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Sample records for carcass traits measured

  1. PREDICTION OF CARCASS TRAITS OF JAPANESE BLACK BULLS AT SEVERAL AGES USING BODY MEASUREMENTS AND ULTRASONIC ESTIMATE OF CARCASS TRAITS

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Rachma, Aprilita Bugiwati

    2008-01-01

    The present research aims to estimate the mathematical equations for predicting ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits at ten months after performance test (about 20 months of age) using body measurements and ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits at earlier stages of performance test of Japanese Black bulls. This research was done at Kagoshima and Miyazaki prefecture Livestock Experimental Stations Japan to collect the ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits and body measurements data of Jap...

  2. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ULTRASONIC ESTIMATES OF CARCASS TRAITS AND BODY MEASUREMENTS OF JAPANESE BLACK BULL

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Rachma, Aprilita Bugiwati

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was done at 292 head of Japanese black bull at Kagoshima and Miyazaki Prefectural Experimental Stations Japan to find out the relationship between ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits and body measurements as one of criteria to select Japanese black bull. The carcass traits of 20 months of age were predicted using the ultrasonic machine. The body dimensions were measured at the end of performance test (12 months of age) and 16 months of age. The ultrasonic evaluati...

  3. Body measurements and carcass traits of castrated and non-castrated Mediterranean buffalos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Oliveira Santos Ramalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study was evaluated the effect of sex condition on body measurements and carcass traits as well as the correlations between them, using data of 20 Mediterranean, from Fazenda Três Rios, at Casimiro de Abreu, Rio de Janeiro, managed in tangola grass pasture, receiving mineral salt ad libitum, slaughtered at approximately 462,05 kg (±28.34. The body measurements were: thoracic depth (TD, croup length (CL, withers height (WH, rump width (RW, rump height (RH, ischium distance (ID, cushion thickness (CT, thoracic perimeter (TP, and dorsal line length (DLL. Data were submited to variance analysis and Pearson correlation. The castrated animals presented higher height of croup. Non-castrated animals had bigger yield from leather than the castrated animals, which influenced the lowest yield of carcass regarding the castrated ones. There was no difference for yield of paws, innards and head in function of the sexual condition. There was significant correlation between the slaughter weight (SW and the following corporal measures: TP, TD, RW, ID and WH.

  4. Genetic parameters for carcass traits and in vovo measured muscle and fat depth in Danish Texel and Shropshire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxa, Jan; Norberg, Elise; Berg, Peer; Pedersen, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    Genetic parameters for carcass traits and ultrasonic scanning measurements were estimated for Danish Texel and Shropshire, the most common sheep breeds in Denmark. Data used in this study were collected from 1990 to 2005 by the Danish Agricultural Advisory Service. A multivariate animal model was...... used for estimation of (co)variance components for muscle depth (MD), fat depth (FD), carcass conformation score (FORM) and carcass fatness (FAT). Heritabilities for MD were 0.29 and 0.28 for Texel and Shropshire, respectively. Diverging heritabilities were found for FD - 0.39 for Texel and 0.12 for...... Shropshire. Carcass conformation was highly heritable, 0.45 for Texel and 0.36 for Shropshire. The heritability for FAT was 0.11 for Texel and 0.19 for Shropshire. Genetic correlations between MD and FORM, and FD and FAT were positive and favourable. It was concluded that ultrasound measures on live animals...

  5. Relationships between in vivo Measurements of Backfat Thickness and Several Carcass and Ham Traits in Heavy Pigs

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    Alessio Cecchinato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between ultrasound measurements of backfat thickness (UBF taken on live heavy pigs and several carcass composition and ham quality traits. Before slaughter 240 pigs were weighed (average BW: 167 ±10 kg and assessed for UBF using an A-mode ultrasonic device (placed above the last rib at approximately 5.5 to 8.0 cm from midline, with increasing distance with increasing BW. At slaughterhouse backfat thickness and weight of carcass and of commercial lean and fat cuts were collected. Aft er 24-h chilling, hams were trimmed, weighed, scored and measured for several quality traits. A sample of trimmed fat was taken to assess iodine number and linoleic acid content. All hams were cured, and weight losses during curing were recorded. The measures of UBF were correlated with all carcass and ham traits available. The strongest relationships with UBF were detected for backfat depth at loin (0.54, backfat weight and yield (0.69, overall yield of lean and fat cuts (-0.59 and 0.51, respectively, score or measure of ham fat covering thickness (0.62 and 0.53, respectively, and linoleic acid content of ham subcutaneous fat (- 0.48. Magnitude of correlations does not provide reliable prediction of carcass, but ultrasound assessment on live animals could be useful to support selection programs of heavy pigs aimed to dry-cured ham production. Further studies are needed to investigate genetic relationships between these traits and UBF.

  6. Bayesian genome-wide association analysis of growth and yearling ultrasound measures of carcass traits in Brangus heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S O; Kizilkaya, K; Garrick, D J; Fernando, R L; Reecy, J M; Weaber, R L; Silver, G A; Thomas, M G

    2012-10-01

    Data from developing Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman-Bos indicus × 5/8 Angus-Bos taurus; n ≈ 802 from 67 sires) registered with International Brangus Breeders Association were analyzed to detect QTL associated with growth traits and ultrasound measures of carcass traits. Genotypes were from BovineSNP50 (Infinium BeadChip, Illumina, San Diego, CA; 53,692 SNP). Phenotypes included BW collected at birth and ∼205 and 365 d of age, and yearling ultrasound assessment of LM area, percent intramuscular fat, and depth of rib fat. Simultaneous association of SNP windows with phenotype were undertaken with Bayes C analyses, using GenSel software. The SNP windows were ≈ 5 SNP in length. Analyses fitted a mixture model that treated SNP effects as random, with an assumed fraction pi = 0.999 having no effect on phenotype. Bootstrap analyses were used to obtain significance values for the SNP windows with the greatest contribution to observed variation. The SNP windows with P Brangus heifers confirmed several published QTL and detected several new QTL. PMID:23038745

  7. A meta-analysis of lasalocid effects on rumen measures, beef and dairy performance, and carcass traits in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, H M; Lean, I J

    2016-01-01

    The effects of lasalocid on rumen measures, beef and dairy performance, and carcass traits were evaluated using meta-analysis. Meta-regression was used to investigate sources of heterogeneity. Ten studies (20 comparisons) were used in the meta-analysis on rumen measures. Lasalocid increased total VFA and ammonia concentrations by 6.46 and 1.44 m, respectively. Lasalocid increased propionate and decreased acetate and butyrate molar percentage (M%) by 4.62, 3.18, and 0.83%, respectively. Valerate M% and pH were not affected. Meta-regression found butyrate M% linearly increased with duration of lasalocid supplementation (DUR; = 0.017). When >200 mg/d was fed, propionate and valerate M% were higher and acetate M% was lower ( = 0.042, = 0.017, and = 0.005, respectively). Beef performance was assessed using 31 studies (67 comparisons). Lasalocid increased ADG by 40 g/d, improved feed-to-gain ratio (F:G) by 410 g/kg, and improved feed efficiency (FE; combined measure of G:F and the inverse of F:G). Lasalocid did not affect DMI, but heterogeneity in DMI was influenced by DUR ( = 0.004) and the linear effect of entry BW ( = 0.011). The combination of ≤100 vs. >100 d DUR and entry BW ≤275 vs. >275 kg showed that cattle ≤275 kg at entry fed lasalocid for >100 d had the lowest DMI. Heterogeneity of ADG was influenced by the linear effect of entry BW ( = 0.028) but not DUR. Combining entry BW ≤275 vs. >275 kg and DUR showed that cattle entering at >275 kg fed ≤100 d had the highest ADG. The FE ( = 0.025) and F:G ( = 0.015) linearly improved with dose, and entry BW >275 kg improved F:G ( = 0.038). Fourteen studies (25 comparisons) were used to assess carcass traits. Lasalocid increased HCW by 4.73 kg but not dressing percentage, mean fat cover, or marbling score. Heterogeneity of carcass traits was low and not affected by DUR or dose. Seven studies (11 comparisons) were used to assess dairy performance but the study power was relatively low and the evidence base is

  8. Carcass traits of four rabbit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Kermauner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-three rabbits of four genotypes (A - SIKA maternal line; C - SIKA sire line; AxC - hybrids between line A and C; AxCal - crossbreds between line A and the Californian breed were used to evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days and slaughtered at 93 days of age. Rabbits were fed standard feed mixture ad libitum. The highest live weight at slaughter and dressing percentage was achieved by line C, and the lowest in line A. Hybrids between line A and C exhibited slightly worse carcass traits than rabbits in line C, but the differences were not statistically significant. The Californian breed gave worse results than crossbreeding with line C, though in most cases the differences between AxC and AxCal were not significant. The differences between genotypes in hind leg tissue composition, pH and meat colour were not statistically significant.

  9. SIRE EFFECTS ON CARCASS TRAITS OF JAPANESE BROWN COW

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Rachma, Aprilita Bugiwati

    2005-01-01

    The present research aims to obtain more fundamental knowledge of genetic effect (sire effect) on carcass traits of Japanese Brown cow. This experiment was done at Kumamoto Prefecture Japan. The field data of ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits of 9468 head of Japanese Brown cow, which had born from January 3rd 1988 to December 25th 1993 and representing by 88 head of sires were collected. All data were included of pedigree status. Cows data of ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits wer...

  10. Days on feed and sex effects on live weight and carcass traits measured by ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Saulo da Luz e; Titto Evaldo Antonio Lencioni; Leme Paulo Roberto; Martello Luciane Silva; Pereira Angélica Simone Cravo; Titto Rafael Martins; Nogueira Filho José Carlos Machado; Luchiari Filho Albino

    2005-01-01

    There is a paucity of information in the literature on body composition changes in Nellore cattle and its crosses, mainly on heifers and intact males. Ultrasound is a useful, low cost tool to easily obtain this information, with minimal animal stress. Effects of sex and days on feed on live weight (LW) and ultrasound Longissimus muscle area (ULMA) and subcutaneous fat thickness (UFAT) measurements were evaluated in F1 Piedmont Nelore, 27 heifers (HF) and 27 intact males (IM). HF and IM had a...

  11. Carcass traits of four rabbit genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Ajda Kermauner; Silvester Zgur

    2010-01-01

    Seventy-three rabbits of four genotypes (A - SIKA maternal line; C - SIKA sire line; AxC - hybrids between line A and C; AxCal - crossbreds between line A and the Californian breed) were used to evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days and slaughtered at 93 days of age. Rabbits were fed standard feed mixture ad libitum. The highest live weight at slaughter and dressing percentage was achieved by line C, and the lowest in line A. Hybrids between line A ...

  12. Genetic parameters for EUROP carcass traits within different groups of cattle in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, J M; Keane, M G; Kenny, D A; Cromie, A R; Veerkamp, R F

    2007-02-01

    The first objective of this study was to test the ability of systems of weighing and classifying bovine carcasses used in commercial abattoirs in Ireland to provide information that can be used for the purposes of genetic evaluation of carcass weight, carcass fatness class, and carcass conformation class. Secondly, the study aimed to test whether genetic and phenotypic variances differed by breed of sire. Variance components for carcass traits were estimated for crosses between dairy cows and 8 breeds of sire commonly found in the Irish cattle population. These 8 breeds were Aberdeen Angus, Belgian Blue, Charolais, Friesian, Hereford, Holstein, Limousin, and Simmental. A multivariate animal model was used to estimate genetic parameters within the Holstein sire breed group. Univariate analyses were used to estimate variance components for the remaining 7 sire breed groups. Multivariate sire models were used to formally test differences in genetic variances in sire breed groups. Field data on 64,443 animals, which were slaughtered in commercial abattoirs between the ages of 300 and 875 d, were analyzed in 8 analyses. Carcass fat class and carcass conformation class were measured using the European Union beef carcass classification system (EUROP) scale. For all 3 traits, the sire breed group with the greatest genetic variance had a value of more than 8 times the sire breed group with least genetic variance. Heritabilities ranged from zero to moderate for carcass fatness class (0.00 to 0.40), from low to moderate for carcass conformation class (0.04 to 0.36), and from low to high for carcass weight (0.06 to 0.65). Carcass weight was the most heritable (0.26) of the 3 traits. Carcass conformation class and carcass fatness class were equally heritable (0.17). Genetic and phenotypic correlations were all positive in the Holstein sire breed group. The genetic correlations varied from 0.11 for the relationship between carcass weight and carcass fatness class to 0.44 for the

  13. Relationships among measures of growth performance and efficiency with carcass traits, visceral organ mass, and pancreatic digestive enzymes in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, C J; Montanholi, Y R; Wang, Y J; Miller, S P; Mandell, I B; McBride, B W; Swanson, K C

    2009-04-01

    Ninety-three crossbred steer calves (BW+/-SD=385+/-50 kg) were used (n=48 steers in yr 1, n=45 steers in yr 2) to examine the relationship among carcass traits, lean, bone, and fat proportions, visceral tissue weights, and pancreatic digestive enzyme activity with DMI, ADG, G:F, and residual feed intake. Calves were progeny from crossbred dams predominantly of Angus and Simmental breeding and were sired by Angus, Simmental, crossbred (predominantly of Angus and Simmental breeding), Charolais, or Piedmontese bulls. Steers were fed a high-moisture corn-based diet for an average of 112 d. Partial correlation analysis accounting for year, pen within year, week of slaughter within year, and sire breed was conducted. Gain:feed was negatively correlated (P 0.10) between performance measures and the pancreatic proportional content of alpha-amylase and trypsin activity (units/kg of BW). These data indicate that carcass fatness traits and changes in the proportional weight of total viscera may be negatively associated with G:F and that visceral fat weight proportion and trim and kidney fat weight proportion may be important factors influencing this relationship. PMID:18952722

  14. Effect of Carcass Traits on Carcass Prices of Holstein Steers in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, M; Cho, K.H.; S. S. Lee; Choy, Y. H.; Kim, H S; Cho, C. I.; Choi, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of carcass traits on carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea. Phenotypic data consisted of 76,814 slaughtered Holsteins (1 to 6 yrs) from all over Korea. The means for live body weight at slaughter (BWT), chilled carcass weight (CWT), dressing percentage (DP), quantity grade index (QGI), eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS), carcass unit price (CUP), and carcass sell prices (CSP) were 729.0 kg, 414.2 kg, 56.79...

  15. Genetic parameters for growth and carcass traits of Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T; Domingue, J D; Paschal, J C; Franke, D E; Bidner, T D; Whipple, G

    2007-06-01

    Spring-born purebred Brahman bull calves (n = 467) with known pedigrees, sired by 68 bulls in 17 private herds in Louisiana, were purchased at weaning from 1996 through 2000 to study variation in growth, carcass, and tenderness traits. After purchase, calves were processed for stocker grazing on ryegrass, fed in a south Texas feedlot, and processed in a commercial facility. Carcass data were recorded 24 h postmortem. Muscle samples and primal ribs were taken to measure calpastatin activity and shear force. An animal model was used to estimate heritability, genetic correlations, and sire EPD. Relatively high heritability estimates were found for BW at slaughter (0.59 +/- 0.16), HCW (0.57 +/- 0.15), LM area (0.50 +/- 0.16), yield grade (0.46 +/- 0.17), calpastatin enzyme activity (0.45 +/- 0.17), and carcass quality grade (0.42 +/- 0.16); moderate heritability estimates were found for hump height (0.38 +/- 0.16), marbling score (0.37 +/- 0.16), backfat thickness (0.36 +/- 0.17), feedlot ADG (0.33 +/- 0.14), 7-d shear force (0.29 +/- 0.14), and 14-d shear force (0.20 +/- 0.11); relatively low heritability estimates were found for skeletal maturity (0.10 +/- 0.10), lean maturity (0.00 +/- 0.07), and percent KPH (0.00 +/- 0.07). Most genetic correlations were between -0.50 and +0.50. Other genetic correlations were 0.74 +/- 0.27 between calpastatin activity and 7-d shear force, 0.72 +/- 0.25 between calpastatin activity and 14-d shear force, (0.90 +/- 0.30 between yield grade and 7-d shear force, and -0.82 +/- 0.27 between backfat thickness and 7-d shear force. Heritability estimates and genetic correlations for most traits were similar to estimates reported in the literature. Sire EPD ranges for carcass traits approached those reported for sires in other breeds. The magnitude of heritability estimates suggests that improvement in carcass yield, carcass quality, and consumer acceptance traits can be made within the Brahman population. PMID:17339417

  16. Relationships between lamb carcass quality traits measured by X-ray computed tomography (CT) and current UK-hill sheep breeding goals.

    OpenAIRE

    Lambe, N. R.; Conington, J.; Bishop, S.C.; McLean, K A; Bünger, L.; McLaren, A.; Simm, G.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic parameters were estimated between current UK hill sheep breeding goals and lamb carcass composition and muscularity traits derived using X-ray computed tomography (CT). To produce these estimates, a total of 648 lambs from two hill farms were CT scanned at weaning (ca 120 days of age), over 3 years, and total weights of carcass muscle (MUSC), fat (CFAT) and bone (BONE) and internal fat (IFAT) were predicted. Previously derived muscularity indices were also calculated for the hind leg ...

  17. Phenotypic and genetic analysis of carcass quality traits in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukač Dragomir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of genetic quality traits included 284 randomly selected pig carcasses, derived from Landrace (96, Yorkshire (92 and Hampshire (96. Carcasses dissection was carried out by the model of EU 1992. With the average pig weight of 103 kg, the highest percentage of muscle with the smallest proportion of fat tissue was found in the neck (72.48 or 11.43%, all pig breeds, while in the abdominal rib part there was determined most fat tissue (36.19%, and the least muscle tissue was found in the back (55.94%. Also, the largest proportion of bones was found in the back and neck (15.82 or 15.64% and lowest in the shoulder (9.92%. The largest share of muscle tissue was determined in the ham, followed by shoulder, abdominal rib part, back and finally neck. Most fat tissue was found in the ham, followed by abdominal rib part of the rib, back, shoulder and neck. The share of bones is greatest in the back and ham, followed by abdominal rib part, and shoulder and neck. Comparing the proportion of muscle tissue in the carcasses within the breeds, no statistically significant differences in the percentage of meat between two fertile breeds (Landrace and Yorkshire was found, while there was statistically significant difference between the two fertile breeds and terminal Hampshire breed. On the other hand the influence of breed was highly significant on share of bones in the carcass, muscle tissue in the neck, bones in the ham, muscle tissue and bones in the abdominal rib part and shoulder, while it was of no importance on the share of fat tissue in the back, fat tissue and bones in the neck, muscle tissue in the ham, fat tissue in the abdominal rib part and shoulder. Breed had a highly significant impact on the amount of meat and bones in the carcasses. Because of the large influence breed on the tested quality traits, as well as the set selection criteria, the influence of breed is important. In other words, it is possible by proper selection, that is, in

  18. Genetic parameters for carcass traits and their live animal indicators in Simmental cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, D H; Pollak, E J; Weaber, R L; Quaas, R L; Lipsey, R J

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate parameters required for genetic evaluation of Simmental carcass merit using carcass and live animal data. Carcass weight, fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and marbling score were available from 5,750 steers and 1,504 heifers sired by Simmental bulls. Additionally, yearling ultrasound measurements of fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and estimated percentage of intramuscular fat were available on Simmental bulls (n = 3,409) and heifers (n = 1,503). An extended pedigree was used to construct the relationship matrix (n = 23,968) linking bulls and heifers with ultrasound data to steers and heifers with carcass data. All data were obtained from the American Simmental Association. No animal had both ultrasound and carcass data. Using an animal model and treating corresponding ultrasound and carcass traits separately, genetic parameters were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood. Heritability estimates for carcass traits were 0.48 +/- 0.06, 0.35 +/- 0.05, 0.46 +/- 0.05, and 0.54 +/- 0.05 for carcass weight, fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and marbling score, respectively. Heritability estimates for bull (heifer) ultrasound traits were 0.53 +/- 0.07 (0.69 +/- 0.09), 0.37 +/- 0.06 (0.51 +/- 0.09), and 0.47 +/- 0.06 (0.52 +/- 0.09) for fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and intramuscular fat percentage, respectively. Heritability of weight at scan was 0.47 +/- 0.05. Using a bivariate weight model including scan weight of bulls and heifers with carcass weight of slaughter animals, a genetic correlation of 0.77 +/- 0.10 was obtained. Models for fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and marbling score were each trivariate, including ultrasound measurements on yearling bulls and heifers, and corresponding carcass traits of slaughter animals. Genetic correlations of carcass fat thickness with bull and heifer ultrasound fat were 0.79 +/- 0.13 and 0.83 +/- 0.12, respectively. Genetic correlations of

  19. Prediction of Carcass Composition Using Carcass Grading Traits in Hanwoo Steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jooyoung; Won, Seunggun; Lee, Jeongkoo; Kim, Jongbok

    2016-09-01

    The prediction of carcass composition in Hanwoo steers is very important for value-based marketing, and the improvement of prediction accuracy and precision can be achieved through the analyses of independent variables using a prediction equation with a sufficient dataset. The present study was conducted to develop a prediction equation for Hanwoo carcass composition for which data was collected from 7,907 Hanwoo steers raised at a private farm in Gangwon Province, South Korea, and slaughtered in the period between January 2009 and September 2014. Carcass traits such as carcass weight (CWT), back fat thickness (BFT), eye-muscle area (EMA), and marbling score (MAR) were used as independent variables for the development of a prediction equation for carcass composition, such as retail cut weight and percentage (RC, and %RC, respectively), trimmed fat weight and percentage (FAT, and %FAT, respectively), and separated bone weight and percentage (BONE, and %BONE), and its feasibility for practical use was evaluated using the estimated retail yield percentage (ELP) currently used in Korea. The equations were functions of all the variables, and the significance was estimated via stepwise regression analyses. Further, the model equations were verified by means of the residual standard deviation and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) between the predicted and observed values. As the results of stepwise analyses, CWT was the most important single variable in the equation for RC and FAT, and BFT was the most important variable for the equation of %RC and %FAT. The precision and accuracy of three variable equation consisting CWT, BFT, and EMA were very similar to those of four variable equation that included all for independent variables (CWT, BFT, EMA, and MAR) in RC and FAT, while the three variable equations provided a more accurate prediction for %RC. Consequently, the three-variable equation might be more appropriate for practical use than the four-variable equation

  20. Genetic Parameter Estimates of Carcass Traits under National Scale Breeding Scheme for Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, ChangHee; Park, ByungHo; Kim, SiDong; Choi, TaeJung; Yang, BohSuk; Park, SuBong; Song, HyungJun

    2016-08-01

    Carcass and price traits of 72,969 Hanwoo cows, bulls and steers aged 16 to 80 months at slaughter collected from 2002 to 2013 at 75 beef packing plants in Korea were analyzed to determine heritability, correlation and breeding value using the Multi-Trait restricted maximum likelihood (REML) animal model procedure. The traits included carcass measurements, scores and grades at 24 h postmortem and bid prices at auction. Relatively high heritability was found for maturity (0.41±0.031), while moderate heritability estimates were obtained for backfat thickness (0.20±0.018), longissimus muscle (LM) area (0.23±0.020), carcass weight (0.28±0.019), yield index (0.20±0.018), yield grade (0.16±0.017), marbling (0.28±0.021), texture (0.14±0.016), quality grade (0.26±0.016) and price/kg (0.24±0.025). Relatively low heritability estimates were observed for meat color (0.06±0.013) and fat color (0.06±0.012). Heritability estimates for most traits were lower than those in the literature. Genetic correlations of carcass measurements with characteristic scores or quality grade of carcass ranged from -0.27 to +0.21. Genetic correlations of yield grade with backfat thickness, LM area and carcass weight were 0.91, -0.43, and -0.09, respectively. Genetic correlations of quality grade with scores of marbling, meat color, fat color and texture were -0.99, 0.48, 0.47, and 0.98, respectively. Genetic correlations of price/kg with LM area, carcass weight, marbling, meat color, texture and maturity were 0.57, 0.64, 0.76, -0.41, -0.79, and -0.42, respectively. Genetic correlations of carcass price with LM area, carcass weight, marbling and texture were 0.61, 0.57, 0.64, and -0.73, respectively, with standard errors ranging from ±0.047 to ±0.058. The mean carcass weight breeding values increased by more than 8 kg, whereas the mean marbling scores decreased by approximately 0.2 from 2000 through 2009. Overall, the results suggest that genetic improvement of productivity and

  1. Genetic parameters for carcass traits and body size in sheep for meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo Filho, Luiz Antonio Silva; Do Ó, Alan Oliveira; Sarmento, José Lindenberg Rocha; Santos, Natanael Pereira Da Silva; Torres, Tatiana Saraiva

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to estimate the covariance components and genetic parameters of carcass traits and body size of meat sheep by employing animal models for single and multi-trait analyses. Data were collected from herds of adult Santa Ines sheep. The ribeye area, subcutaneous fat thickness, and rump fat thickness, evaluated in vivo by ultrasound images of the carcass; and morphometric traits: fat depth, rump height, chest circumference, chest depth, body length, and rump length were measured. The covariance components and genetic parameters for these traits were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood methodology, considering the random additive direct-genetic effects of the animal and errors associated with each observation, and the fixed effects of the contemporary group, the type of birth, and the age of the animal classes. Heritability estimates for carcass traits and animal size were higher in the three-trait analyses than in the single-trait analyses. The magnitudes of the values obtained indicate that genetic progress can be achieved by selection based on the traits studied. PMID:26462933

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in Brahman steers and their association with carcass and tenderness traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T; Thomas, M G; Bidner, T D; Paschal, J C; Franke, D E

    2009-01-01

    Data from purebred Brahman steers (N = 467) were used to study the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with carcass traits and measures of tenderness. Fall weaned calves were grazed and fed in a subtropical environment and then harvested for processing in a commercial facility. Carcass data were recorded 24 h postmortem. Muscle samples and primal ribs were obtained to measure calpastatin activity and shear force. DNA was used to determine genotypes of thyroglobulin (TG5), calpastatin (CAST) and mu-calpain (CAPN 316 and CAPN 4751) SNP. Minor allele frequencies for CAST, CAPN 316 and CAPN 4751 were 0.342, 0.031, and 0.051, respectively. CAST genotypes were associated with calpastatin enzyme activity (P carcass traits. PMID:19224465

  3. Effect of genotype and age on some carcass and meat quality traits of beef carcasses subjected to the South African classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soji, Z; Muchenje, V

    2016-07-01

    Genotype and age effects on pH24, L*, a*, b*, tenderness (WBSF), cooking (CL %), and thawing loss (TL %) of beef carcasses subjected to the South African classification system were determined. Carcass traits (bruising, subcutaneous fat (SF), and conformation) were also measured. Meat quality measurements were taken on the longissimus thoracis et lumborum (n=175) of A, AB, B, and C carcasses from Angus, Bonsmara, Fleckvieh, Non-descript, and Simmental genotypes. No bruises were evident in all carcasses. All carcasses scored medium conformation (class 3) while in SF classification, class 2 had the greatest frequency (66.3%). Genotypic effects (PSimmental had least tender meat while Non-descript and Fleckvieh had the tenderest meat within the C-age class. Meat quality varied within animals of the same age-class across genotypes. PMID:26995775

  4. Estimated genetic parameters for carcass traits of Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Hammond, A C; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A; Coleman, S W

    2002-04-01

    Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated from feedlot and carcass data collected from Brahman calves (n = 504) in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Data were analyzed using animal models in MTDFREML. Models included contemporary group (n = 44; groups of calves of the same sex, fed in the same pen, slaughtered on the same day) as a fixed effect and calf age in days at slaughter as a continuous variable. Estimated feedlot trait heritabilities were 0.64, 0.67, 0.47, and 0.26 for ADG, hip height at slaughter, slaughter weight, and shrink. The USDA yield grade estimated heritability was 0.71; heritabilities for component traits of yield grade, including hot carcass weight, adjusted 12th rib backfat thickness, loin muscle area, and percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat were 0.55, 0.63, 0.44, and 0.46, respectively. Heritability estimates for dressing percentage, marbling score, USDA quality grade, cutability, retail yield, and carcass hump height were 0.77, 0.44, 0.47, 0.71, 0.5, and 0.54, respectively. Estimated genetic correlations of adjusted 12th rib backfat thickness with ADG, slaughter weight, marbling score, percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, and yield grade (0.49, 0.46, 0.56, 0.63, and 0.93, respectively) were generally larger than most literature estimates. Estimated genetic correlations of marbling score with ADG, percentage shrink, loin muscle area, percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, USDA yield grade, cutability, retail yield, and carcass hump height were 0.28, 0.49, 0.44, 0.27, 0.45, -0.43, 0.27, and 0.43, respectively. Results indicate that sufficient genetic variation exists within the Brahman breed for design and implementation of effective selection programs for important carcass quality and yield traits. PMID:12008662

  5. A primary screen of the bovine genome for quantitative trait loci affecting carcass and growth traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R T; Keele, J W; Shackelford, S D; Kappes, S M; Koohmaraie, M

    1999-06-01

    A primary genomic screen for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting carcass and growth traits was performed by genotyping 238 microsatellite markers on 185 out of 300 total progeny from a Bos indicus x Bos taurus sire mated to Bos taurus cows. The following traits were analyzed for QTL effects: birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WW), yearling weight (YW), hot carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage (DP), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MAR), longissimus muscle area (LMA), rib bone (RibB), rib fat (RibF), and rib muscle (RibM), and the predicted whole carcass traits, retail product yield (RPYD), fat trim yield (FATYD), bone yield (BOYD), retail product weight (RPWT), fat weight (FATWT), and bone weight (BOWT). Data were analyzed by generating an F-statistic profile computed at 1-cM intervals for each chromosome by the regression of phenotype on the conditional probability of receiving the Brahman allele from the sire. There was compelling evidence for a QTL allele of Brahman origin affecting an increase in RibB and a decrease in DP on chromosome 5 (BTA5). Putative QTL at or just below the threshold for genome-wide significance were as follows: an increase in RPYD and component traits on BTA2 and BTA13, an increase in LMA on BTA14, and an increase in BWT on BTA1. Results provided represent a portion of our efforts to identify and characterize QTL affecting carcass and growth traits. PMID:10375215

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with carcass traits in a population of Brahman and Brahman-influenced steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, A M; Shivers, C; Riley, D G; Elzo, M A; Garcia, M D

    2016-01-01

    Brahman cattle are important in tropical regions due to their ability to tolerate excessive heat and parasites. However, Brahman cattle exhibit lower carcass quality characteristics when compared to Bos taurus breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six candidate genes for carcass quality and composition traits in a population of Brahman and Brahman-influenced steers. Steers were evaluated through the American Brahman Breeders Association carcass evaluation project in Gonzales, Texas. Carcass traits measured included hot carcass weight, ribeye area, marbling score, yield grade, quality grade, dressing percent, and Warner-Bratzler shear force score. Six previously described candidate genes were chosen for SNP analysis based on their previous association with growth and carcass traits. Candidate genes utilized in the current study included calpastatin (CAST), calpain (CAPN3), thyroglobulin (TG), growth hormone, insulin growth factor 1, and adiponectin. Six unique SNPs from three candidate genes (TG, CAST, and CAPN3) were significantly associated (P grade). A genotypic effect was observed for all significant SNPs, with differing levels of performance observed for animals inheriting different genotypes. Although multiple SNPs in the current study were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with growth and carcass traits, they should be validated in larger populations prior to implementation in selection strategies. PMID:27420951

  7. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle VIII): carcass, yield, and longissimus palatability traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate alternative sources of tropically adapted cattle germplasm and compare them with Angus- (AN) and Hereford- (HE) sired steers. Carcass, yield, and longissimus thoracis palatability traits from F(1) steers (n = 621) obtained from mating AN and MARC III cows to HE, AN, Brangus (BR), Beefmaster (BM), Bonsmara (BO), or Romosinuano (RO) sires were compared. Data were adjusted to constant age (426 d), carcass weight (340 kg), fat thickness (1.0 cm), fat trim percentage (25%), and marbling (Small(00)) endpoints. For Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force and trained and untrained sensory panel traits, data were obtained on LM from ribeye steaks stored at 2 degrees C for 14 or 15 d postmortem. The following comparisons were from the age-constant endpoint. Carcasses from BM-, AN-, and BR-sired steers (358, 355, and 351 kg, respectively) were heavier (P < 0.05) than carcasses from steers from HE (343 kg) and BO (331 kg) sires; RO-sired steers (318 kg) had the lightest (P < 0.05) carcasses. Adjusted fat thicknesses for AN- and BM-sired steers (1.3 and 1.2 cm, respectively) were greater (P < 0.05) than for steers from BR (1.0 cm) and BO (0.9 cm) sires; RO-sired steers (0.8 cm) had the least fat thickness. Longissimus areas were larger (P < 0.05) for BO- and BR-sired steers (84.4 and 84.1 cm(2), respectively) than for BM- and HE-sired steers (80.8 and 80.2 cm(2), respectively). A greater (P < 0.05) percentage of carcasses from AN-sired steers graded USDA Choice (69%) than other sire breeds (17 to 47%) except HE (52%). Carcass yield of boneless, totally trimmed retail product was least (P < 0.05) for AN-sired steers (60.1%) and greatest (P < 0.05) for RO- and BO-sired steers (64.4 to 63.5%). Considering all measurements, AN LM tended to be more tender and BM LM tended to be least tender. American composite breeds BM and BR were heavier, fatter, lesser yielding, with similar marbling scores but less tender LM than BO and RO. Angus

  8. Heterogeneity of variances for carcass traits by percentage Brahman inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, D H; Franke, D E

    1998-07-01

    Heterogeneity of carcass trait variances due to level of Brahman inheritance was investigated using records from straightbred and crossbred steers produced from 1970 to 1988 (n = 1,530). Angus, Brahman, Charolais, and Hereford sires were mated to straightbred and crossbred cows to produce straightbred, F1, back-cross, three-breed cross, and two-, three-, and four-breed rotational crossbred steers in four non-overlapping generations. At weaning (mean age = 220 d), steers were randomly assigned within breed group directly to the feedlot for 200 d, or to a backgrounding and stocker phase before feeding. Stocker steers were fed from 70 to 100 d in generations 1 and 2 and from 60 to 120 d in generations 3 and 4. Carcass traits included hot carcass weight, subcutaneous fat thickness and longissimus muscle area at the 12-13th rib interface, carcass weight-adjusted longissimus muscle area, USDA yield grade, estimated total lean yield, marbling score, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Steers were classified as either high Brahman (50 to 100% Brahman), moderate Brahman (25 to 49% Brahman), or low Brahman (0 to 24% Brahman) inheritance. Two types of animal models were fit with regard to level of Brahman inheritance. One model assumed similar variances between pairs of Brahman inheritance groups, and the second model assumed different variances between pairs of Brahman inheritance groups. Fixed sources of variation in both models included direct and maternal additive and nonadditive breed effects, year of birth, and slaughter age. Variances were estimated using derivative free REML procedures. Likelihood ratio tests were used to compare models. The model accounting for heterogeneous variances had a greater likelihood (P yield, and Warner-Bratzler shear force, indicating improved fit with percentage Brahman inheritance considered as a source of heterogeneity of variance. Genetic covariances estimated from the model accounting for heterogeneous variances resulted in genetic

  9. Use of expected progeny differences for marbling in beef: II. Carcass and palatability traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwartney, B L; Calkins, C R; Rasby, R J; Stock, R A; Vieselmeyer, B A; Gosey, J A

    1996-05-01

    A 2-yr study was conducted to determine the effect of EPD for marbling on marbling score, palatability traits, and carcass fatness in beef. Steer (n = 122) and heifer (n = 123) carcasses were obtained by mating Angus bulls having a high ( > .4) or low ( Simmental, and 1/4 Gelbvieh). Carcass traits, composition of primals, quarters, and sides, palatability, and shear force data were obtained and adjusted to the mean number of days on feed, equal marbling score (Small50), fat thickness (1.0 cm), and carcass weight (318 kg) end points. Steer carcasses from the high marbling EPD group, adjusted to the mean number of days on feed, had significantly more marbling (P carcasses. Heifer carcasses from the high marbling EPD group had better (P carcass without compromising palatability. PMID:8726733

  10. Correlations of visual scores, carcass traits, feed efficiency and retail product yield in Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Cancian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of visual scores (VS and ultrasound (US for carcass evaluation in breeding programs, calls for a knowledge of the relationships between these traits and other relevant characteristics, such as feed efficiency and production of commercial cuts. The objective of this study was to evaluate correlations between body visual scores and carcass traits identified by ultrasound (US and feed efficiency (FE, carcass weight (HCW, dressing percentage (DP and retail product yield (RPY in beef cattle. Nellore cattle (male, 42 non-castrated [NCAST] and 44 castrated [CAST] were evaluated by both VS and US, at the postweaning (15-month old and finishing phases (21-month old. Visual scores of conformation (C, precocity (P and muscling (M were assessed and the backfat thickness (UBFT, rump fat thickness (URFT and ribeye area (UREA were measured by ultrasound. Gain-to-feed (G:F ratio and residual feed intake (RFI were measured in feedlot. Hot carcass weight, DP and RPY were determined at harvest. Non-castrated cattle had greater HCW and RPY but lower UBFT and URFT than CAST. Postweaning VS and US were poorly correlated with FE in both sexual conditions. Finishing VS were negatively correlated with G:F in CAST and finishing URFT was negatively correlated with RPY in NCAST. The relationship of VS and US with feed efficiency and meat yield is affected by age at the date of evaluation and by castration. Feed efficiency is not related to the yield of meat cuts in Nellore cattle

  11. Genetic association of growth traits with carcass and meat traits in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonussi, R L; Espigolan, R; Gordo, D G M; Magalhães, A F B; Venturini, G C; Baldi, F; de Oliveira, H N; Chardulo, L A L; Tonhati, H; de Albuquerque, L G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic associations of growth traits with carcass and meat traits in Nellore cattle. Data from male and female animals were used for weaning weight (WW; N = 241,416), yearling weight (YW, N = 126,596), weight gain from weaning to yearling (GWY, N = 78,687), and yearling hip height (YHH, N = 90,720), respectively; 877 male animals were used for hot carcass weight (HCW) and 884 for longissimus muscle area (LMA), backfat thickness (BT), marbling score (MS), and shear force (SF). The variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using three-trait animal models that included WW. The model for WW included direct and maternal additive genetic, maternal permanent environmental, and residual effects as random effects; contemporary group as fixed effects; and age of dam at calving and age of animal as covariates (linear and quadratic effects). For the other traits, maternal effects and the effect of age of dam at calving were excluded from the model. Heritability ranged from 0.10 ± 0.12 (LMA) to 0.44 ± 0.007 (YW). Genetic correlations ranged from -0.40 ± 0.38 (WW x LMA) to 0.55 ± 0.10 (HCW x YW). Growth, carcass, and meat traits have sufficient genetic variability to be included as selection criteria in animal breeding programs. PMID:26782521

  12. Feedlot performance, feed efficiency and carcass traits in Nellore cattle selected for postweaning weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lucila Sobrinho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlated responses to selection for growth in feed efficiency and carcass traits of Nellore animals. A total of 121 animals of the Nellore control (NeC and selection herds were subjected to performance testing and classified regarding residual feed intake (RFI. Sixty-seven of these animals were selected and finished until reaching 4 mm of subcutaneous fat thickness between the 12th and 13th ribs. The animals were slaughtered at a mean age of 541 days and mean live weight of 423 kg for NeS and of 363 kg for NeC, and carcass traits were measured. Animals in NeS presented higher initial and slaughter weights, dry matter intake, hot and cold carcass weight, weight of retail cuts, and carcass yield than NeC animals for the same slaughter age and feedlot time. No significant differences in RFI were observed between herds, showing that the weight gain from selection for growth did not cause changes in the energy efficiency of the animals.

  13. Carcass traits and meat quality of two different rabbit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D'Agata

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits and meat quality, thirty-two rabbits for two genotypes (local population – LP; commercial hybrids – HY were used. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days old and slaughtered at 103 days of age for LP and 87 days of age for HY. Comparing the slaughtering traits of two genotypes, LP provided higher dressing out (59.4% vs 56.2%, Pvs 14.2%, Pvs 22.3, Pvs 8,9%, Pvs 0.86%, Pvs 1.12%; Pvs 19.2%; Pvs 31.6%; Pvs 3.8%; P*, higher redness (a*, yellowness (b* and C* value than HY (P

  14. Effects of Improvement for Carcass Quality on the Body Measurements and Reproductivity of Japanese Black Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Baco, Sudirman; Harada, Hiroshi; Fukuhara, Riichi

    1997-01-01

    Since the end of the 1970's, Wagyu producers in southern Kyushu have made efforts in order to improve not only carcass quantity but also carcass quality, introducing a number of AI sires which were produced in another districts that had a hight opinion on carcass quality. A study was conducted to examine effects of such an effort for carcass improvement on the body measurement and reproductivity of a local Japanese Black herd. The records of body measurements and reproductive traits of 1,189 ...

  15. Feed efficiency indexes and their relationships with carcass, non-carcass and meat quality traits in Nellore steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, M L; Souza, A R D L; Chaves, A S; Cesar, A S M; Tullio, R R; Medeiros, S R; Mourão, G B; Rosa, A N; Feijó, G L D; Alencar, M M; Lanna, D P D

    2016-06-01

    Five hundred and seventy-five Nellore steers were evaluated for residual feed intake and residual feed intake and gain and their relationships between carcass, non-carcass and meat quality traits. RFI was measured by the difference between observed and predicted dry matter intake and RIG was obtained by the sum of -1*RFI and residual gain. Efficient and inefficient animals were classified adopting ±0.5 standard deviations from RFI and RIG mean. A mixed model was used including RFI or RIG and contemporary group as fixed effects, initial age as covariate and sire and experimental period as random effects, testing the significance of the regression slope for each evaluated trait. RIG was positively related to longissimus muscle area. Efficient-RFI animals had lower liver and internal fat proportions compared to inefficient-RFI animals. Efficient-RFI and efficient-RIG animals had 11.8% and 11.2% lower extracted intramuscular fat, compared to inefficient-RFI and inefficient-RIG animals, respectively. Efficient-RFI animals had tougher meat compared to inefficient-RFI animals. PMID:26874085

  16. Genome-wide Association Study to Identify Quantitative Trait Loci for Meat and Carcass Quality Traits in Berkshire

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Asif; Kim, You-Sam; Kang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Yun-Mi; Rai, Rajani; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Oh, Dong-Yup; Nam, Ki-Chang; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Meat and carcass quality attributes are of crucial importance influencing consumer preference and profitability in the pork industry. A set of 400 Berkshire pigs were collected from Dasan breeding farm, Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea that were born between 2012 and 2013. To perform genome wide association studies (GWAS), eleven meat and carcass quality traits were considered, including carcass weight, backfat thickness, pH value after 24 hours (pH24), Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage...

  17. Correlations among carcass traits taken by ultrasound and after slaughter in Mediterranean (Bubalus bubalis young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Bonilha Pinheiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the correlations among measurements taken in vivo with ultrasound equipment with some carcass traits measured after slaughter. Twenty eight Mediterranean bulls, with average shrunk body weight of 330 kg and 14 months of age, were fed by 120 days with high concentrate diets. The shrunk body weight, the ribeye area (REAU, the back fat thickness (FTU over the Longissimus dorsi muscle between 12ª and 13ª ribs and rump fat (EGP8U, were measured at 28 days intervals. Real-time ultrasound equipment Piemedical Scanner 200 VET, with 18 cm linear array transducer was utilized. After the slaughter, the hot carcass weight (PCQ and the kidney, pelvic and inguinal fat (GRPI were weighted and the dressing percentage (DP calculated. After 24 hours of cooling the ribeye area (REAC, backfat thickness (FTC and rump fat (EGP8C were measured. Both the REAC, FTC and EGP8C were underestimated by ultrasound measurements. The Pearson correlation coefficients for ribeye area, backfat thickness and rump fat measured in the carcass and with ultrasound, were 0.96, 0.99 and 0.91, respectively. The coefficient between DP and REAU was 0.47; 0.45 between DP and REAC, 0.56 between DP and FTU and 0.58 between DP and FTC. DP presented a 0.59 correlation coefficient with EGP8U. The Spearman correlation was estimated between REAU and REAC, FTU and FTC, EGP8U and EGP8C, and the values were 0.96, 0.99 and 0.91 , respectively. The ultrasound measures could be used to estimate carcass traits in buffaloes with good accuracy.

  18. Additive and epistatic genome-wide association for growth and ultrasound scan measures of carcass-related traits in Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A A; Khatkar, M S; Kadarmideen, H N; Thomson, P C

    2015-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies are routinely used to identify genomic regions associated with traits of interest. However, this ignores an important class of genomic associations, that of epistatic interactions. A genome-wide interaction analysis between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using highly dense markers can detect epistatic interactions, but is a difficult task due to multiple testing and computational demand. However, It is important for revealing complex trait heredity. This study considers analytical methods that detect statistical interactions between pairs of loci. We investigated a three-stage modelling procedure: (i) a model without the SNP to estimate the variance components; (ii) a model with the SNP using variance component estimates from (i), thus avoiding iteration; and (iii) using the significant SNPs from (ii) for genome-wide epistasis analysis. We fitted these three-stage models to field data for growth and ultrasound measures for subcutaneous fat thickness in Brahman cattle. The study demonstrated the usefulness of modelling epistasis in the analysis of complex traits as it revealed extra sources of genetic variation and identified potential candidate genes affecting the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 and ultrasound scan measure of fat depth traits. Information about epistasis can add to our understanding of the complex genetic networks that form the fundamental basis of biological systems. PMID:25754883

  19. Direct and maternal genetic effects for carcass traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, S M; Franke, D E; Bidner, T D; Blouin, D C

    1992-12-01

    Carcass measurements were taken on 1,537 steers produced over four generations in a rotational crossbreeding study. Breed direct and maternal additive and heterotic genetic effects were estimated for hot carcass weight (HCWT), retail yield (RY), longissimus muscle area (LM), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MS), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS). Angus (A), Brahman (B), Charolais (C), and Hereford (H) breeds were involved in straightbred, first-cross, and two-, three-, and four-breed rotational crossbred matings with each crossbred combination including the B. Breed direct (Ig) and maternal (Mg) additive genetic effects and direct (Ih) and maternal (Mh) heterotic genetic effects were estimated using a multiple-regression model. The Ig and Mg effects were expressed as deviations from the overall mean. The IgC effects (Ig for C breed) were significant for HCWT, RY, and LM and resulted in leaner, heavier carcasses. The IgA and IgH effects were, in general, negative (P carcass traits studied. PMID:1474007

  20. The chemical composition of carcasses can be predicted from proxy traits in finishing male beef cattle: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jammas, M; Agabriel, J; Vernet, J; Ortigues-Marty, I

    2016-09-01

    Management practices can contribute to improving carcass quality if carcass quality could be simply evaluated under a wide range of conditions. The objective of this study was to derive quantitative relationships between the most accurate (but laborious) measurements of carcass chemical composition and proxy traits easily obtainable at slaughter (yield grade, subcutaneous fat thickness, marbling, ribeye area and hot carcass weight) by meta-analysis. Data from 34 publications using male beef cattle were used to develop and validate the models. The breeds were characterized according to origin, rate of maturity, production purpose and frame size. The results indicated that the changes in carcass fat and protein can be predicted from the yield grade or subcutaneous fat thickness, and hot carcass weight, with prediction errors ranging between 9 and 12%. Including the breed characteristics in the models did not improve the fit. The relationships are applicable to group values of male beef cattle having light and fatty carcasses from early-maturing British breeds. PMID:27206053

  1. USDA yield grades and various carcass traits as predictors of carcass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, D K; Smith, G C; Savell, J W; Murphey, C E; Carpenter, Z L; McKeith, F K; Johnson, D D

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five carcasses from each of three breedtypes (Brahman, Angus and Brahman × Angus) were physically separated into fat, lean and bone. Several muscles from the round and the femur were used to derive equations to predict carcass composition and muscle-to-bone ratio. The femur (as a percentage of the carcass) was shown to predict percentage carcass bone with 90% accuracy. All of the muscles studied were highly related to total carcass lean but the percentage of carcass as M. biceps femoris was the best single muscle indicator of carcass lean of the muscles studied. More variation in carcass lean could be accounted for by a multiple regression equation, involving all four muscles studied, than by any single muscle. M. biceps femoris-to-femur ratio was found to predict carcass muscle-to-bone ratio with a high degree of accuracy. The USDA yield grades were found to be reliable indicators of carcass composition. A two-variable equation involving adjusted fat thickness and biceps femoris accounted for 88·6% of the variation (RSD = 1/·64) in percentage of carcass as separable lean. PMID:22055934

  2. Feedlot performance, carcass traits, and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbeck, J A; Tatum, J D; Field, T G; Morgan, J B; Smith, G C

    1995-12-01

    Short-yearling steer of known genotypes-straightbred Hereford (100H, n = 80) 75% Hereford x 25% Brahman (75H:25B, n = 80), and 50% Hereford x 50% Brahman (50H:50B, n = 80) were sampled serially at four time-on-feed endpoints (84, 98, 112, 126 d) to compare feedlot performance and carcass and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers. After slaughter, USDA yield grade and quality grade factors were recorded, and a portion of the longissimus muscle was removed from the left side of each carcass and fabricated into four 2.54-cm steaks for palatability analyses. Paired steaks from each carcass were aged (6 and 18 d after death), and sensory panel and shear force evaluations were performed. At a constant live weight, 100H steers had higher ADG and produced less mature carcasses with smaller longissimus muscle areas and higher marbling scores than did 75H:25B and 50H:50B steers. The 50H:50B steers had the highest (P Brahman breeding increased. EXtending the postmortem aging period from 6 to 18 d improved shear force values by 20% and panel tenderness ratings by approximately 14%. Beef from steers of the three breeds responded similarly to aging. When Certified Hereford Beef (CHB) specifications were applied, steaks from 100H steers and 75H:25B steers had similar shear force values, suggesting that beef from quarter-blood Brahman crossbred steers could be included in the CHB Program without detrimental effects on product tenderness. PMID:8655435

  3. Genome scan for parent-of-origin QTL effects on bovine growth and carcass traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imumorin, I.G.; Kim, B.; Li, Y.; Koning, de D.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Donato, S.

    2011-01-01

    Parent-of-origin effects (POE) such as genomic imprinting influence growth and body composition in livestock, rodents, and humans. Here, we report the results of a genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) with POE on growth and carcass traits in Angus × Brahman cattle crossbreds. We ident

  4. Candidate genes affecting fat deposition, carcass composition and meat quality traits in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Gandolfi, Greta

    2011-01-01

    Pig meat quality is determined by several parameters, such as lipid content, tenderness, water-holding capacity, pH, color and flavor, that affect consumers’ acceptance and technological properties of meat. Carcass quality parameters are important for the production of fresh and dry-cure high-quality products, in particular the fat deposition and the lean cut yield. The identification of genes and markers associated with meat and carcass quality traits is of prime interest, for the possibilit...

  5. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle VII): Carcass, yield, and longissimus palatability traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to provide a current evaluation of the seven most prominent beef breeds in the United States and to determine the relative changes that have occurred in these breeds since they were evaluated with samples of sires born 25 to 30 yr earlier. Carcass (n = 649), yield (n = 569), and longissimus thoracis palatability (n = 569) traits from F(1) steers obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III cows to Hereford (H), Angus (A), Red Angus (RA), Charolais (C), Limousin (L), Simmental (S), or Gelbvieh (G) sires were compared. Data were adjusted to constant age (445 d), carcass weight (363 kg), fat thickness (1.1 cm), fat trim percent (25%), and marbling (Small(35)) endpoints. For Warner-Bratzler shear force and trained sensory panel traits, data were obtained on LM from steaks stored at 2 degrees C for 14 d postmortem. The following comparisons were from the age-constant endpoint. Carcasses from L-, G-, and H-sired steers (361, 363, and 364 kg, respectively) were lighter (P carcasses from steers from all other sire breeds. Adjusted fat thickness for carcasses from A-, RA-, and H-sired steers (1.5, 1.4, and 1.3 cm, respectively) was higher (P carcasses from steers from all other sire breeds (0.9 cm). Longissimus muscle areas were largest (P carcasses from L-, C-, S-, and G-sired steers (89.9, 88.7, 87.6, and 86.5 cm(2), respectively) and smallest for carcasses from H- and RA-sired steers (79.5 and 78.4 cm(2)). A greater (P carcasses from RA- and A-sired steers graded USDA Choice (90 and 88%, respectively) than from carcasses from other sire breeds (57 to 66%). Carcass yield of boneless, totally trimmed retail product was least (P carcasses of A-sired steers (4.0 kg) had lower (P carcasses of G- and C-sired steers (4.5 to 4.3 kg, respectively). Trained sensory panel tenderness and beef flavor intensity ratings for LM did not differ (P carcasses than did British breeds (H, A, and RA), with less marbling than A or RA, although British

  6. Crude glycerin in diets for wethers in feedlot: intake, digestibility, performance, carcass and meat traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauriceia Costa Carvalho Barros

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the effects of crude glycerin levels (CG (0, 2.65, 5.33, 8.06 and 10.84% in dry matter basis on intake, digestibility, performance, carcass morphometric measurements and meat quality of sheep finished in feedlot. Twenty five crossbred Dorper x St. Ines wethers, with 24 ± 2.0 kg average weight were housed in individual pens. The experimental design was completely randomized. Levels of CG in gross diet caused a decreasing linear effect (P 0.05 levels of glycerin on animal performance. For morphometric measurements of carcass and meat characteristics, no significant difference (P>0.05 levels of glycerin for hot carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, hot carcass yield, Chilled carcass yields, loss cooling, state of greasing, carcass length, leg length, depth of leg, chest depth, loin eye area, texture, marbling and color. However, the influence was observed (P<0.05 of increasing levels of crude glycerin on carcass conformation and carcass fat thickness. The use of crude glycerin reduced nutrient intake of the animals, however, did not influence the performance and carcass characteristics and is indicated its use in the diet of sheep

  7. Effect of bovine respiratory disease and overall pathogenic disease incidence on carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M D; Thallman, R M; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Casas, E

    2010-02-01

    The objective this study was to evaluate the effects of incidence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and overall incidence of pathogenic diseases (IPD) on carcass traits. Two independent populations were used. The first population included crossbred steers (GPE7; n = 642) derived from sires of 7 Bos taurus breeds: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The second population included crossbred steers (GPE8; n = 621) derived from tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds and Bos indicus-influenced breeds: Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano, as well as Hereford and Angus. Treatment records for BRD, infectious keratoconjunctivitis, and infectious pododermatitis were available for these populations. Incidence of BRD was treated as an independent effect. Incidences of the 3 microbial pathogenic diseases were pooled into a single trait to represent overall pathogenic disease incidence. Traits evaluated were HCW; KPH; LM area; marbling score; fat thickness; dressing percentage; yield grade; retail, fat, and bone yields; and meat tenderness. Both BRD and IPD were associated with differences in yield grade in GPE7 and GPE8 steers. Animals treated for BRD had decreased yield grades (P = 0.003 and P = 0.02, in GPE7 and GPE8, respectively) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for IPD had decreased yield grades (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.004, in GPE7 and GPE8, respectively) compared with untreated animals. Incidence of BRD and IPD were associated with a reduction in fat thickness in GPE7 and GPE8 steers. Animals treated for BRD had reduced adjusted fat measurements (P = 0.0007 and P = 0.01, in GPE7 and GPE8) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for IPD also had reduced adjusted fat measurements (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.002, in GPE7 and GPE8) compared with untreated animals. Animals treated for BRD (P yield (P yield (P yield (P < 0.01) measurements than unaffected animals. The relationship between disease and carcass

  8. Cattle temperament: persistence of assessments and associations with productivity, efficiency, carcass and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafe, L M; Robinson, D L; Ferguson, D M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Greenwood, P L

    2011-05-01

    Relationships between temperament and a range of performance, carcass, and meat quality traits in young cattle were studied in 2 experiments conducted in New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA), Australia. In both experiments, growth rates of cattle were assessed during backgrounding on pasture and grain finishing in a feedlot. Carcass and objective meat quality characteristics were measured after slaughter. Feed intake and efficiency during grain finishing were also determined in NSW. Brahman (n = 82 steers and 82 heifers) and Angus (n = 25 steers and 24 heifers) cattle were used in the NSW experiment. In NSW, temperament was assessed by measuring flight speed [FS, m/s on exit from the chute (crush)] on 14 occasions, and by assessing agitation score during confinement in the crush (CS; 1 = calm to 5 = highly agitated) on 17 occasions over the course of the experiment. Brahman (n = 173) and Angus (n = 20) steers were used in the WA experiment. In WA, temperament was assessed by measuring FS on 2 occasions during backgrounding and on 2 occasions during grain feeding. At both sites, a hormonal growth promotant (Revalor-H, Virbac, Milperra, New South Wales, Australia) was applied to one-half of the cattle at feedlot entry, and the Brahman cattle were polymorphic for 2 calpain-system markers for beef tenderness. Temperament was not related (most P > 0.05) to tenderness gene marker status in Brahman cattle and was not (all P > 0.26) modified by the growth promotant treatment in either breed. The Brahman cattle had greater individual variation in, and greater correlations within and between, repeated assessments of FS and CS than did the Angus cattle. Correlations for repeated measures of FS were greater than for repeated assessments of CS, and the strength of correlations for both declined over time. Average FS or CS for each experiment and location (NSW or WA × backgrounding or finishing) were more highly correlated than individual measurements, indicating

  9. Carcass traits and saleable meat yield of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; Thomson, P C; Hopkins, D L

    2015-09-01

    Carcass traits and saleable meat yield (SMY) of female and castrated male alpacas in Australia at 18, 24 and 36 months of age were investigated. Fifty huacaya alpacas, evenly distributed across 14, 20, 32 month ages and two genders, were grazed on coastal summer pastures for four months. Dressing percentage and carcass length were collected at slaughter. At 24h post-mortem the carcasses were prepared into four SMY combinations. Thirty six month animals had heavier hot carcass weights (33.7 ± 1 kg) and longer carcasses (81.2 ± 0.7 cm) as expected. The percentage of total carcass bone (17.5 ± 0.2%), fat trim (1.4 ± 0.1%) and meat trim (7.8 ± 0.4%) was assessed as a proportion of cold carcass weight. The proportion of fat increased and bone decreased with age. Females had more trim than males. SMY decreased in females and increased in males with age across all combinations suggesting that males are preferable for meat production. PMID:25917946

  10. The effect of forage type on lamb carcass traits, meat quality and sensory traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brito, Gerlane F; McGrath, Shawn R; Holman, Benjamin W B; Friend, Michael A; Fowler, Stephanie M; van de Ven, Remy J; Hopkins, David L

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different forage-types on lamb carcass, meat quality and sensory attributes. Sixty-two, White Dorper lambs finished on bladder clover, brassica, chicory+arrowleaf clover, lucerne+phalaris or lucerne, were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. At 24h post-mortem, the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) was removed from the left side and sliced into three equal sub-samples, vacuum packaged and randomly assigned to ageing periods (5, 12 or 40days) and the right side was aged for 5days. The m. semimembranosus and m. adductor femoris were removed and, the former was then aged for 40days. Lambs fed chicory+arrowleaf clover or lucerne had a higher dressing percentage and fat depth. Bladder clover gave the highest level of glycogen in the LL. No sensory or other meat quality trait differences were found between the treatments. In general, no treatments showed any unfavourable effect on the traits examined. PMID:27155319

  11. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle V): carcass traits and longissimus palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2001-05-01

    Carcass (n = 854) and longissimus thoracis palatability (n = 802) traits from F1 steers obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III cows to Hereford or Angus (HA), Tuli (Tu), Boran (Bo), Brahman (Br), Piedmontese (Pm), or Belgian Blue (BB) sires were compared. Data were adjusted to constant age (444 d), carcass weight (333 kg), fat thickness (1.0 cm), fat trim percentage (21%), and marbling (Small00) end points. Results presented in this abstract are for age-constant data. Carcasses from BB- and HA-sired steers were heaviest (P yield grades were lowest (P yield grade and longissimus palatability, but carcasses from HA-cross steers provided the most desirable combination of quality grade and longissimus palatability. Tuli, a breed shown to be heat-tolerant, had longissimus tenderness similar to that of the non-heat-tolerant breeds and more tender longissimus than the heat-tolerant breeds in this study. PMID:11374541

  12. Effects of metabolic modifiers on carcass traits and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikeman, M E

    2007-09-01

    Much research has been conducted and published about metabolic modifiers that increase growth rate, improve feed efficiency, increase carcass leanness, and decrease carcass fatness. Most of these metabolic modifiers have been developed to improve efficiency and profitability of livestock production and to improve carcass composition, with fewer of them developed and researched specifically to improve meat quality. Some of the metabolic modifiers can have negative effects on visual and sensory meat quality, especially when not used as recommended. This review evaluates the various kinds of metabolic modifiers that have been researched for their effects on production efficiency, carcass composition, and meat quality. Nutritional composition of meat generally is improved from use of most of the metabolic modifiers, visual quality is improved by others, but some can have a negative effect on marbling and tenderness. Anabolic steroid implants are very cost effective and practical for beef cattle production but aggressive implants used within 70 days of slaughter or too frequent use of them will reduce tenderness and marbling. Somatatropin and approved β-agonists are very effective in improving growth performance and carcass leanness in pigs, and β-agonists are effective in cattle, but improper use of them can have negative effects on marbling and tenderness. Feeding supplemental levels of vitamin E is quite beneficial for improving meat color and shelf-life of beef, lamb, and pork, whereas not supplementing diets with vitamin A has potential for improving marbling in cattle. Immunocastration shows promise for capitalizing on the efficiency of muscle growth of young boars up to a few weeks before slaughter, at which time boar taint is prevented and marbling is improved by immunocastration. Potential exists for improving the fatty acid profile of lipids and increasing conjugated linoleic acid content in beef through dietary manipulation. Supplementing swine diets with

  13. Effect of castration age on carcass traits and meat quality of Simmental bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Italian beef management is usually based on entire males, since they show better growth rate and higher lean yield carcasses. Despite consumer’s preferences require lean meat, producers have been induced to consider the positive effect of castration especially on meat organoleptic traits.

  14. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in chicken lmbr1 gene were associated with chicken growth and carcass traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lmbr1 is the key candidate gene controlling vertebrate limb development, but its effects on animal growth and carcass traits have never been reported. In this experiment, lmbr1 was taken as the candi-date gene affecting chicken growth and carcass traits. T/C and G/A mutations located in exon 16 and one A/C mutation located in intron 5 of chicken lmbr1 were detected from Silky, White Plymouth Rock broilers and their F2 crossing chickens by PCR-SSCP and sequencing methods. The analysis of vari-ance (ANOVA) results suggests that T/C polymorphism of exon 16 had significant association with eviscerated yield rate (EYR), gizzard rate (GR), shank and claw rate (SCR) and shank girth (SG); A/C polymorphism of intron 5 was significantly associated with SCR, liver rate and head-neck weight (HNW), while both sites had no significant association with other growth and carcass traits. These results demonstrate that lmbr1 gene could be a genetic locus or linked to a major gene significantly affecting these growth and carcass traits in chicken.

  15. Association of Calpastatin (CAST Gene with Growth Traits and Carcass Characteristics in Bali Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Putri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Calpastatin (CAST gene is well known as an inhibitor of muscle protein degradation and relates to muscle growth and meat tenderness. The objective of this study was to determine the association of CAST gene with growth traits and carcass characteristics in Bali cattle. A number of data from 35 Bali bulls were collected from BPTU Bali Cattle to obtain growth traits, carcass characteristics, and blood samples. Polymorphism of CAST gene in Bali bulls was analyzed by using PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing. The association of CAST gene with growth traits and carcass characteristics were analyzed by using General Linear Model (GLM. The result showed that there were two genotypes (GG and AG of CAST gene with allele frequencies of 0.857 and 0.143, respectively, for G and A. Notably, mutation A to G occurred in 253 bp CAST fragment gene in Bali Cattle. Genotypes GG and AG of CAST gene significantly affected (P<0.05 the back-fat thickness and longissimus dorsi without a significant effect on the growth traits. It could be concluded that CAST gene had a potency as a marker gene for carcass quality in Bali cattle.

  16. ACROSS-BREED ADJUSTMENT FACTORS FOR EXPECTED PROGENY DIFFERENCES FOR CARCASS TRAITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjustment factors to allow comparison of EPD from several breed associations for birth, weaning and yearling weights have been available for more than 10 years. This paper describes steps to calculate adjustment factors for EPD for four carcass traits: marbling score (MAR), fat thickness (FAT), rib...

  17. Ractopamine hydrochloride on performance and carcass traits of confined Nellores cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luis Kill

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four levels of inclusion (0; 450; 900 and 1,350g T-1 of Ractopamine hydrochloride was assessed concerning weight gain, feed conversion, dry matter intake, carcass traits and quality of castrated male cattle meat in confinement. Forty Nellore steers were used, with an average age of 26 months and initial average weight of 423.4±2.7kg, in a randomized block experimental design with four treatments and ten replications. The diet was fixed with the ratio of forage to concentrate dry matter of 75.3:24.7. A Linear positive effect observed was the inclusion of Ractopamine on daily weight gain and linear negative effect on feed conversion, highlighting the improvements with the increasing inclusion of Ractopamine hydrochloride. In relation to carcass traits, the linear effect was negative for fat thickness and no differences were found regarding the hot carcass weight ; carcass yield; area, width and depth of rib eye area of the Longissimus dorsi muscle, and noble courts. In relation to dry matter intake, the comparison of the treatments demonstrated that Ractopamine didn't influence negatively, which highlights its positive effect on the animal performance. The use of Ractopamine improves performance and decreases de amount of superficial fat in male nellore carcass in confinement.

  18. Genetic effects on carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits in straightbred and crossbred Romosinuano steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Phillips, W A; Miller, M F; Brooks, J C; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this work were to estimate heterosis and breed genetic effects for carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits of steers (Bos spp.) produced from matings of Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle. Steers (n = 464) were weaned at 7 mo of age and transported to the Southern Great Plains where they grazed winter wheat for 6 mo and were then fed a finishing diet until serial slaughter after different days on feed (average 130 d). Carcass quality and quantity traits were measured; steaks (aged 7 d) were obtained for palatability evaluation. Heterosis was detected for BW, HCW, dressing percentage, LM area, and yield grade for all pairs of breeds. Generally, Romosinuano-Angus heterosis estimates were smallest, Romosinuano-Brahman estimates were intermediate, and Brahman-Angus heterosis estimates were largest. The direct Romosinuano effect was to decrease (P yield grade (-0.9 ± 0.1), and to increase LM area per 100 kg HCW (3.6 ± 0.3 cm(2)/100 kg). Significant Brahman direct effects were detected for BW (34 ± 17 kg), HCW (29 ± 10 kg), dressing percentage (1.6 ± 0.6 %), LM area per 100 kg HCW (-3.3 ± 0.4 cm(2)/100 kg), and yield grade (0.6 ± 0.1). Significant Angus direct effects were to increase 12th rib fat thickness (3.8 ± 1 mm). Among sire breed means, Romosinuano had reduced (P = 0.002) marbling score (393 ± 9) than Angus, but greater mean sensory tenderness scores (5.8 ± 0.1), and reduced percentage Standard carcasses (10 ± 2%) than Brahman (P Brahman sire breed means (360 ± 11, 5.4 ± 0.1, 31 ± 5%). From consideration only of characteristics of the end product of beef production, Romosinuano did not provide a clearly superior alternative to Brahman for U.S. producers, as they had some quality and palatability advantages relative to Brahman, but at lighter HCW. PMID:22767551

  19. Relationship of polymorphisms within metabolic genes and carcass traits in crossbred beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, L A; Casas, E; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L

    2012-04-01

    Feed intake has been shown to alter neurological signaling related to feeding behavior and subsequent activation of adipogenic mechanisms. Fat characteristics are pivotal for carcass and meat quality, including marbling score, flavor, and tenderness. The objective of this study was to establish the association of SNP, from genes functionally related to fat metabolism and obesity, with growth, fat, and carcass traits in steers. A total of 33 informative SNP from candidate genes [cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), DNA-protein kinase (DNA-PK), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and fat mass and obesity associated (FTO)] were used to genotype crossbred steers (n = 620), and associations with growth and carcass traits were assessed. Five markers within the DNA-PK gene were associated (P grade, and retail product yield. Additionally, 2 unique DNA-PK SNP were associated (P < 0.05) with marbling score. Three haplotypes were observed using these SNP and were significantly (P = 0.0014) associated with marbling score. Slaughter weight, ADG, and HCW were associated (P < 0.05) with SNP from CART, FTO, and FASN. Data from this study indicate that polymorphisms within candidate genes have an indirect relationship with lipogenesis. Replication of these results within other populations will be necessary to establish if these markers will be successful as predictors of fatness components and carcass traits in cattle. PMID:22100592

  20. The crossbreeding of improved Jezersko-Solcˇava sheep with Charollais to improve carcass traits

    OpenAIRE

    Dragomir Kompan; Silvester Zgur; Angela Cividini

    2010-01-01

    Thirteen improved Jezersko-Solcˇava lambs (JSR) and 16 crossbreds with Charollais (JSRxCH) were used to evaluate the effect of genotype and sex on carcass traits. Lambs were weaned at around 60 days of age. They were fed with commercial concentrate and hay ad libitum and slaughtered at 30 kg of average live weight at 103 days of age. Crossbred lambs had at the same live weight at slaughter better conformation (9.19 on 15 points scale) than JSR lambs (7.58). Carcasses of crossbred lambs had lo...

  1. Body measurements and carcass characteristics correlation of Nellore young bulls finishidedED IN FEEDLOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Laurindo Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work it was aimed to evaluate Pearson correlations between body measurements, carcass characteristics and production of 35 Nellore bulls, confined for 96 days, with 402±14.90 kg and 18 months old. Weightings, ultrasound images and 14 measurements were obtained at the beginning of each experimental period and before slaughter, totaling four weight ratings of ultrasound images and measurements per animal. For the evaluation of body measurements and ultrasound images with carcass traits the values from the last measurement were considered. The images were made along with weighing animals through a Scanner, and measurements with a tape measure and a zoométrica cane, and these were correlated with each other and with productive and carcass characteristics. For measures of loin eye area evaluated by ultrasonography, it were found positive correlations with body length (0.32, rump (0.36 and thigh (0.20; withers height (0.20 and pelviano contour (0.38 (P<0.05. Variables of hip height and chest, chest width and pin bones, and heart girth showed positive correlations with two or more productive traits of economic interest, such as slaughter weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage (P<0.05. Significant correlations were found for most of the variables studied. Linear body measurements such as length and height emerge as a tool that can be useful in the formation of more homogenous lots and to predict the point of slaughter, along with the weight of the animals.

  2. Detection of quantitative trait loci for growth and carcass composition in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Shackelford, S D; Keele, J W; Koohmaraie, M; Smith, T P L; Stone, R T

    2003-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci for economically important traits in a family from a Bos indicus x Bos taurus sire. A Brahman x Hereford sire was used to develop a half-sib family (n = 547). The sire was mated to Bos taurus cows. Traits analyzed were birth (kg) and weaning weights (kg); hot carcass weight (kg); marbling score; longissimus area (cm2); USDA yield grade; estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (%); fat thickness (cm); fat yield (%); and retail product yield (%). Meat tenderness was measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force (kg) at 3 and 14 d postmortem. Two hundred and thirty-eight markers were genotyped in 185 offspring. One hundred and thirty markers were used to genotype the remaining 362 offspring. A total of 312 markers were used in the final analysis. Seventy-four markers were common to both groups. Significant QTL (expected number of false-positives yield on chromosome 9, for birth weight on chromosome 21, and for marbling score on chromosome 23. Evidence suggesting (expected number of false-positives yield grade were identified on chromosomes 2, 11, 14, and 19. Three QTL for fat thickness were detected on chromosomes 2, 3, 7, and 14. For marbling score, QTL were identified on chromosomes 3, 10, 14, and 27. Four QTL were identified for retail product yield on chromosomes 12, 18, 19, and 29. A QTL for estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat was detected on chromosome 15, and a QTL for meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force at 3 d postmortem was identified on chromosome 20. Two QTL were detected for meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force at 14 d postmortem on chromosomes 20 and 29. These results present a complete scan in all available progeny in this family. Regions underlying QTL need to be assessed in other populations. PMID:14677852

  3. Genetic analysis of slaughter and carcass quality traits in crossbred rabbits coming from a diallel cross of four maternal lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mínguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to estimate the genetic group effects and the crossbreeding genetic parameters of slaughter and carcass traits using data on the rabbits that were progeny of does coming from a full diallel cross between 4 maternal lines (A, V, H and LP mated to bucks of the paternal line R. The rabbits of the 16 genetic groups, corresponding to the type of does of the diallel cross, were distributed in 4 Spanish farms and 1 genetic group (V line was present in all farms in order to connect records among them and to be used as reference group. Crossbreeding parameters were estimated according to Dickerson’s model. 1896 rabbits were measured for slaughter traits and 950 for carcass traits. The A and LP lines had the lowest values for dressing percentage (–1.71 and –1.98 compared with H line and –1.49 and –1.75 with the V line, respectively. The A line was the heaviest for commercial carcass weight. No relevant differences were observed between the crossbred groups for all traits. Regarding the reciprocal effects, there were significant differences in favour of A line as sire line in the crossbred AV. Regarding the combination of direct and maternal effects, the A line showed significantly higher values for cold carcass weight (133 g., 71 g. and 142 g. compared to the H, LP and V lines. For the same parameter the H line showed significantly higher averages on dressing percentages than A and LP lines, 1.44 and 2.13%, respectively. Line A also showed, in general, better direct- maternal effects than the V line. Grand-maternal effects were less important than direct-maternal ones. The estimates of maternal heterosis were, in general, negative, which could be a consequence of the positive heterosis for litter size. However, despite this relationship between growth and litter traits, it has not been common to find negative maternal heterosis in growth traits. A diminution of dressing percentage was detected in

  4. FTO gene variants are associated with growth and carcass traits in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevsinek Skok, D; Kunej, T; Kovac, M; Malovrh, S; Potocnik, K; Petric, N; Zgur, S; Dovc, P; Horvat, S

    2016-04-01

    An important aim in animal breeding is the improvement of growth and meat quality traits. Previous studies have demonstrated that genetic variants in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have a relatively large effect on human obesity as well as on body composition in rodents and, more recently, in livestock. Here, we examined the effects of the FTO gene variants on growth and carcass traits in the Slovenian population of Simmental (SS) and Brown (SB) cattle. To validate and identify new polymorphisms, we used sequencing, PCR-RFLP analysis and TaqMan assays in the SS breed and FTO gene variants data from the Illumina BovineSNP50 v1 array for the SB breed. Sequencing of the eight samples of progeny-tested SS sires detected 108 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine FTO gene. Statistical analyses between growth and carcass traits and 34 FTO polymorphisms revealed significant association of FTO variants with lean meat percentage in both breeds. Additionally, FTO SNPs analyzed in SS cattle were associated with fat percentage, bone weight and live weight at slaughter. The FTO gene can thus be regarded as a candidate gene for the marker-assisted selection programs in our and possibly other populations of cattle. Future studies in cattle might reveal novel roles for the FTO gene in shaping carcass traits in livestock species as well as body composition control in other mammals. PMID:26708680

  5. Genetic analysis of carcass traits in beef cattle using random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englishby, T M; Banos, G; Moore, K L; Coffey, M P; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-04-01

    Livestock mature at different rates depending, in part, on their genetic merit; therefore, the optimal age at slaughter for progeny of certain sires may differ. The objective of the present study was to examine sire-level genetic profiles for carcass weight, carcass conformation, and carcass fat in cattle of multiple beef and dairy breeds, including crossbreeds. Slaughter records from 126,214 heifers and 124,641 steers aged between 360 and 1,200 d and from 86,089 young bulls aged between 360 and 720 d were used in the analysis; animals were from 15,127 sires. Variance components for each trait across age at slaughter were generated using sire random regression models that included quadratic polynomials for fixed and random effects; heterogeneous residual variances were assumed across ages. Heritability estimates across genders ranged from 0.08 (±0.02) to 0.34 (±0.02) for carcass weight, from 0.24 (±0.02) to 0.42 (±0.01) for conformation, and from 0.16 (±0.03) to 0.40 (±0.02) for fat score. Genetic correlations within each trait across ages weakened as the interval between ages compared lengthened but were all >0.64, suggesting a similar genetic background for each trait across different ages. Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the additive genetic covariance matrix revealed genetic variability among animals in their growth profiles for carcass traits, although most of the genetic variability was associated with the height of the growth profile. At the same age, a positive genetic correlation (0.60 to 0.78; SE ranged from 0.01 to 0.04) existed between carcass weight and conformation, whereas negative genetic correlations existed between fatness and both conformation (-0.46 to 0.08; SE ranged from 0.02 to 0.09) and carcass weight (-0.48 to -0.16; SE ranged from 0.02 to 0.14) at the same age. The estimated genetic parameters in the present study indicate genetic variability in the growth trajectory in cattle, which can be exploited through breeding programs and

  6. Effects of birth type and family on the variation of carcass and meat traits in Santa Ines sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jucá, Adriana de Farias; Faveri, Juliana Cantos; Melo Filho, Geraldo Magalhães; Ribeiro Filho, Antônio de Lisboa; Azevedo, Hymerson Costa; Muniz, Evandro Neves; Pedrosa, Victor Breno; Pinto, Luís Fernando Batista

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of birth type and family on quantitative and qualitative meat traits in Santa Ines lambs and to do a descriptive study of variation inside of breed. A total of 50 carcass and meat traits were evaluated in up to 101 lambs slaughtered at 424 days of age. Random effect of family, the fixed effect of birth type (single or double) and year, and the covariates of dam's weight at weaning and age (in days) at slaughter were inserted in the model. This study shows that some carcass and meat traits in Santa Ines raised on pasture has large variability, specially for meat cut yields, several carcass non-components yields, and rib eye area, subcutaneous fat thickness, shear force, cooking losses, and b* color parameter. The birth type effect influenced (P < 0.05) rump width; reticulum, leg, heart and kidney yields; and the carcass pH at 24 h after slaughter. The family effect was significant (P < 0.05) for cold carcass weight; hot, cold and true carcass yields; external carcass and leg lengths; perimeter and width of the rump; kidney, liver and tail yields; and carcass pH at slaughter. PMID:26701833

  7. Influence of Angus and Belgian Blue bulls mated to Hereford x Brahman cows on growth, carcass traits, and longissimus steak shear force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidner, T D; Humes, P E; Wyatt, W E; Franke, D E; Persica, M A; Gentry, G T; Blouin, D C

    2009-03-01

    Steers and heifers were generated from Angus (A) and Belgian Blue (BB) sires mated to Brahman x Hereford (B x H) F(1) cows to characterize their growth, carcass traits, and LM shear force. A total of 120 B x H cows purchased from 2 herds and 35 bulls (14 A and 21 BB) produced calves during the 5-yr project. After the stocker phase, a representative sample of A- and BB-sired heifers and steers were transported to the Iberia Research Station to be fed a high-concentrate diet. The remaining cattle were transported to a commercial feedlot facility. Each pen of cattle from the commercial feedlot was slaughtered when it was estimated that heifers and steers had 10 mm of fat or greater. The BB-sired calves were heavier at birth (P yield (P grade than carcasses from BB-sired calves. Tenderness, as measured by shear force of the steaks aged for 7 d, was similar for A- and BB-sired calves. However, steaks aged for 14 d from the A-sired calves had a reduced shear force (P grades, whereas the heifer carcasses had larger LM area per 100 kg of carcass weight. In conclusion, the BB-sired calves had heavier carcass weights and greater cutability, whereas the A-sired calves had a greater degree of marbling and greater quality grade, and steaks from carcasses of A-sired calves were more tender as measured by shear force at 14 d. PMID:19028864

  8. Genome scan for parent-of-origin QTL effects on bovine growth and carcass traits

    OpenAIRE

    Ikhide G. Imumorin; Eun-Hee eKim; Yun-Mi eLee; Dirk-Jan eDe Koning; Johan eVan Arendonk; Marcos eDe Donato; Jeremy Francis Taylor; Jong-Joo eKim

    2011-01-01

    Parent-of-origin effects (POE) such as genomic imprinting influence growth and body composition in livestock, rodents and humans. Here, we report the results of a genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) with POE on growth and carcass traits in Angus x Brahman cattle crossbreds. We identified 24 POE-QTL on 15 Bos taurus autosomes (BTAs) of which 6 were significant at 5% genome-wide level and 18 at the 5% chromosome-wide significance level. Six QTL were paternally expressed while 15...

  9. Test procedure for the moisture measurement in tyre carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention pertains generally to a procedure for the moisture measurement in tyre carcasses with textile insertions by means of neutrons. It allows a permanent control during manufacturing. The invention is applicable to the retreading of tyres

  10. ESTUDO DE CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CRESCIMENTO E DE CARCAÇA MEDIDAS POR ULTRA-SONOGRAFIA EM NOVILHAS DE DOIS GRUPOS GENÉTICOS STUDY OF GROWTH AND CARCASS TRAITS MEASURED BY ULTRASOUND IN TWO GENETIC GROUPS OF HEIFERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Auxiliadora Molina de Almeida Teixeira

    2008-12-01

    (RF, and muscle index (MI=100×LMA/BW, and the relationship between them by using correlation and regression analyses. The records were obtained on 120 heifers at 14 months of age, from two genetic groups: 60 animals Braunvieh × (Santa Gertrudes × Nelore and 60 animals Santa Gertrudes × Nelore. The genetic group significantly affected BW, CG and LMA. The estimates of phenotypic correlation between BW and HH, and between BW and CG were 0.49 and 0.79, respectively. The correlation between carcass traits and BW, CG and HH were of moderate to low magnitude, and between LMA and subcutaneous fat deposition were close to zero. All correlation estimates between MI and the others traits were negative and close to zero, except the correlation between MI and LMA, which was positive and high, as expected. Thus, the results of this study indicate that the genetic group with the greatest proportion of a continental breed genes showed higher LMA, BW and CG than the genetic group containing only genes of British and Zebu breeds. Furthermore, the growth traits are not good quantitative indicators of LMA and/or subcutaneous fat thickness, at least in phenotypic terms.

    KEY WORDS: Body measurements, crossbreed, longissimus muscle area, morphologic traits, subcutaneous fat thickness.

  11. Genetic parameter estimates for carcass and yearling ultrasound measurements in Brangus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D W; Bertrand, J K; Misztal, I; Kriese, L A; Benyshek, L L

    1998-10-01

    Carcass measurements of 12th-rib fat thickness (CARCFAT), longissimus muscle area (CARCLMA), and weight (CARCWT) on 2,028 Brangus and Brangus-sired fed steers and heifers, as well as yearling weights (YWT) and ultrasound measures of 12th-rib fat thickness (USFAT) and longissimus muscle area (USLMA) on 3,583 Brangus bulls and heifers were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters. Data were analyzed using a six-trait animal model and an average information REML algorithm. The model included fixed effects for contemporary group and breed of dam, covariates for age at slaughter or measurement, and random animal and residual effects. Heritabilities for CARCFAT, CARCLMA, CARCWT, USFAT, USLMA, and YWT were .27+/-.05, .39+/-.05, .59+/-.06, .11+/-.03, .29+/-.04, and .40+/-.04, respectively. Genetic correlations between CARCFAT and USFAT, CARCLMA and USLMA, and CARCWT and YWT were .69+/-.18, .66+/-.14, and .61+/-.11, respectively. The favorable and moderately strong genetic correlations between carcass measurements and similar yearling breeding-animal ultrasound measurements indicate that such measurements of 12th-rib fat and longissimus muscle area are useful in predicting genetic values for carcass leanness and longissimus muscle area. Selection using yearling ultrasound measurements of breeding cattle should result in predictable genetic improvement for carcass characteristics. Inclusion of yearling ultrasound measurements for fat thickness and longissimus muscle area should enhance national cattle evaluation programs. PMID:9814892

  12. [Relationship between genotypes at MyoD locus and carcass traits in cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lu; Xu, Shang-Zhong; Yue, Wen-Bin; Li, Jun-Ya; Gao, Xue; Ren, Hong-Yan

    2007-03-01

    A 261 bp sequence of the bovine MyoD gene intron 2 was cloned and was found to bear no similarities to the human MyoD gene sequence. Polymorphisms of the Myod gene in cattle including three Chinese breeds (Luxi cattle, Jinnan cattle and Qinchuan cattle) and four cross-breeding populations (Limousin x Luxi cattle, Simmental x Luxi cattle, Charolais x Luxi cattle and Angus x Luxi cattle) were detected by PCR-SSCP. Two SSCP alleles (A and B) were detected, which caused by a C-->T at 39 bp and a C-->G transition at 112 bp. Only two genotypes AA and AB occurred in the population. In Chinese local cattle, B allele was dominant, and this locus was at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except for the Charolais x Luxi cattle and Angus x Luxi cattle. The association of these polymorphisms with cattle carcass traits was analyzed using the general linear model (GLM). Statistical analysis revealed a higher value of living weight, carcass weight and loin eye area for individuals with genotype AA than AB (P carcass quality traits. PMID:17369152

  13. Comparison of different strategies to analyze growth and carcass traits in a crossbred pig population: Finite and infinitesimal polygenic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraes Gonçalves, de T.; Nunes de Oliveira, H.; Bovenhuis, H.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A Bayesian marker-free segregation analysis was applied for the estimation of variance components and to search for evidence of segregation genes affecting two carcass traits: intramuscular fat (IMF), %, and backfat thickness (BF), mm ; and one growth trait: body weight gain (LG) from 25 to 90 kg, a

  14. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of residual feed intake with performance and ultrasound carcass traits in Brangus heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, P A; Carstens, G E; Crews, D H; Welsh, T H; Forbes, T D A; Forrest, D W; Tedeschi, L O; Randel, R D; Rouquette, F M

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize residual feed intake (RFI) and to estimate phenotypic and genetic correlations with performance and ultrasound carcass traits in growing heifers. Four postweaning feed efficiency trials were conducted using 468 Brangus heifers. The complete Brangus pedigree file from Camp Cooley Ranch (Franklin, TX), which included 31,215 animals, was used to generate genetic parameter estimates. The heifer progeny from 223 dams were sired by 36 bulls, whereas the complete pedigree file contained 1,710 sires and 8,191 dams. Heifers were individually fed a roughage-based diet (ME = 1.98 Mcal/kg of DM) using Calan gate feeders for 70 d. Heifer BW was recorded weekly and ultrasound measures of 12th- to 13th-rib fat thickness (BF) and LM area (LMA) obtained at d 0 and 70. Residual feed intake (RFIp) was computed as actual minus predicted DMI, with predicted DMI determined by linear regression of DMI on mid-test BW(0.75) (MBW) and ADG with trial, trial x MBW, and trial x ADG as random effects. Overall means for ADG, DMI, and RFI were 1.01 (SD = 0.15), 9.51 (SD = 1.02), and 0.00 (SD = 0.71) kg/d, respectively. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that inclusion of gain in BF and final LMA into the base model increased the R(2) (0.578 vs. 0.534) and accounted for 9% of the variation in DMI not explained by MBW and ADG (RFIp). Residual feed intake and carcass-adjusted RFI (RFIc) were strongly correlated phenotypically and genetically with DMI and FCR, but not with ADG or MBW. Gain in BF was phenotypically correlated (P < 0.05) with RFIp (0.22), but not with FCR or RFIc; however, final BF was genetically correlated (P < 0.05) with RFIp (0.36) and RFIc (0.39). Gain in LMA was weakly phenotypically correlated with FCR, but not with RFIp or RFIc; however, gain in LMA was strongly genetically correlated with RFIp (0.55) and RFIc (0.77). The Spearman rank correlation between RFIp and RFIc was high (0.96). These results suggest that adjusting RFI

  15. Identification of quantitative trait loci for growth and carcass composition in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Keele, J W; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Stone, R T

    2004-02-01

    A genomic screening to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits was pursued. Two hundred nineteen microsatellite markers were genotyped on 176 of 620 (28%) progeny from a Brahman x Angus sire mated to mostly MARC III dams. Selective genotyping, based on retail product yield (%) and fat yield (%), was used to select individuals to be genotyped. Traits included in the study were birth weight (kg), hot carcass weight (kg), retail product yield, fat yield, marbling score (400 = slight00 and 500 = small00), USDA yield grade, and estimated kidney, heart and pelvic fat (%). The QTL were classified as significant when the expected number of false positives (ENFP) was less than 0.05 (F-statistic greater than 17.3), and suggestive when the ENFP was yield at 50 cM, for retail product yield at 53 cM, and for USDA yield grade at 63 cM on chromosome 1, for marbling score at 56 cM, for retail product yield at 70 cM, and for estimated kidney, heart and pelvic fat at 79 cM on chromosome 3, for marbling score at 44 cM, for hot carcass weight at 49 cM, and for estimated kidney, heart and pelvic fat at 62 cM on chromosome 16, and for fat yield at 35 cM on chromosome 17. Two suggestive QTL for birth weight were identified, one at 12 cM on chromosome 20 and the other at 56 cM on chromosome 21. An additional suggestive QTL was detected for retail product yield, for fat yield, and for USDA yield grade at 26 cM on chromosome 26. Results presented here represent the initial search for quantitative trait loci in this family. Validation of detected QTL in other populations will be necessary. PMID:14731222

  16. Phenotypic and Genetic Correlations of Feed Efficiency Traits with Growth and Carcass Traits in Nellore Cattle Selected for Postweaning Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceacero, Thais Matos; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely Dos Santos Gonçalves; Canesin, Roberta Carrilho; Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated phenotypic (rph) and genetic correlations (rg) between 8 feed efficiency traits and other traits of economic interest including weight at selection (WS), loin-eye area (LEA), backfat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF) in Nellore cattle. Feed efficiency traits were gain:feed, residual feed intake (RFI), residual feed intake adjusted for backfat thickness (RFIb) and for backfat and rump fat thickness (RFIsf), residual body weight gain (RG), residual intake and body weight gain (RIG), and residual intake and body weight gain using RFIb (RIGb) and RFIsf (RIGsf). The variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using a two-trait animal model. The heritability estimates (h2) were 0.14, 0.24, 0.20, 0.22, 0.19, 0.15, 0.11 and 0.11 for gain:feed, RFI, RFIb, RFIsf, RG, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf, respectively. All rph values between traits were close to zero, except for the correlation of feed efficiency traits with dry matter intake and average daily gain. High rg values were observed for the correlation of dry matter intake, average daily gain and metabolic weight with WS and hip height (>0.61) and low to medium values (0.15 to 0.48) with the carcass traits (LEA, BF, RF). Among the feed efficiency traits, RG showed the highest rg with WS and hip height (0.34 and 0.25) and the lowest rg with subcutaneous fat thickness (-0.17 to 0.18). The rg values of RFI, RFIb and RFIsf with WS (0.17, 0.23 and 0.22), BF (0.37, 0.33 and 0.33) and RF (0.30, 0.31 and 0.32) were unfavorable. The rg values of gain:feed, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf with WS were low and favorable (0.07 to 0.22), while medium and unfavorable (-0.22 to -0.45) correlations were observed with fat thickness. The inclusion of subcutaneous fat thickness in the models used to calculate RFI did not reduce the rg between these traits. Selecting animals for higher feed efficiency will result in little or no genetic change in growth and will decrease subcutaneous fat thickness

  17. The crossbreeding of improved Jezersko-Solcˇava sheep with Charollais to improve carcass traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragomir Kompan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen improved Jezersko-Solcˇava lambs (JSR and 16 crossbreds with Charollais (JSRxCH were used to evaluate the effect of genotype and sex on carcass traits. Lambs were weaned at around 60 days of age. They were fed with commercial concentrate and hay ad libitum and slaughtered at 30 kg of average live weight at 103 days of age. Crossbred lambs had at the same live weight at slaughter better conformation (9.19 on 15 points scale than JSR lambs (7.58. Carcasses of crossbred lambs had lower proportion of fat in hind leg and lower proportion of kidney fat. Female lambs had better dressing proportion (46.25% than male lambs (42.72%. Females had also higher scores for both internal and subcutaneous fatness and higher percentage of kidney fat. They had higher proportion of fat and lower proportion of bone in hind leg.

  18. Genome-wide Association Study to Identify Quantitative Trait Loci for Meat and Carcass Quality Traits in Berkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Asif; Kim, You-Sam; Kang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Yun-Mi; Rai, Rajani; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Oh, Dong-Yup; Nam, Ki-Chang; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-11-01

    Meat and carcass quality attributes are of crucial importance influencing consumer preference and profitability in the pork industry. A set of 400 Berkshire pigs were collected from Dasan breeding farm, Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea that were born between 2012 and 2013. To perform genome wide association studies (GWAS), eleven meat and carcass quality traits were considered, including carcass weight, backfat thickness, pH value after 24 hours (pH24), Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage lightness in meat color (CIE L), redness in meat color (CIE a), yellowness in meat color (CIE b), filtering, drip loss, heat loss, shear force and marbling score. All of the 400 animals were genotyped with the Porcine 62K SNP BeadChips (Illumina Inc., USA). A SAS general linear model procedure (SAS version 9.2) was used to pre-adjust the animal phenotypes before GWAS with sire and sex effects as fixed effects and slaughter age as a covariate. After fitting the fixed and covariate factors in the model, the residuals of the phenotype regressed on additive effects of each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) under a linear regression model (PLINK version 1.07). The significant SNPs after permutation testing at a chromosome-wise level were subjected to stepwise regression analysis to determine the best set of SNP markers. A total of 55 significant (peffect were also identified. A pair of significant QTL for pH24 was also found to affect both CIE L and drip loss percentage. The significant QTL after characterization of the functional candidate genes on the QTL or around the QTL region may be effectively and efficiently used in marker assisted selection to achieve enhanced genetic improvement of the trait considered. PMID:26580276

  19. Slaughter and Carcass Traits of Güney Karaman, Kangal-Akkaraman and Akkaraman Lambs at Different Slaughter Weights

    OpenAIRE

    TUFAN, Mustafa

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the slaughter and carcass traits of Güney Karaman, Kangal-Akkaraman and Akkaraman ram lambs at slaughter weights of 30, 35 and 40 kg. In this study, 6 ram lambs were used for each slaughter weight and genotype group (a total of 54 ram lambs). The lambs were slaughtered when they reached the slaughter weights mentioned above. All the carcasses were divided into five cuts, namely leg, shoulder, back, loin and others. In order to determine the carcass c...

  20. Effect of dietary supplementation of herbal seeds on carcass traits of turkey poults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana B. Bhaisare

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find the effect of four herbal seeds on carcass traits of turkey poults. Materials and Methods: A biological study using Nandanam turkey poults (Meleagris gallapavo for 8 weeks duration was carried out to evaluate the effect of phytobiotics-containing four herbal seeds influence on production performances like biweekly body weight and on carcass traits. 150 poults were randomly subjected to five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with basal diet (T1, 0.5% (5 g/kg level of each seeds thyme (Thymus vulgaris (T2, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum (T3, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare (T4 and cumin (Cuminum cyminum (T5. Carcass traits like blood loss, feather loss, dressed weight, New York dressed weight, ready to cook yield and cut-up parts yield were studied. Results: The body weight at 8th week was higher (p<0.05 in poults fed with thyme; whereas at 6th week, fennel and cumin fed birds had better (p<0.05 body weight. Inclusion of herbal seeds did not affect the blood loss, dressed weight and ready to cook yield but it significantly (p<0.05 affected the feathered loss, New York dressed weight and giblet percentages. Feeding of fenugreek has improved New York dressed weight of poults. Feeding of fennel had depressive (p<0.05 effect on liver and gizzard weights. All the four phytobiotic seeds in feed had significant (p<0.05 reduction in breast weight with a compensatory improvement in drumstick and neck weights. Conclusion: The present study revealed that supplementation of phytobiotic herbal seeds has resulted in numerical improvement of body weight of poults throughout the study period whereas these seeds had negative effect on the yield of breast, with increased proportion of drumstick and neck.

  1. Breed effects, retained heterosis, and estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters for carcass and meat traits of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M; Dikeman, M E; Koohmaraie, M

    1994-05-01

    Retained heterosis for meat traits was estimated in F3 generation castrate males in three composite populations of beef cattle finished on two levels of dietary energy density (2.82 Mcal of ME and 3.07 Mcal of ME and 11.50% CP) and serially slaughtered at four end points at intervals of 20 to 22 d. Breed effects were evaluated in nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, and 1/4 A). Breed effects were important (P carcass and meat traits evaluated. Dietary energy density and slaughter group affected (P carcasses. Estimates of heritability were intermediate to high for measures of fatness but were generally low for palatability attributes. The high negative genetic correlation (-.56) between percentage of retail product and marbling score and the relatively low genetic correlations between percentage of retail product and palatability attributes suggests the need for simultaneous attention to percentage of retail product and palatability attributes rather than to marbling score. Correlations among breed group means were generally high for measures of fatness with palatability attributes and were high and negative for percentage of retail product with marbling score and with other measures of fatness. Limited opportunity exists for selecting among breeds to achieve high levels of marbling in the longissimus muscle simultaneously with a high percentage of retail product. These results suggest that the most logical approach to resolution of the genetic antagonism between favorable carcass composition and less favorable palatability attributes is to form composite breeds with breed contributions organized to achieve an optimum balance between favorable carcass composition and desirable

  2. Ractopamine hydrochloride on performance and carcass traits of confined Nellores cattle

    OpenAIRE

    João Luis Kill; Ismail Ramalho Haddade; Iron Cardoso dos Santos Júnior; Douglas Haese; Alberto Chambela Neto; Pedro Veiga Rodrigues Paulino; Carolina D'Ávila Possatti

    2015-01-01

    The effect of four levels of inclusion (0; 450; 900 and 1,350g T-1) of Ractopamine hydrochloride was assessed concerning weight gain, feed conversion, dry matter intake, carcass traits and quality of castrated male cattle meat in confinement. Forty Nellore steers were used, with an average age of 26 months and initial average weight of 423.4±2.7kg, in a randomized block experimental design with four treatments and ten replications. The diet was fixed with the ratio of forage to concentrate dr...

  3. The Effect of Live Weight at Slaughter and Sex on Lambs Carcass Traits and Meat Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Silvester Žgur; Angela Cividini; Drago Kompan; Dušan Birtič

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-eight (12 male and 16 female) of improved Jezersko-solèava lambs with Romanov (JSR) were used to evaluate the effect of live weight and sex on carcass traits and meat quality. Lambs were weaned at around 60 days of age. They were fed with commercial concentrate and hay ad libitum and slaughtered at 29 kg or 43 kg of average live weight at 105 or 126 days of age. Daily gain from birth to slaughter was higher than 300 g/day and was very similar for both groups. There were no differences ...

  4. Feedlot performance, feed efficiency and carcass traits in Nellore cattle selected for postweaning weight

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Lucila Sobrinho; Sarah Figueiredo Martins Bonilha; Heraldo Cesar Gonçalves; André Michel de Castilhos; Elaine Magnani; Alexander George Razook; Renata Helena Branco

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlated responses to selection for growth in feed efficiency and carcass traits of Nellore animals. A total of 121 animals of the Nellore control (NeC) and selection herds were subjected to performance testing and classified regarding residual feed intake (RFI). Sixty-seven of these animals were selected and finished until reaching 4 mm of subcutaneous fat thickness between the 12th and 13th ribs. The animals were slaughtered at a mean age of...

  5. Effect of Different Slaughter Weights on Slaughter and Carcass Traits of Male Karayaka Lambs Reared under Intensive Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Aksoy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the carcass traits of Karayaka lambs slaughtered at different slaughter weights (SWs and to find out optimum SWs. Male Karayaka lambs with 20 kg live weight (n=30 constituted the animal material of the study. Lambs were randomly divided into five SW groups; 30 (GI; n=6, 35 (GII; n=6, 40 (GIII; n=6; 45 (GIV; n=6 and 50 (GV; n=6 kg. Lamb fattening feed (concentrate feed, ad libitum and forage (lentil straw, 100g/lamb/day were used as the feed material. Lambs were sent to slaughter at target SWs. Following the slaughter, non-carcass components, tailless hot and cold carcass weights were taken. Carcasses were separated into six sections as leg, foreleg, back, loin, neck and others. Physical dissection was performed to investigate carcass composition. Only the differences in carcass dressing and skin percentages of slaughter groups were not found to be significant. Increasing carcass fat percentages and decreasing carcass lean and bone percentages were observed with increasing SWs. Considering the consumer preferences, current findings revealed that Karayaka lambs should be sent to slaughter at weights between 30-35 kg. However, considering the red meat deficit of the country, current market conditions and producer preferences, the optimum SW for Karayaka lambs were recommended to be between 40-45 kg.

  6. The Effect of Live Weight at Slaughter and Sex on Lambs Carcass Traits and Meat Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvester Žgur

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight (12 male and 16 female of improved Jezersko-solèava lambs with Romanov (JSR were used to evaluate the effect of live weight and sex on carcass traits and meat quality. Lambs were weaned at around 60 days of age. They were fed with commercial concentrate and hay ad libitum and slaughtered at 29 kg or 43 kg of average live weight at 105 or 126 days of age. Daily gain from birth to slaughter was higher than 300 g/day and was very similar for both groups. There were no differences between light and heavy lambs in carcass conformation and dressing percentage. Heavy lambs were longer, wider and fatter. The difference in lungs, head and pelt percentage were statistically significant. With increased live weight at slaughter the percentage of neck, back and rib with flank increased and chuck, shoulder and hindleg decreased. Muscle percentage in hindleg increased and bone percentage decreased as live weight increased. Considering meat quality, heavier lambs had lower lightness and higher redness. Lighter lambs had higher pH45 value. Differences between sexes were statistically significant for dressing percentage and carcass fatness with higher values for females. Males had higher percentage of liver and head, higher proportion of neck, chuck and shoulder and lower proportion of back and loin. Males tended to have higher values for muscle and bone proportion, and lower proportion of fat in hindleg. Males had lighter meat. Sex had no effect on pH values.

  7. The Effect of Live Weight at Slaughter and Sex on Lambs Carcass Traits and Meat Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvester Žgur

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight (12 male and 16 female of improved Jezersko-solèava lambs with Romanov (JSR were used to evaluate the effect of live weight and sex on carcass traits and meat quality. Lambs were weaned at around 60 days of age. They were fed with commercial concentrate and hay ad libitum and slaughtered at 29 kg or 43 kg of average live weight at 105 or 126 days of age. Daily gain from birth to slaughter was higher than 300 g/day and was very similar for both groups. There were no differences between light and heavy lambs in carcass conformation and dressing percentage. Heavy lambs were longer, wider and fatter. The difference in lungs, head and pelt percentage were statistically significant. With increased live weight at slaughter the percentage of neck, back and rib with flank increased and chuck, shoulder and hindleg decreased. Muscle percentage in hindleg increased and bone percentage decreased as live weight increased. Considering meat quality, heavier lambs had lower lightness and higher redness. Lighter lambs had higher pH45 value. Differences between sexes were statistically significant for dressing percentage and carcass fatness with higher values for females. Maleshad higher percentage of liver and head, higher proportion of neck, chuck and shoulder and lower proportion of back and loin. Males tended to have higher values for muscle and bone proportion, and lower proportion of fat in hindleg. Males had lighter meat. Sex had no effect on pH values.

  8. Two-, three-, and four-breed rotational crossbreeding of beef cattle: carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, S M; Franke, D E; Bidner, T D; Blouin, D C

    1992-12-01

    Carcass data from 1,494 straightbred and rotational crossbred steers were collected over four generations. Mating systems included straightbreds (Angus [A], Brahman [B], Charolais [C], and Hereford [H]); two-breed rotations (A-B, C-B, and H-B); three-breed rotations (A-B-C, A-B-H, and B-C-H); and a four-breed rotation (A-B-C-H). Steers were randomly allocated to one of four postweaning treatments that varied in length of grazing and feeding periods. Treatment and breed group (four straightbreds and seven rotational combinations) significantly influenced hot carcass weight (HCWT), retail yield (RY), longissimus muscle area (LM), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MS), USDA quality grade (QG), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS). Feeding for longer periods resulted in greater (P < .05) HCWT, RY, FT, and MS, higher QG, and lower (P < .05) WBS values. Among the straightbreds, C was heavier and larger for HCWT, RY, and LM (P < .01), whereas A and H had greater (P < .01) FT and MS. The B was similar to H for HCWT, RY, and LM and to C for FT but ranked last (P < .01) for MS and WBS. Three- and four-breed rotational mating systems were superior (P < .05) to the two-breed rotation for HCWT, RY, and LM but were similar for FT, MS, and WBS. Rotational combinations exceeded (P < .05) the straightbreds for all carcass traits except MS. PMID:1474006

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis in chicken growth hormone gene and its associations with growth and carcass traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Bingxue; DENG Xuemei; FEI Jing; HU Xiaoxiang; WU Changxin; LI Ning

    2003-01-01

    In this experiment, F2 chicken derived from Broilers crossing to Silky are used to study the effect of growth hormone gene on growth and carcass traits. The partial gene is amplified by two pairs of primers, and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) is detected by the technique of PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism), and then confirmed by DNA sequencing. The mutations are found in intron 3 and intron 4 respectively, and can be clarified by digestion with EcoRⅤand MspⅠ. The results of least square analysis indicate that the gene has significant association with some carcass traits, such as breast muscle weight, breast muscle rate, abdominal fat rate, and has no association with other growth and carcass traits, such as live weight, carcass weight, eviscerated yield with giblet, eviscerated yield, leg muscle weight, heart weight, liver weight, abdominal fat weight, chest angle width, head and neck weight, shank and claw weight, wing weight, muscular stomach weight, glandular stomach weight, ovary or testicular weight, shank girth, small intestine length, 1-week body weight, 6-week body weight, 12-week body weight, etc. These results demonstrate that GH gene could be a genetic locus or linked to a major gene significantly affecting the growth and carcass traits in chicken.

  10. ESTIMATION OF GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR CARCASS TRAITS FOR SIMMENTAL CATTLE IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Špehar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was an estimation of genetic parameters for carcass weight, conformation, fatness class and net gain for Simmental cattle in Croatia. Data of young bulls slaughtered in years 2005 and 2006 with 12 to 24 months of age was taken from the central database of the Croatian Livestock Centre. Three data sets were constructed as follows: 1 data set 1 (DS1 included 80462 records of bulls with known and unknown parents; 2 data set 2 (DS2 had 26245 records of bulls with at least one known parents; 3 data set 3 (DS3 with 6272 records of bulls slaughtered between 12 and 14 months of age. Pedigree for DS1 included a total of 118595 animals, 70415 animals and 19319 animals in pedigree for DS2 and DS3, respectively. Variance components were estimated by REML method as implemented in the VCE-5 program package. Statistical model included region, calving season, abattoir-supervisor interaction as fixed class effects and slaughter age as quadratic regression. Direct additive genetic effect was included in the model as random effect. For carcass weight heritability estimates were 0.10 ± 0.006, 0.13 ± 0.02 and 0.11 ± 0.03 for DS1, DS2 and DS3, respectively. Heritability estimates for net gain were 0.09 ± 0.006, 0.16 ± 0.03 and 0.13 ± 0.03, and for carcass conformation were 0.05 ± 0.006, 0.03 ± 0.01 and 0.05 ± 0.006 for DS1, DS2 and DS3, respectively. Results attained indicate that DS2 can be used for genetic evaluation of the Simmental carcass traits in Croatia. However, in the future more improvement should be done, concerning the constitution of contemporary groups, and special attention should be given to data collection.

  11. Estimativas de correlações genéticas entre escores visuais e características de carcaça medidas por ultrassonografia em bovinos Nelore utilizando modelos bayesianos linear-limiar Genetic correlation estimates between visual scores and carcass traits measured by ultrasound in Nelore cattle using linear-threshold bayesian models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ubirajara de Faria

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste estudo foi estimar as correlações genéticas entre escores visuais e características de carcaça medidas por ultrassonografia em bovinos da raça Nelore utilizando a estatística bayesiana por meio da Amostragem de Gibbs, sob modelo animal linear-limiar. Foram estudadas as características categóricas morfológicas de musculosidade, estrutura física, conformação e sacro, avaliadas aos 15 e 22 meses de idade. Para as características de carcaça, foram avaliadas as características área de olho-de-lombo, espessura de gordura subcutânea, espessura de gordura subcutânea na garupa e altura na garupa. Os escores visuais devem ser empregados como critérios de seleção para aumentar o progresso genético para a característica área de olhode-lombo e, consequentemente, melhorar o rendimento de carcaça. As estimativas de correlação genética obtidas para musculosidade com espessura de gordura subcutânea e espessura de gordura subcutânea na garupa indicaram que a seleção para musculosidade pode levar a animais com melhor acabamento de carcaça. A seleção para a estrutura física e conformação aos 15 e 22 meses de idade pode promover resposta correlacionada para o aumento da altura na garupa.The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic correlations between visual scores and the carcass traits measured by ultrasound, in Nellore breed cattle, using the bayesian statistics by Gibbs Sampling, in the linear-threshold model. The morphological categorical traits of musculature, physical structure, conformation and sacrum were studied, evaluated at 15 and 22 months. The carcass traits of the longissimus muscle area, backfat thickness, rump fat thickness and hip height were evaluated. Visual scores should be used as selection criterion to increase genetic progress for the longissumus muscle area. The estimates of genetic correlations obtained between musculature and backfat thickness and rump fat thickness

  12. Performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of male calves fed starter concentrate with crude glycerin

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    Raylon Pereira Maciel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the effects of including crude glycerin in the diet on intake, performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of dairy crossbred veal calves fed starter concentrate containing 0, 80, 160, and 240 g kg−1 crude glycerin. Twenty-eight calves with an average weight of 38.03±6.7 kg and five days of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments with seven replications. Calves were individually housed in covered stalls equipped with feeders and drinkers for 56 days. The calf response to inclusion of crude glycerin in the concentrate changed over the weeks and the inclusion level of 240 g kg−1 resulted in greater dry matter intake and average daily gain. There was no effect on the final weight and total weight gain of the animals, with mean values of 73.60 and 35.16 kg, respectively. The weight of the rumen-reticulum adjusted for body weight, empty body weight, and total stomach weight increased linearly with the inclusion of crude glycerin. Blood total protein, globulin, urea, cholesterol, gamma glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations did not differ among treatments. Carcass traits and meat color were not affected. Crude glycerin can be added to dairy calf starter concentrate up to 240 g kg−1 dry matter because it benefits concentrate intake, performance, and rumen development without affecting animal health.

  13. Live animal performance, carcass traits, and meat palatability of calf- and yearling-fed cloned steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J J; Lunt, D K; Smith, S B; Mies, W L; Hale, D S; Koohmaraie, M; Savell, J W

    1997-04-01

    Two groups of Brangus steers produced by nuclear transplantation cloning were used in parallel studies investigating the impact of calf- and yearling-feeding. The first group (n = 8) were fed as calves (CF; n = 4) or yearlings (YF; n = 4) to a constant age end point of 16 mo. The second group (n = 10) were fed as calves (CF; n = 5) or yearlings (YF; n = 5) to a constant live weight end point (530 kg). When slaughtered at the same age, CF and YF steers did not differ (P > .05) in feedlot ADG, but the CF steers were heavier and had higher dressing percentages, numeric yield grades, and quality grades (P .05) in palatability traits. When fed to a constant live weight, the YF steers gained more rapidly (P .05) between the treatments in carcass quality grade or meat palatability characteristics. Thus, when finished to a constant weight end point, YF steers gained more rapidly, with no adverse effects on carcass quality grade or palatability traits; however, CF steers consistently produced higher dressing percentages, largely due to greater external fatness. PMID:9110211

  14. Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Exon 3 of Porcine LMCD1 Gene with Meat Quality and Carcass Traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; DENG Chang-yan; XIONG Yuan-zhu; ZUO Bo; LI Feng-e; LEI Ming-gang; ZHENG Rong; LI Jia-lian; JIANG Si-wen

    2008-01-01

    LIM domain proteins are found to be important regulators in cell growth,cell fate determination,cell differentiation,and remodelling of the cell cytoskeleton by their interaction with some structural proteins,kinases,transcriptional regulators,etc.The presence of LIM domains in LMCDI gene implies it may be involved in skeletal muscle protein-protein interactions.This study was to investigate polymorphisms of LIM and cysteine-rich domain 1(LMCD1)gene and its effect on meat quality and carcass traits in pig.The polymorphism(G294A)in exon 3 region of porcine LMCD1 gene,which is synonymous mutation,was genotyped in the population of 178 F2 pigs of a Large White×Meishan resource family.Statistical results indicated the distribution of allele G(with a A→G mutation)and A(without mutation).Analysis of variante showed that the polymorphism of LMCD1 gene was associated with variation in several carcass traits of interest for pig breeding.Some carcass traits and meat quality traits are close to significance by association.An analysis of more animals is necessary to analyze the polymorphisms in exon 3 of porcine LMCD1 gene if it was selected as a marker for the pig carcass traits.

  15. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of feed efficiency with growth performance, ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F; Chen, L; Vinsky, M; Okine, E; Wang, Z; Basarab, J; Crews, D H; Li, C

    2013-05-01

    Feed efficiency is of particular importance to the beef industry, as feed costs represent the single largest variable cost in beef production systems. Selection for more efficient cattle will lead to reduction of feed related costs, but should not have adverse impacts on quality of the carcass. In this study, we evaluated phenotypic and genetic correlations of residual feed intake (RFI), RFI adjusted for end-of-test ultrasound backfat thickness (RFIf), and RFI adjusted for ultrasound backfat thickness and LM area (RFIfr) with growth, ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in an Angus population of 551 steers and in a Charolais population of 417 steers. In the Angus steer population, the phenotypic and genetic correlation of RFI with carcass merit traits including HCW, carcass backfat, carcass LM area, lean meat yield, and carcass marbling were not significant or weak with correlations coefficients ranging from -0.0007 ± 0.05 to 0.18 ± 0.21. In the Charolais steer population, the phenotypic and genetic correlations of RFI with the carcass merit traits were also weak, with correlation coefficients ranging from -0.07 ± 0.06 to 0.19 ± 0.18, except for the genetic correlation with carcass average backfat, which was moderate with a magnitude of 0.42 ± 0.29. Inclusion of ultrasound backfat thickness in the model to predict the expected daily DMI for maintenance explained on average an additional 0.5% variation of DMI in the Angus steers and 2.3% variation of DMI in the Charolais steer population. Inclusion of both the ultrasound backfat and LM area in the model explained only 0.7% additional variance in DMI in the Angus steer population and only 0.6% in the Charolais steer population on top of the RFIf model. We concluded that RFIf adjusted for ultrasound backfat at the end of the test will lead to decreases of both the phenotypic and genetic correlations with carcass backfat and marbling score to a greater extent for late-maturing beef breeds such as Charolais than

  16. Postweaning growth and carcass traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano maternal grandsires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A; Cundiff, L V

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for postweaning growth and carcass composition traits in terminal crossbred cattle. Postweaning growth and carcass traits were analyzed on 464 steers and 439 heifers obtained by mating F(1) cows to Charolais and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) sires. The F(1) cows were obtained from mating Angus and MARC III dams to Hereford, Angus, Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano sires. Traits evaluated were postweaning ADG, slaughter weight, HCW, dressing percentage, percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, retail product yield (percentage), and retail product weight. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P yield grade with the greatest retail product yield. Maternal granddam breed was significant (P yield grade, fat thickness, and retail product yield. Sex class was significant (P yield. Steers grew faster, were heavier, had heavier carcasses, and were leaner than heifers. Heifers had a greater dressing percentage, a greater percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, a greater LM area, and a decreased yield grade when compared with steers. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems. PMID:19820064

  17. Ultrasonography as a predicting tool for carcass traits of young bulls

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    Suguisawa Liliane

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable resources have been allocated to support research in the development of non-invasive and non-destructive techniques for carcass composition and quality evaluation. Ultrasonography is a reliable and relatively low-cost technique that can be used. In the present study, real-time ultrasonography was used to predict ribeye area (REA and subcutaneous fat thickness (FT in live animals as compared to carcass measurements. Animals used were 115 yearling bull calves (initial body weight, 329 kg, kept under feedlot conditions, of four genetic groups (30, ½ Angus x Nellore; 30, ½ Canchim x Nellore; 30, ½ Simmental x Nellore, and 25 Nellore, and two finishing frame sizes (small and large. Four ultrasonographic measurements were taken every 28 days until slaughter. Predictive precision of ultrasonographic measurements increased as animals approached slaughter, reaching maximum values at the last measurement (R²=0.68 and 0.82 for REA and FT, respectively. FT carcass measurements was influenced by genetic group and live measurements (P < 0.05. Frame size did not influence REA and FT, probably due to small, but distinctive differences among genetic groups.

  18. Carcass and meat traits of Morada Nova, Santa Ines and ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs finished in feedlot

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    Juliano Issakowicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the carcass and meat traits of Morada Nova, Santa Ines and ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs finished in feedlot. Weight and proportion of meatcuts, measures of carcass size and color, tenderness, cooking loss and ultimate pH of meat from 10 Morada Nova, 6 Santa Ines and 10 ½ Ile de France ½ Texel were evaluated. The lambs were finished in collective pens, fed ad libitum with 50% corn silage and 50% concentrate and slaughtered at about six months old. Analysis of variance was performed by the procedure PROC GLM of SAS (SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% significance. The Morada Nova lambs had values of 14.1 kg, 13.9 kg, 0.240 kg/cm, 56.2 cm and 35.8 cm for hot and cold carcass weight, compactness index, hip and leg circumference respectively and these values were lower (P <0.05 to values observed in Santa Ines (19.4 kg, 18.8 kg, 0.283 cm/kg, 64.6 cm and 40.0 cm and in ½ Ile de France ½ Texel (18.6 kg, 18.2 kg, 0.305 cm/kg; 65.4 cm and 41.6 cm lambs. The hot and cold carcass yield did not differ (P> 0.05 among genetic groups. The scores for conformation and fat cover were higher (P <0.05 in ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs (2.4 and 3.0 and the carcass length was greater in Santa Ines lambs (66.3 cm. The ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs had smaller (P<0.05 proportion of neck and greater of leg (9.10% and 33.1% compared to Morada Nova lambs (10.3% and 30.4% and Santa Inês (10.9% and 31.6%. The weight of shoulder, leg, rack, ribs and flank was lower (P<0.05 in Morada Nova (1.306, 2.127 kg, 0.999 kg, 0.775 kg and 0.433 kg respectively compared to Santa Inês (1.820 kg, 2.972 kg, 1.355 kg, 0.959 and 0.509 kg and ½ Ile de France ½ Texel (1.791 kg, 3.007 kg, 1.212 kg, 1.016 kg and 0.563 kg. The neck was heavier in Santa Ines (1.038 kg which differed (P <0.05 from the other genetic groups (0.725 kg for Morada Nova and 0.830 kg for ½ Ile de France x ½ Texel lambs. The ½ Ile de

  19. Genome Scan for Parent-of-Origin QTL Effects on Bovine Growth and Carcass Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imumorin, Ikhide G; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Yun-Mi; De Koning, Dirk-Jan; van Arendonk, Johan A; De Donato, Marcos; Taylor, Jeremy F; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2011-01-01

    Parent-of-origin effects (POE) such as genomic imprinting influence growth and body composition in livestock, rodents, and humans. Here, we report the results of a genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) with POE on growth and carcass traits in Angus × Brahman cattle crossbreds. We identified 24 POE-QTL on 15 Bos taurus autosomes (BTAs) of which six were significant at 5% genome-wide (GW) level and 18 at the 5% chromosome-wide (CW) significance level. Six QTL were paternally expressed while 15 were maternally expressed. Three QTL influencing post-weaning growth map to the proximal end of BTA2 (linkage region of 0-9 cM; genomic region of 5.0-10.8 Mb), for which only one imprinted ortholog is known so far in the human and mouse genomes, and therefore may potentially represent a novel imprinted region. The detected QTL individually explained 1.4 ∼ 5.1% of each trait's phenotypic variance. Comparative in silico analysis of bovine genomic locations show that 32 out of 1,442 known mammalian imprinted genes from human and mouse homologs map to the identified QTL regions. Although several of the 32 genes have been associated with quantitative traits in cattle, only two (GNAS and PEG3) have experimental proof of being imprinted in cattle. These results lend additional support to recent reports that POE on quantitative traits in mammals may be more common than previously thought, and strengthen the need to identify and experimentally validate cattle orthologs of imprinted genes so as to investigate their effects on quantitative traits. PMID:22303340

  20. Association between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the bovine chemerin gene and carcass traits in Qinchuan cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, W Q; Wang, H C; Song, F B; Zan, L S; Wang, H; Wang, H B; Xin, Y P; Ujan, J A

    2011-01-01

    Qinchuan is a red or yellow draft and beef breed in China. In order to identify a predictor of carcass traits on the basis of associations between carcass traits and gene polymorphism, variation in the bovine chemerin gene was investigated using PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism and DNA sequencing. An SNP of A868G located in exon 2 of the Bos taurus chemerin gene was detected in 716 samples of six breeds (Jiaxian red, Luxi, Nan yang, Qinchuan, Simmental and Luxi crossbred steers, and Xia'nan), all in China, and three genotypes (AA, AG and GG) were found. Based on the χ(2) test, the AA/AG/GG genotype frequencies of all six breeds were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A possible association of A868G with some carcass traits was investigated in 106 Qinchuan cattle. Animals with the AG genotype were found to have significantly lower mean loin eye area and meat tenderness compared to those with the AA and GG genotypes. However, there was no significant association between any individual haplotype and backfat thickness, water holding capacity or marbling score. We suggest that A868G could be used as a molecular marker in marker-assisted selection for carcass traits. PMID:22095607

  1. Genetic parameters for EUROP carcass traits within different groups of cattle in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hickey, J.M.; Keane, M.G.; Kenny, D.A.; Cromie, A.R.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to test the ability of systems of weighing and classifying bovine carcasses used in commercial abattoirs in Ireland to provide information that can be used for the purposes of genetic evaluation of carcass weight, carcass fatness class, and carcass conformation

  2. Maternal grandsire, granddam, and sire breed effects on growth and carcass traits of crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2003-04-01

    Postweaning growth, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were analyzed on 1,422 animals obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British breeds) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC IIIHereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Breed groups were fed in replicated pens and slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr. Postweaning average daily gain; live weight; hot carcass weight; fat depth; longissimus area; estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (percentage); percentage Choice; marbling score; USDA yield grade; retail product yield (percentage); retail product weight; fat yield (percentage); fat weight; bone yield (percentage); and bone weight were analyzed in this population. Quadratic regressions of pen mean weight on days fed and of cumulative ME consumption on days fed were used to estimate gain, ME consumption and efficiency (Mcal of ME/kg of gain) over time (0 to 200 d on feed), and weight (300 to 550 kg) intervals. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P yield grade, retail product yield, fat yield, fat weight, and bone yield. Sire breed was significant (P yield, and fat yield. Interactions between maternal grandsire and sire breed were nonexistent. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems. PMID:12723078

  3. Effect of Different Levels of Germinated Barley on Live Performance and Carcass Traits in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dastar B

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of germinated barley (GB on live performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens. The experiment lasted for 5 weeks starting from 7 days of age and ending at 42 days of age. Chicks (Ross 308 were fed six dietary treatments including a corn–soy diet (corn diet, a barley–soy diet (barley diet, a barley diet plus enzymes (enzyme barley diet, and 3 other diets in which GB was replaced with barley at levels of 33%, 66%, and 100% in the barley diet (33% GB diet, 66% GB diet, and GB diet, respectively. Data were analyzed in a completely randomized design. Results indicated that birds fed a barley diet had significantly lower performance than those fed other diets (P. Supplementing of the barley diet with β-glucanase enzyme as well as replacing GB with barley improved the performance of broilers. Birds fed a GB diet had a significantly higher carcass yield those fed other diets (P. The lowest abdominal fat percentage was observed in birds fed a barley diet or a corn diet. Thus, it is concluded that replacing GB with barley, especially at 33% level, is more effective than supplementing barley diets with β-glucanase enzyme in improving live performance of broiler chickens.

  4. Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait. PMID:23658330

  5. Evaluation of performance characteristics in a diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle. II. Carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, J W; Benyshek, L L; Bertrand, J K; Johnson, M H

    1988-02-01

    Evaluations of steer and heifer progeny from a diallel mating design of Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle over 5 yr are presented. Traits evaluated included final weight, hot carcass weight, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, dressing percentage and percentage of kidney, pelvic and heart fat. Progeny of Simmental sires were heavier at slaughter than those with Brahman sires (P less than .05), but no differences were found for carcass weight. Dressing percentage was higher for Limousin crosses compared with progeny of other sire breeds (P less than .05). Similar results were found for dam breeds, except that progeny of Limousin dams had heavier carcasses with a higher dressing percentage (P less than .05) than Brahman crosses. Crosses of Limousin and Simmental had larger ribeye areas (P less than .05) compared with calves of the other breeds. Progeny of Polled Hereford dams had higher marbling scores and were fatter than progeny of dams of other breeds (P less than .05). Heterosis estimates were significant for all Brahman crosses for final weight, carcass weight and ribeye area, but these contrasts were negligible for other traits. Estimates of general combining ability were positive and significant for Simmental for final weight, carcass weight, ribeye area and marbling score and were significant and negative for Limousin for final weight, fat thickness and yield grade. Maternal values were generally small. PMID:3372376

  6. Genome scan for parent-of-origin QTL effects on bovine growth and carcass traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhide G. Imumorin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Parent-of-origin effects (POE such as genomic imprinting influence growth and body composition in livestock, rodents and humans. Here, we report the results of a genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL with POE on growth and carcass traits in Angus x Brahman cattle crossbreds. We identified 24 POE-QTL on 15 Bos taurus autosomes (BTAs of which 6 were significant at 5% genome-wide level and 18 at the 5% chromosome-wide significance level. Six QTL were paternally expressed while 15 were maternally expressed. Three QTL influencing post-weaning growth map to the proximal end of BTA2 [linkage region of 0 – 9 cM; genomic region of 5.0 – 10.8 Mb], for which only one imprinted orthologue is known so far in the human and mouse genomes, and therefore may potentially represent a novel imprinted region. The detected QTL individually explained 1.4% ~ 5.1% of each trait’s phenotypic variance. Comparative in-silico analysis of bovine genomic locations show that 32 out of 1,442 known mammalian imprinted genes from human and mouse homologues map to the identified QTL regions. Although several of the 32 genes have been associated with quantitative traits in cattle, only 2 (GNAS and PEG3 have experimental proof of being imprinted in cattle. These results lend additional support to recent reports that POE on quantitative traits in mammals may be more common than previously thought, and strengthen the need to identify and experimentally validate cattle orthologues of imprinted genes so as to investigate their effects on quantitative traits.

  7. Genetic evaluation of carcass traits in Simmental-sired cattle at different slaughter end points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, B C; Tess, M W; Kress, D D; Cunningham, B E

    2001-03-01

    Our objectives were to estimate genetic parameters for carcass traits and evaluate the influence of slaughter end point on estimated breeding values (BV). Data provided by the American Simmental Association were divided into three sets: 1) 9,604 records of hot carcass weight (CW) and percentage retail cuts (PRC), 2) 6,429 records of CW, PRC, and marbling score (MS), and 3) 1,780 records of CW, PRC, MS, fat thickness (FT), and longissimus muscle area (LMA). Weaning weights (WW) from animals with carcass data and from their weaning contemporaries were used. Data were analyzed with a multiple-trait animal model and REML procedures to estimate genetic parameters and BV on an age-, CW-, MS-, or FT-constant basis. The model for carcass traits included fixed contemporary group and covariates for breed, heterozygosity, and slaughter end point and random additive direct genetic and residual effects. Weaning weight was preadjusted for founder effects, direct and maternal heterosis, age of dam, and age of calf. The model for WW included fixed contemporary group and random additive direct genetic, maternal genetic, maternal permanent environment, and residual effects. Heritabilities from data set 1 were 0.34 for CW and 0.25 for PRC on an age-constant basis and 0.25 for PRC on a CW end point. Heritabilities for data set 2 were 0.35, 0.24, and 0.36 for CW, PRC, and MS, respectively, on an age-constant basis. Data set 2 heritabilities were 0.25 for PRC and 0.34 for MS on a CW-constant basis and 0.33 for CW and 0.25 for PRC at a constant MS end point. Heritabilities on an age-constant basis for data set 3 were as follows: CW, 0.32; PRC, 0.09; MS, 0.12; FT, 0.10; and LMA, 0.26. Heritability estimates for data set 3 on a CW-, MS-, and FT-constant basis were similar to those on an age-constant basis. Heritabilities were 0.12 for PRC, 0.12 for MS, 0.14 for FT, and 0.22 for LMA on a CW-constant basis; 0.30 for CW, 0.09 for PRC, 0.10 for FT, and 0.28 for LMA at a constant MS end point

  8. Genetic gain for body weight, feed conversion and carcass traits in selected broiler strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Schmidt

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Swine and Poultry Research Center (Embrapa Suínos e Aves maintains a chicken breeding program for meat production since 1985. Two control lines (LLc and PPc are maintained, whereas two male lines (TT and ZZ and three female lines (PP, VV and KK have been selected. This paper reports the genetic gain after 15 generations of combined selection (mass and independent culling levels in order to develop the commercial broiler stocks Embrapa 021 and Embrapa 022. Selection pressure has been exerted on weight gain, carcass traits and fertility. In addition, female lines have also been selected for egg production, whereas males have been selected for feed efficiency since 1992. All lines have been selected for breast area instead of carcass traits since 1999. The genetic gain was estimated as the deviation between selected lines and the respective unselected lines at 42 days of age. In female lines, body weight improved 504, 548 and 587 g; average breast area increased 27.60; 16.99 and 26.43 cm²; adjusted feed conversion (42-49 d improved -1.46; -0.97 and 1.76 units, and egg production varied 6.99; 7.12 and -3.43% units for PP, VV and KK, respectively. In male lines, body weight improved 758 and 408 g; average breast area increased 31.95 and 19.38 cm², and adjusted feed conversion improved (42-49 d -0.99 and 1.26 for TT and ZZ, respectively. This breeding program has been effective to generate genetic gain and to develop two commercial products, Embrapa 021 (standard and Embrapa 022 (high yield. Nevertheless, feed efficiency is still not satisfactory.

  9. Influence of brahman-derivative breeds and Angus on carcass traits, physical composition, and palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidner, T D; Wyattt, W E; Humes, P E; Franke, D E; Blouin, D C

    2002-08-01

    Steers were generated from Angus (A), Beefmaster (BM), Brangus (BA), Gelbray (GB), and Simbrah (SB) sires mated to cows of their breed and to Brahman x Hereford F1 cows (except A) to characterize their carcass traits, composition, and palatability. The 290 steers (48 A, 48 BM, 36 BA, 31 GB, and 46 SB) were slaughtered at an equal fatness end point as determined by real-time ultrasound and visual evaluation. Angus steers had lighter (P < 0.01), more youthful (P < 0.01) carcasses with a higher (P < 0.05) quality grade, more (P < 0.01) fat thickness, and a larger (P < 0.01) longissimus area/100 kg than BM-, BA-, GB-, and SB-sired steers. Angus steers also had a lower (P < 0.01) specific gravity, a higher (P < 0.01) percentage fat and less (P < 0.05) lean in the 9th to 11th rib, and steaks aged for 10 d were more tender (P < 0.01) than steaks from Brahman-derivative sired steers. The BM- and BA-sired steers had lighter (P < 0.01), more youthful (P < 0.05) carcasses, and smaller (P < 0.01) longissimus area than GB- and SB-sired steers. The 9th to 11th rib section from the BM- and BA-sired steers had less lean and more bone (P < 0.01) than GB- and SB-sired steers. The BA-sired steers had more (P < 0.01) marbling and a higher (P < 0.05) quality grade than BM-sired steers. The SB-sired steers had heavier (P < 0.01) carcasses than the GB-sired steers. There were no differences in shear force for steaks aged for 3 d for any of the breed types, but with 10 d of aging, steaks from Angus steers were more tender, possibly indicating that steaks of Brahman-derivative breeds aged at a slower rate than those from Angus. PMID:12211382

  10. Carcass and meat quality traits of Iberian pig as affected by sex and crossbreeding with different Duroc genetic lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Robina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 144 pigs were used to study the effects of sex (barrows or gilts and terminal sire line (Iberian or three genetic lines of Duroc: Duroc 1, Duroc 2 and Duroc 3 on performance and carcass and meat quality traits. Gilts showed slightly lower average daily gain, shoulder weight and trimming losses, but slightly better primal cuts yields and higher loin weight, while there was no significant effect of sex on meat quality traits or on the fatty acid composition of lard and muscle. There were important differences in performance and in carcass and primal cuts quality traits between pure Iberian pigs and all Iberian × Duroc crossbreeds evaluated, partly due to the lower slaughter weights reached by the formers. The different sire lines showed differences in several traits; Duroc 1 group showed lower backfat thickness and ham and shoulder trimming losses, and higher primal cut yields than Duroc 2 and Duroc 3 groups. Intramuscular fat (IMF content remained unaffected by crossbreeding, but meat color resulted more intense and redder in crosses from the Duroc 1 sire line. The accumulation of fatty acids in lard was not affected by Duroc sire line, while animals of the group Duroc 2 showed higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acid and lower of polyunsaturated ones in IMF. These results highlight the importance of considering not only performance, but also carcass and meat quality traits when deciding the Duroc sire line for crossbreeding in Iberian pig production.

  11. The effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Rajabiyan Moghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens. A total of 200 broilers (Ross 308, 10 days old, were randomly allotted to five experimental equal groups with four replicates of 10 chickens (five male and five female and fed with basal diet + ground wheat (without grit; basal diet + whole wheat (without grit and basal diet contain 1.5% grit of diet with sizes of 2, 3 and 4 mm. Growth performance (evaluated through weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio was determined on day 24 and 42. Also, carcass traits (relative weights of carcass, breast, thigh, liver, heart, gizzard and intestine and intestine length were assessed on day 42. Weight gains and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in broilers added with grit 2 mm compared to the control group (p<0.05, whereas; carcass traits were not significantly altered. These data suggest that grit with size of 2 mm improve growth performance in broiler chickens.

  12. Identification and association of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in calpain3 (CAPN3 gene with carcass traits in chickens

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    Du Hua-Rui

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to screen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP of chicken Calpain3 (CAPN3 gene and to analyze the potential association between CAPN3 gene polymorphisms and carcass traits in chickens. We screened CAPN3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in 307 meat-type quality chicken from 5 commercial pure lines (S01, S02, S03, S05, and D99 and 4 native breeds from Guangdong Province (Huiyang Huxu chicken and Qingyuan Ma chicken and Sichuan Province (Caoke chicken and Shandi Black-bone chicken, China. Results Two SNPs (11818T>A and 12814T>G were detected by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP method and were verified by DNA sequencing. Association analysis showed that the 12814T>G genotypes were significantly associated with body weight (BW, carcass weight (CW, breast muscle weight (BMW, and leg muscle weight (LMW. Haplotypes constructed on the two SNPs (H1, TG; H2, TT; H3, AG; and H4, AT were associated with BW, CW (P P Conclusion We speculated that the CAPN3 gene was a major gene affecting chicken muscle growth and carcass traits or it was linked with the major gene(s. Diplotypes H1H2 and H2H2 might be advantageous for carcass traits.

  13. Effects of Crossbreeding and Gender on the Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Korean Native Black Pig and Duroc Crossbred

    OpenAIRE

    Muhlisin,; Panjono,; Lee, Sung-Jin; Lee, Jeong Koo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe the effects of crossbreeding and gender on the carcass traits and meat quality of Korean Native Black Pig (KNP) and KNP×Duroc crossbred (KNP×D). A total of 50 pigs comprising seven KNP barrows, eight KNP gilts, twenty KNP×D barrows and fifteen KNP×D gilts were used in this study. Animals were reared in the same housing condition with same feed diet for six months prior to slaughter. After an overnight chilling, the carcasses were graded, and samples of Musc...

  14. Relationship between carcass traits and phenotypic residual feed intake, breed composition, temperament, and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of factors that permit animals to grow quickly and efficiently, and have desirable carcass characteristics remains a primary goal in beef production. The objective was to evaluate the relationship between 7 carcass traits and breed group (Angus (A), Brahman (B), Brangus, 3/4 A 1/4 B, ...

  15. Characterization of two Pro-opiomelanocortin gene variants and their effects on carcass traits in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deobald Heather M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcass quantity (lean meat yield and quality (degree of marbling in beef cattle determines much of their economic value. Consequently, it is important to study genes that are part of the appetite pathway and that may ultimately affect carcass composition. Pro-opiomelanocortin is a prohormone that codes for many different peptides, several of which are involved in the appetite pathway. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP c.288C>T in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC has previously been associated with hot carcass weight (HCW and shipping weight (Ship wt in beef cattle. Results While developing a commercial real time PCR test for POMC c.288C>T a 12 bp deletion (POMC c.293_304delTTGGGGGCGCGG was identified. The deletion results in the removal of four amino acids (a valine, two glycines, and an alanine. Both the POMC c.288C>T and the deletion were genotyped in 386 crossbred steers and evaluated for associations with carcass traits. The animals with one copy of the deletion had a significantly smaller carcass rib-eye area (7.91 cm2; P = 0.02 in comparison to homozygous normal animals. Significant associations were observed between POMC c.288C>T with start-of-finishing weight (SOF WT; P = 0.04, hot carcass weight (HCW; P = 0.02, average fat and grade fat (both P = 0.05, carcass rib-eye area (REA; P = 0.03 and marbling (P = 0.02. Conclusions These results suggest that it could be beneficial for beef producers to know both the deletion and POMC c.288C>T genotypes when making marketing and culling decisions.

  16. Procedures for evaluating pork carcass and cut composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five studies were completed to investigate various production and evaluation procedures related to pork carcass composition and meat quality. A comparison of market hog characteristics of pigs selected by feeder pig frame size or current USDA feeder pig standards was made. In general, feeder pig frame size did differentiate between carcass skeletal traits (i.e., carcass length, radius length). However, frame sizing did not improve on current feeder pig grades in discriminating between carcass composition characteristics. Liquid scintillation of potassium-40 was used to estimate pork carcass composition of 124 boars barrows and gilts, ranging from 23 to 114 kg live weight. Pigs were counted live, slaughtered and one side of the carcass was counted. The side was then ground and sampled for percent protein, fat and moisture. Carcass weight and 40K determined potassium of the carcass explain more of the variation in carcass composition than live animal traits. Carcass measurements were used to determine value and percentages of fat standardized lean, protein, fat and moisture in the carcass using 265 barrow and gilt carcasses. In a separate study, belly composition was estimated from carcass and belly parameters (n = 338). Ribbed carcasses measurements were almost always superior to unribbed carcass measurements when estimating carcass or belly composition. Tenth rib fat depth was the most useful single variable for predicting belly fat, protein, moisture and lean. Some precision and accuracy were lost when using parameters from unribbed carcasses to estimate carcass or belly composition as compared to including parameters from ribbed carcasses. The sensory and nutritive value of cooked pork center loin chops and roasts were investigated. Levels of fat cover and internal temperature did not greatly affect cholesterol content

  17. Comparison of three weaning ages on cow-calf performance and steer carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, S E; Faulkner, D B; Ireland, F A; Parrett, D F

    1999-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare three weaning ages on cow-calf performance and steer carcass traits. Crossbred steers (n = 168; 1/2 Simmental x 1/4 Angus x 1/4 Hereford) were randomly assigned to three treatments with eight pens per treatment: groups were 1) weaned at an average of 90 d of age (90 +/- 13 d) and placed in the feedlot, 2) weaned at an average of 152 d of age (152 +/- 13 d) and placed in the feedlot, and 3) weaned at an average of 215 d of age (215 +/- 13 d) and placed in the feedlot. The number of days steers were finished decreased by 55 and 38 d (linear, P = .0001) as weaning age increased when slaughtered at a constant fat end point (.81 cm). Weaning at an average of 90 and 152 d of age improved overall ADG by .15 and .07 kg/d, respectively, over weaning at an average of 215 d of age (linear, P = .005). Over the entire finishing period, intake increased (linear, P = .0006) and efficiency was poorer (linear, P = .004) as weaning age increased. Owing to differences in finishing days and intake, total concentrate consumed increased (linear, P = .03) as weaning age decreased. No differences (P > .21) were observed for carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, or yield grade. No differences (P > .19) were observed in marbling score or percentage of steers grading greater than or equal to Choice or Average Choice. Cow body condition score improved (linear, P = .0001) as weaning age decreased. Pregnancy rate improved 12 percentage units (linear, P = .15) for cows on the 90-d weaning treatment. In this study, early weaning improved gain and feed efficiency, but it increased total concentrate consumed. PMID:10100659

  18. Association of myostatin on early calf mortality, growth, and carcass composition traits in crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L; Cundiff, L V

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a potential association of an inactive myostatin allele with early calf mortality, and evaluate its effect on growth and carcass traits in a crossbred population. Animals were obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British Breed) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford, Angus, Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Belgian Blue was the source of the inactive myostatin allele. Myostatin genotypes were determined for all animals including those that died before weaning. Early calf mortality was examined in the F2 subpopulation (n = 154), derived from the F1 sires mated to F1 cows from Belgian Blue sires, to evaluate animals with zero, one, or two copies of inactive myostatin allele. An overall 1:2:1 ratio (homozygous active myostatin allele:heterozygous:homozygous inactive myostatin allele) was observed in the population; however, a comparison between calves dying before weaning and those alive at slaughter showed an unequal distribution across genotypes (P yield grade, estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, retail product yield and weight, fat yield and weight, bone yield and weight, and percentage of carcasses classified as Choice. Charolais lack the inactive myostatin allele segregating in Belgian Blue; thus, in the population sired by Charolais (n = 645), only animals with zero or one copy of the inactive myostatin allele were evaluated. Animals carrying one copy were heavier at birth and at weaning, and their carcasses were leaner and more muscled. In the population sired by Belgian Blue x British Breed (n = 725), animals with two copies of inactive myostatin allele were heavier at birth, leaner, and had a higher proportion of muscle mass than animals with zero or one copies. Heterozygous animals were heaviest at weaning and had the highest live weight, whereas animals with zero

  19. Effect of dietary energy and protein content on growth and carcass traits of Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q F; Cherry, P; Doster, A; Murdoch, R; Adeola, O; Applegate, T J

    2015-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary energy and protein concentrations on growth performance and carcass traits of Pekin ducks from 15 to 35 d of age. In experiment 1, 14-d-old ducks were randomly assigned to 3 dietary metabolizable energy (11.8, 12.8, and 13.8 MJ/kg) and 3 crude protein concentrations (15, 17, and 19%) in a 3×3 factorial arrangement (6 replicate pens; 66 ducks/pen). Carcass characteristics were evaluated on d 28, 32, and 35. In Experiment 2, 15-d-old ducks (6 replicate cages; 6 ducks/cage) were randomly allotted to the 9 diets that were remixed with 0.5% chromic oxide. Excreta were collected from d 17 to 19, and ileal digesta was collected on d 19 to determine AMEn and amino acid digestibility. In Experiment 1, there were interactions (P<0.05) between dietary metabolizable energy and crude protein (CP) on body weight (BW) gain and feed intake, wherein BW gain increased more to increasing dietary CP as dietary metabolizable energy increased. However, feed intake was only influenced by dietary crude protein at 11.8 MJ ME/kg and not 12.8 or 13.8 MJ/kg. As dietary CP increased from 15 to 19%, breast meat yield increased by 10.8% on d 35 (P<0.01). Conversely, increasing metabolizable energy from 11.8 to 13.8 MJ/kg increased dressing percentage, breast skin, and subcutaneous fat, but decreased breast meat yield (% but not weight) on d 35 (P<0.01). In Experiment 2, the determined AMEn for diets formulated to contain 11.8, 12.8, or 13.8 MJ ME/kg were 11.66, 12.68, and 13.75 MJ/kg, respectively; determined standardized ileal digestible Lys was 0.95, 1.00, and 1.21% for diets formulated to contain 15, 17, or 19% crude protein, respectively. The best body weight gain and feed conversion ratio was obtained when ducks were fed a high dietary AMEn (13.75 MJ/kg) and high CP (19%, 1.21% SID Lys). These results provide a framework for subsequent modeling of amino acid and energy inputs and the corresponding outputs of growth performance and

  20. Ultrasound use for body composition and carcass quality assessment in cattle and lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic evaluation for carcass quality traits has evolved over time, in large part due to introduction of new technology such as ultrasound measures of body composition. Ultrasound measured body composition traits emulate important carcass traits, are very informative for selection purposes, are ac...

  1. Crude glycerin in diets for wethers in feedlot: intake, digestibility, performance, carcass and meat traits

    OpenAIRE

    Mauriceia Costa Carvalho Barros; Jair de Araújo Marques; Fabiano Ferreira da Silva; Robério Rodrigues Silva; Gilmara Santos Guimarães; Luciano Lemos da Silva; Fabiana Lana de Araújo

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effects of crude glycerin levels (CG) (0, 2.65, 5.33, 8.06 and 10.84% in dry matter basis) on intake, digestibility, performance, carcass morphometric measurements and meat quality of sheep finished in feedlot. Twenty five crossbred Dorper x St. Ines wethers, with 24 ± 2.0 kg average weight were housed in individual pens. The experimental design was completely randomized. Levels of CG in gross diet caused a decreasing linear effect (P

  2. Dietary protein effects on growth performance, carcass traits and expression of selected jejunal peptide and amino acid transporters in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    A Corzo; II RE Loar; MT Kidd; SC Burgess

    2011-01-01

    The effect of dietary protein on growth, carcass traits and some specific intestinal intestinal peptide and amino acid transporters in broiler chickens was studied. Birds received a common pre-test diet, and were subsequently fed either a standard positive control diet (PC) or a reduced CP diet (RCP) from 21 to 42 d of age. Growth was negatively impacted with feeding of RCP as manifested by an increase in feed consumption and feed conversion ratio. Carcass traits also showed evidence of negat...

  3. The effect of production system (barn and free-range), slaughtering age and gender on carcass traits and meat quality of partridges (Alectoris chukar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamak, U S; Sarica, M; Boz, M A; Ucar, A

    2016-04-01

    1. A total of 400 Alectoris chukar partridges were reared in either barn or free-range production systems and slaughtered at 14, 16 or 18 weeks of age in order to determine the effects of production system, age and gender on carcass traits (live weight, carcass weight, carcass yield, carcass part and edible inner organ percentages at slaughtering) and meat quality (L*, a* and b* meat colour and pH). 2. Production system had a significant effect on both slaughter traits and meat quality. 3. Partridges raised in barn conditions had higher live weights and carcass weights whereas meat quality was better in birds raised in the free-range system. PMID:26813778

  4. Effect of gender on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of calves of Avilena-Negra Iberica breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daza, A.; Rey, A. I.; Lopez Carrasco, C.; Lopez-Bote, C. J.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of gender on growth performance and carcass and meat quality of calves of Avilena-Negra Iberica breed. Sixteen calves, eight males and eight females, were used. The calves were fattened under intensive conditions, housed in confinement and fed with the same feed and cereal straw from 230.7 to 478.3 kg. The males grew more than the females (1.390 vs 0.932 kg day{sup 1} respectively). Carcass weight, carcass length, leg length, leg perimeter, carcass and leg compactness, legs, fore-quarters and loins weights and forequarters percentage regarding carcass weight were higher (p < 0.05) in males than in females. The gender had not significant influence on CIE a*, b*, chroma and hue variables but CIE L* value was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in males than in females. The a* value decreased and b* and hue values increased with ageing time. The subcutaneous back fat from the females had significantly (p < 0.05) higher C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1 n-9, S MUFA and lower C10:0, C18:0, C18:2 n-6, C18:3 n-3, C20:0, C20:3 n-9, C20:4 n-6, C22:5 n-3, {Sigma} n-6, {Sigma} n-3 and {Sigma} PUFA proportions than that from males. It is concluded that the gender has influence on growth performance, carcass traits and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous backfat; gender does not have effect on instrumental colour variables; and meat colour can reach acceptable values for consumers until four days after slaughter. (Author) 34 refs.

  5. Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Prestice Black-Pied Pig Breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoušek, Václav; Kernerová, Naděžda; Hyšplerová, Klára; Jirotková, Dana; Brzáková, Michaela

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate fattening performance, carcass value and meat quality in pigs of Prestice Black-Pied breed in relation to slaughter weight (SW) and gender (barrows and gilts, resp.). Pigs were divided into weight categories: SW1 (75 to 99.9 kg), SW2 (100 to 109.9 kg) and SW3 (110 to 130 kg) and all individual traits were analyzed by the general linear model procedure (SAS 9.3). Average SW of each weight group was as follows: SW1 94.2 kg, SW2 105.8 kg, and SW3 115.2 kg. Differences among average backfat thickness of 36.07 mm in SW1, 40.16 mm in SW2, and 43.21 mm in SW3 were significant (pcolour lightness and drip loss were similar in both genders. However barrows had higher intramuscular fat content by 0.31% than gilts (p<0.05). PMID:26954141

  6. Instrumental objective measurement of veal calves carcass colour at slaughterhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Vandoni; Carlo Angelo Sgoifo Rossi

    2010-01-01

    A total of 6700 veal calves were used to compare the ability of chromameter CR300 in measuring the veal meat colour on-line at slaughterhouse and to develop a prediction equation of colour score based on relationship between instrumental and visual assessments. A total of 5000 carcasses were used to develop equation of prediction while 1700 were used to test it. The meat colour was assessed subjectively in 3 different slaughterhouses by the slaughterhouse’s judges 10h post mortem and ob...

  7. Performance and carcass traits of Santa Inês lambs finished with different sources of forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Morato Menezes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and biometrics of lambs fed different sources of forage. Twenty-four six-month-old Santa Inês female lambs were randomly allocated to four experimental diets and housed in individual stalls. They weighed on average 26.35±0.20 kg. The diets were coast cross hay (HAY, cassava hay (CAS, dehydrated by-product of pea crop (PEA and saccharin (SAC. The diets were formulated with the same amount of protein and energy with fixed levels of forage (60% and concentrate (40%. Adaptation to the diet took 7 days, with 45 days on experiment. Weights and biometric measurements were obtained every fortnight and feed intake three times a week. Rights half-carcasses were weighed and sectioned into retail cuts, rib, loin, shoulder, belly, neck and leg, which were weighed individually. Weight gain in lambs was significantly different between diets, with those fed saccharin gaining more. Overall, treatments did not significantly affect biometric measurements. There was a significant difference for feed intake and live weight at the end of the experiment. Animals fed PEA and SAC showed the best results. Average positive correlations were found between biometric measurements and live weight. Treatment PEA had heavier hot (14.36 kg and cold (14.01 kg carcass weights than the other groups. Hot carcass kill-out was higher for animals fed PEA as well as ham weight, belly, neck and heart girth. The weight of the abdominal viscera (% for lambs fed CAS was greater than those fed SAC and PEA. The weights of the thoracic viscera as well as the liver, for lambs fed PEA were higher. The by-product of pea yielded best results, followed by saccharin, and can replace traditional forage sources in the region, providing similar results in terms of cuts and body components. These could be an alternative for feeding sheep in the dry season. The substitution of forages using by-product of pea and saccharin led to improved

  8. Association of the leptin gene E2-169T>C and E3-299T>A mutations with carcass and meat quality traits of the Chinese Simmental-cross steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Zhao, Zhihui; Zhang, Lupei; Zhang, Qingfeng; Yu, Zhongjiang; Li, Junya; Yang, Runjun

    2013-04-15

    Leptin is a hormone affecting the regulation of body composition, energy balance, and meat quality in mammals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in coding region for leptin gene with carcass and meat quality traits of Chinese Simmental-cross steers. Two SNPs (E2-169 T>C and E3-299 T>A) were genotyped on 135 crossbred bulls. The 45 traits being measured included dressing percentage, dressed weight, marbling score, muscle color score, backfat thickness, fatty acid content, etc. Statistical analysis revealed that two SNPs in the exon of leptin gene were associated with the carcass and meat quality traits. The C-bearing genotypes (CC or TC) of E2-169 T>C (C57R) showed higher dressed weight, thickness of loin, MCS, FCS, intramuscular fat content, and polyunsaturated fatty acid content (PA(S100T) also showed a significant association with the carcass traits (dressing percentage, living QIB) and fatty acid content in Simmental-cross steers(Pcarcass yield and meat quality in beef cattle, and it may be a useful marker for meat quality traits in future marker-assisted selection programs in beef cattle breeding and production. PMID:23291417

  9. Evaluation of carcass, live, and real-time ultrasound measures in feedlot cattle: I. Assessment of sex and breed effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassen, A; Wilson, D E; Rouse, G H

    1999-02-01

    Carcass and live-animal measures from 1,029 cattle were collected at the Iowa State University Rhodes and McNay research farms over a 6-yr period. Data were from bull, heifer, and steer progeny of composite, Angus, and Simmental sires mated to three composite lines of dams. The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for carcass traits, to evaluate effects of sex and breed of sire on growth models (curves), and to suggest a strategy to adjust serially measured data to a constant age end point. Estimation of genetic parameters using a three-trait mixed model showed differences between bulls and steers in estimates of h2 and genetic correlations. Heritability for carcass weight, percentage of retail product, retail product weight, fat thickness, and longissimus muscle area from bull data were .43, .04, .46, .05, and .21, respectively. The corresponding values for steer data were in order of .32, .24, .40, .42, and .07, respectively. Analysis of serially measured fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, body weight, hip height, and ultrasound percentage of intramuscular fat using a repeated measures model showed a limitation in the use of growth models based on pooled data. In further evaluation of regression parameters using a linear mixed model analysis, sex and breed of sire showed an important (P < .05) effect on intercept and slope values. Regression of serially measured traits on age within animal showed a relatively larger R2 (62 to 98%) and a smaller root mean square error (RMSE, .09 to 8.85) as compared with R2 (0 to 58%) and RMSE (.31 to 67.9) values when the same model was used on pooled data. We concluded that regression parameters from a within-animal regression of a serially measured trait on age, averaged by sex and breed, are the best choice in describing growth and adjusting data to a constant age end point. PMID:10100654

  10. Associations of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) genes polymorphisms and protein structure changes with carcass traits in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, A; Miraei-Ashtiani, S R; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, H

    2012-09-01

    Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), a G protein-coupled receptor that binds ghrelin, plays an important role in the central regulation of pituitary growth hormone secretion, food intake, and energy homeostasis. Ghrelin receptor (GHSR) modulates many physiological effects and therefore is a candidate gene for sheep production performance. Polymorphism of the GHSR gene was detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods in 463 individuals. Two different structures in protein and nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. The evaluation of the associations between these SSCP patterns with carcass traits suggests a positive effect of genotype TT and B structure on carcass weight, and body length (P<0.05). In addition, the animal with TC had greater abdominal fat than those with TT and CC (P<0.05) while CC genotype contributed to low blood cholesterol (P=0.04). The results confirm the hints suggesting that GHSR is a preferential target for further investigation on mutations that influence carcass trait variations. PMID:22735618

  11. Carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore cattle fed different non-fiber carbohydrates sources associated with crude glycerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, V R; Ezequiel, J M B; Almeida, M T C; D'Aurea, A P; Paschoaloto, J R; van Cleef, E H C B; Carvalho, V B; Junqueira, N B

    2016-08-01

    Crude glycerin, a potential energy source for ruminant animals, has been evaluated, mainly, in diets with high starch content. However, a limit number of studies have evaluated the inclusion of crude glycerin in low starch diets. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the association of crude glycerin with corn grain or citrus pulp on carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls (n=30, 402±31 kg initial weight). The treatment consisted of: CON=control, without crude glycerin; CG10=10% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CG15=15% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CP10=10% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp; CP15=15% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp. The performance parameters and carcass traits were not affected by treatments (P>0.05). The inclusion of crude glycerin decreased yellow color intensity and increased fatty acids pentadecanoic and heptadecenoic in meat (P<0.05), without affecting neither the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids nor the relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The association of crude glycerin with corn or citrus pulp has no adverse effects on carcass characteristics and meat quality. PMID:26857157

  12. Repetibilidade da mensuração de imagens das características de carcaça obtidas por ultrassonografia em fêmeas Nelore Repeatability of ultrasound image measurements of carcass traits in Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia Zerlotti Mercadante

    2010-04-01

    the technician at the absolute difference value between the first and second measurement of those traits. The repeatability for acceptable images was higher than for marginal images, for both among and within technicians. Regarding to the absolute difference analyses between the first and second interpretation, the effects of the technician for AOL and EGL and quality class of image for AOL were significant. In general, the repeatability was higher for the most experienced technician. It is advisable that measurements of images in the same contemporaneous group should be done by one single technician.

  13. Strategies to predict and improve eating quality of cooked beef using carcass and meat composition traits in Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateescu, R G; Oltenacu, P A; Garmyn, A J; Mafi, G G; VanOverbeke, D L

    2016-05-01

    Product quality is a high priority for the beef industry because of its importance as a major driver of consumer demand for beef and the ability of the industry to improve it. A 2-prong approach based on implementation of a genetic program to improve eating quality and a system to communicate eating quality and increase the probability that consumers' eating quality expectations are met is outlined. The objectives of this study were 1) to identify the best carcass and meat composition traits to be used in a selection program to improve eating quality and 2) to develop a relatively small number of classes that reflect real and perceptible differences in eating quality that can be communicated to consumers and identify a subset of carcass and meat composition traits with the highest predictive accuracy across all eating quality classes. Carcass traits, meat composition, including Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), intramuscular fat content (IMFC), trained sensory panel scores, and mineral composition traits of 1,666 Angus cattle were used in this study. Three eating quality indexes, EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, were generated by using different weights for the sensory traits (emphasis on tenderness, flavor, and juiciness, respectively). The best model for predicting eating quality explained 37%, 9%, and 19% of the variability of EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, and 2 traits, WBSF and IMFC, accounted for most of the variability explained by the best models. EATQ1 combines tenderness, juiciness, and flavor assessed by trained panels with 0.60, 0.15, and 0.25 weights, best describes North American consumers, and has a moderate heritability (0.18 ± 0.06). A selection index (I= -0.5[WBSF] + 0.3[IMFC]) based on phenotypic and genetic variances and covariances can be used to improve eating quality as a correlated trait. The 3 indexes (EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3) were used to generate 3 equal (33.3%) low, medium, and high eating quality classes, and linear combinations of traits that

  14. Instrumental objective measurement of veal calves carcass colour at slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Vandoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 6700 veal calves were used to compare the ability of chromameter CR300 in measuring the veal meat colour on-line at slaughterhouse and to develop a prediction equation of colour score based on relationship between instrumental and visual assessments. A total of 5000 carcasses were used to develop equation of prediction while 1700 were used to test it. The meat colour was assessed subjectively in 3 different slaughterhouses by the slaughterhouse’s judges 10h post mortem and objectively by chromameter CR300 45 post mortem on the Rectus abdominis. The prediction equation classified correctly 79% of carcasses and was characterized by an R2 of 78%. Furthermore it has to be underlined that the chroma contributes to the total R2 with a 0.21 partial R2. This data confirmed that chromameter CR300 can be used on-line to measure objectively veal meat colour at the end of the slaughter line.

  15. Assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes residing on chromosomes 14 and 29 for association with carcass composition traits in Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; White, S N; Riley, D G; Smith, T P L; Brenneman, R A; Olson, T A; Johnson, D D; Coleman, S W; Bennett, G L; Chase, C C

    2005-01-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), thyroglobulin (TG), and micromolar calcium-activated neutral protease (CAPN1) genes with carcass composition and meat quality traits in Bos indicus cattle. A population of Brahman calves (n = 479) was developed in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Traits analyzed were ADG, hip height, slaughter weight, fat thickness, HCW, marbling score, LM area, estimated KPH fat, yield grade, retail yield, sensory panel tenderness score, carcass hump height, and cooked meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d postmortem. Single nucleotide polymorphisms previously reported in the TG and DGAT1 genes were used as markers on chromosome 14. Two previously reported and two new SNP in the CAPN1 gene were used as markers on chromosome 29. One SNP in CAPN1 was uninformative, and another one was associated with tenderness score (P Brahman population than in reported allele frequencies in Bos taurus populations. The results suggest that the use of molecular marker information developed in Bos taurus populations to Bos indicus populations may require development of appropriate additional markers. PMID:15583037

  16. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphism marker density on degree of genetic variance explained and genomic evaluation for carcass traits in Japanese Black beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Shinichiro; Matsuda, Hirokazu; Taniguchi, Yukio; Watanabe, Toshio; Nishimura, Shota; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Iwaisaki, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    [Background]Japanese Black cattle are a beef breed whose meat is well known to excel in meat quality, especially in marbling, and whose effective population size is relatively low in Japan. Unlike dairy cattle, the accuracy of genomic evaluation (GE) for carcass traits in beef cattle, including this breed, has been poorly studied. For carcass weight and marbling score in the breed, as well as the extent of whole genome linkage disequilibrium (LD), the effects of equally-spaced single nucleoti...

  17. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphism marker density on degree of genetic variance explained and genomic evaluation for carcass traits in Japanese Black beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Shinichiro; Matsuda, Hirokazu; Taniguchi, Yukio; Watanabe, Toshio; Nishimura, Shota; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Iwaisaki, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Background Japanese Black cattle are a beef breed whose meat is well known to excel in meat quality, especially in marbling, and whose effective population size is relatively low in Japan. Unlike dairy cattle, the accuracy of genomic evaluation (GE) for carcass traits in beef cattle, including this breed, has been poorly studied. For carcass weight and marbling score in the breed, as well as the extent of whole genome linkage disequilibrium (LD), the effects of equally-spaced single nucleotid...

  18. A promoter polymorphism of MSTN g.-371T>A and its associations with carcass traits in Korean cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang-Hyun; Cho, In-Cheol; Ko, Moon-Suck; Kim, Eun-Young; Park, Se-Pill; Lee, Sung-Soo; Oh, Hong-Shik

    2012-04-01

    A promoter polymorphism of bovine Myostatin (MSTN) gene g.-371T>A was screened in Holstein and two Korean indigenous cattle breeds, Hanwoo and Jeju Black cattle (JBC). The MSTN g.-371T>A polymorphism was found in all three cattle breeds tested. An allele MSTN g.-371A was the most frequent in the JBC breed among breeds tested. The association of MSTN genotypes for carcass traits was also tested in the Hanwoo population. Significant differences were found between the genotypes and level of meat quality grade index which converted the marbling score levels (P meat color index (P > 0.05). Despite the lack of statistical association, wild type g.-371T/-showed association patterns similar to those of A/A homozygotes, such as heavier weights, thinner backfat, larger eye muscle area, and lower marbling score. The results of the present study suggest that MSTN promoter polymorphism g.-371T>A may affect carcass traits, which could be a useful molecular marker for planning improvements in the economic traits of Korean cattle breeds. PMID:21743995

  19. Association of polymorphisms in the leptin and thyroglobulin genes with meat quality and carcass traits in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Dutra de Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the polymorphisms E2FB (AY138588.1: c.305C> T, located in the leptin gene (LEP, and TG5 (X05380.1:g.-422C>T, located in the thyroglobulin gene (TG, and evaluate the association of these polymorphisms in crossbred cattle of seven distinct genetic groups with the following traits: slaughter weight (SW, hot carcass weight (HCW, hot carcass yield (HCY, carcass fat thickness (CFT, ribeye area (REA, marbling (MARM and shear force (SF. The animals were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP (Polymorphism Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism technique, using 201 products obtained from F1 Caracu × Nellore, Angus × Nellore and Valdostana × Nellore cows, mated to Canchim, Caracu and Red Angus bulls (only Caracu × Nellore cows were used with Red Angus bulls. The allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared using the Chi-squared test. Associations between the genotype of each polymorphism and the traits were analyzed using the General Linear Model (GLM of statistical software SAS. The least squares means of genotypes of the polymorphisms were compared using Student's t test. The E2FB polymorphism in the LEP gene was associated with CFT, showing the potential for use in national programs for genetic improvement of beef cattle, through the inclusion of SNP in genotyping commercial tests. The TG5 polymorphism in the TG gene was not associated with any of the evaluated traits and was considered ineffective for selection of beef cattle in Brazilian herds.

  20. Correlation Analysis on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of CAPN1 Gene and Meat Quality and Carcass Traits in Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zeng-rong; ZHU Qing; LIU Yi-ping

    2007-01-01

    The selection of meat quality has received considerable focus in chicken breeding. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of CAPN1 gene on meat quality traits in chicken populations. Primer pairs for 3'UTR in CAPN1 were designed from database of chicken genomic sequence. Polymorphisms were detected using PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing. A mutation at position 9 950 nt (G/A, locus A) was found among individuals in each population. The allele and genotype frequencies significantly differed among eight lines with higher frequencies of allele A2 and genotype A1A2 (P<0.01). The least square analysis showed that there was significant difference (P<0.05) in muscle fiber density and some carcass traits among genotypes and that the breast muscle fiber density (BFD) of birds of A1A1 genotype was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of birds of A2A2 genotype. It was concluded that the CAPN1 gene was the major gene affecting the muscle fiber traits of chicken or was linked with the major gene. These results were useful for studying the molecular mechanism that influences meat traits and were used as the base of molecular-assisted selection to meat quality traits. So, this site may be a potential marker affecting the muscle traits of chickens.

  1. The effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Ali Rajabiyan Moghaddam; Yahya Ebrahimnezhad; Abdol - Ahad Shaddel Teli

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens. A total of 200 broilers (Ross 308), 10 days old, were randomly allotted to five experimental equal groups with four replicates of 10 chickens (five male and five female) and fed with basal diet + ground wheat (without grit); basal diet + whole wheat (without grit) and basal diet contain 1.5% grit of diet with sizes of 2, 3 and 4 mm. Grow...

  2. Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Live Measurement Traits in Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-hu; XIONG Yuan-zhu; ZUO Bo; LEI Ming-gang; LI Feng-e; LI Jia-lian

    2007-01-01

    Live measurement growth traits are very important economic traits in pig production and breeding. In this research,quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected for 11 live estimated growth and carcass traits, including birth weight (BWT),average daily gain over testing periods (ADG3), live backfat thickness at last 3-4th lumbar (LBFT3), live loin eye area (LLEA), and so on, in 214 pig resource family population, including 180 F2 individual, by 39 microsatellite marker loci on SSC4, SSC6, SSC7, SSC8, and SSC13. The results indicated that 4 chromosome significant level QTL and one suggestive QTL were detected for ADG3 (at position of 50 cM on SSC8), LBFT3 (at position of 147 cM on SSC4), LLEA (one highly significant at position of 48 cM on SSC7; another significant at position of 125 cM on SSC8) and BWT (suggestive significant at position of 0 cM, at marker sw489 on SSC4). The phenotypic variance of these QTL accounted for 0.95% to 16.91%. Most of them were mentioned in previous reports; except the QTL of LLEA at position of sw1953 on SSC8 which maybe a new QTL.

  3. Effects of crossbreeding and gender on the carcass traits and meat quality of korean native black pig and duroc crossbred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlisin; Panjono; Lee, Sung-Jin; Lee, Jeong Koo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to observe the effects of crossbreeding and gender on the carcass traits and meat quality of Korean Native Black Pig (KNP) and KNP×Duroc crossbred (KNP×D). A total of 50 pigs comprising seven KNP barrows, eight KNP gilts, twenty KNP×D barrows and fifteen KNP×D gilts were used in this study. Animals were reared in the same housing condition with same feed diet for six months prior to slaughter. After an overnight chilling, the carcasses were graded, and samples of Musculus longissimus dorsi were obtained for meat quality analysis. The slaughter and carcass weights and dressing percentage of KNP×D were higher (pquality grade between KNP and KNP×D as well as barrow and gilt. Fat content of KNP×D was higher (pmeat of KNP×D were lower (pmeat of barrow were lower (pmeat fat but decreases meat color values and preference. Crossbreeding of KNP with Duroc produces a better fat deposition in meat of barrows than in gilts. PMID:25050045

  4. Estimation of Genetic Gain on Growth and Carcass Traits over Direct and Index Selection for Growth and Feed Efficiency of Japanese Black Cattle by computer simulation(Animal Production Science Animal Breeding and Genetics)

    OpenAIRE

    HOQUE,Md. Azharul / SUZUKI,Keiichi / OIKAWA,Takuro

    2007-01-01

    A simulation study was performed for performance traits on 740 bulls and carcass traits on 1,774 progeny in Japanese Black cattle to compare the efficiency of direct and index selection. Performance traits included average daily gain (ADG), final body weight (BWF), metabolic body weight (MWT), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI). Progeny traits were carcass weight (CWT), rib eye area (REA), rib thickness (RBT), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), marblin...

  5. Growth performance and carcass traits in pigs selected for indirect genetic effects on growth rate in two environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlink, I; Bolhuis, J E; Duijvesteijn, N; van Arendonk, J A M; Bijma, P

    2014-06-01

    Production traits such as growth rate may depend on the social interactions between group members. These social interactions may be partly heritable and are referred to as indirect genetic effects (IGE) or social, associative, or competitive genetic effects. Indirect genetic effects may contribute to heritable variation in traits and can therefore be used to increase the response to selection. This, however, has hardly been tested by selection experiments. Our objective was to determine the effects of 1 generation of selection on IGE for growth (IGEg) in pigs on ADG, BW, ADFI, feed efficiency, and postmortem measurements. Sires (n = 24) and dams (n = 64) were selected to create a high vs. low contrast for IGEg in the offspring (n = 480). The IGE difference was 2.8 g ADG per pen mate, corresponding to 14 g higher ADG in high IGEg offspring compared to low IGEg offspring when housed in groups of 6 (i.e., (6 - 1) × 2.8 = 14). Male (barrows) and female (gilts) offspring were housed in groups of 6 of the same IGEg classification, in either barren concrete pens or pens enriched with straw and wood shavings (n = 80 pens). Pigs were followed from birth to slaughter. Data were analyzed in a mixed model with pen as random factor. There was no difference in ADG between high and low IGEg pigs during the finishing period (wk 10 to 23). Opposite to expectations, high IGEg tended to have a 17 g lower ADG from weaning to slaughter (P = 0.08), which was caused by a higher BW of low IGEg pigs in wk 5 (P = 0.008). This led to a 2.3 kg lower carcass weight (P = 0.02) and 2.2 mm less muscle depth for high IGEg pigs (P = 0.03). High IGEg pigs had a higher stomach wall damage score (P = 0.01). Pigs on straw had a 25 g lower ADG during finishing (P = 0.03) and less stomach wall damage (P pigs. The unexpected results regarding IGEg may be due to several reasons. Despite initial power calculations showing good power, the IGEg contrast between groups may have been too small. Moreover

  6. Ultrasonic measurements in live goats. Prediction of weight of carcass joints

    OpenAIRE

    Delfa, R.; González, C.; Teixeira, A.; Vijil, E.

    1996-01-01

    The accuracy of the use of nine ultrasonic measurements of lumbar fat thickness. nine measurements of longissimus dorsi depth. four measurements of sterna! fat thickness. for predicting the weight of carcass joints were assessed in 27 adult Blanca Celtiberica goats ranging in stemal body condition score from 1.5 to 4.5. Comparison between the ultrasonic measurements assessed in live goats with the same measurements taken on carcass were established and the best relationships ...

  7. Three indel variants in chicken LPIN1 exon 6/flanking region are associated with performance and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R; Wang, T; Lu, W; Zhang, W; Chen, W; Kang, X; Huang, Y

    2015-01-01

    LPIN1 is a Mg(2+)-dependent phosphatidic acid phosphatase. Variation in chicken LPIN1 exon 6 and its flanking regions were identified and three indel variants in 6 breeds and their associations with performance traits were studied. Seven variants were detected from 6 breeds, which contained a synonymous tri-allelic variant (c.924A/T/C) and three indels. The exon 6 variants detected from chicken breeds were conserved among bird species. The indel variation frequency presented clear differences among breeds. Two coding indels (c.1014-1018del3 and c.1125-1138del12) were multiples of three nucleotides and maintained the open reading frames of LPIN1 proteins. However, they were predicted to result in the clear change of the RNA secondary structure of chicken LPIN1 exon 6 and LPIN1 protein conformation. The association analysis showed that c.871-15-22del6 variation had a significant effect on body weight at hatch (BW0) and 2 weeks (BW2); c. 1014-1018del3 variation had a significant effect on BW4, BW6, caecum length and gizzard weight (GW) traits; c.1125-1138del12 variation had a significant effect on BW12, shank length at 4 weeks (SL4), carcass weight, lactate dehydrogenase traits (LDH), glucose (GLU) and albumin (ALB) traits. The genotype combination for c.1014-1018del3 and c.1125-1138del12 also presented significant effects on SL4, SL8, GW, leg muscle weight, ALB, GLU and LDH. The study demonstrated that chicken LPIN1 has an important effect on body, carcass and organ weight, serum LDH, GLU and ALB level. PMID:26523976

  8. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Brito Lopes

    Full Text Available This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs. Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA, back-fat thickness (BF, and rump fat thickness (RF, registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3 (P < 0.001. Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1 were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs. Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection.

  9. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  10. Probiotic level effects on growth performance, carcass traits, blood parameters, cecal microbiota, and immune response of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourakbari, Mohammadreza; Seidavi, Alireza; Asadpour, Leila; Martínez, Andrés

    2016-05-31

    Probiotic effects on growth performance, carcass traits, blood parameters, cecal microbiota, and immune response of broilers were studied. Two hundred one-day-old male chickens were allocated to one of five treatments (four replicates of 10 birds per treatment): control, and the same control diet supplemented with 0.005%, 0.01%, 0.015% and 0.02% probiotics. Probiotics in feed at 0.01% or higher levels of supplementation improved body weight gain (+12%) and feed conversion rate (-5%) compared with the control. There were no effects on carcass traits, but the relative weights of drumsticks and wings showed increasing and decreasing linear responses, respectively, to probiotic supplementation level. Blood plasma glucose and albumin contents linearly increased (from 167.1 to 200.5 mg dl-1, and from 1.70 to 3.25 g dl-1) with increasing probiotic supplementation. Triglycerides and cholesterol contents were lower in probiotic supplemented treatments (average contents 71.3 and 125.3 mg dl-1 vs. 92.6 and 149.9 mg dl-1 in the control). Probiotics decreased cecal Escherichia coli counts, but had no effects on immunity related organs or immune response. The linear trends, either positive or negative, observed in many of the parameters studied, suggest that more studies are needed to establish the optimal concentration of probiotics in broiler feed. PMID:27254451

  11. Effects of Dietary Zinc Oxide and a Blend of Organic Acids on Broiler Live Performance, Carcass Traits, and Serum Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BG Sarvari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different dietary supplementation levels of zinc oxide and of an organic acid blend on broiler performance, carcass traits, and serum parameters. A total of 2400 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks, with average initial body weight 44.21±0.19g, was distributed according to a completely randomized design in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. Six treatments, consisting of diets containing two zinc oxide levels (0 and 0.01% of the diet and three organic acid blend levels (0, 0.15, and 0.30% were applied, with eight replicates of 50 birds each. The experimental diets were supplied ad libitum for 42 days. There were significant performance differences among birds fed the different zinc oxide and organic acid blend levels until 42 d of age (p<0.01. The result of this experiment showed that the organic acid blend did not affect feed intake, but zinc oxide increased feed intake. Carcass traits were not influenced by the experimental supplements. Zinc oxide supplementation increased serum alkaline phosphatase level (p<0.01. The organic acid blend reduced serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels (p<0.05. No interactions were found between zinc oxide and the organic acid blend for none of the evaluated parameters. We concluded that zinc oxide and the evaluated organic acid blend improve broiler performance.

  12. Effect of propolis alcoholic extract on the weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseli Alves Ferreira Zanato

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of different rates of propolis alcoholic extract (PAE on the weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH of growing rabbits. Forty White New Zealand rabbits were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of four treatments and ten replicates per treatment. The rabbits were allocated individually in wire cages containing a nipple drinker and a semi-automatic feeder. The treatments were: T1 = control, T2 = 1ml of ethanol, T3 = 0.8ml of PAE, and T4 = 1.5ml of PAE. Commercial feed and water were provided ad libitum to the animals, and the treatment with cereal alcohol and PAE was administered orally using a 2ml syringe. It was concluded that the addition of PAE to the rabbits’ feeding resulted in weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH similar to those of animals which received the diets with ethanol without any addition, except for the paw weight, that was higher in the rabbits which were given PAE, and for the gastric system, that had a higher weight in the rabbits which received no addition to their diet.

  13. Identification of SNPs and Their Effects on Swine Growth and Carcass Traits for Porcine IGFBP-3 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU De-wu; ZHANG Hao; WU Zhen-fang; LI Jia-qi; YANG Guan-fu; ZHANG Xi-quan

    2008-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) was known as a key factor that regulates the effect of insulinlike growth factors (IGF-1 and IGF-2) on pig growth and development. We first identified 38 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a fragment of the IGFBP-3 gene spanning 1 823 bp using the denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) method and confirmed them by direct sequencing. Among these SNPs, 36 located in introns and the remaining 2 in the 3 prime untranslated region (3UTR). In addition, 16 PCR-RFLP polymorphisms were identified within these SNPs. Three SNPs were then selected to genotype 272 F2 individuals with PCR-RFLP method and the association of polymorphism with growth and carcass traits were analyzed. The results showed that no significant associations were observed between polymorphisms of A265G and A952G and traits. However, the A2670G significantly related with live body length, loin muscle area, and skin and fat percentage (P<0.05); highly significantly associated with weight of carcass lean and lean percentage (P<0.01).

  14. Genetic variation and prediction of additive and nonadditive genetic effects for six carcass traits in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Wakeman, D L

    1998-07-01

    Estimates of covariances and sire expected progeny differences of additive and nonadditive genetic effects for six carcass traits were obtained using records from 486 straightbred and crossbred steers from 121 sires born between 1989 and 1995 in the Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of the University of Florida. Steers were slaughtered at a similar carcass composition end point. Covariances were estimated by REML procedures, using a generalized expectation-maximization algorithm applied to multibreed populations. Straightbred and crossbred estimates of heritabilities and additive genetic correlations were within ranges found in the literature for steers slaughtered on an age- or weight-constant basis for hot carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, and shear force but equal to or less than the lower bound of these ranges for fat-related traits. Maximum values of interactibilities (i.e., ratios of nonadditive variances to phenotypic variances in the F1) and nonadditive genetic correlations were smaller than heritabilities and additive genetic correlations in straightbreds and crossbred groups. Sire additive and total direct genetic predictions for longissimus muscle area, marbling, and shear force tended to decrease with the fraction of Brahman alleles, whereas those for hot carcass weight and fat thickness over the longissimus were higher, and those for kidney fat were lower in straightbreds and F1 than in other crossbred groups. Nonadditive genetic predictions were similar across sire groups of all Angus and Brahman fractions. These results suggest that slaughtering steers on a similar carcass composition basis reduces variability of fat-related traits while retaining variability for non-fat-related traits comparable to slaughtering steers on a similar age or weight basis. Selection for carcass traits within desirable (narrow) ranges and slaughter of steers at similar compositional end point seems to be a good combination to help produce meat products of consistent

  15. Carcass and cut yields and meat qualitative traits of broilers fed diets containing probiotics and prebiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERL Pelicano

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of different probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics on the quality of carcasses and meat of broiler chickens. One hundred and eight day-old Cobb male broilers were used (n=108 in a completely randomized design according to a 3x3 factorial, with 3 probiotics in the diet (no probiotics, probiotics 1, probiotics 2 and 3 prebiotics in the diet (no prebiotics, prebiotics 1, prebiotics 2. There were nine treatments with 4 replicates and 3 birds per replicate. The results showed that the carcass and cut yields, color (L* - lightness, a* - redness, and b* - yellowness, pH, cooking losses, shearing force and sensory analysis were not affected by the use of different growth promoters at 42 days of age. It was concluded that growth promoters supplemented to the diet did not affect the studied quantitative and qualitative parameters of the carcass and breast meat of broiler chickens.

  16. Carcass and meat quality traits of chickens fed diets concurrently supplemented with vitamins C and E under constant heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Pelícia, V C; Fascina, V B; Aoyagi, M M; Coutinho, L L; Sartori, J R; Moura, A S A M T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a diet supplemented simultaneously with vitamins C and E would alleviate the negative effects of heat stress, applied between 28 and 42 days of age, on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were assigned to a completely randomized design, with a 2×3 factorial arrangement (diet with or without vitamin supplementation and two ambient temperatures plus a pair-feeding group) and 16 replicates. Chickens were kept in thermoneutral conditions up to 28 days of age. They were then housed in groups of four per cage, in three environmentally controlled chambers: two thermoneutral (22.5 and 22.6°C) and one for heat stress (32°C). Half the chickens were fed a diet supplemented with vitamins C (257 to 288 mg/kg) and E (93 to 109 mg/kg). In the thermoneutral chambers, half of the chickens were pair-fed to heat stressed chickens, receiving each day the average feed intake recorded in the heat stress chamber in the previous day. Meat physical quality analyses were performed on the pectoralis major muscle. No ambient temperature×diet supplementation interaction effects were detected on performance, carcass, or meat quality traits. The supplemented diet resulted in lower growth performance, attributed either to a carry-over effect of the lower initial BW, or to a possible catabolic effect of vitamins C and E when supplemented simultaneously at high levels. Heat stress reduced slaughter and carcass weights, average daily gain and feed intake, and increased feed conversion. Growth performance of pair-fed chickens was similar to that of heat stressed chickens. Exposure to heat stress increased carcass and abdominal fat percentages, but reduced breast, liver and heart percentages. Pair-fed chickens showed the lowest fat percentage and their breast percentage was similar to controls. Heat stress increased meat pH and negatively affected meat color and cooking loss. In pair

  17. Evaluation of carcass traits and meat characteristics of Guzerat-crossbred bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Frederico B; Villela, Severino D J; Mourthé, Mário H F; Paulino, Pedro V R; Boari, Cleube A; Ribeiro, Julimar S; Barroso, Jorge A; Pires, Aldrin V; Martins, Paulo G M A

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to evaluate carcass and meat characteristics of Guzerat-crossbred bulls finished in feedlot. Carcasses from 18 bulls, randomly selected from a larger group of 36 bulls, consisting of F1 Guzerat×Holstein ("Guzholstein"); F1 Guzerat×Nellore ("Guzonell"); and 1/2 Simmental+1/4 Guzerat+1/4 Nellore (Three-Cross; n=6 each group) were used. Cold carcass weight was greater (P=0.01) for Three-Cross compared with "Guzonell" and "Guzholstein". Three-Cross carcasses had greater (P0.05) among groups, but depth was greater (P<0.01) for Three-Cross compared with other groups. "Guzholtein" had lesser (P=0.05) shear force compared with "Guzonell", with Three-Cross being intermediate. We conclude that "Guzholstein" is an adequate option for producers willing to finish this kind of genetic group, as it is comparable or better than Bos indicus crosses and B. indicus×Bos taurus bulls. PMID:26546913

  18. Effects of breed of sire on carcass composition and sensory traits of lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted to compare the meat quality and carcass composition of a diverse sampling of sheep breeds. Finnsheep, Romanov, Dorper, White Dorper, Katahdin, Rambouillet, Suffolk, Texel, Dorset, and Composite rams were mated to mature Composite ewes. Lambs (n = 804) were reared inte...

  19. Relationship of polymorphisms within metabolic genes and carcass traits in crossbred beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feed intake has been shown to alter neurological signaling related to feeding behavior and subsequent activation of adipogenic mechanisms. Fat characteristics are pivotal for carcass and meat quality, including marbling score, flavor, and tenderness. The objective of this study was to establish the...

  20. Accuracy of pedigree and genomic predictions of carcass and novel meat quality traits in multi-breed sheep data assessed by cross-validation

    OpenAIRE

    Daetwyler Hans D; Swan Andrew A; van der Werf Julius HJ; Hayes Ben J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Genomic predictions can be applied early in life without impacting selection candidates. This is especially useful for meat quality traits in sheep. Carcass and novel meat quality traits were predicted in a multi-breed sheep population that included Merino, Border Leicester, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk sheep and their crosses. Methods Prediction of breeding values by best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) based on pedigree information was compared to prediction based o...

  1. Evaluation of response to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 vaccination and timing of weaning on yearling ultrasound body composition, performance, and carcass quality traits in Angus calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are concerns about antagonisms between immunity and animal productivity in livestock production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibody levels through a response to vaccination protocol, weaning timing, and their interaction on performance and carcass quality traits...

  2. Carcass traits and cutting yields of entire and immunocastrated pigs fed increasing protein levels with and without ractopamine hydrochloride supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, T; Hoffman, L C

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of increasing balanced protein, with and without ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC), in the finisher diets of immunocastrates on their carcass cutting yields and respective muscle, fat, and bone proportions. Carcass traits and yields of 120 individually housed entire male pigs and immunocastrates were evaluated following a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design. Vaccination occurred at 16 and 20 wk of age and slaughtering at 24 wk. Up until 20 wk of age, all pigs received a commercial grower diet. Low-, medium-, and high-protein (7.50, 9.79, and 12.07 g standardized ileal digestible [SID] lysine/kg, respectively) diets were then fed for the last 28 d with RAC supplemented at 0 or 10 mg/kg. Immunocastration and RAC supplementation increased ( = 0.003 and = 0.017, respectively) the live weight at slaughter. The interaction between sex and protein ( = 0.039) for caliper backfat depths showed greater backfat depths in immunocastrates fed medium protein whereas RAC decreased ( = 0.027) the caliper backfat depth. Feeding RAC increased the trotters ( = 0.040), tenderloins (fillets; < 0.001), shoulder ( = 0.002), hindquarter ( = 0.026), loin ( = 0.028), and belly ( = 0.044) percentages. The shoulder ( < 0.001), hindquarter ( < 0.001), and loin ( = 0.005) muscle percentages were increased and the hindquarter fat percentages were decreased ( = 0.032) with RAC supplementation. Immunocastration increased the belly cut ( = 0.006), loin fat ( < 0.001), and belly fat ( < 0.001) percentages. Therefore, carcass cutting and lean yields can be improved by RAC supplementation while decreasing the backfat depth, and the increase in backfat due to immunocastration could be avoided with the correct dietary protein level. PMID:26440353

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study for Certain Carcass Traits and Organ Weights in a Large White×Minzhu Intercross Porcine Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; WANG Li-gang; LIANG Jing; YAN Hua; ZHAO Ke-bin; LI Na; ZHANG Long-chao; WANG Li-xian

    2014-01-01

    Porcine carcass traits and organ weights have important economic roles in the swine industry. A total of 576 animals from a Large White×Minzhu intercross population were genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60K Beadchip and were phenotyped for 10 traits, speciifcally, backfat thickness (6-7 libs), carcass length, carcass weight, foot weight, head weight, heart weight, leaf fat weight, liver weight, lung weight and slaughter body weight. The genome-wide association study (GWAS) was assessed by Genome Wide Rapid Association using the mixed model and regression-genomic control approach. A total of 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (with the most signiifcant SNP being MARC0033464, P value=6.80×10-13) were located in a 9.76-Mb (31.24-41.00 Mb) region on SSC7 and were found to be signiifcantly associated with one or more carcass traits and organ weights. High percentage of phenotypic variance explanation was observed for each trait ranging from 31.21 to 67.42%. Linkage analysis revealed one haplotype block of 495 kb, in which the most signiifcant SNP being MARC0033464 was contained, on SSC7 at complete linkage disequilibrium. Annotation of the pig reference genome suggested 6 genes (GRM4, HMGA1, NUDT3, RPS10, SPDEF and PACSIN1) in this candidate linkage disequilibrium (LD) interval. Functional analysis indicated that the HMGA1 gene presents the prime biological candidate for carcass traits and organ weights in pig, with potential application in breeding programs.

  4. Purebred-crossbred performance and genetic evaluation of postweaning growth and carcass traits in Bos indicus x Bos taurus crosses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S; Reverter, A; Johnston, D J

    2002-07-01

    Growth and carcass data on 7,154 cattle from a purebred project and 1,241 cattle from a crossbred project, comprising 916 first-crosses and 325 purebred Brahman controls, were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters, including the genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performance (rpc). The data also allowed the estimation of sire breed means for various growth and carcass traits. Crossbred calves were produced using 9 Angus, 8 Hereford, 7 Shorthorn, 14 Belmont Red, and 8 Santa Gertrudis sires bred to Brahman dams. These same sires produced 1,568 progeny in a separate purebreeding project. Cattle in both projects were managed under two finishing regimens (pasture and feedlot) to representative market live weights of 400 (domestic), 520 (Korean), and 600 kg (Japanese). The traits studied included live weight at around 400 d of age (400W), hot carcass weight (CWT), retail beef yield percentage (RBY), intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat depth (P8), and preslaughter ultrasound scanned eye muscle area (SEMA). Estimated breeding values (EBV) of sires from their BREEDPLAN genetic evaluations were used to assess their value in predicting crossbred performance. Regressions of actual crossbred calf performance on sire EBV for each of the traits differed little from their expectation of 0.5. Angus sires produced crossbred carcasses with the highest P8 and lowest RBY but highest IMF. In contrast, crossbred progeny from Belmont Red sires had the lightest 400W and CWT, lowest P8, and highest RBY. Estimates of rpc were 0.48, 0.48, 0.83, 0.95, 1.00, and 0.78 for 400W, CWT, RBY, IMF, P8, and SEMA, respectively. Commercial breeders selecting sires for crossbreeding programs with Brahman females, based on EBV computed from purebred data, might encounter some reranking of sire's performance for weight-related traits, with little expected change in carcass traits. PMID:12162647

  5. Influence of a rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid mixture on carcass traits and meat quality in young Simmental heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, G; Ringseis, R; Shibani, M; Most, E; Schuster, M; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of feeding rumen-protected CLA during the early growing period on physical and chemical beef properties in young Simmental heifers. A total of 36 heifers (5 mo old; initial BW 185 ± 21 kg) were fed 250 g of different rumen-protected fats daily for 16 wk in 1 of 3 treatment groups: 250 g of a CLA-free control fat; 100 g of a CLA fat containing 2.4% of cis-9,trans-11 CLA and 2.1% of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and 150 g control fat; or 250 g of the CLA fat. Heifer growth performance variables as well as carcass weight, classification (conformation and fatness), and weights of organs and fat depots were not affected (P > 0.05) by CLA supplementation. Concentration of trans-10,cis-12 CLA in tissues (LM and subcutaneous fat) was dose-dependently increased (P 0.05) between groups. The ratio of SFA to MUFA was increased (P 0.05) between groups. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that feeding rumen-protected CLA during the early growing period changes tissue fatty acid composition but does not influence beef quality variables. Performance variables and carcass traits in young heifers, unlike in pigs and laboratory animals, are not influenced by CLA feeding. PMID:22573839

  6. Nutritive value of three tropical forage legumes and their influence on growth performance, carcass traits and organ weights of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambashi, Bienvenu; Kalala, Gaetan; Dochain, Denis; Mafwila, Jacques; Rollin, Xavier; Boudry, Christelle; Picron, Pascale; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    The effects of tropical forage legumes on feed intake, growth performance and carcass traits were investigated in 16 groups of two Large White × Duroc pigs. The diets consisted of a commercial corn-soybean meal diet as the basal diet and three forage-supplemented diets. Four groups of control pigs received daily 4 % of body weight of the basal diet, and 12 groups of experimental pigs were fed the basal diet at 3.2 % of body weight completed with fresh leaves of one of the three forage legumes (Psophocarpus scandens, Stylosanthes guianensis and Vigna unguiculata) ad libitum. The study lasted 90 days. The in vitro digestion and fermentation of the forage legumes were also determined. The in vitro digestible energy content of the legumes was between 0.72 and 0.77 that of the basal diet (14.4 MJ/kg dry matter (DM)). V . unguiculata was the most digestible forage legume expected for crude protein digestibility. Feeding forage legumes lowered the dry matter intake by 4.5 to 9.6 % (P < 0.05), final body weight (P = 0.013), slaughter weight, average daily gain and hot carcass weight (P < 0.05) without affecting the feed conversion ratio (FCR), dressing percentage and back fat thickness. In conclusion, using forage to feed pig could be interesting in pig smallholder production with limited access to concentrate, as FCR was not significantly affected. PMID:27154216

  7. The effect of sex and age at slaughter on some carcass and meat quality traits of Boer kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaić Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated some carcass and meat quality traits of Boer kids (17 male and 17 female at two different average slaughter ages (83 and 139 days. Jointed cuts of half carcasses arranged from the greatest to the smallest were: hind leg (28.5%, rib and flank (21.2%, shoulder (19.3%, back (8.5%, loin (7.9%, neck (7.6% and chuck (3.4%. Male kids had significantly higher percentage of the neck cuts (p≤0.001 while females had significantly higher percentage of rib and flank cuts (p≤0.05. At higher slaughter ages neck (p≤0.05 and chuck (p≤0.001 percentages significantly decreased and rib and flank (p≤0.001 percentage significantly increased. On average, hind leg had 72.2 % of muscle, 8.6 % of fat and 18.8 % of bone. Female kids had higher muscle and lower bone hind leg content than males (p≤0.01. Hind leg bone content significantly decreased at higher slaughter age (p≤0.01. Meat from male kids displayed significantly higher cie L*(p≤0.001 and b*(p≤0.05 values than females. At higher slaughter age L* values significantly decreased (p≤0.01 while a* and b* values significantly increased (p≤0.001; p≤0.01.

  8. Comparison of two- and three-way rotational crossing, beef x beef and beef x Brown Swiss composite breed production: postweaning growth and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urick, J J; Pahnish, O F; Knapp, B W; Reynolds, W L; Milmine, W L

    1989-10-01

    Data collected from steer and bull progeny, fed to a constant final feedlot weight over 11 yr, were used to estimate heterosis in post-weaning feedlot growth and carcass traits in two-way and three-way rotational crossing systems and a breed composite from crossing Hereford, Angus and Charolais breeds. Steer and bull progeny from matings of beef x Brown Swiss-cross sires and dams also were compared with the straight beef breeds and beef crosses. Growth traits evaluated were initial weight on test, 112-d weight, total feedlot average daily gain and total days from initial to final weight. Carcass traits included hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib eye area, 12th-rib fat thickness, kidney, pelvic and heart fat, yield grade and marbling score. Heterosis estimates for calves of all crossing systems were significant for initial and 112-d weight and for saving of days in the feedlot, but not for average daily feedlot gain. Heterosis estimates were small and nonsignificant for most carcass traits except for fat traits in specific crosses. Males from Hereford and Angus sires mated to Angus x Hereford dams had higher (P less than .10) backfat than did the parental average. Male progeny from Charolais ranked higher (P less than .10 to P less than .01) than calves from Hereford and Angus sires for most growth traits. Progeny from Charolais sires were more desirable (P less than .10 to P less than .01) for traits related to cutability, but they had less (P less than .05 to P less than .01) marbling than calves of Angus sires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2808166

  9. Detection of quantitative trait loci for growth and beef carcass fatness traits in a cross between Bos taurus (Angus) and Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J J; Farnir, F; Savell, J; Taylor, J F

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth and beef carcass fatness traits in an experimental population of Angus and Brahman crossbreds. The three-generation mapping population was generated with 602 progeny from 29 reciprocal backcross and three F2 full-sib families, and 417 genetic markers were used to produce a sex-averaged map of the 29 autosomes spanning 2,642.5 Kosambi cM. Alternative interval-mapping approaches were applied under line-cross (LC) and random infinite alleles (RA) models to detect QTL segregating between and within breeds. A total of 35 QTL (five with genomewide significant and 30 with suggestive evidence for linkage) were found on 19 chromosomes. One QTL affecting yearling weight was found with genomewide significant evidence for linkage in the interstitial region of bovine autosome (BTA) 1, and an additional 19 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the LC model. Many of these QTL had a dominant (complete or overdominant) mode of gene action, and only a few of the QTL were primarily additive, which reflects the fact that heterosis for growth is known to be appreciable in crosses among Brahman and British breeds. Four QTL affecting growth were detected with genomewide significant evidence for linkage under the RA model on BTA 2 and BTA 6 for birth weight, BTA 5 for yearling weight, and BTA 23 for hot carcass weight. An additional 11 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the RA model. None of the QTL (except for yearling weight on BTA 5) detected under the RA model were found by the LC analyses, suggesting the segregation of alternate alleles within one or both of the parental breeds. Our results reveal the utility of implementing both the LC and RA models to detect dominant QTL and also QTL with similar allele frequency distributions within parental breeds. PMID:12926775

  10. Selection for carcass quality in hill sheep measured by X-ray computer tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Karamichou, E.; Merrell, B. G.; Murray, W. A.; Simm, G.; Bishop, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the use of computer tomography (CT) to genetically improve carcass composition and conformation in Scottish Blackface sheep. After 5 years of selection on an index designed to improve both composition and conformation (the 'CT index'), a large response was observed in the CT index, with genetic progress equivalent to 0.11 phenotypic standard deviations per year Heritabilities for the index and for the component traits of average CT-assessed muscle area...

  11. Immune-spaying as an alternative to surgical spaying in Iberian×Duroc females: effect on carcass traits and meat quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero-Negrón, Rafael; Sánchez del Pulgar, José; Ventanas, Jesús; García, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of immune-spaying on production traits and meat quality characteristics of fresh loin (longissimus dorsi) by comparing 3 groups of Iberian×Duroc females (N=12 per batch): surgically spayed, immune-spayed and entire females. Carcass traits and physicochemical parameters, including fatty acid profile, were investigated. The only carcass trait significantly affected by castration was the ham fat thickness, where both immune-spayed and surgically spayed females showed higher values against entire females (57±9.5mm, 62±2.5mm and 51±10.1mm, respectively; pspaying might represent a good alternative to surgical spaying. The reliability of immune-spaying over long periods should be evaluated. PMID:25443969

  12. Supplemental vitamin D3 and zilpaterol hydrochloride. I. Effect on performance, carcass traits, tenderness, and vitamin D metabolites of feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, K T; Lemenager, R P; Claeys, M C; Engstrom, M; Schoonmaker, J P

    2013-07-01

    Angus × Simmental steers (n = 210; initial BW 314 ± 11 kg) were separated into heavy and light BW blocks and allotted evenly by BW to 6 treatments (3 heavy and 2 light pens per treatment) to determine the effect of supplemental vitamin D3: 0 IU (no D), 250,000 IU for 165 d (long-term D), or 5 × 10(6) IU for 10 d (short-term D) on performance, carcass traits, vitamin D metabolites, and meat tenderness in steers fed either 0 (NZ) or 8.38 mg/kg zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) daily for 21 d. Placebo or ZH was added to the diet 24 d, and short-term D was added 13 d before slaughter. Vitamin D3, ZH, and placebo were all removed from the diet 3 d before slaughter. Steers fed ZH tended to have improved overall G:F compared with steers not fed ZH (P Carcass traits were not impacted by long-term D without ZH (P > 0.13), but long-term D with ZH decreased percentage KPH (P carcass traits when ZH was fed (P carcass leanness and decreased tenderness, and vitamin D feeding increased vitamin D3 metabolites in LM, but did not improve tenderness in steers fed ZH. PMID:23798522

  13. Estimation of breed and heterosis effects for growth and carcass traits in cattle using published crossbreeding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J L; Aguilar, I; Rekaya, R; Bertrand, J K

    2010-02-01

    Current genetic evaluations are performed separately for each breed. Multiple breed genetic evaluations, however, assume a common base among breeds, enabling producers to compare cattle of different breed makeup. Breed and heterosis effects are needed in a multibreed evaluation because databases maintained by breed associations include few crossbred animals, which may not be enough to accurately estimate these effects. The objective of this study was to infer breed effects, maternal effects, direct heterosis effects, and maternal heterosis effects for growth and carcass traits using least squares means estimates from crossbreeding studies published in the literature from 1976 to 1996. The data set was formed by recording each least squares mean along with the breed composition, maternal breed composition, and direct and maternal heterozygosity. Each trait was analyzed using a single trait fixed effect model, which included study as a fixed effect and breed composition and heterozygosity as covariates. Breed solutions for each trait were expressed relative to the Angus breed. Direct breed effects for weaning weight ranged from -7.0 +/- 0.67 kg (British Dairy) to 29.3 +/- 0.74 kg (Simmental), and maternal effects ranged from -11.7 +/- 0.24 kg (Hereford) to 31.1 +/- 2.22 kg (Gelbvieh). Direct breed effects for birth weight ranged from -0.5 +/- 0.14 kg (British Dairy) to 10.1 +/- 0.46 kg (Continental Beef), and maternal effects ranged from -7.2 +/- 0.13 kg (Brahman) to 6.0 +/- 1.07 kg (Continental Beef). Direct breed effects ranged from -17.9 +/- 1.64 kg (Brahman) to 21.6 +/- 1.95 kg (Charolais), from -6.5 +/- 1.29 kg (Brahman) to 55.8 +/- 1.47 kg (Continental Beef), from -8.1 +/- 0.48 cm(2) (Shorthorn) to 21.0 +/- 0.48 cm(2) (Continental Beef), and from -1.1 +/- 0.02 cm (Continental Beef) to 0 +/- 0.00 cm (Angus) for postweaning BW gain, carcass weight, LM area, and fat thickness, respectively. The use of literature estimates to predict direct and maternal breed and

  14. Analysis of a slow-growing line reveals wide genetic variability of carcass and meat quality-related traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabault Marie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Slow-growing lines are widely used in France for the production of high quality free-range chickens. While such production is mainly dedicated to the whole carcass market, new prospects are opening up for the development of cuts and processed products. Whether the body composition and meat quality of slow-growing birds can be improved by selection has thus become an important issue. The genetic parameters of growth, body composition and breast meat quality traits were evaluated in relation to behaviour at slaughter in a large pedigree population including 1022 male and female slow-growing birds. Results The heritability coefficients (h2 of body weight and body composition traits varied from 0.3 to 0.5. Abdominal fat percentage was genetically positively correlated with body weight but negatively correlated with breast muscle yield. The characteristics of the breast meat (i.e., post-mortem fall in pH, colour, drip loss, shear-force and lipid content were all heritable, with h2 estimates ranging from 0.18 to 0.48. The rate and extent of the fall in pH were under different genetic control. Strong negative genetic correlations were found between the ultimate pH and the lightness, yellowness and drip loss of the meat. Wing flapping on the shackle line was significantly heritable and exhibited marked genetic correlations with the pH at 15 min post-slaughter and the redness of the meat. The genetic relationships between meat quality traits, body weight and body composition appeared slightly different between males and females. Conclusion This study suggested that there are a number of important criteria for selection on carcass and breast meat quality in slow-growing birds. Selection for reduced abdominal fatness and increased breast muscle yield should be effective as both traits were found to be highly heritable and favourably correlated. Substantial improvement in meat quality could be achieved by selection on ultimate pH which

  15. Estimation of Genetic Parameters, and Genetic and Environmental Effects on Progeny Carcass Traits of a Nucleus Breeding Population in Japanese Black Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    SAKATA, Ken; Hoque, Azharul; Hirai, Tomokazu; TSUKAGUCHI, Daisuke; TOMARU, Mayuko; Suzuki, Keiichi; Oikawa, Takuro

    2004-01-01

    Genetic parameters of body weight at the start of fattening (BSF), carcass weight (CWT), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), rib thickness (RBT), meat quality grade (MQG), beef marbling score (BMS) and rib eye area (REA) in Japanese Black cattle were estimated. The effects of genetic and environmental factors on fattening performance and carcass quality traits of the progeny were also analyzed. The averages of BSF, CWT, SFT, RBT and REA were 189 kg, 408 kg, 24.9 mm, 69.3 mm and 47.5 cm^2, respe...

  16. ESTIMATION OF GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR CARCASS TRAITS FOR SIMMENTAL CATTLE IN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Špehar; Špela Malovrh; Vesna Bulić; Ivkić, Z.; Milena Kovač

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper was an estimation of genetic parameters for carcass weight, conformation, fatness class and net gain for Simmental cattle in Croatia. Data of young bulls slaughtered in years 2005 and 2006 with 12 to 24 months of age was taken from the central database of the Croatian Livestock Centre. Three data sets were constructed as follows: 1) data set 1 (DS1) included 80462 records of bulls with known and unknown parents; 2) data set 2 (DS2) had 26245 records of bulls wi...

  17. Growth and carcass traits of young bulls sired by Charolais and Limousin

    OpenAIRE

    Silvester Žgur; Marko Čepon; Mojca Simčič

    2010-01-01

    A brown cattle is dual purpose cattle in Slovenia mainly used for milk production. This study included 90 crossbred young bulls of two genotypes, 70 Brown x Limousin (BRxLIM) and 20 Brown x Charolais (BRxCHA). The aim of this study was to determine some growth and carcass characteristics of crossbred young bulls. Data were analysed by GLM procedure considering sire breed and year nested within sire breed as fixed effects and slaughter age as linear regression. Sire breed statistically signifi...

  18. Carcass and cut yields and meat qualitative traits of broilers fed diets containing probiotics and prebiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Pelicano ERL; Souza PA; HBA Souza; A Oba; MM Boiago; NMBL Zeola; AM Scatolini; VA Bertanha; Lima TMA de

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of different probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics on the quality of carcasses and meat of broiler chickens. One hundred and eight day-old Cobb male broilers were used (n=108) in a completely randomized design according to a 3x3 factorial, with 3 probiotics in the diet (no probiotics, probiotics 1, probiotics 2) and 3 prebiotics in the diet (no prebiotics, prebiotics 1, prebiotics 2). There were nine treatments with 4 replicates and 3 birds per replicate. The resu...

  19. Candidate SNPs for carcass and meat traits in Nelore animals and in their crosses with Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the genes IGF1 (AF_017143.1:g.198C>T, MSTN (AF_320998.1:g.433C>A, MYOD1 (NC_007313:g.1274A>G and MYF5 (NC_007303:g.1911A>G on carcass and meat traits in Nelore (Bos indicus and Nelore x B. taurus. A total of 300 animals were genotyped and phenotyped for rib eye area (REA, backfat thickness (BT, intramuscular fat (IF, shear force (SF and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI. The effects of allele substitution for each SNP were estimated by regression of the evaluated phenotypes on the number of copies of a particular allele using the general linear model. The polymorphism at IGF1 was non-informative in Nelore animals. In crossbred animals, the IGF1 C allele was associated with greater REA. However, this relation was not significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. The A allele of the MSTN polymorphism was absent in Nelore cattle and was only found in two crossbred animals. The polymorphisms of MYOD1 and MYF5 were little informative in Nelore animals with G allele frequency of 0.097 and A allele frequency of 0.031, respectively. These markers show no association with the analyzed traits in the total sample of evaluated animals.

  20. Postweaning growth and carcass traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Wagyu maternal grandsires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for postweaning growth and carcass composition traits in terminal crossbred cattle. Postweaning growth and carcass traits were analyzed on 434 steers and 373 heifers obtained by mating F1 cows to Charolais sires. Maternal grandsires represented Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British Breeds), Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, or Friesian breeds. Breed groups were slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr (2002 and 2003). Postweaning ADG, slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, percentage Choice, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, retail product yield (percentage), retail product weight, fat yield (percentage), fat weight, bone yield (percentage), and bone weight were analyzed. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits except dressing percentage, percentage Choice, and LM area. Marbling score for animals with Norwegian Red, Wagyu, Swedish Red and White, British Breeds, and Friesian inheritance was 550, 544, 532, 530, and 515, respectively (SEM = 8). Retail product weight for these animals was 224, 211, 227, 223, and 223 kg, respectively (SEM = 2 kg). Maternal granddam breed was not significant for any of the traits analyzed. Grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems. PMID:16424257

  1. Use of macaúba cake replacing corn on carcass characteristics and body measurements of Santa Inês lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelina Pereira da Fonseca

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment evaluated the effect of adding macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata cake replacing corn on body measurements and carcass characteristics of Santa Inês lambs. Twenty four 5-month-old uncastrated male lambs were tested using a randomized blocks design. Lambs were distributed into four experimental groups, receiving diets with 0, 100, 200 and 300 g/kg of macaúba cake. After 60 days in feedlot, measurements of body length, thoracic perimeter, height at the anterior and rump height were taken. The lambs were slaughtered, skinned and eviscerated. Carcass were weighed hot and chilled at 2 ºC during 24 h. Cooling losses, hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, hot carcass yield, cold carcass yield, half carcass weight, fat thickness, final weight, slaughter weight, empty body weight, thorax depth, croup width, perimeter of the croup, carcass length, internal carcass length, hindlimb length, hindlimb width and hindlimb conformation score were evaluated. Only hindlimb width was inversely correlated to adding macaúba cake in the diet. Macaúba cake can be included in diets for lamb in feedlot up to 300 g/kg without affecting body measurements in vivo or carcass characteristics.

  2. THE EFFECT OF PRODUCTION SYSTEM AND WEANING ON LAMB CARCASS TRAITS AND MEAT CHARACTERISTICS OF AUTOCHTHONOUS JEZERSKO-SOLČAVA BREED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cividini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two Jezersko-Solčava lambs were used in a 2X2 factorial design to evaluate the effect of production system (fattening in stable with hay and cereals ad libitum or on the pasture and weaning (suckling or weaned lambs on carcass and meat traits of lambs. Suckling lambs were slaughtered at 125 days of age (30 kg of live weight and weaned lambs were slaughtered at 165 days (38 kg of live weight. No significant differences in daily gain and dressing percentage compared to the production system or weaning were observed. Lambs from pasture had greater percentage of liver, heart and spleen. They had longer and wider carcasses and lower carcass fatness as indicated by lower percentage of kidney fat (1.16 vs. 1.99 and lower percentage of fat in leg than lambs from stable. They also had higher percentage of shoulder and leg and lower percentage of back, loin and rib with flank. Production system also affected meat color. Lambs from pasture had higher CIE L, a and b values of Longissimus dorsi muscle. Mostly, weaning influenced carcass fatness and related traits. Suckling lambs had lower fatness score (4.94 vs. 6.25, lower percentage of kidney fat and fat in leg (8.66 vs. 10.31 and lower percentage of rib with flank than weaned lambs. Meat from suckling lambs was also of lighter colour. There was no significant interaction between production system and weaning on studied carcass or meat traits.

  3. Accuracy of pedigree and genomic predictions of carcass and novel meat quality traits in multi-breed sheep data assessed by cross-validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daetwyler Hans D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic predictions can be applied early in life without impacting selection candidates. This is especially useful for meat quality traits in sheep. Carcass and novel meat quality traits were predicted in a multi-breed sheep population that included Merino, Border Leicester, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk sheep and their crosses. Methods Prediction of breeding values by best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP based on pedigree information was compared to prediction based on genomic BLUP (GBLUP and a Bayesian prediction method (BayesR. Cross-validation of predictions across sire families was used to evaluate the accuracy of predictions based on the correlation of predicted and observed values and the regression of observed on predicted values was used to evaluate bias of methods. Accuracies and regression coefficients were calculated using either phenotypes or adjusted phenotypes as observed variables. Results and conclusions Genomic methods increased the accuracy of predicted breeding values to on average 0.2 across traits (range 0.07 to 0.31, compared to an average accuracy of 0.09 for pedigree-based BLUP. However, for some traits with smaller reference population size, there was no increase in accuracy or it was small. No clear differences in accuracy were observed between GBLUP and BayesR. The regression of phenotypes on breeding values was close to 1 for all methods, indicating little bias, except for GBLUP and adjusted phenotypes (regression = 0.78. Accuracies calculated with adjusted (for fixed effects phenotypes were less variable than accuracies based on unadjusted phenotypes, indicating that fixed effects influence the latter. Increasing the reference population size increased accuracy, indicating that adding more records will be beneficial. For the Merino, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk breeds, accuracies were greater than for the Border Leicester breed due to the smaller sample size and limited across

  4. Imprinting analysis of porcine MAGEL2 gene in two fetal stages and association analysis with carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling; Qiao, Mu; Wang, Chao; Zheng, Rong; Xiong, Yuan-Zhu; Deng, Chang-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Imprinted genes play an essential role in the regulation of fetal growth, development and function of the placenta, however only a limited number of imprinted genes have been studied in swine. In this study, we cloned and characterized porcine MAGEL2 (melanoma antigen-like gene 2), and also identified its imprinting status during porcine fetal development. The complete open reading frame (ORF) encoding 1,193 amino acids was isolated and two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (g.2592A>C and g.3277T>C) in the coding region were identified. The reciprocal Yorkshire×Meishan F1 hybrid model and the RT-PCR/RFLP method were used to detect the imprinting status of porcine MAGEL2 gene at two developmental stages of day 30 and 65 of gestation. Imprinting analysis showed that porcine MAGEL2 was paternally expressed in day 65 fetal tissues, including heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, small intestine, skeletal muscle, brain and placenta. Interestingly, we observed an imprinting variance of MAGEL2 gene in 30 dpc fetuses produced by the cross of Yorkshire boar×Meishan sow, in which seven heterozygous fetuses were monoallelically expressed from the paternal allele but two were biallelically expressed from both the paternal and maternal alleles. Association analysis in a Yorkshire×Meishan F2 resource population showed that the mutation of g.2592A>C was significantly associated with dressed carcass percentage (P<0.05) and buttock fat thickness (P<0.05). Our results suggest that MAGEL2, as a novel imprinted gene in pig, might be a candidate gene affecting carcass traits and could provide important information for the functional study of imprinted genes during porcine development. PMID:21633897

  5. Factors influencing the priority of access to food and their effects on the carcass traits for Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanishi, N; Oishi, K; Kumagai, H; Uemura, M; Hirooka, H

    2015-12-01

    The factors influencing the priority of access to food and the effects of the priority of access to food on their carcass traits were analyzed for Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle in a semi-intensive fattening production system. The records of 96 clinically healthy steers and heifers were analyzed. The calves at ∼3 to 4 months of age were allocated to pens with four animals per pen; all four animals in the same pen were of the same sex and of similar body size. The ranking of the animals' priority of access to food (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th), which was determined by the farm manager, was used as an indicator of social dominance in the present study. Four models including sire line, maternal grandsire line and the difference in the animals' birth dates as fixed effects were used to analyze factors influencing the priority of access to food. Ranking was represented by ordinal scores (highest=4, lowest=1) in Model 1, and the binary scores were assigned in Model 2 (highest=1; 2nd, 3rd and 4th=0), Model 3 (1st and 2nd=1; 3rd and 4th=0) and Model 4 (1st, 2nd and 3rd=1; lowest=0). The results showed that the difference in the animals' birth dates had a significant effect on the establishment of the priority of access to food in Model 3 (Peffect of the priority of access to food on beef marbling score (BMS; P<0.05), and the priority of access to food also tended to influence the carcass weight (P=0.09). The highest BMS was observed for animals with the first rank of the priority of access to food (P<0.05), and the higher-ranking animals had the tendency to be heavier carcass than the lower-ranking animals. Our findings emphasized the importance of information about the priority of access to food determined by farmers' own observation on implementing best management practices in small-scaled semi-intensive beef cattle production systems. PMID:26577644

  6. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  7. Evaluation of Simmental carcass EPD estimated using live and carcass data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, D H; Pollak, E J; Quaas, R L

    2004-03-01

    This study was conducted to compare carcass EPD predicted using yearling live animal data and/or progeny carcass data, and to quantify the association between the carcass phenotype of progeny and the sire EPD. The live data model (L) included scan weight, ultrasound fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and percentage of intramuscular fat from yearling (369 d of age) Simmental bulls and heifers. The carcass data model (C) included hot carcass weight, fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and marbling score from Simmental-sired steers and cull heifers (453 d of age). The combined data model (F) included live animal and carcass data as separate but correlated traits. All data and pedigree information on 39,566 animals were obtained from the American Simmental Association, and all EPD were predicted using animal model procedures. The genetic model included fixed effects of contemporary group and a linear covariate for age at measurement, and a random animal genetic effect. The EPD from L had smaller variance and range than those from either C or F. Further, EPD from F had highest average accuracy. Correlations indicated that evaluations from C and F were most similar, and L would significantly (P carcass data. Progeny (n = 824) with carcass data collected subsequent to evaluation were used to quantify the association between progeny phenotype and sire EPD using a model including contemporary group, and linear regressions for age at slaughter and the appropriate sire EPD. The regression coefficient was generally improved for sire EPD from L when genetic regression was used to scale EPD to the appropriate carcass trait basis. The EPD from C and F had similar linear associations with progeny phenotype, although EPD from F may be considered optimal because of increased accuracy. These data suggest that carcass EPD based on a combination of live and carcass data predict differences in progeny phenotype at or near theoretical expectation. PMID:15032422

  8. Effects of dietary protein/energy ratio on growth performance, carcass trait, meat quality, and plasma metabolites in pigs of different genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yingying; Kong, Xiangfeng; Jiang, Guoli; Tan, Bi’e; Deng, Jinping; Yang, Xiaojian; Li, Fengna; Xiong, Xia; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    Background The protein/energy ratio is important for the production performance and utilization of available feed resources by animals. Increased protein consumption by mammals leads to elevated feed costs and increased nitrogen release into the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary protein/energy ratio on the growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and plasma metabolites of pigs of different genotypes. Methods Bama mini-pigs and Landrace pigs were randoml...

  9. Fatty acid profile, meat quality, and carcass traits of Nellore young bulls fed different sources of forage in high-concentrate diets with crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Ferreira Ribeiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of forages with different nutritional values - specifically, corn silage (CS, sugar cane (SC, and sugar cane bagasse (SB - in diets with crude glycerin, on carcass traits, meat quality, and fatty acid profile, using young Nellore bulls finished in the feedlot. Thirty young Nellore bulls with an initial average body weight of 416.70±24.74 kg were randomly assigned to three treatments containing different sources of forage. The carcass traits and variables related to meat quality of the Nellore young bulls were not significantly influenced by different sources of forage in diets with crude glycerin. The yellow color index was significantly greater in the fat of animals fed corn silage. Heptadecenoic fatty acid was significantly lower in the meat of animals fed sugar cane bagasse. The sources of forage in diets with crude glycerin did not influence the profile of saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fatty acids in the longissimus muscle. Overall, our results indicate that none of the treatments changed the carcass and meat quality traits of Nellore young bulls finished in the feedlot. Thus, sugar cane and sugar cane bagasse could be used in feedlot as a viable forage alternative to corn silage.

  10. The effect of substituting Nigella Sativa Meal as a source of protein in the rations of local rabbits on their productive performance and carcass traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen local male rabbits (6-8 weeks old were allocated into three nutritional groups. The first group fed standard ration, 5 and 10% of the Nigella Sativa Meal (NSM were added to the concentrated rations of the 2nd and 3rd groups replacing 36 and 72% of the soybean meal (SBM protein respectively. The feeding period lasted for eight weeks. Feed consumption and body weight gain were recorded weekly. At the end of feeding period, all rabbits were slaughtered and carcass traits were studied. No significant differences were found in total body weight gain and feed conversion rate (475, 502, 478 gm and (4.8, 4.8, 4.9 kg ration/1 kg wt. gain. Feed cost per 1 kg body gain declined 16% in the 3rd group, which cost 2294 ID, compared with the 1st group (2717 and the 2nd group (2561 ID. No significant differences in all carcass traits were found. Substituting 72% of SBM protein by NSM protein in rabbit ration showed no negative effects on all productive parameters and carcass traits.

  11. Carcass and meat traits of lambs fed by-products from the processing of oil seeds - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i4.20403

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Correa Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of adding by-products from the processing of oil seeds in the diet of lambs on the carcass and meat traits. Twenty-four non-castrated weaned male Santa Inês lambs with approximately 70 days of age and initial average weight of 19.11 ± 2.12 kg were distributed into a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of diets containing by-products with 70% of concentrate and 30% of tifton hay (Cynodon spp. and were termed SM: control with soybean meal; SC: formulated with soybean cake; SUC: formulated with sunflower cake and PC: formulated with peanut cake. Diets had no effects on the carcass traits evaluated. There was no significant effect on the mean values of perirenal, omental and mesenteric fats (0.267, 0.552 and 0.470 kg, respectively and there was no influence on the percentages of moisture, ether extract, crude protein or ash in the loin between experimental diets. Diets containing by-products from the processing of oil seeds did not change fatty acids found in lamb meat. The use of by-products from oil seeds provided similar carcass and meat traits, thus their use can be recommended as eventual protein and energy sources for feedlot lambs.  

  12. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Fat Deposition and Carcass Traits in Broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerehdaran, S.; Vereijken, A.L.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Waaij, van der E.H.

    2004-01-01

    Abdominal and subcutaneous fat are regarded as the main sources of waste in the slaughterhouse. Fat stored intramuscularly is regarded a favorite trait related to meat quality. The objective of current study was to estimate genetic parameters for fat deposition in the 3 different parts of body and t

  13. Assessing the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the thyroglobulin gene with carcass traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; White, S N; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including a previously reported marker in current industry use, with marbling score in beef cattle. Three populations, designated GPE6, GPE7, and GPE8, were studied. The GPE6 population sampled breeds that could be used as alternative germplasm sources in beef cattle production, including Wagyu, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Norwegian Red. The GPE7 population sampled 7 popular beef cattle breeds used in temperate climates of the United States: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The GPE8 population sampled Bos indicus-influenced breeds used in subtropical regions of the country and subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Brangus, and Romosinuano. Evaluation of 6 SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including 5 newly described variations, showed no association (P > 0.10) with marbling score in these populations, except a tendency (P carcass trait for this marker in the 3 populations. Furthermore, none of the 5 newly described markers in the gene displayed an association with marbling score. The data indicate that markers at the thyroglobulin gene may be a useful predictor of marbling performance for producers raising Wagyu-based cattle. Although associations with marbling score in the remaining populations were not large or significant, the TT genotype had the numerically greatest marbling score in each population. PMID:17686891

  14. Association of PPARγ2 polymorphisms with carcass and meat quality traits in a Pietrain x Jinhua F2 population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The PPARγ2 gene is a key regulator of both proliferation and preadipocyte differentiation in mammals. Herein its genotype and allele frequencies were analyzed using PCR-SSCP in eight pig breeds (N = 416. Two kinds of polymorphisms of the PPARγ2 gene were detected, including a previously reported shift SNP A177G (Met59Val in exon 1 and a novel silent mutation G876A in exon 5. The results revealed that European pig breeds carry a higher allele A frequency at the A177G locus and a fixed GG genotype at the G876A locus. Allele A at the G876A locus was only found in Jinhua pigs. The association between haplotype (A177G/G876A and carcass and meat quality traits was analyzed in a Pietrain x Jinhua F2 population (N = 248. The PPARγ2 gene was found to be significantly associated with backfat thickness at the shoulder (p < 0.05, 6-7th ribs (p < 0.01, last rib (p < 0.01, gluteus medius (p <0.05 and ham weight (p < 0.01. Significant effects of different haplotypes on ham weight and backfat thickness at the 6-7th ribs, last rib, and gluteus medius were also observed.

  15. RESEARCHES ON THE PHENOTYPIC CORRELATION BETWEEN DIFFERENT MEASUREMENTS ON THE CARCASS OF RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA MARCELA TOBĂ (GOINA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to get more experimental data on newmethodologies for rabbit meat production evaluation. The trial was carried out on30 rabbits. The rabbits were weaned at 35 days, having an average live weight of499.11+25.98 g. Rabbits were all slaughtered on the same day, that was on the 84th day of living (at this time the average live weight was 1701.7+34.07, andsome linear measurements (body length, loin width, chest width, carcass lengthchest dept and hind leg length were performed on cold carcasses. The rabbitshave been kept in wire fattening cages: 6 rabbits / cage.

  16. Multiple trait model combining random regressions for daily feed intake with single measured performance traits of growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzi Niklaus

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A random regression model for daily feed intake and a conventional multiple trait animal model for the four traits average daily gain on test (ADG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, carcass lean content and meat quality index were combined to analyse data from 1 449 castrated male Large White pigs performance tested in two French central testing stations in 1997. Group housed pigs fed ad libitum with electronic feed dispensers were tested from 35 to 100 kg live body weight. A quadratic polynomial in days on test was used as a regression function for weekly means of daily feed intake and to escribe its residual variance. The same fixed (batch and random (additive genetic, pen and individual permanent environmental effects were used for regression coefficients of feed intake and single measured traits. Variance components were estimated by means of a Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling. Four Gibbs chains were run for 550 000 rounds each, from which 50 000 rounds were discarded from the burn-in period. Estimates of posterior means of covariance matrices were calculated from the remaining two million samples. Low heritabilities of linear and quadratic regression coefficients and their unfavourable genetic correlations with other performance traits reveal that altering the shape of the feed intake curve by direct or indirect selection is difficult.

  17. Sire carcass breeding values affect body composition in lambs--2. Effects on fat and bone weight and their distribution within the carcass as measured by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, F; Williams, A; Pannier, L; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the effect of paternal Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post weaning c-site eye muscle depth (PEMD) and fat depth (PFAT), and post weaning weight (PWWT) on the composition of lamb carcasses. Composition was measured using computed tomography scans of 1665 lambs which were progeny of 85 Maternal, 115 Merino and 155 Terminal sires. Reducing sire PFAT decreased carcass fat weight by 4.8% and increased carcass bone by 1.3% per unit of PFAT (range 5.1 mm). Increasing sire PEMD reduced carcass fat weight by 3.8% in Maternal and 2% in Terminal sired lambs per unit of PEMD (range 4.3 and 7.8 mm), with no impact on bone. Increasing sire PWWT reduced carcass fat weight, but only at some experimental locations. Differences in composition varied between sire types with Maternal sired lambs having the most fat and Merino sired lambs the greatest bone weight. Genetic effects on fatness were greater than the environmental or production factor effects, with the converse true of bone. PMID:26914513

  18. Investigation the effects using different levels of Mentha pulegium L. (pennyroyal) in comparison with an antibiotic growth promoter on performance, carcass traits and immune responses in broiler chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gholamreza Ghalamkari; Majid Toghyani; Nasir Landy; Ehsan Tavalaeian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The trial involved 240 Ross 308 broiler chicks in order to investigate the effects of Mentha pulegium L. (pennyroyal) on performance, carcass traits and immune responses in broiler chickens. Methods: Birds were assigned to 4 treatments: control feed, antibiotic group receiving 4.5 mg/kg flavophospholipol, and 5 and 10 g/kg pennyroyal powder added to the basal diet. Body weights of broilers were determined at d 1, 14, 28 and 42, feed intake was determined at the same periods, and feed conversion ratio was calculated accordingly. At day 42, two birds per replicate were slaughtered for the determination of carcass traits. Antibody titers against newcastle, influenza viruses and sheep red blood cell (SRBC) were determined. Results: Performance, Internal organ weights and carcass characteristics were not significantly influenced by the dietary treatments at day 42. Humoral immune responses were not affected by dietary treatments.Conclusions:In conclusion, the results of this study showed that addition of pennyroyal powder seem not to have a positive influence on growth performance of broiler chicks.

  19. Effect of pre- and post-weaning dietary supplementation with Digestarom® herbal formulation on rabbit carcass traits and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celia, C; Cullere, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Matics, Zs; Tasoniero, G; Dal Bosco, A; Giaccone, V; Szendrő, Zs; Dalle Zotte, A

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated effects of Digestarom® (D) dietary inclusion before weaning (0-5weeks old; BW) and/or after weaning (5-12weeks old; AW) on growing rabbit carcass traits and meat quality. During BW, Pannon-Ka rabbits (does, kits) received two diets: a control diet (C) and one supplemented with 300mg Digestarom®/kg (D). At weaning, each group was divided into 3 dietary sub-groups: CC and DD received C and D diets from 5 to 12weeks of age, whereas DC was fed D from 5 to 8weeks and C from 8 to 12weeks of age (54 rabbits/group; AW). Rabbits were slaughtered at 12weeks of age. Digestarom® supplementation improved carcass yield and body mid part proportion only when administered BW. Rabbits fed D BW had higher hind leg meat cooking losses. Loin meat spiciness and rancidity increased with D both BW and AW. In conclusion, Digestarom(®) herbal formulation was ineffective in improving growing rabbit carcass traits or meat quality. PMID:27062101

  20. Fattening performance, carcass traits and meat quality characteristics of calves sired by Charolais, Simmental and Eastern Anatolian Red sires mated to Eastern Anatolian Red dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozlütürk, Abdülkadir; Tüzemen, Naci; Yanar, Mete; Esenbuga, Nurinisa; Dursun, Ensar

    2004-07-01

    Comparisons were made among calves sired by Charolais (C), Simmental (S) and Eastern Anatolian Red (EAR) breeds of bulls for fattening, carcass and meat quality traits when mated to EAR dams. C- and S-sired calves had 43.1% and 36.4% higher daily weight gain, 44.5% and 43.9% heavier final weight in fattening, respectively. Calves produced by C sires had best feed efficiency value (6.51 vs. 7.44 and 7.22) compared to the S and EAR sire breed groups. Carcasses of C- and S-sired calves had heavier weight, higher dressing percentage and greater Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle area than those of EAR-sired calves. USDA yield grades were lower (Pmeat quality characteristics might be considerably improved by using C sires in the crossbreeding program as sire breed. PMID:22061521

  1. Effects of prenatal androgenization, melengestrol acetate, and Synovex-H on feedlot performance, carcass, and sensory traits of once-calved heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiling, B A; Berger, L L; Faulkner, D B; McKeith, F K; Nash, T G; Ireland, F A

    1996-09-01

    Three studies were designed using a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments within each experiment to evaluate the effects of various management techniques on growth and carcass traits of once-calved heifers. In Exp. 1, 33 yearling (16 control [C] and 17 prenatally androgenized [PA]) and 39 once-calved (20 C and 19 PA) nonpregnant heifers were used to evaluate the effects of age and PA. Once-calved heifers were approximately 31 kg heavier (P carcasses (P = .27) were similar. However, on the basis of newly accepted grading changes, percentage of once-calved heifer carcasses grading choice decreased from 57.3 to 34.4%. Organoleptic properties did not differ. Experiments 2 and 3 were then conducted to evaluate effects of commercially available products (melengestrol acetate [MGA] and Synovex-H) on feedlot characteristics of heifers following weaning of their first calf. In Exp. 2, 48 once-calved Simmental-based heifers were fed during the summer to a constant compositional fat thickness of .8 cm. Experiment 3 was conducted in the late fall and early winter, during which 52 moderately sized heifers were fed for 116 d postweaning and slaughtered. Performance of heifers in Exp. 2 was not affected by MGA. However, heifers fed MGA in Exp. 3 gained 9% faster (P carcass traits were not affected by either treatment. Nonpregnant, once-calved heifers seem to have a large capacity for efficient weight gain as compared with yearling heifers. However, hormonal compounds, such as testosterone propionate provided pre- or postnatally (Synovex-H), and MGA do not appear to provide the consistent, positive responses often seen with younger, more typical feedlot heifers. PMID:8880404

  2. Genotype by environment interaction for carcass traits and intramuscular fat content in heavy Iberian pigs fattened in two different free-range systems

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    Juan M. García Casco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Genotype by environment interaction (G×E is a potential source of reduced efficiency in genetic improvement programs in livestock. The objective of the current work consisted of checking the existence of G×E interaction in carcass traits and in intramuscular fat content (IMF in Iberian pigs fattened in two free-range systems. Genetic component and estimated breeding values (EBV of the percentage of hams, shoulders and loins and IMF in loin were obtained from records of 4,348 and 1,818 pigs fattened in campo (C and montanera (M systems, respectively. A multitrait model where the performances of each system are considered as different traits was implemented. Three selection indexes were built with different treatments about the quality trait, two of them based in the optimal trait theory. The Pearson correlation between EBV and indexes and the Spearman correlation between the rankings of progenies of 21 boars fattened in both systems were calculated. Heritability results were different in both systems (h2 range from 0.43 to 0.66 and from 0.24 to 0.33 in C and M system, respectively and genetic correlation of same traits expressed in the two systems also pointed out to a weak G×E interaction (0.64, 0.67 and 0.66 in hams, shoulders and IMF, respectively. Pearson and Spearman correlations were always significantly different to 1. The obtained results advised to consider this G×E interaction in the analysis model of a breeding program focused on free range production system and to include IMF in the index selection assuming an optimum range for this quality trait, in order to avoid negative effects of selection for carcass performances.

  3. Temperament and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function are related and combine to affect growth, efficiency, carcass, and meat quality traits in Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafe, L M; Robinson, D L; Ferguson, D M; Geesink, G H; Greenwood, P L

    2011-05-01

    Associations between temperament, stress physiology, and productivity were studied in yearling Brahman steers (n = 81). Steers differed in calpain system gene marker status; 41 were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant at feedlot entry. Temperament was assessed with repeated measurements of flight speed (FS) and crush score (CS) during 6 mo of backgrounding at pasture and 117 d of grain finishing. Adrenal responsiveness was assessed with ACTH challenge, with plasma samples collected immediately before and 60 min after challenge. Steers with higher FS and CS had higher prechallenge plasma cortisol, glucose, lactate, and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. The ACTH-induced cortisol response was unrelated to FS or CS, but glucose remained higher after challenge in flightier steers. The hormonal growth promotant reduced adrenal responsiveness; tenderness genotype had no effect. When temperament assessments and cortisol concentrations before and after challenge were combined in a principal components analysis, four vectors accounting for 38%, 25%, 18%, and 9% of the variation were identified. The first vector had significant loadings on temperament and prechallenge cortisol; increasing scores were associated with increased plasma glucose, lactate, and nonesterified fatty acid and with reductions in BW and feedlot growth rates, carcass fatness, and muscle pH. The second vector loaded only on ACTH-induced cortisol response; increased scores related to increased residual feed intake, number of daily feed sessions, and meat marbling score. The third and fourth vectors had different loadings on FS and CS and appeared to identify different aspects of temperament measured by FS or CS. Fewer associations were found between the third or fourth vectors and productivity traits, possibly because of lower variance accounted for by these vectors. In conclusion, temperament was related to prechallenge cortisol but not to ACTH-induced cortisol response. Principal components

  4. Carcass traits and meat quality of crossbred Boer goats fed peanut cake as a substitute for soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T M; de Medeiros, A N; Oliveira, R L; Gonzaga Neto, S; Queiroga, R de C R do E; Ribeiro, R D X; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diets of crossbred Boer goats as determined by carcass characteristics and quality and by the fatty acid profile of meat. Forty vaccinated and dewormed crossbred Boer goats were used. Goats had an average age of 5 mo and an average BW of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. Goats were fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate consisting of corn bran, soybean meal, and mineral premix. Peanut cake was substituted for soybean meal at levels of 0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%. Biometric and carcass morphometric measurements of crossbred Boer goats were not affected by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. There was no influence of the replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake on weight at slaughter ( = 0.28), HCW ( = 0.26), cold carcass weight ( = 0.23), noncarcass components of weight ( = 0.71), or muscularity index values ( = 0.11). However, regression equations indicated that there would be a reduction of 18 and 11% for loin eye area and muscle:bone ratio, respectively, between the treatment without peanut cake and the treatment with total soybean meal replacement. The weights and yields of the commercial cuts were not affected ( > 0.05) by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. Replacing soybean meal with peanut cake did not affect the pH ( = 0.79), color index ( > 0.05), and chemical composition ( > 0.05) of the meat (). However, a quadratic trend for the ash content was observed with peanut cake inclusion in the diet ( = 0.09). Peanut cake inclusion in the diet did not affect the concentrations of the sum of SFA ( = 0.29), the sum of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; = 0.29), or the sum of PUFA ( = 0.97) or the SFA:UFA ratio ( = 0.23) in goat meat. However, there was a linear decrease ( = 0.01) in the sum of odd-chain fatty acids in the meat with increasing peanut cake in the diet. Soybean meal replacement with peanut cake did not affect the n-6:n-3 ratio ( = 0.13) or the

  5. Effects of age, weight, and fat slaughter end points on estimates of breed and retained heterosis effects for carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Utrera, A; Cundiff, L V; Gregory, K E; Koch, R M; Dikeman, M E; Koohmaraie, M; Van Vleck, L D

    2006-01-01

    The influence of different levels of adjusted fat thickness (AFT) and HCW slaughter end points (covariates) on estimates of breed and retained heterosis effects was studied for 14 carcass traits from serially slaughtered purebred and composite steers from the US Meat Animal Research Center (MARC). Contrasts among breed solutions were estimated at 0.7, 1.1, and 1.5 cm of AFT, and at 295.1, 340.5, and 385.9 kg of HCW. For constant slaughter age, contrasts were adjusted to the overall mean (432.5 d). Breed effects for Red Poll, Hereford, Limousin, Braunvieh, Pinzgauer, Gelbvieh, Simmental, Charolais, MARC I, MARC II, and MARC III were estimated as deviations from Angus. In addition, purebreds were pooled into 3 groups based on lean-to-fat ratio, and then differences were estimated among groups. Retention of combined individual and maternal heterosis was estimated for each composite. Mean retained heterosis for the 3 composites also was estimated. Breed rankings and expression of heterosis varied within and among end points. For example, Charolais had greater (P or = 0.05) at a constant age. The MARC III composite produced 9.7 kg more (P < 0.01) fat than Angus at AFT of 0.7 cm, but 7.9 kg less (P < 0.05) at AFT of 1.5 cm. For MARC III, the estimate of retained heterosis for HCW was significant (P < 0.05) at the lowest level of AFT, but at the intermediate and greatest levels estimates were nil. The pattern was the same for MARC I and MARC III for LM area. Adjustment for age resulted in near zero estimates of retained heterosis for AFT, and similarly, adjustment for HCW resulted in nil estimates of retained heterosis for LM area. For actual retail product as a percentage of HCW, the estimate of retained heterosis for MARC III was negative (-1.27%; P < 0.05) at 0.7 cm but was significantly positive (2.55%; P < 0.05) at 1.5 cm of AFT. Furthermore, for MARC III, estimates of heterosis for some traits (fat as a percentage of HCW as another example) also doubled in magnitude

  6. Características de carcaça de caprinos de cinco grupos raciais criados em confinamento Carcass traits of characteristics of kid goats from five breed groups raised in a feedlot system

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    Helen Fernanda Barros Gomes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do grupo racial e da condição sexual nas características da carcaça de caprinos jovens criados em confinamento. Foram utilizados 91 animais, 52 machos e 39 fêmeas, pertencentes a cinco grupos raciais: Alpino, ½Boer + ½Alpino, ½Anglo Nubiano + ½Alpino, ¾Boer + ¼Alpino, e ½Anglo Nubiano + ¼Boer + ¼Alpino. Foi tomado o peso ao jejum, no dia do abate, após 24 horas de jejum de sólidos. Foram tomadas medidas biométricas e de carcaça, objetiva e subjetivamente. O grupo racial influenciou a altura de cernelha, o comprimento interno e externo da carcaça e o comprimento de perna, que foram maiores nos animais Alpinos, bem como a largura do peito, o escore corporal, os índices de compacidade da carcaça e da perna e a cobertura de gordura da carcaça, que foram melhores nos animais com grau de sangue Boer. Animais machos tiveram maior altura de cernelha, medidas da estérnebra com ultrassom, comprimento interno da carcaça, comprimento de perna, profundidade dos tecidos na altura da 3ª e 4ª estérnebras tomadas na carcaça. Nas demais características corporais avaliadas, não foram encontradas diferenças entre grupos raciais e sexo dos animais. O cruzamento do grupo Boer com Alpino reduz o comprimento das carcaças e aumenta a cobertura de gordura e a quantidade de tecidos depositados, mas não influencia o desempenho do animal.This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the influence of breed groups and sexual conditional on carcass traits of young goats raised in feedlot. It was used 91 animals, 52 males and 39 females, belonging to five breed groups: Alpine, ½Boer + ½Alpine, ½Nubian + ½Alpine, ¾Boer + ¼Alpine and ½ Anglo-Nubian + ¼Boer + ¼Alpine. On the slaughter day, the shrunk weight was measured after 24 hours of solid fasting. Biometric and carcass measures were objectively and subjectively taken. Racial group influenced withers

  7. Carcass traits of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at maintenance or ad libitum with two concentrate levels in the diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanna Moraes de Oliveira; Pedro Veiga Rodrigues Paulino; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; Edenio Detmann; Mário Fonseca Paulino; Lúcio Alberto de Miranda Gomide; Marcio de Souza Duarte; Victor Rezende Moreira Couto

    2011-01-01

    This trial was conducted to evaluate the quantitative carcass traits of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at maintenance level or ad libitum with 1% and 2% of the body weight in concentrate. The animals were allotted to the treatments in a completely randomized experimental design, in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. The animals fed the ad libitum diet with more concentrate had greater cold carcass weight, cold carcass yield and longissimus muscle area/100 kg of ...

  8. Optical position detection to measure tyre carcass deflections and implementation for vehicle state estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuononen, Ari

    2009-01-01

    Future active safety systems for vehicles will need accurate information about the state of the vehicle. Tyre sensors certainly offer an interesting option to evaluate the operating state of an individual tyre. On the other hand, tyre behaviour in some driving conditions is not completely understood and tyre sensor measurements can contribute to the fundamentals of tyre research as well. This thesis discusses a method to measure the carcass deflection of a rolling tyre. Tyre force estima...

  9. Carcass and meat traits of lambs fed by-products from the processing of oil seeds - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i4.20403

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Correa Santos; Jane Maria Bertocco Ezequiel; Eliane da Silva Morgado; Severino Cavalcante de Souza Júnior

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of adding by-products from the processing of oil seeds in the diet of lambs on the carcass and meat traits. Twenty-four non-castrated weaned male Santa Inês lambs with approximately 70 days of age and initial average weight of 19.11 ± 2.12 kg were distributed into a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of diets containing by-products with 70% of concentrate and 30% of tifton hay (Cynodon spp.) and were termed SM: control with soybean meal; SC: formulated ...

  10. Effects of Substituting Soybean Meal for Sunflower Cake in the Diet on the Growth and Carcass Traits of Crossbred Boer Goat Kids

    OpenAIRE

    Palmieri, Adriana Dantas; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Di Mambro Ribeiro, Cláudio Vaz; Ribeiro, Marinaldo Divino; Ribeiro, Rebeca Dantas Xavier; Leão, André Gustavo; Agy, Mariza Sufiana Faharodine Aly; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the best level of substitution of soybean meal by sunflower cake in diets for kids through the evaluation of quantitative carcass traits. Thirty-two Boer kids X 1/2 NDB (no defined breed), males, non-castrated, with 4 months of age and initial body weight of 15±3.2 kg, were randomly assigned to individual pens. The treatments contained four substitution levels of soybean meal by sunflower cake (0, 33, 66 and 100% DM). At the end of the experimental...

  11. Effects of Direct-fed Microbial and Pine Cone Extract on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhlisin,; Song, Chang Soo; Rhee, Yong Joon; Song, Young Han; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    The carcass traits and meat quality of Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) whose diets were supplemented with direct-fed microbial (DFM) and pine cone extract (PCE) were evaluated. Twenty head of Hanwoo steers were divided equally into four groups and for a period of 6 months were given different diets: One group was fed a basal diet as control (CON), the other three groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with DFM-1%, DFM+PCE-1% and DFM+PEC-3%, respectively. DFM+PCE3% diet resulted the lowest ca...

  12. Carcass traits of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at maintenance or ad libitum with two concentrate levels in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna Moraes de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This trial was conducted to evaluate the quantitative carcass traits of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at maintenance level or ad libitum with 1% and 2% of the body weight in concentrate. The animals were allotted to the treatments in a completely randomized experimental design, in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. The animals fed the ad libitum diet with more concentrate had greater cold carcass weight, cold carcass yield and longissimus muscle area/100 kg of cold carcass weight when compared with animals fed the diet with low concentrate allowance. There was no difference between the ad libitum diets for all of the carcass cuts yields, except for top sirloin. Crossbred animals had cold carcass yield larger than the Nellore animals. F1 Angus × Nellore animals had greater rib fat thickness and smaller longissimus muscle area/100 kg than the F1 Simmental × Nellore cattle. The yield of commercial carcass cuts was not influenced by genetic group, except for the shoulder clod yield, which was smaller in crossbred animals compared with Nellore animals. The longissimus muscle area, rib fat thickness and rump fat, taken by ultrasound were influenced by the body weight of the animals. Crossbred animals fed diets with higher concentrate level produce carcasses most suitable for the requirements of the market.

  13. Influence of breed, milk diet and slaughter weight on carcass traits of suckling kids from seven Spanish breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Panea Doblado, Begoña; Ripoll García, Guillermo; Horcada Ibáñez, Alberto; Sañudo Astiz, Carlos; Teixeira, Alfredo; Alcalde Aldea, Mª Jesús

    2012-01-01

    This experiment aimed to describe the influence of production system on the following characteristics from seven Spanish goat breeds: carcass weight, dressing percentage, head weight, viscera weight, kidney fat weight, fatness score, carcass length, leg length, rump perimeter, rump width, kidney fat colour and tissue composition of shoulder. Experiment involved 201 male, single-birth suckling kids from five meat and two dairy breeds. Animals from meat breeds were slaughtered at two targets ca...

  14. Characterization of two Pro-opiomelanocortin gene variants and their effects on carcass traits in beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Deobald Heather M; Buchanan Fiona C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Carcass quantity (lean meat yield) and quality (degree of marbling) in beef cattle determines much of their economic value. Consequently, it is important to study genes that are part of the appetite pathway and that may ultimately affect carcass composition. Pro-opiomelanocortin is a prohormone that codes for many different peptides, several of which are involved in the appetite pathway. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.288C>T in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) has pre...

  15. Performance, carcass traits, meat quality and economic analysis of feedlot of young bulls fed oilseeds with and without supplementation of vitamin E

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    Otávio Rodrigues Machado Neto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate average daily gain (ADG, carcass traits, meat tenderness and profitability of keeping cattle fed different oilseeds and vitamin E in feedlot. A total of 40 Red Norte young bulls with initial average body weight of 339±15 kg were utilized. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The experiment lasted 84 days and experimental diets presented soybeans or cottonseeds as lipid sources associated or not to daily supplementation of 2,500 UI vitamin E per animal. The concentrate:roughage ratio was 60:40. Diets had the same amount of nitrogen (13% CP and ether extract (6.5%. The data were analyzed by means of statistical software SAS 9.1. Neither vitamin supplementation nor lipid source affected ADG. There was no interaction between lipid source and vitamin supplementation for the variables studied. The inclusion of cottonseed reduced the carcass yield. There was no effect of diets on hot and cold carcass weights or prime cuts. The inclusion of cottonseed reduced the backfat thickness. No effect of experimental diets on the rib-eye area was observed. There was no effect of lipid source or vitamin supplementation on meat tenderness, which was affected, however, by ageing time. Diets with soybeans presented higher cost per animal. The utilization of soybean implied reduction of the gross margin (R$ 59.17 and R$ 60.51 for diets based on soy with and without supplemental vitamin, respectively, vs. R$ 176.42 and R$ 131.79 for diets based on cottonseed. The utilization of cottonseed enables improvement of profitability of feedlot fattening, in spite of negatively affecting some carcass characteristics.

  16. THE INFLUENCE AN EXOGENOUS ENZYMES-PROBIOTICS COMPLEX ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS TRAITS OF ALBINO RATS FED DIETS CONTAINING UP TO 60% RICE BRAN

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    M. BOATENG

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of varying levels of rice bran supplemented with Xzyme™ (an exogenous enzyme-probiotic complex on the growth performance and carcass traits of albino rats. Thirty weanling albino rats with average initial liveweight of 66.9±0.3g were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments in a 3 x 2 factorial design (3 levels of rice bran [20, 40 and 60%] by 2 levels [0 and 250mg/kg of diet] of the Xzyme™. There were 5 rats on each treatment which were housed individually in plastic cages. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and their growth performance monitored for 28 days, after which the rats were slaughtered to collect carcass data.The mean values for total feed intake, weekly feed intake and daily weight gain were similar (P>0.05 for all the various dietary treatments. The addition of the Xzyme™ led to an improvement (P>0.05 in feed conversion ratio (FCR at each level of the rice bran. Both feed cost and feed cost per 100g weight gain values decreased as the level of RB increased despite the extra cost of the added Xzyme™. The carcass characteristics of the albino rats on all the six dietary treatments were similar (P>0.05. The results suggest that albino rats and probably other mono-gastric livestock species can be fed diets containing 60% rice bran plus Xzyme™ without any adverse effect on health, growth performance and carcass characteristics.

  17. Corn oil supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. I. Effects on in vivo digestibility, performance, and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, E; Duckett, S K; Andrae, J G

    2007-05-01

    Eighteen Angus steers (438 +/- 4 kg of BW) were supplemented with varying levels of corn oil (0 g/kg of BW, none; 0.75 g/kg of BW, MED; or 1.5 g/kg of BW, HI) on rotationally stocked, endophyte-free tall fescue to determine the effect of supplemental oil level on in vivo digestibility, intake, performance, and carcass traits. Pelleted cottonseed hulls were used as a carrier for the oil supplements, and all supplements were offered to steers using Calan gate feeders for individual intake determination. On d 49, each steer was dosed with a controlled-release capsule containing chromium sesquioxide, and fecal samples were obtained 12 d later over a 7-d period to estimate fecal output that, with forage, supplement, and fecal indigestible NDF concentration, was used to estimate DMI and in vivo total diet digestibility. Steers were slaughtered at the end of the 116-d grazing period, and carcass data were collected at 24 h postmortem. Total fatty acid intake linearly increased with corn oil supplementation, and forage DMI, total DMI, and total DE intake were linearly decreased (P corn oil supplementation. Average daily gain and final BW tended (P = 0.09) to increase linearly in response to oil level. Oil conversion (0.36 kg of BW gain/kg of corn oil) was greater (P 0.10). Oil supplementation to grazing steers linearly reduced forage DMI intake; however, animal performance was maintained and tended to be greater for oil-supplemented cattle. Oil supplementation increased carcass fat thickness and weight without altering other carcass quality parameters. PMID:17224464

  18. Influence of genetic type and level of concentrate in the finishing diet on carcass and meat quality traits in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, J F; Paulino, P V R; Filho, S C Valadares; Souza, E J O; Duarte, M S; Benedeti, P D B; Souza, N K P; Cox, R B

    2012-03-01

    Carcass and meat quality traits of thirty-six feedlot beef heifers from different genetic groups (GG) fed at two concentrate levels (CL) were evaluated using 12 - Nellore (NE), 12 - ½Angus x ½Nellore (AN) and 12 - ½Simmental x ½Nellore (SN) animals. Six heifers of each GG were randomly assigned into one of two treatments: concentrate at 0.8% or 1.2% of body weight (BW). Heifers fed concentrate at 0.8% of BW had greater (P0.05) by either CL or GG. Heifers from the AN group had higher (Pcarcass weights, 12th rib fat thickness and lower dressing percentage (P<0.05) compared to the other groups. NE heifers had greater WBSF values (P<0.05) than the other genetic groups. Data suggest that the concentrate level can be reduced without compromising meat quality traits. PMID:22127147

  19. Variation in the ovine hormone-sensitive lipase gene (HSL) and its association with growth and carcass traits in New Zealand Suffolk sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo; Forrest, Rachel; Zhou, Huitong; Hickford, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) plays an important role in the regulation of lipolysis in adipose tissues, by catalysing a rate-limiting step in triglyceride hydrolysis. Variation within the human HSL gene (HSL) has been associated with an increased risk of obesity. In this study, variation within three regions (exon 3-4, exon 5-6 and exon 9) of ovine HSL was investigated in 538 Suffolk lambs bred from 13 independent sires using PCR-SSCP. Four sequence variants of intron 5 (designated A-D) and two variants of exon 9 (designated a and b) of ovine HSL were detected. No variation was found in exon 3-4 of the gene. The associations of the variation within ovine HSL with post-weaning growth and carcass traits including eye muscle depth (EMD), eye muscle width (EMW) and fat depth above the eye muscle (FDM) were assessed in 262 of the above 538 lambs using general linear mixed-effects models. In the single variant models, the presence of intron 5 A in a lamb's genotype was associated with reduced EMD (P = 0.036) and EMW (P = 0.018), whereas the presence of intron 5 C was associated with increased EMD (P growth, or between HSL exon 9 variants, post-weaning growth or carcass traits, were found. PMID:24443229

  20. Growth and carcass traits associated with GH1/Alu I and POU1F1/Hinf I gene polymorphisms in Zebu and crossbred beef cattle

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    Rogério A. Curi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of the GH1/Alu I and POU1F1/Hinf I polymorphisms in beef cattle belonging to different genetic groups and to determine the effects of these polymorphisms on growth and carcass traits in cattle submitted to feedlot management, an intensive production model. Genotyping was performed on 384 animals, including 79 Nellore, 30 Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu, 30 Simmental x Nellore crossbred and 245 Angus x Nellore crossbred cattle. Body weight, weight gain, dressing percentage, Longissimus dorsi area and backfat thickness were fitted using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure of the SAS program and the least square means of the genotypes were compared using the F test. The results showed significant associations between the LL genotype of the GH1/Alu I polymorphism and higher weight gain and body weight at slaughter (p < 0.05. The POU1F1/Hinf I polymorphism did not have any effect on the growth and carcass traits analyzed.

  1. Effect of dietary fat concentration from condensed corn distillers' solubles, during the growing phase, on beef cattle performance, carcass traits, digestibility, and ruminal metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, J R; Felix, T L; Green, A R; Maia, G N; Ramirez, B C; Shike, D W

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of fat concentration from corn distillers' solubles (CDS), fed during the growing phase, on DMI, gain, carcass traits, digestibility, ruminal metabolism, and methane emissions of steers. In Exp. 1, 40 steers (age = 136 ± 20 d; BW = 185 ± 11 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: 1) a cosrn-based gro\\wing diet (CNT), 2) 0% CDS, 3) 10% CDS, 4) 19% CDS, or 5) 27% CDS. Diets 2 through 5 included coproducts (corn gluten feed and soybean hulls) and were formulated to achieve fat concentrations of 3, 5, 7, and 9%, respectively. Diets were fed once daily for 106 d (growing phase). All steers were fed a corn-based diet from d 107 to 196. Contrasts were used to examine 1) the difference between CNT and 10% CDS and 2) linear and quadratic effects of CDS inclusion. During the growing phase, steers fed CNT had increased ( methane emissions (g/h). In conclusion, feeding corn during the growing phase increased overall ADG compared with 10% CDS coproduct-based diet but did not affect carcass traits or methane production. Increasing dietary fat inclusion from CDS in coproduct-based diets linearly increased DM and fat digestibility and predicted marbling scores via ultrasound but did not affect marbling at slaughter, NDF digestibility, propionate, or methane production. PMID:26440179

  2. Growth performance, carcass traits, physiochemical characteristics and intramuscular fatty acid composition of finishing Japanese black steers fed soybean curd residue and soy sauce cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Kaori; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Takemi; Kumagai, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary soybean curd residue (SCR) and soy sauce cake (SSC) on the growth performance, carcass traits and physiochemical and intramuscular fatty acid (FA) characteristics in Japanese Black steers. Ten steers (29.7 ± 0.3 months old, 856.6 ± 24.4 kg body weight) were assigned to either treatment C, fed a conventional concentrate or T, fed the test diet including dried SCR and SSC for 3 months. In growth performance, dry matter (DM) intake and average daily gain, and carcass traits did not differ significantly between the treatments. Color of beef was affected by the dietary treatments and meat samples from T showed higher a(*) value and chroma than those in C. On FA composition, there was no significant difference between the treatments in neutral lipids, whereas in polar lipids, meat samples from T had higher C16:1 (P < 0.05) and tended to have higher C16:0 (P = 0.05) and C18:1 (P = 0.08), but lower C17:0 (P = 0.098), C18:2 (P = 0.06) and C20:4 (P = 0.07) than those from C. The study suggested that SCR and SSC could be used as a substitute for conventional concentrate and would influence meat color and intramuscular FA composition of polar lipids. PMID:26663641

  3. Growth, carcass and meat quality traits in beef from Angus, Hereford and cross-breed grazing steers, and their association with SNPs in genes related to fat deposition metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo Mazzucco, J; Goszczynski, D E; Ripoli, M V; Melucci, L M; Pardo, A M; Colatto, E; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Mezzadra, C A; Depetris, G J; Giovambattista, G; Villarreal, E L

    2016-04-01

    Grazing steers from Angus and Hereford breeds, their cross-breeds and a three-way cross-breed (Limousin × Angus-Hereford) were measured for growth, carcass and meat quality traits. Breed effects were studied, and the association of SNPs with fat deposition and fatty acid (FA) composition (leptin, melanocortin-4 receptor, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, FA synthase and thyroglobulin) was tested. Limousin cross-breed showed the greatest final body weight, ultrasound rib eye area, dressing percentage, carcass and leg length, and the lowest backfat thickness and intramuscular fat content. Genetic groups had similar pH, shear force, cooking loss, L* and b* and n-6:n-3 ratio. Meat from 1/2-Angus presented greater a* than Limousin cross-breed. Whereas Angus had the highest total SFA content, Hereford had the lowest total SFA and the highest total MUFA. Limousin cross-breed had greater content of several individual PUFAs, total PUFA, n-6 and n-3 FA than Angus and 1/2-Angus. Leptin and FA synthase were associated with some FAs, supporting their influence over fat metabolism for grazing animals. PMID:26771144

  4. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: II. Postweaning, carcass, and meat traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) x Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves belonging to 28 full-sib families were evaluated for differences in feedyard initial BW, feedyard final BW, carcass weight, LM area, adjusted fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Two methods of analysis were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA, corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). No significant reciprocal differences for these weight and carcass traits were detected under method I analyses, although the same trend existed for subsequent BW rankings as for birth weight and weaning weight. For each weight phase, the cross that involved a larger proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam (F(1) x A and B x F(1)) ranked heavier than the respective reciprocal cross (A x F(1) and F(1) x B). As a whole, A backcross calves had larger (P x dam type interaction was observed for initial feedyard BW. Results from this study suggest that for weight-related traits, both the breed constitution of the embryo transfer calf and the cross that produces the calf play an important role in its ultimate performance for B crossbred calves. For body composition and meat-related traits, it appears that the breed makeup of the embryo transfer calf itself is more important to animal performance than the specific cross used to produce the calf. PMID:17235022

  5. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and dietary protein content on performance, carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cônsolo, N R B; Mesquita, B S; Rodriguez, F D; Rizzi, V G; Silva, L F P

    2016-03-01

    Ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) alters protein metabolism and improves growth performance in Bos taurus cattle with high carcass fat. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of RH, dietary CP and RH×CP interaction on performance, blood metabolites, carcass characteristics and meat quality of young Nellore bulls. A total of 48 bulls were randomly assigned to four treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The factors were two levels of dietary CP (100% and 120% of metabolizable protein requirement, defined as CP100 and CP120, respectively), and two levels of RH (0 and 300 mg/animal·per day). Treated animal received RH for the final 35 days before slaughter. Animals were weighed at the beginning of the feedlot period (day 63), at the beginning of ractopamine supplementation (day 0), after 18 days of supplementation (day 18) and before slaughter (day 34). Animals were slaughtered and hot carcass weights recorded. After chilling, carcass data was collected and longissimus samples were obtained for determination of meat quality. The 9-11th rib section was removed for carcass composition analysis. Supplementation with RH increased ADG independently of dietary CP. There was a RH×CP interaction on dry matter intake (DMI), where RH reduced DMI at CP120, with no effect at CP100. Ractopamine improved feed efficiency, without RH×CP interaction. Ractopamine had no effect on plasma creatinine and urea concentration. Greater dietary CP tended to increase blood urea, and there was a RH×CP interaction for plasma total protein. Ractopamine supplementation increased plasma total protein at CP120, and had no effect at CP100. Ractopamine also decreased plasma glucose concentration at CP100, but had no effect at CP120. Ractopamine increased alkaline phosphatase activity at CP120 and had no effect at CP100. There was a tendency for RH to increase longissimus muscle area, independently of dietary CP. Ractopamine did not alter fat thickness; however, fat thickness was reduced by

  6. Effects of Direct-fed Microbial and Pine Cone Extract on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlisin; Song, Chang Soo; Rhee, Yong Joon; Song, Young Han; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    The carcass traits and meat quality of Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) whose diets were supplemented with direct-fed microbial (DFM) and pine cone extract (PCE) were evaluated. Twenty head of Hanwoo steers were divided equally into four groups and for a period of 6 months were given different diets: One group was fed a basal diet as control (CON), the other three groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with DFM-1%, DFM+PCE-1% and DFM+PEC-3%, respectively. DFM+PCE3% diet resulted the lowest carcass quality grade. The loins of DFM-1% contained higher moisture and lower fat than did the loins from the CON group. The crude protein content of DFM+PCE-3% group was significantly higher than that of the other groups. The water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear force of the DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were lower than those of the CON and DFM-1% groups. The DFM-1% and 3% groups contained lower saturated fatty acid, higher unsaturated fatty acid, mono-unsaturated fatty acid, and poly-unsaturated fatty acid than did CON and DFM+PCE 1% group. Moreover, the n6:n3 ratios of DFM-1% and DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were slightly lower than that of the CON group. Thus we concluded that DFM and PCE supplementation resulted healthier Hanwoo beef with lower fat content and n6:n3 ratio. PMID:26954123

  7. Effects of Direct-fed Microbial and Pine Cone Extract on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlisin; Song, Chang Soo; Rhee, Yong Joon; Song, Young Han; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-05-01

    The carcass traits and meat quality of Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) whose diets were supplemented with direct-fed microbial (DFM) and pine cone extract (PCE) were evaluated. Twenty head of Hanwoo steers were divided equally into four groups and for a period of 6 months were given different diets: One group was fed a basal diet as control (CON), the other three groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with DFM-1%, DFM+PCE-1% and DFM+PEC-3%, respectively. DFM+PCE3% diet resulted the lowest carcass quality grade. The loins of DFM-1% contained higher moisture and lower fat than did the loins from the CON group. The crude protein content of DFM+PCE-3% group was significantly higher than that of the other groups. The water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear force of the DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were lower than those of the CON and DFM-1% groups. The DFM-1% and 3% groups contained lower saturated fatty acid, higher unsaturated fatty acid, mono-unsaturated fatty acid, and poly-unsaturated fatty acid than did CON and DFM+PCE 1% group. Moreover, the n6:n3 ratios of DFM-1% and DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were slightly lower than that of the CON group. Thus we concluded that DFM and PCE supplementation resulted healthier Hanwoo beef with lower fat content and n6:n3 ratio. PMID:26954123

  8. The use of ultrasonic measurements assessed with two probes in live lambs for predicting the carcass composition

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Delfa, R.

    1997-01-01

    The accuracy of the use of two probes (UST-586-5 MHz and UST-556 tu-7.5 MHz) for predicting the carcass composition were used in 36 lambs of Churra Bragançana breed ranging in body weight from 26 to 47kg. Comparison between the ultrasonic measurements assessed in live lambs with the same measurements taken on carcass were established. The best relationship obtained were between the ultrasonic measurements assessed with 7.5 MHz probe on last rib and the same fat thickness measur...

  9. Associations of DNA polymorphisms in growth hormone and its transcriptional regulators with growth and carcass traits in two populations of Brangus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M G; Enns, R M; Shirley, K L; Garcia, M D; Garrett, A J; Silver, G A

    2007-01-01

    Sequence polymorphisms in the growth hormone (GH) gene and its transcriptional regulators, Pit-1 and Prop-1, were evaluated for associations with growth and carcass traits in two populations of Brangus bulls Chihuahuan Desert Rangeland Research Center (CDRRC, N = 248 from 14 sires) and a cooperating breeding program (COOP, N = 186 from 34 sires). Polymorphisms were SNP mutations in intron 4 (C/T) and exon V (C/G) in GH, A/G in exon VI in Pit-1, and A/G in exon III in Prop-1. In the COOP population, bulls of Pit-1 GG genotype had a significantly greater percentage of intramuscular fat than bulls of the AA or AG genotype, and bulls of the Prop-1 AA genotype had significantly greater scrotal circumference than bulls of AG or GG genotypes at ~365 days of age. Also, heterozygous genotypes for the two GH polymorphisms appeared advantageous for traits of muscularity and adiposity in the COOP population. The heterozygous genotype of GH intron 4 SNP was associated with advantages in weight gain, scrotal circumference, and fat thickness in the CDRRC population. The two GH polymorphisms accounted for >/=27.7% of the variation in these traits in the CDRRC population; however, R(2) was Brangus bulls, particularly those with heterozygous GH genotypes. PMID:17469072

  10. Carcass, sensory, and adipose tissue traits of Brangus steers fed casein-formaldehyde-protected starch and/or canola lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, C D; Lunt, D K; Miller, R K; Smith, S B

    2003-10-01

    We predicted that providing rumen-protected starch to the small intestine would increase adiposity of intramuscular adipose tissue, and hence marbling scores. Eighteen 15-mo-old Brangus steers were assigned randomly to one of three dietary treatment groups: 1) cracked corn (Corn); 2) casein-formaldehyde-protected lipid (Canola Lipid); or 3) casein-formaldehyde-protected starch (Marble Plus). All diets were equally balanced for ME (2.91 Mcal/kg), CP (12.5%), and DM (89%). Ether extract was 3.7, 6.9, and 6.9% for the Corn, Canola Lipid, and Marble Plus diets, respectively, and the Marble Plus also contained 3.7% protected starch. Steers were fed the diets for 126 d before slaughter. Average daily feed intake (as-fed basis), ADG, and feed:gain ratio (P > or = 0.23) did not differ among treatments. Carcasses across treatments did not differ (P = 0.26) in adjusted fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, marbling scores, or USDA quality grade. Percentage of kidney, pelvic, and heart fat was higher (P or = 0.33) by diet in i.m. adipose tissue. Fatty acid synthetase activity tended (P = 0.08) to be higher in s.c. adipose tissue of Marble Plus steers, and NADP-malic dehydrogenase activity was higher (P = 0.03) in i.m. adipose tissue of Canola Lipid steers. We conclude that Marble Plus did not improve carcass quality, but also did not reduce beef sensory attributes. Any differences we observed in carcass characteristics, adipose tissue cellularity, or lipogenesis apparently were caused by the protected lipid rather than the protected starch. PMID:14552372

  11. SID tryptophan levels and B6 vitamin supplementation do not change blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and meat quality of barrows (70-100kg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilha, L D; Huepa, L M D; Fachinello, M R; Pozza, M S S; Vasconcellos, R S; Bonagurio, L P; Marcato, S M; Pozza, P C

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of standardized ileal digestible (SID) tryptophan and B6 on blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and longissimus lumborum quality of barrows (70-100kg). Sixty-four crossbred barrows averaging 70.77±2.07kg were distributed in a 4×2 factorial with four SID tryptophan levels (0.130, 0.155, 0.180, and 0.205%) and two B6 levels (1 and 5mg/kg) in eight replicates of one animal each. The meat lightness degree answered linearly (P=0.015) to SID tryptophan levels and the shear force answered quadratically (P=0.050), with estimates of a higher value (31.67N) at 0.163% SID tryptophan. Although B6 showed positive effects (PB6. PMID:27054283

  12. Effects of diets with increasing levels of golden flaxseed on carcass characteristics, meat quality and lipid traits of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of three levels (0, 8, or 16% of the golden variety of flaxseed (GFS; Linum usitatissimum L., included in isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets, on the carcass characteristics, meat composition and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat and perirenal fat. The trial was carried out on 30 weaned crossbred rabbits aged 9 weeks, weighing on average 2074 g. The animals were divided equally into three groups of 10 (five male and five female rabbits each and kept separate in individual cages. At the end of the experiment, which lasted 5 weeks, there were no significant differences between the groups in the carcass yield or the proportions of various carcass parts and edible organs. Although the chemical composition of the meat was not significantly affected by the dietary treatment, the saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid proportion in the longissimus dorsi muscle (-22% and -24%, respectively and perirenal fat (-34% and –29%, respectively decreased and the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA increased (+36% in the muscle and 43% in the fat, respectively with increased GFS inclusion. GFS dietary supplementation has shown to be effective in improving the n-3 PUFA proportion (76% in the muscle and 77% in the fat, respectively, decreasing the n-6/n-3 ratio and reducing the saturation, atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes of the meat, with consequent benefits on the nutritional quality of rabbit meat for consumers.

  13. Effects of diets with increasing levels of golden flaxseed on carcass characteristics, meat quality and lipid traits of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of three levels (0, 8, or 16% of the golden variety of flaxseed (GFS; Linum usitatissimum L., included in isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets, on the carcass characteristics, meat composition and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat and perirenal fat. The trial was carried out on 30 weaned crossbred rabbits aged 9 weeks, weighing on average 2074 g. The animals were divided equally into three groups of 10 (five male and five female rabbits each and kept separate in individual cages. At the end of the experiment, which lasted 5 weeks, there were no significant differences between the groups in the carcass yield or the proportions of various carcass parts and edible organs. Although the chemical composition of the meat was not significantly affected by the dietary treatment, the saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid proportion in the longissimus dorsi muscle (-22% and -24%, respectively and perirenal fat (-34% and –29%, respectively decreased and the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA increased (+36% in the muscle and 43% in the fat, respectively with increased GFS inclusion. GFS dietary supplementation has shown to be effective in improving the n-3 PUFAproportion (76% in the muscle and 77% in the fat, respectively, decreasing the n-6/n-3 ratio and reducing the saturation, atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes of the meat, with consequent benefits on the nutritional quality of rabbit meat for consumers.

  14. Effect of dietary supplementation of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis and thyme (Thymus vulgaris on carcass composition, meat physical traits, and vitamin B12 content on growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Dalle Zotte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect and duration of dietary inclusion of 5% spirulina (Arthrospira platensis and/or 3% thyme (Thymus vulgaris on growing rabbit carcass composition, meat and bone rheological traits, and the vitamin B12 content of Longissimus dorsi (LD meat. The study involved 294 maternal line growing rabbits from the Pannon breeding programme. At weaning (5 wk, animals were randomly divided by dietary treatment into 7 groups of 42 rabbits each. A control group (C-C received a pellet with no supplementation throughout the trial (5-11 wk of age, whereas the other groups were fed diets supplemented with 5% spirulina (S, 3% thyme (T or with both ingredients (ST for either the entire growing period (5-11 wk of age; groups: S-S, T-T, ST-ST, respectively, or its final part only (8-11 wk of age; groups: C-S, C-T, C-ST, respectively. Results showed that regardless of the duration of supplementation, spirulina and thyme provided no effect on the traits examined, except for scapular fat content, whose value was higher in the S-S group than in the C-T group (P<0.05. Spirulina was confirmed as a rich source of vitamin B12 that was successfully transferred into LD meat, thus demonstrating its value as an effective natural supplement in producing food fortified with this vital element. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effect of spirulina on carcass fat deposition, bone development, and mineralisation.

  15. Expression profiling analysis for genes related to meat quality and carcass traits during postnatal development of backfat in two pig breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The competitive equilibrium of fatty acid biosynthesis and oxidation in vivo determines porcine sub-cutaneous fat thickness(SFT) and intramuscular fat(IMF) content.Obese and lean-type pig breeds show obvious differences in adipose deposition;however, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenotypic variation remains unclear.We used pathway-focused oligo microarray studies to examine the expression changes of 140 genes associated with meat quality and carcass traits in backfat at five growth stages(1―5 months) of Landrace(a leaner, Western breed) and Taihu pigs(a fatty, indigenous, Chinese breed).Variance analysis(ANOVA) revealed that differences in the expression of 25 genes in Landrace pigs were significant(FDR adjusted permutation, P<0.05) among 5 growth stages.Gene class test(GCT) indicated that a gene-group was very significant between 2 pig breeds across 5 growth stages(PErmineJ<0.01), which consisted of 23 genes encoding enzymes and regulatory proteins associ-ated with lipid and steroid metabolism.These findings suggest that the distinct differences in fat deposition ability between Landrace and Taihu pigs may closely correlate with the expression changes of these genes.Clustering analysis revealed a very high level of significance(FDR adjusted, P<0.01) for 2 gene expression patterns in Landrace pigs and a high level of significance(FDR adjusted, P<0.05) for 2 gene expression patterns in Taihu pigs.Also, expression patterns of genes were more diversified in Taihu pigs than those in Landrace pigs, which suggests that the regulatory mechanism of micro-effect polygenes in adipocytes may be more complex in Taihu pigs than in Landrace pigs.Based on a dy-namic Bayesian network(DBN) model, gene regulatory networks(GRNs) were reconstructed from time-series data for each pig breed.These two GRNs initially revealed the distinct differences in physiological and biochemical aspects of adipose metabolism between the two pig breeds;from these results, some potential

  16. Expression profiling analysis for genes related to meat quality and carcass traits during postnatal development of backfat in two pig breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI MingZhou; WANG JinYong; ZHU Li; LI XueWei; SHUAI SuRong; TENG XiaoKun; XIAO HuaSheng; LI Qiang; CHEN Lei; GUO YuJiao

    2008-01-01

    The competitive equilibrium of fatty acid biosynthesis and oxidation in vivo determines porcine sub-cutaneous fat thickness (SFT) and intramuscular fat (IMF) content. Obese and lean-type pig breeds show obvious differences in adipose deposition; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenotypic variation remains unclear. We used pathway-focused oligo microarray studies to examine the expression changes of 140 genes associated with meat quality and carcass traits in backfat at five growth stages (1-5 months) of Landrace (a leaner, Western breed) and Taihu pigs (a fatty, indigenous, Chinese breed). Variance analysis (ANOVA) revealed that differences in the expression of 25 genes in Landrace pigs were significant (FDR adjusted permutation, P<0.05) among 5 growth stages. Gene class test (GCT) indicated that a gene-group was very significant between 2 pig breeds across 5 growth stages (PErmineJ<0.01), which consisted of 23 genes encoding enzymes and regulatory proteins associ-ated with lipid, and steroid metabolism. These findings suggest that the distinct differences in fat deposition ability between Landrace and Taihu pigs may closely correlate with the expression changes of these genes. Clustering analysis revealed a very high level of significance (FDR adjusted, P<0.01) for 2 gene expression patterns in Landrace pigs and a high level of significance (FDR adjusted, P<0.05) for 2 gene expression patterns in Taihu pigs. Also, expression patterns of genes were more diversified in Taihu pigs than those in Landrace pigs: which suggests that the regulatory mechanism of micro-effect polygenes in adipocytes may be more complex in Taihu pigs than in Landrace pigs. Based on a dy-namic Bayesian network (DBN) model, gene regulatory networks (GRNs) were reconstructed from time-series data for each pig breed. These two GRNs initially revealed the distinct differences in physiological and biochemical aspects of adipose metabolism between the two pig breeds; from these

  17. Performance, body measurements, carcass and cut yields, and meat quality in lambs fed residues from processing agroindustry of fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcilene Maria de Figueiredo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with the objective to evaluate the use of residue dry matter (DM from pineapple (Ananas comosus L., banana (Musa sp., mango (Mangifera indica and passion fruit (Passiflora spp. in feeding of the feedlot on productive performance, carcass yield and qualitative and quantitative characteristics of meat. Twenty-five crossbred lamps with Santa Inês breed and mixed breed were used. The treatments consisted of the replacement of 75% of sorghum silage by respective residue DM, whereas in the control treatment forage had only sorghum silage the diets had a houghageto- concentrate ratio of 40:60 interns of DM being isonitrogenous and isoenergetics. The animals were slaughtered at 32 kg liveweight. Before slaughter were obtained biometric measurements, after the same, was performed the hot carcasses weight and morphometric measurements. After 24 hours in a cold chamber at 4 ° C, was determined the cold carcass weight and yield calculation. The left half carcass was divided into five sections: neck, shoulder, shank, rib and loin, by performing the calculation of income cuts. Analyses meat quality such as pH, color (L, a, b, chroma and Ho, by cooking weight loss, water retention capacity and shear strength were carried out in the Longissimus dorsi sample. The completely randomized design was adapted. The data were interpreted using analysis of variance with the test a Tukey 5% probability. There was no effect of diet (P> 0.05 according to the parameters: growth performance, body measurements, and meat quality of lambs. There was also no effect of the diets (P> 0.05 on the loin eye area assuming that carcasses remained similar muscularity important fact to market acceptance standard. It is concluded that replacing up to 75% of sorghum silage by residues fruit (pineapple, banana, mango and passion fruit in lambs feeding becomes feasible not to change the productive performance, body measurements, yields carcass and cuts and meat

  18. Effects of polymorphic microsatellites in the regulatory region of IGF1 and GHR on growth and carcass traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curi, R A; Oliveira, H N; Silveira, A C; Lopes, C R

    2005-02-01

    Growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF1 and IGF2) and their associated binding proteins and transmembrane receptors (GHR, IGF1R and IGF2R) play an important role in the physiology of mammalian growth. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of microsatellite markers located in the 5'-regulatory region of the IGF1 and GHR genes in beef cattle belonging to different genetic groups and to determine effects of these markers on growth and carcass traits in these animals under an intensive production system. For this purpose, genotyping was performed on 384 bulls including 79 Nellore, 30 Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu) and 275 crossbred animals originating from crosses of Simmental (1/2 Simmental, n = 30) and Angus (1/2 Angus, n = 245) sires with Nellore females. The effects of substituting L allele for S allele of GHR microsatellite across Nellore, Canchim and 1/2 Angus were significant for weight gain and body weight (P < 0.05). The IGF1 microsatellite allele substitutions of 229 for 225 within Nellore group and of 225 for 229 within 1/2 Angus were not significant for any of the traits. PMID:15670132

  19. Varying dietary levels of wheat pollard and wheat bran in growing pigs: effect on growth and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwesigwa, Robert; Mutetikka, David; Kabugo, Stephen; Kugonza, Donald Rugira

    2013-11-01

    To study the effect of increasing levels of wheat pollard as a replacement for wheat bran on growth and carcass characteristics of growing pigs, 64 crossbred (Landrace × Large white Yorkshire) pigs were fed with diets in which wheat pollard was added back to wheat bran in ratios of 15, 30, 45 and 60 %. The pigs were divided into groups of four, balanced for sex, ancestry and body weight. They were then allotted to the dietary treatments in a completely randomised design with four replications. The trial lasted 4 months and data were collected on feed intake and weight gain. A digestibility trial was carried out on eight male pigs per treatment during the growth period. At the end of the growth period, two pigs per replicate in each treatment (n = 32) were slaughtered for determination of carcass characteristics. There were significant differences in the rate of gain and efficiency of feed utilisation among treatments. Diet significantly affected weights of the liver, lungs and small intestine (P pigs and that substituting wheat bran by wheat pollard at 60 % improved the pig's average daily gain and feed efficiency. PMID:23846767

  20. Instrumental colour measurement as a tool for light veal carcasses online evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Horcada Ibáñez, Alberto Luis; Molina, Antonio de; Valera Córdoba, María Mercedes; Beriain, María José; Juárez Dávila, Manuel María

    2013-01-01

    Eight-hundred and forty-five veal carcasses (535 males and 310 females) from Pirenaica breed and its crosses with Charolais and Limousin were used to compare carcass colour visual assessments 60min post-mortem with the values obtained using a spectrocolorimeter (CIE Lab colour system) on the pectoralis superficialis muscle. Carcass weights ranged between 240 and 360 kg. Visual colour was subjectively evaluated by two trained assessors. The best correlation between visual apprai...

  1. Polymorphism of MyoD1 and Myf6 genes and associations with carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X H; Gan, Q F; Yuan, Z R; Gao, X; Zhang, L P; Gao, H J; Li, J Y; Xu, S Z

    2013-01-01

    Myogenic determination factor 1 (MyoD1) and myogenic factor 6 (Myf6) genes belong to the myogenic differentiation (MyoD) gene family, which play key roles in growth and muscle development. The study aimed to investigate the effects of variants in cattle MyoD1 and Myf6 on carcass and meat traits. We screened single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of both genes in 8 cattle populations, including Simmental, Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Limousin, Qinchuan, Luxi, and Jinnan by sequencing. The G782A locus was identified in exon 1 of MyoD1 (MyoD1-BglI) as well as the T186C locus in exon 1 of Myf6 (Myf6-ApaLI). For the two SNPs, the A allele was significantly more frequent than the B allele in the populations tested. The χ(2) test showed that the MyoD1-BglI locus conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the 8 populations, as did the Myf6-ApaLI locus, with the exception of the Simmental population (P > 0.05). Association analysis revealed that the MyoD1-BglI locus was significantly associated with loin muscle area (LMA) (P < 0.05), and the Myf6-ApaLI locus was significantly associated with carcass length (CL) (P < 0.05). Animals with BB and AB genotypes for the MyoD1-BglI locus had larger LMAs compared to animals with AA genotype. Individuals with BB genotype had longer CLs compared to those with AA and AB genotypes. We conclude that the two SNPs might provide useful genetic markers, opening up new possibilities for cattle breeding and improvements in gene-assisted selection. PMID:24391012

  2. Performance and carcass traits of early-weaned steers receiving either a pasture growing period or a finishing diet at weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, S E; Faulkner, D B; Nash, T G; Berger, L L; Parrett, D F; McKeith, F K

    1999-02-01

    A 2-yr study was conducted to evaluate 1) steers fed ad libitum high concentrate after weaning (CONC), or 2) steers grown on pasture for 82 d, followed by high-concentrate finishing (PAST), on the performance and carcass traits of 74 early-weaned (117 d of age) steers. Potential breed differences were evaluated using crossbred steers of three types: 1) 3/4 Angus x 1/4 Simmental (BRI), 2) 3/4 Simmental x 1/4 Angus (CON), and 3) 1/2 Wagyu x 1/4 Angus x 1/4 Simmental (WAG). Steers were randomly assigned within breed to the two treatments. There was no interactions (P > .10), so the data were pooled over years. The CONC steers had an ADG that was .17 kg/d higher (P = .0001), intake 1.09 kg/d lower (P = .0001), and gain:feed ratio .013 unit better (.190 vs .177, P = .008) than PAST steers overall. Growing treatment did not affect total concentrate consumed (P = .97). The BRI steers required 31 d less than did CON steers (P = .008), and 23 d less than WAG steers (P = .05) when fed to a constant fat end point (1.1 cm). The BRI steers exhibited an ADG .16 kg/d higher (P = .0003), tended (P = .07) to have an ADG intake .49 kg/d higher, and exhibited gain:feed .01 unit better (.189 vs 180) than WAG steers. When compared with CON steers, BRI steers consumed 310 kg less total concentrate (P = .0003). No differences (P > .38) were observed between growing treatments for carcass characteristics or sensory attributes except that CONC steers tended (P = .11) to improve percentage of steers grading Average Choice or higher by 47% over PAST steers. The WAG steers had a 76-unit higher marbling score (1,000 = Small00, 1,100 = Modest00) (P = .006) than BRI steers, resulting in 19% more (P = .09) steers grading > or = Choice and 82% more (P = .03) grading > or = Average Choice. Liver (P = .15) and rumen (P = .01) weights as a percentage of hot carcass weight were reduced for CONC steers. The CONC steers had higher gain, lower intake, better efficiency, reduced liver and rumen weights

  3. Effect of dietary supplement of sugar beet, neem leaf, linseed and coriander on growth performance and carcass trait of Vanaraja chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punita Kumari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of sugar beet, neem leaf, linseed and coriander on growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR, performance index (PI, and carcass characteristics in broiler birds. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted for a period of 42 days on Vanaraja strain of broiler birds. Different dietary supplement such as sugar beet meal, neem leaf meal, linseed meal and coriander seed meal were used in the basal diet. All day-old 150 male chicks were individually weighed and distributed into five groups having 30 birds in each. Each group was further sub-divided into triplicates having 10 birds in each. Group T1served as control and rest groups T2, T3, T4 and T5 as treatment groups. Birds in T1 group were fed basal ration only, however, T2 , T3, T4 and T5 groups were fed basal ration mixed with 2.5% sugar beet meal, neem leaf meal, linseed meal, and coriander seed meal individually, respectively. Results: Broilers supplemented with herbs/spices showed improvement in growth attributes and carcass characteristics. Broilers fed with herbs at the rate of 2.5% had higher feed intake except sugar beet and coriander seed meal fed group. The body weight and weight gain was also significantly (p0.05 affected. Average giblet percentage of all supplemented groups were significantly (p<0.05 higher than control and was found to be highest in neem leaf meal fed group. Average by-product percentage was found to be highest in linseed fed group. Conclusion: Various herbs such as sugar beet, neem leaf, linseed and coriander seed meals affected the growth performance, and carcass trait showed positive inclination toward supplemented groups in broilers. The exact mode of action of these herbs/spices is still not clear, however, one or more numbers of active compounds present in these supplements may be responsible.

  4. Effects of Dietary Zilpaterol Hydrochloride on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Serum Compositions of Hanwoo Bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Kyoo; Chung, Ki Yong; Kim, Hyeong Cheol; Lee, Eun Mi; Chang, Sun Sik; Kwon, Eung Gi; Johnson, Bradley J.; Gotoh, Takafumi; Goto, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo bulls. Twenty Hanwoo bulls (653 ± 22.1) were randomly assigned by body weight (BW) to determine the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (Ten bulls with 8.3 mg/kg ZH and ten bulls without ZH) on the ultrasound measurement, carcass traits, and serum compositions. Treatments comprised diets with and without ZH supplemented for 20 days prior to...

  5. The variation in the eating quality of beef from different sexes and breed classes cannot be completely explained by carcass measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Hocquette, J-F; Pethick, D W; Farmer, L J; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Polkinghorne, R J; Gardner, G E

    2016-06-01

    Delivering beef of consistent quality to the consumer is vital for consumer satisfaction and will help to ensure demand and therefore profitability within the beef industry. In Australia, this is being tackled with Meat Standards Australia (MSA), which uses carcass traits and processing factors to deliver an individual eating quality guarantee to the consumer for 135 different 'cut by cooking methods' from each carcass. The carcass traits used in the MSA model, such as ossification score, carcass weight and marbling explain the majority of the differences between breeds and sexes. Therefore, it was expected that the model would predict with eating quality of bulls and dairy breeds with good accuracy. In total, 8128 muscle samples from 482 carcasses from France, Poland, Ireland and Northern Ireland were MSA graded at slaughter then evaluated for tenderness, juiciness, flavour liking and overall liking by untrained consumers, according to MSA protocols. The scores were weighted (0.3, 0.1, 0.3, 0.3) and combined to form a global eating quality (meat quality (MQ4)) score. The carcasses were grouped into one of the three breed categories: beef breeds, dairy breeds and crosses. The difference between the actual and the MSA-predicted MQ4 scores were analysed using a linear mixed effects model including fixed effects for carcass hang method, cook type, muscle type, sex, country, breed category and postmortem ageing period, and random terms for animal identification, consumer country and kill group. Bulls had lower MQ4 scores than steers and females and were predicted less accurately by the MSA model. Beef breeds had lower eating quality scores than dairy breeds and crosses for five out of the 16 muscles tested. Beef breeds were also over predicted in comparison with the cross and dairy breeds for six out of the 16 muscles tested. Therefore, even after accounting for differences in carcass traits, bulls still differ in eating quality when compared with females and steers

  6. Association, effects and validation of polymorphisms within the NCAPG - LCORL locus located on BTA6 with feed intake, gain, meat and carcass traits in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindholm-Perry Amanda K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previously reported genome-wide association study based on a high-density bovine SNP genotyping array, 8 SNP were nominally associated (P ≤ 0.003 with average daily gain (ADG and 3 of these were also associated (P ≤ 0.002 with average daily feed intake (ADFI in a population of crossbred beef cattle. The SNP were clustered in a 570 kb region around 38 Mb on the draft sequence of bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6, an interval containing several positional and functional candidate genes including the bovine LAP3, NCAPG, and LCORL genes. The goal of the present study was to develop and examine additional markers in this region to optimize the ability to distinguish favorable alleles, with potential to identify functional variation. Results Animals from the original study were genotyped for 47 SNP within or near the gene boundaries of the three candidate genes. Sixteen markers in the NCAPG-LCORL locus displayed significant association with both ADFI and ADG even after stringent correction for multiple testing (P ≤ 005. These markers were evaluated for their effects on meat and carcass traits. The alleles associated with higher ADFI and ADG were also associated with higher hot carcass weight (HCW and ribeye area (REA, and lower adjusted fat thickness (AFT. A reduced set of markers was genotyped on a separate, crossbred population including genetic contributions from 14 beef cattle breeds. Two of the markers located within the LCORL gene locus remained significant for ADG (P ≤ 0.04. Conclusions Several markers within the NCAPG-LCORL locus were significantly associated with feed intake and body weight gain phenotypes. These markers were also associated with HCW, REA and AFT suggesting that they are involved with lean growth and reduced fat deposition. Additionally, the two markers significant for ADG in the validation population of animals may be more robust for the prediction of ADG and possibly the correlated trait ADFI

  7. Days on feed and sex effects on live weight and carcass traits measured by ultrasound Efeito dos dias em confinamento e sexo sobre o peso vivo e as características de carcaça, medidas por ultra-sonografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo da Luz e Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of information in the literature on body composition changes in Nellore cattle and its crosses, mainly on heifers and intact males. Ultrasound is a useful, low cost tool to easily obtain this information, with minimal animal stress. Effects of sex and days on feed on live weight (LW and ultrasound Longissimus muscle area (ULMA and subcutaneous fat thickness (UFAT measurements were evaluated in F1 Piedmont ´ Nelore, 27 heifers (HF and 27 intact males (IM. HF and IM had an initial LW of 256 ± 5.6 and 265 ± 5.6 kg, respectively, and were fed a diet containing 77% TDN for 131 days. LW, ULMA, and UFAT were evaluated at 28-d intervals. Interactions between sex and days on feed were found for all traits studied. LW increased linearly with days on feed, and IM had greater LW than HF throughout the trial. Mean initial ULMA was 55.8 and 55.5 cm² for HF and IM, respectively, and increased linearly until the end of the experiment (78.7 and 82.8 cm², respectively. IM showed higher ULMA than HF only in the last measurement. Initial UFAT averaged 0.04 and 0.4 mm for IM and HF, respectively, and increased linearly during the feeding period (2.4 and 4.3 mm, respectively. UFAT was higher n HF than in IM during the entire experimental period. IM showed faster growth rates and protein accretion than HF in the Longissimus muscle. HF showed faster subcutaneous fat accretion.Existem poucos dados na literatura sobre as alterações na composição corporal de bovinos Nelore e seus cruzamentos, especialmente em relação a novilhas (NOV e machos inteiros (MI. A ultra-sonografia é uma ferramenta útil para obter essa informação de forma fácil, com mínimo distúrbio ao animal e a baixo custo. Efeitos do sexo e dias de confinamento sobre o peso vivo (PV e a área do músculo Longissimus dorsi (AOLU e a espessura de gordura subcutânea (EGSU medidas por ultra-som, foram avaliadas em 27 novilhas e 27 machos inteiros, F1 Piemontês ´ Nelore. NOV

  8. Alternative models for detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for growth and carcass traits in pigs chromosomes 4, 5 and 7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraes Gonçalves, de T.; Nunes de Oliveira, H.; Bovenhuis, H.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Genome scans can be used to identify chromosomal regions and eventually genes that control quantitative traits (QTL) of economic importance. In an experimental cross between Meishan (male) and Dutch Large White and Landrace lines (female), 298 F1 and 831 F2 animals were evaluated for intramuscular f

  9. Palm Functional Traits: which traits matter and how do we measure them?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Balslev, Henrik; Barfod, Anders S.;

    role of palms in tropical forest ecosystems. We review data availability for palms for four traits that are commonly used in functional plant ecology: specific leaf area (SLA), wood density, seed size, and maximum height. We suggest that palm functional ecology is impeded by some of the standard...... functional traits being difficult to measure (e.g. SLA) or interpret (e.g. wood density). We show that an SLA measure can be easily obtained from dried specimens, and discuss the problems and opportunities of this approach compared to whole-leaf SLA measurements. Measuring SLA from herbarium samples may...

  10. The effect of the selection based on computer tomography on the carcass traits of Pannon white growing rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the help of CT based selection three rabbit groups were formed (progenies of the weakest '-', the best '+' and the second generation of the best bucks '++') on the basis of their L-value (average surface of the m. longissimus dorsi between the 2nd and 3rd and 4th and 5th lumbar vertebra). The differences were 5% in the L-value and 2% in the dressing percentage between the two extremes ('-' and '++' sel.). The carcass, the intermediate part and the hind part weight increased by 35, 22 and 14 g res. in the above mentioned order. The weight of the skin and gastrointestinal tract decreased by 17 and 23 g resp. There were no differences in the case of the fore part and edible organs. As a result of the two years selection by CT the L-value (18.35, 20.71 cm') and the dressing percentage (61.76, 63.77%) increased by 11 and 2 % resp. between the first and last stage of selection

  11. Comparison of growth performance and carcass traits of Japanese quails reared in conventional, pasture, and organic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Inci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT - This study was conducted to compare live weight, feed intake, feed conversion, mortality rate, and some carcass characteristics of Japanese quails reared under organic and conventional conditions. A total of 180 one-day-old quail chicks were randomly divided into six groups ― Conventional, consuming conventional feed ad libitum; Control (C, consuming organic feed ad libitum; C+P, consuming organic feed ad libitum + pasture; 80C+P, consuming 80% of control + pasture; 70C+P, consuming 70% of control + pasture; and 50C+P, consuming 50% of control + pasture ― with three replicates. The conventional group was kept for 6 weeks, while the control, C+P, 80C+P, 70C+P, and 50C+P groups were reared until the end of 10 weeks of age. Raising systems significantly affected live weight, feed intake, and feed conversion. The analysis showed that the meat yield of quail raised in organic conditions had better results than those raised in conventional conditions in terms of appearance, color, aroma, and flavor. The group consuming 50% of control plus pasture was more advantageous than the other organic groups and the conventional group at the end of the 10-week fattening period. The organic production system can be a good system to meet the demand of consumers who seek more natural products.

  12. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter of the ovine myostatin gene (MSTN) and their effect on growth and carcass muscle traits in New Zealand Romney sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Zhou, H; Hu, J; Li, S; Luo, Y; Hickford, J G H

    2016-06-01

    Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle growth and development in mammals, and variation in ovine myostatin gene (MSTN) has been demonstrated to be associated with variation in the muscularity of sheep. Polymerase chain reaction-single-stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) was used to look for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a 304-bp amplicon from the promoter region of ovine MSTN. Sequence analyses revealed two previously identified SNPs (c.-2449G/C and c. -2379T/C) that resulted in three haplotypes (H1 (c.[-2449G; -2379C]), H2 (c.[-2449C; -2379C]) and H3 (c.[-2449G; -2379T]). The effect of these SNPs on growth and carcass traits was investigated in 357 NZ Romney lambs. General linear mixed-effect models revealed that sheep with the genotype c.-2449GC had a higher loin meat yield (p = 0.032) and proportion loin yield (p = 0.028), than those with the genotype c.-2449GG. The genotype c.-2379CC was associated with an increase in three weight traits: birthweight (p = 0.003), tailing weight (p = 0.009) and weaning weight (p = 0.028), when compared with the genotype c.-2379TC, but it was not found to have an association with growth rate. This suggests that c.-2379T/C has an effect that originates at, or before birth. Haplotype H3 was associated with a decrease in birthweight (p = 0.002), tailing weight (p = 0.003) and weaning weight (p = 0.011). Haplotype H2 was associated with increased loin yield (p = 0.012) and proportion loin yield (p = 0.002). The SNPs may have value as genetic markers for improved Romney breeding. PMID:26081604

  13. Effects of genotype and dietary oil supplementation on performance, carcass traits, pork quality and fatty acid composition of backfat and intramuscular fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertol, T M; de Campos, R M L; Ludke, J V; Terra, N N; de Figueiredo, E A P; Coldebella, A; dos Santos Filho, J I; Kawski, V L; Lehr, N M

    2013-03-01

    A 42-day study was conducted to evaluate the effect of genotype: terminal sire line Duroc×F1 (DC×F1); terminal sire line Embrapa MS-115×F1 (MS-115×F1); and MS-115×Moura (MS-115×MO) and three dietary oil sources: soybean; canola; and canola+flax, on performance, carcass traits, pork quality, and fatty acid composition. Genotype affected the technological quality of pork and fatty acid profile. MS-115-sired pigs had better meat color and Duroc-sired pigs had higher intramuscular fat content, more saturated fat and better omega-6/omega-3 ratio. Moura breed influenced positively meat tenderness and intramuscular fat. Diet did not affect the technological quality of the meat. Canola or canola+flax oil diet supplementations increased monounsaturated and C18:3 and decreased C18:2 fatty acids, reducing the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The best omega-6/omega-3 ratio was obtained through supplementation with canola+flax. PMID:23273458

  14. Effects of chito-oligosaccharides and L-carnitine supplementation in diets for Japanese quails on performance, carcass traits and some blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tufan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine effects of dietary supplementation with chitosanoligosaccharides (COS and L-carnitine, individually or dually, on growth performance, carcass traits and some blood serum parameters in quails. A total of 192, four days old, Japanese quail chicks were allotted four groups, each of which included four replicates (12 birds per replicate. The groups received the same basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control, 150mg/kg chitosanoligosaccharides (COS, 150mg/kg L-carnitine (Carnitine, and 150 mg/kg chitosanoligosaccharides+150 mg/kg L-carnitine (COS+Car. during the starter (1 to 21 days and a grower (22 to 42 days period. The feeding trial shoved that COS, L-carnitine and COS+L-carnitine had no significant effect on live weight, live weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion. Supplementation with COS+L-carnitine induced higher leg ratio from than that of the Control. There were no differences on serum albumin, total protein, glucose and total cholesterol concentrations. It is concluded that due to the obtained higher leg ratio from COS+Car. group, after analysis of the profit and loss, if is economically profitable, chitosanoligosaccharides+L-carnitine could be added quail diets.

  15. Effects of stocking density on growth performance, carcass traits, and foot pad lesions of White Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, M; Jiang, Y; Tang, J; Wen, Z G; Huang, W; Hou, S S

    2014-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of stocking density on growth performance, carcass yield, and foot pad lesions of White Pekin ducks from hatch to 14 d of age (experiment 1) and from 14 to 42 d of age (experiment 2), respectively. All ducks were reared in raised plastic wire-floor pens with a pen size of 30 m(2), and males and females were mixed at a ratio of 1:1 in each pen of both experiments. In experiment 1, a total of 10,200 ducks that were 1 d old were allotted to 20 pens according to the stocking densities of 13, 15, 17, 19, and 21 birds/m(2) (or 8.4, 9.7, 10.9, 11.9, and 13.0 kg of actually achieved BW/m(2)), respectively, with 4 replicates per treatment. In experiment 2, a total of 3,150 ducks that were 14 d old were allotted to 15 pens according to the stocking densities of 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 birds/m(2) (or 17.0, 20.3, 23.6, 26.9, and 29.9 kg of actually achieved BW/m(2)), respectively, with 3 replicates per treatment. The stocking density had significant effects on final BW and weight gain of starter and growing ducks (P 0.05). The final BW and weight gain of starter and growing ducks all decreased with increasing density (P 0.05). PMID:24864281

  16. Evaluation of carcass traits, non-carcass components and 12th rib analysis of hair sheep supplemented with phosphorus Avaliação das características de carcaça, constituintes corporais e da 12ª costela de ovinos deslanados suplementados com fósforo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Louvandini

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of sheep supplemented with phosphorus (P using carcass traits and analysis of 12th rib. Twenty male lambs weighing 13.88 ± 2.51 kg and grazing Andropogon gayanus pasture were divided in two treatments of 10 animals each. In group P, animals were supplemented with 3 g phosphorus/animal/day, while in group NP no P supplementation was given. After 82 days the animals were slaughtered and carcass measurements were taken. The 12th rib was also removed for analysis. No significant differences in body weight, carcass yield, or commercial cut weights were found between both treatments, except for liver and kidneys that were heavier in the supplemented group (p=0.0954. The 12th rib analysis showed that the group P had higher rib, bone, and muscle weights when compared to animals not supplemented with P. Other measurements such as carcass fatness and rib eye area were not significantly affected by treatments as well as contents of crude protein, ether extract, ash and P. It was shown that P supplementation improved performance in young sheep, including bone and muscle tissue and liver and kidney weights.Este trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de avaliar o desempenho de ovinos suplementados com fósforo (P, utilizando-se as análises das características de carcaça e da 12ª costela. Foram utilizados 20 ovinos com 13,88 ± 2,51 kg de PV, mantidos em pastagem de Andropogon gayanus, distribuídos em dois tratamentos com dez animais: um com suplementação de 3g/fósforo/animal/dia e o outro sem suplementação. Após 82 dias, os animais foram abatidos, tomando-se as medidas da carcaça e da 12ª costela, para posterior análise. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os valores de peso vivo, rendimento de carcaça, cobertura de gordura e cortes comerciais entre os dois tratamentos, exceto os pesos do fígado e dos rins, que foram superiores (p=0,0954 no grupo suplementado. Na an

  17. Effect of dietary fat level on carcass traits and flesh quality of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax from mariculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Segato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the effect of the reduction of dietary fat on juvenile European sea bass nutritional value and quality traits. Fish were reared in floating cages (Trieste Gulf, Italy from July (11 to October (10. Two isoproteic diets were compared: LF (low fat, EE = 19.4% vs. HF (high fat, EE = 24.6%. No significantly different growth performance was observed. LF diet-fed fish were characterized by the reduction of celomatic fat (not edible fraction and by the increase in dressing percentage. The tested dietary fat level also affected both fillet and epiaxial white muscle proximate composition, resulting in a significantly lower fillet lipid concentration in LF diet-fed fish. Dietary treatment influenced cooked fillet colour and texture probably as a consequence of the different intramuscular fat deposition. Fillet from HF-fed fish, in fact, presented higher lightness (L* value and lower instrumental strengthness.

  18. Can Callous-Unemotional Traits be Reliably Measured in Preschoolers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimonis, Eva R; Fanti, Kostas A; Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia; Mertan, Biran; Goulter, Natalie; Katsimicha, Evita

    2016-05-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits designate an important subgroup of antisocial individuals at risk for early-starting, severe, and persistent conduct problems, but this construct has received limited attention among young children. The current study evaluated the factor structure, psychometric properties, and validity of scores on a comprehensive measure of CU traits, the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU), in relation to measures of antisocial/prosocial behavior and emotional processing, administered to preschool children. The sample included 214 boys (52 %) and girls (48 %, M age = 4.7, SD = 0.69) recruited from mainstream and high-risk preschools. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a two-factor structure including callous and uncaring dimensions from 12 of the 24 original ICU items. Scores on the parent- and teacher-reported ICU were internally consistent and combined CU scores showed expected associations with an alternate measure of CU traits and measures of empathy, prosocial behavior, conduct problems, and aggression. Preschool children high on CU traits were less accurate, relative to children scoring low, in recognizing facial expressions. They were also less attentionally engaged by images of others in distress when co-occurring conduct problems presented. Findings extend the literature by supporting the psychometric properties of the ICU among young children, and open several avenues for studying early precursors to this severe personality disturbance. PMID:26344015

  19. Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C)-A New Measure of Children's Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćkiewicz, Marta; Cieciuch, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In order to adjust personality measurements to children's developmental level, we constructed the Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C). To validate the measure, we conducted a study with a total group of 1028 children aged between 7 and 13 years old. Structural validity was established through Exploratory Structural Equation Model (ESEM). Criterion validity was confirmed with a multitrait-multimethod analysis for which we introduced the children's self-assessment scores from the Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Despite some problems with reliability, one can conclude that the PPTQ-C can be a valid instrument for measuring personality traits, particularly in a group of young children (aged ~7-10 years). PMID:27252661

  20. Efeito de diferentes níveis de proteína bruta na ração sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de cordeiros terminados em creep feeding Effects of feeding different crude protein levels on production and carcass traits of suffolk lambs in creep feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessé Siqueira Ortiz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com os objetivos de avaliar o efeito dos níveis de proteína bruta (15, 20 e 25% na ração concentrada sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de cordeiros Suffolk alimentados em creep feeding e analisar economicamente esse sistema de produção. Foram utilizados 15 cordeiros inteiros, nascidos de partos simples, alimentados ad libitum com as rações experimentais duas vezes ao dia. Estimaram-se o consumo de médio diário de ração, pelo cálculo da quantidade fornecida e das sobras; o ganho de peso, pela pesagem dos animais a cada 14 dias; o peso vivo ao abate (PVA dos cordeiros em jejum (16 horas; e o rendimento de carcaça quente, após abate e evisceração. O ganho médio diário foi influenciado pelos níveis de proteína, quando considerada a idade de abate como covariável. Não houve efeito significativo dos níveis de proteína sobre as características de carcaça. No sistema de alimentação e terminação de cordeiros Suffolk em creep feeding, a ração deve ser balanceada com 25% de proteína bruta, uma vez que esse nível proporcionou maior ganho de peso médio diário e não alterou as características de carcaça.This trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of different concentrate crude protein levels (15, 20 or 25% on production and carcass traits of Suffolk lambs in creep feeding. An economical analysis of the production system was also performed. Fifteen single birth lambs fed ad libitum twice a day were used in this study. The average daily intake was measured by subtracting the orts from the amount of feed offered to the animals. Lambs were weighed every fourteen days to determine body weight gain. To measure slaughter body weight (SW animals were fasted for 16 h and then weighted. After evisceration both hot carcass weight and yield were obtained. To determine cold carcass yield and cooling losses, carcasses were placed in a refrigerator at 5ºC for 24 hours and weighted

  1. Carcass traits, meat yield and fatty acid composition of adipose tissues and Supraspinatus muscle in goats fed blend of canola oil and palm oil

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyemi, K.D.; Ebrahimi, M; Samsudin, A. A.; Sabow, A. B.; Sazili, A. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary fats can alter the deposition and distribution of body fats in ruminants. The deposition and distribution of body fat play a vital role in the quality of ruminant carcasses and are of great commercial value since they influence the profitability and consumer acceptability of ruminant meat. The current study examined the effects of dietary blend of 80 % canola oil and 20 % palm oil (BCPO) on carcass characteristics, meat yield and accretion of fatty acid (FA) in subcutaneous...

  2. Trait Aspects of Vanity: Measurement and Relevance to Consumer Behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Richard G. Netemeyer; Burton, Scot; Lichtenstein, Donald R

    1995-01-01

    In this article, trait aspects of vanity are defined and scales measuring these aspects are developed. Extensive validation procedures are employed, including assessing the relationships between the vanity scales and numerous consumer-related attitudes and behaviors. Five studies, encompassing seven samples, are reported. Studies related the vanity measures to various constructs and behaviors for samples that included individuals selected for "Who's Who in America," players from a nationally ...

  3. Use of real-time ultrasound to evaluate live animal carcass traits in young performance-tested beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, R D; McKinnon, J J; Christensen, D A; Kohle, N; Belanger, A

    1997-09-01

    Young bulls were ultrasonically scanned to 1) study breed differences for 12th rib fat depth (USFAT) and longissimus muscle area (USREA), 2) evaluate the nature and predictability of USFAT and USREA development, and 3) determine the effect of age (YFAT and YREA, respectively) or weight (WREA) adjustments on USFAT and USREA. Angus (AA), Charolais (CH), Hereford (HH), Shorthorn (SS), and Simmental (SM) bulls (n = 886) were studied in 2 yr at two stations. Breed differences were observed for end of test USFAT (AA = SS > HH > CH = SM, P SS = AA > HH, P .05), but USREA development was linear (P < .05). Prediction equations were characterized by low r2 and high residual standard deviation (RSD) values, although those for d-84 USREA had r2 values from .63 to .70 and RSD values from 4.09 to 5.80 cm2. High associations were obtained between end of test USFAT with YFAT (r = .83 to .91, P < .05) and USREA with YREA (r = .74 to .84, P < .05) but not for end of test USREA with WREA (r = .31 to .56, P < .05). These results indicate that end of test ultrasound measurements may be a useful addition to performance testing programs. PMID:9303445

  4. Interrelationships between meat quality traits, texture measurements and physicochemical characteristics of M. rectus abdominis from Charolais heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oury, M P; Picard, B; Briand, M; Blanquet, J P; Dumont, R

    2009-10-01

    Ninety-nine Charolais heifers were used to study the variability of meat quality traits in relation to the physicochemical characteristics of M. rectus abdominis. The heifers of the same trade class were slaughtered at 33months of age (±4months) and 381kg carcass weight (±31kg). Muscle and bone development scores were evaluated before slaughter. Carcass weight, slaughter age and life average daily gain were recorded. Shear force measurements and meat quality traits were evaluated after 14days of aging. Some physicochemical characteristics were measured 24h post-slaughter. Tenderness was correlated with slaughter age (r=-0.31), bone development (r=-0.22) and life average daily gain (r=+0.37). Tenderness was significantly related to total collagen content (r=-0.24), lipid content (r=+0.27) and I myosin heavy chain proportion (r=+0.24). Juiciness was positively correlated with lipid content (r=+0.31) and I myosin heavy chain proportion (r=+0.20). Flavor intensity was correlated with lipid content (r=+0.26) and mean fiber area (r=+0.24). Shear force was correlated with total collagen, lipid and 27K proteasome sub-unit contents. Taking animal characteristics and muscle properties together in a multiple regression analysis increased the explained tenderness variability to 33%. The independent variables listed in order of importance were life average daily gain, total collagen content, bone development, lipid content, I myosin heavy chain isoform proportion, shear force of broiled meat and slaughter age. PMID:20416732

  5. Measuring individual and cultural differences in implicit trait theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, A Timothy; Ortiz, Fernando A; Katigbak, Marcia S; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V; Emerson, Alice M; Vargas Flores, José de Jesús; Ibáñez Reyes, Joselina

    2003-08-01

    A new measure of implicit theories or beliefs regarding the traitedness versus contextuality of behavior was developed and tested across cultures. In Studies 1 (N = 266) and 2 (N = 266), these implicit beliefs dimensions were reliably measured and replicated across U.S. college student samples and validity evidence was provided. In Study 3, their structure replicated well across an individualistic culture (the United States; N = 249) and a collectivistic culture (Mexico; N = 268). Implicit trait and contextual beliefs overlapped only modestly with implicit entity theory beliefs and were predicted by self-construals in ways that generally supported cultural psychology hypotheses. Implicit trait beliefs were fairly strongly endorsed in both cultures, suggesting that such beliefs may be universally held. PMID:12916574

  6. Desempenho e características de carcaça de cordeiros alimentados em comedouros privativos recebendo rações contendo semente de girassol Performance and carcass traits of lambs fed diets containing sunflower seed in creep feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de Paulo Macedo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desempenho e as características quali e quantitativas da carcaça de cordeiros alimentados com ração contendo semente de girassol. Utilizaram-se 16 cordeiros distribuídos aleatoriamente em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (0,00; 6,60; 13,20 ou 19,80% de semente de girassol na matéria natural, cada um com quatro repetições, totalizando 16 cordeiros. As dietas continham 2,65; 2,78; 2,89 e 2,93 Mcal/kg de energia metabolizável e 18,38; 18,75; 19,98 e 21,18% de proteína bruta, respectivamente, e foi fornecida ad libitum. Os cordeiros foram pesados a cada 14 dias e mantidos com as ovelhas até atingirem 28 kg, quando foram abatidos, após jejum de sólidos por 18 horas, para obtenção do peso vivo ao abate e registro do peso da carcaça quente e do conteúdo gastrintestinal, utilizados no cálculo do peso de corpo vazio. As carcaças foram mantidas por 24 horas em câmara frigorífica em temperatura de 5ºC para obtenção do peso de carcaça fria. Os níveis de semente de girassol na dieta não afetaram as características de desempenho dos cordeiros. No entanto, os pesos de carcaça quente e de carcaça fria; os pesos de pescoço, baixo, paleta, costela descoberta, costela, lombo; e os rendimentos comerciais de carcaça e costela descoberta, costela, lombo, paleta, pescoço e baixo sofreram efeito da adição da semente de girassol. O fornecimento de semente de girassol na dieta não influencia as características qualitativas e morfométricas da carcaça de cordeiros.Performance and quantitative and qualitative carcass traits of lambs fed with diets containing sunflower seed were evaluated. Sixteen lambs were randomly distributed to a completely randomized design with four diets (0.00, 6.60, 13.20 or 19.80% of sunflower seed, % as fed, with 4 replications. The diets contained 2.65, 2.78, 2.89 and 2.93 Mcal / kg of metabolize energy and 18.38, 18.75, 19.98 and 21.18% crude protein

  7. Using the occupational personality questionnaire (OPQ) for measuring broad traits

    OpenAIRE

    Deléne Visser; J. M. Du Toit

    2004-01-01

    The widespread acceptance of the Big Five model implies that personality consists of relatively independent dimensions that form a taxonomy whereby individual differences may be explained. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the subscales of an established personality inventory that measures narrow traits of personality, the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ), could be reduced meaningfully to fit a broad factor model within a South African context. The OPQ 5.2 conce...

  8. μ-Calpain, calpastatin, and growth hormone receptor genetic effects on preweaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in Angus cattle selected to increase minor haplotype and allele frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, R G; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; King, D A; Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Smith, T P L; Bennett, G L

    2014-02-01

    Genetic marker effects and interactions are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. An Angus population was subjected to marker assisted selection for multiple years to increase divergent haplotype and minor marker allele frequencies to 1) estimate effect size and mode of inheritance for previously reported SNP on targeted beef carcass quality traits; 2) estimate effects of previously reported SNP on nontarget performance traits; and 3) evaluate tenderness SNP specific residual variance models compared to a single residual variance model for tenderness. Divergent haplotypes within µ-calpain (CAPN1), and SNP within calpastatin (CAST) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) were successfully selected to increase their frequencies. Traits evaluated were birth BW, weaning BW, final BW, fat thickness, LM area, USDA marbling score, yield grade, slice shear force (SSF), and visible and near infrared predicted slice shear force. Both CAPN1 and CAST exhibited additive (P grade (P meat yield and less trimmable fat. There were no significant effects (P ≥ 0.23) for GHR on any of the traits evaluated in this study. Furthermore, CAST specific residual variance models were found to fit significantly better (P quality. PMID:24398843

  9. Effects of duration of zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of grain-fed cull cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strydom, P E; Smith, M F

    2010-04-01

    Several studies have shown that feeding of an energy-dense diet over short periods to cull cows could be profitable in terms of increased saleable yield and improved carcass conditions. Although the application of growth promoters, such as anabolic implants and beta agonists, in finishing of cull cows have been recorded, there is no conclusive evidence as to the timing and duration of beta agonists in cull cow production. In this study, 288 cull cows with four or more permanent incisors and varying weights and body conditions were divided into four treatment groups so that variation in age, weight and body condition were equally distributed among groups. One group received concentrate feed without any beta agonist (C), whereas the other three groups also received concentrate feed with zilpaterol hydrochloride (6 p.p.m.) for 20 (Z20), 30 (Z30) or 40 (Z40) days, respectively, followed by a 2-day withdrawal. Animals were adapted for 10 days on a grain-based diet and fed an additional 40 days before slaughter. Growth rate and efficiency (live and carcass), trimmed meat yield and meat tenderness (Warner Bratzler shear force and sensory) of the aged (10 days) m. longissimus thoracis (LT) and m. semitendinosus (ST) were recorded. In general, Z cows had higher carcass gains and efficiency of gain than C cows (P meat yields than C carcasses (P meat yield than 20 and 40 days supplementation. PMID:22444052

  10. Características quantitativas da carcaça de cordeiros de diferentes genótipos submetidos a duas dietas Quantitative traits of carcass from lambs of different genotypes submitted to two diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Queiroga Cartaxo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as características quantitativas de carcaça de cordeiros de diferentes genótipos recebendo diversos níveis de energia na dieta. Foram utilizados 54 cordeiros não-castrados, sendo 18 Santa Inês (SI, 18 F1Dorper × Santa Inês (Dp × SI e 18 F1 Santa Inês × Sem Raça Definida (SI × SRD, com idade média de 150 dias e peso médio de 22,60 kg no início do experimento. As dietas continham 17% de proteína bruta e 2,40 Mcal/kg MS ou 2,90 Mcal/kg MS. Os cordeiros alimentados com a dieta contendo 2,90 Mcal/kg MS apresentaram maior peso corporal e de carcaça, área de olho-de-lombo, percentual de gordura interna, índice de musculosidade, índice de compacidade da carcaça, percentual de gordura e menor relação músculo:gordura. As carcaças desses cordeiros obtiveram também menores perdas por resfriamento e maior peso e percentual de paleta e perna. As carcaças dos cordeiros Dorper × Santa Inês foram superiores em espessura de gordura subcutânea, medida GR (gordura sobre a 12ª costela a 11 cm de distância da linha média lombo, percentual de gordura, relação músculo:osso, índice de musculosidade, peso e percentual de lombo. Os cordeiros Santa Inês apresentaram maior relação músculo:gordura. A dieta e o genótipo influenciam as características quantitativas de carcaça de cordeiros.The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative carcass traits of lambs from different genotypes receiving different levels of energy in the diet. Fifty-four non-castrated lambs - 18 Santa Inês (SI, 18 F1Dorper × Santa Inês (Dp × SI and 18 F1Santa Inês × No defined breed (SI × NDB - of average 150 days old and 22.6-kg BW were used in the beginning of the experiment. Diets contained 17% crude protein and 2.40 Mcal/kg DM or 2.90 Mcal/kg DM. Lambs fed the diet containing 2.90 Mcal/kg DM showed higher final live and carcass weight, loin eye area, percentage of internal fat, muscularity index, compactness of the

  11. Estimación bayesiana de componentes de (covarianza en Brangus argentino para caracteres de res mediante el algoritmo FCG Bayesian estimation of (co variance components in Argentinian Brangus for carcass traits using the FCG algorithm

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    R. J. C. Cantet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se emplearon los datos de 2273 toritos y vaquillonas Brangus para estimar las heredabilidades (h² y las correlaciones aditivas y ambientales de caracteres de calidad de carne medidos por ultrasonido. Los registros provenían del programa de evaluación genética de la Asociación Argentina de Brangus. Los caracteres medidos fueron el área del ojo del bife (AOB, el marmoreado (MB, la grasa dorsal (GD y la grasa de cadera (GC. La edad media de los animales al momento de la medición fue 641 días en machos y 685 días en hembras. Los parámetros genéticos y ambientales fueron estimados mediante un algoritmo bayesiano conjugado. Los valores estimados de h² fueron 0,22, 0,16, 0,12 y 0,21, para AOB, GD, CC y MB, respectivamente. En términos generales, las estimaciones de las correlaciones genéticas y ambientales se encontraron cercanas a la cifra media de la literatura. Si bien los valores estimados de h² fueron inferiores al promedio de la investigación realizada en vacunos para carne, la variabilidad encontrada es suficiente como para que la respuesta a la selección por estos caracteres - empleando predicciones de los valores de cría calculadas con los parámetros estimados - sea moderadamente efectiva.Data on 2273 Brangus young bulls and heifers were used to estimate heritabilities (h² and genetics and environmental correlations for ultrasound carcass measures. Records were from the genetic evaluation program of Asociación Argentina de Brangus. Traits measured were rib-eye area (AOB, marbling (MB, back-fat thickness (GD, and hip-fat thickness (GC. Average ages of measure were 641 days in males and 685 in females. The genetic and environmental dispersion parameters were estimated by a conjugate Bayesian algorithm (FCG. Estimates of h² were 0,22, 0,16, 0,12, and 0,21, for AOB, GD, CC, and MB, respectively. In general, estimates of genetic and environmental correlations were close to the average published values. Even tough estimates of

  12. Características da carcaça e alometria dos tecidos de cabritos F1 Boer × Saanen Carcass traits and tissue allometry in Boer × Saanen kids

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    José Morais Pereira Filho

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar as características de carcaça e a alometria dos cortes comerciais e dos tecidos de cabritos F1 Boer × Saanen, 35 animais foram abatidos ao atingirem 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25 kg de peso vivo (PV. A dieta dos animais foi composta de leite de vaca nos primeiros 49 dias e ração à vontade do sétimo dia até o abate. Os cortes foram obtidos após o resfriamento da carcaça e a perna foi dissecada em músculo, osso e gordura. O PV teve efeito linear decrescente no rendimento de carcaça fria e na área de olho-de-lombo por kg de carcaça. Os pesos de perna, paleta e pescoço em relação à carcaça fria decresceram linearmente, mas houve efeito quadrático sobre o rendimento de costelas e lombo. O crescimento de paleta, pescoço e perna foi isométrico (b=1 ao do corpo, enquanto o das costelas e do lombo foi mais lento (b¹ 1. Os músculos da perna cresceram igualmente, a gordura mais lenta e os ossos mais rapidamente que a perna, enquanto o desenvolvimento da gordura subcutânea foi mais tardio que o da intermuscular. Para obtenção de carcaça de 8 a 11 kg com rendimento superior a 44%, boa proporção de músculo e gordura com menor perda durante o resfriamento, recomenda-se abater os animais com PV entre 20 e 25 kg, mas, se o objetivo for carcaça de menor peso, o abate dos animais deve ser feito ao final do aleitamento com aproximadamente 10 kg de peso corporal.Thirty-five male kids Boer × Saanen kids were shaughtered at 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25 kg BW to evaluate the carcass traits and commercial cuts and tissues allometry. The diet fed to the animas was composed by cow milk in the first 49 days and ad libitum ration from the seventh day until slaughter. The cuts were obtained after cooling of the carcass and the leg dissected in muscle, bone and fat. The body weight showed a negative linear effect on cold carcass dressing and the loin-eye area/kg of carcass. The weights of leg, shoulder and neck in relation to cold carcass

  13. Características de carcaça, componentes não-carcaça e composição tecidual e química da 12ª costela de cordeiros Santa Inês terminados em pasto com três gramíneas no período seco Carcass traits, non-carcass components and tissues and chemical composition the 12th rib of Santa Inês sheep finished on three different grasses during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luizângele Figueiredo de Oliveira Menezes

    2008-07-01

    mais satisfatório em comparação aos terminados em pasto de capim-andropogon.Carcass traits, non-carcass components and 12th rib yield of Santa Inês sheep finished in rotational grazing with three different tropical grasses (A. gayanus Kunth. cv. Planaltina, P. maximum Jacq. cv. Aruana and P. maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania were evaluated in the dry season of the year. A completely randomized design with 11 sheep (3 months old and 18.8 ± 2.88 kg LW in each treatment was used. Animals were supplemented with increasing levels of concentrate, as advancing of the dry season, besides ad libitum mineral salt. At the end of 82 days of experiment, the animals were slaughtered, in the previous day of the slaughter; loin eye area (LYA was measured using ultra-sound (EMUS. Carcasses were evaluated for slaughter weight (SW, hot carcass weight (HCW, hot carcass dressing (HCD, carcass length (CL, subcutaneous fat score (SFATS, hot half carcass weight (HHCW, half carcass cuts (Rib/Belly, Rack, Back, Shoulder, Leg and Neck, skin weight (SKIN, thoracic (TV and abdominal (AV viscera and testicular (TE. The 12th rib was evaluated for total weight (TW, LYA, amount and percentage of muscle (MUSC, bone (BONE and fat (FAT as well as chemical composition. The characteristics SW, HCD, HHCW, SKIN and FAT did not differ between animals finished on Aruana and Tanzania grass, however were superior to those on andropogon grass. The yields on Neck, Rib/Belly and Rack in animals finished in tanzânia grass was superior to those on andropogon grass and aruana grass, which did not differ between itself. The other carcass traits, non-carcass components and 12th rib analyses did not differ between treatments. Sheep kept on aruana grass and tanzania grass howed better carcass traits with more satisfactory production levels when compared to the animals finished on andropogon grass.

  14. Study of Candidate Genes for production and carcass traits in Italian Heavy Pigs: identification of a new DNA Markers, Expression Studies and Association Analysis using Different Experimental Design

    OpenAIRE

    Bertolini, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Heavy pig breeding in Italy is mainly oriented for the production of high quality processed products. Of particular importance is the dry cured ham production, which is strictly regulated and requires specific carcass characteristics correlated with green leg characteristics. Furthermore, as pigs are slaughtered at about 160 kg live weight, the Italian pig breeding sector faces severe problems of production efficiency that are related to all biological aspects linked to growth, feed conversio...

  15. Feeding systems and periods of finishing on the body and carcass measurements of lambs slaughtered in the South Central region of the Paraná

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    Odilei Rogerio Prado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the effect of feeding system and time of the year on the in vivo and carcass characteristics of lambs slaughtered at the Cooperative Cooperaliança (Guarapuava-PR. Ile de France lambs and their crossbreds (n=253 were evaluated at slaughter with 39.6 kg of mean body weight in three periods between April and September 2010. Four feeding systems for finishing of lambs were identified: a grazing dams + lambs with creep-feeding for lambs (n=67; b no supplemented, grazing dams + lambs (n=47; c grazing dams + lambs, all of them supplemented with concentrate (n=30; d irregular system of feeding (n=109. Measurements on lambs were carried out in vivo and by ultrasound before slaughter and the carcass measurements were taken before and after chilling. Lambs delivered for slaughter between the end of August and the first half of September showed better results (p <0.05 for muscle development, dressing percentage and fat thickness in the carcass compared to that slaughtered in April and June. It was concluded that the feeding system with supplementation for dams and sucking lambs resulted in better characteristics for body and carcass measurements compared to other systems.

  16. Evaluation of DNA polymorphisms involving growth hormone relative to growth and carcass characteristics in Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, V R; Thomas, M G; Franke, D E; Silver, G A

    2006-01-01

    Associations of DNA polymorphisms in growth hormone (GH) relative to growth and carcass characteristics in growing Brahman steers (N = 324 from 68 sires) were evaluated. Polymorphisms were an Msp-I RFLP and a leucine/valine SNP in the GH gene as well as a Hinf-I RFLP and a histidine/arginine SNP in transcriptional regulators of the GH gene, Pit-1 and Prop-1. Genotypic frequencies of the GH SNP, Pit-1 RFLP, and Prop-1 SNP were greater than 88% for one of the bi-allelic homozygous genotypes. Genotypic frequencies for the GH Msp-I RFLP genotypes were more evenly distributed with frequencies of 0.43, 0.42, and 0.15 for the genotypes of +/+, +/-, and -/-, respectively. Mixed model analyses of growth and carcass traits with genotype and contemporary group serving as fixed effects and sire fitted as a random effect suggested that sire was a significant source of variation (P carcass yield, and marbling score. However, measures of growth and carcass traits were similar across GH Msp-I genotypes as steers were slaughtered when fat thickness was estimated to be approximately 1.0 cm. These polymorphisms within the GH gene and/or its transcriptional regulators do not appear to be informative predictors of growth and carcass characteristics in Brahman steers. This is partly due to the high level of homozygosity of genotypes. These findings do not eliminate the potential importance of these polymorphisms as predictors of growth and carcass traits in Bos taurus or Bos taurus x Bos indicus composite cattle. PMID:17117358

  17. Relationships between nutrient-related plant traits and combinations of soil N and P fertility measures.

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    Yuki Fujita

    Full Text Available Soil fertility and nutrient-related plant functional traits are in general only moderately related, hindering the progress in trait-based prediction models of vegetation patterns. Although the relationships may have been obscured by suboptimal choices in how soil fertility is expressed, there has never been a systematic investigation into the suitability of fertility measures. This study, therefore, examined the effect of different soil fertility measures on the strength of fertility-trait relationships in 134 natural plant communities. In particular, for eight plot-mean traits we examined (1 whether different elements (N or P have contrasting or shared influences, (2 which timescale of fertility measures (e.g. mineralization rates for one or five years has better predictive power, and (3 if integrated fertility measures explain trait variation better than individual fertility measures. Soil N and P had large mutual effects on leaf nutrient concentrations, whereas they had element-specific effects on traits related to species composition (e.g. Grime's CSR strategy. The timescale of fertility measures only had a minor impact on fertility-trait relationships. Two integrated fertility measures (one reflecting overall fertility, another relative availability of soil N and P were related significantly to most plant traits, but were not better in explaining trait variation than individual fertility measures. Using all fertility measures together, between-site variations of plant traits were explained only moderately for some traits (e.g. 33% for leaf N concentrations but largely for others (e.g. 66% for whole-canopy P concentration. The moderate relationships were probably due to complex regulation mechanisms of fertility on traits, rather than to a wrong choice of fertility measures. We identified both mutual (i.e. shared and divergent (i.e. element-specific and stoichiometric effects of soil N and P on traits, implying the importance of explicitly

  18. Relationships between nutrient-related plant traits and combinations of soil N and P fertility measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yuki; van Bodegom, Peter M; Witte, Jan-Philip M

    2013-01-01

    Soil fertility and nutrient-related plant functional traits are in general only moderately related, hindering the progress in trait-based prediction models of vegetation patterns. Although the relationships may have been obscured by suboptimal choices in how soil fertility is expressed, there has never been a systematic investigation into the suitability of fertility measures. This study, therefore, examined the effect of different soil fertility measures on the strength of fertility-trait relationships in 134 natural plant communities. In particular, for eight plot-mean traits we examined (1) whether different elements (N or P) have contrasting or shared influences, (2) which timescale of fertility measures (e.g. mineralization rates for one or five years) has better predictive power, and (3) if integrated fertility measures explain trait variation better than individual fertility measures. Soil N and P had large mutual effects on leaf nutrient concentrations, whereas they had element-specific effects on traits related to species composition (e.g. Grime's CSR strategy). The timescale of fertility measures only had a minor impact on fertility-trait relationships. Two integrated fertility measures (one reflecting overall fertility, another relative availability of soil N and P) were related significantly to most plant traits, but were not better in explaining trait variation than individual fertility measures. Using all fertility measures together, between-site variations of plant traits were explained only moderately for some traits (e.g. 33% for leaf N concentrations) but largely for others (e.g. 66% for whole-canopy P concentration). The moderate relationships were probably due to complex regulation mechanisms of fertility on traits, rather than to a wrong choice of fertility measures. We identified both mutual (i.e. shared) and divergent (i.e. element-specific and stoichiometric) effects of soil N and P on traits, implying the importance of explicitly

  19. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality: Gender-Invariant Linkages Across Different Measures of the Big Five.

    OpenAIRE

    Siegling, A. B.; A. Furnham; Petrides, K V

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invari...

  20. A SNP Harvester Analysis to Better Detect SNPs of CCDC158 Gene That Are Associated with Carcass Quality Traits in Hanwoo

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jea-Young; Lee, Jong-Hyeong; Yeo, Jung-Sou; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate interaction effects of genes using a Harvester method. A sample of Korean cattle, Hanwoo (n = 476) was chosen from the National Livestock Research Institute of Korea that were sired by 50 Korean proven bulls. The steers were born between the spring of 1998 and the autumn of 2002 and reared under a progeny-testing program at the Daekwanryeong and Namwon branches of NLRI. The steers were slaughtered at approximately 24 months of age and carcass quali...

  1. Características de carcaça determinadas por ultrassonografia em tempo real e pós-abate de cordeiros terminados em confinamento com diferentes níveis de energia na dieta¹ Carcass traits determined by ultrasonography in real time and after slaughter of lambs finished in fedlot with diferent levels of energy in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Queiroga Cartaxo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as características de carcaça por ultrassonografia em tempo real e após o abate e a relação entre essas características e os rendimentos de carcaça de cordeiros de diferentes genótipos terminados em confinamento com diversos níveis de energia na dieta. Foram utilizados 54 cordeiros não-castrados - 18 Santa Inês puros (SI, 18 ½Dorper x ½Santa Inês (Dp x SI e 18 ½Santa Inês x ½Sem Raça Definida (SI x SRD - com média de 150 dias de idade e peso médio de 22,60 kg no início do experimento. As dietas continham 17% de proteína bruta e 2,40 Mcal/kg MS e 2,90 Mcal/kg MS. As mensurações realizadas por ultrassonografia e diretamente na carcaça dos cordeiros apresentaram resultados similares. Os cordeiros alimentados com a dieta contendo 2,90 Mcal/kg apresentaram maior área de olho-de-lombo, melhor conformação e acabamento de carcaça e maior quantidade de gordura pélvico-renal. Os cordeiros Dp x SI apresentaram maior área de olho-de-lombo e musculosidade por 100 kg de PV em comparação aos SI x SRD e foram superiores a todos os genótipos quanto à espessura de gordura subcutânea, à conformação e ao acabamento de carcaça. O marmoreio observado nos cordeiros Dp x SI foi superior aos dos Santa Inês. As correlações das medidas tomadas por ultrassonografia e na carcaça foram altas e significativas, exceto o marmoreio. Houve correlação significativa entre conformação da carcaça e acabamento, marmoreio, espessura de gordura subcutânea e gordura pélvico-renal. As gorduras de cobertura avaliadas subjetivamente e objetivamente apresentaram correlações altas e significativas. A dieta e o genótipo influenciam as características de carcaça de cordeiros.The objective of this study was to evaluate carcass traits through ultrasonography in real time and after slaughter and the relationship between these traits and carcass yields of lambs with different genotypes finished in feedlot with several

  2. Effects of pelvic suspension of beef carcasses on quality and physical traits of five muscles from four gender-age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnström, Maria Lundesjö; Hunt, Melvin C; Lundström, Kerstin

    2012-03-01

    Pelvic and Achilles suspension methods for beef carcasses were compared for four gender-age groups (24month bulls, 34month bulls, heifers, and cows) and five muscles [M. longissimus dorsi (LD), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. adductor (AD), M. psoas major (PM), and M. gluteus medius (GM)]. Pelvic suspension increased muscle and sarcomere lengths in the SM, LD, GM, and AD muscles. The following effects were significant (pforce was reduced by pelvic suspension in the LD and GM of bulls-24 and bulls-34, but not heifers and cows. Furthermore, peak forces decreased for the SM after pelvic suspension in bulls-24, bulls-34, and heifers. For the AD, the only decrease in peak force was for bulls-34. Water-holding capacity increased and purge in vacuum bags decreased for pelvic suspension of all muscles except the PM. Although the effects of pelvic suspension varied somewhat between gender-age groups and muscles, this method of hanging carcasses merits industrial consideration because it improves muscle yields, tenderness, and reduces variation within muscles. PMID:22077997

  3. SNP- and haplotype-based genome-wide association studies for growth, carcass, and meat quality traits in a Duroc multigenerational population

    OpenAIRE

    SATO, Shuji; Uemoto, Yoshinobu; Kikuchi, Takashi; EGAWA, Sachiko; Kohira, Kimiko; Saito, Tomomi; Sakuma, Hironori; Miyashita, Satoshi; Arata, Shinji; Kojima, Takatoshi; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to compare the power of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genome-wide association study (GWAS) and haplotype-based GWAS for quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection, and to detect novel candidate genes affecting economically important traits in a purebred Duroc population comprising seven-generation pedigree. First, we performed a simulation analysis using real genotype data of this population to compare the power (based on the null hypothes...

  4. Características da carcaça de bovinos Canchim e Aberdeen Angus e de seus cruzamentos recíprocos terminados em confinamento Carcass traits of Canchim, Aberdeen Angus and reciprocal crosses finished in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Perotto

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas quatorze características quantitativas das carcaças de 137 machos bovinos inteiros pertencentes aos grupos Canchim (Ca, Aberdeen Angus (Ab, 3/4Ca+1/4Ab, 3/4Ab+1/4Ca, 5/8Ca+3/8Ab e 5/8Ab+3/8Ca, nascidos na Estação Experimental Fazenda Modelo, em Ponta Grossa-PR, no período de 1988 a 1993. As médias para a idade e para o peso ao início do confinamento, duração do confinamento, idade e peso ao abate foram, respectivamente, 737 dias, 356kg, 97 dias, 834 dias e 468kg. Durante o confinamento, os garrotes receberam silagem de milho à vontade mais uma ração concentrada (79% de NDT, 17,8% de PB fornecida à base de 1% do peso vivo do animal por dia. Os grupos Ca e Ab diferiram entre si para todas as características, exceto para percentagem de costilhar (PEC. O Ca foi superior ao Ab para peso de carcaça quente (PCQ, rendimento de carcaça quente (RCQ, área de olho de lombo (AOL, conformação, percentagem de músculos (PEM, peso da porção comestível da carcaça (PPC e peso de carcaça quente por dia de vida ao abate (PCQ/DDV. O Ab superou o Ca quanto à espessura de gordura de cobertura (ECG e à percentagem de gordura (PEG. Houve heterose para PCQ, RCQ, AOL, PPC e PCQ/DDV. As duas gerações avançadas de cruzamentos alternados Ca x Ab apresentaram desempenho superior à média das raças paternas para PCQ, RCQ, AOL, PPC e PCQ/DDV. O desempenho de um esquema alternado de cruzamentos entre Ca e Ab seria melhor que o de qualquer dessas duas criada isoladamente.Fourteen quantitative carcass traits of 137 Canchim; 5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu, (Ca, Aberdeen Angus (Ab, 3/4Ca+1/4Ab, 3/4Ab+1/4Ca, 5/8Ca+3/8Ab and 5/8Ab+3/8Ca, born at Est. Exp. Fazenda Modelo, in Ponta Grossa-PR, Brazil, from 1988 to 1993, were analyzed. Averages for age at beginning of confinement, initial weight, length of confinement period, final age and final weight were, respectively, 737 days, 356kg, 97 days, 834 days and 468kg. During the confinement period

  5. State and trait measures in the affective disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Svanborg, Pär

    1999-01-01

    Background: Personality 'traits' refer to stability, consistency and repeated occurrence of actions while psychiatric 'states' concern the varying part of human behaviour. States are often associated with matter and body, and with biological causes, and 'traits' and 'personality' with 'mind', and with psychological and social causes. In a semantic, conceptual meaning, the concepts of 'states' and 'traits', and 'body' and 'mind' are opposites, and mutually exclusive. Howe...

  6. Desempenho, parâmetros plasmáticos e características de carcaça de novilhos alimentados com farelo de girassol e diferentes fontes energéticas, em confinamento Performance, plasma parameters and carcass traits of steers fed diet with sunflower meal and different energy sources, in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosália Mendes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se consumo, desempenho, parâmetros plasmáticos e características de carcaça de 24 novilhos, 3/4 Simental 1/4 Nelore, com peso médio inicial de 370 kg. As dietas foram compostas por 55% de silagem de milho e diferentes fontes energéticas: milho (MI e substituição parcial do milho pela casca de soja (CS ou pelo farelo de gérmen de milho (FGM, tendo como fonte de proteína o farelo de girassol. O período de avaliação de consumo e ganho de peso foi de 49 dias. Foram realizadas amostragens de sangue para mensuração dos parâmetros plasmáticos: glicose, uréia, proteína total e albumina. As meia-carcaças direitas resfriadas foram utilizadas para medir a área de olho de lombo (AOL, a espessura de gordura (EG e o comprimento de carcaça. As dietas não influenciaram os parâmetros plasmáticos. A média obtida para uréia plasmática foi elevada (26,1 mg/dL. As diferentes fontes energéticas não afetaram o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar, com médias de 1,15 kg/dia e 9,17 kg de MS ingerida/kg de ganho. Não houve efeito sobre o rendimento de carcaça (52,8% peso final e 63,11% PCV, AOL (63,6 cm² e EG (4,7 mm. O grão de milho pode ser substituído parcialmente pela casca de soja e pelo farelo de gérmen de milho, em dietas para novilhos em confinamento, sem afetar o desempenho e as características de carcaça, permitindo que a escolha entre esses ingredientes seja realizada pela análise econômica.Performance, plasmatic parameters and carcass traits of 24 3/4 Simmental 1/4 Nellore steers with 370 kg initial average weight was evaluated. The experimental diets were composed by corn silage (55% and concentrate with sunflower meal as protein source and ground corn as energy source (MI. Ground corn was partially substituted by soybean hulls (CS or by corn meal (FGM. The period of intake and average weight gain evaluation was 49 days. Blood samples were collected to measure plasmatic parameters: glucose, urea, total

  7. Correlações simples entre as medidas de ultra-som e a composição da carcaça de bovinos jovens Correlations between ultrasound measurements and carcass composition of young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Suguisawa

    2006-02-01

    traits of 115 steers (Nellore, ½ Angus-Nellore, ½ Simmental-Nellore, and Canchim averaging 329 kg of initial body weight and two different finishing frame sizes (small and large. After 120 days in a feedlot, body weight, rib eye area (RA, and fat thickness (FT were measured by ultrasound. Following slaughter, carcass RA and FT measurements and weights of hindquarter, forequarter, and commercial cuts were all taken; body composition was also determined. Yields of carcass, retail cuts, and hindquarter as well as ratios of ultrasound RA per 100 kg of body weight and ultrasound RA per 100 kg of carcass weight were calculated. Data showed higher muscle deposition in ½ Simental-Nellore and Canchim and greater fat deposition in Nellore while ½ Angus-Nellore steers combined both characteristics. According to the results, RA was a good indicator of the proportion of muscle present in the carcass and selection for increasing carcass RA may decrease FT because of the negative correlation between FT and hindquarter percentage and RA. Frame size did not affect carcass composition possibly due to the small variation between both groups. Because correlations of measured and ultrasound RA and FT with carcass components yielded similar results, it was possible to validate ultrasound measurements to predict carcass composition of young bulls.

  8. Desempenho e características de carcaça de cordeiros Suffolk alimentados com diferentes volumosos Performance and carcass traits of Suffolk lambs fed with different roughages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antonio da Cunha

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Cordeiros da raça Suffolk, desmamados aos 60 dias e confinados, foram alimentados com silagem de milho, silagem de sorgo granífero ou feno de Coast cross (Cynodon dactylon L. Pears e ração concentrada (3,5% do peso vivo, com o objetivo de avaliar seu desempenho, a proporção dos componentes-não-carcaça e o rendimento e características das suas carcaças. Foi utilizado um delineamento completamente casualizado em esquema fatorial (três alimentos volumosos e dois sexos. Os animais alimentados com silagem de milho ou de sorgo mostraram maior (P0,05 pelo tipo de alimento, contudo, os animais alimentados com silagem de milho apresentaram carcaças com maior (P0,05 na proporção de músculos (60,0 e 60,7%. A silagem de sorgo pode substituir a silagem de milho para cordeiros confinados, contudo o uso do feno de gramínea reduz o seu desempenho.Suffolk lambs, weaned at 60 days, were raised in slatted floor pens and fed corn silage, sorghum silage or Coast cross hay (Cynodon dactylon L. Pears plus concentrate ration (3,5% of live weight to evaluate their performance, proportion of non-carcass components and carcass dressing and traits. A completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement (tree roughage feed X two sexes was used. Lambs fed corn silage or sorghum silage showed greater (P0.05 between feeds, although, lambs fed corn silage showed greater (P0.05 in proportion of muscle (60.0 and 60.7%. Sorghum silage can replace corn silage for feedlot lambs, but grass hay feeding worsens their performance.

  9. 牛组织蛋白D基因多态性与肉质、胴体性状的关联分析%Polymorphisms in CTSD Gene and Associations with Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓桂馨; 许尚忠; 高雪; 李俊雅; 高会江; 袁峥嵘; 周正奎; 黄萌; 李姣

    2011-01-01

    4 exons of CTSD gene from 51 Simmental×Luxi catties were amplified and sequenced. 4 SNPs were identified at position 581,599,861 and 1128 bp of CTSD gene(NM 001166521. 1) by sequencing. The effects of 4 mutations on meat quality and carcass traits were analyzed by using general linear model. The results showed that T581C polymorphism significantly associated with marbling trait(P<0. 05). Genotype of BB had better marbling grade than AA and AB genotypes. Thus T581C might be a good marker for marbling traits.%以51头西门塔尔和鲁西黄牛的杂交后代作为试验动物,扩增组织蛋白酶D(cathepsinD,CTSD)基因部分外显子,通过DNA测序方法检测到该基因第5、6、8外显子共4个SNPs(T581C、T599C、A861T、A1128G)的遗传变异.SAS软件采用最小二乘法拟合线性模型,将几个位点的不同基因型与牛肉质、胴体性状进行关联分析.结果表明,位于CTSD基因外显子5的T581C突变与大理石纹性状呈显著相关(P<0.05),BB基因型显著优于AA和AB基因型,这为T581C作为肉牛大理石纹的分子标记提供了一定的理论依据.

  10. Effects of photostimulatory light intensity on ovarian morphology and carcass traits at sexual maturity in modern and antique egg-type pullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renema, R A; Robinson, F E; Oosterhoff, H H; Feddes, J J; Wilson, J L

    2001-01-01

    The effects of light intensity during sexual maturation on ovarian and carcass morphology at first oviposition [sexual maturity (SM)] were examined in two Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) strains. A modern commercial layer strain (COMM; Shaver Starcross 288) and an antique randombred control strain (ANT) were used to compare the effects of changes in laying stock on their response to varying light intensities from photostimulation (PS) until SM. Two hundred pullets from each strain were reared following COMM breeder guidelines. At 18 wk of age, 32 COMM and 32 ANT pullets were individually caged in individually lit cages and photostimulated with light intensities of 1, 5, 50, and 500 lx. Each bird was processed when it reached SM, and carcass and ovarian morphology were assessed. The ANT birds came into production 9.1 d later than the COMM birds, on average. The ANT pullets consumed 7.0% more feed per day than COMM pullets but gained at a slower rate (ANT = 12.9 g/d; COMM = 15.0 g/d). The ANT birds reached SM at a greater weight and with a smaller ovary than did COMM birds. Although the number of large yellow follicles (LYF) was similar between strains (mean = 6.72), both LYF weight and first egg weight were lower in ANT birds than in COMM birds. The COMM layer strain was more growth efficient and had a greater emphasis on ovary maintenance. Light intensity had no effect on the timing of SM or on BW at SM, indicating that all intensities used were effectively able to stimulate the sexual maturation process. However, ovary weight and number of LYF exhibited an increasing dose response to light intensity, particularly in the COMM birds. Overall, the birds photostimulated with 1 lx of light had reduced ovary development and were heavier than their counterparts exposed to 50 and 500 lx. Within the ANT strain, LYF numbers were not significantly affected by light intensities, whereas, within the COMM strain, LYF numbers were 4.88, 6.63, 7.88, and 8.13 for the 1-, 5-, 50

  11. Mapeamento de locos de características quantitativas no cromossomo 6, associados às características de carcaça e de órgãos internos de suínos Mapping of quantitative trait loci for carcass traits and internal organs in swine chromosome 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrin Vieira Pires

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de mapear locos de características quantitativas (QTLs associados às características de carcaça e de órgão internos, uma população composta de 550 animais F2 foi produzida a partir do intercruzamento da geração F1, obtida pelo cruzamento divergente de dois machos da raça nativa brasileira Piau com 18 fêmeas comerciais. Os animais foram genotipados para 13 marcadores microssatélites distribuídos no cromossomo 6. As características avaliadas foram: comprimento de carcaça pelos métodos brasileiro e americano, peso e rendimento de carcaça, espessura de toucinho na região da copa, espessura de toucinho imediatamente após a última costela, espessura de toucinho entre a última e a penúltima vértebra lombar, menor espessura de toucinho na região acima da última vértebra lombar, espessura de toucinho imediatamente após a última costela, a 6,5 cm da linha dorso-lombar, espessura de toucinho média (geral = estimada a partir da média de todas as espessuras de toucinho citadas anteriormente; e dorso-lombar = estimada a partir das espessuras de toucinho tomadas na linha dorso-lombar do animal, espessura de bacon, profundidade de lombo, área de olho-de-lombo, pesos de órgãos internos (coração, pulmões, fígado, baço e rim e comprimento de intestino. Utilizou-se o método de regressão por intervalo de mapeamento por meio do programa QTL Express. Foram encontrados QTLs sugestivos para as características de comprimento de carcaça pelo método brasileiro e espessura de bacon e QTL significativo para peso do rim. Nos intervalos dos picos da estatística F em que se encontraram QTLs sugestivos, devem ser incluídos mais marcadores para se confirmar a real presença de QTL.A total of the 550 F2 animals produced by divergent cross using two sires of the native Brazilian breed named Piau and 18 commercial dams were genotyped for 13 microsatellite markers in swine chromosome 6. The traits evaluated were: carcass

  12. A selective genotyping approach identifies single nucleotide polymorphisms in porcine chromosome 2 genes associated with production and carcass traits in Italian heavy pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Russo; Luca Buttazzoni; Camilla Speroni; Emilio Scotti; Luca Fontanesi

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have shown that porcine chromosome 2 (SSC2) harbors important quantitative trait loci (QTL) for production traits. In particular, an imprinted QTL for muscle mass production is determined by a mutation in the IGF2 gene (intron3-g.3072G>A). We recently identified and analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes (cathepsin D, CTSD g.70G>A; cathepsin F, CTSF g.22G>C; lactate dehydrogenase A, LDHA g.46G>T) localized on SSC2 (including the IGF2 intron3-g.3072G>A SNP) sh...

  13. Prediction of lean meat proportion of lamb carcasses

    OpenAIRE

    Cadavez, Vasco

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify a reduced pertinent set of variables from an original set of 18 carcass measurements and the development of linear regression models to predict lean meat yield of lamb carcasses. Forty- six male lambs, 26 of Churro Galego Bragançano Portuguese local breed and 20 of Suffolk breed were used. Lambs were slaughtered and carcasses were weighed approximately 30 min after slaughter in order to obtain hot carcass weight (HCW). After cool...

  14. Refining Trait Resilience: Identifying Engineering, Ecological, and Adaptive Facets from Extant Measures of Resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Maltby

    Full Text Available The current paper presents a new measure of trait resilience derived from three common mechanisms identified in ecological theory: Engineering, Ecological and Adaptive (EEA resilience. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of five existing resilience scales suggest that the three trait resilience facets emerge, and can be reduced to a 12-item scale. The conceptualization and value of EEA resilience within the wider trait and well-being psychology is illustrated in terms of differing relationships with adaptive expressions of the traits of the five-factor personality model and the contribution to well-being after controlling for personality and coping, or over time. The current findings suggest that EEA resilience is a useful and parsimonious model and measure of trait resilience that can readily be placed within wider trait psychology and that is found to contribute to individual well-being.

  15. Aspectos genético-quantitativos de características de desempenho, carcaça e composição corporal em frangos Genetic-quantitative aspects of performance, carcass and body composition traits in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila de Genova Gaya

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Os parâmetros genéticos são ferramentas importantes para se conhecer melhor as características utilizadas nos programas de melhoramento genético e para a avaliação do plano de seleção empregado, permitindo o direcionamento das estratégias a serem aplicadas. As características de desempenho e de carcaça vêm sendo utilizadas como critério durante a seleção genética dos frangos, a exemplo do peso vivo, do peso de peito e da conversão alimentar. Entretanto, algumas características de composição corporal vêm trazendo entraves para a produção e a indústria avícolas, especialmente o peso da gordura e o peso do coração. Assim, nesta revisão, são abordados os principais aspectos relacionados aos parâmetros genéticos das características de desempenho, de carcaça e de composição corporal em frangos com o objetivo de proporcionar um melhor entendimento das conseqüências trazidas pelos esquemas de seleção empregados e suas implicações na cadeia produtiva destes animais.Genetic parameters are important tools to know better the traits used in animal breeding programs and for assessment of the employed selection plan. Then, these parameters allow the establishment of strategies to be used in these programs. The performance and carcass traits are being used as criteria during broiler genetic selection, as body weight, breast weight and feeding conversion ratio. However, some of the body composition traits represent obstacles for avian production and processing, especially fat content and heart weight. Thus, in this review, the main aspects related to genetic parameters of these traits in broiler are addressed to provide a better understanding of the consequences brought from selection schemes employed and its involvement on the avian production.

  16. Refining Trait Resilience: Identifying Engineering, Ecological, and Adaptive Facets from Extant Measures of Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    John Maltby; Liz Day; Sophie Hall

    2015-01-01

    The current paper presents a new measure of trait resilience derived from three common mechanisms identified in ecological theory: Engineering, Ecological and Adaptive (EEA) resilience. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of five existing resilience scales suggest that the three trait resilience facets emerge, and can be reduced to a 12-item scale. The conceptualization and value of EEA resilience within the wider trait and well-being psychology is illustrated in terms of differing r...

  17. Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C)—A New Measure of Children's Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćkiewicz, Marta; Cieciuch, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In order to adjust personality measurements to children's developmental level, we constructed the Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C). To validate the measure, we conducted a study with a total group of 1028 children aged between 7 and 13 years old. Structural validity was established through Exploratory Structural Equation Model (ESEM). Criterion validity was confirmed with a multitrait-multimethod analysis for which we introduced the children's self-assessment scores from the Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Despite some problems with reliability, one can conclude that the PPTQ-C can be a valid instrument for measuring personality traits, particularly in a group of young children (aged ~7–10 years). PMID:27252661

  18. Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C – a new measure of children’s personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eMaćkiewicz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to adjust personality measurements to children’s developmental level, we constructed the Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C. To validate the measure, we conducted a study with a total group of 1028 children aged between 7 and 13 years old. Structural validity was established through Exploratory Structural Equation Model. Criterion validity was confirmed with a multitrait-multimethod analysis for which we introduced the children’s self-assessment scores from the Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Despite some problems with reliability, one can conclude that the PPTQ-C can be a valid instrument for measuring personality traits, particularly in a group of young children (aged approximately 7 to 10 years.

  19. Using the occupational personality questionnaire (OPQ for measuring broad traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deléne Visser

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The widespread acceptance of the Big Five model implies that personality consists of relatively independent dimensions that form a taxonomy whereby individual differences may be explained. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the subscales of an established personality inventory that measures narrow traits of personality, the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ, could be reduced meaningfully to fit a broad factor model within a South African context. The OPQ 5.2 concept model was administered to 453 job applicants in the telecommunications sector. An exploratory factor analysis yielded a six-factor structure that included five factors corresponding to the Big Five model of personality. The sixth factor, labeled Interpersonal Relationship Harmony, resembled the description of the Chinese tradition factor, extracted in a non-Western society. Opsomming Die wye aanvaarding van die Groot-Vyfmodel impliseer dat persoonlikheid uit relatief onafhanklike dimensies bestaan wat ’n taksonomie vorm waarmee individuele verskille verklaar kan word. Die doel van die ondersoek was om vas te stel of die subskale van ’n gevestigde persoonlikheidsvraelys wat gedetailleerde persoonlikheidstrekke meet, die Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ, op sinvolle wyse gereduseer kon word tot ’n breë faktormodel in ’n Suid-Afrikaanse konteks. Die OPQ 5.2 konsepmodel is toegepas op 453 werkapplikante in die telekommunikasiesektor. ’n Ondersoekende faktorontleding het ’n sesfaktorstruktuur gelewer, insluitende vyf faktore wat met die Groot Vyf persoonlikheidsmodel ooreenstem. Die sesde faktor wat as Interpersoonlike Verhoudingsharmonie benoem is, toon ooreenstemming met die Chinese tradisiefaktor wat in ’n nie-Westerse samelewing onttrek is.

  20. A selective genotyping approach identifies single nucleotide polymorphisms in porcine chromosome 2 genes associated with production and carcass traits in Italian heavy pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Russo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that porcine chromosome 2 (SSC2 harbors important quantitative trait loci (QTL for production traits. In particular, an imprinted QTL for muscle mass production is determined by a mutation in the IGF2 gene (intron3-g.3072G>A. We recently identified and analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes (cathepsin D, CTSD g.70G>A; cathepsin F, CTSF g.22G>C; lactate dehydrogenase A, LDHA g.46G>T localized on SSC2 (including the IGF2 intron3-g.3072G>A SNP showing association with production traits in Italian Large White pigs and/or localizing them on QTL regions. Here we analysed these markers applying a selective genotyping approach based on estimated breeding values (EBVs. Three groups of Italian Large White pigs each made by animals with the most positive (n. 50 and most negative (n. 50 EBVs for average daily gain (ADG, backfat thickness (BFT or weight of lean cuts (LC and one group of Italian Duroc pigs made by 50 animals with most positive and 50 animals with most negative EBV for visible intermuscular fat (VIF were genotyped. In Italian Large White pigs, allele frequency differences for the IGF2 intron3-g.3072G>A SNP between the two extreme tails for all groups were highly significant (considering all analysed animals: P=9.53E-20 for LC; P=3.16E-15 for BFT; P=4.41E-6 for ADG. Significant allele frequency differences were also observed for the CTSD g.70G>A (P=0.0002 for ADG; P=0.00068 and LDHA g.46G>T (P=2.32E-5 for ADG polymorphisms. These results provide further support on the effects of these polymorphisms or genes whose application on marker assisted selection programs could be envisaged.

  1. Effects of dietary lysine levels on carcass performance and biochemical characteristics of Chinese local broilers

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    Yuncong Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lysine is typically the second-limiting amino acid in poultry diets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary lysine concentration on carcass and meat quality traits, and serum parameters in two lines – SD02 and SD03 – which originated from a Chinese local breed, the Erlang Mountainous chicken. Live body weight, carcass traits, meat quality traits (myofibre diameter and density, and serum metabolic markers were measured in high and low dietary lysine groups (HL and LL, respectively at the end of the starter (1-28 days, grower (29-49 days and finisher (50-70 days periods. The results showed that mortality, live weight (LW, myofibre diameter of leg muscle (LFDM and serum cholesterol (CHO were greater in HL than LL (P<0.05. The chickens from HL had reduced subcutaneous fat thickness and heart weight than LL (P<0.05. The chickens from line SD02 had greater leg muscle weight, myofibre diameter in breast, and LFDM than line SD03 (P<0.05. The chickens from line SD02 had more serum urea nitrogen and less total proteins than line SD03 (P<0.05. In conclusion, high lysine diets improved slaughter performance and muscle fibre diameter, and SD02 chickens had greater carcass yield and superior meat quality compared with chickens from line SD03.

  2. Effects of vascular infusion with a solution of saccharides; sodium chloride; phosphates; and vitamins C, E, or both on carcass traits, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and palatability traits of steaks and ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, E J; Dikeman, M E; Addist, P B; Katsanidis, E; Pullen, M

    2002-07-01

    Three groups of 12 high percentage Charolais steers were slaughtered on three dates. Steers (n = 27) were infused immediately after exsanguination at 10% of BW with a solution containing saccharides, NaCl, and phosphates (MPSC solution; MPSC, Inc., St. Paul, MN) plus either 500 ppm vitamin C (MPSC+C), 500 ppm vitamin E (MPSC+E), or 500 ppm vitamin C plus 500 ppm vitamin E (MPSC+C+E). Noninfused controls (CON) were 9 steers. The longissimus thoracis (LT), semitendinosus (ST), and quadriceps femoris muscles were removed at 48-h postmortem, vacuum-packaged, and aged until 14-d postmortem. Steaks 2.54-cm thick were cut from the LT and ST. The quadriceps was utilized for ground-beef production. Infused steers had higher dressing percentages and heavier heart and liver weights (P 0.05) on USDA yield and quality-grade traits, LT and ST Warner-Bratzler shear force, descriptive-attribute traits, and freshly cooked steak flavor-profile traits. Vascular infusion had little effect on the flavor-profile traits of warmed-over steaks. Therefore, the results of our study indicate that vascular infusion with vitamins C, E, or C plus E can increase dressing percentage and organ weights, but have minimal effects on descriptive-attribute and flavor-profile sensory panel ratings. PMID:12162658

  3. Carcass Composition of Turopolje Pig, the Autochthonous Croatian Breed

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    Marija Đikić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this research was to establish carcass composition in Turopolje pig breed by analyzing the percentage of muscle (M, fat (F and bone (B tissue, percentage of these tissues in different parts of carcass (ham, loin, back, neck, belly-rib part . BRP, as well as share of the parts in carcass. Animals were divided into two groups of different age and slaughtering weight (TI 584 ± 20 days and 81,9 kg; TII 679 ± 20 days and 100,3 kg ± 4,9 kg. Purpose of this investigation was to define the standards for traits mentioned for the remainder of the population of Turopolje pig and to set the selection and production programs, as this breed has been under protection since 1993 and re-establishment since 1996 as cultural and biological heritage of Croatia and the World. In order to define Turopolje pig in production sense, we presented characteristics of the old breeds Mongolitza and Black Slavonian and some selected breeds. Pigs were fattened in the outdoor system of flood forests and marsh meadows biocenosis (Quercus robur . Deschampsietum caespitosae, according to traditional Croatian technology of low input (Ðikić et al., 2002.Slaughtering weight and weight of warm and cold carcass were measured on the slaughtering line. The halves were separately weight and dissected (tissues and parts according to Weninger et al., 1963 and by total dissection. Data were processed by statistical-mathematical procedure GSM and SAS software package (1996 and results were compared within and between the groups ( t-test.In groups TI and TII the percentages tissues in carcass were established to be as follows: M 38.2% and 40.5%, B 10.6% and 9.7%, respectively, and were significantly different ( P< 0.05, while share of F, 34.2% and 33.8% were not significantly different.Fattened pigs in group TI, in relation to TII, had lower relative share of muscle tissue in the carcass of loin, back, neck and BRP and higher share of fat tissue of neck and BRP, as well as

  4. Are Commonly Measured Functional Traits Involved in Tropical Tree Responses to Climate?

    OpenAIRE

    Fabien Wagner; Vivien Rossi; Christopher Baraloto; Damien Bonal; Clément Stahl; Bruno Hérault

    2014-01-01

    Climate models predict significant rainfall reduction in Amazonia, reducing water availability for trees. We present how functional traits modulate the tree growth response to climate. We used data from 3 years of bimestrial growth measurements for 204 trees of 53 species in the forest of Paracou, French Guiana. We integrated climate variables from an eddy covariance tower and functional trait values describing life history, leaf, and stem economics. Our results indicated that the measured fu...

  5. Variance Component Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis for Body Weight Traits in Purebred Korean Native Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyadi, Muhammad; Park, Hee-Bok; Seo, Dong-Won; Jin, Shil; Choi, Nuri; Heo, Kang-Nyeong; Kang, Bo-Seok; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a particular region of the genome containing one or more genes associated with economically important quantitative traits. This study was conducted to identify QTL regions for body weight and growth traits in purebred Korean native chicken (KNC). F1 samples (n = 595) were genotyped using 127 microsatellite markers and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms that covered 2,616.1 centi Morgan (cM) of map length for 26 autosomal linkage groups. Body weight traits were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 20 weeks of age. Weight of half carcass was also collected together with growth rate. A multipoint variance component linkage approach was used to identify QTLs for the body weight traits. Two significant QTLs for growth were identified on chicken chromosome 3 (GGA3) for growth 16 to18 weeks (logarithm of the odds [LOD] = 3.24, Nominal p value = 0.0001) and GGA4 for growth 6 to 8 weeks (LOD = 2.88, Nominal p value = 0.0003). Additionally, one significant QTL and three suggestive QTLs were detected for body weight traits in KNC; significant QTL for body weight at 4 weeks (LOD = 2.52, nominal p value = 0.0007) and suggestive QTL for 8 weeks (LOD = 1.96, Nominal p value = 0.0027) were detected on GGA4; QTLs were also detected for two different body weight traits: body weight at 16 weeks on GGA3 and body weight at 18 weeks on GGA19. Additionally, two suggestive QTLs for carcass weight were detected at 0 and 70 cM on GGA19. In conclusion, the current study identified several significant and suggestive QTLs that affect growth related traits in a unique resource pedigree in purebred KNC. This information will contribute to improving the body weight traits in native chicken breeds, especially for the Asian native chicken breeds. PMID:26732327

  6. Decreasing vitamin premix on chicken carcass composition and blood chemistry in floor and battery cage systems

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    Mahmood Shivazad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted the to compare the effect of a decreasing amount of vitamin premix in diets inbroilers from 29 to 42 days of age on carcass composition and blood chemistry in floor (Experiment 1 and battery cage (Experiment 2 systems. At 35 and 42 days of ages, one bird of each replicate was slaughtered and carcass composition was measured. Blood concentrations of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Ca were used to diagnose vitamin D3 deficiency and enzymes aspartate amino transferase (AST to identify vitamin E deficiency. Floor raised birds showed that vitamin premix reduction/withdrawal at 29 days of age did not impair body weight (BW, carcass composition, ALP and Ca during the final rearing period. However, diet without vitamin premix (T1 had a higher AST at 42 days of age than the other diets. Birds reared in cages were slightly more sensitive to vitamin premix reduction/withdrawal, probably due to the impracticality of performing coprophagy. Diet without vitamin premix (T1 had a lower BW, carcass breast and thigh yield at 42 days of age; also serum ALP, AST and Ca were impaired. In conclusion, the withdrawal of vitamins is not a reasonable option but it is possible to reduce vitamin premix in finisher broilers’ diets without negative effects on performance and on some metabolic traits during the finisher period with both methods of rearing.

  7. The effect of breed, sire and sex on the quality of carcass sides

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Milica; Pušić Milovan; Radojković Dragan; Mijatović Milan; Kosovac Olga; Radović Čedomir

    2006-01-01

    Investigation of quality variability of pig carcass was carried out on 1443 fatlings (gilts and barrows). They were progenies of 22 (Farm A) and 12 sires (Farm B), 5 breeds-crossbreds (Swedish Landrace, Large White, Duroc Hampshire, Duroc x Hampshire). Animals were fed with standardized feed mixture semi ad libitum. The quality of carcass sides was determined on the slaughter-line according to Regulation (1985). Investigation included following traits: weight of warm carcass (MTP, kg), meat i...

  8. Carcass characteristics, non-carcass components and morphometry in sheep submitted to different supplementation strategies

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    Dorismar David Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to evaluate carcass characteristics, non-carcass components and morphometry in sheep subjected to different supplementation strategies. It was used 24 male sheep, not emasculated, products crossing the Santa Inês breed with animals without definition of race (WDR, with average weight of 20.58 kg. The animals were distributed in four treatments in a completely randomized design with six replicates per treatment. The experimental period lasted 83 days, 20 days of adaptation to environment and diet and 63 days of the experiment itself. All animals were fed ad libitum hay and Tifton 85 have been treated with different supplements: Treatment Mineral = mineral supplement; Treatment mineral associated with urea = mineral supplement + urea + ammonium sulfate; Treatment protein = protein supplement; Treatment concentrate = concentrate supplement. The concentrated treatment provides higher final live weight, average daily gain in live weight, hot carcass weight, carcass yield in relation to the final live weight and yield of meat, in kilograms, compared to treatments mineral, mineral associated with urea and protein. The treatments did not influence the percentage of non-carcass components. The concentrated treatment results in increased width of the chest and leg circumference measured in vivo and measures in the housing, respectively. The morphometric measurements on the carcass can be used to more accurately predict the average daily gain in live weight and hot carcass yield that morphometric measurements in vivo, emphasizing the width of the chest and perimeters of hip and leg.

  9. Carcass Type Affects Local Scavenger Guilds More than Habitat Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Zachary H; Beasley, James C; Rhodes, Olin E

    2016-01-01

    Scavengers and decomposers provide an important ecosystem service by removing carrion from the environment. Scavenging and decomposition are known to be temperature-dependent, but less is known about other factors that might affect carrion removal. We conducted an experiment in which we manipulated combinations of patch connectivity and carcass type, and measured responses by local scavenger guilds along with aspects of carcass depletion. We conducted twelve, 1-month trials in which five raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus spp.) carcasses (180 trials total) were monitored using remote cameras in 21 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA. Of 143 trials with complete data, we identified fifteen species of vertebrate scavengers divided evenly among mammalian (N = 8) and avian species (N = 7). Fourteen carcasses (9.8%) were completely consumed by invertebrates, vertebrates exhibited scavenging behavior at 125 carcasses (87.4%), and four carcasses (2.8%) remained unexploited. Among vertebrates, mammals scavenged 106 carcasses, birds scavenged 88 carcasses, and mammals and birds scavenged 69 carcasses. Contrary to our expectations, carcass type affected the assemblage of local scavenger guilds more than patch connectivity. However, neither carcass type nor connectivity explained variation in temporal measures of carcass removal. Interestingly, increasing richness of local vertebrate scavenger guilds contributed moderately to rates of carrion removal (≈6% per species increase in richness). We conclude that scavenger-specific differences in carrion utilization exist among carcass types and that reliable delivery of carrion removal as an ecosystem service may depend on robust vertebrate and invertebrate communities acting synergistically. PMID:26886299

  10. Genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthy, T R; Ryan, D P; Fitzgerald, A M; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits derived from ultrasound examination of the reproductive tract and a range of performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The performance traits investigated included calving performance, milk production, somatic cell score (i.e., logarithm transformation of somatic cell count), carcass traits, and body-related linear type traits. Detailed reproductive traits included (1) resumed cyclicity at the time of examination, (2) multiple ovulations, (3) early ovulation, (4) heat detection, (5) ovarian cystic structures, (6) embryo loss, and (7) uterine score, measured on a 1 (little or no fluid with normal tone) to 4 (large quantity of fluid with a flaccid tone) scale, based on the tone of the uterine wall and the quantity of fluid present in the uterus. (Co)variance components were estimated using a repeatability animal linear mixed model. Genetic merit for greater milk, fat, and protein yield was associated with a reduced ability to resume cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlations ranged from -0.25 to -0.15). Higher genetic merit for milk yield was also associated with a greater genetic susceptibility to multiple ovulations. Genetic predisposition to elevated somatic cell score was associated with a decreased likelihood of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of -0.32) and a greater risk of both multiple ovulations (genetic correlation of 0.25) and embryo loss (genetic correlation of 0.32). Greater body condition score was genetically associated with an increased likelihood of resumption of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of 0.52). Genetically heavier, fatter carcasses with better conformation were also associated with an increased likelihood of resumed cyclicity by the time of examination (genetic correlations ranged from 0.24 to 0.41). Genetically heavier carcasses were associated with an inferior uterine score as well as a greater

  11. Carcass and physical meat characteristics of thin tail sheep (TTS) based on calpastatin gene (CAST) (Locus intron 5 – exon 6) genotypes variation

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Ihsan Andi Dagong; Herman, R.; C Sumantri; R. R. Noor; M. Yamin

    2012-01-01

    The quality of sheep carcass is mostly determined by the total lean meat production, meat distribution on the carcass and the quality of meat. Calpastatin gene (CAST) is known to have an association with carcass and meat quality traits. The objective of this research was to identify the association between CAST polymorphisms and carcass characteristics in Thin Tail Sheep (TTS). Thirty three heads of sheep representing three genotypes of CAST (CAST-11, CAST-12 and CAST-22) were identified for ...

  12. Effects of Duroc Breeding Lines on Carcass Composition and Meat Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jung-Seok; Jin, Sang-Keun; Choi, Yang-Il; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the carcass composition and pork quality of Duroc breeding lines in Korea. A total of 200 Duroc pigs were used, and those were originated from four different great-grandparent (GGP) breeding stock farms (L1: N farm, L2: W farm, L3: S farm, L4: R farm). The carcasses of pigs from these farms were collected, and meat quality traits were evaluated. L1 and L2 had smaller carcass weights and thin backfat, whereas L3 and L4 had heavy carcass weights and thick...

  13. A Five-Factor Measure of Schizotypal Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmundson, Maryanne; Lynam, Donald R.; Miller, Joshua D.; Gore, Whitney L.; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study provides convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity data for a new measure of schizotypy from the perspective of the five-factor model (FFM) of general personality structure. Nine schizotypy scales were constructed as maladaptive variants of respective facets of the FFM (e.g., Aberrant Ideas as a maladaptive variant of…

  14. Genetic parameters for carcass weight, conformation and fat in five beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kause, A; Mikkola, L; Strandén, I; Sirkko, K

    2015-01-01

    Profitability of beef production can be increased by genetically improving carcass traits. To construct breeding value evaluations for carcass traits, breed-specific genetic parameters were estimated for carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat in five beef cattle breeds in Finland (Hereford, Aberdeen Angus, Simmental, Charolais and Limousin). Conformation and fat were visually scored using the EUROP carcass classification. Each breed was separately analyzed using a multitrait animal model. A total of 6879-19 539 animals per breed had phenotypes. For the five breeds, heritabilities were moderate for carcass weight (h 2=0.39 to 0.48, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and slightly lower for conformation (h 2=0.30 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and carcass fat (h 2=0.29 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04). The genetic correlation between carcass weight and conformation was favorable in all breeds (r G=0.37 to 0.53, s.e.=0.04 to 0.05), heavy carcasses being genetically more conformed. The phenotypic correlation between carcass weight and carcass fat was moderately positive in all breeds (r P=0.21 to 0.32), implying that increasing carcass weight was related to increasing fat levels. The respective genetic correlation was the strongest in Hereford (r G=0.28, s.e.=0.05) and Angus (r G=0.15, s.e.=0.05), the two small body-sized British breeds with the lowest conformation and the highest fat level. The correlation was weaker in the other breeds (r G=0.08 to 0.14). For Hereford, Angus and Simmental, more conformed carcasses were phenotypically fatter (r P=0.11 to 0.15), but the respective genetic correlations were close to zero (r G=-0.05 to 0.04). In contrast, in the two large body-sized and muscular French breeds, the genetic correlation between conformation and fat was negative and the phenotypic correlation was close to zero or negative (Charolais: r G=-0.18, s.e.=0.06, r P=0.02; Limousin: r G=-0.56, s.e.=0.04, r P=-0.13). The results indicate genetic variation for the genetic

  15. Personality Trait Differences Between Young and Middle-Aged Adults: Measurement Artifacts or Actual Trends?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Christopher D; Allemand, Mathias; Gosling, Samuel D; Potter, Jeff; Roberts, Brent W

    2016-08-01

    A growing body of research demonstrates that older individuals tend to score differently on personality measures than younger adults. However, recent research using item response theory (IRT) has questioned these findings, suggesting that apparent age differences in personality traits merely reflect artifacts of the response process rather than true differences in the latent constructs. Conversely, other studies have found the opposite-age differences appear to be true differences rather than response artifacts. Given these contradictory findings, the goal of the present study was to examine the measurement equivalence of personality ratings drawn from large groups of young and middle-aged adults (a) to examine whether age differences in personality traits could be completely explained by measurement nonequivalence and (b) to illustrate the comparability of IRT and confirmatory factor analysis approaches to testing equivalence in this context. Self-ratings of personality traits were analyzed in two groups of Internet respondents aged 20 and 50 (n = 15,726 in each age group). Measurement nonequivalence across these groups was negligible. The effect sizes of the mean differences due to nonequivalence ranged from -.16 to .15. Results indicate that personality trait differences across age groups reflect actual differences rather than merely response artifacts. PMID:25773456

  16. Association of HSL gene E1-c.276C>T and E8-c.51C>T mutation with economical traits of Chinese Simmental cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, X B; Zhang, L P; Yu, X Z; Li, J Y; Lu, C Y; Zhao, Z H; Yang, R J

    2014-01-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is responsible for the decomposition of triglycerides in adipose tissue to release free fatty acids, and it is a key rate-limiting enzyme in the regulation of adipose tissue deposition and decomposition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between novel SNPs in the coding region of bovine HSL gene and carcass and meat quality traits of Chinese Simmental-cross steers. Two novel SNPs were genotyped and the 47 traits of carcass and meat quality traits were measured in the population studied. Statistical analysis revealed that the SNPs of HSL gene were associated with the carcass and meat quality traits. The individuals with TT genotypes of E1-276C>T showed significant higher dressing percentage, net meat rate, hind legs circumference, fat coverage rate, mesenteric fat and kidney fat (p T (P17S) also showed a significant association with the pH of beef and fatty acids content in Chinese Simmental cattle (p carcass yield and meat quality in beef cattle, and it may be a useful marker for meat quality traits in future marker-assisted selection programs in beef cattle breeding and production. PMID:24213829

  17. Towards a Handshake of Ground-Based Measurements and Remote-Sensing of Vegetation Traits at Global Scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattge, J.; Díaz, S.; Lavorel, S.; Prentice, I. C.; Leadley, P.; Reich, P. B.; Banerjee, A.; Fazayeli, F.; Schrodt, F. I.; Joswig, J.; Mahecha, M. D.; Wirth, C.

    2014-12-01

    Plant traits determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services, and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Plant traits thus are a key to understand and predict the adaptation of ecosystems to environmental changes. At the same time ground based measurements of plant trait data are dispersed over a wide range of databases, many of these not publicly available. To overcome this deficiency IGBP and DIVERSITAS have initiated the development of a joint database, called TRY, aiming at constructing a standard resource of ground based plant trait observations for the ecological community and for the development of global vegetation models. So far the TRY initiative has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: about 250 trait databases have been contributed and the data repository currently contains about 5.6 million trait entries for 90,000 out of the world's 350,000 plant species. The database includes data for 1100 traits, characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. Based on advanced methods for gap-filling and spatial extrapolation currently being developed in applied statistics and machine learning and in combination with environmental information and species distribution ranges, the unprecedented availability of ground based trait measurements is expected to allow for up-scaling of trait observations from plant to ecosystem level and from point measurements to regional and global scales. These up-scaled data products are expected to provide a link from ground based trait measurements to remote sensing of vegetation function and traits with global coverage.

  18. Effects of Dietary Alpha-lipoic Acid on Growth Performance and Carcass Traits in Broilers%硫辛酸对肉仔鸡生产性能和胴体性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭秀玲

    2012-01-01

    本试验研究了α-硫辛酸在0、30、60、90mg/kg四个剂量下对肉仔鸡生产性能和胴体性能的影响。将240只1日龄科宝480肉仔鸡,随机分为4个处理组,每组6个重复,每个重复10只,试验期21d。结果表明:肉仔鸡30mg/kg和60mg/kg剂量组的料肉比显著降低2.03%~3.38%(P〈0.05);90mg/kg剂量组的肉仔鸡日增重显著下降;肉仔鸡的腿肌率随着剂量的增加而显著提高2.24%~5.22%(P〈0.05);胸肌率随着剂量的增加由提高变为降低;腹脂率、皮脂厚和肌间宽度随着剂量的增加显著降低(P〈0.05)。本试验结果表明,硫辛酸可以提高肉仔鸡的生产性能,改善肉品质,建议生产中使用30mg/kg和60mg/kg的添加量。%An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) at graded levels (0,30,60,90mg/kg) on growth performance and carcass traits of broilers. A total of 240 1-day-old male Kebao dS0 broilers were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments, 10 broilers in each. Birds were slaughtered on 21 days old. Supplementation of LA in broiler diet at 30 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg gave significantly (P〈0.05) higher feed to gain ratio (F/G) than control by 2.03%-3.38%. LA at 90mg/kg had significantly (P〈0.05) decrease average daily gain than control. Accompanying dose increase, the leg muscle rates of broilers were significantly (P〈O.05) increased than control by 2.24%~5.22%, but the breast muscle rates were changed from increase to decrease with the rising dose. The abdominal fat rate, the thickness of subcutaneous fat and the width between muscle were significantly (P〈0.05) decreased as the dosage increased. It is concluded that alpha-lipoic acid can improve the growth performance and meat quality of broiler, and the suggest dosage would be 30 mg/kg to 60 mg/kg diet.

  19. Confirmatory Factor Analytic Structure and Measurement Invariance of Quantitative Autistic Traits Measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Ratliff, Kristin R.; Gruber, Chris; Zhang, Yi; Law, Paul A.; Constantino, John N.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factor structure of autistic symptomatology is critical to the discovery and interpretation of causal mechanisms in autism spectrum disorder. We applied confirmatory factor analysis and assessment of measurement invariance to a large ("N" = 9635) accumulated collection of reports on quantitative autistic traits using…

  20. Ultrasonographic evaluation of reproductive tract measures and fat thickness traits in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Morato Monteiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between reproductive tract and fat thickness measures obtained by ultrasound in prepubertal Nellore heifers. A total of 128 Nellore heifers born in 2006 and 2007 were submitted to ultrasound evaluations (13, 16, 19 and 22 months of age of reproductive tract measures and fat thickness traits. These animals were from a selection experiment (NeC: control line, and NeS: selection line for yearling weight started in 1981. Mean values of ovary area, height of the right uterine horn (HU, maximum follicular diameter (FOL, backfat thickness (BF, rump fat thickness (RF, and body condition score were analyzed. Repeated records were modeled using the PROC MIXED procedure (SAS, fitting a model that included the selection line, year of birth, measurement as fixed effects, and interactions. Body weight differed between the selected (281.48 kg and control (210.51 kg lines. Only the least square means of FOL were lower in the NeC line compared to the NeS line (P < 0.05, although the difference in mean HU between the two lines was of only borderline significance (P = 0.06. The rate of growth for the three reproductive traits was similar in the two lines. Simple and residual correlations between the reproductive and subcutaneous fat traits ranged from low to medium. The highest correlations were observed between HU and RF (Pearson correlation = 0.71 and residual correlation = 0.34. The current results are consistent with the literature, indicating that fat thickness traits are not good predictors of prepubertal reproductive traits in heifers. Further studies are necessary to clarify the relationship between reproduction and body fat in Nellore heifers.

  1. Desempenho e características de carcaça de bezerros confinados recebendo dietas com diferentes degradabilidades da fração protéica Performance and carcass traits of feedlot calves receiving diets with different degradabilities of the protein fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael da Costa Cervieri

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as respostas do fornecimento de dietas com diferentes níveis de proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR, durante a fase inicial de confinamento, no desempenho, nas características de crescimento monitoradas in vivo por ultra-sonografia e nos parâmetros de carcaça e qualidade de carne de bovinos jovens. Foram utilizados 60 bezerros Brangus não castrados, com 8 meses e peso vivo médio de 243,2 kg, submetidos a três tratamentos nas fases de crescimento (Fase 1 e terminação (Fase 2: T1 - 69% PDR nas Fases 1 e 2; T2 - 77% PDR na Fase 1 e 69% PDR na Fase 2; T3 - 61% PDR na Fase 1 e 69% PDR na Fase 2. Na Fase 1, os animais do tratamento T2 apresentaram menor ganho de peso médio diário que os animais do tratamento T1 e pior conversão alimentar que T1 e T3. O peso de carcaça quente, seu rendimento e os pesos de dianteiro, ponta de agulha e traseiro, bem como a área de olho de lombo, gordura subcutânea, força de cisalhamento e composição química da carne, não apresentaram diferença estatística entre tratamentos. A utilização de dietas com menor teor de PDR melhorou a conversão alimentar e o ganho de peso médio diário em até 11,5 e 16,9%, respectivamente, na fase de crescimento, indicando a utilização de menores níveis de PDR neste período.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different levels of degradable intake protein (DIP diets during the feedlot-growing phase, on performance, in vivo growth parameters measured by ultrasound and on carcass traits and meat quality of young bulls. Sixty Brangus calves, 8 months old, averaging 243,2 kg, were submitted to three treatments in growing (Phase 1 and finishing (Phase 2 phases: T1 - 69% DIP in Phases 1 and 2; T2 - 77% DIP in Phase 1 and 69% DIP in Phase 2; T3 - 61% DIP in Phase 1 and 69% DIP in Phase 2. In Phase 1, animals on treatments T2 showed a lower average daily gain than those on treatments T1 and worst feed

  2. Metanálise para características de carcaça de bovinos de diferentes grupos genéticos Metanalysis for carcass traits of cattle from different genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jader Silva Lopes

    2008-11-01

    applied in this study to evaluate factors that affect the carcass quality components in beef cattle (rib eye area - AOL and fat thickness - EGC, measured between the 12th and the13th ribs and to compare them in different genetic groups. Data from 215 measures of AOL and 209 measures of EGC, from 65,174 animals, extracted from 36 papers published between 1985 and 2006 were used. The Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method and an animal model that considered AOL and EGC as functions of the fixed effects of country from where the data come from; animal category; feed system; measure methodology; Bos indicus, british and continental Bos taurus gene contribution; age and weight at measure, were used. The observed averages for AOL and e EGC were 63.5cm² and 4.2mm, respectively. The animals were in average 552.22 days old at the measure of the characteristics and had 468.47kg of live weight. The use of meta-analysis permitted to get generalized conclusions about AOL and EGC: animals rose in the EUA presented values significantly superior for AOL and EGC when compared with those rose in Australia and Brazil; castrated and the entire males presented bigger AOL measures (do not differing among them compared to females, and females presented bigger EGC. The feed system, confined and do not confined, were superior to the greasing system. The Continental Bos taurus genotypes presented bigger AOL values, British Bos taurus presented bigger EGC values, and Bos indicus presented intermediate values. The measures taken in the carcass (pos mortis and by ultra son (in vivo were not different. The increase in the characteristics decreased with the age and live weight increase.

  3. Self-reported trait mindfulness and affective reactivity: a motivational approach using multiple psychophysiological measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Cosme

    Full Text Available As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51 passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN and late positive potential (LPP amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses

  4. Live weight and sex effects on carcass and meat quality of "Borrego terrincho-PDO" suckling lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Virgínia; Silva, Severiano; Mena, Elizabete; Azevedo, Jorge Manuel Teixeira de

    2007-01-01

    Fifty seven suckling lambs (28 males and 29 females) of the Churra da Terra Quente breed were used to evaluate the effects of live weight and sex on carcass composition and meat quality traits. Lambs were slaughtered at three weight classes ( 11 kg) according to "Borrego Terrincho-PDO" specifications. The left sides of the carcasses were totally dissected. The longissimus thoracis and lumborum muscle was used for meat quality determination. Dressing proportion and carcass...

  5. Appetitive traits from infancy to adolescence: Using behavioral and neural measures to investigate obesity risk

    OpenAIRE

    Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Pryor, Katherine; Driggin, Elissa

    2013-01-01

    We come into the world with enduring predispositions towards food, which interact with environmental factors to influence our eating behaviors and weight trajectories. But our fates are not sealed – by learning more about this process we can identify ways to intervene. To advance this goal this we need to be able to assess appetitive traits such as food cue responsiveness and satiety sensitivity at different developmental stages. Assessment methods might include behavioral measures (e.g. eati...

  6. A Five-Factor Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Traits.

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, Douglas B.; Riddell, Ashley D.B.; Lynam, Donald R.; Miller, Joshua D.; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    The current study provides convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity data for the Five-Factor Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (FFOCI), a newly-developed measure of traits relevant to obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) from the perspective of the five-factor model (FFM). Twelve scales were constructed as maladaptive variants of specific FFM facets (e.g., Perfectionism as a maladaptive variant of FFM competence). On the basis of data from 407 undergraduates (oversampled fo...

  7. What range of trait levels can the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) measure reliably? An item response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Aja Louise; Booth, Tom; McKenzie, Karen; Kuenssberg, Renate

    2016-06-01

    It has previously been noted that inventories measuring traits that originated in a psychopathological paradigm can often reliably measure only a very narrow range of trait levels that are near and above clinical cutoffs. Much recent work has, however, suggested that autism spectrum disorder traits are on a continuum of severity that extends well into the nonclinical range. This implies a need for inventories that can capture individual differences in autistic traits from very high levels all the way to the opposite end of the continuum. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was developed based on a closely related rationale, but there has, to date, been no direct test of the range of trait levels that the AQ can reliably measure. To assess this, we fit a bifactor item response theory model to the AQ. Results suggested that AQ measures moderately low to moderately high levels of a general autistic trait with good measurement precision. The reliable range of measurement was significantly improved by scoring the instrument using its 4-point response scale, rather than dichotomizing responses. These results support the use of the AQ in nonclinical samples, but suggest that items measuring very low and very high levels of autistic traits would be beneficial additions to the inventory. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26302097

  8. Growth performance and carcass quality of crossbreds pigs from two Pietrain sire lines fed isoproteic diets varying in energy concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, L; Berrocoso, J D; Coma, J; López-Bote, C J; Mateos, G G

    2016-04-01

    The effects of net energy (NE) content of isoproteic diets on growth performance and carcass and meat quality traits were studied in crossbreds from Landrace×Large White females and two Pietrain sire lines (PIC L62 vs. German Pietrain). Feed intake (FI) decreased (Lineal, Psires grew faster and had fatter carcasses than crossbreds from German Pietrain. PMID:26741851

  9. Contextual Analysis of CT Scanned Pig Carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Larsen, Rasmus; Christensen, Lars Bager;

    2006-01-01

    knowledge about the weight of other tissue types from CT. Knowing the weight of individual tissue types will directly give access to other measures such as the weight of the carcass and the Lean Meat Percentage (LMP). Until now, most analyses of CT scans have been based on the Hounsfield spectra that does...... not consider the spatial context in CT scan. Applying contextual methods from the field of image analysis we hope to make a virtual dissection of pig carcasses.......Knowledge of the weight of tissue types in pig carcasses is generally only available after manual dissection. The use of computed tomography (CT) has demonstrated to be a promising approach to gain knowledge on the lean meat weight (Romvari, 2005), but less effort has been put into gaining...

  10. Consumo alimentar residual e sua relação com medidas de desempenho e eficiência e características in vivo da carcaça de cordeiros The residual feed intake and its relationship with performance and efficiency measures and in vivo carcass characteristics of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F.E. Paula

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o consumo alimentar residual (CAR e a conversão alimentar (CA de 20 cordeiros, com o objetivo de estimar as correlações entre essas variáveis com medidas de desempenho e com características in vivo da carcaça. Os animais tiveram o consumo de MS (CMS mensurado por 65 dias e foram pesados a cada 13 dias para obtenção do ganho médio diário (GMD. Foram considerados o peso vivo inicial (PVI, o peso vivo final (PVF, o peso metabólico (PM, o GMD, a taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR, a taxa de Kleiber (TK, a CA, o CMS e o CMS em percentual do PV (CMSPV. As avaliações de carcaça foram realizadas por ultrassom. O CAR se mostrou correlacionado com o CMS (+0,81, o CMSPV (+0,90 e a CA (+0,63. Correlações significativas foram encontradas entre CA e GMD; CA e TCR; CA e TK; e CA e PVI (-0,63, -0,74, -0,75 e +0,51, respectivamente. O CAR e a CA não se mostraram correlacionados com características de carcaça, e, da mesma forma, não houve diferença entre as classes de CAR para essas variáveis. Confirmou-se o potencial do CAR como medida de eficiência alimentar para cordeiros em confinamento, sem existência de relações com o ganho de peso e o tamanho corporal e sem alterações na composição da carcaça.The residual feed intake (RFI and the feed conversion ratio (FCR of 20 lambs was evaluated in order to estimate the correlations between these traits and performance measures and with in vivo carcass characteristics. The animals had their dry matter intake (DMI measured over 65 days and they were weighed every 13 days to determine the average daily weight gain (ADG. Initial body weight (IBW, final body weight (FBW, metabolic weight (MW, ADG, relative growth rate (RGR, Kleiber ratio (KR, FCR, DMI and DMI in BW percentual (BWDMI were considered. The carcass evaluation was performed by ultrasound. The RFI was correlated with the DMI (+0.81, BWDMI (+0.90 and with FCR (+0.63. Significant correlations were found between FCR and ADG

  11. Discovery of novel genetic networks associated with 19 economically important traits in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Jiang, Jennifer J. Michal, Jie Chen, Tyler F. Daniels, Tanja Kunej, Matthew D. Garcia, Charles T. Gaskins, Jan R. Busboom, Leeson J. Alexander, Raymond W. Wright Jr., Michael D. MacNeil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative or complex traits are determined by the combined effects of many loci, and are affected by genetic networks or molecular pathways. In the present study, we genotyped a total of 138 mutations, mainly single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from 71 functional genes on a Wagyu x Limousin reference population. Two hundred forty six F2 animals were measured for 5 carcass, 6 eating quality and 8 fatty acid composition traits. A total of 2,280 single marker-trait association runs with 120 tagged mutations selected based on the HAPLOVIEW analysis revealed 144 significant associations (P < 0.05, but 50 of them were removed from the analysis due to the small number of animals (≤ 9 in one genotype group or absence of one genotype among three genotypes. The remaining 94 single-trait associations were then placed into three groups of quantitative trait modes (QTMs with additive, dominant and overdominant effects. All significant markers and their QTMs associated with each of these 19 traits were involved in a linear regression model analysis, which confirmed single-gene associations for 4 traits, but revealed two-gene networks for 8 traits and three-gene networks for 5 traits. Such genetic networks involving both genotypes and QTMs resulted in high correlations between predicted and actual values of performance, thus providing evidence that the classical Mendelian principles of inheritance can be applied in understanding genetic complexity of complex phenotypes. Our present study also indicated that carcass, eating quality and fatty acid composition traits rarely share genetic networks. Therefore, marker-assisted selection for improvement of one category of these traits would not interfere with improvement of another.

  12. The two mutations, Q204X and nt821, of the myostatin gene affect carcass and meat quality in young heterozygous bulls of French beef breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, S; Levéziel, H; Payet-Duprat, N; Hocquette, J F; Lepetit, J; Rousset, S; Denoyelle, C; Bernard-Capel, C; Journaux, L; Bonnot, A; Renand, G

    2010-02-01

    The availability of genetic tests to detect different mutations in the myostatin gene allows the identification of heterozygous animals and would warrant the superiority of these animals for slaughter performance if this superiority is confirmed. Thus, 2 mutations of this gene, Q204X and nt821, were studied in 3 French beef breeds in the program Qualvigène. This work was done with 1,114 Charolais, 1,254 Limousin, and 981 Blonde d'Aquitaine young bulls from, respectively, 48, 36, and 30 sires and slaughtered from 2004 to 2006. In addition to the usual carcass traits recorded at slaughter (e.g., carcass yield, muscle score), carcass composition was estimated by weighing internal fat and dissecting the 6th rib. The muscle characteristic traits analyzed were lipid and collagen contents, muscle fiber section area, and pH. Regarding meat quality, sensory qualities of meat samples were evaluated by a taste panel, and Warner-Bratzler shear force was measured. Deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted from the blood samples of all calves, the blood samples of 78% of the dams, and the blood or semen samples of all the sires. Genotypes were determined for 2 disruptive mutations, Q204X and nt821. Analyses were conducted by breed. The superiority of carcass traits of calves carrying one copy of the mutated allele (Q204X or nt821) over noncarrier animals was approximately +1 SD in the Charolais and Limousin breeds but was not significant in the Blonde d'Aquitaine. In the Charolais breed, for which the frequency was the greatest (7%), young bulls carrying the Q204X mutation presented a carcass with less fat, less intramuscular fat and collagen contents, and a clearer and more tender meat than those of homozygous-normal cattle. The meat of these animals also had slightly less flavor. Also in the Charolais breed, 13 of 48 sires were heterozygous. For each sire, the substitution effect of the wild allele by the mutant allele was approximately +1 SD for carcass conformation and yield

  13. Performance and carcass traits of Nellore and Red Norte steers finished in feedlot Desempenho e características de carcaça de novilhos das raças Nelore e Red Norte terminados em confinamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Rodrigues Machado Neto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate average daily gain (ADG and carcass traits in Nellore and Red Norte steers, finished in feedlots and to evaluate performance predictions by using the systems BR-CORTE, CNCPS 5.0 and NRC (2000. It was used 41 steers: 19 Nelore animals with initial body weight of 361 ± 31 kg and 22 Red Norte animals with initial body weight of 367 ± 30 kg. Adaptation period lasted 28 days. Animal performance evaluation was composed of three 28 day period, totaling 84 days. At the end of each period, animals were weighed after a 16-hour feeding fast. Average gain weight of Red Norte steers was greater than Nellore breed animals (1.43 vs. 1.81 kg/day, respectively. Red Norte animals also presented greater loin eye area (75.41 cm² vs. 68.67 cm². It was not observed any differences on subcutaneous fat thickness and on rump fat among the genetic groups. None of the nutritional requirement system evaluated were efficient in predicting animal performance. For Nellore breed, daily average gain observed was 1.53kg/day, with values of 1.53, 1.70 and 1.82 kg/day predicted by NRC, CNCPS and BR-CORTE systems. Although average values and predicted by NRC were similar, according to the regression equation, intercept and inclination were different from zero and one. For Red Norte breed, performance observed was 1.88 kg/day with values of 1.50, 1.66 and 1.72 predicted by the systems NRC, CNCPS and BR-CORTE, probably because database of those systems is based mainly on results obtained from Angus bovines.Objetivou-se avaliar o ganho médio diário (GMD e as características de carcaça em novilhos das raças Nelore e Red Norte, não-castrados, terminados em confinamento e avaliar as predições do desempenho pelos sistemas CNCPS 5.0, NRC (2000 e BR-CORTE. Utilizaram-se 41 novilhos: 19 do grupo Nelore com peso vivo inicial de 361 ± 31 kg e 22 do grupo Red Norte com peso vivo inicial de 367 ± 30 kg. O período de adaptação teve dura

  14. The relationship between muscularity, muscle:bone ratio and cut dimensions in male and female lamb carcasses and the measurement of muscularity using image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, D L

    1996-12-01

    Dorsal images of 57 whole lamb carcasses (mean 22.5 kg, SD 2.3 kg) were obtained on a slaughter chain using a video camera. The lambs represented two sexes (29 cryptorchids, 28 ewes) and one genotype (Poll Dorset × Border Leicester × Merino). Cryptorchid carcasses were significantly (P three, as taken from video images, there being five equally-spaced intervals from the groin to the gambrel. A similar result was achieved by using carcass width at the third interval of five-eventy spaced intervals between the minimum shoulder width and the point of maximum loin width. There was no significant (P > 0.05) effect of sex on the relationships. It is concluded that muscularity could be used to indicate carcasses that have cuts with greater cross-sectional areas and that a video image analysis approach could potentially be used to derive an estimate of muscularity. The value to the meat marketing chain of identifying carcasses with large crosssectional areas remains to be established. PMID:22060946

  15. Production of Ceratonova shasta Myxospores from Salmon Carcasses: Carcass Removal Is Not a Viable Management Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foott, J S; Stone, R; Fogerty, R; True, K; Bolick, A; Bartholomew, J L; Hallett, S L; Buckles, G R; Alexander, J D

    2016-06-01

    ) and 2009 (1,799 carcasses removed) failed to measurably influence the DNA quantity of C. shasta in targeted waters. Combined with the high numbers of carcasses that contributed myxospores, we therefore deemed that this labor-intensive approach is not a viable management option to reduce the infectivity of C. shasta in Chinook Salmon in the Klamath River. Received January 23, 2015; accepted September 28, 2015. PMID:27064587

  16. The relations between personality traits and psychopathy as measured by ratings and self-report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujačić Daliborka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the relations between psychopathy - as assessed by ratings (PCL-R and by self-report (SRP3 - on one side, and The Five-Factor personality Model - expanded to include the traits Amorality and Disintegration - on the other. Both methods examined four traits of psychopathy: interpersonal, affective, lifestyle and antisocial characteristics. Data were collected on a sample of 112 male convicts. The results show the absence of congruence between the two methods - self-report and rating - in case of interpersonal and affective psychopathic dispositions. This incongruence is also reflected in their relations with personality traits. The self-report measures and the ratings of Lifestyle and Antisocial tendencies are related to amorality, aggressiveness, schizotypy, Neuroticism and impulsivity. However, the ratings of affective and interpersonal style are related to the integrated, organized, and emotionally stable aspects of personality. The results are interpreted in the light of differences between the methods of assessment and in the light of the essential characteristics of the psychopathic phenomena.

  17. Response to selection and genetic parameters of body and carcass weights in Japanese quail selected for 4-week body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaldari, M; Pakdel, A; Yegane, H Mehrabani;

    2010-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of short-term selection in Japanese quail for 4-wk BW and estimate genetic parameters of BW, carcass traits, and egg weight. A selected line and control line were randomly selected from a base population. In each generation, 39 sires and 7...... improve carcass traits. Also, intense selection resulting in high rates of inbreeding might result in decreased response to selection due to inbreeding depression....

  18. Effect of floor type on carcass and meat quality of pen raised growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Dal Bosco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to compare the carcass and meat quality traits of growing rabbits housed on different floor types. At the age of 35 d, rabbits (n=126 were randomly sorted into 3 groups and housed in pens with different floor types: plastic-mesh, deep-litter straw or wire-mesh. Slaughter weight, carcass and its parts’ weight, meat (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum [LL] muscle and hind leg pH and colour, oxidative status and fatty acid profile were measured and correlations calculated. The deep-litter straw rabbits showed the lowest pHu and b* values of LL muscle and oxidation of the both muscles. The fatty acid profile of LL muscle of deep-litter straw rabbits showed a higher percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids and long chain n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids, whereas the content of  18:2n-6 and total PUFA was lower. We concluded that housing the growing rabbits on wire- or plastic-mesh floors showed no substantial differences, while housing rabbits on deep-litter negatively affected certain qualitative traits.

  19. Measures of Behavioral Inhibition and Activation System Sensitivity as Predictors of Big Five Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerija Križanić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, Gray (1987 described three hypothetical biological brain systems, assumed to represent underpinnings of the stable patterns of experience and behaviour. Most research has been devoted to studying behavioural inhibition system (BIS and behavioural activation system (BAS, which have shown relatively stable associations with neuroticism and extroversion, respectively. BIS/BAS scale (Carver & White, 1994 is one of the most frequently used instruments for measuring these constructs. The questionnaire contains one scale of BIS sensitivity that captures reactions to appearance or anticipation of punishment, and three subscales of BAS sensitivity which are aimed to assess distinct but related constructs: BAS – Drive, that relate to persistence in achieving desired goals; BAS - Fun seeking, that relates to desire for new rewarding experiences and indicates person's readiness to engage in potentially rewarding situation, and BAS – Reward sensitivity, that measures positive reactions to appearance or anticipation of reward.The aim of the current study was to explore to what extent individual differences in personality traits can be predicted based on measures of BIS and BAS sensitivity. In this paper we analysed the data of 284 female students, that completed translated and adapted Croatian version of BIS/BAS scales, as well as International Personality Item Pool (IPIP 50 which measures the Big-Five personality domains. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the factor structure of Croatian version of BIS/BAS scale was comparable to the original instrument. Results of the regression analysis revealed that BIS scale was a significant predictor of emotional instability, while BAS subscales showed different patterns of relationships with measured personality traits. These results indicate the importance of measuring distinct aspects of BAS sensitivity.

  20. Visceral organ weights, digestion and carcass characteristics of beef bulls differing in residual feed intake offered a high concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; McGee, M

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) with digestion, body composition, carcass traits and visceral organ weights in beef bulls offered a high concentrate diet. Individual dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and growth were measured in a total of 67 Simmental bulls (mean initial BW 431 kg (s.d.=63.7)) over 3 years. Bulls were offered concentrates (860 g/kg rolled barley, 60 g/kg soya bean meal, 60 g/kg molasses and 20 g/kg minerals per vitamins) ad libitum plus 0.8 kg grass silage DM daily for 105 days pre-slaughter. Ultrasonic muscle and fat depth, body condition score (BCS), muscularity score, skeletal measurements, blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and total tract digestibility (indigestible marker) were determined. After slaughter, carcasses and perinephric and retroperitoneal fat were weighed, carcasses were graded for conformation and fat score and weight of non-carcass organs, liver, heart, kidneys, lungs, gall bladder, spleen, reticulo-rumen full and empty and intestines full, were determined. The residuals of the regression of DMI on average daily gain (ADG), mid-test metabolic BW (BW0.75) and the fixed effect of year, using all animals, were used to compute individual RFI coefficients. Animals were ranked on RFI and assigned to high (inefficient), medium or low groupings. Overall mean ADG and daily DMI were 1.6 kg (s.d.=0.36) and 9.4 kg (s.d.=1.16), respectively. High RFI bulls consumed 7 and 14% more DM than medium and low RFI bulls, respectively (P0.05) for ADG, BW, BCS, skeletal measurements, muscularity scores, ultrasonic measurements, carcass weight, perinephric and retroperitoneal fat weight, kill-out proportion and carcass conformation and fat score. However, regression analysis indicated that a 1 kg DM/day increase in RFI was associated with a decrease in kill-out proportion of 20 g/kg (Pcarcass conformation of 0.74 units (Pcarcass organs did not differ (P>0.05) between RFI groups except for the empty weight of reticulo

  1. CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CARCAÇA DE FRANGOS TIPO CAIPIRA ALIMENTADOS COM DIETAS CONTENDO FARINHA DE RAÍZES DE MANDIOCA CARCASS TRAITS OF FREE RANGE BROILER CHICKENS FED ON DIETS CONTAINING CASSAVA ROOT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Maciel Cardoso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    O experimento objetivou avaliar o rendimento de carcaça, cortes comerciais e vísceras comestíveis de frangos tipo caipira alimentados com rações contendo farinha de raízes de mandioca (FRM como fonte energética alternativa ao milho. Para tanto, dividiram-se, aleatoriamente, trezentos e vinte pintos, metade de cada sexo, em quatro tratamentos representados por rações isonutritivas com diferentes níveis de substituição de milho por FRM (0%, 18%, 36% e 53%. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial 4x2 (quatro níveis de inclusão de FRM e dois sexos, com quatro repetições por tratamento e vinte aves por unidade experimental. Aos 84 dias, as aves foram pesadas e abatidas após jejum de seis horas e, em seguida, sangradas, depenadas e evisceradas para avaliação do rendimento de carcaça, cortes e órgãos. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que a substituição de milho por FRM reduziu significativamente o peso ao abate, mas não afetou o rendimento de carcaça, cortes comerciais ou vísceras comestíveis e promoveu redução no acúmulo de gordura abdominal, podendo ser uma alternativa satisfatória quando a redução no custo da ração compensar a diminuição no peso final das aves.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Alimentos alternativos, avicultura, mandioca, rendimento de carcaça. 
    The experiment aimed to evaluate carcass yield, commercial cuts and edible organs of free range broiler chickens fed on rations containing cassava root flour as alternative energy source replacing corn. Three hundred and twenty one-day-old chicks, one half of each sex, were randomly assigned into four treatments represented by isonutritive rations with different levels of cassava root flour (0%, 18%, 36% e 53%. A completely randomized 4x2 factorial design (4 levels x 2 sexes was used, being four replicates per treatment, with twenty birds each. Avian were slaughtered at 84 days after fasted

  2. Growth and Carcass characteristics of the indigenous and exotic cockerel released on free range as influenced by age, strain and location of farmers in South Eastern Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Ejiogu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of age of release, strain and farmers location on growth and carcass performance of the indigenous, and two exotic strains (Harco® and Goldline® cockerels, reared on free range; in order to ascertain the best age of release into free range from brooder houses, as well as the effect of farmers location and strain on their growth and carcass characteristics, in South Eastern Nigeria. A total of 315 cockerels comprising 87 indigenous chicks, 114 Harco® chicks, and 114 Goldline® cockerels brooded and raised up to 18 weeks of age were used in this experiment. These birds were randomly released to farmers in the villages at three different ages of 4, 8 and 12 weeks to run on free range. There were significant effects of age of release and strain on the growth characteristics, but none on the carcass characteristics. However, there was also significant effect of the zone on both growth and carcass traits measured. It was concluded that the earlier the exotic birds are released from the brooder house, the better their performance on scavenging rearing. This is beneficial as the farmer will save much from the purchase of compounded feed and other veterinary services.

  3. Ácido linoléico conjugado, na nutrição de suínos, sobre desempenho zootécnico, características de carcaça e rendimento de cortes Conjugated linoleic acid in swine nutrition on animal performance, carcass traits and cut yield

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    Diego Surek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da inclusão de ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA em dietas de suínos dos 65kg de peso vivo até a fase de abate (100kg sobre desempenho zootécnico, rendimento de corte e características de carcaça. Foram utilizados 200 suínos provenientes do cruzamento industrial JSR x PIC, em igual proporção de sexo. Os tratamentos foram compostos por dietas com (+CLA e sem (-CLA adição de CLA. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi completamente casualizado, sendo as características de carcaça avaliadas em esquema fatorial 2x2 (dieta x sexo. Os animais que consumiram CLA apresentaram melhor ganho de peso diário, redução da espessura de toucinho e maior rendimento de carne magra. A retenção de líquidos da carne não apresentou diferença em relação à dieta. Conclui-se, com base nos resultados, que é benéfica a inclusão de CLA na alimentação de suínos em terminação.The proposal of this study was to evaluate the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation on swine diets, reared from 65kg body weight up to slaughter (100kg body weight on animal performance, cut yields and carcass traits. Two hundred crossbred pigs (JSR x PIC were used, half barrows and half gilts. The treatments were diets with (+CLA and without (-CLA supplementation of CLA. A completely randomly experimental design was used, and for the carcass traits and cut yield it was a 2x2 factorial design (diet and sex. Animals that consumed CLA presented a better average daily gain, decreased backfat thickness and a higher lean meat yield. Meat liquid retention capacity was not affected by diets. Based in these results it is beneficial the inclusion of CLA on finishing pigs feed.

  4. Avaliação de características de desempenho e de carcaça de codornas de corte por meio da análise de componentes principais Evaluation of production and carcass traits of meat - type quails by principal components analysis

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    C.D.S. Leite

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados dados de 288 codornas de corte (Coturnix coturnix coturnix para avaliar a possibilidade de resumir a informação contida no complexo de variáveis originais, eliminando-se variáveis inexpressivas por meio da técnica de componentes principais. Foram registrados o peso vivo (PVIVO e pesos do peito (PPEITO, das coxas (PCOXA, da gordura abdominal (GA, das vísceras comestíveis (fígado, moela e coração (FIG, MOELA e CORA e da carcaça eviscerada (PCEVIS. As carcaças foram secas e trituradas para a avaliação do teor matéria seca (MS, gordura (GORD e proteína bruta (PB. Dos 11 componentes principais, sete (63,6% apresentaram variância menor que 0,7 (autovalor inferior a 0,7, sendo sugeridas para descarte, respectivamente, em ordem de menor importância, para explicar a variação total das seguintes variáveis: PCEVIS, PPEITO, PCOXA, CORA, FIG MOELA e GORD. Com base nos resultados, recomenda-se manter as seguintes variáveis em experimentos futuros: PVIVO, MS, PB e GA.Records on 288 meat type quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix were used to identify independent and informative variables by eliminating inexpressive variables by means of principal component analysis. The following performance traits were recorded: live body weight (LBW, eviscerated carcass weight (CW, whole leg weight (WLW, breast weight (BW, abdominal fat pad weight (FW, and giblets weight (liver, gizzard, and heart (LIW, GW, and HW. The carcasses were also dried and grounded to evaluate dry matter (DM, fat (FA,T and crude protein (CP contents. Out of 11 principal components, seven (63.6% showed variance lower than 0.7 (eigenvalue lower than 0.7. The following traits were discarded because they showed inexpressive contribuitions for the total variation: CW, BW, WLW, HW, LIW, GW, and FAT. Based on the results, it is recommended to record the following variables in future experiments: LBW, DM, CP, and FW.

  5. Effect of the diet and genotype on body measurements and non-constituints of carcass of wooless lambs finished in a feedlot Efeito de dieta e genótipo sobre medidas morfométricas e não constituintes da carcaça de cordeiros deslanados terminados em confinamento

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    Ana Sancha Malveira Batista

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the body and carcass measurements, and non-constituents of carcass of wooless lambs, fed diets with two energetic levels. Eighteen lambs from genotype Morada Nova, Santa Inês and crossbred Dorper x Santa Inês were used. Diets with low and high energy content were composed of 2.5 Mcal EM/kg and 2.94 Mcal EM/kg MS, respectively. Body measurements used in the study were: withers height, height croup, body length, leg length, toracic perimeter, leg circunference, scrotal circunference, body score, body capability 1 (CC1 and body capability 2 (CC2. Non-constituents of carcass studied here were head weight, liver, heart, spleen, vesicle, blood, kidney, hooves, skin and lung + trachea. Moreover, traits of carcass were studied: carcass length, leg length, thigh perimeter, croup perimeter, thorax depth, toracic perimeter and chester width. Data were analized by model which included the effects of diets and genotype, beyond of the weigth as covariable. Diets affected (P<0,05 the body score and body capability (CC2. The genotype afeccted (P<0,05 the withers height, height croup, leg length, scrotal circunference, body score, body capability, CC1 and CC2. For carcass measurements the diet affected only the thoracic perimeter and chester width. The genotype affected the leg length, thigh perimeter and croup perimeter. Among the not carcass components, live, spleen, blood, hooves and skin were affected by the diets, while the genotype affected head, live, kidney and Hooves.O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi avaliar as medidas corporais, medidas de carcaça e componentes não constituintes carcaça de cordeiros deslanados submetidos a dietas com dois níveis energéticos em confinamento. Foram utilizados 18 cordeiros de cada genótipo: Morada Nova, Santa Inês e mestiços Dorper x Santa Inês. As rações de baixo e alto nível energético, eram constituídas com 2,5 Mcal EM/kg MS e 2,94 Mcal EM/kg MS, respectivamente

  6. Mapping the association of global executive functioning onto diverse measures of psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Brazil, Inti A; Ryan, Jonathan; Kohlenberg, Nathaniel J; Neumann, Craig S; Newman, Joseph P

    2015-10-01

    Psychopathic individuals display a callous-coldhearted approach to interpersonal and affective situations and engage in impulsive and antisocial behaviors. Despite early conceptualizations suggesting that psychopathy is related to enhanced cognitive functioning, research examining executive functioning (EF) in psychopathy has yielded few such findings. It is possible that some psychopathic trait dimensions are more related to EF than others. Research using a 2-factor or 4-facet model of psychopathy highlights some dimension-specific differences in EF, but this research is limited in scope. Another complicating factor in teasing apart the EF-psychopathy relationship is the tendency to use different psychopathy assessments for incarcerated versus community samples. In this study, an EF battery and multiple measures of psychopathic dimensions were administered to a sample of male prisoners (N = 377). Results indicate that using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), the independent effect of Factor 2 was related to worse EF, but neither the independent effect of Factor 1 nor the unique variance of the Factors (1 or 2) were related to EF. Using a 4-facet model, the independent effects of Facet2 (Affect) and Facet4 (Antisocial) were related to worse EF, but when examining the unique effects, only Facet2 remained significant. Finally, the questionnaire-based measure, Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire-Brief, of Fearless Dominance was related to better EF performance, whereas PCL-R Factor 1 was unrelated to EF. Overall, the results reveal the complex relationship among EF and behaviors characteristic of psychopathy-related dimensions. Moreover, they demonstrate the interpersonal and affective traits measured by these distinct assessments are differentially related to EF. PMID:26011576

  7. Diferentes fontes de gordura sobre o desempenho e características da carcaça de novilhas de corte confinadas - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1250 Different fat source effects on feedlot beef heifers' performance and carcass traits - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1250

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    Adalfredo Rocha Lobo Júnior

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação com diferentes fontes de gordura sobre o desempenho e as caracterísiticas da carcaça de novilhas terminadas em confinamento. Foram utilizadas 23 novilhas cruzadas (½ Red Angus x ½ Nelore, com 20 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 351 kg, durante 46 dias. Foram avaliados 3 tratamentos: suplementação com semente de linho (LIN, suplementação com gordura protegida (GOP - Lac100 e sem suplementação com gordura (SGO. As novilhas foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Não houve efeito do tratamento sobre peso vivo final (382,0 ± 34,1 kg, ganho médio diário (1,1 ± 0,3 kg/dia e conversão alimentar (8,1 ± 1,7 kg MS/kg PV. Não houve diferença para o peso de carcaça quente (202,1 ± 23,3 kg, rendimento de carcaça quente (53,1 ± 2,4%, espessura de gordura de corbertura (6,5 ± 1,4 mm e 3,2 ± 0,5 mm/100 kg carcaça, peso do traseiro especial (64,7 ± 7,3 kg, comprimento da carcaça (121,6 ± 5,3 cm, comprimento do traseiro (76,0 ± 2,5 cm e comprimento do dianteiro (96,6 ± 3,2 cm, marmoreio (9,0 ± 4,4 pontos, coloração (4,3 ± 0,5 pontos, textura (3,4 ± 0,7 pontos e área de olho de lombo (62,3 ± 4,6 cm2 e 31,1 ± 2,2 cm2/100 kg carcaça. Estes dados mostram que as fontes de gordura (LIN ou GOP podem ser utilizadas sem causar decréscimo no desempenho e nas características da carcaça de novilhas confinadasThis work aimed to evaluate the effects of different fat sources on feedlot beef heifers' performance and carcass traits. Twenty-three 20-month-old crossbreed heifers (½ Red Angus ½ Nelore with 351 kg initial body weight were monitored for 46 days. Three different treatments were evaluated: linseed supplement (LIN, protected fat supplement (PFA, and no fat supplement (NOF. The heifers were allotted into a completely randomized design. No effect was observed in the final live weight (382.04 ± 34.12 kg, daily gain (1.11 ± 0.33 kg

  8. Efeito da restrição alimentar sobre algumas características de carcaça de cabritos F1 Boer X Saanen Effect of feed restriction on some carcass traits of F1-Boer X Saanen goats

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    José Morais Pereira Filho

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da restrição alimentar nas características de carcaça de cabritos F1 Boer x Saanen. Foram utilizados 21 cabritos, pesando 15 kg de PV, distribuídos em três tratamentos (0, 30 e 60% de restrição. O consumo dos animais do tratamento 0% de restrição determinavam o consumo dos animais dos tratamentos 30 e 60% de restrição. Quando os animais do nível de restrição 0% atingiam 25 kg, estes juntamente com seus pares foram submetidos a jejum de sólido de 24 h e de líquido de 16 h. O abate ocorreu mediante descarga elétrica, seguido de sangria e retirada dos órgãos. Os ganhos de peso foram de 211,03, 126,15 e 11,71g/dia; a eficiência alimentar de 0,20, 0,18 e de 0,03; os pesos de abate de 25,44, 20,91 e 15,82kg para os tratamentos 0, 30 e 60% de restrição, respectivamente. O rendimento de carcaça quente, de carcaça fria e biológico não foram influenciados pela restrição alimentar. Somente a proporção da paleta e a do lombo foram influenciados pela restrição alimentar, com aumento linear do rendimento da paleta e decréscimo linear do rendimento do lombo. Houve efeito da restrição na redução do rendimento de gordura e aumento da proporção de osso. A restrição alimentar em níveis moderados, permitiu a obtenção de carcaças de boa qualidade, com bom rendimento, elevada proporção de músculo e baixa participação de gordura e, dependendo da relação custo:benefício, pode tornar-se boa alternativa para o produtor.To evaluate the effect of different levels of feed restriction on carcass traits, twenty-one F1-Boer x Saanen goats weighting 15 kg LW were allocated to one of the three treatments (0, 30 and 60% restriction. The feed intake for the 0% restriction treatment animals determined the intake for the animals in the 30 and 60% restriction treatment. When animals from 0% of feed restriction reached 25 kg of LW, they and their pair-feeding were submitted to a feed

  9. Efeitos da ractopamina e de dois níveis de lisina digestível na dieta sobre o desempenho e características de carcaça de leitoas em terminação Effects of ractopamine and two lysine levels on performance and carcass traits of gilts in the finishing phase

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    F.A. Pereira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da ractopamina e de dois níveis de lisina digestível na dieta sobre o desempenho e características de carcaça de leitoas com peso corporal a partir de 85kg, durante 21 e 28 dias antes do abate, os quais foram distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições de dois animais por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de arranjo fatorial 2x2, com dois níveis de lisina digestível (LD, 0,67 e 0,87%, e dois níveis de ractopamina (0 e 5ppm. Observou-se efeito significativo do nível de LD sobre o ganho de peso e peso corporal e interação significativa (P0,05 do nível de LD sobre a espessura de toucinho, profundidade de lombo e rendimento em carne magra da carcaça de acordo com avaliação da carcaça, feita in vivo. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 da ractopamina sobre o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso diário e o peso corporal aos 21 e 28 dias de experimento. A ractopamina reduziu a espessura de toucinho no ponto P2 aos 21 dias e aumentou o rendimento de carne magra e a profundidade de lombo na avaliação da carcaça no frigorífico.The effects of ractopamine and digestible lysine levels on performance and carcass traits of gilts with initial body weight average of 85kg, recorded during 21 and 28 day before slaughtering time were evaluated in a completely randomized block design with five replicates of two animals per experiment unit. The treatments consisted in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme, two levels of digestible lysine (DL (0.67 and 0.87% and two ractopamine levels (0 and 5ppm. Significant effects of DL on daily weight gain and body weight and significant effects of DL and ractopamine level were observed for feed:weight gain ratio and lean meat carcass deposition. No significant effects (P>0.05 of DL on fat thickness, muscle depth and lean meat yield according to the in vivo carcass evaluation were observed. No significant effect of ractopamine (P>0.05 on feed intake, daily

  10. Influência de grupos genéticos e de níveis de energia sobre características de carcaça de frangos de corte Influence of genetic group and level of energy on broilers carcass traits

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    Cristina Fontes Araújo Viana

    2000-08-01

    the 21st day of age the birds were fed diet with 3000 kcal of ME/kg, and in the final period (22nd to the 42nd day of age the birds were fed diets with four different levels of energy (2900, 3050, 3200 and 3350 kcal ME/kg. The analyzed characteristics were: live weight at 42nd day of age, slaughter weight and carcass and prime cut yields. Significant difference was observed among genetic groups and sex, independent of the energy level, on live weight, slaughter weight, carcass weight and prime cuts, standing out the genetic groups C1C1 and C2C2. The males presented the best results for all traits. In the study of carcass and prime cut yields, in function of the slaughter weight, there was difference among genetic groups only for breast yield.

  11. Measurement Structure of the Trait Hope Scale in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedema, Susan Miller; Pfaller, Joseph; Moser, Erin; Tu, Wei-Mo; Chan, Fong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the measurement structure of the Trait Hope Scale (THS) among individuals with spinal cord injury. Design: Confirmatory factor analysis and reliability and validity analyses were performed. Participants: 242 individuals with spinal cord injury. Results: Results support the two-factor measurement model for the THS with agency…

  12. Measuring the Virtues and Character Traits of Rehabilitation Clients: The Adapted Inventory of Virtues and Strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Han; Reid, Christine A; McMahon, Brian; Gonzalez, Rene; Lee, Dong Hun; Keck, Phillip

    2016-03-01

    Purpose To develop the Adapted Inventory of Virtues and Strengths (AIVS), a measure of rehabilitation clients' virtues and character traits. Methods Test items were devised through a multi-step procedure, and exploratory factor analysis was employed to derive the factor structure of the AIVS. Item-total correlation and internal consistency (Cronbach's α) were examined to test reliability of the AIVS. Results AIVS subscales include Emotional Transcendence, Practical Wisdom, Integrity, Courage, and Commitment to Action. Construct validity of this measure was evaluated by correlating AIVS factors with measures of resilience, life satisfaction, and four types of well-being: physical, psychological, financial, and family and social well-being. AIVS subscales of Emotional Transcendence and Commitment to Action were moderately correlated with life satisfaction and three well-being areas, including family and social, physical, and psychological life. Most of the correlation coefficients between AIVS Practical Wisdom, Courage and Integrity factors and measures of life satisfaction and well-being fell below r = .3. However, greater correlations were found between all AIVS factors and resilience. Reliability information was examined through internal consistency (coefficient alpha) for each AIVS subscale, as well as examination of item-total correlation analysis within each subscale. Internal consistency estimates for AIVS subscales ranged from .77 to .84. Conclusion The AIVS is a reliable measure when used with the studied sample; implications for studying virtue and character strengths in rehabilitation, as well as potential for clinical use of the AIVS, are addressed. PMID:26728493

  13. Efeitos da seleção para peso pós-desmame sobre características de carcaça e rendimento de cortes cárneos comerciais de bovinos Effects of selection for post weaning weight on carcass traits and meat cut yields of beef cattle

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    Sarah Figueiredo Martins Bonilha

    2007-10-01

    herds born in 1999 were used to evaluate the effects of selection for post weaning weight on carcass traits and meat cuts yields at 378 days of age (P 378. The animals were randomly distributed into two experimental classes: restricted feeding (AR and ad libitum feeding (AL including 8 animals from the NeS and Ca groups and 6 animals from the NeC group. Animals of each class were slaughtered in pairs when the animals AL group reached 4 mm of ultrasonic fat thickness on Longissimus dorsi muscle, between the 12th and 13th ribs. The interaction between genetic group and feeding class was not significant for most of the traits evaluated. The genetic group effect was significant. Animals of the Ca and NeS groups were heavier at slaughter and Ca animals required longer feedlot period to reach the desired fat thickness. Higher slaughter weights of these animals changed their carcass, hindquarter, forequarter and spare ribs weights. The selection for P 378 in the Nellore group resulted in heavier weights at slaughter, heavier carcasses and primary cuts, but lower meat tenderness, although within reasonable values of shear force (below 5.0 kgf.

  14. Scavenger removal: Bird and bat carcass persistence in a tropical wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Patraca, Rafael; Macías-Sánchez, Samuel; MacGregor-Fors, Ian; Muñoz-Robles, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    Energy produced by wind farms has diverse positive environmental effects, but can also be related to negative impacts, including wildlife mortality through collisions with wind turbines. Bird and bat mortality caused by collisions with wind turbines can be estimated indirectly by counting carcasses within wind farms. However, carcass removal by scavengers often biases such measurements. In this study, we identified the main scavengers removing bird and bat carcasses in a tropical wind farm. A known fate analysis was done to assess the effect of carcass type (i.e., small bird, large bird, bat), vegetation type (i.e., secondary vegetation, croplands) and season (dry and rainy seasons of 2009) on carcass persistence rates. We identified three main scavenger groups, with mammals being the most abundant group. Our results show high rates of carcass removal relative to previous studies, especially for bats; there were fewer remaining carcasses after 20 days in our tropical site than in non-tropical environments reported elsewhere. We found a higher carcass persistence rate during the rainy season than in the dry season, possibly due to a greater abundance of food resources for scavenger organisms in the rainy season. Although we found some evidence for higher persistence rates for large bird carcasses than for small bird and bat carcasses during the rainy season, overall carcass type was not a strong predictor of persistence rates. Similarly, we did not find a strong effect of vegetation type on carcass persistence rates. Results suggest that in order to estimate accurate bird and bat mortality in tropical wind farm areas, seasonality should be incorporated to correction factors of carcass removal rates.

  15. Restrição alimentar em caprinos: rendimento, cortes comerciais e composição da carcaça Feed restriction in goats: carcass yield, commercial cuts, and carcass composition

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    Enrique Alejandro Yáñez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da restrição alimentar sobre as características da carcaça de caprinos leiteiros, realizou-se um experimento utilizando 27 cabritos castrados da raça Saanen. Os animais (PV inicial de 20 kg foram distribuídos nos tratamentos alimentação à vontade e 30 e 60% de restrição, sendo abatidos aos 35 kg de PV. Foram avaliados o rendimento comercial e biológico, os cortes comerciais, a área de olho-de-lombo e a composição tecidual da perna. O rendimento biológico não foi afetado pela restrição alimentar, mas o comercial diminuiu com o aumento da restrição. A elevação no nível de restrição alimentar promoveu diminuição do lombo e da 6ª a 13ª costelas e aumento da paleta e do pescoço, proporcionalmente à meia-carcaça. A proporção de ossos aumentou e a de gordura total diminuiu com o aumento da restrição. O tecido muscular não foi afetado pela restrição. A restrição alimentar de até 30% não prejudicou a qualidade da carcaça de caprinos leiteiros.Twenty-seven Saanen male kids averaging 20 kg of body weight (BW at the beginning of the trial were used to study the effects of feed restriction on carcass characteristics. Animals were assigned to one of the following three treatments: control (fed ad libitum, 30 or 60% of feed restriction. A completely randomized design was used and data were submitted to regression analysis; animals were slaughtered when they reached 35 kg of BW. The following traits were measured in this trial: carcass commercial and biological yields, commercial cuts, tissue composition of hind leg, rib eye area (REA, and carcass compactness. Increasing feed restriction reduced carcass and commercial cut weights as well as loin and fat proportions in the carcass. Conversely, proportions of bone, neck, and shoulder clod all increased when the feed restriction went from 0 to 60%. Muscle tissue proportion was not changed by feed restriction in this study. It can be

  16. Carcaça e carne de novilhos cruzas Pardo Suíço x Canchim e Purunã x Canchim terminados em confinamento Feedlot performance and carcass and meat traits of crossbred Braunvieh x Canchim and Purunã x Canchim

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    Fernando Kuss

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve os objetivos de avaliar o desempenho em confinamento e as características da carcaça e da carne de novilhos inteiros dos grupos genéticos ½ Pardo Suíço + ½ Canchim (1B1C, ½ Purunã + ½ Canchim (1P1C e ¾ Purunã + ¼ Canchim (3P1C. Foram utilizados 23 novilhos inteiros com idade média de 22 meses, que permaneceram confinados por 145 dias. O aumento da proporção de genes Purunã na composição racial dos animais de 50% para 75% no cruzamento com Canchim resultou em incrementos de peso no abate (PA e de ganho de peso (GMD de 10,6 e, 12,1%, respectivamente. Os animais 1B1C apresentaram PA e GMD semelhantes aos animais 3P1C e superiores aos animais 1P1C. O consumo de matéria seca (MS e o GMD não diferiram entre animais dos grupos 1B1C e 3P1C, ambos apresentando consumo e GMD superiores aos dos animais 1P1C (8,87; 7,97 e 7,02kg de MS animal-1 dia-1, e, 1,62; 1,41 e 1,58kg animal-1 dia-1, respectivamente. Animais 1B1C e 3P1C apresentaram carcaças 12,1% mais pesadas que os animais 1P1C. A conformação da carcaça dos animais 1B1C foi superior (15,0 pontos em relação aos 1P1C e 3P1C (13,2 e 13,6 pontos, respectivamente. Animais 1B1C e 3P1C demonstraram valores similares para marmoreio da carne (7,5 e 6,6 pontos, respectivamente, e superiores em relação ao 1P1C (4,8 pontos. A produção de animais F1 Pardo Suíço x Canchin é mais interessante ao produtor, devido à maior velocidade de ganho de peso e maior peso de carcaça, ao frigorífico, por obter carcaças de melhor conformação e grau de acabamento, e ao consumidor, por apresentar maior grau de marmorização da carne e textura mais fina.The research had the objectives of evaluating feedlot performance as well as carcass and meat traits of 23 young bulls from three genetic groups: ½ Braunvieh + ½ Canchim (1B1C, ½ Purunã + ½ Canchim (1P1C and ¾ Purunã + ¼ Canchim (3P1C. The experimental animals were 22 months old, on average, at the beginning and

  17. Ganho de peso, característica da carcaça e dos demais componentes corporais de cordeiros confinados, alimentados com distintos teores de uréia Weight gain, carcass traits and other body components from feedlot lambs, fed diets with different levels of urea

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    Pedro Paulo Sobolow de Souza

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar o desempenho, características das carcaças e componentes não constituintes da carcaça de cordeiros confinados, submetidos a uma dieta convencional, com outras três, que tiveram a fonte de proteína verdadeira substituída por níveis crescentes de uréia. Utilizaram-se 48 cordeiros inteiros, mestiços Ile de France x Corriedale, desmamados aos 70 dias de idade. A recria e a terminação foram efetuadas em regime de confinamento total, e os animais foram distribuídos, aleatoriamente, em quatro grupos com distintos níveis de uréia (0; 0,4; 0,8 e 1,2% da matéria seca total. Os animais foram abatidos ao redor de 32kg de peso vivo. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos para as variáveis: ganho de peso médio diário, peso vivo ao abate, pH muscular (0 e 45 minutos e 24 horas após o abate, pesos da carcaça quente e fria, porcentagem de perda de peso ao resfriamento, rendimentos comercial e verdadeiro, pesos dos componentes não constituintes da carcaça, condição corporal, conformação e acabamento. Entretanto, para peso da pele, o nível 0%, diferiu do nível 0,8%. Para as variáveis, morfometria e proporção dos cortes das carcaças, não foram observadas diferenças entre os níveis de uréia. O comprimento da perna(cm dos cordeiros com nível de 0,8%, foi inferior ao do nível 0%. Na variável índice de compacidade da perna, o nível 0,8% , diferiu dos níveis 0 e 0,4%. Concluiu-se que a utilização da uréia nos teores apresentados na presente pesquisa, é uma prática viável, não tendo afetado variáveis consideradas.This trial was carried out to evaluate performance, carcass traits and non-carcass components of lambs fed with a conventional diet plus other three diets with crescent levels of urea in substitution of a true protein source. 48 crossbred male lambs (Ile de France x Corriedale weaned at 70 days of age were used. They grew and were

  18. Estrus Traits Derived from Activity Measurements are Heritable and Closely Related to Conventional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed Ismael Sayed; Kargo, Morten; Fogh, Anders; Strandberg, Erling; Løvendahl, Peter

    This study was aimed at assessing the genetic parameters for fertility-related traits, comparing the interval from calving to first insemination (ICF) to physical activity traits, especially days from calving to first high activity, DFHA. Data from commercial Holstein herds included insemination ...

  19. Virtual dissection of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann;

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of computed tomography (CT) as a reference method for estimating the lean meat percentage (LMP) of pig carcasses. The current reference is manual dissection which has a limited accuracy due to variability between butchers. A contextual Bayesian classification scheme is...... applied to classify volume elements of full body CT-scans of pig carcasses into three tissue types. A linear model describes the relation between voxels and the full weight of the half carcass, which can be determined more accurately than that of the lean meat content. Two hundred and ninety-nine half pig...

  20. PHENOTYPIC TRAITS IN ZAGORJE TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Janječić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Production of turkeys in the region of Hrvatsko zagorje began in second half of 16th century, when there was a little influence of other turkey breeds from other region. Recently, interest for protection and preservation of autochthonous poultry breeds in Croatia is growing and in that sense this investigation was set to determine the phenotypic traits of Zagorje turkey. One hundred 10-month old turkeys (5 males and 20 females of four strains (bronze, black, grey and pale were measured, while egg production data were collected by a poll among the breeders. Average body weight of bronze, black, grey and pale strain males were 7.08, 6.88, 6.10 and 6.09 kg, respectively, while in females the average values were 4.02, 4.07, 3.63, and 3.68 kg. Generally, according to body measures of male birds, other than body weight, of all of the strains of Zagorje turkey, the black one is the biggest, as it had the highest values for body length, length of sternum, length of drumstick, length of shank, depth of chest and head measures. At the same time, the bronze strain had the highest value for carcass width. Body measures mentioned previously were not so different in females. Number of reared chicks was lowest in the pale strain. From the body measures assessed it is possible to conclude that Zagorje turkeys are rather uniform within the strain but differences in most of the breed traits are present between the strains, especially in males of bronze and black strain, when compared to gray and pale strain.

  1. Consumo e desempenho de animais alimentados individualmente ou em grupo e características de carcaça de animais Nelore de três classes sexuais Performance of animals fed individually or in groups and carcass traits of Nellore cattle from three sexual classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Inácio Marcondes

    2008-12-01

    , concentrated and forage for animals feed in group. Evaluate also, dry matter intake, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio by animals from one of three genders (bulls, steers or heifers fed individually or in groups, with two levels of concentrate offer (1.00 or 1.25% of BW, and carcass traits of confined Nellore cattle. Forty five Nellore cattle - 15 bulls, 15 steers and 15 heifers were used. Nine animals (three from each gender were slaughtered at beginning of the trial performing reference group. The remaining 36 animals were fed either 1.0 or 1.25% of concentrate under two feeding schemes (individually or in groups, in a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. In order to estimate the individual DMI of animals fed in group, LIPE® was used to estimate the fecal dry matter production, Cr2O3 and TiO2 were used to estimate the individual concentrate intake and NDFi and ADFi were used to estimate the individual forage intake. At the end of the experiment all animals individually fed were slaughtered to evaluate carcass traits and yield of commercial cuts. The feed scheme had no influence upon DMI and DWG of Nellore cattle from different gender. There were no effect of 1.00 or 1.25% of concentrate on carcass traits and carcass yield. Bulls grow 24% more than steers and steers grow 22% more than females and bulls tend to be more efficient in meat deposition and had higher yield in some commercial cuts.

  2. Comparative study of fattening and slaughter traits of male Simmental breed and crosses with Charolais breed

    OpenAIRE

    Petričević M.; Aleksić S.; Petrović M.M.; Pantelić V.; Ostojić-Andrić D.; Stanišić N.; Nikšić D.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the slaughter traits, conformation score and fat covering of carcass and composition of carcasses of young cattle of two genotype groups: domestic Simmental breed (A) and its crosses with Charolais breed (B). The sample included a total of 30 animals, 15 in each group. Both groups were slaughtered at final weight of about 660 kg. After the slaughtering, warm carcass sides with and without kidney fat were weighed ...

  3. Variation of traits of fatteners under the impact of various factors

    OpenAIRE

    Gogić M.; Petrović M.; Radović Č.; Živković B.; Radojković D.; Stanišić N.; Savić R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the sire breed, sire within sire breed, genotype of fatteners, gender of fatteners, gender within sire breed, season of birth of fatteners and mass of warm carcass side on the following traits: back fat thickness - middle of the back (DSL), back fat thickness - lower back (DSK), meat yield of carcass sides (JUSKG) and percentage/share of meat in carcass sides (JUSPRO). The research was conducted in the ex...

  4. Influence of Quaternary Benzophenantridine and Protopine Alkaloids on Growth Performance, Dietary Energy, Carcass Traits, Visceral Mass, and Rumen Health in Finishing Ewes under Conditions of Severe Temperature-humidity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Angulo, A.; Aguilar-Hernández, A.; Osuna-Pérez, M.; Núñez-Benítez, V. H.; Castro-Pérez, B. I.; Silva-Hidalgo, G.; Contreras-Pérez, G.; Barreras, A.; Plascencia, A.; Zinn, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty Pelibuey×Katahdin ewes (35±2.3 kg) were used to determine the effects of the consumption of standardized plant extract containing a mixture of quaternary benzophenanthridine alkaloids and protopine alkaloids (QBA+PA) on growth performance, dietary energetics, visceral mass, and ruminal epithelial health in heat-stressed ewes fed with a high-energy corn-based diet. The basal diet (13.9% crude protein and 2.09 Mcal of net energy [NE] of maintenance/kg of dry matter) contained 49.7% starch and 15.3% neutral detergent fiber. Source of QBA+PA was Sangrovit RS (SANG) which contains 3 g of quaternary benzophenathridine and protopine alkaloids per kg of product. Treatments consisted of a daily consumption of 0 or 0.5 g SANG/ewe. Ewes were grouped by weight and assigned to 10 pens (5 pens/treatment), with two ewes per pen. The experimental period lasted 70 days. The mean temperature humidity index during the course of this experiment was 81.7±1.0 (severe heat stress). There were no treatment effects on water intake. Dry matter intake was not affected (p = 0.70) by treatments, but the group fed SANG had a numerically (11.2%) higher gain in comparison to the control group, SANG improved gain efficiency (8.3%, p = 0.04), dietary NE (5.2%, p<0.01) and the observed-to-expected NE (5.9%, p<0.01). Supplemental SANG did not affect (p≥0.12) carcass characteristics, chemical composition of shoulder, and organ weights (g/kg empty body weight) of stomach complex, intestines, and heart/lung. Supplemental SANG decreased liver weight (10.3%, p = 0.02) and increased visceral fat (16.9%, p = 0.02). Rumen epithelium of ewes fed SANG had lower scores for cellular dropsical degeneration (2.08 vs 2.34, p = 0.02), parakeratosis (1.30 vs 1.82, p = 0.03) and neutrophil infiltration (2.08 vs 2.86, p = 0.05) than controls. It is concluded that SANG supplementation helped ameliorate the negative effects of severe heat on growth performance of feedlot ewes fed high-energy corn-based diets

  5. Phenotypic ranges and relationships among carcass and meat palatability traits for fourteen cattle breeds, and heritabilities and expected progeny differences for Warner-Bratzler shear force in three beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikeman, M E; Pollak, E J; Zhang, Z; Moser, D W; Gill, C A; Dressler, E A

    2005-10-01

    Carcass and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) data from strip loin steaks were obtained from 7,179 progeny of Angus, Brahman, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Maine-Anjou, Red Angus, Salers, Shorthorn, Simbrah, Simmental, and South Devon sires. Trained sensory panel (TSP) evaluations were obtained on 2,320 steaks sampled from contemporary groups of progeny from one to five sires of each breed. Expected progeny differences for marbling and WBSF were developed for 103 Simmental sires from 1,295 progeny, 23 Shorthorn sires from 310 progeny, and 69 Hereford sires from 1,457 progeny. Pooled phenotypic residual correlations, including all progeny, showed that marbling was lowly correlated with WBSF (-0.21) and with TSP overall tenderness (0.18). The residual correlation between WBSF and TSP tenderness was -0.68, whereas residual correlations for progeny sired by the three Bos indicus breeds were only slightly different than for progeny sired by Bos taurus breeds. The phenotypic range of mean WBSF among sires across breeds was 6.27 kg, and the phenotypic range among breed means was 3.93 kg. Heritability estimates for fat thickness, marbling score, WBSF, and TSP tenderness, juiciness, and flavor were 0.19, 0.68, 0.40, 0.37, 0.46, and 0.07, respectively. Ranges in EPD for WBSF and marbling were -0.41 to +0.26 kg and +0.48 to -0.22, respectively, for Simmentals; -0.41 to +0.36 kg and 0.00 to -0.32, respectively, for Shorthorns; and -0.48 to +0.22 kg and +0.40 to -0.24, respectively, for Herefords. More than 20% of steaks were unacceptable in tenderness. Results of this study demonstrated that 1) selection for marbling would result in little improvement in meat tenderness; 2) heritability of marbling, tenderness, and juiciness are high; and 3) sufficient variation exists in WBSF EPD among widely used Simmental, Shorthorn, and Hereford sires to allow for genetic improvement in LM tenderness. PMID:16160060

  6. Association between leptin gene single nucleotide polymorphisms and carcass traits in pigs Associação entre polimorfismos de base única no gene da leptina e características de carcaça em suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane de Oliveira Peixoto

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available It was investigated the association between leptin gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs T2411C and T3266G with carcass traits in F2 pigs obtained by crossing native Brazilian Piau with commercial sows composed of Landrace, Large White and Pietrain breeds. Association analyses were performed using a statistical model that included genotype, sex, and batch as fixed effects, sire and error as random effects. The T2411C SNP was associated with skinless and fatless boston shoulder weight (BSW, backfat thickness at last rib, 6.5 cm from the midline (P2, skinless and fatless picnic shoulder weight, and sirloin weight (SLW. The T3266G mutation was associated with slaughter age, bacon weight, BSW, midline backfat thickness between last and last but one lumbar vertebra, midline backfat thickness at last rib, P2 and rib weight. Phenotypic associations were also performed by combining genotypes for both SNPs. Associations with P2, carcass yield, total boston shoulder weight, and SLW were observed. The results obtained demonstrate that the SNPs analyzed have potential to be explored as markers for carcass composition in pigs.Foi investigada a associação entre os polimorfismos de base única (SNPs T2411C e T3266G da leptina e as características de carcaça em suínos F2 procedentes do cruzamento de machos da raça Piau com matrizes comercias de composição genética Landrace, Large White e Pietrain. As análises de associação foram feitas usando um modelo estatístico que incluía genótipo, sexo e lote como efeitos fixos, e pai e erro como efeitos aleatórios. O SNP T2411C esteve associado ao peso da copa sem pele e sem gordura (BSW, à espessura de gordura subcutânea na altura da última costela a 6,5 cm da linha média (P2, ao peso da paleta sem pele e sem gordura e ao peso do filezinho (SLW. O SNP T3266G foi associado a idade de abate, peso do bacon, BSW, espessura da gordura subcutânea entre a última e a penúltima vértebra lombar, na

  7. Desempenho produtivo e parâmetros de carcaça de cordeiros mantidos em pastos irrigados e suplementados com doses crescentes de concentrado = Productive performance and carcass traits of lambs grazing on irrigated pastures and receiving increasing concentrate levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Araújo Souza

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho produtivo e os parâmetros de carcaça de ovinos terminados em pastos irrigados de Tifton 85 que receberam doses crescentes de concentrado. Foram comparadas quatro doses de concentrado (0; 0,66; 1,33 e 2,00% da matéria seca - MS em relação ao peso corporal dos animais. O período experimental foi de 84 dias, divididos em quatro sub-períodos de 21 dias. Foram utilizados 24 animais testadores, machos, castrados, da raça Santa Inês com peso corporal médio inicial de 20,5 ± 3,8 kg. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições. O aumento no teor de concentrado proporcionou maior peso corporal final, ganho médio diário, ganho de peso total, escore de gordura pélvico-renal, consumo de matéria seca total, comprimento externo da carcaça, largura da garupa, largura do tórax, profundidade do tórax, perímetro da garupa e perímetro do pernil, além de menor consumo de forragem e contagem de ovos por grama de fezes. Entretanto, o rendimento de carcaça quente não foi influenciado pelas doses de suplemento concentrado. O aumento nas doses de concentrado para ovinos mantidos em pastagens de Tifton 85 melhorou o desempenho produtivo e o peso da carcaça.The objective of this present study was to evaluate the productive performance and carcass traits of lambs finished on Tifton 85 irrigated pastures and receiving increasing levels of concentrate. Four levels of concentrate were compared on a dry matter basis (0, 0.66, 1.33 and 2.00% in relation to the body weight of animals. The experimental period was 84 days, divided into four sub-periods of 21 days. Twentyfour Santa Ines male sheep, castrated, weighting 20.5 kg, were used as testers. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications. The increase in concentrate levelspromoted higher final body weight, average daily gain, total weight gain, total dry matter intake, pelvic-renal fat

  8. Forma física da ração e pesos de abate nas características de carcaça de cordeiros em creep feeding Diet physical form and slaughter weight on carcass traits of lambs on creep feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Abbado Neres

    2001-06-01

    -out percentages were not affected by final liveweight (12.79 and 13.05 kg for 26 and 28 kg slaughter live weight, respectively. Diet physical form and final live weight did not affect Longissimus muscle area and length. Loin width and maximal fat depth were higher for lambs fed pelleted diet and minimum fat depth was lower for lambs slaughtered at 26 kg of live weight (1.48 and 1.77 cm for lambs slaughtered at 26 and 28 kg, respectively. It was concluded that pelleted diets provided better hot carcass and biological dressing-out percentages and loin depth and compactness carcass index. Live weight of 26 kg was considered the most useful for lambs slaughter because presented similar carcass traits compared to 28 kg.

  9. Carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs fed crude glycerin contaminated with high concentrations of crude fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, J F; Paulino, P V R; Pereira, L G R; Duarte, M S; Valadares Filho, S C; Oliveira, A S; Souza, N K P; Lima, J C M

    2014-01-01

    Thirty non-castrated male lambs with 20±2.3 kg average body weight (BW) were randomly assigned to five treatments consisted of different dietary concentrations of crude glycerin (CG; 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12% on DM basis) to evaluate the effects on performance, carcass and meat quality traits. A quadratic effect was observed for performance (P=0.04), final BW (P0.05) on carcass pH neither on shear-force, cooking loss and ether extract content in longissimus. The inclusion of CG tended to reduce the Zn content in meat (P=0.09). The data suggests that CG (36.2% of glycerol and 46.5% of crude fat) may be used in diets of finishing lambs with concentrations up to 3% without negative effects on performance and main carcass traits. Moreover, inclusion of CG seems to not affect quality and safety of meat for human consumption. PMID:23896144

  10. Personality traits in old age: Measurement and rank-order stability and some mean-level change

    OpenAIRE

    Mõttus, Rene; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J

    2012-01-01

    Lothian Birth Cohorts, 1936 and 1921 were used to study the longitudinal comparability of Five-Factor Model (McCrae & John, 1992) personality traits from ages 69 to 72 years and from ages 81 to 87 years, and cross-cohort comparability between ages 69 and 81 years. Personality was measured using the 50-item International Personality Item Pool (Goldberg, 1999). Satisfactory measurement invariance was established across time and cohorts. High rank-order stability was observed in both cohorts...

  11. Chilling of carcasses from double muscled cattle: time-temperature evolution and predictive modelling of growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium perfringens

    OpenAIRE

    Delhalle, Laurent; Collignon, Bertrand; Dehard, Sandrine; Didimo Imazaki, Pedro Henrique; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2010-01-01

    The time/temperature combination during carcass chilling is of concern in order to avoid bacterial growth. The chilling speed is lower in carcasses with high muscular development such as large cattle from the Belgian Blue breed. Three slaughterhouses were selected for temperature and pH measurements during the chilling process at 6 different days on 4 half carcasses in order to obtain representative data from heavy carcasses with high muscular development. Predictive microbiology was used to ...

  12. Growth traits and composition of two- and three-way-cross intact male progeny of Bos taurus and Bos indicus X Bos taurus dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ornum, K M; Bailey, C M; Ringkob, T P; Koh, Y O

    1987-07-01

    Feedlot traits, carcass traits and distribution of commercial cuts of crossbred intact male progeny (n = 556) from young and mature Hereford, Red Poll, Hereford X Red Poll, Red Poll X Hereford, Angus X Hereford, Angus X Charolais, Brahman X Hereford and Brahman X Angus dams were evaluated. First-calf heifers were bred to Red Angus bulls; Santa Gertrudis sires were used for each cow's second and third breeding seasons. Calves from these young dams were slaughtered at 13 mo. Calves of mature dams were all sired by Limousin bulls and slaughtered at 12 mo. Dam breed was a major source of variation in most bull traits. Progeny of Brahman-cross dams were inferior (P less than .01) in daily gain, final weight, carcass weight and in edible cuts/day of age compared with progeny from Bos taurus dams. Intact male progeny of Angus X Charolais dams ranked highest in longissimus area, cutability, and edible cuts/day of age. The range of dam breed means in percentage of steak, roast, bone-in cuts (chuck short ribs and back ribs), short plate and thin cuts, and lean trim was just over 1%. Greater variation among dam breeds existed in fat measurements. Analyses in which Hereford-Red Poll diallel data for young dams and mature dams were combined showed positive maternal heterosis for dressing percentage (P less than .05), carcass weight (P less than .05), carcass weight/day of age (P less than .05), estimated carcass fat (P less than .05), fat thickness (P less than .01) and marbling score (P less than .01). Reciprocal effects were inconsequential. Results illustrate the importance of dam breed-type effects in formulating breeding strategies for commercial beef herds. PMID:3610866

  13. Common factors method to predict the carcass composition tissue in kid goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fernanda Barros Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the interrelations among weights and carcass measures of the longissimus lumborum muscle thickness and area, and of sternum tissue thickness, measured directly on carcass and by ultrasound scan. Measures were taken on live animals and after slaughter to develop models of multiple linear regression, to estimate the composition of shoulder blade, from selected variables in 89 kids of both genders and five breed groups, raised in feedlot system. The variables considered relevant and not redundant on the information they carry, for the common factor analysis, were used in the carcass composition estimate development models. The presuppositions of linear regression models relative to residues were evaluated, the estimated residues were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were compared by the Student t test. Based in these results, the group of 32 initial variables could be reduced to four variables: hot carcass weight, rump perimeter, leg length and tissue height at the fourth sternum bone. The analysis of common factors was shown as an effective technique to study the interrelations among the independent variables. The measures of carcass dimension, alone, did not add any information to hot carcass weight. The carcass muscle weight can be estimated with high precision from simple models, without the need for information related to gender and breed, and they could be built based on carcass weight, which makes it easy to be applied. The fat and bones estimate models were not as accurate.

  14. Development of a colour scale for colour evaluation of beef carcasses at 60 min post mortem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, I.; Merkus, G.S.M.

    1999-01-01

    The pectoralis profundus muscles of 200 selected beef carcasses were measured to develop a standard colour scale for evaluating beef carcasses at the time of classification (approximately 60 min post mortem). Five lightness (L*) values were chosen ranging from 22 to 42 with intervals of five L* unit

  15. Structural and functional correlates of a quantitative autistic trait measured using the social responsive scale in neurotypical male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Pei-Chi; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Lan, Chen-Chia; Liu, Chia-Chien; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue

    2016-05-01

    Behaviors associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been suggested to be considered as quantitative traits. This study investigated the structural and functional correlates of autistic traits measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in neurotypical adolescents. Twenty-six neurotypical male adolescents (12-18 years old) were recruited for this study and underwent structural and resting functional magnetic resonance image scanning, and intelligence quotient and SRS evaluations. We used the automated surface-based method (FreeSurfer) to measure cortical thickness and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analysis to derive the FC map of the dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC). Brain-wise regression analyses of cortical thickness and FC maps on SRS scores were performed using a general linear model. The results indicated that higher autistic trait ratings of total SRS scores were associated with a thinner cortex in the left insula, right insula, and right superior temporal gyrus. Furthermore, we observed that only higher scores of social awareness were correlated with increased FC between the dACC and right superior temporal gyrus and decreased FC between the dACC and right putamen and thalamus. These results indicated that a quantitative trait in social cognition is associated with structural and connectivity variations linked to ASD patients. Autism Res 2016, 9: 570-578. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26284955

  16. Levels of digestible isoleucine on performance, carcass traits and organs weight of gilts (15 - 30 KG Níveis de isoleucina digestível sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça e peso de órgãos de fêmeas suínas (15 - 30 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Dalcin Castilha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The ideal protein concept for pigs has allowed reducing levels of crude protein in the diet, since synthetic amino acids are included because the branched chain amino acids may be limiting. In order to determine the digestible isoleucine requirement for gilts from 15 to 30 kg, a performance assay was accomplished, using 40 crossbreed gilts of high genetic potential, averaging 15.00 ± 0.52 kg of body weight, alloted in a randomized blocks design, consisting of five treatments (0.45, 0.52, 0.59, 0.66, 0.73% of digestible isoleucine, four replicates and two animals per experimental unit. Performance traits were determined and at the end of the experiment one animal per experimental unit was slaughtered to determine carcass composition and organs weight. Levels from 0.45 to 0.73% of digestible isoleucine did not affect the carcass traits and organs weight of gilts from 15 to 30 kg. A quadratic effect (PO conceito de proteína ideal, para suínos, tem permitido reduzir os níveis de proteína bruta da dieta, desde que haja a inclusão de aminoácidos sintéticos, pois os aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada podem ser limitantes. Com o objetivo de determinar a exigência de isoleucina digestível para fêmeas suínas dos 15 aos 30 kg, foi realizado um ensaio de desempenho, utilizando-se 40 fêmeas suínas, mestiças de alto potencial genético, com peso vivo inicial de 15,00 ± 0,52kg, distribuídas em um delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, constituído de cinco tratamentos (0,45; 0,52; 0,59; 0,66; 0,73% de isoleucina digestível, quatro repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Foram determinadas características de desempenho e, ao final do experimento, um animal de cada unidade experimental foi abatido, para a determinação da composição de carcaça e peso de órgãos. Níveis de 0,45 a 0,73% de isoleucina digestível não influenciaram as características de carcaça e peso de órgãos dos animais. Houve efeito quadr

  17. Estimativa do peso e do rendimento de carcaça de tourinhos Brangus e Nelore, por medidas de ultra-sonografia Prediction of carcass weight and dressing percentage in Nellore and Brangus young bulls, by ultrasound measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo da Luz e Silva

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi obter equações para estimar o peso de carcaça quente (PCQ e o rendimento de carcaça (RC a partir de medidas de ultra-som (US de 48 machos inteiros, das raças Brangus e Nelore, confinados com dietas com 20, 40, 60 ou 80% de concentrado. As medidas de US obtidas com um equipamento PieMedical Scanner 200 Vet com transdutor linear de 178 mm foram a área de olho de lombo (AOLU e a espessura de gordura subcutânea (EGSU entre a 12ª e 13ª costelas e a espessura de gordura sobre o músculo Biceps femoris (EGPU, além do peso vivo (PV, a cada intervalo de aproximadamente 28 dias. Foram estimadas equações de regressão para cada raça e também uma equação geral. As melhores equações foram selecionadas através da estatística Cp. A correlação entre as medidas por US antes do abate e na carcaça foram de 0,83 entre AOLU e a medida da área na carcaça e de 0,86 entre EGSU e espessura de gordura na carcaça. As equações para estimar o PCQ foram mais acuradas quando realizadas mais próximas ao abate, entretanto, as equações para estimativa do RC foram praticamente constantes durante todos os períodos e com menor acurácia. A equação geral apresentou acuracidade semelhante ou menor para ambas as características, comparadas às equações específicas para cada raça. A estimativa do PCQ e RC usando medidas por US foram semelhantes àquelas em que foram utilizadas as mesmas medidas tomadas diretamente na carcaça. A EGPU não aumentou a acurácia das estimativas, quando a EGSU já estava presente no modelo.The objective of this work was to obtain equations to estimate hot carcass weight (PCQ and dressing percentage (RC from ultrasound measurements (US of 48 young bulls of the Brangus and Nellore breeds, fed diets with 20, 40, 60 or 80% of concentrate. Ultrasonic measurements made with a PieMedical Scanner 200 Vet equipment, with linear array transducer of 178 mm coupled with standoff guide, were ribeye

  18. A Behavioral Measure of Costly Helping: Replicating and Extending the Association with Callous Unemotional Traits in Male Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T Sakai

    Full Text Available Some conduct-disordered youths have high levels of callous unemotional traits and meet the DSM-5's "with limited prosocial emotions" (LPE specifier. These youths often do aggressive, self-benefitting acts that cost others. We previously developed a task, the AlAn's game, which asks participants to repeatedly decide whether to accept or reject offers in which they will receive money but a planned charity donation will be reduced. In our prior work, more "costly helping" (i.e., rejecting the offered money and protecting the donation was associated with lower callous unemotional traits. Here we extend that prior work in a larger sample of adolescent male patients with serious conduct problems and controls, and test whether this association is mediated specifically by a Moral Elevation response (i.e., a positive emotional response to another's act of virtue.The adolescent male participants were: 45 patients (23 with LPE and 26 controls, who underwent an extensive phenotypic assessment including a measure of Moral Elevation. About 1 week later participants played the AlAn's game.All AlAn's game outcomes demonstrated significant group effects: (1 money taken for self (p = 0.02; (2 money left in the charitable donation (p = 0.03; and, (3 costly helping (p = 0.047. Controls took the least money and did the most costly helping, while patients with LPE took the most money and did the least costly helping. Groups also significantly differed in post-stimulus Moral Elevation scores (p = 0.005. Exploratory analyses supported that the relationship between callous unemotional traits and costly helping on the AlAn's game may be mediated in part by differences in Moral Elevation.The AlAn's game provides a standardized behavioral measure associated with callous unemotional traits. Adolescents with high levels of callous unemotional traits engage in fewer costly helping behaviors, and those differences may be related to blunting of positive emotional responses.

  19. Reliable prediction and determination of Norwegian lamb carcass composition and value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this work was to study prediction and determination of Norwegian lamb carcass composition with different techniques spanning from subjective appraisal to computer-intensive methods. There is an increasing demand, both from farmers and processors of meats, for a more objective and reliable system for prediction of muscle (lean meat), fat, bone and value of a lamb carcass. When introducing new technologies for determination of lamb carcass composition, the reference method used for calibration must be precise and reliable. The precision and reliability of the current dissection reference for lamb carcass classification and grading has never been quantified. A poor reference method will not benefit even the most optimal system for prediction and determination of lamb carcasses. To help achieve reliable systems, the uncertainty or errors in the reference method and measuring systems needs to be quantified. Using proper calibration methods for the measuring systems, the uncertainty and modeling power can be determined for lamb carcasses. The results of the work presented in this thesis show that the current classification system using subjective appraisal (EUROP) is reliable; however the accuracy with respect to carcass composition, especially for lean meat or muscle and carcass value, is poor. The reference method used for determining lamb carcass composition with respect to lamb carcass classification and grading is precise and reliable for carcass composition. For the composition and yield of sub-primal cuts, the reliability varied, and was especially poor for the breast cut. Further attention is needed for jointing and cutting of sub-primals to achieve even higher precision and reliability of the reference method. As an alternative to butcher or manual dissection, Computer Tomography (CT) showed promising results with respect to prediction of lamb carcass composition. This method is nicknamed “virtual dissection”. By utilizing the

  20. Performance and carcass quality in three genetic groups of sheep in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Tadeu Memória Cardoso

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Three different genetic groups were evaluated for growth up to slaughter and carcass quality for kill out, commercial cuts, non-carcass components, as well as carcass morphometric measurements. Pure Santa Ines (SI, ½ Ile de France × ½ Santa Ines (I × SI and ½ Texel × ½ Santa Ines (T × SI lambs were weighed weekly until they reached predetermined slaughter weight (30, 35, 40 and 45 kg. In both creep feeding and fattening the animals from crosses were superior to the Santa Ines hair sheep in terms of daily weight gain and weaned in less time. Crossbred animals also showed better performance than purebred Santa Ines in terms of commercial cuts and carcass weights. Correlations showed that fat depth and eye muscle area decreased with an increase in morphometric measures, indicating that larger animals are possibly later developing in terms of carcass finishing compared with smaller animals. The optimal slaughter weight is approximately 35 kg.

  1. Effect of gender on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat and fat quality of calves of Avileña-Negra Ibérica breed fattened under free-range conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Argimiro Daza; Ana I. Rey; Celia Lopez-Carrasco; Lopez-Bote, Clemente J.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of gender (entire males vs females) on growth performance, carcass traits and meat and fat quality of Avileña-Negra Ibérica calves, fattened under free range conditions and supplemented with concentrate, were investigated. The average daily gain, leg width and thorax depth were higher in males than in females. Carcass conformation score, fore-quarter weight and percentage in carcass were higher in males than in females, whereas dressing percentege, loins and flank percentages in ca...

  2. Carcass or Tissue Packaging and Shipping

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP on proper shipping of wildlife tissues to labs. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect and ship wildlife carcasses, carcass parts, or...

  3. Assessing Body Condition from Fat on Carcass

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding assessment of body condition based on carcass fat. Provides stepwise instructions and photos on how to assess body condition from carcass fat

  4. Longitudinal assessment of trait emotional intelligence: measurement invariance and construct continuity from late childhood to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Kateryna V; Holden, Ronald R; Parker, James D A

    2013-12-01

    Amid the growing efforts to promote positive youth development, trait emotional intelligence (TEI) has emerged as an important protective factor in the processes of resilience and adaptation. The inclusion of a brief form of the Emotional Quotient Inventory-Youth Version (EQi:YV-Brief) in the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) presents a unique opportunity to study the developmental dynamics of TEI during the transition from childhood to adolescence. However, before drawing any inferences about construct continuity and change, researchers must establish that the EQi:YV-Brief functions equivalently over time. This study tested configural, metric, scalar, and residual measurement invariance of the EQi:YV-Brief over a 6-year period from late childhood (age 10-11) to adolescence (age 16-17). Longitudinal mean and covariance structures models were fitted to the data from 773 NLSCY participants (51% girls) who completed the EQi:YV-Brief at 4 biennial cycles. Three of the 4 EQi:YV-Brief subscales were found to be fully invariant at ages 12-13 through 17-18 and partially invariant at age 10-11. Controlling for partial noninvariance, we also investigated patterns of rank-order stability and mean-level change in TEI. These exploratory analyses showed that individual differences in TEI became increasingly more stable with age and that changes in mean TEI levels followed a complex nonlinear pattern over time. The results supported the longitudinal utility of 3 of the 4 EQi:YV-Brief subscales used in the NLSCY, supporting their further use in research on the developmental dynamics of TEI. PMID:23914954

  5. Personality traits in old age: measurement and rank-order stability and some mean-level change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J

    2012-03-01

    Lothian Birth Cohorts, 1936 and 1921 were used to study the longitudinal comparability of Five-Factor Model (McCrae & John, 1992) personality traits from ages 69 to 72 years and from ages 81 to 87 years, and cross-cohort comparability between ages 69 and 81 years. Personality was measured using the 50-item International Personality Item Pool (Goldberg, 1999). Satisfactory measurement invariance was established across time and cohorts. High rank-order stability was observed in both cohorts. Almost no mean-level change was observed in the younger cohort, whereas Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Intellect declined significantly in the older cohort. The older cohort scored higher on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. In these cohorts, individual differences in personality traits continued to be stable even in very old age, mean-level changes accelerated. PMID:21604884

  6. Implicit versus explicit measures of self-concept of self-control and their differential predictive power for spontaneous trait-relevant behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, Rafaele J. C.; Rijkeboer, Marleen M.; Krakau, Andrej; de Jong, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Low trait self-control constitutes a core criterion in various psychiatric disorders. Personality traits such as low self-control are mostly indexed by self-report measures. However, several theorists emphasized the importance of differentiating between explicit and implic

  7. Predictive Validity of Callous-unemotional Traits Measured in Early Adolescence with Respect to Multiple Antisocial Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Robert J.; Witkiewitz, Katie; Kotler, Julie S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the predictive validity of youth callous-unemotional (CU) traits, as measured in early adolescence (grade 7) by the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001), in a longitudinal sample (N = 754). Antisocial outcomes, assessed in adolescence and early adulthood, included self-reported general delinquency from 7th grade through 2-years post-high school; self-reported serious crimes through 2-years post-high school, juvenile and adult arrest records th...

  8. Características físico-químicas da carcaça e da carne de novilhas submetidas ao anestro cirúrgico ou mecânico terminadas em confinamento Carcass and meat traits of feedlot finished heifers submitted to surgical or mechanical anoestrous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair de Araújo Marques

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da simulação da prenhez (introdução de 100 esferas de chumbo no útero - CHU e da ovariectomia (retirada dos ovários - OVA sobre as características físico-químicas da carcaça e da carne de novilhas. Foram utilizadas 19 novilhas mestiças (½ Nelore x ½ Red Angus, com 18 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 257,8 kg, terminadas em confinamento recebendo uma dieta à base de silagem de milho (41% e farelo de soja e milho (59%. O peso vivo ao abate, sem diferença entre tratamentos, foi de 324,1; 323,3 e 303,0 kg para as novilhas dos tratamentos VAZ, CHU e OVA, respectivamente. Da mesma forma, não houve diferença entre tratamentos para peso de carcaça quente (171,1 kg, comprimento de carcaça (113,8 cm, comprimento de perna (68,2 cm, espessura do coxão (21,0 cm, área de olho-de-lombo (57,3 cm², espessura de gordura de cobertura (4,0 mm, proporções de músculo (62,6%, osso (16,0% e gordura (21,7%, relação músculo/osso (3,9, relação músculo + gordura (porção comestível/osso (5,3, perdas por cocção (24,3%, perdas do congelamento à cocção (30,9%, maciez (7,1 pontos, suculência (6,6 pontos e palatabilidade (6,6 pontos. Os parâmetros cor, textura e marmoreio também não diferiram entre os tratamentos, apresentando, respectivamente, 4,0; 4,4 e 3,7 pontos. Não houve diferença significativa para os teores de cinzas (1,1% e PB (21,8% e para as concentrações de extrato etéreo total (2,9% e colesterol (49,6 mg/100g do músculo Longissimus dorsi. Portanto, a ocorrência do estro não alterou as características analisadas.This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pregnancy simulation (placement of 100 lead spheres in the uterus-LEAD and ovariectomy (OVAE on traits of carcass and meat of heifers finished in feedlot. Animals not pregnant and with intact ovary were used as the control (CTRL. Nineteen crossbred heifers (½ Nelore x ½ Red Angus averaging 18 months of

  9. Do aphid carcasses on the backs of larvae of green lacewing work as chemical mimicry against aphid-tending ants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masayuki; Choh, Yasuyuki; Nakamuta, Kiyoshi; Nomura, Masashi

    2014-06-01

    Ants attack and exclude natural enemies of aphids in ant-aphid mutualisms. However, larvae of the green lacewing, Mallada desjardinsi, prey on the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora, without exclusion by aphid-tending ants. Lacewing larvae are protected from ants by carrying aphid carcasses on their backs. Here, we tested whether cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) of aphid carcasses affected the aggressiveness of aphid-tending ants. Aphid carcasses were washed with n-hexane to remove lipids. Lacewing larvae with washed aphid carcasses were attacked by aphid-tending ants more frequently than those with untreated aphid carcasses. We measured the aggressiveness of aphid-tending ants to lacewing larvae that were either carrying a piece of cotton wool (a dummy aphid carcass) treated with CHCs from aphids or lacewing larvae, or carrying aphid carcasses. The rates of attack by ants on lacewing larvae carrying CHCs of aphids or aphid carcasses were lower than that of attack on lacewing larvae with conspecific CHCs. Chemical analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed similarity of CHCs between aphids and aphid carcasses. These results suggest that aphid carcasses on the backs of lacewing larvae function via chemical camouflage to limit attacks by aphid-tending ants. PMID:24894158

  10. Enhancing a Short Measure of Big Five Personality Traits with Bayesian Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. Paul

    2014-01-01

    A study in a university clinic/laboratory investigated adaptive Bayesian scaling as a supplement to interpretation of scores on the Mini-IPIP. A "probability of belonging" in categories of low, medium, or high on each of the Big Five traits was calculated after each item response and continued until all items had been used or until a…

  11. 复合添加剂对肉仔鸡生长性能、胴体性状和肌肉品质的影响%Effects of compound additives on growth performance,carcass traits and meat quality in broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓明; 钱辉跃; 杨东

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the effects of different combination of regulating facts on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality in broilers, 630 one-day-old healthy avian broilers were randomly assigned into 21 groups (including one control treatment), the control treatment was fed by normal diet, and the rest 20 treatments were fed by fifteen kinds of experimental diets.Each of three experimental factors (compound vitamins, compound trace elements and compound active additives) was designed to 5 levels.After 49-days' growth trail, the mean weight of broilers, the feed efficiency of broilers, breast muscle/live weight of broilers, and the abdominal fat rate, the pH value, the water holding capacity, intramuscular fat,crude protein of meat in each treatment were better than those of the control treatment (P<0.01).The multi-parameters comprehensive evaluation and optimization of mathematical models showed that the carcass and meat quality of broiler were the best when three compound additives in the diet was 1 672.64 mg/kg compound vitamins (VE 254.91, Vc 283.23,VA 4 248.51, VH 0.43), 2 888.10 mg/kg compound trace elements(Fe 77.84,Cu 90.81, Mn 116.75, Cr 0.78, Zn 142.70, Se 0.193), and 1 885.01 mg/kg compound active additives(betaine 1 767.53, allitridum 81.40 ), respectively.These results indicated that the optimal ratio of basic nutritional factors and regulatory factors could improve carcass traits and the meat quality of broiler.%以1日龄、健壮的艾维菌(Avian)肉仔鸡630只(公、母各半)为试验动物,以按NRC微营养素推荐标准配制的营养性预混料为试验基础,以对鸡肉品质有调控作用的营养素组成的复合维生素、复合微量元素和复合生物活性物质添加剂为试验因素,采用3因子5水平二次回归通用旋转组合设计,分成21个组(其中1个为对照组),按照15种饲喂水平组合设计15种试验日粮,进行49 d饲养试验,研究多个调控因子的不同水平组合对肉鸡生长

  12. Carcass and meat palatability breed differences and heterosis effects in an Angus-Brahman multibreed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; Johnson, D D; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2012-01-01

    Additive genetic Angus-Brahman differences, heterosis effects, and least squares means for six carcass and six meat palatability traits were estimated using data from 1367 steers from the Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of the University of Florida collected from 1989 to 2009. Brahman carcasses had higher dressing percent (PBrahman beef was less tender (PBrahman crossbred steers. Results indicated that crossbred animals with up to 50% Brahman showed limited negative impact on meat quality while maximizing meat yield due to heterosis. PMID:21703774

  13. Effect of Linseed Supplementation on Carcass, Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Composition in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Červek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of linseed supplementation on carcass, meat quality and fatty acid profile of fat tissue was studied. No differences in carcass and meat quality traits were observed, the exception being drip loss that was lower in pigs supplemented with linseed. As regards fatty acids, linseed supplementation led to the increased content of unsaturated, polyunsaturated and n-3 fatty acids and decreased content of saturated fatty acids and n-6/n-3 ratio in the subcutaneous and intramuscular fat of pigs.

  14. EFFECT OF CONVENTIONAL VERSUS ORGANIC METHOD OF PRODUCTION ON THE BROILER CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    CASTELLINI, Prof C; MUGNAI, Dr C; DAL BOSCO, Dr A

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the organic production system on broiler carcass and meat quality was assessed. Two hundred and fifty Ross male chickens were assigned to two different systems of production: conventional, housing in an indoor pen (0.12 m2/bird); organic, housing in an indoor pen (0.12 m2/bird) with access to a grass paddock (4 m2/bird). At 56 and 81 days of age twenty chickens per group were slaughtered to evaluate the carcass traits and the characteristics of breast and drumstick muscles (pect...

  15. Postweaning performance and carcass merit of F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, D E

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons were made among F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds of bulls for feedlot and carcass traits when steers were produced from Angus- and Hereford-type dams. Brahman-derivative breeds included Brangus, Beefmaster, and Santa Gertrudis. Brangus- and Beefmaster-sired steers weighed less at slaughter, whereas carcasses of Brangus- and Santa Gertrudis-sired steers had more marbling than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area than carcasses of Santa Gertrudis-sired steers. Other Zebu breeds compared to Brahman were Boran, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, Red Brahman, and Sahiwal. Steers by Brahman sires had higher slaughter weights than steers by Boran, Gir, Nellore, or Sahiwal sires. Hot carcass weights of Brahman-sired steers were also higher than those of Boran- and Sahiwal-sired steers. Steer carcasses by Brahman sires had greater longissimus muscle area than those of steers by Sahiwal sires. Non-Zebu breeds included Tuli and Senepol. Steers by Tuli sires grew slower, had lower slaughter weights, and their carcasses weighed less than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area but less marbling than carcasses of Tuli-sired steers. These data suggest that steers by Brahman sires have an advantage for slaughter weight over steers by Brangus, Beefmaster, Boran, Gir, Nellore, Sahiwal, and Tuli sires, but their carcasses are at a disadvantage for marbling score compared with those by Brangus, Boran, Nellore, and Tuli sires. PMID:9331861

  16. Comparação de diferentes estratégias para a análise de características de crescimento e de carcaça de suínos cruzados: modelos finito e infinitesimal poligênico Comparison of different strategies to analyze growth and carcass traits in a crossbred pig population: finite and infinitesimal polygenic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio de Moraes Gonçalves

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi utilizada uma análise de segregação com o uso da inferência Bayesiana para estimar componentes de variância e verificar a presença de genes de efeito principal (GEP influenciando duas características de carcaça: gordura intramuscular (GIM, em %, e espessura de toucinho (ET, em mm; e uma de crescimento, ganho de peso (g/dia dos 25 aos 90 kg de peso vivo (GP. Para este estudo, foram utilizadas informações de 1.257 animais provenientes de um delineamento de F2, obtidos do cruzamento de suínos machos Meishan e fêmeas Large White e Landrace. No melhoramento genético animal, os modelos poligênicos finitos (MPF podem ser uma alternativa aos modelos poligênicos infinitesimais (MPI para avaliação genética de características quantitativas usando pedigrees complexos. MPI, MPF e MPI combinado com MPF foram empiricamente testados para se estimar componentes de variâncias e número de genes no MPF. Para a estimação de médias marginais a posteriori de componentes de variância e de parâmetros, foi utilizada uma metodologia Bayesiana, por meio do uso da Cadeia de Markov, algoritmos de Monte Carlo (MCMC, via Amostrador de Gibbs e Reversible Jump Sampler (Metropolis-Hastings. Em função dos resultados obtidos, pode-se evidenciar quatro GEP, sendo dois para GIM e dois para ET. Para ET, o GEP explicou a maior parte da variação genética, enquanto, para GIM, o GEP reduziu significativamente a variação poligênica. Para a variação do GP, não foi possível determinar a influência do GEP. As herdabilidades estimadas ajustando-se MPI para GIM, ET e GP foram de 0,37; 0,24 e 0,37, respectivamente. Estudos futuros com base neste experimento que usem marcadores moleculares para mapear os genes de efeito principal que afetem, principalmente GIM e ET, poderão lograr êxito.A Bayesian marker-free segregation analysis was applied for the estimation of variance components and to search for evidence of segregation genes affecting two carcass

  17. Species traits predict assemblage dynamics at ephemeral resource patches created by carrion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S Barton

    Full Text Available Carrion is an ephemeral and spatially patchy resource that supports a diverse subset of species linked to nutrient cycling and the decomposition process. A number of studies have separately documented changes in the diversity of plants, arthropods and vertebrates at individual carcasses, but there are few studies that have examined how functional traits of different groups of organisms underpin their responses to carrion patches. We used a carrion addition experiment to compare changes in composition and functional traits of insect and plant assemblages at carcasses compared with control sites. We found that significant changes in insect assemblage evenness and heterogeneity was associated with species' dispersal traits, and that plant assemblage responses to subsequent soil nitrogen changes was most apparent among graminoids and exotic species. Beetles at carcasses were twice as large as their counterparts at control sites during the first week of carrion decomposition, and also had higher wing loadings. Plants with high specific leaf area responded faster to the carcass addition, and twice as many species recolonised the centre of carcasses in exotic-dominated grassland compared with carcasses in native-dominated grassland. These results provide an example of how traits of opportunist species enable them to exploit patchy and dynamic resources. This increases our understanding of how carcasses can drive biodiversity dynamics, and has implications for the way carrion might be managed in ecosystems, such as appropriate consideration of spatial and temporal continuity in carrion resources to promote heterogeneity in nutrient cycling and species diversity within landscapes.

  18. Species traits predict assemblage dynamics at ephemeral resource patches created by carrion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Philip S; Cunningham, Saul A; Macdonald, Ben C T; McIntyre, Sue; Lindenmayer, David B; Manning, Adrian D

    2013-01-01

    Carrion is an ephemeral and spatially patchy resource that supports a diverse subset of species linked to nutrient cycling and the decomposition process. A number of studies have separately documented changes in the diversity of plants, arthropods and vertebrates at individual carcasses, but there are few studies that have examined how functional traits of different groups of organisms underpin their responses to carrion patches. We used a carrion addition experiment to compare changes in composition and functional traits of insect and plant assemblages at carcasses compared with control sites. We found that significant changes in insect assemblage evenness and heterogeneity was associated with species' dispersal traits, and that plant assemblage responses to subsequent soil nitrogen changes was most apparent among graminoids and exotic species. Beetles at carcasses were twice as large as their counterparts at control sites during the first week of carrion decomposition, and also had higher wing loadings. Plants with high specific leaf area responded faster to the carcass addition, and twice as many species recolonised the centre of carcasses in exotic-dominated grassland compared with carcasses in native-dominated grassland. These results provide an example of how traits of opportunist species enable them to exploit patchy and dynamic resources. This increases our understanding of how carcasses can drive biodiversity dynamics, and has implications for the way carrion might be managed in ecosystems, such as appropriate consideration of spatial and temporal continuity in carrion resources to promote heterogeneity in nutrient cycling and species diversity within landscapes. PMID:23326549

  19. New Captors for Use in Controlling Pork Quality:Evaluation of Porcine Carcass Composition and Quality Traits during Slaughter and Processing%控制猪肉品质的新型感应器:用于屠宰和加工阶段测定猪胴体组分和评估猪肉品质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gilles NASSY

    2015-01-01

    New captors for use in slaughterhouses and for transformation in order to measure carcass composition and characterize technological quality of meat. Slaughterhouses hold a strategic position in the center of the pork industry as they are the technological and economic link between market expectations and livestock production. New technologies, proven in other industries, appear in the meat industry and are experienced in several directions. The X-ray tomography determines accurately and nondestructively in pig carcass, the proportion of three main tissues, fat, lean and bones. X-ray is already used to perform virtual dissections to calibrate grading devices. This RX technology is experienced on deboning lines to program deboning robots according to the individual conformation of pieces. Visible light cameras are now installed in slaughterhouses to classify carcasses according to thickness of lean and fat to allow the distribution of gains payments to farmers. The near infrared spectra (NIRS) of reflection or refraction are quite widely used to measure the composition of mixed fat and lean. Their use is being validated for substitution to pH to predict, at the slaughterhouse stage, the technological quality of hams. Hyperspectral analysis (including visible and infrared rays) becomes possible thanks to the speed of computers available today. It should enhance the accuracy of the NIRS analysis and improve the characterization of pig meat.%猪肉产业现在拥有了新的测定胴体组分和加工阶段猪肉品质的工具,其技术的成熟性已经通过实验和推广应用测试。屠宰企业正在影响这一工具建立市场和养殖企业间的经济和技术联系。肉类加工业这一新技术有效性已经在多个方面得到验证。X射线断层扫描技术可以实现对胴体3个主要组分的检测:瘦肉、肥肉和骨。这一技术被用来虚拟分割胴体以进行分级。在剔骨分割车间,这一技术被用来设定机器人

  20. Manipulation of cattle growth to target carcass quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, H C; McKinnon, J J; Mustafa, A F; Christensen, D A

    2001-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of breed type, backgrounding program, and backfat end point (USBFEP) as determined by ultrasound on the performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers. Trial 1 utilized 144 large-framed Charolais- (304.6 +/- 16.3 kg) and 144 medium-framed Hereford-cross steers (294.8 +/- 20.9 kg). Trial 2 utilized 88 medium-framed Angus (289.5 +/- 15.0 kg), 88 large-framed Charolais- (299.8 +/- 17.7 kg), and 88 medium-framed Hereford-cross (291.1 +/- 20.9 kg) steers. Within breed type, short- (70 d) or long-term (126 d) backgrounding programs (Trial 1) and 6- or 12-mm USBFEP (Trials 1 and 2) were assigned. In both trials, carcass size was greater (P Charolais-cross steers, longer backgrounding, and fatter USBFEP treatments. Lean meat yield was greater (P Charolais- than Hereford-cross steers (Trial 1) and for the leaner USBFEP (Trials 1 and 2). Marbling was greater (P Charolais- (Trials 1 and 2) than Hereford-cross steers (Trials 1 and 2) and for the fatter end point (Trials 1 and 2). It was concluded that breed type, backgrounding program, and USBFEP were effective in altering growth and could be used to target carcass traits of interest for value-based marketing programs. PMID:11204693

  1. Mapping of QTL on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 12, 14, 15 and X in pigs: characteristics carcass and quality of meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paixao, D.M.; Carneiro, P.L.S.; Paiva, S.R.; Sousa, K.R.S.; Verardo, L.L.; Braccini Neto, J.; Pinto, A.P.G.; Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Nascimento, C.; Périssé, I.V.; Lopes, P.S.; Guimaraes, S.E.F.

    2012-01-01

    The accomplishment of the present study had as objective to map Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated to carcass and quality traits in a F2 pig population developed by mating two Brazilian Piau breed sires with 18 dams from a commercial line (Landrace × Large White × Pietrain). The linkage map fo

  2. Interdependence of Personality Traits and Brand Identity in Measuring Brand Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopal, MR

    2009-01-01

    Brand personality is an attractive and appealing concept in the marketing of today. Consumers perceive the brand on dimensions that typically capture a person’s personality, and extend that to the domain of brands. The discussions in the paper are woven around the issues concerning brand strength, brand identity and cognitive relationship between the consumer personality attributes and brand perceptions. Human personality traits that affect the brand performance are critically examined and ro...

  3. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis reports investigations using gamma-radiation to decontaminate poultry carcasses. The application to foods of doses of ionizing radiation sufficient to reduce the number of viable specific non-sporeforming pathogenic microorganisms so that none is detectable in the treated food by any standard method is termed radicidation. The doses used in this study were at such a level that no undesirable or unfavourable side-effects occurred. The effects of these doses were studied on salmonellae and other microorganisms present in, or associated with poultry carcasses and in liquid and on solid culture media as well. Decimal reduction (D10) values were estimated. These represent the dose (kGy) required to achieve a reduction in initial colony count from N0 to 0.1 N0. Together with the estimation of the numbers of Salmonella present per carcass the data were used to predict the effect of an ionizing radiation treatment of poultry. Data on the effect of ionizing radiation on the total microflora of poultry carcasses were also collected. (Auth.)

  4. Consumer acceptance and carcass quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    In commodity production systems, beef quality is designated based on the USDA grading criteria which take into account carcass marbling, maturity and yield. Producers are rewarded economically for beef quality grade (QG) of Choice versus Select although the price difference (spread) varies seasonal...

  5. Genetic correlations between measures of beef quality traits and their predictions by near-infrared spectroscopy in the Piemontese cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Carnier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to predict beef quality traits (BQ: colour, shear force, drip and cooking losses of Piemontese cattle using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and to estimate genetic parameters for measured BQ and their predictions by NIRS. Heritabilities and genetic correlations for measured BQ and their predictions based on NIRS were estimated through bivariate Bayesian analyses. Heritability estimates for measured BQ were of intermediate magnitude (from 0.10 to 0.63 and similar to those for NIRS predictions. The genetic correlations between BQ measures and their predictions by NIRS were very high for colour traits, high for drip loss, and nil for shear force and cooking loss. NIRS predictions can be proposed as indicator traits in breeding programs for enhancement of colour traits and drip loss.

  6. Construct validity of adolescents' self-reported big five personality traits: importance of conceptual breadth and initial validation of a short measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizot, Julien

    2014-10-01

    While there are a number of short personality trait measures that have been validated for use with adults, few are specifically validated for use with adolescents. To trust such measures, it must be demonstrated that they have adequate construct validity. According to the view of construct validity as a unifying form of validity requiring the integration of different complementary sources of information, this article reports the evaluation of content, factor, convergent, and criterion validities as well as reliability of adolescents' self-reported personality traits. Moreover, this study sought to address an inherent potential limitation of short personality trait measures, namely their limited conceptual breadth. In this study, starting with items from a known measure, after the language-level was adjusted for use with adolescents, items tapping fundamental primary traits were added to determine the impact of added conceptual breadth on the psychometric properties of the scales. The resulting new measure was named the Big Five Personality Trait Short Questionnaire (BFPTSQ). A group of expert judges considered the items to have adequate content validity. Using data from a community sample of early adolescents, the results confirmed the factor validity of the Big Five structure in adolescence as well as its measurement invariance across genders. More important, the added items did improve the convergent and criterion validities of the scales, but did not negatively affect their reliability. This study supports the construct validity of adolescents' self-reported personality traits and points to the importance of conceptual breadth in short personality measures. PMID:24619971

  7. Real-time ultrasound to predict rabbit carcass composition and volume of longissimus dorsi muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Severiano José Cruz da Rocha e Silva; André Mendes Jorge; José Luís Teixeira de Abreu Medeiros Mourão; Cristina Vitória de Miranda Guedes; Victor Manuel Carvalho Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    Real-time ultrasonography (RTU) was used to measure the longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) volume in vivo and to predict the carcass composition of rabbits. For this, 63 New Zealand White × Californian rabbits with 2093±63 g live weight were used. Animals were scanned between the 6th and 7th lumbar vertebrae using an RTU equipment with a 7.5 MHz probe. Measurements of LM volume were obtianed both in vivo and on carcass. Regression equations were used for the prediction of carcass composition and L...

  8. A Behavioral Measure of Costly Helping: Replicating and Extending the Association with Callous Unemotional Traits in Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Joseph T.; Dalwani, Manish S.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Raymond, Kristen M.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Some conduct-disordered youths have high levels of callous unemotional traits and meet the DSM-5’s “with limited prosocial emotions” (LPE) specifier. These youths often do aggressive, self-benefitting acts that cost others. We previously developed a task, the AlAn’s game, which asks participants to repeatedly decide whether to accept or reject offers in which they will receive money but a planned charity donation will be reduced. In our prior work, more "costly helping" (i.e., rejecting the offered money and protecting the donation) was associated with lower callous unemotional traits. Here we extend that prior work in a larger sample of adolescent male patients with serious conduct problems and controls, and test whether this association is mediated specifically by a Moral Elevation response (i.e., a positive emotional response to another’s act of virtue). Methods The adolescent male participants were: 45 patients (23 with LPE) and 26 controls, who underwent an extensive phenotypic assessment including a measure of Moral Elevation. About 1 week later participants played the AlAn’s game. Results All AlAn’s game outcomes demonstrated significant group effects: (1) money taken for self (p = 0.02); (2) money left in the charitable donation (p = 0.03); and, (3) costly helping (p = 0.047). Controls took the least money and did the most costly helping, while patients with LPE took the most money and did the least costly helping. Groups also significantly differed in post-stimulus Moral Elevation scores (p = 0.005). Exploratory analyses supported that the relationship between callous unemotional traits and costly helping on the AlAn’s game may be mediated in part by differences in Moral Elevation. Conclusions The AlAn's game provides a standardized behavioral measure associated with callous unemotional traits. Adolescents with high levels of callous unemotional traits engage in fewer costly helping behaviors, and those differences may be related

  9. INFLUENCE OF MHS GENETIC STATUS OF BOARS ON FERTILITY OF SOWS AND PRODUCTION TRAITS OF PIGLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Margeta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aim was to determine influence of MHS gene polymorphism on the most important slaughter and production traits of pigs. For the purpose of carrying out the research, semen of 6 Pietrain boars of different MHS genetic status was used for insemination of 120 Large White and German Landrace sows crossbreds. Fertility and production traits were monitored during rearing and fattening period of offspring. Upon completion of fattening and slaughtering, the slaughter traits of pig carcasses and meat were determined. The results proved that sows inseminated by boars carrying MHS gene had weaker fertility, and their piglets grew slower during sucking period and rearing. As for the production traits during fattening, there were no significant differences determined between the investigated pig groups. Values of slaughter traits obtained on pig carcasses and meat pointed out the necessity of excluding carriers of MHS gene from production because of their unfavourable influence on carcass and meat quality.

  10. pH Tolerance in Freshwater Bacterioplankton: Trait Variation of the Community as Measured by Leucine Incorporation

    OpenAIRE

    Bååth, Erland; Kritzberg, Emma

    2015-01-01

    pH is an important factor determining bacterial community composition in soil and water. We have directly determined the community tolerance (trait variation) to pH in communities from 22 lakes and streams ranging in pH from 4 to 9 using a growth-based method not relying on distinguishing between individual populations. The pH in the water samples was altered to up to 16 pH values, covering in situ pH ± 2.5 U, and the tolerance was assessed by measuring bacterial growth (Leu incorporation) in...

  11. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: In-plant survey of targeted carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, value, and marketing of fed steers and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M C; Gray, G D; Hale, D S; Kerth, C R; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W; Raines, C R; Belk, K E; Woerner, D R; Tatum, J D; Igo, J L; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Lawrence, T E; Delmore, R J; Christensen, L M; Shackelford, S D; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Meadows, L R; O'Connor, M E

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 National Beef Quality Audit (NBQA-2011) assessed the current status of quality and consistency of fed steers and heifers. Beef carcasses (n = 9,802), representing approximately 10% of each production lot in 28 beef processing facilities, were selected randomly for the survey. Carcass evaluation for the cooler assessment of this study revealed the following traits and frequencies: sex classes of steer (63.5%), heifer (36.4%), cow (0.1%), and bullock (0.03%); dark cutters (3.2%); blood splash (0.3%); yellow fat (0.1%); calloused rib eye (0.05%); overall maturities of A (92.8%), B (6.0%), and C or greater (1.2%); estimated breed types of native (88.3%), dairy type (9.9%), and Bos indicus (1.8%); and country of origin of United States (97.7%), Mexico (1.8%), and Canada (0.5%). Certified or marketing program frequencies were age and source verified (10.7%), ≤A(40) (10.0%), Certified Angus Beef (9.3%), Top Choice (4.1%), natural (0.6%), and Non-Hormone-Treated Cattle (0.5%); no organic programs were observed. Mean USDA yield grade (YG) traits were USDA YG (2.9), HCW (374.0 kg), adjusted fat thickness (1.3 cm), LM area (88.8 cm2), and KPH (2.3%). Frequencies of USDA YG distributions were YG 1, 12.4%; YG 2, 41.0%; YG 3, 36.3%; YG 4, 8.6%; and YG 5, 1.6%. Mean USDA quality grade (QG) traits were USDA quality grade (Select(93)), marbling score (Small(40)), overall maturity (A(59)), lean maturity (A(54)), and skeletal maturity (A(62)). Frequencies of USDA QG distributions were Prime, 2.1%; Choice, 58.9%; Select, 32.6%; and Standard or less, 6.3%. Marbling score distribution was Slightly Abundant or greater, 2.3%; Moderate, 5.0%; Modest, 17.3%; Small, 39.7%; Slight, 34.6%; and Traces or less, 1.1%. Carcasses with QG of Select or greater and YG 3 or less represented 85.1% of the sample. This is the fifth benchmark study measuring targeted carcass characteristics, and information from this survey will continue to help drive progress in the beef industry. Results will

  12. Factors associated with age at slaughter and carcass weight, price, and value of dairy cull cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzoli, I; De Marchi, M; Cecchinato, A; Berry, D P; Bittante, G

    2014-02-01

    The sale of cull cows contributes to the overall profit of dairy herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors associated with slaughter age (mo), cow carcass weight (kg), price (€/kg of carcass weight), and value (€/head) of dairy cull cows. Data included 20,995 slaughter records in the period from 2003 to 2011 of 5 different breeds: 2 dairy [Holstein Friesian (HF) and Brown Swiss (BS)] and 3 dual-purpose [Simmental (Si), Alpine Grey (AG), and Rendena (Re)]. Associations of breed, age of cow (except when the dependent variable was slaughter age), and year and month of slaughter with slaughter age, carcass weight, price, and value were quantified using a mixed linear model; herd was included as a random effect. The seasonal trends in cow price and value traits were inversely related to the number of cows slaughtered, whereas annual variation in external factors affected market conditions. Relative to BS cows, HF cows were younger at slaughter (73.1 vs. 80.7 mo), yielded slightly lighter carcasses (242 vs. 246 kg), and received a slightly lower price (1.69 vs. 1.73 €/kg) and total value (394 vs. 417 €/head). Dual-purpose breeds were older and heavier and received a much greater price and total value at slaughter (521, 516, and 549 €/head, respectively for Si, Re, and AG) than either dairy breed. Of the dual-purpose cows, Si carcasses were heavier (271 kg), whereas the carcasses of local breeds received a higher price (2.05 and 2.18 €/kg for Re and AG, respectively) and Alpine Grey cows were the oldest at slaughter (93.3 mo). The price per kilogram of cull cow carcasses was greatest for very young cows (i.e., carcass value (carcass weight × unit price) among dairy breeds suggest that such a trait could be considered in the breeding objectives of the breeds. PMID:24315325

  13. Características de carcaça de novilhas mestiças confinadas, submetidas a dietas com milho ou resíduo seco de fecularia de mandioca - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1147 Carcass traits of confined crossbred heifers subjected to corn or dry by-product of cassava starch extraction diet - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1147

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanor Nunes do Prado

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a substituição do milho pelo resíduo seco de fecularia de mandioca sobre as características de carcaça (peso de carcaça quente, rendimento de carcaça, conformação, espessura do coxão, comprimento de perna, espessura de gordura de cobertura, cor, textura, área de olho de lombo, percentagem de osso, de músculo e de gordura de novilhas mestiças confinadas. Foram utilizadas 30 novilhas com 21 meses de idade. No período pré-experimental (49 dias, os animais receberam concentrado de milho e farelo de soja (19,67% PB. No período experimental (57 dias, 15 novilhas receberam a dieta anterior e outras 15 receberam resíduo de fecularia de mandioca e silagem de sorgo à vontade. A espessura da gordura de cobertura foi maior (p Longissimus dorsi (70,91 vs 63,17 cm2 e a percentagem de músculo (69,83% vs 66,29%, foram maiores (p The aim of this work was the replacement evaluation of corn by dry by-product of cassava starch extraction on carcass traits of crossbreed heifers in feedlot. Thirty crossbred heifers aged 21 months were used. In pre-experimental period (49 days the heifers were fed with soybean meal and corn concentrate (19.67% CP. In the experimental period (57 days 15 heifers were fed with the previous diet and the other 15 were fed with by-product of cassava and sorghum silage. Subcutaneous fat was thicker (P Longissimus dorsi area (70.91 vs 63.17 cm2 and the muscle percentage (69.83 vs 66.29% were highen (p < 0.05 for the heifers that consumed the diet with dry cassava by-products than the others with corn diet. The replacement of corn by dry cassava by-products influenced carcass traits

  14. Effect of breed (wool and hair and sex on the carcass quality of suckling lambs under intensive management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Camacho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Carcasses of twenty lambs (10 males and 10 females from the Canaria Hair breed (CHB and another twenty (10 males and 10 females from the Canaria breed (CB of 9.91±0.73 kg and 9.87±0.80 kg live weight, respectively, were studied. In the principal component (PC analysis, the projection of carcass measurement data in the first PC allowed for clearly distinguishing between CB and CHB. In the analysis of variance, breed effect was observed in the morphology of the carcass: CB lambs showed the longest carcasses and CHB lambs showed the widest carcasses. Due to their wider rump and shorter legs, CHB lambs presented a more compact leg index. The carcasses from Canaria lambs had the highest fat score, the heaviest shoulder and the highest total fat percentage. The carcasses from CHB lambs showed a higher lean percentage. The carcass yield, conformation, degree of fatness and tissue composition were similar in both sexes. However, significant differences in the commercial cut yield were observed: males showed heavier shoulders than females. The effect of sex on carcass quality is unimportant. The breeds are different in important characteristics for the market, such as fatness. This fact is of significant interest because it diversifies the offer and means that different markets can be satisfied.

  15. [Toward exploration of morphological disparity of measurable traits of mammalian skull. 1. Interrelation between different forms of group variation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlinov, I Ia; Nanova, O G; Spasskaia, N N

    2008-01-01

    Interrelations between some forms of group variation (FGVs) (age, sex, geographic, inter-species, differences among breeds) of 12 to 15 measurable skull traits are studied in 6 mammal species (pine marten, polar fox, Przewalskii horse, and 3 jird species) by means of dispersion analysis (model III, MANOVA). The above FGVs are considered as factors in the MANOVA, and skull traits are considered as dependent variables. To obtaine commeasurables estimates for the FGVs, each of them is assessed numerically as a portion of its dispersion in the entire morphological disparity defined for each character (or a set of characters) by MANOVA. The data obtained indicate a wide diversity of interrelations between FGVs. It is shown that statistical analysis of significance of joint effects of FGVs does not substitute the analysis of numerical interrelations of their dispersion portions. It is concluded that it is unproductive to study such interrelations as simple "statistical regularities" like the Kluge-Kerfoot phenomenon, so the character sets are not to be considered as statistical ensembles. A kind of content-wise null-model for FGVs of measurable traits is formulated according to which there is a "background" age variation while other FGVs are its derivatives. Respectively, other factors structuring the morphological disparity under investigation being absent, a positive correlation between FGVs is to be anticipated (strong succession). With the significant deviations of the postulated correlation being observed, other factors regulating respective FGVs that cannot be reduced to the age variation are to be supposed (weak succession). Possible interpretations of interrelations between age variation and some other FGVs in carnivores are considered. Craniological variation in the Przewalskii horse is just slightly effected by maintenance conditions under its domestication, a significant influence of other factors is to be supposed. Negative correlation between geographic and

  16. The use of seemingly unrelated regression to predict the carcass composition of lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cadavez, V.A.P.; Henningsen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate models for predicting the carcass composition of lambs. Forty male lambs were slaughtered and their carcasses were cooled for 24 hours. The subcutaneous fat thickness was measured between the 12th and 13th rib and breast bone tissue thickness was...... taken in the middle of the second sternebrae. Left side of carcasses was dissected and the proportions of lean meat (LMP), subcutaneous fat (SFP), intermuscular fat (IFP), kidney and knob channel fat (KCFP), and bone plus remainder (BP) were obtained. Models were fitted using the seemingly unrelated...

  17. Evaluation of F1 calves sired by Brahman, Boran, and Tuli bulls for birth, growth, size, and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    1996-05-01

    Birth (n = 308), weaning (n = 291), feedlot and carcass (n = 142), and yearling heifer traits (n = 139) were evaluated in F1 calves sired by Brahman (BR), Boran (BO), and Tuli (TU) bulls and born to multiparous Hereford and Angus cows. Calves sired by BR were heaviest (P Brahman crosses had larger (P yield grade among sire breeds. Heifers sired by BR were heaviest (P Brahman F1 heifers had larger (P yield traits, among these three breeds. PMID:8726726

  18. Slaughter and carcass characteristics, chemical composition and physical properties of longissimus lumborum muscle of heifers as related to marbling class

    OpenAIRE

    A. Oler; B. Głowińska; Młynek, K.

    2015-01-01

    The experiment involved 68 heifers obtained from Polish Black-and-White Lowland dams (with no more than 50% Holstein Friesian blood) sired by Limousin bulls. The study was arranged to determine the slaughter and carcass traits, chemical composition and physical properties of musculus longissimus lumborum (MLL) as related to the level of marbling, and to examine the correlation between some of the traits mentioned above and the culinary characteristics of meat. The results of...

  19. Genetic evaluation of beef carcass data using different endpoint adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumph, J M; Shafer, W R; Crews, D H; Enns, R M; Lipsey, R J; Quaas, R L; Pollak, E J

    2007-05-01

    Carcass data from 6,795 Simmental-sired animals born from 1992 to 2001 were used to determine whether adjustment to a constant age, back-fat, HCW, or marbling score would result in differences in heritability of the carcass traits and, correspondingly, if EPD calculated using those variance components and adjustments would result in sire reranking. The endpoints were age (EPA), backfat (EPF), HCW (EPC), or marbling (EPM). The traits analyzed were 12th-rib backfat (FAT), HCW, marbling (MRB), LM area (LMA), and percentage retail cuts (PRC). The data were analyzed using an animal model, where contemporary group was included as a fixed effect and was composed of slaughter date, sex, and herd. Random effects included in the model were direct genetic and residual. Estimates of heritability ranged from 0.12 to 0.14, 0.32 to 0.34, and 0.26 to 0.27 for FAT, HCW, and LMA, respectively, for the corresponding endpoints. Heritability for MRB was estimated to be 0.27 at all endpoints. For PRC, estimates of heritability were more variable, with estimates of 0.23 +/- 0.05, 0.32 +/- 0.05, 0.21 +/- 0.05, and 0.20 +/- 0.04 for EPA, EPF, EPC, and EPM, respectively. However, because the EPF and EPC adjustments adjust for a component trait of PRC (FAT and HCW, respectively), they may be altering the trait to one different from PRC. Spearman rank correlations between EPD within a trait using EPA compared with the other endpoints were >0.90 (P < 0.01) for FAT, HCW, MRB, and LMA. For PRC, Spearman rank correlations with EPA EPD were 0.73 (P < 0.01), 0.93 (P < 0.01), and 0.95 (P < 0.01) for EPF, EPC, and EPM, respectively. For most traits and endpoints, there was little reranking among sires when alternative endpoints were used. However, adjusting PRC to EPF appears to result in a greater heritability and substantial re-ranking of sires, potentially due to the adjustment changing the trait to one other than PRC. PMID:17224467

  20. Inbreeding effects on postweaning production traits, conformation, and calving performance in Irish beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, S; Kearney, J F; MacHugh, D E; Berry, D P

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of inbreeding on carcass quality, growth rate, live conformation measures, and calving performance in purebred populations of Charolais, Limousin, Simmental, Hereford, and Angus beef cattle using data from Irish commercial and pedigree herds. Variables analyzed are reflective of commercial farming practices. Inbreeding was included in a linear mixed model as either a class variable or a linear continuous variable. Nonlinear effects were nonsignificant across all traits. Inbred animals had decreased carcass weight and less carcass fat. The effects of inbreeding were more pronounced in the British beef breeds. Effects for carcass weight ranged from -0.87 kg (Charolais) to -1.90 kg (Hereford) per 1% increase in inbreeding. Inbred Charolais and Hereford animals were younger at slaughter by 3 and 5 d, respectively, per percentage of increase in inbreeding, whereas the effect of inbreeding on age at slaughter differed significantly with animal sex in the Limousin and Angus breeds. Inbred Limousin and Angus heifers were younger at slaughter by 5 and 7 d, respectively, per percentage of increase in inbreeding. Continental animals were more affected by inbreeding for live muscling and skeletal conformational measurements than the British breeds; inbred animals were smaller and narrower with poorer developed muscle. Calf inbreeding significantly affected perinatal mortality in Charolais, Simmental, and Hereford animals. The effects were dependent upon dam parity and calf sex; however, where significant, the association was always unfavorable. Dam inbreeding significantly affected perinatal mortality in Limousin and Hereford animals. Effects differed by parity in Limousins. Inbred first-parity Angus dams had a greater incidence of dystocia. Although the effects of inbreeding were some-times significant, they were small and are unlikely to make a large financial effect on commercial beef production in Ireland. PMID

  1. Differences in Carcass and Meat Quality between Organically Reared Cocks and Capons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Volk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare carcass and meat quality traits of ecologically reared capons and cocks. The experiment comprised 60 layer-type Slovenian hybrid Prelux-G chickens. Half of the animals were caponized at the age of 52 days (app. 0.5 kg body mass and another half were left entire males. All chickens were reared on the same farm respecting requirements for ecological farming. Chickens were fed commercial feed mixtures combined with the free access to pasture. After the slaughter (185 days, the chickens were dissected and main carcass parts were weighed. Meat quality (pH, colour, water-holding capacity and chemical composition (protein, water, intramuscular fat were determined. Birds of both groups had similar weight of carcass and body parts, except for weight of the thighs with drumsticks and off al weight, which were significantly lower in capons. The main differences in carcass traits appeared in the abdominal fat tissue. Capons had more abdominal fat. Meat physico-chemical characteristics (pH, drip loss were similar in both groups, except for the colour. Capons had lighter (higher Minolta L*value and less red (lower Minolta a* value colour of meat as cocks. There was no difference between capons and cocks in the content of muscle proteins, water and intramuscular fat.

  2. Modeling the Biological Diversity of Pig Carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen

    extracting and modeling meaningful information from the vast amount of information available from non-invasive imaging data. The lean meat percentage (LMP) is a common standard for measuring the quality of pig carcasses. Measuring the LMP using CT and using this as a reference for calibration of online...... equipment is investigated, without the need for a calibration against a less accurate manual dissection. The rest of the contributions regard the construction and use of point distribution models (PDM). PDM’s are able to capture the shape variation of a population of shapes, in this case a 3D surface of a...... specific bone structure in the ham. These models can assist developers of robotic tools by enabling population based testing before actual construction of the tools. Sparse models are compared to the standard PCA based model and a method for fitting PDM’s to sparse data is proposed. The former provides...

  3. The influence of maternal energy status during midgestation on beef offspring carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrhauser, D A; Taylor, A R; Underwood, K R; Pritchard, R H; Wertz-Lutz, A E; Blair, A D

    2015-02-01

    Research has suggested that maternal undernutrition may cause the development of a thrifty phenotype in the offspring, potentially resulting in greater adiposity and reduced muscle mass. These alterations in adipose and muscle development could have lasting impacts on offspring growth, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. However, limited research exists evaluating the impact of maternal energy status on these economically important traits of the offspring. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the influence of maternal energy status during midgestation on offspring carcass characteristics and meat quality. To alter maternal energy status, cows either grazed dormant, winter range (positive energy status [PES]) or were fed in a drylot at 80% of the energy requirements for BW maintenance (negative energy status [NES]) during a mean period of 102 ± 10.9 to 193 ± 10.9 d of gestation. Changes in BCS, BW, LM area (LMA), and 12th rib backfat were measured throughout midgestation. At the end of midgestation, cows in the NES group had a reduction (P ≤ 0.05) in BCS, BW, LMA, and 12th rib backfat when compared with PES dams. Cows and calves were managed similarly after midgestation through weaning and calves were managed and fed a common diet through the receiving, backgrounding, and finishing phases in the feedlot. Calves were harvested after 208 d in the feedlot, carcass characteristics were recorded, and strip loins were recovered for analysis of objective color and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Maternal energy status had no influence on offspring HCW, dressing percent, LMA, percent KPH, marbling score, percent intramuscular fat, objective color, or WBSF (P > 0.10). Progeny of NES cows tended to have improvements in 12th rib backfat and USDA yield grade (P < 0.10). Greater ratio of marbling score to 12th rib fat thickness and ratio of percent intramuscular fat to 12th rib fat thickness (P < 0.05) were discovered in progeny from cows

  4. Inbreeding and its Effect on Performance Traits in Austrian Meat Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maximini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of inbreeding of meat performance tested herd book sheep in Austria and to evaluate the effect of individual inbreeding on growth and CT (computer tomography scan carcass traits. Performance data (13,614 records, five breeds: Merinoland, Suff olk, Texel, German Blackheaded Meat sheep, Jura were collected in the years 2000-2010. The traits analysed were live weight and average daily gain, as well as traits of body frame, back fat and eye muscle area, all measured on live animals with CT. Inbreeding coefficients (F were calculated with the soft ware PEDIG. F was nested within breed and tested in a mixed model using ASReml. Levels of inbreeding were low with O F of 1.5-3.1%. Only few traits were significantly affected by inbreeding. Both positive and negative effects were found. The effects were small, most oft en nonlinear and vary across breeds. Inbreeding and its effects on performance traits do not seem to be an issue in Austrian meat sheep populations at the moment. However, monitoring and further analyses are recommended.

  5. Measuring quantitative autism traits in families: informant effect or intergenerational transmission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Marche, Wouter; Noens, Ilse; Kuppens, Sofie; Spilt, Jantine L; Boets, Bart; Steyaert, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a high degree of heritability, but there is still much debate about specific causal genes and pathways. To gain insight into patterns of transmission, research has focused on the relatedness of quantitative autism traits (QAT) between family members, mostly using questionnaires. Yet, different kinds of bias may influence research results. In this paper, we focus on possible informant effects and, taking these into account, on possible intergenerational transmission of QAT. This study used multiple informant data retrieved via the Social Responsiveness Scale from 170 families with at least one member with ASD. Using intraclass correlations (ICCs) and mixed model analyses, we investigated inter-informant agreement and differences between parent and teacher reports on children and between self- and other-reports on adults. Using structural equation modelling (SEM), we investigated the relatedness of QAT between family members in ASD families. Parent-teacher agreement about social responsiveness was poor, especially for children with ASD, though agreement between parents was moderate to strong for affected and unaffected children. Agreement between self- and other-report in adult men was good, but only moderate in women. Agreement did not differ between adults with and without ASD. While accounting for informant effects, our SEM results corroborated the assortative mating theory and the intergenerational transmission of QAT from both fathers and mothers to their offspring. PMID:25086652

  6. Effect of fecal material on carcass microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broiler carcass bacterial counts are increased by visible fecal material, therefore further treatment of these carcasses is necessary. Inside-outside bird washers (IOBWs) are used by many processors to remove feces and possibly reduce bacterial counts. A series of studies have shown that IOBWs hav...

  7. Effect of Dietary Selenium and Vitamin E on Slaughter Yield and Carcass Composition of Commercial White Koluda Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Łukaszewicz*, A Jerysz and A Kowalczyk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the role of selenium and vitamin E in metabolic processes of living organisms, the effect of these oxidants on slaughter value and carcass quality of commercial goose was investigated. The experiment was carried out on 200 one-day-old White Koluda geese that were randomly divided into two groups: 50 males and 50 females each. From first day until 13th wk of age the control group was maintained on commercial basic feeds, the experimental group received feed enriched with organic selenium (0.3 mg kg-1 and vitamin E (100 mg kg-1. Later on, for three wks all birds were feed with oat grain and cereals ground. At 112 day of live all birds were weighted individually and from each group 20 birds (10 males and 10 females were chosen randomly, slaughtered and after 24 hours chilling at +4°C the following parameter were evaluated (in grams, exact to 0.1 g and % in relation to live body weight and eviscerated carcass with neck: eviscerated carcass with neck, neck without skin, wings with skin, breast and leg muscles, edible giblets (heart, liver, gizzard, skin with subcutaneous fat, abdomen fat and remainder of carcass. Feed supplementation with tested antioxidants had non-significant (P≥0.05 effect on evaluated female traits, but significantly increased (P≤0.05 the male live body weight and eviscerated carcass with neck. Irrespective of feeding group, significant sex differences were stated in majority of evaluated carcass elements.

  8. The influence of Palm Kernel Cake and Rice Bran Fermentation Product Mixture to the Broiler Carcass Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadi Priabudiman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of the use of palm kernel cake (PKC and rice bran (RB fermentation products mixture to the percentage of broiler carcass weight pieces. Research using completely randomized design (CRD with treatments of the fermentation product usage rate of   0% (P0, 10% (P1, 20% (P2, 30% (P3 and 40% (P4 of the total ration of 4replications.  Variables measured were percentage of carcass weight ratio cut    pieces  of carcass weight (carcass front, rear carcass, breast meat, wings, back, and thigh with carcass weight multiplied by 100%. The results showed that the percentage of carcass weight piece front and rear carcass was shown at P3.

  9. Quantitative trait loci linked to PRNP gene controlling health and production traits in INRA 401 sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunel Jean-Claude

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the potential association of PrP genotypes with health and productive traits was investigated. Data were recorded on animals of the INRA 401 breed from the Bourges-La Sapinière INRA experimental farm. The population consisted of 30 rams and 852 ewes, which produced 1310 lambs. The animals were categorized into three PrP genotype classes: ARR homozygous, ARR heterozygous, and animals without any ARR allele. Two analyses differing in the approach considered were carried out. Firstly, the potential association of the PrP genotype with disease (Salmonella resistance and production (wool and carcass traits was studied. The data used included 1042, 1043 and 1013 genotyped animals for the Salmonella resistance, wool and carcass traits, respectively. The different traits were analyzed using an animal model, where the PrP genotype effect was included as a fixed effect. Association analyses do not indicate any evidence of an effect of PrP genotypes on traits studied in this breed. Secondly, a quantitative trait loci (QTL detection approach using the PRNP gene as a marker was applied on ovine chromosome 13. Interval mapping was used. Evidence for one QTL affecting mean fiber diameter was found at 25 cM from the PRNP gene. However, a linkage between PRNP and this QTL does not imply unfavorable linkage disequilibrium for PRNP selection purposes.

  10. The use of multivariate analysis to characterize carcass and meat quality of goat kids protected by the PGI "Cabrito de Barroso"

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Virgínia; J.A. Silva; Silvestre, Mário; Silva, Severiano; Azevedo, Jorge Manuel Teixeira de

    2008-01-01

    Fifty five suckling kids from three genotypes and two sexes protected by the PGI "Cabrito de Barroso" European quality label were used in this experiment. Carcass quality was assessed using indices from carcass measurements, dressing percentages, refrigerated losses, higher priced joints proportion and tissue composition of the carcass. Meat pH, colour, total pigment, fat, dry matter, collagen determinations (total and soluble), cooking losses and shear force estimated in longissimus thoracis...

  11. Do termites avoid carcasses? Behavioral responses depend on the nature of the carcasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Boon Neoh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Undertaking behavior is a significant adaptation to social life in enclosed nests. Workers are known to remove dead colony members from the nest. Such behavior prevents the spread of pathogens that may be detrimental to a colony. To date, little is known about the ethological aspects of how termites deal with carcasses. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we tested the responses to carcasses of four species from different subterranean termite taxa: Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe (lower termites and Microcerotermes crassus Snyder and Globitermes sulphureus Haviland (higher termites. We also used different types of carcasses (freshly killed, 1-, 3-, and 7-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses and mutilated nestmates to investigate whether the termites exhibited any behavioral responses that were specific to carcasses in certain conditions. Some behavioral responses were performed specifically on certain types of carcasses or mutilated termites. C. formosanus and R. speratus exhibited the following behaviors: (1 the frequency and time spent in antennating, grooming, and carcass removal of freshly killed, 1-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses were high, but these behaviors decreased as the carcasses aged; (2 the termites repeatedly crawled under the aging carcass piles; and (3 only newly dead termites were consumed as a food source. In contrast, M. crassus and G. sulphureus workers performed relatively few behavioral acts. Our results cast a new light on the previous notion that termites are necrophobic in nature. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the behavioral response towards carcasses depends largely on the nature of the carcasses and termite species, and the response is more complex than was previously thought. Such behavioral responses likely are associated with the threat posed to the colony by the carcasses and the feeding habits and nesting ecology of a given species.

  12. Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Rabbits Fed Oil Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Abo OMAR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feeding different dietary fat supplements in the finisher rations of Baladi rabbits, including sesame oil (SO, olive oil sediments (OOS, and poultry grease (PG, in comparison to the traditional oil supplement, the soybean soap stock oil (SS, on growth performance, blood lipid profile, dressing percentage and carcass cut, and meat quality: water holding capacity (WHC and cell forming unit (CFU. A total of 48 Baladi rabbits were used, with individual body weights (BW of 519 ± 22 g at the beginning of the experiment. Rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12, and those in each group were individually fed cereal grain-soybean meal (SBM with a fixed amount (i.e. 30 g/kg dry matter (DM of oil, being either soybean oil (SOY, olive oil sediments (OOS, recycled restaurant oil (RRO, or poultry grease (PG. All rations were isonitrogenous and contained iso-metabolizable energy (ME. At the end of the 44 day feeding trial, all animals were slaughtered. Rabbits fed a SOY supplemented diet consumed more (P < 0.05 feed than those fed the OOS, RRO, or PG supplemented diets. However, rabbits fed the SOY had a better (P < 0.05 feed conversion ratio than rabbits fed the OOS, PG, or RRO diets. Oil source had no effect on carcass components weights. Liver was heavier (P < 0.05 in rabbits fed the SOY supplemented diet. However, the RRO fed rabbits had heavier (P < 0.05 small intestine, large intestine and cecum. In conclusion, the positive effects of the tested oil supplements (i.e. RRO, OOS, PG on the studied performance and carcass traits is encouraging, but more investigation is needed to identify the optimal levels for these supplements in various diets of local rabbits.

  13. Partial ablation of uropygial gland effect on carcass characteristics of Akar Putra chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Hasan S A; Idris, L H; Bakar, Z B; Kassim, A B

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of partial uropygialectomy (PU) on carcass traits of male and female Akar Putra chickens. Sixty chicks of each sex were evenly distributed into 5 treatment groups with 3 replicates per group containing 4 males and 4 females each, and reared for 12 wk. Homogeneity of the groups was satisfied with regard to the parity. Experimental treatments consisted of a control treatment (T1), and partial ablation of the uropygial gland was applied on the second, third, fourth, and fifth treatments at 3, 4, 5, and 6 wk of age, respectively. The chickens were fed ad libitum the same diets (1 to 13 d: starter; 14 d to slaughter: finisher). On the last d of the experiment, 12 birds were randomly selected from each treatment group (2 males and 2 females per replicate) and slaughtered to determine carcass characteristics, which included carcass weight, dressing percentage with or without eating giblets, and the relative weights of heart, liver, gizzard, thighs, wings, breast, back, and neck. From the results of the study, it was shown that the partial ablation of the uropygial gland at all ages had certain dependent effects concerning some carcass parameters, as shown by higher breast and back relative weights in males and breast relative weight in females. As a consequence, a positive effect also was noticed regarding the carcass morphology in terms of the increase in dressing percentage with or without eating giblets thus leading to an increase in the body weight and carcass weight. Furthermore, the best result was obtained in the second treatment when PU was applied at 3 wk of age compared with other experimental groups. Moreover, the current study provides a novel and economic alternative to enhance the body performance of poultry in general and Akar Putra chicken particularly. PMID:27081194

  14. Enumeration of Escherichia coli cells on chicken carcasses as a potential measure of microbial process control in a random selection of slaughter establishments in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the measurement of Escherichia coli levels at two points during the chicken slaughter process has utility as a measure of quality control. A one year long survey was conducted during 2004 and 2005 in 20 randomly selected United States chicken slaught...

  15. Modelos alternativos para detecção de locos de características quantitativas (QTL de carcaça e crescimento nos cromossomos 4, 5 e 7 de suínos Alternative models for detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL for growth and carcass traits in pigs chromosomes 4, 5 and 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio de Moraes Gonçalves

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do genoma pode auxiliar na identificação de regiões cromossômicas e, eventualmente, de genes que controlam características quantitativas (QTLs de importância econômica. Em um experimento com 1.129 suínos resultantes do cruzamento entre machos da raça Meishan e fêmeas Large White e Landrace, foram analisadas as características gordura intramuscular (GIM, em %, e ganho dos 25 aos 90 kg de peso vivo (GP, em g/dia, em 298 animais F1 e 831 F2, e espessura de toucinho (ET, em mm, em 324 F1 e 805 F2. Os animais das gerações F1 e F2 foram tipificados com 29 marcadores microsatélites. Estudou-se a ligação entre os cromossomos 4, 6 e 7 com GIM, ET e GP. Análises de QTL utilizando-se metodologia Bayesiana foram aplicadas mediante três modelos genéticos: modelo poligênico infinitesimal (MPI; modelo poligênico finito (MPF, considerando-se três locos; e MPF combinado com MPI. O número de QTLs, suas respectivas posições nos três cromossomos e o efeito fenotípico foram estimados simultaneamente. Os sumários dos parâmetros estimados foram baseados nas distribuições marginais a posteriori, obtidas por meio do uso da Cadeia de Markov, algoritmos de Monte Carlo (MCMC. Foi possível evidenciar dois QTLs relacionados a GIM nos cromossomos 4 e 6 e dois a ET nos cromossomos 4 e 7. Somente quando se ajustou o MPI, foram observados QTLs no cromossomo 4 para ET e GIM. Não foi possível detectar QTLs para a característica GP com a aplicação dessa metodologia, o que pode ter resultado do uso de marcadores não informativos ou da ausência de QTLs segregando nos cromossomos 4, 6 e 7 desta população. Foi evidenciada a vantagem de se analisar dados experimentais ajustando diferentes modelos genéticos; essas análises ilustram a utilidade e ampla aplicabilidade do método Bayesiano.Genome scans can be used to identify chromosomal regions and eventually genes that control quantitative traits (QTL of economic importance. In an

  16. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander B Siegling; Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K V

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invari...

  17. Desempenho produtivo e parâmetros de carcaça de cordeiros mantidos em pastos irrigados e suplementados com doses crescentes de concentrado - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i3.8320 Productive performance and carcass traits of lambs grazing on irrigated pastures and receiving increasing concentrate levels - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i3.8320

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bonfim Manera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho produtivo e os parâmetros de carcaça de ovinos terminados em pastos irrigados de Tifton 85 que receberam doses crescentes de concentrado. Foram comparadas quatro doses de concentrado (0; 0,66; 1,33 e 2,00% da matéria seca - MS em relação ao peso corporal dos animais. O período experimental foi de 84 dias, divididos em quatro sub-períodos de 21 dias. Foram utilizados 24 animais testadores, machos, castrados, da raça Santa Inês com peso corporal médio inicial de 20,5 ± 3,8 kg. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições. O aumento no teor de concentrado proporcionou maior peso corporal final, ganho médio diário, ganho de peso total, escore de gordura pélvico-renal, consumo de matéria seca total, comprimento externo da carcaça, largura da garupa, largura do tórax, profundidade do tórax, perímetro da garupa e perímetro do pernil, além de menor consumo de forragem e contagem de ovos por grama de fezes. Entretanto, o rendimento de carcaça quente não foi influenciado pelas doses de suplemento concentrado. O aumento nas doses de concentrado para ovinos mantidos em pastagens de Tifton 85 melhorou o desempenho produtivo e o peso da carcaça.The objective of this present study was to evaluate the productive performance and carcass traits of lambs finished on Tifton 85 irrigated pastures and receiving increasing levels of concentrate. Four levels of concentrate were compared on a dry matter basis (0, 0.66, 1.33 and 2.00% in relation to the body weight of animals. The experimental period was 84 days, divided into four sub-periods of 21 days. Twenty-four Santa Ines male sheep, castrated, weighting 20.5 kg, were used as testers. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications. The increase in concentrate levels promoted higher final body weight, average daily gain, total weight gain, total dry matter intake, pelvic

  18. Detecção de locos de características quantitativas (QTL afetando o crescimento e a carcaça de suínos: um enfoque Bayesiano com o uso de diferentes prioris Detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting growth and carcass traits in swine: a Bayesian approach using differents priors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisio de Moraes Gonçalves

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 1.129 animais, 298 F1 e 831 F2 para gordura intramuscular (GIM, % e ganho de peso (GP, g/dia e 324 F1 e 805 F2 para espessura de toucinho (ET, mm, obtidos por meio do cruzamento de suínos machos da raça Meishan e fêmeas Large White e Landrace. Os animais foram genotipados para marcadores moleculares cobrindo todo o genoma. Foram estudados os cromossomos 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13, 14 e19 para ET e GIM e os cromossomos 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 13, 17 e19 para GP entre 25 e 90 kg de peso vivo (PV. Análises de QTL usando metodologia Bayesiana foram aplicadas mediante o modelo genético estatístico combinando os efeitos Poligênico Infinito (MPI, Poligênico Finito (MPF e de QTL. Os sumários dos parâmetros estimados foram baseados nas distribuições marginais a posteriori obtidas por Cadeia de Markov, algoritmo de Monte Carlo (MCMC. De modo geral, por meio dos resultados, foi possível evidenciar um QTL para ET, independentemente da priori estudada. Não foi possível detectar QTL para as características GIM e GP com a aplicação desta metodologia, o que pode estar relacionado aos marcadores não-informativos ou à ausência de QTL segregando nos cromossomos estudados. Há vantagens em analisar dados experimentais ajustando modelos genéticos combinados e não considerando unicamente o modelo poligênico ou o oligogênico. As análises ilustraram a utilidade e aplicabilidade do método Bayesiano no qual foram utilizados modelos finitos.Genome scan was used to identify chromosomal regions and genes that control quantitative trait loci (QTL of economic importance using 1129 animals from F1 and F2 populations obtained from crosses between Meishan and commercial Dutch breeds (Large White and Landrace. Animals were genotyped for molecular markers covering the entire genome. The chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13, 14 and 19 were studied for intramuscular fat (IMF, % and backfat thickness (BT, mm and the chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 13, 17 and

  19. Carcass characteristics of sheep fed diets with slow-release urea replacing conventional urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanilton Moura Alves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of adding slow-release urea to replace conventional urea in the diet on carcass characteristics of feedlot sheep. We used 20 Santa Ines x SRD rams, with average body weight of 21.1±1.2 kgand average age of 120 days, distributed in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments. The replacement levels used as treatments were 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80%, composing diets of about 12% crude protein, with 50 % Tifton-85 hay and 50% concentrate. There was no influence of slow release urea on weight at slaughter (35.17 kg, and on hot (16.75 kg and cold (16.24 kg carcass weight, but the yield of these carcasses showed quadratic trend, revealing lower percentages at 48.5 and 47.63% replacement levels, respectively. The weights and yields of cuts did not change, except for the posterior arm, whose values showed a cubic trend. Objective measures of carcass, loin eye area, and subjective evaluations of conformation, finishing and marbling of carcasses were not affected. The subcutaneous fat thickness decreased linearly (4.25 to2.48 mm. The inclusion of slow release urea in the diet changes the yield and reduces subcutaneous fat, however, it does not influence other carcass characteristics.

  20. Autistic Traits and Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Clinical Validity of Two Measures Presuming a Continuum of Social Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Sven; Westerwald, Eva; Holtmann, Martin; Freitag, Christine; Poustka, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that autism is the extreme end of a continuously distributed trait. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (SCDC) aim to assess autistic traits. The objective of this study was to compare their clinical validity. The SRS showed sensitivities of 0.74 to 0.80 and specificities of…

  1. Motor, affective and cognitive empathy in adolescence: Interrelations between facial electromyography and self-reported trait and state measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, Wim; de Wied, Minet; van Boxtel, Anton; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Branje, Susan

    2016-06-01

    This study examined interrelations of trait and state empathy in an adolescent sample. Self-reported affective trait empathy and cognitive trait empathy were assessed during a home visit. During a test session at the university, motor empathy (facial electromyography), and self-reported affective and cognitive state empathy were assessed in response to empathy-inducing film clips portraying happiness and sadness. Adolescents who responded with stronger motor empathy consistently reported higher affective state empathy. Adolescents' motor empathy was also positively related to cognitive state empathy, either directly or indirectly via affective state empathy. Whereas trait empathy was consistently, but modestly, related to state empathy with sadness, for state empathy with happiness few trait-state associations were found. Together, the findings provide support for the notion that empathy is a multi-faceted phenomenon. Motor, affective and cognitive empathy seem to be related processes, each playing a different role in the ability to understand and share others' feelings. PMID:25864486

  2. Analysis and Optimisation of Carcass Production for Flexible Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe

    analysis and optimisation of the carcass manufacturing process by means of a fundamental investigation in the fields of formability, failure modes / mechanisms, Finite Element Analysis (FEA), simulative testing and tribology. A study of failure mechanisms in carcass production is performed by being present...... uni-axial tension FLC points were attained. Analysis of weld fracture of duplex stainless steel EN 1.4162 is carried out determining strains with GOM ARAMIS automated strain measurement system, which shows that strain increases faster in the weld zone than the global strain of the parent material....... Fracture in the weld zone occurs at an average global strain of 0.1 where the average fracture strain in the weld zone is 0.27. The reason is explained by lower hardness in the weld zone compared to the parent material. Weld fracture can be suppressed with introduction of weld relief zones. However...

  3. Delineating Personality Traits in Childhood and Adolescence: Associations across Measures, Temperament, and Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L.; Kushner, Shauna C.; De Fruyt, Filip; Mervielde, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The current investigation addressed several questions in the burgeoning area of child personality assessment. Specifically, the present study examined overlapping and nonoverlapping variance in two prominent measures of child personality assessment, followed by tests of convergent and divergent validity with child temperament and psychopathology.…

  4. Deep coastal marine taphonomy: investigation into carcass decomposition in the Saanich Inlet, British Columbia using a baited camera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail S Anderson

    Full Text Available Decomposition and faunal colonization of a carcass in the terrestrial environment has been well studied, but knowledge of decomposition in the marine environment is based almost entirely on anecdotal reports. Three pig carcasses were deployed in Saanich Inlet, BC, over 3 years utilizing Ocean Network Canada's VENUS observatory. Each carcass was deployed in late summer/early fall at 99 m under a remotely controlled camera and observed several times a day. Dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, density and pressure were continuously measured. Carcass 1 was immediately colonized by Munida quadrispina, Pandalus platyceros and Metacarcinus magister, rapidly scavenged then dragged from view by Day 22. Artifacts specific to each of the crustaceans' feeding patterns were observed. Carcass 2 was scavenged in a similar fashion. Exposed tissue became covered by Orchomenella obtusa (Family Lysianassidae which removed all the internal tissues rapidly. Carcass 3 attracted only a few M. quadrispina, remaining intact, developing a thick filamentous sulphur bacterial mat, until Day 92, when it was skeletonized by crustacea. The major difference between the deployments was dissolved oxygen levels. The first two carcasses were placed when oxygen levels were tolerable, becoming more anoxic. This allowed larger crustacea to feed. However, Carcass 3 was deployed when the water was already extremely anoxic, which prevented larger crustacea from accessing the carcass. The smaller M. quadrispina were unable to break the skin alone. The larger crustacea returned when the Inlet was re-oxygenated in spring. Oxygen levels, therefore, drive the biota in this area, although most crustacea endured stressful levels of oxygen to access the carcasses for much of the time. These data will be valuable in forensic investigations involving submerged bodies, indicating types of water conditions to which the body has been exposed, identifying post-mortem artifacts and providing

  5. Sources of shared variability of the carcass and non-carcass components in pekin ducklings

    OpenAIRE

    Shahin, Karima

    2000-01-01

    Sources de variabilité commune des composants de la carcasse et des abats chez le canard Pékin. Une analyse factorielle utilisant une rotation varimax a été appliquée à 5 variables d'abattage (poids de la carcasse, du coeur, du foie, du gésier et du gras abdominal) sur 430 canards Pékin pour identifier les principales sources de variabilité commune et déterminer les facteurs qui décrivent les caractéristiques de la carcasse et des abats comestibles. Les caractéristiques de carcasse et des aba...

  6. Effects of Duroc Breeding Lines on Carcass Composition and Meat Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Seok; Jin, Sang-Keun; Choi, Yang-Il; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the carcass composition and pork quality of Duroc breeding lines in Korea. A total of 200 Duroc pigs were used, and those were originated from four different great-grandparent (GGP) breeding stock farms (L1: N farm, L2: W farm, L3: S farm, L4: R farm). The carcasses of pigs from these farms were collected, and meat quality traits were evaluated. L1 and L2 had smaller carcass weights and thin backfat, whereas L3 and L4 had heavy carcass weights and thick backfat. L3 and L4 had higher contents of fat and protein than L1 and L2. For the meat quality characteristics, L1, L2, and L4 had higher pH values than L3. In addition, L4 had higher water holding capacity than the other lines. L4 had the highest sensory evaluation scores with regard to both juiciness and flavor. Consequently, the study results indicate that pork quality information from domestic Duroc breeding stock lines could be used to effectively improve pork quality in Korea. PMID:26761803

  7. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance and carcass characteristics in wool and hair lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel M. Romero-Maya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics of wool and hair lambs. For this purpose, 48 lambs averaging 31.3 kg body weight, of which twenty were wool (Ramboullet x Suffolk and twenty eight were hair (Tabasco lambs, and four levels of RAC (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg diet, dry matter basis were used. Wool lambs fed 20 and 30 mg RAC had higher (P<0.05 total gain weight and lower feed conversion than 0 and 10 mg RAC. Wool lambs fed 20 mg RAC had the highest carcass weight, dressing, legs weight and longissimus area as compared to 0, 10 and 30 mg RAC.  In hair lambs there were not effect of RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics.It was concluded that addition of RAC to finishing diets offered the best growth performance and carcass traits in wool lambs as compared to hair lambs. 

  8. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Brahman cross bulls and steers finished on tropical pastures in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Julio; Unruh, John; Villarreal, Milton; Murillo, Olger; Rojas, Sailim; Camacho, Jorge; Jaeger, John; Reinhardt, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Forty-eight male calves (3/4 Brahman×1/4 Charolais) were used to determine carcass cutability and meat tenderness of Longissimus lumborum (LL), Gluteus medius (GM), Semitendinosus (ST) and Psoas major (PM) steaks from lighter weight carcasses of bulls and steers castrated at 3, 7, or 12 mo of age grown under tropical pasture conditions. Steaks from steers had lower (more tender) LL Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values than those from bulls. Steaks from steers castrated at 3 mo had lower GM WBSF than those from bulls. For PM steaks, those aged 28 d had lower WBSF than those aged 2d. Steaks aged 28 d had the lowest LL and GM WBSF and steaks aged 2d had the highest LL, GM, and ST WBSF. Castration at younger ages is recommended because it provides improvement in LL and GM tenderness over bulls with no differences in carcass traits or subprimal yields. PMID:24342184

  9. Genetic parameters of growth, feed intake, feed conversion and carcass composition of dual-purpose bulls in performance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J; Mao, I L; Andersen, B B; Madsen, P

    1991-03-01

    Genetic parameters for growth, total energy intake, feed conversion ratio, average daily energy intake and carcass composition were estimated in an experiment with 650 bull calves from 31 half-sib groups of Holstein Friesian or Brown Swiss sires. All traits analyzed had an amount of additive genetic variance that allows for considerable response to selection. No interaction between genotype (sire group) and proportion of roughage in the diet was found. Daily gain was strongly correlated negatively with feed conversion ratio but positively correlated with daily energy intake. Results indicate that genetic selection for either daily gain or average daily energy intake would decrease carcass fatness at a constant slaughter weight. However, the environmental correlation between daily energy intake and carcass fatness was positive. PMID:2061263

  10. Personality traits measured at baseline can predict academic performance in upper secondary school three years late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosander, Pia; Bäckström, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the ability of personality to predict academic performance in a longitudinal study of a Swedish upper secondary school sample. Academic performance was assessed throughout a three-year period via final grades from the compulsory school and upper secondary school. The Big Five personality factors (Costa & McCrae, ) - particularly Conscientiousness and Neuroticism - were found to predict overall academic performance, after controlling for general intelligence. Results suggest that Conscientiousness, as measured at the age of 16, can explain change in academic performance at the age of 19. The effect of Neuroticism on Conscientiousness indicates that, as regarding getting good grades, it is better to be a bit neurotic than to be stable. The study extends previous work by assessing the relationship between the Big Five and academic performance over a three-year period. The results offer educators avenues for improving educational achievement. PMID:25257093

  11. Polymorphisms in positional candidate genes on BTA14 and BTA26 affect carcass quality in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, E; Nkrumah, J D; Sherman, E L; Moore, S S

    2009-08-01

    Several studies have reported the presence of carcass quality QTL on BTA14 and BTA26, with no specific genes being conclusively linked as their cause. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms in genes known to affect lipid metabolism in other species and to assess their association with carcass quality traits. Two genes located on BTA14, 2,4 dienoyl CoA reductase 1 (DECR1) and core binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2, translocated to 1 gene (CBFA2T1), have been previously evaluated in other species and found to contain polymorphisms influencing lipid metabolism. A gene on BTA26, fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8), has in recent studies been linked to several QTL affecting obesity in mice, indicating its potential for regulating adiposity in other species. Sequencing analysis identified 9 polymorphisms in DECR1, 4 in CBFA2T1, and 4 in FGF8. Multiple sequence alignment of DECR1 among cattle, humans, and mice showed that 4 of these mutations lie in conserved regions across these species. Using 464 Angus, Charolais, and crossbred animals produced associations with ultrasound marbling score (CBFA2T1, P = 0.019), ultrasound backfat (DECR1, P = 0.012), carcass backfat (FGF8, P = 0.004), and lean meat yield (FGF8, P = 0.005). Quantitative trait loci analysis including a set of previously genotyped markers on BTA14, and 1 DECR1 polymorphism resulted in several significant QTL peaks: ultrasound backfat (UBF) at 91 cM, lean meat yield at 86 cM, carcass gradefat at 15 cM, and yield grade at 87 cM, all at the P yield at 2 cM and for yield grade at 25 cM, both at P < 0.01, and for carcass backfat at 25 cM (P < 0.05). Removal of FGF8 SNP in further analysis resulted in the disappearance of the carcass backfat QTL. These results suggest that polymorphisms discovered in DECR1, CBFA2T1, and FGF8 may play a role in the lipid metabolism pathway affecting carcass quality traits in beef cattle. However, further studies are needed to confirm that these polymorphisms

  12. Can Money Change Who We Are? Estimating the Effects of Unearned Income on Measures of Incentive-Enhancing Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Powdthavee, Nattavudh; Boyce, Christopher J.; Wood, Alex M

    2011-01-01

    The importance of noncognitive childhood skills in predicting higher wages is well documented in economics. This paper studies the reverse. Using surveys of lottery winners, we analyze the effects of unearned income on the Big Five personality traits. After correcting for potential endogeneity problems from prize sizes, we find that unearned income improves traits that predict pro-social and cooperative behaviors, preferences for social contact, empathy, and gregariousness, and reduces indivi...

  13. Desempenho em Pastagens e Características de Carcaça da 16ª Progênie dos Rebanhos Nelore, Guzerá e Caracu de Sertãozinho (SP Performance on Pasture and Carcass Traits of the 16th Selected Progenies of Sertãozinho (SP-Brazil Nelore, Guzera and Caracu Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander George Razook

    2002-06-01

    each herd, were composed by 11 Nellore Selection (NeS and by 10 of each one of the groups Nelore Control (NeC, Guzera Selection (GuS and Caracu (Ca. The slaughter was carried out when the animals were 824 days older, with a body condition score averaging 7.6, in a 1-9 scale. The minimum and maximum adjusted means for the main traits, including all groups, were: average weight daily gain, 406 (NeC and 501 g (NeS; slaughter weight (SW, 446.8 (NeC and 544.3 kg (NeS; carcass weight (CW, 249.8 (NeC and 309.7 kg (NeS; dressing percentage (DP, 54.0 (GuS and 56.3% (NeC and NeS. In the 9th-11th rib section: muscle, 59.6 (NeC and 65.2% (Ca; fat, 15.6 (Ca and 21.4% (NeC; bone, 18.9 (NeC and 20.2% (GuS; fat thickness (FT, 2.0 (Ca and 4.2 mm (NeC; loin eye area, 65.6 (NeC and 71.1 cm² (NeS and Ca; Warner-Bratzler shear force (SF, 4.5 (Ca and 6.6 kg (GuS and total cooking losses (TCL, 22.5 (NeC and 24.9% (GuS. The selection for weight promoted higher SW and CW in the NeS group, without changing the DP, the physical composition of the rib, SF and TCL in the meat. However, there was lower FT compared to NeC. The GuS animals had intermediates SW and CW, compared to NeS and Ca and lower DP. The Ca animals presented higher muscle percentage, in the rib section, and also higher meat tenderness compared to the meat of the Zebu animals.

  14. Medidas biométricas obtidas in vivo e na carcaça de ovelhas de descarte em diferentes estágios fisiológicos Biometric measurements obtained in vivo and in the carcass of culled ewes at different physiological stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Silvio Bonilha Pinheiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar as medidas in vivo e na carcaça de ovelhas de descarte abatidas em diferentes estágios fisiológicos, assim como as possíveis correlações entre essas medidas objetivas (in vivo e na carcaça e o peso corporal ao abate e da carcaça fria. Foram utilizadas 21 ovelhas da raça Santa Inês, distribuídas nos seguintes estágios fisiológicos: OL = ovelhas mantidas por 60 dias em lactação com seus cordeiros e abatidas um dia após o desmame dos mesmos; OSC = ovelhas que foram mantidas por 60 dias em lactação com seus respectivos cordeiros e mais um período aproximado de 30 dias sem os cordeiros e posteriormente abatidas; e ONP = ovelhas que permaneceram por 60 dias em confinamento e que não pariram durante o ano. Não se observou diferença entre os estágios fisiológicos na maioria das características medidas in vivo e na carcaça. O perímetro da garupa determinado na carcaça e o perímetro torácico, as larguras do peito e da garupa obtidos in vivo mostraram-se altamente correlacionados aos pesos corporal e de carcaça fria dos animais. Portanto, essas medidas podem auxiliar na determinação do peso corporal de ovelhas em diferentes estágios fisiológicos.The objective was to determine in vivo and carcass measurements of culled ewes slaughtered at different physiological stages and the possible correlations between the objective measurements (in vivo and in the carcass and the body weight at slaughter and cold carcass weight. Twenty-one Santa Inês ewes were used, placed in the following treatments: EL = ewes which remained in lactation for 60 days with their respective lambs and slaughtered one day after weaning the lambs; EWL = ewes which remained in lactation for 60 days with their respective lambs and a further period of approximately 30 days without their lambs and, afterwards, slaughtered; and ENP = ewes that remained in feedlot for 60 days and did give birth during the year. No difference was observed

  15. Genetic markers of body composition and carcass quality in grazing Brangus steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, M C; Corva, P M; Soria, L A; Rincon, G; Medrano, J F; Pavan, E; Villarreal, E L; Schor, A; Melucci, L; Mezzadra, C; Miquel, M C

    2011-01-01

    The somatotropic axis is a major regulatory pathway of energy metabolism during postnatal growth in mammals. Genes involved in this pathway influence many economically important traits. The association of selected SNPs in these genes with carcass traits was examined in grazing Brangus steers. These traits included final live weight, ultrasound backfat thickness (UBFT), rib-eye area, kidney fat weight, hot carcass weight, and intramuscular fat percentage (%IMF). Genomic DNA (N = 246) was genotyped for a panel of 15 tag SNPs located in the growth hormone receptor (GHR), insulin-like growth factor I, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 6, pro-melanin-concentrating hormone, suppressor of cytokine signaling 2, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) genes. Allelic and haplotype frequencies were compared with those of a sample of European breeds (N = 177 steers). Two tag SNPs in the GHR affected %IMF; one of them (ss86273136) was also strongly associated with UBFT (P Brangus steers. Moreover, the haplotype carrying two unfavorable alleles was present at a frequency of 31% in this group. Four tag SNPs on STAT6 had a significant effect on UBFT. One of these, SNP ss115492467, was also associated with %IMF. The STAT6 haplotype, including all the alleles favoring UBFT, was the most abundant variant (34%) in the European cattle, while it had a frequency of 14% in the Brangus steers. The four less favorable variants (absent in the European cattle) were found at a frequency of 38% in the Brangus steers. These results support the association of GHR and STAT6 SNP with carcass traits in composite breeds, such as Brangus, under grazing conditions. PMID:22194170

  16. Crecimiento y características de canal en corderos Pelibuey puros y cruzados F1 con razas Dorper y Katahdin en confinamiento Growth and carcass traits in pure Pelibuey lambs and crosses F1 with Dorper and Katahdin breeds in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Macías-Cruz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el comportamiento productivo en corral y las características de canal de 36 corderos (machos y hembras de los genotipos Pelibuey puro, Dorper x Pelibuey y Katahdin x Pelibuey bajo condiciones desérticas del noroeste de México. Después de 85 d de prueba de comportamiento en corral, se sacrificaron todos los corderos para la evaluación de sus canales. Los corderos Dorper x Pelibuey presentaron mayor (P 0,05 para rendimiento en canal, área del músculo Longissimus dorsi y espesor de grasa dorsal. Los machos presentaron mayor ganancia diaria de peso (P 0,05 entre ambos sexos. El peso total y el rendimiento de cortes primarios fueron similares (P > 0,05 entre los genotipos y los sexos. Estos resultados sugieren que la raza Dorper puede ser usada en esquemas de cruzamiento para mejorar la producción de carne ovina en zonas áridas como las del noroeste de México.The aim of this study was to evaluate feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of 36 male and female lambs from the genotypes pure Pelibuey, Dorper x Pelibuey, and Katahdin x Pelibuey under desert conditions in northwestern Mexico. Lambs were slaughtered for carcass evaluation after 85 d of a productive performance test. Dorper x Pelibuey lambs had higher (P 0.05 among the three genotypes in carcass yield, Longissimus dorsi muscle area and back-fat thickness. Males presented higher (P 0.05 between sexes. Yield and total weight of primary cuts were also similar (P > 0.05 among genotypes and sexes. These findings suggest that the Dorper breed can be used in crossbreeding schemes to improve mutton production in arid zones, like in northwestern Mexico.

  17. Mercury transfer from fish carcasses to scavengers in boreal lakes: the use of stable isotopes of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scavengers play an important role in the flow of energy, matter and pollutants through food webs. For methylmercury (MeHg), which biomagnifies along food chains, the movement of this metal from fish carcasses to aquatic scavengers has never been demonstrated. We measured the transfer of MeHg from fish carcasses to scavenging leeches in two lakes and in the laboratory. The results of a field experiment indicated that leeches were attracted to fish carcasses and that their Hg concentrations increased by as much as a factor of 5 during the time that Hg-rich fish were available for consumption. Under controlled conditions, we exposed leeches to 202Hg-labelled fish that had been marked in situ following a whole lake 202Hg addition. Leeches rapidly accumulated Hg from carcasses, and within two weeks assumed the isotopic signature of the carcasses. Necrophagous invertebrates could therefore return Hg from fish carcasses to other trophic levels in lakes. - Scavengers such as leeches accumulate mercury from fish carcasses which then may return into the food web

  18. Social Status and Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Bucciol; Barbara Cavasso; Luca Zarri

    2014-01-01

    In this study we provide direct evidence on the relationship between social status and personality traits. Using survey data from the 2006-2012 waves of the HRS, we show that individuals’ self-perceived social status is associated with all the “Big Five” personality traits, after controlling for observable characteristics that arguably reflect one’s actual status. We also construct an objective status measure that in turn is influenced by personality traits. Objectively measured status is pos...

  19. Efeito do sexo e do peso ao abate sobre a produção de carne de cordeiro. I. Velocidade de crescimento, caracteres quantitativos da carcaça, pH da carne e resultado econômico Effects of sex and slaughter weight on meat production of lambs. I. Growth rate, carcass quantitative traits, meat pH and economic results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ramos de Siqueira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o presente estudo com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de sexo (machos inteiros x fêmeas e de quatro pesos ao abate (28, 32, 36 e 40 kg sobre o desempenho, os caracteres da carcaça e resultados econômicos de cordeiros mestiços ½ Ile de France x ½ Corriedale, terminados em sistema de confinamento. Quarenta animais (20 machos e 20 fêmeas foram desmamados aos 60 dias e alimentados à vontade com uma ração contendo 16,46% de PB e 67,63% de NDT. Foram divididos em quatro grupos de machos (G1M, G2M, G3M e G4M e quatro grupos de fêmeas (G1F, G2F, G3F, e G4F, sacrificados, respectivamente, com os pesos supra citados. Determinaram-se o ganho médio de peso diário (GMPD, o peso do corpo vazio (PCV, os pesos de carcaça quente (PCQ e fria (PCF, as perdas ao resfriamento (PR, os rendimentos comercial (RC e verdadeiro (RV e o pH da carne em três momentos. Observou-se efeito de sexo para GMPD, com superioridade dos machos. Houve efeito de peso ao abate sobre PCQ e PCF e também de sexo, tendo as fêmeas superado os machos em G3 e G4, para PCQ, e em G2, G3 E G4, para PCF. Constataram-se maiores valores de RC e RV para as fêmeas, em G3 e G4. Todos os grupos apresentaram-se similares em relação ao pH da carne, o qual descreveu uma curva dentro dos padrões esperados. O estudo econômico destacou G1M como tendo apresentado melhor conversão alimentar e maior renda líquida/animal. Entre as fêmeas, G1F foi o melhor, destacando-se as rendas líquidas negativas constatadas em G3F e G4F. Concluiu-se que o melhor peso ao abate foi 28 kg, tanto para os machos, como para as fêmeas. No caso dos machos, tolerar-se-ia o peso de 32 kg, apesar de ter propiciado renda líquida 12,8% inferior a G1M.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of sex(males x females and four slaughter weights (28, 32, 36 and 40 kg on the perfomance, carcass traits and economic results from crossbred lambs, finished in feedlot. Fourty ½ Ile de France x

  20. Carcass characteristics, the calpain proteinase system, and aged tenderness of Angus and Brahman crossbred steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, T D; Williams, S E; Lamb, B S; Johnson, D D; West, R L

    1997-11-01

    We used 69 steers of varying percentage Brahman (B) breeding (0% B, n = 11; 25% B, n = 13; 37% B, n = 10; 50% B, n = 12; 75% B, n = 12; 100% B, n = 11) to study the relationship between carcass traits, the calpain proteinase system, and aged meat tenderness in intermediate B crosses. Calpains and calpastatin activities were determined on fresh longissimus muscle samples using anion-exchange chromatography. The USDA yield and quality grade data (24 h) were collected for each carcass. Longissimus steaks were removed and aged for 5 or 14 d for determination of shear force and 5 d for sensory panel evaluation. Even though some yield grade factors were affected by the percentage of B breeding, USDA yield grades did not differ (P > .15) between breed types. Marbling score and USDA quality grade decreased linearly (P Brahman crosses. PMID:9374310

  1. Effects of the porcine IGF2 intron 3-G3072A mutation on carcass cutability, meat quality, and bacon processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D L; Bohrer, B M; Tavárez, M A; Boler, D D; Beever, J E; Dilger, A C

    2014-12-01

    A SNP in a regulatory region of intron 3 within the porcine IGF2 gene (IGF2-G3072A) is associated with increased lean deposition and decreased fat deposition in pigs with paternal A alleles (APat) compared with pigs with paternal G alleles (GPat). However, data regarding fresh and processed meat quality characteristics of pigs with different alleles for this polymorphism are limited. A single heterozygote (AG) boar was bred to homozygous (AA) commercial Yorkshire-cross sows producing F1 barrows and gilts with either GPat or APat. Two farrowing groups of barrows and gilts were group housed, provided ad libitum access to a diet that met or exceeded NRC nutrient recommendations throughout production, and slaughtered at 176 d (±4 d) of age. Fresh LM quality and estimated percent fat-free lean measurements were taken on the left side of carcasses, while carcass cutouts were completed with right sides. Fresh belly and bacon processing traits were characterized for only block 1 pigs. Pig was treated as the experimental unit for all analyses. Ending live weight and HCW were not affected by IGF2 allele; however, 10th rib backfat thickness was 0.41 cm less (P=0.01), loin eye area was 4.0 cm2 greater (P=0.01), and predicted fat-free lean was over 2 percentage units greater (Plean cuts from the shoulder, loin, and ham were heavier (Pgreen weight was 1.57 percentage units between bellies from APat pigs (85.83%) and bellies from GPat pigs (87.40%). Pigs with GPat had superior belly quality that may positively impact commercial bacon production. However, pigs with APat yielded a greater amount of lean product at the expense of producing lighter LM color and increased cooking loss. PMID:25367517

  2. Carcass Composition and Cuts of Bulls and Steers Fed with Three Concentrate Levels in the Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Ivanor Nunes; Passetti, Rodrigo Augusto Cortêz; Rivaroli, Dayane Cristina; Ornaghi, Mariana Garcia; de Souza, Kennyson Alves; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; Perotto, Daniel; Moletta, José Luiz

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, weight, carcass dressing, weights of the primary cuts, weights of the physical components of the primary cuts, and weights of the main commercial cuts of 66 Purunã animals, of which 33 were bulls and 33 were steers were evaluated. These animals, with an average age of 19 months at the beginning of the experiment, were finished in a feedlot system during 116 days, and were fed with diets containing three levels of concentrate (0.8%, 1.1%, and 1.4% of body weight). The concentrate was formulated with 25% soybean meal, 73% ground corn grain, 1% of a mineral mix, and 1% of limestone. The interaction between sexual groups and the concentrate level was not significant for any of the variables. Likewise, no effect of the concentrate level was detected on the same variable traits. The bulls demonstrated higher hot carcass weights (265.1 vs 221.7 kg) and a higher proportion of forequarter (38.4% vs 36.1%) however the steers presented with higher proportions of side (19.7% vs 18.5%) and hindquarter (44.2% vs 43.1%). The bulls produced higher yields of muscle in the three primary cuts, there by resulting in higher yields of edible portions of the carcass. The bulls also produced higher weights of tenderloin, knuckle, topside, flat, eye round, rump, and rump cover. The finishing of young bulls in feedlot is to be recommended, since the animals produce carcasses with higher amounts of edible meat and higher yields of commercial cuts, thus allowing for a better price for the carcass. Low concentrate level could be used due to the lower cost of production for farmers. PMID:26194216

  3. Carcass characteristics of lambs fed diets containing silage of different genotypes of sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraci Marcos Alves Suassuna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-five feedlot lambs (without defined breed, aged between 5 and 7 months, with average live weight of 17.7±3.7 kg were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effect of diets containing different genotypes of sorghum on morphometric measurements and qualitative characteristics of carcass and yields of primal cuts. The animals stayed in individual indoor pens for 42 days and slaughtered at an average weight of 26.24 kg. No significant differences were observed on morphometric measurements, hot (11.67 kg and cold (11.39 kg carcass weight, hot (44.46% and cold (43.37% carcass yields, biological yield and on cooling losses. There was also no significant effect of silages of different genotypes of sorghum on the weights and yields of retail cuts (neck, shoulder, rib, loin and leg and on the subjective evaluation of carcasses. It is possible to finish sheep without defined breed feeding them diets based on silages of sorghum, resulting in carcasses with high yield and good conformation.

  4. Carcass orientation and drip time affect potential surface water carryover for broiler carcasses subjected to a post-chill water dip or spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    To estimate the potential for residual antimicrobial solution carryover, surface water accumulation and loss was measured on post-chill carcasses that were either dipped or sprayed with water. For all experiments, broilers were slaughtered, soft scalded or hard scalded, defeathered, and eviscerated....

  5. On the Measure and Mismeasure of Narcissism: A Response to "Measures of Narcissism and Their Relations to DSM-5 Pathological Traits: A Critical Reappraisal".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G C

    2016-02-01

    Narcissism continues to suffer from a lack of consensual definition. Variability in the definition is reflected in the growing multitude of measures with oftentimes diverging nomological nets. Although the themes of narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability appear to have achieved reasonable agreement on their central importance, the lower order structure of each is not well understood and debates remain about how (and whether) they can be integrated into a coherent whole. However, it is clear that a narrow focus on higher order grandiosity without consideration of concomitant vulnerability neglects clinically important features of narcissism. Occasioned by the potential for a new personality disorder model in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth edition, several colleagues and I demonstrated that pathological narcissism, as measured by the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, could not be adequately summarized by the lower order traits of Grandiosity and Attention Seeking, and argued that this should be reflected in the diagnostic manual in some form. Miller, Lynam, and Campbell then subjected these same data to critical reanalysis and interpretation. I respond here to several points raised by Miller and colleagues. In so doing, I highlight areas of agreement, disagreement, and suggest directions for future research. PMID:26253571

  6. Predicting post-trauma stress symptoms from pre-trauma psychophysiologic reactivity, personality traits and measures of psychopathology

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    Orr Scott P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most individuals exposed to a traumatic event do not develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, although many individuals may experience sub-clinical levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS. There are notable individual differences in the presence and severity of PTSS among individuals who report seemingly comparable traumatic events. Individual differences in PTSS following exposure to traumatic events could be influenced by pre-trauma vulnerabilities for developing PTSS/PTSD. Methods Pre-trauma psychological, psychophysiological and personality variables were prospectively assessed for their predictive relationships with post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS. Police and firefighter trainees were tested at the start of their professional training (i.e., pre-trauma; n = 211 and again several months after exposure to a potentially traumatic event (i.e., post-trauma, n = 99. Pre-trauma assessments included diagnostic interviews, psychological and personality measures and two psychophysiological assessment procedures. The psychophysiological assessments measured psychophysiologic reactivity to loud tones and the acquisition and extinction of a conditioned fear response. Post-trauma assessment included a measure of psychophysiologic reactivity during recollection of the traumatic event using a script-driven imagery task. Results Logistic stepwise regression identified the combination of lower IQ, higher depression score and poorer extinction of forehead (corrugator electromyogram responses as pre-trauma predictors of higher PTSS. The combination of lower IQ and increased skin conductance (SC reactivity to loud tones were identified as pre-trauma predictors of higher post-trauma psychophysiologic reactivity during recollection of the traumatic event. A univariate relationship was also observed between pre-trauma heart rate (HR reactivity to fear cues during conditioning and post-trauma psychophysiologic reactivity

  7. Autistic traits and autism spectrum disorders : the clinical validity of two measures presuming a continuum of social communication skills

    OpenAIRE

    Bölte, Sven; Westerwald, Eva; Holtmann, Martin; Freitag, Christine M.; Poustka, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that autism is the extreme end of a continuously distributed trait. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (SCDC) aim to assess autistic traits. The objective of this study was to compare their clinical validity. The SRS showed sensitivities of .74 to .80 and specificities of .69 to 1.00 for autism. Sensitivities were .85 to .90 and specificities .28 to.82 for the SCDC. Correlations with the ADI-R, ADOS and SCQ were higher...

  8. Carcass characteristics of Criollo Cordobés kid goats under an extensive management system: effects of gender and liveweight at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvillani, A; Peña, F; de Gea, G; Gómez, G; Petryna, A; Perea, J

    2010-11-01

    Thirty males and thirty females suckling Criollo Cordobes kid goats of approximately 60 to 90 days old were used in this study. Kids were slaughtered at 9.511 kg of empty body weight. The carcasses showed a medium conformation index. The meat and fat colour, and internal subcutaneous fatness were mainly scored as either pink, cream, slight and low-medium, respectively. The shoulder comprised 66-67% muscle, 24-27% bone and 4-6% fat. The slaughter weight had significant effects on the following characteristics: dressing yield, carcass measures and indices, subcutaneous fatness, meat colour, and muscle/fat ratio. The effect of gender was smaller: the female kids presented the highest fatness values for all parameters studied. Also, these animals displayed the lowest percentage of joints of extra class. The meat of female kids contained significantly less muscle and bone and a higher proportion of fat than that of male kids. The allometric analysis displays an early growth in the carcass measures and indices, fifth quarter, joints and bone proportion of shoulder. Internal and dissectible fats show a late growth. Principal component (PC) analysis was performed to study the relationship between carcass quality variables. The six first PC's explained about 85% of the total variability. The weight and yield of the carcasses were more effective to define the first PC. The projection of the carcass quality data in the first two PC's allowed distinguishing between carcass weight and carcass conformation groups, but not between gender and fatness. PMID:20673705

  9. Joint modelling of repeated measurements and event time: Application to performance traits and survival of lambs bred in sub-humid tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Renard Didier; Rowlands John; Burzykowski Tomasz; Nguti Rosemary; Janssen Paul

    2005-01-01

    Abstract We considered the analysis of a study for Dorper, Red Maasai and crossbred lambs born over a period of 6 years at the Diani Estate, Kenya. The study was designed to compare survival and performance traits of genotypes with differing susceptibilities to helminthiasis. The available data include information on time to death and repeated measurements of body weight, packed cell volume (PCV) and faecal egg count (FEC) of the animals. In the paper, we consider joint modelling of the survi...

  10. Medidas objetivas das carcaças e composição química do lombo de cordeiros alimentados e terminados com três níveis de proteína bruta em creep feeding Measurements of carcass and chemical composition of loin of suffolk lambs fed three crude protein levels in creep feeding

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    Jessé Siqueira Ortiz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de três níveis de proteína (15, 20 e 25% PB na ração sobre as medidas objetivas das carcaças e do músculo Longissimus dorsi, os pesos e rendimentos dos cortes, além da composição química e maciez da carne de cordeiros Suffolk alimentados e terminados em creep feeding. Foram utilizados 15 cordeiros inteiros, originados de partos simples, abatidos ao atingirem peso vivo final de 28 kg. As carcaças foram mantidas em câmara de refrigeração a 5ºC, durante 24 horas, para registro das medidas objetivas, realizado após separação dos cortes comerciais, na meia-carcaça esquerda. A área do músculo Longissimus dorsi foi mensurada para determinação da área de olho de lombo (AOL cm². No lombo esquerdo congelado, realizou-se a análise de composição química e, no direito, também congelado, o teste de maciez peloWarner Bratzler Shear Force. Os níveis de proteína bruta não influenciaram as medidas objetivas de carcaça nem as do músculo Longissimus dorsi. Houve efeito significativo para peso e rendimento da paleta, com superioridade para o tratamento contendo 25% de proteína bruta. Nas análises químicas do músculo Longissimus dorsi, observou-se efeito significativo para extrato etéreo, cinzas e maciez. No sistema de alimentação e terminação de cordeiros Suffolk em creep feeding, a ração formulada com farelo de soja como fonte protéica deve ser balanceada com 25% de proteína bruta por diminuir o teor de gordura e melhorar a maciez da carne e o peso e rendimento da paleta, sem afetar as medidas objetivas da carcaça, os demais pesos e os rendimentos dos cortes.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of three concentrate protein levels (15, 20 or 25% CP on measurements of carcass and Longissimus dorsi muscle, weights and yields of cuts, and chemical composition and tenderness of meat of Suffolk lambs in creep feeding. Fifteen single birth lambs were used in this study

  11. Allometry in carcasses of lambs of the Pantaneiro genetic group slaughtered with different subcutaneous fat thickness

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    Natália Holtz Alves Pedroso Mora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four female lambs of the Pantaneiro genetic group, with approximately 100 days of age, average body of 16.24 ± 1.78 kg, were slaughtered with 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mmof subcutaneous fat thickness, measured by ultrasound in the Longissimus, to evaluate the allometric growth. Lambs fed a complete pelleted diet calculated to ensure a daily weight gain of0.30 kg. Slaughtering was performed as the female lambs reached the pre-established fat thickness. After 24 hours in a cold chamber at 4ºC, chilled carcasses were cut in half and weighed. The right side was separated into five sections to determine the allometry of carcasses and cuts. Neck and rib showed isogonic growth in all treatments. Loin has remained late growth to 2.0 and3.0 mm. Shoulder and leg were isogonic growth in the treatments 3.0 and4.0 mm. The leg in relation to half carcass showed the greatest correlation. The cuts exhibited differentiated development in the growth rates of tissues. It is recommended to slaughter female lambs when they reach3.0 mm of subcutaneous fat thickness, since the carcass has already reached physiological maturity. Shoulder and leg cuts are best suited for dissection for presenting the highest correlation with the carcass in females of the Pantaneiro group.

  12. Acetic acid as an intervention strategy to decontaminate beef carcasses in mexican commercial slaughterhouse

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    Laura Reyes Carranza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Beef can be contaminated during the slaughter process, thus other methods, besides the traditional water washing, must be adopted to preserve meat safety. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2% acetic acid interventions on the reduction of indicator bacteria on beef carcasses at a commercial slaughterhouse in Mexico. Reduction was measured by the count of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TPC, total coliform (TC, and fecal coliform (FC (log CFU/ cm². Among the different interventions tested, treatments combining acetic acid solution sprayed following carcass water washing had greater microbial reduction level. Acetic acid solution sprayed at low pressure and longer time (10-30 psi/ 60 s reached higher TPC, TC, and FC reductions than that obtained under high pressure/ shorter time (1,700 psi/ 15 s; P<0.05. Exposure time significantly affected microbial reduction on carcasses. Acetic acid solution sprayed after carcass washing can be successfully used to control sources of indicator bacteria on beef carcasses under commercial conditions.

  13. Effects of suckling duration on growth, slaughtering and carcass quality characteristics of Kivircik lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiz, Bulent; Kocak, Omur; Yalcintan, Hulya; Yilmaz, Alper

    2016-02-01

    Effects of suckling length (45, 75 and 120 days) and birth type (single and twin) on lamb growth, slaughtering and carcass quality characteristics were investigated using 40 Kivircik lambs. SC-45 and SC-75 lambs were weaned at 45 and 75 days of age, respectively, whilst SC-120 lambs remained with their mothers until the end of the experimental period. Lambs from all studied groups were slaughtered at 120 days of age. Weaning treatment caused a decrease in average daily gain in SC-45 and SC-75 lambs, and therefore, final weight was higher in SC-120 lambs than lambs from weaned groups. SC-120 lambs had higher empty body weight, cold carcass weight, dressing percentage, carcass measurements, carcass fatness (proportions of the kidney knob and channel fat, subcutaneous and intramuscular fat in pelvic limb) and non-carcass fatness (omental and mesenteric fat proportion) than weaned lambs. As a conclusion, the potential losses in meat production due to weaning should be considered before deciding the weaning of lambs at early ages. PMID:26676241

  14. IDENTIFICATIONS OF CARCASS CHARACTERISTIC FOR ESTIMATING THE COMPOSITION OF BEEF CARCASS

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    H. Hafid

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to identify carcass characteristic that can be used for estimating composition ofbeef carcass. It was used 165 Brahman crossbred cattle in this research. Carcass characteristics wereweight of a half cold carcass (WC ranged from 96 to 151 kg, loin eye area (LEA ranged from 22.09 to304.8 mm2, 12th rib fat thickness (FT12 ranged from 0.80 to 2.90 mm, meat ranged from 53.55 to 90.10kg and carcass fat ranged from 5.54 to 39.72 kg. Result showed that a half weight cold carcass as asingle indicator major may be used to predict meat weight and carcass fat with regression linearequation: Meat (kg = 10.64 + 0.49 WC (R2=0.728 and SE=3.58, and Fat (kg = -21.70 + 0.36 WC**(R2=0.582 and SE=3.65. Multiple regression to predict meat weight based on fat percentage of kidney,pelvic and heart (KPH was Meat (kg = 7.99 + 0.58 WC** - 4.41 KPH** (R2=0.751 and SE=3.43.

  15. Carcass and physical meat characteristics of thin tail sheep (TTS based on calpastatin gene (CAST (Locus intron 5 – exon 6 genotypes variation

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    Muhammad Ihsan Andi Dagong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of sheep carcass is mostly determined by the total lean meat production, meat distribution on the carcass and the quality of meat. Calpastatin gene (CAST is known to have an association with carcass and meat quality traits. The objective of this research was to identify the association between CAST polymorphisms and carcass characteristics in Thin Tail Sheep (TTS. Thirty three heads of sheep representing three genotypes of CAST (CAST-11, CAST-12 and CAST-22 were identified for carcass and meat characterisation. There was no significant difference between CAST polymorphisms with meat tenderness, pH, water holding capacity and cooking loss, neither with carcass weight and dressing percentage among genotypes. Shoulder proportion of CAST-11 genotype was larger than that of CAST-12 or CAST-22, but the lean meat proportion of CAST-22 genotype in shoulder, rack and loin were higher than those of CAST-11 but not different from CAST-12. The fat percentage of CAST-11 was the highest among the genotypes. CAST-22 genotype has higher lean meat percentage than the CAST-11. Variation in CAST gene could be used as marker assisted selection in sheep for higher lean meat proportion.

  16. Mapping carcass and meat quality QTL on Sus Scrofa chromosome 2 in commercial finishing pigs

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    van Kampen Tony A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting carcass and meat quality located on SSC2 were identified using variance component methods. A large number of traits involved in meat and carcass quality was detected in a commercial crossbred population: 1855 pigs sired by 17 boars from a synthetic line, which where homozygous (A/A for IGF2. Using combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium mapping (LDLA, several QTL significantly affecting loin muscle mass, ham weight and ham muscles (outer ham and knuckle ham and meat quality traits, such as Minolta-L* and -b*, ultimate pH and Japanese colour score were detected. These results agreed well with previous QTL-studies involving SSC2. Since our study is carried out on crossbreds, different QTL may be segregating in the parental lines. To address this question, we compared models with a single QTL-variance component with models allowing for separate sire and dam QTL-variance components. The same QTL were identified using a single QTL variance component model compared to a model allowing for separate variances with minor differences with respect to QTL location. However, the variance component method made it possible to detect QTL segregating in the paternal line (e.g. HAMB, the maternal lines (e.g. Ham or in both (e.g. pHu. Combining association and linkage information among haplotypes improved slightly the significance of the QTL compared to an analysis using linkage information only.

  17. Using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Measure Construct Validity of the Traits, Aptitudes, and Behaviors Scale (TABS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnoy, Kevin D.; Dantzler, John; Besnoy, Lisa R.; Byrne, Caitlin

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the construct validity of the Traits, Aptitudes, and Behaviors Scale (TABS). Data for this study were collected from two separate school districts across three different academic years in the Southeastern United States. Of the total sample (N = 2,330), 64.6% of the children were identified as African American, 29.0% as…

  18. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Measure Autistic Traits in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Heather; Eisler, Ivan; Mandy, William; Leppanen, Jenni; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Interest in the link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has led to estimates of the prevalence of autistic traits in AN. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) or abbreviated version (AQ-10) to examine whether patients with AN have elevated levels of autistic…

  19. Carcass quality of feedlot finished steers fed yeast, monensin, and the association of both additives Qualidade de carcaça de novilhos terminados com dietas contendo levedura, monensina e associação de ambos aditivos

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    R.C. Gomes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of the supplementation of feed additives on carcass quality in beef cattle, 72 Nellore steers (339.5kg, 20-month old were feedlot finished and fed for 91 days one of the following diets: 1 control with no additives; or added of 2 live yeast culture; 3 monensin; or 4 the association of both additives. After slaughter, renal, pelvic, and inguinal fat and hot carcass weights were recorded and carcass was split into muscle, bone, and trimmable fat. Carcass Longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness at the 12th rib were measured and steaks of Longisimus muscle were taken to determine meat color, shear force, drip, and cooking losses. Yeast increased carcass dressing percentage but there were no effects on hot carcass weight, Longissimus area, subcutaneous fat thickness, percentage and weight of retail cut yield and trimmings. Feed additives had no effect on carcass pH, meat color, fat content, shear force, and drip losses. Supplementation of yeast, monensin or the association of both additives had no important effects on carcass traits and on meat quality of feedlot finished steers.Avaliaram-se os efeitos da suplementação de aditivos alimentares sobre a qualidade de carcaça em bovinos de corte. Usaram-se 72 novilhos Nelore com média de peso de 339,5kg e 20 meses de idade, terminados em confinamento e alimentados por 91 dias com uma das quatro dietas: 1 dieta controle sem aditivos, ou com a adição de 2 leveduras vivas, 3 monensina ou 4 associação entre ambos aditivos. Após o abate, os pesos da gordura renal, pélvica e inguinal e da carcaça foram medidos e a carcaça dividida em músculos, ossos e aparas. Foram mensurados a área de olho de lombo e a espessura de gordura subcutânea sobre o músculo Longissimus na região da 12ª costela e foram obtidos bifes para a determinação da cor, força de cisalhamento e perdas por cocção e cozimento da carne. A levedura aumentou o rendimento de carcaça, mas n

  20. Efeito do grupo genético sobre as características de carcaça e maciez da carne fresca e maturada de bovinos superprecoces Effect of genetic group on carcass traits and fresh and aged beef tenderness from young cattle

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    Waldmaryan Bianchini

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito das diferentes proporções de sangue Simental e Nelore sobre as características da carcaça e da carne de bovinos superprecoces. Foram utilizados 72 bovinos jovens inteiros (18 Nelore; 18 ½ Simental × Nelore; 18 Simbrasil e 18 Simental, com 8 meses de idade e 250 kg PV médio inicial. Os animais foram desmamados aos 8 meses de idade em sistema creep-feeding e posteriormente confinados durante 150 dias até atingirem o peso de abate, acima de 465 kg, e abatidos em frigorífico comercial. Os valores de pH e temperatura durante o resfriamento das carcaças foi semelhante para todos os grupos genéticos. Da mesma forma, as variáveis carcaça fria, dianteiro e traseiro, não apresentaram diferenças entre os grupos genéticos. Os cortes foram bastante homogêneos, com excessão do contrafilé e do filé-mignon, que foram maiores nos animais Simental. Os animais da raça Nelore e ½ Simental apresentaram maior força de cisalhamento (4,98 e 4,45 kgf em relação aos Simental e Simbrasil (3,13 e 3,33 kgf. No entanto, após a maturação da carne durante sete dias, não se constataram diferenças entre os valores de maciez entre os grupos. As perdas por evaporação e gotejamento foram maiores na carne in natura para os animais Simental e Simbrasil, no entanto, aos sete dias de maturação se tornaram semelhantes. O sistema de produção de bovinos superprecoces produz carcaças e cortes semelhantes entre as diferentes raças estudadas. Aos sete dias de maturação, a maciez da carne de animais Nelore foi semelhante à dos demais grupos genéticos utilizados neste estudo.The aim of this work was to study the effect of the different proportions of blood Simmental and Nellore on meat and carcass characteristics of bovine young bulls. Seventy two young bulls were used (18 Nellore; 18 ½ Simmental x Nellore; 18 Simbrasil and 18 Simmental, with medium age of 8 months and with average 250 kg LW initial. The animals were

  1. Desempenho e características da carcaça e da carne de novilhos não-castrados alimentados com ou sem adição de monensina e/ou probiótico à dieta Performance, carcass and meat traits of non-castrated cattle fed with or without monensin and/or probiotic addition to the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Kuss

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o desempenho e as características da carcaça e da carne de novilhos não-castrados alimentados com ou sem adição de monensina (M e/ou probiótico (P (Sacharomyces cerevisiae à dieta. Os animais foram distribuídos em baias individuais, permanecendo 145 dias em confinamento. A dieta foi composta de silagem de milho e 1,2% do peso vivo de concentrado com base da matéria natural. Não houve efeito da adição dos aditivos fornecidos de forma isolada ou mesmo da associação destes sobre o consumo de alimento, o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar. As médias de consumo, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar apresentaram comportamento quadrático com o avanço do período de confinamento. Embora a adição de M ou P à dieta tenha resultado no aumento numérico (P>0,05 do consumo (4,2%, a média de ganho de peso reduziu (5,8 e 5,3%, respectivamente, resultando em pior conversão alimentar (P>0,05. Já a associação de M+P aumentou (P>0,05 o consumo em 9,5%, com concomitante aumento (P>0,05 do ganho de peso (6,4% em relação à dieta controle. Os animais alimentados com M+P apresentaram melhor acabamento de carcaça (5,5mm, seguidos por aqueles do grupo controle (4,7mm, sendo os valores inferiores verificados nas carcaças dos animais M (3,7mm e P (3,5mm. A adição de monensina e/ou probiótico (Sacharomyces cerevisiae na dieta de novilhos na fase de terminação em confinamento não proporciona melhora no desempenho e nas características da carcaça e da carne de novilhos.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the performance, carcass and meat characteristics of non-castrated cattle with or without monensin (M and/or probiotic (P (Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the diet. The animals were divided into individual stalls, being left 145 days in feedlot. The roughage used was corn silage + 1.2% of the weight live of concentrate in natural matter basis. There was no effect of the addition of the

  2. Desempenho, características de carcaça e resultado econômico de cordeiros criados em creep feeding com silagem de grãos úmidos de milho Live weight gain, carcass traits and economic results on lambs fed with high moisture corn silage in creep feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gercílio Alves de Almeida Júnior

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, estudar níveis de substituição (0; 50 e 100% do milho grão seco moído pela silagem de grãos úmidos de milho na ração de cordeiros alimentados em creep feeding. Vinte e quatro cordeiros Suffolk foram avaliados quanto ao desempenho,