimate heritability, genetic correlations, and sire EPD. Relatively high heritability estimates were found for BW at slaughter (0.59 +/- 0.16), HCW (0.57 +/- 0.15), LM area (0.50 +/- 0.16), yield grade (0.46 +/- 0.17), calpastatin enzyme activity (0.45 +/- 0.17), and carcass quality grade (0.42 +/- 0.16); moderate heritability estimates were found for hump height (0.38 +/- 0.16), marbling score (0.37 +/- 0.16), backfat thickness (0.36 +/- 0.17), feedlot ADG (0.33 +/- 0.14), 7-d shear force (0.29 +/- 0.14), and 14-d shear force (0.20 +/- 0.11); relatively low heritability estimates were found for skeletal maturity (0.10 +/- 0.10), lean maturity (0.00 +/- 0.07), and percent KPH (0.00 +/- 0.07). Most genetic correlations were between -0.50 and +0.50. Other genetic correlations were 0.74 +/- 0.27 between calpastatin activity and 7-d shear force, 0.72 +/- 0.25 between calpastatin activity and 14-d shear force, (0.90 +/- 0.30 between yield grade and 7-d shear force, and -0.82 +/- 0.27 between backfat thickness and 7-d shear force. Heritability estimates and genetic correlations for most traits were similar to estimates reported in the literature. Sire EPD ranges for carcass traits approached those reported for sires in other breeds. The magnitude of heritability estimates suggests that improvement in carcass yield, carcass quality, and consumer acceptance traits can be made within the Brahman population.

  16. Treatment of animal carcasses in poultry farms using sealed ditches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M; González, J L; Gutiérrez, M A Díez; Guimaraes, A Correa; Gracia, L M Navas

    2008-10-01

    Several hen carcass elimination experiments were conducted by isolating corpses in a sealed ditch and adding different doses of lime. The aim was to evaluate the viability of this method as an alternative to other elimination techniques, as required in the European regulation CE 1774/2002 [Reglamento CE 1774/2002, de 3 de octubre por el que se establecen las normas sanitarias aplicables a los subproductos animales no destinados a consumo humano]. The experiments were carried out at a natural scale, in a 200m3 ditch located in a livestock enterprise, using a proportion of 200g of lime/kg of carcass. We observed a high degradation of carcasses after six months, the method being also safe from a microbiological point of view. The material extracted from the ditch had a high calcium content (330.7gkg(-1)), which makes it an ideal product for soil lacking this element, or as an acidity corrector in acid soils due to its basic (pH 8.48) nature. It also contains a significant amount of mineral nutrients (17.0gkg(-1) N, 2.4gkg(-1) P and 4.9gkg(-1) K) and organic matter (101.5gkg(-1)). We also analysed the material extracted from the ditch prior to its renovation for the experiments and followed the processes taking place in the ditch during the first six months, when lime doses of 100, 200 and 300 gkg(-1) of treated carcass were applied. Simultaneously, we carried out laboratory experiments in cylindrical 25L deposits to evaluate the gas release of the three (100, 200 and 300g of lime/kg carcass) doses of lime used. After the tenth week, we observed CO2 concentrations ranging from 5% for the lower lime doses to very low levels for the 300g lime/kg carcass dose. As regards methane, in the three series of experiments, the release was highest during the first weeks, began to decrease in the eighth week and reached its lower value during the fourteenth week. Emissions of NO2 were not observed, and the levels of NH3 and SH2 were usually so high that they exceeded the detection

  17. Influence of Feed Supplementation with Cannabis Sativa on Quality of Broilers Carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Ullah Khan1*, F. R. Durrani1, Naila Chand1 and Haseeb Anwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A project was planned to study the effect of feeding powdered seeds of Cannabis sativa on the carcass quality of broiler chicks. A total of 160 day-old broiler chicks of equal weight were randomly divided into four equal groups A, B, C and D. Each group was further divided into four replicates with 10 chicks in each replicate. Dried crushed Cannabis sativa seeds were added to the feed of groups B, C and D at the rate of 5, 10 and 20% of offered feed respectively, while group A served as a control. The studied parameters were body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR, dressing percentage, mortality and economics. After an experimental period of 42 days, the data were analyzed statistically. It was revealed from the results that body weight gain was significantly higher (P<0.05, while feed intake was significantly lower (P<0.05, in group D compared to the control. FCR was significantly better in birds of group D compared to controls. Differences in dressing percentage and mortality were non significant between the treated and control groups. Return per chick (in rupees was significantly higher in group D compared to groups A and B (P<0.05. It was concluded from these results that seeds of Cannabis sativa have remarkable impact on growth of broiler chicks and can help in alleviating feed expenditure incurred on raising broiler chicks.

  18. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: II. Postweaning, carcass, and meat traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) x Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves belonging to 28 full-sib families were evaluated for differences in feedyard initial BW, feedyard final BW, carcass weight, LM area, adjusted fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Two methods of analysis were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA, corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). No significant reciprocal differences for these weight and carcass traits were detected under method I analyses, although the same trend existed for subsequent BW rankings as for birth weight and weaning weight. For each weight phase, the cross that involved a larger proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam (F(1) x A and B x F(1)) ranked heavier than the respective reciprocal cross (A x F(1) and F(1) x B). As a whole, A backcross calves had larger (P carcass (P < 0.001), and had larger LM area (P < 0.05) with less adjusted fat (P < 0.001). No difference existed between the sexes for Warner-Bratzler shear force or marbling. No interactions involving sex, sire type, and dam type were observed for any of these traits. The results were similar under methods I and II analyses, with the exception that a significant sire type x dam type interaction was observed for initial feedyard BW. Results from this study suggest that for weight-related traits, both the breed constitution of the embryo transfer calf and the cross that produces the calf play an important role in its ultimate performance for B crossbred calves. For body composition and meat-related traits, it appears that the breed makeup of the embryo transfer calf itself is more important to animal performance than the specific cross used to produce the calf.

  19. Effect of different fibre sources on performance, carcass characteristics and gastrointestinal tract development of growing Greylag geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L W; Meng, Q X; Li, D Y; Zhang, Y W; Ren, L P

    2015-01-01

    1. The effects of different fibre sources on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and gastrointestinal tract development were studied in growing Greylag geese (Anser anser). 2. Four experimental diets were formulated with corn (maize) straw silage (CSS), steam-exploded corn (maize) straw, steam-exploded wheat straw, and steam-exploded rice straw as fibre sources. A total of 224 male Greylag geese at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to one of the 4 experimental diets. 3. The birds fed on the CSS diets had higher average daily feed intakes than those fed on the steam-exploded straws. However, the 4 treatments had similar average daily gain, which contributed to significant differences in feed conversion ratios. The different fibre sources had no significant effects on the carcass characteristics. 4. The CSS-fed birds had larger gizzards and lower relative length of the caeca than the other three groups. However, the relative weights and lengths of the other gut segments, the relative weights of major organs and the pH values of the gastrointestinal contents were similar between the 4 treatments. It was concluded that straw fibres with different physico-chemical properties exerted an effect on daily feed intake and gastrointestinal development, especially for the gizzard. The pretreatment of straw had a large effect on utilisation efficiency and animal performance. Steam explosion is a promising straw pretreatment for inclusion in diets for geese.

  20. Carcass and Internal Organs Characteristics of Growing-Finishing Pigs Fed Diets Containing Four Different Maize Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Rahaman Saibu Salifu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the carcass and internal organ characteristics of growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing four different maize varieties. Twenty individually-housed, Large White pigs (12 males and 8 females with an average initial body weight of 13.2 kg were allotted to four dietary treatments labeled, Local Normal maize (LNM, Imported Normal Yellow maize (INYM, Golden Jubilee maize (GJM and Etubi maize (ETM in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD. The last two treatments were approved Quality Protein Maize (QPM based diets. Each treatment was replicated five times, with a pig representing a replicate. Feed and water were provided ad-libitum. Values for the final weight, dressing percentage, shoulder, loin, belly, thigh, carcass length, backfat thickness, head and trotters were statistically similar (P>0.05. However, the values for heart, liver, kidney and respiratory tract were statistically different (P>0.05. The values for the liver (LNM=1.34, IMYM=1.26, GJM=1.51 and ETM=1.52 and the kidney (LNM=0.20, IMYM=0.17, GJM=0.21 and ETM=0.20 were significantly higher in favour of QPM-based diets. The results showed that using GJM and ETM varieties could be more profitable due to premium price placed on liver and lean pork in Ghana.

  1. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Intestinal Microflora of Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Carum copticum Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falaki M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of dietary Carum copticum essential oil (CCEO on growth performance, carcass characteristics and intestinal microflora of broiler chickens. A total of 240 Cobb broiler chickens were allocated to five dietary treatments, each with four replicates of 12 birds. Dietary treatments were prepared by formulating a corn-soybean meal-based diet free of antibiotics (Control and supplementing the basal diet with three levels of CCEO at 150, 250, 350 mg/kg or antibiotic Virginiamycin at 200 mg/kg. Treatments were fed from 0 to 42 d of age. Body weight gain decreased linearly (P=0.035 with increasing CCEO while Virginiamycin increased body weight gain at 1 to 10 d compared to the control treatment (P 0.05. There were no differences in carcass characteristics among broiler chickens fed the control, CCEO and Virginiamycin diets (P > 0.05. Lactic acid bacteria in the cecum and ileum at 42 d of age were not influenced by the treatments (P > 0.05 but there was a linear increase of the log numbers of E. coli in the ileum (P=0.02 with increasing CCEO (P < 0.05. In conclusion, supplementing CCEO to diet at 150 mg/kg improve the growth performance, decrease undesirable intestinal bacteria in broiler chickens and is an adequate alternative to antibiotics.

  2. Three indel variants in chicken LPIN1 exon 6/flanking region are associated with performance and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R; Wang, T; Lu, W; Zhang, W; Chen, W; Kang, X; Huang, Y

    2015-01-01

    LPIN1 is a Mg(2+)-dependent phosphatidic acid phosphatase. Variation in chicken LPIN1 exon 6 and its flanking regions were identified and three indel variants in 6 breeds and their associations with performance traits were studied. Seven variants were detected from 6 breeds, which contained a synonymous tri-allelic variant (c.924A/T/C) and three indels. The exon 6 variants detected from chicken breeds were conserved among bird species. The indel variation frequency presented clear differences among breeds. Two coding indels (c.1014-1018del3 and c.1125-1138del12) were multiples of three nucleotides and maintained the open reading frames of LPIN1 proteins. However, they were predicted to result in the clear change of the RNA secondary structure of chicken LPIN1 exon 6 and LPIN1 protein conformation. The association analysis showed that c.871-15-22del6 variation had a significant effect on body weight at hatch (BW0) and 2 weeks (BW2); c. 1014-1018del3 variation had a significant effect on BW4, BW6, caecum length and gizzard weight (GW) traits; c.1125-1138del12 variation had a significant effect on BW12, shank length at 4 weeks (SL4), carcass weight, lactate dehydrogenase traits (LDH), glucose (GLU) and albumin (ALB) traits. The genotype combination for c.1014-1018del3 and c.1125-1138del12 also presented significant effects on SL4, SL8, GW, leg muscle weight, ALB, GLU and LDH. The study demonstrated that chicken LPIN1 has an important effect on body, carcass and organ weight, serum LDH, GLU and ALB level.

  3. Effect of Feeding a Mixed Microbial Culture Fortified with Trace Minerals on the Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Late-fattening Hanwoo Steers: A Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, W S; Kim, Y I; Lee, S M; Lee, Y H; Choi, D Y

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a trace minerals-fortified microbial culture (TMC) on the performance and carcass characteristics of late-fattening Hanwoo steers. A mixture of microbes (0.6% [v/w] of Enterobacter sp., Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., and Saccharomyces sp.) was cultured with 99% feedstuff for ensiling and 0.4% trace minerals (zinc, selenium, copper, and cobalt). Sixteen late-fattening steers (mean age, 21.8 months) were allocated to two diets: a control diet (concentrate mix and rice straw) and a treated diet (control diet+3.3% TMC). At a mean age of 31.1 months, all the steers were slaughtered. The addition of TMC to the diet did not affect the average daily weight gain of the late fattening steers, compared with that of control steers. Moreover, consuming the TMC-supplemented diet did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, consumption of a TMC-supplemented diet increased the concentrations of zinc, selenium, and sulfur (panimals consuming TMC showed increased (pminerals and essential amino acids in the longissimus muscle, without any deleterious effects on performance and other carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers.

  4. Investigation the effects using different levels of Mentha pulegium L. (pennyroyal) in comparison with an antibiotic growth promoter on performance, carcass traits and immune responses in broiler chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gholamreza Ghalamkari; Majid Toghyani; Nasir Landy; Ehsan Tavalaeian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The trial involved 240 Ross 308 broiler chicks in order to investigate the effects of Mentha pulegium L. (pennyroyal) on performance, carcass traits and immune responses in broiler chickens. Methods: Birds were assigned to 4 treatments: control feed, antibiotic group receiving 4.5 mg/kg flavophospholipol, and 5 and 10 g/kg pennyroyal powder added to the basal diet. Body weights of broilers were determined at d 1, 14, 28 and 42, feed intake was determined at the same periods, and feed conversion ratio was calculated accordingly. At day 42, two birds per replicate were slaughtered for the determination of carcass traits. Antibody titers against newcastle, influenza viruses and sheep red blood cell (SRBC) were determined. Results: Performance, Internal organ weights and carcass characteristics were not significantly influenced by the dietary treatments at day 42. Humoral immune responses were not affected by dietary treatments.Conclusions:In conclusion, the results of this study showed that addition of pennyroyal powder seem not to have a positive influence on growth performance of broiler chicks.

  5. Effects of L-carnitine administration on growth performance, carcass traits, blood serum parameters and abdominal fatty acid composition of ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, C; Citil, M; Saatci, M

    2003-10-01

    Effects of L-carnitine administration via drinking water on growth performance, carcass traits, blood serum parameters and abdominal fatty acid composition of ducks was examined. One hundred day-old Turkish native duck chicks were divided into two groups, each with five replicates and given the same diets with 0 and 200 mg/l carnitine chlorhydrate via drinking water. The study lasted 8 weeks, with the first 4 weeks as a starter and the last 4 weeks as grower period. At the end of the study five ducks were randomly selected from each subgroup for slaughter. Growth performance parameters of ducks were not affected significantly by L-carnitine administration. Live weight, daily weight gain, cumulative feed consumption and average feed conversion efficiency were found to be 1490 and 1621 g, 26.0 and 28.1 g, 5386 and 5662 g, 3.75 and 3.54 kg/kg in the control and in the carnitine groups respectively. L-carnitine administration did not effect carcass traits and serum cholesterol, total lipid, triglyceride and glucose levels. Total saturated fatty acid content of abdominal fat significantly decreased, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acid content were not affected by L-carnitine administration. In conclusion, L-carnitine administration by drinking water did not affect growth performance, carcass traits and blood parameters in ducks.

  6. The effect of substituting Nigella Sativa Meal as a source of protein in the rations of local rabbits on their productive performance and carcass traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen local male rabbits (6-8 weeks old were allocated into three nutritional groups. The first group fed standard ration, 5 and 10% of the Nigella Sativa Meal (NSM were added to the concentrated rations of the 2nd and 3rd groups replacing 36 and 72% of the soybean meal (SBM protein respectively. The feeding period lasted for eight weeks. Feed consumption and body weight gain were recorded weekly. At the end of feeding period, all rabbits were slaughtered and carcass traits were studied. No significant differences were found in total body weight gain and feed conversion rate (475, 502, 478 gm and (4.8, 4.8, 4.9 kg ration/1 kg wt. gain. Feed cost per 1 kg body gain declined 16% in the 3rd group, which cost 2294 ID, compared with the 1st group (2717 and the 2nd group (2561 ID. No significant differences in all carcass traits were found. Substituting 72% of SBM protein by NSM protein in rabbit ration showed no negative effects on all productive parameters and carcass traits.

  7. Effects of diets containing different concentrations of mannanoligosaccharide or antibiotics on growth performance, intestinal development, cecal and litter microbial populations, and carcass parameters of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurhoo, B; Ferket, P R; Zhao, X

    2009-11-01

    The effects of 2 levels of mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) in feed were compared with antibiotic growth promoters on growth performance, intestinal morphology, cecal and litter microbial populations, and carcass parameters in broilers raised in a sanitary environment. Dietary treatments included: 1) antibiotic growth promoter-free diet (control), 2) VIRG (diet 1 + 16.5 mg/kg of virginiamycin), 3) BACT (diet 1 + 55 mg/kg of bacitracin), 4) LMOS (diet 1 + 0.2% MOS), and 5) HMOS (diet 1 + 0.5% MOS). Birds were randomly assigned to 3 replicate pens/treatment (n = 55/pen). Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly throughout 38 d. At d 14, 24, and 34, a 1-cm segment of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum was used in morphological analysis (n = 9 birds/d per treatment). At the same bird ages, cecal contents were assayed for lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli, whereas litter was analyzed for Salmonella, Campylobacter, and E. coli. Carcass yields (breast fillet and tenders, thigh, drumstick, and wing) were determined at d 38. Body weight, feed conversion, and carcass yields did not differ among treatments. In contrast to birds fed VIRG or BACT, LMOS and HMOS consistently increased (P microbial ecology. But, there were no additional benefits of the higher MOS dosage.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for bruises in Chilean bovine carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strappini, A C; Frankena, K; Metz, J H M; Gallo, B; Kemp, B

    2010-11-01

    Records of cattle slaughtered at two Chilean slaughterhouses (SLH1 and SLH2) were used to determine prevalence and risk factors for carcasses with bruises. Bruise prevalence amounted to 12.3% but differed between slaughterhouses (20.8% for SLH1 and 8.6% for SLH2 respectively). Bruise severity grade 1 (mild) was most frequently recorded. The type of the animal, source of animal, the level of fat cover and lairage time were associated with the presence of bruises. Older categories of animals and animals that pass through a market before being moved to the slaughterhouse are more prone to show bruises. The results also indicate that under the reported Chilean circumstances animals that have longer lairage times (over 12 h) have a significantly reduced risk for bruises, except for oxen. Presence of bruises is also significantly associated with increased carcass pH values.

  9. Effect of nucleotides on broiler performance and carcass yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Pelícia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of nucleotides on the performance and carcass yield of broilers fed diets with no antibiotic growth promoters (AGP, anticoccidials, or animal feedstuffs. In the trial, 600 Ross 308 male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CD, CD + AGP, CD + 0.04%, CD + 0.05%, CD + 0.06%, and CD + 0.07% nucleotides. The experimental diets did not contain anticoccidials, and birds were vaccinated against coccidiosis at three days of age. No significant differences were detected among broilers submitted to the different treatments in none of the studied parameters. Under the conditions of this experiment, diets supplemented with nucleotides did not influence broiler performance or carcass yield at 42 days of age, and were not different from the feeds not containing any additive or with AGP.

  10. Classication Methods for CT-Scanned Carcass Midsections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has successfully been applied in medical environments for decades. In recent years CT has also made its entry to the industrial environments, including the slaughterhouses. In this paper we investigate classication methods for an online CT system, in order to assist...... in the segmentation of the outer fat layer in the mid- section of CT-scanned pig carcasses. Prior information about the carcass composition can potentially be applied for a fully automated solution, in order to optimize the slaughter line. The methods comprise Markov Random Field and contextual Bayesian classication......, and are adapted to use neighbourhood information in 2D and 3D. Articial Poisson noise is added to the provided dataset to determine how well each of the methods handles noise. Good noise handling will allow lower dose scannings. The investigated methods did not perform better than the reference model in terms...

  11. Arthropod succession on pig carcasses in southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Ekanem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The domestic pig (Sus scrofa was used as a model to study arthropod succession on carcasses under tree shade and out of shade in southern Nigeria. Carcass decomposition took longer periods under tree shade than in exposed sites, at 24.5 and 16.5 days, respectively. Four decomposition stages - fresh, bloated, decay, and dry - were observed. No significant variabilities were recorded in the types and patterns of infestation of the carcasses by arthropods in both locations. Four classes of arthropods - Insecta, Arachnida, Diplopoda and Crustacea - were recorded. The class Insecta dominated the total arthropods collected with 24 families, and formed 94% of the catches. The other three classes each had one family represented, and contributed only 2% of the total catches. The calliphorids, a phorid, and sarcophagids arrived and bred on the carcasses only a few hours after death of the pigs. Families of coleopterans came during the bloated stage, and fed on the immature dipterous maggots and carrion materials. The ants (Hymenoptera came in large numbers to eat the carcasses, and also preyed on all other fauna of the food resource. A muscid and a stratiomyiid, bred on the carcass as to the decay stage. Other insects and arthropods arrived mostly during the decay stage to feed on the carcasses. Species richness on the carcasses peaked during the decay stage.O porco branco (Sus scrofa foi usado como modelo para o estudo da sucessão de Artrópodes em cadáveres em zonas sombreadas e não sombreadas por árvores no sul da Nigéria. Nos cadáveres em decomposição em zonas sombreadas observou-se um processo de decomposição mais lento que nos expostos ao sol; 24,5 e 16,5 dias, respectivamente. Foram observadas quatro etapas de decomposição; fresco (autólise, intumescido (putrefação, deteriorado e seco (diagênese. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas de tipo e padrão nas infestações dos cadáveres por Artrópodes em ambas as condi

  12. The Effect of Clothing on the Rate of Decomposition and Diptera Colonization on Sus scrofa Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Allison; Cross, Peter; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal

    2015-07-01

    Twenty Sus scrofa carcasses were used to study the effect the presence of clothing had on decomposition rate and colonization locations of Diptera species; 10 unclothed control carcasses were compared to 10 clothed experimental carcasses over 58 days. Data collection occurred at regular accumulated degree day intervals; the level of decomposition as Total Body Score (TBSsurf ), pattern of decomposition, and Diptera present was documented. Results indicated a statistically significant difference in the rate of decomposition, (t427  = 2.59, p = 0.010), with unclothed carcasses decomposing faster than clothed carcasses. However, the overall decomposition rates from each carcass group are too similar to separate when applying a 95% CI, which means that, although statistically significant, from a practical forensic point of view they are not sufficiently dissimilar as to warrant the application of different formulae to estimate the postmortem interval. Further results demonstrated clothing provided blow flies with additional colonization locations.

  13. Copepod carcasses in a tropical estuary during different hydrographical settings

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jyothibabu, R.; Jagadeesan, L.; Lallu, K.R.

    in downstream, which include many species of the Pre-Monsoon community as well as newcomers from the freshwater region. In the entire stretch of the backwaters, carcasses percentage was noticeably higher during the onset of monsoon (Monsoon 1) than the rest..., salinity changed from mesohaline /polyhaline to oligohaline levels in the downstream, during which a mixed copepod community was found consisted of the newcomers from the upstream and also the Pre-Monsoon forms but in less abundance. Noticeably, >80...

  14. Double Muscling in Cattle: Genes, Husbandry, Carcasses and Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Leo O. Fiems

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Selection for an increased meatiness in beef cattle has resulted in double-muscled (DM) animals, owing to the inactivation of the myostatin gene. These animals are characterized by an excellent conformation and an extremely high carcass yield, coinciding with a reduced organ mass. As a consequence, voluntary feed intake is reduced, but feed efficiency is considerably improved, although maintenance requirements are not clearly reduced. DM animals are more susceptible to respirat...

  15. Effects of production circumstances on expected responses for growth and carcass traits to selection of bulls in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, H; Groen, A F

    1999-05-01

    Economic values of growth and carcass traits in Japanese beef cattle for production systems with various types of integration of levels/ stages (cow-calf and feedlot segments and the integrated system) and production circumstances (including 20% higher genetic levels of the traits, management, and economic alternatives) were used to examine responses to selection. Discounted economic values with interest rates of 0, 4.2 (Japanese average), and 8.4% were obtained to investigate the effect of discounting on selection efficiency. Traits considered were daily gain in the feedlot, marbling score, birth weight, weaning weight, and mature weight. The effects of discounting were small. Correlated responses to selection were not always economically favorable for all situations. Selecting bulls for the base situation (i.e., the typical biological and economic conditions for the production of Japanese Black cattle) resulted in negative genetic changes in weaning weight and mature weight in the feedlot segment. Higher genetic levels of daily gain and weaning weight affected efficiency of selection. Although effects of management and economic alternatives on responses to selection were generally small, lighter market weight influenced responses to selection. The results indicate that predicted correlated responses to selection are sensitive to production systems and some production circumstances.

  16. Effect of whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid enriched diets on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and adipose tissue development in young Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertí, P; Gómez, I; Mendizabal, J A; Ripoll, G; Barahona, M; Sarriés, V; Insausti, K; Beriain, M J; Purroy, A; Realini, C

    2013-06-01

    Forty-eight young Holstein bulls (slaughtered at 458.6±9.79 kg body weight) were used to evaluate the effect of whole linseed and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on animal performance, adipose tissue development, and carcass characteristics. The animals were fed with one of four isoenergetic and isoproteic diets: control (0% linseed, 0% CLA), linseed (10% linseed, 0% CLA), CLA (0% linseed, 2% CLA), and linseed plus CLA (10% linseed, 2% CLA). Animal performance and carcass characteristics were unaffected by diet composition. Adding linseed or CLA to the concentrate diet did not result in significant differences in adipocyte size and number or lipogenic enzyme activity. However, while the frequency distribution of subcutaneous adipocyte diameters followed a normal distribution, the frequency distribution of intramuscular adipocyte diameters was not normal in any dietary group (skewness coefficients: 0.8, 1.2, 0.9, 0.8 for control, linseed, CLA, and linseed plus CLA, respectively; Padipose tissue.

  17. Record of postmortem injuries caused by the Neotropical social wasp Agelaia fulvofasciata (Degeer (Hymenoptera, Vespidae on pig carcasses in the Eastern Amazon region: implications in forensic taphonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo R. Barbosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPostmortem injuries are a source of misinterpretations in forensic analysis and therefore are subject matter of taphonomic interest. Many types of injuries can cause different artifacts, which deserve attention of the forensic pathologists when evaluating corpses, either at the crime scene or during an autopsy. Insects can be important biotaphonomic agents and their activity may result in artifacts that resemble antemortem injuries. Here, we describe postmortem injuries caused by the Neotropical wasp Agelaia fulvofasciata (Degeer, 1773 on domestic pig carcasses weighting 15 kg. The specimens showed extensive injuries to the lower lip, similar to lacerations, and some minor lesions on the snout and anus. In addition, we observed the same wasp species preying on larvae of Sarcophagidae (Peckia sp.. Besides causing postmortem injuries, the ability of this species to detect carcasses in the early and fresh decomposition stages should be noted. Thus, future applications aiming criminal, any biotaphonomic events caused by carrion insects need to be disclosed.

  18. Effects of pine bark supplementation on performance, rumen fermentation, and carcass characteristics of Kiko crossbred male goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, B R; Solaiman, S; Gurung, N; Behrends, J; Eun, J-S; Taha, E; Rose, J

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-two Kiko crossbred male goats (Capra hircus; initial BW = 27.5 ± 1.04 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design to determine the effects of feeding pine bark (PB; Pinus taeda L.) on animal performance, rumen fermentation, blood parameters, fecal egg counts (FEC), and carcass characteristics in goats. Experimental treatments included the control diet [0% PB plus 30% wheat straw (WS)], 15% PB plus 15% WS, and 30% PB plus 0% WS (on as-fed basis), where PB replaced WS. Freshly air-dried PB and WS were finely (1.5 to 3.0 mm) ground and incorporated in the grain mixes. Experimental diets provided a total of 1.9, 16.3, and 32 g of condense tannins (CT)/kg DM in 0%, 15%, and 30% PB diets, respectively. The grain mixes were fed daily at 85% of the feed offered, with remaining 15% consisting of Bermuda grass hay (Cynodon dactylon). Animals were fed once a day at 0800 h, and feed offered and refused was monitored for an 83-d performance period. Rumen and blood samples were collected at d 0, 50, and 80 of the study. Carcass traits were assessed after slaughter at the end of performance period. There was no difference in initial BW, hay, and total NDF intake among treatments; however, final BW (P = 0.06), ADG (P < 0.01), grain mix intake (P < 0.001), total DMI (P < 0.001), and G:F (P < 0.04) increased linearly as the PB increased in the diets. Rumen ammonia N, acetate, isovalerate and acetate-to-propionate ratio were reduced linearly (P < 0.05). There was no difference in carcass traits except cold carcass weight (P = 0.06), which tended to increase linearly in goats fed 15% and 30% PB. Breast, sirloin, trim trait, liver, and hide weight increased (linear; P < 0.01) with addition of PB. Blood basophils, alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, Na, and Cl concentrations decreased (linear; P < 0.02 to 0.01) as PB supplementation increased. Supplementation of PB reduced (linear; P < 0.01) average FEC. Addition of PB in the diets improved

  19. Genetic analysis of slaughter and carcass quality traits in crossbred rabbits coming from a diallel cross of four maternal lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mínguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to estimate the genetic group effects and the crossbreeding genetic parameters of slaughter and carcass traits using data on the rabbits that were progeny of does coming from a full diallel cross between 4 maternal lines (A, V, H and LP mated to bucks of the paternal line R. The rabbits of the 16 genetic groups, corresponding to the type of does of the diallel cross, were distributed in 4 Spanish farms and 1 genetic group (V line was present in all farms in order to connect records among them and to be used as reference group. Crossbreeding parameters were estimated according to Dickerson’s model. 1896 rabbits were measured for slaughter traits and 950 for carcass traits. The A and LP lines had the lowest values for dressing percentage (–1.71 and –1.98 compared with H line and –1.49 and –1.75 with the V line, respectively. The A line was the heaviest for commercial carcass weight. No relevant differences were observed between the crossbred groups for all traits. Regarding the reciprocal effects, there were significant differences in favour of A line as sire line in the crossbred AV. Regarding the combination of direct and maternal effects, the A line showed significantly higher values for cold carcass weight (133 g., 71 g. and 142 g. compared to the H, LP and V lines. For the same parameter the H line showed significantly higher averages on dressing percentages than A and LP lines, 1.44 and 2.13%, respectively. Line A also showed, in general, better direct- maternal effects than the V line. Grand-maternal effects were less important than direct-maternal ones. The estimates of maternal heterosis were, in general, negative, which could be a consequence of the positive heterosis for litter size. However, despite this relationship between growth and litter traits, it has not been common to find negative maternal heterosis in growth traits. A diminution of dressing percentage was detected in

  20. An Analytical Tire Model with Flexible Carcass for Combined Slips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tire mechanical characteristics under combined cornering and braking/driving situations have significant effects on vehicle directional controls. The objective of this paper is to present an analytical tire model with flexible carcass for combined slip situations, which can describe tire behavior well and can also be used for studying vehicle dynamics. The tire forces and moments come mainly from the shear stress and sliding friction at the tread-road interface. In order to describe complicated tire characteristics and tire-road friction, some key factors are considered in this model: arbitrary pressure distribution; translational, bending, and twisting compliance of the carcass; dynamic friction coefficient; anisotropic stiffness properties. The analytical tire model can describe tire forces and moments accurately under combined slip conditions. Some important properties induced by flexible carcass can also be reflected. The structural parameters of a tire can be identified from tire measurements and the computational results using the analytical model show good agreement with test data.

  1. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. ON POULTRY CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberghini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In Europe, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial diseases and the consumption of poultry meats is suspected to be one of the major causes of illness. The aim of our research was to determine the number of Campylobacter spp. in poultry carcasses and in poultry meat samples during their storage till to retail markets. The study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 at slaughterhouse in Veneto region, followed by a test of fresh poultry meat placed on the market for sale. A total of 90 poultry carcass and 90 samples of poultry meat were examined. The quantitative examination resulted in Campylobacter spp. counts (mean: for carcasses between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 1,5 ∙103 ufc/g (4,2 ∙102 and poultry meat between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 3,7 ∙102 ufc/g (8,1 ∙101. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (58,3%, Campylobacter coli (22,9% or Arcobacter cryaerophilus (4,2%. Acknowledgments: The project was funded with grants from Fondazione Cariverona 2007.

  2. Effects of L-carnitine supplementation to suckling piglets on carcass and meat quality at market age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lösel, D; Rehfeldt, C

    2013-07-01

    In a previous study, carnitine supplementation to piglets during the suckling period resulted in an increased total muscle fibre number at weaning in piglets of low birth weight. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether this effect is maintained until market age and whether this would attenuate the negative consequences of low birth weight on carcass and meat quality. Using a split-plot design with litter as block, sex as whole plot and treatment as subplot, the effects of early-postnatal l-carnitine supplementation on female and castrated male piglets of low birth weight were investigated on a total of 56 German Landrace piglets from 14 litters. From days 7 to 27 of age piglets were orally supplemented once daily with 400 mg of l-carnitine dissolved in 1 ml of water or received an equal volume of water without carnitine. From weaning (day 28) until slaughter (day 166 of age) all pigs were fed standard diets. At weaning, carnitine-supplemented piglets had a twofold increased concentration of free carnitine (P carnitine became bioavailable and increased fatty acid utilization during the period of supplementation. Growth performance was not influenced by treatment in any growth period. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry revealed no differences in body composition between groups in weeks 12, 16 and 20 of age. LW at slaughter, carcass weight, measures of meat yield and fat accretion, as well as body composition by chemical analyses and dissection of primal cuts did not differ between treatments. No differences between control and carnitine-treated pigs in total fibre number (P = 0.85) and fibre cross-sectional area (P = 0.68) in m. semitendinosus (ST) measured at slaughter could be observed. The carnitine group tended to exhibit a smaller proportion of slow-twitch oxidative fibres (P = 0.08), a greater proportion of fast-twitch glycolytic fibres (P = 0.11), and increased specific lactate dehydrogenase activity (P = 0.09) in ST indicating a more

  3. Características de carcaça de cordeiros Ideal e cruzas Border Leicester X Ideal submetidos a três sistemas alimentares Carcass characteristics of Polwarth and Border Leicester crossbred lambs in three feed systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Silla Lopes de Almeida

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com intuito de avaliar o efeito do cruzamento entre as raças Ideal e Border Leicester sobre as características da carcaça de cordeiros submetidos a distintos sistemas alimentares. Foram utilizados 48 cordeiros, machos não castrados, desmamados em média aos 60 dias de idade, sendo: 16 da raça Ideal (I, 16 cruzados ½ Border Leicester ½ Ideal (BI e 16 cruzados ¾ Border Leicester ¼ Ideal (BBI, aleatoriamente distribuídos em três sistemas de alimentação: pastagem cultivada (PC, pastagem cultivada + suplementação (PCS e pastagem natural + suplementação (PNS. O abate ocorreu quando os animais atingiram 65% do peso vivo adulto de seu grupo genético. Houve interação significativa entre genótipos e sistemas de alimentação somente para a variável peso de costela. Foi verificado efeito significativo do cruzamento para as variáveis peso de carcaça quente (PCQ, rendimento de carcaça quente (RCQ, peso de carcaça fria (PCF, rendimento de carcaça fria (RCF, área de olho de lombo (AOL, pesos de paleta (PAL e peso perna (PER. O cruzamento entre as raças Border Leicester e Ideal resultou em pesos e rendimentos de carcaça superiores e redução da deposição de gordura nas carcaças.The experiment was carried out to study the effect of crossing Border Leicester and Polwarth breeds on carcass characteristics of lambs submitted to different feed systems. Forty-eight lambs, non-castrate males, weaned averaging 60 days of age were used: 16 Polwarth (P, 16 ½ Border Leicester ½ Polwarth (BP and 16 ¾ Border Leicester ¼ Ideal (BBP. Animals were randomly distributed in three feed systems: cultivated pasture (CP, cultivated pasture + supplementation (CPS and natural pasture + supplementation (NPS. The lambs were slaughtered when they reached 65% of the adult live weight of their genetic groups. Genotype X feed systems interaction was observed only for rib weight. It was verified significant effect of the

  4. Tenderness of Pork Muscles as Influenced by Chilling Rate and Altered Carcass Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Elin; Møller, Anders Juel

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of tenderness improvements in porcine muscles (longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) in 72 carcasses by using combinations of three different chilling rates and two different suspennnsion methods....

  5. Coleopterofauna found on fresh and frozen rabbit carcasses in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

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    KM. Mise

    Full Text Available Many arthropod species are associated with carrion and some of them can be used as forensic indicators in murder investigations to estimate the time of death. Different physical conditions of cadavers may influence the fauna and the importance of freezing and thawing is unknown. The present paper sought to survey the Coleoptera species encountered in frozen and fresh rabbit carcasses, at a forest in Curitiba, Brazil. Four rabbit carcasses, two of them fresh and the other frozen were used. The coleopterofauna was sampled daily, and analyzed using non-parametric tests. A total of 666 beetles were sampled, belonging to 28 species in 10 families. Most of the beetles captured were larvae of Oxelytrum spp. (433 which are known to be necrophagous. The two frozen carcasses accounted for most of the beetles (338 and 180 in comparison with the two fresh carcasses (103 and 45. The tests were based on the most abundant species. Oxelytrum spp. median differed significantly between carcasses (H = 12.47844; p = 0.0059. The two fresh carcasses differed significantly (U = 190.0; p = 0.00019, but there was no significant difference between the frozen carcasses (U = 336.0; p = 0.29755. The data indicate that the freezing process prevents certain species to colonize carcasses, in this case with the dominance of species of Oxelytrum. These data also indicate that careful attention is necessary before using frozen carcasses in forensic entomology studies.

  6. Microbial growth on broiler carcasses stored at different temperatures after air- or water-chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, B; Sireli, U T

    2008-04-01

    Poultry meat has a high risk of contamination during its processing. Storage temperature, type of packaging, and types and numbers of psychrotrophic bacteria are the major factors determining the spoilage of poultry meat. Before packaging, poultry carcasses are chilled by air or water currents in commercial slaughterhouses. The packaging material and methods are other factors influencing the spoilage of poultry meat. Although unpackaged carcasses had lower production costs, they were found to contain high numbers of microorganisms. The unpackaged carcasses are often not recommended for food safety and public health risks. The present study examines the growth of some spoilage microorganisms on unpackaged carcasses and on broiler carcasses packaged in polyethylene bags or synthetic plates. The carcasses examined in this study were collected from the slaughterhouses of the Bolu region of Turkey. All carcasses were subjected to an air or water chilling process in the slaughterhouse and then stored at 0, 4, or 7 degrees C for 14 d. Samples were taken on d 0, 4, 8, 10, and 14 of storage and analyzed for total bacterial count, and for Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts, and molds. The carcasses packaged in synthetic plates or polyethylene bags and kept at 0 degrees C were microbiologically safer and had longer shelf life, so they are found to be the most reliable for consuming. The shelf life of broiler carcasses could be further increased by improving hygiene and sanitation procedures at the slaughterhouse.

  7. The “Criollo Negro de la Costa Ecuatoriana” pigs: effect of sex and rearing system on performance, carcass and meat traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, M.A.; Peláez, F.R.; Martínez, A.L.; Avilés, C.; Peña, F.

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of rearing system (confinement, C vs semi-confinement, SC) and sex (barrows vs females) on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of “Criollo negro de la costa ecuatoriana” pigs. A total of 32 pigs, 16 barrows and 16 gilts were used. The average daily gain (0.30 kg/day vs 0.22 kg/day), slaughter weight (51.4 kg vs 43.1 kg), morphometric parameters and weights for the most valuable meat cuts were higher in C pigs than in SC pigs, whereas hot and cold carcass yields were higher in SC pigs than in C pigs. The loin and sirloin percentages from C pigs were lower and higher compared with those SC pigs, respectively. Carcass of C pigs showed higher percentage of fat and lower percentage of lean and bone that SC pigs. The rearing system had scarce effects on meat quality traits and mineral composition. Meat from C pigs showed lower scores for color, brightness, and unctuousness, and higher for metallist taste, juiciness and persistence of flavor than SC pigs. Few sensory attributes of cooking chops were affected by sex. Metallist taste was higher in barrows, while brightness and lard flavor were higher in females. It can be concluded that the rearing system had a significant effect on most of the productive and carcass traits, whereas its effect was limited on the meat traits. Sex had little influence on most of the traits studied. (Author)

  8. Performance, carcass traits, meat quality and economic analysis of feedlot of young bulls fed oilseeds with and without supplementation of vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Rodrigues Machado Neto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate average daily gain (ADG, carcass traits, meat tenderness and profitability of keeping cattle fed different oilseeds and vitamin E in feedlot. A total of 40 Red Norte young bulls with initial average body weight of 339±15 kg were utilized. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The experiment lasted 84 days and experimental diets presented soybeans or cottonseeds as lipid sources associated or not to daily supplementation of 2,500 UI vitamin E per animal. The concentrate:roughage ratio was 60:40. Diets had the same amount of nitrogen (13% CP and ether extract (6.5%. The data were analyzed by means of statistical software SAS 9.1. Neither vitamin supplementation nor lipid source affected ADG. There was no interaction between lipid source and vitamin supplementation for the variables studied. The inclusion of cottonseed reduced the carcass yield. There was no effect of diets on hot and cold carcass weights or prime cuts. The inclusion of cottonseed reduced the backfat thickness. No effect of experimental diets on the rib-eye area was observed. There was no effect of lipid source or vitamin supplementation on meat tenderness, which was affected, however, by ageing time. Diets with soybeans presented higher cost per animal. The utilization of soybean implied reduction of the gross margin (R$ 59.17 and R$ 60.51 for diets based on soy with and without supplemental vitamin, respectively, vs. R$ 176.42 and R$ 131.79 for diets based on cottonseed. The utilization of cottonseed enables improvement of profitability of feedlot fattening, in spite of negatively affecting some carcass characteristics.

  9. THE INFLUENCE AN EXOGENOUS ENZYMES-PROBIOTICS COMPLEX ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS TRAITS OF ALBINO RATS FED DIETS CONTAINING UP TO 60% RICE BRAN

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    M. BOATENG

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of varying levels of rice bran supplemented with Xzyme™ (an exogenous enzyme-probiotic complex on the growth performance and carcass traits of albino rats. Thirty weanling albino rats with average initial liveweight of 66.9±0.3g were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments in a 3 x 2 factorial design (3 levels of rice bran [20, 40 and 60%] by 2 levels [0 and 250mg/kg of diet] of the Xzyme™. There were 5 rats on each treatment which were housed individually in plastic cages. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and their growth performance monitored for 28 days, after which the rats were slaughtered to collect carcass data.The mean values for total feed intake, weekly feed intake and daily weight gain were similar (P>0.05 for all the various dietary treatments. The addition of the Xzyme™ led to an improvement (P>0.05 in feed conversion ratio (FCR at each level of the rice bran. Both feed cost and feed cost per 100g weight gain values decreased as the level of RB increased despite the extra cost of the added Xzyme™. The carcass characteristics of the albino rats on all the six dietary treatments were similar (P>0.05. The results suggest that albino rats and probably other mono-gastric livestock species can be fed diets containing 60% rice bran plus Xzyme™ without any adverse effect on health, growth performance and carcass characteristics.

  10. Profile of Hanwoo Steer Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Composition after Feeding Italian Ryegrass Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk-Nam; Chu, Gyo-Moon; Kim, Da Hye; Park, Jae-Hong; Oh, Young Kyoon

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth performance, feed intake, slaughter characteristics, meat quantity and quality characteristics of Hanwoo steers fed with Italian ryegrass (IRG) silage (TRT). IRG silage consisted 11.70% protein, 2.84% ether extract, 53.50% dry matter digestibility and 63.34% total digestible nutrients. The daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio of TRT were significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of control diet (CON; fed rice straw) in the whole periods. However, the slaughter weight, dressing percentage, quantity grade and quantity traits (marbling score, meat color, fat color, and quality grade) of either TRT or CON were similar. Meat fed TRT diet showed higher crude fat and lightness (L*) value and lower moisture content and pH value compared with the CON diet (p<0.05). Overall the carcass yield was 12.5% higher than CON diet. PMID:26761843

  11. Whole grains in the finishing of culled ewes in pasture or feedlot: Performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruet, Ana Paula Burin; Stefanello, Flávia Santi; Rosado Júnior, Adriano Garcia; Souza, Alexandre Nunes Motta de; Tonetto, Cléber José; Nörnberg, José Laerte

    2016-03-01

    In order to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of culled ewes finished in pasture or exclusivelywith grain, 41 culled Polwarth ewes, were assigned to six treatments: RY (ryegrass pasture), RYGO (ryegrass and whole grain oats), RYGM (ryegrass and whole grain maize), GM (whole grain maize), GO (whole grain oats), GS (whole grain sorghum). The finishing systemof the ewes influenced weight gain,wherein the GM and GS treatments increased daily weight gain. The GO treatment decreased the dressing percentage. Nonetheless, a*, h*, pH, cooking loss and tenderness were similar across dietary treatments. Using principal component analysis, the variables C18:2n6, h*, n6/n3, TBARS, total lipids, L* and b* were assigned as characteristics of meat from the feedlot animals, while the pasture finishing system produced meat with higher CLA and n-3 fatty acids but lower TBARS values indicating lipid stability.

  12. Effects of feeding green forage of sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) on lamb growth and carcass and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, A; Di Miceli, G; Di Grigoli, A; Frenda, A S; Tornambè, G; Giambalvo, D; Amato, G

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional effects of sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) forage containing condensed tannins (CT) on growth of lambs, and carcass and meat quality were investigated. Thirty-two male Comisana lambs aged 100 ± 8 days weighing 19.0 ± 2.8 kg were fed fresh forage of sulla or CT-free annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. subsp. Wersterwoldicum) for 49 days until slaughter; in addition, each lamb was supplied with 200 g/days of concentrate. Eight lambs per diet had been previously treated with anthelmintic drugs to remove nematode parasites. Measurements of BW and feed intake, and counts of faecal nematode eggs were made. Carcass parameters were recorded after slaughter, and tissue components of the hind leg were determined. Longissimus dorsi meat was evaluated for pH, colour, thawing and cooking losses, Warner-Bratzler shear force, chemical composition and sensory properties based on triangle tests. Relative to ryegrass-fed lambs, sulla-fed lambs had significantly greater dry matter (DM) and protein intake, a more favourable feed conversion ratio, and superior growth rate, final BW at 150 days of age, carcass weight, yield and fatness. These results were attributed to the high protein and non-structural carbohydrate content of sulla, and also to the moderate CT content of sulla (16.7 and 20.3 g/kg of DM in offered and consumed sulla forage, respectively). Anthelmintic treatment did not affect lamb growth, as the level of parasitic infection (initial and final) was low. The physical, chemical and sensory properties of the lamb meat were not influenced by diet.

  13. Effects of various dietary lipid additives on lamb performance, carcass characteristics, adipose tissue fatty acid composition, and wool characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meale, S J; Chaves, A V; He, M L; Guan, L L; McAllister, T A

    2015-06-01

    Tasco (Ascophyllum nodosum; TA) was compared to canola (CO), flax (FO), and safflower oils (SO) for effects on performance, carcass characteristics, and fatty acid profiles of adipose tissue in skirt muscle (SM), subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues, and wool production and quality characteristics of Canadian Arcott lambs. Fifty-six lambs were randomly assigned to dietary treatments (n = 14 per treatment). Diets consisted of a pelleted, barley-based finishing diet containing either TA, CO, FO, or SO (2% of dietary DM). Feed deliveries and orts were recorded daily. Lambs were weighed weekly and slaughtered once they reached ≥ 45 kg BW. Carcass characteristics, rumen pH, and liver weights were determined at slaughter. Wool yield was determined on mid-side patches of 100 cm2 shorn at d 0 and on the day before slaughter (d 105 or 140). Dye-bands were used to determine wool growth, micrometer and staple length. Adipose tissues and SM samples were taken at slaughter and analyzed for FA profiles. No effects were observed on intake, growth, or carcass characteristics. A greater (P = 0.02) staple strength of lambs fed CO was the only effect observed in wool. Flax oil increased total n-3 and decreased the n-6/n-3 ratio in tissue FA profiles (P < 0.001) in comparison to other diets. Tasco increased (P ≤ 0.001) SFA/PUFA in all tissues, whereas concentrations of CLA c-9, t-11 were greatest with SO in all tissues (P ≤ 0.02), compared to other diets. These results suggest Tasco supplementation did not improve the n-3/n-6 or SFA/PUFA ratios of lamb adipose tissues compared to other dietary lipid additives.

  14. Effect of age of feed restriction and microelement supplementation to control ascites on production and carcass characteristics of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, M A; Suárez, M E; Herrera, J G; Cuca, J M; García-Bojalil, C M

    2004-04-01

    Three experiments were conducted, from January until September 2001, to estimate the optimized age to apply feed restriction to control mortality from ascites, with no negative effects on production and carcass characteristics of broilers. For each experiment, 1,200 1-d-old mixed Ross x Peterson chicks were reared in floor pens (50 chicks in each) and fed commercial feed. Feed restriction was applied for 8 h/d for 14 d at 21 or 28 d of age in experiment 1, 14 or 21 d in experiment 2, and 7 or 14 d in experiment 3. In experiments 2 and 3, a microelement supplement (without or with) was tested; the control groups received feed ad libitum and no supplement. Body weight gain, feed conversion, total mortality, and mortality from ascites, leg problems, and carcass characteristics were considered at the end of each experiment. The data were analyzed as a completely randomized design, or as a 2 x 2 factorial to estimate main and interaction effects (experiments 2 and 3). Additional analyses, including the control, were done; means comparisons were by orthogonal contrasts. The production and carcass characteristics of the restricted groups were lower than the control but were not statistically different in experiments 2 and 3, although the optimized age for feed restriction was at 7 d. Total mortality and mortality from ascites decreased by restriction, but leg problems increased without supplement. The results indicated that quantitative feed restriction and microelement supplementation at 7 d of age reduced mortality from ascites and leg problems and permitted compensatory growth sufficient to equal the production characteristics of the control group at 49 d of age. However, it is necessary to determine the specific microelements to be supplemented and to estimate the effects of season and genetic line.

  15. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on growth rates, feed conversion, and carcass traits in calf-fed Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, J L; Delmore, R J; Duff, G C; Yates, D A; Allen, D M; Lawrence, T E; Elam, N

    2009-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) to enhance growth performance and carcass characteristics in calf-fed Holstein steers. In Exp. 1, Holstein steers (n = 2,311) were fed in a large-pen trial in 2 phases at a commercial feed yard in the desert Southwest. In Exp. 2, a total of 359 steers were fed in a small-pen university study. In Exp. 1 and 2, cattle were implanted with a combination trenbolone acetate-estradiol implant approximately 120 d before slaughter. Cattle were fed ZH for 0, 20, 30, or 40 d before slaughter at a rate of 8.3 mg/kg (DM basis). A 3-d withdrawal was maintained immediately before slaughter. Cattle within an experiment were fed to a common number of days on feed. During the last 120 d before slaughter, ADG was not enhanced by feeding ZH for 20 d (P = 0.33 in Exp. 1, and P = 0.79 in Exp. 2). Gain-to-feed conversion was increased by feeding ZH for all durations in Exp. 1 (P Feeding ZH increased HCW by 9.3 (Exp. 2) to 11.6 (Exp. 1) kg at 20 d compared with the control groups. Across both experiments, dressing percent was increased for all durations of feeding ZH (P feeding ZH for 20 d in either experiment (P >or= 0.6), LM area was increased for all durations of feeding ZH (P feeding ZH in Exp. 1. This effect was not observed in Exp. 2. Holstein steers clearly respond to the beta-agonist ZH, and 20 d of feeding ZH with a 3-d withdrawal significantly increased carcass weights, muscling, and carcass leanness.

  16. Meat yield of culled cow and steer carcasses Rendimento de cortes preparados de carcaças de vacas e de novilhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonir Luiz Pascoal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The experiment evaluated the meat yield of prepared beef cuts, bone and trimmings of steer and culled cow carcasses. Culled 72-month-old Braford cows, 496 kg live weight and 36-month-old steers, 494 kg live weight were used, all from the same herd and finished on ryegrass pasture. A randomized complete design, with two treatments and 15 replications, was used. Hot carcass weight was lower for cows (248 kg than for steers (263 kg. Steer carcasses presented better conformation, lower chilling loss, shorter (128.6 vs. 137.7 cm, with longer and thicker limbs compared to cows and similar fat finishing. Steer carcasses showed, compared to cow carcasses, always in the same order, similar side cut yield (13.5 vs. 13.4%, higher forequarter yield (38.4 vs. 37.2%, and lower hindquarter yield (48.1 vs. 48.9%, resulting lower yields of the sub-primal cuts full rump and sirloin, lower rump UK trim, rump tail and striploin. Steer and cow carcasses were similar in total yield of prepared meat cuts (77.8 vs. 77.6%, discarded bone (17.4 vs. 17.9%, discarded trimmings (4.54 vs. 4.09%, and losses inherent to the deboning process (0.34 vs. 0.34%. The results showed that cow carcasses are longer, have shorter and thinner limbs, have higher hindquarter and lower of forequarter yields, but the total yield of prepared meat cuts were similar between cow and steer carcasses.Avaliaram-se os rendimentos de cortes cárneos preparados, de osso e de retalho descartado das carcaças de animais de novilhos e vacas de descarte. Utilizaram-se 15 vacas de 72 meses com peso vivo de 496 kg e 15 novilhos de 36 meses com peso vivo de 494 kg, todos da raça Braford e de mesmo rebanho, terminados em pastagem de azevém. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com duas categorias animais, cada uma com 15 repetições. O peso de carcaça quente das vacas de descarte (248 kg foi inferior ao dos novilhos (263 kg. As carcaças dos novilhos apresentaram melhor

  17. Effects of percentage Brahman and Angus breeding, age-season of feeding and slaughter end point on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, R D; Williams, S E; Hargrove, D D; Johnson, D D; Marshall, T T

    1990-08-01

    Steers (n = 165) of known percentage Brahman (B) and Angus (A) breeding were used to study effects of breed group (A, 3/4A:1/4B, 1/2A:1/2B, 1/4A:3/4B), age-season of feeding (calves fed during the cool season vs yearlings fed during the warm season) and slaughter end point (less than .90, 1.0 to 1.15, 1.27 to 1.40, greater than or equal to 1.5 cm of adjusted fat over the ribeye) on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. The 1/2B and 3/4B steers had heavier (P less than .05) initial and final feedlot weights than the A and 1/4B steers and higher (P less than .05) unshrunk ADG than the A steers did. Breed types did not differ for feed efficiency. Yearling steers fed in the warm season had higher (P less than .05) unshrunk ADG than calves fed in the cool season, but ADG calculated on an empty-rumen basis did not differ between the two age-seasons of feeding. Calves fed in the cool season were more efficient (P less than .05) than yearlings fed in the warm season when efficiency was expressed on an empty-rumen basis; however, on a live weight basis there was no difference in feed efficiency. No breed group by age-season of feeding interactions on performance were detected. Slaughter end point did not significantly affect feed efficiency on an empty-rumen basis. The 1/2B and 3/4B steers had smaller ribeye areas (REA) per 100 kg hot carcass and lower marbling scores than the 1/4B and A steers. Yearlings fed in the warm season produced heavier carcasses (P less than .05) than calves fed in the cool season. As s.c. fat thickness at slaughter increased, hot carcass weight and numerical yield grade increased, whereas REA per 100 kg of hot carcass decreased. Marbling also increased as fatness increased up to about 1.5 cm subcutaneous fat.

  18. Use of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica Mill replacing corn on carcass characteristics and non-carcass components in Santa Inês lambs Utilização da palma forrageira (Opuntia fícus-indica Mill em substituição ao milho sobre as características de carcaça e componentes não constituintes da carcaça de cordeiros da raça Santa Inês

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Ferreira Pinto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the biometric and morphometric measures, regional composition, carcass characteristics and non-carcass components of Santa Inês lambs submitted to levels of corn replaced by cactus pear in the diet. It was used 45 Santa Ines non-castrated male lambs, with average initial live weight of 25.50 ± 0.48 kg as a completely randomized block design with five treatments (0; 25; 50; 70 and 100% and nine replicates. There was an effect of the diet on slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot and cold carcass, cold carcass weight, shoulder weight and loin weight. Cactus pear can replace up to 75% of corn in diets for feedlot Santa Inês lambs, without compromising production, carcass characteristics and production of non-carcass components.O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar as medidas biométricas e morfométricas, a composição regional, as características de carcaça e os componentes não constituintes da carcaça de cordeiros Santa Inês, submetidos a níveis de substituição do milho por palma forrageira na dieta. Foram utilizados 45 cordeiros não-castrados da raça Santa Inês com peso vivo inicial de 25,0 ± 0,48 kg, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos (0; 25; 50; 75 e 100% e nove repetições. Houve efeito da dieta sobre o peso ao abate, peso do corpo vazio, peso de carcaça quente e fria, peso da paleta e peso do lombo. A palma forrageira pode substituir até 75% do milho em dietas para cordeiros da raça santa Inês em confinamento, sem comprometer a produção, as características da carcaça e a produção de componentes não constituintes da carcaça.

  19. Ractopamine levels on performance, carcass characteristics and quality of pig meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Pospissil Garbossa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of ractopamine (RAC on the performance of finishing pigs and the meat quality of these animals. Seventy crossbred pigs (35 barrows and 35 females selected for high gain of lean meat, with initial weight of 77.1±0.32 kg were distributed in randomized blocks with five treatments (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 ppm RAC in the diet and seven replications during 28 days. The experimental unit was represented by a male and a female pig. Regarding the performance variables, there was a linear increase in final weight with increasing levels of RAC, as well as in average daily weight gain. An improvement in feed conversion was observed for animals fed RAC, and the optimal level - estimated by the LRP model - was ~ 5 ppm. For feed intake, no significant effect on intake of digestible lysine and energy intake was observed. Carcass yield responses increased linearly with the RAC dose. Ash content, color component b* and loss drip linearly decreased with increasing doses of RAC. There was also a significant difference in the percentage of ether extract and crude protein in the loin, and treatment with 20 ppm RAC showed a lower amount of protein and larger amounts of lipids. Moisture content, color component L*, weight loss by cooking and defrosting, shear force and pH were not affected by the treatment. Concerning the lipid oxidation, there was no effect of RAC on the concentration of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances under cooling and under freezing. Thus, all ractopamine levels improve performance compared with control and do not negatively affect the quality of fresh, chilled or frozen pig meat.

  20. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL in sheep. III. QTL for carcass composition traits derived from CT scans and aligned with a meta-assembly for sheep and cattle carcass QTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Peter C

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An (Awassi × Merino × Merino single-sire backcross family with 165 male offspring was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL for body composition traits on a framework map of 189 microsatellite loci across all autosomes. Two cohorts were created from the experimental progeny to represent alternative maturity classes for body composition assessment. Animals were raised under paddock conditions prior to entering the feedlot for a 90-day fattening phase. Body composition traits were derived in vivo at the end of the experiment prior to slaughter at 2 (cohort 1 and 3.5 (cohort 2 years of age, using computed tomography. Image analysis was used to gain accurate predictions for 13 traits describing major fat depots, lean muscle, bone, body proportions and body weight which were used for single- and two-QTL mapping analysis. Using a maximum-likelihood approach, three highly significant (LOD ≥ 3, 15 significant (LOD ≥ 2, and 11 suggestive QTL (1.7 ≤ LOD P P A meta-assembly of ovine QTL for carcass traits from this study and public domain sources was performed and compared with a corresponding bovine meta-assembly. The assembly demonstrated QTL with effects on carcass composition in homologous regions on OAR1, 2, 6 and 21.

  1. Effect of Different Levels of Silymarin (Silybum marianum on Growth Rate, Carcass Variables and Liver Morphology of Broiler Chickens Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1

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    Fani Makki O

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of Silybum marianum seeds (SMS on performance, carcass variables, and liver morphology of the broiler chickens contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. A total of 216 broiler chicks (Ross 308 were used. Birds were randomly assigned to nine treatment groups, with four replicates and six birds in each replicate. Chickens were reared on litter from 1 to 35 days of age. Treatments were (AFB1 in three levels (Zero, 250 and 500 ppb and SMS in three levels (Zero, 0.5 and 1.0 percent using factorial experiment based on completely randomized design. Feed intake at the end of the three weeks did not significantly change in comparison with the control group. With the increase in the level of (AFB1 in the diet, feed intake and body weight gain were decreased compared with the control group in week 4. Feed conversion ratio was not influenced by the treatments. In diets containing AFB1, breast muscle, carcass ratio, abdominal fat and bursal gland weight were significantly decreased (P1 alone did not affect thigh, back, neck, wings, heart, legs and spleen weights. Increasing the level of SMS in the diet alone or in combination with AFB1 resulted in significant changes in the weights of carcass and internal organs. Liver of birds fed diets containing AFB1 showed abnormal signs including enlargement, yellowish, friable and rounded shape. Liver of other treatments did not show any abnormal signs. In conclusion, these findings suggest that silymarin might be used in chickens to prevent the effects of AFB1 in contaminated feed.

  2. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the non-carcass components and the meat of lambs fed sunflower seeds and vitamin E

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    Natália Ludmila Lins Lima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the weight and percentage of the non-carcass components and the mineral content (macro minerals and trace minerals, crude protein, ether extract, moisture and vitamin E of the heart, liver, tongue, lungs, reticulum, kidneys and meat from the longissimus dorsi of lambs in feedlot finishing. Thirty-two non-castrated Ile de France male lambs, fed diets containing sunflower seeds and vitamin E from 15 to 32 kg of body weight were allotted in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The weight of the gastrointestinal tract was higher in the lambs fed diets containing vitamin E (10%. No difference was observed in the liver as to the mineral matter, crude protein, ether extract, moisture (2.01; 20.03; 2.39 and 74.78 g/100 g, respectively, the macro minerals and trace minerals, except iron. In the tongue, lungs, reticulum, kidneys and meat there was no in fluence of diets in the studied variables. The liver and the meat presented different values of crude protein (20.01 and 18.34 g/100 g, respectively, and the heart (1.03 mg/100 g showed a higher content of vitamin E. High contents of manganese, zinc and copper were observed in the liver. The evaluated non-carcass components were nutritionally equal to the sheep meat, once, in addition to their high yield in relation to the body weight at slaughter, the non-carcass components are sources of nutrients.

  3. Carcass and meat quality traits of chickens fed diets concurrently supplemented with vitamins C and E under constant heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Pelícia, V C; Fascina, V B; Aoyagi, M M; Coutinho, L L; Sartori, J R; Moura, A S A M T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a diet supplemented simultaneously with vitamins C and E would alleviate the negative effects of heat stress, applied between 28 and 42 days of age, on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were assigned to a completely randomized design, with a 2×3 factorial arrangement (diet with or without vitamin supplementation and two ambient temperatures plus a pair-feeding group) and 16 replicates. Chickens were kept in thermoneutral conditions up to 28 days of age. They were then housed in groups of four per cage, in three environmentally controlled chambers: two thermoneutral (22.5 and 22.6°C) and one for heat stress (32°C). Half the chickens were fed a diet supplemented with vitamins C (257 to 288 mg/kg) and E (93 to 109 mg/kg). In the thermoneutral chambers, half of the chickens were pair-fed to heat stressed chickens, receiving each day the average feed intake recorded in the heat stress chamber in the previous day. Meat physical quality analyses were performed on the pectoralis major muscle. No ambient temperature×diet supplementation interaction effects were detected on performance, carcass, or meat quality traits. The supplemented diet resulted in lower growth performance, attributed either to a carry-over effect of the lower initial BW, or to a possible catabolic effect of vitamins C and E when supplemented simultaneously at high levels. Heat stress reduced slaughter and carcass weights, average daily gain and feed intake, and increased feed conversion. Growth performance of pair-fed chickens was similar to that of heat stressed chickens. Exposure to heat stress increased carcass and abdominal fat percentages, but reduced breast, liver and heart percentages. Pair-fed chickens showed the lowest fat percentage and their breast percentage was similar to controls. Heat stress increased meat pH and negatively affected meat color and cooking loss. In pair

  4. Genetic analyses of live-animal ultrasound and abattoir carcass traits in Australian Angus and Hereford cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverter, A; Johnston, D J; Graser, H U; Wolcott, M L; Upton, W H

    2000-07-01

    In order to estimate genetic parameters, abattoir carcass data on 1,713 Angus and 1,007 Hereford steers and heifers were combined with yearling live-animal ultrasound measurements on 8,196 Angus and 3,405 Hereford individuals from seedstock herds. Abattoir measures included carcass weight (CWT), percentage of retail beefyield (RBY), near-infrared measured intramuscular fat percentage (CIMF), preslaughter scanned eye muscle area (CEMA), and subcutaneous fat depth at the 12th rib (CRIB) and at the P8 site (CP8). Ultrasound scans on yearling animals included 12th-rib fat depth (SRIB), rump fat depth at the P8 site (SP8), eye muscle area (SEMA), and percentage of intramuscular fat (SIMF). Records on CWT were adjusted to 650-d slaughter age, and the remaining abattoir traits were adjusted to 300-kg CWT. Scan data were analyzed treating records on males and females as different traits. Multivariate analyses were performed on a variety of trait combinations using animal model and REML algorithm. Heritability (h2) estimates for CWT, RBY, CIMF, CP8, CRIB, and CEMA were .31, .68, .43, .44, .28, and .26, respectively, for Angus and .54, .36, .36, .08, .27, .38, respectively, for Hereford. Pooled across sexes, h2 estimates for SIMF, SP8, SRIB, and SEMA were .33, .55, .51, and .42, respectively, for Angus and .20, .31, .18, and .38, respectively, for Hereford. Genetic correlations (r(g)) between the same pair of carcass traits measured at yearling through scanning and directly at the abattoir were moderate to strongly positive, suggesting that selection using yearling ultrasound measurements of seedstock cattle should result in predictable genetic improvement for abattoir carcass characteristics. Estimates of r(g) between the scanned fat measurements and RBY were negative, ranging from -.85 for Angus heifers to -.05 for Hereford heifers. Also, the estimates of r(g) between SEMA and the fat records measured at the abattoir were negative and ranged from -.94 in Hereford heifers

  5. Factors influencing Salmonella carcass prevalence in Danish pig abattoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitas de Matos Baptista, Filipa; Dahl, J.; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2010-01-01

    The Danish Salmonella Surveillance-and-Control Programme in finisher pigs includes both herd and carcass surveillance. Herd surveillance consists of serological testing of meat-juice samples and classification of herds into three Salmonella seroprevalence levels. At the abattoirs, carcass swabs f...

  6. The use of seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) to predict the carcass composition of lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cadavez, Vasco A. P.; Henningsen, Arne

    particularly focussed on the PRESS statistic, because it assesses the precision of the model in predicting carcass composition. Our results showed that the SUR estimator performed better in predicting LMP and IFP than the OLS estimator. Although objective carcass classification systems could be improved...

  7. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., lambs, and foals. 311.28 Section 311.28 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals are unwholesome and shall be condemned if (a) the meat has the appearance...

  8. Sponge and skin excision sampling for recovery of Salmonella and Campylobacter from defeathered broiler carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcass skin increases during feather removal. There are several methods for sampling carcasses including sponging or swabbing of skin surface and skin excision. It is unclear whether sponge sampling is adequate to remove bacteria f...

  9. Soil and vegetation nutrient response to bison carcasses in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melis, C.; Selva, N.; Teurlings, I.J.M.; Skarpe, C.; Linnell, J.D.C.; Andersen, R.

    2007-01-01

    Ungulate carcasses can have important effects on the surrounding soil and vegetation. The impact of six carcasses of European bison (Bison bonasus) was investigated for the first time in a natural temperate forest (Bialeowieza, Poland) by measuring soil and plant nutrient concentrations along a grad

  10. Ultrasound use for body composition and carcass quality assessment in cattle and lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic evaluation for carcass quality traits has evolved over time, in large part due to introduction of new technology such as ultrasound measures of body composition. Ultrasound measured body composition traits emulate important carcass traits, are very informative for selection purposes, are ac...

  11. 9 CFR 310.18 - Contamination of carcasses, organs, or other parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contamination of carcasses, organs, or... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.18 Contamination of carcasses... prevent contamination with fecal material, urine, bile, hair, dirt, or foreign matter; however,...

  12. The use of seemingly unrelated regression to predict the carcass composition of lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cadavez, V.A.P.; Henningsen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate models for predicting the carcass composition of lambs. Forty male lambs were slaughtered and their carcasses were cooled for 24 hours. The subcutaneous fat thickness was measured between the 12th and 13th rib and breast bone tissue thickness...

  13. Effect of Probiotic Strain Enterococcus faecium M74 Supplementation on the Carcass Parameters of Different Hybrid Combination Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Weis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of addition of Enterococcus faecium M74 in drinking water on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Totally 120 chickens (60 of hybrid Hybro, 60 of Ross 308 were divided to two groups. Experimental chickens of Hybro (n=30 and Ross 308 (n=30 received a probiotic preparation in drinking water from day 1 to day 42 with concentration of 2x109 CFU of Enterococcus faecium M 74 in 1 g of nutrient medium with dextrose. The control group of Hybro (n=30 and Ross 308 (n=30 received water in same total amount as experimental group without any additives. The feeding period lasted 42 days. In case of Hybro, we showed higher effect of Enterococcus faecium M74 supplementation on slaughter weight (1807.51 vs. 1929.08 g; P0.05 in comparison with Ross 308 (2126.63 vs. 2199.31g; P>0.05. Differences in percentage of valuable parts (thigh and breast and carcass yield of Hybro and Ross 308 were not statistically significant (P>0.05 by addition of probiotic On the end of fattening, Ross 308 broiler chickens fed diet with probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium had significantly less (P<0.05 abdominal fat than those fed without the probiotic. In Hybro broiler chickens we recorded not significant difference between groups (P>0.05.

  14. EFFECT OF LITTER SUBSTRATES ON THE PERFORMANCE, CARCASS TRAITS, AND ENVIRONMENTAL COMFORT OF RED-WINGED TINAMOU (RHYNCHOTUS RUFESCENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Nunes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study aimed at evaluating the effect of litter substrates on the performance, carcass traits, and environmental comfort of red-winged tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens. In this experiment, 160 birds, with 100 and 300 days of age, were housed into 20 pens, and distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design into five treatments with four replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of five litter substrates: wood shavings, rice husks, peanut hulls, grass hay, or sand. Feed intake; weight gain; breast, hock, and footpad lesions; back feathering; total meat production; carcass and parts yield; and leukocyte counts were evaluated. Litter substrates were analyzed for dry matter content, standard microbial count, ammonia volatilization potential, water content, water holding capacity, temperature, and radiant heat load. The results showed that litter substrate did not influence the evaluated bird parameters, despite the higher microbial counts and released ammonia values determined in peanut hulls and sand, respectively. Sand also tended to have higher average temperature than the other litter substrates. It was concluded that litter substrate should be chosen at farmer discretion, taking into consideration its cost and utilization after use.

  15. Level and period of realimentation to assess improvement in body condition and carcass quality in cull ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Randhir Singh; Soren, Nira Manik; Sahoo, Artabandhu; Karim, Shaikh Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Improvement in body condition was assessed in 40 cull ewes (>6 years), equally distributed in two groups and realimented with ad libitum roughage (gram straw) and two levels of concentrate feeding, i.e., 2.5 % (T(1)) of live weight (LW) and ad libitum (T(2)). Five representative animals from an initial 45 were slaughtered at the initiation of the study (0 day) and five animals from each treatment at 44, 67, and 90 days of experiment for carcass attributes. Improvement in body condition score (BCS), nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were assessed at 44, 67, and 90 days. Metabolism trial of 6-day collection of feed, feces, and urine samples was conducted on five representative ewes from each group after 60 days of feeding. The level of concentrate feeding on LW gain and BCS was significant, and the duration of realimentation showed a linear improvement (P ammonia N was observed with extension of realimentation period. Blood metabolic profile also showed improvement (P production.

  16. Effects of Dietary Zinc Oxide and a Blend of Organic Acids on Broiler Live Performance, Carcass Traits, and Serum Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BG Sarvari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different dietary supplementation levels of zinc oxide and of an organic acid blend on broiler performance, carcass traits, and serum parameters. A total of 2400 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks, with average initial body weight 44.21±0.19g, was distributed according to a completely randomized design in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. Six treatments, consisting of diets containing two zinc oxide levels (0 and 0.01% of the diet and three organic acid blend levels (0, 0.15, and 0.30% were applied, with eight replicates of 50 birds each. The experimental diets were supplied ad libitum for 42 days. There were significant performance differences among birds fed the different zinc oxide and organic acid blend levels until 42 d of age (p<0.01. The result of this experiment showed that the organic acid blend did not affect feed intake, but zinc oxide increased feed intake. Carcass traits were not influenced by the experimental supplements. Zinc oxide supplementation increased serum alkaline phosphatase level (p<0.01. The organic acid blend reduced serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels (p<0.05. No interactions were found between zinc oxide and the organic acid blend for none of the evaluated parameters. We concluded that zinc oxide and the evaluated organic acid blend improve broiler performance.

  17. Effect of beef tallow on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat composition, and lipid profile of growing lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahana Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of diets with inclusion of beef tallow on growth, and carcass characteristics, meat quality, and lipid profile in growing lambs. The experiment was conducted with 15 lambs for 63 days. The lambs were randomly allotted into three dietary treatments (T0, T1, and T2 with five animals in each group; T0 (control diet without beef tallow, T1 (diet with 2% beef tallow, and T2 (diet with 4% beef tallow. The body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR were significantly (P0.05 on meat quality and chemical composition among the three dietary groups. Group T1 showed the highest increase of cholesterol concentration (11.5% at the end of experiment, but serum triglyceride concentration was not significantly (P>0.05 correlated with any of the three dietary groups. To sum up, the use of beef tallow at 2% level in lamb diet can increase their performance without having any deleterious effect on carcass, meat quality and lipid profile. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 346-352

  18. Performance, Carcass Quality and Fatty Acid Profile of Crossbred Wagyu Beef Steers Receiving Palm and/or Linseed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of palm and/or linseed oil (LSO) supplementation on carcass quality, sensory evaluation and fatty acid profile of beef from crossbred Wagyu beef steers. Twenty four fattening Wagyu crossbred beef steers (50% Wagyu), averaging 640±18 kg live weight (LW) and approximately 30 mo old, were stratified and randomly assigned in completely randomized design into 3 treatment groups. All steers were fed approximately 7 kg/d of 14% crude protein concentrate with ad libitum rice straw and had free access to clean water and were individually housed in a free-stall unit. The treatments were i) control concentrate plus 200 g/d of palm oil; ii) control concentrate plus 100 g/d of palm oil and 100 g/d of LSO, iii) control concentrate plus 200 g/d of LSO. This present study demonstrated that supplementation of LSO rich in C18:3n-3 did not influence feed intakes, LW changes, carcass and muscle characteristics, sensory and physical properties. LSO increased C18:3n-3, C22:6n-3, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), however, it decreased C18:1t-11, C18:2n-6, cis-9, trans-11, and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acids, n-6 PUFA and n-6:n-3 ratio in Longissimus dorsi and Semimembranosus muscles.

  19. A review of methods and microbial risks associated with composting of animal carcasses in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal carcass composting for both routine and emergency management of food animal mortalities is an alternative method of carcass disposal in those situations where conventional methods are inadequate. Carcass composting has been referred to as ‘above ground burial in a bio-filter with pathogen kil...

  20. Growth and carcass traits associated with GH1/Alu I and POU1F1/Hinf I gene polymorphisms in Zebu and crossbred beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério A. Curi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of the GH1/Alu I and POU1F1/Hinf I polymorphisms in beef cattle belonging to different genetic groups and to determine the effects of these polymorphisms on growth and carcass traits in cattle submitted to feedlot management, an intensive production model. Genotyping was performed on 384 animals, including 79 Nellore, 30 Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu, 30 Simmental x Nellore crossbred and 245 Angus x Nellore crossbred cattle. Body weight, weight gain, dressing percentage, Longissimus dorsi area and backfat thickness were fitted using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure of the SAS program and the least square means of the genotypes were compared using the F test. The results showed significant associations between the LL genotype of the GH1/Alu I polymorphism and higher weight gain and body weight at slaughter (p < 0.05. The POU1F1/Hinf I polymorphism did not have any effect on the growth and carcass traits analyzed.

  1. Effects of dietary crude protein on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and serum biochemical indexes of Lueyang black-boned chickens from seven to twelve weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assess dietary crude protein (CP concentration for optimum growth performance and carcass characteristics of Lueyang black-boned chicken. In total, six hundred 42-day-old Lueyang black-boned chicks were randomly assigned to five treatments, each with six replicate pens with ten males and ten females. The birds fed experimental diets with different levels of protein concentration of 120, 140, 160, 180 and 200 g kg-1 from seven to twelve weeks of age respectively. On day of 84, weight gain, feed intake, and feed:gain ratio were measured, and two chickens (one male and one female close to the average weight of all birds in each treatment were selected from each pen and sacrificed to evaluate carcass traits and selected serum biochemical indexes. Dietary CP concentration did not have any significant influence on feed intake (p>0.05. The birds fed the diet with 180 or 160 g kg-1 CP concentration exhibited greater (p<0.05 growth rate, better feed conversion ratio, relative breast weight and albumin concentration in serum than that of those fed other dietary CP concentrations. According to the results of regression analysis, the CP requirements of Lueyang black-boned chicken from seven to twelve weeks of age for optimal weight gain and feed:gain ratio were 174 and 170 g kg-1, respectively.

  2. Evaluating the effects of a single copy of a mutation in the myostatin gene (c.*1232G>A) on carcass traits in crossbred lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, A Y; Lambe, N R; Macfarlane, J M; Brotherstone, S; Haresign, W; Bünger, L

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the ovine c.*1232G>A myostatin mutation (MM) on carcass traits in heterozygous crossbred lambs sired by Texel and Poll Dorset rams using ultrasound, CT scanning, carcass classification and VIA. In experiment 1, MM was associated with increased loin depth (+2.8%) and area (+3.2%). MM-carriers had significantly higher CT-estimated lean weight and proportion (2 to 4%) and muscle to bone ratio (by ~3%), in both experiments, and muscle to fat ratio (28%) in experiment 2. Muscle areas in three cross-sectional CT scans, were higher (2 to 5%) in MM-carriers. In experiment 2, fat-related measurements were significantly lower in MM-carrier lambs but this was not seen in experiment 1. A significant increase in muscle density, indicative of lower intramuscular fat, in MM-carriers shows that meat quality characteristics need attention. Carrying MM significantly decreased carcass fat scores. VIA did not detect any significant MM effects.

  3. Supplementation with linseed (Linum usitatissimum) cake and/or wheat bran on feed utilization and carcass characteristics of Arsi-Bale sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafa, Abebe; Melaku, Solomon; Peters, Kurt J

    2010-04-01

    Thirty yearling male intact Arsi-Bale sheep with initial body weight (BW) of 15.5 +/- 0.21 kg (mean +/- SD) were used in 90 days feeding trial, 10 days digestibility trial followed by evaluation of carcass parameters at Bokoji, Ethiopia. The objectives were to evaluate effects of supplementation with linseed (Linum usitatissimum) cake (LSC), wheat bran (WB), and their mixtures at 2:1 and 1:2, respectively on feed intake, digestibility, daily BW gain, and carcass parameters. The five treatments included ad libitum feeding of natural pasture hay (control) and with daily supplementation of 300 g dry matter (DM) sole LSC, 2LSC:1WB mix, 1LSC:2WB mix, and sole WB. Six sheep were randomly assigned to each treatment using randomized complete-block design. Four sheep in each treatment were randomly selected and used for determination of digestibility and carcass characteristics using a completely randomized design. The intake of hay DM was higher (P mixed rations. Moreover, supplementation proved to be profitable, whereas feeding hay alone led to economic loss.

  4. Effects of dietary oregano and garlic essential oils on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpinar, F; Ünlü, H B; Serdaroğlu, M; Turp, G Y

    2014-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to determine the individual and combined effects of two essential oils, oregano and garlic, on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat. 2. The diets were supplemented with no essential oil (control), oregano essential oil or garlic essential oil at 300 mg/kg and oregano essential oil at 150 mg/kg + garlic essential oil at 150 mg/kg. 3. Dietary oregano and garlic oil supplementation did not affect carcass yields, the relative weight of carcass parts, breast and thigh meat composition, pH or b* value of breast meat. Oregano + garlic oil supplementation significantly decreased the L* value. The a* value of breast meat in birds given a diet supplemented with oregano oil was lower than that in birds given a diet supplemented with garlic oil and oregano oil + garlic oil. The essential oil addition had no positive effect on the oxidative stability. There was no difference between the treatments in breast appearance. 4. The juiciness, flavour, oxidised flavour and acceptability of breast meat samples were affected by treatments.

  5. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  6. Effect of Aloe vera and clove powder supplementation on carcass characteristics, composition and serum enzymes of Japanese quails

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    Hujaz Tariq

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the effect of Aloe vera and clove powder supplementation on carcass characteristics, composition and serum enzymes of Japanese quails. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 120-day-old Japanese quails, which were randomly divided into four treatment groups viz. T1-control, T2-0.5% A. vera, T3-0.5% clove, and T4-(0.25% A. vera + 0.25% clove powder, each having three replications consisting of ten Japanese quails. The birds in control group (T1 were fed no supplement whereas in treatments T2-T4 birds were supplemented with A. vera leaf powder, clove, and mixture of both (powdered form at 0.5, 0.5, and 0.25+0.25% of feed, respectively. After 7 days of brooding, a feeding trial of 35 days was conducted. On 35th day of trial birds were sacrificed and dressing percentage, cut up parts, organ weight, processing losses and carcass meat composition of the breast, thigh, and drumstick were recorded. Blood samples were collected on the same day and serum was separated to evaluate serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST. Results: It showed significantly (p0.05 differences were observed in giblet weight, other cut up parts and composition of the breast, thigh, and drumstick muscles in all the treatment groups. Serum ALT and AST did not vary significantly among different treatment groups. Conclusion: A. vera and clove supplementation improved the dressing percentage and breast weight without adversely affecting the meat composition and serum enzymes. Thus, these can be used as a growth promoter in Japanese quails.

  7. Performance and carcass quality of feedlot- or pasture-finished Nellore heifers according to feeding managements in the postweaning phase

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    Daniel Rume Casagrande

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the postweaning history of heifers kept on marandu grass pastures with three canopy heights, in a continuous-grazing system, during the rainy period, on feedlot- or pasture finishing. The effects of three canopy heights (15, 25 and 35 cm associated with two supplements (mineral salt and protein-energy supplement and two finishing systems in the dry period (feedlot and open pasture were studied in the postweaning period during the rainy season. The adopted design was completely randomized, with seven replications (animals in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The animals which received protein-energy supplement reached the finishing period with greater body weight in relation to those fed mineral salt. In both feedlot and pasture finishing systems, compensatory gain effect was observed in the animals that remained on the low pastures during postweaning compared with the high pastures. This compensatory gain was not verified in the animals that received protein-energy supplement in relation to the mineral salt, and thus the animals were slaughtered beforehand. The heifers on pastures with 25 or 35 cm in height were slaughtered in the same period, and those kept on the low pastures were slaughtered afterwards. The studied factors in the postweaning phase did not affect the carcass characteristics. Animals finished in feedlot slaughtered with the same body weight as those finished on pasture show greater carcass yield, subcutaneous fat deposition and renal pelvic and inguinal fat and greater losses with trimmings for cleaning the main hindquarter meat cuts; however, they provide cuts with the same weight but greater fat cover.

  8. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Brito Lopes

    Full Text Available This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs. Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA, back-fat thickness (BF, and rump fat thickness (RF, registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3 (P < 0.001. Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1 were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs. Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection.

  9. Effect of nucleotides on broiler performance and carcass yield

    OpenAIRE

    VC Pelícia; JR Sartori; KC Zavarize; AC Pezzato; AC Stradiotti; PC Araujo; MAO Mituo; LA Madeira

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of nucleotides on the performance and carcass yield of broilers fed diets with no antibiotic growth promoters (AGP), anticoccidials, or animal feedstuffs. In the trial, 600 Ross 308 male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CD), CD + AGP, CD + 0.04%, CD + 0.05%, CD + 0.06%, and CD + 0.07% nucleotides. The experimental ...

  10. Evaluation of muscle tissue growth in Young Mediterranean Buffaloes slaughtered at different weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Pardo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated muscle, adipose and bone tissue growth in young Mediterranean buffaloes slaughtered with different weights. Twenty eight non-castrated males, approximately 14 months old and 330 kilos, were distributed in four experimental and one control groups. Received the same diet during a non-fixed period and when reached the pre-established weights (450 kg, 480 kg, 510 kg, 540 kg were fasted for 16 hours and slaughtered. NRC 1996, level 2, ruminal simulation program for non-castrated animals with a daily weight gain of 1.40 kg determined percentage composition of experimental diet (dry matter: coast cross hay (20.6%, corn silage (7.8%, cotton seed (8.2%, humid corn silage (46% and commercial mineral concentrate (17.4%, representing 13% of crude protein and 2,68% of metabolizable energy (Mcal/kg. Feed was offered ad libitum twice daily. Slaughter of control group occurred after 30 days of an adaptation period. The other ones were weighted each 28 days until reached pre-established weight. Carcasses were chilled for 18 hours under -5oC. Ninth, 10o and 11o ribs of the half left carcass were submitted to HH section and according to the statistical regression analysis (SAS, 1996, allometric coefficient value was negative (b<1 demonstrating the early growth of muscle in relation to empty carcass weight.

  11. Casca de arroz e palhada de soja na compostagem de carcaças de frangos de corte = Rice husks and soy straw as substrate for composting of broiler carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Giovanni de Abreu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atuacao da casca de arroz e da palhada de soja como substrato para compostagem de carcaca de frangos de corte, observando a degradacao dos dois substratos e das carcacas pelo monitoramento da temperatura, peso das carcacas e dos substratos e analise fisicoquimica do produto final. As camaras foram montadas com carcacas de 10 aves recem abatidas, com quatro repeticoes no tempo. Instalou-se em cada camara um termopar para registro da temperatura. O substrato e as carcacas foram pesadas separadamente, no inicio, aos 15 e aos 30 dias de compostagem. Ao final de cada periodo, foram realizadas analises fisico-quimica de amostras de cada camara, avaliando-se o pH e os teores de materia seca, cinzas, P, N, K, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe e carbono organico. Concluiu-se que a palhada de soja pode ser usada como alternativa para substrato de compostagem de carcacas de aves, atendendo a relacao C/N exigida pela legislacao ao final da terceira reutilizacao. A casca de arroz, da mesma forma, pode ser utilizada na compostagem de carcacas de aves, porem reutilizada por maior numero de vezes. A decomposicao das carcacas foi significativamente maior, em percentual, na palhada de soja aofinal do quarto periodo de compostagem (p „Tƒn0,05.The performance of rice husks and of soy straw were evaluated as substrate for on-farm poultry carcass composting, observing the degradation of the two substrate and of the carcasses through monitoring the temperature, weight of the carcasses and of the substrate and physiochemical analysis of the final product. The piles were arranged with carcasses of 10 recently slaughtered birds, with four repetitions in time. A thermo pair was installed in each pile to register the temperature. The substrate and the carcasses were weighed separately, in the beginning, day 15 and day 30 of composting. At the end of each period, the physiochemical analysis of samples were made from each pile, evaluating the pH, the dry material, ashes, P, N

  12. Use of bird carcass removals by urban scavengers to adjust bird-window collision estimates

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    Justine A. Kummer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carcass removal by scavengers has been identified as one of the largest biases in estimating bird mortality from anthropogenic sources. Only two studies have examined carcass removal by scavengers in an urban environment, and previous estimates of bird-window collision mortality at houses have relied on carcass removal rates from wind turbine studies. We placed a bird carcass and time-lapse camera at 44 houses in Edmonton, Alberta. In total, 166 7-day trials were conducted throughout 2015. Time-to-event (survival analysis was used to identify covariates that affected removal. The carcass removal rate was determined for use in estimating the number of birds killed from bird-window collisions at houses in Alberta. In total, 67.5% of carcasses were removed. The date the carcass was placed, the year the house was built, and the level of development within 50 m of the house were the covariates that had the largest effect on carcass removal. In calculating our removal rate, the number of detected carcasses in the first 24 hours was adjusted by 1.47 to account for removal by scavengers. Previously collected citizen science data were used to create an estimate of 957,440 bird deaths each year in Alberta as a result of bird-window collisions with houses. This number is based on the most detailed bird-window collision study at houses to date and a carcass removal study conducted in the same area. Similar localized studies across Canada will need to be completed to reduce the biases that exist with the previous bird-window collision mortality estimate for houses in Canada.

  13. Effect of chestnuts level in the formulation of the commercial feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality of Celta pig breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesús, C. De; Domínguez, R.; Cantalapiedra, J.; Iglesias, A.; Lorenzo, J.M.

    2016-11-01

    The effect of including chestnuts in the formulation of the feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality from 24 castrated males Celta pigs was studied. The inclusion of 15% of chestnut (CH15) improved (p<0.01) the carcass (118 vs. about 104 kg) and live weights (149 vs. 133-139 kg). Killing out percentage was also better for chestnuts groups than for control group. With regards the morphometric parameters, there were no statistically significant (p>0.05) differences except for the carcass length and ham length, for which the CH15 group proved to be the group with the longest sizes. The diet did not affect the physicochemical properties (colour parameters, water holding capacity and shear force) of longissimus dorsi muscle. The composition of some fatty acids of the longissimus dorsi muscle was affected by diet. The total saturated (35-38%) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (8-10%) did not present differences. However, the increase of chestnut in the diet increased (p<0.05) the monounsaturated fatty acids in intramuscular fat (57% in CH25 vs. 53% in control and CH15). Within monounsaturated fatty acids, the C18:1n9 was the most influenced of the diet. Therefore, the lower content of protein and the higher amounts of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 in the chestnut could be explaining the greater content of C18:1n9 in muscle of chestnut-fed animals. The main conclusion is that including chestnuts in the diet would allow reduce production costs with no effect or even improving carcass measurements and meat quality. (Author)

  14. Ensiled citrus pulp as a by-product feedstuff for finishing pigs: nutritional value and effects on intestinal microflora and carcass quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Moset

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Forty pigs of 76.8 ± 4.2 kg body weight were fed four different diets varying in ensiled citrus pulp (ECP inclusion level (0, 50, 100, and 150 g of ECP/kg of diet on dry matter base. The trial lasted 5 weeks. During the last week, faecal samples were obtained to calculate apparent nutrient digestibility; also volatile fatty acids (VFA content in faeces was determined. The digestible energy and protein of ECP was estimated by regression analysis. During the trial faecal samples were collected to determine enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts. At slaughter, carcass characteristics were registered. The inclusion of ECP in the diets decreased energy digestibility but increased neutral and acid detergent fibre digestibility linearly (p<0.05. The estimated digestible energy and protein of ECP were lower than expected (7.0 MJ/kg dry matter (DM and 33.8 g/kg DM, respectively. Total VFA production in faeces was not affected by the diet. Both enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts were lower (p<0.01 with than without ECP inclusion at the end of the study. Carcass yield decreased linearly (p<0.05 and backfat at gluteus medius increased quadratically (p<0.05 with the inclusion of ECP in the diet. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the internal subcutaneous fat layer decreased quadratically (p<0.05 with the inclusion of ECP. Thus, the nutritive value of ECP for finishing pigs is low and levels of 150g/kg can negatively affect carcass yield. However, including up to 100 g of ECP/kg in finishing pig diets did not affect nutrient digestibility, carcass yield and subcutaneous fat FA profile. Additionally, increasing ECP levels in diets decreases faecal enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts in faeces.

  15. Ensiled citrus pulp as a by-product feedstuff for finishing pigs: nutritional value and effects on intestinal microflora and carcass quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moset, V.; Piquer, O.; Cervera, C.; Fernández, J.; Hernández, P.; Cerisuelo, A.

    2015-07-01

    Forty pigs of 76.8 ± 4.2 kg body weight were fed four different diets varying in ensiled citrus pulp (ECP) inclusion level (0, 50, 100, and 150 g of ECP/kg of diet on dry matter base). The trial lasted 5 weeks. During the last week, faecal samples were obtained to calculate apparent nutrient digestibility; also volatile fatty acids (VFA) content in faeces was determined. The digestible energy and protein of ECP was estimated by regression analysis. During the trial faecal samples were collected to determine enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts. At slaughter, carcass characteristics were registered. The inclusion of ECP in the diets decreased energy digestibility but increased neutral and acid detergent fibre digestibility linearly (p<0.05). The estimated digestible energy and protein of ECP were lower than expected (7.0 MJ/kg dry matter (DM) and 33.8 g/kg DM, respectively). Total VFA production in faeces was not affected by the diet. Both enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts were lower (p<0.01) with than without ECP inclusion at the end of the study. Carcass yield decreased linearly (p<0.05) and backfat at gluteus medius increased quadratically (p<0.05) with the inclusion of ECP in the diet. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the internal subcutaneous fat layer decreased quadratically (p<0.05) with the inclusion of ECP. Thus, the nutritive value of ECP for finishing pigs is low and levels of 150g/kg can negatively affect carcass yield. However, including up to 100 g of ECP/kg in finishing pig diets did not affect nutrient digestibility, carcass yield and subcutaneous fat FA profile. Additionally, increasing ECP levels in diets decreases faecal enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts in faeces. (Author)

  16. Instrumental objective measurement of veal calves carcass colour at slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Vandoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 6700 veal calves were used to compare the ability of chromameter CR300 in measuring the veal meat colour on-line at slaughterhouse and to develop a prediction equation of colour score based on relationship between instrumental and visual assessments. A total of 5000 carcasses were used to develop equation of prediction while 1700 were used to test it. The meat colour was assessed subjectively in 3 different slaughterhouses by the slaughterhouse’s judges 10h post mortem and objectively by chromameter CR300 45 post mortem on the Rectus abdominis. The prediction equation classified correctly 79% of carcasses and was characterized by an R2 of 78%. Furthermore it has to be underlined that the chroma contributes to the total R2 with a 0.21 partial R2. This data confirmed that chromameter CR300 can be used on-line to measure objectively veal meat colour at the end of the slaughter line.

  17. Association of selected SNP with carcass and taste panel assessed meat quality traits in a commercial population of Aberdeen Angus-sired beef cattle

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    Williams John L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, previously associated with meat and milk quality traits in cattle, in a population of 443 commercial Aberdeen Angus-cross beef cattle. The eight SNP, which were located within five genes: μ-calpain (CAPN1, calpastatin (CAST, leptin (LEP, growth hormone receptor (GHR and acylCoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1, are included in various commercial tests for tenderness, fatness, carcass composition and milk yield/quality. Methods A total of 27 traits were examined, 19 relating to carcass quality, such as carcass weight and fatness, one mechanical measure of tenderness, and the remaining seven were sensory traits, such as flavour and tenderness, assessed by a taste panel. Results An SNP in the CAPN1 gene, CAPN316, was significantly associated with tenderness measured by both the tenderometer and the taste panel as well as the weight of the hindquarter, where animals inheriting the CC genotype had more tender meat and heavier hindquarters. An SNP in the leptin gene, UASMS2, significantly affected overall liking, where animals with the TT genotype were assigned higher scores by the panellists. The SNP in the GHR gene was significantly associated with odour, where animals inheriting the AA genotype produced steaks with an intense odour when compared with the other genotypes. Finally, the SNP in the DGAT1 gene was associated with sirloin weight after maturation and fat depth surrounding the sirloin, with animals inheriting the AA genotype having heavier sirloins and more fat. Conclusion The results of this study confirm some previously documented associations. Furthermore, novel associations have been identified which, following validation in other populations, could be incorporated into breeding programmes to improve meat quality.

  18. Carcaça e não-componentes da carcaça de cordeiros recebendo polpa cítrica úmida prensada em substituição à silagem de milho - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i1.252 Carcass and non-carcass components of lambs fed with pressed citrus pulp replacing corn silage - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i1.252

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Yumi Noro

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a substituição da silagem de milho pela polpa cítrica úmida prensada (PCUP sobre as características de carcaça e dos não-componentes da carcaça de cordeiros da raça Santa Inês. Vinte quatro cordeiros com idade média de 90 dias e peso vivo inicial médio de 18 kg foram confinados durante 67 dias, alimentados com dietas contendo níveis crescentes de PCUP em substituição à silagem de milho (0, 25, 50, 75% da MS. Não foi verificada diferença (p>0,05 para peso vivo ao abate (32,8 kg, rendimento de carcaça quente (44,7%, rendimento verdadeiro (50,3% e não-componentes da carcaça. Em relação aos rendimentos dos cortes, apenas o rendimento de lombo foi afetado (pThe objective of this study was to evaluate the replacement of corn silage by pressed citrus pulp (PCP on carcass characteristics and non-carcass components of Santa I