WorldWideScience

Sample records for carcass quality evaluated

  1. Mineral profiling, carcass quality and sensory evaluation of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation to determine the mineral composition, carcass quality and organoleptic properties of the meat of broilers fed basal broiler feeds supplemented with different leaf meals was conducted. Four treatments: basal proprietary broiler feed only (T1 - PBF) as control, basal proprietary broiler feeds supplemented with ...

  2. Procedures for evaluating pork carcass and cut composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemens, A.L.H.

    1989-01-01

    Five studies were completed to investigate various production and evaluation procedures related to pork carcass composition and meat quality. A comparison of market hog characteristics of pigs selected by feeder pig frame size or current USDA feeder pig standards was made. In general, feeder pig frame size did differentiate between carcass skeletal traits (i.e., carcass length, radius length). However, frame sizing did not improve on current feeder pig grades in discriminating between carcass composition characteristics. Liquid scintillation of potassium-40 was used to estimate pork carcass composition of 124 boars barrows and gilts, ranging from 23 to 114 kg live weight. Pigs were counted live, slaughtered and one side of the carcass was counted. The side was then ground and sampled for percent protein, fat and moisture. Carcass weight and {sup 40}K determined potassium of the carcass explain more of the variation in carcass composition than live animal traits. Carcass measurements were used to determine value and percentages of fat standardized lean, protein, fat and moisture in the carcass using 265 barrow and gilt carcasses. In a separate study, belly composition was estimated from carcass and belly parameters (n = 338). Ribbed carcasses measurements were almost always superior to unribbed carcass measurements when estimating carcass or belly composition. Tenth rib fat depth was the most useful single variable for predicting belly fat, protein, moisture and lean. Some precision and accuracy were lost when using parameters from unribbed carcasses to estimate carcass or belly composition as compared to including parameters from ribbed carcasses. The sensory and nutritive value of cooked pork center loin chops and roasts were investigated. Levels of fat cover and internal temperature did not greatly affect cholesterol content.

  3. Procedures for evaluating pork carcass and cut composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemens, A.L.H.

    1989-01-01

    Five studies were completed to investigate various production and evaluation procedures related to pork carcass composition and meat quality. A comparison of market hog characteristics of pigs selected by feeder pig frame size or current USDA feeder pig standards was made. In general, feeder pig frame size did differentiate between carcass skeletal traits (i.e., carcass length, radius length). However, frame sizing did not improve on current feeder pig grades in discriminating between carcass composition characteristics. Liquid scintillation of potassium-40 was used to estimate pork carcass composition of 124 boars barrows and gilts, ranging from 23 to 114 kg live weight. Pigs were counted live, slaughtered and one side of the carcass was counted. The side was then ground and sampled for percent protein, fat and moisture. Carcass weight and 40 K determined potassium of the carcass explain more of the variation in carcass composition than live animal traits. Carcass measurements were used to determine value and percentages of fat standardized lean, protein, fat and moisture in the carcass using 265 barrow and gilt carcasses. In a separate study, belly composition was estimated from carcass and belly parameters (n = 338). Ribbed carcasses measurements were almost always superior to unribbed carcass measurements when estimating carcass or belly composition. Tenth rib fat depth was the most useful single variable for predicting belly fat, protein, moisture and lean. Some precision and accuracy were lost when using parameters from unribbed carcasses to estimate carcass or belly composition as compared to including parameters from ribbed carcasses. The sensory and nutritive value of cooked pork center loin chops and roasts were investigated. Levels of fat cover and internal temperature did not greatly affect cholesterol content

  4. Evaluation of response to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 vaccination and timing of weaning on yearling ultrasound body composition, performance, and carcass quality traits in Angus calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are concerns about antagonisms between immunity and animal productivity in livestock production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibody levels through a response to vaccination protocol, weaning timing, and their interaction on performance and carcass quality traits...

  5. Quality Inspection of Poultry Carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Abstract A machine vision is feasible for grading poultry production as well as for identifying parts of poultry carcasses at the processing line. Several different machine vision systems including color, multi-, and hyper-spectral imaging, have been developed and tested for poultry quali...

  6. Carcass and Meat Quality Pelung Sentul Kampung Broiler Crossbreed Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwati, S.; Afnan, R.; Prabowo, S.; Nurcahya, H.

    2018-01-01

    Crossbreed chicken of pelung sentul kampung broiler (PSKR) has good growth and ready to slaughter at the age of 10 weeks. So, it has potential as a local chicken for meat producers. Potential of PSKR crossbreed chicken need to know about the percentage of carcass and the physical quality of meat for holistic information. This study aimed to evaluate the carcass and the quality of the physical meat of pelung sentul kampung broiler chicken (PSKR). Material of 12 chickens PSKR 12 weeks unsexing were used and observed for the percentage of carcass in the chest, upper and lower thighs and physical quality of breast meat included pH, water-binding power, cooking impurities, and tenderness. Chickens fed 100% commercial feed for broiler chicken phase starter until age 3 weeks, then gradually added rice bran and age > 5 weeks fed 60% commercial feed plus 40% rice bran. Chicken is slaughter at 12 weeks of age. The data obtained are presented descriptively. Percentage of PSKR carcass was 68%, chest was 27.17%, upper thigh was 17.12%, lower thigh was 16.64% respectively. Physical quality of breast meat has a pH performance of 5.30,% mgH2O of 28.08%, cooking loss of 29.13%, and tenderness of 2.63 respectively. PSKR chicken had potential for meat producers based on carcass percentage with chest meat was very tender because the genetic of broiler in PSKR as much as 25%.

  7. Evaluation of trace mineral source and preharvest deletion of trace minerals from finishing diets for pigs on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y L; Lindemann, M D; Cromwell, G L; Cox, R B; Rentfrow, G; Pierce, J L

    2012-11-01

    Weanling crossbred pigs (Sus scrofa; 72 barrows and 72 gilts; BW = 7.4 ± 1.1 kg) were used to evaluate dietary supplemental trace mineral (Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) source (inorganic vs. organic) and deletion (0, 2, 4, and 6 wk preharvest) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork quality. Pigs were blocked by BW, ancestry, and sex, and randomly allotted to 24 pens, and fed a diet containing either inorganic or organic trace minerals supplemented at the 1998 NRC requirement estimates for each of 5 BW phases from 7 to 120 kg (equivalent to 14, 14, 42, 28, and 42-d periods, respectively). Two pigs were removed from each pen at the end of Phase IV (BW = 82.6 ± 6.0 kg), and 2 other pigs were removed at the end of Phase V (BW = 128.0 ± 8.3 kg) for collection of various tissues and for determination of carcass characteristics and pork quality. On d 1, 15, and 29 of Phase V, 3 pens within each source of minerals were switched to a common diet without supplemental trace minerals, whereas the remaining 3 pens within each source of minerals were fed diets containing trace minerals throughout the Phase V period. This resulted in 4 groups within each mineral treatment, in which trace mineral supplementation was deleted for 6, 4, 2, or 0 wk of Phase V. Trace mineral source (inorganic vs. organic) did not affect ADG, ADFI, and G:F (773 vs. 778 g/d, 1,680 vs. 1,708 g/d, and 461 vs. 456 g/kg, respectively) during the first 4 phases. During the mineral deletion period, ADG and G:F were not affected by the duration of trace mineral deletion, but ADFI increased when trace minerals were removed from the diet for 6 wk (6 vs. 0 wk, 3,393 vs. 3,163 g/d; P = 0.05). Hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, carcass shrink, dressing percentage, LM area, 10th rib and midline average backfat, and carcass fat-free lean weight and percentage were not affected (P > 0.10) by the source of mineral or length of mineral deletion, but carcass length tended to decrease (P = 0.09) when time

  8. Haematological, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LW) of 10, 12, 14, and 16kg to determine the effect of live weight at slaughtering on the carcass characteristics and meat quality. Prior to slaughtering, blood samples were collected through jugular vein of each animal to determine the ...

  9. Carcass and meat quality of light lambs using principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañeque, V; Pérez, C; Velasco, S; Dı X0301 Az, M T; Lauzurica, S; Alvarez, I; Ruiz de Huidobro, F; Onega, E; De la Fuente, J

    2004-08-01

    Eighty-six male light lambs of Manchego breed were used in this study. Principal component (PC) analysis was performed to study the relationship between carcass quality variables (n=22) and between meat quality measures (n=21). The carcass quality was assessed using objective and subjective measurements of conformation and fatness besides the joints proportion and tissues proportion of the leg. The measurements used to evaluate meat quality were pH in longissimus dorsi and semitendinosus muscles, the colour, moisture, water holding capacity, cooking losses, texture and sensorial analysis on longissimus dorsi. The five first PCs explained about 77% of the total variability for carcass measures whereas for meat quality the 74% of the total variability was explained for the eight first PCs. All the carcass measurements showed similar weight to define the first PC, whereas the muscle and bone proportion as well as muscle:bone ratio of the leg were useful to define the second PC. The meat quality measures that were more effective to define the first PC were the meat colour measurements, whereas the sensorial variables defined the second PC. The projection of the carcass quality data in the first two PCs allowed to distinguish clearly between heavier carcasses (higher than 6.5 kg) and lighter carcasses (lower than 5.5 kg). The carcasses with a weight higher than 6.5 kg were on the left side of the figure, where the variables of conformation and fatness lie. The group of medium carcass weight were placed between the two previous groups. The projection of the meat quality data in the first two PCs did not differ between hot carcass weights, although there was a trend, the lighter carcasses lay on the left side of the graph, which implies small differences between meat quality in this range of carcass weight.

  10. Ultrasound use for body composition and carcass quality assessment in cattle and lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic evaluation for carcass quality traits has evolved over time, in large part due to introduction of new technology such as ultrasound measures of body composition. Ultrasound measured body composition traits emulate important carcass traits, are very informative for selection purposes, are ac...

  11. Fat quality of South African pigs with different carcass classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The carcasses of South African pigs are classified into six groups (PORCUS) according to their calculated lean meat content and measured backfat thickness. Pigs with the highest lean meat content and lowest backfat thickness belong to the P group. Fat quality of backfat from 2107 pig carcasses, sampled within the ...

  12. Longissimus muscle transcriptome profiles related to carcass and meat quality traits in fresh meat Pietrain carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Keuning, E.; Hulsegge, B.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Evans, G.; Mulder, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    High quality pork is consumed as fresh meat while other carcasses are used in the processing industry. Meat quality is determined measuring technical muscle parameters. The objective of this research was to investigate the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying meat quality differences of pork

  13. Effect of Tumbling Marination on Marinade Uptake of Chicken Carcass and Parts Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J U-chupaj

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of marination on marinade uptake of chicken carcasses and to determine the meat quality of carcass parts. In total, 45 eviscerated chicken carcasses were divided into three marinating treatments: no marination, marination in water, marination in non-phosphate and low-salt solution (NPLS. The study showed that the marinade uptake of chicken carcasses was higher than 4.0% for NPLS marination and than 3.5% for water marination when compared with the non-marinated treatment. However, raw chicken meat yield after cut-up was not significantly different (p≥0.05 among treatments. Carcasses marinated in NPLS solution presented higher water-holding capacity (WHC. The results showed that NPLS marination may reduce cooking loss and expressible water of chicken meat after cooking. Based on the Warner-Bratzler Shear (WBSF results, NPLS marination had a stronger effect on textural quality of cooked breast meat than thighs and drumsticks. However, no significant differences of texture profile analysis (TPA parameters were observed (p≥0.05. In the sensory evaluation, NPLS marination influenced the sensory quality of cooked meat, particularly texture and appearance attributes, but not the taste and aftertaste attributes of cooked meat. It is concluded that NPLS marination effectively increased carcass weight, despite its effects on meat quality varied according to the anatomical location of the parts.

  14. Evaluation of a commercially available organic acid product on body weight loss, carcass yield, and meat quality during preslaughter feed withdrawal in broiler chickens: a poultry welfare and economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menconi, A; Kuttappan, V A; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Urbano, T; Matté, F; Layton, S; Kallapura, G; Latorre, J; Morales, B E; Prado, O; Vicente, J L; Barton, J; Andreatti Filho, R L; Lovato, M; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2014-02-01

    The effect of a commercial organic acid (OA) product on BW loss (BWL) during feed withdrawal and transportation, carcass yield, and meat quality was evaluated in broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in Brazil. Commercial houses were paired as control groups receiving regular water and treated groups receiving OA in the water. Treated birds had a reduction in BWL of 37 g in experiment 1 and 32.2 g in experiment 2. In experiment 2, no differences were observed in carcass yield between groups. Estimation of the cost benefit suggested a 1:16 ratio by using the OA. In experiment 3, conducted in Mexico, significant differences on water consumption, BWL, and meat quality characteristics were observed in chickens that were treated with the OA (P poultry industry by reducing BWL and improving meat quality attributes.

  15. Evaluation of a commercially available organic acid product on body weight loss, carcass yield, and meat quality during preslaughter feed withdrawal in broiler chickens: A poultry welfare and economic perspective1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menconi, A.; Kuttappan, V. A.; Hernandez-Velasco, X.; Urbano, T.; Matté, F.; Layton, S.; Kallapura, G.; Latorre, J.; Morales, B. E.; Prado, O.; Vicente, J. L.; Barton, J.; Filho, R. L. Andreatti; Lovato, M.; Hargis, B. M.; Tellez, G.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a commercial organic acid (OA) product on BW loss (BWL) during feed withdrawal and transportation, carcass yield, and meat quality was evaluated in broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in Brazil. Commercial houses were paired as control groups receiving regular water and treated groups receiving OA in the water. Treated birds had a reduction in BWL of 37 g in experiment 1 and 32.2 g in experiment 2. In experiment 2, no differences were observed in carcass yield between groups. Estimation of the cost benefit suggested a 1:16 ratio by using the OA. In experiment 3, conducted in Mexico, significant differences on water consumption, BWL, and meat quality characteristics were observed in chickens that were treated with the OA (P poultry industry by reducing BWL and improving meat quality attributes. PMID:24570468

  16. Ostrich (Struthio camellus carcass yield and meat quality parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Balog

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed at compiling recent studies on the main factors that influence ostrich meat quality and carcass yield. Few articles investigated the effect of subspecies, which generally are not even mentioned. There are important dietary effects, particularly those caused by dietary protein to energy ratio. Rigor mortis follow-up studies showed that there are no losses in meat quality when carcasses are hot-deboned. Age at slaughter influences some meat quality traits, such as tenderness and lipid content. Few effects of gender have been observed, and at the same age at slaughter, both male and female present the same meat quality traits.

  17. Characterization of variability in pork carcass composition and primal quality,.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkfeld, E K; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to characterize the factors and production practices that contribute to variation in pork composition and quality. It is possible the variation in pork quality traits, such as color, marbling, and tenderness, contributes to reduced customer confidence in the predictability of finished product quality and, therefore, pork products becoming less competitive for consumer dollars. Pigs raised in 8 different barns representing 2 seasons (hot and cold) and 2 production focuses (lean and quality) were used in this study. Pigs were marketed in 3 groups from each barn and marketing procedures followed commercial marketing procedures. Data were collected on a total of 7,684 pigs. The mivque0 option of the VARCOMP procedure in SAS was used to evaluate the proportion of variation each independent variable (season, production focus, marketing group, sex, and random variation) contributed to total variance. Random variation including inherent biological differences, as well as factors not controlled in this study, contributed the greatest proportion to total variation for each carcass composition and quality trait. Pig and other factors contributed to 93.5% of the variation in HCW, and marketing group, sex, season, and production focus accounted for 4.1, 1.4, 0.8, and 0.3%, respectively. Variation in percent carcass lean was attributed to production focus (36.4%), sex (15.8%), and season (10.2%). Pig and other factors contributed the greatest percentage of total variation (39.4%). Loin weight variation was attributed to production focus (21.4%), sex (5.4%), season (2.7%), marketing group (1.8%), and pig (68.7%). Belly weight variation was attributed to pig (88.9%), sex (4.1%), marketing group (3.8%), production focus (3.0%), and season (0.1%). Variation in ham weight was attributed to pig and other factors (93.9%), marketing group (2.8%), production focus (2.2%), and season (1.1%). Ultimate pH variation was attributed to pig (88.5%), season (6.2%), production

  18. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Churra and Assaf suckling lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, J; Caro, I; Carballo, D E; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Arranz, J J; Gutiérrez-Gil, B

    2017-10-02

    Suckling lamb meat is traditionally produced in Mediterranean Europe. Breed can affect the quality of the lamb carcass and meat. This study is aimed at comparing the carcass and meat quality between suckling lambs from a local and a non-native dairy breed, Churra and Assaf. Churra is included in the Spanish Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) 'Lechazo de Castilla y León', whereas Assaf is not. However, Assaf breeders have requested the inclusion of the breed in the PGI. Carcasses and meat from 16 male lambs (eight Churra and eight Assaf) were used in this study. The lambs were all raised under an intensive rearing system and fed on a milk substitute to minimise maternal influence. The carcasses were evaluated for conformation, fatness, joint and leg tissue proportions and the meat was analysed for composition (i.e. proximate composition, iron, haematin, fatty acids and volatiles) and technological quality traits (i.e. texture, water holding capacity, colour and lipid stability). Churra carcasses were larger than Assaf carcasses. However, the proportions of commercial joints and main tissues did not differ between breeds. Cavity and intermuscular leg fat, but not total leg fat, were higher in Churra carcasses. Churra meat showed a higher proportion of n-6 fatty acids, higher redness and better colour stability during aerobic storage. In contrast, Assaf lamb was more resistant to lipid oxidation after cooking. This is a preliminary study to measure the influence of breed on a wide range of quality characteristics in Churra and Assaf suckling lamb carcass and meat. It may be of relevance for breeders, consumers and food policy makers, setting the basis for future studies that include larger commercial populations.

  19. Carcass and meat quality determination as a tool to promote local meat consumption in outermost regions of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Morales-delaNuez, Antonio; Moreno-Indias, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    of this study, therefore, was to evaluate local and imported carcasses and meat quality in order to promote the consumption of local breeds, using the Canary Islands (Spain) as a model for other subtropical outermost regions. For this study 20 half-carcasses from Palmera breed and 20 imported half...

  20. Bacteriological quality of freshly processed broiler chickens as affected by carcass pretreatment and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamuka, P.O.; Sunki, G.R.; Chawan, C.B.; Rao, D.R.; Shackelford, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    Chicken carcasses dipped in whey fermented by Streptococcus thermophilus, lactic acid solution or water and irradiated at 2.5 kGy by 60Co were evaluated for bacteriological quality on day 1, day-3 and at 3-day intervals for an 18-day storage (4 degrees C) period. Unirradiated carcasses treated similarly were used as control. Gram negative bacteria, Yersinia and Campylobacter counts were significantly (p0.01) lower in irradiated samples, but no significant (p0.05) differences were observed ammong the dipping solutions. Salmonellae were completely eliminated in irradiated samples. Whey fermented by S. thermophilus reduced the proportion of Salmonella contaminated carcasses from 67% to 20%. As evidenced by the bacterial counts the shelf-life was found to be 15 days for irradiated carcasses compared to about 6 days for the unirradiated samples

  1. VARIATION OF THE ECONOMICAL EFFICIENCY OF PIG CARCASSES ACCORDING QUALITY CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PETROMAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The profitability of pork disjoint-packing activity depends on the carcass quality. Carcasses of superior types, respectively „E” and „U” generate higher profit on the kilogram of disjoint carcass, in comparison with the carcasses of medium type „R” and inferior types „O” and „P”.

  2. Influence of electrical stimulation on carcass and meat quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a previous study regarding the effects of Kosher and conventional slaughter techniques on carcass and meat quality of cattle, it was speculated that electrical stimulation may have affected some of the meat qualities. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) and ...

  3. Carcass traits and meat quality of two different rabbit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D'Agata

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits and meat quality, thirty-two rabbits for two genotypes (local population – LP; commercial hybrids – HY were used. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days old and slaughtered at 103 days of age for LP and 87 days of age for HY. Comparing the slaughtering traits of two genotypes, LP provided higher dressing out (59.4% vs 56.2%, Pvs 14.2%, Pvs 22.3, Pvs 8,9%, Pvs 0.86%, Pvs 1.12%; Pvs 19.2%; Pvs 31.6%; Pvs 3.8%; P*, higher redness (a*, yellowness (b* and C* value than HY (P

  4. Developmental differences in carcass, meat quality and muscle fibre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to compare carcass and meat quality traits, and muscle fibrecharacteristics in the longissimus muscle of the Landrace [an European pig breed] and the Lantang [a Chinese native pig breed] at the ages of 60, 90 and 150 days. The characteristics of muscle fibres were determined by real-time ...

  5. Feed efficiency and carcass and meat quality characteristics of bulls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    South African Society for Animal Science. The South African Journal of Animal Science is available online at http://www.sasas.co.za/sajas.asp. 313. Feed efficiency and carcass and meat quality characteristics of bulls finished on diets containing varied proportions of wheat straw and wet sugar beet pulp. S. Yüksel. 1.

  6. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters from rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of restricted feeding and realimentation during pregnancy was studied to know the carryover effect on carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters.Young does fed ad libitum diets often show parturition problems (Dystokia and abnormal presentation) with the subsequent reduction of number of kits, ...

  7. Aspects of the serum biochemistry, carcass quality and organoleptic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 62.4% in broilers diets did not produce serous adverse affects on performance, serum biochemistry, carcass and eating quality of broilers. Keywords: Date pits, alkali-treatment, broilers. Animal Production Research Advances Vol. 1(2) 2005: 76-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/apra.v1i2.36296 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. Growth response, sexual development, carcass and meat quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of intratesticularly administered zinc tannate (ZT) on growth performance, sexual development, slaughter, carcass and meat quality characteristics of young bull calves (-225 kg, 7 months old) were investigated. Comparisons were made across a three (treatments: ZT animals, intact bulls and burdizzo-castrated.

  9. Carcass and meat quality of Boer and indigenous goats of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pamela

    2017-09-28

    Sep 28, 2017 ... Abstract. This study was conducted to evaluate the carcass and meat quality of Boer goats and unimproved indigenous goats of South Africa, under delayed chilling conditions. Ten goats per breed were used for the study. The goats were slaughtered according to standard abattoir procedures. The dressed ...

  10. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

  11. Genetic Parameters for carcass composition and pork quality estimated in a commercial production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van H.J.; Arts, D.J.G.; Matthews, J.O.; Webster, M.; Ducro, B.J.; Knol, E.F.

    2005-01-01

    Breeding goals in pigs are subject to change and are directed much more toward retail carcass yield and meat quality because of the high economic value of these traits. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of growth, carcass, and meat quality traits. Carcass components

  12. Sire effects on carcass and meat quality traits of young Nellore bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, M N; Ferraz, J B S; Eler, J P; Rezende, F M; Cucco, D C; Carvalho, M E; Silva, R C G; Gomes, R C; Oliveira, E C M

    2014-04-29

    Meat quality is being increasingly demanded by consumers in recent years. Several factors can affect meat quality, ranging from animal traits such as breed and genetic heritage to pre- and post-slaughter processes. This study investigated the influence of Nellore bulls on carcass and meat quality traits. We used 475 young uncastrated males, the progeny of 54 bulls, to evaluate characteristics of the following carcass traits: hot carcass weight, rib-eye area, and fat thickness. We also evaluated the following beef quality traits: marbling, color, drip loss, cooking loss, and shear force at 0, 7, and 14 days of aging. Bulls had a significant influence (P≤0.05) on rib-eye area, fat thickness, marbling, drip loss at 14 days of aging and color at all aging periods. Based on these results, the use of bulls with high breeding values for these traits can provide important advances in carcass traits and meat quality in breeding programs of Nellore cattle that are raised in tropical conditions.

  13. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Griller-Type Broilers of Four Genetic Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa Filho, JA; Almeida, M; Shimokomaki, M; Pinheiro, JW; Silva, CA; Michelan Filho, T; Bueno, FR; Oba, A

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Griller-type chickens are broilers slaughtered between27and 29 days old weighing 1.3 to 1.5 kg and sold as a whole carcasses. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of female broilers of four genetic lines reared for the production of griller-type chickens. A total of 960 broiler chicks was allotted in a randomized block design with four treatments and eight replicates of 30 birds per experimental plot. Each experimental ...

  14. Effects of cooling temperature and hot carcass weight on the quality of lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muela, E; Sañudo, C; Campo, M M; Medel, I; Beltrán, J A

    2010-01-01

    The effects of cooling temperature (CT) (0-2, 2-4, or 4-6 degrees C) and hot carcass weight (HCW) (either or= 12.0 kg) on weight loss (WL) and meat quality were evaluated in 60 lamb carcasses of Rasa Aragonesa breed. Carcasses were exposed to CT throughout 90 h. WL was assessed at 18, 42, 66, and 90 h post-slaughter. pH, colour, instrumental measurement of texture, oxidation, and sensory parameters were evaluated in longissimus thoracis et lumborum aged for 96 h following standard methods. Sensory test involved a trained test panel. No significant interactive effects among the parameters evaluated were detected in the study. The lower the CT, the higher the WL after 90 h in storage (0.25% lost each 2 degrees C decrease), the higher final pH, and the lower lightness, the higher hue and chroma of the meat. Toughness was higher in meat cooled at 2-4 degrees C than in meat cooled at temperatures above or below this range. Neither oxidation nor sensory variables were affected by CT. Regarding on HCW, light carcasses exhibited higher WL (2.39% versus 2.04% after 90 h of cooling), higher final pH, and lower levels of oxidation than did heavier carcasses. Neither colour nor instrumental measurement of texture was affected by HCW. Lamb and fat odour and metallic and acid flavour intensities were significantly greater in the heavier carcasses, although it did not affect overall acceptability. Both CT and HCW should be considered as main effects on lamb quality, especially CT.

  15. Effect of age and carcass weight on quality traits of m. rectus abdominis from Charolais heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellies-Oury, M P; Dumont, R; Perrier, G; Roux, M; Micol, D; Picard, B

    2017-04-01

    In practice cattle may be slaughtered at different combinations of age and weight. As each of these factors could affect meat quality traits, the present work aimed to identify which combination can be expected to increase overall meat quality of m. rectus abdominis of Charolais heifers. Totally, 40 heifers were slaughtered either at 26±1 or at 36±1 months of age. Young heifers were sampled at two different carcass weights (349±12 and 394±8 kg). Old heifers were also sampled at two different carcass weights (397±6 and 451±9 kg). The m. rectus abdominis was excised 24 h postmortem to determine metabolic enzyme activities, myosin heavy-chain isoform proportions, lipid contents, collagen content and collagen solubility. Shear force measurements were evaluated on raw and broiled meat after 14 days of ageing. Meat quality traits scored between 0 and 10 by sensory analysis. Increasing slaughter age from 26 to 36 months had no impact on either raw/broiled shear force (0.31⩽P⩽0.47) and/or meat quality traits (0.62⩽P⩽0.91) or on physicochemical properties of heifer's meat samples. Increasing carcass weight for a similar slaughter age of 26 months had also impact neither on meat quality traits (0.52⩽P⩽0.91) nor on muscular properties. On the contrary, increasing carcass weight for a similar slaughter age of 36 months had induced a decrease of muscular shear force (raw muscle; P=0.009) and a concomitant decrease of total collagen content (P=0.03). Nevertheless, no significant impact on meat quality traits was revealed by the sensorial panel (0.13⩽P⩽0.49). Metabolic enzyme activities (0.13⩽P⩽0.86) and myosin heavy-chain proportions (0.13⩽P⩽0.96) were not significantly impacted by slaughter age and carcass weight. Thus, the impact of increasing carcass weight and/or slaughter age in young Charolais heifers has a limited impact on meat quality traits and associated muscular characteristics. Modulating heifer's cycles (age and/or carcass weight in

  16. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Griller-Type Broilers of Four Genetic Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Barbosa Filho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Griller-type chickens are broilers slaughtered between27and 29 days old weighing 1.3 to 1.5 kg and sold as a whole carcasses. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of female broilers of four genetic lines reared for the production of griller-type chickens. A total of 960 broiler chicks was allotted in a randomized block design with four treatments and eight replicates of 30 birds per experimental plot. Each experimental treatment consisted of four different commercial lines, identified as A, B, C and D. The analyzed parameters were weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, livability, production efficiency index, carcass and cut yields, and meat quality according to breast meat color (L*, a*, b*, water-holding capacity (WHC, cooking losses, and shear force. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and livability were different (p<0.05 among the lines; however, no differences were observed for the production efficiency index. Results show that lines presented similar performance; however, lines A, B, and C had a better carcass and breast yield, and line A, the best meat quality. Therefore, line A would be the most suitable for the production of griller-type chickens.

  17. Performance response, carcass evaluation and economic benefit of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the performance, carcass quality, haematological indices and economics of production of rabbits fed dietary sorghum offal substitute for maize grain. A total of forty (40) weaned rabbits with a mean weight range of 820-850 g were randomly distributed to five treatment ...

  18. Slaughter weight did not alter carcass characteristics and meat quality of crossbred heifers supplemented and finished in a pasture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cesar Andreotti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to evaluate the animal performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of crossbred heifers slaughtered at three different body weights. The heifers were slaughtered with 330 (Light, 360 (Medium and 400 (Heavy kg body weight. The final weight, average daily gain and carcass weight were greater for HEA heifers, intermediate for MED heifers and lower for LIG heifers. However, carcass dressing and pH were similar for the three heifers groups. Dripping loss, dissection loss and the muscle, fat and bone percentages on the 6th rib did not alter by slaughter weight. Slaughter weight did not affect the colour, shear force and lipid oxidation of meat. In conclusion, heavy heifers finished in pasture and that were concentrate-supplemented had better animal performance; however, the carcass characteristics and meat quality were similar for the three heifers groups.

  19. Effect of hot carcass weight on loin, ham, and belly quality from pigs sourced from a commercial processing facility,.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsh, B N; Arkfeld, E K; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2017-11-01

    The objective was to determine the predictive abilities of HCW for loin, ham, and belly quality of 7,684 pigs with carcass weights ranging from 53.2 to 129.6 kg. Carcass composition, subjective loin quality, and ham face color were targeted on all carcasses, whereas in-plant instrumental loin color and belly quality were assessed on 52.0 and 47.5% of carcasses, respectively. Loin chop slice shear force (SSF), cured ham quality, and adipose iodine value (IV) were evaluated on at least 10% of the population. The slope of regression lines and coefficients of determination between HCW and quality traits were computed using PROC REG of SAS and considered significant at ≤ 0.05. As HCW increased, boneless loins became darker and redder, evidenced by lower L* (β = -0.0243, ham face color ( ham face L* values and 0.47% of the variability in a* values. Heavier carcasses produced thicker and firmer bellies, with HCW accounting for 37.81% of the variability in belly thickness (β = 0.0272, ham quality explained by HCW was poor (≤5.60%), suggesting that HCW is a poor predictor of the primal quality of pigs within this weight range. Nonetheless, HCW was a moderate predictor of belly quality traits. The findings of this study suggest that increasing HCW did not compromise loin, ham, or belly quality attributes.

  20. Influence of immunocastration (Bopriva® in weight gain, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nellore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Andreo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the effects of immunocastration on body weight gain, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nellore beef cattle. Eighty Nellore beef cattle, with initial body weight of 357±8.63 kg, were placed in feedlots and distributed in two treatments (40 animals per treatments as follow: one - non-vaccinated bulls and two - immunocastrated bulls (Bopriva®, Pfizer Animal Health. The animals placed on treatment two were vaccinated in two doses, first application 30 days before they arrive on the feedlots and second on the day they arrive on feedlots. After 67 days of experimental period, was calculated the daily gain of live weight in kg/day of the 80 animals and selected 20 animals from each treatment for the slaughter and carcass evaluations, and ten from each group for the meat analyzes. The data were submitted to analysis of variance. Immunocastrated animals showed lower daily weight gain, hot carcass weight, carcass yield, pH, leg thickness, muscle depth, loin muscle area, carcass muscle percentage, shear force and moisture. However, this animals had higher concentration of lactate and cortisol blood, chest depth, fat thickness, finishing degree, a *, b * and c*, liquid loss in thawing process, myofibrillar fragmentation index and ether extract of meat when compared to non-vaccinated bulss. The immunocastration (Bopriva® is an alternative for improving the quality of meat by the higher fat deposition and by the reduction of the shear force of the meat when compared to non-vaccinated bulls.

  1. Evaluation of corn meal on performance, carcass characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the effect of corn meal (CM) on performance, carcass characteristics and nutrient digestibility of chickens in a completely randomized design experiment with 4 × 2 factorial arrangement and 4 replicates per treatment, 384 Ross male broiler chickens in a 49 days period were evaluated. Treatments were 0 (CM0), ...

  2. Performance, Carcass Evaluation And Economics Of Production Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight-weeks feeding trial involving 162,8-week old goldline cockerel birds was carried out in a completely randomized design to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and economics of production of cockerels fed whole cassava plant meal (WCPM). Diet 1 was maize based and served as the control, diet 2 ...

  3. Evaluation of Carcass, Organs, and Organoleptic Characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation indicated that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) among the treatment groups in percent dressed carcass weight, ham and trotters. The head of pigs in the control diet differed significantly in weight (p0.05).

  4. PERFORMANCE, CARCASS YIELD AND LITTER QUALITY OF BROILERS RAISED ON LITTERS TREATED WITH MICRO-ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Prado da Cruz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aimed at evaluating the effect of adding beneficial micro-organisms to the litters on litter quality, performance and carcass yield for broilers. A total of 240 one-day chicks were used, and randomly distributed in blocks with four treatments and four replications. The following treatments were carried out in the housing: Treatment 1 – Control with weekly spraying of water on the litters; Treatment 2 – Litter treated with a mixture of inoculated and fermented meal by micro-organisms and weekly spraying of water; Treatment 3 – Litter treated by weekly spraying of micro-organisms; Treatment 4 – Litter treated with the same mixture of meals from treatment two and weekly spraying of micro-organisms. Performance was evaluated by the feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion, viability and carcass, breast and leg yield. From litter samples, pH, dry matter, ashes and nitrogen were evaluated. No differences were found among the treatments. In the conditions the animals were raised, it can be concluded that the treatment on the litter does not affect performance, carcass yield and quality of the litter for broilers.

  5. Comparison of variability in pork carcass composition and quality between barrows and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, M F; Arkfeld, E K; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2016-10-01

    Pigs ( = 8,042) raised in 8 different barns representing 2 seasons (cold and hot) and 2 production focuses (lean growth and meat quality) were used to characterize variability of carcass composition and quality traits between barrows and gilts. Data were collected on 7,684 pigs at the abattoir. Carcass characteristics, subjective loin quality, and fresh ham face color (muscles) were measured on a targeted 100% of carcasses. Fresh belly characteristics, boneless loin weight, instrumental loin color, and ultimate loin pH measurements were collected from 50% of the carcasses each slaughter day. Adipose tissue iodine value (IV), 30-min loin pH, LM slice shear force, and fresh ham muscle characteristic measurements were recorded on 10% of carcasses each slaughter day. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS as a 1-way ANOVA in a randomized complete block design with 2 levels (barrows and gilts). Barn (block), marketing group, production focus, and season were random variables. A 2-variance model was fit using the REPEATED statement of the MIXED procedure, grouped by sex for analysis of least squares means. Homogeneity of variance was tested on raw data using Levene's test of the GLM procedure. Hot carcass weight of pigs (94.6 kg) in this study was similar to U.S. industry average HCW (93.1 kg). Therefore, these data are representative of typical U.S. pork carcasses. There was no difference ( ≥ 0.09) in variability of HCW or loin depth between barrow and gilt carcasses. Back fat depth and estimated carcass lean were more variable ( ≤ 0.0001) and IV was less variable ( = 0.05) in carcasses from barrows than in carcasses from gilts. Fresh belly weight and thickness were more variable ( ≤ 0.01) for bellies of barrows than bellies of gilts, but there was no difference in variability for belly length, width, or flop distance ( ≥ 0.06). Fresh loin subjective color was less variable ( < 0.01) and subjective marbling was more variable ( < 0.0001) in loins

  6. Growth rate, carcass characteristics and meat quality of growing lambs fed buckwheat or maize silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurhan Keles

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated inclusion of buckwheat silage to the diet of growing lambs in terms of meat quality as compared to maize silage. Methods Buckwheat, rich in total phenols (TP, 33 g/kg dry matter [DM], was harvested at the end of the milk stage and ensiled in 40 kg plastic bags after wilting (294 g/kg silage DM. A total of 18 growing lambs (21.6±1.2 were individually fed isonitrogenous and isoenergetic total mixed rations (TMR for 75 d that either contained buckwheat or maize silage at DM proportions of 0.50. At the end of feeding trail all lambs were slaughtered to assess carcass characteristics and meat quality. Results Buckwheat silage increased (p0.05 on live weight gain and feed efficiency. Carcass weight, dressing percentage, meat pH, water holding capacity, cooking loss, shear force (kg/cm2, and total viable bacteria count of meat did not differ (p>0.05 between the treatments. However, TP content of meat increased (p<0.001 by feeding buckwheat TMR. Feeding buckwheat TMR also decreased (p<0.05 the b* values of meat. Conclusion The results provide that buckwheat silage is palatable and could successfully include TMR of growing lambs with no adverse effects on performance, carcass and meat quality. Additionally, feeding buckwheat silage to lambs offers increased TP in meat.

  7. Effect of hot carcass weight on fresh loin, ham, and belly quality from pigs sourced from a commercial processing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to quantify the effect of HCW on pork primal quality of 7,684 pigs with carcass weights ranging from 53.2 to 129.6 kg. Carcass composition, subjective loin quality, and ham face color were collected on all carcasses. In-plant instrumental loin color and belly quality analyses were ...

  8. National Beef Quality Audit - 2016: Survey of carcass characteristics through instrument grading assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, C A; Eastwood, L C; Harris, M K; Hale, D S; Kerth, C R; Griffin, D B; Arnold, A N; Hasty, J D; Belk, K E; Woerner, D R; Delmore, R J; Martin, J N; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Pfeiffer, M M; Lawrence, T E; McEvers, T J; Schmidt, T B; Maddock, R J; Johnson, D D; Carr, C C; Scheffler, J M; Pringle, T D; Stelzleni, A M; Gottlieb, J; Savell, J W

    2017-07-01

    The instrument grading assessment portion of the National Beef Quality Audit (NBQA) - 2016 allows the unique opportunity to evaluate beef carcass traits over the course of a year. One week of instrument grading data was collected each month from 5 beef processing corporations encompassing 18 facilities from January 2016 through December 2016 ( = 4,544,635 carcasses). Mean USDA yield grade (YG) was 3.1 with 1.37 cm fat thickness (FT), 88.9 cm LM area, 393.6 kg HCW, and 2.1% KPH. Frequency distribution of USDA YG was 9.5% YG 1, 34.6% YG 2, 38.8% YG 3, 14.6% YG 4, and 2.5% YG 5. Increases in HCW and FT since the NBQA-2011 were major contributors to differences in mean YG and the (numerically) increased frequency of YG 3, 4, and 5 carcasses found in the current audit. Mean marbling score was Small, and the distribution of USDA quality grades was 4.2% Prime, 71.4% Choice, 21.7% Select, and 2.7% other. Frequency of carcasses grading Prime on Monday (6.43%) was numerically higher than the average frequency of carcasses grading Prime overall (4.2%). Monthly HCW means were 397.6 kg in January, 397.2 kg in February, 396.5 kg in March, 389.3 kg in April, 384.8 kg in May, 385.0 kg in June, 386.1 kg in July, 394.1 kg in August, 399.1 kg in September, 403.9 kg in October, 406.5 kg in November, and 401.9 kg in December. Monthly mean marbling scores were Small in January, Small in February, Small in March, Small in April, Small in May, Small in June, Small in July, Small in August, Small in September, Small in October, Small in November, and Small in December. Both mean HCW and mean marbling score declined in the months of May and June. The month with the greatest numerical frequency of dark cutters was October (0.74%). Comparison of overall data from in-plant carcass and instrument grading assessments revealed close alignment of information, especially for YG (3.1 for in-plant assessment versus 3.1 for instrument grading) and marbling (Small for in-plant assessment versus Small

  9. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs that are fed diets with palm kernel cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozilda da Conceição dos Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim was to evaluate carcass characteristics, cut yield, and meat quality in lambs that were fed different inclusion levels of palm kernel cake. Methods Forty-five woolless castrated male Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an initial average body weight of 23.16±0.35 kg were used. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments, with palm kernel cake in the proportions of 0.0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30.0% with nine replications per treatment. After slaughter, the gastrointestinal tract was weighed when it was full, after which it was then emptied. The heart, liver, kidney, pancreas perirenal fat were also collected and weighed. The carcass was split into two identical longitudinal halves and weighed to determine the quantitative and qualitative characteristics. Results The empty body weight, carcass weight and yield, and fat thickness decreased linearly (p0.05 for the rib eye area of animals that were fed palm kernel cake. There was a reduction in the commercial cut weight (p0.05. The sarcomere length decreased linearly (p<0.05, although an effect of the inclusion of palm kernel cake was not observed in other meat quality variables. It is worth noting that the red staining intensity, indicated as A, had a tendency to decrease (p = 0.050. Conclusion The inclusion of palm kernel cake up to 30% in the diet does not lead to changes in meat quality characteristics, except for sarcomere length. Nevertheless, carcass quantitative characteristics decrease with the use of palm kernel cake.

  10. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs that are fed diets with palm kernel cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Conceição Dos Santos, Rozilda; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Sacramento, Samara Bianca Moraes; de Moura Lima, Elizanne; de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos

    2017-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate carcass characteristics, cut yield, and meat quality in lambs that were fed different inclusion levels of palm kernel cake. Forty-five woolless castrated male Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an initial average body weight of 23.16±0.35 kg were used. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments, with palm kernel cake in the proportions of 0.0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30.0% with nine replications per treatment. After slaughter, the gastrointestinal tract was weighed when it was full, after which it was then emptied. The heart, liver, kidney, pancreas perirenal fat were also collected and weighed. The carcass was split into two identical longitudinal halves and weighed to determine the quantitative and qualitative characteristics. The empty body weight, carcass weight and yield, and fat thickness decreased linearly (ppalm kernel inclusion in the diet. There was no difference (p>0.05) for the rib eye area of animals that were fed palm kernel cake. There was a reduction in the commercial cut weight (p0.05). The sarcomere length decreased linearly (ppalm kernel cake was not observed in other meat quality variables. It is worth noting that the red staining intensity, indicated as A, had a tendency to decrease (p = 0.050). The inclusion of palm kernel cake up to 30% in the diet does not lead to changes in meat quality characteristics, except for sarcomere length. Nevertheless, carcass quantitative characteristics decrease with the use of palm kernel cake.

  11. Polymorphisms in candidate genes and their association with carcass traits and meat quality in Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Oliveira Borges

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the allele polymorphism frequencies of genes in Nellore cattle and associate them with meat quality and carcass traits. Six hundred males were genotyped for the following polymorphisms: DGAT1 (VNTR with 18 nucleotides at the promoter region; ANK1, a new polymorphism, identified and mapped here at the gene regulatory region NW_001494427.3; TCAP (AY428575.1:g.346G>A; and MYOG (NW_001501985:g.511G>C. In the association study, phenotype data of hot carcass weight, ribeye area, backfat thickness, percentage of intramuscular fat, shear force, myofibrillar fragmentation index, meat color (L*, a*, b*, and cooking losses were used. Allele B from the ANK1 gene was associated with greater redness (a*. Alleles 5R, 6R, and 7R from the DGAT1 VNTR gene were associated with increased intramuscular fat, reduced cooking losses and increased ribeye area, respectively. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of the TCAP gene was not polymorphic, and MYOG alleles were not associated with any of the evaluated characteristics. These results indicate that ANK1 and DGAT1 genes can be used in the selection of Nellore cattle for carcass and meat quality.

  12. The West African Dwarf Sheep II. Carcass Traits Mutton Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcasses of thirty African Dwarf ewes had a yield of 42.5%, about 5mm backfat thickness and a loin eye of about 8cm2 primal cuts made up of 85% of the carcass. The best carcasses came from ewes slaughtered between two and four years of age. Average composition of retail cuts was 66.5% muscle, 26.5% bone and ...

  13. Identification of quantitative trait loci for carcass composition and meat quality traits in a commercial finishing cross

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van H.J.; Dibbits, B.W.; Baron, E.E.; Brings, A.D.; Harlizius, B.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Knol, E.F.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2006-01-01

    A QTL study for carcass composition and meat quality traits was conducted on finisher pigs of a cross between a synthetic Pie¿train/Large White boar line and a commercial sow cross. The mapping population comprised 715 individuals evaluated for a total of 30 traits related to growth and fatness (4

  14. Influence of rearing conditions on performance, behavioral, and physiological responses of pigs to preslaughter handling, carcass traits, and meat quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebret, B.; Meunier-Salaün, M.C.; Foury, A.; Mormède, P.; Dransfield, E.; Dourmad, J.Y.

    2006-01-01

    A total of 120 crossbred [synthetic line x (Large White x Landrace)] pigs (castrated males and females) were used to evaluate the influence of rearing conditions for growing-finishing pigs on growth performance, carcass, stress reactions at slaughter, and meat eating quality. At approximately 35 kg

  15. Relationship between perilipin genes polymorphisms and growth, carcass and meat quality traits in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gol, S; Ros-Freixedes, R; Zambonelli, P; Tor, M; Pena, R N; Braglia, S; Zappaterra, M; Estany, J; Davoli, R

    2016-02-01

    The perilipins (PLIN) belong to a family of structural proteins that play a role regulating intracellular lipid storage and mobilization. Here, PLIN1 and PLIN2 have been evaluated as candidate genes for growth, carcass and meat quality traits in pigs. A sample of 607 Duroc pigs were genotyped for two single-nucleotide polymorphisms, one in intron 2 of the PLIN1 gene (JN860199:g.173G>A) and the other at the 3' untranslated region of the PLIN2 gene (GU461317:g.98G>A). Using a Bayesian approach, we have been able to find evidence of additive, dominant and epistatic associations of the PLIN1 and PLIN2 polymorphisms with early growth rate and carcass length. However, the major effects were produced by the dominant A allele at the PLIN2 polymorphism, which also affected the carcass lean weight. Thus, pigs carrying an additional copy of the A allele at the g.98G>A PLIN2 polymorphism had a probability of at least 98% of producing carcasses with heavier lean weight (+0.41 kg) and ham weight (+0.10 kg). The results obtained indicate that the PLIN2 polymorphism could be a useful marker for lean growth. In particular, it may help to reduce the undesired negative correlated response in lean weight to selection for increased intramuscular fat content, a common scenario in some Duroc lines involved in the production of high quality pork products. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Effect of hot carcass weight on loin, ham, and belly quality from pigs sourced from a commercial processing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to determine the predictive abilities of HCW for loin, ham, and belly quality of 7,684 pigs with carcass weights ranging from 53.2 to 129.6 kg. Carcass composition, subjective loin quality, and ham face color were targeted on all carcasses, whereas in-plant instrumental loin color ...

  17. Influence of electrical stimulation on carcass and meat quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agbeniga

    2014-08-24

    Aug 24, 2014 ... After the stimulation, evisceration and carcass splitting procedures were carried out before the carcasses enter the chillers. In total, 57 animals were assigned to this treatment. Conventional slaughter was done with the aid of a pneumatic captive bolt gun which utilises compressed air (Anil et al., 2002). Here ...

  18. Carcass and meat quality in light lambs from different fat classes in the EU carcass classification system

    OpenAIRE

    Sañudo, C.; Alfonso, M.J.; Sánchez, A.; Delfa, R.; Teixeira, A.

    2000-01-01

    Ninety commercial lamb carcasses were analysed according to the four different fat classes in the light lamb European classiffication system. Shoulder fat increased 3%, muscle decreased 2% and bone decreased 1% for each class increase. No signifficant differences were found among fat classes regarding pH, WHC, cooking losses, juiciness, myoglobin content, meat colour measured immediately after cutting (L*, a*, b*), odour intensity or flavour quality. Some differences were found in colour e...

  19. Effect of season and stocking density during transport on carcass and meat quality of suckling lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sanchez-Sanchez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Many factors related to transport to abattoir affects meat quality, but scarce information is available in suckling lambs. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of season and stocking density on carcass and meat quality of suckling lambs during commercial transport to the abattoir. A factorial design (2 × 3 was used: two seasons (winter and summer and three stocking densities (SD; 0.08, 0.12 and 0.20 m2 animal-1. Meat quality variables were measured in the M. longissimus at 24 h post-mortem and after 5 days of refrigerated storage. Lambs transported in summer showed lower liver weight (p<0.001, h* (p<0.05, deoxymyoglobin content (p<0.001, pressed juice (p<0.01, shear force (p<0.001 and firmness (p<0.001, and higher initial pH (p<0.001, L*, b*, C* (p<0.001 and a* (p<0.01, as well as metmyoglobin and oxymyoglobin content (p<0.001, than those transported in winter. The effect of season was dependent on storage time, being colour changes more evident at 24 h than after 5 days of storage, whereas lipid oxidation was only observed in stored meat, which may be explain because the natural antioxidative system decreases with time after slaughter. Scarce effect of SD was found on the carcass and meat quality parameters, thus under our experimental conditions the three SD studied appear to be suitable for suckling lambs transport. However, both carcass and meat quality were within the normal commercial range.

  20. Comparative evaluation of growth performance, carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted at the poultry unit of the Teaching and Research farm, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike to evaluate growth traits, ... Each strain was allotted into five replicates of 9 birds per replicate in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) Data were collected at both the starter phase ...

  1. CARCASS QUALITY OF PIGS OF DIFFERENT GENOTYPES ON FAMILY FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petričević

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the project titled “Optimal pig production models on family farms of eastern Croatia”, researches have been curried on in several family farms from three counties. Together with establishing the current state, researches on the possibilities of improvement of reproductive, production and other quality traits of pigs have been started. This improvement should be reached by getting the suitable sires and dams whose crosses (2- and 3-way crossbreeds would give fattening pigs with satisfying lean meat yield. Fattenng pigs as final products of pig productions were monitored in this study. Carcass quality of 1592 fattening pigs from 6 family farms were determined at the slaughter line during 1999 and 2000 year. The highest shares of lean meat determined by “two points” according to current national regulations method (1999 have been founded in Hypor hybrid pigs (55.49%, n=51 and 3-way crossbreeds (SLxLWxP (55.28%, n=692. Markedly lower results have been recorded in GLxSL and SLxGL crossbred pigs (50.37%, n=204; GLxP (50.34%, n=195; GL and GLxP (49.00%, n=96; SLxGL and GLxSL (47.51%, n=354. Poorer results achieved at those four farms could be explained by evidently inapropriate feeding of fattening pigs which should, regarding the genotype, yield in higher share of lean meat.

  2. Carcass characteristics and meat evaluation of Nelore cattle subjected to different antioxidant treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Jesus do Carmo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Forty Nelore cattle were used to evaluate the effects of supplementation with different antioxidants on carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot cattle. Animals were fed Brachiaria brizantha hay and subjected to five treatments (control and four antioxidants: zinc, selenium, vitamin E, and selenium + vitamin E. After a 105-day feeding period, cattle were slaughtered. Tissue composition, as well as carcass proximate composition, color, tenderness, pH, and fatty acid profile were evaluated. Analysis of variance was carried out and means compared by Tukey test at 0.05 probability. The group fed selenium showed the lowest muscle amount (66.61 g/100 g compared with the other antioxidants evaluated. There was no difference among treatments for bone, fat, and comestible portion percentages as well as muscle:bone, muscle:fat, and comestible portion:bone ratios, with mean values of 16.85 g/100 g, 14.70 g/100 g, 82.99 g/100 g, 4.06, 4.85, and 4.95, respectively. Neither brightness, red, or yellow contents of the meat nor carcass pH were affected by treatments. For tenderness and losses during thawing and cooking, there were no differences among treatments, with averages of 6.43 kgf cm2, 3.22 g/100 g, and 21.15 g/100 g, respectively. Supplementation of Nelore cattle fed Brachiaria brizantha hay with antioxidants do not influence carcass characteristics or meat quality. However, vitamin E supplementation reduces the levels of omega 3 fatty acid, whereas supplementation with selenium + vitamin E promotes an increase in linoleic and palmitoleic acids and a decrease in myristoleic acid, making the supplementation feasible due to the beneficial effects provided by these acids.

  3. Effects of gestational maternal undernutrition on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of rabbit offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K Symeon

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of gestational undernutrition of rabbit does on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of the offsprings. Thirty primiparous non lactating rabbit does were artificially inseminated and randomly divided in three treatment groups: Control (C; fed to 100% of maintenance requirements throughout gestation, n = 10, early undernourished (EU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 7-19 of gestation, n = 10 and late undernourished (LU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 20-27 of gestation, n = 10. During the 4th week of the gestation period, LU does significantly lost weight compared to C and EU groups (P<0.05. At kindling, C does produced litters with higher proportions of stillborn kits (P<0.05 while the total litter size (alive and stillborn kits was not different among groups (10.7, 12.8 and 12.7 kits in C, EU and LU groups, respectively. Kit birth weight tended to be lower in the LU group. During fattening, body weight and feed intake were not different among offsprings of the three experimental groups. Moreover, the maternal undernutrition did not have any impact on carcass composition of the offsprings in terms of carcass parts and internal organs weights as well as meat quality of L. lumborum muscle (pH24, colour, water holding capacity and shear values at slaughter (70 days of age. Therefore, it can be concluded that the gestational undernutrition of the mother does not have detrimental effects on the productive and quality traits of the offsprings.

  4. Carcass percentage and quality of broilers given a ration containing probiotics and prebiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Daud

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics is a feed additive in the form of life microorganisms that balance microorganism population in the digestive tract. While prebiotics is a feed substance which is not digested, and selectively improves growth and activity of useful microbes in large intestine. The objectives of this research were to study the carcass percentage and carcass quality of broilers given a ration containing probiotics and prebiotics. Four hundred eighty day-old chicks of broiler Arbor Acres strain were divided into four dietary treatments and three replications (40 birds / replicate. Ration used was consisted of: R1 = basal ration + 0.01% antibiotics (Zinc bacitracin, R2 = basal ration + 0.2% probiotics (Bacillus spp, R3 = basal ration + 0.2% probiotics + 0.5% prebiotics and R4 = basal ration + 0.5% prebiotics (katuk leaves. The variables observed were: carcass percentage, fat content in the abdomen, liver and carcass, cholesterol content in the liver, carcass and blood serum. The results showed that the carcass quality of broiler received probiotics and prebiotics either independently or the combination was significantly (P<0.05 different. The fat content of liver and thigh, and breast cholesterol of R3 was significantly (P<0.05 lower than that of the control (R1. It is concluded that combination of probiotics and prebiotics were able to decrease the carcass fat and cholesterol content at six week of age.

  5. Correlations among Stress Parameters, Meat and Carcass Quality Parameters in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Dokmanovic

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Relationships among different stress parameters (lairage time and blood level of lactate and cortisol, meat quality parameters (initial and ultimate pH value, temperature, drip loss, sensory and instrumental colour, marbling and carcass quality parameters (degree of rigor mortis and skin damages, hot carcass weight, carcass fat thickness, meatiness were determined in pigs (n = 100 using Pearson correlations. After longer lairage, blood lactate (p<0.05 and degree of injuries (p<0.001 increased, meat became darker (p<0.001, while drip loss decreased (p<0.05. Higher lactate was associated with lower initial pH value (p<0.01, higher temperature (p<0.001 and skin blemishes score (p<0.05 and more developed rigor mortis (p<0.05, suggesting that lactate could be a predictor of both meat quality and the level of preslaughter stress. Cortisol affected carcass quality, so higher levels of cortisol were associated with increased hot carcass weight, carcass fat thickness on the back and at the sacrum and marbling, but also with decreased meatiness. The most important meat quality parameters (pH and temperature after 60 minutes deteriorated when blood lactate concentration was above 12 mmol/L.

  6. Use of ractopamine during compensatory gain of finishing pigs on carcass and meat performance and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M.J. Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of compensatory gain associated with the use of 10ppm ractopamine after a period of feed restriction in finishing pigs on performance, carcass and meat quality. Twenty castrated males and 20 females, at 110 days of age and 66.137±6.13kg live weight, were submitted to four treatments using a 2 x 2 factorial design (fed ad libitum or with 20% restriction between 0(21 days of age and fed with or without 10ppm ractopamine for 22(42 days of experimentation, with 10 replicates (animals. There was no interaction between the factors for any of the evaluated parameters. Animals treated with ractopamine presented better weight gain (1.083 versus 1.259kg, feed conversion (2.910 versus 2.577, warm and cold carcass weight (86.08 versus 89.00 and 83.46 versus 87.20kg, respectively, loin depth (63.02 versus 68.40mm, loin eye area (41.43 versus 46.59mm2 and muscle fiber diameter (27.48 versus 35.85μm. Animals submitted to feed restriction followed by ad libitum feed presented compensatory gain without losses to carcass and meat characteristics, but with a reduction in the ethereal extract (2.19 versus 1.64% and lower water loss due to thawing in the meat (11.35 versus 9.42%. The effects of compensatory gain after food restriction and ractopamine are independent of the parameters evaluated.

  7. Performance, carcass traits and meat quality of crossbred lambs fed whole cottonseed levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Ruegger Corte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Byproduct as whole cottonseed (WCS and soybean hulls are quite used in finishing diets to feedlot lambs and WCS is a potential source to be included in lambs diet when prices are advantageous. The most part of the studies with WCS is used as a replacement of cereals as corn. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing a fibrous byproduct (soybean hulls with increasing levels of WCS (0, 10 and 20% on the performance, carcass traits and meat quality of feedlot lambs. Thirty crossbred lambs (15 males and 15 females, 20±1.6 kg were fed 1 of 3 high concentration diets: CTL (without WCS, WCS10 (with 10% WCS, and WCS20 (with 20% WCS in a block design (sex for 56 days. Feeding 10 or 20% WCS significantly (P=0.013 improved the feed conversion without affecting the final weight gain, average daily gain or dry matter intake in kg/d. However, the DMI (in % of live weight was affected by treatments (P<0.0001: lambs fed the CTL and the WCS10 diet consumed more DMI than the lambs from WCS20 diet (4.19, 4.03 and 3.6%, respectively. The hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, longissimus muscle area and fat thickness were not affected by the WCS levels. The shear force and meat colour were similar among treatments. These results suggested that fattening lambs may benefit from an increase in feed efficiency from 10% WCS up to 20% without negatively impacting carcass and meat quality.

  8. The effect of Bovine Growth Hormone on Growth, Carcass Composition and Meat Quality of Dairy Heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Foldager, John

    1993-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of bovine growth hormone (bGH) on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of dairy heifers. Nine monozygotic twin pairs of Friesian or Red Danish cattle were used, and pair-fed diet consisting of grass silage, barley and soybean meal. Within each pair...... fat by 13% (P dairy heifers around puberty stimulated growth and reduced carcass fattening...

  9. Genetic correlations between ewe reproduction and carcass and meat quality traits in Merino sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, E; Fogarty, N M; Hopkins, D L; Greeff, J C; Brien, F D; Atkins, K D; Mortimer, S I; Taylor, P J; van der Werf, J H J

    2008-12-01

    Genetic correlations between reproduction traits in ewes and carcass and meat quality traits in Merino rams were obtained using restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The carcass data were from 5870 Merino rams slaughtered at approximately 18 months of age that were the progeny of 543 sires from three research resource flocks over 7 years. The carcass traits included ultrasound scan fat and eye muscle depth (EMDUS) measured on live animals, dressing percentage and carcass tissue depth (at the GR site FATGR and C site FATC), eye muscle depth, width and area and the meat quality indicator traits of muscle final pH and colour (L*, a*, b*). The reproduction data consisted of 13 464 ewe joining records for number of lambs born and weaned and 9015 records for LS. The genetic correlations between reproduction and fat measurements were negative (range -0.06 +/- 0.12 to -0.37 +/- 0.12), with smaller correlations for live measurement than carcass traits. There were small favourable genetic correlations between reproduction traits and muscle depth in live rams (EMDUS, 0.10 +/- 0.12 to 0.20 +/- 0.12), although those with carcass muscle traits were close to zero. The reproduction traits were independent of meat colour L* (relative brightness), but tended to be favourably correlated with meat colour a* (relative redness, 0.12 +/- 0.17 to 0.19 +/- 0.16). There was a tendency for meat final pH to have small negative favourable genetic correlations with reproduction traits (0.05 +/- 0.11 to -0.17 +/- 0.12). This study indicates that there is no antagonism between reproduction traits and carcass and meat quality indicator traits, with scope for joint improvement of reproduction, carcass and meat quality traits in Merino sheep.

  10. Effects of lowering dietary fiber before marketing on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, M D; Derouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Houser, T A; Nelssen, J L; Goodband, R D

    2014-01-01

    A total of 264 pigs (initially 41.0 kg BW) were used in a 90-d study to determine the effects of lowering dietary fiber before market on pigs fed high dietary fiber [provided by wheat middlings (midds) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)] on growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights of growing-finishing pigs. Pens of pigs were randomly allotted by initial BW and sex to 1 of 6 treatments with 6 replications per treatment and 7 or 8 pigs per pen. A positive control (corn-soybean meal-based) diet containing no DDGS or midds (9.3% NDF) and a negative control diet with 30% DDGS and 19% midds (19% NDF) were fed throughout the entire trial (d 0 to 90). The other 4 treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with the main effects of length of fiber reduction (23 or 47 d before marketing) and fiber level fed during the reduction period (low or medium). Pigs on these treatments were fed the negative control before the reduction treatment. The medium-fiber diet contained 15% DDGS and 9.5% midds (14.2% NDF) with the low-fiber diet was the positive control diet. Increasing the feeding duration of the low-fiber diets lowered overall ADFI (linear, P = 0.03) and improved G:F (linear, P fiber level for the last 23 d did not influence growth performance; however, lowering the fiber level improved carcass yield (P = 0.002), with a greater response (P fiber diet was fed for 23 d. Jowl fat iodine value (IV) decreased when the longer lower fiber diets were fed (linear, P fiber diet during the fiber reduction period than pigs fed the medium-fiber diet during the same time period; however, increasing the time lower fiber diets were fed from 23 to 47 d further reduced (P fiber level decreased full large intestine weight (linear, P = 0.005) with a greater response (P = 0.04) when the low-fiber diet was fed during the reduction period instead of the medium-fiber diet. In summary, lowering the fiber level before marketing can

  11. Effect of genotype, sex and litter size on growth and basic traits of carcass quality of light lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kuchtík

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the effect of genotype (Romanov breed: n = 26, and F1 crossbreds of Suffolk-Romanov: n = 29, sex (males: n = 37 and females: n = 18 and litter size (singles: n = 6, twins: n = 16, triples: n = 21 and quadruplets: n = 12 on growth and basic carcass quality traits of light lambs was carried out at an organic sheep farm in Kuklík over the years 2007 and 2008. Throughout the experiment the lambs were reared with their mothers, indoors. The weaning of lambs was carried out just before slaughter. The daily feeding ration of the lambs consisted of the mother’s milk (ad libitum and organic mineral lick (ad libitum, whereas the lambs had free access to the feedstuff of their mothers.The daily feeding ration of the ewes consisted of haylage (2.5 kg/ewe, meadow hay (ad libitum and organic mineral lick (ad libitum. The genotype (G and the sex (S had not a significant effect on growth of lambs in the period from birth till the slaughter. On the other hand the litter size (LS had a highly significant effect on this trait, whilst the highest daily gain in above-mentioned period was found in singles (157 g. Concerning the carcass traits the G had a significant effect only on carcass dressing percentage while the S had a significant effect only on proportion of kidney. Nevertheless the LS had a significant effect on carcass dressing percentage and the proportions of skin, kidney and kidney fat. In conclusion it can be completed that the fatness scores of all individual carcasses were relatively very low which is important for good realisation of the carcasses on the market.

  12. Carcass quality of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis finished in silvopastoral system in the Eastern Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.S. Peixoto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the diet on the quality of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis carcasses of crossbred Murrah and Mediterranean, concentrate fed on traditional (corn/soybean or on agro-industrial residues (palm oil and coconut cakes was studied. The animals were sacrificed in a slaughterhouse, and physical and physical-chemical analyses in the carcasses were carried out after 24 hours, and instrumental color and texture analyses of the Longissimus dorsi were carried out 48 hours after cooling. The animals supplemented with palm oil cake had better carcass conformation and fat trim, and differences (P<0.05 in the percentage of fat in the carcass fat thickness and coverage were observed.

  13. Effects of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (Paylean) to physical and immunological castrates (Improvest) in a commercial setting on carcass cutting yields and loin quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, B K; Gerlemann, G D; Carr, S N; Rincker, P J; Schroeder, A L; Petry, D B; McKeith, F K; Allee, G L; Dilger, A C

    2014-08-01

    Effects of feeding ractopamine (RAC; 5 mg/kg) to physically castrated (PC) and immunologically castrated (IC) pigs on carcass characteristics, cutting yields, and loin quality were evaluated using 285 carcasses. Male pigs were randomly assigned to sex treatments (PC and IC) at birth and fed the same nursery diets before allotment into 32 pens with 22 pigs per pen in a grow-finish barn. Pigs in the PC group were physically castrated at approximately 5 d of age, and pigs in the IC group were administered Improvest at 11 and 18 wk of age. Diet treatments (control or RAC) were initiated on study d 87. Pigs were marketed at 12 d (4.5 wk post-second Improvest dose), 19 d (5.5 wk post-second Improvest dose), and 33 d (7.5 wk post-second Improvest dose) following the start of final diet treatments. Three carcasses per pen were selected for evaluation of cutting yields and loin quality. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS with fixed effects of sex, diet, market group, and their interaction; carcass (N = 285) was the experimental unit. Carcasses from RAC-fed pigs were heavier (P 0.05) between RAC-fed and control-fed carcasses when evaluating LM color, marbling, firmness, pH, drip loss, and tenderness. Carcasses from IC pigs had greater (P < 0.05) boneless lean yields, bone-in lean yields, and total carcass cutting yields than PC carcasses. There were minimal differences (P < 0.05) in LM marbling, firmness, composition, and tenderness between PC and IC pigs. There was an interaction (P = 0.03) between sex and diet for LM composition. Control-fed PC loins had more (P < 0.01) lipid than all other treatment combinations. Market group had effects (P < 0.05) on carcass cutting yields, LM color, marbling and firmness scores, pH, purge loss, composition, and tenderness. The results from this study indicated RAC and immunological castration were additive in terms of improving carcass cutting yields while having minimal effects on pork quality.

  14. Performance, carcass and meat quality of pigs fed diets with antioxidants and ractopamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Abrami Monteiro Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was evaluated the effects of the use of additives antioxidants associated or not with ractopamine in feed for finishing pigs. Were used 51 crossbred pigs, 27 barrows and 24 females with initial weight of 83.38 kg. Three experimental treatments were established based on the inclusion of two complexes to feed: complex 1 (4g de vitamin E + 1g de vitamin C/kg of product and complex 2 (0.2g de ractopamine + 4g de vitamin E + 2g de vitamin C/kg of product, defining the ration control (free of complexes, ration control + complex 1 (0.1% and ration control + complex 2 (0.05%. The experimental design was blocked randomically, presenting a factorial model 3x2 (3 treatments and 2 sexes. Were observed difference (P<0.05 for daily feed intake, feed, hot and cold carcass weight to the treatment with ractopamine. The values of vitamin E in meat were higher (P <0.05 in muscle of animals in groups receiving the vitamin. There was a difference (P <0.05 in the values of oxidation and marbling in the treatments with antioxidant. The inclusion of ractopamine, with the antioxidants, resulted in improvement in performance and carcass characteristics, and supplementation with the antioxidant, alone, showed improvement in parameters related to meat quality

  15. Inclusion of bilberry pomace in rabbit diets: Effects on carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbou, Sihem; Gai, Francesco; Renna, Manuela; Rotolo, Luca; Dabbou, Samia; Lussiana, Carola; Kovitvadhi, Attawit; Brugiapaglia, Alberto; De Marco, Michele; Helal, Ahmed Noureddine; Zoccarato, Ivo; Gasco, Laura

    2017-02-01

    A trial was performed to evaluate bilberry pomace (BP) as alternative source of nutrients for rabbits. One hundred and forty-four Grimaud weaned rabbits were divided into 4 groups of 36 animals each and fed ad libitum with a basal diet (BP0) tested against three assay diets developed by substituting 50, 100 and 150g/kg of the BP0 diet with BP (BP5, BP10 and BP15 diets, respectively). Carcass characteristics of rabbits were not affected by treatment, with the exception of liver weight. Dietary inclusion of BP did not affect proximate composition and oxidative status of longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle. Dietary BP significantly ameliorated, in the same muscle, the nutritional quality and health properties of fat. Consumer acceptance of cooked rabbit meat was not significantly affected by treatment. In conclusion, BP can be included in rabbit diets to improve the lipid composition of meat, without adverse effects on carcass characteristics, other physico-chemical properties, oxidative status and meat sensorial traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Carcass and meat quality of Gokceada Goat kids reared under extensive and semi-intensive production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Mustafa; Yalcintan, Hulya; Tölü, Cemil; Ekiz, Bulent; Yilmaz, Alper; Savaş, Türker

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the carcass and meat quality characteristics of male and female Gokceada Goat kids produced in extensive (n=20) and semi-intensive (n=20) systems. In extensive and semi-intensive produced kids pre-slaughter weights were 17.44 and 12.51 kg; cold carcass weights were 8.66 and 5.35 kg and cold dressing percentages were 54.9 and 49.28%, respectively. The effect of kid sex was not significant on hot and cold dressing percentages, back fat thickness, M. longissimus dorsi section area, carcass fatness and conformation scores, and carcass measurements, while female kids had higher omental and mesenteric fat and kidney knob and channel fat percentages than male kids. Extensive produced kids had lower meat lightness. Panellists evaluated extensive system kids with higher scores of kid odour intensity, flavour intensity and overall acceptability. It was concluded that it would be more appropriate to use an extensive system in Gokceada Goat breeding for kid meat production. © 2013.

  17. Carcass and meat quality traits of Iberian pig as affected by sex and crossbreeding with different Duroc genetic lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Robina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 144 pigs were used to study the effects of sex (barrows or gilts and terminal sire line (Iberian or three genetic lines of Duroc: Duroc 1, Duroc 2 and Duroc 3 on performance and carcass and meat quality traits. Gilts showed slightly lower average daily gain, shoulder weight and trimming losses, but slightly better primal cuts yields and higher loin weight, while there was no significant effect of sex on meat quality traits or on the fatty acid composition of lard and muscle. There were important differences in performance and in carcass and primal cuts quality traits between pure Iberian pigs and all Iberian × Duroc crossbreeds evaluated, partly due to the lower slaughter weights reached by the formers. The different sire lines showed differences in several traits; Duroc 1 group showed lower backfat thickness and ham and shoulder trimming losses, and higher primal cut yields than Duroc 2 and Duroc 3 groups. Intramuscular fat (IMF content remained unaffected by crossbreeding, but meat color resulted more intense and redder in crosses from the Duroc 1 sire line. The accumulation of fatty acids in lard was not affected by Duroc sire line, while animals of the group Duroc 2 showed higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acid and lower of polyunsaturated ones in IMF. These results highlight the importance of considering not only performance, but also carcass and meat quality traits when deciding the Duroc sire line for crossbreeding in Iberian pig production.

  18. INFLUENCE OF FEEDING ON CARCASS QUALITY OF PIGS ON FAMILY FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petričević

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This study involved 30 carcasses of Hypor ABCD – Euribrid pigs divided into two groups (A and B, 15 pigs each (8 females and 7 males. Pigs from group A were fattened in very good environmental conditions and fed by a high quality diet containing 16,5% proteins during the whole fattening period; pigs from group B were fattenend in old barns, significantly worse environment with low hygienic conditions and fed by usual home made diets (frequently from low quality and unreliable components-especially corn. Crude protein level untill reaching approximately 60 kg was 16.0% (ST-1, and by the end of the fattenig 14.0% (ST-2. After slaughtering, cooled carcasses were dissected (according to Weniger et al., 1963. Statistically significant differences (P<0.01 were found between muscle tissue shares in carcasses from group A (57.54% and group B (54.29% by dissection and separation into main tissues. The (P<0.01 differences in shares of muscle and fatty tissues were also found in some individual parts of the carcass (ham, loins and shoulder. Meat quality traits (pH1, pH2, W.h.c. and color and chemical composition of muscle and fat, according to calculated means, are within boundaries for «normal» meat in all carcasses involved in the research.

  19. The variation in the eating quality of beef from different sexes and breed classes cannot be completely explained by carcass measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Hocquette, J-F; Pethick, D W; Farmer, L J; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Polkinghorne, R J; Gardner, G E

    2016-06-01

    Delivering beef of consistent quality to the consumer is vital for consumer satisfaction and will help to ensure demand and therefore profitability within the beef industry. In Australia, this is being tackled with Meat Standards Australia (MSA), which uses carcass traits and processing factors to deliver an individual eating quality guarantee to the consumer for 135 different 'cut by cooking methods' from each carcass. The carcass traits used in the MSA model, such as ossification score, carcass weight and marbling explain the majority of the differences between breeds and sexes. Therefore, it was expected that the model would predict with eating quality of bulls and dairy breeds with good accuracy. In total, 8128 muscle samples from 482 carcasses from France, Poland, Ireland and Northern Ireland were MSA graded at slaughter then evaluated for tenderness, juiciness, flavour liking and overall liking by untrained consumers, according to MSA protocols. The scores were weighted (0.3, 0.1, 0.3, 0.3) and combined to form a global eating quality (meat quality (MQ4)) score. The carcasses were grouped into one of the three breed categories: beef breeds, dairy breeds and crosses. The difference between the actual and the MSA-predicted MQ4 scores were analysed using a linear mixed effects model including fixed effects for carcass hang method, cook type, muscle type, sex, country, breed category and postmortem ageing period, and random terms for animal identification, consumer country and kill group. Bulls had lower MQ4 scores than steers and females and were predicted less accurately by the MSA model. Beef breeds had lower eating quality scores than dairy breeds and crosses for five out of the 16 muscles tested. Beef breeds were also over predicted in comparison with the cross and dairy breeds for six out of the 16 muscles tested. Therefore, even after accounting for differences in carcass traits, bulls still differ in eating quality when compared with females and steers

  20. Dietary supplementation with arginine and glutamic acid modifies growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C J; Jiang, Q Y; Zhang, T; Yin, Y L; Li, F N; Deng, J P; Wu, G Y; Kong, X F

    2017-06-01

    Sixty Duroc × Large White × Landrace pigs with an average initial BW of 77.1 ± 1.3 kg were used to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with arginine and glutamic acid on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs. The animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups (12 pigs/group, male:female ratio 1:1). The pigs in the control group were fed a basal diet (basal diet group), and those in the experimental groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2.05% -alanine (isonitrogenous group), 1.0% -arginine (Arg group), 1% glutamic acid + 1.44% -alanine (Glu group), or 1.0% -arginine + 1.0% glutamic acid (Arg+Glu group). After a 60-d period of supplementation, growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences ( > 0.05) in growth performance and carcass traits of the pigs in the Arg group relative to the basal diet group; however, the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and back fat showed a decrease ( 0.05) on the final BW, phase 2 ADFI, and average daily weight gain in pigs but decreased ( acid composition without affecting growth performance and s.c. fat in pigs, providing a novel strategy to enhance meat quality in growing-finishing pigs.

  1. Coherence of animal health, welfare and carcass quality in pork production chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Thorsten N; Piñeiro, Matilde; Schulze-Geisthövel, Sophia; Plattes, Susanne; Selhorst, Thomas; Petersen, Brigitte

    2013-11-01

    Aim of the study was to measure the potential impact of animal health and welfare on the carcass quality. 99 pigs under equal housing and feeding conditions were involved in the study. Effects of the immune system on carcass composition, meat quality and performance data of slaughter pigs became measureable by quantification of acute phase proteins (APP), haptoglobin (Hp) and pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP). The results were not significantly affected by gender or breed. The calculated correlations between chosen animal health indicators and carcass quality parameters prove an influence of health and welfare on performance, carcass composition and meat quality traits. The acute phase proteins could also be valuable as a predictive indicator for risk assessment in meat inspection, as increased Hp concentrations in slaughter blood indicate a 16 times higher risk for organ abnormalities and Pig-MAP concentrations above 0.7mg/ml a 10 times higher risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationships between carcass characteristics, meat quality, age and sex of free-ranging Alaskan reindeer: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Renecker, Teresa A.; Renecker, Lyle A.; Mallory, Frank F.

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-four reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) carcasses from male and female animals that ranged in age from calves to adults were purchased from Bering Sea Reindeer Products (BSRP), Nunivak Island, Alaska, USA. Preslaughter and abattoir procedures were observed and evaluated. Carcasses were split in half, weighed, and broke into wholesale primal cuts of chuck, rib, loin, and hindquarter. Each primal cut was weighed, boxed, and frozen. Each half carcass of primal cuts was later dissected into lean...

  3. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and dietary protein content on performance, carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cônsolo, N R B; Mesquita, B S; Rodriguez, F D; Rizzi, V G; Silva, L F P

    2016-03-01

    Ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) alters protein metabolism and improves growth performance in Bos taurus cattle with high carcass fat. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of RH, dietary CP and RH×CP interaction on performance, blood metabolites, carcass characteristics and meat quality of young Nellore bulls. A total of 48 bulls were randomly assigned to four treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The factors were two levels of dietary CP (100% and 120% of metabolizable protein requirement, defined as CP100 and CP120, respectively), and two levels of RH (0 and 300 mg/animal·per day). Treated animal received RH for the final 35 days before slaughter. Animals were weighed at the beginning of the feedlot period (day 63), at the beginning of ractopamine supplementation (day 0), after 18 days of supplementation (day 18) and before slaughter (day 34). Animals were slaughtered and hot carcass weights recorded. After chilling, carcass data was collected and longissimus samples were obtained for determination of meat quality. The 9-11th rib section was removed for carcass composition analysis. Supplementation with RH increased ADG independently of dietary CP. There was a RH×CP interaction on dry matter intake (DMI), where RH reduced DMI at CP120, with no effect at CP100. Ractopamine improved feed efficiency, without RH×CP interaction. Ractopamine had no effect on plasma creatinine and urea concentration. Greater dietary CP tended to increase blood urea, and there was a RH×CP interaction for plasma total protein. Ractopamine supplementation increased plasma total protein at CP120, and had no effect at CP100. Ractopamine also decreased plasma glucose concentration at CP100, but had no effect at CP120. Ractopamine increased alkaline phosphatase activity at CP120 and had no effect at CP100. There was a tendency for RH to increase longissimus muscle area, independently of dietary CP. Ractopamine did not alter fat thickness; however, fat thickness was reduced by

  4. Effect of breed (wool and hair and sex on the carcass quality of suckling lambs under intensive management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Camacho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Carcasses of twenty lambs (10 males and 10 females from the Canaria Hair breed (CHB and another twenty (10 males and 10 females from the Canaria breed (CB of 9.91±0.73 kg and 9.87±0.80 kg live weight, respectively, were studied. In the principal component (PC analysis, the projection of carcass measurement data in the first PC allowed for clearly distinguishing between CB and CHB. In the analysis of variance, breed effect was observed in the morphology of the carcass: CB lambs showed the longest carcasses and CHB lambs showed the widest carcasses. Due to their wider rump and shorter legs, CHB lambs presented a more compact leg index. The carcasses from Canaria lambs had the highest fat score, the heaviest shoulder and the highest total fat percentage. The carcasses from CHB lambs showed a higher lean percentage. The carcass yield, conformation, degree of fatness and tissue composition were similar in both sexes. However, significant differences in the commercial cut yield were observed: males showed heavier shoulders than females. The effect of sex on carcass quality is unimportant. The breeds are different in important characteristics for the market, such as fatness. This fact is of significant interest because it diversifies the offer and means that different markets can be satisfied.

  5. Carcass characteristics and sensorial evaluation of meat from Nellore steers and crossbred Angus vs. Nellore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Cunha Barcellos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated animal performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 36-month old Nellore steers finished in pastures (n = 10 and 20-month old Angus vs. Nellore bulls finished in feedlot (n = 10. Final body weight, carcass weight, characteristics, conformation and fat thickness, were higher (p 0.05 throughout the ageing period for the Angus vs. Nellore bulls, but higher in meat from the Nellore steers (p 0.05 on meat a* value (redness. Likewise, ageing time had no effect on a* in both genetic groups, and genetic group had no effect (p > 0.05 on meat b* value (yellowness. On the other hand, b* was increased after day 7 of ageing for the bulls from the two genetic groups. Thawing and cooking losses were lower for Nellore steers after day 7 of aging (p 0.05 on lipid oxidation; however, lipid oxidation increased after day7. Meat from Nellore steers contained a higher percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, a lower percentage of unsaturated (UFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and a similar percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA than the meat from Angus vs. Nellore bulls. Intramuscular fat from Nellore steers had a more favourable n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio than that from Angus vs. Nellore bulls (4.37 vs. 11.45, respectively. Tenderness, flavour and overall acceptability were higher (p < 0.001 for meats of the Nellore steers, regardless of ageing time (1, 4, 7 and 14 days.

  6. The capability of alfalfa grazing- and concentrate-based feeding systems to produce homogeneous carcass quality in light lambs over time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripoll, G.; Alvarez-Rodriguez, J.; Sanz, A.; Joy, M.

    2014-06-01

    The effects of grazing on the carcasses and meat of light lambs are unclear, mainly due to variations in weather conditions and pasture production, which affect the growth of lambs and the quality of their carcasses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding systems, which varied in intensification due to the use of concentrate, on the growth and carcass traits of light lambs and the capability of these feeding systems to produce homogeneous lamb carcasses over the course of several years. The average daily weight gain of grazing lambs, but not lambs fed indoors was affected over years. The colour of the Rectus abdominis muscle and the amount of fat were more variable in grazing lambs (from 2.7 to 6.3) than indoor lambs (from 4.5 to 5.1). Grazing feeding systems without concentrate supplementation are more dependent than indoor feeding systems on the year. This climatologic dependence could lead to slaughter of older grazing lambs (77 days) to achieve the target slaughter weight when temperatures are low or the rainfall great. All feeding systems evaluated produced light lambs carcasses with a conformation score from O to R that is required by the market. Even the potential change in fat colour found in both grazing treatments was not enough to change the subjective evaluation of fat colour. (Author)

  7. Evaluation of carcass performance of Matebele goats managed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    users

    scale goat production which supply the informal market is the unavailability of records to determine the age of animals for .... This indicates probably that the lean carcass can be obtained when goats have less than four .... differences in production systems (i.e. range vs. intensive) (Johnson and Mc Gowan, 1998). The DP for.

  8. Evaluation of the growth performance, carcass characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of Fermented Mucuna Sloanei Meal (FMSM) on growth, carcass characteristics and blood indices of finisher broilers. Fermented Mucuna Sloanei seeds were processed into meal and analyzed for proximate and phytochemical compositions. The meal was then used to ...

  9. The effect of production system (barn and free-range), slaughtering age and gender on carcass traits and meat quality of partridges (Alectoris chukar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamak, U S; Sarica, M; Boz, M A; Ucar, A

    2016-04-01

    1. A total of 400 Alectoris chukar partridges were reared in either barn or free-range production systems and slaughtered at 14, 16 or 18 weeks of age in order to determine the effects of production system, age and gender on carcass traits (live weight, carcass weight, carcass yield, carcass part and edible inner organ percentages at slaughtering) and meat quality (L*, a* and b* meat colour and pH). 2. Production system had a significant effect on both slaughter traits and meat quality. 3. Partridges raised in barn conditions had higher live weights and carcass weights whereas meat quality was better in birds raised in the free-range system.

  10. SHARE AND QUALITY OF MUSCLE TISSUE IN CARCASSES OF PIGS PRODUCED ON FAMILY FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antun Petričević

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 60 pig carcasses were included, divided in 2 groups according to breed (1st=SLxGL; 2nd=SL, and within groups according to sex (gilts F1=15 and F2=14; male castrates M1=17 and M2=14. Pigs were produced on family farm and fattened in same conditions. Primary processed and cooled carcasses were cut according to “Kulmbach” method (CAC/79. The main parts of the carcasses were dissected on tissues (muscle, fat and bones and share of lean meat was determined for carcasses and for individual cuts. Muscle tissue share in the carcasses was higher in gilts from 1st and 2nd group (F1=53.93%; F2=51.77% than in male castrates from both groups (M1=50.13%; M2=49.90% and regardless the sex it was higher in SL x GL crossbreds (1st group than in SL breed (2nd group. Statisticaly significant differences (P<0.05 were found only in case of loins between gilts and castrates from 1st group (F1=9.58%; M1=8.30% and between castrates of the 1st group and gilts from 2nd group (M1=8.30% i F2=9.57%. Mean values of meat quality indicators were mainly within normal boundaries; the only statistically significant difference (P<0.05 was established for meat color between F1 and F2 group.

  11. Influence of sunflower cake supplementation on Marchigiana carcass and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Federica Trombetta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a sunflower cake supplement on the quantity and quality parameters of Marchigiana carcasses and meat were assessed. Live-animal and post-mortem performances were not significantly different in the animals receiving the supplement, whereas significant differences were noted in conformation and fatness. The colour parameters were also influenced by the diet, which resulted in a more brilliant red colour, greatly appreciated by consumers, in the subjects fed sunflower cake.

  12. Identification of Biomarkers Associated with the Rearing Practices, Carcass Characteristics, and Beef Quality: An Integrative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Monteils, Valérie; Couvreur, Sébastien; Picard, Brigitte

    2017-09-20

    Data from birth to slaughter of cull cows allowed using a PCA-based approach coupled with the iterative K-means algorithm the identification of three rearing practices classes. The classes were different in their carcass characteristics. Old cows raised mainly on pasture have better carcass characteristics, while having an equivalent tenderness, juiciness, flavor, intramuscular fat content, and pHu to those fattened with hay or haylage. The Longissimus thoracis muscle of the cows raised on pasture (with high physical activity) showed greater proportions of IIA fibers at the expense of the fast IIX ones. Accordingly, the meat of these animals have better color characteristics. Superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and αB-crystallin quantified by Dot-Blot were the only other biomarkers to be more abundant in "Grass" class compared to "Hay" and "Haylage" classes. The relationships between the biomarkers and the 6 carcass and 11 meat quality traits were investigated using multiple regression analyses per rearing practices. The associations were rearing practice class and phenotype trait-dependent. ICDH and TP53 were common for the three classes, but the direction of their entrance was different. In addition, rearing practices and carcass traits were not related with Hsp70-Grp75 and μ-calpain abundances. The other relationships were specific for two or one rearing practices class. The rearing practices dependency of the relationships was also found with meat quality traits. Certain proteins were for the first time related with some beef quality traits. MyHC-IIx, PGM1, Hsp40, ICDH, and Hsp70-Grp75 were common for the three rearing practices classes and retained to explain at list one beef quality trait. A positive relationship was found between PGM1 and hue angle irrespective of rearing practices class. This study confirms once again that production-related traits in livestock are the result of sophisticated biological processes finely orchestrated during the life of the animal

  13. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Aberdeen Angus steers finished on different pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Devincenzi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to assess carcass features, physicochemical and sensory parameters of meat from steers finished on three types of pastures: natural pasture; natural pasture improved, fertilized and oversown with winter species; and annual summer grassland. The experiment was conducted from December 14, 2009 to November 30, 2010, with treatments distributed in a completely randomized design with a different number of replicates. Animals were used as experimental units. Experimental animals were Aberdeen Angus steers with twenty months of initial age and 354±27.4 kg of live weight, on average. The highest average daily gains were obtained for the annual summer grassland. There was no effect of treatments on carcass conformation. The highest carcass yield was obtained on the improved natural pasture. Forequarter yield, side cut yield and longissimus muscle area were similar between the pastures. Moisture and total lipids were not affected by the pasture. Thawing and cooking losses were higher in improved natural pasture and lower in sorghum pasture. Regardless of the treatment, the meat had luminosity ranging from intermediate to dark, high in red, high in yellow, and considered within the normal range for beef. Meat of higher shear force was found in natural pasture, and lower shear force was observed in meat from annual summer grassland. Average live weight daily gain explained 18% of the shear force. Sensory evaluation by duo-trio test showed differences between samples from distinct pastures in flavor. All the studied systems allow for desirable characteristics in carcass and meat.

  14. Carcass yield and meat quality in broilers fed with canola meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinger, E; Xavier, E G; Lemes, J S; Moraes, P O; Elias, M C; Roll, V F B

    2014-01-01

    1. This study evaluated the effects of canola meal in broiler diets on carcass yield, carcass composition, and instrumental and sensory analyses of meat. 2. A total of 320 one-day-old Cobb broilers were used in a 35-d experiment using a completely randomised design with 5 concentrations of canola meal (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%) as a dietary substitute for soya bean meal. 3. Polynomial regression at 5% significance was used to evaluate the effects of canola meal content. The following variables were measured: carcass yield, chemical composition of meat, and instrumental and sensorial analyses. 4. The results showed that carcass yield exhibited a quadratic effect that was crescent to the level of 18% of canola meal based on the weight of the leg and a quadratic increase at concentrations up to 8.4% of canola meal based on the weight of the chest. The yield of the chest exhibited a linear behaviour. 5. The chemical composition of leg meat, instrumental analysis of breast meat and sensory characteristics of the breast meat was not significantly affected by the inclusion of canola meal. The chemical composition of the breast meat exhibited an increased linear effect in terms of dry matter and ether extract and a decreased linear behaviour in terms of the ash content. 6. In conclusion, soya bean meal can be substituted with canola meal at concentrations up to 20% of the total diet without affecting carcass yield, composition of meat or the instrumental or sensory characteristics of the meat of broilers.

  15. Effect of mixed hay supplementation during fattening on carcass traits and meat quality of Hanwoo steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicky Tri Utama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was aim to observe the effects of feeding mixed local hay (MH consisted of 55% orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L., 35% tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea and 10% red clover (Trifolium pratense to Hanwoo steers on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality (longissimus thoracis compared with feeding imported timothy hay (TH and local rice straw (RS. Results Although no significant effects were found on animal performance and carcass yield grade, the carcasses of MH group had higher marbling score and quality grade than those of RS and TH group (P < 0.05. Therefore, higher fat content (P < 0.001, lower shear force and hardness value in the beef of MH group than that of other groups were observed. Furthermore, the beef of MH group had higher CIE a* value (redness than that of other groups and feeding MH to Hanwoo steers lowered n-6 to n-3 fatty acids ratio in beef. Conclusions Mixed hay provided benefits on meat quality and could be used for Hanwoo fattening program.

  16. National Beef Quality Audit-2000: survey of targeted cattle and carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, and value of fed steers and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, D R; Roebert, D L; Bates, P K; Schmidt, T B; Hale, D S; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W; Brooks, J C; Morgan, J B; Montgomery, T H; Belk, K E; Smith, G C

    2002-05-01

    The National Beef Quality Audit-2000 was conducted to assess the current status ofthe quality and consistency of U.S. fed steers and heifers. Between May and November 2000, survey teams assessed hide condition (n = 43,415 cattle for color, brands, mud/manure), bruises (n = 43,595 carcasses), offal and carcass condemnation (n = 8,588 cattle), and carcass quality and yield information (n = 9,396 carcasses) in 30 U.S. beef packing plants. Hide colors were black (45.1%), red (31.0%), yellow (8.0%), Holstein (5.7%), gray (4.0%), white (3.2%), brown (1.7%), and brindle (1.3%). Brand frequencies were no (49.3%), one (46.2%), and two or more (4.4%), and brands were located on the butt (36.3%), side (13.7%), and shoulder (3.6%). Most cattle had no (18.0%) or a small amount (55.8%) of mud/manure on their hides, and they had no (77.3%) horns. Most carcasses (53.3%) were not bruised, 30.9% had one bruise, and 15.8% had multiple bruises. Bruise location and incidence were round (14.9%), loin (25.9%), rib (19.4%), chuck (28.2%), and brisket, flank, and plate (11.6%). Condemnation item and incidence were liver (30.3%), lungs (13.8%), tripe (11.6%), heads (6.2%), tongues (7.0%), and carcasses (0.1%). Carcass evaluation revealed these traits and frequencies: steer (67.9%), heifer (31.8%), and bullock (0.3%) sex-classes; dark-cutters (2.3%); A (96.6%), B (2.5%), and C or older (0.9%) overall maturities; and native (90.1%), dairy-type (6.9%), and Bos indicus (3.0%) breed-types. Mean USDA yield grade traits were USDA yield grade (3.0), carcass weight (356.9 kg), adjusted fat thickness (1.2 cm), longissimus muscle area (84.5 cm2), and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (2.4%). USDA yield grades were Yield Grade 1 (12.2%), Yield Grade 2 (37.4%), Yield Grade 3 (38.6%), Yield Grade 4 (10.4%), and Yield Grade 5 (1.3%). Mean USDA quality grade traits were USDA quality grade (Select85), marbling score (Small23), overall maturity (A66), lean maturity (A65), and skeletal maturity (A67). Marbling

  17. Performance, carcass traits, meat quality and amino acid profile of different Japanese quails strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Mohammed A F; Ali, El-Shimaa M R; Hussein, Mohamed A

    2017-12-01

    Poultry production is considered one of the prospective opportunities to accomplish sustainable and quick production of superior protein to challenge the growing mandate for animal protein. Therefore, this study was aimed to explore the difference on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and amino acid profile of different Japanese quails strains. A total of 480 quail chicks of four different plumage colors (120 of each white, golden, gray and brown) were collected after hatching. At 6 week of age, birds were stunned and decapitated to determine the physical meat quality, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and amino acid profile. White quails had the highest weight of slaughter, carcass, dressing, carcass yield, liver, gizzard, heart and spleen (197.27 g, 169.27 g, 91%, 82%, 6.63 g, 6.53 g, 2.27 g and 0.40 g, respectively). Also, they had the highest Ph U , lightness, yellowness and water holding capacity with the lowest level of redness, cooking losses and thiobarbituric acid in pectoral (6.28, 46.40, 12,46, 22.17, 9.20, 19.21 and 0.44, respectively) and thigh muscles (6.37, 42.30, 11.51, 26.01, 10.12 and 0.93, respectively). Moreover, they possessed the highest level of all essential (11.68 and 10.16 g/100 g protein in pectoral and thigh muscles, respectively) and non essential amino acids (13.27 and 12.54 g/100 g protein in pectoral and thigh muscles, respectively). Therefore, the current study revealed that white quails had the heaviest body weight with the best carcass traits and meat quality.

  18. National Beef Quality Audit-2016: In-plant survey of carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, and value of fed steers and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, C A; Eastwood, L C; Harris, M K; Hale, D S; Kerth, C R; Griffin, D B; Arnold, A N; Hasty, J D; Belk, K E; Woerner, D R; Delmore, R J; Martin, J N; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Pfeiffer, M M; Lawrence, T E; McEvers, T J; Schmidt, T B; Maddock, R J; Johnson, D D; Carr, C C; Scheffler, J M; Pringle, T D; Stelzleni, A M; Gottlieb, J; Savell, J W

    2017-07-01

    The National Beef Quality Audit (NBQA)-2016 used in-plant cooler assessments to benchmark the current status of the fed steer and heifer beef industry in the United States. In-plant cooler assessments ( = 9,106 carcasses) were conducted at 30 facilities, where approximately 10% of a single day's production were evaluated for USDA quality grade (QG) and yield grade (YG) factors. Frequencies of evaluated traits were 66.5% steer and 33.4% heifer sex classes and 82.9% native, 15.9% dairy-type, and 1.2% estimated breed types. Mean USDA YG factors were 1.42 cm for adjusted fat thickness, 89.5 cm for LM area, 390.3 kg for HCW, and 1.9% for KPH. Mean USDA YG was 3.1, with a frequency distribution of 9.6% YG 1, 36.7% YG 2, 39.2% YG 3, 12.0% YG 4, and 2.5% YG 5. Mean USDA QG traits were Small for marbling score, A for overall maturity, A55 for lean maturity, and A for skeletal maturity. Mean USDA QG was Select with a frequency distribution of QG of 3.8% Prime, 67.3% Choice, 23.2% Select, and 5.6% lower score. Lower score included dark cutter (1.9%), blood splash (0.1%), and hard bone, which are USDA overall maturity scores of C or older (1.8%). Marbling score distributions were 0.85% Slightly Abundant or greater, 7.63% Moderate, 23.54% Modest, 39.63% Small, 23.62% Slight, and 0.83% Traces or less. Carcasses that were Choice or Select and USDA YG 2 or 3 accounted for 70.7% of the carcasses evaluated. Compared with the previous NBQA, we found a numerical increase in mean USDA YG, USDA QG, adjusted fat thickness, HCW, LM area, and marbling score with an increase in dairy-type carcasses and percentage of carcasses grading USDA Prime and Choice as well as frequency of USDA YG 4 and 5. The findings from this study will be used by all segments of the industry to understand and improve the quality of fed steer and heifer beef that is being produced.

  19. HCl-ractopamine level addition on reproductive response, carcass characteristics and meat quality of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gerardo Ríos Rincón

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To determinate the effect of ractopamine hydrochloride (HCl-R in reproductive response, carcass characteristics, primary cuts yield and meat quality, 80 pork (Large White Landrace X Large White-Pietrain at end stage (Live weight 73.1 kg were feed during 31 days with an integral ration with 15.12% PC and 2.32 Mcal of ME/kg with different HCL-R levels (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20ppm. Pigs were randomly distributed in the different treatments. HCl-R inclusion had no effect on reproductive response and carcass weight. Rib eye area wee improved with 15 and 20 ppm HCL-R. HCL-R levels of 10 and 20 ppm increased red coloration. The pH24 and drip loss were also no affected. HCl-R in end stage pigs had no effect on reproductive response, but improved rib eye area, red coloration and leg weight.

  20. Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in an Embden×Toulouse Goose Cross Raised in Organic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Solé

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the influence of genetic type (Embden-Anser anser, EE; Toulouse-Anser anser, TT and F1 cross, ET for meat characteristics (carcass, meat quality and fatty acid (FA profiles, of domestic geese “Anser anser domesticus” raised in dehesa as an alternative, organic feeding system. Carcass and breast muscle weight (p<0.01 were greater for the ET group at the same live weight. None of the groups showed differences in the production of fatty liver with this type of feeding. Higher values were found for maximum Warner–Bratzler shear force (between 7.62 and 8.87 kg/cm2, which implies the improvement of this parameter. High levels of oleic FAs were obtained, especially for the TT group. The polyunsaturated/saturated FA ratio was highest for the ET group (p<0.001, reflecting the optimum nutritional values as a component of a healthy consumer diet.

  1. Efficiency of prebiotics and probiotics on the performance, yield, meat quality and presence of Salmonella spp in carcasses of free-range broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SE Takahashi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Two trials were carried out in the present study. Trial I evaluated the performance, carcass yield and breast meat quality, whereas Trial II evaluated the efficacy of utilizing prebiotics + probiotics on the control of Salmonella spp incidence in the carcasses of free-range broilers. In Trial I, 688 one-day-old male chicks of the Naked Neck Label Rouge strain were used, distributed in a randomized block design arranged according to a 2 x 2 factorial: control diet or diet supplemented with probiotics and prebiotics; and two rearing systems (confined or with access to paddocks - 3m²/bird, using four replicates with 35 birds each. The birds were reared until 84 days of age following the recommendations of management and nutrition for free-range strains, and had access to paddocks after 35 days of age. Water and food were given inside the experimental poultry house. Birds fed probiotics and prebiotics in the diet and the confined birds showed better performance, carcass yield and meat quality compared to the birds of the other treatments. In Trial II, 128 one-day-old male chicks of the free-range Naked Neck Label Rouge strain were used. The birds were distributed into four treatments: NCC (non-challenged control, NCS (non-challenged supplemented, CC (challenged control and CS (challenged supplemented. There were no significant effects of adding probiotics and prebiotics in the diet in regard to Salmonella enteritidis recovery from the carcasses.

  2. The interactive effects of transportation and lairage time on welfare indicators, carcass and meat quality traits in slaughter pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čobanović, N.; Vasilev, D.; Dimitrijević, M.; Teodorović, V.; Parunović, N.; Betić, N.; Karabasil, N.

    2017-09-01

    This study assessed the effects of transportation and lairage time and their interaction on welfare, carcass and meat quality traits in slaughter pigs under commercial conditions. The study was conducted on 120 pigs with a live weight of approximately 115 kg and about six months old. A complete blood picture was measured in pigs to assess pre-slaughter stress. Also, nine different carcass quality parameters including live weight, hot and cold carcass weights, cooling loss, dressing percentage, backfat thickness, meatiness and skin lesions score were measured. The pH and temperature measurements were performed 45 minutes post-mortem. The results showed that short transportation time and slaughtering without lairaging and long transportation time and overnight lairaging negatively influenced the hematological parameters, which meant that the animal welfare was seriously compromised under these pre-slaughter conditions. Long transportation time and overnight lairaging reduced live and carcass weights and increased the incidence of skin lesions on the carcass and DFD pork. In addition, short transportation time and slaughtering without lairaging caused a significant deterioration in pork quality. It can be concluded that, from the standpoint of animal welfare, carcass and meat quality, the above-mentioned pre-slaughter conditions are not recommended to the farmers and/or pork producers.

  3. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass characteristics in commercial crossbred pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Miar

    Full Text Available Genetic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass traits were estimated on 6,408 commercial crossbred pigs with performance traits recorded in production systems with 2,100 of them having meat quality and carcass measurements. Significant fixed effects (company, sex and batch, covariates (birth weight, cold carcass weight, and age, random effects (additive, litter and maternal were fitted in the statistical models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASREML to estimate heritability, phenotypic, and genetic correlations between performance traits (n = 9 with meat quality (n = 25 and carcass (n = 19 traits. The animals had a pedigree compromised of 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Performance traits had low-to-moderate heritabilities (±SE, ranged from 0.07±0.13 to 0.45±0.07 for weaning weight, and ultrasound backfat depth, respectively. Genetic correlations between performance and carcass traits were moderate to high. The results indicate that: (a selection for birth weight may increase drip loss, lightness of longissimus dorsi, and gluteus medius muscles but may reduce fat depth; (b selection for nursery weight can be valuable for increasing both quantity and quality traits; (c selection for increased daily gain may increase the carcass weight and most of the primal cuts. These findings suggest that deterioration of pork quality may have occurred over many generations through the selection for less backfat thickness, and feed efficiency, but selection for growth had no adverse effects on pork quality. Low-to-moderate heritabilities for performance traits indicate that they could be improved using traditional selection or genomic selection. The estimated genetic parameters for performance, carcass and meat quality traits may be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations.

  4. Ractopamine levels on performance, carcass characteristics and quality of pig meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Pospissil Garbossa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of ractopamine (RAC on the performance of finishing pigs and the meat quality of these animals. Seventy crossbred pigs (35 barrows and 35 females selected for high gain of lean meat, with initial weight of 77.1±0.32 kg were distributed in randomized blocks with five treatments (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 ppm RAC in the diet and seven replications during 28 days. The experimental unit was represented by a male and a female pig. Regarding the performance variables, there was a linear increase in final weight with increasing levels of RAC, as well as in average daily weight gain. An improvement in feed conversion was observed for animals fed RAC, and the optimal level - estimated by the LRP model - was ~ 5 ppm. For feed intake, no significant effect on intake of digestible lysine and energy intake was observed. Carcass yield responses increased linearly with the RAC dose. Ash content, color component b* and loss drip linearly decreased with increasing doses of RAC. There was also a significant difference in the percentage of ether extract and crude protein in the loin, and treatment with 20 ppm RAC showed a lower amount of protein and larger amounts of lipids. Moisture content, color component L*, weight loss by cooking and defrosting, shear force and pH were not affected by the treatment. Concerning the lipid oxidation, there was no effect of RAC on the concentration of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances under cooling and under freezing. Thus, all ractopamine levels improve performance compared with control and do not negatively affect the quality of fresh, chilled or frozen pig meat.

  5. Effect of crowding stress on growth performance and carcass quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation of the effect of crowding stress on growth performance of juvenile Clarias gariepinus fed varying crude protein levels might be useful in determining the optimal stocking density in relation to optimal dietary crude protein level and consequently better growth performance. The effect of crowding stress on ...

  6. Polymorphisms in Epigenetic and Meat Quality Related Genes in Fourteen Cattle Breeds and Association with Beef Quality and Carcass Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5 and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3 on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (pG of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05. The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP15 in CAPN1 could be

  7. Performance and carcass quality of broiler chickens fed diet containing pineapple waste meal fermented by “ragi tape”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandey, J. S.; Tulung, B.; Leke, J. R.; Sondakh, B. F. J.

    2018-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of pineapple waste meal fermented by “ragi tape” (FPW) in diets on the performance and carcass quality of broilers. The “ragi tape” was a traditional commercial product of yeast. Five dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% levels of FPW with four replicates were fed to 250 broiler chickens for 42 days in a completely randomized design. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. The variables were performance parameters and carcass quality. Results showed that the performance in finisher, carcass percentage and abdominal fat percentage were significantly affected by dietary treatments. Carcass percentage and abdominal fat percentage were significantly decrease in the proportion of 20% of FPW. However, the carcass percentage in treatments R0 - R4 were still in a good category. The higher the levels of FPW the lower the abdominal fat percentage signed that FPW treatments up to 20% resulted good category of broiler carcass. Income over feed cost and broiler cost analysis in 20% FPW treatment obtained the highest income and the lowest was 0% FPW treatment. It can be concluded that FPW can be fed to broiler chickens at up to 20% level.

  8. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing bulls fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Chaves Françozo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of Longissimusmuscle (LM of the bulls. Twenty-four Nellore bulls were used in a complete randomised design. The bulls were randomly assigned to one of the three diets containing 0, 5 or 12% glycerin. Final BW and ADG were similar (P>0.05 between the bulls fed with 5 or 12% of glycerin but were higher (P0.05 by glycerin level. Hot carcass weight increased (P0.05 the conformation, colour, texture, marbling and pH. There was difference (P>0.05 for moisture, ashes and crude protein among glycerin levels. Bulls fed 12% glycerin present the highest (P<0.03 total lipids on LM. The percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, monounsaturated acids (MUFA, polyunsaturated acids (PUFA, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and PUFA/SFA and n-6:n-3 ratios of the LM were similar among the diets. In conclusion, glycerin level did not affect the animal performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot.

  9. The effect of journey time and stocking density during transport on carcass and meat quality in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Lamberto; Vignola, Giorgio; Badiani, Anna; Zaghini, Giuliano; Formigoni, Andrea

    2006-04-01

    Four hundred and fifty hybrid commercial rabbits (half males and half females) at the end of their productive cycle (82 days old) were transported in cages (98×52×24cm, length×width×height) at high or low density (75.5 or 49.0kg/m(2) - 15 or 10 animals per cage) on an uncovered truck for 1, 2 or 4h. Live weight before and after transport as well as slaughter data were recorded for each rabbit. A subset of 180 carcasses were evaluated for meat quality on the basis of meat pH, colour (CIELab system), cooking loss, drip loss and shear force. As a representative of the whole carcass muscle/bone ratio, the left hind leg was separated, dissected and its meat analysed in order to determine its water, protein, ash and lipid content. It was found that a longer journey significantly increases the live weight losses (3.3% vs. 2.0% vs. 1.6% for 4, 2 or 1h, respectively; Pmeat from animals that had undergone the longest journey was more purple-red (Praw and showed less cooking loss than meat from those that underwent shorter journeys. Transport density did not influence any of the considered parameters and there was no interaction between transport time and density.

  10. Mapping carcass and meat quality QTL on Sus Scrofa chromosome 2 in commercial finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Kampen Tony A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting carcass and meat quality located on SSC2 were identified using variance component methods. A large number of traits involved in meat and carcass quality was detected in a commercial crossbred population: 1855 pigs sired by 17 boars from a synthetic line, which where homozygous (A/A for IGF2. Using combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium mapping (LDLA, several QTL significantly affecting loin muscle mass, ham weight and ham muscles (outer ham and knuckle ham and meat quality traits, such as Minolta-L* and -b*, ultimate pH and Japanese colour score were detected. These results agreed well with previous QTL-studies involving SSC2. Since our study is carried out on crossbreds, different QTL may be segregating in the parental lines. To address this question, we compared models with a single QTL-variance component with models allowing for separate sire and dam QTL-variance components. The same QTL were identified using a single QTL variance component model compared to a model allowing for separate variances with minor differences with respect to QTL location. However, the variance component method made it possible to detect QTL segregating in the paternal line (e.g. HAMB, the maternal lines (e.g. Ham or in both (e.g. pHu. Combining association and linkage information among haplotypes improved slightly the significance of the QTL compared to an analysis using linkage information only.

  11. Carcass treatments for improved meat quality (In Swedish with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Meat quality is a term that includes many different aspects like e.g. safety, ethics, nutrition, taste and functionality. What is regarded as most important is mainly related to where a person is placed in the chain from production to consumption. Along this chain are also many factors that influence the quality of meat. By measuring the pH value of meat it is possible to get good information about shelf life, tenderness, colour and water-holding capacity. Meat pH also gives an indication to whether the animals have been exposed to stress prior to slaughter or not. Good pastures and supplementary feeding using grain-based feed mixtures have been demonstrated to increase the energy stores in the animals' muscles and therefore have a positive effect on pH values in venison. What the animals had been eating prior to slaughter also affected the fat composition and meat flavour. Meat from animals grazing pasture had more polyunsaturated fatty acids and a "wild" flavour compared with meat from animals fed grain-based pellets. It is possible to change the fat composition in a commercial grain-based feed mixture, without altering the protein or energy content, so that the fat composition mimic that of a natural pasture. Pelvic suspension of a carcass will stretch the muscles in valuable cuts and improve the tenderness of the meat. In fallow deer carcasses the tenderness was improved in several meat cuts and in addition the water-holding capacity of the meat increased after pelvic suspension. Electrical stimulation of the carcass quickly empties the energy stores in the muscles and accelerates the onset of rigor mortis. In red deer venison electrical stimulation accelerated the rate of meat tenderisation, but this benefit was lost after approx. 3 weeks of ageing (-1.5 °C. A study from Alaska demonstrated no effects of electrical stimulation of reindeer carcasses on meat tenderness or water-holding capacity. We recommend further studies of pelvic

  12. The impact of cooling methods on microbiological quality of broiler carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Popelka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare two chilling methods, combined (aerosol and water chilling, in terms of their effectiveness in chilling of different weight categories of broiler chickens. At the same time microbial associations of different weight categories of broiler chickens were evaluated. Samples were collected in an approved establishment and poultry carcasses were divided according to weight and chilling methods into five categories. The first four categories were chilled using combined chilling method and fifth category was chilled with water. The temperature of the breast muscle before and after chilling and microbiological parameters (total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella was measured. By comparing the temperature of the breast muscle after combined chilling method was not achieved in the breast muscles temperature below 4 °C in all weight categories. In any case, the lowest average temperature has been reached in the weight category <1.2 kg (4.9 °C and with increasing weight, the average temperature was rising, and the highest was in weight category 1.8 to 2.5 kg (10.8 °C. Poultry carcasses were subsequently divided into portions and after cutting were chilled up to a temperature below 4 °C. In poultry carcasses chilled by water, the average temperature of the breast muscle after 20 minutes in the water bath was even higher (19.6 °C compared to combine chilling. Thus chilled poultry carcasses were frozen up to -18 °C in a core of muscles. Comparing the microbiological contamination in different weight categories and chilling techniques, we found that the lowest total viable count (TVC before and after chilling was in the lowest category and the difference before chilling was significantly lower comparing with all other categories. Conversely TVC after chilling by water was decreased. In comparing the number of Enterobacteriaceae before and after chilling, a similar pattern of contamination as above was found

  13. Effects of growth rate on carcass and meat quality traits and their association with metabolism-related gene expression in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxin; Guo, Jia; Kim, JinSoo; Wang, Myeonghyeon; Chae, Byungjo

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different growth rates on carcass characteristics and meat quality and their relationship with myogenesis and lipogenesis in finishing pigs. Pigs were slaughtered at the same age and were assigned to high (HGR) or low (LGR) growth rates with 120 kg or 110 kg final body weights at slaughter. The results indicated that pigs with HGR had heavier (P malic enzyme, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 in fat were higher (P lipogenesis traits of pigs with different growth rates; these differences in turn might have affected carcass characteristics and meat quality. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Effects of ractopamine and arginine dietary supplementation for sows on growth performance and carcass quality of their progenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbossa, C A P; Carvalho Júnior, F M; Silveira, H; Faria, P B; Schinckel, A P; Abreu, M L T; Cantarelli, V S

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ractopamine (Rac) and Arg fed to pregnant sows from d 25 to 53 of gestation on fetal muscle development as well as the performance and carcass characteristics of the progeny. One hundred sows were divided into 4 treatments including a control diet, the control plus 1% Arg, the control plus 20 mg/kg Rac, and the control diet supplemented with both additives at the same levels as those used separately. During the farrowing process the data evaluated were the weight of placenta to calculate the placental efficiency and the number of piglets born alive, stillborn, and mummified. To evaluate the fiber number and area, 12 male piglets from each treatment were euthanized to harvest semitendinosus muscle. During the lactation, the preweaning mortality, weaned weights, and number of piglets weaned per litter were evaluated. After weaning, the pig performance was evaluated until the slaughter following the sow treatment. At end of finishing phase, 1 male pig of each treatment replicate was selected to evaluation the carcass and pork quality. All variables measured were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS and least squares means were compared using the Tukey test with P ractopamine HCl from d 25 to 53 of gestation (Arg+Rac) treatment had a greater number of stillborn piglets (P = 0.014) than the control group. Piglet birth weights from sows fed Rac were 11% greater (P = 0.031) than those of piglets of the control treatment. The semitendinosus muscle fiber diameters of piglets at birth from sows that received Arg, Rac, and Arg+Rac were greater (P combination of both compounds did not have an additive effect in comparison with the control treatment but increased the stillbirth number.

  15. Do extended transport times and rest periods impact on eating quality of beef carcasses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorne, Rod; Philpott, Judy; Thompson, J M

    2018-02-24

    The experiment tested the effect of four extended transport treatments on sensory and objective meat quality in beef. A total of 343 steers (88 steers from each of three properties and 79 from a fourth property) were allocated to four treatments including a 12 hour transport time (T12), 24 hour transport time (T24), 24 h as 12 hour transport time, a 12 hour rest, with a further 12 hour transport (T12 ~ T12), 36 hour transport treatment (T36). Within property departure times of treatments were staggered to arrive at the abattoir together. There were no significant transport effects (P > .05) on live animal, carcass traits, consumer sensory scores, and objective meat quality of the longissimus lumborum. There was large between property variation in the proportions of carcasses excluded from grading on the basis of low ribfat, high ultimate pH and dark meat color scores. Variation in these traits was not associated with transport treatments and was likely related to variation in on-farm factors. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Experiences of Mass Pig Carcass Disposal Related to Groundwater Quality Monitoring in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Yei Hseu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The pig industry is the most crucial animal industry in Taiwan; 10.7 million pigs were reared for consumption in 1996. A foot and mouth disease (FMD epidemic broke out on 19 March 1997, and 3,850,536 pigs were culled before July in the same year. The major disposal method of pig carcasses from the FMD outbreak was burial, followed by burning and incineration. To investigate groundwater quality, environmental monitoring of burial sites was performed from October 1997 to June 1999; groundwater monitoring of 90–777 wells in 20 prefectures was performed wo to six times in 1998. Taiwanese governmental agencies analyzed 3723 groundwater samples using a budget of US $1.5 million. The total bacterial count, fecal coliform, Salmonella spp., nitrite-N, nitrate-N, ammonium-N, sulfate, non-purgeable organic carbon, total oil, and total dissolved solid were recognized as indicators of groundwater contamination resulting from pig carcass burial. Groundwater at the burial sites was considered to be contaminated on the basis of the aforementioned indicators, particularly groundwater at burial sites without an impermeable cloth and those located at a relatively short distance from the monitoring well. The burial sites selected during outbreaks in Taiwan should have a low surrounding population, be away from water preservation areas, and undergo regular monitoring of groundwater quality.

  17. Hygienic Quality Assessment Of Pork Carcasses Obtained In Industrial And Traditional Slaughtering Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Lucia REGET

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that many types of foods can be sources of food borne illnesses, meat and meat products are very important sources of infection in people with a wide variety of pathogens that cause food poisoning. The aim of this study was to conduct an assessment of meat hygienic quality and configuration by assessing the microbial load and the presence of pathogens. The material under investigation was represented by 40 samples of pork meat collected in stages, between 2015-2016, from slaughtering units both from the traditional system and the  industrial system. Samples were analyzed at the Department of Food Safety and Control of Animal Origin Products. Total viable count in samples taken from the carcasses, in 2016 presented values similar to those in 2015, ranging from a minimum of 2.74 ± 0.36 log cfu/cm2 in January and December and a maximum 3.73 ± 1.13 log cfu / cm2 recorded in February, without showing significant differences between the samples processed in the studied period (p>0.05. The  results  regarding contamination of swine carcasses (surface with germs from Enterobacteriaceae family were non-compliant, exceeding the maximum permissible limit of 3.0 log cfu/cm2 in all 12 samples examined (33.33%. In the case of the samples taken from pork carcasses the results regarding germs from Enterobacteriaceae family were non-compliant, 29.16% of the samples examined during the period under study were found to exceed the maximum limit, which showed deficiencies regarding the hygiene requirements.

  18. Avaliação de características da carcaça e da qualidade da carne de queixada (Tayassu pecari [Link, 1795] Evaluation of carcass characteristics and meat quality of white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari [Link, 1795

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mendes Ramos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, propôs-se avaliar os parâmetros de qualidade na carcaça e carne de queixadas adultas. Um total de quatro queixadas (três machos e uma fêmea, com peso vivo (PV médio de 29,47 ± 3,45 kg, foi abatido, determinado o rendimento de carcaça quente (RCQ, e avaliada a área do olho do lombo (AOL, gordura de marmoreio (GM, espessura da gordura de cobertura (EGC, pH, perda de peso por cozimento (PPC, concentração de pigmentos heme totais (PHT e composição centesimal no músculo Longissimus dorsi (LD. O RCQ em relação ao PV foi de 53,80%, assemelhando-se aos índices observados em bovinos e búfalos, sendo encontrada uma quebra de peso de 3,22% após refrigeração. O pH médio final, após 24 horas, foi de 5,54, dentro da faixa considerada normal para carnes suínas. Os valores médios obtidos para AOL (14,44 cm² e EGC (3,75 mm indicam um bom desenvolvimento muscular e uma menor proporção de gordura na carcaça, também evidenciada pela existência de traços de GM e pelo baixo conteúdo de lipídeos observados no lombo. De forma geral, o lombo apresentou composição média de 74,59% de umidade, 20,25% de proteína, 1,08% de lipídeos e 1,17% de cinzas, muito similares aos observados em animais convencionais. Os dados médios de PHT (69,49 ppm e PPC (13,68% demonstram a qualidade da carne de queixada, uma vez que refletem no favorecimento da cor vermelha do produto final e em uma baixa perda de peso do corte, durante o preparo.This work was carried out to evaluate carcass and meat quality attributes of adult white-lipped peccaries. A total of four white-lipped peccaries (three males and one female, with average of live weights (LW of 29.47 ± 3.45 kg, were slaughtered and evaluated for hot carcass dressing (HCD, ribeye area (REA, rib fat thickness (RFT, intramuscular fat (marbling, pH, cook loss (CL, total haem pigments (THP and proximate composition of Longissimus dorsi (LD. The HCD in relation to LW was of 53

  19. Effects of supplemental copper on the serum lipid profile, meat quality, and carcass composition of goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanling; Wang, Yong; Lin, Xi; Guo, Chunhua

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of copper (Cu) supplementation on the serum lipid profile, meat quality, and carcass composition of goat kids, thirty-five 3-4-month-old Jian Yang big-eared goat kids (BW 20.3±0.6 kg) were randomly assigned to one of seven dietary Cu treatments (n=5/treatment). The dietary Cu concentrations were: (1) control (no supplemental Cu), (2) 20 mg, (3) 40 mg, (4) 80 mg, (5) 160 mg, (6) 320 mg, and (7) 640 mg of supplemental Cu/kg dry matter (DM). Copper was supplemented as CuSO4.5H2O (25.2 % Cu). The goats were fed a high-concentrate basal diet with the different concentrations of supplemental Cu/kg DM for 96 days. The serum lipid profile was determined on day 51 and day 96. Meat quality and carcass composition of longissimus dorsi muscle were measured after the goats were slaughtered at 96 days. Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were not affected by treatment (P>0.18). No differences were observed in drip loss, cooking loss, a* (redness/greenness) and b* (yellowness/blueness) values (P>0.17); however, the 24-h pH value (linear; P=0.0009) and L* (brightness) value (linear; P=0.0128) decreased, and shear force increased (linear; P=0.0005) as Cu supplementation increased. The intramuscular fat (%) increased (linear; P=0.001) as supplemental Cu increased. No differences (P>0.21) in the moisture, crude protein, and ash (%) were observed. Results of this study indicate that supplemental Cu does not modify the serum lipid profile; however, it can impact intramuscular fat content and the meat quality of goat kids.

  20. The effect of floor type on the performance, cleanliness, carcass characteristics and meat quality of dairy origin bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, V S; Lowe, D E; Lively, F O; Gordon, A W

    2017-10-02

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using different floor types to accommodate growing and finishing beef cattle on their performance, cleanliness, carcass characteristics and meat quality. In total, 80 dairy origin young bulls (mean initial live weight 224 kg (SD=28.4 kg)) were divided into 20 blocks with four animals each according to live weight. The total duration of the experimental period was 204 days. The first 101 days was defined as the growing period, with the remainder of the study defined as the finishing period. Cattle were randomly assigned within blocks to one of four floor type treatments, which included fully slatted flooring throughout the entire experimental period (CS); fully slatted flooring covered with rubber strips throughout the entire experimental period (RS); fully slatted flooring during the growing period and moved to a solid floor covered with straw bedding during the finishing period (CS-S) and fully slatted flooring during the growing period and moved to fully slatted flooring covered with rubber strips during the finishing period (CS-RS). Bulls were offered ad libitum grass silage supplemented with concentrates during the growing period. During the finishing period, bulls were offered concentrates supplemented with chopped barley straw. There was no significant effect of floor type on total dry matter intake (DMI), feed conversion ratio, daily live weight gain or back fat depth during the growing and finishing periods. Compared with bulls accommodated on CS, RS and CS-RS, bulls accommodated on CS-S had a significantly lower straw DMI (P<0.01). Although bulls accommodated on CS and CS-S were significantly dirtier compared with those accommodated on RS and CS-RS on days 50 (P<0.05) and 151 (P<0.01), there was no effect of floor type on the cleanliness of bulls at the end of the growing and finishing periods. There was also no significant effect of floor type on carcass characteristics or meat quality. However, bulls

  1. Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Prestice Black-Pied Pig Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Matoušek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate fattening performance, carcass value and meat quality in pigs of Prestice Black-Pied breed in relation to slaughter weight (SW and gender (barrows and gilts, resp.. Pigs were divided into weight categories: SW1 (75 to 99.9 kg, SW2 (100 to 109.9 kg and SW3 (110 to 130 kg and all individual traits were analyzed by the general linear model procedure (SAS 9.3. Average SW of each weight group was as follows: SW1 94.2 kg, SW2 105.8 kg, and SW3 115.2 kg. Differences among average backfat thickness of 36.07 mm in SW1, 40.16 mm in SW2, and 43.21 mm in SW3 were significant (p<0.01. Lean meat content was 48.94% (SW1, 48.78% (SW2, and 48.76% (SW3. Pigs were slaughtered at average weight of 105.7 kg for barrows and 104.4 kg for gilts. Average backfat thickness for barrows was 40.90 mm and 38.72 mm for gilts (significant difference p<0.05. Lean meat content was 48.75% in barrows and 48.91% in gilts. The values of pH45, characterizing the meat of very good quality. The loin in SW3 was darker than the muscles of SW1 and SW2. Drip loss was the lowest in SW1 (1.96%, compared to the highest drip loss in SW3 (2.59%. Content of intramuscular fat was 2.68% in SW3, 2.79% in SW2, and SW1 had the lowest content 2.47%. The values of pH45, colour lightness and drip loss were similar in both genders. However barrows had higher intramuscular fat content by 0.31% than gilts (p<0.05.

  2. Effect of housing conditions on production, carcass and meat quality traits of growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matics, Zs; Szendrő, Zs; Odermatt, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Nagy, I; Radnai, I; Dalle Zotte, A

    2014-01-01

    Production, carcass traits and meat quality of rabbits housed in cages or in different pens were compared. Rabbits (n=579) were sorted into 5 groups: C=cage (2 rabbits/cage); pen without platform: P11=9 rabbits/pen; P16=14 rabbits/pen; pen with platform: PW=wire net platform, 14 rabbits/pen; PD=platform with straw-litter, 14 rabbits/pen. Feed intake and average daily gain between 5 and 11 weeks, and body weight at 11 weeks were significantly higher in C rabbits than that of the mean of pen-housed groups, while the PD group had the lowest growth performance. C rabbits had the smallest hind part to reference carcass (Pmeat/bone ratio was the largest in group C (P<0.05). Differences were recorded in a* value and lipid content of m. Longissimus dorsi. Rabbits housed in cages generally had the best performance whereas those housed in pens with platform exhibited the worst. © 2013.

  3. Effect of floor type on carcass and meat quality of pen raised growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Dal Bosco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to compare the carcass and meat quality traits of growing rabbits housed on different floor types. At the age of 35 d, rabbits (n=126 were randomly sorted into 3 groups and housed in pens with different floor types: plastic-mesh, deep-litter straw or wire-mesh. Slaughter weight, carcass and its parts’ weight, meat (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum [LL] muscle and hind leg pH and colour, oxidative status and fatty acid profile were measured and correlations calculated. The deep-litter straw rabbits showed the lowest pHu and b* values of LL muscle and oxidation of the both muscles. The fatty acid profile of LL muscle of deep-litter straw rabbits showed a higher percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids and long chain n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids, whereas the content of  18:2n-6 and total PUFA was lower. We concluded that housing the growing rabbits on wire- or plastic-mesh floors showed no substantial differences, while housing rabbits on deep-litter negatively affected certain qualitative traits.

  4. Association of DGAT2 gene polymorphisms with carcass and meat quality traits in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, H G; Dong, X Y; Cao, H Y; Xu, N Y; Yin, Z Z

    2018-04-01

    1. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) plays an important role in the synthesis of triacylglycerol, but its effects on meat quality and carcass composition in pigeons are unclear. In this study, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exons of the DGAT2 gene were identified and analysed by using DNA sequencing methods in 200 domestic pigeons (Columba livia). The associations between DGAT2 polymorphisms and carcass and meat quality traits were also analysed. 2. Sequencing results showed that 5 nucleotide mutations were detected in exons 3, 4, 5 and 6 of the DGAT2 gene. The analysis revealed three genotypes (AA, AB and BB) in G18398T and G22484C, in which the AA genotype and A allele had the highest frequency. 3. In the SNP of G18398T located in exon 5, individuals with genotype BB had significantly higher meat quality and lower abdominal fat content than those with AA or AB genotype. In the SNP of G22484C located in exon 6, the genotype AA showed highest carcass trait values, while the genotype BB represented better meat quality, compared to AA and AB genotypes. 4. The results imply that DGAT2 gene has a close relationship with carcass and meat quality traits in pigeons, and the SNPs of G18398T and G22484C can be used as genetic markers for marker-assisted breeding in pigeon.

  5. Effects of Crossbreeding and Gender on the Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Korean Native Black Pig and Duroc Crossbred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhlisin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe the effects of crossbreeding and gender on the carcass traits and meat quality of Korean Native Black Pig (KNP and KNP×Duroc crossbred (KNP×D. A total of 50 pigs comprising seven KNP barrows, eight KNP gilts, twenty KNP×D barrows and fifteen KNP×D gilts were used in this study. Animals were reared in the same housing condition with same feed diet for six months prior to slaughter. After an overnight chilling, the carcasses were graded, and samples of Musculus longissimus dorsi were obtained for meat quality analysis. The slaughter and carcass weights and dressing percentage of KNP×D were higher (p<0.001 than those of KNP. The slaughter and carcass weights and backfat thickness of barrows were higher (p<0.01 than those of gilts. There were no significant difference in carcass conformation and quality grade between KNP and KNP×D as well as barrow and gilt. Fat content of KNP×D was higher (p<0.001 than that of KNP. Fat content of barrow was higher (p<0.001 than that of gilt. There was interaction between crossbreeding and gender on the fat content. KNP gilt showed higher fat content than KNP barrow whereas KNP×D barrow showed higher fat content than KNP×D gilt. Lightness, redness, yellowness, chroma and hue angle values and color preference of meat of KNP×D were lower (p<0.001 than those of KNP. Redness, yellowness and chroma values of meat of barrow were lower (p<0.05 than those of gilt. It is concluded that crossbreeding KNP with Duroc increases carcass productivity and meat fat but decreases meat color values and preference. Crossbreeding of KNP with Duroc produces a better fat deposition in meat of barrows than in gilts.

  6. Effect of hesperidin dietary supplementation on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Simitzis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the dose effects of hesperidin dietary supplementation on fattening rabbits’ growth performance, as well as carcass and meat quality characteristics. Forty-eight Hyla hybrid male weaned (35 d old rabbits were purchased and randomly assigned to 3 dietary groups of 16 rabbits each and fed diets supplemented with the antioxidant hesperidin at 0, 1 and 2 g/kg feed. At 80 d of age, the rabbits were slaughtered and samples of Longissimus lumborum (LL muscle were used to estimate meat quality traits. No significant differences were observed in body weight at the age of 80 d, feed conversion rate (35 to 80 d, or organ weights among the 3 groups. The pH, colour, percentage of released water, shear force values and intramuscular fat content of LL muscle were not significantly influenced by the dietary treatment. Hesperidin dietary supplementation at both levels reduced the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, mainly arachidonic (C20:4n-6, docosapentaenoic (C22:5n-3 and eicosapentaenoic (C20:5n-3 (only at 2 g/kg, and PUFA/SFA ratio (P<0.01. Based on the malondialdehyde (MDA values, hesperidin inclusion did not influence meat antioxidant status during the 9-d refrigerated storage at 4°C. Thus, we may conclude that dietary supplementation with hesperidin at the selected concentration levels did not generally influence growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality or antioxidant capacity in fattening rabbits, although meat values for PUFAs appeared to be decreased.

  7. Variance component analysis of quantitative trait loci for pork carcass composition and meat quality on SSC4 and SSC11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van H.J.; Dibbits, B.W.; Liefers, S.C.; Buschbell, H.; Harlizius, B.; Heuven, H.C.M.; Knol, E.F.; Bovenhuis, H.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In a previous study, QTL for carcass composition and meat quality were identified in a commercial finisher cross. The main objective of the current study was to confirm and fine map the QTL on SSC4 and SSC11 by genotyping an increased number of individuals and markers and to analyze the data using a

  8. Effects of shade and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride to finishing steers on performance, carcass quality, mobility, and body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossbred steers (n=480) were utilized to study the effects of shade and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on performance, carcass quality, mobility, and body temperature (BT). A randomized block design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was conducted with four replicates per treatme...

  9. Effects of shade and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride to finishing steers on performance, carcass quality, heat stress, mobility, and body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steers (n = 480) were used to study the effects of shade and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on performance, carcass quality, heat stress, mobility, and body temperature (BT). A randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with 4 replicates per treatment. F...

  10. Influence of drinking water salinity on carcass characteristics and meat quality of Santa Inês lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Daniela P V; Yamamoto, Sandra M; Araújo, Gherman G L; Pinheiro, Rafael S B; Queiroz, Mario A A; Albuquerque, Ítalo R R; Moura, José H A

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different salinity levels in drinking water on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of lamb carcass and meat. Ram lambs (n = 32) were distributed in a completely randomized design with four levels of salinity in the drinking water (640 mg of total dissolved solids (TDS)/L of water, 3188 mg TDS/L water, 5740 mg TDS/L water, and 8326 mg TDS/L water). After slaughter, blending, gutting, and skinning the carcass, hot and biological carcass yields were obtained. Then, the carcasses were cooled at 5 °C for 24 h, and then, the morphometric measurements and the cold carcass yield were determined and the commercial cuts made. In the Longissimus lumborum muscle color, water holding capacity, cooking loss, shear force, and chemical composition were determined. The yields of hot and cold carcass (46.10 and 44.90%), as well as losses to cooling (2.40%) were not affected (P > 0.05) by the salinity levels in the water ingested by the lambs. The meat shear force was 3.47 kg/cm 2 and moisture, crude protein, ether extract, and ash were 73.62, 22.77, 2.5, and 4.3%, respectively. It is possible to supply water with salinity levels of up to 8326 mg TDS/L, because it did not affect the carcass and meat characteristics of Santa Inês lambs.

  11. Effect of supplemental vitamins and trace minerals on performance and carcass quality in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, M S; Arentson, B E

    2001-01-01

    Two trials with finishing pigs (PIC line 355 x Camborough 22) were conducted to evaluate the effects of vitamin and trace mineral (VTM) supplement deletions on performance, carcass quality, and tissue nutrient levels. Trial 1, a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments involving three VTM supplement regimens and two stress regimens, was conducted for 12 wk with 252 pigs (mixed sex). Average initial weight of pigs was 54 kg. The VTM regimens consisted of control (adequate level of VTM throughout trial), VTM deleted for the final 6 wk, and VTM deleted for entire 12 wk of the trial. The stress regimens consisted of leaving half the treatments in their original location or moving the other half of the treatments to a new pen location every 3 wk. There were three replications (pens) per treatment with 14 pigs per pen (0.80 m2). Diets were medicated with bacitracin methylene disalicylate. Overall, there were no treatment differences (P > 0.05) for ADG, ADFI, gain:feed ratio, longissimus muscle area, or last-rib backfat. However, there was a greater than 75% decrease (P < 0.001) in vitamin E content of longissimus muscle from deleting VTM for 6 or 12 wk. Trial 2, a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments involving three VTM regimens and two genders, was conducted for 12 wk with 306 pigs. Average initial weight of pigs was 58 kg. The VTM regimens were identical to those used in Trial 1. Each treatment consisted of three gender replications of 17 pigs per pen (0.66 m2), and all diets were unmedicated. Overall, pigs fed diets without VTM for 12 wk had lower (P < 0.06) ADG than those fed the control diets. Vitamin E content of the ham muscle was reduced by greater than 50% (P < 0.001) when pigs were fed diets without VTM for 6 or 12 wk compared with those fed the control diet. Concentrations of copper in ham muscle were reduced (P < 0.05) in pigs fed diets without VTM. These data suggest that deleting VTM during the finishing stage markedly lowers the vitamin E content of

  12. Corn silage with and without enzyme-bacteria inoculants on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality in feedlot finished crossbred bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Fugita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two height cuttings of corn silage with or without enzyme inoculants were evaluated for 68 days on performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and chemical composition of the Longissimus muscle in crossbred bulls (F1 - ½ Nellore vs. ½ Angus finished in feedlot. Thirty-two 20-month-old bulls, with initial average weight of 374±25 kg, were kept in individual pens (10 m². Diets consisted of 50% roughage and 50% concentrate, with an expected 1.80 kg/day weight gain. The experimental design with four diets and eight replications was completely randomized. Different cutting heights, low (25 cm and high (45 cm, with or without enzyme inoculants, were studied. Live weight, average daily gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, carcass characteristics, muscle, fat and bone percentages at the 11th and 12th ribs, chemical composition of the Longissimus muscle, sum of saturated, mono-unsaturated, poly-unsaturated fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, n-6 fatty acids, and the poly-unsaturated:saturated and n-6:n-3 relations were determined. Cutting height of silage corn and the use of inoculants did not affect final live weight, average daily gain, feed intake, alimentary efficiency of dry matter, carcass characteristics, meat quality, chemical composition of the Longissimus muscle or fatty acid profile. High cutting of silage corn (45 cm above the ground and the use of inoculants are not necessary in the case of cattle finished in feedlot, with 1.8 kg daily gain.

  13. Individual and combined effects of CAPN1, CAST, LEP and GHR gene polymorphisms on carcass characteristics and meat quality in Holstein bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ardicli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with carcass characteristics and meat quality traits in selected candidate genes in Holstein bulls. Five SNPs in four genes, i.e. calpain 1 (CAPN1, calpastatin (CAST, leptin (LEP and growth hormone receptor (GHR, were genotyped in 400 purebred bulls using PCR-RFLP. Statistically significant associations were as follows: CAPN1 G316A with live weight, carcass weight, back fat thickness, m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum area and carcass measurements; CAPN1 V530I with pH and L∗; CAST S20T with live weight, inner chest depth and b∗ value; and GHR with ph, a∗ and h∗. In addition, significant genotypic interactions were observed for dressing percentage (LEP A80V  ×  CAST S20T, pH (CAPN1 V530I  ×  GHR S555G and LEP A80V  ×  GHR S555G and rump width (CAPN1 V530I  ×  CAST S20T. There was no association between the LEP A80V marker and any of the traits evaluated, nor was there any association of the tested SNPs with chest width, C∗ and marbling score. The present results could therefore be indicative for future studies on meat yield and quality.

  14. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Hereford sired steers born to beef-cross-dairy and Angus breeding cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lucy W; Hickson, Rebecca E; Schreurs, Nicola M; Martin, Natalia P; Kenyon, Paul R; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Steers from Angus, Angus×Holstein Friesian, Angus×Holstein Friesian-Jersey and Angus×Jersey cows and a Hereford sire were measured for their carcass and meat quality characteristics. Steers from the Angus×Holstein Friesian cows had a greater final body weight and carcass weight (P<0.05). Steers from Angus×Jersey cows had the lowest carcass weight and dressing-out percentage (P<0.05). There was a greater fat depth over the rump at 12 and 18months of age for the steers from Angus cows (P<0.05) but, not at 24months of age. The steers had similar meat quality characteristics across the breed groups. Steers from Angus×Holstein Friesian and Angus×Jersey cows had a higher ratio of n6 to n3 fatty acids. Using beef-cross-dairy cows to produce steers for meat production does not impact on meat quality. Using Jersey in the breed cross reduced the carcass tissues in the live weight and the potential meat yield. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationships between carcass characteristics, meat quality, age and sex of free-ranging Alaskan reindeer: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A. Renecker

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four reindeer (Rangifer tarandus carcasses from male and female animals that ranged in age from calves to adults were purchased from Bering Sea Reindeer Products (BSRP, Nunivak Island, Alaska, USA. Preslaughter and abattoir procedures were observed and evaluated. Carcasses were split in half, weighed, and broke into wholesale primal cuts of chuck, rib, loin, and hindquarter. Each primal cut was weighed, boxed, and frozen. Each half carcass of primal cuts was later dissected into lean tissue, bone, and the three compartments of fat: subcutaneous, intermuscular, and peritoneal. A portion of the loin was collected from each animal in order to obtain data on pH and shear force. Sensory panel analysis was performed on loin steaks. Due to management and environmental effects, pH values were high and the meat was dark in colour. Carcasses from adult male reindeer contained significantly lower levels of fat than carcasses of adult females. Data indicated that yearling reindeer are of greatest economic value for meat production.

  16. EVALUATION OF A “DRY” SYSTEM FOR THE SLAUGHTER OF POULTRY: MICROBIAL PROFILE OF CARCASSES - PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Soncini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The “dry” system for the slaughter of poultry provides mechanical defeathering followed by waxing, without scalding. The microbical contamination of n. 60 poultry carcasses was evaluated in different phases of a “dry” slaughter process. Samples from the neck region after stun and from breast after defeathering and waxing were carried out by non-destructive methods, by swabbing (n. 30 carcasses and by sponging (n. 30 carcasses. The collected samples were examined for the Total Aerobic Count, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. The non-destructive method by sponging showed the higher recovery capacity for each group of microrganisms, except Salmonella spp. as absent from all samples. A low level of carcasses contamination was observed in all the processing phases considered in this study, although S. aureus was observed to be on the increase after waxing.

  17. Effect of including sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) meal in finishing pig diets on growth performance, carcass traits and pork quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrosemoli, Silvana; Moron-Fuenmayor, Oneida Elizabeth; Paez, Angel; Villamide, Maria Jesús

    2016-10-01

    The partial replacement of a commercial concentrate at 10-20% and 15-30% (the first percentage of each dietary treatment corresponded to weeks 1-3 and the second to weeks 4-7 of the experiment, respectively) by sweet potato meal (SPM; 70% foliage: 30% roots) was evaluated for growth performance, carcass yield, instrumental and sensory pork quality using 36 commercial crossbred pigs (56.8 ± 1.3 kg initial body weight). Three dietary treatments were compared in a randomized complete block design. Most growth, carcass traits and pork quality variables were not affected by the SPM inclusion. Growth performance averaged 868 g/day and feed efficiency 0.24 kg/kg. However, feed intake increased 2.2% (P = 0.04) in pigs fed the 10-20% SPM diets, in a similar order of magnitude as the decrease in dietary energy. Despite an increase in gastrointestinal tract as a percent of hot carcass weight (+14.7%) (P = 0.03) with SPM inclusion, carcass yield averaged 69.4%. Conversely, decreases in loin yield (-4.2%) (P = 0.05), backfat thickness (-6.0%) (P < 0.01) and pork tenderness (-13%) (P = 0.02) were observed with 15-30% SPM inclusion. Results suggest that up to 20% SPM inclusion is a viable feed strategy for finishing pigs, easily replicable in small farm settings. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Effects of extensive system versus semi-intensive and intensive systems on growth and carcass quality of dairy kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Zurita Herrera

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effects of three different management systems on growth and carcass quality of 61 Murciano-Granadina breed kids and their interaction with sex. In the extensive system, 21 kids were allocated to suckle from their dams on free-range pasture with no additional feedstuff. In the semi-intensive system, 20 kids were suckled from their dams and had access to alfalfa hay and cereal straw (no free-range pasture. In the intensive system, 20 kids were separated from the dams at birth and then fed with milk replacer and alfalfa hay. Animals were slaughtered at 7.00 ± 1.00 kg of average BW. The semi-intensive system and extensive system kids grew faster than intensive system animals (127, 113 and 96 g/d, respectively. Differences in energy intake may explain these differences. Intensive system kids displayed the lowest real dressing percentages, calculated as 100 × (hot carcass weight/empty body weight, due to high development of empty gastrointestinal tract. The long leg and carcass were larger in extensive system kids than in kids from other management systems, presumably due to high physical activity on the free-range pastures. The carcasses and cuts from semi-intensive system and extensive system kids displayed more fat than those of intensive system kids. Males grew faster than females (122 and 103 g/d, respectively. Carcasses in male kids showed a higher content of bones but a lower content of fat than carcasses in female kids. The extensive system is feasible for producing kid meat from a dairy breed.

  19. Effect of gender on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of calves of Avilena-Negra Iberica breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daza, A.; Rey, A. I.; Lopez Carrasco, C.; Lopez-Bote, C. J.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of gender on growth performance and carcass and meat quality of calves of Avilena-Negra Iberica breed. Sixteen calves, eight males and eight females, were used. The calves were fattened under intensive conditions, housed in confinement and fed with the same feed and cereal straw from 230.7 to 478.3 kg. The males grew more than the females (1.390 vs 0.932 kg day{sup 1} respectively). Carcass weight, carcass length, leg length, leg perimeter, carcass and leg compactness, legs, fore-quarters and loins weights and forequarters percentage regarding carcass weight were higher (p < 0.05) in males than in females. The gender had not significant influence on CIE a*, b*, chroma and hue variables but CIE L* value was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in males than in females. The a* value decreased and b* and hue values increased with ageing time. The subcutaneous back fat from the females had significantly (p < 0.05) higher C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1 n-9, S MUFA and lower C10:0, C18:0, C18:2 n-6, C18:3 n-3, C20:0, C20:3 n-9, C20:4 n-6, C22:5 n-3, {Sigma} n-6, {Sigma} n-3 and {Sigma} PUFA proportions than that from males. It is concluded that the gender has influence on growth performance, carcass traits and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous backfat; gender does not have effect on instrumental colour variables; and meat colour can reach acceptable values for consumers until four days after slaughter. (Author) 34 refs.

  20. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: In-plant survey of targeted carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, value, and marketing of fed steers and heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Beef Quality Audit – 2011 (NBQA-2011) assessed the current status of quality and consistency of fed steers and heifers. Beef carcasses (n = 9,802), representing approximately 10 percent of each production lot in 28 beef processing facilities, were selected randomly for the survey. Car...

  1. Effect of stunning methods on quality of rabbit carcass and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thereafter the were dissected into 2 halves and fabricated into primal cuts. Carcass characteristics as well as physical, chemical and sensory properties of the rabbit meat were determined. The results showed that carcasses of rabbits stunned with gas gave higher (P<0.05) blood loss and lower (P<0.05) chilling loss.

  2. Effect of long term dietary supplementation with plant extract on carcass characteristics meat quality and oxidative stability in pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Raffaella; Pastorelli, Grazia; Cannata, Susanna; Tavaniello, Siria; Maiorano, Giuseppe; Corino, Carlo

    2013-11-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation in pigs with plant extract (PE) from Lippia spp., titrated in verbascoside (5mg/kg feed), from weaning to slaughter (166days), on carcass characteristics, meat quality, collagen characteristics, oxidative stability and sensory attributes of Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle were examined. Ten pigs per treatment were slaughter at a live weight of 109.5±1.4kg. No influence on carcass characteristics, LD meat quality parameters and collagen characteristics were observed. Dietary PE increased (PRaw LD of pig fed PE showed lower (Pmeat, enhancing oxidative status and sensory attributes, without affecting other meat quality parameters. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of horsemeat: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, José M; Sarriés, María Victoria; Tateo, Alessandra; Polidori, Paolo; Franco, Daniel; Lanza, Massimiliano

    2014-04-01

    Meat has exerted a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well balanced diet due to its nutritional richness. The aim of the present review was to shed light on the nutritional composition of horsemeat and their benefits for human health. One of the reasons for such interest was the occurrence, in Europe several years ago, of dioxin, Bovine Encephalopathy and foot-and-mouth disease problems in farm animals. Therefore, consumers began to look for alternative red meats from other non-traditional species. There is no carcass classification system on horses designated to meat consumption. It would be advisable to standardize the equine meat market to reduce variations that may reflect differences in meat quality. The nutritional composition of horsemeat by comparison with pork, beef or poultry is characterized by low levels of fat and cholesterol (about 20% less), relatively high concentrations of n-3 fatty acids and heme iron indicating that its consumption may be beneficial for health. Therefore, horsemeat may supplement the meat market with good quality products, although as in other dietary components moderation is advisable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. THE IMPORTANCE AND POSSIBILITY OF CARCASS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT IN HUNGARIAN PORK PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Csató

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The slaughter data of the National pig database was analysed by the authors. The authors investigated the results of the (SEUROP grade scheme, which showed the connection between the pig proportions fell into the various grade classes and their prices. The analyses started when the introduction of the (SEUROP grade scheme took place in 1997 and was based on the official database published each week. For the sake of better overview the results were summed up to monthly intervals. The authors found that in the first period (shortly after the introduction of the grade scheme the prices of the slaughtered pigs fell into the various grade classes differed from each other by 6-7 %. As a result of the (SEUROP grade scheme’s introduction the proportion of the slaughtered pigs fell in the grade classes E and U increased from 18% to 27% and from 37% to 44% respectively. The proportions in the R, O, and P classes consequently decreased. Following the first period no changing pattern was found concerning these proportions which means that the improvement of the graded slaughter pigs stopped. Investigating the possible explanations the authors realised that the price differences between the grade classes decreased from 6-7% to 4-5%. Thus the meat processing industry in fact was paying more for one unit lean content of slaughtered pigs when fell into the worst categories than for those which can be found in the best categories. This however does not provide any motivation for the producers for improving carcass quality, which can only be obtained through higher costs. It can be concluded that carcass quality improvement is an important requirement for Hungary. Concerning the EU members the graded slaughter pigs can be found in the E and U categories almost exclusively. The same ratio is only 65% in Hungary. Therefore the modification of slaughtered pig prices of the E and U grade classes is vital in order to motivate the production of slaughtered pigs

  5. Evaluation of carcass and muscle traits in Santa Ines female lambs finished with different agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Menezes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different agricultural products on quantitative aspects of carcass, body constituents, cooking loss, shear force and colorimetry of the Longissimus lumborum and Triceps brachii muscles in Santa Ines lambs. 24 Santa Ines female lambs received one of four diets which were isoproteic and isoenergetic with fixed levels of forage (60% and concentrate (40% of corn and soybean meal during 45 days. The forages per diet differed: coast-cross hay (HAY, cassava hay (CASS, dehydrated by-product of pea crop (PEA and sugarcane (SC. The average weight of the lambs at the beginning of the experiment was 26.35kg. Animals were slaughtered in a federally certified abattoir. Initial and final pH, cooking losses, color using the CIELAB system, shear force and the quantity of sarcomeres per 100μm were measured. Hot carcass, cold and half carcass weights were affected by treatments (P<0.05. The sarcomere length of Triceps brachii muscle 24 hours after slaughter differed between diets and coast-cross hay had the lowest value. The sarcomere length differed significantly between diets and the dehydrated by-product of pea crop had the lowest number of sarcomeres immediately after slaughter compared to other diets. There was no influence of diet on colorimetry, cooking loss and shear force. The decrease in pH followed the development of the process of rigor mortis in the Longissimus lumborum and Triceps brachii muscles in the first hour and up to 24 hours after slaughter. Diets did not alter the pH, water holding capacity, colorimetry or shear force. The pea by-product and sugarcane can replace traditional sources of fodder without depreciation of meat characteristics.

  6. Dried artichoke bracts in rabbits nutrition: effects on the carcass characteristics, meat quality and fatty-acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbou, S; Gasco, L; Gai, F; Zoccarato, I; Rotolo, L; Dabbou Fekih, S; Brugiapaglia, A; Helal, A N; Peiretti, P G

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the effects of the inclusion of artichoke bracts (AB) in rabbit diets on the carcass characteristics and rabbit meat quality were studied. A total of 120 rabbits aged 38 days were used and divided into three groups that were fed with different isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets supplemented with AB at 0%, 5% and 10%. The animals were single housed in wire cages at a temperature of 22±2°C and had free access to clean drinking water. At 96 days of age, 12 rabbits/group were slaughtered in an experimental slaughterhouse without fasting. The carcass was weighed and the weights of the skin and full gastrointestinal tract were recorded. Carcasses were chilled at +4°C for 24 h in a refrigerated room. The chilled carcass weight (CCW), dressing out percentage (CCW as percentage of slaughter weight), and the ratio of the head and liver were determined as a percentage of CCW. The reference carcass weight was also calculated. Carcasses were halved and the two longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles were excised. The left LD muscle was divided into two parts. The fore part was used to measure pH, colour and cooking losses. The hind part of the left LD was vacuum-packed, frozen at -20°C and then freeze-dried. Proximate composition, fatty-acid profile and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values were determined on freeze-dried samples. Results showed that carcass characteristics, LD muscle traits and its oxidative status were not affected by the AB supplementation, except for the meat ether extract content that increased from 0.68% to 0.94% on fresh matter basis with the increase of the AB supplementation (P<0.01). The α-linolenic acid proportion decreased with the increase of the AB supplementation from 3.58% to 2.59% in the LD muscle and from 4.74% to 3.62% in the perirenal fat, whereas the n-6/n-3 ratio increased significantly with increasing AB inclusion from 7.15 to 10.20 in the LD muscle and from 6.68 to 9.35 in the perirenal fat (P<0.01). Furthermore, no

  7. Carcass Characteristics and Qualitative Attributes of Pork from Immunocastrated Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; Moi, Marta; dos Santos, Luan Sousa; de Lima Almeida Paz, Ibiara Correia; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Fernandes, Alexandre Rodrigo Mendes

    2013-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to assess the carcass characteristics and meat quality aspects of immunocastrated male pigs of medium genetic potential for lean meat deposition in carcass (53 to 55%). When the crossbred Large White x Landrace pigs (n = 45) were 70 days old, they were distributed in a totally randomized design in three treatments (castrated males, females and immunocastrated males) with three replicates of five animals. The pigs were slaughtered when they were 140 days old. Carcass temperature and pH were recorded twice, at 45 min and 24 h after slaughter. The carcasses were evaluated for hot and cold carcass yield, commercial cuts yield, length and depth, back fat thickness, loin eye area and lean meat percentage. The Longissimus dorsi muscle was extracted for analysis of color (L*, a*, b*), exudate loss, cooking loss and centesimal and sensorial analysis of the meat. There were no significant differences for the evaluated parameters between castrated males, immunocastrated males and females, except for backfat thickness between the 7th and 8th thoracic vertebra and the point P2 (lower for immunocastrated males) and carcass temperature at 45 min post slaughter (higher in immunocastrated males), however, this did not interfer with the rate of pH decrease post mortem and the meat quality. The results from this research did not indicate a benefit of immunocastration on carcass characteristics of pigs of medium genetic potential for lean meat deposition in carcass, when compared to surgical castration. PMID:25049751

  8. Effect of energy concentration on growth performance and carcass quality of Iberian pigs reared under intensive conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Serrano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In total, 192 Iberian pigs were used to investigate the effects of net energy (NE concentration of the diet on growth performance and carcass quality of castrated females (CF and castrated males (CM. From 30 to 112 kg body weight (BW, three diets were formulated with similar digestible amino acid content per kcal of NE but differing in energy concentration (2,045, 2,175 and 2,305 kcal NE kg-1 from 30 to 81 kg BW and 2,175, 2,305 and 2,445 kcal NE kg-1 from 81 to 112 kg BW. From 112 kg to slaughter (148 kg BW, all pigs received a common finisher diet. Each treatment was replicated eight times and the experimental unit was a pen with four pigs. A decrease in NE concentration of the diet increased feed intake (p<0.05 and tended to impaired feed conversion ratio (p<0.10, whereas carcass and meat quality traits were not affected. Castrated males ate more feed and grew faster but had less fat thickness at the gluteus medius muscle than CF (p<0.05. However, no differences in carcass and meat quality traits between genders were detected. We conclude that a reduction in NE content of the grower diets did not affect growth rate and therefore, it not a valuable alternative to avoid excess of BW at slaughter in Iberian pigs reared under intensive management conditions. Also, both genders can be used for the production of high quality carcasses destined to the dry-cured industry.

  9. Evaluation of performance characteristics in a diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle. II. Carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, J W; Benyshek, L L; Bertrand, J K; Johnson, M H

    1988-02-01

    Evaluations of steer and heifer progeny from a diallel mating design of Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle over 5 yr are presented. Traits evaluated included final weight, hot carcass weight, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, dressing percentage and percentage of kidney, pelvic and heart fat. Progeny of Simmental sires were heavier at slaughter than those with Brahman sires (P less than .05), but no differences were found for carcass weight. Dressing percentage was higher for Limousin crosses compared with progeny of other sire breeds (P less than .05). Similar results were found for dam breeds, except that progeny of Limousin dams had heavier carcasses with a higher dressing percentage (P less than .05) than Brahman crosses. Crosses of Limousin and Simmental had larger ribeye areas (P less than .05) compared with calves of the other breeds. Progeny of Polled Hereford dams had higher marbling scores and were fatter than progeny of dams of other breeds (P less than .05). Heterosis estimates were significant for all Brahman crosses for final weight, carcass weight and ribeye area, but these contrasts were negligible for other traits. Estimates of general combining ability were positive and significant for Simmental for final weight, carcass weight, ribeye area and marbling score and were significant and negative for Limousin for final weight, fat thickness and yield grade. Maternal values were generally small.

  10. Comparison of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Local Chickens and Silky Fowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. K. Choo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 4 breeds of local chicken. A total of 480 1-d-old chicks were distributed to 16 pens, with 4 treatments of breed, 4 replicates and 30 chicks per pen. Three Korean local breeds of white-mini broiler, Hanhyup-3-ho, and Woorimatdag, and a breed of silky fowl were raised under identical rearing and feeding conditions for 31-d, 37-d, 36-d, and 59-d, respectively. The BW and feed consumption on a pen basis were weekly measured for all pens, and ADFI, ADG and gain:feed were calculated for each pen. The ADFI and ADG of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were greater than those of silky fowl (p<0.05. Within the Korean local breeds, ADFI of white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05, and ADG of Hanhyup-3-ho and white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05. Gain:feed of silky fowl was less than that of the 3 breeds of Korean local chicken. The carcass and breast yield of white-mini broiler were the greater than those of other breeds (p<0.05. The breast meat color (CIE L*, a*, and b* of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05. The breast meat of Hanhyup-3-ho had greater cooking loss (p<0.05, whereas water holding capacity and pH were less than those of other breeds (p<0.05. The color score of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken was higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05. Woorimatdag had a higher score on tenderness (p<0.05, whereas flavor score was less than that of other breeds (p<0.05. In conclusion, 4 local breeds of chicken have some unique features and seem to have more advantages, and this information can help consumers who prefer healthy and premium chicken meat.

  11. Detection of QTL for Carcass Quality on Chromosome 6 by Exploiting Linkage and Linkage Disequilibrium in Hanwoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to improve mapping power and resolution for the QTL influencing carcass quality in Hanwoo, which was previously detected on the bovine chromosome (BTA 6. A sample of 427 steers were chosen, which were the progeny from 45 Korean proven sires in the Hanwoo Improvement Center, Seosan, Korea. The samples were genotyped with the set of 2,535 SNPs on BTA6 that were imbedded in the Illumina bovine 50 k chip. A linkage disequilibrium variance component mapping (LDVCM method, which exploited both linkage between sires and their steers and population-wide linkage disequilibrium, was applied to detect QTL for four carcass quality traits. Fifteen QTL were detected at 0.1% comparison-wise level, for which five, three, five, and two QTL were associated with carcass weight (CWT, backfat thickness (BFT, longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA, and marbling score (Marb, respectively. The number of QTL was greater compared with our previous results, in which twelve QTL for carcass quality were detected on the BTA6 in the same population by applying other linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches. One QTL for LMA was detected on the distal region (110,285,672 to 110,633,096 bp with the most significant evidence for linkage (p<10−5. Another QTL that was detected on the proximal region (33,596,515 to 33,897,434 bp was pleiotrophic, i.e. influencing CWT, BFT, and LMA. Our results suggest that the LDVCM is a good alternative method for QTL fine-mapping in detection and characterization of QTL.

  12. Effects of electro-fishing on galvano-taxis and carcass quality characteristics in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo D’Agaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of electro-fishing in sea water. We evaluated the feasibility of an electro-fishing system using numerical simulations for laboratory tanks and the open sea and performing a laboratory experiment. A non-homogeneous bi-dimensional electric-field model for marine water and fish based on discrete formulation of electro-magnetic field equations was developed using GAME (geometric approach for Maxwell equations software. Voltage gradients inside the fish and close to the body were determined. Re- sults showed that fish in the open sea and in groups had greater internal voltage differences than did fish in tanks and single fish. Sea bass (length:10 and 30 cm were exposed in laboratory tanks to pulsed direct current (PDC, 25-125 Hz and duty cycle (5-40%. We measured the electro-taxis and tetanus thresholds after electrical exposure. It is significant that these values decreased with increasing the size of fish. No differences were found after electro-fishing on overall appearance, internal and external haemorrhage, standard freshness scoring techniques and carcass quality characteristics

  13. Carcass morphology and meat quality from roosters slaughtered at eight months affected by genotype and finishing feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Franco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the carcass characteristics and the meat quality of the roosters from the autochthonous Mos breed slaughtered at 8 months. With comparative purpose roosters from hybrid line Sasso T44 were used in this study. Birds were reared on their typical production system (extensive indoor or barns and finishing diet whit corn. Both live and carcass weight were higher for commercial breed (p<0.001. Drumstick, thigh and wing percentages were greater in Mos breed than in Sasso T-44, while breast was similar for both genotypes. Only significant differences in cholesterol and alpha-tocopherol content between genotypes have been found, whereas finishing feeding treatment had effect on moisture, intramuscular fat content, cholesterol, tocopherol isomers and meat yellowness. Unsaturated fatty acids constituted the main contribution to total amount of fatty acid (FA, where monounsaturated oleic acid was the major compound, and found higher concentrations in commercial breed. Mos breed showed higher amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and lower amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA than Sasso T-44. The relation PUFA/SFA was above 0.68 for Mos breed and was slightly lower for the other genotype. In conclusion, the carcass morphology and meat quality was influenced by breed and finishing feeding with corn.

  14. Level and period of realimentation to assess improvement in body condition and carcass quality in cull ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Randhir Singh; Soren, Nira Manik; Sahoo, Artabandhu; Karim, Shaikh Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Improvement in body condition was assessed in 40 cull ewes (>6 years), equally distributed in two groups and realimented with ad libitum roughage (gram straw) and two levels of concentrate feeding, i.e., 2.5 % (T(1)) of live weight (LW) and ad libitum (T(2)). Five representative animals from an initial 45 were slaughtered at the initiation of the study (0 day) and five animals from each treatment at 44, 67, and 90 days of experiment for carcass attributes. Improvement in body condition score (BCS), nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were assessed at 44, 67, and 90 days. Metabolism trial of 6-day collection of feed, feces, and urine samples was conducted on five representative ewes from each group after 60 days of feeding. The level of concentrate feeding on LW gain and BCS was significant, and the duration of realimentation showed a linear improvement (P body condition of cull ewes for quality mutton production.

  15. Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in an Embden×Toulouse Goose Cross Raised in Organic Dehesa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, M; Peña, F; Domenech, V; Clemente, I; Polvillo, O; Valera, M; Verona, J C; Rubí, M; Molina, A

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the influence of genetic type (Embden-Anser anser, EE; Toulouse-Anser anser, TT and F1 cross, ET) for meat characteristics (carcass, meat quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles), of domestic geese "Anser anser domesticus" raised in dehesa as an alternative, organic feeding system. Carcass and breast muscle weight (p<0.01) were greater for the ET group at the same live weight. None of the groups showed differences in the production of fatty liver with this type of feeding. Higher values were found for maximum Warner-Bratzler shear force (between 7.62 and 8.87 kg/cm(2)), which implies the improvement of this parameter. High levels of oleic FAs were obtained, especially for the TT group. The polyunsaturated/saturated FA ratio was highest for the ET group (p<0.001), reflecting the optimum nutritional values as a component of a healthy consumer diet.

  16. Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in an Embden×Toulouse Goose Cross Raised in Organic Dehesa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, M.; Peña, F.; Domenech, V.; Clemente, I.; Polvillo, O.; Valera, M.; Verona, J. C.; Rubí, M.; Molina, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the influence of genetic type (Embden-Anser anser, EE; Toulouse-Anser anser, TT and F1 cross, ET) for meat characteristics (carcass, meat quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles), of domestic geese “Anser anser domesticus” raised in dehesa as an alternative, organic feeding system. Carcass and breast muscle weight (p<0.01) were greater for the ET group at the same live weight. None of the groups showed differences in the production of fatty liver with this type of feeding. Higher values were found for maximum Warner–Bratzler shear force (between 7.62 and 8.87 kg/cm2), which implies the improvement of this parameter. High levels of oleic FAs were obtained, especially for the TT group. The polyunsaturated/saturated FA ratio was highest for the ET group (p<0.001), reflecting the optimum nutritional values as a component of a healthy consumer diet. PMID:26954156

  17. Performance, Carcass Production, and Meat Quality of Sumba Ongole Bulls Fed Ration Containing Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Yantika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study performance, carcass production, meat quality, and economic feasibility of male Sumba Ongole cattle fed ration supplemented with velvet bean (M. pruriens. The research was designed in a completely randomized block design using 16 cattle with average body weight of 488+37.08 kg. The treatments were: T0= 15% straw + 85% concentrate; T1= T0 + 12% of velvet bean flour supplement; T2= T0 + 16% of velvet bean tempeh supplement; and T3= T0 + 200 mg/head/d of ractopamine hydrocloride. Data were analyzed by using analysis of variance with orthogonal contrast. The observed variables included feed consumption, average daily body weight gain (ADG, feed efficiency (FE, income over feed cost (IOFC, hot carcass weight (HCW, carcass percentage, subcutaneous fat thickness, meat pH, tenderness, cooking loss, and water holding capacity (WHC. The result revealed that the addition of 12% velvet bean flour into the rations increased dry matter consumption (P<0.05, but did not affect ADG, FE, IOFC, carcass production, and meat quality. The addition of 12% velvet bean flour produced the lowest cooking loss (P<0.05. The addition of 16% velvet bean tempeh into the rations significantly increased (P<0.05 dry matter consumption, however reduced (P<0.05 ADG, FE, and IOFC compared to control treatment. It is concluded that velvet bean flour at the level of 12% can be used as an alternative feed supplement in the ration of Sumba Ongole cattle and can replace the use of synthetic ß-agonist.

  18. The effect of transport density and gender on stress indicators and carcass and meat quality in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, T.L.; Corassa, A.; Komiyama, C. M.; Araújo, C.V.; Kataoka, A.

    2015-07-01

    A total of 168 finishing pigs were used to investigate the effects of gender (barrows and gilts) and transport densities for slaughter (236, 251, and 275 kg/m²) on stress indicators and carcass and pork quality. The animals transported at 251 kg/m² (T251) presented cortisol values below those at 236 kg/m2 (T236), but no different from those at 275 kg/m2 (T275). The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) values in pigs transported at T236 were the lowest. The blood components did not differ between T236 and T275. The pH values at 45 min (pH45) and at 24 h (pH24) postmortem were higher for pigs subjected to T236. However, the pH45 was higher at T251 than at T275, but pH24 was lower at T251 than at T275. The lightness values in the muscles of the pigs transported at T236 and T251 were higher than those at T275. Lower drip loss values were observed in the muscle of animals at T251. Carcasses of pigs at T236 contained more 1–5 cm lesions while those at T275 contained more 5–10 cmlesions in sections of loin. No significant effects of gender were found on the stress indicators, blood components, pH45, pH24, color, drip loss or carcass lesions in general. These results indicate that the pre-slaughter transport of pigs at densities of 251 kg/m² generates less physiological damage and smaller losses on carcass and pork quality irrespective of gender. (Author)

  19. Effects of diets with increasing levels of golden flaxseed on carcass characteristics, meat quality and lipid traits of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of three levels (0, 8, or 16% of the golden variety of flaxseed (GFS; Linum usitatissimum L., included in isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets, on the carcass characteristics, meat composition and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat and perirenal fat. The trial was carried out on 30 weaned crossbred rabbits aged 9 weeks, weighing on average 2074 g. The animals were divided equally into three groups of 10 (five male and five female rabbits each and kept separate in individual cages. At the end of the experiment, which lasted 5 weeks, there were no significant differences between the groups in the carcass yield or the proportions of various carcass parts and edible organs. Although the chemical composition of the meat was not significantly affected by the dietary treatment, the saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid proportion in the longissimus dorsi muscle (-22% and -24%, respectively and perirenal fat (-34% and –29%, respectively decreased and the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA increased (+36% in the muscle and 43% in the fat, respectively with increased GFS inclusion. GFS dietary supplementation has shown to be effective in improving the n-3 PUFA proportion (76% in the muscle and 77% in the fat, respectively, decreasing the n-6/n-3 ratio and reducing the saturation, atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes of the meat, with consequent benefits on the nutritional quality of rabbit meat for consumers.

  20. Effects of diets with increasing levels of golden flaxseed on carcass characteristics, meat quality and lipid traits of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of three levels (0, 8, or 16% of the golden variety of flaxseed (GFS; Linum usitatissimum L., included in isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets, on the carcass characteristics, meat composition and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat and perirenal fat. The trial was carried out on 30 weaned crossbred rabbits aged 9 weeks, weighing on average 2074 g. The animals were divided equally into three groups of 10 (five male and five female rabbits each and kept separate in individual cages. At the end of the experiment, which lasted 5 weeks, there were no significant differences between the groups in the carcass yield or the proportions of various carcass parts and edible organs. Although the chemical composition of the meat was not significantly affected by the dietary treatment, the saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid proportion in the longissimus dorsi muscle (-22% and -24%, respectively and perirenal fat (-34% and –29%, respectively decreased and the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA increased (+36% in the muscle and 43% in the fat, respectively with increased GFS inclusion. GFS dietary supplementation has shown to be effective in improving the n-3 PUFAproportion (76% in the muscle and 77% in the fat, respectively, decreasing the n-6/n-3 ratio and reducing the saturation, atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes of the meat, with consequent benefits on the nutritional quality of rabbit meat for consumers.

  1. Carcass traits and meat quality of growing rabbits in pens with and without different multilevel platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this trial was to determine the effect of the presence of wire or plastic mesh elevated platforms on carcass traits and meat quality characteristics, with particular attention to the oxidative status of growing rabbits. A total of 174 five-week old rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups with 2 replications (6 pens; 29 rabbits/pen: pens without platforms (NoP with a stocking density of 16 rabbits/m2 and pens with wire-mesh platforms (WP or plastic-mesh platforms (PP that were placed on 2 levels, with a stocking density of 16 rabbits/m2 on the floor or 9.14 rabbits/m2 when the platform were included. At 84 d rabbits were slaughtered. The slaughter traits and Longissimus lumborum (LL physical and chemical compositition were not affected by treatments. Rabbits from the PP group showed the highest retinol and γ-tocotrienol content on LL muscle, whereas the NoP ones showed a higher α-tocotrienol and α-tocopherol level. The absence of platforms led to decreased (P<0.001 thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values and induced an improvement in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Levels of linoleic, linolenic and docosahexaenoic acids were equal to those of the WP group (23.45, 3.75, 0.64% in NoP and 22.6, 4.14, 0.53% in WP, respectively but higher than in PP rabbits (20.86, 3.05, 0.45%, respectively. It can be concluded that the pens with elevated platforms provide greater possibilities for movement, which is beneficial from the viewpoint of animal welfare. However, this greater activity influences the oxidative status of the meat, decreasing the antioxidant content and worsening the lipid oxidation of rabbit meat.

  2. A multivariate approach to determine the factors affecting response level of growth, carcass, and meat quality traits in finishing pigs fed ractopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeu, M A; Rodrigues, L A; Cavalcanti, L F L; Fontes, D O; Toral, F L B

    2017-04-01

    The effect of ractopamine (RAC) supplementation on growth, carcass, and meat quality traits of finishing pigs was studied using a meta-analytical approach. The database was composed of 57 studies published from 2004 to 2016. The dependent variables extracted for the meta-analysis included final BW, ADG, ADFI, feed:gain ratio, HCW, dressing percentage, carcass length, lean yield, back fat thickness, loin muscle area, loin depth, postmortem pH, meat brightness, redness, and yellowness. The studies were grouped by similarity in 3 clusters (C1, C2, and C3) by hierarchical clustering on principle components. The main differences observed between clusters were those of animal initial weight, which increased from C1 through C3. Linear mixed models were used to analyze the data, where studies were assumed as random effect, whereas the total amount of RAC in the diet, cluster, and sex category were considered fixed effects. The interactions between cluster and sex category (barrows, gilts, and mixed sex) and RAC level were also evaluated. Dietary RAC was effective in improving final weight ( Ractopamine supplementation did not influence the pork quality.

  3. Effects of Direct-fed Microbial and Pine Cone Extract on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhlisin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The carcass traits and meat quality of Hanwoo (Korean native cattle whose diets were supplemented with direct-fed microbial (DFM and pine cone extract (PCE were evaluated. Twenty head of Hanwoo steers were divided equally into four groups and for a period of 6 months were given different diets: One group was fed a basal diet as control (CON, the other three groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with DFM-1%, DFM+PCE-1% and DFM+PEC-3%, respectively. DFM+PCE3% diet resulted the lowest carcass quality grade. The loins of DFM-1% contained higher moisture and lower fat than did the loins from the CON group. The crude protein content of DFM+PCE-3% group was significantly higher than that of the other groups. The water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear force of the DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were lower than those of the CON and DFM-1% groups. The DFM-1% and 3% groups contained lower saturated fatty acid, higher unsaturated fatty acid, mono-unsaturated fatty acid, and poly-unsaturated fatty acid than did CON and DFM+PCE 1% group. Moreover, the n6:n3 ratios of DFM-1% and DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were slightly lower than that of the CON group. Thus we concluded that DFM and PCE supplementation resulted healthier Hanwoo beef with lower fat content and n6:n3 ratio.

  4. Growth performance, carcass and meat quality of lambs supplemented with increasing levels of a tanniferous bush (Cistus ladanifer L.) and vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, A; Dentinho, M T; Alves, S P; Portugal, P V; Fernandes, F; Sengo, S; Jerónimo, E; Oliveira, M A; Costa, P; Sequeira, A; Bessa, R J B; Santos-Silva, J

    2015-02-01

    The effects of dietary inclusion of Cistus ladanifer L. (CL) and a vegetable oil blend were evaluated on growth performance,carcass and meat quality of fifty four lambs that were assigned to 9 diets, corresponding to 3 levels of CL(50, 100 and 200 g/kg DM) and 3 levels of oil inclusion (0, 40 and 80 g/kg DM). Treatments had no effects on growth rate. Oil depressed dry matter intake (P = 0.017), carcass muscle (P = 0.041) and increased (P = 0.016) kidney knob channel fat. Chemical and physical meat quality traits were not affected by treatments. Off-flavour perception was higher for 8% of oil (P b 0.001). The level of 100 g/kg DM of CL inclusion improved meat stability after 7 days of storage. Supplementation with linseed and soybean oils (2:1) was a good approach to improve meat nutritional value from feedlot lambs, increasing total n-3 PUFA.

  5. Effect of gender (gilt and surgically and immunocastrated male) and ractopamine hydrochloride supplementation on growth performance, carcass, and pork quality characteristics of finishing pigs under commercial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braña, D V; Rojo-Gómez, G A; Ellis, M; Cuaron, J A

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of gender and feeding of ractopamine on growth performance, carcass, and meat quality characteristics of pigs reared under commercial conditions. The study was performed as a randomized complete block design (blocking factor date of start on test) with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) gender [gilt vs. surgical castrate vs. intact males immunocastrated] and 2) ractopamine level (0 vs. 5 g/ton). The study was conducted out over a fixed duration (126 d) from 1 wk after weaning (28 d of age; 8.04 ± 1.31 kg BW) to 154 d of age (111.44 ± 4.67 kg BW) in 3 growth periods: nursery (d 0 to 35 of the study), growing (d 35 to 70), and finishing (d 70 to 126). Ractopamine was fed for the final 28 d of the study (d 98 to 126). Pigs were kept in groups of 10 or 11 in the nursery phase and then moved to the growing-finishing facility where they were kept in groups of 22 to the end of the study. At the end of the growth study, pigs were harvested and carcass and pork quality were evaluated, including consumer evaluation of eating quality. During the nursery, there was no effect of gender (P > 0.05) on G:F, but surgical castrates grew faster (P 0.05) on ADG in the growing period; however, immunocastrated males had lower ADFI than surgical castrates and greater G:F than surgical castrates and gilts. In finishing, immunocastrated males and surgical castrates had similar ADG but grew faster than gilts; G:F was greater for immunocastrated males than the other genders. Feeding 5 compared to 0 g/ton ractopamine increased ADG and G:F but had no effect (P > 0.05) on carcass yield or fresh meat quality. Carcass yield was lower but percentage lean cut yield was greater for immunocastrated males than for surgical castrates. Longissimus muscle drip loss was greater (P = 0.05) for immunocastrated males than surgical castrates. Gender had no effect (P > 0.05) on consumer panel evaluation. Feeding ractopamine had no effect on pork flavor and

  6. The effects of ractopamine-hydrogen chloride (Optaflexx) on performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of finishing feedlot heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M J; Reinhardt, C D; Loe, E R; Depenbusch, B E; Corrigan, M E; May, M L; Drouillard, J S

    2008-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted at the Kansas State University Beef Cattle Research Center to determine the effects of ractopamine-HCl (Optaflexx) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of finishing feedlot heifers. In Exp. 1, heifers implanted with Revalor-H (n = 302, initial BW = 479 kg) were fed steam-flaked corn diets with 0 (control) or 200 mg of ractopamine-HCl (OPT) per heifer daily for 28 d before slaughter. Average daily gain and DMI were not different between treatments (P > 0.17); however, OPT cattle tended to have a greater G:F (P = 0.06). Treatments did not differ with respect to final BW, HCW, dressing percentage, USDA yield grade, USDA quality grade, marbling score, LM area, KPH, Warner-Bratzler shear force, weight loss during cooking, or L*, a*, or b* colorimetric values during a 7-d retail display or purge loss from loin steaks during retail display (P > 0.19). In Exp. 2, nonimplanted crossbred heifers (n = 281, BW = 451 +/- 2 kg) were fed finishing diets based on steam-flaked corn. A control diet (no ractopamine) was compared with diets providing 200 mg of OPT per heifer daily for periods of 28 or 42 d (200 x 28 and 200 x 42, respectively), 300 mg/d for 28 d (300 x 28), and a step-up regimen consisting of 14 d at 100 mg, followed by 14 d at 200 mg, and the final 14 d at 300 mg of OPT (step-up). Feeding OPT had no effect on carcass weight gain among treatments (P = 0.18). The efficiency of carcass gain was 34 and 35% greater (P = 0.06) for the 200 x 42 and step-up groups compared with control, respectively. Feeding OPT at 300 mg for 28 d reduced DMI compared with the control, 200 x 28, and 200 x 42 (P 0.10). Feeding ractopamine-HCl (Optaflexx) to finishing heifers generally improved the efficiency of carcass gain with minimal effect on carcass characteristics. These effects were most pronounced in heifers fed ractopamine for 42 d.

  7. Simulated influence of postweaning production system on performance of different biological types of cattle: II. Carcass composition, retail product, and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L; Keele, J W

    1995-03-01

    A computer simulation model was used to characterize the response in carcass composition, retail product, and quality of steers from F1 crosses of 16 sire breeds (Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Chianina, Brahman, Sahiwal, Pinzgauer, and Tarentaise) mated to Hereford and Angus dams, grown under nine backgrounding systems, and finished at either a low (1.0 kg) or high (1.36 kg) ADG. The backgrounding systems were a high ADG (.9 kg) for 111, 167, or 222 d, a medium ADG (.5 kg) for 200, 300, or 400 d, a low ADG (.25 kg) for 300 or 400 d and 0 d backgrounding. For specific genotype x production system combinations, results showed that carcasses of compensating steers may be either leaner, not different in fatness, or fatter than carcasses of steers put on a finishing diet directly after weaning. Systems in which steers gained a greater proportion of the final slaughter weight over long durations of growth restriction resulted in leaner carcasses. There were 12 common production systems in which 13 of the genotypes produced a carcass with a maximum of 28% fat or with a marbling score of 11 or greater. These results suggest sire breeds used to produce these steers can be used over a wide range of nutritional and management environments, and that a mixed group of steers can be fed and managed similarly from weaning to slaughter to produce a carcass with a specified composition, retail product, or quality.

  8. The use of probiotic in the diet to improve carcass characteristics and meat quality of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Haryanto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment has been carried out to investigate the effect of probiotic and ruminally less-degradable protein supplementation on the growth and efficiency of feed utilization in sheep. Thirty two male sheep with an average liveweight of 23 kg were divided into 4 groups of 8 individuals to test four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were a basal concentrate diet, b basal concentrate diet supplemented with ruminally less degradable protein in proportion of 90:10%, c basal concentrate supplemented with probiotic at 0.5%, and d basal concentrate diet supplemented with ruminally less degradable protein and probiotic in proportion of 89.5:10:0.5% consequtively. The concentrate was fed at 1.5% of the liveweight, and adjusted every week after weighing the individuals. Napier grass was fed ad libitum after being chopped into 5 cm length. Drinking water was available adequately. The animals were individually caged. The experiment was carried out for 7-day adaptation to the dietary treatments and 42-day period of feeding trials. The parameters being observed include weekly liveweight changes, slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass characteristics. The results indicated that the liveweight changes were relatively the same for all treatment groups, which ranged from 89 to 94 g/d. However, the dry matter intakes ranged from 856 to 925 g/d. The slaughter weight ranged from 26.9 to 27.3 kg with carcass weight ranged from 12.0 to 12.8 kg indicating that the carcass percentage were in the range from 55.8 to 57.1% of the empty body weight. Probiotic supplement resulted in reduction of fat content in the meat from these observation, it is reasonable to assume that the use of probiotic in the diet reduced the carcass fat without affecting the daily weight gain.

  9. Performance, Carcass Production, and Meat Quality of Sumba Ongole Bulls Fed Ration Containing Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens)

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Yantika; Alamsyari; D. Evvyernie; K. Winaga

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to study performance, carcass production, meat quality, and economic feasibility of male Sumba Ongole cattle fed ration supplemented with velvet bean (M. pruriens). The research was designed in a completely randomized block design using 16 cattle with average body weight of 488+37.08 kg. The treatments were: T0= 15% straw + 85% concentrate; T1= T0 + 12% of velvet bean flour supplement; T2= T0 + 16% of velvet bean tempeh supplement; and T3= T0 + 200 mg/head/d of ractopamine...

  10. Carcass physical composition and meat quality of holstein calves, terminated in different finishing systems and slaughter weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Vincenzi dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazil sacrifices many dairy calves at birth, which can become a very serious problem merchandising. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the physical carcass composition and meat quality characteristics of Holstein calves in feedlot or pasture with supplementation, slaughtered at 140, 180, 220 or 260 kg body weight. In the early termination calves had on average 57 kg and 58 days of age. The confined animals were fed forage (corn and concentrated, in the ratio of 40:60 and concentrated pasture supplemented with 1% body weight. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 2 x 4 (two feeding systems x four slaughter weights. It was observed a significant interaction between slaughter weight and finishing system only for the texture of the meat. The finished animals on pasture showed improved texture with increased weight, whereas the confined animals did not affect the weight. Animals finished on pasture had higher muscle percentage (69.48% vs 66.57%, and lower fat percentage (9.58% and 9.75 kg vs 13.20% and 13.08 kg compared to confined animals. There was a linear increase in the total amount of muscle, bone and fat, muscle / bone ratio, compared edible portion / bone, palatability and juiciness when increased slaughter weight. The percentage of bone and meat coloring decreased linearly with the increase of slaughter weight. The proportion of muscle and fat, showed quadratic behavior. The animals of dairy breeds are excellent producers of lean meat, with good smoothness, flavor and juiciness.

  11. Genome-wide Association Study to Identify Quantitative Trait Loci for Meat and Carcass Quality Traits in Berkshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Iqbal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Meat and carcass quality attributes are of crucial importance influencing consumer preference and profitability in the pork industry. A set of 400 Berkshire pigs were collected from Dasan breeding farm, Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea that were born between 2012 and 2013. To perform genome wide association studies (GWAS, eleven meat and carcass quality traits were considered, including carcass weight, backfat thickness, pH value after 24 hours (pH24, Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage lightness in meat color (CIE L, redness in meat color (CIE a, yellowness in meat color (CIE b, filtering, drip loss, heat loss, shear force and marbling score. All of the 400 animals were genotyped with the Porcine 62K SNP BeadChips (Illumina Inc., USA. A SAS general linear model procedure (SAS version 9.2 was used to pre-adjust the animal phenotypes before GWAS with sire and sex effects as fixed effects and slaughter age as a covariate. After fitting the fixed and covariate factors in the model, the residuals of the phenotype regressed on additive effects of each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP under a linear regression model (PLINK version 1.07. The significant SNPs after permutation testing at a chromosome-wise level were subjected to stepwise regression analysis to determine the best set of SNP markers. A total of 55 significant (p<0.05 SNPs or quantitative trait loci (QTL were detected on various chromosomes. The QTLs explained from 5.06% to 8.28% of the total phenotypic variation of the traits. Some QTLs with pleiotropic effect were also identified. A pair of significant QTL for pH24 was also found to affect both CIE L and drip loss percentage. The significant QTL after characterization of the functional candidate genes on the QTL or around the QTL region may be effectively and efficiently used in marker assisted selection to achieve enhanced genetic improvement of the trait considered.

  12. High levels of whole raw soybean in diets for Nellore bulls in feedlot: effect on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cônsolo, N R B; Gardinal, R; Gandra, J R; de Freitas Junior, J E; Rennó, F P; Santana, M H de A; Pflanzer Junior, S B; Pereira, A S C

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of whole raw soybean (WRS) in the finishing diet of Nellore cattle on productive performance, carcass traits, meat quality, fatty acid profile of meat, and blood parameters. In a completely randomized design, 52 Nellore bulls (mean body weight ± SD: 380 ± 34 kg) were allotted for 84 days. The animals received the following diets with a forage: concentrate ratio of 40/60: (i) WRS0: control diet without soybean grains; (ii) WRS8: diet containing 8% WRS in dry matter basis; (iii) WRS16: diet containing 16% WRS, and (iv) WRS24: diet containing 24% WRS. At intervals of 28 days, the animals were weighed, muscle and adipose tissue was analysed by ultrasound, and blood samples were collected. The animals were slaughtered on day 85 and liver weight and hot carcass weight were measured during slaughter. The pH and carcass dressing were calculated at 24 h after slaughter. Longissimus dorsi muscle samples were collected for the determination of fatty acid profile of meat, ether extract, tenderness and sensory analysis of meat aged for 14 days. Blood cholesterol content increased linearly with increasing proportion of whole raw soybean grains. The diet did not affect performance or carcass attributes. The WRS8 had the highest shear force values. In fatty acid profile, C14:0 decreased (p = 0.05), whereas 16:1, 20:0 and 20:1 fatty acids increased linearly with increasing proportion of WRS (p < 0.05). However, concentration of conjugated linoleic acid cis 9, trans 11 and 17:0 increased with WRS24 and WRS16. In the sensory analysis, WRS24 was more tender with respect to the other treatments (p < 0.05). Finally, the inclusion of WRS in the finishing diet of feedlot Nellore bulls only evidenced little changes in fatty acid profile and tenderness, in animals fed diets containing 16 or 24% soybean. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Carcass and meat quality traits of chickens fed diets concurrently supplemented with vitamins C and E under constant heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Pelícia, V C; Fascina, V B; Aoyagi, M M; Coutinho, L L; Sartori, J R; Moura, A S A M T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a diet supplemented simultaneously with vitamins C and E would alleviate the negative effects of heat stress, applied between 28 and 42 days of age, on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were assigned to a completely randomized design, with a 2×3 factorial arrangement (diet with or without vitamin supplementation and two ambient temperatures plus a pair-feeding group) and 16 replicates. Chickens were kept in thermoneutral conditions up to 28 days of age. They were then housed in groups of four per cage, in three environmentally controlled chambers: two thermoneutral (22.5 and 22.6°C) and one for heat stress (32°C). Half the chickens were fed a diet supplemented with vitamins C (257 to 288 mg/kg) and E (93 to 109 mg/kg). In the thermoneutral chambers, half of the chickens were pair-fed to heat stressed chickens, receiving each day the average feed intake recorded in the heat stress chamber in the previous day. Meat physical quality analyses were performed on the pectoralis major muscle. No ambient temperature×diet supplementation interaction effects were detected on performance, carcass, or meat quality traits. The supplemented diet resulted in lower growth performance, attributed either to a carry-over effect of the lower initial BW, or to a possible catabolic effect of vitamins C and E when supplemented simultaneously at high levels. Heat stress reduced slaughter and carcass weights, average daily gain and feed intake, and increased feed conversion. Growth performance of pair-fed chickens was similar to that of heat stressed chickens. Exposure to heat stress increased carcass and abdominal fat percentages, but reduced breast, liver and heart percentages. Pair-fed chickens showed the lowest fat percentage and their breast percentage was similar to controls. Heat stress increased meat pH and negatively affected meat color and cooking loss. In pair

  14. Breed-related number and size of muscle fibres and their response to carcass quality in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunyarat Koomkrong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the number and size of muscle fibre and their relation to carcass quality traits in chickens (slow- and fast-growing chicken strains. A total of 40 one-day-old Arbor Acres broiler (fast-growing and 40 Thai native chickens (slow-growing were reared to 45 and 112 days, respectively. The Arbor Acres broilers had heavier live weight, higher breast and thigh percentage than Thai native chickens (P<0.001. In breast muscle, there was no significant difference in total number of fibres and perimysium thickness. Thai native chickens had smaller fibre diameter and fibre area (P<0.01, and thicker endomysium in comparison with Arbor Acres broiler (P<0.001. The difference between the thigh and breast muscle fibre characteristics was not significant (P>0.05. The fibre diameter was positively correlated with live weight (P<0.05 and breast percentage (P<0.01. Endomysium thickness was correlated with live weight and breast percentage (P<0.05. There was no significant difference for the correlation between muscle fibre characteristics and thigh muscle. These results suggest that muscle fibre characteristics might be related to carcass quality.

  15. Linseed oil supplemented concentrate fed to Brahman crossbred fattening steers on carcass quality traits and intramuscular fatty acid profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitunart Noosen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the linseed oil supplemented concentrate fed to Brahman crossbred fattening steers on carcass quality trait and intramuscular fatty acid (FA profiles. All steers were fed 14% CP concentrate. The treatments included: (1 7 kg/d concentrate; (2 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 200 g/d palm oil (PO; (3 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 100 g/d PO and 100 g/d linseed oil (LSO; and (4 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 200 g/d LSO. The animals in the treatment 1 were fed ad libitum rice straw (RS, whereas the animals in other treatments were fed ad libitum fresh grass (FG. Dietary treatments had no effect on nutrient intake while oil supplement decreased dry matter intake (DMI. Inclusion of LSO did not negatively affect carcass quality, but increasing amount of LSO supplement increased the n-3 fatty acids and lowered the n-6/n-3 ratio in beef

  16. Broiler meat quality: effect of selection for increased carcass quality and estimates of genetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan-Duval, E; Millet, N; Remignon, H

    1999-06-01

    Ultimate pH (pHu), color measurements, and water holding capacity of the chicken Pectoralis major muscle were compared between birds of an experimental line selected for 13 generations for increased BW and breast meat yield and reduced abdominal fat percentage and its control line. Ultimate pH differed slightly between lines after selection, with values of 5.78 +/- 0.10 and 5.68 +/- 0.12 in the selected and control birds, respectively. Drip loss was significantly lower in the selected birds. Although selection did not modify lightness L*, it led to paler meat, as redness a* and yellowness b* were significantly lower in the selected line than in the control line. Ultimate pH of the meat was related to lightness and drip loss (with mean correlations over both lines of -0.59 and -0.40, respectively). Storage of the meat resulted in similar color variation in both lines, with a significant increase in a* and b* until 3 d postslaughter and in L* after 6 d postslaughter. Estimates of the genetic parameters of the criteria of meat quality were calculated in the selected line. The estimates suggested that there is a predominant role of genetics in the control of these traits, with heritability estimates of 0.49 +/- 0.11 for pHu, 0.75 +/- 0.08 for L*, 0.81 +/- 0.04 for a*, and 0.64 +/- 0.06 for b*. A significant negative genetic correlation (-0.65) was found between pHu and L*. The genetic correlation between a* and b* measurements was estimated at 0.72.

  17. Effects of supplementing zinc or chromium to finishing steers fed ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenburn, B M; Kneeskern, S G; Bohrer, B M; Rounds, W; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C; Felix, T L

    2016-02-01

    Objectives were to determine the effects of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) with zinc (Zn) and chromium (Cr) on feedlot growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Steers ( = 179; initial BW = 533 ± 94 kg) were blocked by BW and allotted to 30 pens, and pens were randomly assigned 1 of 5 treatments: (1) control (CONT), (2) RAC only (RO), (3) RAC + Zn (RZ), (4) RAC + Cr (RC), or (5) RAC + Zn + Cr (RZC). Trace minerals were fed from d 0 to 63 to target 1 g of Zn/steer·d (KemTRACE Zn; Kemin Industries, Inc., Des Moines, IA) and 3 mg Cr/steer·d (KemTRACE Chromium; Kemin Industries, Inc.) for Zn and Cr treatments, respectively. Dry-rolled corn, 0.605 kg/steer, was removed from the diet and 400 mg RAC, per 0.605 kg of ground corn carrier, was top dressed per steer immediately following feed delivery to pens fed RAC. There were no effects ( ≥ 0.45) of trace mineral supplementation on DMI, ADG, or G:F before RAC feeding. There were also no treatment effects ( ≥ 0.46) over all 63 d of the trial on DMI, ADG, or G:F. Despite the lack of differences in live performance, steers fed RO and RC averaged 0.10 kg/d greater ( = 0.10) carcass ADG than steers fed RZC and CONT, while steers fed RZ were intermediate and not different. Steers fed RO had the greatest ( = 0.09) carcass G:F, while steers fed CONT had the least carcass G:F, 0.0875 and 0.0774, respectively. Steers fed RO and RC averaged 5.5 kg heavier ( = 0.09) HCW than steers fed RZC and CONT, while steers fed RZ were intermediate and not different. There were no treatment effects ( ≥ 0.32) on LM area, 12th rib fat, marbling score, KPH, carcass yield, or USDA yield grade and distribution. However, carcasses from steers fed RC had the greatest ( = 0.10) percentage grading USDA Select. There were no treatment effects ( ≥ 0.20) on shear force, intramuscular fat, pH, a*, and b*. Steaks from steers fed RO and RC had 11.4% greater ( = 0.08) cook loss than steaks from steers fed CONT and RZC

  18. Carcass traits and meat quality of lamb fed on ration containing different levels of leucaena hay (Leucaena leucocephala L.)

    OpenAIRE

    El-Aal Abd H.A.; Suliman A.I.A.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty growing crossbred male lambs (3 chios. 1 ossimi and 1 chios. 1 ossimi) of 15.25 + 2.00 kg initial average body weight and three months old were divided into four groups. All groups were fed on concentrate feed mixture plus 1% of live body weight wheat straw for 169 days. Four levels (zero, 200g, 400g and 600g) of leucaena hay were used. Final weight and carcass traits were evaluated. Color (L, a, b), proximate composition, pH, acidity, expressible water, water holding capacity, cooking...

  19. Influences on Evaluation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksy, Leslie J.; Mark, Melvin M.

    2012-01-01

    Attention to evaluation quality is commonplace, even if sometimes implicit. Drawing on her 2010 Presidential Address to the American Evaluation Association, Leslie Cooksy suggests that evaluation quality depends, at least in part, on the intersection of three factors: (a) evaluator competency, (b) aspects of the evaluation environment or context,…

  20. Effects of shade and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride to finishing steers on performance, carcass quality, heat stress, mobility, and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, B M; Shackelford, S D; Hales, K E; Brown-Brandl, T M; Bremer, M L; Spangler, M L; Wheeler, T L; King, D A; Erickson, G E

    2015-12-01

    Steers ( = 480; 22% with black hides and 78% with red hides) were used to study the effects of shade and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on performance, carcass quality, heat stress, mobility, and body temperature (BT). A randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement was used with 4 replicates per treatment. Factors included housing type (open or shaded pens) and the feeding of ZH (0 or 8.33 mg/kg DM) the last 21 d on feed with a 3-d withdrawal. Cattle were blocked by BW into a heavy or light block and randomly assigned to pen within each block. Rumen boluses to record BT were inserted before ZH feeding. Respiration rate and panting scores were recorded daily during the ZH feeding period. Mobility scores were collected at various time points from before ZH feeding through harvest. Interactions between ZH and housing type were not significant ( > 0.26) for animal performance, carcass characteristics, and respiration or panting score. No differences ( > 0.44) were observed for DMI, ADG, or G:F on a live basis due to ZH; however, cattle fed in open pens tended ( = 0.08) to have a greater ADG than cattle in shaded pens. Cattle fed ZH had 14 kg heavier carcasses with larger LM area ( mobility scores, with observations on the morning of harvest at the abattoir being the worst for all groups of cattle. An interaction ( mobility, suggesting that animal welfare was not affected by feeding ZH for 21 d at the end of the feeding period.

  1. Effect of dietary kapok oil supplementation on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and sensory traits of pork in finishing-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Keisuke; Kohira, Kimiko; Kubota, Hiroki; Yamanaka, Kousuke; Saito, Kaoru; Irie, Masakazu

    2017-08-01

    Kapok seed and oil from the tropical zone are widely used as pig feed to harden porcine fat in Japan. This study evaluated the effect of dietary kapok oil supplementation on pork quality and sensory traits. Five Duroc pigs each were assigned to an experimental group supplemented with kapok oil and a control group. Dietary kapok oil supplementation had no effect on growth performance and intramuscular fat content in the Longissimus dorsi muscle (LM). Supplemental kapok oil increased saturated fatty acid contents in subcutaneous and intramuscular fat and decreased monounsaturated fatty acid levels (P growth performance, intramuscular fat contents and carcass characteristics were unchanged, while dietary kapok oil supplementation makes firm fat to prevent inferior soft fat in pork, it can lower the palatability of pork due to a decrease in monounsaturated fatty acids. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Association of polymorphisms in the leptin and thyroglobulin genes with meat quality and carcass traits in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Dutra de Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the polymorphisms E2FB (AY138588.1: c.305C> T, located in the leptin gene (LEP, and TG5 (X05380.1:g.-422C>T, located in the thyroglobulin gene (TG, and evaluate the association of these polymorphisms in crossbred cattle of seven distinct genetic groups with the following traits: slaughter weight (SW, hot carcass weight (HCW, hot carcass yield (HCY, carcass fat thickness (CFT, ribeye area (REA, marbling (MARM and shear force (SF. The animals were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP (Polymorphism Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism technique, using 201 products obtained from F1 Caracu × Nellore, Angus × Nellore and Valdostana × Nellore cows, mated to Canchim, Caracu and Red Angus bulls (only Caracu × Nellore cows were used with Red Angus bulls. The allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared using the Chi-squared test. Associations between the genotype of each polymorphism and the traits were analyzed using the General Linear Model (GLM of statistical software SAS. The least squares means of genotypes of the polymorphisms were compared using Student's t test. The E2FB polymorphism in the LEP gene was associated with CFT, showing the potential for use in national programs for genetic improvement of beef cattle, through the inclusion of SNP in genotyping commercial tests. The TG5 polymorphism in the TG gene was not associated with any of the evaluated traits and was considered ineffective for selection of beef cattle in Brazilian herds.

  3. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, I D; Benetti, T M; Oliveira, T C R M; Abrahão, W M; Farah, S M S S; Luciano, F B; Macedo, R E F

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter strains (C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari) isolated from broiler carcasses processed in the State of Paraná, Brazil. 2. Rates of microbial resistance and susceptibility were assessed by both Disk Diffusion (DD) and Etest (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) techniques. Antibiotics were tested using DD (12 antibiotics) and/or MIC (7 antibiotics) methods. 3. A total of 95.8% of the strains were resistant to at least two agents. In terms of multidrug resistance, 75% of strains were resistant to three or more groups of antibiotics. The highest rates of resistance were detected for cefalotin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and nalidixic acid. A high rate of susceptibility of the strains to erythromycin (95.8%) was found confirming that this is considered the agent of choice for treating campylobacteriosis. Comparison of the microbial resistance and susceptibility, as determined simultaneously by the two methods, found the techniques to be statistically equivalent for 5 out of the 6 antibiotics tested. 4. The results of this study suggest the need for adopting measures to control the use of antibiotics in broiler production to prevent multidrug resistance of Campylobacter strains and reduce the risk of serious human diseases caused by the consumption of contaminated chicken meat.

  4. Carcass traits and meat quality of crossbred Boer goats fed peanut cake as a substitute for soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T M; de Medeiros, A N; Oliveira, R L; Gonzaga Neto, S; Queiroga, R de C R do E; Ribeiro, R D X; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diets of crossbred Boer goats as determined by carcass characteristics and quality and by the fatty acid profile of meat. Forty vaccinated and dewormed crossbred Boer goats were used. Goats had an average age of 5 mo and an average BW of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. Goats were fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate consisting of corn bran, soybean meal, and mineral premix. Peanut cake was substituted for soybean meal at levels of 0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%. Biometric and carcass morphometric measurements of crossbred Boer goats were not affected by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. There was no influence of the replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake on weight at slaughter ( = 0.28), HCW ( = 0.26), cold carcass weight ( = 0.23), noncarcass components of weight ( = 0.71), or muscularity index values ( = 0.11). However, regression equations indicated that there would be a reduction of 18 and 11% for loin eye area and muscle:bone ratio, respectively, between the treatment without peanut cake and the treatment with total soybean meal replacement. The weights and yields of the commercial cuts were not affected ( > 0.05) by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. Replacing soybean meal with peanut cake did not affect the pH ( = 0.79), color index ( > 0.05), and chemical composition ( > 0.05) of the meat (). However, a quadratic trend for the ash content was observed with peanut cake inclusion in the diet ( = 0.09). Peanut cake inclusion in the diet did not affect the concentrations of the sum of SFA ( = 0.29), the sum of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; = 0.29), or the sum of PUFA ( = 0.97) or the SFA:UFA ratio ( = 0.23) in goat meat. However, there was a linear decrease ( = 0.01) in the sum of odd-chain fatty acids in the meat with increasing peanut cake in the diet. Soybean meal replacement with peanut cake did not affect the n-6:n-3 ratio ( = 0.13) or the

  5. Effect of pantothenic acid level in the diet of the finishing heavy pig on carcass and meat quality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Santoro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of vitamin B5 dietary level on carcass and meat quality characteristics in the heavy pig. To this aim, 42 pigs, 21 gilts and 21 barrows, of similar weight and age, evenly divided into 3 groups of 14 subjects each, were fed, from approx. 95 kg live weight (lw till slaughtering (around 165 kg lw, the same basal diet containing either 10 (control, C, or 60 (T1, or 110 ppm (T2 pantothenic acid. At increasing dietary levels of vitamin B5, only numerical improvements of lean meat and lean cuts percentages were observed, whereas total adipose cuts, backfat and jowl percentages decreased (P<0.05. Ham characteristics and meat quality traits, such as colour, pH, intramuscular fat and protein contents, were not affected by the dietary treatment.

  6. Influence of sex and castration on growth performance and carcass quality of crossbred pigs from 2 Large White sire lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, J I; Cámara, L; Berrocoso, J D; López, J P; Mateos, G G; Serrano, M P

    2011-11-01

    In total, 360 pigs slaughtered at 125 kg of BW and destined for the dry-cured industry were used to study the influence of sex and castration [immunocastrated males (IMC), surgically castrated males (CM), and intact females (IF)] in 2 terminal Large White sire lines [Top York (TY) and Tempo (TE)] on growth performance and carcass and meat quality. The female line was Large White × Landrace. The IMC pigs were immunized against gonadotropin-releasing factor (GnRF) with Improvac at 78 (experimental d 16) and 126 (experimental d 64, 48 d before slaughter) d of age. Each of the 6 treatments was replicated 6 times (10 pigs/pen). Through the day of the first Improvac injection (62 to 78 d of age), IMC and IF grew at a slower rate (P ham yields than CM, with IMC being intermediate. Crossbreds from TE sires grew at a faster rate (P ham yield, but less (P ham yield compared with crossbreds from TY sires. Immunocastrated pigs can replace CM for the production of heavy pigs destined for the dry-cured industry. Because of increased carcass weight, crossbreds from TE sires may have an advantage over crossbreds from TY sires.

  7. The effect of sex and age at slaughter on some carcass and meat quality traits of Boer kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaić Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated some carcass and meat quality traits of Boer kids (17 male and 17 female at two different average slaughter ages (83 and 139 days. Jointed cuts of half carcasses arranged from the greatest to the smallest were: hind leg (28.5%, rib and flank (21.2%, shoulder (19.3%, back (8.5%, loin (7.9%, neck (7.6% and chuck (3.4%. Male kids had significantly higher percentage of the neck cuts (p≤0.001 while females had significantly higher percentage of rib and flank cuts (p≤0.05. At higher slaughter ages neck (p≤0.05 and chuck (p≤0.001 percentages significantly decreased and rib and flank (p≤0.001 percentage significantly increased. On average, hind leg had 72.2 % of muscle, 8.6 % of fat and 18.8 % of bone. Female kids had higher muscle and lower bone hind leg content than males (p≤0.01. Hind leg bone content significantly decreased at higher slaughter age (p≤0.01. Meat from male kids displayed significantly higher cie L*(p≤0.001 and b*(p≤0.05 values than females. At higher slaughter age L* values significantly decreased (p≤0.01 while a* and b* values significantly increased (p≤0.001; p≤0.01.

  8. Effects of ractopamine administration and castration method on the response to preslaughter stress and carcass and meat quality in pigs of two Piétrain genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, L M; Bridi, A M; Foury, A; Mormède, P; Weschenfelder, A V; Devillers, N; Bertoloni, W; Faucitano, L

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ractopamine supplementation, castration method, and their interaction on the behavioral and physiological response to preslaughter stress and carcass and meat quality of 2 Piétrain genotypes. A total of 1,488 male pigs (115 ± 5 kg BW) were distributed according to a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The first factor was ractopamine supplementation with 2 groups of pigs (376 and 380 pigs each) receiving 7.5 mg/kg of ractopamine (RAC) or not (NRAC) in their diet during the last 28 d of the finishing period. The second factor was castration method, with 744 surgical castrates (SC) and 744 immunized males (IM), and the third factor was the genotype with 2 crossbreeds containing 50% (genotype A, GA; n = 744) or 25% (genotype B, GB; n = 744) Piétrain genetics. Surgical castration took place at 2 d of age, whereas immunization against gonadotropin-releasing factor (GnRF) was performed through 2 subcutaneous injections of GnRF analog (Improvest, 2 mL) at 10 and 4 wk before slaughter. At loading more vocal stimulation was needed by the handler to drive GB pigs forward through the farm alley (P = 0.01) and RAC-fed GB pigs through the ramp (P = 0.02). Feeding RAC to IM increased the number of fights in lairage compared with SC (P = 0.03). Feeding RAC shortened fighting bouts compared with NRAC pigs (P = 0.05). The SC-GA pigs showed a greater gastrointestinal tract temperature during unloading (P = 0.05) and lairage time (P = 0.03). Blood creatine kinase (CK) concentrations were greater (P = 0.04) in SC compared with IM, and no difference was found in the concentrations of stress hormones in urine collected postmortem. Dressing yield was greater (P = 0.01) in RAC and SC-GB pigs. Carcasses from RAC pigs and IM were leaner than those from NRAC and SC pigs (P ractopamine, as it seems to promote production of lean carcasses without compromising animal welfare and pork quality.

  9. Effects of tomato pomace supplementation on carcass characteristics and meat quality of fattening rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, P G; Gai, F; Rotolo, L; Brugiapaglia, A; Gasco, L

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how a feeding plan characterized by different levels of tomato pomace (TP) supplementation influences the carcass characteristics, the chemical, physical and sensorial characteristics of rabbit meat. 144 weaned crossbred rabbits were divided into three groups of 48 each. The first group was fed a basal diet without TP, while the other two groups were fed the basal diet after replacing part of the diet with TP at 3% and 6%, respectively. There was a significant difference between the experimental groups in terms of live and carcass weights. The meat of rabbits fed on a 6% TP diet exhibited higher yellowness (b*) and Chroma values when compared to others. The saturated fatty acid content in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat decreased significantly with increasing TP inclusion, while polyunsaturated fatty acids increased. Furthermore, our results indicate that a diet integrated with 6% TP could influence positively the overall preference of cooked meat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mapping of QTL on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 12, 14, 15 and X in pigs: characteristics carcass and quality of meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paixao, D.M.; Carneiro, P.L.S.; Paiva, S.R.; Sousa, K.R.S.; Verardo, L.L.; Braccini Neto, J.; Pinto, A.P.G.; Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Nascimento, C.; Périssé, I.V.; Lopes, P.S.; Guimaraes, S.E.F.

    2012-01-01

    The accomplishment of the present study had as objective to map Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated to carcass and quality traits in a F2 pig population developed by mating two Brazilian Piau breed sires with 18 dams from a commercial line (Landrace × Large White × Pietrain). The linkage map

  11. Effect of vaccination against gonadotrophin-releasing factor on growth performance, carcass, meat and fat quality of male Duroc pigs for dry-cured ham production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-I-Furnols, M; Gispert, M; Soler, J; Diaz, M; Garcia-Regueiro, J A; Diaz, I; Pearce, M C

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare production, carcass and meat quality parameters, boar taint compounds and fat composition of green and dry-cured hams, between immunocastrated (IM), surgically castrated (CM) and female (FE) Duroc purebred pigs (n=75, 138.7±8.27kg). Liveweight and fat and muscle thicknesses were measured and average daily gain was calculated during growth. Carcass, meat and fat quality parameters were measured. Immunocastrated grew faster than CM or FE after the second dose of vaccine. IM had the lowest dressing percentage but similar % of ham and carcass lean to FE and CM. The effect of the immunocastration on carcass fatness depended on the location, did not affect fat and meat quality and reduced skatole and androstenone levels. Both in green and dry-cured ham, immunocastration slightly altered FA composition. Thus, Duroc pigs vaccinated with Improvac are suitable for the production of high quality dry-cured ham. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of the β-Adrenergic Agonist Cimaterol on Growth and Carcass Quality of Monozygotic Friesian Young Bulls at Three Developmental Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Sommer, Mario; Klastrup, Signe

    1993-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the effects of the β-adrenergic agonist cimaterol (CIM) on growth and carcass quality of Friesian young bulls at different developmental stages. The study comprised three liveweight groups (WG) each of four pairs of monozygotic twins. The average initial liveweigh...

  13. Assosiations of functional candidate genes derived from gene expression profiles of prenatal porcine muscle issue with meat quality and carcass traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimmers, K.; Murani, E.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Chang, K.C.; Davoli, R.; Merks, J.W.M.; Henne, H.; Costa, da N.; Harlizius, B.; Schellander, K.; Braglia, S.; Wit, de A.A.C.; Cagnazzo, M.; Fontanesi, L.; Prins, D.; Ponsuksili, S.

    2007-01-01

    Ten genes (ANK1, bR10D1, CA3, EPOR, HMGA2, MYPN, NME1, PDGFRA, ERC1, TTN), whose candidacy for meat-quality and carcass traits arises from their differential expression in prenatal muscle development, were examined for association in 1700 performance-tested fattening pigs of commercial purebred and

  14. Evaluation of Tazobactam-Supplemented, Modified Charcoal-Cefoperazone-Deoxycholate Agar for Qualitative Detection of Campylobacter from Chicken Carcass Rinse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Ji; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Jeong, Dong Kwan; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-05-01

    Overgrowth of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) is the most common confounding factor for the isolation of Campylobacter from poultry samples. mCCDA modified by supplementation with tazobactam, an ESBL inhibitor, was evaluated for Campylobacter isolation from chicken carcass rinse with regard to isolation rate and selectivity. In total, 120 whole chicken carcasses purchased from retail stores were rinsed with buffered peptone water enriched with 2× blood-free Bolton broth at 42°C for 48 h and then inoculated onto mCCDA with and without tazobactam supplementation (mCCDA or T-mCCDA) at 42°C for 48 h under microaerobic conditions. Suspect colonies were subcultured and confirmed by colony PCR. Plates with tazobactam exhibited a higher Campylobacter isolation rate (56.7% vs. 30.8%, p Campylobacter, p detection of Campylobacter in chicken carcass rinse.

  15. Effects of active immunization against myostatin on carcass quality and expression of the myostatin gene in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ding-biao; Zhang, Ke-ying; Chen, Dai-wen; Ding, Xue-mei; Yu, Bing

    2009-10-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of active immunization against myostatin on the titer of myostatin antibody, carcass evaluation, activity of creatine kinase and the expression of the myostatin gene in pigs. Eighteen pigs were allotted into three groups (six pigs per group), and pigs in treatment 1, 2 and 3 were immunized with physiological saline, 1 mg or 4 mg myostatin per pig, respectively. Six pigs were killed by electrical stunning followed by exsanguination at BW of 100 kg. The results indicated that the titer of myostatin antibody was increased in treated groups compared to the control group on day 42 (P activity of pigs treated with 1 mg and 4 mg myostatin was lower than the control group. The immunization of myostatin significantly decreased the myostatin gene expression levels in muscle. It was concluded that optimal active immunization against myostatin could increase the content of myostatin antibody, suppress the activity of creatine kinase and the expression of myostatin gene, and therefore improve the carcass lean percentage for pigs.

  16. Direct and social genetic effects on body weight at 270 days and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostellato, R; Sartori, C; Bonfatti, V; Chiarot, G; Carnier, P

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate covariance components for BW at 270 d (BW270) and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs using models accounting for social effects and to compare the ability of such models to fit the data relative to models ignoring social interactions. Phenotypic records were from 9,871 pigs sired by 293 purebred boars mated to 456 crossbred sows. Piglets were born and reared at the same farm and randomly assigned at 60 d of age to groups (6.1 pigs per group on average) housed in finishing pens, each having an area of 6 m(2). The average additive genetic relationship among group mates was 0.11. Pigs were slaughtered at 277 ± 3 d of age and 169.7 ± 13.9 kg BW in groups of nearly 70 animals each. Four univariate animal models were compared: a basic model (M1) including only direct additive genetic effects, a model (M2) with nonheritable social group (pen) effects in addition to effects in M1, a model (M3) accounting for litter effects in addition to M2, and a model (M4) accounting for social genetic effects in addition to effects in M3. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of covariance components were obtained for BW270; carcass backfat depth; carcass lean meat content (CLM); iodine number (IOD); and linoleic acid content (LIA) of raw ham subcutaneous fat; subcutaneous fat depth in the proximity of semimembranosus muscle (SFD1) and quadriceps femoris muscle (SFD2); and linear scores for ham round shape (RS), subcutaneous fat (SF), and marbling. Likelihood ratio tests indicated that, for all traits, M2 fit the data better than M1 and that M3 was superior to M2 except for SFD1 and SFD2. Model M4 was significantly better than M3 for BW270 (P quality traits ranged from 6.8 (RS) to 11.2% (SF). Direct and social genetic effects on BW270 were uncorrelated, whereas there was a negative genetic covariance between direct and social effects on CLM, IOD, RS, and SF, which reduced the total heritable variance. This variance, measured relative

  17. Growth performance, dry matter and nitrogen digestibilities, serum profile, and carcass and meat quality of pigs with distinct genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, J; Chiba, L I; Kuhlers, D L; Frobish, L T; Nadarajah, K; McElhenney, W H

    2003-05-01

    We investigated the effect of distinct genotypes on growth performance, DM and N digestibilities, serum metabolite and hormonal profiles, and carcass and meat quality of pigs. Eight control-line and eight select-line pigs with an equal number of gilts and castrated males per genotype were chosen from the group of pigs subjected to selection for lean growth efficiency. Pigs were housed individually and allowed ad libitum access to common grower, finisher 1, and finisher 2 diets when they reached approximately 20, 50, and 80 kg, respectively, and water throughout the study. Although genotype had no effect on growth performance during the finisher 2 phase and overall, select-line pigs grew faster and more efficiently (P meat color (P sustainable pig production.

  18. Association of N-terminal domain polymorphisms of the porcine glucocorticoid receptor with carcass composition and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyer, Henry; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus; Murani, Eduard

    2014-02-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a ubiquitously acting transcription factor that is responsible for mediating the physiological response to stress and adaptation to environmental conditions. Genetic variation of a GR gene (NR3C1) may therefore contribute to multiple phenotypic alterations and influence relevant traits of animal production. Here, we examined effects of two non-synonymous mutations of the porcine NR3C1, leading to amino acid exchanges p.Glu13Asp (c.39A>C) and p.Val19Leu (c.55G>C) in the N-terminal domain of the GR, on meat quality and carcass composition. In addition, we explored their influence on transcriptional activity of GR in vitro. A commercial crossbreed Pietrain × (German Large White × German Landrace) herd (n = 545) in which genotypes and relevant traits had been collected was used to perform the association analysis. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.55G>C was significantly associated with conductivity and meat color scores. These effects were highly consistent considering the physiological relationship between these traits. Association analysis of SNP c.39A>C also revealed significant effects on closely connected meat quality traits. In addition, SNP c.55G>C showed association with carcass traits, mainly those related to muscle deposition. The molecular mechanism of action of both amino acid substitutions remains obscure because neither showed significant influence on transcriptional activity of GR. Our study emphasizes NR3C1 as an important candidate gene for muscle-related traits in pigs, but further work is necessary to clarify the molecular background of the identified associations. © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  19. Road transport of cattle, swine and poultry in North America and its impact on animal welfare, carcass and meat quality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Faucitano, L; Dadgar, S; Shand, P; González, L A; Crowe, T G

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews the effects of road transport on the welfare, carcass and meat quality of cattle, swine and poultry in North America (NA). The main effects of loading density, trailer microclimate, transport duration, animal size and condition, management factors including bedding, ventilation, handling, facilities, and vehicle design are summarized by species. The main effects listed above all have impacts on welfare (stress, health, injury, fatigue, dehydration, core body temperature, mortality and morbidity) and carcass and meat quality (shrink, bruising, pH, color defects and water losses) to varying degrees. It is clear that the effect of road transport is a multi-factorial problem where a combination of stressors rather than a single factor is responsible for the animal's well-being and meat quality post transport. Animals least fit for transport suffer the greatest losses in terms of welfare and meat quality while market ready animals (in particular cattle and pigs) in good condition appear to have fewer issues. More research is needed to identify the factors or combination of factors with the greatest negative impacts on welfare and meat quality relative to the species, and their size, age and condition under extreme environmental conditions. Future research needs to focus on controlled scientific assessments, under NA conditions, of varying loading densities, trailer design, microclimate, and handling quality during the transport process. Achieving optimal animal well-being, carcass and meat quality will entirely depend on the quality of the animal transport process. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Data Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in assigning data quality indicators to food composition databases is expressed at a global level. The quality of analytical data needs to be determined as part of the data acquisition process. Data quality evaluation procedures developed by the USDA (Exler 1983) and recently refined and ...

  1. Software component quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  2. Consistency statistics and genetic parameters for taste panel assessed meat quality traits and their relationship with carcass quality traits in a commercial population of Angus-sired beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, J L; Matika, O; Williams, J L; Worton, H; Wiener, P; Bishop, S C

    2010-01-01

    Sensory traits, such as juiciness and tenderness, are known to be important to the consumer and thus will influence their consumption of meat, specifically beef. These traits are difficult to measure and often require the use of taste panels to assess the complex parameters involved in the eating experience. Such panels are potentially a large source of measurement error, which may reduce the effectiveness of breeding programmes based on the data they generate. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of such taste panel-derived sensory traits as well as calculating genetic parameters and residual correlations for these traits along with a further set of traditional carcass quality traits. The study examined a sample of 443 Aberdeen Angus-cross animals collected from 14 breeder-finisher farms throughout Scotland. To assess the quality of the taste panel measurements, three consistency statistics were calculated: (i) panel-member consistency, i.e. the extent to which an individual panel member varied in their scoring for a given trait over the period of the experiment; (ii) repeatability, i.e. the consistency with which an individual panel member was able to score a trait on repeated samples from the same animal; and (iii) reproducibility, i.e. the extent to which taste panel members agreed with each other when scoring a trait. These consistency statistics were moderately high, particularly for panel-member consistency and reproducibility, with values ranging from 0.48 to 0.81 and 0.43 to 0.73 respectively. Estimated heritabilities were low for most of the sensory taste-panel-evaluated traits where the maximum value was 0.16 for overall liking. Residual correlations were high between many of the closely related sensory traits, although few significant correlations were found between the carcass quality data and meat quality traits.

  3. Influence of sugar beet pulp on feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass quality and gut health of fattening pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laitat, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Dietary fiber is largely used in pig production but some contradictions appear in the literature regarding the effects on performance and health. Objectives. This paper aims to contribute to the clarification of the effects of a diet rich in sugar beet pulp on animal behavior, growth performance, carcass quality and gut health of fattening pigs. Method. Two successive batches of 24 fattening pigs were each divided into two groups fed ad libitum either a standard diet based on cereals (STD, 19% NSP [non-starch-polysaccharides] or a fibrous diet based on 23% sugar beet pulp (HFD, 31% NSP. Results. Pigs activity rate and feeder occupancy duration were increased by 57% and 165% for group fed HFD, respectively (P < 0.05. The fecal bacteria counts showed increases with HFD for Lactobacillus (10.21 vs 9.84 log10 of cfu·g-1 of feces dry matter, P < 0.05 and Bifidobacterium (9.49 vs 8.88, P < 0.01 but decreases for Enterobacteriaceae (4.85 vs 5.97, P < 0.001. Reductions of the average daily gain (788 vs 876 g per day, P < 0.001 and the dressing percentage (75.7 vs 78.9%, P < 0.001 were observed with HFD. Gastric lesion score was decreased with HFD (0.82 vs 1.55, P < 0.05. For pigs fed HFD, the proportion of surface area occupied by goblet cells was increased in the jejunum (10.06 vs 7.99%, P < 0.01 and the number of CD3 lymphocytes was increased in the colon (1.24 vs 0.90·mm-², P < 0.05. Conclusions. HFD contributes to strengthen the gut health of fattening pigs, but it impairs growth performance and carcass traits.

  4. Effects of dried cassava pulp as a main source of energy in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Yimmongkol

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding dried cassava pulp (DCP as a main source of energy at a higher level in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle. Fifteen Brahman-native crossbred young bulls at an average age of 2 years and initial weight of 277±10.36 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups in a completely randomized trial. The animals received either control concentrate(CTRL, concentrate in which cassava meal was replaced by DCP at 50 (DCP50 or 100% (DCP100 by weight. Experimental diets were fed to the animals ad libitum and supplemented with 3 kg of para grass (Brachiaria mutica. The feeding period was 150 days. The results indicated that feedlot cattle on CTRL showed the best feedlot performance and carcass quality as compared to the other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05. The DCP50 had highereconomic return compared to the CTRL and DCP100, while DCP100 can be potentially incorporated into the ration when the cassava price is too high to be used. Carcass composition (slaughtering weight, carcass weight, carcass percentage, lean weight and lean percentage of the experimental feedlot cattle were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100, respectively. Some beef eating qualities (shear force, tenderness, juiciness, meat flavor and overall satisfaction were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100 total, respectively.

  5. Live animal and carcass characteristics of South African indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sex, age and pre-slaughter conditioning on live animal, carcass dimensions and carcass composition were evaluated. The goats were large with live weight, carcass weight and carcass dimensions in the range of the large breeds of southern Africa. They had a high lean and low fat content. Intact males were ...

  6. Effect of diet saturation on growth performance, carcass characteristics and fat quality of heavy pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, A; Daza, A; Rey, A I; López-Bote, C J

    2010-08-01

    Twenty-four castrated male (Duroc × Large Withe × Landrace) with an average weight of 69.4 kg were randomly distributed and located in individual cages and given the experimental diets. Diets were provided ad libitum and were formulated containing three levels of palm oil and hydropalm (hydrogenated palm stearine): 4% and 0% (low saturation), 2% and 2% (moderate saturation) and 0% and 4% (high saturation). Pigs were slaughtered at a local slaughterhouse with an average weight of 129.1 kg. The dietary treatment had no significant influence on growth performances and carcass characteristics. The diet saturation led to an increase of C18:0 and ΣSFA (saturated fatty acids) proportions and to a reduction of C18:1 n-9, C18:2 n-6 and ΣPUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) proportions and in subcutaneous backfat outer and inner layers. The dietary treatment affected significantly the melting point of subcutaneous backfat outer layer but had no significant influence on the melting point of the subcutaneous backfat inner layer. However, a linear effect of C18:0 proportion of subcutaneous backfat outer and inner layers on the melting point was observed. Dietary treatment had no significant effect on the main fatty acids pattern of intramuscular neutral and polar lipids from Longissimus dorsi muscle. In neutral lipids of liver a dietary influence (p palm oil and 4% hydropalm than in those given the diet with 4% of palm oil and 0% hydropalm.

  7. How does the dietary cottonseed hull affect the carcass characteristics and meat quality of young bulls finished in a high-concentrate diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Emanuel Eiras

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of diets composed by cottonseed hull and meat aging on carcass characteristics and meat quality from young bulls fed on a high-concentrate system. Thirty crossbred bulls were assigned in a complete randomized experimental factorial design with three diets (CH21: cottonseed hull 210 g kg-1on a DM basis, CH27: cottonseed hull 270 g kg-1on a DM basis and CH33: cottonseed hull 330 g kg-1on a DM basis and different aging times (24 hours and 3, 7 and 14 days. Meat from CH27 diets presented smaller LM moisture content (p < 0.05. Total lipids were smaller in CH33 diet (p <0.05. At 24 hours, CH21 diet presented smaller LM cooking loss than other diets. The increasing aging time reduced the shear force (p < 0.001 on the LM. Meat from CH27 diet presented the highest luminosity (p < 0.05 and yellowness values (p < 0.001. Three or seven aging days presented smaller values of LM luminosity. Likewise, the increasing aging time presented greater (p < 0.05 yellowness within the LM. Lipid oxidation was lower from CH21 diet (p < 0.001. The fatty acid composition on LM was similar among diets. The use of cottonseed hull could be useful strategies to improve the meat quality and lean beef production.

  8. Impact of dietary energy level and ractopamine on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, R B; Wiegand, B R; Ritter, M J; Allee, G L; Carr, S N

    2011-11-01

    A total of 54 finishing barrows (initial BW = 99.8 ± 5.1 kg; PIC C22 × 337) reared in individual pens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 levels of ractopamine (0 and 7.4 mg/kg) and 3 levels of dietary energy (high, 3,537; medium, 3,369; and low, 3,317 kcal of ME/kg) to determine the effects of dietary ractopamine and various energy levels on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of finishing pigs. High-energy diets were corn-soybean-meal-based with 4% added fat; medium-energy diets were corn-soybean meal based with 0.5% added fat; and low-energy diets were corn-soybean meal based with 0.5% added fat and 15% wheat middlings. Diets within each ractopamine level were formulated to contain the same standardized ileal digestible Lys:ME (0 mg/kg, 1.82; and 7.4 mg/kg, 2.65 g/Mcal of ME). Individual pig BW and feed disappearance were recorded at the beginning and conclusion (d 21) of the study. On d 21, pigs were slaughtered for determination of carcass characteristics and meat quality. No ractopamine × energy level interactions (P > 0.10) were observed for any response criteria. Final BW (125.2 vs. 121.1 kg), ADG (1.2 vs. 1.0 kg/d), and G:F (0.31 vs. 0.40) were improved (P ractopamine diets. Feeding of the low-energy diet reduced (P = 0.001) final BW and ADG compared with the high- and medium-energy diets. Gain:feed was reduced (P = 0.005) when the medium-energy diets were fed compared with the high-energy diets. Additionally, G:F was reduced (P = 0.002) when the low-energy diets were compared with the high- and medium-energy diets. Feeding ractopamine diets increased (P ractopamine diets. The feeding of low-energy diets reduced (P = 0.001) HCW when compared with the high- and medium-energy diets and reduced (P = 0.024) 10th-rib backfat when compared with the high- and medium-energy diet. These data indicate that feeding ractopamine diets improved growth performance and carcass

  9. Strategies to promote farm animal welfare in Latin America and their effects on carcass and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Mateus J R Paranhos; Huertas, Stella M; Gallo, Carmen; Dalla Costa, Osmar A

    2012-11-01

    Several initiatives, including research and development, increasing stakeholders' awareness and application of legislation and recommendation, have been carried out in Latin America to promote animal welfare and meat quality. Most activities focused on the impact of pre-slaughter conditions (facilities, equipment and handling procedures) on animal welfare and meat quality. The results are encouraging; data from Brazil, Chile and Uruguay showed that the application of the improved pre-slaughter handling practices reduced aggressive handling and the incidence of bruised carcasses at slaughter in cattle and pigs. These outcomes stimulated some to apply animal welfare concepts in livestock handling within the meat production chain as shown by the increasing demand for personnel training on the best. To attend this demand is important to expand local studies on farm animal welfare and to set up (or maintain) an efficient system for knowledge transfer to all stakeholders in the Latin America meat production chains. However, it is clear that to promote the long-term progress in this field is important to deliver practical solutions, assuring that they match the technical and financial conditions of those who are the target of training programs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ractopamine supplementation improves leanness and carcass yield, minimally affecting pork quality in immunocastrated pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Antonio Dalla Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to determine the combining effects of feeding up to 15 mg kg−1 ractopamine (RAC to physically castrated (PC pigs or those injected with an anti-GnRF vaccine (IC, on growth performance during suckling, weaning, growing and finishing phases. Out of a total of 1,160 male piglets, 50 % were surgically castrated at age 7, while 50 % underwent immunization against GnRF on the 103rd and 136th day of life. A completely randomized design, with two treatments (PC and IC, was used from the 1st until the 60th day of life. Afterwards, 792 animals, PC and IC, selected according to overall average weight (23.3 ± 0.69 kg were allotted based on a completely randomized block design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments (castration categories × RAC levels with 9 replications (11 animals per main combination effect. IC growing pigs improved feed conversion due to lower average daily feed intake and higher average daily gain (ADG. During the finishing phase, both RAC and immunocastration increased body weight, but the effects were independent. RAC, on its own improved ADG and feed conversion. However, pigs fed 10 mg kg−1 RAC had higher blood lactate compared to those fed lower levels, suggesting that these animals were more susceptible to stress. Muscle depth was influenced only by RAC, whereas fat thickness was lower for IC. Lean meat increased and fat decreased in the shoulder and belly of IC; RAC had a positive effect on belly lean meat only. Either immunocastration or RAC inclusion (at least 5 mg kg−1 promoted muscle gain and fat reduction in pig carcass, adding value to pork.

  11. Carcass characteristics and meat quality traits of the Padovana chicken breed, a commercial line, and their cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the Padovana Camosciata local chicken breed (PC; n=59, the slow-growing line Berlanda- Gaina (BG; n=62, and their cross (BGxPC; n=57 for carcass and meat quality features. Animals were reared under the same experimental conditions and slaughtered at 3 different ages. An analysis of variance was performed on carcass and meat traits using a linear model that included fixed effects of genotype, sex, age at slaughter, and interactions between them. The PC local breed was approximately 1 kg lighter (P<0.001 at slaughter and exhibited greater dressing percentage (+1.50%; P<0.05 than BG. Breast skin of PC was bluer (-2.74; P<0.001, and breast muscle was darker (-2.65; P<0.001 and redder (+0.48; P<0.001 than that of BG. The pH (+0.16; P<0.001, thawing (+0.90%; P<0.01 and cooking (+2.28%; P<0.001 losses determined on breast muscle were higher for PC than BG. Crossbred animals performed better than the average of BG and PC chickens for breast weight (+22.81 g; P<0.01 and dressing percentage (+1.38%; P<0.05. Breast skin of BGxPC was darker (-1.74; P<0.05, less red (-0.23; P<0.05, and bluer (-1.54; P<0.01 than the average of BG and PC, and breast muscle was more yellow (+0.64; P<0.05 for BGxPC. Cooking losses were lower (-0.99%; P<0.05 for crossbred than the average of BG and PC chickens. Results confirmed the specificity of meat characteristics of PC local breed and demonstrated the potential benefit of crossbreeding to improve production traits of PC breed without compromising the peculiar quality of its meat.

  12. Carcass and meat quality of finished and non-finished Limousin heifers from alpine livestock systems differing in altitudinal origin of the forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangnat, Isabelle D M; Kreuzer, Michael; McCormick, Andrea Clavijo; Leiber, Florian; Berard, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Effects of the alpine origin of the forage and of finishing on carcass and beef quality were quantified by modelling different alpine livestock system alternatives. Thirty-five Limousin heifers, initially weighing 383 ± 45 kg, were fed fresh grass at 400 or 2000 m above sea level, or a 1:1 mixture of alpine grass and lowland grass hay at 2000 m. After 9 weeks, the six heaviest and oldest animals per group were slaughtered. The remaining animals were finished for 8 weeks on a silage-concentrate diet in the lowlands to similar age and body weight as the first slaughtered group. Carcass and meat quality (M. longissimus thoracis) were assessed in various respects. The average daily gains achieved were of about 600 g/d and similar between forage-type groups. Dressing percentage was 53.5% in the alpine and 57.2% in the lowland group. Carcass conformation and fat cover scores did not differ between forage-type groups. The meat from the alpine groups had greater ultimate pH and smaller redness, yellowness and protein contents. Still, these differences were of minor practical relevance. There was no forage-type effect on water-holding capacity and shear force of the meat. The alpine systems enhanced the proportion of α-linolenic acid in intramuscular fat and decreased the levels of some volatile compounds in perirenal fat. Finishing resulted in compensatory growth, especially in the animals previously fed lowland grass. There was a trend for the finished compared with the non-finished groups towards greater carcass fat cover and intramuscular fat content. Additionally, ultimate pH was smaller and cooking loss was greater with than without finishing. Meat colour differences were also observed. Shear force was not affected by finishing. The finished animals had a smaller α-linolenic acid proportion in the intramuscular fat. In conclusion, the forage type had small effects on carcass and meat quality. Finishing did not substantially improve carcass and meat quality. The

  13. Performance and carcass characteristics of Yankasa ram fed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... designed to evaluate the performance and carcass quality of Yankasa rams fed with varied levels of biscuit waste mixed with L. leucocephala as an alternative feed ingredient to maize and wheat offal mixture. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Preparation of experimental diets. Biscuit waste meal (BWM) was ...

  14. Physiological response and carcass and meat quality of suckling lambs in relation to transport time and stocking density during transport by road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fuente, J; Sánchez, M; Pérez, C; Lauzurica, S; Vieira, C; González de Chávarri, E; Díaz, M T

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of stocking density and transport time on physiological responses and meat quality, 72 male suckling lambs were transported by road to the slaughterhouse at three different stocking densities (0.12, 0.20 or 0.25 m2/lamb) and two transport times (5 h or 30 min). Blood samples were collected pre-transport at the farm and after unloading in the slaughterhouse to measure levels of cortisol, creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). After slaughter, the weights of the hot carcass, liver and spleen were recorded and pH in Musculus longisimus thoracis et lumborum (L), Musculus semitendinosus (ST) and Musculus psoas major (PM) were determined. Colour, water-holding capacity (WHC), texture and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values were measured in samples of L, at 24 h post mortem and after 5 days of ageing. Cortisol and LDH were higher in suckling lambs transported for 30 min than those transported for 5 h. Stocking density did not affect blood parameters studied. Transport time significantly affected some carcass quality parameters, but stocking density had no significant effect. Suckling lambs transported for 5 h had lower liver weights and dressing percentages than those transported for 30 min. Transport time influenced pH values, with lambs subjected to the longer journey showing the lowest pH at 0 h in the three muscles studied, with the lowest final pH in L and PM. The PM lambs transported at high density (0.12 m2/lamb) had the lowest pH at 24 h. Transport time and stocking density did not greatly affect colour and texture parameters. The meat from lambs transported for 30 min had higher WHC than meat from lambs transported for 5 h. Animals transported for longer journeys showed higher lipid oxidation after 5 days of ageing than those transported for 30 min. Loading and initial transport caused significant stress response in suckling lambs, that stress response was reduced over the time course of the journey.

  15. Effects of the ratio of unsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid on the growth performance, carcass and meat quality of finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandee Tartrakoon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects on finishing pigs (80–100 kg BW fed diets supplemented with oil sources containing different ratios of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (UFA:SFA ratio were evaluated in 15 barrows and 15 gilts (Duroc × Large White × Landrace. Three experimental diets were evaluated using a randomized complete block design, with broken rice, soybean meal and rice bran as the main feedstuffs in the control diet. Diets 2 and 3 consisted of the control diet supplemented with 3% oil, with UFA:SFA ratios of 2.5:1 and 5:1, respectively. Overall, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05 found in the average daily gain (ADG of the pigs fed the treatment diets; however, the pigs fed the control diet and diet 3 had better (P  0.05 among the treatment groups with regard to the carcass quality of the pigs; however, it was found that the gilts had greater (P < 0.01 loin eye areas than the barrows fed diets 2 and 3 and the loin eye area of pig fed diet 2 was the largest (P < 0.05. In the case of the meat quality parameters, it was clearly found that the pigs fed the control diet had a greater (P < 0.05 lightness (L∗ in the meat colour, and the lowest cooking loss was found in the pigs fed the diet supplemented with fat containing the UFA:SFA ratio of 5:1. Overall, the dietary treatment did not significantly affect the drip loss, thawing loss and shear force of the pork. In conclusion, the supplementation of oil with UFA:SFA ratios of 2.5:1 and 5:1 has the potential to improve pork quality.

  16. Interactive effects of dietary ractopamine HCl and L-carnitine on finishing pigs: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, B W; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Dritz, S S; Owen, K Q; Woodworth, J C; Sulabo, R C

    2013-07-01

    Three experiments using 1,356 pigs (C22 × 336 PIC) were conducted to determine the interactive effects of dietary L-carnitine and ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing pigs. Experiments were arranged as factorials with main effects of L-carnitine and RAC; L-carnitine levels were 0, 25, or 50 mg/kg in Exp. 1 and 2 and 0 or 50 mg/kg in Exp. 3, and RAC levels of 0, 5, or 10 mg/kg in Exp. 1 and 0 or 10 mg/kg in Exp. 2 and 3. Dietary L-carnitine was fed from 38 kg to slaughter (109 and 118 kg in Exp. 1 and 3, respectively) or for 4 wk before slaughter (109 kg in Exp. 2). Ractopamine HCl was fed for 4 wk in all experiments. Exp. 1 and 2 were conducted at university research facilities (2 pigs per pen), and Exp. 3 was conducted in a commercial research barn (23 pigs per pen). In Exp. 1, an L-carnitine × RAC interaction (P combination with RAC.

  17. Association of PPARγ2 polymorphisms with carcass and meat quality traits in a Pietrain x Jinhua F2 population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The PPARγ2 gene is a key regulator of both proliferation and preadipocyte differentiation in mammals. Herein its genotype and allele frequencies were analyzed using PCR-SSCP in eight pig breeds (N = 416. Two kinds of polymorphisms of the PPARγ2 gene were detected, including a previously reported shift SNP A177G (Met59Val in exon 1 and a novel silent mutation G876A in exon 5. The results revealed that European pig breeds carry a higher allele A frequency at the A177G locus and a fixed GG genotype at the G876A locus. Allele A at the G876A locus was only found in Jinhua pigs. The association between haplotype (A177G/G876A and carcass and meat quality traits was analyzed in a Pietrain x Jinhua F2 population (N = 248. The PPARγ2 gene was found to be significantly associated with backfat thickness at the shoulder (p < 0.05, 6-7th ribs (p < 0.01, last rib (p < 0.01, gluteus medius (p <0.05 and ham weight (p < 0.01. Significant effects of different haplotypes on ham weight and backfat thickness at the 6-7th ribs, last rib, and gluteus medius were also observed.

  18. SID tryptophan levels and B6 vitamin supplementation do not change blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and meat quality of barrows (70-100kg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilha, L D; Huepa, L M D; Fachinello, M R; Pozza, M S S; Vasconcellos, R S; Bonagurio, L P; Marcato, S M; Pozza, P C

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of standardized ileal digestible (SID) tryptophan and B6 on blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and longissimus lumborum quality of barrows (70-100kg). Sixty-four crossbred barrows averaging 70.77±2.07kg were distributed in a 4×2 factorial with four SID tryptophan levels (0.130, 0.155, 0.180, and 0.205%) and two B6 levels (1 and 5mg/kg) in eight replicates of one animal each. The meat lightness degree answered linearly (P=0.015) to SID tryptophan levels and the shear force answered quadratically (P=0.050), with estimates of a higher value (31.67N) at 0.163% SID tryptophan. Although B6 showed positive effects (Ptryptophan requirement for barrows (70-100kg) was not higher than 0.130% (4.07g/day) and did not change due to B6. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. THE EFFECT OF SAUROPUS ANDROGYNUS LEAVES EXTRACT PLUS TURMERIC POWDER ON FAT DEPOSITION, CARCASS QUALITY AND BLOOD PROFILE IN BROILERS FED LOW PROTEIN DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Santoso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of Sauropus androgynus leavesextract (SALE plus turmeric powder (TP on carcass quality and blood profile in broilers fed lowprotein diets. Sixty broilers aged 14 days were divided to 5 treatment groups as follows: 1 Broilers fed19% protein diet without SALE plus TP as control (P0; 2 Broilers fed 17% protein diet supplementedto 4.5 g SALE/kg diet plus 0.5% TP (P1; 3 Broilers fed 17% protein diet supplemented to 4.5 gSALE/kg diet plus 1% TP (P2; 4 Broilers fed 15% protein diet supplemented to 4.5 g SALE/kg dietplus 0.5% TP (P3 and; 5 Broilers fed 15% protein diet supplemented to 4.5 g SALE/kg diet plus 1%TP (P4. Supplementation of SALE plus TP significantly affected body weight gain, feed intake, proteinintake, thigh meat haemorrhage and fat deposition (P<0.05. No significantly different was observed oncarcass odor, shank color, breast meat haemorrhage, leg and breast weight, meat cholesterol, fatty liverscore and tocixity (P>0.05. In conclusion suplementation of SALE plus TP had no beneficial effect onreducing fat deposition in broilers fed low protein diets, but it reduced blood uric acid but increasedblood glucose concentration.

  20. Effect of time interval between the second Improvest® dose and slaughter and corn dried distillers grains with solubles feeding strategies on carcass composition, primal cutout, and pork quality of immunologically castrated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, E K; Mellencamp, M A; Johnston, L J; Cox, R B; Shurson, G C

    2017-05-01

    Effects of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) feeding strategies on carcass composition, primal cutout, and lean quality of immunologically castrated (IC; n=863) pigs were evaluated, and consisted of: 1) corn-soybean meal (CS) diet (PCon); 2) CS+40% DDGS (NCon); 3) CS+40, 30, 20, or 10% DDGS fed in phases 1 to 4, respectively (SD); or 4) CS+40% DDGS fed in phase 1 to 3 and CS in phase 4 (WD). All pigs received the first dose of Improvest® at 11weeks. of age, and the second dose was administered at either 9, 7, or 5weeks. before slaughter at 24weeks. of age. The SD and WD improved carcass dressing percentage and resulted in intermediate primal cut yields and pork loin quality compared with pigs fed PCon and NCon. Increasing the time interval between second dose of Improvest® and slaughter increased adipose tissue accretion but did not affect lean quality of pork. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Carcass characteristics, non-carcass components and meat quality of Nellore cattle in a feedlot and fed with different corn hybridsCaracterísticas de carcaça, de componentes não carcaça e qualidade da carne de bovinos nelore em confinamento e alimentados com diferentes híbridos de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Prado Rosolem

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate carcass characteristics, non-carcass components and meat quality of Nellore cattle in feedlot and fed with different corn hybrids (flint, semi-flint and semi-dent in the diet. Twenty-seven animals averaging 350 ± 24 kg of body weight and 24 months of age were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments (T, where, T1- diet with flint corn (TDFC, T2- diet with semi-flint corn (TDSFC and T3- diet with semi-dent corn (TDSDC, with 9 replicates per treatment. The animals were fed ad libitum twice daily (at 8:00 am and 4:00pm with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diet, with 30% of sugar cane bagasse and 70% concentrate (88% maize, 8% soybean meal, 3% mineral and vitamin supplement and 1% urea for 95 days (14 days of adaptation and 3 experimental periods of 27 days each. The animals were weighed at the beginning of the experiment and after each period of 27 days, always in a fasting period of 16 hours. At the end of the experiment, the animals were slaughtered in commercial slaughterhouse, measuring non-carcass components (weight of blood, feet, hide, head, tail, organs, fat removed for cleaning, gastrointestinal tract (pharynx, esophagus, stomach and intestines and carcass characteristics (hot carcass, cold carcass yield, carcass length, leg length, thigh thickness, perimeter of leg, arm length, arm thickness, arm perimeter, front weight, rear weight and conformation. Sample was collected from HH joint for evaluation of the percentage of bone, muscle and fat and subsequent use of the Longissimus dorsi muscle for evaluation of fat cover thickness, marbling, Longissimus muscle área (LMA, degree of finish, water loss, pH, beef color, fat color and proximate analysis of meat. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 between treatments for the evaluated parameters for carcass characteristics and non-carcass components. For the parameters of meat quality, there was

  2. Effect of betaine and arginine in lysine-deficient diets on growth, carcass traits, and pork quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, M S; Alfaia, C M; Costa, P; Lopes, P A; Martins, S V; Lemos, J P C; Moreira, O; Santos-Silva, J; Bessa, R J B; Prates, J A M

    2015-10-01

    Forty entire male pigs from a commercial crossbreed (Duroc × Large White × Landrace) were used to investigate the individual or combined effects of betaine and Arg supplementation in Lys-deficient diets on growth performance, carcass traits, and pork quality. Pigs with 59.9 ± 1.65 kg BW were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments ( = 8). The 5 dietary treatments were normal Lys and CP diet (0.51% Lys and 16% CP; control), reduced Lys and CP diet (0.35% Lys and 13% CP), reduced Lys and CP diet with betaine supplementation (0.33%), reduced Lys and CP diet with Arg supplementation (1.5%), and reduced Lys and CP diet with betaine and Arg supplementation (0.33% betaine and 1.5% Arg). Pigs were slaughtered at 92.7 ± 2.54 kg BW. The Lys-deficient diets (-35% Lys) increased intramuscular fat (IMF) content by 25% ( = 0.041) and meat juiciness by 12% ( = 0.041) but had a negative effect on growth performance ( pork acceptability. Arginine supplementation also increased ( = 0.003) meat tenderness. Differences in fatty acid composition of pork were not detected among dietary treatment groups. However, oleic acid was positively correlated ( meat. Data confirm that dietary CP reduction enhances pork eating quality but negatively affects pigs' growth performance. Moreover, it is suggested that betaine and Arg supplementation of Lys-deficient diets does not further increase IMF content but improves some pork sensory traits, including overall acceptability.

  3. Evaluation of image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, M.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation outlines in viewgraph format a general approach to the evaluation of display system quality for aviation applications. This approach is based on the assumption that it is possible to develop a model of the display which captures most of the significant properties of the display. The display characteristics should include spatial and temporal resolution, intensity quantizing effects, spatial sampling, delays, etc. The model must be sufficiently well specified to permit generation of stimuli that simulate the output of the display system. The first step in the evaluation of display quality is an analysis of the tasks to be performed using the display. Thus, for example, if a display is used by a pilot during a final approach, the aesthetic aspects of the display may be less relevant than its dynamic characteristics. The opposite task requirements may apply to imaging systems used for displaying navigation charts. Thus, display quality is defined with regard to one or more tasks. Given a set of relevant tasks, there are many ways to approach display evaluation. The range of evaluation approaches includes visual inspection, rapid evaluation, part-task simulation, and full mission simulation. The work described is focused on two complementary approaches to rapid evaluation. The first approach is based on a model of the human visual system. A model of the human visual system is used to predict the performance of the selected tasks. The model-based evaluation approach permits very rapid and inexpensive evaluation of various design decisions. The second rapid evaluation approach employs specifically designed critical tests that embody many important characteristics of actual tasks. These are used in situations where a validated model is not available. These rapid evaluation tests are being implemented in a workstation environment.

  4. Effect of chestnuts level in the formulation of the commercial feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality of Celta pig breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesús, C. De; Domínguez, R.; Cantalapiedra, J.; Iglesias, A.; Lorenzo, J.M.

    2016-11-01

    The effect of including chestnuts in the formulation of the feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality from 24 castrated males Celta pigs was studied. The inclusion of 15% of chestnut (CH15) improved (p<0.01) the carcass (118 vs. about 104 kg) and live weights (149 vs. 133-139 kg). Killing out percentage was also better for chestnuts groups than for control group. With regards the morphometric parameters, there were no statistically significant (p>0.05) differences except for the carcass length and ham length, for which the CH15 group proved to be the group with the longest sizes. The diet did not affect the physicochemical properties (colour parameters, water holding capacity and shear force) of longissimus dorsi muscle. The composition of some fatty acids of the longissimus dorsi muscle was affected by diet. The total saturated (35-38%) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (8-10%) did not present differences. However, the increase of chestnut in the diet increased (p<0.05) the monounsaturated fatty acids in intramuscular fat (57% in CH25 vs. 53% in control and CH15). Within monounsaturated fatty acids, the C18:1n9 was the most influenced of the diet. Therefore, the lower content of protein and the higher amounts of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 in the chestnut could be explaining the greater content of C18:1n9 in muscle of chestnut-fed animals. The main conclusion is that including chestnuts in the diet would allow reduce production costs with no effect or even improving carcass measurements and meat quality. (Author)

  5. Effect of advancing the supply of finisher diet on growth performances and carcass and pork quality of heavy barrows and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Belloch, J; Sanz, M A; Guada, J A; Latorre, M A

    2017-01-01

    A total of 120 Duroc×(Large White×Landrace) pigs, 50% barrows and 50% gilts, with 54.1±0.14 kg BW and 103±3 days of age, were used to study the effect of advancing the shift to a standard finisher feed from 100 to 90 and 80 kg BW on production performances and carcass and pork quality. Each of the six treatments (two sexes×three BWs at time of feeding shift) was replicated four times and the experimental unit was the pen (with five pigs for growth performance and carcass variables and three pigs for pork and fat traits). The grower (163 g CP and 9.5 g total Lys/kg) and the finisher diets (152 g CP and 7.9 g total Lys/kg) were based on maize, barley and vegetal protein concentrates, contained 13.39 MJ metabolizable energy/kg and were offered ad libitum through the trial. Pigs intended for dry-cured product elaboration were slaughtered at 170±3 days of age as average (124 and 115 kg BW for barrows and gilts, respectively). For the overall period, barrows ate more feed (Pgilts. No effect of feed shift was observed on growth performances, although the average daily CP intake (P=0.01) and feeding costs (P=0.04) were reduced by advancing the transition to the finisher feed. Carcasses from barrows were heavier (Pgilts but no significant differences were observed in the meat chemical composition. The feed change schedule did not modify carcass or meat traits. It is concluded that an early shift to the finisher feed (at 80 kg BW instead of 100 kg BW) might be an interesting strategy in pigs intended for dry-cured products because, although it neither increased body fatness nor improved pork quality, CP intake and feeding costs were reduced without impairment of growth performances. Results were similar for barrows and gilts.

  6. Evaluating Teaching Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jacqueline; Douglas, Alex

    2006-01-01

    A comparison is made of student feedback questionnaires, peer review and the potential use of mystery students as a means of evaluating the quality of teaching and learning and providing a vehicle for continuous improvement. The available literature and primary data obtained via semi-structured interviews conducted with staff within a UK business…

  7. Características de carcaça e qualidade de carne de novilhos superprecoces de três grupos genéticos Carcass characteristics and beef quality of young bulls from three genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Maria Ribeiro Campos Pereira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar parâmetros de carcaça, características físico-químicas e de qualidade de carne de novilhos machos superprecoces. Foram avaliados três grupos raciais com 8 animais Nelore (N, 18 ¼ Abeerden Angus ½ Nelore (AN e 18 ½ Limousin ¼ Abeerden Angus ¼ Nelore (LAN, com idade entre 7,5 e 11,5 meses no início do experimento, abatidos após 143 dias de confinamento. Os animais AN apresentaram maior peso ao abate, ganho médio diário de peso, peso de carcaça e comprimento de carcaça; os animais LAN apresentaram maior rendimento de carcaça e área de olho de lombo. Os animais LAN apresentaram 72% de carcaças convexas, enquanto 83% das carcaças dos animais AN e 100% das carcaças dos animais N foram classificadas como subconvexas. Os grupos LAN e AN não apresentaram diferença significativa nos valores de força de cisalhamento, o que indica a possibilidade de utilização da proporção de 50% do genótipo Bos indicus sem prejuízo para a maciez da carne. As características de carcaça e carne dos animais dos grupos genéticos NA, LAN e N estão em conformidade com as especificações de consumo e adequadas para abate aos 15 meses de idade, o que viabiliza o sistema de produção de novilhos superprecoces.The objective of this work was to evaluate carcass parameters, physicochemical characteristics and quality of meat of young bulls. Three genetic groups with 8 Nelore (N, 18 ½ Abeerden Angus ½ Nelore (AN, and 18 ½ Limousin ¼ Abeerden Angus ¼ Nelore (LAN animals, with ages varying between 7.5 and 11.5 months at the beginning of the experiment, slaughtered after 143 days of confinement, were evaluated. AN animals were heavier at slaughter and showed higher average daily weight gain, higher hot carcass weight and carcass length; LAN animals had higher carcass yield and rib-eye area. LAN animals showed 72% convex carcasses, while 83% of AN and 100% of N carcasses were classified as subconvex. LAN and AN

  8. Body size, carcass and meat quality of three commercial beef categories of 'Serrana de Teruel' breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripoll, G.; Albertí, P.; Alvarez-Rodríguez, J.; Blasco, I.; Sanz, A.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse three commercial beef categories of the 'Serrana de Teruel breed' to define the appropriate commercial option. Twenty 'Serrana de Teruel' male calves at 9 months were assigned to the commercial beef categories (young bulls, bulls and steers), slaughtered at 12, 22 and 22 months of age, respectively. The in vivo ultrasound backfat thickness was greater than the dorsal fat thickness, and the young bulls and steers had a similar fat thickness, that was greater than the bulls in both areas. The slaughter weight and cold carcass weight were significantly different between the commercial categories. However, the differences were not sufficient to modify the dressing percentage, carcass conformation and fatness degree between the young bulls and bulls. The maximum stress of the muscle at 7 d of ageing was lower in the steers than in the young bulls and bulls. In general, the lightness of the meat in the bulls was lower than that in the young bulls and steers. The subcutaneous fat of the bull carcasses had a vivid colour and stored more carotenoids than that of the young bulls and steers. Hence, bulls produced heavier and better conformed carcasses with more edible meat and less fat than the other categories. However, steers are recommended to produce large carcasses with more trim and cover fat than the other categories. Finally, it seems that bulls are the most suitable commercial category to 'Serrana de Teruel' breed. (Author)

  9. Efficacy of Carcass Electrical Stimulation in Meat Quality Enhancement: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem Dauda Adeyemi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of electrical stimulation (ES as a management tool to improve meat quality and efficiency of meat processing is reviewed. The basis of the efficacy of ES is its ability to fast track postmortem glycolysis, which in turn stimulates myriad histological, physical, biochemical, biophysical and physiological changes in the postmortem muscle. Electrical stimulation hastens the onset and resolution of rigor mortis thereby reducing processing time and labor and plays a vital role in improving meat tenderness and other meat quality traits. However, ES may have negative impacts on some meat quality traits such as color stability and water holding capacity in some animals. Electrical stimulation is not an end in itself. In order to achieve the desired benefits from its application, the technique must be properly used in conjunction with various intricate antemortem, perimortem and postmortem management practices. Despite extensive research on ES, the fundamental mechanisms and the appropriate commercial applications remained obscured. In addition, muscles differ in their response to ES. Thus, elementary knowledge of the various alterations with respect to muscle type is needed in order to optimize the effectiveness of ES in the improvement of meat quality.

  10. Associations between animal traits, carcass traits and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zimmy

    2015-08-01

    Aug 1, 2015 ... the other hand are intended for milk production which can influence their carcass quality traits (lean-to-fat ratio, dressing percentage and conformation) and consequently their meat quality traits (taste, colour and texture). However, at this abattoir it was mentioned that farmers raise dairy cattle specifically for ...

  11. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Brahman cross bulls and steers finished on tropical pastures in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Julio; Unruh, John; Villarreal, Milton; Murillo, Olger; Rojas, Sailim; Camacho, Jorge; Jaeger, John; Reinhardt, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Forty-eight male calves (3/4 Brahman×1/4 Charolais) were used to determine carcass cutability and meat tenderness of Longissimus lumborum (LL), Gluteus medius (GM), Semitendinosus (ST) and Psoas major (PM) steaks from lighter weight carcasses of bulls and steers castrated at 3, 7, or 12 mo of age grown under tropical pasture conditions. Steaks from steers had lower (more tender) LL Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values than those from bulls. Steaks from steers castrated at 3 mo had lower GM WBSF than those from bulls. For PM steaks, those aged 28 d had lower WBSF than those aged 2d. Steaks aged 28 d had the lowest LL and GM WBSF and steaks aged 2d had the highest LL, GM, and ST WBSF. Castration at younger ages is recommended because it provides improvement in LL and GM tenderness over bulls with no differences in carcass traits or subprimal yields. © 2013.

  12. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P < 0.05) in HCEP-fed cattle, but bone percentage and lean/bone ratio were less (P < 0.05) than LCEP-fed cattle. Carcass fat (P < 0.05) and fat content (P < 0.01) were significantly increased with levels of dietary CPO. Diets with 4 % CPO supplementation had better effects on redness (a*, P < 0.01) and chroma (C*, P < 0.001) values. In conclusion, up to 30 % CEP can be used to improve lean carcass and 4 % CPO can improve the redness of the meat.

  13. The effect of livestock production system and concentrate level on carcass traits and meat quality of foals slaughtered at 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, J M; Crecente, S; Franco, D; Sarriés, M V; Gómez, M

    2014-03-01

    This trial was conducted to study the effect of livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) v. semi extensive system (SES)) and amount of finishing feed (1.5 v. 3.0 kg of commercial feed) in SES on carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of meat foal slaughtered at 18 months of age. For this study, a total of 49 foals (21 from FES and 28 from SES) were used. The obtained results showed that SES had a positive influence on carcass characteristic because these foals showed the best values for live weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, perimeter of leg (PL) and carcass compactness index. On the other hand, finishing feeding also had a significant (Plean thickness, as the highest values were obtained in foals finished with 3 kg of commercial fodder. The physico-chemical properties were significantly affected by the livestock production system with the exception of ashes content (P>0.05). Foals finished in SES increased in 408% the intramuscular fat content (0.23 v. 1.17%, for foals reared in FES and SES, respectively). On the other hand, L*-value and a*-value were significantly (Pproduction system, as foals from the FES group had a more intense redder color (higher CIE a*-value) and higher lightness (higher CIE L*-value) compared with those from the SES group. Finally, meat nutritional value was significantly affected by livestock production system, as foals from an extensive production system on wood pasture could be considered as healthier in relation to their fatty acid profiles (low n-6/n-3 ratio and high hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio) as a result of the beneficial grass intake on meat fatty acid profile.

  14. Production traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range systems - II: slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, M A; Sarıca, M; Yamak, U S

    2017-04-01

    1. This study investigates the slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range production systems. 2. The study was conducted with 114 naturally hatched and 102 artificially hatched geese. From each replicate of the intensive and free-range systems, one female and one male goose were slaughtered at the ages of 14, 16 and 18 weeks (a total of 32 geese per slaughter week). 3. Artificially hatched geese had higher slaughter weights (5280 vs. 4404 g), carcass weights (3520 vs. 2863), dressing percentages (66.6-65.2% vs. 65.0-63.6%) and carcass part, feather and edible inner organ weights. The ratio of both edible inner organs and abdominal fat was higher in naturally hatched geese. Breast meat L*, a* and pH values and thigh meat dry matter values were higher in artificially hatched geese, whereas thigh meat b* and pH values were higher in naturally hatched geese. 4. Intensively reared geese had higher slaughter weights (4900 vs. 4783 g), carcass weights (3253 vs. 3130 g) and abdominal fat weights (280 vs. 250 g), as well as higher dressing percentages (66.3-64.9% vs. 65.3-63.9%). Breast meat b* and thigh meat L* values were higher in the intensive system, while breast and thigh pH values, dripping loss and cooking loss were higher in the free-range system. Water-holding capacity was higher in the intensive system. 5. In conclusion, artificially hatched, intensively reared geese had the highest slaughter weights; however, both artificially and naturally hatched geese raised in a free-range system reached acceptable slaughter weights and can thus be recommended for use with this type of production system.

  15. Growth, Feedlot Performance and Carcass Characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    x x

    usually thin tailed. Various studies have been conducted in order to improve meat production and carcass quality of Turkey's native sheep breeds via crossbreeding. In the studies done to determine fattening performance and carcass characteristics of Ile de France x Akkaraman (F1) and their back-crosses (G1), it has.

  16. Carcass and meat quality of Boer and indigenous goats of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pH/temperature values, instrumental colour (CIE L*, a*, b*, chroma and hue angle), surface myoglobin pigments (deoxyglobin, oxyglobin and metmyoglobin), water-holding capacity (WHC), thawing loss, cooking loss, sarcomere length, and Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values were evaluated on samples of the ...

  17. Towards a regional beef carcass classification system for Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is partly because the current beef carcass grading and classification systems used in the region value inappropriately carcasses from slow-maturing indigenous cattle breeds that are ideally suited to being marketed off natural pasture. The existing systems use carcass yield and quality attributes, but do not predict ...

  18. Influence of sex, age and body condition score on carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This means that where carcass quality is a major goal given the right market guidelines, farmer can make use of the sex differences in the proportion and distribution of carcass tissue to serve the consumer markets with meat goat of their preference. Keywords: Carcass composition, tissue distribution, market goats. Tanzania ...

  19. Performance, carcass traits, meat quality and economic analysis of feedlot of young bulls fed oilseeds with and without supplementation of vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Rodrigues Machado Neto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate average daily gain (ADG, carcass traits, meat tenderness and profitability of keeping cattle fed different oilseeds and vitamin E in feedlot. A total of 40 Red Norte young bulls with initial average body weight of 339±15 kg were utilized. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The experiment lasted 84 days and experimental diets presented soybeans or cottonseeds as lipid sources associated or not to daily supplementation of 2,500 UI vitamin E per animal. The concentrate:roughage ratio was 60:40. Diets had the same amount of nitrogen (13% CP and ether extract (6.5%. The data were analyzed by means of statistical software SAS 9.1. Neither vitamin supplementation nor lipid source affected ADG. There was no interaction between lipid source and vitamin supplementation for the variables studied. The inclusion of cottonseed reduced the carcass yield. There was no effect of diets on hot and cold carcass weights or prime cuts. The inclusion of cottonseed reduced the backfat thickness. No effect of experimental diets on the rib-eye area was observed. There was no effect of lipid source or vitamin supplementation on meat tenderness, which was affected, however, by ageing time. Diets with soybeans presented higher cost per animal. The utilization of soybean implied reduction of the gross margin (R$ 59.17 and R$ 60.51 for diets based on soy with and without supplemental vitamin, respectively, vs. R$ 176.42 and R$ 131.79 for diets based on cottonseed. The utilization of cottonseed enables improvement of profitability of feedlot fattening, in spite of negatively affecting some carcass characteristics.

  20. Effects of Dietary Octacosanol on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Long

    2016-10-01

    quality, and increase eviscerated and breast muscle yield, in broiler chicks. Dietary supplementation of octacosanol at 24 mg/kg diet is regarded as the recommended dosage in the broilers’ diet.

  1. The effect of source herd and abattoir factors on pig carcass Salmonella contamination evaluated by multilevel modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baptista, Filipa Matos; Dahl, Jan; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2010-01-01

    In Denmark, a Surveillance-and-Control Programme for Salmonella in pigs has been in place for several years. This study investigated factors associated with Salmonella pig carcass contamination, namely estimated daily number of Salmonella seropositive pigs delivered to slaughter, average Salmonella...... seroprevalence of the source herds that delivered each of five pigs contributing to the pool, weekday, year, season and abattoir size. A total of 20128 pooled carcass swabs collected in 22 Danish abattoirs, from 2002 to 2008, were included in a multilevel logistic regression model. Study results indicate...... that the probability of Salmonella positive carcasses is mainly influenced by the Salmonella herd seroprevalence of the swabbed pigs, the number of seropositive pigs delivered to the abattoir on the same day and weekday. Further reduction in carcass pool Salmonella prevalence may require new or improved methods...

  2. Investigating the effects of using Nettle (Urtica dioica , Menta pulagum (Oreganum valgare and Zizaphora (Thymyus valgaris medicinal plants on performance, carcass quality, blood biochemical parameters and blood cells of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Heydari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of using Nettle,Menta pulagum and ‌‌Zizaphora medicinal plants on performance, carcass quality, blood biochemical parameters and blood cells of broilers. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 288 broilers (Ross-308 in 8 treatments and 3 replicates (with 12 birds in each replicate from 1 to 42 days and included: 1 control group without using any medicinal plants, 2 1.5% of ‌‌Nettle, 3 1.5% of Menta pulagum, 4 1.5% of Zizaphora, 5 1.5% of Nettle and Menta pulagum, 6 1.5% of  Nettle and Zizaphora, 7 1.5% of Menta pulagum and ‌‌Zizaphora, 8 1.5% of Nettle,Menta pulagum and ‌‌Zizaphora. The results showed that using these medicinal plants and their mixtures had significant effects on performance, carcass traits and blood biochemical parameters of broilers (p

  3. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Native Ducks and Commercial Meat-type Ducks Raised under Same Feeding and Rearing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Kwon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare carcass characteristics and physico-chemical meat quality in two different genotype ducks raised under identical feeding and rearing conditions. A total of ninety 1-d-old Korean native ducks (KND, n = 45 and commercial meat-type ducks (Grimaud, n = 45 were fed same experimental diets during 56 d and 42 d, respectively to obtain similar slaughter weights. The experimental diet for starter period contained 20% crude protein (CP and 2,900 kcal nitrogen corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn/kg of diet and that for grower period contained 17% CP and 3,050 TMEn/kg of diet. Average daily gain and feed efficiency of KND were inferior to those of commercial meat-type ducks (p<0.05. Carcass weight was not different between two genetically different ducks, but carcass yield of KND was significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of commercial meat-type ducks. There were no significant differences in cooking loss and pH of breast meat between two genetically different ducks, but water holding capacity of KND was significantly higher than that of commercial meat-type ducks. The linoleic acid and total polyunsaturated fatty acid of breast meat from KND were significantly higher (p<0.05 than the corresponding part from commercial meat-type ducks. Significant differences were detected in water holding capacity and the content of linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid, which were significantly higher in KND, whereas growth performance tended to be superior in commercial ducks. At the market weight, the meat from KND was judged to have better qualities with regard to higher water holding capacity and greater content of polyunsaturated fatty acid compare with meat from commercial meat-type duck.

  4. Poultry rearing on perforated plastic floors and the effect on air quality, growth performance, and carcass injuries - Experiment 2: Heat stress situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, E A; Sant'Anna, A C; Crowe, T G; Macari, M; Furlan, R L

    2018-03-08

    Previously, we reported the effect of rearing conditions (plastic floors and air quality) on carcass injury development of broiler chickens at thermal comfort. In this study, the same rearing conditions were tested at thermal stress. The birds were reared in 2 climatic chambers, and the experiment followed a completely randomized design with one factor, flooring material: wood shaving or perforated plastic. The birds were divided into 16 experimental pens, being 8 females and 8 males. The studied parameters were the same as the previous study (ammonia concentration, carbon dioxide, performance, carcass yield, and variability, and scores of hygiene, gait and chest, and hocks and footpad lesions). Higher ammonia (15 ppm vs. 4 ppm) and carbon dioxide (1,000 ppm vs. 850 ppm) concentration was seen at d 42 for the wood shavings floor as compared to the perforated plastic floor, respectively. Regarding gender, males had better performance than females at 42 d of age on both floor types. Males reared on wood shavings showed a higher meat production (29.049 kg/m2) than females (24.700 kg/m2). There were observed breast lesion incidences of 10.4% (score 1) in males reared on the plastic floor, as well higher incidence of hock injury and footpad dermatitis. Chickens reared on plastic flooring showed better hygiene than chickens reared on wood shavings. Our findings revealed that the use of perforated plastic flooring in a heat stress situation can improve the air quality (less CO2 and NH3 concentration) and bird cleanliness. On the other hand, chickens are more susceptible to develop lesions in the breast, hock, and footpad. We conclude that the use of plastic flooring in heat stress conditions needs more attention, since chickens are more susceptible to develop lesions on the carcass, being a source of pain, impairing bird wellbeing and causing losses in meat production.

  5. Multicriteria Evaluation of Product Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Pabedinskaitė, Arnoldina; Vitkauskas, Romualdas

    2009-01-01

    Product quality assessment is a complex task. The aim of this paper is to analyse the concepts of quality, different quality management models and their interaction with knowledge management models and the presented criteria system for assessing product quality. Moreover, multicriteria methods and their applicability to assessment of the product quality are analysed. On the basis of group of the product quality criteria and using the multicriteria evaluation methods, the quality of the produc...

  6. Students' Evaluation of Teaching Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vevere, Nina; Kozlinskis, Vulfs

    2011-01-01

    Students' evaluations of teaching quality are one of the crucial components of the teaching quality evaluation (along with external evaluation, opinions of colleagues, etc.). According to our research and professional experience, the teaching quality has to be examined in correlation with personality traits of a lecturer. Students' surveys (aiming…

  7. Effect of gonadotropin releasing factor suppression with an immunological on growth performance, estrus activity, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of market gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, B M; Flowers, W L; Kyle, J M; Johnson, S S; King, V L; Spruill, J L; Thompson, D P; Schroeder, A L; Boler, D D

    2014-10-01

    Objectives were to evaluate the administration of an anti-gonadotropin releasing factor (GnRF) analog on suppression of estrus, consistency of feed intake, and growth performance in market gilts and to investigate the impact the physiological changes would have on carcass characteristics and fresh meat quality. Gonadotropin releasing factor stimulates the anterior pituitary to release luteinizing hormone that acts on the ovary to induce follicle development and indirectly initiates ovulation. Improvest (Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI) contains an incomplete version of naturally occurring GnRF and causes the production of anti-GnRF antibodies that bind to the GnRF receptor and thus render GnRF inactive. This in turn suppresses estrus in female pigs. Gilts were initially separated into 10 blocks based on age and then within each block allotted to a pen (n = 114; 5 pigs/pen) based on BW. Gilts received the first dose at 12 wk of age and the second dose at 16 wk of age, were exposed to a boar daily from 20 to 26 wk of age, and were slaughtered at 26 wk of age (10 wk after second dose). Meat quality was analyzed on the 2 gilts closest to pen average ending live weight in 5 of the 10 blocks. Pen served as the experimental unit for all data analysis. During the 15-wk finishing period, ADG was 0.03 kg greater (P gilts administered GnRF suppression (treated) compared with untreated gilts (control). The majority of improvements in growth performance were observed from 16 to 20 wk of age (4 wk after second dose), as ADG was 0.07 kg greater (P gilts compared with control gilts. Ovarian weights were reduced (P gilts exhibiting puberty were reduced by 87.80% (P gilts compared with control gilts. Back fat depth was 3.78 mm greater (P gilts compared with control gilts. With the exception of subjective color, there were no differences (P ≥ 0.12) in meat quality parameters between treated and control gilts. Subjective color was darker (P = 0.03) in treated gilts compared with control gilts

  8. Poultry rearing on perforated plastic floors and the effect on air quality, growth performance, and carcass injuries-Experiment 1: Thermal Comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Arantes de Souza, Lilian Francisco; Sant'Anna, Aline Cristina; Bahiense, Raphael Nogueira; Macari, Marcos; Furlan, Renato Luis

    2017-09-01

    The present study investigated the use of perforated plastic floors in the rearing of male and female poultry under thermal comfort conditions. The study was conducted in 2 climate chambers, in one was conventional poultry litter (wood shavings) and in the other was a perforated plastic floor. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with the factors wood shavings and plastic floor. In each chamber, the animals were divided into 16 experimental pens (8 with males and 8 with females) with a density of 12 birds/m2. The poultry rearing effect was evaluated in terms of air quality (% concentration of ammonia [NH3] and carbon dioxide [CO2]); broiler performance, e.g., weight gain (kg), feed intake (kg), feed conversion, carcass yield and parts (%), meat production (kg/m2), and viability (% of live birds at d 42); scores of hygiene and mobility; and injuries in the chest, hocks, and footpads. Treatments affected air quality, with higher concentrations of NH3 on d 42 (25 ppm vs. 2 ppm) and CO2 (1,400 ppm vs. 1,000 ppm) for wood shavings than for perforated plastic floor, respectively. Males showed a better performance (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion) than females on d 42 in both floor types (wood shavings and plastic floor). Males reared on wood shavings showed a higher meet production (35.992 kg/m2) than females (32.257 kg/m2). On the plastic floor, males showed a better viability (100%) than females (94.05%), as well better meet production for males (38.55 kg·m-2) than females (31.64 kg/m2). There was no incidence of breast lesions in any of the studied systems. The birds reared on the plastic floor had better hygiene scores and lower hock injury rates than birds reared in the wood shavings chambers. The results of the present study show that the use of perforated plastic floors in chicken farming is an efficient method, which promotes a better-quality environment, superior production rates, and reduced incidence of injuries.

  9. Accuracy of pedigree and genomic predictions of carcass and novel meat quality traits in multi-breed sheep data assessed by cross-validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daetwyler Hans D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic predictions can be applied early in life without impacting selection candidates. This is especially useful for meat quality traits in sheep. Carcass and novel meat quality traits were predicted in a multi-breed sheep population that included Merino, Border Leicester, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk sheep and their crosses. Methods Prediction of breeding values by best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP based on pedigree information was compared to prediction based on genomic BLUP (GBLUP and a Bayesian prediction method (BayesR. Cross-validation of predictions across sire families was used to evaluate the accuracy of predictions based on the correlation of predicted and observed values and the regression of observed on predicted values was used to evaluate bias of methods. Accuracies and regression coefficients were calculated using either phenotypes or adjusted phenotypes as observed variables. Results and conclusions Genomic methods increased the accuracy of predicted breeding values to on average 0.2 across traits (range 0.07 to 0.31, compared to an average accuracy of 0.09 for pedigree-based BLUP. However, for some traits with smaller reference population size, there was no increase in accuracy or it was small. No clear differences in accuracy were observed between GBLUP and BayesR. The regression of phenotypes on breeding values was close to 1 for all methods, indicating little bias, except for GBLUP and adjusted phenotypes (regression = 0.78. Accuracies calculated with adjusted (for fixed effects phenotypes were less variable than accuracies based on unadjusted phenotypes, indicating that fixed effects influence the latter. Increasing the reference population size increased accuracy, indicating that adding more records will be beneficial. For the Merino, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk breeds, accuracies were greater than for the Border Leicester breed due to the smaller sample size and limited across

  10. Avaliação de carcaças de suínos da raça Large White utilizando medidas convencionais Evaluation of Large White pig carcass using conventional measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de Freitas

    2004-12-01

    swine, data of lean meat yield (MY, fat yield (FY, dressing percentage (DP, carcass length for the Brazilian Method of Carcass Classification (CLBM, carcass length for the American Method of Carcass Classification (CLAM, average backfat thickness (ABT, backfat thickness 4 cm from the dorsal mid-line (P1, backfat thickness 6.5 cm from the dorsal mid-line (P2, backfat thickness 8 cm from the dorsal mid-line (P3, loin eye area (LEA, lean:fat ratio (LFR and ham yield (HY were used, obtained in 664 Large White swine. Initially, in order to make clear the importance and possible relations structures among variables, the cluster analysis was used. Afterwards, the multiple regression linear model was used, using the SAS package. Firstly, it was estimated the partial correlation (Type II of each trait to evaluate the importance of the quality variables of the carcass. Secondly, a procedure of adjusting equation selection named Backward was used. It was verified that, except for DP, all the measures of carcass classification evaluated presented correlation with MY and FY. The measures ABT, P1, P2, P3 and LFT were inversely correlated with MY and directly correlated with FY. The opposite was observed for the measures CLBM, CLAM, LEA and HY. ABT, AOL, RCG and RP are just enough to evaluate the quality of the carcass in terms of lean meat yield, and, in terms of FY, besides these measured previous it's necessary the evaluation of P1. The measures of loin eye area and average backfat thickness, as proposed by MBCC, shown as being what best evaluates the amount of meat and fat in the carcass.

  11. Evaluation de differentes strategies de demantelement de la carcasse d'un avion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainte-Beuve, Damien

    At the time when sustainable development of our environment and our society become more and more considered, the issue of the end of life of aircraft arises. With the tightening of regulations and policies to reduce operating costs, aircraft are increasingly removed from service before the end of their operational life. However, the regulations do not only affect the operational life of the aircraft. In the future, there are great chances that the aircraft end of life will be also regulated as the car end of life. Nowadays some deserts serve as a tomb for airplanes skeletons, but what will happen in a few years? Recycling the skeleton is not an operation with very high added value, such as reselling used parts, however intelligent sorting and facing the market can increase the gain. At the level of the aircraft life cycle, recycling its materials reduces its overall impact, and also helps to reduce pollution and land use, even if the main impacts generated by planes are created during the use phase. Similarly, if the recyclability of the aircraft is studied at the source, that is to say in its design, this will help to reduce the use of non-recyclable materials and dangerous compound. The greatest difficulty for recycling aircraft skeletons is that different materials are mixed and attached to each other. Through a thermodynamic study we showed what concentrations of alloying elements in a molten bath could be reduced. By using the Gibbs free energy, we evaluated some of the reactions taking place in a molten bath of aluminum during the injection of oxygen, boron, and chlorine. We focused on the reactions forming dual elements compounds, such as lithium oxide or magnesium chloride. We have shown that the six elements able to react when these reactions occurs are the lithium, the magnesium, the nickel, the titanium, the vanadium and the zirconium. It is necessary to remember that the impurities for alloys used in the aerospace industry are lower and especially those

  12. PORK CARCASS COMPOSITION AND THE MEAT QUALITY OF THE BLACK SLAVONIAN PIG – THE ENDANGERED BREEDS IN THE INDOOR AND OUTDOOR KEEPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Butko

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The research has been made on 20 Black Slavonian Pigs in both ways of keeping them (indoor, outdoor. The pigs have been fed up to 135 kg body weight. The pigs in the outdoor system have been held on a natural pasture ground. Other than pasture, the pigs have consumed, over the summer period, the food offered on stubble-fields after the harvest (barley, wheat and over the winter times after corn harvest. They had only minimal corn consumption; mostly during the winter (average daily consumption was 0.15 kg. Dissection of cold (+40C right sided pig body composition has been made by the modified Weniger et al (1963 method. The meat quality has been determined on a long back muscle sample (musculus longissimus dorsi- MLD taken berween 13th and 14th rib. The pig carcasses in the outdoor system had a very significant (P<0.01 absolute and relative leg share, less belly-rib share and higher meat quantity. Commercially, more valuable parts-legs and back had a greater share of muscle tissue in pigs' carcasses in the outdoor system. The meat of the pigs in the outdoor system had no signifficant differences from the pigs in the indoor system, concerning the pH1, pH2, water holding capacity, colour and marbling. However, the meat of the pigs in the outdoor system had higher content of crude fat from the pigs in the indoor system.

  13. Consequences of two or four months of finishing feeding of culled dry dairy cows on carcass characteristics and technological and sensory meat quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M.; Madsen, N. T.; Bligaard, H. B.

    2007-01-01

    with 1st parity cows, older cows ate 12% more feed, had similar daily gain, were heavier, and had higher BCS and fatness including IMF. The results show that it is possible to dry-off and finish-feed culled dairy cows resulting in larger muscles, increased fatness, improved overall carcass quality...... (C) was slaughtered immediately after drying-off (n=43), a group (F2) was finishing-fed for 63 days (n=41), and a group (F4) was finishing-fed for 126 days (n=41). In the finishing period, cows had free access to a TMR (10.6 MJ ME and 130 g CP per kg of DM). Cows on treatment, F2 and F4 gained 1.......16§0.05 kg/d in the finishing period. Compared with C-cows, F2- and F4-cows had 56 and 97 kg higher carcass weight, 10% and 21% larger Longissimus muscle area, and 14 and 70% more backfat, respectively, at time of slaughter. EUROP conformation scores were 2.2 (C), 3.4 (F2) and 4.4 (F4) and EUROP fat scores...

  14. Natural sex steroids and their xenobiotic analogs in animal production: growth, carcass quality, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, mode of action, residues, methods, and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, K P

    1997-03-01

    Natural and xenobiotic compounds having sex-related actions have long been used for growth promotion and various changes in carcass quality in meat animals. The first compounds used were synthetic estrogens; however, later on a whole battery of compounds having androgenic, and progestogenic actions have also been involved. In surveying the effects of these compounds in meat-producing animals, it became clear that these drugs increase the growth rate of the treated animals and bring about changes in the carcass that are generally characterized by lower fat content and more lean mass. Extensive studies undertaken in various countries, including the European Economic Community (EEC), have shown that if used according to good husbandry practices, the meat from treated animals does not have excessive amounts of residues compared with the endogenous amount of steroid production in the animals in question and also in human beings. The banning of these compounds in the European community brought a new phenomenon of illegal or black market cocktails. These mixtures of anabolic steroids are injected into the body of the animals rather than implanted in the ears, which is the normal practice in countries where they have not yet been banned. Several screening and confirmatory methods are now available for monitoring programs. However, these programs need excessive resources in terms of manpower, funds, and proper legislation, which in underdeveloped countries is questionable, particularly in the absence of strong scientific evidence for the exercise.

  15. Genetic parameters for EUROP carcass traits within different groups of cattle in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hickey, J.M.; Keane, M.G.; Kenny, D.A.; Cromie, A.R.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to test the ability of systems of weighing and classifying bovine carcasses used in commercial abattoirs in Ireland to provide information that can be used for the purposes of genetic evaluation of carcass weight, carcass fatness class, and carcass conformation

  16. Genetic analysis of slaughter and carcass quality traits in crossbred rabbits coming from a diallel cross of four maternal lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mínguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to estimate the genetic group effects and the crossbreeding genetic parameters of slaughter and carcass traits using data on the rabbits that were progeny of does coming from a full diallel cross between 4 maternal lines (A, V, H and LP mated to bucks of the paternal line R. The rabbits of the 16 genetic groups, corresponding to the type of does of the diallel cross, were distributed in 4 Spanish farms and 1 genetic group (V line was present in all farms in order to connect records among them and to be used as reference group. Crossbreeding parameters were estimated according to Dickerson’s model. 1896 rabbits were measured for slaughter traits and 950 for carcass traits. The A and LP lines had the lowest values for dressing percentage (–1.71 and –1.98 compared with H line and –1.49 and –1.75 with the V line, respectively. The A line was the heaviest for commercial carcass weight. No relevant differences were observed between the crossbred groups for all traits. Regarding the reciprocal effects, there were significant differences in favour of A line as sire line in the crossbred AV. Regarding the combination of direct and maternal effects, the A line showed significantly higher values for cold carcass weight (133 g., 71 g. and 142 g. compared to the H, LP and V lines. For the same parameter the H line showed significantly higher averages on dressing percentages than A and LP lines, 1.44 and 2.13%, respectively. Line A also showed, in general, better direct- maternal effects than the V line. Grand-maternal effects were less important than direct-maternal ones. The estimates of maternal heterosis were, in general, negative, which could be a consequence of the positive heterosis for litter size. However, despite this relationship between growth and litter traits, it has not been common to find negative maternal heterosis in growth traits. A diminution of dressing percentage was detected in

  17. Seasonal Variation in Carcass Characteristics of Korean Cattle Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Piao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate temperature affects animal production. This study was conducted to evaluate whether climatic conditions affect beef carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers. The monthly carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers (n = 2,182,415 for 8 yr (2006 through 2013 were collected from the Korean Institute for Animal Products Quality Evaluation. Daily climate temperature (CT and relative humidity (RH data were collected from the Korean Meteorological Administration. Weather conditions in South Korea during summer were hot and humid, with a maximum temperature of 28.4°C and a maximum RH of 91.4%. The temperature-humidity index (THI, calculated based on CT and RH, ranges from 73 to 80 during summer. Winter in South Korea was cold, with a minimum temperature of −4.0°C and a wind-chill temperature of −6.2°C. Both marbling score (MS and quality grade (QG of Korean cattle steer carcasses were generally best (p0.05 with CT. Yield grade (YG of Korean cattle steer carcasses was lowest (p<0.05 in winter (November to January and highest in spring and summer (May to September. A correlation analysis revealed that YG frequency was strongly correlated (r≥0.71; p<0.01 with CT and THI values. The rib eye area, a positive YG parameter, was not associated with CT. Backfat thickness (BT, a negative YG factor, was highest in winter (November and December. The BT was strongly negatively correlated (r≤−0.74; p<0.01 with CTs. Therefore, the poor YG during winter is likely due in part to the high BT. In conclusion, YG in Korean cattle steer carcasses was worst in winter. QGs were not associated with winter or summer climatic conditions.

  18. Effects of supply of β-adrenergic agonists on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Floret Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the efficiency of production of beef, some countries use β-adrenergics, promoters of non-hormonal growth, on final phase of beef cattle. These substances are chemically and pharmacologically similar to the natural catecholamines (dopamine, noreprinephrine and eprinephrine and promote an increase of the deposition rate of muscle tissue, with consequent decrease in the deposition of adipose tissue. The β-adrenergic most used in beef cattle are ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride. These products should only be used in confined cattle during the finishing period. According to studies, there are various effects of administration of β-adrenergic for beef cattle. The main effects are increased muscle mass, with consequent increase of the carcass weight, weight gain and feed conversion. Greater carcass yield, larger loin eye area and larger diameter of the muscle fibers of the meat were also observed. In some studies, we obtained lower deposition of subcutaneous and visceral fat and lower marbling score in beef.

  19. Effect of gender on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat and fat quality of calves of Avileña-Negra Ibérica breed fattened under free-range conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argimiro Daza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of gender (entire males vs females on growth performance, carcass traits and meat and fat quality of Avileña-Negra Ibérica calves, fattened under free range conditions and supplemented with concentrate, were investigated. The average daily gain, leg width and thorax depth were higher in males than in females. Carcass conformation score, fore-quarter weight and percentage in carcass were higher in males than in females, whereas dressing percentege, loins and flank percentages in carcass and carcass fatness degree were higher in females than in males. Instrumental colour variables of muscle were not affected by gender at days 1, 3, 7 and 9 of refrigerated storage. In muscle, the L*, a*, b*, chroma, oxymyoglobine and oxymyoglobine/metmyoglobine ratio values observed 9 days after slaughter were lower than those at days 1 and 3 after slaughter. Intramuscular fat percentage of Longissimus thoracis muscle was higher in females than in males. Gender had no effect on α-tocopherol content in intramuscular fat (IMF from Longissimus thoracis muscle. The omental and IMF of females had lower C18:2 n-6, Σ n-6 and Σ PUFA proportions than those from the males. In IMF C16:1, C18:1 n-9 and Σ MUFA proportions were greater in females than in males. The IMF percentage in Longissimus thoracis affected significantly to its fatty acid composition.

  20. PRICE DEVELOPMENTS OF BEEF CARCASSES IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA BĂLAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of the classification of cattle carcasses (beef and veal are represented by the correct payment to cattle breeders, according to carcass weight and quality, and standardization, the common language in the international meat trade. The European Union set uniform procedures for quality assessment (the EUROP system, defined by the same parameters in the whole continent. Romania is at the beginning of cattle carcass classification; it is in the third year of reporting on the classification results to the European Commission. In this context, we consider it is very important to analyze these results, for a continuous improvement of carcass quality.

  1. EVALUATION OF MACHINE TOOL QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kuric

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with aspects of quality and accuracy of machine tools. As the accuracy of machine tools has key factor for product quality, it is important to know the methods for evaluation of quality and accuracy of machine tools. Several aspects of diagnostics of machine tools are described, such as aspects of reliability.

  2. Sensory meat quality, ultimate pH values, blood metabolites and carcass parametersin reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. fed various diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was made to study and compare the effects of different diets on sensory meat quality and ultimate pH values in reindeer muscles and to relate stress-induced blood metabolites and carcass parameters to the meat quality traits measured. Altogether 23 female reindeer calves were included in the study. During an adaptation period, all reindeer were allowed free access to a mimicked natural diet containing 80% lichens (lichen diet. On January 28, 8 reindeer (group Cjan were slaughtered. Five reindeer (group C.Mar were allowed continuous free access to the lichen diet throughout the experiment. During 8 days, the other reindeer (groups PL and PS were given the lichen diet, half of the amount offered to the control group, and were then starved for one day. Thereafter, these reindeer were fed 80% commercial reindeer feed (pellets and either 20% lichens (group PL, or 20% silage (group PS for 5 weeks. After this, all animals were slaughtered. The average carcass weight and dressing percentage in the group fed commercial reindeer feed and lichens (PL were higher than in group CMar- Fat registrations were generally higher in groups PL and PS than in the groups Cj2n and CMar- Ultimate pH values in M. triceps brachii and M. longissimus were significantly lower in the group CMST than in PL. The levels of all blood metabolites (urea, ASAT and Cortisol were generally higher in groups PL and PS than in groups Cja„ and CMEF- NO significant differences were found in any of sensory attributes of the meat (monitored according to ISO standards. The present study shows that muscle and fat depots in reindeer can be improved by feeding a diet based on reindeer pellets but suggests that a feeding period of 35 days might be too short to affect the sensory properties of reindeer meat.

  3. Growth, carcass and meat quality of Casertana, Italian Large White and Duroc x (Landrace x Italian Large White pigs reared outdoors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maiorano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To compare growth, skeletal development, carcass traits and meat quality of different genotypes, 10 Casertana (CT, 10 Italian Large White (LW and 10 Duroc x (Landrace x Italian Large White (DU crosses, barrows of 90-day-old, were allotted to the same outdoor rearing and feeding conditions. Live weight was recorded and average daily gain (ADG was calculated. At slaughter (330-day-old dressing and lean percentages were determined; backfat thickness and loin eye depth were measured. Carcasses were dissected into commercial cuts. Water holding capacity, pH and colour (45 min and 24 h post-mortem were measured. Longissimus lumborum muscle samples were collected for cholesterol, α-tochopherol and intramuscular collagen (IMC analyses. CT compared to DU and LW had the lowest growth rate and skeletal development. CT showed higher backfat thickness, lower lean cut/fatty cut ratio and less lean meat (P<0.05. Loin eye depth differed among genotypes with LW > DU > CT (P<0.05. CT showed higher red colour of the meat than DU and LW (P<0.05. CT compared to LW had the highest hydroxylysylpiridinoline (HLP crosslink concentration and HLP/IMC ratio, and a lower IMC amount (P<0.05. CT pigs produced meat that could be tougher than that from the improved breed, but more acceptable from the technological point of view. At eleven months of age bone weight, length and diameter were clearly genetic type-related; differently, the bone maturity was similar among the genotypes studied.

  4. Effect of dietary protein and lysine fluctuations in the absence and presence of ractopamine on performance and carcass quality of late-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, M S; Baker, D H

    2010-02-01

    Two experiments with finishing pigs were conducted to evaluate the effects of fluctuating dietary CP levels and ractopamine on performance and carcass traits. In Exp. 1, a total of 408 finishing pigs (mixed sex) were assigned to 1 of 4 protein regimens. Average initial and final BW were 89 and 123 kg, respectively. Pigs on treatments 1 to 4 were fed 16, 11, 16, and 13% CP from wk 0 to 2, respectively. From wk 2 to 5, the pigs on regimens 1 to 4 were then fed 15, 18.33, 18, and 20% CP, respectively, with regimens 3 and 4 also containing supplemental ractopamine (9.9 mg/kg) from wk 2 to 5. Overall (wk 0 to 5), BW gain, G:F, loin depth, percentage of lean, and dressing percentage were improved (P ractopamine/kg from d 14 to 24, and 18% CP + 9.9 mg of ractopamine/kg from d 24 to 35; 2) a low-high CP regimen (12.5% CP from d 0 to 14, 20.33% CP + 4.95 mg of ractopamine/kg from d 14 to 24, and 20.33% CP + 9.9 mg of ractopamine/kg from d 24 to 35. From d 0 to 14, pigs fed the low CP diet (12.5% CP) had reduced (P < 0.05) BW gain and G:F compared with those fed the control diet (16% CP). In contrast, from d 14 to 35, pigs on the low-high regimen had improved (P < 0.08) BW gain and G:F compared with pigs on the control regimen. Despite the wide dietary CP fluctuations for pigs in Exp. 2, performance and carcass traits were similar for both regimens over the 35-d test period. These data indicate that pigs fed deficient levels of CP and Lys for 14 d, followed by increased levels of CP and Lys during a subsequent 21-d period can recover and achieve growth performance and carcass merit equal to that achieved with a conventional protein feeding regimen.

  5. Online evaluation of a commercial video image analysis system (Computer Vision System) to predict beef carcass red meat yield and for augmenting the assignment of USDA yield grades. United States Department of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannell, R C; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D; Wise, J W; Chapman, P L; Scanga, J A; Smith, G C

    2002-05-01

    Objective quantification of differences in wholesale cut yields of beef carcasses at plant chain speeds is important for the application of value-based marketing. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of a commercial video image analysis system, the Computer Vision System (CVS) to 1) predict commercially fabricated beef subprimal yield and 2) augment USDA yield grading, in order to improve accuracy of grade assessment. The CVS was evaluated as a fully installed production system, operating on a full-time basis at chain speeds. Steer and heifer carcasses (n = 296) were evaluated using CVS, as well as by USDA expert and online graders, before the fabrication of carcasses into industry-standard subprimal cuts. Expert yield grade (YG), online YG, CVS estimated carcass yield, and CVS measured ribeye area in conjunction with expert grader estimates of the remaining YG factors (adjusted fat thickness, percentage of kidney-pelvic-heart fat, hot carcass weight) accounted for 67, 39, 64, and 65% of the observed variation in fabricated yields of closely trimmed subprimals. The dual component CVS predicted wholesale cut yields more accurately than current online yield grading, and, in an augmentation system, CVS ribeye measurement replaced estimated ribeye area in determination of USDA yield grade, and the accuracy of cutability prediction was improved, under packing plant conditions and speeds, to a level close to that of expert graders applying grades at a comfortable rate of speed offline.

  6. Validation of carcass lesions as indicators for on-farm health and welfare of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staaveren, N; Doyle, B; Manzanilla, E G; Calderón Díaz, J A; Hanlon, A; Boyle, L A

    2017-04-01

    Incorporating indicators for pig health and welfare at meat inspection could reduce the need for on-farm assessments. Skin and tail lesions are important welfare indicators in pigs with good potential to record during meat inspection and could possibly function as iceberg indicators of on farm welfare. The aim of this study was to validate the use of these carcass lesions at meat inspection for the assessment of pig health and welfare on farm. Thirty-one farrow-to-finish pig farms (∼12% of Irish herds) were assessed using an adapted version of the Welfare Quality protocol by inspecting 6 randomly selected pens of pigs in the first weaner (4 to 8 wk), second weaner (8 to 13 wk) and finisher stage (13 to 23 wk). The average prevalence of welfare outcomes for each stage was calculated. One batch of pigs was observed at slaughter and skin and tail lesions were scored according to severity for each carcass. The average prevalence of carcass lesion outcomes was calculated for each farm. Linear regression models were developed to predict the prevalence of each welfare outcome in each stage based on the prevalence of the different carcass lesions. The welfare outcomes of different welfare aspects that were best predicted by abattoir information (highest ) were poor body condition (first weaner stage), bursitis (second weaner stage), huddling (first weaner stage), severe tail lesions (finisher stage) and coughing (second weaner stage). Regression trees and receiver-operating curves (ROC) were used to evaluate the usefulness of carcass lesions as monitoring tools. Receiver-operating curves were created using the 75th percentile to classify farms as a problem farm for these welfare outcomes. Cut-off values of predictive carcass lesion prevalence were similar using both techniques. Models for predicting problem farms with poor body condition, bursitis and severe tail lesions were moderately accurate. Sensitivity and specificity ranged from 75 to 100% and 70 to 87

  7. Uranium resource evaluation project quality assurance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    This evaluation was conducted over an eight-month period from February 4 through October 1, 1980. During this time, field sampling was suspended for an indefinite time period while the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program underwent restructuring. In addition, the Uranium Resource Evaluation (URE) Project archives are being restructured. Since it is difficult to evaluate quality assurance needs of a program that is undergoing drastic change and because sections of the evaluation were well along before these changes were announced, this evaluation reflects the situation as it was during February 1980. The following quality assurance related programs are continuing to date: (1) periodic checks of field sampling procedures by the Supervising Field Geologist and the Director of Field Operations; (2) verification of field form information and laboratory analytical data verification for all geochemical surveys; (3) URE Project laboratory quality control program (all elements routinely analyzed); and (4) Ames interlaboratory quality control program (uranium only). UCC-ND was given the responsibility of conducting a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) survey in the Central United States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Texas, South Dakota, and Wisconsin). During 1979 and 1980, 13 detailed surveys were conducted by the URE Project in the Central and Western United States to characterize the hydrogeochemistry, stream sediment geochemistry, and/or radiometric patterns of known or potential uranium occurrences. Beginning in 1980, the HSSR surveys were modified to the Regional Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment (RHSS) surveys

  8. Effect of dietary fat level on carcass traits and flesh quality of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax from mariculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Segato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the effect of the reduction of dietary fat on juvenile European sea bass nutritional value and quality traits. Fish were reared in floating cages (Trieste Gulf, Italy from July (11 to October (10. Two isoproteic diets were compared: LF (low fat, EE = 19.4% vs. HF (high fat, EE = 24.6%. No significantly different growth performance was observed. LF diet-fed fish were characterized by the reduction of celomatic fat (not edible fraction and by the increase in dressing percentage. The tested dietary fat level also affected both fillet and epiaxial white muscle proximate composition, resulting in a significantly lower fillet lipid concentration in LF diet-fed fish. Dietary treatment influenced cooked fillet colour and texture probably as a consequence of the different intramuscular fat deposition. Fillet from HF-fed fish, in fact, presented higher lightness (L* value and lower instrumental strengthness.

  9. Effects of dietary supplementation with creatine monohydrate during the finishing period on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and muscle glycolytic potential of broilers subjected to transport stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Li, J L; Gao, T; Lin, M; Wang, X F; Zhu, X D; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2014-12-01

    A total of 320 male Arbor Acres broiler chickens (28 days old) were randomly allotted to one of the three experimental diets supplemented with 0 (160 birds), 600 (80 birds) or 1200 mg/kg (80 birds) creatine monohydrate (CMH) for 14 days. On the morning of 42 day, after an 8-h fast, the birds of CMH-free group were divided into two equal groups, and all birds of these four groups were transported according to the follow protocol: 0.75-h transport without CMH supplementation (as a lower stress control group), 3-h transport without CMH supplementation, 3-h transport with 600 or 1200 mg/kg CMH supplementation. Each treatment group was composed of 8 replicates with 10 birds each. The results showed that supplementation of CMH for 14 days before slaughter did not affect the overall growth performance and carcass traits of stressed broilers (P>0.05). A 3-h transport decreased plasma glucose concentration, elevated plasma corticosterone concentration, increased bird live weight loss, breakdown of muscle glycogen, as well as the accumulation of muscle lactate (Pmaintain breast meat quality by reducing the drip loss (Pmaintainance of meat quality by supplementation of CMH in transported broilers.

  10. Effects of Supplemental Chromium Source and Concentration on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, and Meat Quality of Broilers Under Heat Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanling; Yang, Jian; Xiao, Fang; Lloyd, Karen; Lin, Xi

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplemental chromium (Cr) on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of broilers reared under heat stress. A total of 252 1-d-old Cobb 500 commercial female broilers were randomly allotted by body weight (BW) to one of six replicate cages (six broilers per cage) for each of seven treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three Cr sources (Cr propionate, CrPro; Cr picolinate, CrPic; Cr chloride, CrCl3) and two concentrations of added Cr (0.4, or 2.0 mg of Cr/kg) plus a Cr-unsupplemented control group. Feed and distilled-deionized water were available ad libitum for an experimental phase of 42 days. For induction of heat stress, the house temperature was set at 33 ± 2 °C from 15 to 42 days of age. Results showed that birds supplemented with Cr, regardless of Cr source, had increased ADG (P = 0.032) than controls. Birds fed 2.0 mg Cr/kg diet had greater ADG (P = 0.005) than birds fed 0.4 mg Cr/kg diet. Compared to controls, birds fed with Cr had greater dressing percentage (P = 0.021). Percentage of abdominal fat decreased (P = 0.013), whereas, breast intramuscular fat (IMF) remained unaffected (P = 0.147) in Cr supplemented vs control broilers. Broilers supplemented Cr had decreased b* values of meat color (P = 0.042) in breast muscle. B*values were also lesser (P = 0.049) in birds fed CrPro than birds supplemented with CrCl3 or CrPic. Regardless of Cr source, the percentage of cooking loss was decreased (P = 0.025) with Cr supplementation in breast muscle when compared to controls. Results from this study indicate that Cr supplementation, independent of its source, could promote growth and improve carcass traits and meat quality of broilers under heat stress conditions. Chromium propionate seems to have greater beneficial effects on meat color in comparison with CrPic and CrCl3.

  11. Effects of Different Amounts of Blue Lupine (L. Angustifolius L. in The Diets of Heavy-Type Turkeys on Their Growth Rate, Carcass and Meat Qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Juodka

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A study was carried out to determine the effects of soybean meal replacement with different amounts of blue lupine in the diets of turkeys on the growth rate, anatomic carcass dissection data, chemical indicators of breast and thigh muscles and the content of tryptophan and oxyprolin. In total three hundred and sixty cross BIG-6 turkeys were allotted to two control and ten experimental groups of 30 one-day-old turkeys. The control group of turkeys was fed the diet containing soybean meal, whereas the trial groups were offered different amounts (from 20 to 30% of lupines. Group 4 and 5 were additionally given probiotic mixture Bio Plus 2B and allzyme SSF, respectively. Soybean oil replacement from 20 to 30% lupine in the diet had no influence on the growth rate, dressing percentage, edible parts and abdominal fat content of turkeys. The study indicated that lupines in the diet of turkeys had a different effect on the meat quality of different genders. Lupines did not have any negative effect on the meat quality of female turkeys and 30% lupines even improved the protein value index of breast muscles. However, 20-30 and 25-30% lupines in male turkey diets lowered dry matter and protein contents in breast muscles but had no negative influence on the main quality indicators in thigh muscles. The results of the study showed that the negative effect on the male breast muscle quality might be avoided using Bio Plus 2B or allzyme SSF additives in the male diets containing 30% lupines.

  12. Carcass and non-carcass components of Santa Ines lambs subjected to food restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrielle Albuquerque dos Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex class (castrated; non-castrated and level of food restriction (0%, 30% and 60% of ad libitum consumption on the quantitative composition of carcass and non-carcass components of Santa Ines lambs. A completely randomized 3x2 design (restriction level x sex class was used to evaluate thirty lambs approximately two months of age with an average initial body weight of 13 ± 1.49 kg. When the average body weight of the animals in one of the treatment groups reached 28 kg, all animals were slaughtered. Sex class had effect on body weight at slaughter, empty body weight, hot carcass weight and cold carcass weight. The weight of the leg was greater in non-castrated animals. There was linear decreased effect according to increasing levels of restriction for the carcass cuts, except for leg and rear loin yield. There was statistic difference between sex class for the weights of kidneys, paw, and large intestine of non-castrated animals (P < 0.05. There was a negative linear association between level of food restriction and mass of blood, head, leather, paw, rumen, reticulum, abomasum, small intestine, large intestine; perirenal, omental, mesenteric and heart fat. The quantitative composition of carcass and non-carcass components of Santa Ines lambs is influenced by sex class and food restriction level.

  13. Effects of replacing palm oil with maize oil and Curcuma longa supplementation on the performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and fatty acid profile of the perirenal fat and muscle of growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, P G; Masoero, G; Meineri, G

    2011-04-01

    An experiment has been conducted to study the effects of the inclusion of plant oil in rabbit diets. This study was aimed at evaluating the beneficial effects of the inclusion of maize oil (MO), rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), compared to palm oil (PO) containing saturated fatty acids (SFAs), on the meat fatty acid (FA) profile. As UFAs are susceptible to rancidity, Curcuma longa (CL), which is known for its antioxidant properties, was also added (3 g/kg) to the diet with two plant oils. CL contains curcuminoids, volatile oils, sugars, proteins, resins and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). We also evaluated the influence of CL inclusion in the diet on the FA profile of the meat. Furthermore, the possibility of using these oil-enriched diets and the ability to assimilate CL in rabbits was evaluated by analysing the performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences between the groups concerning the live weight, live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, carcass yield or the percentages of edible organs. The hind legs, forelegs, loins and abdominal wall, breast and ribs, skin and limbs and head were not affected by the oil type or by the inclusion of CL. The chemical composition, pH and oxidative status of the Longissimus dorsi muscle of the rabbits fed the experimental diets were not affected by the oil source or by the CL supplementation. Conversely, it has been shown that it is possible to modify the FA profile of rabbit meat and fat by dietary means. The SFA/PUFA ratio significantly decreased from -18% to -16% in the meat and from -25% to -23% in the perirenal fat of the rabbits fed diets containing MO without or with CL supplementation, respectively, compared to same tissues of the rabbits fed diets containing PO without or with CL supplementation, respectively. Similar trends were found for the atherogenic index, which decreased from -20% to -17% in the meat and from

  14. Fatal attraction: vegetation responses to nutrient inputs attract herbivores to infectious anthrax carcass sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Wendy C; Kausrud, Kyrre L; Krishnappa, Yathin S; Cromsigt, Joris P G M; Ganz, Holly H; Mapaure, Isaac; Cloete, Claudine C; Havarua, Zepee; Küsters, Martina; Getz, Wayne M; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2014-11-22

    Parasites can shape the foraging behaviour of their hosts through cues indicating risk of infection. When cues for risk co-occur with desired traits such as forage quality, individuals face a trade-off between nutrient acquisition and parasite exposure. We evaluated how this trade-off may influence disease transmission in a 3-year experimental study of anthrax in a guild of mammalian herbivores in Etosha National Park, Namibia. At plains zebra (Equus quagga) carcass sites we assessed (i) carcass nutrient effects on soils and grasses, (ii) concentrations of Bacillus anthracis (BA) on grasses and in soils, and (iii) herbivore grazing behaviour, compared with control sites, using motion-sensing camera traps. We found that carcass-mediated nutrient pulses improved soil and vegetation, and that BA is found on grasses up to 2 years after death. Host foraging responses to carcass sites shifted from avoidance to attraction, and ultimately to no preference, with the strength and duration of these behavioural responses varying among herbivore species. Our results demonstrate that animal carcasses alter the environment and attract grazing hosts to parasite aggregations. This attraction may enhance transmission rates, suggesting that hosts are limited in their ability to trade off nutrient intake with parasite avoidance when relying on indirect cues. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. CHARACTERISTICS OF CATTLE CARCASSES SLAUGHTERED IN SINOP-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Arruda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of classification and typication of cattle carcasses has been a great reference in the meat selection concept with the highest degree of quality, using characteristic grouping of parameters that differ according to sex, maturity, weight, conformation and finish. The referent study was to evaluate the characteristics of cattle carcasses slaughtered in a period of drought in the north of Mato Grosso, specifically in the city of Sinop, during the month of August 2015 were evaluated in 2250 cattle carcasses of animals of various classes and maturities, which mostly were female 77.15%, followed by non-castrated males and barrows with 16.93% and 5.91% respectively. Analyzing the class of uncastrated male animals, it can be seen that the non castration gave an early slaughter. The weight gain, and in finish shaping, as advanced maturity, and character had differences (P <0.05. Figures show that young animals with a nutritional management can have both gains as adult animals.

  16. Comparison of Carcass and Sensory Traits and Free Amino Acid Contents among Quality Grades in Loin and Rump of Korean Cattle Steer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yu Piao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to compare carcass traits, sensory characteristics, physiochemical composition, and contents of nucleotides, collagen, and free amino acids among quality grades (QG and to understand the association between QG and above parameters in loin and rump of Korean cattle steer. Loin and rump samples were obtained from 48 Korean cattle steers with each of four QG (QG 1++, 1+, 1, and 2; average 32 months of age. Carcass weight and marbling score (MS were highest in QG 1++, whereas texture score measured by a meat grader was highest in QG 2. A correlation analysis revealed that MS (r = 0.98; p<0.01 and fat content (r = 0.73; p<0.01 had strong positive correlations with QG and that texture had a strong negative correlation (r = −0.78 with QG. Fat content in loin was highest but protein and moisture contents were lowest in QG 1++. Our results confirmed that a major determinant of QG is the MS; thus, intramuscular fat content. The International Commission on Illumination L*, a*, and b* values in loin were highest in QG 1++. Numeric values of shear force in loin were lowest in QG 1++, whereas those of tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability tended to be highest in QG 1++ without statistical significance. QG was strongly correlated with juiciness (r = 0.81; p<0.01 and overall acceptability (r = 0.87; p<0.001. All sensory characteristics were higher (p<0.05 in loin than those in rump. Adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP and inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP contents in both loin and rump did not differ among QGs. No nucleotide (AMP, IMP, inosine, hypoxanthine was correlated with any of the sensory traits. Total, soluble, and insoluble collagen contents in loin were higher in QG 1++ than those in QG 1. All three collagens had lower content in loin than that in rump. All three collagens were positively correlated with tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. Glutamic acid content did not significantly differ among the four

  17. Comparison of growth performance, carcass components, and meat quality between Mos rooster (Galician indigenous breed) and Sasso T-44 line slaughtered at 10 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, D; Rois, D; Vázquez, J A; Lorenzo, J M

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this research was to make a full study of the meat from Mos-breed roosters (Spanish indigenous chicken). To achieve this purpose, the type of breed (Mos vs. a hybrid line, Sasso T-44) and the effect of finishing treatment in the last month (corn vs. commercial fodder) on growth performance, carcass and meat quality (physicochemical and textural traits), fatty and amino acid profile, and sensorial description were studied. The finishing feeding effect did not modify the growth, but the differences between genotypes were statistically significant (P 0.05) were found, and carcass weight clearly differed between genotypes due to the lower growth rate of Mos roosters. Drumstick, thigh, and wing percentages were greater in Mos breed than in Sasso T-44 birds, whereas breast (15.2%), that is the most highly valued piece of the chicken, was similar for both genotypes. Significant differences in pH, protein, and ash content between genotypes have been found, whereas finishing feeding treatment had an effect on myoglobin and redness index (P meat from roosters fed with corn had a higher luminosity. Despite the fact of the slaughtered age of birds, values of shear force were slightly higher than 2 kg (2.11 kg) for both genotypes, thus it can be classified as very tender meat. Mos breed showed a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (25.90 vs. 22.74; P < 0.001) and a lower percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids (35.14 vs. 38.95; P < 0.001) than Sasso T-44 chicken muscles. Surprisingly, birds finishing with the corn diet (2 times higher in linolenic acid than fodder) did not increase their polyunsaturated fatty acid level in the breast, obtaining in the Mos breed a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio of 0.69. The amino acid profile of the indigenous-breed breast was not similar to that of the commercial-strain breast; besides, finishing feeding treatment had more of an effect on amino acid profile, affecting the majority of amino acids, with

  18. Effect of a specific combination of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin on the growth performance, carcass quality and gut integrity of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. H. Awaad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The effect of a specific combination (SC of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin was investigated on productive performance and immune response in broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: Six hundred one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated into two groups for 5 weeks. The SC was supplemented at 100 ppm of ration (presence or absence. Results: Treatment of broiler chickens with the SC improved productive performance variables as compared with the blank control birds. It decreased total mortality, increased final body weight, weight gain, production number and decreased final feed conversion ratio (FCR (P<0.05. The SC had a positive effect on carcass quality and enhanced HI titer against Newcastle disease (ND virus vaccine, as compared to their untreated control group (P<0.05. The SC treated birds had higher values of intestinal diameter than the control ones. Conclusion: It could be concluded that administration of a specific combination of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin to broiler chickens improved chicken zootechnical performance response variables, had a potent immuno-modulatory effect (potentiated immune response and improved gut integrity. Eventually, this combination could be used as a replacement to the controversial feed additives (antibiotic growth promoters.

  19. Carcass traits, fatty acid composition, gene expression, oxidative stability and quality attributes of different muscles in Dorper lambs fed Nigella sativa seeds, Rosmarinus officinalis leaves and their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhaib, Kifah Jumaah; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2017-11-03

    This study examined the influence of dietary supplementation of Nigella sativa seeds, Rosmarinus officinalis leaves and their combination on carcass attributes, fatty acid (FA) composition, gene expression, lipid oxidation and physicochemical properties of longissimus dorsi (LD), semitendinosus (ST) and supraspinatus (SS) muscles in Dorper lambs. Twenty-four Dorper lambs (18.68±0.6 kg, 4-5 months old) were randomly assigned to a concentrate mixture containing either, no supplement (control, T1), 1% Rosmarinus officinalis leaves (T2), 1% Nigella sativa seeds (T3), or 1% Rosmarinus officinalis leaves + 1% Nigella sativa seeds (T4) on a dry matter basis. The lambs were fed the treatments with urea-treated rice straw for 90 days, slaughtered and the muscles were subjected to a 7 d postmortem chill storage. The T2 lambs had greater (p 0.05) on the expression of SCD and LPL genes in LD and ST muscles in Dorper lambs. The T2 and T3 diets up regulated the expression of PRKAA2 gene in LD and ST muscles and up regulated the expression of SREBP1 in ST muscle in Dorper lambs. Dietary supplementation of Nigella sativa seeds and Rosmarinus officinalis leaves had beneficial effects on meat quality in Dorper lambs.

  20. Performance, carcass quality, and gastric alterations in fattening pigs fed additives containing formic acid either coated with sorbate or mixed with lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth-promoting effects of two dietary acidifiers based on formic acid were studied with 320 fattening pigs from ca 21 kg to ca 105 kg of body weight. The sorbate-coated formic acid contained formic acid and ammonium formate which were absorbed in diatomaceous earth and coated with potassium sorbate. The investigated liquid blend contained formic and lactic acids as the major components. These acidifiers were added to grower and finisher diets at levels of 3, 6, and 12 g kg-1 of feed. The grower and finisher diets in the negative control treatment contained no growth promoters, but the grower diet in the positive control treatment was supplemented with avilamycin (40 mg kg-1. The investigated acidifiers did not influence the performance of growing pigs (P > 0.05. In finishing pigs, all additions of the sorbate-coated formic acid improved daily weight gain compared to the negative control (P 0.05. The frequency of severe gastric alterations tended to be smaller when the diets contained 12 g kg-of the sorbate-coated formic acid (P = 0.07, but the results of the other acidifier treatments did not differ significantly from those in the negative control. In conclusion, both the sorbate-coated formic acid and the blend of formic and lactic acids have a growth-promoting effect in fattening pigs already in small dosages, but they do not influence carcass quality or cause gastric alterations.;

  1. Effects of feeding steers extruded flaxseed on its own before hay or mixed with hay on animal performance, carcass quality, and meat and hamburger fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahmani, P; Rolland, D C; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Proctor, S D; Guan, L L; Prieto, N; López-Campos, Ó; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to determine if carcass quality and fatty acid profiles of longissimus thoracis (LT) and hamburger would be affected by feeding steers extruded flaxseed on its own followed by hay (non-TMR) compared to when hay and extruded flaxseed were fed together (TMR). Forty-eight steers in six pens were assigned to TMR or non-TMR for an average of 242days. Dry matter intake was lower for non-TMR versus TMR steers (10.56 vs. 11.42kg/d; P=0.02), but final live weight (610±0.50kg) and average daily gain (1.18±0.02kg/d) did not differ. Compared to TMR, feeding non-TMR enriched LT and hamburger with α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) by 14%, vaccenic acid (VA; t11-18:1) by 44%, rumenic acid (RA; c9,t11-18:2) by 40%, and conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) by 58%. Overall, feeding extruded flaxseed separately from hay in a non-TMR was more effective at enhancing deposition of ALA, VA, RA and CLnA in beef. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of pre-slaughter management regarding transportation and time in lairage on certain stress parameters, carcass and meat quality characteristics in Kivircik lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiz, Bulent; Ekiz, Elif Ergul; Kocak, Omur; Yalcintan, Hulya; Yilmaz, Alper

    2012-04-01

    Thirty Kivircik lambs were used to investigate effect of pre-slaughter treatment on certain haematological and biochemical parameters, carcass and meat quality characteristics. Lambs were divided into three treatments: 75 min transport and lairage for 18 h (TS-L18 h); 75 min transport and lairage for 30 min (TS-L30 min) and no pre-slaughter transport and lairage for 30 min (NTS). Treatment, as a main effect, did not influence haematological and biochemical parameters, but sampling time significantly affected these parameters, except total protein. Plasma cortisol concentration at exsanguination in TS-18 h, TS-30 min and NTS treatments were 117.34, 119.23 and 72.51 ng/ml, respectively. pH of longissimus dorsi muscle was higher in TS-L30 min than other treatments. TS-L30 min lambs had the highest shear force value, the lowest WHC and cooking loss. TS-L30 min treatment yielded the darkest meat immediately after cutting and 1 h later. Meat redness, yellowness and chroma values were similar in treatments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of finisher diets treated with organic acids on carcass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of 4 weeks, 3 birds from each replicate giving a total of 9 birds per treatment were slaughtered for carcass and internal organ evaluation. Result from the carcass evaluation showed that dressed carcass, breast, thigh, wing and drumstick of OA treated groups were not significantly (P>0.05) different from the control.

  4. Effect of dietary energy density and meal size on growth performance, eating pattern, and carcass and meat quality in Holstein steers fed high-concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, S; Pérez, M; Aris, A; Bach, A; Devant, M

    2014-08-01

    A total of 121 steers (162 ± 3.0 kg BW and 148 ± 2.7 d old) were used to study the effect of dietary energy density and meal size (limiting the amount of concentrate delivered at each feeder visit) on performance, hormones associated with the regulation of intake, and carcass and meat quality. Steers were allocated by BW to 6 pens. Each pen had the same BW mean and CV, and pens were randomly assigned to 3 treatments (2 pens/treatment): a concentrate of moderate energy density (3.23 Mcal ME/kg, 6.2% ether extract) fed for ad libitum intake with no control on meal size (CTR), a concentrate of high-energy density (3.43 Mcal ME/kg, 8.3% ether extract) fed for ad libitum intake with no control on meal size (HE), and the same high-energy concentrate offered for ad libitum intake but with meal size limited to a maximum concentrate delivery of 0.6 kg DM/visit (HELM). Body weight was recorded every 14 d; concentrate consumption and eating pattern were recorded daily. On d 163, blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), glucose, and insulin. After slaughter (on d 166 to 170), the 9-10-11 rib section was removed to estimate separable bone, lean, and fat. Meat quality of LM was analyzed. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects model with repeated measures. Steers in the HELM treatment had a lower (P hormones related to intake compared with CTR and HE, but no effect on rib fat distribution and meat quality was observed.

  5. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-04-01

    The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been proposed to offset this nutrient deficit including: allowing greater salmon spawning escapement, stocking hatchery salmon carcasses, and stocking inorganic nutrients. Unfortunately, each of these methods has some ecological or socio-economic shortcoming. We intend to overcome many of these shortcomings by making and evaluating a pathogen free product that simulates a salmon carcass (analog). Abundant sources of marine derived nutrients are available such as fish offal from commercial fishing and salmon carcasses from hatcheries. However, a method for recycling these nutrients into a pathogen free analog that degrades at a similar rate as a natural salmon carcass has never been developed. We endeavored to (1) develop a salmon carcass analog that will increase the food available to salmonids, (2) determine the pathways that salmonids use to acquire food from analogs, and (3) determine the benefits to salmonids and the potential for application to salmonid restoration. We used a before-after-control-impact-paired design in six tributaries of the upper Yakima basin to determine the utility of stocking carcass analogs. Our preliminary results suggest that the introduction of carcass analogs into food-limited streams can be used to restore food pathways previously provided by anadromous salmon. The analogs probably reproduced both of the major food pathways that salmon carcasses produce: direct consumption and food chain enhancement. Trout and salmon fed directly on the carcass analogs during the late summer and presumably benefited from the increased

  6. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of rabbits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected on body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality and carcass characteristics. There were no significant difference (p>0.05) in the body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. Also there were no significant (P>0.05) differences ...

  7. Effect of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (Optaflexx) with or without supplemental zinc and chromium propionate on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of finishing steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, B M; Edenburn, B M; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C; Felix, T L

    2014-09-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (Optaflexx) with or without supplemental Zn propionate (KemTRACE Zn) and Cr propionate (KemTRACE Cr) to finishing steers on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Angus cross steers (n = 142; BW = 527 ± 14 kg) were blocked by BW into 4 blocks (6 pens/block, 5 to 6 steers/pen). Steers targeted at an average 12th rib back fat thickness of 1.3 cm via ultrasound, by block, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary supplements for the final 35 d of feeding before slaughter: 1) no supplementation, where analyzed Zn and Cr were 49.82 and 0.98 mg/kg (DM basis), respectively (CONT), 2) 300 mg ractopamine hydrochloride·steer(-1) · d(-1), where analyzed Zn and Cr were 49.38 and 0.96 mg/kg (DM basis), respectively (RAC), or 3) 300 mg ractopamine hydrochloride, 1.0 g of Zn supplied as Zn propionate (KemTRACE Zn), and 3 mg of Cr supplied as Cr propionate (KemTRACE Cr) steer(-1) · d(-1), where analyzed Zn and Cr were 159.73 and 1.25 mg/kg (DM basis), respectively (RAC+TM). All steers were fed the same basal diet of 20% corn silage, 20% dried distillers grains, 50% corn, and 10% mineral-vitamin supplement (DM basis). Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a fixed effect of treatment and a random effect of block. Average daily gain and G:F were increased (P < 0.01) by 16% in steers fed RAC when compared with steers fed CONT. However, ADG and G:F were not different (P ≥ 0.61) between steers fed RAC and RAC+TM. Furthermore, HCW was increased (P = 0.04) by 1.87% (6.61 kg) in steers fed RAC when compared with steers fed CONT, whereas HCW was not different (P = 0.80) between steers fed RAC and RAC+TM. Back fat thickness and marbling were not different (P ≥ 0.14) between steers fed RAC and CONT or (P ≥ 0.34) between steers fed RAC and RAC+TM. Warner-Bratzler shear force tended to be greater (less tender; P = 0.06) in steers fed RAC when

  8. Importance of the quality of pig carcass sides for economical efficiency in production and processing of pork

    OpenAIRE

    Okanović Đ.; Petrović Lj.; Zekić V.; Živković B.; Džinić N.; Tomović V.; Tasić T.; Ikonić P.

    2008-01-01

    Intensive, market oriented pork and pork meat production requires detailed view of production prices, besides required quality and production parameters. This is required for meat-by products production to be economic in later phases. Previous results show that production price of fatteners does not vary during the year (around 1 E/kg) because feed price does not very significantly. During the year supply and demand may change, so the price of fatteners changes. In conclusion, the position of...

  9. Effects of dietary supplementation with turmeric rhizome extract on growth performance, carcass characteristics, antioxidant capability, and meat quality of Wenchang broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingfa Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to determine the effect of increasing dietary levels of turmeric rhizome extract (TRE on performance, carcass characteristics, antioxidant capability and meat quality of Wenchang broiler chickens. Three hundred, 1-day-old Wenchang broiler chickens were brooded together for 2 weeks, then randomly allocated into four treatments with five replicates of 15 birds each. Birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet supplemented with TRE at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg for 12 weeks. The results revealed that a TRE-supplemented diet had no significant effect (P>0.05 on the body weight, although birds fed a diet with TRE at 100 and 200 mg/kg had higher average daily weight gains and average daily feed as compared to controls from 9 to 12 week (P<0.05. Also, the addition of TRE at 100 to 300 mg/kg had a better feed conversion ratio compared to controls from week 9 to 12 (P<0.05. Dietary supplementation with TRE at 300 mg/kg increased the breast muscle weight ratio (P<0.05. Meanwhile, dietary supplementation with TRE at 100 to 300 mg/kg reduced the abdominal fat ratio (P<0.05, compared to that of the control group. TRE increased enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and reduced malondiadehhyde concentrations, compared to the control group. Dietary TRE supplementation at 300 mg/kg decreased the drip loss in both breast muscle and thigh muscles, compared with the control group (P<0.05. In conclusion, dietary TRE supplementation enhanced antioxidant capability, growth performance, breast muscle weight ratio, and reduced the abdominal fat ratio of Wenchang broiler chickens.

  10. Associations between animal traits, carcass traits and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study the associations between animal traits, carcass traits and carcass classification within cattle, sheep and pigs slaughtered in a high throughput abattoir were determined. Classes of carcasses from cattle, sheep and pigs delivered for slaughter at this abattoir were recorded and analysed. Significant associations ...

  11. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of Campylobacter spp. contamination of turkey cecal contents and carcasses during and following the slaughtering process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bily, Lise; Petton, Julie; Lalande, Françoise; Rouxel, Sandra; Denis, Martine; Chemaly, Marianne; Salvat, Gilles; Fravalo, Philippe

    2010-07-01

    The present study aimed to document quantitatively and qualitatively the contamination by thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. of turkey samples during slaughtering. Four Campylobacter-positive turkey flocks were investigated at the slaughterhouse at three different stages: evisceration (cecal content), after carcass rinses but before chilling (neck skin), and after breast meat cut (meat). In each case, the studied flock was slaughtered first thing in the morning any given day of the week. The efficiency of cleaning and disinfecting operations was examined in the facility prior to processing the studied flock. For each flock, 90 samples were collected from cecal contents, neck skins, and meat pieces and checked quantitatively and qualitatively for Campylobacter. Identification of Campylobacter species was determined by PCR, and genetic patterns were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Campylobacter contamination levels of ceca range from 2 to more than 7 Log CFU/g, while those of neck skin range from 0.5 to 3.5 Log CFU/g and those of meat range from 0.1 to 1.9 Log CFU/g. These differences in Campylobacter counts were not associated with a modification of Campylobacter species ratio; however, in the Campylobacter jejuni population, four genetic groups identified from the ceca were not recovered during slaughtering operations and two other genetic groups were only detected after chilling at the cutting stage of the breast meat. The present study suggests that the slaughtering process did not affect Campylobacter species populations; however, it might have influenced the strain population. Finally, the Campylobacter populations found on breast meat were similar to those isolated from the digestive tract of the birds.

  12. 1994 Ergonomics Program Quality Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longbotham, L.; Miller, D.P.

    1995-06-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to evaluate the quality of service provided to the primary customers of the Corporate Ergonomics Group (CEG). One hundred clients who received services between October 1993 and June 1994 were asked questions on their expectations, implementation of ergonomic recommendations, follow-ups, time required, productivity improvements, symptom alleviation, and satisfaction. Suggestions on how processes could be improved were also solicited. In general, recommendations are being implemented, worksite evaluations are going smoothly, and customers are satisfied with the process. The CEG was pleased to learn that half of the people who implemented recommendations experienced improvements in productivity, and four out of five symptomatic customers experienced partial or complete relief. Through analysis of the data and by studying clients` suggestions for process improvement, the CEG has developed a strategy for changing and improving current procedures and practices. These plans can be found in the last section of this report.

  13. Formative evaluation of handwriting quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Thorarinn; Karlsdottir, Ragnheidur

    2003-12-01

    A test developed for formative evaluation of handwriting quality is described and validated. The test is based on a domain of content for the handwriting skill defined in terms of the deviation of the writing in a handwriting specimen from the handwriting standard. A corresponding domain of elementary test items is defined in terms of the means and the variances of the deviations from the handwriting standard in shape, size, and position of each individual letter. The elementary items are scored on a dichotomous scale and cumulated into scores for letter items and a domain-referenced final score that can be interpreted as the fraction of the domain of content of the construct of handwriting quality that is mastered. Validation of the test was based on handwriting specimens from a school class of 23 children, tested in a longitudinal design from Grades 1 through 5. Coefficients of concurrent validity for final scores equal to .91, .86, .88, and .86 were obtained for Grades 1, 2, 3, and 5, respectively, using traits of the handwriting scored on an ordinal norm-referenced scale as criteria. Coefficients of intertest, intertask, intrascorer, and interscorer reliability for final scores equal to .87, .86, .94, and .80 were found, respectively, for the handwriting specimens from Grade 2. A survey of previously published handwriting quality tests indicates that most of them are not well suited for formative purposes although most of them were adequate for summative purposes.

  14. Consumer sensory evaluation, fatty acid composition, and shelf-life of ground beef with subcutaneous fat trimmings from different carcass locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerth, Chris R; Harbison, Amanda L; Smith, Stephen B; Miller, Rhonda K

    2015-06-01

    Brisket, chuck, plate, flank, and round subcutaneous fat trim were used to produce ground beef patties then evaluated for color, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition, volatile chemical compounds and consumer sensory evaluation. Color, TBARS, consumer sensory evaluation, and cook/freezer loss did not differ (P>0.05) among carcass fat locations. Percentage stearic acid was lower (P=0.044) in the ground beef using brisket fat than using the chuck and flank fat. Patties made with brisket fat were higher in cis-vaccenic acid (P=0.016) and the saturated to monounsaturated fatty acid ratio (P=0.018) than all other sources of subcutaneous fat. Butanedione was highest (P=0.013) in patties using flank and plate fat. Ground beef with brisket fat was higher (P=0.003) than all other sources for beefy aroma. Altering the profile of non-polar, triglyceride fatty acids has no effect on sensory flavor or major volatile chemical compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radionuclide Data Quality Evaluation Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, B.J.; Winters, M.S.; Evans, D.

    2009-01-01

    A considerable amount of radioanalytical data is generated during various phases of the characterization and remediation of radiologically-contaminated sites and properties. It is critical that data generated from the analysis of collected samples be to a level of quality usable by the project and acceptable to stakeholders. In July 2004, the final version of a multi-agency guidance manual entitled Multi-Agency Radiological Analytical Protocols Manual (MARLAP) was issued by the Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Energy, Department of Homeland Security, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Department of Defense, National Institute of Standards and Technology, U. S. Geological Survey, Food and Drug Administration, and the States of Kentucky and California. The authors' purpose is to introduce readers to some key elements of MARLAP as it relates to radioanalytical lab quality control, and to demonstrate how these guidance elements can be effectively incorporated into mature radioanalytical lab operations and data validation regimes. Based upon the logic and statistical methodologies presented in MARLAP, the authors have revised existing project-specific Radioanalytical Data Evaluation Guidance (RadDEG) used at the FUSRAP Maywood Site in Maywood, NJ. The RadDEG allows users to qualify data in a meaningful way by tying the usability of the data to its activity and uncertainty relative to project action levels and QC results. This exercise may be useful to other projects looking to implement a MARLAP-based approach into their project/site-specific data evaluation methodologies. (authors)

  16. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil in diets on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Chanjula

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. Methods Twenty-four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian uncastrated male goats (16.8± 0.46 kg body weight [BW] were assigned to a completely randomized design and subjected to four experimental diets containing 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% of CGWVO (63.42% of glycerol and 47.78% of crude fat on a dry matter (DM basis. The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations twice daily. The feed intake, feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass and meat traits, and muscle chemical composition were evaluated. Results Based on this experiment, there were significant differences (p>0.05 among groups regarding DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits where goats receiving 6% of CGWVO had lower daily DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits than those fed on 0%, 2%, and 4% of CGWVO. There were no effects of CGWVO on carcass length, carcass width, Longissimus muscle (LM area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color of LM at 45 min after slaughter, as well as on other carcass cut and muscle chemical composition. Conclusion In conclusion, the addition of up to 4% of DM in the diets for crossbred finishing goats seems to be the most interesting strategy, since it promotes greatest animal performance. Moreover, this study was a suitable approach to exploit the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  17. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil in diets on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objective This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. Methods Twenty-four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian) uncastrated male goats (16.8± 0.46 kg body weight [BW]) were assigned to a completely randomized design and subjected to four experimental diets containing 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% of CGWVO (63.42% of glycerol and 47.78% of crude fat) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations twice daily. The feed intake, feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass and meat traits, and muscle chemical composition were evaluated. Results Based on this experiment, there were significant differences (p>0.05) among groups regarding DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits where goats receiving 6% of CGWVO had lower daily DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits than those fed on 0%, 2%, and 4% of CGWVO. There were no effects of CGWVO on carcass length, carcass width, Longissimus muscle (LM) area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color of LM at 45 min after slaughter, as well as on other carcass cut and muscle chemical composition. Conclusion In conclusion, the addition of up to 4% of DM in the diets for crossbred finishing goats seems to be the most interesting strategy, since it promotes greatest animal performance. Moreover, this study was a suitable approach to exploit the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production. PMID:28830128

  18. FOOD SAFETY AND PROCESS HYGIENE CRITERIONS ON SHEEP CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mazzette

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hygienic status and the presence of some pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes e Salmonella spp. at slaughterhouses was evaluated in different matrix of sheep and lambs (carcass surface, faeces, fleeces and mesenteric lymph nodes according to the Com. Reg. (EC No 2073/2005. The 48% of sheep and 68.9% of lamb sampled carcasses resulted allocated into the marginal category for Aerobic colony count, while the 28% and 42.2% respectively were allocated into unacceptable category for Enterobacteriaceae. S.aureus was isolated more frequently in fleeces (11.5%, carcasses (12.6% of lambs than sheep. L. monocytogenes was found in fleeces and carcass of two sheep and in faeces of four lambs, while Salmonella spp. was detected only in sheep carcasses of a single plant.

  19. slaughter and carcass trait

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.Sc.(Agric)-tesis,. Univ. van Stellenbosch. FAHMY, M.M., 1985. The accumulative effect of Finnsheep breeding in crossbreeding schemes: growth and carcass traits. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 65, 811. GREEFF, J.e., & HOFMEYR, J.H., 1988. Finnsheep and their utilization in crosses with the Merino under range conditions in South ...

  20. Inclusion of sunflower seeds in the diet of lambs on carcass quantitative characteristics and meat qualityInclusão de grãos de girassol na ração de cordeiros sobre as características quantitativas da carcaça e qualitativas da carne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mari Yamamoto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the carcass quantitative characteristics, tissue composition of carcass cuts and meat quality of lambs receiving sunflower seeds in the diet. Twenty-one lambs 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Ideal, not castrated, with initial body weight of 17 kg were housed in individual pens and distributed in three diets (0,7.5 and 15% of sunflower seeds inclusion in a completely randomized design in 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (three diets and two carcass cuts. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were slaughtered; weights and hot and cold carcass yields and commercial and biological carcass dressing were collected. The carcasses were split lengthways and left half carcass divided into six anatomical parts. The leg and loin were removed for evaluation of tissue composition, meat color, water holding capacity, cooking losses and shearing force. Difference was detected in the commercial carcass yield; with higher value (46.82% of total weight for carcasses of lambs fed without sunflower seeds when compared with carcass yield (44.11% of lambs fed with 15% of sunflower seed inclusion. The proportion of muscle and total fat, as muscle:fat ratio were affected (P Objetivou-se avaliar as características quantitativas da carcaça, bem como a composição tecidual os cortes da carcaça e qualidade da carne de cordeiros recebendo grãos de girassol na ração. Foram utilizados 21 cordeiros 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Ideal, não castrados, com peso corporal médio inicial de 17 kg, alojados individualmente e distribuídos em três dietas (0, 7,5 e 15% de grãos de girassol na ração em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado decomposto em modelo fatorial 3x2 (três rações e dois cortes de carcaça. Ao final do período experimental, os animais foram abatidos, obtendo-se os pesos e rendimentos de carcaça quente e fria, além dos rendimentos comercial e biológico da carcaça. As carcaças foram seccionadas longitudinalmente e a

  1. Growth performances and carcass characteristics of cavies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8 week trial to evaluate the effect of supplementation with Asteraceae or a protein enriched ration on the growth performances and carcass characteristics of cavies was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm (FAR) of the University of Dschang. Prior to the experimental phase a two weeks acceptability trial was ...

  2. Performance, carcass characteristic and apparent nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth responses, carcass evaluation and nutrient utilization were estimated. Data obtained were subjected to 2x3 factorial arrangement within the completely randomized design (CRD). Feed: Gain was influenced by the level of the palm kernel by-products during 1-28days of study. The weight gained during the 56 days ...

  3. Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Haematology of Grower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of two hundred seventy growing Japanese male quail birds were fed with parboiled (PB) and varying boiling time of African Breadfruit, ABF (Treculia africana) seed to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and haematological parameters of the growing male quail fed the African Breadfruit seed. Six dietary ...

  4. Effects of dietary l-methionine supplementation on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and muscular antioxidant capacity and myogenic gene expression in low birth weight pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Zhang, H; Chen, Y P; Ying, Z X; Su, W P; Zhang, L L; Wang, T

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary Met supplementation on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and muscular antioxidant capacity and myogenic gene expression in low birth weight (LBW) pigs. Thirty normal birth weight (NBW) and 60 LBW female piglets were selected at birth. In each litter, after weaning, 1 of the LBW piglets (LBW-CON group) and 1 of the NBW piglets (NBW-CON group) were fed the basal diets and 1 LBW littermate was fed the basal diet supplemented with Met (LBW-MET group). Thus, all pigs were distributed into groups of 3 treatments × 6 replicates (pens) × 5 piglets per replicate up to 180 d of age. Compared with NBW-CON pigs, LBW-CON pigs had decreased ADG ( = 0.004) and ADFI ( supplemented diets had a greater amount of reduced glutathione (GSH; = 0.009) but a lower level of MDA ( = 0.015) in the LM compared with the LBW-CON pigs. Methionine supplementation increased the pH at 24 h postmortem (pH) value ( = 0.004) but reduced the drip loss at both 24 ( = 0.016) and 48 h ( = 0.005) postmortem of LBW-MET pigs in comparison with the LBW-CON pigs. The Met-supplemented diets increased the -adenosyl-methionine content ( = 0.006), DNA methyltransferase activity ( = 0.007), and CpG methylation levels of the sites +27 ( = 0.008) and +160 ( = 0.009) of myostatin (MSTN) exon 1 but decreased the mRNA expression of MSTN ( = 0.011) in the LM of the LBW-MET group compared with the LM of the LBW-CON group. Additionally, when compared with the LBW-CON group, the area of LM ( = 0.037) was significantly increased in the LBW-MET group, in parallel with the upregulated mRNA abundance of myogenin ( = 0.025), myocyte enhancer factor 2A ( = 0.036), and myocyte enhancer factor 2D ( = 0.015). In conclusion, Met supplementation increases pH and decreases drip loss in the LM of LBW-MET pigs, along with a greater GSH content but a lower MDA accumulation. Also, the LBW-MET pigs showed a greater LM area, which may be

  5. Qualidade de carnes provenientes de cortes da carcaça de cordeiros e de ovinos adultos Quality of meats from cuts of lamb and adult sheep carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Silvio Bonilha Pinheiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar as características qualitativas da carne de ovinos de diferentes categorias quanto aos músculos dos cortes da carcaça (paleta, lombo e perna, utilizaram-se 18 ovinos ½ Ile de France ½ Ideal (seis cordeiros não-castrados, seis ovelhas de descarte e seis machos adultos castrados. Os animais foram criados em pasto de capim-tifton 85 e receberam suplementação (concentrado. Os cordeiros foram abatidos aos 32 kg, com aproximadamente 5 meses de idade, e as ovelhas e os machos adultos castrados, com 55 kg e aos 60 meses de idade. Não houve diferenças nos valores de pH 45 minutos e pH 24 horas entre as categorias animais e nos músculos dos cortes da carcaça. A idade de abate influenciou a luminosidade da carne de todos os músculos. O teor de vermelho não diferiu entre os animais adultos, mas foi superior aos valores obtidos na carne dos cordeiros. A carne de animais adultos é mais escura que a de cordeiros. As perdas por cocção no músculo Triceps brachii são maiores que no Longissimus lumborum e Semimembranosus. Os valores de pH e a capacidade de retenção de água são similares entre as categorias animais.Eighteen ½ Ile de France ½ Polwarth sheep (6 no castrated lambs, 6 discarded ewes and 6 discarded wethers were used to evaluate qualitative traits of meat from different categories of sheep for muscle cuts (shoulder, loin and leg. The animals were raised in grazing system with tifton-85 pastures and supplemented with concentrate. Lambs were slaughtered at 32 kg body weight, close to 5 months of age. Ewes and wethers were slaughtered with 55 kg and 60 months of age. There were no differences in pH45mim and pH24h values among different animal categories and muscles of carcass cuts. There was difference in meat luminosity between lambs and adult animals, considering all the evaluated muscles. The red level did not differ between adult categories, but it was higher than values observed in lambs. In

  6. Efeito dos níveis de energia e programas de alimentação sobre a qualidade de carcaça e desempenho de frangos de corte abatidos tardiamente = Effect of metabolizable energy levels and feeding programs on carcass quality and performance in broilers slaugthered lately

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ferreira Duarte

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes níveis de energia e programas de alimentação sobre a qualidade de carcaça e carne de frangos de corte entre 42 e 57 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 1.600 pintos machos “Cobb”, em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x4, sendo dois níveis de energia (3.200 e 3.600 kcal EM kg-1 e quatro programas de alimentação (recomendações de aminoácidos. Foram avaliados ascaracterísticas de carcaça (rendimento de carcaça, de peito e de coxas + sobrecoxas e carne (cor, pH, perdas por cocção, força de cisalhamento, capacidade de retenção de água e análise sensoriale os dados de desempenho (ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e conversão calórica. Os níveis energéticos ou os diferentes programas de alimentação não determinaram diferenças expressivas na qualidade da carcaça ou de carne que justifiquem a escolha de um nível de energia ou de um programa alimentar, devendo prevalecer o nível energético e as recomendações de aminoácidos que determinem o maior custo-benefício. Observou-se que o nível de 3.600 kcal EM kg-1 proporcionou melhoria no desempenho das aves, enquanto que o fracionamento das exigências de aminoácidos digestíveis em dois períodos determinou piores resultados.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of different energy levels and amino acid recommendations on carcass and meat quality of broilers from 42 to 57 days of age. It was used 1,600 one-day old male broilers (Cobb in a completely randomized design arranged in a factorial scheme 2x4 with 3,200 and 3,600 kcal ME kg-1 and four different feed programs. The experimental period was from 42 to 57 days of age. From 1 to 41 days of age all birds received the same diets based on corn and soybean meal. Data from carcass yield (output carcass, relation weight breast and thigh and overthigh with the carcass weight and muscle quality (color, p

  7. Evaluation of Coated Steroidal Implants Containing Trenbolone Acetate and Estradiol-17β on Live Performance, Carcass Traits, and Sera Metabolites in Finishing Steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Z K; Thompson, A J; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T; Johnson, B J

    2018-03-09

    Crossbred beef steers (n = 240; 12 pens/treatment; initial BW = 305 ± 17.7 kg) were used in a randomized block design feedlot study to evaluate the influence of coated trenbolone acetate (TBA) and estradiol-17β (E2) implants (Merck Animal Health, Madison, NJ) on gain performance, carcass traits, and sera metabolites. The five treatments were no implant (NI), Revalor-XR on d 0 [200 mg TBA + 20 mg E2 (coated); XR], Revalor-XS on d 0 [200 mg TBA + 40 mg E2 (total): 80 mg TBA + 16 mg E2 (non-coated) and 120 mg TBA + 24 mg E2 (coated); XS], Revalor-200 on d 0 [200 mg TBA + 20 mg E2 (non-coated); E200], or Revalor-200 on d 70 (D200). Interim BW and blood were collected on d 0, 14, 35, 70, 105, 140, and 175 prior to feeding, and on d 213 prior to shipping. Following a 24 h clot at 4°C, sera was harvested to quantify circulating E2, IGF-I, NEFA, serum urea-N (SUN) and 17β-trenbolone (17β-TbOH). Implanted steers had greater (P ≤ 0.05) ADG, G:F, and final BW than NI controls. Implants increased (P 0.10), not differing from NI, E200, or D200. An implant × day interaction (P ≤ 0.01) was noted for circulating E2, IGF-I, SUN, and 17β-TbOH. Implanted steers had elevated (P ≤ 0.05) sera E2, IGF-I, and 17β-TbOH, and decreased (P 0.10) due to implant treatment. These data indicated that the polymer coating applied to the XR implant delayed release of steroidal hormones congruently to D200, with no negative impact on marbling. The greatest dose of E2, contained in XS, provided improvements in gain and carcass weight without detriment to marbling scores compared to NI.

  8. ASSOCIATION OF SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS IN THE LEPR CANDIDATE GENE WITH CARCASS TRAITS OF PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Kováčik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Leptin and leptin receptor genetic variants are associated with obese phenotypes in humans and mice and are expected to influence fat deposition in pigs. This study aimed to investigate the associations of LEPR polymorphism with carcass traits (half carcass weight, lean meat percentage, back-fat thickness, MLT area - musculus longisimus thoracis and evaluation of genotypic values, additive values and dominance deviations. To identify the genotypes of LEPR candidate genes, we used biological material obtained from sows (55 and boars (51 of hybrid combination Large White x Landrace after reaching the slaughter weight. We identified three genotypes using restriction endonuclease HpaII in a group of 106 pigs. The AA genotype was the dominant one (42.45%, AB heterozygotes constituted 39.62%, while the BB genotype was the lowest (17.93%. Analyzing the half carcass weight the highest value detected was the highest in the dominant AA homozygotes together with the highest genotypic value (GAA = 0.3649. The pork genotype AA presented the highest back-fat thickness, A high correlation between the additive genetic effect of the A allele and back-fat thickness (0.8183 has been observed while the effect of the allelic dominance was relatively low (0.1907. Based on our results we may conclude that there is an inverse and antagonistic relationship between the quality of the half carcass weight together with the back-fat thickness and the lean meat marker.

  9. Pork carcass injury in slaughterhouse waiting area and nutrient addition in pre-slaughter fasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago G Petrolli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Two experiments were conducted on a slaughterhouse located in Brazil, which the first aimed at evaluating the injuries on pig skin and carcass resulting from slaughterhouse waiting area management and the second aimed at assessing how glucose (G, sodium bicarbonate (SB and vitamin E (VE added to water during pre-slaughter fasting may affect carcass yield, organ relative weight and pork meat quality characteristics. Materials and methods. First trial included 1000 pigs, which were observed in the slaughterhouse resting area until the moment they entered the stunning process area. In the second trial were used 500 animals distributed on the last pre-slaughter day in a completely randomized design, including ten treatments and ten replicates. The treatments were: water; 50 g/L G; 50 g/L G + 200 mg/L of VE; 75 g/L of G; 75 g/L of G + 200 mg VE; 0.45% SB; 0.45% SB + 200 mg/L of VE; 0.55% SB; 0.55% SB + 200 mg/L of VE; 200 mg/L of VE. Results. Carcass yield and relative organ weight were not affected by treatments. The addition of 0.55% SB + 200 mg VE reduced the final pH of meat, and of 0.45% SB reduced the red pigment intensity. Conclusions. The main occurrences of injuries to the skin and carcass of pigs are due to fights. Also, adding glucose, sodium bicarbonate, and vitamin E to diet did not affect the carcass and viscera yield and meat quality.

  10. Evaluation the effects of Tomato pomace and herbal and animal oil sources on performance, carcass characteristics, and bone parameters of heat stressed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Hosseini Vashan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of supplementation of Tomato pomace (TP, canola, soybean and tallow oils on performance, carcass characteristics, and bone parameters of heat stressed broilers, 792 d-old Arian broiler were divided to 36 pens. Each dietary treatment had 4 replicate with 22 birds each. These factorial experiment (3*3 involved 3 kinds of canola, soybean and tallow oils and 3 levels of 0, 3, and 5 percentage tomato pomace was done in a completely randomized design. The daily heat stress schedule was done from 29-42 days for 5 h (32-34oc. Two blood samples from each replicate were gathered at 28 and 42 d. The kind of oils and levels of TP did not affect body weight, feed intake, FCR, production index, energy efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio and immune response. The canola oil reduced the relative weight of liver and abdominal fat pre heat stressed birds. The relative weight of spleen, and burs and bone parameters involved diaphysis diameter and external bone layer thickness were improved when heat stressed birds fed canola oil or TP diets. The canola and TP diets decreased abdominal fat in heat stressed birds. Therefore experimental diets did not affect performance and immune system. The inclusion of canola oil and TP diets improved spleen, burs, bone parameters and abdominal fat.

  11. Ensiled citrus pulp as a by-product feedstuff for finishing pigs: nutritional value and effects on intestinal microflora and carcass quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Moset

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Forty pigs of 76.8 ± 4.2 kg body weight were fed four different diets varying in ensiled citrus pulp (ECP inclusion level (0, 50, 100, and 150 g of ECP/kg of diet on dry matter base. The trial lasted 5 weeks. During the last week, faecal samples were obtained to calculate apparent nutrient digestibility; also volatile fatty acids (VFA content in faeces was determined. The digestible energy and protein of ECP was estimated by regression analysis. During the trial faecal samples were collected to determine enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts. At slaughter, carcass characteristics were registered. The inclusion of ECP in the diets decreased energy digestibility but increased neutral and acid detergent fibre digestibility linearly (p<0.05. The estimated digestible energy and protein of ECP were lower than expected (7.0 MJ/kg dry matter (DM and 33.8 g/kg DM, respectively. Total VFA production in faeces was not affected by the diet. Both enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts were lower (p<0.01 with than without ECP inclusion at the end of the study. Carcass yield decreased linearly (p<0.05 and backfat at gluteus medius increased quadratically (p<0.05 with the inclusion of ECP in the diet. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the internal subcutaneous fat layer decreased quadratically (p<0.05 with the inclusion of ECP. Thus, the nutritive value of ECP for finishing pigs is low and levels of 150g/kg can negatively affect carcass yield. However, including up to 100 g of ECP/kg in finishing pig diets did not affect nutrient digestibility, carcass yield and subcutaneous fat FA profile. Additionally, increasing ECP levels in diets decreases faecal enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts in faeces.

  12. Ensiled citrus pulp as a by-product feedstuff for finishing pigs: nutritional value and effects on intestinal microflora and carcass quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moset, V.; Piquer, O.; Cervera, C.; Fernández, J.; Hernández, P.; Cerisuelo, A.

    2015-07-01

    Forty pigs of 76.8 ± 4.2 kg body weight were fed four different diets varying in ensiled citrus pulp (ECP) inclusion level (0, 50, 100, and 150 g of ECP/kg of diet on dry matter base). The trial lasted 5 weeks. During the last week, faecal samples were obtained to calculate apparent nutrient digestibility; also volatile fatty acids (VFA) content in faeces was determined. The digestible energy and protein of ECP was estimated by regression analysis. During the trial faecal samples were collected to determine enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts. At slaughter, carcass characteristics were registered. The inclusion of ECP in the diets decreased energy digestibility but increased neutral and acid detergent fibre digestibility linearly (p<0.05). The estimated digestible energy and protein of ECP were lower than expected (7.0 MJ/kg dry matter (DM) and 33.8 g/kg DM, respectively). Total VFA production in faeces was not affected by the diet. Both enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts were lower (p<0.01) with than without ECP inclusion at the end of the study. Carcass yield decreased linearly (p<0.05) and backfat at gluteus medius increased quadratically (p<0.05) with the inclusion of ECP in the diet. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the internal subcutaneous fat layer decreased quadratically (p<0.05) with the inclusion of ECP. Thus, the nutritive value of ECP for finishing pigs is low and levels of 150g/kg can negatively affect carcass yield. However, including up to 100 g of ECP/kg in finishing pig diets did not affect nutrient digestibility, carcass yield and subcutaneous fat FA profile. Additionally, increasing ECP levels in diets decreases faecal enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts in faeces. (Author)

  13. Carcass characteristics of South African native chicken lines | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venda and Ovambo chicken lines were evaluated. The highest dressed-carcass mass was recorded for Ovambo chickens and the highest percentage breast muscle was recorded for Naked-Neck chickens. Percentage fat and fatty acid ...

  14. Performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs fed peach-palm by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Cabral, Ícaro; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; dos Santos Cruz, Cristiane Leal; Nogueira, Abdon Santos; Souza, Lígia Lins; de Oliveira, Gisele Andrade

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplying the by-product of peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes) on performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of feedlot lambs. Twenty Santa Ines lambs of 150 days average age and 22.4 ± 3.4 kg body weight were confined in individual pens. A completely randomized design was utilized with four experimental diets composed of: fresh peach-palm by-product enriched with urea, fresh peach-palm by-product + concentrate, silage of peach-palm by-product + concentrate, and silage of peach-palm by-product enriched with 15 % corn meal + concentrate. Intake was evaluated daily, and at the end of 42 days of experiments, lambs were slaughtered and the characteristics of carcass and non-carcass parts were evaluated. Performance and carcass characteristics showed differences between the animals' intake of total mixed rations (TMR) and only the diet with roughage. For the lambs that intaked TMR, the form of utilization of roughage (fresh or as silage) affected animal performance but did not change the carcass characteristics. Dry matter intake and feed conversion were influenced by the form of utilization of the silage (with and without additive). Providing fresh by-product plus concentrate improves lamb performance but does not interfere in the carcass characteristics, compared with the use of by-product in the form of silage.

  15. Effects of ractopamine and gender on performance and carcass quality of swine with different halothane genotypes / Efeito da ractopamina e do gênero no desempenho e na carcaça de suínos de diferentes genótipos halotano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Hideaki Hoshi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the ractopamine effect on performance and carcass quality of swine carriers of the dominant homozygote and heterozygote halothane genotypes. It were used 24 barrows and 12 gilts, half of each genotype. The experimental design used was a randomized block under a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement comprising two halothane genotypes (dominant homozygote and heterozygote, two rations (one containing 10 ppm of ractopamine and another without ractopamine and two genders (barrows and gilts. It were evaluated the performance, carcass and the economic viability of the ractopamine use. All the binary interactions evaluated were not significant as there was no difference among the dominant homozygote and heterozygote genotypes on the performance and carcass quality characteristics, except to the variable ration consumption (P Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da ractopamina sobre o desempenho e a qualidade da carcaça de suínos dos genótipos halotano homozigoto dominante e heterozigoto, 24 machos castrados e 12 fêmeas, sendo metade de cada genótipo, foram submetidos aos tratamentos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados em arranjo fatorial 2x2x 2, sendo dois genótipos halotano (homozigoto dominante e heterozigoto, duas rações (controle sem adição de ractopamina e com 10 ppm de ractopamina e dois gênero (machos castrados e fêmeas. Avaliou-se o desempenho, a carcaça e a viabilidade econômica do uso da ractopamina. Todas as interações binárias avaliadas não foram significativas como também não houve diferença entre genótipos homozigoto dominante e heterozigotos para as características de desempenho e de qualidade da carcaça, exceto para a variável consumo de ração (p < 0,05, onde os suínos heterozigotos consumiram mais ração. Não foram observados efeitos para o fator ractopamina para todas as variáveis avaliadas. Conclui que o desempenho e as caracter

  16. Evaluation of Perceived Spatial Audio Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Berg

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of audio applications capable of conveying enhanced spatial quality puts focus on how such a quality should be evaluated. Different approaches to evaluation of perceived quality are briefly discussed and a new technique is introduced. In a series of experiment, attributes were elicited from subjects, tested and subsequently used for derivation of evaluation scales that were feasible for subjective evaluation of the spatial quality of certain multichannel stimuli. The findings of these experiments led to the development of a novel method for evaluation of spatial audio in surround sound systems. Parts of the method were subsequently implemented in the OPAQUE software prototype designed to facilitate the elicitation process. The prototype was successfully tested in a pilot experiment. The experiments show that attribute scales derived from subjects' personal constructs are functional for evaluation of perceived spatial audio quality. Finally, conclusions on the importance of spatial quality evaluation of new applications are made.

  17. [Rapid evaluation of beef quality by NIRS technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Song; Meng, Qing-Xiang; Ren, Li-Ping; Zhou, Zhen-Ming; Xie, Xiang-Xue

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy rapid method for evaluation of beef quality. Partial least squares (PLS) prediction model for the physic-chemical characteristics such as moisture, fat, protein, pH, color and WBSF in beef was established with good veracity. One hundred fourteen samples from five different parts of beef carcass (tenderloin, ribeye, topside, shin, striploin) were collected from meat packer after 48 h aging. Spectra were obtained by scanning sample from 950 to 1 650 nm and pretreated the model by MSC, SNV and first derivative. Predictive correlation coefficients of physic-chemical parameters in beef were 0.947 2 (moisture), 0.924 5 (fat), 0.934 6 (protein), 0.620 2 (pH), 0.820 3 (L), 0.864 6 (a*), 0.753 0 (b*) and 0.475 9 (WBSF) respectively. Root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC) were 0.313 3 (moisture), 0.221 0 (fat), 1.243 2 (protein), 0.744 6 (pH), 1.778 3 (L*), 1.394 2 (a*), 1.763 9 (b*) and 1.0743 (WBSF). They were externally validated with additional 30 beef samples. Statistics showed that there was no significant difference between predicted value and those obtained with conventional laboratory methods. The results showed that NIRS is a rapid, effective technique for evaluating beef quality. The predictions for chemical characteristics gave higher accuracy than prediction for physical characteristics.

  18. Estudo do crescimento, desempenho, rendimento de carcaça e qualidade de carne de três linhagens de frango de corte Growth, performance, carcass yield and meat quality of three broiler chickens strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Luciana dos Santos

    2005-10-01

    broiler chicken strains: Cobb, Paraiso Pedrês and ISA Label. The experiment was analyzed according to a randomized design, with five replicates of 29 birds per treatment. Weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion were evaluated weekly. Adjustments performed according to Gompertz model to describe the birds growth were based on mean weight gain. The birds growth rate was obtained by the Gompertz derivative model. When the males of each strain reached body weight of 2.5 kg, three broilers of replicate were slaughtered for carcass analyses. Samples of breast samples of two birds were taken for physical-chemical characteristics analyses. Cobb birds had higher weight gain and feed intake, followed by Paraíso Pedrês and ISA Label. Cobb birds exhibited higher values of growth potential, according to Gompertz equation. Cobb birds showed higher values of carcass yield, breast, drumstick, liver, intestines, and proventricule than the other strains, that did not differ between them. Cobb birds presented higher values of pH and water retention capacity of breast meat. Paraíso Pedrês and ISA Label exhibited stronger red color intensity. Sex did not influence meat quality but influenced feet, drumisticks + upper drumstick, and heart, that were higher in males. Females exhibited higher values of breast, abdominal fat, liver, gizzard, and proventricule yield. Therefore, Cobb strain showed greater capacity to reach higher growth rates and meat quality, and Paraíso Pedrês and ISA Label birds exhibited colors that satisfy consumers demand.

  19. Association analysis of CAPN1 gene variants with carcass and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... the cattle industry. Key words: Bovine, CAPN1 gene, Carcass and meat quality traits, SNPs. INTRODUCTION. Carcass and meat quality traits, which are influenced by multiple ... value assessment of beef cattle industry. Selection of ..... tenderness marker test to include cattle of Bos indicus, Bos taurus,.

  20. Growth and carcass characteristics of male dairy calves on a yeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this experiment the inclusion of a yeast culture in the finishing off diet of dairy calves had no effect on their growth rate, feed conversion ratio, carcass characteristics or meat quality. Keywords: Yeast, dairy calves, growth performance, carcass quality. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol. 38 (3) 2008: pp. 174-183 ...

  1. Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards on the Evaluation of the efficacy of peroxyacids for use as an antimicrobial substance applied on poultry carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrung, Birgit

    on poultry carcasses. The efficacy of peroxyacids was difficult to assess because the protocols submitted by the company were not always fully explained. The design of experiments on commercial processing lines did not allow assessment of the efficacy of peroxyacids, only comparison of two different ways...... pathogens of concern in poultry, were not provided. Two experiments were adequately described but they were small laboratory experiments, not adequate to demonstrate the efficacy of peroxyacids under commercial conditions. Decontamination of poultry carcasses is generally intended to reduce the number and...

  2. SOAQE - Service Oriented Architecture Quality Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Belkhatir, Riad; Oussalah, Mourad Chabane; Viguier, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a semi-automated method for evaluating SOAs called SOAQE, correcting defects observed so far with existing methods such as lacks of pertinence and accuracy for evaluation results. SOAQE takes as a starting point the McCall model, describing software quality, which led to an international standard for the evaluation of software quality (ISO/IEC 9126-1, 2001). This model is organized around three types of quality attributes (factors, criteria and metr...

  3. Persistence of blood changes associated with alteration of the dietary electrolyte balance in commercial pigs after feed withdrawal, transportation, and lairage, and the effects on performance and carcass quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L N; Engle, T E; Paradis, M A; Correa, J A; Anderson, D B

    2010-12-01

    Increasing dietary electrolyte balance (dEB) has previously been shown to reduce the incidence of nonambulatory and noninjured swine, improve meat quality, and reduce the incidence of gastric ulcers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dEB under commercial conditions. Due to the variability in feed withdrawal, transport, and lairage conditions in the swine industry, it was necessary to determine first the persistence of blood changes during the marketing process after alteration of dEB. Sixteen pens of 8 crossbred barrows were assigned to a low (121 mEq/kg) or high (375 mEq/kg) dEB diet, calculated as Na(+) + K(+) - Cl(-), to determine the persistence of blood changes associated with the alteration of dEB. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC (1998) requirements for energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals. Dietary treatments were provided for ad libitum intake for 3 d before slaughter. Before transport, animals were fasted in the barn for approximately 10 h. After fasting, animals were shipped to the packing plant, rested for 8 h, and subsequently slaughtered. Initial and final BW of the animals were obtained. Blood was sampled at baseline (2 d before administration of diets), before feed withdrawal (0 h), after feed withdrawal (10 h), and at exsanguination (20 h). Consumption of the high dEB diet for 3 d resulted in an increase in blood TCO(2) (P = 0.001), HCO(3)(-) (P = 0.001), and base excess (P = 0.0003) and a decrease in Cl(-) (P = 0.0002) and anion gap (P = 0.01). These differences, however, were not maintained for any of the blood components after the 10-h feed withdrawal (P > 0.22). Increasing dEB had no adverse effects (P > 0.18) on growth performance, meat quality, or carcass yield and did not decrease pars esophageal ulcer scores. This study demonstrated that the effect of dEB on blood components was not maintained after a 10-h feed withdrawal. Therefore, it is likely that the ability of the animal to withstand any increased

  4. Managing Air Quality - Ongoing Evaluation of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the importance of evaluating if air quality programs are achieving the desired results to inform environmental program managers, regulated industry and the public, and provides EPA examples.

  5. Animal Carcass Pricing Grid. Evidences from the Romanian Pigmeat Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savescu Roxana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Until the introduction of SEUROP system, price negotiation between pig producers and slaughterhouses was based on two subjective criteria: animal weight and visual inspection of the quality of pigs. To ensure producers a fair payment, European Union created the possibility of binding the price on two objective factors: carcass weight and carcass composition. This paper describes the pricing mechanism developed by Romania in order to respond to European Union requirements for ensuring a fair payment to pig producers. It raises the attention on the difficulties encountered by the producers in understanding the way the commercial value of a pig carcass is calculated in case the selling price is negotiated on a flat rate basis or on a lean content basis (per kg of carcass weight or per kg of live weight.

  6. Effects of dietary lysine levels on carcass performance and biochemical characteristics of Chinese local broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuncong Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lysine is typically the second-limiting amino acid in poultry diets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary lysine concentration on carcass and meat quality traits, and serum parameters in two lines – SD02 and SD03 – which originated from a Chinese local breed, the Erlang Mountainous chicken. Live body weight, carcass traits, meat quality traits (myofibre diameter and density, and serum metabolic markers were measured in high and low dietary lysine groups (HL and LL, respectively at the end of the starter (1-28 days, grower (29-49 days and finisher (50-70 days periods. The results showed that mortality, live weight (LW, myofibre diameter of leg muscle (LFDM and serum cholesterol (CHO were greater in HL than LL (P<0.05. The chickens from HL had reduced subcutaneous fat thickness and heart weight than LL (P<0.05. The chickens from line SD02 had greater leg muscle weight, myofibre diameter in breast, and LFDM than line SD03 (P<0.05. The chickens from line SD02 had more serum urea nitrogen and less total proteins than line SD03 (P<0.05. In conclusion, high lysine diets improved slaughter performance and muscle fibre diameter, and SD02 chickens had greater carcass yield and superior meat quality compared with chickens from line SD03.

  7. Evaluation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product as an alternative to monensin on growth performance, cost of gain, and carcass characteristics of heavy-weight yearling beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swyers, K L; Wagner, J J; Dorton, K L; Archibeque, S L

    2014-06-01

    Two hundred fifty-two cross-bred yearling steers (406 ± 24 kg BW) were used in a completely randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (7 pens/treatment) to evaluate the effects of dietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SFP) and monensin (MON) on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Dietary treatments arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial were 1) with or without SFP and 2) with or without MON. Finishing diets contained 19.7% of DM as dried distiller's grains with solubles. Both SFP and MON were added in the total mixed ration in place of an equal amount of cornmeal (DM basis; target intake = 2.8 g of SFP and 33 mg of MON/kg of dietary DM). Each treatment group was offered ad libitum access to a transition ration from d 1 to 8 and then to the finishing ration from d 9 to 125. Body weights were collected on d 0, 28, 56, 84, 110, and 125. Initial and final BW was an average of 2-d weights (d -1 and 0 and d 124 and 125, respectively). Steers were shipped for harvest on d 125. Overall ADG was decreased (P = 0.03) in steers supplemented with SFP, but final BW was similar among treatments. Feeding SFP was associated with lighter (P SFP (P = 0.82) or MON (P = 0.35), but numerical decreases in 12th rib fat thickness among cattle receiving SFP or MON alone contributed to a tendency (P = 0.07) for greater 12 rib fat thickness when SFP and MON were provided. There was no effect of treatment on cost of gain (P ≥ 0.21). The effects of SFP in the current study may have been limited in heavy yearling steers due to consumption of a finishing diet containing 19.7% dried distiller's grains with solubles.

  8. Evaluation of risk based microbiological criteria for Campylobacter in broiler carcasses in Belgium using TRiMiCri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Seliwiorstow (Tomasz); M. Uyttendaele (Mieke); L. de Zutter (Lieven); M.J. Nauta (Maarten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCampylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported foodborne zoonosis worldwide. Consumer´s exposure to Campylobacter might be reduced by establishing a microbiological criterion (MC) for Campylobacter on broiler meat. In the present study two possible approaches were evaluated,

  9. [Research progress on quality evaluation of saffron].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang-di; Ouyang, Zhen; Yang, Bin

    2017-02-01

    Saffron, a precious spice and a traditional medicinal herb in the international trade market, has attracted much attention about its quality evaluation.Saffron has been successfully cultivated in some areas in China,such as Shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, but few studies were focused on the quality difference between saffron cultivated in China and in foreign countries, which obstructed the entrance of saffron cultivated in China into international trade market. The paper is to review the current research progress on quality evaluation of saffron from the following respects: the chemical composition, the identification of authenticity and adulterants, the detection of artificial colorants, the indexes and methods of quality evaluation,the quality evaluation of different specifications in the international trade market, and the parameters which affected the quality of saffron. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Evaluation of different agroindustrial waste on the effect of different carcass characteristics and physiological and biochemical parameters in broilers chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sanchez-Roque

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the physiological and biochemical effect in chickens of the Ross breed of a food enriched with agroindustrial waste. Materials and Methods: The food is one of the main components of the total cost for the production of chickens. Rations should be formulated to provide the correct balance of energy, protein, amino acids, minerals, vitamins and essential fatty acids, to allow optimal growth and performance. This study was intended to evaluate a natural feed for chicken, made from corn, yucca meal, eggshells, orange peel, soybean meal, salt and garlic, enriched with agroindustrial waste (molasses, milk whey and ferment of coffee. The weight gain was evaluated in broilers using a diet enriched with different agroindustrial wastes, with respect to a control food of the same composition but not containing residue. To develop the experiment 120 male Ross 308 chicks were used, these were evaluated for 6 weeks. Physicochemical test for the food and the agroindustrial waste were performed; moisture was determined; organic carbon, organic material and the ash, to characterize the agroindustrial wastes, the reducing sugars content using a spectrophotometer at 540 nm and proteins through the Kjeldahl method was evaluated. During the experiment, the weight gain of chickens and feed conversion was evaluated; the end of the experiment the weight of eviscerated channel relative weight breast, thighs, pancreas, and abdominal fat was determined, besides including blood chemistries as determination of cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose. Finally, the microbiological analyzes to detect the presence of Escherichia coli in the cecum was determinate. Data were analyzed by InfoStat statistical program using the generalized linear model procedure. The statistical comparison was made by Tukey test at the 95% probability level. Results: After the evaluation, fed chickens with the treatments food + milk whey (FMW and food

  11. Effect of Sorghum Based Nutritional Programs on Performance, Carcass Yield and Composition of Breast in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Silveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to compare three nutritional programs, which were developed with tannin-free grain sorghum based diets, evaluating performance, carcass yield and bromatological composition of the pectoral muscle of broilers. A total 1360 chicks mixed (50:50, from one to 42 days old Hubbard Flex Broilers, were housed in a completely randomized design consisting of treatments and 10 replicates each, distributed as follows: three programs with whole sorghum grain based diets (nutritional program with daily adjustment, nutritional program with every three days adjustment and nutritional program with four stages and a program with ground and whole sorghum grain based feed (four stages. The cumulative performance was evaluated at, 21 and 42 days, determining feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and viability. At 42 days, the yield of eviscerated carcass, breast (full and boneless, thighs/drumsticks and wings and breast composition were evaluated. Nutritional adjustments showed better feed conversion, did not affect the carcass, commercial cuts yield and had a good breast meat quality. It can be concluded that daily feed programs could be performed in poultry industry with the mixture of whole sorghum grains and concentrates directly on farms contributing to better logistics and feed transportation cost.

  12. The Genetics of Pork Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van H.J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes the genetics of carcass composition and pork quality traits. A large population of commercial finishers was extensively phenotyped for growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits. Genetic parameters were estimated based on those measurements. The population was

  13. Implications of Continuous Quality Improvement for Program Evaluation and Evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Melvin M.; Pines, Edward

    1995-01-01

    Explores the implications that continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs are likely to have for evaluation. CQI, often known as total quality management, offers a structured approach to the analysis of an organization's processes and improvement that should provide advantages to evaluators once they have gained experience with the approach.…

  14. Development of a Sound Quality Evaluation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Preben; Thomsen, Carsten; Lee, Sanjil

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the first version of the Sound Quality Evaluation System. The purpose of the system is to predict the subjective sound quality of home theater systems from objective measurements. 16 home theater systems were measured in an anechoic room. Several metrics...... expected to correlate w ith the subjective quality were proposed and tested. A model for the sound quality was created by mapping the subjective evaluations of the Home Theater System s with the metrics calculated for each system. Correlation between subjective listening test and the prediction is presente...

  15. Influence of production system, age an sex on carcass parameters and some biochemical meat quality characteristics of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Sampels

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Carcass composition in reindeer is affected by feed intake and the age and sex of the animal. Studies have also shown that age, sex, carcass trim fat content and total intramuscular fat content (IMF influence lipid class composition. The aim of this study was to compare lipid class composition and IMF in relation to carcass weight, conformation and trim fat content, and to investigate how these parameters are affected by age, sex and different feed sources. Five groups of reindeer were studied. Two groups of calves were fed two grain-based pelleted feeds with different lipid compositions for approximately two months before slaughter. One of these groups was fed with conventional pellets, and the other with pellets enriched with linseed cake to increase the amount of n-3 fatty acids in the diet. Three groups of grazing reindeer were also included in the study, consisting of adult males, adult females or calves. Reindeer calves fed pellets had higher slaughter weights, higher trim fat content and better carcass conformation scores compared to the grazing calves. However, there was no significant difference in IMF between pellet-fed and grazing calves. Adult female reindeer had the highest and grazing calves the lowest slaughter weights, trim fat and IMF. There was no difference in lipid class composition in meat from calves fed with the two pelleted feeds, whereas grazing calves had a higher amount of phospholipids. Squalene was identified and quantified as a component of intramuscular lipids in reindeer meat. Effekt av produktionssystem, ålder och kön på slaktkroppskvalitet och några biokemiska egenskaper hos renköttAbstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Slaktkroppssammansättningen hos renar påverkas av både foderintag, fodersammansättning och djurens ålder och kön. Tidigare har vi visat att renens kön, ålder, mängden intramuskulärt fett (IMF och putsfett på slaktkroppen påverkar sammansättningen av lipidklasser. Syftet med denna

  16. Growth performance, carcass and non-carcass characteristics of Mubende and Mubende×Boer crossbred goats under different feeding regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asizua, D.; Mpairwe, D.; Kabi, F.

    2014-01-01

    evaluated the effects of supplementing grazing Mubende goats and their crossbreds (Mubende×Boer) with concentrates on growth, carcass and non-carcass characteristics. A 2×3 factorial treatment arrangement was used to randomly allocate 96 pure Mubende and Mubende×Boer castrates (mean±SE; 31.3±2.2 kg initial...

  17. Effects of chicory/perennial ryegrass swards compared with perennial ryegrass swards on the performance and carcass quality of grazing beef steers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Marley

    Full Text Available An experiment investigated whether the inclusion of chicory (Cichorium intybus in swards grazed by beef steers altered their performance, carcass characteristics or parasitism when compared to steers grazing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne. Triplicate 2-ha plots were established with a chicory/ryegrass mix or ryegrass control. Forty-eight Belgian Blue-cross steers were used in the first grazing season and a core group (n = 36 were retained for finishing in the second grazing season. The experiment comprised of a standardisation and measurement period. During standardisation, steers grazed a ryegrass/white clover pasture as one group. Animals were allocated to treatment on the basis of liveweight, body condition and faecal egg counts (FEC determined 7 days prior to the measurement period. The measurement period ran from 25 May until 28 September 2010 and 12 April until 11 October 2011 in the first and second grazing year. Steers were weighed every 14 days at pasture or 28 days during housing. In the first grazing year, faecal samples were collected for FEC and parasite cultures. At the end of the first grazing year, individual blood samples were taken to determine O. ostertagi antibody and plasma pepsinogen levels. During winter, animals were housed as one group and fed silage. In the second grazing year, steers were slaughtered when deemed to reach fat class 3. Data on steer performance showed no differences in daily live-weight gain which averaged 1.04 kg/day. The conformation, fat grade and killing out proportion of beef steers grazing chicory/ryegrass or ryegrass were not found to differ. No differences in FEC, O. ostertagi antibody or plasma pepsinogen levels of beef steers grazing either chicory/ryegrass or ryegrass were observed. Overall, there were no detrimental effects of including chicory in swards grazed by beef cattle on their performance, carcass characteristics or helminth parasitism, when compared with steers grazing ryegrass.

  18. Tenderness of Pork Muscles as Influenced by Chilling Rate and Altered Carcass Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Elin; Møller, Anders Juel

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of tenderness improvements in porcine muscles (longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) in 72 carcasses by using combinations of three different chilling rates and two different suspennnsion methods.......Evaluation of tenderness improvements in porcine muscles (longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) in 72 carcasses by using combinations of three different chilling rates and two different suspennnsion methods....

  19. Quality measures for nurse practitioner practice evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinpell, Ruth; Kapu, April N

    2017-08-01

    Evaluating the impact of nurse practitioner (NP) practice has become a priority area of focus for demonstrating outcomes. A number of quality measures are available to enable practice-specific evaluation of NP roles and initiatives. This article reviews sources of quality measures that can be used to facilitate quantifying the outcomes of NP practice as part of an overall evaluation agenda. National resources and published literature on NP quality measures were reviewed. Various resources and toolkits exist to assist NPs in identifying outcomes of practice using quality measures. The need to demonstrate outcomes of NP practice remains an ongoing priority area regardless of the clinical practice setting. A variety of sources of quality measures exist that can be used to showcase the effect of NP care. The use of quality measures can be effectively integrated into evaluation of NP role and NP-directed initiatives to demonstrate impact, and enhance the conduct of an NP outcomes assessment. The use of organizational, NP-specific, and national-related quality measures can help to showcase how NP care improves the quality, safety, and costs of health care. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  20. An Underwater Color Image Quality Evaluation Metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Miao; Sowmya, Arcot

    2015-12-01

    Quality evaluation of underwater images is a key goal of underwater video image retrieval and intelligent processing. To date, no metric has been proposed for underwater color image quality evaluation (UCIQE). The special absorption and scattering characteristics of the water medium do not allow direct application of natural color image quality metrics especially to different underwater environments. In this paper, subjective testing for underwater image quality has been organized. The statistical distribution of the underwater image pixels in the CIELab color space related to subjective evaluation indicates the sharpness and colorful factors correlate well with subjective image quality perception. Based on these, a new UCIQE metric, which is a linear combination of chroma, saturation, and contrast, is proposed to quantify the non-uniform color cast, blurring, and low-contrast that characterize underwater engineering and monitoring images. Experiments are conducted to illustrate the performance of the proposed UCIQE metric and its capability to measure the underwater image enhancement results. They show that the proposed metric has comparable performance to the leading natural color image quality metrics and the underwater grayscale image quality metrics available in the literature, and can predict with higher accuracy the relative amount of degradation with similar image content in underwater environments. Importantly, UCIQE is a simple and fast solution for real-time underwater video processing. The effectiveness of the presented measure is also demonstrated by subjective evaluation. The results show better correlation between the UCIQE and the subjective mean opinion score.

  1. Effect of Replacing Soybean Meal with Lupin Seed-based Meal in Chicken Diet on Performance, Carcass Value and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Suchý

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this experimental study was to determine how diets containing lupin meal affect the performance indicators, carcass value, and chemical composition of breast and thigh muscles in broiler chickens. The diets tested in experimental groups E1 and E2 differed as follows: in group E1, one third of nitrogen-containing substances (NSs from extracted soybean meal was replaced with NSs from lupin meal; in group E2, two thirds were replaced compared to the control group. The replacement of soybean meal with lupin meal in experimental diets failed to produce any significant effect on the average live weight of chickens on Day 42 of the fattening period compared to the control group. The replacement of soybean meal with lupin meal resulted in decreased average weight of carcass and breast muscles and in decreased yield of breast muscles. Differences between the control group (C and group E2 were significant (P ⪬ 0.01. Chickens in group E2 also showed a significant increase (P ⪬ 0.01 in the yield of the heart and stomach compared to the control group. The differences in weight and yield of thigh muscles between the control group and the experimental groups (E1 and E2 were not significantly affected. As far as chemical composition is concerned, chickens receiving the lupin-containing feed showed a significant (P ⪬ 0.01 increase in the ash content in breast muscles. On the contrary, in thigh muscles in group E2, the ash content decreased significantly (P ⪬ 0.01. The content of calcium showed an increasing trend in both breast and thigh muscles in both experimental groups. In contrast, the content of magnesium in chicken muscles in both experimental groups decreased. These differences were significant (P ⪬ 0.01 only in thigh muscles. Our results show that lupin seed is a suitable substitute for NSs contained in soybean extracted meal. It is considered optimal to replace up to one third of NSs contained in

  2. Programme evaluation: Maintaining quality in higher education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation of educational or social programmes is paramount for establishing success or impact in higher education. Evaluation questions about programme goals (e.g. better performance of first-year students) or about the quality of programme strategies (design and implementation) and effectiveness of delivery ...

  3. Growth performance, carcass quality, fresh belly characteristics, and commercial bacon slicing yields of growing-finishing pigs fed a subtherapeutic dose of an antibiotic, a natural antimicrobial, or not fed an antibiotic or antimicrobial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, J E; Bohrer, B M; Wilson, K B; Overholt, M F; Harsh, B N; Stein, H H; Dilger, A C; Boler, D D

    2018-02-01

    The objective was to compare growth performance, belly characteristics, and bacon slicing yields of growing-finishing pigs fed a subtherapeutic dose of an antibiotic, a natural antimicrobial, or a diet containing no antibiotics or antimicrobials. Barrows and gilts (96 each, initial BW: 27.52±3.98kg) were housed in 48 pens (8 replications per treatment) in a 2×3 factorial randomized complete block design. Pens were assigned 1 of 3 diets: antibiotic free, oregano or tylosin phosphate. Pigs were slaughtered at an average BW of 127.31±10.18kg. There were no differences among dietary treatments for growth performance (P≥0.06), carcass cutability (P≥0.42), loin quality (P≥0.28), fresh belly dimensional characteristics (P≥0.11), IV (P≥0.87) or bacon processing characteristics (P≥0.07). Given the lack of differences in meat quality from pigs fed diets without antibiotics, the implementation of VFD in the United States should not result in changes in pork quality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of carcass traits, non-carcass components and 12th rib analysis of hair sheep supplemented with phosphorus Avaliação das características de carcaça, constituintes corporais e da 12ª costela de ovinos deslanados suplementados com fósforo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Louvandini

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of sheep supplemented with phosphorus (P using carcass traits and analysis of 12th rib. Twenty male lambs weighing 13.88 ± 2.51 kg and grazing Andropogon gayanus pasture were divided in two treatments of 10 animals each. In group P, animals were supplemented with 3 g phosphorus/animal/day, while in group NP no P supplementation was given. After 82 days the animals were slaughtered and carcass measurements were taken. The 12th rib was also removed for analysis. No significant differences in body weight, carcass yield, or commercial cut weights were found between both treatments, except for liver and kidneys that were heavier in the supplemented group (p=0.0954. The 12th rib analysis showed that the group P had higher rib, bone, and muscle weights when compared to animals not supplemented with P. Other measurements such as carcass fatness and rib eye area were not significantly affected by treatments as well as contents of crude protein, ether extract, ash and P. It was shown that P supplementation improved performance in young sheep, including bone and muscle tissue and liver and kidney weights.Este trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de avaliar o desempenho de ovinos suplementados com fósforo (P, utilizando-se as análises das características de carcaça e da 12ª costela. Foram utilizados 20 ovinos com 13,88 ± 2,51 kg de PV, mantidos em pastagem de Andropogon gayanus, distribuídos em dois tratamentos com dez animais: um com suplementação de 3g/fósforo/animal/dia e o outro sem suplementação. Após 82 dias, os animais foram abatidos, tomando-se as medidas da carcaça e da 12ª costela, para posterior análise. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os valores de peso vivo, rendimento de carcaça, cobertura de gordura e cortes comerciais entre os dois tratamentos, exceto os pesos do fígado e dos rins, que foram superiores (p=0,0954 no grupo suplementado. Na an

  5. Modeling the Biological Diversity of Pig Carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen

    for extracting and modeling meaningful information from the vast amount of information available from non-invasive imaging data. The lean meat percentage (LMP) is a common standard for measuring the quality of pig carcasses. Measuring the LMP using CT and using this as a reference for calibration of online...... more spatially localized modes of variation that are easier interpretable and the latter enables the use of PDM’s without the need for full point correspondence of new data. There is great potential in applying CT as non-invasive modality in the meat industry, e.g. in population based studies...

  6. Composição física da carcaça e qualidade da carne de novilhos jovens e superjovens de diferentes grupos genéticos Carcass physical composition and meat quality of steers and young steers of different genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Santana Pacheco

    2005-10-01

    ,31, respectivamente.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the carcass physical composition and meat qualitative characteristics of males of two categories, steers (slaughtered at 22.8 months old and young steers (slaughtered at 15.2 months old, from two genetic groups, 5/8 Charolais (CH 3/8 Nellore (NE and 5/8NE 3/8CH, and to evaluate the relationship among the variables studied. The animals were fedlot finished until reaching 430 kg. The diet, roughage:concentrate ratio of 60:40 (dry matter basis, contained 10.25% crude protein and 3.18 Mcal of digestible energy/kg of dry matter. The experiment was analyzed as a complete randomized design with six replicates, according to a 2 x 2 (two categories x two genetic groups factorial scheme. Steers showed carcasses with higher percentage and total quantity of muscle (66.45% and 153.93 kg vs. 60.27% and 141.00 kg, higher muscle:fat ratio (3.64 vs. 2.45, carcasses with lower percentage and total quantity of fat (18.59% and 43.59 kg vs. 24.78% and 58.07 kg, meat with less marbling (6.25 vs. 8.42 points, less juiciness (6.83 vs. 7.34 points and lipid content (1.01 vs. 1.76% than young steers. Steers showed equal meat color (4.42 points and similar meat tenderness, evaluated by the test panel (6.53 and 6.92 points and shear force (3.84 and 4.22 kgf/cm³ in relation to young steers. The 5/8NE 3/8CH animals showed carcasses with higher fat percentage (22.43 vs. 20.95. Meat quality characteristics were not influenced by genetic group. Meat tenderness was positively correlated with percentual (r = 0.27 and total (r = 0.31 carcass fat, and with marbling score (r = 0.28. Meat juiciness showed positive correlation with percentual (r = 0.45 and total (r = 0.47 carcass fat. The two last ones were negatively associated with thawing loss (r = - 0.23 and -0.31, respectively.

  7. Effects of Moringa oleifera leaves as a substitute for alfalfa meal on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, carcass trait, meat quality, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, B; Zhang, Y; Ding, M; Xi, Q; Liu, G; Li, Y; Liu, D; Chen, X

    2018-02-01

    This contribution reports the effects of Moringa oleifera leaves (MOLs) meal on the growth performances, nutrient digestibility, carcass trait, meat quality, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters of growing New Zealand white rabbits. The MOL was substituted for alfalfa meal at levels of 0, 10%, 20% and 30% to obtain respective diets MOL0, MOL10, MOL20 and MOL30. Each treatment was replicated five times with 10 rabbits per replicate. Results showed the average daily weight gain (ADWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of rabbits fed MOL20 diet were significantly better (p oleifera leaves (MOL0, MOL10). The meat drip loss of rabbits fed with diet MOL10 was significantly lower (p oleifera leaves. No significant differences were found in the digestibility of crude fibre (CF), crude fat (EE), ash, crude protein (CP) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) among the dietary groups. Moringa oleifera leaves also have a significant impact on serum albumin (ALB), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), triiodothyroxine (T 3 ) and tetraiodothyroxine (T 4 ) values and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in serum and liver. The results indicated that M. oleifera leaves could be developed as a good feed source, and it not only could substitute for alfalfa meal well but also has a significant effect on growth performance, meat quality, antioxidant and biochemical parameters of rabbits. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Performance and carcass characteristics of Japanese quail as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sex and the supplementation of the prebiotic, mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), the acidifier, calcium propionate (CPr) or their combination in the feed of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) on their performance and carcass quality was examined in this experimentation. Three hundred, 1-day old Japanese quail ...

  9. Effects of calpastain (CAST) polymorphisms on carcass and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calpastain (CAST) activity plays a major role in muscle growth and proteolytic changes post-mortem and the CAST gene has been considered as a candidate gene for carcass and pork quality characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of two polymorphisms namely CAST_HinfI (allele A and B) and ...

  10. Effects of sweet potato meal on performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and five (305) five weeks old broilers (Anak strain) were used in a four-week experiment to determine the effect of dietary substitution of processed sweet potato meal for maize grain on the carcass quality of broilers at the finisher phase. Graded levels of processed sweet potato meal (0, 12.5, 25, 37.5 and ...

  11. 78 FR 63959 - Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... (APHIS) regulations regarding carcass management, including those found in 9 CFR 53.4, are based on World... comment on them during the scoping period: Effects on soil, air, and water quality. Effects on humans... announcing its availability and an opportunity to comment on it will be published in the Federal Register...

  12. Effects of initial fattening age on carcass characteristics and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of initial fattening age on carcass and meat quality of Simmental bulls imported from Austria to Turkey. These animals were allocated to two initial ages of fattening groups, namely young (n = 74) and old group (n = 61) at 5.5 and 7.5 months old, respectively. After reaching ...

  13. Towards a regional beef carcass classification system for Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapiye, C, Dr

    2017-05-15

    May 15, 2017 ... abattoir, quality assurance schemes, including carcass grading and classification systems, are used to determine meat .... channel fat, and a liberal distribution of marbling at the point of quartering. .... promotants and beta-agonists, which affect meat tenderness negatively (Strydom et al., 2011; Frylinck et al.,.

  14. The effect of the malignant hyperthermia gene on carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) genotype, as expressed by the halo- thane genotype, was determined on a random sample of 100 pigs originating fiom the Western Cape. The pigs were slaughtered to investigate the effect of MH genotype on certain carcass character- istics and meat quality traits. Genotypes were determined ...

  15. Atmospheric Model Evaluation Tool for meteorological and air quality simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Atmospheric Model Evaluation Tool compares model predictions to observed data from various meteorological and air quality observation networks to help evaluate meteorological and air quality simulations.

  16. Quality and Research Evaluation in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Finn

    A central issue in science policy today is the changing role and function ofresearch evaluation. How is quality selected, has local organizational traditionsand managerial practices influence on the research evaluation? Who isperceived as peers or evaluators by the researchers and by managers......? Recentorganizational theory has focused on organizational and social dimensions inprivate knowledge-based companies, but left out research organizations. Howimportant is the organizational context for the research evaluation processes?The paper will present results from an interview-based study of four privateand...... public research organizations and discuss the importance of theorganizational context on the production of new knowledge....

  17. Improving system quality through software evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, James G

    2002-05-01

    The role of evaluation is examined with respect to quality of software in healthcare. Of particular note is the failure of the Therac-25 radiation therapy machine. This example provides evidence of several types of defect which could have been detected and corrected using appropriate evaluation procedures. The field of software engineering has developed metrics and guidelines to assist in software evaluation but this example indicates that software evaluation must be extended beyond the formally defined interfaces of the software to its real-life operating context.

  18. Quality and Research Evaluation in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Finn

    A central issue in science policy today is the changing role and function ofresearch evaluation. How is quality selected, has local organizational traditionsand managerial practices influence on the research evaluation? Who isperceived as peers or evaluators by the researchers and by managers......? Recentorganizational theory has focused on organizational and social dimensions inprivate knowledge-based companies, but left out research organizations. Howimportant is the organizational context for the research evaluation processes?The paper will present results from an interview-based study of four privateand...

  19. An Objective Train Timetabling Quality Evaluation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The train timetable dominates the rail traffic organization. The timetabling quality should be evaluated to check the work skill of train timetable managers. The values of existing timetable evaluation indexes vary with infrastructure features and traffic flow; therefore, they are not comparable in fact. Furthermore, subjective inputs like expert scores are involved in evaluation; this will lead to unreliable results because the experts may have different opinions. To overcome these shortages, we propose a relative train path efficiency index by taking the train paths as production units. Each unit consumes some transport resources and produces some feedback outputs. A DEA model is applied to compute the train path efficiency. Two statistical functions of train path efficiency are used to evaluate the timetabling quality. We verify our method with real-world timetables. First, we use the Shibantan-to-Xinqiao line timetable to test the relative feature of the index proposed, and the results show that the train path efficiency value is relative and can reflect whether the stops are evenly distributed or not. Second, we evaluate the timetabling quality of another two timetables of the Qingdao-to-Jinan line with different traffic flows, and the results show that, compared with the 2012 timetable, the timetabling quality decreased in 2013.

  20. Evaluation of headache service quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsarava, Zaza; Gouveia, Raquel Gil; Jensen, Rigmor

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evaluating quality of health care is increasingly recognized as an important contributor to the advancement of health-care delivery. We recently developed a set of quality indicators for headache care, intended to be applicable across countries, cultures and settings so that deficienc......BACKGROUND: Evaluating quality of health care is increasingly recognized as an important contributor to the advancement of health-care delivery. We recently developed a set of quality indicators for headache care, intended to be applicable across countries, cultures and settings so...... that deficiencies in headache care worldwide might be recognized and rectified. These indicators themselves require evaluation and proof of fitness for purpose. This pilot study begins this process. METHODS: We tested the quality indicators in the tertiary headache centres of the University of Duisburg......: The questionnaires were easily understood by both HCPs and patients and were not unduly time-consuming. The results from the two headache centres were comparable despite their differences in structure, staffing and language. These findings met the purpose of the study. Diagnoses were made according to ICHD criteria...

  1. Efeito da Duração do Período de Jejum Pré-Abate Sobre Rendimento de Carcaça e a Qualidade da Carne do Peito de Frangos de Corte Effect of Feed and Water Withdrawal on Carcass Yield and Breast Meat Quality of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Denadai

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo de estudo foi o de avaliar o efeito do jejum de ração e água antes do abate sobre o rendimento de carcaça e cortes, perda de peso vivo, conteúdo do papo, intestino e moela, matéria seca das fezes, bem como volume globular médio e proteína total plasmática do soro. Foram utilizados 600 pintos machos da linhagem Ross, criados até 42 dias de idade, quando foram submetidos a três períodos de jejum (zero, quatro ou oito horas. A duração do período de jejum afetou (p0,05 do período de jejum sobre as demais variáveis estudadas.The objective of this estudy was to evaluate the effect of feed and water withdrawal on carcass yield and parts, body weight loss, content of crop, gizzard and intestine, dry matter content of faeces and breast meat quality, as well as plasma total protein and packed cell volume. Six hundred day-old Ross chicks were reared until 42 days of age when they were submited to one of three feed withdrawal period (0, 4 or 8 hours. Feed withdrawal period affected (p0.05 of feed withdrawal period on the other variables evaluated.

  2. The effect of age on the carcass composition, portion yield and proximate composition of two rabbit genetic types in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. North

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the carcass component yields and meat proximate composition of 2 rabbit genetic types (Californian and hybrid New Zealand Red×Californian, with 5 rabbits per genetic type being slaughtered every 2 wk throughout the study period (9-17 wk to evaluate the effect of age on these traits. Slaughter weight, reference yield, portion yield (hind leg, foreleg and fore part, as percentage of slaughter weight, meat yield, skin weight and the fat content of the meat (percentage of wet weight increased significantly with age, while the full gastrointestinal tract, liver, head and feet decreased significantly. This is likely a reflection of the early-maturing nature of bone and viscera and later maturing nature of muscle and fat. These results indicate that delaying slaughter to 13 wk tends to improve yields for valuable carcass components. The Californian had a significantly higher total meat yield at 11 and 17 wk and higher portion meat yields at 9 (hind leg, 11 (hind leg and fore part and 13 (foreleg weeks than the hybrid. This was likely due to the later maturation of the hybrid and the influence of the New Zealand Red on carcass quality. It therefore appears that the Californian may be more favourable for meat production, from a carcass and meat quality perspective.

  3. Virtual dissection of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann

    2009-01-01

    carcasses were weighed and CT-scanned. The explained variance of the model was R-2 = 0.9994 with a root-mean-squared error of prediction of 83.6 g. Applying this method as a reference will ensure a more robust calibration of sensors for measuring the LMP, which is less prone to variation induced by manual...... is applied to classify volume elements of full body CT-scans of pig carcasses into three tissue types. A linear model describes the relation between voxels and the full weight of the half carcass, which can be determined more accurately than that of the lean meat content. Two hundred and ninety-nine half pig...

  4. Avaliação das carcaças de novilhos F1 Angus-Nelore em pastagens de Brachiaria decumbens submetidos a diferentes regimes alimentares Carcass evaluation of F1 Angus-Nellore steers on Brachiaria decumbens pasture under different feeding regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelson Luís Dias Feijó

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no Centro Nacional de Gado de Corte da Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa Gado de Corte. Foram utilizados 45 novilhos F1 Aberdeen Angus-Nelore para avaliar o efeito de diferentes regimes alimentares, nos períodos secos da recria/terminação, sobre as características de carcaça. Os tratamentos aplicados foram: testemunha, sem suplementação (S/S; suplementação na 2ª seca (S2S; suplementação na 1ª seca (S1S; suplementação nas duas secas (S12S e suplementação na 1ª seca e confinamento na 2ª (S1C2. Os animais foram abatidos com pesos entre 460 e 480 kg. O efeito dos tratamentos foi avaliado pelo método dos quadrados mínimos. Animais com melhor nível nutricional na 2ª seca (S1C2, S2S e S12S apresentaram melhor rendimento de carcaça e maiores pesos de carcaça quente e fria do que aqueles suplementados somente na 1ª seca ou não suplementados. A suplementação somente na 1ª seca produziu carcaças semelhantes, em todos os aspectos avaliados, às do tratamento testemunha. Conclui-se que melhorar o nível alimentar na 2ª seca da vida do animal é fundamental para aumentar o rendimento de carcaça. Suplementação na 1ª seca, como prática isolada, não contribui para o rendimento e qualidade da carcaça.This trial was conducted at National Beef Cattle Research Center of Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa Beef Cattle. Forty five F1 Aberdeen Angus-Nellore steers were used to evaluate the effects of different dry seasons feeding schemes on carcass characteristics. The treatments were: control, without supplementation (S/S; supplementation in 2nd dry period (S2S; supplementation in 1st dry period (S1S; supplementation in 1st and 2nd dry periods (S12S and supplementation in 1st dry period and confinament in 2nd one (S1C2. Animals were slaughtered at 460-480 kg of live weight and the treatments effects were evaluated by least square means. Steers with higher

  5. Predicting carcass cut yield by carcass weight and visual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strydom

    similar residual standard deviation values (rsd) for predicting saleable yield with different VIA systems when. The South ... carcass on lean yield is mostly a result of different ways of investigating the matter and different definitions ... By contrast, they defined conformation as thickness of the muscle, intermuscular fat and.

  6. Common factors method to predict the carcass composition tissue in kid goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fernanda Barros Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the interrelations among weights and carcass measures of the longissimus lumborum muscle thickness and area, and of sternum tissue thickness, measured directly on carcass and by ultrasound scan. Measures were taken on live animals and after slaughter to develop models of multiple linear regression, to estimate the composition of shoulder blade, from selected variables in 89 kids of both genders and five breed groups, raised in feedlot system. The variables considered relevant and not redundant on the information they carry, for the common factor analysis, were used in the carcass composition estimate development models. The presuppositions of linear regression models relative to residues were evaluated, the estimated residues were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were compared by the Student t test. Based in these results, the group of 32 initial variables could be reduced to four variables: hot carcass weight, rump perimeter, leg length and tissue height at the fourth sternum bone. The analysis of common factors was shown as an effective technique to study the interrelations among the independent variables. The measures of carcass dimension, alone, did not add any information to hot carcass weight. The carcass muscle weight can be estimated with high precision from simple models, without the need for information related to gender and breed, and they could be built based on carcass weight, which makes it easy to be applied. The fat and bones estimate models were not as accurate.

  7. Características de carcaça e qualidade da carne de bovinos de corte de quatro grupos genéticos terminados em confinamento Carcass characteristics and meat quality of four genetics groups of beef cattle finished in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Malaguido Climaco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as características de carcaça e a qualidade da carne de animais puros das raças Tabapuã, Bonsmara e mestiços ½ Bonsmara + ½ Nelore e mestiços ½ Bonsmara + ¼ Red Angus + ¼ Nelore. Foram utilizados cinco bovinos castrados de cada grupo genético, com idade média de 22 meses e peso vivo de 394±21 kg ao início do experimento. A dieta, para todos os animais, continha silagem de cana-de-açúcar e ração comercial na proporção de 55% e 45% (base seca, respectivamente, com 14,99% de proteína bruta (PB e 59,84% de nutrientes totais digestíveis (NDT. Ao abate, não foram observadas diferenças no peso de carcaça fria nem nos pesos e percentuais dos cortes comerciais (traseiro, costilhar e dianteiro entre os grupos genéticos. Os animais puros Bonsmara apresentaram maior área de olho-de-lombo, maior percentual de músculo e menor percentual de gordura na carcaça. Nos animais mestiços ½ Bonsmara + ½ Nelore, a espessura de gordura de cobertura (EGC foi maior que os Bonsmara e Tabapuã, porém todos os grupos genéticos apresentaram EGC acima do mínimo (3 mm exigido pelos frigoríficos. Não foi observada diferença na composição centesimal da carne entre os grupos genéticos. A carne dos animais Bonsmara e mestiços ½ Bonsmara + ½ Nelore e ½ Bonsmara + ¼ Red Angus + ¼ Nelore foi mais macia que a dos animais Tabapuã. O perfil de ácidos graxos no músculo longissimus dorsi não diferiu entre os grupos genéticos estudados. A carne dos animais Bonsmara e mestiços ½ Bonsmara + ½ Nelore e ½ Bonsmara + ¼ Red Angus + ¼ Nelore apresentou melhor qualidade se comparada à dos Tabapuã.The objective of this study was to evaluate carcass traits and meat quality of Tabapuã and Bonsmara purebred steers, and crossbred ½ Bonsmara + ½ Nellore and ½ Bonsmara + ¼ Red Angus + ¼ Nellore steers. Five animals were used in each genetic group. The average age and weight at the

  8. Detection of Campylobacter spp. in chilled and frozen broiler carcasses comparing immunoassay, PCR and real time PCR methods

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Luciana Pimenta; Menezes, Liliane Denize Miranda; Lima, Graciela Kunrath; Santos, Ethiene Luiza de Souza; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Assis, Débora Cristina Sampaio de; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Cançado, Silvana de Vasconcelos; Figueiredo, Tadeu Chaves de

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In order to detect and identify Campylobacter spp. in broiler chicken carcasses, and to compare detection methods, 43 chilled and 43 frozen carcasses were collected and analyzed. Three methodologies were evaluated: an automated Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA) VIDAS®30, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR. Only four chilled carcasses (4.6%) were considered positive for Campylobacter spp. by VIDAS®30 and no sample was positive when the conventional PCR technique w...

  9. Italian Biomedical Scientific Web Site quality Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Bassi, Chiara; Ciappelloni, Raoul; Curti, Moreno; Fruttini, Luisa; Orrù, Beniamino; Pistotti, Vanna; Veronesi, Enrica

    2005-01-01

    Due to the uncontrolled spread of new biomedical Web Sites, it becomes essential for the scientific community to make possible the evaluation of the quality and reliance of the online information repository content. The Internet, so far, undoubtedly represents a democratic and free accessible information system, it gives the same importance to everyone who has something to communicate, share or just sell, without any distinction between scientifically sound resources and the others. Oft...

  10. Evaluation of Carcass Quality for Coliforms, Salmonella and Psychrophiles on Evisceration and Chiller lines in Yazd Province Industrial Poultry Slaughterhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mofidi

    2014-05-01

    In general, it can be said that secondary contamination in the slaughter line along with gradual increase in temperature of the chiller can increase bacterial load of both coliforms and salmonella but it will not affect the amount of psychrophile bacteria. Due to some differences between the studied slaughterhouses, microbial load of coliform and salmonella can be acheived by improving the management and installation of appropriate aquipments in the evisceration line.

  11. Carcass and non-carcass characteristics of sheep fed on annatto byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Annatto byproduct is the residue from the extraction of powder dye that covers the seed pericarp; after processing, between 94% and 98% of the original product is considered a byproduct. The aim was to evaluate the influence of increasing levels of annatto byproduct on the components of sheep body weight. Thirty-two male sheep, not castrated, with initial weight of 23.17 ± 1.45 kg, without a defined breed, were used in randomized blocks in all four treatments (0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg?1 of annatto byproduct in the diet dry matter. The increase to 300 g kg?1 of annatto byproduct had a negative linear effect (P < 0.05 for hot carcass weight (kg and cold carcass weight (kg. Increasing levels of annatto byproduct resulted in a linear reduction (P < 0.05 for palette weight (kg, leg weight (kg, carcass compactness index (kg cm?1, liver weight (kg and skin weight (kg. The inclusion of annatto byproduct up to 200 g kg?1 of dry matter in sheep diets did not affect the components of sheep body weight.

  12. Subjective evaluation of compressed image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heesub; Rowberg, Alan H.; Frank, Mark S.; Choi, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Yongmin

    1992-05-01

    Lossy data compression generates distortion or error on the reconstructed image and the distortion becomes visible as the compression ratio increases. Even at the same compression ratio, the distortion appears differently depending on the compression method used. Because of the nonlinearity of the human visual system and lossy data compression methods, we have evaluated subjectively the quality of medical images compressed with two different methods, an intraframe and interframe coding algorithms. The evaluated raw data were analyzed statistically to measure interrater reliability and reliability of an individual reader. Also, the analysis of variance was used to identify which compression method is better statistically, and from what compression ratio the quality of a compressed image is evaluated as poorer than that of the original. Nine x-ray CT head images from three patients were used as test cases. Six radiologists participated in reading the 99 images (some were duplicates) compressed at four different compression ratios, original, 5:1, 10:1, and 15:1. The six readers agree more than by chance alone and their agreement was statistically significant, but there were large variations among readers as well as within a reader. The displacement estimated interframe coding algorithm is significantly better in quality than that of the 2-D block DCT at significance level 0.05. Also, 10:1 compressed images with the interframe coding algorithm do not show any significant differences from the original at level 0.05.

  13. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis reports investigations using gamma-radiation to decontaminate poultry carcasses. The application to foods of doses of ionizing radiation sufficient to reduce the number of viable specific non-sporeforming pathogenic microorganisms so that none is detectable in the treated food by any standard method is termed radicidation. The doses used in this study were at such a level that no undesirable or unfavourable side-effects occurred. The effects of these doses were studied on salmonellae and other microorganisms present in, or associated with poultry carcasses and in liquid and on solid culture media as well. Decimal reduction (D 10 ) values were estimated. These represent the dose (kGy) required to achieve a reduction in initial colony count from N 0 to 0.1 N 0 . Together with the estimation of the numbers of Salmonella present per carcass the data were used to predict the effect of an ionizing radiation treatment of poultry. Data on the effect of ionizing radiation on the total microflora of poultry carcasses were also collected. (Auth.)

  14. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Validity of methods

    Experiments were carried out In which it was assessed which Salmonella isolation method is the most productive one In the examination of broiler carcasses. Refrigerated, refrigerated and radiated (2.50 kGy), frozen and frozen and

  15. Effects of dietary protein concentration and ractopamine hydrochloride on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) is used in the feedlot industry to increase daily gain, feed efficiency, and hot carcass weight with minimal negative effects on carcass quality. However, little work has been done to determine whether additional protein is needed in the diet to maximize the benefit ...

  16. Growth performance, carcass and organ characteristics of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at the Department of Animal Science teaching and research farm, Bayero University Kano, to evaluate the effect of feeding graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) in diets on growth performance, carcass and organ characteristics of weaned rabbits. Twenty eight grower rabbits of ...

  17. Machine vision system for online wholesomeness inspection of poultry carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    A line-scan machine vision system and multispectral inspection algorithm were developed and evaluated for differentiation of wholesome and systemically diseased chickens on a high-speed processing line. The inspection system acquires line-scan images of chicken carcasses on a 140 bird-per-minute pro...

  18. A Bayesian approach to the Japanese Black cattle carcass genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p4361148

    Peer-reviewed paper: 10th World Conference on Animal Production. 77. A Bayesian approach to the Japanese Black cattle carcass genetic evaluation. A. Arakawa. 1#. , H. Iwaisaki. 1 and K. Anada. 2. 1 Graduate School of Agriculture, Division of Applied Biosciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan. 2 Wagyu ...

  19. Growth, feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of Karakas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth, feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of Karakas and crossbred lambs (F 1 ) (Ile de France x Akkaraman (G 1 ) x Karakas) under rural farm conditions in ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... A total of 97 KAR and IDFAK lambs reared under farm conditions was evaluated for growth characteristics.

  20. Phenotypic Variation and Correlation of Some Carcass Traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slaughter data on 619 castrated males and 423 does of three year of age were analyzed to evaluate the variabilities in heart girth measurement and carcass traits in local Matebele goats. There was a significant (p<0.01) difference between heart girth in does and castrated males. The does had lower (p<0.01) mean (13.64 ...

  1. Growth and carcass characteristics of finishing broilers on acidified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of inclusion of acidifer in a blood meal based diet on broiler performance and carcass characteristics. One hundred and eighty un-sexed 4-week old broiler chicks raised on a common starter diet were randomly distributed into four experimental diets of 3 replicates and ...

  2. Carcass and internal organ characteristics of brioler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and forty-four (144) broiler chickens were used to evaluate the carcass and internal organ characteristics of broiler chickens fed soybean diet partially replaced with variable levels of raw jackfruit seed meal (RJFSM). The study lasted for 7 weeks. The inclusion levels of RJFSM were 10, 20 and 30% respectively ...

  3. Influence of Graded Levels of l-Theanine Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Meat Quality, Organs Histomorphometry, Blood Chemistry and Immune Response of Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Muhammad; Yatao, Xu; Hassan, Faiz-Ul; Arain, Muhammad Asif; Abd El-Hack, Mohamed E; Noreldin, Ahmed E; Sun, Chao

    2018-02-03

    l-theanine is a water-soluble non-proteinous amino acid mainly found in green tea leaves. Despite the availability of abundant literature on green tea, studies on the use of l-theanine as a feed additive in animals, and especially broilers are limited. The objective of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the effect of different dietary levels of l-theanine on meat quality, growth performance, immune response, and blood metabolites in broilers. A total of 400 day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four treatment groups using a completely randomized design; C-control, basal diet; 100LT-basal diet + 100 mg l-theanine/kg diet; 200LT-basal diet + 200 mg l-theanine/kg diet; and 300LT-basal diet + 300 mg l-theanine/kg diet. Results revealed that the intermediate level of l-theanine (200 mg/kg diet) showed better results in terms of body weight gain (BWG), feed consumed (FC), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) as compared with the other supplemented groups and the control. The live weight eviscerated weight and gizzard weight were higher in all l-theanine levels as compared to those of the control group. Increased weight ( p ≤ 0.05) of spleen and bursa were found in group 200LT (200 mg l-theanine/kg diet). Concerning meat color parameters, values for yellowness ( b* ), and redness ( a* ) were greater in l-theanine-supplemented groups than the control. Supplementing broiler diet with l-theanine reduced ( p = 0.02) total serum cholesterol contents while increased HDL. Further analysis revealed lower relative serum cytokines ( IL-2 and INF-γ ) and reduced mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in thymus, and IFN-γ and IL-2 in spleen in the treated group. Moreover, supplementation with 200 mg/kg of l-theanine improved antioxidant status in blood by increasing SOD, GSH-Px, and relative CAT levels. It is concluded that the optimum supplementation level of l-theanine is 200 mg/kg of diet because it resulted in improved performance parameters in broilers. However

  4. OZONE DECONTAMINATION OF CHILLED POULTRY CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Cortesi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ozone is a strong oxidant and disinfecting agent. The bactericidal effects of ozone have been documented on a wide range of organisms, including Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. In this study, the effect of treatment with gaseous ozone on microbial contamination (Total Aerobic Mesophilic and Psicrophilic Microrganism Count, Enterobacteriaceae, Total and Fecal Coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes and sensory characteristics of poultry carcasses were investigated. N.50 carcasses were divided into two parts. The first batch was used as control and stored in a coolroom at 0-1°C; the second one was kept in another cool room, with the same dimensions and at the same temperature, provided with an ozone generator, working for 60 minutes every 4 hours in order to reach an ozone concentration of 0.4 ppm. Significative differences were found between the control batch and the treated one for Total Aerobic Counts (at 32° and 20°C and Enterobacteriaceae. Salmonella arizonae, Campylobacter fetus spp fetus and Listeria monocytogenes were sometimes found in both batches. Acceptable sensory qualities were observed until day 14 and 20 after slaughter for the control and the treated batch, respectively.

  5. Impact of Built-up-Litter and Commercial Antimicrobials on Salmonella and Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Carcasses Processed at a Pilot Mobile Poultry-Processing Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KaWang Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The small-scale mobile poultry-processing unit (MPPU produced raw poultry products are of particular food safety concern due to exemption of USDA poultry products inspection act. Limited studies reported the microbial quality and safety of MPPU-processed poultry carcasses. This study evaluated the Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence in broiler ceca and on MPPU-processed carcasses and efficacy of commercial antimicrobials against Campylobacter jejuni on broilers. In study I, straight-run Hubbard × Cobb broilers (147 were reared for 38 days on clean-shavings (CS, 75 or built-up-litter (BUL, 72 and processed at an MPPU. Aerobic plate counts (APCs, coliforms, Escherichia coli, and yeast/molds (Y/M of carcasses were analyzed on petrifilms. Ceca and carcass samples underwent microbial analyses for Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. using the modified USDA method and confirmed by API-20e test (Salmonella, latex agglutination immunoassay (Campylobacter, and Gram staining (Campylobacter. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (CadF gene identified the prevalence of C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli in ceca and on carcasses. In study II, fresh chilled broiler carcasses were spot inoculated with C. jejuni (4.5 log10 CFU/mL and then undipped, or dipped into peroxyacetic acid (PAA (1,000 ppm, lactic acid (5%, lactic and citric acid blend (2.5%, sodium hypochlorite (69 ppm, or a H2O2–PAA mix (SaniDate® 5.0, 0.25% for 30 s. Surviving C. jejuni was recovered onto Brucella agar. APCs, coliforms, and E. coli populations were similar (P > 0.05 on CS and BUL carcasses. Carcasses of broilers raised on BUL contained a greater (P < 0.05 Y/M population (2.2 log10 CFU/mL than those reared on CS (1.8 log10 CFU/mL. Salmonella was not detected in any ceca samples, whereas 2.8% of the carcasses from BUL were present with Salmonella. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp., C. jejuni was lower (P < 0.05, and C. coli was similar (P > 0

  6. DYNAMICS OF BEEF GRADING CARCASSES IN ROMANIA, FROM BEGINNING TO PRESENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA BĂLAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Carcass grading is the operation of carcass quality assessment, depending on the relationship between the three major components: meat, fat and bones. In the case of cattle carcasses, this is represented by the visual assessment of muscle development and fat deposits The researches performed lead to the conclusion that the interest of the cattle breeders from Romania for cattle trade in concordance with the EUROP system is lower than in the other EU member states, because it does not present material advantages.

  7. Genetic parameters of white striping in relation to body weight, carcass composition, and meat quality traits in two broiler lines divergently selected for the ultimate pH of the pectoralis major muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahhas, Nabeel; Berri, Cécile; Chabault, Marie; Chartrin, Pascal; Boulay, Maryse; Bourin, Marie Christine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth

    2016-04-19

    White striping (WS) is an emerging quality defect with adverse consequences for the sensorial, technological, and nutritional qualities of breast meat in broiler chickens. The genetic determinism of this defect is little understood and thus the aim of the study presented here was to estimate the genetic parameters of WS in relation to other traits of economic importance such as body weight, carcass composition, and technological meat quality in an experimental population consisting of two divergent lines selected for high (pHu + line) or low (pHu- line) ultimate pH (pHu) of the pectoralis major (p. major) muscle. The incidence of WS in the whole population was 50.7%, with 36.7% of broilers being moderately and 14% being severely affected. A higher incidence of moderate (p meat yield (0.68 ± 0.06), but not with the percentage of leg or abdominal fat. Increased body weight and breast muscle yield were significantly associated with increased incidence and severity of WS regardless of the line. Significant rg were observed between WS and several meat quality traits, including breast (0.21 ± 0.08) and thigh (0.31 ± 0.10) pHu, and breast cooking loss (0.30 ± 0.15). WS was also strongly genetically correlated with the intramuscular fat content of the pectoralis major muscle (0.64 ± 0.09), but not with the lipid oxidation index of this muscle. This study highlighted the role of genetics as a major determinant of WS. The estimated genetic correlations showed that WS was more highly related to muscle development than to the overall growth of the body. The positive genetic association reported in this study between WS and muscle pHu indicated a possible relationship between the ability of muscle to store energy as a carbohydrate and its likelihood of developing WS. Finally, the strong genetic determinism of WS suggested that selection can be an efficient means of reducing the incidence of WS and of limiting its undesirable consequences on meat quality in broiler chickens.

  8. Rearing system and oleic acid supplementation effect on carcass and lipid characteristics of two muscles from an obese pig breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, J M; Neves, J A; Freitas, A; Tirapicos, J L

    2015-10-01

    Quality of pork depends on genotype, rearing and pre- and post-slaughter conditions. However, no information is available on rearing system changes and oleic acid supplementation on carcass characteristics and fatty acid (FA) profile of pork from the Alentejano (AL) pig, an obese breed. This study evaluates the effects of feeding low (LO) or high oleic acid diets (HO) to AL pigs reared in individual pens (IND) or outdoor (OUT) with access to pasture. Carcass composition was obtained and longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus samples were collected to analyse chemical composition and neutral and polar intramuscular lipids FA profile by gas chromatography. Statistical analysis was performed by a two-way ANOVA for rearing system and diet effects. OUT-reared pigs presented leaner carcasses than IND-reared ones. Both muscles presented lower intramuscular lipid content in OUT-reared pigs. Treatments affected the FA profile of muscles. Overall, OUT-reared pigs presented lower n-6/n-3 FA ratios, whereas pigs fed the HO diet exhibited lower saturated fatty acids (SFA), higher monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) levels and lower thrombogenic indexes on neutral intramuscular lipids than LO-fed pigs. On the polar fraction, OUT-reared pigs presented lower SAT and n-6/n-3 FA ratio, and higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) levels on both muscles. Pigs fed the HO diet exhibited higher MUFA and lower PUFA levels on both muscles, and lower SAT levels on semimembranosus. This study shows rearing system and oleic acid supplementation have complementary effects and influence carcass composition and the nutritional quality of meat.

  9. The Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides an overview of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII). It contains a synopsis of the three phases of AQMEII, including objectives, logistics, and timelines. It also provides a number of examples of analyses conducted through AQMEII with a particular focus on past and future analyses of deposition. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, decision-support tools, and models to be applied to media-specific or receptor-specific problem areas. CED uses modeling-based approaches to characterize exposures, evaluate fate and transport, and support environmental diagnostics/forensics with input from multiple data sources. It also develops media- and receptor-specific models, process models, and decision support tools for use both within and outside of EPA.

  10. Evaluating predictive models of software quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaschini, V; Canaparo, M; Ronchieri, E; Salomoni, D

    2014-01-01

    Applications from High Energy Physics scientific community are constantly growing and implemented by a large number of developers. This implies a strong churn on the code and an associated risk of faults, which is unavoidable as long as the software undergoes active evolution. However, the necessities of production systems run counter to this. Stability and predictability are of paramount importance; in addition, a short turn-around time for the defect discovery-correction-deployment cycle is required. A way to reconcile these opposite foci is to use a software quality model to obtain an approximation of the risk before releasing a program to only deliver software with a risk lower than an agreed threshold. In this article we evaluated two quality predictive models to identify the operational risk and the quality of some software products. We applied these models to the development history of several EMI packages with intent to discover the risk factor of each product and compare it with its real history. We attempted to determine if the models reasonably maps reality for the applications under evaluation, and finally we concluded suggesting directions for further studies.

  11. Relationship between the Porcine Stress Syndrome gene and carcass and performance traits in F2 pigs resulting from divergent crosses

    OpenAIRE

    Band,Guilherme de Oliveira; Guimarães,Simone Eliza Facioni; Lopes,Paulo Sávio; Peixoto,Jane de Oliveira; Faria,Danielle Assis; Pires,Aldrin Vieira; Figueiredo,Frederico de Castro; Nascimento,Carlos Souza do; Gomide,Lúcio Alberto de Miranda

    2005-01-01

    The PSS genotypes of 596 F2 pigs produced by initial mating of Brazilian native boars commercial sows and were characterized by PCR-RFLP and their carcass and performance traits were evaluated. Among the 596 animals analyzed, 493 (82.72%) were characterized as NN and 103 (17.28%) as Nn. With respect to carcass traits, Nn animals presented higher (p < 0.05) right half carcass weight, left half carcass weight, loin depth and loin eye area, and lower shoulder backfat thickness, backfat thickness...

  12. Quality evaluation of the sourdough rye breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIANA BANU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sourdough fermentation is a biotechnological process that has been reported to improve dough properties, to increase bread flavor and taste, to enhance nutritional value and to extend shelf life of sourdough bread. The quality of rye breads prepared with 20 and 40% sourdough, fermented with different mixed starter cultures was investigated in this study. The bread quality was evaluated in terms of specific volume, humidity, total titratable acidity, crumb characteristics and sensory profiles. Digital image analysis revealed that rye bread with 40% sourdough had a considerably denser crumb structure. Rye bread with 20% sourdough maintained superior texture characteristics over the storage period, while increasing the sourdough content to 40% had a negative effect on the texture. The sensory profiles of the bread highly depended on the type of starter cultures used for fermentation.

  13. devices to evaluate transport duration on selected pork quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MASEALAS

    2013-07-05

    Jul 5, 2013 ... White x Landrace pigs (20 females and 20 males) weighing approximately 67 ± 6.5 kg were used in the study. Twenty of the pigs were ... Regression analysis showed that back fat and ... durations and relationships between the lactate and the carcass pH, carcass temperature and drip loss was determined.

  14. Signal Quality Evaluation of Emerging EEG Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Radüntz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG registration as a direct measure of brain activity has unique potentials. It is one of the most reliable and predicative indicators when studying human cognition, evaluating a subject's health condition, or monitoring their mental state. Unfortunately, standard signal acquisition procedures limit the usability of EEG devices and narrow their application outside the lab. Emerging sensor technology allows gel-free EEG registration and wireless signal transmission. Thus, it enables quick and easy application of EEG devices by users themselves. Although a main requirement for the interpretation of an EEG is good signal quality, there is a lack of research on this topic in relation to new devices. In our work, we compared the signal quality of six very different EEG devices. On six consecutive days, 24 subjects wore each device for 60 min and completed tasks and games on the computer. The registered signals were evaluated in the time and frequency domains. In the time domain, we examined the percentage of artifact-contaminated EEG segments and the signal-to-noise ratios. In the frequency domain, we focused on the band power variation in relation to task demands. The results indicated that the signal quality of a mobile, gel-based EEG system could not be surpassed by that of a gel-free system. However, some of the mobile dry-electrode devices offered signals that were almost comparable and were very promising. This study provided a differentiated view of the signal quality of emerging mobile and gel-free EEG recording technology and allowed an assessment of the functionality of the new devices. Hence, it provided a crucial prerequisite for their general application, while simultaneously supporting their further development.

  15. 48 CFR 246.470-2 - Quality evaluation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quality evaluation data... 246.470-2 Quality evaluation data. The contract administration office shall establish a system for the collection, evaluation, and use of the types of quality evaluation data specified in PGI 246.470-2. [71 FR...

  16. Prediction of Carcass Composition Using Carcass Grading Traits in Hanwoo Steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jooyoung; Won, Seunggun; Lee, Jeongkoo; Kim, Jongbok

    2016-09-01

    The prediction of carcass composition in Hanwoo steers is very important for value-based marketing, and the improvement of prediction accuracy and precision can be achieved through the analyses of independent variables using a prediction equation with a sufficient dataset. The present study was conducted to develop a prediction equation for Hanwoo carcass composition for which data was collected from 7,907 Hanwoo steers raised at a private farm in Gangwon Province, South Korea, and slaughtered in the period between January 2009 and September 2014. Carcass traits such as carcass weight (CWT), back fat thickness (BFT), eye-muscle area (EMA), and marbling score (MAR) were used as independent variables for the development of a prediction equation for carcass composition, such as retail cut weight and percentage (RC, and %RC, respectively), trimmed fat weight and percentage (FAT, and %FAT, respectively), and separated bone weight and percentage (BONE, and %BONE), and its feasibility for practical use was evaluated using the estimated retail yield percentage (ELP) currently used in Korea. The equations were functions of all the variables, and the significance was estimated via stepwise regression analyses. Further, the model equations were verified by means of the residual standard deviation and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) between the predicted and observed values. As the results of stepwise analyses, CWT was the most important single variable in the equation for RC and FAT, and BFT was the most important variable for the equation of %RC and %FAT. The precision and accuracy of three variable equation consisting CWT, BFT, and EMA were very similar to those of four variable equation that included all for independent variables (CWT, BFT, EMA, and MAR) in RC and FAT, while the three variable equations provided a more accurate prediction for %RC. Consequently, the three-variable equation might be more appropriate for practical use than the four-variable equation

  17. Quality Evaluation of Pharmaceutical Formulations Containing Hydrochlorothiazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Antonio de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic used to treat hypertension that belongs to class IV of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. The drug was evaluated by quality control, thermal characterization tests, and pharmaceutical formulation compatibility studies. It was concluded that the generic drug, Lab 2, was not a pharmaceutical equivalent. The compounded drugs, Lab 5 and Lab 6, produced unsatisfactory but expected results, since there is no requirement for dissolution and dissolution profile testing for the commercialization of these products. In a compatibility study, lactose and mannitol were shown to be incompatible with HCTZ, which may explain the lack of equivalence of the generic pharmaceutical product, associated with other situations.

  18. Effects of Rice Bran, Flax Seed, and Sunflower Seed on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Fatty Acid Composition, Free Amino Acid and Peptide Contents, and Sensory Evaluations of Native Korean Cattle (Hanwoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Bon Choi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with rice bran, flax seed, or sunflower seed to finishing native Korean cattle (Hanwoo on growth performances, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, free amino acid and peptide contents, and sensory evaluations of Longissimus muscle (LM. A total of 39 Hanwoo steers (average age of 22.2 mo and average body weight (BW of 552.2 kg were randomly divided into Control, rice bran (RB, flax seed (FS, or Sunflower seed (SS groups. The steers were group fed for 273 d until they reached an average age of 31.2 mo. Final BW was 768.2, 785.8, 786.2, and 789.0 kg, and average daily gain was 0.79, 0.85, 0.82, and 0.84 kg for the Control, RS, FS, and SS groups, respectively (p>0.05. Fat thickness of the FS group (19.8 mm was greater (p0.05 scores for flavor, umami, and overall palatability in sensory evaluations. In conclusion, supplementation of flax seed to diets of finishing Hanwoo steers improved sensory evaluations which might have been caused by increases in flavor related amino acids such as methionine, glutamic acid and α-AAA and peptides, anserine and carnosine, and their complex reactions.

  19. Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Carcass Characteristics of Lambs Fed Concentrate Diets at Different Ambient Temperature Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demba B. Jallow

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of ambient temperatures on carcass characteristics of lambs fed concentrate diets with or without NaHCO3 supplementation. A slaughter study was carried on 12 male Black Belly Barbados lambs randomly drawn from a growth trial (35 weeks. The lambs were divided into four equal groups and allotted in a 2×2 factorial design. The lambs were allotted at random to two dietary treatments of a basal diet (35:65 roughage:concentrate or basal diet supplemented with 4% NaHCO3 at different ambient temperatures (20°C and 30°C in an environment controlled chamber for 10 days. Lambs were slaughtered for carcass evaluation at about 262 days of age (245 days of growth trial, 7 days adaptation and 10 days of experimental period. Ambient temperature had significant (p0.05 effects on pH, and water holding capacity on both muscles. These results indicated that NaHCO3 supplementation at low ambient temperatures had caused an increase in carcass characteristics leading to significant effect on meat quality.

  20. Carcass and non-carcass component yields of crossbred Boer and Brazilian semiarid indigenous goats subjected to different feeding levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Samara Rodrigues; Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Yamamoto, Sandra Mari; Rodrigues, Rafael Torres de Souza; Busato, Karina Costa; Silva, Tiago Santos

    2014-04-01

    The effect of different feeding levels (ad libitum, 25 and 50 % restriction) and genotypes (½ Boer × ½ nondescript breed goats, Canindé, and Moxotó) on carcass quantitative characteristics and non-carcass components (NCC) were evaluated. Forty-five intact male goats were distributed in a 3 × 3 factorial design with five replicates. There was no effect of genotype on carcass weights and yields and retail cuts weights and yields (P > 0.05). Compared to Moxotó, ½ Boer presented better carcass conformation and higher weights (P retail cuts weights and NCC, and soft tissues yields were higher (P 0.05) for these variables. There were interactions of genotype and feeding level. At ad libitum feeding, ½ Boer had higher weights of breast and shank, leg, soft tissues, and gastrointestinal viscera compared to the Moxotó (P strategy for increasing the efficiency of goat meat production in the Brazilian semiarid. Moreover, in times of feed scarcity, farmers may use higher feed restriction levels to keep animals, since for most of the parameters evaluated, there were no differences between the restriction levels.

  1. Quality of Protection Evaluation of Security Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiezopolski, Bogdan; Zurek, Tomasz; Mokkas, Michail

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that during the design of teleinformatic system the tradeoff between the systems performance and the system protection should be made. The traditional approach assumes that the best way is to apply the strongest possible security measures. Unfortunately, the overestimation of security measures can lead to the unreasonable increase of system load. This is especially important in multimedia systems where the performance has critical character. In many cases determination of the required level of protection and adjustment of some security measures to these requirements increase system efficiency. Such an approach is achieved by means of the quality of protection models where the security measures are evaluated according to their influence on the system security. In the paper, we propose a model for QoP evaluation of security mechanisms. Owing to this model, one can quantify the influence of particular security mechanisms on ensuring security attributes. The methodology of our model preparation is described and based on it the case study analysis is presented. We support our method by the tool where the models can be defined and QoP evaluation can be performed. Finally, we have modelled TLS cryptographic protocol and presented the QoP security mechanisms evaluation for the selected versions of this protocol. PMID:25136683

  2. Evaluating Quality in Model-Driven Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Mohagheghi, Parastoo; Aagedal, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In Model-Driven Engineering (MDE), models are the prime artifacts, and developing high-quality systems depends on developing high-quality models and performing transformations that preserve quality or even improve it. This paper presents quality goals in MDE and states that the quality of models is affected by the quality of modeling languages, tools, modeling processes, the knowledge and experience of modelers, and the quality assurance techniques applied. The paper further presents related ...

  3. Genetic Parameter Estimates of Carcass Traits under National Scale Breeding Scheme for Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChangHee Do

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Carcass and price traits of 72,969 Hanwoo cows, bulls and steers aged 16 to 80 months at slaughter collected from 2002 to 2013 at 75 beef packing plants in Korea were analyzed to determine heritability, correlation and breeding value using the Multi-Trait restricted maximum likelihood (REML animal model procedure. The traits included carcass measurements, scores and grades at 24 h postmortem and bid prices at auction. Relatively high heritability was found for maturity (0.41±0.031, while moderate heritability estimates were obtained for backfat thickness (0.20±0.018, longissimus muscle (LM area (0.23±0.020, carcass weight (0.28±0.019, yield index (0.20±0.018, yield grade (0.16±0.017, marbling (0.28±0.021, texture (0.14±0.016, quality grade (0.26±0.016 and price/kg (0.24±0.025. Relatively low heritability estimates were observed for meat color (0.06±0.013 and fat color (0.06±0.012. Heritability estimates for most traits were lower than those in the literature. Genetic correlations of carcass measurements with characteristic scores or quality grade of carcass ranged from −0.27 to +0.21. Genetic correlations of yield grade with backfat thickness, LM area and carcass weight were 0.91, −0.43, and −0.09, respectively. Genetic correlations of quality grade with scores of marbling, meat color, fat color and texture were −0.99, 0.48, 0.47, and 0.98, respectively. Genetic correlations of price/kg with LM area, carcass weight, marbling, meat color, texture and maturity were 0.57, 0.64, 0.76, −0.41, −0.79, and −0.42, respectively. Genetic correlations of carcass price with LM area, carcass weight, marbling and texture were 0.61, 0.57, 0.64, and −0.73, respectively, with standard errors ranging from ±0.047 to ±0.058. The mean carcass weight breeding values increased by more than 8 kg, whereas the mean marbling scores decreased by approximately 0.2 from 2000 through 2009. Overall, the results suggest that genetic improvement of

  4. [Workplace health promotion program quality evaluation questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Elzbieta; Puchalski, Krzysztof

    2002-01-01

    There are substantial reasons for undertaking the evaluation of workplace health promotion (WHP) programs. The most important ones are: (a) the need to guarantee a competent organization of programs; (b) the feasibility to evaluate WHP programs, which take the form of medical services offered to employers on the health service market; (c) the need to disseminate the idea and support the workplace health promotion lobby; and (d) the use of evaluation as a tool for analyzing WHP promulgation process. The implementation of the scientifically-based evaluation of health promotion programs carried out in regularly functioning enterprises is very limited, hence the increasing interest in procedures of quality assessment already known and accepted by enterprises. This approach is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). In the European Union countries, a questionnaire on the workplace health promotion program evaluation is promulgated within the European Network for Workplace Health Promotion. The National Center for Workplace Health Promotion that coordinates the activities of the National Network for Workplace Health Promotion Centers in Poland has developed a Polish version of the questionnaire adopted to local conditions. The author presents the criteria and the most essential solutions that provided the ground for designing the questionnaire to be used by the organizers of WHP programs in enterprises for self-assessment of their own activities. It reflects the views on the strategy of the WHP evaluation presented by the National Center, and contains a simplified procedure that does not involve control groups so difficult to gather under the concept of "health promoting enterprise". The idea of control groups is usually misunderstood and disapproved by the management of enterprises involved in the implementation of WHP programs.

  5. Características das carcaças e componentes do peso vivo de cordeiros terminados em pastagem ou confinamento = Carcass characteristics and live weight components in lambs finished on pasture or feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Machado Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar as características da carcaça e os não-componentes da carcaça de cordeiros em quatro sistemas: cordeiros desmamados aos 60 dias mantidos em pastagem; cordeiros + ovelhas em pastagem; cordeiros + ovelhas em pastagem + concentrado em creep feeding (1% PV; cordeiros desmamados aos 60 dias e confinados. Os cordeiros foram abatidos quando a média de peso vivo do tratamento alcançou entre 32-34 kg. Após o abate, foram coletados e pesados os não-componentes da carcaça. Obtiveram-se pesos, rendimentos emedidas objetivas das carcaças e por cálculos a compacidade de perna e carcaça. A metodologia para determinar o momento de abate promoveu grande variação (7 a 14 kg no peso vivo final entre os animais do mesmo tratamento. Houve correlação significativa (p This experiment had the objective to evaluate the carcass characteristics and the non-carcass components of lambs on four systems: lambs weaned at 60 days of age kept on pasture; lambs + ewes kept on pasture; lambs + ewe + concentrate in creep feeding; lambs weaned at 60 days and kept on feedlot. Lambs were slaughteredwhen mean live weight from the tratament reached 32-34 kg. After slaughter, the noncarcass components were collected and weighed. The weight, yield and carcass measures were obtained, while leg and carcass compacity was calculated. The elected methodology fordetermining slaughter time resulted in large variation (7 to 14 kg in the slaughter weight of lambs from the same treatments. There was a significant (p < 0.05 positive correlation between hot (r = 0.83 and cold (r = 0.85 carcass weights, and slaughtered weight. Lambsweaned and finished on pasture showed lower (p < 0.05 hot carcass dressing (42.3%, cold carcass dressing (40.2%, carcass biological dressing (51.8% and thorax width (22.99 cm and higher (p < 0.05 gastrointestinal content (5.6 kg. The presence of dams had aninfluence in systems were there was no weaning, in regard to carcass

  6. CMAQ Involvement in Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Description of Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII). Different chemical transport models are applied by different groups over North America and Europe and evaluated against observations.

  7. Evaluating the Quality of the Child Care in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujala, Eeva; Fonsen, Elina; Elo, Janniina

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examine parents' and teachers' perceptions of the early childhood education and care (ECEC) quality in Finland. The study is based on the paradigm of inclusionary quality and the assessment is based on the quality evaluation model. The parents and teachers assess the quality to be good. The strength of the quality was the effect…

  8. CARCASS COMPOSITION OF MATURE MALE BLES$OK AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cold carcass yields 52,g% t d 56,6%andlean meat yi€lds 43,4/0 ^nd,45,4% tespcctively. Both specis wcre found to be morc productive of high quality rctail cutr and of lean mert than ... meat production of our indigenous ungulates with that of farm animals will become possible. The present account is based on mature male ...

  9. Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiment was conducted for 9 weeks to test performance and carcass quality of 96 day-old Anak broiler chicks fed diets containing graded levels of palm oil supplemented with vitamin E. The inclusion levels of the palm oil were 0, 5, 10 and 16% supplemented with 0, 0.06, 0.12 and 0.18g of vitamin E/kg of feed tested at ...

  10. Prevalence of carcass bruises as an indicator of welfare in beef cattle and the relation to the economic impact.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huertas, S.M.; van Eerdenburg, F.J.C.M.; Gil, A.; Piaggio, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize bruises in bovine carcasses in Uruguay and to evaluate the economic impact. Thirteen abattoirs were visited during 2 years and bruises were identified, classified, and quantified by zone and degree (depth and size). One hundred carcasses were separated

  11. Desempenho, características de carcaça, qualidade da carne e condição sanitária de suínos criados nas fases de crescimento e terminação nos sistemas confinado convencional e de cama sobreposta Performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and health condition of growing and finishing pigs raised in conventional and deep litter housing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Antonio Dalla Costa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do sistema de alojamento sobre o desempenho zootécnico, as características da carcaça, a qualidade da carne e a condição sanitária de suínos criados em seis diferentes sistemas. Foram usados 803 suínos mestiços MS58 x (Landrace x Large White em sete lotes seqüenciais no tempo, avaliando as fases de creche e de crescimento-terminação. Na creche, foram avaliados três tipos de alojamento: confinado convencional (CO; cama sobreposta-(CS; e sistema intensivo de suínos criados ao ar livre (SISCAL. No crescimento-terminação, foram avaliados apenas dois tipos de alojamento (CO e CS, sendo o último subdividido em três substratos (palha de trigo-PT, casca de arroz-CA e serragem-SE. Para a análise estatística foi considerado no modelo os efeitos de lote, o tratamento (combinação de tipos de alojamento na creche e no crescimento-terminação, idade dos suínos (84, 105, 126, 147 e 160 dias e a interação tratamento x idade. Suínos alojados no sistema CO apresentaram maior (PThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of housing system on live performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and the sanitary condition of pigs raised in six different systems. A total of 803 MS58 x (Landrace x Large White hybrid type pigs was used in seven subsequent lots, during the nursery and growing-finishing phases. At the nursery period, the systems evaluated were: conventional (CO, deep litter (CS, and intensive free range (SISCAL, while during the growing-finishing phase only the CO and CS systems were evaluated, being the CS system subdivided into three substrates (wheat straw, rice hulls and wood shaving. The factors considered on the statistical analysis were lot, treatment (combination of housing type used during nursery and growing-finishing phases, age (84, 105, 126, 147 e 160 days, and the interaction treatment x age. A significant effect of housing type was observed on weight

  12. Sex effect on productive parameters, carcass and body fat composition of two commercial broilers lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rondelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate sex effect on behavior of two commercial broilers lines. Productive parameters, carcass composition and yield, amount and quality of fat deposited in the meat and skin and total body fat were studied. A completely randomized design with four treatments (MR-Male Ross, HR-Female Ross, MAF-Male Avian Farm and HAF-Female Avian Farm and eight repetitions of 40 chickens was used. Animals received water and food ad libitum. After 50 days, two birds (a male and a female per repetition were chosen at random and slaughtered for carcass evaluation. Samples of breast, leg, skin and abdominal fats were analyzed to determine the percentage of intramuscular fat, total cholesterol and fatty acid composition. The Ross line showed higher final weight and weight gain, better intake and feed conversion rate. Also, it was observed that females of both lines had similar results in relation to these parameters. Better yield of breast with bone was found in Ross males and females. In relation to legs and thigh, Ross males showed better results and no differences were observed among females of both lines. Males deposited less fat than females. Finally, differences in percentage of intramuscular fat, content of cholesterol in breast with skin, leg with skin and skin, percentage of saturated, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed between sex and lines.

  13. Carcass quality traits of three different pig genotypes, White Mangulica, Duroc × White Mangulica and Large White pigs, reared under intensive conditions and slaughtered at 150 kg live weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivić, M.; Tomović, V.; Šević, R.; Jokanović, M.; Škaljac, S.; Džinić, N.; Šojić, B.; Tasić, T.; Ikonić, P.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of breed on carcass composition was studied for autochthonous purebred White Mangulica (WM), crossbred Duroc x White Mangulica (DWM) and purebred Large White (LW) pigs. Pigs were slaughtered at a target body weight of about 150 kg. After slaughter, carcass yield, backfat thickness, the thickness of the lumbar muscle and chilling loss were measured and calculated. WM pigs had the highest percentage of carcass yield, while DWM produced an intermediate carcass yield, between those of the pure breeds. The backfat thickness was highest in WM pigs, compared to DWM and LW pigs (67, 41 and 27 mm, respectively, P pigs had respectively the lowest and the highest thickness of the lumbar muscle (62 and 72 mm), with DWM pigs at an intermediate position (69 mm). As regards chilling loss, WM and DWM pigs showed better results than LW pigs (1.74, 1.75 and 1.92 %, respectively). Overall, evidence of additive genetic effects was present for all investigated parameters, with crosses showing intermediate values between pure breeds.

  14. Effects of dietary leucine supplementation in low crude protein diets on performance, nitrogen balance, whole-body protein turnover, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shihai; Chu, Licui; Qiao, Shiyan; Mao, Xiangbing; Zeng, Xiangfang

    2016-07-01

    Eighteen Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire barrows, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 75.4 ± 2.0 kg, were randomly allotted to one of three diets with six replicates per treatment for 25 days. The diets comprised a normal protein diet (NP, 14.5% crude protein), a low crude protein diet supplemented with 0.27% alanine (LP + Ala, 10.0% crude protein), or a low crude protein diet supplemented with 0.40% leucine (LP + Leu, 10.0% crude protein). The whole-body protein synthesis rate, whole-body protein breakdown rate and protein deposition rate in pigs fed the LP + Leu diet were similar to the NP diet (P > 0.05), and both were significantly higher than pigs fed the LP + Ala diet (P supplementation of leucine in low protein diet could stimulate protein deposition and improve the meat quality of finishing pigs more than an alanine-supplemented one. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Evaluation of diet quality indicators in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Fatrcová-Šramková

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 96 800x600 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE Several indices evaluate the quality of diet. The indices are based on nutrient requirements and dietary guidelines for the prevention of chronic diseases (to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. The Healthy Eating Index, Healthy Diet Indicator, and Diet Quality Index consist of components, which represent different aspects of a healthy diet. The indicators of diet quality are based on dietary intake data from 24-hour dietary recalls.  The aim of the research was to evaluate the nutrition of adults according to the selected criteria of three diet quality indicators: Healthy Eating Index, Healthy Diet Indicator, Diet Quality Index. 234 nutrition daily records were evaluated (from 78 probands per 3 days. Nutritional intake and blood biochemical parameters were defined in 56 females and 22 men (72% and 28% respectively aged from 24 to 62 years. The nutritional software Alimenta 4.3e (Food Research Institute, Bratislava, Slovakia, 2004 was used to calculate the nutrient intake. The evaluation of nutrition intake was focused on four parameters/recommendations of the Healthy Eating Index (to reduce total fat intake to 30% or less of energy, to reduce saturated fatty acid intake to less than 10% of energy, to reduce cholesterol intake to less than 300 mg daily, to limit total daily intake of sodium to 2400 mg or less, on five parameters/recommendations of the Healthy Diet Indicator (saturated fatty acids 0-10% of energy intake, polyunsaturated fatty acids 3-7% of energy intake, protein 10-15% of energy intake, dietary fiber 27-40 g, cholesterol 0-300 mg, on five parameters/recommendations of the Diet Quality Index (to reduce total fat intake to 30% or less of energy, to reduce saturated fatty acid intake to less than 10% of energy, to reduce cholesterol intake to less than 300 mg daily, to limit total daily intake of sodium to 2400 mg or less, to maintain adequate calcium intake – approximately

  16. Deer carcass decomposition and potential scavenger exposure to chronic wasting disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennelle, C.S.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Berkley, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy afflicting the Cervidae family in North America, causing neurodegeneration and ultimately death. Although there are no reports of natural cross-species transmission of CWD to noncervids, infected deer carcasses pose a potential risk of CWD exposure for other animals. We placed 40 disease-free white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses and 10 gut piles in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin (USA) from September to April in 2003 through 2005. We used photos from remotely operated cameras to characterize scavenger visitation and relative activity. To evaluate factors driving the rate of carcass removal (decomposition), we used KaplanMeier survival analysis and a generalized linear mixed model. We recorded 14 species of scavenging mammals (6 visiting species) and 14 species of scavenging birds (8 visiting species). Prominent scavengers included American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). We found no evidence that deer consumed conspecific remains, although they visited gut piles more often than carcasses relative to temporal availability in the environment. Domestic dogs, cats, and cows either scavenged or visited carcass sites, which could lead to human exposure to CWD. Deer carcasses persisted for 18 days to 101 days depending on the season and year, whereas gut piles lasted for 3 days. Habitat did not influence carcass decomposition, but mammalian and avian scavenger activity and higher temperatures were positively associated with faster removal. Infected deer carcasses or gut piles can serve as potential sources of CWD prions to a variety of scavengers. In areas where surveillance for CWD exposure is practical, management agencies should consider strategies for testing primary scavengers of deer carcass material.

  17. Water quality relationships and evaluation using a new water quality index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, A.; Stevens, D.; Sehlke, G.

    2002-01-01

    Water quality is dependent on a variety of measures, including dissolved oxygen, microbial contamination, turbidity, nutrients, temperature, pH, and other constituents. Determining relationships between water quality parameters can improve water quality assessment, and watershed management. In addition, these relationships can be very valuable in case of evaluating water quality in watersheds that have few water quality data. (author)

  18. Quality evaluation of banana skin extract jellies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, S V; Valente, W A; Figueiredo, L P; Dias, M V; Pereira, P P; Pereira, A G T; Clemente, P R

    2011-04-01

    Due to the great volume of banana skin resulting from the industrialization of banana and to their high pectin content, the objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of the following factors: extract/sugar, pectin and citric acid on the chemical, physical and sensory qualities of the jellies obtained. A complete factorial experimental design was used (2(3)) with 3 central points to evaluate the influence of the factors on the dependent variables, testing the linear models. The chemical properties underwent few alterations and the instrumental and sensory texture attributes were mainly affected by the extract/sugar ratio and the pectin level. The brittleness, elasticity and gumminess increased with increases in the extract/ sugar ratio and pectin level. According to the sensory analysis and the purchasing intention, the best formulations were those obtained using a higher extract/sugar ratio (60/40) and lower pectin level (0.5 g/ 100), combined with the highest (20 mL) or lowest volumes of citric acid (15 mL), with scores for all the attributes in the range from 'I liked slightly' to 'I liked moderately'.

  19. Efeito da Relação Arginina: Lisina sobre o Desempenho e Qualidade de Carcaça de Frangos de Corte de 3 a 6 Semanas de Idade, em Condições de Alta Temperatura Influence of Arginine: Lysine Ratio on Performance and Carcass Quality of Broilers from 3 to 6 Weeks of Age under High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento com 720 frangos de corte machos Ross, mantidos em alta temperatura ambiente (26,2 a 30,5ºC, na fase de crescimento (22 a 42 dias de idade, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da relação arginina:lisina digestível (Arg:Lis sobre o desempenho e a qualidade de carcaça de frangos de corte. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos (95,0; 102,5; 110,0; 117,5; 125,0; e 132,5% da relação Arg:Lis na ração, seis repetições por tratamento e 20 aves por unidade experimental. Não houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos no desempenho de frangos de corte, entretanto, à medida que aumentou a relação Arg:Lis, houve efeito linear crescente para o rendimento de perna e decrescente para a gordura abdominal.An experiment was run using 720 male Ross chicks, grown from 22 to 42 days of age under high environmental temperature condition (26.2 to 30.5ºC, to evaluate the effect of the digestible arginine:lysine (Arg:Lys ratio on performance and carcass quality of broiler chickens. A complete randomized design with six treatments (95.0, 102.5, 110.0, 117.5, 125.0 and 132.5% Arg:Lys ratio, six replicates and 20 birds per experimental unit was used. There was no significant effect on broiler performance, however Arg:Lys ratio linearly improved leg quarter yield and linearly decreased abdominal fat.

  20. THE EFFECT OF ANDROSTENEDIONE ON CROWTH, CARCASS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slaughter weight (kg). No. of days fed/pig. ** ADG (kg/day). Feed conversion (kg feed/kg wt gain). Dressing percentage. Carcass length (cm). Av. Backfat thickness (cm). Av. C & K measurement (cm). Eye muscle surface area (sq cm). ** Eye muscle mass (surf. area x carcass length). * Fat % in three rib cut. Muscle % in three ...

  1. Carcass Yield and Composition of Supplementing Hararghe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass of lamb fed treatment diets 67FSF aand 100FSF have better maintained pH value within the desirable range. Hence, it can be concluded that feeding FSF to Hararghe highland sheep as a supplement to natural pasture hay based diet with sufficient protein supplement improved carcass yield and pH as compared ...

  2. Growth performance, body measurements, carcass composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gizzard percentage was significantly greater in males, and heart percentage was significantly greater in females. Due to their high bodyweight, good FCR, and favourable carcass composition, SM3 Heavy male ducks are more useful as broiler duck than females. Keywords: carcasses, digestive system, growth, Pekin duck, ...

  3. A comparison between the body composition, carcass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jasper

    The body composition, carcass characteristics and retail cuts of 61 Dormers (21 rams and 40 ewes) and 35 South ... The effects of breed, age and live weight on the carcass composition and retail cuts of meat-type lambs have been ..... Some effects of nutrition and castration on meat production from male Suffolk cross.

  4. Ovine wet carcass syndrome of unknown aetiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A condition of unknown aetiology, known as 'the wet sheep carcass syndrome' has led to the loss of about ... aetiology. Introduction. Wet sheep carcasses were seen with increasing frequency at abattoirs from January 1981. ... the holding pens, and transport stress. In the high incidence area (see Figure 1), feeding systems.

  5. Comparative Physical Carcass Characteristics in the Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicated highly significantly different (P<0.01), proportions of lean and fat significantly (P<0.05) different proportions of bone and skin in the carcasses of IND and LWXLD pig. The LWXLD pigs had more lean, and bone, less fat and skin, than the indigenous pigs. Carcass conformation was also clearly different in ...

  6. How to evaluate objective video quality metrics reliably

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Burini, Nino; You, Junyong

    2012-01-01

    The typical procedure for evaluating the performance of different objective quality metrics and indices involves comparisons between subjective quality ratings and the quality indices obtained using the objective metrics in question on the known video sequences. Several correlation indicators can...... as processing of subjective data. We also suggest some general guidelines for researchers to make comparison studies of objective video quality metrics more reliable and useful for the practitioners in the field.......The typical procedure for evaluating the performance of different objective quality metrics and indices involves comparisons between subjective quality ratings and the quality indices obtained using the objective metrics in question on the known video sequences. Several correlation indicators can...

  7. Re-alimentation strategy to manoeuvre body condition and carcass characteristics in cull ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, R S; Soren, N M; Sahoo, A; Karim, S A

    2012-01-01

    Improvement in body condition and carcass traits through nutritional intervention was studied in cull ewes. Sixty-eight adult non-productive Malpura ewes (average body weight 26.7 ± 0.33 kg) were randomly divided into four equal groups: G0 maintained on free grazing for 8 h on protected natural rangeland with ad libitum guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) straw (GS) after grazing; G1, G2 and G3 fed with supplemental concentrate at the rate of 250 g, 2.5% of live weight (LW) and ad libitum, respectively. The experiment was continued for 90 days and daily feed intake, weekly LW and body condition score (BCS) were recorded. Intake and digestibility of nutrients were assessed by indicator method. Rumen fermentation attributes and blood biochemical profile were studied to assess the dietary effects and animals were slaughtered at the end of experiment for evaluation of carcass characteristics. Higher dry matter (DM) intake and improvement in plane of nutrition was observed in G2 and G3 with a higher LW gain (LWG) and improvement in BCS than in G0. The digestibility of DM, organic matter, CP, ADF and cellulose was higher (P alimentation of cull ewes with challenged feeding of concentrate at 2.5% of LW on a basal roughage diet for a period of 3 months may have promise for better economic return to the farmers with possibly meeting quality mutton for human consumption.

  8. Quality evaluation of processed clay soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Harrison, Obed Akwaa; Vuvor, Frederick; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the microbial quality of clay samples sold on two of the major Ghanaian markets. The study was a cross-sectional assessing the evaluation of processed clay and effects it has on the nutrition of the consumers in the political capital town of Ghana. The items for the examination was processed clay soil samples. Staphylococcus spp and fecal coliforms including Klebsiella, Escherichia, and Shigella and Enterobacterspp were isolated from the clay samples. Samples from the Kaneshie market in Accra recorded the highest total viable counts 6.5 Log cfu/g and Staphylococcal count 5.8 Log cfu/g. For fecal coliforms, Madina market samples had the highest count 6.5 Log cfu/g and also recorded the highest levels of yeast and mould. For Koforidua, total viable count was highest in the samples from the Zongo market 6.3 Log cfu/g. Central market samples had the highest count of fecal coliforms 4.6 Log cfu/g and yeasts and moulds 6.5 Log cfu/g. "Small" market recorded the highest staphylococcal count 6.2 Log cfu/g. The water activity of the clay samples were low, and ranged between 0.65±0.01 and 0.66±0.00 for samples collected from Koforidua and Accra respectively. The clay samples were found to contain Klebsiella spp. Escherichia, Enterobacter, Shigella spp. staphylococcus spp., yeast and mould. These have health implications when consumed.

  9. Evaluation of CASP8 model quality predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Cozzetto, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    The model quality assessment problem consists in the a priori estimation of the overall and per-residue accuracy of protein structure predictions. Over the past years, a number of methods have been developed to address this issue and CASP established a prediction category to evaluate their performance in 2006. In 2008 the experiment was repeated and its results are reported here. Participants were invited to infer the correctness of the protein models submitted by the registered automatic servers. Estimates could apply to both whole models and individual amino acids. Groups involved in the tertiary structure prediction categories were also asked to assign local error estimates to each predicted residue in their own models and their results are also discussed here. The correlation between the predicted and observed correctness measures was the basis of the assessment of the results. We observe that consensus-based methods still perform significantly better than those accepting single models, similarly to what was concluded in the previous edition of the experiment. © 2009 WILEY-LISS, INC.

  10. Crambe meal in supplements for culling cows: animal performance and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennyson Alves de Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the replacement of soybean meal by crambe crushed in concentrated supplement at proportions 0, 5, 10, 15%, on the performance and carcass traits of grazing cows is assessed. Within a completely randomized design, twenty Nellore cows, fed on Brachiaria humidicola, were supplemented during the rain-drought transition period and monitored with regard to weight and body conditions every 28 days. Total forage mass and percentages of leaf, stem and senescent material were quantified in loco. The estimation of forage quality consumed by animals was performed by the simulated grazing method. There were no significant differences between the levels of inclusion of crambe crushed on animal performance or carcass characteristics. Replacement did not affect weight, carcass yield, Brazilian commercial cuts, morphometric measures of carcass, characteristics of loins, thickness of carcass fat, perirenal-pelvic fat and total meat. Replacement of soybean meal by crambe crushed up to 15% in the concentrated supplement does not affect performance and carcass characteristics of cows finished on pasture.

  11. CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY CONSUMER AND RESEARCH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . /o of lean and bone in c:ucass. 'Lean meat': bone. 536,7 r 1,96. 472,4 t9,33. 'll,l x0,92. 70,7 tl,20 .... ness may reduce moisture loss during cooking but I find it hard to believe that in beef ..... fluences the intensity of colour. Young animals have a.

  12. Research on Air Quality Evaluation based on Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Wang, Zilin; Guo, Min; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Huan

    2018-01-01

    Economic growth has led to environmental capacity decline and the deterioration of air quality. Air quality evaluation as a fundamental of environmental monitoring and air pollution control has become increasingly important. Based on the principal component analysis (PCA), this paper evaluates the air quality of a large city in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area in recent 10 years and identifies influencing factors, in order to provide reference to air quality management and air pollution control.

  13. Do termites avoid carcasses? Behavioral responses depend on the nature of the carcasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Boon Neoh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Undertaking behavior is a significant adaptation to social life in enclosed nests. Workers are known to remove dead colony members from the nest. Such behavior prevents the spread of pathogens that may be detrimental to a colony. To date, little is known about the ethological aspects of how termites deal with carcasses. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we tested the responses to carcasses of four species from different subterranean termite taxa: Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe (lower termites and Microcerotermes crassus Snyder and Globitermes sulphureus Haviland (higher termites. We also used different types of carcasses (freshly killed, 1-, 3-, and 7-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses and mutilated nestmates to investigate whether the termites exhibited any behavioral responses that were specific to carcasses in certain conditions. Some behavioral responses were performed specifically on certain types of carcasses or mutilated termites. C. formosanus and R. speratus exhibited the following behaviors: (1 the frequency and time spent in antennating, grooming, and carcass removal of freshly killed, 1-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses were high, but these behaviors decreased as the carcasses aged; (2 the termites repeatedly crawled under the aging carcass piles; and (3 only newly dead termites were consumed as a food source. In contrast, M. crassus and G. sulphureus workers performed relatively few behavioral acts. Our results cast a new light on the previous notion that termites are necrophobic in nature. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the behavioral response towards carcasses depends largely on the nature of the carcasses and termite species, and the response is more complex than was previously thought. Such behavioral responses likely are associated with the threat posed to the colony by the carcasses and the feeding habits and nesting ecology of a given species.

  14. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of three Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breed affected the weights of internal fat depots. The findings indicate that breed affected the carcass characteristics of the three Ethiopian goat breeds. Keywords: Indigenous goats; carcass yield; carcass composition; primal cuts; non-carcass components. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol. 37 (4) 2007: pp.221- ...

  15. Genetic parameters for body weight, carcass chemical composition and yield in a broiler-layer cross developed for QTL mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Beatriz do Nascimento; Ramos, Salvador Boccaletti; Savegnago, Rodrigo Pelicioni; Ledur, Mônica Corrêa; Nones, Kátia; Klein, Claudete Hara; Munari, Danísio Prado

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations of body weight at 6 weeks of age (BW6), as well as final carcass yield, and moisture, protein, fat and ash contents, using data from 3,422 F2 chickens originated from reciprocal cross between a broiler and a layer line. Variance components were estimated by the REML method, using animal models for evaluating random additive genetic and fixed contemporary group (sex, hatch and genetic group) effects. The heritability estimates (h2) for BW6, carcass yield and percentage of carcass moisture were 0.31 ± 0.07, 0.20 ± 0.05 and 0.33 ± 0.07, respectively. The h2 for the percentages of protein, fat and ash on a dry matter basis were 0.48 ± 0.09, 0.55 ± 0.10 and 0.36 ± 0.08, respectively. BW6 had a positive genetic correlation with fat percentage in the carcass, but a negative one with protein and ash contents. Carcass yield, thus, appears to have only low genetic association with carcass composition traits. The genetic correlations observed between traits, measured on a dry matter basis, indicated that selection for carcass protein content may favor higher ash content and a lower percentage of carcass fat. PMID:21931515

  16. Treatment of animal carcasses in poultry farms using sealed ditches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M; González, J L; Gutiérrez, M A Díez; Guimaraes, A Correa; Gracia, L M Navas

    2008-10-01

    Several hen carcass elimination experiments were conducted by isolating corpses in a sealed ditch and adding different doses of lime. The aim was to evaluate the viability of this method as an alternative to other elimination techniques, as required in the European regulation CE 1774/2002 [Reglamento CE 1774/2002, de 3 de octubre por el que se establecen las normas sanitarias aplicables a los subproductos animales no destinados a consumo humano]. The experiments were carried out at a natural scale, in a 200m3 ditch located in a livestock enterprise, using a proportion of 200g of lime/kg of carcass. We observed a high degradation of carcasses after six months, the method being also safe from a microbiological point of view. The material extracted from the ditch had a high calcium content (330.7gkg(-1)), which makes it an ideal product for soil lacking this element, or as an acidity corrector in acid soils due to its basic (pH 8.48) nature. It also contains a significant amount of mineral nutrients (17.0gkg(-1) N, 2.4gkg(-1) P and 4.9gkg(-1) K) and organic matter (101.5gkg(-1)). We also analysed the material extracted from the ditch prior to its renovation for the experiments and followed the processes taking place in the ditch during the first six months, when lime doses of 100, 200 and 300 gkg(-1) of treated carcass were applied. Simultaneously, we carried out laboratory experiments in cylindrical 25L deposits to evaluate the gas release of the three (100, 200 and 300g of lime/kg carcass) doses of lime used. After the tenth week, we observed CO2 concentrations ranging from 5% for the lower lime doses to very low levels for the 300g lime/kg carcass dose. As regards methane, in the three series of experiments, the release was highest during the first weeks, began to decrease in the eighth week and reached its lower value during the fourteenth week. Emissions of NO2 were not observed, and the levels of NH3 and SH2 were usually so high that they exceeded the detection

  17. Pork carcass composition: II. Use of indicator cuts for predicting carcass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swensen, K; Ellis, M; Brewer, M S; Novakofski, J; McKeith, F K

    1998-09-01

    Right sides of 30 pork carcasses were fabricated into indicator cuts (Boston butt, picnic, anterior belly, posterior belly, anterior loin, posterior loin, and ham) and used to determine carcass composition by physical dissection and chemical analysis of soft tissue. Linear measures and chemical composition of whole-side grind were collected from left sides. Dissection of indicator cuts to predict dissectable composition of the side were much better indicators than linear measures (R2 = .70 to .94). Chemical analyses of soft tissue (lean + lipid) from the loin and anterior belly were better predictors of fat-free lean and extractable lipid composition of the side than linear measures; 89% of the variation in dissectable lean of the side was explained by the use of dissectable components of the anterior loin. The loin served as the best overall indicator cut across the various end points evaluated; 92% of the variation in dissectable lean of the side was explained using dissectable components of the shoulder. The anterior belly was a good indicator for percentage of dissectable lean, fat, fat-free lean, and extractable lipid.

  18. Visual and chemical tissue markers for bovine carcass components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lary, R.Y.; Byers, F.M.; Cross, H.R.; Schelling, G.T.; Petersen, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    A two-component, nontoxic, quantifiable animal/carcass tracing system was developed using riboflavin as an on-premises, initial carcass identifier visible under longwave ultraviolet (UV) light and deuterium oxide (D 2 O) as a tracer analytically quantified via fixed wavelength infrared spectrophotometry. Twenty-four cull cows and heifers were allocated into eight antemortem treatment groups (1, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 h) for evaluation of the efficacy of riboflavin and D 2 O as tissue tracers in postmortem meat tissues. All cattle were slaughtered using conventional procedures and inspection. To study postmortem riboflavin marker changes due to constant light exposure over time, fluorescence and emission intensity scores were obtained by a trained panel 24, 48, and 168 h postslaughter. The riboflavin marker intensity rating means for UV fluorescence were classified as identifiable on all carcasses when evaluated under UV light, but were classified as not identifiable when evaluated under ambient light. Deuterium oxide levels in all tissue water samples, regardless of antemortem infusion group, contained D 2 O concentrations at least 2.5 times greater than those found in background water. Deuterium oxide was shown to disperse rapidly throughout living tissues. Correlations within animals for D 2 O levels from blood and muscle were all highly significant (r = .99)

  19. Course Evaluation Systems for Open-ended Quality Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piihl, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jens Smed

    2013-01-01

    Quality in higher education is widely controlled through surveys asking students to evaluate teaching. However, control of quality does not necessarily lead to enhancement of quality. Drawing on accounting research and a case study, a measurement-based and open-ended quality control system...... emphasising quality enhancement is suggested. The case shows how interactive use of performance measurement can lead to more engaged and enabling dialogue amongst involved actors concerning quality enhancement, however institutionalised beliefs regarding course evaluation systems makes a change challenging...

  20. Hot water surface pasteurisation of lamb carcasses: microbial effects and cost-benefit considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Sigrun J; Wahlgren, Magnus; Røtterud, Ole-Johan; Nesbakken, Truls

    2011-03-15

    Although hot water pasteurisation of carcasses is accepted as a general intervention in USA, this is not the case in Europe. The aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the microbiological effects of hot water pasteurisation of lamb carcasses, both after slaughtering and dressing and following subsequent chilling and storage; (ii) to discuss hot water pasteurisation from a public health and cost-benefit perspective; (iii) to discuss the benefits of hot water pasteurisation compared with use of separate meat processing streams for high-risk carcasses; (iv) to evaluate the use of recycled hot water in a hygienic context and in relation to EU regulations; and (v) to consider the technological and sensory aspects of hot water pasteurisation of lamb carcasses. Samples were collected from 420 naturally contaminated lamb carcasses, with 50% of the carcasses (n=210) subject to hot water pasteurisation at 82 °C for 8s immediately after slaughter. Surface swab samples from 4500 cm² areas on carcasses were collected at slaughter, after chilling for 24 h, and after chilling for five days. The microbial analyses included Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens and aerobic plate count (APC). A resuscitation step using Tryptone Soya Agar was included in the microbiological analyses. Hot water pasteurisation significantly reduced the levels of E. coli, Enterobacteriaceae, B. cereus and APC (all Ph storage, the reduction in E. coli was increased to 2.02 log, and after five days E. coli could not be isolated from the pasteurised carcasses. These results suggest that surface pasteurisation could be an important and efficient procedure (critical control point) for reducing generic E. coli and thereby shiga toxin-producing E. coli on carcasses, and thus the risk for disease among consumers. The recycled water had acceptable physical and chemical parameters and no spore-forming bacteria were detected. Although some carcass discolouration was

  1. Evaluation Model of Tea Industry Information Service Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Shi , Xiaohui; Chen , Tian’en

    2015-01-01

    International audience; According to characteristics of tea industry information service, this paper have built service quality evaluation index system for tea industry information service quality, R-cluster analysis and multiple regression have been comprehensively used to contribute evaluation model with a high practice and credibility. Proved by the experiment, the evaluation model of information service quality has a good precision, which has guidance significance to a certain extent to e...

  2. Quality evaluation of simvastatin compounded capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Dias Marques-Marinho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Simvastatin is commercially available as tablets and compounded capsules in Brazil. Very few reports regarding these capsules' quality, and consequently their efficacy, are available. The pharmaceutical quality of 30 batches of 20 mg simvastatin capsules from the market was evaluated by weight determination, content uniformity, disintegration (Brazilian Pharmacopeia, assay and dissolution test (USP32 tablet monograph. A HPLC method was developed for assay, content uniformity and dissolution test, and specifications were also established. Out of the 30 batches evaluated, 29 showed capsule disintegration within 45 min and individual weight variation was within ±10% or ±7.5% relative to average weight, for 300 mg, respectively. Only 27 batches met dissolution test criteria with values >80% of the labeled amount in 45 min; 21 batches showed simvastatin content between 90.0-110.0% of the labeled amount and 19 batches had at least 9 out of 10 capsules with content uniformity values between 85.0-115.0% of the labeled amount with RSDNo Brasil, a sinvastatina está comercialmente disponível na forma de comprimidos e cápsulas manipuladas. Poucos relatos estão disponíveis sobre a qualidade e, consequentemente, a eficácia dessas cápsulas. A qualidade de 30 lotes de sinvastatina 20 mg cápsulas do mercado foi avaliada através da determinação de peso, uniformidade de conteúdo, desintegração (Farmacopéia Brasileira, doseamento e teste de dissolução (monografia comprimidos USP32. Método por CLAE foi desenvolvido para o doseamento, uniformidade de conteúdo e teste de dissolução; além disso, especificações foram estabelecidas. Dos 30 lotes avaliados, 29 apresentaram desintegração da cápsula até 45 min e a variação do peso individual foi ± 10% ou ± 7,5% em relação ao peso médio, se 300 mg, respectivamente. Apenas 27 lotes preencheram os critérios do teste de dissolução com valores > 80% da quantidade rotulada, em 45 min, 21

  3. EVALUATION OF QUALITY OF LIFE OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanovic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life is a theme that is becoming more and more prominent. Every man can express his opinion about the quality of their life, which allows a realistic assessment of the quality of life of a particular population on the basis of subjective feelings of its members. Therefore, in this study through surveys and questionnaires with more than 80 questions from 11 subject areas is attempted to form a picture of the quality of life of the student population of the University of Montenegro (UM. The survey covered 14 units and 60 university students and the results of this survey have provided answers to some key questions by which the guidelines for raising the quality of life of students were obtained.

  4. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Klickitat River Tributaries, 2001-2005 Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zendt, Joe; Sharp, Bill (Yakama Nation Fisheries, Toppenish, WA)

    2006-09-01

    This report describes the work completed by the Yakama Nation Fisheries Program (YNFP) in the Klickitat subbasin in south-central Washington under BPA innovative project No.200105500--Influences of stocking salmon carcass analogs on salmonids in Columbia River Tributaries. Salmon carcasses historically provided a significant source of marine-derived nutrients to many stream systems in the Columbia basin, and decreased run sizes have led to a loss of this nutrient source in many streams. Partners in this project developed a pathogen-free carcass analog and stocked the analogs in streams with the following objectives: restoring food availability to streams with reduced anadromous salmon returns; mimicking the natural pathways and timing of food acquisition by salmonids; minimizing unintended negative ecological effects; and increasing the growth and survival of salmonids. In the Klickitat subbasin, carcass analogs were stocked in two streams in 2002 and 2003; a third stream was used as a control. Salmonid fish abundance, growth, and stomach contents were monitored in all three streams before and after carcass analog placement. Fish, invertebrate, and periphyton samples were also collected for stable isotope analysis (to determine if nutrients from carcass analogs were incorporated into the stream food web). Water quality samples were also collected to determine if nutrient overloading occurred in streams. Significant differences in growth were found between fish in treated and untreated stream reaches. Fish in treatment reaches exhibited higher instantaneous growth rates approximately one month after the first carcass analog stocking. Stomach contents sampling indicated that salmonid fish routinely consumed the carcass analog material directly, and that stomach fullness of fish in treatment reaches was higher than in untreated reaches in the first few weeks following carcass analog stockings. No significant differences were detected in fish abundance between

  5. Carcass and meat traits of Morada Nova, Santa Ines and ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs finished in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Issakowicz

    2014-03-01

    France ½ Texel lambs showed meat with higher luminosity (37.4 than Morada Nova (33.5 and Santa Ines (31.7 lambs. When slaughtered at six months of age lambs of the genetic groups evaluated result in similar good quality meat, however, Morada Nova lambs have lower weights of carcass and meat cuts as well as smaller carcass than Santa Ines and ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs.

  6. Dicofol residues in eggs and carcasses of captive American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Clark, D.R.; Spann, J.W.; Belisle, A.A.; Bunck, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed diets containing 0 (control), 1, 3, 10, and 30 ?g/g (wet wt) of Kelthane?. Residues of dicofol and its metabolites were then analyzed in the eggs and carcasses of females. Significant differences occurred among treatments for residues of both p,p'-dicofol and p,p'-dechlorodicofol (DCD) in both eggs and carcasses and for p,p'-dicholorbenzophenone (DCBP) in eggs. Residue concentrations increased with increasing treatment exposure. Residues of p,p'-dicofol, p,p'-DCD, and p,p'-DCBP in eggs were significantly correlated with eggshell quality parameters. Significant correlations also occurred among contaminants in eggs and for individual contaminants between eggs and carcasses. The lowest-observed-dietary-effect concentration for eggshell thinning was 3 ?g/g, whereas 1 ?g/g may be considered to be near a no-observable-adverse-effect concentration. Concentrations of dicofol in potential prey items and eggs of wild birds generally have been lower than dietary-effect concentrations or concentrations in tissues or eggs associated with eggshell thinning and reduced reproductive success.

  7. Referenceless image quality evaluation for whole slide imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Noriaki; Bautista, Pinky A; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Yagi, Yukako

    2012-01-01

    The image quality in whole slide imaging (WSI) is one of the most important issues for the practical use of WSI scanners. In this paper, we proposed an image quality evaluation method for scanned slide images in which no reference image is required. While most of the conventional methods for no-reference evaluation only deal with one image degradation at a time, the proposed method is capable of assessing both blur and noise by using an evaluation index which is calculated using the sharpness and noise information of the images in a given training data set by linear regression analysis. The linear regression coefficients can be determined in two ways depending on the purpose of the evaluation. For objective quality evaluation, the coefficients are determined using a reference image with mean square error as the objective value in the analysis. On the other hand, for subjective quality evaluation, the subjective scores given by human observers are used as the objective values in the analysis. The predictive linear regression models for the objective and subjective image quality evaluations, which were constructed using training images, were then used on test data wherein the calculated objective values are construed as the evaluation indices. The results of our experiments confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed image quality evaluation method in both objective and subjective image quality measurements. Finally, we demonstrated the application of the proposed evaluation method to the WSI image quality assessment and automatic rescanning in the WSI scanner.

  8. [Effect of data management quality on clinical research evidence evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-yang; Li, Qing-na; Zhao, Yang; Li, Bo; Rui, Gao

    2015-02-01

    Current clinical evaluation of literature quality has various ways. Most of them lay special emphasis on the evaluation of the design quality, but the evaluation of the implementation process quality is not perfect. Especially data management is not fully emphasized during the enforcement of clinical trials. Data from clinical research were bases for evaluating clinical findings. Although strict specifications and requirements for data management might be strictly written clearly in research protocols, they were not embodied in current clinical research evidence evaluation system. Data management is an important part of implementing the whole clinical trial process, which is a comprehensive reflection of data collecting, logging, sorting, and managing. Its objective is to obtain high quality research data for statistical analysis, thereby coming to a true and reliable conclusion. In order to overall evaluating clinical design and implement, we suggest that present quality evaluation indicators of clinical trails should be completed, and add data management quality evaluation during the whole implement process. Data management plans, standards and requirements for data checking, and management regulations for disobeying data and exception data should be added in quality evaluation indicators for clinical research evidence. The effect of data management quality on clinical research evidence evaluation should be emphasized.

  9. Composição física da carcaça e qualidade da carne de vacas de descarte de diferentes grupos genéticos terminadas em confinamento com distintos pesos Carcass physical composition and meat quality of cull cows of different genetic groups feedlot finished and slaughtered with distinct weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Kuss

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste experimento foi avaliar a composição física e as características qualitativas da carne de vacas de descarte mestiças da segunda (G2 - 3/4Charolês (C 1/4Nelore (N e 3/4NC e terceira gerações (G3 - 5/8CN e 5/8NC de cruzamento rotativo Charolês - Nelore terminadas em confinamento e abatidas com 465, 507 ou 566 kg. Os animais apresentaram na média, no início do confinamento 8,5 anos, 388,6 kg e 2,35 pontos de escore da condição corporal. A dieta alimentar, com relação volumoso:concentrado de 48:52, continha 12,5% de proteína bruta e 2,99 Mcal de energia digestível por kg de matéria seca. Houve redução da participação de ossos (16,55; 15,84 e 12,72% e músculo (63,50; 60,05; 60,69% e incremento da percentagem de gordura (19,85; 24,32; 28,08%, respectivamente na carcaça com o aumento do peso de abate. O ganho de peso da porção comestível da carcaça entre os pesos de abate extremos foi 77,36 kg, sendo 37,32 kg de músculo (48,24% e 40,04 kg de gordura (51,76%. A maciez, quando avaliada pela força de cizalhamento, melhorou significativamente na carne dos animais abatidos com peso mais elevado (4,94, 4,89 e 3,89 kgf/cm³, respectivamente. A carne das vacas 5/8NC apresentou coloração mais escura (2,87 pontos que a das vacas 5/8CN (4,0 pontos. A carne dos animais da G3 foi mais macia que a dos animais G2 (4,16 vs 4,99 kgf/cm³. Carne mais suculenta foi observada em vacas 5/8NC que nas 5/8CN (6,49 vs 4,16 pontos, em razão da menor perda à cocção das 5/8NC (17,61 vs 23,33%. O aumento do peso de abate de vacas de descarte é um bom recurso para elevar rapidamente a produção de carne bovina, melhorando inclusive significativamente sua qualidade.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the carcass physical composition and meat quality of crossbred cull cows, from the second (G2- 3/4Charolais (C Nellore (N and 3/4NC and third (G3 - 5/8CN and 5/8NC generations of Charolais - Nellore rotational crossbreeding

  10. Effect of nucleotides on broiler performance and carcass yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Pelícia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of nucleotides on the performance and carcass yield of broilers fed diets with no antibiotic growth promoters (AGP, anticoccidials, or animal feedstuffs. In the trial, 600 Ross 308 male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CD, CD + AGP, CD + 0.04%, CD + 0.05%, CD + 0.06%, and CD + 0.07% nucleotides. The experimental diets did not contain anticoccidials, and birds were vaccinated against coccidiosis at three days of age. No significant differences were detected among broilers submitted to the different treatments in none of the studied parameters. Under the conditions of this experiment, diets supplemented with nucleotides did not influence broiler performance or carcass yield at 42 days of age, and were not different from the feeds not containing any additive or with AGP.

  11. Carcass Production of Cattle Slaughtered at Salatiga City Slaughter House, Salatiga, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purbowati, E.; Lestari, C. M. S.; Ma’ruf, M. J.; Sutaryo, S.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the breed, age, sex, slaughter weight, carcass weight, and carcass percentage of cattle which was slaughtered at Slaughter House in Salatiga, Central Java. The materials used in the study were 156 head of catlle. The sampling used was incidental sampling to identify the breed, age, sex, slaughter weight and carcass weight. The data gathered were analyzed descriptively. The result showed that the sex of all the cattle slaughtered were male. The breeds of the cattle were Frisian Holstein Grade (70.51%), Simmental (15.38+3.21), Simmental-Ongole Grade (5.13%), and Limousine-Ongole Grade (5.77%). The average age of the cattle were 2.34 year old, with an average of slaughter weight of 529.34 kg, while the averages of carcass weight were 277.61 kg. The average of carcass percentage was as high as 52.56%. The conclusion of the study was the highest number of breeds of the cattle slaughtered at Slaughter House in Salatiga were young Frisian Holstein, the body weights were included in large frame score, and the carcass percentage were moderate.

  12. Performance, carcass traits and costs of Suffolk lambs finishing systems with early weaning and controlled suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rodrigo Fernandes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The performance, carcass traits and finishing costs of Suffolk lambs were evaluated in three systems: (1 lambs weaned with 22 kg of body weight (BW and supplemented with concentrate on pasture until slaughter; (2 lambs weaned with 22 kg BW and fed in feedlot until slaughter; (3 lambs maintained in controlled nursing after 22 kg BW and creep fed in feedlot until slaughter. Average daily gain (ADG was 224 g/d for lambs weaned and supplemented with concentrate on pasture, 386 g/d for lambs weaned in feedlot and 481 g/d for lambs under controlled nursing. Empty body weight and visceral fat deposition were highest in lambs from feedlot systems. Carcass weights and carcass yields were highest for lambs in controlled nursing. Finishing total costs were highest in controlled nursing and lowest in the system with weaning in feedlot. High concentrate diet associated with controlled nursing in feedlot allowed lambs to reach the growth potential and carcasses with higher weights, higher yields and higher fat content. After weaning, lambs in feedlot fed with high concentrate diet had higher weight gain than lambs supplemented with concentrate on pasture. Carcasses produced under these two systems presented the same characteristics. The system with weaning in feedlot showed the lowest cost per kg carcass.

  13. Modeling and Evaluation of Multimodal Perceptual Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kim T; Hansen, Steffen Duus; Sørensen, John Aasted

    1997-01-01

    The increasing performance requirements of multimedia modalities, carrying speech, audio, video, image, and graphics emphasize the need for assessment methods of the total quality of a multimedia system and methods for simultaneous analysis of the system components. It is important to take...... into account still more perceptual characteristics of the human auditory, visual, tactile systems, as well as combinations of these systems, it is also highly desirable to acquire methods for analysing the main perceptual parameters, which constitute the input for the total quality assessment. A framework...... is suggested for assessing the quality of modalities and their combinations...

  14. The “Criollo Negro de la Costa Ecuatoriana” pigs: effect of sex and rearing system on performance, carcass and meat traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, M.A.; Peláez, F.R.; Martínez, A.L.; Avilés, C.; Peña, F.

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of rearing system (confinement, C vs semi-confinement, SC) and sex (barrows vs females) on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of “Criollo negro de la costa ecuatoriana” pigs. A total of 32 pigs, 16 barrows and 16 gilts were used. The average daily gain (0.30 kg/day vs 0.22 kg/day), slaughter weight (51.4 kg vs 43.1 kg), morphometric parameters and weights for the most valuable meat cuts were higher in C pigs than in SC pigs, whereas hot and cold carcass yields were higher in SC pigs than in C pigs. The loin and sirloin percentages from C pigs were lower and higher compared with those SC pigs, respectively. Carcass of C pigs showed higher percentage of fat and lower percentage of lean and bone that SC pigs. The rearing system had scarce effects on meat quality traits and mineral composition. Meat from C pigs showed lower scores for color, brightness, and unctuousness, and higher for metallist taste, juiciness and persistence of flavor than SC pigs. Few sensory attributes of cooking chops were affected by sex. Metallist taste was higher in barrows, while brightness and lard flavor were higher in females. It can be concluded that the rearing system had a significant effect on most of the productive and carcass traits, whereas its effect was limited on the meat traits. Sex had little influence on most of the traits studied. (Author)

  15. EXTERNAL EVALUATION OF LEARNING AS A GUARANTEE OF QUALITY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Arribas Estebaranz

    2014-12-01

    Almost all countries and all reports use contemplated, in varying degrees, the always-complementary external evaluation by the teachers-as an essential guarantee of educational quality at different levels of detail curriculum evaluation.

  16. Evaluation of Columbia, USMARC-Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: VIII. Quality measures of lamb longissimus dorsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousel, M R; Notter, D R; Leeds, T D; Zerby, H N; Moeller, S J; Taylor, J B; Lewis, G S

    2014-07-01

    Quality measures of lamb longissimus dorsi were evaluated in 514 crossbred wether lambs to assess sire breed differences. Wethers were produced over 3 yr from single-sire matings of 22 Columbia, 22 U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC)-Composite (Composite), 21 Suffolk, and 17 Texel rams to adult Rambouillet ewes. Lambs were reared to weaning in an extensive western rangeland production system and finished in a feedlot on a high-energy finishing diet. One of three harvest groups were randomly assigned to each lamb, and lambs were transported to The Ohio State University abattoir when the mean BW of wethers remaining in the feedlot reached 54.4, 61.2, or 68.0 kg. After harvest, subjective lean quality scores were assigned and LM pH (immediately after and 24 h after harvest), color (quantified as Minolta L*, a*, and b*), intramuscular fat (IMF), cooking loss percentage, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) were determined. Statistical models included fixed effects of sire breed, year of birth, and harvest group and random effects of sire (nested within sire breed and year) and maternal grandsire. Year and harvest group were significant (P lean quality (P > 0.28). At comparable numbers of days on feed, Texel-sired wethers had the greatest (more desirable; P lean quality scores while Composite- and Suffolk-sired lambs were intermediate and Columbia-sired lambs had the lowest (less desirable). Minolta L* values were greater (P 0.05) sire breed effects were detected for LM pH at or 24 h after harvest, Minolta a* and b*, IMF, percentage of cooking loss, and WBSF at comparable numbers of days on feed. At comparable chilled carcass weight, significant (P lean quality score. Texel-sired lambs had greater scores than Columbia- and Suffolk-sired lambs, but Composite-sired lambs did not differ from lambs sired by the other sire breeds. Sire breed effects were not detected (P > 0.15) for LM pH at or 24 h after harvest, Minolta L*, a*, and b*, cooking loss percentage, IMF

  17. Effect of Sources and Levels of Dietary Zinc on the Performance, Carcass Traits and Blood Parameters of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HA Zakaria

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A total of 400 one-day-old, straight-run, commercial (Ross 308 broiler chicks were used to evaluate the effects of two dietary levels of zinc (Zn sources on broiler chick performance, carcass traits and blood parameters. Corn-soybean diets were formulated for three rearing phases (starter, grower and finisher. The two dietary treatments applied consisted of the addition per kg of diet of 80mg of inorganic Zn (ZnO (T1, or 80mg of ZnO plus 42mg of an organic Zn-amino acid complex (Availa-Zn120; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN, USA, totaling 122mg of the combined organic and inorganic Zn sources (T2. Birds were distributed according to a completely randomized design in the two treatments with eight replicates (pens of 25 birds each. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. On day 42, blood samples were taken from four birds closest to the group average weight per replicate (32 per treatment and then slaughtered for carcass evaluation. The results of this study did not find any significant effect of either of the evaluated Zn sources on broiler growth performance. Mortality rate was significantly lower (p<0.05 by the higher Zn concentration and the Zn sources group (T2. Carcass yields were not significantly influenced by the treatments. Breast quality showed significant improvement (p<0.05 in shear force (T2, indicating juicier meat. Higher concentrations (p<0.05 of Zn, Phosphorus (P, and total protein in blood were noted in (T2. Birds fed a mixture of organic and inorganic Zn source (T2 presented overall better results.

  18. QUALITY OF AN ACADEMIC STUDY PROGRAMME - EVALUATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Macur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of an academic study programme is evaluated by many: employees (internal evaluation and by external evaluators: experts, agencies and organisations. Internal and external evaluation of an academic programme follow written structure that resembles on one of the quality models. We believe the quality models (mostly derived from EFQM excellence model don’t fit very well into non-profit activities, policies and programmes, because they are much more complex than environment, from which quality models derive from (for example assembly line. Quality of an academic study programme is very complex and understood differently by various stakeholders, so we present dimensional evaluation in the article. Dimensional evaluation, as opposed to component and holistic evaluation, is a form of analytical evaluation in which the quality of value of the evaluand is determined by looking at its performance on multiple dimensions of merit or evaluation criteria. First stakeholders of a study programme and their views, expectations and interests are presented, followed by evaluation criteria. They are both joined into the evaluation model revealing which evaluation criteria can and should be evaluated by which stakeholder. Main research questions are posed and research method for each dimension listed.

  19. Roasted sesame hulls improve broiler performance without affecting carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Z. Mahmoud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of using graded levels of roasted sesame hulls (RSH on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in broiler chickens. A total of 360 day-old Lohmann chicks were randomly allocated into 24 floor pens and raised over 42 days. One of four dietary treatments was assigned to each group of six pens in a completely randomized fashion. The chicks in the control group were fed a corn-soybean based diet (RSH-0, while the chicks in treatments two, three, and four were fed graded levels of RSH at 4% (RSH-4, 8% (RSH-8, and 12% (RSH-12, respectively. Diets were formulated to meet broiler chicks’ requirements according to the National Research Council for both starter and finisher rations. The results showed that RSH inclusion increased (P<0.05 feed intake and final body weight without adversely affecting the feed conversion ratio. Broiler chicks fed RSH-12 had heavier (P<0.05 breast and leg cuts compared to the control-fed group with no change to their chemical composition. Water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL, and shear force (SF reported similar results in all dietary groups. The chemical composition of both thigh and breast cuts was not affected by the RSH. After one day of thawing, colour coordinates of breast cuts behaved similarly in all dietary groups. The results of this study suggest that the addition of RSH to broiler diets up to 12% improves their growth performance; nevertheless, carcass characteristics and meat quality showed no alterations compared to the control-fed group.

  20. Image processing system performance prediction and product quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, E. K.; Hammill, H. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A new technique for image processing system performance prediction and product quality evaluation was developed. It was entirely objective, quantitative, and general, and should prove useful in system design and quality control. The technique and its application to determination of quality control procedures for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite NASA Data Processing Facility are described.

  1. [Quality of manuscript evaluation in Gaceta Sanitaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A M; Plasència, A; Fernández, E

    2002-01-01

    To describe strengths and weaknesses of peer reviews of manuscripts received in Gaceta Sanitaria in order to guide reviewers selection, to improve quality of peer reviews and to establish an internal system to be incorporated to the editorial process of handling manuscripts. 100 peer reviews of 55 manuscripts received during 2000 and 2001 were included. A questionnaire containing closed questions assessing specific and general components of reviews' quality was applied (answers Yes/No or on a 5-points scale). Descriptive and correlation analyses were performed for the different items in the questionnaire. An Index of Quality was obtained by adding the ratings on the items in the questionnaire measuring specific quality components. Peer reviews were rated high regarding completeness of the forms for reviewers (84%), constructiveness of the comments (reviews over 3: 63%), identification of the strengths and weaknesses of the method (reviews over 3: 59%) and substantiation of the reviewer comments (reviews over 3: 58%). Assessment of the manuscript's relevance (reviews over 3: 40%) or originality (reviews over 3: 35%) were less frequent. Quality of peer reviews in Gaceta Sanitaria is good. Some weaknesses in the reviews have been pointed out. It is possible to establish a systematic process for assessing peer reviewers using simple indicators such as general utility of the review for the editorial decision and general quality of the review.

  2. Effects on performance and meat quality of Holstein bulls fed high concentrate diets without implants following immunological castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, S; Jackson, J A; Slootmans, N; Lopez, E; Hodge, A; Pérez-Juan, M; Devant, M; Amatayakul-Chantler, S

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the GnRH vaccine on the performance and meat quality of Holstein bulls fed high concentrate diets. A total of 493 approximately 7month old bulls (initial BW 298±1.2kg) were allocated into 3 treatment groups, intact bulls (n=164), animals surgically castrated at 15 to 17d of the study (n=164), and animals vaccinated on 0 and 28d of the study with the GnRH vaccine (n=165). Animals were slaughtered between 131 and 133d and carcass quality was evaluated. Hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, fat classification and meat quality parameters did not differ significantly between surgically castrated and vaccinated animals but differed (P<0.05) from intact bulls. Carcass classification, pH at 26h, and fat color were not affected by treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of quality of life in oncology clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarema, A.; Marzecki, Z.

    1994-01-01

    In 18 patients with various malignancies the quality of life was evaluated with the use of the SF-36 questionnaire before and after radiotherapy. The quality of life was better among patients whose physical condition was better both before and after radiotherapy. The quality of life deteriorated after radiotherapy in patients whose physical status before treatment was evaluated as more serious. After the treatment the correlation was found between the global evaluation of quality of life and the intensity of pain and physical disability. However, both before and after radiotherapy the correlation was found between global quality of life and the severity of depression. The subjective estimation of quality of life by cancer patients did not correlate with the clinical evaluation of the severity of their state in doctor's opinion. (author)

  4. A new measure for objective speech quality evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, S.; Pols, L.C.W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper studies briefly a distance measure for objective quality evaluation of speech communication channels using instantaneous and dynamic spectral features. It is based on studies for subjective and objective quality evaluation and LPC cepstral distance measure. The dynamic spectral feature is

  5. Ultrasound Image Quality Assessment: A framework for evaluation of clinical image quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov

    2010-01-01

    Improvement of ultrasound images should be guided by their diagnostic value. Evaluation of clinical image quality is generally performed subjectively, because objective criteria have not yet been fully developed and accepted for the evaluation of clinical image quality. Based on recommendation 500...... from the International Telecommunication Union - Radiocommunication (ITU-R) for such subjective quality assessment, this work presents equipment and a methodology for clinical image quality evaluation for guiding the development of new and improved imaging. The system is based on a BK-Medical 2202 Pro...... information, which is fast enough to get sufficient number of scans under realistic operating conditions, so that statistical evaluation is valid and reliable....

  6. Ocean Disposal of Marine Mammal Carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean dumping of marine mammal carcasses is allowed with a permit issued by EPA under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. Includes permit information, potential environmental impacts, and instructions for getting the general permit.

  7. Quality in Learning Objects: Evaluating Compliance with Metadata Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, C. Christian; Segura, N. Alejandra; Campos, S. Pedro; Sánchez-Alonso, Salvador

    Ensuring a certain level of quality of learning objects used in e-learning is crucial to increase the chances of success of automated systems in recommending or finding these resources. This paper aims to present a proposal for implementation of a quality model for learning objects based on ISO 9126 international standard for the evaluation of software quality. Features indicators associated with the conformance sub-characteristic are defined. Some instruments for feature evaluation are advised, which allow collecting expert opinion on evaluation items. Other quality model features are evaluated using only the information from its metadata using semantic web technologies. Finally, we propose an ontology-based application that allows automatic evaluation of a quality feature. IEEE LOM metadata standard was used in experimentation, and the results shown that most of learning objects analyzed do not complain the standard.

  8. Contextual Analysis of CT Scanned Pig Carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Larsen, Rasmus; Christensen, Lars Bager

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of the weight of tissue types in pig carcasses is generally only available after manual dissection. The use of computed tomography (CT) has demonstrated to be a promising approach to gain knowledge on the lean meat weight (Romvari, 2005), but less effort has been put into gaining...... not consider the spatial context in CT scan. Applying contextual methods from the field of image analysis we hope to make a virtual dissection of pig carcasses....

  9. Pork carcass composition: I. Interrelationships of compositional end points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swensen, K; Ellis, M; Brewer, M S; Novakofski, J; McKeith, F K

    1998-09-01

    Thirty pork carcasses were used to evaluate the interrelationships between compositional end points and the accuracy of predicting various end points from one another. Right sides were fabricated into Boston butt, picnic, anterior belly, posterior belly, anterior loin, posterior loin, and ham. Carcass composition was determined on the right side using physical dissection and chemical analyses of soft tissue. Left sides were ground (whole-side grind). Linear measures and chemical composition were made on left sides. Using dissectable components, high (r > .85) correlations occurred between percentage of fat-free lean and percentage of lipid, percentage of dissectable fat, and lipid in the whole-side grind; between weights of dissectable lean and fat-free lean; and between weights of lipid in the whole-side grind and lipid, dissectable fat, and dissectible lean. Dissectable lean percentage and fat (percentage and weight) could be predicted using weight of lipid, weight of fat-free lean, and side weight. Any physical measure could be accurately estimated from any compositional end point (r2 = .79 to .93). Regression equations using 10th-rib linear measures and hot carcass weights predicted compositional end points with R2 > or = .80, with the exception of dissectable lean (R2 = .56).

  10. Effects of the origin and caponisation on carcass and meat traits in cockerels and capons aged 18 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Adamski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of the origin and caponisation on selected slaughter traits and quality indicators of meat in cockerels and capons of strains N88 (New Hampshire, R55 (Rhode Island Red, S11 (Sussex, and P55 (Plymouth Rock. The slaughter yield, breast muscle weight, percentage share of muscles in total in the carcasses, and fatness in general did not differ between the cockerels and capons within the evaluated strains. The trait that mostly distinguished cockerels from capons of strain N88 was the weight of leg muscles. Similarly, the fat content of carcasses expressed with the weight and percentage share of the skin with subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat did not differ between the evaluated groups of cockerels and capons. However, the weight of the leg muscles varied depending on the origin of cockerels and capons. As for the physiochemical properties of meat as well as its chemical composition, no significant differences were recorded in 18-week-old birds. The only obvious effect of the origin and caponisation was found on varied contents of fat in breast muscles in cockerels of strains N88 and P55, and capons of strain P55.

  11. Rethinking Educational Evaluation for Quality Educational Outcomes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to ascertain whether purpose of EE and the rethinking of EE best practices would help to attain quality educational outcomes (graduands). The study was a descriptive survey research carried out in Federal and State Universities in Anambra State. The sample size was 80 lecturers, 3 research questions ...

  12. Seasonal evaluation of groundwater quality around Igando ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation and Multiple linear regression analysis was used to establish the degree of relationship and variability of groundwater quality parameters around Solous 1 and 2 Dumpsites, in Igando, Lagos, for the wet and the dry seasons. The correlation between TDS and other hydrochemical parameters which constituted ...

  13. Development and Evaluation of Organoleptic Quality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    countries is growing because nutritional and health status influence the child's learning and overall performance in school (Legge, 2002). Poor nutrition among school-age children .... characteristics, nutritional value, sensory quality and acceptability of .... cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and colon cancer. (Whitney et al.

  14. Information criterion for the categorization quality evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail V. Svirkin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the possibility of using the variation of information function as a quality criterion for categorizing a collection of documents. The performance of the variation of information function is being examined subject to the number of categories and the sample volume of the test document collection.

  15. Evaluation of quality in social-work practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Blom

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical article describes and discusses the concept of quality in relation to the evaluation of social-work practice. Of particular interest are the difference between quality of services and quality of life and the importance of balancing the stakeholders’ different interests in order to make a sound judgement of quality in social work possible. This article begins with presenting some basic perspectives on quality as well as the transference of the concept of quality from manufacturing industry to social-work practice. Thereafter the two main issues are discussed: the concepts of quality of service and of quality of life and the importance of balancing different stakeholders’ perspectives in the evaluation of quality in social-work practice. This article concludes that: 1 it is crucial to be aware of and to consider the distinction between quality of service and quality of life; 2 clients’ perspective on quality of life is an aspect of outcome that currently receives insufficient attention; 3 clients’ subjective experiences of welfare of well-being deserve greater attention for ethical as well as methodological reasons; and 4 judgement of quality in social work are inevitably dependent on different stakeholders’ perspectives.

  16. Influence of visual appearance on loudspeaker sound quality evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karandreas, Theodoros-Alexandros; Christensen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Product sound quality evaluation aims to identify relevant attributes and assess their influence on the overall auditory impression. Extending this sound specific rationale, the present study evaluates overall impression in relation to audition and vision, specifically for loudspeakers. In order...... to quantify the bias that the loudspeaker appearance has on the sound quality evaluation of a naive listening panel, audio stimuli of varied degradation are coupled with actual loudspeakers of different visual appearance....

  17. [Evaluation of the quality control system in blood transfusion service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, R

    2000-01-01

    Implementation of quality system improvement at the Blood Transfusion Institute Novi Sad, included adjustments in practice to the request of ISO 9001 standard. Quality improvement must be a permanent activity of the Institute. The audit is a management tool for monitoring the quality assurance system and is either a quality audit or a medical audit. A well planned, comprehensive quality audit covers each activity of the Blood Transfusion Institute. The procedures may be internal or external. Quality manager is responsible for annual internal quality audits. The purpose of internal audits is to check the efficiency of the quality system in terms of realization of quality policy, fulfullment of designed targets and implementation of quality system documents. An internal quality audit is performed in accordance with the procedure and audit findings are reported to the management in a form of internal quality report as a part of quality system review. The findings must be communicated to all persons responsible for the controlled area. Quality manager can initiate an internal quality audit whenever it is realized that problems about the quality system have occurred. Audits are conducted by the quality manager or an audit team. The accurate list of internal auditors is kept in the Institute archive. Medical audit carried out by a transfusion committee, evaluates the quality of blood transfusion for determining the degree of compliance with established local or national guidelines, in order to promote optimal transfusion practice. Audits are not only used for determining further quality management activities, but also make basis for creating and maintenance of excellent relations with product and service users. Considering all this, Blood Transfusion Institute exceeds the requirements of ISO 9000 standards series.

  18. Re-visiting the detection of porcine cysticercosis based on full carcass dissections of naturally Taenia solium infected pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwelwa Chembensofu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taenia solium is a neglected zoonotic parasite. The performances of existing tools for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis need further assessment, and their shortcomings call for alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of tongue palpation and circulating antigen detection for the detection of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs of slaughter age compared to full carcass dissections (considered the gold standard. Additionally, alternative postmortem dissection procedures were investigated. A total of 68 rural pigs of slaughter age randomly selected in the Eastern Province of Zambia were dissected. Dissections were conducted on full carcasses (or half carcass in case cysticerci were already detected in the first half, including all the organs. Total cysticercus counts, location and stages were recorded and collected cysticerci were identified morphologically and molecularly. All sera were analysed with the B158/B60 antigen detecting ELISA (Ag-ELISA. Results Key findings were the high occurrence of T. solium infected pigs (56% and the presence of T. solium cysticerci in the livers of 26% of infected animals. More than half of the infected carcasses contained viable cysticerci. Seven carcasses had T. hydatigena cysticerci (10%, out of which five carcasses were co-infected with T. hydatigena and T. solium; two carcasses (3% had only T. hydatigena cysticerci. Compared to full carcass dissection, the specificity of the Ag-ELISA to detect infected carcasses was estimated at 67%, the sensitivity at 68%, increasing to 90% and 100% for the detection of carcasses with one or more viable cysticerci, and more than 10 viable cysts, respectively. Tongue palpation only detected 10% of the cases, half carcass dissection 84%. Selective dissection of the diaphragm, tongue and heart or masseters can be considered, with an estimated sensitivity of 71%, increasing to 86% in carcasses with more than

  19. Water quality assessment of Australian ports using water quality evaluation indices

    OpenAIRE

    Jahan, Sayka; Strezov, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Australian ports serve diverse and extensive activities, such as shipping, tourism and fisheries, which may all impact the quality of port water. In this work water quality monitoring at different ports using a range of water quality evaluation indices was applied to assess the port water quality. Seawater samples at 30 stations in the year 2016-2017 from six ports in NSW, Australia, namely Port Jackson, Botany, Kembla, Newcastle, Yamba and Eden, were investigated to determine the physicochem...

  20. Daily Encounter Cards-Evaluating the Quality of Documented Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Warren J; Dudek, Nancy; Wood, Timothy J; Frank, Jason R

    2016-10-01

    Concerns over the quality of work-based assessment (WBA) completion has resulted in faculty development and rater training initiatives. Daily encounter cards (DECs) are a common form of WBA used in ambulatory care and shift work settings. A tool is needed to evaluate initiatives aimed at improving the quality of completion of this widely used form of WBA. The completed clinical evaluation report rating (CCERR) was designed to provide a measure of the quality of documented assessments on in-training evaluation reports. The purpose of this study was to provide validity evidence to support using the CCERR to assess the quality of DEC completion. Six experts in resident assessment grouped 60 DECs into 3 quality categories (high, average, and poor) based on how informative each DEC was for reporting judgments of the resident's performance. Eight supervisors (blinded to the expert groupings) scored the 10 most representative DECs in each group using the CCERR. Mean scores were compared to determine if the CCERR could discriminate based on DEC quality. Statistically significant differences in CCERR scores were observed between all quality groups ( P  evaluate DEC quality. It can serve as an outcome measure for studying interventions targeted at improving the quality of assessments documented on DECs.

  1. Daily Encounter Cards—Evaluating the Quality of Documented Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Warren J.; Dudek, Nancy; Wood, Timothy J.; Frank, Jason R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background  Concerns over the quality of work-based assessment (WBA) completion has resulted in faculty development and rater training initiatives. Daily encounter cards (DECs) are a common form of WBA used in ambulatory care and shift work settings. A tool is needed to evaluate initiatives aimed at improving the quality of completion of this widely used form of WBA. Objective  The completed clinical evaluation report rating (CCERR) was designed to provide a measure of the quality of documented assessments on in-training evaluation reports. The purpose of this study was to provide validity evidence to support using the CCERR to assess the quality of DEC completion. Methods  Six experts in resident assessment grouped 60 DECs into 3 quality categories (high, average, and poor) based on how informative each DEC was for reporting judgments of the resident's performance. Eight supervisors (blinded to the expert groupings) scored the 10 most representative DECs in each group using the CCERR. Mean scores were compared to determine if the CCERR could discriminate based on DEC quality. Results  Statistically significant differences in CCERR scores were observed between all quality groups (P < .001). A generalizability analysis demonstrated the majority of score variation was due to differences in DECs. The reliability with a single rater was 0.95. Conclusions  The CCERR is a reliable and valid tool to evaluate DEC quality. It can serve as an outcome measure for studying interventions targeted at improving the quality of assessments documented on DECs. PMID:27777675

  2. Image aesthetic quality evaluation using convolution neural network embedded learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-xin; Pu, Yuan-yuan; Xu, Dan; Qian, Wen-hua; Wang, Li-peng

    2017-11-01

    A way of embedded learning convolution neural network (ELCNN) based on the image content is proposed to evaluate the image aesthetic quality in this paper. Our approach can not only solve the problem of small-scale data but also score the image aesthetic quality. First, we chose Alexnet and VGG_S to compare for confirming which is more suitable for this image aesthetic quality evaluation task. Second, to further boost the image aesthetic quality classification performance, we employ the image content to train aesthetic quality classification models. But the training samples become smaller and only using once fine-tuning cannot make full use of the small-scale data set. Third, to solve the problem in second step, a way of using twice fine-tuning continually based on the aesthetic quality label and content label respective is proposed, the classification probability of the trained CNN models is used to evaluate the image aesthetic quality. The experiments are carried on the small-scale data set of Photo Quality. The experiment results show that the classification accuracy rates of our approach are higher than the existing image aesthetic quality evaluation approaches.

  3. Effect of Medicinal Plant By-products Supplementation to Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Economic Efficacy in the Late Fattening Period of Hanwoo Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of medicinal plant by-products (MPB supplementation to a total mixed ration (TMR on growth, carcass characteristics and economic efficacy in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. Twenty seven steers (body weight [BW], 573±57 kg were assigned to 3 treatment groups so that each treatment based on BW contained 9 animals. All groups received ad libitum TMR throughout the feeding trial until slaughter (from 24 to 30 months of age and treatments were as follows: control, 1,000 g/kg TMR; treatment 1 (T1, 970 g/kg TMR and 30 g/kg MPB; treatment 2 (T2, 950 g/kg TMR and 50 g/kg MPB. Initial and final BW were not different among treatments. Resultant data were analyzed using general linear models of SAS. Average daily gain and feed efficiency were higher (p<0.05 for T1 than control, but there was no difference between control and T2. Plasma albumin showed low-, intermediate- and high-level (p<0.05 for control, T1 and T2, whereas non-esterified fatty acid was high-, intermediate- and high-level (p<0.05 for control, T1 and T2, respectively. Carcass weight, carcass rate, backfat thickness and rib eye muscle area were not affected by MPB supplementation, whereas quality and yield grades were highest (p<0.05 for T1 and T2, respectively. Daily feed costs were decreased by 0.5% and 0.8% and carcass prices were increased by 18.1% and 7.6% for T1 and T2 compared to control, resulting from substituting TMR with 30 and 50 g/kg MPB, respectively. In conclusion, the substituting TMR by 30 g/kg MPB may be a potential feed supplement approach to improve economic efficacy in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers.

  4. Health-educator performance evaluation for quality teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health educator evaluation plays a major role in the improvement of teaching through development of teaching skills. Evaluation creates a need for change of attitude from all concerned if the desired results regarding quality of health educators are to be achieved. The results suggest that the evaluation instrument needs to ...

  5. Ractopamine hydrochloride on performance and carcass traits of confined Nellores cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luis Kill

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four levels of inclusion (0; 450; 900 and 1,350g T-1 of Ractopamine hydrochloride was assessed concerning weight gain, feed conversion, dry matter intake, carcass traits and quality of castrated male cattle meat in confinement. Forty Nellore steers were used, with an average age of 26 months and initial average weight of 423.4±2.7kg, in a randomized block experimental design with four treatments and ten replications. The diet was fixed with the ratio of forage to concentrate dry matter of 75.3:24.7. A Linear positive effect observed was the inclusion of Ractopamine on daily weight gain and linear negative effect on feed conversion, highlighting the improvements with the increasing inclusion of Ractopamine hydrochloride. In relation to carcass traits, the linear effect was negative for fat thickness and no differences were found regarding the hot carcass weight ; carcass yield; area, width and depth of rib eye area of the Longissimus dorsi muscle, and noble courts. In relation to dry matter intake, the comparison of the treatments demonstrated that Ractopamine didn't influence negatively, which highlights its positive effect on the animal performance. The use of Ractopamine improves performance and decreases de amount of superficial fat in male nellore carcass in confinement.

  6. Quality evaluation of blood irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, R.E.; Medeiros, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    An adverse reaction in blood transfusion is the graft versus host disease (GVHD). This disease affects immunodeficient or immunosuppressed patients where transfused T cells proliferate and initiate a host's immune system reaction. Blood gamma irradiation is the most efficient way to inhibit lymphocyte T blastic transformation and mitotic activity and it is the most effective method to combat this disorder. However, there is no fast and effective system to analyze the dose distribution in the irradiation process and guarantee that the absorbed doses are in agreement with FDA recommendations. This study aims to establish a periodic quality control of the gammacell irradiators using radiochromic films properly calibrated. The quality control is simply and effective to combat GVHD as well as is useful to detect mechanical fails at rotation set system through the dose uniformity analysis. It was possible to verify the uniformity ranged from -72.38% to 106.33% and some blood bag received doses not compatible with recommended international threshold. (author)

  7. Effects of various pre-slaughter conditions on pig carcasses and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nedjeljko Karabasil

    2016-11-12

    Nov 12, 2016 ... lairage time and season on carcass and meat quality parameters in a low-input production system. The study .... and pork producers to better understand the influence of these factors, improve their production systems, and obtain better .... higher lean meat content compared with heavier pigs. These results ...

  8. Effects of various pre-slaughter conditions on pig carcasses and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gender, slaughter weight, stocking density, lairage time and season on carcass and meat quality parameters in a low-input production system. The study was conducted on 400 slaughter pigs (200 barrows and 200 gilts) with live weight of 115.0 ± 4.70 kg. Barrows had ...

  9. Effects and interactions of myostatin and callipyge mutations. I. Growth and carcass traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives were to document effects of the Texel myostatin mutation (MSTN) on growth, carcass, and meat quality traits and also test whether or not interactions with the callipyge mutation (CLPG) could be detected. Twelve rams heterozygous at both loci on the two different chromosomes were mated to ...

  10. [Grades evaluation of Scutellariae Radix slices based on quality constant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhe; Zhang, Jun; Jiao, Meng-Jiao; Zhong, Wen; Cui, Wen-Jin; Cheng, Jin-Tang; Chen, Sha; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Liu, An

    2017-05-01

    By measuring the morphological indexes and the marker components content of 22 batches of Scutellariae Radix slices as well as calculating the quality constant, this research was aimed to establish a new method of evaluating the specifications and grades of Scutellariae Radix slices. The quality constants of these samples were in the range of 0.04-0.49, which can be divided into several grades based on the real requirement. If they were divided into three grades, the quality constant was ≥0.39 for the first grade, quality constants characterizing both apparent parameters and intrinsic quality can be used as a comprehensive evaluation index to classify the grades of traditional Chinese medicine quantitatively, clearly and objectively. The research results in this paper would provide new ideas and references for evaluating the specifications and grades of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Agronomic evaluation and quality characteristics of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed to evaluate some agronomical, physical and nutritional characteristics of seeds of three species of Cucurbitaceous, namely Citrulus lanatus, Lagenaria siceraria and Cucumeropsis edulus. Agronomic experiments were investigated over a two-year period during which, some agronomic ...

  12. Carcass characteristics of lambs fed diets containing silage of different genotypes of sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraci Marcos Alves Suassuna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-five feedlot lambs (without defined breed, aged between 5 and 7 months, with average live weight of 17.7±3.7 kg were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effect of diets containing different genotypes of sorghum on morphometric measurements and qualitative characteristics of carcass and yields of primal cuts. The animals stayed in individual indoor pens for 42 days and slaughtered at an average weight of 26.24 kg. No significant differences were observed on morphometric measurements, hot (11.67 kg and cold (11.39 kg carcass weight, hot (44.46% and cold (43.37% carcass yields, biological yield and on cooling losses. There was also no significant effect of silages of different genotypes of sorghum on the weights and yields of retail cuts (neck, shoulder, rib, loin and leg and on the subjective evaluation of carcasses. It is possible to finish sheep without defined breed feeding them diets based on silages of sorghum, resulting in carcasses with high yield and good conformation.

  13. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of peroxyacetic acid solutions for reduction of pathogens on poultry carcasses and meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    with regard to residues of peroxyacids, to HEDP and to possible reaction products of hydrogen peroxide and peroxyacids with lipids and proteins of the poultry carcasses. A relevant reduction of PAA treatment on E. coli and coliforms was demonstrated by dipping warm carcasses, but few data were available...... application, there was a relevant impact on E. coli, but less effect on coliforms, and little data was available on reduction of pathogens. The emergence of acquired reduced susceptibility to biocides and/or resistance to therapeutic antimicrobials following the use of PAA was considered unlikely. There were...... include monitoring of the concentration of HEDP and of the decontaminating substance in the working solution and post-marketing surveillance for resistance in both pathogenic and commensal bacteria....

  14. Carcass traits of improved and indigenous lamb breeds of North-Western Turkey under an intensive production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omur Kocak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the carcass quality of Turkish Merino, Ramlic, Kivircik, Chios and Imroz breeds in north-western Turkey under an intensive production system. After weaning at approximately 85 days of age, 46 lambs from Turkish Merino, Ramlic, Kivircik, Chios and Imroz breeds were fattened for 56 days. Slaughter weights were 47.39, 45.68, 47.27, 31.08 and 29.82 kg and chilled carcass weights were 23.35, 22.33, 23.51, 14.33 and 13.75 kg, respectively (P<0.001. Improved Turkish Merino and Ramlic and indigenous Kivircik lambs had higher carcass measurements than indigenous Chios and Imroz lambs. Chios lamb carcasses had the highest tail root fat yellowness and tail percentage while having the lowest fatness score, omental and mesenteric fat percentage and kidney knob and channel fat percentage. Turkish Merino lambs had higher shoulder percentage, lean percentage and lean/total fat ratio in the hind leg and produced less total fat in the hind leg than Ramlic and Kivircik lambs. These results indicate that improved Turkish Merino might be used to produce high quality lamb carcasses in north-western Turkey. Among indigenous breeds Kivircik showed an outstanding carcass production performance.

  15. Automated speech quality monitoring tool based on perceptual evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Vozňák, Miroslav; Rozhon, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with a speech quality monitoring tool which we have developed in accordance with PESQ (Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality) and is automatically running and calculating the MOS (Mean Opinion Score). Results are stored into database and used in a research project investigating how meteorological conditions influence the speech quality in a GSM network. The meteorological station, which is located in our university campus provides information about a temperature,...

  16. Hybrid Model for e-Learning Quality Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana M. Savic

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available E-learning is becoming increasingly important for the competitive advantage of economic organizations and higher education institutions. Therefore, it is becoming a significant aspect of quality which has to be integrated into the management system of every organization or institution. The paper examines e-learning quality characteristics, standards, criteria and indicators and presents a multi-criteria hybrid model for e-learning quality evaluation based on the method of Analytic Hierarchy Process, trend analysis, and data comparison.

  17. Urban water quality evaluation using multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Praus

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A data set, obtained for the sake of drinking water quality monitoring, was analysed by multivariate methods. Principal component analysis (PCA reduced the data dimensionality from 18 original physico-chemical and microbiological parameters determined in drinking water samples to 6 principal components explaining about 83 % of the data variability. These 6 components represented inorganic salts, nitrate/pH, iron, chlorine, nitrite/ammonium traces, and heterotrophic bacteria. Using the PCA scatter plot and the Ward's clustering of the samples characterized by the first and second principal components, three clusters were revealed. These clusters sorted drinking water samples according to their origin - ground and surface water. The PCA results were confirmed by the factor analysis and hierarchical clustering of the original data.

  18. Water quality assessment of Australian ports using water quality evaluation indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Sayka

    2017-01-01

    Australian ports serve diverse and extensive activities, such as shipping, tourism and fisheries, which may all impact the quality of port water. In this work water quality monitoring at different ports using a range of water quality evaluation indices was applied to assess the port water quality. Seawater samples at 30 stations in the year 2016–2017 from six ports in NSW, Australia, namely Port Jackson, Botany, Kembla, Newcastle, Yamba and Eden, were investigated to determine the physicochemical and biological variables that affect the port water quality. The large datasets obtained were designed to determine the Water Quality Index, Heavy metal Evaluation Index, Contamination Index and newly developed Environmental Water Quality Index. The study revealed medium water quality index and high and medium heavy metal evaluation index at three of the study ports and high contamination index in almost all study ports. Low level dissolved oxygen and higher level of total dissolved solids, turbidity, fecal coliforms, copper, iron, lead, zinc, manganese, cadmium and cobalt are mainly responsible for the poor water qualities of the port areas. Good water quality at the background samples indicated that various port activities are the likely cause for poor water quality inside the port area. PMID:29244876

  19. Water quality assessment of Australian ports using water quality evaluation indices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayka Jahan

    Full Text Available Australian ports serve diverse and extensive activities, such as shipping, tourism and fisheries, which may all impact the quality of port water. In this work water quality monitoring at different ports using a range of water quality evaluation indices was applied to assess the port water quality. Seawater samples at 30 stations in the year 2016-2017 from six ports in NSW, Australia, namely Port Jackson, Botany, Kembla, Newcastle, Yamba and Eden, were investigated to determine the physicochemical and biological variables that affect the port water quality. The large datasets obtained were designed to determine the Water Quality Index, Heavy metal Evaluation Index, Contamination Index and newly developed Environmental Water Quality Index. The study revealed medium water quality index and high and medium heavy metal evaluation index at three of the study ports and high contamination index in almost all study ports. Low level dissolved oxygen and higher level of total dissolved solids, turbidity, fecal coliforms, copper, iron, lead, zinc, manganese, cadmium and cobalt are mainly responsible for the poor water qualities of the port areas. Good water quality at the background samples indicated that various port activities are the likely cause for poor water quality inside the port area.

  20. Water quality assessment of Australian ports using water quality evaluation indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Sayka; Strezov, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Australian ports serve diverse and extensive activities, such as shipping, tourism and fisheries, which may all impact the quality of port water. In this work water quality monitoring at different ports using a range of water quality evaluation indices was applied to assess the port water quality. Seawater samples at 30 stations in the year 2016-2017 from six ports in NSW, Australia, namely Port Jackson, Botany, Kembla, Newcastle, Yamba and Eden, were investigated to determine the physicochemical and biological variables that affect the port water quality. The large datasets obtained were designed to determine the Water Quality Index, Heavy metal Evaluation Index, Contamination Index and newly developed Environmental Water Quality Index. The study revealed medium water quality index and high and medium heavy metal evaluation index at three of the study ports and high contamination index in almost all study ports. Low level dissolved oxygen and higher level of total dissolved solids, turbidity, fecal coliforms, copper, iron, lead, zinc, manganese, cadmium and cobalt are mainly responsible for the poor water qualities of the port areas. Good water quality at the background samples indicated that various port activities are the likely cause for poor water quality inside the port area.