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Sample records for carcass microbiological evaluation

  1. Evaluation of control over the microbiological contamination of carcasses in a lamb carcass dressing process operated with or without pasteurizing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milios, K; Mataragas, M; Pantouvakis, A; Drosinos, E H; Zoiopoulos, P E

    2011-03-30

    The aim of this study was to quantify the hygienic status of a lamb slaughterhouse by means of multivariate statistical analysis, to demonstrate how the microbiological data could be exploited to improve the lamb slaughter process by constructing control charts and to evaluate the potential effect of an intervention step such as steam application on the microbiological quality of lamb carcasses. Results showed that pelt removal and evisceration were hygienically uncontrolled. TVC and Enterobacteriaceae progressively increased from the stage 'after pelt removal of hind and forelegs/before final pulling' to the stage 'after evisceration/before pluck removal' thus indicating possible deposition of microorganisms during these operations. It seems that the processing stages of freshly produced carcasses were better distinguished by Enterobacteriaceae, with evisceration contributing mostly to the final Enterobacteriaceae counts. Application of steam during the lamb slaughter process reduced microbial counts without adverse effects on the organoleptic characteristics of the carcasses. Moreover, the construction of control charts showed that decontamination with steam contributed to the maintenance of an in control process compared to that before the application of steam, suggesting the potential use of steam as an intervention step during the lamb slaughter process.

  2. Microbiological evaluation of chicken carcasses in an immersion chilling system with water renewal at 8 and 16 hours.

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    Souza, L C T; Pereira, J G; Spina, T L B; Izidoro, T B; Oliveira, A C; Pinto, J P A N

    2012-05-01

    Since 2004, Brazil has been the leading exporter of chicken. Because of the importance of this sector in the Brazilian economy, food safety must be ensured by control and monitoring of the production stages susceptible to contamination, such as the chilling process. The goal of this study was to evaluate changes in microbial levels on chicken carcasses and in chilling water after immersion in a chilling system for 8 and 16 h during commercial processing. An objective of the study was to encourage discussion regarding the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture Livestock and Food Supply regulation that requires chicken processors to completely empty, clean, and disinfect each tank of the chilling system after every 8-h shift. Before and after immersion chilling, carcasses were collected and analyzed for mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and Escherichia coli. Samples of water from the chilling system were also analyzed for residual free chlorine. The results do not support required emptying of the chiller tank after 8 h; these tanks could be emptied after 16 h. The results for all carcasses tested at the 8- and 16-h time points indicated no significant differences in the microbiological indicators evaluated. These data provide both technical and scientific support for discussing changes in federal law regarding the management of immersion chilling water systems used as part of the poultry processing line.

  3. Microbiological analysis of dried goose carcasses

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    Ufuk Kamber

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological studies on chicken meat and carcasses are well documented, but very few studies exist on goose meat and carcasses. Therefore, in this study, dried goose carcass samples were collected from the local households in Kars/Turkey and microbiologically analyzed in terms of public health risks. The total mesophilic viable count was found to be 6.58 (mean log10 CFU g-1 (100%. The number of Enterobacteriaceae was 4.85 (92.8%. Coliform bacteria was counted at the numbers of 2.98 (67.8%, while it was 3.95 (91.1% for the enterococci, 0.42 (26.7% for the clostridia, 0.04 (3.5% for the Clostridium perfringens, and 0.41 (12.5% for the coagulase positive staphylococci. The numbers of mould and yeast were 0.93 (25% and 4.81 (94.6%, respectively. Salmonellae and Bacillus cereus could not be isolated in the samples. The results indicate that the dried goose meat samples had poor hygienic quality, contained some of the pathogen microorganisms that are likely to pose a potential health risk.

  4. Evaluation of risk based microbiological criteria for Campylobacter in broiler carcasses in Belgium using TRiMiCri

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    T. Seliwiorstow (Tomasz); M. Uyttendaele (Mieke); L. de Zutter (Lieven); M.J. Nauta (Maarten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCampylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported foodborne zoonosis worldwide. Consumer´s exposure to Campylobacter might be reduced by establishing a microbiological criterion (MC) for Campylobacter on broiler meat. In the present study two possible approaches were evaluated, usin

  5. Spray chilling of deer carcasses--effects on carcass weight, meat moisture content, purge and microbiological quality.

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    Wiklund, E; Kemp, R M; leRoux, G J; Li, Y; Wu, G

    2010-12-01

    Twenty red deer carcasses were included in the study. Two treatments were applied to the carcasses; control (air chilling) and spray chilling (n=10 for each treatment). Carcass weight and temperature change were registered during over-night chilling. Meat moisture content was measured in the shoulder, loin, flap and leg before and after the chilling treatments; purge, cooking loss and tenderness were measured in loin samples stored at -1.5 °C for 3 and 9 weeks. Microbiological status was assessed on swabs taken at the lumbar end of the loin before and after the chilling treatments. Spray chilling reduced carcass weight loss significantly; air chilled and spray chilled carcasses lost 1 kg and less than 0.01 kg, respectively. No effects of spray chilling on tenderness, purge and cooking loss were found. Bacterial levels were low in general even after 9 weeks of vacuum packaged chilled storage.

  6. Microbiological contamination of lamb carcasses at abattoirs of Istanbul

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    Tolga Kahraman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of a hundred lamb carcasses were sampled over a 12 month period at abattoirs in Istanbul, Turkey. Each sample examined for total aerobic mesophilic counts (TMC, Enterobacteriaceae count (EC, Salmonella spp. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes was obtained from 100 cm2 areas on four sides of lamb carcasses using the wet and dry cotton swab technique. The study revealed that total aerobic mesophilic counts in all carcasses ranged between 4.18 and 5.95 log/cm2; Enterobacteriaceae counts between 1.60 and 2.30 CFU/cm2. All samples were negative for Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. Furthermore Salmonella spp. was detected on four carcasses. The data confirms bacteriological monitoring of lamb carcasses as a useful criteria for the verification of slaughter hygiene.

  7. Implementation of a validated HACCP system for the control of microbiological contamination of pig carcasses at a small abattoir.

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    Bryant, Jeffrey; Brereton, Donald A; Gill, Colin O

    2003-01-01

    To guide the implementation of a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system at a small abattoir, the microbiological conditions of pig carcasses at various stages of processing were assessed by enumerating total aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli in samples collected from randomly selected sites on the carcasses. Those data indicated that carcasses were contaminated with bacteria mainly during dehairing and operations on the head. When carcasses were pasteurized after head removal, the numbers of total aerobes on dressed carcasses were reduced by about 1 order and the numbers of coliforms and E. coli were reduced by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Implementation of an HACCP system on the basis of the microbiological data gave cooled carcasses with mean numbers of total aerobes < 100/cm2, and mean numbers of coliforms and E. coli about 1/1000 cm2.

  8. Microbiological criteria for Campylobacter in broiler carcasses in Italy: a possible approach to derive them.

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    Comin, Damiano; Valero, Antonio; Manfreda, Gerardo; García-Gimeno, Rosa Maria; Paiusco, Antonella; De Medici, Dario; Terza, Paolo; Ferrarini, Stefano; De Cesare, Alessandra

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide suitable microbiological criteria (MC) for Campylobacter in broiler carcasses and a sampling plan to verify compliance with such criteria. Data were gathered in the presence and concentration of Campylobacter in broiler carcasses collected in three different Italian slaughterhouses, labelled as A, B and C. The sampling plan to be validated in each slaughterhouse included the analysis of three different carcasses collected immediately after chilling from 30 different lots, for a total of 90 samples per slaughterhouse. The number of positive samples containing above 100 CFU/g and above 1,000 CFU/g throughout the 30 tested lots was determined to estimate between-lot variability. Based on this information, the performance of four MC was evaluated for lot compliance: i) n=3; c=0; m=100 CFU/g; ii) n=3; c=0; m=1,000 CFU/g; iii) n=3; c=1; m=1,000 CFU/g and iv) n=3; c=2; m=1,000 CFU/g. Positive Campylobacter samples were found in 60% of the lots tested in slaughterhouses A and C and in 73.3% of lots from slaughterhouse B. The differences among the three slaughterhouses in the mean Campylobacter levels found in positive samples were not significant and were used to evaluate the performance of the MC. The level of lot compliance to different MC was calculated and for the most stringent one (n=3; c=0; m=100 CFU/g) was 40% at slaughterhouses A and C but only 26.7% at slaughterhouse B. The results of this study show an alternative approach to establish MC for Campylobacter in broilers. According to (1) Campylobacter prevalence and concentration in Italy, (2) applied experimental plan and (3) selected slaughterhouses, the number of compliant lots to the suggested MC ranged between 26.7 and 100%. The selection of the fit for purpose MC is a risk manager decision, based on a reasonable balance between public health and cost for poultry industries.

  9. Microbiological Hazards Assessment of Psychrotrophic Microflora in Bovine Carcasses Slaughtered in North West Romania

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    Silviu Vida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gram negative bacteria have the greatest capacity to spoil the meat if kept under aerobic conditions, therefor the members of the genera Pseudomonas, Acinetobater, Psychrobacter and Moraxella, will form the dominant microflora. The purpose of this study was to assess the contamination level with psychrotropic microflora of bovine carcasses in order to prove how the results could be used to improve the slaughter process. The research was carried out between January-December 2015, in two slaughterhouses from North West Romania.  The research material was represented by 144 meat samples (slaughterhouse A, n=72, slaughterhouse B, n=72. Weekly, 3 samples were collected from refrigerated carcasses, and examined for total psychrotrophic counts (TPC, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas and Yersinia. From statistical processing of recorded data was established that mean log TPC from the surface of refrigerated carcasses has presented different values, ranged between 3.70±0.20 log CFU/cm2 and 6.90±0.43 log CFU/cm2. Initial surface microflora of bovine carcasses was represented by germs from the following genera: Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Yersinia, Serratia, Hafnia, Proteus and Escherichia. Microbiological hazard assessment reveals the key role of psychotropic microorganisms in the spoilage of meat, if the monitoring system of the slaughtering process is not functioning properly.

  10. Evaluation of carcass scraping to enumerate bacteria on prechill broiler carcasses.

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    Smith, D P; Cason, J A; Fletcher, D L; Hannah, J F

    2007-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate a scraping method for enumerating bacteria on broiler carcasses. In experiment 1, coliforms and Escherichia coli were determined by the whole-carcass rinse (WCR) method and by scraping the skin surface and rinsing the blade (BR). In each of 2 replicate trials, 4 prechill broiler carcasses were collected from 2 different commercial processing plants. The WCR method was conducted on each carcass, then a blunt edge blade was used to scrape an area measuring approximately 80 cm(2) of the breast (front) skin and on the back of the carcass. After scraping, each blade and adhering residue was rinsed in 30 mL of 0.1% peptone. One milliliter of rinsate each from the WCR and BR was plated to determine total coliforms and E. coli. In experiment 2, 6 carcasses were collected from a processing plant in each of 2 replicate trials. Carcasses were split, with one half scraped on all skin surfaces, and the other half remaining unscraped as a control; all halves were then subjected to half-carcass rinses using 200 mL of 0.1% peptone. Coliforms and E. coli were enumerated. Results from both experiments are reported as log cfu/mL. In experiment 1, mean coliform WCR counts (5.1) were significantly higher (P scraped carcass halves for coliforms (4.7) or E. coli (4.6). Overall, results showed that scraping either prior to or after rinsing did not increase enumeration of coliforms or E. coli. Scraping could be a viable method to compare the numbers of bacteria on different areas of the same carcass.

  11. The Effect of Water Pressure and Chlorine Concentration on Microbiological Characteristics of Spray Washed Broiler Carcasses

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    Pissol AD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of water pressure and concentration of dichloromethane after the evisceration system under the fecal decontamination of chicken carcasse  surfaces with and without apparent contamination. From a total of  322 carcasses, 50% were intentionally added chicken droppings in an area of more  than 2 cm2 and the rest of carcasses were kept without fecal inoculation. Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae counting was carried out in samples immediately after the inoculation (initial counting and after different treatments. Treatments consisted of water with different pressures (1.5,  3.5 and  5.5 Kgf/cm2, and the addition of a echnological adjuvant (dichloride at the concentrations of 0, 5 and 10 ppm. The results were validated using  40 chicken carcasses for each treatment by means of a  22  factorial statistical design. The results showed no significant differences (P

  12. Salmonella prevalence and microbiological contamination of pig carcasses and slaughterhouse environment

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    Francesca Piras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In seven EC swine abattoirs Salmonella prevalence (ISO 6579/2002 and serotypes of 25 piglets, 61 finishing pigs (lymph nodes, colon content, carcass and liver surface and slaughterhouse environments (scalding water, surfaces in contact with meat and not in contact with meat were investigated. Moreover, aerobic colony count [total viable count (TVC; ISO 4833] and Enterobacteriaceae (ISO 21528-2 of piglets and finishing pigs’ carcasses were evaluated, and the results compared with EU process hygiene criteria (Reg. EC 2073/2005. Salmonella was not isolated in any of the piglets samples. Prevalence differed between slaughterhouses (P<0.5, and Salmonella was isolated from 39 of 244 samples of finishing slaughtered pigs (15.9% and from 4 of 45 environmental samples (8.9%. In pig samples, carcasses showed the highest prevalence (18% followed by colon content (14.8%, lymph nodes (13% and liver (1.6%. S. Anatum was the most prevalent serotype (71.8%, followed by S. Derby (33.3%, S. Bredeney (5% and S. Holcomb (2.5%. Between environmental samples, S. Anatum (50%, S. Bredeney and S. Derby (25% were identified. Total viable mean counts (log10 CFU/cm2 of carcass surfaces ranged from 4.6 and 5.7 for piglets, and from 4.6 and 5.9 for finishing pigs, while Enterobacteriaceae ranged between 1.1 and 5 for piglets and between 2.1 and 5.3 for finishing pigs. These results were not in compliance with EU performance criteria. Total aerobic viable counts and Enterobacteriaceae mean levels of environmental samples appeared critical, particularly referred to surfaces in contact with meat (splitting equipment and indicated an inadequate application of good manufacturing and hygiene practices during slaughtering and sanitisation.

  13. Salmonella Prevalence and Microbiological Contamination of Pig Carcasses and Slaughterhouse Environment

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    Fois, Federica; Mazza, Roberta; Putzolu, Miriam; Delogu, Maria Luisa; Lochi, Pier Giorgio; Pani, Sergio Pino; Mazzette, Rina

    2014-01-01

    In seven EC swine abattoirs Salmonella prevalence (ISO 6579/2002) and serotypes of 25 piglets, 61 finishing pigs (lymph nodes, colon content, carcass and liver surface) and slaughterhouse environments (scalding water, surfaces in contact with meat and not in contact with meat) were investigated. Moreover, aerobic colony count [total viable count (TVC); ISO 4833] and Enterobacteriaceae (ISO 21528-2) of piglets and finishing pigs’ carcasses were evaluated, and the results compared with EU process hygiene criteria (Reg. EC 2073/2005). Salmonella was not isolated in any of the piglets samples. Prevalence differed between slaughterhouses (PSalmonella was isolated from 39 of 244 samples of finishing slaughtered pigs (15.9%) and from 4 of 45 environmental samples (8.9%). In pig samples, carcasses showed the highest prevalence (18%) followed by colon content (14.8%), lymph nodes (13%) and liver (1.6%). S. Anatum was the most prevalent serotype (71.8%), followed by S. Derby (33.3%), S. Bredeney (5%) and S. Holcomb (2.5%). Between environmental samples, S. Anatum (50%), S. Bredeney and S. Derby (25%) were identified. Total viable mean counts (log10 CFU/cm2) of carcass surfaces ranged from 4.6 and 5.7 for piglets, and from 4.6 and 5.9 for finishing pigs, while Enterobacteriaceae ranged between 1.1 and 5 for piglets and between 2.1 and 5.3 for finishing pigs. These results were not in compliance with EU performance criteria. Total aerobic viable counts and Enterobacteriaceae mean levels of environmental samples appeared critical, particularly referred to surfaces in contact with meat (splitting equipment) and indicated an inadequate application of good manufacturing and hygiene practices during slaughtering and sanitisation.

  14. Microbiology of broiler carcasses and chemistry of chiller water as affected by water reuse.

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    Northcutt, J K; Smith, D; Huezo, R I; Ingram, K D

    2008-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of treating and reusing poultry chiller water in a commercial poultry processing facility. Broiler carcasses and chiller water were obtained from a commercial processing facility which had recently installed a TOMCO Pathogen Management System to recycle water in sections 2 and 3 of two 3-compartment chillers. In this system, reused water is blended with fresh water to maintain the chiller volume. Carcasses were sampled prechill and postchill (final exit), and chiller water was sampled from the beginning and end of each of the 3 sections. Carcasses were subjected to a whole carcass rinse (WCR) in 0.1% peptone. Numbers of Escherichia coli (EC), coliforms (CF), and Campylobacter (CPY) were determined from the WCR and chiller water samples. Prevalence of Salmonella (SAL) was also determined on the WCR and chiller water samples. On average, prechill levels of bacteria recovered from rinses were 2.6, 2.9, and 2.6 log10 cfu/mL for EC, CF, and CPY, respectively. Ten out of 40 (25%) prechill carcasses were positive for SAL. After chilling, numbers of EC, CF, and CPY recovered from carcass rinses decreased by 1.5, 1.5, and 2.0 log10 cfu/mL, respectively. However, 9 out of 40 (22%) postchill carcasses were positive for SAL. When the chiller water samples were tested, counts of EC, CF, and CPY were found only in water collected from the first section of the chiller (inlet and outlet). Two of 4 water samples collected from the inlet of the first section tested positive for SAL. This study shows that fresh and reused water can be used to cool poultry in chiller systems to achieve a reduction in numbers of bacteria (EC, CF, and CPY) or equivalent prevalence (SAL) of bacteria recovered from broiler carcasses.

  15. Microbiology and evisceration efficiency of broiler carcasses slaughtered and held up to 8 hours postmortem prior to scalding and defeathering

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    The implementation of on farm slaughter could eliminate potential animal welfare issues associated with cooping, transport, dumping, and shackling live broilers. This research evaluated evisceration efficiency and the microbiological implications of delaying scalding and defeathering for up to 8 h a...

  16. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

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    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  17. Effect of cooling method on the microbiological quality of raw materials meant for the convenience food production

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    Bożena Danyluk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological status of poultry carcass cuts, in chosen manufacturing plants, taking into account the seasons. Eviscerated carcasses were chilled using two methods: cold-air blast with water sprays and water immersion. Microbiological examination of carcass cuts: filet, thighs and wings involved determining the total number of aerobic bacteria, coagulase-positive staphylococci and glucuronidase-positive E. coli. There was no effect of the type of carcass, cooling method, and the time of the year on the microbiological quality of the samples.

  18. Microbiological counting in lamb carcasses from an abattoir in São Paulo, Brazil Contagens microbiológicas em carcaças ovinas de um abatedouro de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Thaís Mioto Martineli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of lamb meat in Brazil has increased in the last years but little information about the microbiological quality of this product is available. To evaluate the hygienic-sanitary conditions of lamb carcasses, the quantification of microorganism populations indicators (mesophiles and psychrotrophs; total and thermotolerant coliforms; Escherichia coli; moulds and yeasts and the pathogenic microorganisms indentification (Salmonella sp. and Listeria spp. were performed. A total of 60 lamb carcasses were sampled from one abattoir in São Paulo. Swab samples were collected from three points (forequarter, back and hindquarter on the muscle surface after carcasses final washing. Statistical analysis consisted of descriptive evaluation of the results whose counts were grouped by intervals of microorganism populations. Counts ranged from 1.0 x 10¹ to 8.0 x 10(4 colony-forming unit cm-2 (CFU cm-2 for mesophiles; 1.0 x 10(0 to 4.4 x 10(4CFU cm-2 for psychrotrophs; 32.0 most probable number/cm² (MPN cm-2 for total and thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli. Salmonella sp. and Listeria spp. were not found in any of the carcasses. Most carcasses presented low counts for all microorganisms. Overall results may be explained by the small size of the industry where the study was taken. Results suggest that good microbiological quality lamb meat is possible to be obtained, but improvement in hygienic-sanitary conditions is still required.O consumo de carne ovina tem aumentado nos últimos anos, no Brasil. Entretanto, pouca informação sobre a qualidade desse produto está disponível. Com o intuito de avaliar as condições higiênico-sanitárias das carcaças ovinas, foram realizadas a quantificação das populações de microrganismos indicadores (mesófilos e psicrotróficos; coliformes totais e termotolerantes; Escherichia coli; bolores e leveduras e a identificação de microrganismos patogênicos (Salmonella sp. and Listeria spp.. Um

  19. Evaluation of F1 calves sired by Brahman, Boran, and Tuli bulls for birth, growth, size, and carcass characteristics.

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    Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    1996-05-01

    Birth (n = 308), weaning (n = 291), feedlot and carcass (n = 142), and yearling heifer traits (n = 139) were evaluated in F1 calves sired by Brahman (BR), Boran (BO), and Tuli (TU) bulls and born to multiparous Hereford and Angus cows. Calves sired by BR were heaviest (P Brahman crosses had larger (P Brahman F1 heifers had larger (P carcass quality traits, but not for carcass yield traits, among these three breeds.

  20. The development and evaluation of reference materials for food microbiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    in 't Veld, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1986 the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) has worked on the development and evaluation of microbiological reference materials (RMs) with support from the European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR), now called Standards Measurement and Testing (SM&T). The RMs a

  1. Microbiological evaluation of chicken feet intended for human consumption

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    Ana Paula Dutra Resem Brizio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken feet are products with great commercial importance for the eastern markets. Although Brazil is a large exporter of these products to those markets, little information is available on the sanitary quality of these products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of frozen chicken feet for human consumption. This study was developed in a slaughterhouse under Federal Inspection, located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 98 samples of frozen chicken feet were analyzed, between January and December 2011, for the detection of Salmonella spp., total count of mesophilic bacteria, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus coagulase positive and Clostridium perfringens. About 99% of the results were within the microbiological standards established by the Chinese (world´s largest importer and Brazilian legislation for raw chicken meat. Thus, we conclude that the samples of frozen chicken feet showed satisfactory microbiological quality and no risk to consumer health.

  2. Evaluation of DNA polymorphisms involving growth hormone relative to growth and carcass characteristics in Brahman steers.

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    Beauchemin, V R; Thomas, M G; Franke, D E; Silver, G A

    2006-07-31

    Associations of DNA polymorphisms in growth hormone (GH) relative to growth and carcass characteristics in growing Brahman steers (N = 324 from 68 sires) were evaluated. Polymorphisms were an Msp-I RFLP and a leucine/valine SNP in the GH gene as well as a Hinf-I RFLP and a histidine/arginine SNP in transcriptional regulators of the GH gene, Pit-1 and Prop-1. Genotypic frequencies of the GH SNP, Pit-1 RFLP, and Prop-1 SNP were greater than 88% for one of the bi-allelic homozygous genotypes. Genotypic frequencies for the GH Msp-I RFLP genotypes were more evenly distributed with frequencies of 0.43, 0.42, and 0.15 for the genotypes of +/+, +/-, and -/-, respectively. Mixed model analyses of growth and carcass traits with genotype and contemporary group serving as fixed effects and sire fitted as a random effect suggested that sire was a significant source of variation (P carcass yield, and marbling score. However, measures of growth and carcass traits were similar across GH Msp-I genotypes as steers were slaughtered when fat thickness was estimated to be approximately 1.0 cm. These polymorphisms within the GH gene and/or its transcriptional regulators do not appear to be informative predictors of growth and carcass characteristics in Brahman steers. This is partly due to the high level of homozygosity of genotypes. These findings do not eliminate the potential importance of these polymorphisms as predictors of growth and carcass traits in Bos taurus or Bos taurus x Bos indicus composite cattle.

  3. Evaluation of the microbiology of chronic ethmoid sinusitis.

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    Doyle, P W; Woodham, J D

    1991-01-01

    In a prospective study, patients with the diagnosis of chronic ethmoid sinusitis were evaluated microbiologically by using biopsy specimens of the ethmoid sinus mucosa. Microbiology cultures were performed on 94 specimens from 59 patients. Staphylococcus aureus and members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were the most frequent classical pathogenic bacteria isolated. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most common overall isolates. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were infrequent isolates. No anaerobes, viruses, or Chlamydia trachomatis organisms were identified. Results of this study showed organism isolation frequencies different from those found in other studies of chronic sinusitis reported in the literature. The predominance of S. aureus and members of the family Enterobacteriaceae could have an effect on the antimicrobial therapy for chronic ethmoid sinusitis. PMID:1774242

  4. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of a bioactive food blend

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    Rosângela dos Santos Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential of functional foods to decrease the risks of chronic non-communicable diseases has motivated the development of products with beneficial effects on fat and carbohydrate metabolism. The present study aimed at analyzing the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of a bioactive food blend developed to help the nutritional therapy provided to hypolipidemic and hyperglycemic patients with HIV/AIDS treated with antiretroviral therapy. The food blend was evaluated for moisture, protein, carbohydrate, fats, fixed mineral residue, total fiber content, and fatty acid composition, according to the standards established by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz. Food safety was assessed by microbiological analyses for Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp, and coliforms. Sensory acceptance and intention to purchase were also evaluated. The food blend showed good nutritional potential, with low atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indexes, good macronutrient balance, and high energy value. The adoption of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP resulted in a product suitable for consumption. With respect to sensory aspects, the food blend showed satisfactory indexes of acceptability and promising marketing potential.

  5. An Evaluation of Computer-Based Instruction in Microbiology

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    Susan M. Merkel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a tremendous increase in the availability of computer-based instructional (CBI materials. Some studies have shown an improvement in learning when CBI is used. However, many researchers believe the current studies are inadequate. While CBI software should be thoroughly tested by developers, as educators, we should be concerned about whether or not the CBI materials we use are improving learning in our classrooms with our students. We present an evaluation of a computer-based hypermedia tutorial that was delivered over our General Microbiology website. We found that CBI was at least as effective as text-based material. However, of all students who used CBI, only those who explored most of the site benefited from using the site. Tracking each student's use of the CBI was critical for understanding who was learning and why.

  6. An Evaluation of Computer-Based Instruction in Microbiology

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    Jerry S. Leventhal

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a tremendous increase in the availability of computer-based instructional (CBI materials. Some studies have shown an improvement in learning when CBI is used. However, many researchers believe the current studies are inadequate. While CBI software should be thoroughly tested by developers, as educators, we should be concerned about whether or not the CBI materials we use are improving learning in our classrooms with our students. We present an evaluation of a computer-based hypermedia tutorial that was delivered over our General Microbiology website. We found that CBI was at least as effective as text-based material. However, of all students who used CBI, only those who explored most of the site benefited from using the site. Tracking each student's use of the CBI was critical for understanding who was learning and why.

  7. Evaluation of performance characteristics in a diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle. II. Carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, J W; Benyshek, L L; Bertrand, J K; Johnson, M H

    1988-02-01

    Evaluations of steer and heifer progeny from a diallel mating design of Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle over 5 yr are presented. Traits evaluated included final weight, hot carcass weight, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, dressing percentage and percentage of kidney, pelvic and heart fat. Progeny of Simmental sires were heavier at slaughter than those with Brahman sires (P less than .05), but no differences were found for carcass weight. Dressing percentage was higher for Limousin crosses compared with progeny of other sire breeds (P less than .05). Similar results were found for dam breeds, except that progeny of Limousin dams had heavier carcasses with a higher dressing percentage (P less than .05) than Brahman crosses. Crosses of Limousin and Simmental had larger ribeye areas (P less than .05) compared with calves of the other breeds. Progeny of Polled Hereford dams had higher marbling scores and were fatter than progeny of dams of other breeds (P less than .05). Heterosis estimates were significant for all Brahman crosses for final weight, carcass weight and ribeye area, but these contrasts were negligible for other traits. Estimates of general combining ability were positive and significant for Simmental for final weight, carcass weight, ribeye area and marbling score and were significant and negative for Limousin for final weight, fat thickness and yield grade. Maternal values were generally small.

  8. Evaluation of an online program to teach microbiology to internal medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarner, Jeannette; Burd, Eileen M; Kraft, Colleen S; Armstrong, Wendy S; Lenorr, Kenya; Spicer, Jennifer O; Martin, Donna; del Rio, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Microbiology rounds are an integral part of infectious disease consultation service. During microbiology rounds, we highlight microbiology principles using vignettes. We created case-based, interactive, microbiology online modules similar to the vignettes presented during microbiology rounds. Since internal medicine residents rotating on our infectious disease elective have limited time to participate in rounds and learn microbiology, our objective was to evaluate the use of the microbiology online modules by internal medicine residents. We asked residents to complete 10 of 25 online modules during their infectious disease elective. We evaluated which modules they chose and the change in their knowledge level. Forty-six internal medicine residents completed assessments given before and after accessing the modules with an average of 11/20 (range, 6 to 19) and 16/20 (range, 9 to 20) correct questions, respectively (average improvement, 5 questions; P = 0.0001). The modules accessed by more than 30 residents included those related to Clostridium difficile, anaerobes, Candida spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, influenza, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Neisseria meningitidis. We demonstrated improved microbiology knowledge after completion of the online modules. This improvement may not be solely attributed to completing the online modules, as fellows and faculty may have provided additional microbiology education during the rotation.

  9. Evaluation of MALDI-TOF MS in the microbiology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Fernandes Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid identification of microorganisms by the clinical microbiology laboratory is of crucial importance for optimal patients’ management and treatment. In general, bacterial identification by conventional methods requires 18-24 hours for colony isolation and at least 24 additional hours for species identification. New technologies in microbiology have focused on the rapid diagnosis of bloodstream infections, since they are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates.

  10. Evaluation of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Skóra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical contamination in settled dust at poultry farms. The scope of research included evaluating the contributions of the various granulometric fractions in settled dust samples, assessing microbial contamination using culture methods, concentrations of secondary metabolites in dust and their cytotoxicity against hepatocyte chicken cells by means of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide tests. In addition, we also evaluated the concentration of selected volatile odorous compounds (VOCs using gas chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods and airborne dust concentration in the air with DustTrak™ DRX Aerosol Monitor. Studies were carried out on chicken broilers and laying hens at 13 poultry farms, with numbers of birds ranging from 8000 to 42,000. The airborne total dust concentration at poultry farms averaged 1.44 mg/m3 with a high percentage of the PM10 fraction (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm. Microorganism concentrations in the settled dust were: 3.2 × 109 cfu/g for bacteria and 1.2 × 106 cfu/g for fungi. Potential pathogens (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii were also found. Secondary metabolites included aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, 15-hydroxyculmorin zearalenone, zearalenone-sulfate, infectopyron, and neochinulin A. However, the dust samples showed weak cytotoxicity towards chicken hepatocyte cells, which ranged between 9.2% and 29.7%. Among volatile odorous compounds ammonia, acrolein, methyloamine, acetic acid, acetoaldehyde and formaldehyde were detected in the air. In conclusion, settled dust can be a carrier of microorganisms, odours and secondary metabolites in poultry farms, which can be harmful to workers’ health.

  11. Evaluation of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skóra, Justyna; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Wojewódzki, Piotr; Nowak, Adriana; Sulyok, Michael; Ligocka, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Hermann, Janusz; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-02-04

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical contamination in settled dust at poultry farms. The scope of research included evaluating the contributions of the various granulometric fractions in settled dust samples, assessing microbial contamination using culture methods, concentrations of secondary metabolites in dust and their cytotoxicity against hepatocyte chicken cells by means of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tests. In addition, we also evaluated the concentration of selected volatile odorous compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods and airborne dust concentration in the air with DustTrak™ DRX Aerosol Monitor. Studies were carried out on chicken broilers and laying hens at 13 poultry farms, with numbers of birds ranging from 8000 to 42,000. The airborne total dust concentration at poultry farms averaged 1.44 mg/m³ with a high percentage of the PM10 fraction (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm). Microorganism concentrations in the settled dust were: 3.2 × 10⁸ cfu/g for bacteria and 1.2 × 10⁶ cfu/g for fungi. Potential pathogens (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii) were also found. Secondary metabolites included aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, 15-hydroxyculmorin zearalenone, zearalenone-sulfate, infectopyron, and neochinulin A. However, the dust samples showed weak cytotoxicity towards chicken hepatocyte cells, which ranged between 9.2% and 29.7%. Among volatile odorous compounds ammonia, acrolein, methyloamine, acetic acid, acetoaldehyde and formaldehyde were detected in the air. In conclusion, settled dust can be a carrier of microorganisms, odours and secondary metabolites in poultry farms, which can be harmful to workers' health.

  12. Comparison of sampling procedures and microbiological and non-microbiological parameters to evaluate cleaning and disinfection in broiler houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, K; Dewulf, J; Van Weyenberg, S; Herman, L; Zoons, J; Vervaet, E; Heyndrickx, M; De Reu, K

    2015-04-01

    Cleaning and disinfection of the broiler stable environment is an essential part of farm hygiene management. Adequate cleaning and disinfection is essential for prevention and control of animal diseases and zoonoses. The goal of this study was to shed light on the dynamics of microbiological and non-microbiological parameters during the successive steps of cleaning and disinfection and to select the most suitable sampling methods and parameters to evaluate cleaning and disinfection in broiler houses. The effectiveness of cleaning and disinfection protocols was measured in six broiler houses on two farms through visual inspection, adenosine triphosphate hygiene monitoring and microbiological analyses. Samples were taken at three time points: 1) before cleaning, 2) after cleaning, and 3) after disinfection. Before cleaning and after disinfection, air samples were taken in addition to agar contact plates and swab samples taken from various sampling points for enumeration of total aerobic flora, Enterococcus spp., and Escherichia coli and the detection of E. coli and Salmonella. After cleaning, air samples, swab samples, and adenosine triphosphate swabs were taken and a visual score was also assigned for each sampling point. The mean total aerobic flora determined by swab samples decreased from 7.7±1.4 to 5.7±1.2 log CFU/625 cm2 after cleaning and to 4.2±1.6 log CFU/625 cm2 after disinfection. Agar contact plates were used as the standard for evaluating cleaning and disinfection, but in this study they were found to be less suitable than swabs for enumeration. In addition to measuring total aerobic flora, Enterococcus spp. seemed to be a better hygiene indicator to evaluate cleaning and disinfection protocols than E. coli. All stables were Salmonella negative, but the detection of its indicator organism E. coli provided additional information for evaluating cleaning and disinfection protocols. Adenosine triphosphate analyses gave additional information about the

  13. Microbiological evaluation of open and sealed tattoo inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Bonadonna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Introduction of tattoo inks in the skin has been associated with a potential entry of a great number of microorganisms including bacteria, virus and fungi. Contaminated pigments, diluents and instruments represent primary infection risk factors as well as inadequacy of hygienic measures during this practice. However, the evaluation of the infectious risk for public health due to tattoo ink use is actually not feasible cause of the low efficiency of health surveillance and the lack of specific regulation in this area.Materials and Methods. A survey was carried out to test the microbial product safety of some tattoo inks available in Italian tattoo parlours. Physical packaging and labelling of the collected inks were also examined. Newly acquired sealed stock bottles, open ink bottles and tattoo-correlated instruments (needles, spikes and grips were collected and tested for different microbiological parameters. Results. Both from opened and sealed inks a variety of potentially pathogenic organisms were isolated and identified including Gram positive rods and cocci, Gram negative bacteria and fungi. Different species of Bacillus and Staphylococcus genera were identified, among which S. haemolyticus; Cronobacter sakazaki, Enterobacter intermedius and Sphingomonas paucimobilis were also identified while no atypical mycobacteria were isolated. Needles, spikes and grips tested for sterility were aseptic.Conclusions. Microbial contamination of opened samples suggest inefficacy of preservatives and additives in maintaining inks hygienic quality, and inadequacy of hygienic procedures during the tattooing operations, while the occurrence of microorganisms in unopened samples put in doubt the effectiveness of the sterilization technology applied to this type of product.

  14. Chemical, Nutritional and Microbiological Evaluation of Some Egyptian Soft Cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *Ghada, Z. A. A., 2*Alia, M. H., 3**Soha, Al-S., 4*Magdy, N. A., and 5*Mohammed, F. S

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products is considered the most complete foodstuff that provide human either infants or adults with most of their vital needs. Milk and cheese have high nutritive value due to its high content of protein, fat, minerals especially calcium (Ca2+ & phosphorous, and vitamins. Two hundred samples produced and sold in Egypt during 2001-2003 were collected from allover the country. The cheese samples were subjected to microbiological and chemical analysis. Samples were microbiologically tested for total aerobic bacterial count (TABC, Colifrm, Escherichia coli (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, mould and yeast, salmonella and shigella, and listeria species. Protein, fat, carbohydrates, moisture, ash, lactose, Calcium (Ca, phosphorous (P and Ca/P were evaluated. The analysis showed that total aerobic bacterial count did not exceed 1.4X105±1.7X105 cells/gm, which is close to what allowed by the Standard Egyptian Guidelines (2001 and 47.5 % of the tested cheese are free from coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli. Ninety-eight and half percent, 97 %, 97 % and 91.5 % of the tested cheese (kareish, feta, thalaga, double cream respectively, either made in plant or home or farmers' cheese sample have zero Staphylococcus aureus count or mould and yeast; or salmonella and shigella, or listeria species respectively, i. e. free from them. Double cream cheese has the lowest protein content (7.79±0.78 gm% while kareish cheese has the highest protein content (19.99±1.32 gm%, but for fat content the opposite is true, double cream cheese have the highest fat content (24.56±1.78 gm% while kareish cheese have the lowest fat content (3.87±0.97 gm %. Feta cheese has high ash content while kareish cheese has the highest moisture content with the lowest ash content (68.97±1.86 & 1.81±0.47 gm% respectively. Lactose content varies widely from 1.50±0.26 (double cream cheese to 3.25±0.50 (feta cheese. Kareish cheese has higher content of calcium and

  15. Evaluation of Physicochemical and Microbiological Parameters of Smoked Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Nagy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Meat and meat products continue to supply nutrients and play a vital role in human life because of their high biological value protein, iron, zinc, selenium and vitamin B12 contents, being a crucial component of a well balanced diet. The objective of this paper was to analyse the microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of smoked sausage obtain by a modern recipe. The meat  material was obtained from local butchery (Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The physicochemical analyses highlighted the moisture (Drying-oven at 105 ºC, protein (Kjeldahl method and fat (Soxhlet method content, as well as nitrite (Griess method and sodium chloride concentrations (Mohr method of the final products. Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of the examined samples found no deviations from legal norms imposed for smoked sausage.  All of the quality parameters comply with the limits stipulated by STAS. 

  16. Evaluation of microbiological diagnostics in urogenital infections in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Blaženka Hunjak,; Zdenka Peršić

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish the percentage of infections in postmenopausal women with urinary symptoms which can be confirmed by microbiological analysis, the most common causative agents and whether the urethra and vagina in patients with cystitis are concurrently colonized by pathogenic microorganisms. Methods Laboratories of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health in Zagreb, in the period of two years, analyzed 245 samples taken from patients with urinary symptoms who had been postmeno...

  17. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, I D; Benetti, T M; Oliveira, T C R M; Abrahão, W M; Farah, S M S S; Luciano, F B; Macedo, R E F

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter strains (C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari) isolated from broiler carcasses processed in the State of Paraná, Brazil. 2. Rates of microbial resistance and susceptibility were assessed by both Disk Diffusion (DD) and Etest (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) techniques. Antibiotics were tested using DD (12 antibiotics) and/or MIC (7 antibiotics) methods. 3. A total of 95.8% of the strains were resistant to at least two agents. In terms of multidrug resistance, 75% of strains were resistant to three or more groups of antibiotics. The highest rates of resistance were detected for cefalotin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and nalidixic acid. A high rate of susceptibility of the strains to erythromycin (95.8%) was found confirming that this is considered the agent of choice for treating campylobacteriosis. Comparison of the microbial resistance and susceptibility, as determined simultaneously by the two methods, found the techniques to be statistically equivalent for 5 out of the 6 antibiotics tested. 4. The results of this study suggest the need for adopting measures to control the use of antibiotics in broiler production to prevent multidrug resistance of Campylobacter strains and reduce the risk of serious human diseases caused by the consumption of contaminated chicken meat.

  18. Evaluation of cephamycins as supplements to selective agar for detecting Campylobacter spp. in chicken carcass rinses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Ji; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyunsook; Song, Kwang-Young; Sung, Kidon; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-04-16

    Although cefoperazone is the most commonly used antibiotic in Campylobacter-selective media, the distribution of cefoperazone-resistant bacteria such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli is increasing. Here we evaluated the potential of cephamycins for use as supplements to improve modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) by replacing cefoperazone with the same concentrations (32 mg/L) of cefotetan (modified charcoal-cefotetan-deoxycholate agar, mCCtDA) and cefoxitin (modified charcoal-cefoxitin-deoxycholate agar, mCCxDA). In chicken carcass rinse samples, the number of mCCDA plates detecting for Campylobacter (18/70, 26%) was significantly lower than that of mCCtDA (42/70, 60%) or mCCxDA plates (40/70, 57%). The number of mCCDA plates (70/70, 100%) that were contaminated with non-Campylobacter species was significantly higher than that of mCCtDA (20/70, 29%) or mCCxDA plates (21/70, 30%). The most common competing species identified using mCCDA was ESBL-producing E. coli, while Pseudomonas species frequently appeared on mCCtDA and mCCxDA.

  19. Evaluation of activities aimed at preventing microbiological risks in dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Szymańska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbiological contamination of water in dental unit waterlines (DUWL creates a risk of cross-infections, and is a source of biological risk factors in the work environment of a dentist. The aim of the study was to evaluate dentists' knowledge on DUWL microbiological contamination and the scope of activities/procedures they undertake to monitor it. Material and Methods: The questionnaire survey was conducted in 2010 among 107 Polish dentists using dental units in everyday clinical practice. Results: It has been found that in their daily practice, dentists do not follow procedures leading to reduction or elimination of microbiological contamination of dental unit reservoir water. They are not aware of microbiological contamination of DUWL that supply working handpieces with water. They are unaware of the principles of dealing with dental water and water supply systems or the health risk posed by microbiological contamination of unit water for a dental team and patients. Conclusions: It is necessary to provide dentists with information on microbiological contamination of water in dental units, on the correct procedures of handling water and waterlines that supply working handpieces with water. Med Pr 2013;64(1:11–17

  20. MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESIDUES IN MEAT, MILK AND EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Jabbar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological tests are widely used to detect antibiotic residues in the meat, milk and eggs for better care of the quality and health safety. In the present study microbiological inhibition test i.e. Swab Test on Animal Food (STAF was developed indigenously for screening of animal foods for presence of antibiotic residues. In this test local isolated culture of Bacillus subtilis was used as a test microorganism due to its high sensitivity to detect a wide range of antibiotics commonly used in animal disorders. The concentration of spore suspension of Bacillus subtilis JS2004 used in the formation of STAF plate was optimized at 2x107 spores/ ml. At this concentration, inhibition zone around Neomycin control disc was 10-16 mm. Nutrient agar was used as a medium in spore suspension and 0.4% dextrose was added as a constituent of medium. Zones of inhibition around swab samples and Neomycin control disc were observed and the diameter was measured. All swab samples showing a minimum of 2 mm wide inhibition zone around them were considered as positive for presence of antibiotic residues. The swab samples showing no zone of inhibition or a zone measuring less than 2 mm were considered as negative. Results of application of STAF test was on animal food samples revealed the high incidence of antibiotic residues.

  1. Evaluation of Tazobactam-Supplemented, Modified Charcoal-Cefoperazone-Deoxycholate Agar for Qualitative Detection of Campylobacter from Chicken Carcass Rinse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Ji; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Jeong, Dong Kwan; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-05-01

    Overgrowth of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) is the most common confounding factor for the isolation of Campylobacter from poultry samples. mCCDA modified by supplementation with tazobactam, an ESBL inhibitor, was evaluated for Campylobacter isolation from chicken carcass rinse with regard to isolation rate and selectivity. In total, 120 whole chicken carcasses purchased from retail stores were rinsed with buffered peptone water enriched with 2× blood-free Bolton broth at 42°C for 48 h and then inoculated onto mCCDA with and without tazobactam supplementation (mCCDA or T-mCCDA) at 42°C for 48 h under microaerobic conditions. Suspect colonies were subcultured and confirmed by colony PCR. Plates with tazobactam exhibited a higher Campylobacter isolation rate (56.7% vs. 30.8%, p < 0.05) and selectivity (0.8 vs. 83.3% plates contaminated with non-Campylobacter, p < 0.05) than mCCDA. Thus, tazobactam-supplemented mCCDA would be a useful option for qualitative detection of Campylobacter in chicken carcass rinse.

  2. Evaluation of a biocide effect upon microbiologically influenced corrosion of mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Gayosso, M.J.; Zavala Olivares, G.; Garcia Esquivel, R. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Grupo de Corrosion. Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Mexico, D.F, C.P. 07730 (Mexico); Ruiz Ordaz, N. [Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional. Prolongacion de Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Mexico, D.F, C.P. 11340 (Mexico)

    2005-09-01

    The microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a very dangerous process, which affects the oil industry. The activity and microorganisms' growth at the pipelines steel cause surface modifications, which can induce a more complex corrosion process. The biocide evaluation for the MIC decrease has been normally based upon microbiological tests, and just a few references mention alternating methods which can be used as criteria for their evaluation. In this work, a commercial biocide was tested, using different electrochemical laboratory techniques, to determine its effect upon a biofilm generating bacteria consortium. Using microbiological techniques, the biocide lethal concentration was determined, and a concentration of 200 ppm was used to kill completely the consortium population in both, plancktonic and sessile parts. The electrochemical techniques: Polarisation Resistance (PR) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), allowed describing the corrosion process associated to the microbial consortium and the biocide effect upon it. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Evaluation of the Operator Protection Factors Offered by Positive Pressure Air Suits against Airborne Microbiological Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie A. Steward

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratories throughout the world that perform work with Risk Group 4 Pathogens generally adopt one of two approaches within BSL-4 environments: either the use of positive pressure air-fed suits or using Class III microbiological safety cabinets and isolators for animal work. Within the UK at present, all laboratories working with Risk Group 4 agents adopt the use of Class III microbiological safety cabinet lines and isolators. Operator protection factors for the use of microbiological safety cabinets and isolators are available however; there is limited published data on the operator protection factors afforded by the use of positive pressure suits. This study evaluated the operator protection factors provided by positive pressure air suits against a realistic airborne microbiological challenge. The suits were tested, both intact and with their integrity compromised, on an animated mannequin within a stainless steel exposure chamber. The suits gave operator protection in all tests with an intact suit and with a cut in the leg. When compromised by a cut in the glove, a very small ingress of the challenge was seen as far as the wrist. This is likely to be due to the low airflow in the gloves of the suit. In all cases no microbiological penetration of the respiratory tract was observed. These data provide evidence on which to base safety protocols for use of positive pressure suits within high containment laboratories.

  4. Evaluation of the operator protection factors offered by positive pressure air suits against airborne microbiological challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Jackie A; Lever, Mark S

    2012-08-01

    Laboratories throughout the world that perform work with Risk Group 4 Pathogens generally adopt one of two approaches within BSL-4 environments: either the use of positive pressure air-fed suits or using Class III microbiological safety cabinets and isolators for animal work. Within the UK at present, all laboratories working with Risk Group 4 agents adopt the use of Class III microbiological safety cabinet lines and isolators. Operator protection factors for the use of microbiological safety cabinets and isolators are available however; there is limited published data on the operator protection factors afforded by the use of positive pressure suits. This study evaluated the operator protection factors provided by positive pressure air suits against a realistic airborne microbiological challenge. The suits were tested, both intact and with their integrity compromised, on an animated mannequin within a stainless steel exposure chamber. The suits gave operator protection in all tests with an intact suit and with a cut in the leg. When compromised by a cut in the glove, a very small ingress of the challenge was seen as far as the wrist. This is likely to be due to the low airflow in the gloves of the suit. In all cases no microbiological penetration of the respiratory tract was observed. These data provide evidence on which to base safety protocols for use of positive pressure suits within high containment laboratories.

  5. A Microbiological Water Quality Evaluation of Ganges River Deltaic Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerby, C. J.; Gragg, S. E.; Page, J.; Leavens, J.; Bhattacharya, P.; Harrington, J.; Datta, S.

    2014-12-01

    Substantial natural contamination from trace elements (like arsenic) and pathogens make Ganges Deltaic aquifers an area of utmost concern. Following millions of cases of chronic arsenic poisoning from the groundwaters of the region, numerous residents are still knowingly ingesting water from shallow to intermediate accessible depth drinking water wells. Added to the calamity of arsenic is the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in these waters. The increasing frequency of gastroenteritis signifies the need to quantify the magnitude and extensiveness of health degrading agents--bacterial pathogens (i.e. Salmonella) and non-pathogens (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) --within the water supply in accessible Gangetic aquifers. To assess the dissolved microbiological quality in the region, present study sampling locations are along defined piezometer nests in an area in SE Asia (Bangladesh). Every nest contains samples from wells at varying depths covering shallow to deep aquifers. To date, 17 of the 76 water samples were analyzed for Salmonella, generic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coliforms. Briefly, samples were plated in duplicate onto E. coli/Coliform petrifilm and incubated at 370C for 48 hours. Next, each sample was enriched in buffered peptone water and incubated at 370C for 18 hours. Bacterial DNA was extracted and amplified using a qPCR machine. Amplification plots were analyzed to determine presence/absence of microorganisms. All water samples (n=~76) are analyzed for Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria spp. and Shigella. Pathogen populations of PCR-positive water samples are enumerated using the agar direct plate method. Non-pathogenic bacterial indicator organisms (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) will also be enumerated. Over the course of the experiment, we hypothesize that shallower wells will 1)have a higher pathogen prevalence and 2)harbor pathogens and nonpathogens at higher concentrations. While the 17 samples analyzed to date were negative for Salmonella

  6. Evaluating the Efficacy of Three U.S. Department of Agriculture-Approved Antimicrobial Sprays for Reducing Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Surrogate Populations on Bob Veal Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Effective antimicrobial intervention strategies to reduce Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) risks associated with veal are needed. This study evaluated the efficacy of lactic acid (4.5%, pH 2.0), Citrilow (pH 1.2), and Beefxide (2.25%, pH 2.3) for reducing STEC surrogates on prerigor and chilled bob veal carcasses and monitored the effects of these interventions on chilled carcass color. Dehided bob veal carcasses were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of rifampin-resistant, surrogate E. coli bacteria.E. coli surrogates were enumerated after inoculation, after water wash, after prechill carcass antimicrobial spray application, after chilling for 24 h, and after postchill carcass antimicrobial spray application; carcass color was measured throughout the process. A standard carcass water wash (∼50°C) reduced the STEC surrogate population by 0.9 log CFU/cm(2) (P ≤ 0.05). All three antimicrobial sprays applied to prerigor carcasses delivered an additional ∼0.5-log reduction (P ≤ 0.05) of the surrogates. Chilling of carcasses for 24 h reduced (P ≤ 0.05) the surrogate population by an additional ∼0.4 log cycles. The postchill application of the antimicrobial sprays provided no further reductions. Carcass L*, a*, and b* color values were not different (P > 0.05) among carcass treatments. Generally, the types and concentrations of the antimicrobial sprays evaluated herein did not negatively impact visual or instrumental color of chilled veal carcasses. This study demonstrates that warm water washing, followed by a prechill spray treatment with a low-pH chemical intervention, can effectively reduce STEC risks associated with veal carcasses; this provides processors a validated control point in slaughter operations.

  7. Comparative evaluation of carcass traits and meat quality in native Aseel chickens and commercial broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, U; Muthukumar, M; Haunshi, S; Niranjan, M; Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Chatterjee, R N

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to analyse the meat quality attributes, composition and carcass traits in Aseel chickens and commercial broilers at market age on the basis of physiological age. A total of 20 Aseel (26 and 56 weeks) and 20 broiler (6 weeks) chickens were divided into two groups on a live weight basis, i.e. large (≥2.5 kg) and small (cocks had strong legs, lean meat and less abdominal fat, making them a high-value meat bird in addition to their aggressive fighting ability.

  8. Evaluation of Quantum II microbiology system for identification of gram-negative bacteria of veterinary origin.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, R. L.; Adney, W S; Davis, M A; Vonbyren, H; Thompson, G

    1987-01-01

    The ability of a rapid, semiautomated bacterial identification system, the Quantum II microbiology system (Abbott Laboratories, Irving, Tex.), to accurately identify gram-negative bacteria from veterinary sources was evaluated. A total of 378 isolates were tested, including 298 organisms in the family Enterobacteriaceae and strains representing Acinetobacter sp., Aeromonas sp., Flavobacterium sp., Pasteurella multocida, Plesiomonas sp., and Pseudomonas spp. Of these isolates, 333 (88.1%) were...

  9. Microbiological and functional evaluation of an alternative device (OB®) for estrous synchronization in ewes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The use of synthetic progestagens released by vaginal devices is an important tool to overcome the reproductive seasonality in sheep, but cost and/or subsequent vaginitis are limiting factors for their use. To identify economic, simple and innocuous alternative vaginal devices for estrous synchronization/induction protocols in sheep, this study aimed to evaluate the microbiological and functional viability of the human vaginal tampons (OB®) impregnated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) o...

  10. Microbiological evaluation of open and sealed tattoo inks

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background. Introduction of tattoo inks in the skin has been associated with a potential entry of a great number of microorganisms including bacteria, virus and fungi. Contaminated pigments, diluents and instruments represent primary infection risk factors as well as inadequacy of hygienic measures during this practice. However, the evaluation of the infectious risk for public health due to tattoo ink use is actually not feasible cause of the low efficiency of health surveillance and the lack...

  11. Preparation of a cereal bar containing bocaiuva: physical, nutritional, microbiological and sensory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Leite Munhoz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Regional fruit have been increasingly used in recent years in the preparation of foodstuffs because besides promoting the biome preservation, it is obtained differentiated and value-added products. This study aimed to prepare cereal bars containing pulp and kernel of bocaiuva and determine the nutritional quality, assess the acceptability, and microbiological quality. Two formulations of cereal bar were prepared with pulp dehydrated by osmoconvection and kernel of bocaiuva. The formulations were analyzed as for the texture, color analysis, proximate composition, fatty acids profile, mineral, microbiology and sensory evaluation. Cereal bars presented on average, in g 100 g-1, 4.83 moisture, 8.01 protein, 12.93 lipids, 1.30 ash, 53.75 total carbohydrate, 19.78 fiber and 363.41 kcal 100 g-1 total caloric value. Bars represented a source of calcium and iron and had a high content of oleic acid, average of 20 g 100 g-1 total lipids. In the microbiological evaluation, cereal bars have met the standards set by the legislation, being suitable for consumption. As for the attributes evaluated in the sensory analysis, all showed mean values above 6, considered acceptable for consumption. The use of bocaiuva may contribute to highlight differentiated taste and appearance, emphasizing the use of native fruits in the preparation of new products.

  12. A Bayesian approach to the evaluation of risk-based microbiological criteria for \\uppercaseCampylobacter in broiler meat

    OpenAIRE

    Ranta, Jukka; Lindqvist, Roland; Hansson, Ingrid; Tuominen, Pirkko; Nauta, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Shifting from traditional hazard-based food safety management toward risk-based management requires statistical methods for evaluating intermediate targets in food production, such as microbiological criteria (MC), in terms of their effects on human risk of illness. A fully risk-based evaluation of MC involves several uncertainties that are related to both the underlying Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) model and the production-specific sample data on the prevalence and con...

  13. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of corrientes artisanal cheese during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Myriam Vasek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some physical and chemical parameters (total solids, pH, acidity, fat, acid degree value of fat, salt, protein and nitrogen fractions and their effects on the beneficial (lactic acid bacteria: LAB and undesirable microbial populations (coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, moulds, and yeast during ripening of Artisanal Corrientes Cheese, an Argentinian cow's milk variety, to determine whether a longer ripening period than usual improve its hygienic-sanitary quality. The protein content was much higher than that of other cow's milk cheeses with similar values of fat. The larger peptides showed values three times higher in the 30 day-old cheese than those obtained in the beginning of the process. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were detected (3.04 ± 1.48 log10 cfu/g of cheese, 2.21 ± 0.84 log10 MPN/g of cheese even at 15 and 30 days of ripening, respectively. The distribution of three hundred LAB strains classified to the genus level (lactococci:lactobacilli:leuconostocs was maintained during the ripening period. The high number of LAB in rennet may have contributed to the fermentation as a natural whey starter, unknown source of LAB for this specific cheese so far. The physicochemical changes that occur during ripening were not big enough to inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganisms.

  14. Evaluation of response to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 vaccination and timing of weaning on yearling ultrasound body composition, performance, and carcass quality traits in Angus calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are concerns about antagonisms between immunity and animal productivity in livestock production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibody levels through a response to vaccination protocol, weaning timing, and their interaction on performance and carcass quality traits...

  15. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Brito Lopes

    Full Text Available This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs. Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA, back-fat thickness (BF, and rump fat thickness (RF, registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3 (P < 0.001. Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1 were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs. Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection.

  16. Evaluation of the microbiological quality of ricotta cheese commercialized in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edailson Luís Xavier GUATEMIM

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ricotta cheese has low fat and salt contents and a high quantity of proteins. The diversity of the nutrients and the high water content are factors that favor the development of microorganisms in this product. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of ricotta commercialized in the western region of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Thirty samples, comprising 10 different brands of ricotta, were collected and sent to the Food Microbiology Laboratory at the Instituto Federal Catarinense (IFC, Campus Concórdia for microbiological analysis to determine the presence of Salmonella sp., Listeria sp., coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and thermotolerant coliforms. Of the 30 samples, the results for 33.3% were not within the parameters established by current legislation, that is, they were not fit for human consumption. This high percentage was due to contamination by thermotolerant coliforms, with 10 samples containing this group of microorganisms. One sample was contaminated with Listeria grayi, and for the other microorganisms investigated, (Salmonella sp. and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus the results were satisfactory. This study characterizes the hygiene-sanitary conditions of ricotta commercialized in the western region of Santa Catarina State, highlighting the need for greater care during the production of this product.

  17. Shelf life of anchovy products (Engraulis encrasicolus: evaluation of sensory, microbiological and chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ariano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fishery products have always been an important food in Italy. In the past, increased consumption was mainly due to the good quality of the products, easiness of use and their beneficial effects on health. Recently, owing to the national financial crisis, there has been a decline in the consumption of fish. In fact, in 2013, according to data from ISMEA, the consumption of fresh fish suffered a sharp contraction (-5%. This decline also concerns anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus. This species, partly because of its low price, is a mainstay of traditional Italian food. The aim of this study was to evaluate sensorial, chemical and microbiological properties of anchovy-based (Engraulis encrasicolus products during storage at 4 and -20°C. Fresh anchovies, obtained from the wholesale fish market of Pozzuoli (Southern Italy were cut into small pieces and hand-prepared using bread, eggs, cheese and lemon juice. Samples were analysed after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days of storage at 4°C. An aliquot was quickly frozen and analysed after 34 days at -20°C. Sensory assessment, microbiological (specific spoilage organisms, Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp. and chemical (histamine, total volatile basic nitrogen, trimethylamine, thiobarbituric acid, pH and aw analyses were performed. Results showed that the shelf life of anchovy products was less than 5 days for the samples stored at 4°C. At -20°C, all anchovies preparations showed good sensory, microbiological and chemical properties for 34 days.

  18. Evaluating the point of separation, during carcass fabrication, between the beef wholesale rib and the beef wholesale chuck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, B J; Wulf, D M; Shanks, B C; Maddock, R J

    2002-01-01

    This study determined whether there is a logical point of value change, related to either tenderness or consumer acceptance, at which to separate the beef carcass within the rib/chuck region. Rib/chuck rolls (RCR); (n = 30) consisting of the ribeye roll and chuck eye roll subprimals (2nd through 12th rib locations) were cut into 22 steaks each (two steaks per rib location), and Warner-Bratzler shear force and consumer purchase preference were evaluated for steaks at each rib location. Steaks from different locations of the RCR were composed of differing proportions of several muscles: longissimus muscle (LM), spinalis dorsi and multifidus dorsi (SM), and complexus (CO). The LM (4th to 12th rib) contained three tenderness regions: 7th through 12th rib, 5th and 6th ribs, and 4th rib regions (lowest, intermediate, and highest shear force values, respectively; P consumers. Steaks (n = 330) were offered for sale at a retail supermarket and case time was monitored on each steak to determine consumer purchase preference. Steaks from the 2nd through 4th rib locations required more time to sell (P < 0.01) than steaks from the 5th through 12th rib locations. Two alternative locations for the rib/chuck separation point could be between the 6th and 7th ribs, yielding a ribeye subprimal useful in marketing a "premium quality" product, or between the 4th and 5th ribs, which would yield four more 2.5-cm ribeye steaks per carcass.

  19. Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards on the Evaluation of the efficacy of peroxyacids for use as an antimicrobial substance applied on poultry carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrung, Birgit

    The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the efficacy of peroxyacids as an antimicrobial substance applied to poultry carcasses. Particularly, the BIOHAZ panel was asked to assess the efficacy of the peroxyacids on the growth and/or prevalence of some microorganisms and pathogens on pou...... and it must not be used as a substitute for normal good hygienic practice. Moreover, the experimental evaluation of the efficacy of peroxyacids must be under conditions comparable to European industrial processing conditions and practices....

  20. Evaluation of Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Stability of Frozen Stored Vacuum-Packed Lamb Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafaella de Paula Paseto Fernandes; Maria Teresa de Alvarenga Freire; Celso da Costa Carrer; Marco Antonio Trindade

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, lamb meat represents only 7% of all meat produced in the world. In recent years the demand for standardized lamb meat cuts has been considered of great importance and the marketing occurs predominantly in the form of frozen cuts. Herewith, the main of this work was to evaluate the stability and safety of lamb meat during frozen storage. Meats were vacuum packed in high barrier multilayer plastic iflms and stored during 12 mon at (-18±1)ºC. The meat stability was assessed by physical and chemical (lipid oxidation, objective color, pH value, cooking losses and instrumental texture), microbiological (total count of psychrotrophic, coliform count at 45°C, coagulase-positive staphylococci and the presence of Salmonella) and sensory analysis (acceptance test and visual evaluation). The vacuum packed lamb meat remained stable as to most physical and chemical indexes. Microbiological indexes showed good stability throughout the storage period according to Brazilian legislation standards to pathogenic microorganisms. Although a signiifcant reduction in tenderness (shear force increase from 3 to 8 kg), it showed a good sensorial acceptance for all attributes tested, including texture, with scores of around 7 (like moderately) during the 12 mon of storage. Therefore, it can be concluded that, under the conditions applied in this study, lamb meat presents a shelf life of at least 12 mon when stored at-18°C.

  1. Purebred-crossbred performance and genetic evaluation of postweaning growth and carcass traits in Bos indicus x Bos taurus crosses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S; Reverter, A; Johnston, D J

    2002-07-01

    Growth and carcass data on 7,154 cattle from a purebred project and 1,241 cattle from a crossbred project, comprising 916 first-crosses and 325 purebred Brahman controls, were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters, including the genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performance (rpc). The data also allowed the estimation of sire breed means for various growth and carcass traits. Crossbred calves were produced using 9 Angus, 8 Hereford, 7 Shorthorn, 14 Belmont Red, and 8 Santa Gertrudis sires bred to Brahman dams. These same sires produced 1,568 progeny in a separate purebreeding project. Cattle in both projects were managed under two finishing regimens (pasture and feedlot) to representative market live weights of 400 (domestic), 520 (Korean), and 600 kg (Japanese). The traits studied included live weight at around 400 d of age (400W), hot carcass weight (CWT), retail beef yield percentage (RBY), intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat depth (P8), and preslaughter ultrasound scanned eye muscle area (SEMA). Estimated breeding values (EBV) of sires from their BREEDPLAN genetic evaluations were used to assess their value in predicting crossbred performance. Regressions of actual crossbred calf performance on sire EBV for each of the traits differed little from their expectation of 0.5. Angus sires produced crossbred carcasses with the highest P8 and lowest RBY but highest IMF. In contrast, crossbred progeny from Belmont Red sires had the lightest 400W and CWT, lowest P8, and highest RBY. Estimates of rpc were 0.48, 0.48, 0.83, 0.95, 1.00, and 0.78 for 400W, CWT, RBY, IMF, P8, and SEMA, respectively. Commercial breeders selecting sires for crossbreeding programs with Brahman females, based on EBV computed from purebred data, might encounter some reranking of sire's performance for weight-related traits, with little expected change in carcass traits.

  2. Evaluation of an interactive, case-based review session in teaching medical microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisamore Jennifer L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oklahoma State University-Center for Health Sciences (OSU-CHS has replaced its microbiology wet laboratory with a variety of tutorials including a case-based interactive session called Microbial Jeopardy!. The question remains whether the time spent by students and faculty in the interactive case-based tutorial is worthwhile? This study was designed to address this question by analyzing both student performance data and assessing students' perceptions regarding the tutorial. Methods Both quantitative and qualitative data were used in the current study. Part One of the study involved assessing student performance using archival records of seven case-based exam questions used in the 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007 OSU-CHS Medical Microbiology course. Two sample t-tests for proportions were used to test for significant differences related to tutorial usage. Part Two used both quantitative and qualitative means to assess student's perceptions of the Microbial Jeopardy! session. First, a retrospective survey was administered to students who were enrolled in Medical Microbiology in 2006 or 2007. Second, responses to open-ended items from the 2008 course evaluations were reviewed for comments regarding the Microbial Jeopardy! session. Results Both student performance and student perception data support continued use of the tutorials. Quantitative and qualitative data converge to suggest that students like and learn from the interactive, case-based session. Conclusion The case-based tutorial appears to improve student performance on case-based exam questions. Additionally, students perceived the tutorial as helpful in preparing for exam questions and reviewing the course material. The time commitment for use of the case-based tutorial appears to be justified.

  3. Treatment of animal carcasses in poultry farms using sealed ditches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M; González, J L; Gutiérrez, M A Díez; Guimaraes, A Correa; Gracia, L M Navas

    2008-10-01

    Several hen carcass elimination experiments were conducted by isolating corpses in a sealed ditch and adding different doses of lime. The aim was to evaluate the viability of this method as an alternative to other elimination techniques, as required in the European regulation CE 1774/2002 [Reglamento CE 1774/2002, de 3 de octubre por el que se establecen las normas sanitarias aplicables a los subproductos animales no destinados a consumo humano]. The experiments were carried out at a natural scale, in a 200m3 ditch located in a livestock enterprise, using a proportion of 200g of lime/kg of carcass. We observed a high degradation of carcasses after six months, the method being also safe from a microbiological point of view. The material extracted from the ditch had a high calcium content (330.7gkg(-1)), which makes it an ideal product for soil lacking this element, or as an acidity corrector in acid soils due to its basic (pH 8.48) nature. It also contains a significant amount of mineral nutrients (17.0gkg(-1) N, 2.4gkg(-1) P and 4.9gkg(-1) K) and organic matter (101.5gkg(-1)). We also analysed the material extracted from the ditch prior to its renovation for the experiments and followed the processes taking place in the ditch during the first six months, when lime doses of 100, 200 and 300 gkg(-1) of treated carcass were applied. Simultaneously, we carried out laboratory experiments in cylindrical 25L deposits to evaluate the gas release of the three (100, 200 and 300g of lime/kg carcass) doses of lime used. After the tenth week, we observed CO2 concentrations ranging from 5% for the lower lime doses to very low levels for the 300g lime/kg carcass dose. As regards methane, in the three series of experiments, the release was highest during the first weeks, began to decrease in the eighth week and reached its lower value during the fourteenth week. Emissions of NO2 were not observed, and the levels of NH3 and SH2 were usually so high that they exceeded the detection

  4. Evaluation of the efficiency of nested q-PCR in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex directly from tuberculosis-suspected lesions in post-mortem macroscopic inspections of bovine carcasses slaughtered in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ricardo César Tavares; Furlanetto, Leone Vinícius; Maruyama, Fernanda Harumy; Araújo, Cristina Pires de; Barros, Sílvia Letícia Bomfim; Ramos, Carlos Alberto do Nascimento; Dutra, Valéria; Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro de; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi; Nakazato, Luciano; Figueiredo, Eduardo Eustáquio de Souza

    2015-08-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). The quick and specific detection of this species is of extreme importance, since BTB may cause economic impacts, in addition to presenting imminent risks to human health. In the present study a nested real-time PCR test (nested q-PCR) was used in post-mortem evaluations to assess cattle carcasses with BTB-suspected lesions. A total of 41,193 cattle slaughtered in slaughterhouses located in the state of Mato Grosso, were examined. Of the examined animals, 198 (0.48%) showed BTB-suspected lesions. M. bovis was isolated in 1.5% (3/198) of the samples. Multiplex-PCR detected MTC in 7% (14/198) of the samples. The nested q-PCR test detected MTC in 28% (56/198) of the BTB-suspected lesions, demonstrating higher efficiency when compared to the multiplex-PCR and conventional microbiology. Nested q-PCR can therefore be used as a complementary test in the national program for control and eradication of bovine tuberculosis.

  5. Nutritional and microbiological evaluations of chocolate-coated Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) fruit for commercial use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahamadou E.GOUNGA; Shi-ying XU; Zhang WANG

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, China has become an increasingly important and the largest chestnut producer in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value and microbiological quality of the roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) (RFDC) coated with dark chocolate (DCC) and milk chocolate (MCC) for industrial use and commercial consumption.Chocolate coating significantly improved the nutritional value of chestnut. RFDC had high levels of starch (66.23%) and fibers (3.85%) while DCC and MCC contained significantly high amounts of sucrose, protein, fat and minerals. Furthermore, the protein content doubled in MCC rather than in DCC. This could be attributed to the different formulations in the two products. Milk powder and whey protein constituted the source of protein in MCC while cocoa powder added to MCC formulation constituted an additional source of minerals. The amino acid profile showed differences in amino acid composition related to the sample's protein content, indicating their good nutritional quality. The moisture contents in all RFDC, DCC and MCC were suitable for industrial processing. These results provide information about the additional nutrients of chocolate-coated chestnut and confirm that the product is an interesting nutritional food. The combination of freeze-drying and chocolate-coating generally results in greater reductions on microbiological loads, extending shelf life of harvested chestnut for commercial application. This is an alternative strategy to add value to chestnut, minimizing the significant losses in harvested fruits and providing a wider range of choices of new products to the consumer disposal.

  6. Nutritional and microbiological evaluations of chocolate-coated Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) fruit for commercial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounga, Mahamadou E; Xu, Shi-ying; Wang, Zhang

    2008-09-01

    In recent years, China has become an increasingly important and the largest chestnut producer in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value and microbiological quality of the roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) (RFDC) coated with dark chocolate (DCC) and milk chocolate (MCC) for industrial use and commercial consumption. Chocolate coating significantly improved the nutritional value of chestnut. RFDC had high levels of starch (66.23%) and fibers (3.85%) while DCC and MCC contained significantly high amounts of sucrose, protein, fat and minerals. Furthermore, the protein content doubled in MCC rather than in DCC. This could be attributed to the different formulations in the two products. Milk powder and whey protein constituted the source of protein in MCC while cocoa powder added to MCC formulation constituted an additional source of minerals. The amino acid profile showed differences in amino acid composition related to the sample's protein content, indicating their good nutritional quality. The moisture contents in all RFDC, DCC and MCC were suitable for industrial processing. These results provide information about the additional nutrients of chocolate-coated chestnut and confirm that the product is an interesting nutritional food. The combination of freeze-drying and chocolate-coating generally results in greater reductions on microbiological loads, extending shelf life of harvested chestnut for commercial application. This is an alternative strategy to add value to chestnut, minimizing the significant losses in harvested fruits and providing a wider range of choices of new products to the consumer disposal.

  7. Microbiological polyphasic approach for soil health evaluation in an Italian polluted site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, A; Gamalero, E; Castaldini, M; Cossa, G P; Musso, C; Pagliai, M; Berta, G

    2009-08-15

    The use of microorganisms as bioindicators of soil health is quite a new feature, rarely considered for the soil health evaluation in chronically-polluted industrial sites, and still suffering of the bias related to the technique applied. In this work we applied a microbiological polyphasic approach, relying on soil indigenous microorganisms as bioindicators and combining culture-dependent and -independent methods, in order to evaluate soil health of four sites (1a, 1b, 2a and 2b) inside a chemical factory with a centenary activity. Functional as well as structural aspects were comprehensively considered. Results were related to the kind of pollutants found in each site. Heavy metal pollution was recorded in sites 1b and 2b, while both organic and inorganic substances were detected in sites 1a and 2a. Based on the chemical and physical properties of the four soils, site 1b and 2b grouped together, while 1a and 2a were separated from the others. The density of the culturable bacteria was very low in site 2a, where only gram-positive were found. According to the identification of culturable bacteria, site 2a showed the lowest similarity with the other sites. Microbial activity was detected only in sites 1b and 2b. PCR-DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis), was performed on the culturable, total and active microbial communities. Consistently with the identification of culturable bacterial strains, the molecular profile of the culturable fraction of site 2a, was clearly separated from the molecular profiles of other sites in cluster analysis. Molecular fingerprintings of the whole and active bacterial communities differed among the sites, but clustered according to the pollutants present in each site. The presence of possible key species in each site has been discussed according to the whole and active species. Since the results obtained by microbiological analysis are consistent with the chemical data, we suggest that the use of this microbiological

  8. Impact of rearing conditions on the microbiological quality of raw retail poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Bridgshe; Crilly, Nate; Pendleton, Sean; Andino, Ana; Wallis, Audra; Zhang, Nan; Hanning, Irene

    2013-08-01

    There is a gap in knowledge of microbiological quality in raw chicken products produced by nonconventional methods and no studies have reported the microbiological quality of turkeys produced under different rearing environments. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the microbiological quality of conventionally and organically reared whole chicken and turkey carcasses purchased from 3 retail outlets in Knoxville, Tenn., U.S.A. A total of 100 raw broiler chickens organically (n = 50) and 50 raw turkey carcasses consisting of 3 brands reared either conventionally (n = 25) or organically (n = 25) were evaluated. The FDA BAM protocol for rinsing poultry carcasses was used to enumerate of aerobic bacteria, Campylobacter, and Staphylococcus spp., and for qualitative analysis of Salmonella. Organic chickens from one brand had the highest average counts of aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp. and Campylobacter (4.8, 4.8, and 4.7 Log10 CFU/mL rinsate, respectively) while the other organic brand had the lowest average counts (3.4, 3.3, and 3.1, respectively) of all 4 brands evaluated. The organic turkeys had the highest average counts of these same bacteria (4, 3.9, and 3.8, respectively) compared to the 2 brands of conventional turkeys evaluated. Salmonella (5% prevalence) was isolated only from organic chickens and turkeys. From these data, it appears that the microbiological quality of the raw product was not dependent on rearing conditions and, thus, it cannot be assumed that organic raw poultry is safer than conventionally raised poultry in terms of microbiological quality.

  9. Evaluation of Magnetized Drinking Water on Carcass Yield and Performance of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gilani

    2016-08-01

    °C during the first week and then gradually decreased to 24°C by the end of the third week. Chicks were vaccinated for Infectious Bronchitis on day 4 and Newcastle Disease on 4, 11, and 20 day of age. All data were analyzed using the General Linear Model procedure of the Statistical Analysis System (SAS. Tukey’s Studentized Range (HSD test was used to compare the means. Results and Discussion Magnetized water resulted in more water consumption throughout the trial; however, feed intake and body weight gain have been significantly increased in the third group just in the starter phase. Feed conversion ratio, mortality, European production efficiency factor and bioeconomic index were not affected by experimental treatments. Magnetized water significantly increased the relative gizzard weight at 21 and 41 d. Also, spleen weight increased at 21 d and pancreas decreased at 41 d, but the other carcass parts were not influenced by magnetized water. Conclusion All in all, magnetization of drinking water significantly influenced the broilers performance during starter phase and it seems that young chicks are more susceptible to magnetized water.

  10. A microbiological evaluation of SiO2-coated textiles in hospital interiors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jeppe; Jørgensen, Poul-Erik; Thomsen, Trine Rolighed

    2016-01-01

    The use of passive coatings could be a new solution to improve the cleaning potential of interior textiles in hospitals. In these years, the scepticism toward the use of antibacterial textiles in the health care sector is emerging, and in the Nordic countries, the implementation success is confined....... From this perspective, the purpose of this paper is therefore to address focus on alternative passive coatings that without actively killing the bacteria provide a hydrophobic and easy-to-clean textile surface. The paper relates to an in-situ study evaluating the effect and cleaning potential of SiO2......-coated textiles compared to traditional textiles and a hard plastic surface as a reference material. Through the study, arranged at an outpatient lung department at Hospital Vendsyssel, Denmark, five different surface materials were installed on hospital chair armrests and sampled with microbiological...

  11. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of peroxyacetic acid solutions for reduction of pathogens on poultry carcasses and meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of solutions, containing peroxyacetic acid (PAA as the active ingredient, in mixtures with acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP and possibly octanoic acid and peroxyoctanoic acid, for reduction of pathogens on poultry carcasses and meat were assessed. Treatments at ambient temperature consisted of dipping in short term baths, in chiller baths or spraying. On the basis of the previous EFSA exposure scenarios including short term baths that were not evaluated previously, no toxicity concerns were identified with regard to residues of peroxyacids, to HEDP and to possible reaction products of hydrogen peroxide and peroxyacids with lipids and proteins of the poultry carcasses. A relevant reduction of PAA treatment on E. coli and coliforms was demonstrated by dipping warm carcasses, but few data were available for pathogens (Salmonella and Campylobacter. Spraying appeared to be less effective than dipping in reducing indicator organisms than dipping. When dipping chilled carcasses, reduction of indicator organisms and pathogens was evident, although only in low or medium strength of evidence studies. In chiller bath application, there was a relevant impact on E. coli, but less effect on coliforms, and little data was available on reduction of pathogens. The emergence of acquired reduced susceptibility to biocides and/or resistance to therapeutic antimicrobials following the use of PAA was considered unlikely. There were no concerns for environmental risk of peroxyacids, acetic acid and octanoic acid. On the basis of a conservative preliminary guideline for surface water quality, the emission of HEDP from a poultry plant into the environment could not be considered safe a priori. It was recommended that HACCP plans should include monitoring of the concentration of HEDP and of the decontaminating substance in the working solution and post-marketing surveillance for

  12. [THE EVALUATION OF MICROBIOLOGICAL DISORDERS OF MICROFLORA OF OROPHARYNX AND INTESTINE USING MATHEMATICAL MODELING TECHNIQUE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatevalov, A V; Elkova, E P; Afanasiev, S S; Aleshkin, A V; Mironov, A Yu; Gusarova, M P; Gudova, N V

    2016-02-01

    The analysis was applied to microflora of feces and oropharinx and concentration of volatile fatty acids in saliva from patients of consultative diagnostic center of G.N. Gabrichevskii Moscow research institute of epidemiology and microbiology. The computer classification program is developed on the basis of determining degree of microbiological disorders on the basis of received data and using artificial neural networks and discriminant analysis. The analysis established decreasing of probability of false classification in case of increasing of degree of microbiological disorders of microflora of intestine and absence of such a correlation for microbiological and metabolic disorders of microflora of intestine.

  13. Improving the microbiological safety of veal: validation of hot water rinse plus lactic acid spray in combination with scalding for hide-on carcasses to control Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob veal calves (n=6) were assigned to six hide-on carcass treatments for each of 5 replications. Primary treatments were no-scald, scald, or scalding with chemical; secondary treatments were no-treatment control or lactic acid. Hides were inoculated with non-pathogenic rifampicin-resistant Escheric...

  14. Evaluating the effects of a single copy of a mutation in the myostatin gene (c.*1232G>A) on carcass traits in crossbred lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, A Y; Lambe, N R; Macfarlane, J M; Brotherstone, S; Haresign, W; Bünger, L

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the ovine c.*1232G>A myostatin mutation (MM) on carcass traits in heterozygous crossbred lambs sired by Texel and Poll Dorset rams using ultrasound, CT scanning, carcass classification and VIA. In experiment 1, MM was associated with increased loin depth (+2.8%) and area (+3.2%). MM-carriers had significantly higher CT-estimated lean weight and proportion (2 to 4%) and muscle to bone ratio (by ~3%), in both experiments, and muscle to fat ratio (28%) in experiment 2. Muscle areas in three cross-sectional CT scans, were higher (2 to 5%) in MM-carriers. In experiment 2, fat-related measurements were significantly lower in MM-carrier lambs but this was not seen in experiment 1. A significant increase in muscle density, indicative of lower intramuscular fat, in MM-carriers shows that meat quality characteristics need attention. Carrying MM significantly decreased carcass fat scores. VIA did not detect any significant MM effects.

  15. Evaluation of Columbia, USMARC-Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: IV. Postfabrication carcass component weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousel, M R; Notter, D R; Leeds, T D; Zerby, H N; Moeller, S J; Lewis, G S

    2013-05-01

    Postfabrication carcass component weights of 517 crossbred wether lambs were analyzed to evaluate 4 terminal-sire breeds. Wethers were produced over 3 yr from single-sire matings of 22 Columbia, 22 USMARC-Composite (Composite), 21 Suffolk, and 17 Texel rams to adult Rambouillet ewes. Lambs were reared to weaning in an extensive western rangeland production system and finished in a feedlot on a high-energy finishing diet. When wethers reached a mean BW of 54.4, 61.2, or 68.0 kg, they were transported to The Ohio State University abattoir for harvest. After refrigeration for approximately 24 h, chilled carcass weight (CCW) was measured, carcasses were fabricated according to Style A of Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications, and postfabrication weights were recorded. At comparable numbers of days on feed, Suffolk-sired lambs had heavier (P wholesale cut weights) and high-value trimming loss were greatest (P 0.06) flank weight. Data adjusted to comparable CCW reduced the number of significant sire-breed effects and changed sire-breed rankings of carcass component weights, for which sire breeds differed. After adjusting, Suffolk-sired lambs had lighter (P < 0.05) loins than Columbia- and Composite-sired lambs, Composite-sired lambs had heavier (P < 0.05) high-value cuts than Suffolk-sired lambs, and Suffolk- and Columbia-sired lambs had heavier (P < 0.05) necks than Texel-sired lambs. At predicted backfat thickness of 6.6 mm, Composite-sired lambs had a greater (P < 0.05) percentage of high-value cuts than Suffolk-sired lambs before but not after trimming. Producers can use these results to select terminal-sire breeds that will complement their production system and improve lamb value.

  16. Evaluation of epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological features of definite infective endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Reza; Behjati-Ardakani, Mostafa; Moshtaghioun, Seyed Mohammad; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi; Namayandeh, Seyedeh Mahdieh; Soltani, Mohammadhossien; Zandi, Hengameh; Firoozabadi, Ali Dehghani; Tavakkoli Banizi, Neda; Kahtooie, Foroozandeh Qasemi; Banaei, Mehdi; Sarebanhassanabadi, Mohammadtaghi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a microbial infection of heart valves and its endothelial lining which is considered as a life-threatening disorder. This study evaluated the epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological features of IE at the Cardiovascular Research Center in Yazd, Iran. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted on 20 patients diagnosed with definite IE on the basis of Duke’s criteria hospitalized for one year in the Cardiovascular Research Center in Yazd, Iran, from January 2015 to December 2015. Demographic information, clinical, laboratory, and microbiological findings, and also trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) of each patient were recorded and assessed. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 16. Results: The mean age of the patients under study was 45±16 years with most of the afflicted patients (60%) being male. Most cases (70%) of IE were observed in the warm seasons (spring and summer). The most common clinical sign (80%) was fever. TEE was positive for all (100%) patients, and vegetation was seen in all patients. The nosocomial mortality rate was zero. However, 14 (70%) patients underwent surgical treatment. The valves afflicted with IE were: the mitral valve (40%), the aortic valve (35%), and the tricuspid valve (25%), respectively. 4 patients (20%) had a positive history of IE. Blood culture test was positive only in 1 case and the isolated microorganism belonged to the viridans group streptococci. Conclusion: Despite the one-year high prevalence of IE in this study, the nosocomial mortality rate was not high and was reported to be nil under surgical and antimicrobial therapy. PMID:28149706

  17. Microbiological evaluation of drinking water sold by roadside vendors of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Abhishek; Goyal, Pankaj; Varma, Ajit; Jindal, Tanu

    2015-07-01

    Delhi has emerged as one of the greenest capital city of the world. Microbiological assessment of drinking water emphasizes estimation of the hygienic quality of the water sold with reference to community health significance. This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of drinking water sold by roadside vendors in east, west, north and south zones of capital of India. A total number of 36 samples (nine from each zone) were collected as per national guidelines and studied for microbiological assessment. All the drinking water samples were collected in gamma-sterilized bottles and were kept in an ice pack to prevent any significant change in the microbial flora of the samples during the transportation. The water samples were transported to the laboratory in vertical position maintaining the temperature 1-4 °C with ice pack enveloped conditions. Samples were analyzed for total MPN coliform per 100 ml and for the presence and absence of common human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All the samples were found to be contaminated with coliform organisms in the range of 14 to >1600 per 100 ml of sample. Out of 36 water samples, the occurrence of E. coli was 61 %, Salmonella 25 % S. aureus 14 % and P. aeruginosa 53 % as 22, 9, 5 and 19 samples were found contaminated, respectively. The numbers of coliform bacteria and presence of some common pathogenic bacteria suggested that the quality of drinking water sold by roadside vendors is not within the Indian standard and WHO guidelines laid down for drinking water quality. Hence, there is a vital need to study the root cause in terms of hygiene, sanitation of vendors and source of contamination to prevent waterborne diseases.

  18. Evaluation of silage-fed biogas process performance using microbiological and kinetic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Aa.

    1996-10-01

    In this study, different kinetic and microbiological methods were used to evaluate the growth and activity of key groups of bacteria degrading ley silage in one-phase and two-phase biogas processes. Emphasis was placed on studying the dynamic behaviour of different trophic groups resulting from the initiation of liquid recirculation in the processes. The microbiological methods included microscopy and most probable number (MPN) counts with different substrates. The kinetic methods included measurements of specific methanogenic activity (SMA) with acetate and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} as substrates, batch assays with trace element additions and measurement of conversion rates of mannitol and lactate in the digesters. In general, the initiation of liquid recirculation at first promoted the growth and/or activity of several trophic groups of bacteria, such as butyrate and propionate degraders and acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens in the liquefaction/acidogenesis reactors of the two-phase processes. This was probably mainly due to the increased pH. However, after some time of liquid recirculation, an inhibition of some bacterial groups occurred, such as propionate degraders and methanogens in the methanogenic reactors of two-phase processes. This was probably due to increased concentrations of salts and free ammonia. The batch assays proved to be valuable tools in process optimization by the addition of trace elements. Here, the addition of cobalt significantly increased methane production from acetate. In this study, a more comprehensive understanding of the process behaviour in response to the initiation of liquid recirculation was achieved which could not have been obtained by only monitoring routine parameters such as pH, methane production and concentrations of organic acids and salts. 120 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  19. The effect of source herd and abattoir factors on pig carcass Salmonella contamination evaluated by multilevel modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baptista, Filipa Matos; Dahl, Jan; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2010-01-01

    In Denmark, a Surveillance-and-Control Programme for Salmonella in pigs has been in place for several years. This study investigated factors associated with Salmonella pig carcass contamination, namely estimated daily number of Salmonella seropositive pigs delivered to slaughter, average Salmonel...

  20. Evaluation of the SimPlate method for enumeration of Escherichia coli in swab samples from beef and lamb carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Sigrun J; Nesbakken, Truls; Skjerve, Eystein; Dommarsnes, Kari; Østensvik, Øyvin

    2010-08-15

    Abattoirs have to enumerate Escherichia coli on carcass surfaces as part of compulsory HACCP monitoring and they therefore need rapid and reliable methods. The objective of this study was to compare a conventional plating method with a faster, simpler method for detection and enumeration of E. coli in samples from naturally contaminated carcasses. The two methods were the conventional pour plate method of the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis; NMKL Method No. 125, and the enzymatic method of SimPlate Coliforms &E. coli. Materials were 588 cotton-cloth samples used for swabbing 100 cm(2) areas on four sites on cattle and lamb carcasses in three commercial abattoirs in Norway. E. coli was detected by at least one of the methods in 270 (46%) of the samples. Forty-five samples (8%) were positive only by SimPlate while 28 samples (5%) were positive only by NMKL125. Cohen's kappa value was 0.74 for detection/non-detection results, which showed a high level of agreement between the two methods. E. coli counts determined by the conventional NMKL125 method showed a high concordance correlation (ccc 0.80, slope 0.99) with most probable number (MPN) values obtained with SimPlate. SimPlate is a rapid and reliable method for detection and enumeration of E. coli and a suitable alternative method for use with swab samples from cattle and lamb carcasses.

  1. [Microbiological and physicochemical evaluation of pasteurized nectar elaborated with tree tomato (Cyphomandra betaceae Sendth)pulp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Alvarez, Mario José; Girán, Nathaly; Serrano, Karla; García, David; Belén Camacho, Douglas R

    2003-09-01

    Tree tomato (Cyphomandra betaceae Sendth) is a species from high tropical regions. In Venezuela, it is cultivate at the Andean and Aragua state but its consumption is restricted as fruit-fresh, though it a nutritious and industrial potential due its provitamin A content. In this research four nectars were elaborated in proportion I L pulp/4 L of water (1:4) and addition of ascorbic acid (I: 0%; II: 0.5%; III: 1.0 y IV: 1.5%). The nectars were pasteurized (60 degrees C for 30 min), tuned into amber bottle, and stored under refrigeration conditions (7.0 +/- 1.0 degrees C). Weekly during 21 days the mesophilic bacteria, molds, yeasts, total coliforms (MPN/mL), pH, degree Brix, acidity, total carotenoids, vitamin C and total sugars were evaluated. The mesophilic bacteria content was 0.05) were founded on: pH. degree Brix and total sugars. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were founded in vitamin C and total carotenoids content. Sensorial analysis did not show significant differences between formulations for the smell and flavor attributes, when the color was discriminate during the evaluations. The formulation I (without acid ascorbic) had more preference due its color. In conclusion, the nectars showed useful life of 14-21 days under refrigeration condition storage due to the adequate physicochemical and microbiological quality of the product.

  2. A Simple Microbiological Tool to Evaluate the Effect of Environmental Health Interventions on Hand Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Devamani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of interventions such as sanitation or hand hygiene on hand contamination are difficult to evaluate. We explored the ability of a simple microbiological test to: (1 detect recontamination after handwashing; (2 reflect risk factors for microbial contamination and (3 be applicable to large populations. The study was done in rural Andhra Pradesh, India, and Maputo, Mozambique. Participants placed all 10 fingertips on a chromogenic agar that stains Enterococcus spp. and E. coli spp. Outcomes were the number of colonies and the number of fingertips with colonies. In the recontamination study, participants were randomised to handwashing with soap and no handwashing, and tested at 30 min intervals afterwards. In two cross sectional studies, risk factors for hand contamination were explored. Recontamination of hands after washing with soap was fast, with baseline levels reached after 1 h. Child care was associated with higher Enterococcus spp. counts, whereas agricultural activities increased E. coli spp. counts. Food preparation was associated with higher counts for both organisms. In Maputo, counts were not strongly associated with water access, latrine type, education or diarrhoea. The method seems unsuitable for the evaluation of handwashing promotion. It may reflect immediately preceding risk practices but not household-level risk factors.

  3. Sensory and microbiological evaluation of uncured fresh chicken sausage with reduced fat content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cecilia Venturini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acceptability and the microbiological safety of uncured fresh chicken sausages with reduced fat content, considering the scientific evidence that correlated cancer and cardiovascular diseases to this diet. Two formulations of uncured fresh chicken sausage were processed using different concentrations of cochineal carmine pigment, rosemary extracts and synthetic antioxidants, which are used to give color, appearance and pleasant flavor to the products. Then, instrumental color (L*, a*, b*, C* and h*, microbial contamination and sensory tests (ranking and acceptance were used to evaluate the quality of the uncured chicken sausages. The instrumental color (chroma and hue and the sensory properties of the A and B uncured sausages were similar to the commercial cured sausage (C. However, the sensory color and appearance of samples A and B were statistically higher than those of the commercial uncured sausages D, which are prepared without the addition of nitrite or pigments. The results showed that it is possible to produce safe and high-quality uncured fresh chicken sausage with reduced fat content, using natural pigments and antioxidants.

  4. ATP - bioluminescence as a technique to evaluate the microbiological quality of water in food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Dolabela Costa

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available ATP-bioluminescence was used to evaluate the microbiological quality of water samples collected from the water supply, the water treatment system and from a dairy plant, including ammonia-cooling water and industrial water. For industrial water, there was relation between the ATP-bioluminescence technique and microbial count. There were no differences (p>0.05 between water supply and ammonia-cooling water samples for total and free ATP concentrations nor for the microbial counts. Different microbial ATP concentrations were found for these water samples. The results suggested that the physical chemical quality of ammonia cooling water decreased the RLU measurements slightly. It could be concluded that the total ATP concentration was the most effective technique to evaluate the microbiological quality of water used in the food indsutry by ATP-bioluminescence.A qualidade microbiológica da água do manancial de captação para tratamento na ETA/UFV, da água de resfriamento de amônia e da água industrial de uso em um laticínio foi avaliada pela técnica de ATP-bioluminescência. Nas águas, foram efetuadas, também, as contagens de mesófilos aeróbios, expressos em UFC.mL-1 e coliformes totais, expressos em NMP.100 mL-1. Foi utilizado um luminômetro para os testes de determinação de ATP total e livre, expressos em Unidades Relativas de Luz (URL, nas diversas águas. O ATP microbiano foi determinado pela diferença entre o ATP total e livre. Em relação à água industrial, houve a concordância entre os métodos de bioluminescência e de contagem de mesófilos aeróbios e coliformes totais. As amostras de água de manancial e de resfriamento não apresentaram diferença (p>0,05, pelo teste de Tukey, para as quantidades de ATP total, livre e também para as contagens microbianas. Constataram-se concentrações diferentes de ATP microbiano para essas amostras de água. Os resultados indicam que o teste de ATP total é o mais recomendado para

  5. A refrigeração no diagnóstico de Salmonella spp. utilizando o método microbiológico tradicional e reação em cadeia da polimerase em carcaças de frango The cooling on the diagnostic of Salmonella spp. using traditional microbiologic method and the polymerase chain reaction in poultry carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Sossai Possebon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa de Salmonella em carcaças de aves tem mostrado resultados discrepantes, dependendo se as amostras foram colhidas ainda na indústria, imediatamente após o chiller ou no comércio varejista, quando se encontram submetidas à refrigeração por vários dias. Técnicas mais sensíveis, tais como a Reação em Cadeia pela Polimerase (PCR, podem fornecer dados importantes sobre o efeito do resfriamento sobre as células do patógeno, comparando seus resultados com os da metodologia microbiológica convencional (MC. Foram colhidas 130 carcaças de frango, sendo que 65 foram obtidas ainda na indústria (pós-chiller e imediatamente analisadas e 65 carcaças embaladas e estocadas a 5°C por 72 horas (simulando o varejo, sendo então realizada a pesquisa do patógeno por ambas as técnicas. Do total analisado (130 amostras, a PCR foi capaz de detectar 58 positivas (44,6% e a MC 50 (38,5%. Ambas as técnicas detectaram um número superior de amostras positivas para Salmonella em carcaças colhidas ainda na indústria, quando comparadas às do varejo. A PCR detectou 50,77% de positividade em amostras da indústria e 38,46% em amostras do varejo. Para a MC, esses valores foram de 46,15% (indústria e 30,77% (varejo. Concluímos que o resfriamento das carcaças a 5°C por 72 horas pode ser um fator limitante na detecção de Salmonella quando a pesquisa do patógeno se faz pela metodologia microbiológica convencional.The survey of Salmonella in poultry carcasses has shown conflicting results, depending on whether the samples were taken yet in the factory, immediately after the chiller or retail market, when they are subjected to refrigeration for several days. More sensitive techniques such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR can provide important data on the effect of cooling on the cells of the pathogen by comparing their results with those of conventional microbiological methods (CM. It was collected 130 chicken carcasses, wich 65 were

  6. A Bayesian approach to the evaluation of risk-based microbiological criteria for Campylobacter in broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranta, Jukka; Lindqvist, Roland; Hansson, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    of MC involves several uncertainties that are related to both the underlying Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) model and the production-specific sample data on the prevalence and concentrations of microbes in production batches. We used Bayesian modeling for statistical inference......Shifting from traditional hazard-based food safety management toward risk-based management requires statistical methods for evaluating intermediate targets in food production, such as microbiological criteria (MC), in terms of their effects on human risk of illness. A fully risk-based evaluation...... and evidence synthesis of two sample data sets. Thus, parameter uncertainty was represented by a joint posterior distribution, which we then used to predict the risk and to evaluate the criteria for acceptance of production batches. We also applied the Bayesian model to compare alternative criteria, accounting...

  7. A microbiological evaluation of SiO2-coated textiles in hospital interiors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jeppe; Jørgensen, Poul-Erik; Thomsen, Trine Rolighed

    2016-01-01

    -coated textiles compared to traditional textiles and a hard plastic surface as a reference material. Through the study, arranged at an outpatient lung department at Hospital Vendsyssel, Denmark, five different surface materials were installed on hospital chair armrests and sampled with microbiological...... textiles were only cleaned to the acceptable level in 56% of the microbiological controls, while the regular hard plastic surface only had acceptable levels of contamination in 25% of the samplings....

  8. Evaluating the Impact of a Classroom Response System in a Microbiology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Suchman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of a Classroom Response System (CRS was evaluated in two sections, A and B, of a large lecture microbiology course. In Section B the instructor used the CRS technology at the beginning of the class period posing a question on content from the previous class. Students could earn extra credit if they answered the question correctly. In Section A, the class also began with an extra credit CRS question. However, CRS questions were integrated into the lecture during the entire class period. We compared the two classes to see if augmenting lectures with this technology increased student learning, confidence, attendance, and the instructor’s ability to respond to student’s misconceptions, over simply using the CRS as a quizzing tool. Student performance was compared using shared examination questions. The questions were categorized by how the content had been presented in class. All questions came from instructors’ common lecture content, some without CRS use, and some questions where Instructor A used both lecture and CRS questions. Although Section A students scored significantly better on both types of examination questions, there was no demonstrable difference in learning based on CRS question participation. However, student survey data showed that students in Section A expressed higher confidence levels in their learning and knowledge and indicated that they interacted more with other students than did the students in Section B. In addition, Instructor A recorded more modifications to lecture content and recorded more student interaction in the course than did Instructor B.

  9. Evaluating the impact of a classroom response system in a microbiology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchman, Erica; Uchiyama, Kay; Smith, Ralph; Bender, Kim

    2006-05-01

    The use of a Classroom Response System (CRS) was evaluated in two sections, A and B, of a large lecture microbiology course. In Section B the instructor used the CRS technology at the beginning of the class period posing a question on content from the previous class. Students could earn extra credit if they answered the question correctly. In Section A, the class also began with an extra credit CRS question. However, CRS questions were integrated into the lecture during the entire class period. We compared the two classes to see if augmenting lectures with this technology increased student learning, confidence, attendance, and the instructor's ability to respond to student's misconceptions, over simply using the CRS as a quizzing tool. Student performance was compared using shared examination questions. The questions were categorized by how the content had been presented in class. All questions came from instructors' common lecture content, some without CRS use, and some questions where Instructor A used both lecture and CRS questions. Although Section A students scored significantly better on both types of examination questions, there was no demonstrable difference in learning based on CRS question participation. However, student survey data showed that students in Section A expressed higher confidence levels in their learning and knowledge and indicated that they interacted more with other students than did the students in Section B. In addition, Instructor A recorded more modifications to lecture content and recorded more student interaction in the course than did Instructor B.

  10. Evaluation de differentes strategies de demantelement de la carcasse d'un avion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainte-Beuve, Damien

    At the time when sustainable development of our environment and our society become more and more considered, the issue of the end of life of aircraft arises. With the tightening of regulations and policies to reduce operating costs, aircraft are increasingly removed from service before the end of their operational life. However, the regulations do not only affect the operational life of the aircraft. In the future, there are great chances that the aircraft end of life will be also regulated as the car end of life. Nowadays some deserts serve as a tomb for airplanes skeletons, but what will happen in a few years? Recycling the skeleton is not an operation with very high added value, such as reselling used parts, however intelligent sorting and facing the market can increase the gain. At the level of the aircraft life cycle, recycling its materials reduces its overall impact, and also helps to reduce pollution and land use, even if the main impacts generated by planes are created during the use phase. Similarly, if the recyclability of the aircraft is studied at the source, that is to say in its design, this will help to reduce the use of non-recyclable materials and dangerous compound. The greatest difficulty for recycling aircraft skeletons is that different materials are mixed and attached to each other. Through a thermodynamic study we showed what concentrations of alloying elements in a molten bath could be reduced. By using the Gibbs free energy, we evaluated some of the reactions taking place in a molten bath of aluminum during the injection of oxygen, boron, and chlorine. We focused on the reactions forming dual elements compounds, such as lithium oxide or magnesium chloride. We have shown that the six elements able to react when these reactions occurs are the lithium, the magnesium, the nickel, the titanium, the vanadium and the zirconium. It is necessary to remember that the impurities for alloys used in the aerospace industry are lower and especially those

  11. Swine Carcass Condemnation in Commercial Slaughterhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley S. Bueno

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The research was conducted to evaluate the main causes of carcass condemnation, as well as the financial loss caused by it, at a commercial slaughterhouse located in Dourados, MS, Brazil. Materials and methods. The data related to carcass condemnation, for the years 2007 to 2009 was obtained from a commercial slaughterhouse, located in the city of Dourados, MS, Brazil, and turned into a percentage of the total number of animals slaughtered during that period. The most frequent causes of carcass condemnation (total or partial were grouped into classes (pleurisy + pneumonia; enteritis; arthritis; abscesses; fractures/hematomas + contusions + death. The financial loss by the slaughterhouse was estimated using the condemnation data. Results. The total rate of carcass condemnation was low and tended to stability (<0.45%. The most prevalent causes of condemnation during the study period were abscesses and death in the transport, which together accounted for approximately 40% of all condemnation. The condemnation due to health problems tended to decrease or to be stable over the years. However, the condemnations caused by management problems (abscesses, fractures, contusions and death showed a significant increase. The average loss to the integrative company according to the carcasses condemnation was exceeding U$1,600,000.00 in the years studied. Conclusions. The main causes of carcass condemnation come from management failure. The annual loss by the company can be invested in the training of manpower in order to reduce the rates of carcass condemnation.

  12. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: II. Postweaning, carcass, and meat traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) x Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves belonging to 28 full-sib families were evaluated for differences in feedyard initial BW, feedyard final BW, carcass weight, LM area, adjusted fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Two methods of analysis were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA, corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). No significant reciprocal differences for these weight and carcass traits were detected under method I analyses, although the same trend existed for subsequent BW rankings as for birth weight and weaning weight. For each weight phase, the cross that involved a larger proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam (F(1) x A and B x F(1)) ranked heavier than the respective reciprocal cross (A x F(1) and F(1) x B). As a whole, A backcross calves had larger (P carcass (P < 0.001), and had larger LM area (P < 0.05) with less adjusted fat (P < 0.001). No difference existed between the sexes for Warner-Bratzler shear force or marbling. No interactions involving sex, sire type, and dam type were observed for any of these traits. The results were similar under methods I and II analyses, with the exception that a significant sire type x dam type interaction was observed for initial feedyard BW. Results from this study suggest that for weight-related traits, both the breed constitution of the embryo transfer calf and the cross that produces the calf play an important role in its ultimate performance for B crossbred calves. For body composition and meat-related traits, it appears that the breed makeup of the embryo transfer calf itself is more important to animal performance than the specific cross used to produce the calf.

  13. Microbiological Evaluation of Pork and Chicken By-Products in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Jung, Hae-In; Kuk, Min; Lim, Jong-Soo; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the microbiological risk of pork and chicken by-products by enumerating indicator bacteria (total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli) and identifying pathogens such as Campylobacter and Salmonella. The antibiotic resistance of pathogenic isolates was determined, and molecular subtyping was performed using automated repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). Pork and chicken by-products were collected from 10 processing plants. The mean numbers of total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and E. coli from 95 pork by-product samples and 64 chicken by-product samples were 5.1, 3.6, and 2.4 log CFU/g and 4.5, 3.0, and 1.8 log CFU/g, respectively. The numbers of indicator bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (small intestine, large intestine, and gizzard) were significantly higher than those in other organs. Salmonella and Campylobacter species were detected in 3 and 5 of 95 pork by-product samples and in 6 and 3 of 64 chicken by-product samples, respectively. Four of 9 Salmonella isolates examined were resistant to eight antibiotics, and each of these resistant strains produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase. Most Campylobacter isolates were resistant to tetracycline (7 of 8 strains) and quinolones (7 of 8 strains). The similarity in rep-PCR patterns among Salmonella isolates was more closely associated with serotype than with the processing plant and type of meat. Conversely, the rep-PCR patterns of Campylobacter isolates were specific to the processing plant. Our findings could help agencies develop regulations for protection from foodborne bacterial infections arising from animal by-products.

  14. Evaluating hydrochemical data from shallow groundwater in Forsmark from a microbiological perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-03-15

    Oxygen is one of the chemical species that can corrode a copper canister in a KBS-3 repository. It is therefore important to determine whether oxygen dissolved in precipitation or groundwater could reach repository depth by groundwater transport. This matter can be determined by gaining an understanding of the oxygen-consuming microbial processes that take place in shallow groundwater in the area of interest. This report evaluates hydrogeochemical data from shallow groundwater in the Forsmark area from a microbiological perspective. Hydrogeochemical data were gathered from soil pipes at depths from 1.6 to 9.6 m and from percussion-drilled boreholes having mid-point depths of between c. 30 and c. 180 m. Only a few of the percussion-drilled boreholes had packers installed. The sampled sections were therefore very long, allowing groundwater from many different depths to mix. Oxygen and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) were measured in groundwater in soil pipes but not in percussion-drilled boreholes. The poor quality of the oxygen data made it difficult to identify the depth of origin of completely oxygen-free groundwater. Parameters that indicated ongoing anaerobic microbial processes, such as nitrite, ferrous iron, dissolved manganese, and sulphide, were found in many soil pipes. The soil pipes displayed individual chemical profiles in terms of chemical species related to microbial activity. The microbial activity could not be linked to the classes of soil pipe, i.e. recharge, discharge, or intermittent. Existing soil pipes and percussion-drilled boreholes could be used for additional sampling of microbial parameters. Such sampling would benefit from careful hypothesis-driven description of the sampling parameters and experience-guided choice of sampling methods

  15. Evaluating hydrochemical data from shallow groundwater in Laxemar from a microbiological perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-01-15

    Oxygen is one of the chemical species that can corrode a copper canister in a KBS-3 repository. It is therefore important to determine whether oxygen dissolved in precipitation or groundwater could reach repository depth by means of groundwater transport. This can be determined by gaining an understanding of the oxygen-consuming microbial processes that take place in shallow groundwater in the area of interest. This report evaluates hydrogeochemical data from shallow groundwater in the Laxemar area from a microbiological perspective. Hydrogeochemical data were gathered from soil pipes at depths from 1.6 to 16.5 m and from percussion-drilled boreholes having mid-point depths of between 28.5 and 131 m. Only a few of the percussion-drilled boreholes had packers installed; the sampled sections were therefore very extended, allowing groundwaters from many different depths to mix. Oxygen and oxygen reduction potential (ORP) were not measured in groundwater from soil pipes or percussion drilled boreholes. The report therefore focuses on parameters that indicated ongoing anaerobic microbial processes, such as nitrite, ferrous iron, dissolved manganese, and sulphide, that were found in many soil pipes. Even though many of the soil pipes were located in similar environments and at relatively similar depths, ranging from 3.5 to 6 m, they displayed individual chemical profiles in terms of chemical species related to microbial activity. The microbial activity could not be linked to the classes of soil pipe, i.e. recharge, discharge, or intermittent. Existing soil pipes and percussion-drilled boreholes could be used for additional sampling to measure microbial parameters. Such sampling would benefit from the careful hypothesis-driven description of the sampling parameters and experience-guided choice of sampling methods

  16. A microbiological evaluation of level of disinfection for flexible cystoscopes protected by disposable endosheaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Hjorth; Slotsbjerg, Torsten; Westh, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    Flexible cystoscopy is used in urological outpatient departments for diagnostic cystoscopy of bladder cancer and requires a high-level disinfection between each patient. The purpose of this study was to make a microbiological post disinfection efficacy assessment of flexible cystoscopes (FC) using...

  17. Chemical Properties, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Evaluation of Chicken and Duck Liver Paste (foie gras)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Salem, F. M.; Abu Arab, E. A.

    2010-07-01

    Liver paste or foie gras, which is a French term meaning fatty liver, was produced traditionally from goose and duck. Chickens are also used in the making of foie gras. The present study deals with the properties and quality of raw chicken and duck liver in comparison with manufactured liver paste (foie gras). Raw chicken liver contained 24.60% protein, 6.00% fat, 1.40 % ash, and 66.80% moisture. The average mineral values were 83.65, 50.75, 5.29, 1.15, 0.154, 0.683, 0.317 and 0.066 {mu}g/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The processing of liver paste (Foie gras) changed the composition of raw liver due to a loss in moisture, a release of fat and the addition of butter as a fat source. Chicken liver paste contained 27.8% moisture, 10.1% protein, 58.2% fat, and 0.8% ash. Mineral contents were 68.90, 40.50, 1.60, 1.1, 0.08, 0.22, 0.04 and 0.04 {mu}g/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of liver paste (foie gras) manufactured from raw liver and preserved by the addition of 1000 ppm of both benzoic acid (BA) or sorbic acid (SA) and a mixture of 500 ppm of both BA plus SA with or without pasteurization at 85 degree centigrade were studied during the storage period for 9 days at 4 degree centigrade. Presumably, the mixing of liver paste (Foie gras) from chicken liver with 500 ppm of both BA plus SA and pasteurizing the product at 85 degree centigrade could be recommended for lowering thiobarbituric acid (TBA), total volatile nitrogen (TVN), peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), ammonia, saponification value and hence for inhibiting lipid oxidation and preventing rancidity to an extent up to nine days of refrigerated storage (4 degree centigrade). This level is also recommended as a preservative agent to inhibit the bacterial deterioration of chicken liver paste (Foie gras). A sensory evaluation showed that liver paste from chicken was very acceptable from the standpoint of

  18. Microbiological evaluation of infected root canals and their correlation with pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Luísa Soares de Lima Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the endodontic microbiota of human teeth without pulp vitality presenting radiographically visible periapical lesions and its correlation with pre- and postoperative pain symptomatology. Material and methods: Sixteen young adult patients, both genders, aging from 18 to 45 years, presenting 21 single-rooted teeth with pulp necrosis and needing endodontic treatment were selected in the multidisciplinary clinic at the University of Fortaleza (UNIFOR. After crown surgical access, the ��������������root canals were embedded with 0.9% saline solution and the material from root canals was collected ���������������������������������������������� withhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhsterile paper point. The paper points were placed into Stuart transport medium and sent to the microbiology laboratory of the University of Fortaleza. Isolation and identification of bacteria were made by culture technique. The cleaning and shaping of root canals was performed by ��������������� ����� ���������������������������� crown-down technique..............................Intra-canal medication comprised calcium hydroxide mixed with chlorhexidine and after 14 days the canals were filled. Patients were asked about the occurrence of pain before treatment and 24 hours after cleaning and shaping procedures. Results: The most prevalent microbial group was Streptococcus sp. followed by Fusobacterium nucleatum, although Gram-positive cocci, non-sporulating Gram-positive bacilli, Gram-negative bacilli, pigmented Gram-negative bacilli, Veillonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas sp. were also frequently isolated. Conclusion: According to the results, it can be concluded that Fusobacterium

  19. Chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of mayonnaise prepared from ostrich eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou-Arab, Azza A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ostrich eggs were evaluated for their chemical composition and mineral contents. Also, chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of the mayonnaise made from ostrich eggs in comparison to that made from chicken eggs were studied. Data indicated that ostrich eggs are a good source of protein (47.09 %, total lipids (45.10 %, carbohydrates (4.03 %, calcium (206.5 mg/100g, phosphorus (683.8 mg/100g, potassium (460 mg/100g, sodium (408.7 mg/100g and zinc (5.2 mg/100g. The chemical evaluation of unpasteurized and pasteurized mayonnaise indicated that mayonnaise made from ostrich eggs was more resistant to chemical spoilage due to auto-oxidation than that made from chicken eggs. In ostrich egg mayonnaise, stored unpasteurized was associated with significantly (P En este trabajo se ha evaluado la composición química y el contenido mineral de los huevos de avestruz. Asimismo se ha realizado la evaluación química, microbiológica y sensorial de la mayonesa preparada con huevos de avestruz en comparación con la preparada con huevos de gallina. Los resultados han mostrado que los huevos de avestruz son una buena fuente de proteínas (47,09 %, lípidos totales (45,10 %, carbohidratos (4,03 %, calcio (206,5 mg/100g, fósforo (683,8 mg/100g, potasio (460 mg/100g, sodio (408,7 mg/100g y zinc (5,2 mg/100g. La evaluación química de la mayonesa pasteurizada y no pasteurizada indicó que la mayonesa preparada con huevos de avestruz era más resistente al deterioro químico debido a autoxidación que la preparada con huevos de gallina. La mayonesa de huevos de avestruz almacenada sin pasteurizar fue asociada con una acidez valorable significativamente mayor (P < 0,05. Por el contrario, la acidez valorable no se alteró en las muestras pasteurizadas. Sin embargo, en la mayonesa de huevos de gallina la acidez valorable no varió ni en las muestras pasteurizadas ni en las no pasteurizadas. El grado de acidez y el valor del ácido tiobarbitúrico de las

  20. Salty Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneegurt, Mark A.; Wedel, Adrianne N.; Pokorski, Edward W.

    2004-01-01

    Using microbiology activities in the classroom is an effective way for teachers to address National Standards in the life sciences. However, common microbiology activities that involve swabbing doorknobs and hands are too risky due to the likelihood of culturing human pathogens. In addition, making sterile media and maintaining sterile conditions…

  1. Prevalence and concentration of Arcobacter spp. on Australian Beef Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Lesley L; Fegan, Narelle

    2012-08-01

    The International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) classified Arcobacter spp. as emerging pathogens in 2002. Arcobacter spp. have been isolated from numerous food products at retail and from animal carcasses and feces at slaughter. A survey was conducted to determine both the prevalence and concentration of Arcobacter spp. on pre-chill beef carcasses. Surface swab samples were collected from 130 beef carcasses at the end of processing, prior to chilling. The concentration of Arcobacter spp. was determined by a most-probable-number per square centimeter (3 by 3) method with a limit of detection of 0.12 CFU/cm(2). Of the 100 carcasses examined from export abattoirs, 20 (20.0%) were contaminated with Arcobacter spp., and 5 of these had quantifiable levels of contamination ranging from 0.12 to 0.31 CFU/cm(2). Of the 30 carcasses examined at a pet food abattoir, 25 (83.3%) were contaminated with Arcobacter spp., and 10 of these had quantifiable levels of contamination ranging from 0.12 to 0.95 CFU/cm(2). Three species of Arcobacter, A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus, and A. skirowii, were identified by PCR. Each of the species was present in an approximately equal ratio from export abattoirs. This study demonstrates that slaughter practices at export abattoirs are sufficient to maintain both low prevalence and low levels of contamination of beef carcasses with Arcobacter spp.

  2. [Physico-chemical and microbiological evaluation of UHT milk commercialized in three Mercosul countries (Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domareski, Jackson Luiz; Bandiera, Nataly Simões; Sato, Rafael Tamostu; Aragon-Alegro, Lina Casale; de Santana, Elsa Helena Walter

    2010-09-01

    With the aim to evaluate the physico-chemical and microbiological quality of UHT milk commercialized in three countries of Mercosul, samples of four different brands were acquired in each city (Foz do Iguaçu-Brazil, Puerto Iguazú-Argentina and Ciudad del Este-Paraguay) and submitted to the following analysis: fat content, titratable acidity, milk ethanol stability (with the following ethanol concentrations: 68, 72, 76 and 80%), total dry extract and no fat dry extract, pH, density and freezing point. Counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms were already done. In the physico-chemical evaluation of UHT milk, a significant number of samples were in disagree with the established patterns for fat content, no fat dry extract, density and freezing point. Except one brand from Brazil, milk samples showed stability to 68% ethanol. pH averages of Brazilian milk were in agree with the patterns and highest values were observed in samples acquired on Paraguay. Observing the microbiological analysis, 37.5%, 62.5% and 12.5% of samples acquired from Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, respectively, showed counts above the established patterns for mesophilic microorganisms. Counts of psychrotrophic microorganisms were in disagree with the established patterns in 50%, 50% and 100% of samples from Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, respectively.

  3. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in turkey samples: evaluation of two automated enzyme immunoassays and conventional microbiological techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borck, Birgitte; Stryhn, H.; Ersboll, A.K.;

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of two automated enzyme immunoassays (EIA), EiaFoss and Minividas, and a conventional microbiological culture technique for detecting thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in turkey samples. Methods and Results: A total of 286 samples (faecal, meat......, neckskin and environmental samples) were collected over a period of 4 months at a turkey slaughterhouse and meat-cutting plant in Denmark. Faecal and environmental samples were tested by the conventional culture method and by the two EIAs, whereas meat and neckskin samples were tested by the two EIAs only...

  4. Microbiological evaluation of hot beverages dispensed by vending machines from the Army barracks of Brigata Meccanizzata Aosta located in Messina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Beninati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of hot beverages dispensed by vending machines (VMs. The study was carried out on 203 samples from 15 VMs located in 5 Army barracks in Messina. The samples included: water used for preparation of beverages, swab of water tank, swab of blender machine, chocolate powder, milk powder, cappuccino and chocolate drink (29 samples for each types. All samples were examined for total bacterial count (TBC, coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostri - dium perfringens, Aeromonas spp., Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. For the water samples the colony count (CC at 22°C and at 37°C was made. The average values of CC at 22°C and at 37°C were of 10.86x10²±8.72x10² CFU/mL and of 21.72x10²±16.44x10² CFU/mL, respectively. P. aeruginosa, coliform bacteria, S. aureus, E. coli and molds were detected from water. The TBC ranged from 176 CFU/g (±275.2 for chocolate powder to 294.8±69.4 CFU/g for milk powder. S. aureus and molds were isolated from milk powder, while coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus were observed in chocolate powder. The average TBC for hot beverages ranged from 34.32x10³±97.77x10³ CFU/mL for cappuccino to 36.59x10³±10.47x104 CFU/mL for chocolate drink. Coliforms, E. coli, enterococci and molds were detected from cappuccino, while enterococci and molds were observed in chocolate drink. The microbiological characteristics of the water and powders, hygiene, and the periodic cleaning of machines, influenced the microbiological quality of the hot beverages dispensed by VMs.

  5. Microbiological quality of rabbit meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Calleja, Jose M; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa

    2004-05-01

    World rabbit meat production is estimated to be over 1 million tons, and Spain is the third largest producer. Although rabbit meat is marketed and consumed worldwide, information on microbiological quality is very scarce. Here, we report indicator organisms, spoilage flora, sensory quality, and some physicochemical traits of 24 h postmortem chilled rabbit carcasses and prepackaged rabbit meat stored chilled in air for 0 to 3 days at the retail level. The mean total bacterial count (4.01 +/- 0.48 log CFU/g) for carcasses dressed at a small abattoir by a manual process was significantly lower (P Pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts. These microorganisms and Brochothrix thermosphacta were dominant on carcasses from the large abattoir. On prepacked hind legs (pH 6.26 +/- 0.18) stored at -1 to +1 degree C (supermarket 1), mean aerobic mesophilic count was 5.87 +/- 1.03 log CFU/g, and the major microbial groups were Pseudomonas, yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and B. thermosphacta. On prepacked whole carcasses (pH 6.37 +/- 0.18) displayed at -1 to +5 degrees C (supermarket 2), mean aerobic mesophilic count was 6.60 +/- 1.18 and the same microbial groups were dominant. Relative Escherichia coli incidence was supermarket 2 > large abattoir > supermarket 1 > small abattoir. Overall, low numbers of coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, psychrotrophic clostridia, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and molds were found. Sensory scores, pH values, and L-lactic acid content differentiated fresh carcasses from retail samples. Data obtained suggest that the microflora of chilled rabbit meat are different from those found on the meat of other animals.

  6. Evaluation of E. coli biofilm as a protective barrier against microbiologically influenced deterioration of concrete (MICD) under mesophilic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, S; Ormeci, B; Isgor, O B

    2013-01-01

    In this study, Escherichia coli DH5α biofilm was evaluated for its potential to control and minimize microbiologically influenced concrete deterioration (MICD) under mesophilic temperatures (37 °C). Escherichia coli DH5α biofilm was first grown on Portland cement mortar disks for 8 days. Mortar disks were then exposed to two different types of sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) (Thiobacillus neapolitanus and Thiobacillus thiooxidans), which use sulfur compounds as substrate and oxidize them to sulfate and sulfuric acid. The effectiveness of the biofilm against MICD was evaluated by measuring pH, sulfate, calcium concentrations in the reactors and surface analysis of the mortar samples using X-ray diffraction and visual inspection. Overall, the results indicate that the E. coli DH5α biofilm showed good protection against MICD induced by SOB at 37 °C.

  7. Microbial growth on broiler carcasses stored at different temperatures after air- or water-chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, B; Sireli, U T

    2008-04-01

    Poultry meat has a high risk of contamination during its processing. Storage temperature, type of packaging, and types and numbers of psychrotrophic bacteria are the major factors determining the spoilage of poultry meat. Before packaging, poultry carcasses are chilled by air or water currents in commercial slaughterhouses. The packaging material and methods are other factors influencing the spoilage of poultry meat. Although unpackaged carcasses had lower production costs, they were found to contain high numbers of microorganisms. The unpackaged carcasses are often not recommended for food safety and public health risks. The present study examines the growth of some spoilage microorganisms on unpackaged carcasses and on broiler carcasses packaged in polyethylene bags or synthetic plates. The carcasses examined in this study were collected from the slaughterhouses of the Bolu region of Turkey. All carcasses were subjected to an air or water chilling process in the slaughterhouse and then stored at 0, 4, or 7 degrees C for 14 d. Samples were taken on d 0, 4, 8, 10, and 14 of storage and analyzed for total bacterial count, and for Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts, and molds. The carcasses packaged in synthetic plates or polyethylene bags and kept at 0 degrees C were microbiologically safer and had longer shelf life, so they are found to be the most reliable for consuming. The shelf life of broiler carcasses could be further increased by improving hygiene and sanitation procedures at the slaughterhouse.

  8. Chemical Properties, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Evaluation of Chicken and Duck Liver Paste (foie gras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Salem, Ferial M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Liver paste or foie gras, which is a French term meaning “fatty liver”, was produced traditionally from goose and duck. Chickens are also used in the making of foie gras. The present study deals with the properties and quality of raw chicken and duck liver in comparison with manufactured liver paste (foie gras. Raw chicken liver contained 24.60% protein, 6.00% fat, 1.40 % ash, and 66.80% moisture. The average mineral values were 83.65, 50.75, 5.29, 1.15, 0.154, 0.683, 0.317 and 0.066 μg/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The processing of liver paste (Foie gras changed the composition of raw liver due to a loss in moisture, a release of fat and the addition of butter as a fat source. Chicken liver paste contained 27.8% moisture, 10.1% protein, 58.2% fat, and 0.8% ash. Mineral contents were 68.90, 40.50, 1.60, 1.1, 0.08, 0.22, 0.04 and 0.04 μg/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of liver paste (foie gras manufactured from raw liver and preserved by the addition of 1000 ppm of both benzoic acid (BA or sorbic acid (SA and a mixture of 500 ppm of both BA plus SA with or without pasteurization at 85 °C were studied during the storage period for 9 days at 4 °C. Presumably, the mixing of liver paste (Foie gras from chicken liver with 500 ppm of both BA plus SA and pasteurizing the product at 85 °C could be recommended for lowering thiobarbituric acid (TBA, total volatile nitrogen (TVN, peroxide value (PV, free fatty acid (FFA, ammonia, saponification value and hence for inhibiting lipid oxidation and preventing rancidity to an extent up to nine days of refrigerated storage (4 °C. This level is also recommended as a preservative agent to inhibit the bacterial deterioration of chicken liver paste (Foie gras. A sensory evaluation showed that liver paste from chicken was very acceptable from the standpoint of taste, odor, appearance, color and texture. In

  9. Repeatability of the Petrifilm HEC test and agreement with a hydrophobic grid membrane filtration method for the enumeration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on beef carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, C A; McEwen, S A; Johnson, R P; Shoukri, M M; Rahn, K; Griffiths, M W; De Grandis, S A

    1998-04-01

    The Petrifilm HEC test (3M Canada Inc., London, Ontario), a quantitative microbiological test for Escherichia coli O157:H7, was evaluated for its performance as a beef-carcass monitoring test. Test repeatability and agreement and agreement with an E. coli O157:H7 detection method using a hydrophobic grid membrane filter (HGMF) overlaid onto cefixime-tellurite-sorbitol MacConkey agar (CT-SMAC) followed by a latex agglutination test for the O157 antigen were determined by using pure cultures of E. coli O157:H7, beef samples experimentally contaminated with bovine feces containing E. coli O157:H7, and naturally contaminated beef carcasses of unknown E. coli O157:H7 status from a local abattoir. The Petrifilm HEC test showed excellent repeatability and excellent agreement with the HGMF-CT-SMAC method when test samples were obtained from pure cultures and experimentally contaminated meat. All 125 naturally contaminated beef carcasses surveyed were negative for E. coli O157:H7 with both microbial methods. The Petrifilm HEC test, however, demonstrated a significantly lower proportion of cross-reactive organisms (false-positive reactions) than the HGMF-CT-SMAC method. Given the performance of this test coupled with its ease of use and compact size, it shows considerable promise for carcass testing where abattoir laboratory facilities are limited and as a substitute for more complex laboratory testing methods used in established laboratories.

  10. Evaluation of Malthus 128H microbiological growth analyser for detecting significant bacteriuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T K; Eggington, R; Pease, A A; Harris, D M; Spencer, R C

    1985-08-01

    In a pilot study a prototype Malthus 128H microbiological growth analyser was used to study the growth of six commonly encountered urinary pathogens in a range of five different laboratory media. No single medium had been able to show acceptable conductance changes for all bacteria within five hours. Subsequently, the Malthus system, with fastidious anaerobe broth as the culture medium, was used to screen 500 consecutive clinical specimens of urine for significant bacteriuria. After two and a half hours the Malthus system detected 32 out of the 40 true positives and eight of the 44 contaminated urines. Increasing the detection time to five hours permitted the recognition of 39 true positives and 37 contaminated urines.

  11. Evaluating effects of sewage sludge and household compost on soil physical, chemical and microbiological properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debosz, K.; Petersen, S.O.; Kure, L.K.

    2002-01-01

    , effects of waste amendment were positive, but moderate compared to the dynamics observed in unamended soil, and mainly occurred in the first several weeks after amendment. The temporal dynamics of inorganic N, FDA hydrolysis activity, biomass C and PLFA composition appeared to be faster under...... amendment on the fraction of soil in wet-stable aggregates, or on the microbiological properties tested, which supported the observation from the incubation study that effects of organic wastes were transient. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......Recycling of organic wastes within agriculture may help maintain soil fertility via effects on physical, chemical and biological properties. Efficient use, however, requires an individual assessment of waste products, and effects should be compared with natural variations due to climate and soil...

  12. Evaluation of commercial grated cheese in the central region of Brazil for microbiological quality and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Thaís Cristina Dias; da Silva, Patrícia Helena Caldeira; de Souza, Stefânia Márcia; Nero, Luís Augusto; Ferreira, Márcia de Aguiar

    2011-07-01

    This study aims to further the scientific understanding of the microbial quality and safety of grated cheese. Samples of grated cheese product (n = 20) were obtained from markets in the central region of Brazil and submitted to microbiological analysis using conventional and alternative (Petrifilm™ and RIDA(®) plates) methodologies. Based only on the criteria from the Brazilian Health Ministry, all samples were considered adequate for consumption. However, most samples presented foreign substances and high levels of contamination by other hygiene indicator microorganisms, indicating failures in processing and possible risks to consumers. Despite the hygienic quality of the samples, the obtained results showed good correlation indexes and similarities between the conventional and the alternative methodologies, indicating their viability for the quality control of grated cheese.

  13. The chilling of carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, J W; Mueller, S L; Baird, B E

    2005-07-01

    Biochemical processes and structural changes that occur in muscle during the first 24h postmortem play a great role in the ultimate quality and palatability of meat and are influenced by the chilling processes that carcasses are subjected to after slaughter. For beef and lamb, employing chilling parameters that minimize cold shortening is of greatest importance and can be best addressed by ensuring that muscle temperatures are not below 10°C before pH reaches 6.2. For pork, because of the impact of high muscle temperatures and low pH on the development of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) pork, a more rapid chilling process is needed to reduce PSE with the recommended internal muscle temperature of 10°C at 12h and 2-4°C at 24h. Spray chilling, a system whereby chilled water is applied to carcasses during the early part of postmortem cooling, is used to control carcass shrinkage and to improve chilling rates through evaporative cooling. Delayed chilling can be used to reduce or prevent the negative effects of cold shortening; however, production constraints in high-volume facilities and food safety concerns make this method less useful in commercial settings. Electrical stimulation and alternative carcass suspension programs offer processors the opportunity to negate most or all of the effects of cold shortening while still using traditional chilling systems. Rapid or blast chilling can be an effective method to reduce the incidence of PSE in pork but extreme chilling systems may cause quality problems because of the differential between the cold temperatures on the outside of the carcass compared to the warm muscle temperatures within the carcass (i.e., muscles that are darker in color externally and lighter in color internally).

  14. FOOD SAFETY AND PROCESS HYGIENE CRITERIONS ON SHEEP CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mazzette

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hygienic status and the presence of some pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes e Salmonella spp. at slaughterhouses was evaluated in different matrix of sheep and lambs (carcass surface, faeces, fleeces and mesenteric lymph nodes according to the Com. Reg. (EC No 2073/2005. The 48% of sheep and 68.9% of lamb sampled carcasses resulted allocated into the marginal category for Aerobic colony count, while the 28% and 42.2% respectively were allocated into unacceptable category for Enterobacteriaceae. S.aureus was isolated more frequently in fleeces (11.5%, carcasses (12.6% of lambs than sheep. L. monocytogenes was found in fleeces and carcass of two sheep and in faeces of four lambs, while Salmonella spp. was detected only in sheep carcasses of a single plant.

  15. Assessment of microbiological monitoring for the evaluation of GMP-compliance at a department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging of the University Medical Center Groningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugeling, M.; Ekoume, F.; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Luurtsema, G.; Lub-de Hooge, M.N.; Touw, D.J.; Rubow, S.M.; Boersma, H.H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to assess trends and deviations from microbiological monitoring in De cleanroom facilities at the department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging of the University Medical Center Groningen over the past five years. This was done to evaluate the status of

  16. ATP-Bioluminescence as a method to evaluated microbiological quality of UHT milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Cunha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New approaches are needed to quickly indicate possible contamination of UHT milk, among them the technique of ATP-Bioluminescence. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the results of culture methods with the results of ATP-Bioluminescence technique of 102 UHT whole milk samples incubated at 48, 72, and 168 hours. UHT milk samples were analyzed for the presence of mesophilic and psychrotrophic aerobic microorganisms using Plate Count Agar (PCA, Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI media and PetrifilmTM Aerobic Count (AC plates. The ATP-Bioluminescence technique was applied through the Microbial Luminescent Screening (MLS system. Significant correlations were found between counts of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms on PCA, PetrifilmTM AC, BHI and results of ATP bioluminescence technique (P≤0.05. The ATP-Bioluminescence technique had higher correlation with counting method in PCA than BHI media. At lower pass/fail limits of Relative Light Units (60, 50, 45 and 40 RLU, the number of samples identified as positive increased and statistically agreed with aerobic mesophilic microorganism counts (P>0.05. For the dairy industry, the ATP-Bioluminescence technique may become an important tool that assists the official methods to quickly monitor the microbiological quality of UHT milk though this will likely require a threshold below 150 RLU.

  17. Evaluation the effects of Tomato pomace and herbal and animal oil sources on performance, carcass characteristics, and bone parameters of heat stressed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Hosseini Vashan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of supplementation of Tomato pomace (TP, canola, soybean and tallow oils on performance, carcass characteristics, and bone parameters of heat stressed broilers, 792 d-old Arian broiler were divided to 36 pens. Each dietary treatment had 4 replicate with 22 birds each. These factorial experiment (3*3 involved 3 kinds of canola, soybean and tallow oils and 3 levels of 0, 3, and 5 percentage tomato pomace was done in a completely randomized design. The daily heat stress schedule was done from 29-42 days for 5 h (32-34oc. Two blood samples from each replicate were gathered at 28 and 42 d. The kind of oils and levels of TP did not affect body weight, feed intake, FCR, production index, energy efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio and immune response. The canola oil reduced the relative weight of liver and abdominal fat pre heat stressed birds. The relative weight of spleen, and burs and bone parameters involved diaphysis diameter and external bone layer thickness were improved when heat stressed birds fed canola oil or TP diets. The canola and TP diets decreased abdominal fat in heat stressed birds. Therefore experimental diets did not affect performance and immune system. The inclusion of canola oil and TP diets improved spleen, burs, bone parameters and abdominal fat.

  18. Microbiological and Chemico-physical Shelf-life and Panel Test to Evaluate Acceptability of Liver Mortadella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirloni, Erica; Stella, Simone; Bernardi, Cristian; Moretti, Vittorio Maria; Bersani, Carla; Cattaneo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the shelf life of sliced cooked liver mortadella packaged in MAP (70-85% N2, 15-30% CO2) and stored in refrigeration (4°C) or slight thermal abuse (8°C) for up to 49 days (declared best before date 45 days). The proximate composition, aw nitrites and NaCl content were determined at T0. Weekly, samples were submitted to microbiological [total viable count (TVC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp., coagulase positive staphylococci, sulphite reducing clostridia, yeasts and moulds, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp.] and physicalchemical analyses [pH, colorimetric parameters, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs)], in parallel with consumer acceptability tests. The product characteristics (low salt and nitrites concentration, high aw and pH close to 6.5) were not efficient hurdles for microbial growth. No pathogens were detected in the samples; the initial TVC [5.4 Log colony forming unit (CFU)/g] increased rapidly, reaching values around 8 Log CFU/g at T14 for both the series, and was almost totally composed by LAB, leading to the acidification of the product (pH at T49=5.05 at 4°C and 5.24 at 8°C). The other microbiological parameters were below 2 Log CFU/g. The product showed a good protein and lipid stability (TVBN quality of liver mortadella was more affected by the storage time than by the temperature. An evident colour modification was detected after T35, when the product was also frequently rejected by the panellists, mainly due to odour. Thus, the shelf life of sliced cooked liver mortadella should be shortened below 30 days. PMID:28058249

  19. Microbiological and Chemico-physical Shelf-life and Panel Test to Evaluate Acceptability of Liver Mortadella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirloni, Erica; Stella, Simone; Bernardi, Cristian; Moretti, Vittorio Maria; Bersani, Carla; Cattaneo, Patrizia

    2016-09-20

    This study aimed to evaluate the shelf life of sliced cooked liver mortadella packaged in MAP (70-85% N2, 15-30% CO2) and stored in refrigeration (4°C) or slight thermal abuse (8°C) for up to 49 days (declared best before date 45 days). The proximate composition, aw nitrites and NaCl content were determined at T0. Weekly, samples were submitted to microbiological [total viable count (TVC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp., coagulase positive staphylococci, sulphite reducing clostridia, yeasts and moulds, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp.] and physicalchemical analyses [pH, colorimetric parameters, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs)], in parallel with consumer acceptability tests. The product characteristics (low salt and nitrites concentration, high aw and pH close to 6.5) were not efficient hurdles for microbial growth. No pathogens were detected in the samples; the initial TVC [5.4 Log colony forming unit (CFU)/g] increased rapidly, reaching values around 8 Log CFU/g at T14 for both the series, and was almost totally composed by LAB, leading to the acidification of the product (pH at T49=5.05 at 4°C and 5.24 at 8°C). The other microbiological parameters were below 2 Log CFU/g. The product showed a good protein and lipid stability (TVBN <33 N/100 g and TBARs <8 nmol/g at T49). The sensorial quality of liver mortadella was more affected by the storage time than by the temperature. An evident colour modification was detected after T35, when the product was also frequently rejected by the panellists, mainly due to odour. Thus, the shelf life of sliced cooked liver mortadella should be shortened below 30 days.

  20. Microbiological and chemico-physical shelf-life and panel test to evaluate acceptability of liver mortadella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Tirloni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the shelf life of sliced cooked liver mortadella packaged in MAP (70-85% N2, 15-30% CO2 and stored in refrigeration (4°C or slight thermal abuse (8°C for up to 49 days (declared best before date 45 days. The proximate composition, aw nitrites and NaCl content were determined at T0. Weekly, samples were submitted to microbiological [total viable count (TVC, lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp., coagulase positive staphylococci, sulphite reducing clostridia, yeasts and moulds, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp.] and physicalchemical analyses [pH, colorimetric parameters, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs], in parallel with consumer acceptability tests. The product characteristics (low salt and nitrites concentration, high aw and pH close to 6.5 were not efficient hurdles for microbial growth. No pathogens were detected in the samples; the initial TVC [5.4 Log colony forming unit (CFU/g] increased rapidly, reaching values around 8 Log CFU/g at T14 for both the series, and was almost totally composed by LAB, leading to the acidification of the product (pH at T49=5.05 at 4°C and 5.24 at 8°C. The other microbiological parameters were below 2 Log CFU/g. The product showed a good protein and lipid stability (TVBN <33 N/100 g and TBARs <8 nmol/g at T49. The sensorial quality of liver mortadella was more affected by the storage time than by the temperature. An evident colour modification was detected after T35, when the product was also frequently rejected by the panellists, mainly due to odour. Thus, the shelf life of sliced cooked liver mortadella should be shortened below 30 days.

  1. Clinical and microbiological evaluation of one-stage full-mouth disinfection: a short-term study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Cortelli

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients seem to adhere better to short-term periodontal treatment schemes. Besides, time-reduced treatments are more cost-effective. However, the degree of benefits related to this type of treatment still requires additional investigations. AIM: The present short-term study evaluated clinical and microbiological outcomes, from baseline to 3-months, of chronic periodontitis subjects treated by the one-stage full-mouth disinfection protocol. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Sixteen chronic periodontitis subjects (mean-age 49.87 ± 8.22 who met inclusion/exclusion criteria were included. A calibrated examiner measured whole-mouth plaque and gingival indices, periodontal pocket depth and clinical attachment level at baseline and at 3-months. Subgingival samples were also collected from the 5 most diseased periodontal sites to determine total bacterial load and levels of P. gingivalis and S. oralis by real time qPCR. Periodontal treatment consisted of full-mouth manual debridement plus wide intraoral use of chlorhexidine in gel and solution. Additionally, after debridement, individuals rinsed 0.12% chlorhexidine at home twice a day for the following 2 months. Data monitored were compared by paired Student-t test (p<0.05. RESULT: Statistical analysis revealed that, in general, one-stage full-mouth disinfection treatment provided significant clinical and microbiological improvements at 3-months. Total bacterial load showed one of the most pronounced reductions from baseline to 3-months (p=0.0001. Also, subgingival levels P. gingivalis and S. oralis reduced overtime. CONCLUSION: After a short period of monitoring, chronic periodontitis subjects showed clinical and microbial improvements following one-stage full-mouth disinfection treatment.

  2. Evaluation of a commercially available organic acid product on body weight loss, carcass yield, and meat quality during preslaughter feed withdrawal in broiler chickens: a poultry welfare and economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menconi, A; Kuttappan, V A; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Urbano, T; Matté, F; Layton, S; Kallapura, G; Latorre, J; Morales, B E; Prado, O; Vicente, J L; Barton, J; Andreatti Filho, R L; Lovato, M; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2014-02-01

    The effect of a commercial organic acid (OA) product on BW loss (BWL) during feed withdrawal and transportation, carcass yield, and meat quality was evaluated in broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in Brazil. Commercial houses were paired as control groups receiving regular water and treated groups receiving OA in the water. Treated birds had a reduction in BWL of 37 g in experiment 1 and 32.2 g in experiment 2. In experiment 2, no differences were observed in carcass yield between groups. Estimation of the cost benefit suggested a 1:16 ratio by using the OA. In experiment 3, conducted in Mexico, significant differences on water consumption, BWL, and meat quality characteristics were observed in chickens that were treated with the OA (P animal welfare and economic concerns in the poultry industry by reducing BWL and improving meat quality attributes.

  3. Microbiological evaluation of water during the 2011 flood crisis in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturongkasumrit, Yuphakhun; Techaruvichit, Punnida; Takahashi, Hajime; Kimura, Bon; Keeratipibul, Suwimon

    2013-10-01

    In 2011, a severe flood occurred in Thailand, covering nearly half the country in water for several months. The contamination of floodwater and subsequent contamination of water for human consumption could have potentially led to a widespread health crisis. However, to date, no study has been conducted to determine the safety of the waters used for human consumption in Thailand during the severe flood. Therefore, we conducted microbiological analysis of 4 kinds of water (floodwater, river water, tap water, and filtered tap water) collected from industrial and residential areas that were damaged due to flooding. Higher net levels of bacteria were found in water with a higher turbidity. No clear trend was observed in the pH value of all 4 water samples. The level of total bacterial contamination in the water samples was estimated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eleven of the 12 tap water samples and all of the filtered tap water samples had a total bacterial load that exceeded the Thai water quality standards. One of the tap water samples and one of the filtered tap water samples were found to be positive for Shigella sp., although none of the floodwater samples showed detectable levels of this pathogen as determined by PCR analysis. One of the samples of floodwater was also found to be positive for Leptospira sp., but none of the tap water or filtered tap water samples were positive. Most of the tap water samples and all filtered tap water samples were found to be contaminated with Vibrio cholerae. Bacterial contamination in water samples was also analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. These results revealed that several microorganisms were transferred via floodwater to different areas in the central part of Thailand and cross-contaminated between floodwater and water for human consumption.

  4. Microbiological and performance evaluation of sequencing batch reactor for textile wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogleni, Nurtac; Arifoglu, Yasemin Damar; Ileri, Recep

    2012-04-01

    This study focused on laboratory-scaled and real-scaled treatment plant performances and microbiological investigations for the optimum treatment of textile industry wastewater performed with sequencing batch reactor (SBR). As a result of experimental studies of laboratory-scaled SBR treatment unit, optimum treatment efficiency was taken from 0.5 h filling to 1.5 h. reaction to 1.5 h. settlement to 0.5 h. discharge-idle periods. Average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of SBR of laboratory-scaled textile industry was 75%, whereas average turbidity and color removal (coloration number [RES, m(-1)] 586 nm) efficiencies were 90% and 75%, respectively. Optimum reaction and settlement periods were used in a real-scaled plant, and plant efficiency was examined for parameters such as COD, phenol, pH, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and sludge volume index (SVI). In this study, optimum reaction and settlement periods for treatment of textile industry wastewater were determined within a SBR in a laboratory-scaled plant. These reaction and settlement periods were verified with the measurement of COD, color, and turbidity parameters. Floc structure and protozoa-metazoa species of activated sludge in a SBR were also determined. Optimum reaction and settlement times were used in a real-scaled plant, and plant efficiency was examined for COD, Phenol, pH, MLSS, and SVI parameters. The corresponding values were found as appropriate, acceptable, and meaningful because of variance value of statistical analysis. Protozoa and metazoan in the activated sludge in the laboratory-scaled plant were investigated. Peranema sp., Epistylis sp., Didinium sp., Chilodonella sp., Opercularia sp., Vorticella sp. as protozoa species and Habrotrocha sp., Philodina sp. as metazoa species were determined.

  5. Evaluation of the ISO 10273:2003 method for the isolation of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from pig carcasses and minced meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Inge; Berkvens, Dirk; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Dierick, Katelijne; Wits, Julie; Pochet, Brigitte; De Zutter, Lieven

    2013-12-01

    Pig carcass swabs (n = 254) and minced meat samples (n = 82) were examined for pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica using different routinely used enrichment protocols. All samples were obtained in the context of the official Yersinia monitoring program in Belgium. In total, 28 carcasses (11.0%) were contaminated with Y. enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3 and one (0.4%) with bioserotype 2/O:9. Four minced meat samples (4.9%) tested positive for Y. enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3. Using the ISO 10273:2003 method, eight out of the 29 Yersinia-positive carcasses (27.6%) and none of the contaminated minced meat samples (0.0%) were detected. Reducing the enrichment time in PSB from 5 to 2 days increased the number of positive samples. Overall, enrichment in PSB at 25 °C recovered more positive carcasses and minced meat samples than selective enrichment and cold enrichment. As the exclusive use of the ISO 10273:2003 method results in a strong underestimation of Y. enterocolitica positive carcasses and minced meats, efforts are needed to optimize the current version of the ISO method. In addition, isolation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica requires experience and the use of a stereomicroscope to avoid false negative results.

  6. Microbiological evaluation of water during the 2011 flood crisis in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturongkasumrit, Yuphakhun; Techaruvichit, Punnida; Takahashi, Hajime; Kimura, Bon [Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Marine Science, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 108-8477 (Japan); Keeratipibul, Suwimon, E-mail: Suwimon.k@chula.ac.th [Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2013-10-01

    In 2011, a severe flood occurred in Thailand, covering nearly half the country in water for several months. The contamination of floodwater and subsequent contamination of water for human consumption could have potentially led to a widespread health crisis. However, to date, no study has been conducted to determine the safety of the waters used for human consumption in Thailand during the severe flood. Therefore, we conducted microbiological analysis of 4 kinds of water (floodwater, river water, tap water, and filtered tap water) collected from industrial and residential areas that were damaged due to flooding. Higher net levels of bacteria were found in water with a higher turbidity. No clear trend was observed in the pH value of all 4 water samples. The level of total bacterial contamination in the water samples was estimated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eleven of the 12 tap water samples and all of the filtered tap water samples had a total bacterial load that exceeded the Thai water quality standards. One of the tap water samples and one of the filtered tap water samples were found to be positive for Shigella sp., although none of the floodwater samples showed detectable levels of this pathogen as determined by PCR analysis. One of the samples of floodwater was also found to be positive for Leptospira sp., but none of the tap water or filtered tap water samples were positive. Most of the tap water samples and all filtered tap water samples were found to be contaminated with Vibrio cholerae. Bacterial contamination in water samples was also analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. These results revealed that several microorganisms were transferred via floodwater to different areas in the central part of Thailand and cross-contaminated between floodwater and water for human consumption. - Highlights: • We investigated the flood impact on the waters used for human consumption. • Higher net levels of

  7. Comparative evaluation of subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and non-pregnant women: A clinical and microbiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Emmatty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gingival changes in pregnancy have been attributed to changes in the subgingival biofilm related to hormonal variations. Aims: To evaluate the subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and nonpregnant women to determine if pregnancy induces any alterations in the subgingival plaque and to associate these changes with changes in periodontal status. Settings and Design: Thirty pregnant and 10 nonpregnant women within the age group of 20-35 years having a probing pocket depth (PPD of 3-4 mm were included in the study. The pregnant women were equally divided into 3 groups of 10, each belonging to I, II, and III trimester. Materials and Methods: Plaque index, gingival index, PPD, and microbiologic evaluation for specific bacterial counts for Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were carried out for all subjects. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Increase in gingival inflammation was observed in II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and control. Plaque scores did not show any significant difference between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Specific bacterial examination revealed an increase in proportion of P. intermedia in pregnant women of both II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and nonpregnant women. Conclusions: A definite increase in proportions of P. intermedia occurs in subgingival plaque microflora in pregnancy that may be responsible for the exaggerated gingival response.

  8. Tenderness of Pork Muscles as Influenced by Chilling Rate and Altered Carcass Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Elin; Møller, Anders Juel

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of tenderness improvements in porcine muscles (longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) in 72 carcasses by using combinations of three different chilling rates and two different suspennnsion methods....

  9. Risk assessment of medical devices: Evaluation of microbiological and toxicological safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorpema, J. W.

    1995-02-01

    Safety assessment of medical devices includes sterilization and biological evaluation or biocompatibility testing. Sterilization by ETO gas is critised for their carcinogenic potency or even banned. Mutual acceptance of biological evaluation test results is promoted by a laboratory accreditation and qualification program.

  10. Endodontic microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Root canal therapy has been practiced ever since 1928 and the success rate has tremendously increased over the years owing to various advancements in the field. One main reason is the complete understanding of the microbiology involved in the endodontic pathology. This has helped us to modify the conventional treatment plans and effectively combat the microorganisms. Now, studies are aiming to explore the characteristics of the "most" resistant organism and the methods to eliminate them. This article gives an insight of the microbiology involved in endodontic pathology and discusses its role in our treatment procedure. Information from original reviews listed in PubMed, published from 1995 to 2010, has been mainly included in this review.

  11. Evaluation of bacteriophage application to cattle in lairage at beef processing plants to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 prevalence on hides and carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major food safety concern for the beef industry. Several studies have provided evidence that cattle hides are the main source of beef carcass contamination during processing and that reductions in the E. coli O157:H7 load on the hides of cattle entering processing faci...

  12. Evaluation of Prerequisite Programs Implementation and Hygiene Practices at Social Food Services through Audits and Microbiological Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayoa, Roncesvalles; Yánez, Nathaly; Díez-Leturia, María; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Vitas, Ana Isabel

    2016-04-01

    Prerequisite programs are considered the most efficient tool for a successful implementation of self-control systems to ensure food safety. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of these programs in 15 catering services located in Navarra and the Basque Country (regions in northern Spain), through on-site audits and microbiological analyses. The implementation of the prerequisite program was incomplete in 60% of the sample. The unobserved temperature control during both the storage and preparation of meals in 20% of the kitchens reveals misunderstanding in the importance of checking these critical control points. A high level of food safety and hygiene (absence of pathogens) was observed in the analyzed meals, while 27.8% of the tested surfaces exceeded the established limit for total mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (≤100 CFU/25 cm²). The group of hand-contact surfaces (oven door handles and aprons) showed the highest level of total mesophilic aerobic microorganisms and Enterobacteriaceae, and the differences observed with respect to the food-contact surfaces (work and distribution utensils) were statistically significant (P food workers' hands, lower levels of microorganisms were observed in the handlers wearing gloves (that is, for Staphylococcus spp we identified 43 CFU/cm2 on average compared with 4 CFU/cm2 (P food handlers, through specific activities such as informal meetings and theoretical-practical sessions adapted to the characteristics of each establishment.

  13. Phisicochemical, sensory, and microbiological evaluation and development of symbiotic fermented drink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica de Lucena Lira Aguiar Dias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop a symbiotic lacteous drink, evaluate its physicochemical and sensory characteristics, and verify the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the drink. The milk serum-based drink consisted of 50% milk serum containing 10% saccharose, 25% powdered milk, 15% yacon pulp, and cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus-La 5E and Bifidobacterium bifidum BB12. It was stored for up to 21 days under refrigeration. The milk serum-based drink was analyzed for protein, ether extract, total dietary fiber, total frutans, carbohydrate content, color, pH, acidity, and contamination by coliforms, and Salmonella sp. Coliforms and Salmonella sp were not detected, and L. acidophilus and B. bifidum provided satisfactory probiotic counts up to 21 days of storage under refrigeration. Lactobacillus acidophilus resistance to gastric acids and bile salts was detected only up to seven days of storage when evaluated in vitro. Sensory analysis and purchase viability were evaluated by consumers at 0, 7, 14, and 21 days of storage. Based on the analytical results and consumer evaluation, the drink was acceptable up to seven days of storage.

  14. Clinical and microbiological evaluation of eight patients with isolated Achromobacter xylosoxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Sabri; Ece, Gulfem; Samlioğlu, Pinar; Kose, Sukran; Maras, Gul; Gonullu, Mustafa

    2012-10-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans causes infections in patients with underlying disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate Achromobacter xylosoxidans cases. Eight patients were included, 5 infections and 3 colonizations. Three of them survived and 2 died. The predisposing factor was catheter. Infection control measures could prevent infection.

  15. Zirconia dental implants : a clinical, radiographic, and microbiologic evaluation up to 3 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüll, Felix; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan; Cune, Marco S.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the clinical performance of zirconia endosseous implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Partially edentulous patients with adequate bone volume to fit yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) implants at least 3.5 mm wide and 8.0 mm long were included. Full-mouth

  16. Microbiological and Pharmacological Evaluation of the Micropropagated Rubus liebmannii Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Jiménez-Arellanes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubus liebmannii is an endemic species from Mexico used in traditional medicine primarily to treat dysentery and cough. The in vitro activity against Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica that produces the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant led us to expand the pharmacological and phytochemical research of this species. Gastrointestinal disorders including amebiasis remain one of the health problems that need to be addressed and it is of interest to find alternatives that improve their treatment. Also, it is important to emphasize that R. liebmannii grows wild in the country and is not found in abundance; therefore, alternatives that avoid overexploitation of the natural resource are mandatory. Ongoing with the evaluation of the potentialities that R. liebmannii possesses for treating infectious gastrointestinal diseases, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects and the chemical composition of the micropropagated plant.

  17. Microbiological and Pharmacological Evaluation of the Micropropagated Rubus liebmannii Medicinal Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Arellanes, Adelina; Cornejo-Garrido, Jorge; Rojas-Bribiesca, Gabriela; Nicasio-Torres, María del Pilar; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Molina-Salinas, Gloria María; Tortoriello, Jaime; Meckes-Fischer, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Rubus liebmannii is an endemic species from Mexico used in traditional medicine primarily to treat dysentery and cough. The in vitro activity against Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica that produces the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant led us to expand the pharmacological and phytochemical research of this species. Gastrointestinal disorders including amebiasis remain one of the health problems that need to be addressed and it is of interest to find alternatives that improve their treatment. Also, it is important to emphasize that R. liebmannii grows wild in the country and is not found in abundance; therefore, alternatives that avoid overexploitation of the natural resource are mandatory. Ongoing with the evaluation of the potentialities that R. liebmannii possesses for treating infectious gastrointestinal diseases, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects and the chemical composition of the micropropagated plant. PMID:22966243

  18. Application of Impedance Microbiology for Evaluating Potential Acidifying Performances of Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria to Employ in Milk Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancalari, Elena; Bernini, Valentina; Bottari, Benedetta; Neviani, Erasmo; Gatti, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Impedance microbiology is a method that enables tracing microbial growth by measuring the change in the electrical conductivity. Different systems, able to perform this measurement, are available in commerce and are commonly used for food control analysis by mean of measuring a point of the impedance curve, defined "time of detection." With this work we wanted to find an objective way to interpret the metabolic significance of impedance curves and propose it as a valid approach to evaluate the potential acidifying performances of starter lactic acid bacteria to be employed in milk transformation. To do this it was firstly investigated the possibility to use the Gompertz equation to describe the data coming from the impedance curve obtained by mean of BacTrac 4300®. Lag time (λ), maximum specific M% rate (μmax), and maximum value of M% (Yend) have been calculated and, given the similarity of the impedance fitted curve to the bacterial growth curve, their meaning has been interpreted. Potential acidifying performances of eighty strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactococcus lactis, and Streptococcus thermophilus species have been evaluated by using the kinetics parameters, obtained from Excel add-in DMFit version 2.1. The novelty and importance of our findings, obtained by means of BacTrac 4300®, is that they can also be applied to data obtained from other devices. Moreover, the meaning of λ, μmax, and Yend that we have extrapolated from Modified Gompertz equation and discussed for lactic acid bacteria in milk, can be exploited also to other food environment or other bacteria, assuming that they can give a curve and that curve is properly fitted with Gompertz equation.

  19. Application of Impedance Microbiology for Evaluating Potential Acidifying Performances of Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria to Employ in Milk Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancalari, Elena; Bernini, Valentina; Bottari, Benedetta; Neviani, Erasmo; Gatti, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Impedance microbiology is a method that enables tracing microbial growth by measuring the change in the electrical conductivity. Different systems, able to perform this measurement, are available in commerce and are commonly used for food control analysis by mean of measuring a point of the impedance curve, defined “time of detection.” With this work we wanted to find an objective way to interpret the metabolic significance of impedance curves and propose it as a valid approach to evaluate the potential acidifying performances of starter lactic acid bacteria to be employed in milk transformation. To do this it was firstly investigated the possibility to use the Gompertz equation to describe the data coming from the impedance curve obtained by mean of BacTrac 4300®. Lag time (λ), maximum specific M% rate (μmax), and maximum value of M% (Yend) have been calculated and, given the similarity of the impedance fitted curve to the bacterial growth curve, their meaning has been interpreted. Potential acidifying performances of eighty strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactococcus lactis, and Streptococcus thermophilus species have been evaluated by using the kinetics parameters, obtained from Excel add-in DMFit version 2.1. The novelty and importance of our findings, obtained by means of BacTrac 4300®, is that they can also be applied to data obtained from other devices. Moreover, the meaning of λ, μmax, and Yend that we have extrapolated from Modified Gompertz equation and discussed for lactic acid bacteria in milk, can be exploited also to other food environment or other bacteria, assuming that they can give a curve and that curve is properly fitted with Gompertz equation. PMID:27799925

  20. Short communication: Evaluation of bulk tank milk microbiological quality of nine dairy farms in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, B E; Lewis, M J; Boonyayatra, S; Maxwell, M L; Saxton, A; Oliver, S P; Almeida, R A

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bulk tank milk (BTM) quality of 9 East Tennessee dairy farms and to determine its relationship with selected quality milk parameters. Bulk tank milk samples (n=1,141) were collected over a 42-mo period (June 2006 through November 2009) from farms, based on their preliminary incubation count (PIC) history. Parameters of BTM quality evaluated in this study included somatic cell count (SCC), standard plate count (SPC), PIC, laboratory pasteurization count (LPC), Staphylococcus spp. count, Streptococcus spp. count, and coliform count. Strong correlations between SPC and Streptococcus spp. counts (0.72) and between SPC and PIC (0.70) were found. However, moderate correlations were seen among other milk quality parameters. In addition, seasonal variations for some milk quality parameters were noted. For example, milk quality parameters such as SCC, SPC, LPC, and coliform count were significantly higher in summer, whereas Streptococcus spp. counts were significantly higher in winter. No seasonal variation in PIC or Staphylococcus spp. counts was observed. Summarizing, results from this investigation showed the importance of using several bacterial counts (SCC, SPC, PIC, LPC, Streptococcus spp. count, Staphylococcus spp. count, and coliform counts) as simultaneous indicators of milk quality.

  1. Large-scale experiments for microbiological evaluation of measures for safeguarding sulfidic mine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippers, A; Jozsa, P G; Kovacs, Z M; Jelea, M; Sand, W

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of a German-Romanian scientific cooperation, experiments were performed to evaluate feasible and cheap techniques for the safe storage of mine waste to prevent acid rock drainage (ARD). A large four-chamber percolator (4CP) was installed in a waste heap at Ilba Mine, Romania, to test the effect of biocides and alkaline layers on the bacteria causing acid rock drainage (ARD). The 4CP consisted of four chambers each containing 65 m3 of sulfidic waste material. The 4CP enabled the transfer of laboratory results to a technical scale. The detergent sodiumdodecylsulfate (SDS) was proved to be active against the leaching bacteria. Organotrophic micro-organisms were not effected by the SDS application. The alkaline layers caused an increase of pH, however, a decrease of cell numbers was measured only in adjacent ore layers, but not in the whole ore body. A rapid evaluation of the effects of these countermeasures on ARD formation became possible by microcalorimetric activity measurements for bioleaching.

  2. Studies on rheology and microbiological evaluation of hydrotropically gelled starch as topical vehicle for terbinafine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Kovur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed for the development and evaluation of hydrotropic starch gels of terbinafine hydrochloride which is an allylamine derivative of antifungal agent was formulated by using corn starch and sodium salicylate as hydrotropic salt. The gels were prepared in presence and absence of propylene glycol. The prepared gels were evaluated for in vitro drug release, rheological behavior and microbial studies. The degree of increase in the drug diffusion was found to be in order corn starch gel with propylene glycol was greater than corn starch gel without propylene glycol. The microbial studies were carried out in soya bean casein digest medium with Candida albicans as test organisms and were found to be 22.86 ± 0.58 and 20.22 ± 0.65 mm for TCSG (IV and TCS (III, respectively. All the gels exhibited shear thinning. The rheogram indicated that the gel systems are pseudoplastic and exhibited thixotropy. The added propylene glycol has not appreciably altered the apparent viscosity values.

  3. A microbiological survey of fresh meat in the supermarket trade. Part 2: beef retail cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortjé, G L; Nel, L; Jordaan, E; Naudé, R T; Holzapfel, W H; Grimbeek, R J

    1989-01-01

    An assessment was made of the microbiological quality of the final product (different retail cuts), produced by two different retail supermarket groups (A & B). The influence of sanitary conditions on the microbiological quality of the final product was evaluated, and the possible influences on shelf life were determined. Supermarket group A (Sup group A) received carcasses with significantly lower surface counts of micro-organisms than supermarket group B (Sup group B), while the latter had a more efficient overall sanitation programme than supermarket group A. Five cuts were monitored for the presence of total aerobic counts, psychrotrophic counts, lactobacilli, Enterobacteriaceae and numbers of Pseudomonadaceae present. A shelf life study was also executed by repeating these enumerations on the same meat samples after refrigerated storage at 5°C for 2 and 4 days, respectively. It is generally accepted that a good refrigeration or chilling regime will preserve the inherent meat quality, but in this study it was found that neither served as a guarantee of quality. The more stringent hygiene at retail level of Sup group B yielded consistently lower mean counts of the different bacterial groups for all the meat cuts monitored and, thus meat with an extended shelf life. The total count (at 30°C) on meat cuts was the highest, followed by the psychrotrophs, the Pseudomonadaceae the Enterobacteriaeae and the lactobacilli. Minced meat generally had the highest mean aerobic total microbial counts. This count on minced meat might be a suitable indicator for monitoring the overall sanitary condition of a retail premises. The results re-emphasized the multi-factorial complexity of fresh meat quality and shelf life. The microbial quality of the raw material (carcasses), the maintenance of the cold chain, sanitary condition of premises, equipment and personnel surfaces and general management practices are factors that collectively determine the microbiological quality of the

  4. Microbiological evaluation of different strategies for management of snakes in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagner, M V; Bosco, S M G; Bagagli, E; Cunha, M L R S; Jeronimo, B C; Saad, E; Biscola, N P; Ferreira, R S; Barraviera, B

    2012-01-01

    Keeping snakes in captivity to produce venom for scientific research and production of inputs is now a worldwide practice. Maintaining snakes in captivity involves capture, infrastructure investments, management techniques, and appropriate qualified personnel. Further, the success of the project requires knowledge of habitat, nutrition, and reproduction, and control of opportunistic infections. This study evaluated the management of snakes in three types of captivity (quarantine, intensive, and semiextensive) and diagnosed bacterial and fungal contaminants. A bacteriological profile was obtained by swabbing the oral and cloacal cavities, scales, and venoms of healthy adult snakes from Bothrops jararaca (Bj) and Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt). There was predominance of Enterobacteriaceae, especially non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli excluding Pseudomonas spp and Gram- positive bacteria. Statistically, intensive captivity resulted in the highest number of bacterial isolates, followed by recent capture (quarantine) and by semiextensive captivity. No statistical difference was found between Bj and Cdt bacterial frequency. In vitro bacterial susceptibility testing found the highest resistance against the semisynthetic penicillins (amoxicillin and ampicillin) and highest sensitivity to amicacin and tobramycin aminoglycosides. To evaluate mycological profile of snakes from intensive captivity, samples were obtained from two healthy Bj and one B. moojeni, one B. pauloensis, and one Cdt showing whitish lesions on the scales suggestive of ringworm. Using conventional methods and DNA-based molecular procedures, five samples of Trichosporon asahii were identified. Despite the traditional role of intense captivity in ophidian venom production, semiextensive captivity was more effective in the present study by virtue of presenting superior control of bacterial and fungal transmission, easier management, lowest cost, and decreased rate of mortality; therefore, it should be

  5. Nutritional and microbiological evaluation of meat and bone meal produced in the state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartorelli SA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the chemical composition and metabolizable energy levels of ten meat and bone meals (MBM produced in Minas Gerais state (Experiment I and evaluated the growth performance of broilers fed with diets containing those MBM (Experiment II. In the first experiment, energy values (apparent metabolizable energy [AME] and corrected apparent metabolizable energy [AMEn] of ten different MBM were determined using the traditional method with total collection of excreta. Four hundred forty 21 day-old Hubbard broilers were used. A reference corn and soybean meal-based diet was replaced in 20% by the feed containing MBM to be tested. A completely randomized experimental design was used with eleven treatments (one reference diet and ten MBM, four repetitions per treatment and 10 birds per repetition (5 males and 5 females. In the second experiment, five MBMs from the ten analyzed in Experiment 1 were used as phosphorus source and compared to a diet containing bicalcium phosphate. The growth performance of the broilers fed with these diets was analyzed, considering two ages of the onset of MBM inclusion in the diet (1 or 7 days of age. One-day-old Hubbard broilers (1,320 birds were housed in 44 plots with 30 birds per experimental unit. The experiment consisted of 11 treatments in a 5x2 factorial arrangement, with five sources of MBM, two ages for the onset of inclusion, and a reference treatment without addition of MBM. The results obtained showed a great variation in the chemical composition and apparent metabolizable energy of the evaluated meals. No significant differences were found on the performance of broilers fed diets with different MBM or the diet with bicalcium phosphate as phosphorus source. The performance of broilers was not significantly influenced by the onset of MBM inclusion in the diets.

  6. Forensic microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Donald C

    2012-01-01

    The field of forensic microbiology is fairly new and still evolving. With a threat of bioterror and biocrime, the rapid identification and subtyping of infectious agents is of upmost importance. Microbial genetic analysis is a valuable tool in this arena. The cost to sequence a microbial genome has fallen dramatically in recent years making this method more widely available. Surveillance and vigilance are important as is further research. The United States Department of Homeland Security established the Bioforensics Analysis Center to become the foremost U.S. biodefense research institution involved with bioforensics. Many countries are better prepared for biologic events than ever before, but more work is needed. Most medical laboratory scientists are not familiar with forensic principles or testifying in court. Demonstrating chain of custody and quality assurance are critical so that test results will be admissible in a court of law. The Scientific Working Group on Microbial Genetics and Forensics has published guidelines for forensic microbiology laboratories. Incorporating these guidelines help to provide test results that are useful in legal proceedings. If a laboratory scientist suspects bioterror or biocrime, or other legal case, law enforcement agents must be notified and diagnostic samples preserved. Additional sample testing might be necessary in court cases.

  7. Preparation and Microbiological Evaluation of Amphiphilic Kanamycin-Lipoamino Acid Ion-Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Pignatello

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphilic ion-pairs of kanamycin (KAN were prepared by evaporation of a water-ethanol co-solution of KAN base and a lipoamino acid bearing a 12-carbon atoms alkyl side chain (LAA12, at different molar ratios. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the structure of ion-pairs, while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD studies supported the formation of new saline species with a different crystalline structure than the starting components. The solubility pattern shown in a range of both aqueous and organic solvents confirmed that the ion-pairs possess an amphiphilic character. The LAA12 counter-ion showed not to improve the antibacterial activity of KAN, suggesting that such chemical strategy is not able to favor the penetration of this drug inside the bacteria cells. Nevertheless, a slight improving, i.e., a one-fold dilution, was observed in E. coli. The present study can also serve as the basis for a further evaluation of LAA ion-pairing of antibiotics, as a means to improve the loading of hydrophilic drugs into lipid-based nanocarriers.

  8. Comparison and evaluation of Osiris and Sirscan 2000 antimicrobial susceptibility systems in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, A; Cartuyvels, R; Mewis, A; Peeters, V; Rummens, J L; Magerman, K

    2003-08-01

    The Osiris and Sirscan 2000 systems are two semiautomated systems that can be used to read and interpret the results on disk diffusion agar plates. They are both used for determination of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. The present study compared both systems versus the NCCLS standard method of visual reading with a ruler. Both inpatient and outpatient samples with a total of 315 nonfastidious gram-negative strains were obtained. In total, 3724 organism-antimicrobial agent combinations that fulfilled the NCCLS guidelines for disk diffusion susceptibility testing were evaluated prospectively. The results obtained with both systems in comparison with those obtained by the classical nonautomated means of interpretation were excellent, with correlation coefficients of 0.96 for both systems. The overall agreements for susceptibility interpretation were 96.56 and 96.24% with the Osiris and Sirscan systems, respectively. Very major errors were obtained for 8 (1.07%) and 10 (1.34%) organism-antimicrobial agent combinations with the Osiris and Sirscan systems, respectively. In addition, major errors were obtained for 2 (0.07%) and 6 (0.21%) combinations with the Osiris and Sirscan systems, respectively. Minor errors were obtained for 118 and 124 organism-antimicrobial agent combinations with the Osiris and Sirscan systems, respectively. Overall, both the Osiris system and the Sirscan system are comparable and reliable systems for determination of interpretative categories from the zone diameters of standard disk diffusion test plates.

  9. EVALUATION OF THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE INFECTION STATUS OF UDDER AND THE MICROBIOLOGICAL MILK QUALITY IN SOME EXTENSIVE GOAT HERDS OF SARDINIA - PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mulas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sub clinical mastitis may cause more losses than clinical mastitis. Farmers can take advantage of employing several tools, California Mastitis Test (CMT and Somatic Cell Count (SCC among the others, to determine the presence of a sub clinical mastitis in their herds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of milk produced in some extensive goat herds in Sardinia through a clinical check to determine the infection status of the udder, CMT, SCC and microbiological milk tests. CMT has been confirmed to be a useful, practical and economical tool to detect sub clinical mastitis in goats. Farmers should be encouraged to use this as a first step in order to avoid prospective losses in their herds.

  10. Comparison of neck skin excision and whole carcass rinse sampling methods for determining Salmonella prevalence and E. coli counts on broiler carcasses before and after immersion chilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A regulatory agency (FSIS) in the U.S. rinses whole broiler carcasses with 400 ml of 1% buffered peptone water (BPW) for Salmonella detection, while the European Union (EU) samples a 25g composited neck skin from three carcasses. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the FSIS and EU procedures fo...

  11. Growth performance, carcass and non-carcass characteristics of Mubende and Mubende×Boer crossbred goats under different feeding regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asizua, D.; Mpairwe, D.; Kabi, F.;

    2014-01-01

    evaluated the effects of supplementing grazing Mubende goats and their crossbreds (Mubende×Boer) with concentrates on growth, carcass and non-carcass characteristics. A 2×3 factorial treatment arrangement was used to randomly allocate 96 pure Mubende and Mubende×Boer castrates (mean±SE; 31.3±2.2 kg initial...

  12. EVALUATION OF THE FEED QUALITY OF FESTULOLIUM BRAUNII MIXTURES WITH MICROBIOLOGICALLY SUPPLIED RED CLOVER AND ALFALFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Sosnowski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The experience with cultivation of Festulolium braunii (Felopa variety in mixtures with red clover (Tenia variety, and alfalfa (Tula variety, was founded in April 2007 on an experimental object of Grassland Department and Green Areas Creation UP-H in Siedlce. The first experimental factor were 3-grass-legumes mixtures having the following composition: M1 – Festulolium braunii 50%, Trifolium pretense L. 50%, M2 – Festulolium braunii 50%, Medicago sativa ssp. media 50%, M3 – Festulolium braunii 50%, Trifolium pratense L. 25%, Medicago sativa ssp. media 25%. Combinations with soil’s medium amendment was marked as UG, and without soil’s medium amendment – BUG. In addition, nitrogen fertilization in the annual dose of 60 kg N∙ha-1, potassium 120 kg K2O∙ha-1 and phosphorus in the amount of 80 kg P2O5∙ha-1 were applied on all plots. Detailed study included the chemical composition of plant, which was determined at the Institute of Technology and Life Sciences in Falenty. The obtained results were used to calculate the following measures of the energy of and protein value feed: NEL – net energy of lactation, JPM∙kg-1D.M. – feed unit for milk production, JPŻ∙kg-1 D.M. – feed unit for livestock production, nBO – useful protein, BNŻ – rumen nitrogen balance. Furthermore, using the multivariate comparative of taxonomic analysis method the synthetic comparative measure of forage quality Q was evaluated. The use of soil’s medium amendment, regardless of the types of mixture, cuts and years of research, resulted in higher values of all measures. However, the analysis of synthetic measure of feed quality showed that in terms feed quality the best was the three component Festulolium braunii mixture with Trifolium pratense L. and Medicago sativa ssp. media.

  13. Avaliação de carcaças de suínos da raça Large White utilizando medidas convencionais Evaluation of Large White pig carcass using conventional measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de Freitas

    2004-12-01

    swine, data of lean meat yield (MY, fat yield (FY, dressing percentage (DP, carcass length for the Brazilian Method of Carcass Classification (CLBM, carcass length for the American Method of Carcass Classification (CLAM, average backfat thickness (ABT, backfat thickness 4 cm from the dorsal mid-line (P1, backfat thickness 6.5 cm from the dorsal mid-line (P2, backfat thickness 8 cm from the dorsal mid-line (P3, loin eye area (LEA, lean:fat ratio (LFR and ham yield (HY were used, obtained in 664 Large White swine. Initially, in order to make clear the importance and possible relations structures among variables, the cluster analysis was used. Afterwards, the multiple regression linear model was used, using the SAS package. Firstly, it was estimated the partial correlation (Type II of each trait to evaluate the importance of the quality variables of the carcass. Secondly, a procedure of adjusting equation selection named Backward was used. It was verified that, except for DP, all the measures of carcass classification evaluated presented correlation with MY and FY. The measures ABT, P1, P2, P3 and LFT were inversely correlated with MY and directly correlated with FY. The opposite was observed for the measures CLBM, CLAM, LEA and HY. ABT, AOL, RCG and RP are just enough to evaluate the quality of the carcass in terms of lean meat yield, and, in terms of FY, besides these measured previous it's necessary the evaluation of P1. The measures of loin eye area and average backfat thickness, as proposed by MBCC, shown as being what best evaluates the amount of meat and fat in the carcass.

  14. Effect of exposure to stress conditions on propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR based Campylobacter enumeration in broiler carcass rinses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, A; Botteldoorn, N; Coucke, W; Denayer, S; Dierick, K; Uyttendaele, M

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacter quantification by qPCR is unable to distinguish viable vs. dead cells in contrast to the culture-based ISO 10272-2 reference method. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has been used to overcome this disadvantage. A Campylobacter PMA-qPCR enumeration method was evaluated for its consistency and compared to the culture-based enumeration for both artificially and natural contaminated broiler carcass rinses. The PMA effect was further evaluated on stressed cells. Five conditions, commonly encountered during the slaughter process and storage (acid, heat, cold, oxidation and freezing), were inflicted to the broiler carcass rinses artificially contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. A better correlation between the reference method and the qPCR enumeration was obtained when PMA was used. The two cultured-based methods used showed a significant CFU reduction for heat, cold and acid stresses although the PMA-qPCR enumeration showed that viable bacteria were underestimated. Freezing showed the highest reduction effect, while the reduction extend was also overestimated by the microbiological enumeration procedure. Exposure to a mild oxidative stress was the only stress condition applied at temperatures permitting adaptation of Campylobacter and did not lead to either reduction in CFU nor in the PMA-qPCR signal.

  15. Learning about Foodborne Pathogens: Evaluation of Student Perceptions of Group Project Work in a Food Microbiology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mark S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of students in an active learning group work exercise in an introductory food microbiology course involving the study of foodborne pathogens. Small groups were required to access, analyze, and present information regarding a single food poisoning bacterium. The presentations contained features and…

  16. Virtual dissection of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann;

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of computed tomography (CT) as a reference method for estimating the lean meat percentage (LMP) of pig carcasses. The current reference is manual dissection which has a limited accuracy due to variability between butchers. A contextual Bayesian classification scheme...... is applied to classify volume elements of full body CT-scans of pig carcasses into three tissue types. A linear model describes the relation between voxels and the full weight of the half carcass, which can be determined more accurately than that of the lean meat content. Two hundred and ninety-nine half pig...

  17. Evaluation of the use of radiation in microbiological control in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.) sold in the CEASA, Pernambuco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicalvi, Maria Claudia V.; Solidonio, Evelyne G.; Silva, Marcio de Albuquerque; Costa Junior, Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira; Alcantara, Moacir Paulo [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Pos-graduation program in Energetics and Nuclear Tecnologies; Miranda, Rita de Cassia M. de [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Lab. of Chromatographic Analysis and Flavor; Sena, Kesia Xisto F.R. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. of Antibiotics; Colaco, Waldeciro, E-mail: wcolaco@ufpe.com.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. of Nuclear Energy

    2011-07-01

    Tomato is one of the most consumed fruits in the world and also one of the agricultural products with most losses due to its high perishability. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies on the post-harvest life of tomatoes and therefore are still many undefined parameters related to the treatment and shelf life of different cultivars of that fruit. Its contamination occurs from the pre-to post-harvest crop. The diseases caused by food borne pathogenic microorganisms are a serious public health problem. The bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae are responsible for large outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans that may occur due to bacteria per se or by toxins produced by them. Thus, the development of technologies that make the food safe for human consumption has been growing in recent years. Preservation methods employ physical or chemical processes. Among such methods, irradiation is a preventive treatment for food safety. Irradiation can reduce post-harvest losses by killing insect pests in fruits, grains, spices, or by reducing food spoilage organisms by inhibiting the sprouting of plants and delaying the ripening of fruits. The objective of this research was to evaluate the potential of using different doses of gamma radiation to treat tomatoes sold in CEASA-PE and to perform the overall count of microorganisms in control and irradiated samples. The study used two lots containing 60 tomatoes such that 15 of them were used as the control group and 45 were irradiated with one of 3 different doses (1.0 kGy, 1.5 kGy and 2.0 kGy). For microbiological analysis, the tomatoes were sliced, and weighed (after removal of peel) in order to obtain samples weighing 25g. Each sample was added to an Erlenmeyer containing sterile water by agitation for 15 minutes. Aliquots of the washings were sown for exhaustion in sheep blood agar. After growth, colony counting was performed. The results revealed contamination in all tomato groups analyzed with the control groups exhibiting

  18. Microbiological Evaluation of Household Drinking Water Treatment in Rural China Shows Benefits of Electric Kettles: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasdair Cohen

    Full Text Available In rural China ~607 million people drink boiled water, yet little is known about prevailing household water treatment (HWT methods or their effectiveness. Boiling, the most common HWT method globally, is microbiologically effective, but household air pollution (HAP from burning solid fuels causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and black carbon emissions exacerbate climate change. Boiled water is also easily re-contaminated. Our study was designed to identify the HWT methods used in rural China and to evaluate their effectiveness.We used a geographically stratified cross-sectional design in rural Guangxi Province to collect survey data from 450 households in the summer of 2013. Household drinking water samples were collected and assayed for Thermotolerant Coliforms (TTC, and physicochemical analyses were conducted for village drinking water sources. In the winter of 2013-2104, we surveyed 120 additional households and used remote sensors to corroborate self-reported boiling data.Our HWT prevalence estimates were: 27.1% boiling with electric kettles, 20.3% boiling with pots, 34.4% purchasing bottled water, and 18.2% drinking untreated water (for these analyses we treated bottled water as a HWT method. Households using electric kettles had the lowest concentrations of TTC (73% lower than households drinking untreated water. Multilevel mixed-effects regression analyses showed that electric kettles were associated with the largest Log10TTC reduction (-0.60, p<0.001, followed by bottled water (-0.45, p<0.001 and pots (-0.44, p<0.01. Compared to households drinking untreated water, electric kettle users also had the lowest risk of having TTC detected in their drinking water (risk ratio, RR = 0.49, 0.34-0.70, p<0.001, followed by bottled water users (RR = 0.70, 0.53-0.93, p<0.05 and households boiling with pots (RR = 0.74, 0.54-1.02, p = 0.06.As far as we are aware, this is the first HWT-focused study in China, and the first to quantify the

  19. Effect of sun mushroom extract in pork sausage and evaluation of the oxidative and microbiological stability of the product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Santi Stefanello

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of lipid oxidation is one of the meat industry’s target and, consequently, the search for natural antioxidants has been increased in last years. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of hydroethanolic extract from sun mushroom (Agaricus blazei Murrill on the oxidative and microbiological stability of pork meat sausage during storage at 4ºC. The extract was added to sausages in 0 %, 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 2.0 % (v/w concentrations. There was done the proximate composition, pH, instrumental color (L*, a*, b*, C* e h*, TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances and microbiological analyzes. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, in randomized completely design. The results from proximate composition and microbiological analyzes at day 0 were according to the Brazilian legislation. At 1st day of storage, control treatment showed higher (p<0,05 a* value (red than the other treatments, while b* value (yellow has increased (p<0,05 during the storage period in all treatments. At 21st day of storage, TBARS values of sausages with 2.0 % extract addition was lower (0,705±0,01 mg MDA/kg sample (p<0,05 than the control (1,097±0,11mg MDA/kg sample. The extract has not shown effect on the microbiological stability of the sausages. Nevertheless, the hydroethanolic extract from sun mushroom was effective on the oxidative stability of pork meat sausage when added in a 2.0 % concentration, improving its shelf-life up to 21 days of storage at 4 °C, and it is possible the use as a natural antioxidant source.

  20. Ultrasound use for body composition and carcass quality assessment in cattle and lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic evaluation for carcass quality traits has evolved over time, in large part due to introduction of new technology such as ultrasound measures of body composition. Ultrasound measured body composition traits emulate important carcass traits, are very informative for selection purposes, are ac...

  1. The use of seemingly unrelated regression to predict the carcass composition of lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cadavez, V.A.P.; Henningsen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate models for predicting the carcass composition of lambs. Forty male lambs were slaughtered and their carcasses were cooled for 24 hours. The subcutaneous fat thickness was measured between the 12th and 13th rib and breast bone tissue thickness...

  2. Carcass or Tissue Packaging and Shipping

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP on proper shipping of wildlife tissues to labs. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect and ship wildlife carcasses, carcass parts, or...

  3. Assessing Body Condition from Fat on Carcass

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding assessment of body condition based on carcass fat. Provides stepwise instructions and photos on how to assess body condition from carcass fat

  4. Action of Ants on Vertebrate Carcasses and Blow Flies (Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Michele C; Morishita, Gustavo M; Cavarson, Carolina H; Gonçalves, Cristiano R; Tavares, Paulo R A; Mendonça, Angélica; Súarez, Yzel R; Antonialli-Junior, William F

    2016-11-01

    Forensic entomology is a science that uses insect fauna as a tool to assist in criminal investigations and civil proceedings. Although the most researched insects are the Diptera and Coleoptera, ants may be present in all stages of decomposition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ants and their action on blow flies during the decomposition process. Experiments were performed in which four pig carcasses were exposed in the cold and dry season (November/2012 and March/2013) and four in the hot and wet season (May/2013 and August/2013). Flies were the first insects to detect and interact with the carcasses, and six species of the Calliphoridae family were identified. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) were the second group, with six subfamilies identified. Myrmycinae represented 42% of the species, followed by Formicinae (28%), Ectatominae and Ponerinae (both 10%), and Ecitoninae and Dolichoderinae (both 5%). The ants acted on the carcasses as predators of visiting species, omnivores, and necrophagous, in all cases significantly affecting the decomposition time, slowing it down when the ants preyed on adult and immature insects consuming the carcass, or accelerating it by consuming the carcass and creating holes that could serve as gateways for the action of other organisms. The ants also generated artifacts that could lead to forensic misinterpretation.

  5. Evaluation of the HACCP System in a University Canteen: Microbiological Monitoring and Internal Auditing as Verification Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Tavoletti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Food safety is essential in mass catering. In Europe, Regulation (EC No. 852/2004 requires food business operators to put in place, implement and maintain permanent procedures based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP principles. Each HACCP plan is specifically implemented for the processing plant and processing methods and requires a systematic collection of data on the incidence, elimination, prevention, and reduction of risks. In this five-year-study, the effectiveness of the HACCP plan of a University canteen was verified through periodic internal auditing and microbiological monitoring of meals, small equipment, cooking tools, working surfaces, as well as hands and white coats of the canteen staff. The data obtained revealed no safety risks for the consumers, since Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were never detected; however, a quite discontinuous microbiological quality of meals was revealed. The fluctuations in the microbial loads of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and sulphite-reducing clostridia were mainly ascribed to inadequate handling or processing procedures, thus suggesting the need for an enhancement of staff training activities and for a reorganization of tasks. Due to the wide variety of the fields covered by internal auditing, the full conformance to all the requirements was never achieved, though high scores, determined by assigning one point to each answer which matched with the requirements, were achieved in all the years.

  6. Evaluation of the HACCP system in a university canteen: microbiological monitoring and internal auditing as verification tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osimani, Andrea; Aquilanti, Lucia; Tavoletti, Stefano; Clementi, Francesca

    2013-04-17

    Food safety is essential in mass catering. In Europe, Regulation (EC) No. 852/2004 requires food business operators to put in place, implement and maintain permanent procedures based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles. Each HACCP plan is specifically implemented for the processing plant and processing methods and requires a systematic collection of data on the incidence, elimination, prevention, and reduction of risks. In this five-year-study, the effectiveness of the HACCP plan of a University canteen was verified through periodic internal auditing and microbiological monitoring of meals, small equipment, cooking tools, working surfaces, as well as hands and white coats of the canteen staff. The data obtained revealed no safety risks for the consumers, since Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were never detected; however, a quite discontinuous microbiological quality of meals was revealed. The fluctuations in the microbial loads of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and sulphite-reducing clostridia were mainly ascribed to inadequate handling or processing procedures, thus suggesting the need for an enhancement of staff training activities and for a reorganization of tasks. Due to the wide variety of the fields covered by internal auditing, the full conformance to all the requirements was never achieved, though high scores, determined by assigning one point to each answer which matched with the requirements, were achieved in all the years.

  7. Evaluation of routinely reported surgical site infections against microbiological culture results: a tool to identify patient groups where diagnosis and treatment may be improved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kievit Job

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgeons may improve their decision making by assessing the extent to which their initial clinical diagnosis of a surgical site infection (SSI was supported by culture results. Aim of the present study was to evaluate routinely reported SSI by surgeons against microbiological culture results, to identify patient groups with lower agreement where decision making may be improved. Methods 701 admissions with SSI were reported by surgeons in a university medical centre in the period 1997-2005, which were retrospectively checked for microbiological culture results. Reporting a SSI was conditional on treatment being given (e.g. antibiotics and was classified by severity. To identify specific patient groups, patients were classified according to the surgery group of the first operation during admission (e.g. trauma. Results Of all reported SSI, 523 (74.6% had a positive culture result, 102 (14.6% a negative culture result and 76 (10.8% were classified as unknown culture result (due to no culture taken. Given a known culture result, reported SSI with positive culture results less often concerned trauma patients (16% versus 26%, X2 = 4.99 p = 0.03 and less severe SSI (49% versus 85%, X2 = 10.11 p Conclusion Routine reporting of SSI was mostly supported by culture results. However, this support was less often found in trauma patients and less severe SSI, thereby giving surgeons feedback that diagnosis and treatment may be improved in these cases.

  8. Common factors method to predict the carcass composition tissue in kid goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fernanda Barros Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the interrelations among weights and carcass measures of the longissimus lumborum muscle thickness and area, and of sternum tissue thickness, measured directly on carcass and by ultrasound scan. Measures were taken on live animals and after slaughter to develop models of multiple linear regression, to estimate the composition of shoulder blade, from selected variables in 89 kids of both genders and five breed groups, raised in feedlot system. The variables considered relevant and not redundant on the information they carry, for the common factor analysis, were used in the carcass composition estimate development models. The presuppositions of linear regression models relative to residues were evaluated, the estimated residues were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were compared by the Student t test. Based in these results, the group of 32 initial variables could be reduced to four variables: hot carcass weight, rump perimeter, leg length and tissue height at the fourth sternum bone. The analysis of common factors was shown as an effective technique to study the interrelations among the independent variables. The measures of carcass dimension, alone, did not add any information to hot carcass weight. The carcass muscle weight can be estimated with high precision from simple models, without the need for information related to gender and breed, and they could be built based on carcass weight, which makes it easy to be applied. The fat and bones estimate models were not as accurate.

  9. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Validity of methodsExperiments were carried out In which it was assessed which Salmonella isolation method is the most productive one In the examination of broiler carcasses. Refrigerated, refrigerated and radiated (2.50 kGy), frozen and frozen and radiated (2.50 kGy) samples of broile

  10. The Evaluation and Improvement of Microbial Analysis Methods and Techniques in the Johnson Space Center Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Pierre, Ashley L.; Smith, Melanie J.; Dunbar, Brandon J.; Ott, C. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Microbial contamination is a risk to crew health both on the ground and on the International Space Station. The methods and techniques of microbial analysis for surfaces and items on board a spacecraft are an important aspect of ensuring that crew health is not at unnecessary risk. This series of projects seeks to improve and optimize microbial analysis methods, such as the recovery of bacteria from difficult surfaces, and the analysis of long-term bacterial isolate storage techniques. These projects will help the Johnson Space Center Microbiology laboratory be more efficient at identifying and addressing microbial concerns related to spaceflight and on the ground. Fabrics are substantially more problematic for microbial monitoring than steel or glass surfaces, as bacteria tend to get trapped in the fibers. To better understand which microbial sampling method is most efficient, various methods of recovery were attempted, and the processes were revised based on the results. The final phase of testing applied the knowledge gained from the resulting methods to an acoustic blanket that is currently being used on the International Space Station, with future use slated for the Orion spacecraft. In this phase, the sample materials were inoculated with bacterial suspensions, vortexed with phosphate-saline buffer, and the liquid was plated on tryptic soy agar. The results from the test of the acoustic blanket indicate that not only is microbial growth possible on fabric that is treated for moisture-resistance, but also that contamination can occur if aseptic handling procedures are not followed. Interestingly, out of three hundred and ninety (390) plates, only seventeen (17) showed growth (4.36%), and recovery of the Staphylococcus epidermidis used to inoculate the samples only occurred on four (4) of the plates. The growth on the remaining plates was contamination by various microbes, including those commonly found on the skin and in soil. This shows that 2 while bacterial

  11. METHODS OF LABORATORY ANIMALS" CARCASSES COLLECTION, STORAGE AND DESTRUCTION IN ISFAHAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N SHAMANSOURI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Environmental problems due to hazardous wastes production are increasing everyday. Laboratories of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences produce hazardous wastes in their daily research avtivities. These hazardous wastes are produced from laboratory animals" carcasses, which were used in educational and research activities. These carcasses are mixed with other wastes while they are contaminated with pathogenic organisms, toxic and chemical agents. These wastes can contaminate environment and threaten human s health. So, carcasses produced in laboratories should be collected and handle with a specific method in order to destruct in an incinerator. Methods: In this study, methods of collection, storge and destruction of laboratory animals" carcasses in Isfahan university of medical Sciences were evaluated during four months. Specific questionnaires were used for data collection. The mean weight of carcasses of each labratories, produced within a week, were calculated. DRE (Destruction and Removal Efficacy in different Temperatures in the incinerator were calculated. Results: Mean weight of laboratory animals" carcasses produced during a week in all the laboratories were 20kg. DRE in the incinerator were 9S.39% in 750.C temperature during 1 hour, 94.20% in 850°c temperature during 30 minutes, 94.10% in 950°c temperature during 20 minutes and 94.80% in 1000°c temperature during 15 minutes. Discussion: According to laboratory animals" carcasses contamination with pathogenic organisms, toxic and chemical agents, present methods of collection, storage and destruction aren"t standard and healthy. Also, due to low amout of carcasses daily production, everyday destruction of these carcasses isn"t economic. As a result, carcasses produced everyday should be stored in a collecting box under zero temperature and destruct at the end of the week in the designed incinerator in 1000°c temperature .

  12. IDENTIFICATIONS OF CARCASS CHARACTERISTIC FOR ESTIMATING THE COMPOSITION OF BEEF CARCASS

    OpenAIRE

    H. Hafid; R.E. Gurnadi; R. Priyanto; A. Saefuddin

    2014-01-01

    The research aimed to identify carcass characteristic that can be used for estimating composition ofbeef carcass. It was used 165 Brahman crossbred cattle in this research. Carcass characteristics wereweight of a half cold carcass (WC) ranged from 96 to 151 kg, loin eye area (LEA) ranged from 22.09 to304.8 mm2, 12th rib fat thickness (FT12) ranged from 0.80 to 2.90 mm, meat ranged from 53.55 to 90.10kg and carcass fat ranged from 5.54 to 39.72 kg. Result showed that a half weight cold carcass...

  13. Risk based microbiological criteria for Campylobacter in broiler meat in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauta, Maarten J; Sanaa, Moez; Havelaar, Arie H

    2012-09-03

    Quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) allows evaluating the public health impact of food safety targets to support the control of foodborne pathogens. We estimate the risk reduction of setting microbiological criteria (MCs) for Campylobacter on broiler meat in 25 European countries, applying quantitative data from the 2008 EU baseline survey. We demonstrate that risk based MCs can be derived without explicit consideration of Food Safety Objectives or Performance Objectives. Published QMRA models for the consumer phase and dose response provide a relation between Campylobacter concentration on skin samples and the attending probability of illness for the consumer. Probabilistic modelling is used to evaluate a set of potential MCs. We present the percentage of batches not complying with the potential criteria, in relation to the risk reduction attending totally efficient treatment of these batches. We find different risk estimates and different impacts of MCs in different countries, which offers a practical and flexible tool for risk managers to select the most appropriate MC by weighing the costs (i.e. non-compliant batches) and the benefits (i.e. reduction in public health risk). Our analyses show that the estimated percentage of batches not complying with the MC is better correlated with the risk estimate than surrogate risk measures like the flock prevalence or the arithmetic mean concentration of bacteria on carcasses, and would therefore be a good measure for the risk of Campylobacter on broiler meat in a particular country. Two uncertain parameters in the model are the ratio of within- and between-flock variances in concentrations, and the transition factor of skin sample concentrations to concentrations on the meat. Sensitivity analyses show that these parameters have a considerable effect on our results, but the impact of their uncertainty is small compared to that of the parameters defining the Microbiological Criterion and the concentration

  14. Evaluation of the performance of the IQ-check kits and the USDA microbiology laboratory guidebook methods for detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli (STEC) and STEC and Salmonella simultaneously in ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To evaluate the performance of the IQ-Check kits and the USDA Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top 7 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in ground beef and both STEC and Salmonella in co-inoculated samples. M...

  15. Microbiological and chemical evaluation of Helix spp. snails from local and non-EU markets, utilised as food in Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Corda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With this study, 28 pools of snails of the genus Helix, respectively Helix aspersa (n=24 and Helix vermiculata (n=4 were analysed. They were taken from snail farming and stores. The snails were from Sardinia, other regions of Italy, and from abroad. All the samples were examined as pool looking for these microbiological target: Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157, Clostridium perfringens, Norovirus and Hepatitis A Virus (HAV. In the same pools, the concentration of cadmium and lead by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was also determined. The levels of these heavy metals were quite high, especially for cadmium. Two samples were positive for Salmonella spp., while no sample was positive for Escherichia coli O157, HAV and Norovirus. Two samples were positive for Clostridium perfringens and 8 for Listeria monocytogenes. The microrganisms related to Listeria monocytogenes were identified using biochemical techniques, then serotyped and gene sequenced by multiple loci sequence typing technique. Furthermore, antimicrobial restistence was tested on the same samples.

  16. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality of confectionery products. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: total count of bacteria, coliforms bacteria,mesophilic aerobes bacteria and microscopic filamentous fungi were observed. The confectionery products were evaluated: Kremeš and Venčekcake. For microbiological tests 20 samples of confectionery products were used. The numbers of total count of bacteria ranged from 3.29 log CFU.g-1, the number of mesophilic aerobes bacteria ranged from 1.86 to 2.85 log CFU.g-1, coliforms bacteria in confectionery products ranged from 0to 2.06CFU.g-1and the number of microscopic fungi ranged from 1.13 to 1.96CFU.g-1. The samples of cake prom private production showed better microbiological quality as samples from market production. All investigated samples of confectionary products were inaccordance with the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic.

  17. ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...

  18. Environmental Microbiology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, located in Bldg. 644 provides a dual-gas respirometer for measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution...

  19. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  20. Reduction of thermotolerant Campylobacter species on broiler carcasses following physical decontamination at slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    . The effects of all three techniques were evaluated and compared with the effect of freezing. Mean reductions obtained were 0.44 log CFU per carcass, 0.42 log CFU per sample, and 2.51 log CFU per carcass, respectively. All techniques resulted in significant reductions of the Campylobacter concentration...... in an increase of 0.9 log CFU per carcass, suggesting that Campylobacter counts also may be reduced by optimizing the hygienic design of equipment or by physical removal of fecal contamination....

  1. Evaluation of the HB&L System for the Microbiological Screening of Storage Medium for Organ-Cultured Corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Camposampiero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To compare HB&L and BACTEC systems for detecting the microorganisms contaminating the corneal storage liquid preserved at 31°C. Methods. Human donor corneas were stored at 4°C followed by preservation at 31°C. Samples of the storage medium were inoculated in BACTEC Peds Plus/F (aerobic microorganisms, BACTEC Plus Anaerobic/F (anaerobic microorganisms, and HB&L bottles. The tests were performed (a after six days of storage, (b end of storage, and (c after 24 hours of preservation in deturgescent liquid sequentially. 10,655 storage and deturgescent media samples were subjected to microbiological control using BACTEC (6-day incubation and HB&L (24-hour incubation systems simultaneously. BACTEC positive/negative refers to both/either aerobic and anaerobic positives/negatives, whereas HB&L can only detect the aerobic microbes, and therefore the positives/negatives depend on the presence/absence of aerobic microorganisms. Results. 147 (1.38% samples were identified positive with at least one of the two methods. 127 samples (134 identified microorganisms were positive with both HB&L and BACTEC. 14 HB&L+/BACTEC− and 6 BACTEC+/HB&L− were identified. Sensitivity (95.5%, specificity (99.8%, and positive (90.1% and negative predictive values (99.9% were high with HB&L considering a 3.5% annual contamination rate. Conclusion. HB&L is a rapid system for detecting microorganisms in corneal storage medium in addition to the existing methods.

  2. Prevalence of carcass bruises as an indicator of welfare in beef cattle and the relation to the economic impact.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huertas, S.M.; van Eerdenburg, F.J.C.M.; Gil, A.; Piaggio, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize bruises in bovine carcasses in Uruguay and to evaluate the economic impact. Thirteen abattoirs were visited during 2 years and bruises were identified, classified, and quantified by zone and degree (depth and size). One hundred carcasses were separated

  3. Carcass and meat quality traits in Nellore and F1 Nellore-Araguaia crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, N V; Aboujaoude, C; Vieira, G S; Paiva, V V; Moraes Neto, R A; Gondim, V S; Alves, L R; Torres, M C L; Antunes, R C

    2015-05-22

    We evaluated and compared carcass traits and meat quality in Nellore cattle and F1 crosses between Nellore and Araguaia, where 17 individuals were from the Nellore group and 19 were ½ Nellore and ½ Araguaia crosses. All animals belonged to the same birth season and were raised in pasture systems under the same nutritional, environmental, and management conditions. When the animals reached slaughter weight, they were taken to an industrial slaughterhouse where food was not provided for 24 h (free access to water); they were then stunned, bled, the leather was removed, and they were eviscerated. The carcasses were weighed (hot weight), kept in chilled storage for approximately 24 h at 4°C, and weighed again to obtain the chilled carcass weight. Carcass yield, carcass length, carcass width, leg length, thigh perimeter, loin eye area (LEA), retail cuts, cooling loss, pH, fat depth, marbling rate, intramuscular fat, color, and shear force were analyzed and sensory analysis of the meat was conducted. Significant differences (P meat's sensory characteristics, but contributed to an improvement in carcass traits, providing an alternative for farmers that aim for good meat quality, with a higher meat percentage.

  4. Carcass enrichment detects Salmonella from broiler carcasses found to be negative by other sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most frequently used methods to recover Salmonella from processed broiler chicken carcasses involve carcass rinsing or neck skin maceration. These methods are nondestructive and practical, but have limited sensitivity. The standard carcass rinse method uses only 7.5% of the residual rinsate an...

  5. A microbiological evaluation of the use of denture cleansers in combination with an oral rinse in complete denture patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Murali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim : Patients with complete dentures more occasionally neglect their denture and oral health by improper maintenance of dentures, resulting in bad oral and denture hygiene. This may lead to a host of multiple local and systemic problems such as stomatitis, bacterial and fungal infections, reservoirs for distant infections, denture stains and bad breath. Most denture wearers maintain their dentures with simple manual cleansing methods, which are not adequate to effectively sanitize the reservoir of microorganisms inhabiting the denture surfaces. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of the use of a denture cleanser and compare it with an adjunct use of chlorhexidine mouth rinse along with the denture cleanser and possibly suggest it as a suitable protocol. Materials and Methods : Two groups of complete denture patients were selected for the study. The total number of patients in each group was 12 and the total period of the study was 21 days. Three sets of microbiological samples were collected from each patient: before the start of the study, on day 8 and on day 21 of the study. The first sample was collected after an initial washover period (7 days with plain water before the start of the study and the second set after 1 week of study initiation, where group-1 followed protocol-I (denture cleanser only and group-2 followed protocol-II (denture cleanser and mouth rinse. A second washout period of 7 days followed and a crossover of the protocol was performed for the groups and followed for 1 week. Then, a third set of samples were collected. The colony-forming units were calculated for each patient for each sample and statistically analyzed. Friedman test for non-parametric analysis was employed for the comparison within the groups and a Mann-Whitney test was used for the statistical comparison between the groups. Results : There was a definite reduction in the bacterial numbers and a significant statistical difference

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with carcass traits in a population of Brahman and Brahman-influenced steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, A M; Shivers, C; Riley, D G; Elzo, M A; Garcia, M D

    2016-06-21

    Brahman cattle are important in tropical regions due to their ability to tolerate excessive heat and parasites. However, Brahman cattle exhibit lower carcass quality characteristics when compared to Bos taurus breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six candidate genes for carcass quality and composition traits in a population of Brahman and Brahman-influenced steers. Steers were evaluated through the American Brahman Breeders Association carcass evaluation project in Gonzales, Texas. Carcass traits measured included hot carcass weight, ribeye area, marbling score, yield grade, quality grade, dressing percent, and Warner-Bratzler shear force score. Six previously described candidate genes were chosen for SNP analysis based on their previous association with growth and carcass traits. Candidate genes utilized in the current study included calpastatin (CAST), calpain (CAPN3), thyroglobulin (TG), growth hormone, insulin growth factor 1, and adiponectin. Six unique SNPs from three candidate genes (TG, CAST, and CAPN3) were significantly associated (P carcass quality traits (marbling score and quality grade). A genotypic effect was observed for all significant SNPs, with differing levels of performance observed for animals inheriting different genotypes. Although multiple SNPs in the current study were significantly (P carcass traits, they should be validated in larger populations prior to implementation in selection strategies.

  7. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  8. Microbiology, philosophy and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A

    2016-09-01

    There are not only many links between microbiological and philosophical topics, but good educational reasons for microbiologists to explore the philosophical issues in their fields. I examine three broad issues of classification, causality and model systems, showing how these philosophical dimensions have practical implications. I conclude with a discussion of the educational benefits for recognising the philosophy in microbiology.

  9. Imaging techniques in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, D C; Theriot, J A

    1998-06-01

    Recent advances in optical imaging have dramatically expanded the capabilities of the light microscope and its usefulness in microbiology research. Some of these advances include improved fluorescent probes, better cameras, new techniques such as confocal and deconvolution microscopy, and the use of computers in imaging and image analysis. These new technologies have now been applied to microbiological problems with resounding success.

  10. Validation of a same-day real-time PCR method for screening of meat and carcass swabs for Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Krause, Michael; Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann

    2009-01-01

    of the published PCR methods for Salmonella have been validated in collaborative studies. This study describes a validation including comparative and collaborative trials, based on the recommendations from the Nordic organization for validation of alternative microbiological methods (NordVal) of a same-day, non......-commercial real-time PCR method for detection of Salmonella in meat and carcass swabs. Results: The comparative trial was performed against a reference method (NMKL-71:5, 1999) using artificially and naturally contaminated samples (60 minced veal and pork meat samples, 60 poultry neck-skins, and 120 pig carcass....... Partly based on results obtained in this study, the method has obtained NordVal approval for analysis of Salmonella in meat and carcass swabs. The PCR method was transferred to a production laboratory and the performance was compared with the BAX Salmonella test on 39 pork samples artificially...

  11. Evaluation of biogenic amines levels, and biochemical and microbiological characterization of Italian-type salami sold in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Lopes dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines (cadaverine, putrescine, tyramine, histamine, spermidine and spermine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and the physicochemical (moisture, lipids, proteins, pH, water activity and fixed mineral residue and microbiological (lactic acid bacteria and aerobic heterotrophic mesophilic bacteria count characteristics of six Italian-type salami brands sold in the city of Niteroi (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The salami showed lactic acid bacteria count from 5.7 to 8.6 CFU•mL-1, and heterotrophic mesophilic bacteria count from 5.8 to 8.7 CFU•mL-1. Three brands showed moisture contents above 35% and one brand had protein content below 25%. The mean values obtained for the amines were: 197.43, 143.29, 73.02, 4.52, 90.66 and 36.17 mg•kg-1 for tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, histamine, and spermine respectively. Two brands presented histamine contents above the legal limit established in 100 mg•kg-1. We concluded that the evaluated salami presented a wide variation in the count of the bacterial groups with a predominance of lactic acid bacteria. The moisture contents indicate insufficient drying before commercialization and protein content had values below the minimum limit determined by the Brazilian legislation. Finally, the levels of biogenic amines found could cause adverse reactions in susceptible consumers, depending of the amount and frequency of intake of these products.

  12. Evaluation of Biogenic Amines Levels, and Biochemical and Microbiological Characterization of Italian-type Salami Sold in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Luiz Felipe Lopes; Mársico, Eliane Teixeira; Lázaro, César Aquiles; Teixeira, Rose; Doro, Laís

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines (cadaverine, putrescine, tyramine, histamine, spermidine and spermine) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the physicochemical (moisture, lipids, proteins, pH, water activity and fixed mineral residue) and microbiological (lactic acid bacteria and aerobic heterotrophic mesophilic bacteria count) characteristics of six Italian-type salami brands sold in the city of Niteroi (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). The salami showed lactic acid bacteria count from 5.7 to 8.6 CFU•mL-1, and heterotrophic mesophilic bacteria count from 5.8 to 8.7 CFU•mL-1. Three brands showed moisture contents above 35% and one brand had protein content below 25%. The mean values obtained for the amines were: 197.43, 143.29, 73.02, 4.52, 90.66 and 36.17 mg•kg-1 for tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, histamine, and spermine respectively. Two brands presented histamine contents above the legal limit established in 100 mg•kg-1. We concluded that the evaluated salami presented a wide variation in the count of the bacterial groups with a predominance of lactic acid bacteria. The moisture contents indicate insufficient drying before commercialization and protein content had values below the minimum limit determined by the Brazilian legislation. Finally, the levels of biogenic amines found could cause adverse reactions in susceptible consumers, depending of the amount and frequency of intake of these products. PMID:27800400

  13. [Environmental microbiological control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Salas, Carmen; Tordoya Titichoca, Igberto J; Ezpeleta Baquedano, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    The environmental microbiological control is necessary to prevent infections associated with certain procedures that are performed at the hospital. In this review the procedures for control of water and dialysis fluids, and air in operating rooms and immunocompromised units are addressed. The dialysis quality management guidelines define the highest levels of chemical, microbiological and endotoxin in purified water and dialysis fluids based on the recommendations of scientific societies. The microbiological control of water and dialysis fluids should include detection of microorganisms and endotoxin levels. Regarding the microbiological air sampling of operating rooms and immunocompromised units the types of clean rooms in which is recommended to perform microbiological air monitoring; the sample collection methods; culture media; incubation conditions; the most common microorganisms, and permissible levels depending on the type of surgery are described.

  14. Deer carcass decomposition and potential scavenger exposure to chronic wasting disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennelle, C.S.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Berkley, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy afflicting the Cervidae family in North America, causing neurodegeneration and ultimately death. Although there are no reports of natural cross-species transmission of CWD to noncervids, infected deer carcasses pose a potential risk of CWD exposure for other animals. We placed 40 disease-free white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses and 10 gut piles in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin (USA) from September to April in 2003 through 2005. We used photos from remotely operated cameras to characterize scavenger visitation and relative activity. To evaluate factors driving the rate of carcass removal (decomposition), we used KaplanMeier survival analysis and a generalized linear mixed model. We recorded 14 species of scavenging mammals (6 visiting species) and 14 species of scavenging birds (8 visiting species). Prominent scavengers included American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). We found no evidence that deer consumed conspecific remains, although they visited gut piles more often than carcasses relative to temporal availability in the environment. Domestic dogs, cats, and cows either scavenged or visited carcass sites, which could lead to human exposure to CWD. Deer carcasses persisted for 18 days to 101 days depending on the season and year, whereas gut piles lasted for 3 days. Habitat did not influence carcass decomposition, but mammalian and avian scavenger activity and higher temperatures were positively associated with faster removal. Infected deer carcasses or gut piles can serve as potential sources of CWD prions to a variety of scavengers. In areas where surveillance for CWD exposure is practical, management agencies should consider strategies for testing primary scavengers of deer carcass material.

  15. Salmonella Detection and Aerobic Colony Count in Deep-Frozen Carcasses of House Sparrow (Passer Domesticus) and Starling (Sturnus Vulgaris) Intended for Human Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, Alessandra; Braggio, Simonetta; Manfreda, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Wild birds are potential vehicles of zoonotic pathogen transmission to humans. The zoonotic concern increases for small wild birds like house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) which are hunted in developing countries and commercialised in Italy for human consumption. From June to October 2011, 330 house sparrows and 140 starlings were hunted and slaughtered. Deep-frozen carcasses were transported to Italy and stored for 6-8 months at -18°C. Aerobic colony count and Salmonella detection in carcasses were assessed following standard microbiological methods (ISO 4833:2003 and ISO 6579:2004, respectively). Carcasses of house sparrows showed higher levels of aerobic bacteria in comparison to starling carcasses (5.7 vs 3.2 log10 CFU/g). Moreover, 7 out of 11 lots of carcasses of house sparrows were positive for Salmonella. Among the 18 isolates of Salmonella, 14 were S. Typhimurium, 2 were S. Enteritidis, and 2 were not distinguishable. All of them were susceptible to antibiotics. All tested carcasses of starling were Salmonella negative. Deep-freezing was not efficient as a decontamination technique on carcasses of house sparrows.

  16. Trends in the microbial contamination of bovine, ovine and swine carcasses in three small-scale abattoirs in central Italy: A four-year monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Osimani, Andrea; Pasquini, Marina; Clementi, Francesca; Vetrano, Vittorio; Paolini, Francesca; Foglini, Martina; Micci, Eleonora; Paoloni, Alberto; Tonucci, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The microbial contamination of animal carcasses with respect to the limits established by Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 was investigated. Bovine, ovine, and swine carcasses (n=536 samples) from three small-scale abattoirs were sampled using abrasive sponges and tested for aerobic colony counts (ACC) and Enterobacteriaceae in the period 2010-2013. Mean ACC values reached 1.96 log cfu/cm(2) on bovine carcasses and 2.27 log cfu/cm(2) on both swine and ovine carcasses; Enterobacteriaceae counts of 0.01, 0.20 and 0.27 log cfu/cm(2) were found for bovine, swine and ovine carcasses, respectively. Abattoir 1 showed the highest values of ACC; no differences among abattoirs were highlighted for Enterobacteriaceae. Compared with swine and ovine carcasses, bovine carcasses showed significantly lower means for both ACC and Enterobacteriaceae. The data collected indicated that the management of the three abattoirs met high quality standards, thereby proving that it is feasible to achieve good microbiological quality in abattoirs when adequate Good Hygiene Practices are applied.

  17. [Evaluation of common commercial systems for the identification of yeast isolates in microbiology laboratories: a multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabıçak, Nilgün; Uludağ Altun, Hatice; Karatuna, Onur; Hazırolan, Gülşen; Aksu, Neriman; Adiloğlu, Ali; Akyar, Işın

    2015-04-01

    Accurate and rapid identification of yeast isolates have become important in recent years for not only antifungal susceptibility testing due to the species-specific clinical resistance breakpoints but also early initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy. In clinical microbiology laboratories species identification of yeasts is often performed with several commercial systems based on biochemical properties and rarely according to the physiological and morphological characteristics. The aim of this study was to compare the two common commercial systems, VITEK 2 YST ID Card (Vitek; bioMérieux, France) and API 20C AUX (API; bioMérieux, France) with conventional mycological methods. A total of 473 clinical yeast strains isolated from clinical specimens in different university and training/research hospitals and identified by Vitek system were included in the study. The isolates were re-identified with API and conventional methods including morphological identification in the Mycology Reference Laboratory of the Public Health Institute of Turkey. Candida dubliniensis MYA 583, Candida krusei ATCC 6258, Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019, Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 32268 were used as quality control strains and those standard strains were studied consecutively 10 days with both of the methods. The results of identification by Vitek and API were compared with the results of conventional methods for those 473 yeast isolates [6 genus (Candida, Cryptococcus, Blastoshizomyces, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces, Trichosporon), 17 species (5 common and 12 rarely isolated)]. The performances of the systems were better (Vitek: 95%; API: 96%) for the commonly detected species (C.albicans, C.parapsilosis, C.glabrata, C.tropicalis and C.krusei) than those for rarely detected species (Vitek: 78.4%; API: 71.6%) (p= 0.155). Misidentification or unidentification were mostly detected for C.parapsilosis (Vitek: 6/87; API: 7/87) and C.glabrata (Vitek: 9/104; API

  18. Effects of birth type and family on the variation of carcass and meat traits in Santa Ines sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jucá, Adriana de Farias; Faveri, Juliana Cantos; Melo Filho, Geraldo Magalhães; Ribeiro Filho, Antônio de Lisboa; Azevedo, Hymerson Costa; Muniz, Evandro Neves; Pedrosa, Victor Breno; Pinto, Luís Fernando Batista

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of birth type and family on quantitative and qualitative meat traits in Santa Ines lambs and to do a descriptive study of variation inside of breed. A total of 50 carcass and meat traits were evaluated in up to 101 lambs slaughtered at 424 days of age. Random effect of family, the fixed effect of birth type (single or double) and year, and the covariates of dam's weight at weaning and age (in days) at slaughter were inserted in the model. This study shows that some carcass and meat traits in Santa Ines raised on pasture has large variability, specially for meat cut yields, several carcass non-components yields, and rib eye area, subcutaneous fat thickness, shear force, cooking losses, and b* color parameter. The birth type effect influenced (P < 0.05) rump width; reticulum, leg, heart and kidney yields; and the carcass pH at 24 h after slaughter. The family effect was significant (P < 0.05) for cold carcass weight; hot, cold and true carcass yields; external carcass and leg lengths; perimeter and width of the rump; kidney, liver and tail yields; and carcass pH at slaughter.

  19. Carcass characteristics, meat quality, feeding behavior of Nelore heifers fed diets containing sunflower pie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Regina Alves

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the feeding behavior, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nelore heifers fed sunflower pie replacing cottonseed meal. They were used 30 heifers with average initial weight of 274 kg ± 28 kg and average age of 24 months, confined for 76 days. The design was completely randomized with five treatments (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 g kg-1 DM and six replicates per treatment. By completing 24 hours after slaughter, it evaluated muscle conformation and degree of finish made the longissimus dorsi at the 13th rib. A representative sample between the 10th and 12th ribs was collected for evaluation of the physical components of carcasses. As well as the other variables, the hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, carcass length and rib eye area were not influenced by different pie levels in feed. The mean percentage of muscle, bone and fat from the carcass were 53.45; 16.14 and 29.46%, respectively, similar among treatments. Therefore, the use of up to 600 g kg-1 of sunflower pie replacing cottonseed meal as the main protein source, did not affect the carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nelore heifers.

  20. USDA yield grades and various carcass traits as predictors of carcass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, D K; Smith, G C; Savell, J W; Murphey, C E; Carpenter, Z L; McKeith, F K; Johnson, D D

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five carcasses from each of three breedtypes (Brahman, Angus and Brahman × Angus) were physically separated into fat, lean and bone. Several muscles from the round and the femur were used to derive equations to predict carcass composition and muscle-to-bone ratio. The femur (as a percentage of the carcass) was shown to predict percentage carcass bone with 90% accuracy. All of the muscles studied were highly related to total carcass lean but the percentage of carcass as M. biceps femoris was the best single muscle indicator of carcass lean of the muscles studied. More variation in carcass lean could be accounted for by a multiple regression equation, involving all four muscles studied, than by any single muscle. M. biceps femoris-to-femur ratio was found to predict carcass muscle-to-bone ratio with a high degree of accuracy. The USDA yield grades were found to be reliable indicators of carcass composition. A two-variable equation involving adjusted fat thickness and biceps femoris accounted for 88·6% of the variation (RSD = 1/·64) in percentage of carcass as separable lean.

  1. Instrumental colour classification of veal carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, B.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.; Merkus, G.S.M.; Klont, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments, involving over 56 000 veal carcasses, were carried out to develop a method for instrumental colour classification of veal carcasses at 45 min post mortem with the Minolta CR300. The method should produce results similar to those of the 10-point colour-system, which is currently in

  2. [Evaluation of the methodological quality of the Rémic (microbiology guidelines - bacteriology and mycology) of the Société française de microbiologie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonfrède, Michèle; Couaillac, Jean Paul; Augereau, Christine; De Moüy, Danny; Lepargneur, Jean Pierre; Szymanowicz, Anton; Watine, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    We have evaluated the methodological quality of the Rémic (microbiology guidelines - bacteriology and mycology) of the Société française de microbiologie (edition2007), using to AGREE criteria, which are consensual at an international level, in particular at the the World Health Organisation (WHO) and at the European Union. The methodological quality of the Rémic appears to be sub-optimal. These shortcomings in quality are mainly observed in AGREE domain n° 5 (applicability), in AGREE item n° 5 (patients' opinions were not considered), and in AGREE item n° 23 (conflicts of interest were not declared). The users of the Rémic must be aware of these few methodological shortcomings in order for them to be careful before they put its recommendation in practice. In conclusion, we advise the editors of the Rémic to insert at least a methodological chapter in their next edition.

  3. Evaluation of Chemical and Microbiological Quality in 21 Brands of Iranian Bottled Drinking Waters in 2012: A Comparison Study on Label and Real Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moazeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare chemical and microbiological quality of the 21 Iranian bottled drinking waters reported on manufacturer's labeling and standards in 2012. Samples were analyzed for chemical properties K+, F−, SO4 2−, Cl−, Mg2+, Ca2+, and pH. Total and fecal coliform and heterotrophic plate counts of selected samples were analyzed by MPN and HPC tests, respectively, for three months. Finally, the labeled and real contents of the samples were compared. Potassium and sulfate ions about 43 and 52 percent of studied sample contents had values higher than label amounts, respectively. Ca2+, Cl− ions, and pH were about 71, 48, and 67 percent, respectively, less than label values. Total and fecal coliforms had negative results. The mean concentrations and standard deviations for K+, Cl−, pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO4 2−, and HPC were 1.13 ± 1.06, 16.39 ± 31.97, 6.6 ± 0.7, 28.35 ± 10.34, 86.58 ± 33.21, 24.17 ± 17.30 mg/L, and 16855 ± 25603 cfu/mL, respectively. Thus, there is possibility of microorganisms’ growth in favorite conditions in bottled water. It was imperative to assess the public health risks in bottled water in Iran.

  4. European journals on microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, C; Vázquez, M

    1997-12-01

    A survey on the scientific journals dealing with microbiology published in Europe has been carried out. Eighteen European countries publish microbiological journals with the United Kingdom. Netherlands and Germany leading in number of journals on this specialty. Most of the European journals on microbiology are published bimonthly (27%), and English is the most common language used (54%). Most of these journals (86%) are included in some database, but only 36 (25%) are indexed in the six databases studied. Out of the 146 journals registered, 71 (49%), published in 11 European countries, are included in the 1995 Journal Citation Reports (ISI, Philadelphia).

  5. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  6. Investigating the impact of large carcass feeding on the behavior of captive Andean condors (Vultur gryphus) and its perception by zoo visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaengler, Hannah; Clum, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Naturalistic feeding methods, such as the provision of whole carcasses to zoo animals, are potentially controversial because zoo visitors might not approve of them. However, since several species of zoo animals feed from large carcasses in the wild, this food type could benefit their welfare in captivity compared to other less-natural food types. Scavengers in particular almost exclusively live on carcasses in nature; therefore, their welfare in captivity could significantly depend on the opportunity to express behaviors related to carcass feeding. In this study, we assessed the frequency of carcass feeding for vultures in North American zoos and investigated the effect of different food types on the behavior of zoo-housed Andean condors (Vultur gryphus). We also evaluated the opinion of North American zoo visitors about carcass feeding. Our results show that small whole carcasses (rats, rabbits) are part of the diet of vultures in most North American zoos, but large whole carcasses (ungulates) are rarely fed. Our behavioral study indicated that Andean condors appear to be more motivated to feed on more natural food types, which also seem to physically engage the birds more and occupy them longer. Most zoo visitors approved of carcass feeding for captive vultures over a range of prey animals, and the majority would also like to observe the vultures eat. Collectively, our results demonstrate that carcass feeding, particularly with larger prey, potentially enriches both zoo-housed vultures as well as the visitor experience.

  7. Microbiology: a dangerous profession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueras, Mercè

    2007-09-01

    The history of science contains many cases of researchers who have died because of their professional activity. In the field of microbiology, some have died or have come close to death from infection by agents that were the subject of their research (Table 1). Infections that had a lethal outcome were usually accidental. Sometimes, however, researchers inoculated themselves with the pathogen or did not take preventive measures against the potential pathogen because they wanted to prove their hypotheses--or disprove someone else's--regarding the origin of the infection. Here is an overview of several episodes in the history of microbiology since the mid nineteenth century involving researchers or workers in fields related to microbiology who have become infected. They are considered here in their historical context to provide insights into some of the pillars of modern microbiology--The giants on whose shoulders several generations of microbiologists have stood to see further.

  8. Do termites avoid carcasses? Behavioral responses depend on the nature of the carcasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Boon Neoh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Undertaking behavior is a significant adaptation to social life in enclosed nests. Workers are known to remove dead colony members from the nest. Such behavior prevents the spread of pathogens that may be detrimental to a colony. To date, little is known about the ethological aspects of how termites deal with carcasses. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we tested the responses to carcasses of four species from different subterranean termite taxa: Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe (lower termites and Microcerotermes crassus Snyder and Globitermes sulphureus Haviland (higher termites. We also used different types of carcasses (freshly killed, 1-, 3-, and 7-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses and mutilated nestmates to investigate whether the termites exhibited any behavioral responses that were specific to carcasses in certain conditions. Some behavioral responses were performed specifically on certain types of carcasses or mutilated termites. C. formosanus and R. speratus exhibited the following behaviors: (1 the frequency and time spent in antennating, grooming, and carcass removal of freshly killed, 1-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses were high, but these behaviors decreased as the carcasses aged; (2 the termites repeatedly crawled under the aging carcass piles; and (3 only newly dead termites were consumed as a food source. In contrast, M. crassus and G. sulphureus workers performed relatively few behavioral acts. Our results cast a new light on the previous notion that termites are necrophobic in nature. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the behavioral response towards carcasses depends largely on the nature of the carcasses and termite species, and the response is more complex than was previously thought. Such behavioral responses likely are associated with the threat posed to the colony by the carcasses and the feeding habits and nesting ecology of a given species.

  9. Clinical microbiology informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Daniel D; Sintchenko, Vitali; Rauch, Carol A; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-10-01

    The clinical microbiology laboratory has responsibilities ranging from characterizing the causative agent in a patient's infection to helping detect global disease outbreaks. All of these processes are increasingly becoming partnered more intimately with informatics. Effective application of informatics tools can increase the accuracy, timeliness, and completeness of microbiology testing while decreasing the laboratory workload, which can lead to optimized laboratory workflow and decreased costs. Informatics is poised to be increasingly relevant in clinical microbiology, with the advent of total laboratory automation, complex instrument interfaces, electronic health records, clinical decision support tools, and the clinical implementation of microbial genome sequencing. This review discusses the diverse informatics aspects that are relevant to the clinical microbiology laboratory, including the following: the microbiology laboratory information system, decision support tools, expert systems, instrument interfaces, total laboratory automation, telemicrobiology, automated image analysis, nucleic acid sequence databases, electronic reporting of infectious agents to public health agencies, and disease outbreak surveillance. The breadth and utility of informatics tools used in clinical microbiology have made them indispensable to contemporary clinical and laboratory practice. Continued advances in technology and development of these informatics tools will further improve patient and public health care in the future.

  10. Effects of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (Paylean) to physical and immunological castrates (Improvest) in a commercial setting on carcass cutting yields and loin quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, B K; Gerlemann, G D; Carr, S N; Rincker, P J; Schroeder, A L; Petry, D B; McKeith, F K; Allee, G L; Dilger, A C

    2014-08-01

    Effects of feeding ractopamine (RAC; 5 mg/kg) to physically castrated (PC) and immunologically castrated (IC) pigs on carcass characteristics, cutting yields, and loin quality were evaluated using 285 carcasses. Male pigs were randomly assigned to sex treatments (PC and IC) at birth and fed the same nursery diets before allotment into 32 pens with 22 pigs per pen in a grow-finish barn. Pigs in the PC group were physically castrated at approximately 5 d of age, and pigs in the IC group were administered Improvest at 11 and 18 wk of age. Diet treatments (control or RAC) were initiated on study d 87. Pigs were marketed at 12 d (4.5 wk post-second Improvest dose), 19 d (5.5 wk post-second Improvest dose), and 33 d (7.5 wk post-second Improvest dose) following the start of final diet treatments. Three carcasses per pen were selected for evaluation of cutting yields and loin quality. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS with fixed effects of sex, diet, market group, and their interaction; carcass (N = 285) was the experimental unit. Carcasses from RAC-fed pigs were heavier (P cutting yields, RAC-fed carcasses had greater (P ≤ 0.03) bone-in lean and total carcass cutting yields than control-fed carcasses while there were no differences (P > 0.05) between RAC-fed and control-fed carcasses when evaluating LM color, marbling, firmness, pH, drip loss, and tenderness. Carcasses from IC pigs had greater (P cutting yields than PC carcasses. There were minimal differences (P cutting yields, LM color, marbling and firmness scores, pH, purge loss, composition, and tenderness. The results from this study indicated RAC and immunological castration were additive in terms of improving carcass cutting yields while having minimal effects on pork quality.

  11. Effect of nucleotides on broiler performance and carcass yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Pelícia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of nucleotides on the performance and carcass yield of broilers fed diets with no antibiotic growth promoters (AGP, anticoccidials, or animal feedstuffs. In the trial, 600 Ross 308 male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CD, CD + AGP, CD + 0.04%, CD + 0.05%, CD + 0.06%, and CD + 0.07% nucleotides. The experimental diets did not contain anticoccidials, and birds were vaccinated against coccidiosis at three days of age. No significant differences were detected among broilers submitted to the different treatments in none of the studied parameters. Under the conditions of this experiment, diets supplemented with nucleotides did not influence broiler performance or carcass yield at 42 days of age, and were not different from the feeds not containing any additive or with AGP.

  12. Genetic analysis of calf market weight and carcass traits in Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojo, M; Okanishi, T; Anada, K; Oyama, K; Mukai, F

    2006-10-01

    Heritabilities of and genetic correlations between additive direct and maternal genetic effects for calf market weight, and additive direct genetic effects for carcass traits, were estimated for Japanese Black cattle by REML procedures under 2-trait animal models. Data were collected from calf and carcass markets in Hyogo and Tottori prefectures and analyzed separately by prefecture. Calf market weight was measured on 42,745 and 23,566 calves in Hyogo and Tottori, respectively. Only the fattening animals with calf market weight were extracted from the carcass database and used for estimation. The carcass traits analyzed were carcass weight, ribeye area, rib thickness, subcutaneous fat thickness, yield estimate, beef marbling score, and 4 meat characters (color, brightness, firmness, and texture). Direct and maternal heritabilities for calf market weight were estimated to be 0.22 and 0.07 in Hyogo, and 0.37 and 0.15 in Tottori, respectively. The estimates of heritabilities for carcass traits were moderate to high in both prefectures. The estimates of direct-maternal genetic correlations for calf market weight were positive (0.17) in Hyogo and negative (-0.63) in Tottori. The direct effect for calf market weight was positively correlated with the direct effect for carcass weight (0.87 and 0.56 in Hyogo and Tottori, respectively) but negatively correlated with the direct effect for beef marbling score (-0.10 in both prefectures). The estimates of genetic correlations between the maternal effect for calf market weight and the direct effects for carcass traits varied from -0.13 to 0.34 in Hyogo and from -0.14 to 0.15 in Tottori. Because direct and maternal genetic effects for early growth traits can be evaluated from calf market weight data in the production system of Japanese Black cattle, this information should be incorporated into selection and mating schemes of the breed.

  13. Performance, carcass traits and costs of Suffolk lambs finishing systems with early weaning and controlled suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rodrigo Fernandes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The performance, carcass traits and finishing costs of Suffolk lambs were evaluated in three systems: (1 lambs weaned with 22 kg of body weight (BW and supplemented with concentrate on pasture until slaughter; (2 lambs weaned with 22 kg BW and fed in feedlot until slaughter; (3 lambs maintained in controlled nursing after 22 kg BW and creep fed in feedlot until slaughter. Average daily gain (ADG was 224 g/d for lambs weaned and supplemented with concentrate on pasture, 386 g/d for lambs weaned in feedlot and 481 g/d for lambs under controlled nursing. Empty body weight and visceral fat deposition were highest in lambs from feedlot systems. Carcass weights and carcass yields were highest for lambs in controlled nursing. Finishing total costs were highest in controlled nursing and lowest in the system with weaning in feedlot. High concentrate diet associated with controlled nursing in feedlot allowed lambs to reach the growth potential and carcasses with higher weights, higher yields and higher fat content. After weaning, lambs in feedlot fed with high concentrate diet had higher weight gain than lambs supplemented with concentrate on pasture. Carcasses produced under these two systems presented the same characteristics. The system with weaning in feedlot showed the lowest cost per kg carcass.

  14. Effects of polyethylene film wrap on cooler shrink and the microbial status of beef carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Guilherme S L; Pflanzer-Júnior, Sérgio B; Roça, Roberto de O; Casagrande, Leandro; Bedeschi, Elaine A; Padovani, Carlos R; Miguel, Giulianna Z; Santos, Carolina T; Girão, Lucio V C; Miranda, Zander B; Franco, Robson M

    2015-02-01

    The present study evaluated the use of polyethylene film wrapping of beef half carcasses and its effects on cooler shrink, cooling characteristics and microbial status of the half carcasses. Film wrapping reduced cooler shrink by 55.2%, 43.1%, 36.0% and 30% after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of cooling, respectively, compared to the unwrapped half carcasses, whereas the surface water activity showed no significant differences among the time periods. The wrapped half carcasses had a lower cooling rate and higher surface and internal temperatures. The highest values of the aerobic mesophiles, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacteriaceae were found in the half carcasses wrapped in film. No significant differences were found in the values of Escherichia coli. The polyethylene film was effective in reducing cooler shrink; however, it caused a delay in cooling, thereby enabling greater microbial occurrences and counts and impairing the hygienic and sanitary conditions of the carcasses, which may be an impediment to the practical application of this technology.

  15. 9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anthrax; carcasses not to be...-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.9 Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses...; general cleanup and disinfection. (a) Carcasses found before evisceration to be affected with...

  16. Heterogeneity of variances for carcass traits by percentage Brahman inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, D H; Franke, D E

    1998-07-01

    covariances estimated from the model accounting for heterogeneous variances resulted in genetic correlations of or near unity. These results suggest that different genetic values be considered for genetic evaluation of carcass yield and shear force traits from steers with different degrees of Brahman inheritance.

  17. Evaluating the efficacy of three USDA-approved antimicrobial sprays for reducing surrogate Shiga toxin-producing cells of "Escherichia coli on bob veal carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have recently been recognized as a problem for the veal industry, suggesting the need for effective antimicrobial intervention strategies throughout processing. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of lactic acid (4.5%), Citrilow™ (pH 1.2), and Beefxide®...

  18. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540 Microbiological... intended for medical purposes to cultivate microorganisms and aid in the diagnosis of disease....

  19. Biochemical and microbiological evaluation of the water samples collected from different areas of district Kohat and Mohamand Agency, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaz Ali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of drinking water sources mainly due to microorganisms is the major problem in many areas of Pakistan. Pakistan is also facing the problem of contamination of drinking water which greatly affects human health and quality of life. The most important component of human beings for living is water. Therefore, it is important to analyze drinking water quality mostly in developing countries as the local people are mostly unaware of the water pollution. In this study, twenty three samples of water were analyzed during a 3-month period from the well and lake water supplies of different areas of Kohat and Mohamand Agency. The bacteriological evaluation was done and several tests were performed such as Total Plate Count, Coliform, Feacal coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli and Biochemical test. In this study, thirteen samples were in the normal range and 10 samples were out of safety ranges fixed by World Health Organization (WHO. The water which was not fit for drinking can be a consistent risk of the infectious diseases and continuous assessment and purification strategies should be developed in these areas to reduce the microbial contamination. The proper training by the local public authorities is required to educate the local community about water pollution, their causes and preventive measures in order to improve the health status of the people in the regions.

  20. Quality characteristics and microbiological safety evaluation of oils extracted from gamma irradiated almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatti, I. A.; Iqbal, M.; Anwar, F.; Shanid, S. A.; Shahid, M.

    2013-05-01

    The physicochemical attributes and microbial decontamination of oils extracted from gamma-irradiated almond (Mission and Price varieties) seeds, to the absorbed doses of 2-10 kGy, have been evaluated. Gamma irradiation exerted no considerable effect on the proximate seed composition. The physicochemical properties such as density and refractive index of the oils, extracted from gammairradieted seeds, were almost unaffected; the iodine value decreased while saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acids increased. The oxidative status and tocopherol content of almond oils were negatively affected while the fatty acid profile slightly changed due to irradiation stress. Interestingly, these effects on the oil quality attributes were more pronounced at higher irradiation doses (> 6 kGy). Besides, microbial contamination was completely eliminated in the oils irradiated to an absorbed dose of 6.0 kGy. It could be concluded from the present findings that irradiation has a considerably positive or negative effect on some attributes of the almond oil. Therefore, an appropriate magnitude of gamma irradiation should be exercised to treat almond seeds in order to retain maximum nutritive benefits. (Author) 52 refs.

  1. Comparison of real-time polymerase chain reaction and DNA-strip technology in microbiological evaluation of periodontitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Sigrun; Straube, Anna; Guentsch, Arndt; Pfister, Wolfgang; Jentsch, Holger

    2011-01-01

    The impact of a semiquantitative commercially available test based on DNA-strip technology (microIDent®, Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany) on diagnosis and treatment of severe chronic periodontitis of 25 periodontitis patients was evaluated in comparison with a quantitative in-house real-time PCR. Subgingival plaque samples were collected at baseline as well as at 3, 6, and 12 months later. After extracting DNA, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and several other periodontopathogens were determined by both methods. The results obtained by DNA-strip technology were analyzed semiquantitatively and additionally quantitatively by densitometry. The results for the 4 major periodontopathogenic bacterial species correlated significantly between the 2 methods. Samples detecting a high bacterial load by one method and negative by the other were always found in less than 2% of the total samples. Both technologies showed the impact of treatment on microflora. Especially the semiquantitative DNA-strip technology clearly analyzed the different loads of periodontopathogens after therapy and is useful in microbial diagnostics for patients in dental practices.

  2. Microbiological evaluation of different irrigation protocols on root canal disinfection in teeth with apical periodontitis: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohenca, Nestor; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Heilborn, Carlos; Watanabe, Evandro; Saraiva, Maria Conceição Pereira

    2013-01-01

    The present in vivo study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of apical negative pressure irrigation (ANP), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and positive pressure irrigation (PP) in the reduction of intracanal bacteria of dogs' teeth with pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis. Eighty root canals were randomly distributed into 3 experimental and 2 control groups according to the irrigation delivery system: group ANP (n=20), group PUI (n=20), group PP (n=20), group PC (positive control - sterile saline irrigation; n=10) and group NC (negative control - vital pulps not subjected to bacterial inoculation; n=10). The first sample (S1) was collected at baseline, and the second sample (S2) was collected after the disinfection protocols. All samples were seeded in culture media for anaerobic bacteria. CFU counts were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis, Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner post-hoc and Chi-square followed by Tukey like multiple comparisons for proportions (α=0.05). All experimental groups were effective in reducing Gram-positive bacteria compared with PC (p0.05). In dog's teeth with apical periodontitis, the use of ANP and PUI can be considered promising disinfection protocols as both delivery systems promoted a significant bacterial reduction.

  3. Teaching microbiological food safety through case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Dubois-Brissonnet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Higher education students usually ask for more training based on case studies. This was addressed by designing a specific food safety module (24 hours in which students were shown how to predict microbiological risks in food products i.e. they were asked to determine product shelf-life according to product formulation, preservation methods and consumption habits using predictive microbiology tools. Working groups of four students first identified the main microbiological hazards associated with a specific product. To perform this task, they were given several documents including guides for good hygiene practices, reviews on microbiological hazards in the food sector, flow sheets, etc…  After three-hours of work, the working groups prepared and gave an oral presentation in front of their classmates and professors. This raised comments and discussion that allowed students to adjust their conclusions before beginning the next step of their work. This second step consisted in the evaluation of the safety risk associated with the two major microbiological hazards of the product studied, using predictive microbiology. Students then attended a general lecture on the different tools of predictive microbiology and tutorials (6 hours that made them familiar with the modelling of bacterial growth or inactivation. They applied these tools (9 hours to predict the shelf-life of the studied product according to various scenarios of preservation (refrigeration, water activity, concentration of salt or acid, modified atmosphere, etc… and/or consumption procedures (cooking. The module was concluded by oral presentations of each working group and included student evaluation (3 hours.

  4. EVALUASI MUTU KIMIA, FISIKA DAN MIKROBIOLOGI NIRA AREN (Arenga pinnata SELAMA PENYIMPANAN Chemical, Physical, Microbiology Property Evaluation of Neera (Arenga pinnata during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Mulyawanti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the changes of quality of neera during storage after process improvement withfiltration and pasteurization. Research conducted using completely randomized design with factorial pattern. Factor treatment were filtering (coarse sieve, sieve 40 mesh, and without filtering, pasteurization (pasteurization and without pasteurization, and storage at room temperature (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 , and 15 hours and performed as many as 3 replication. Observations were carried out for the quality of chemical, physical and microbiological. The results showed that the handling of juice with coarse filtration using filter and pasteurization can maintain the stability of palm juice for 15 hours in storage at room temperature, with a sucrose content was 14.48 %, TSS was 16.4 ° Briks, alcohol was 1,39 % , total acid was 0.182 %, pH was 6.82, viscosity was 14.53 cp, bias index was 1.355 nd, and the total growth of bacteria, yeasts and molds which slowed. ABSTRAK Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi perubahan mutu nira aren selama penyimpanan setelah diberikan perbaikanproses penanganan segarnya yaitu dengan penyaringan dan pasteurisasi. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap pola faktorial dengan faktor perlakuan yaitu penyaringan (saringan kasar, saringan 40 mesh, dan tanpa penyaringan, pasteurisasi (pasteurisasi dan tanpa pasteurisasi, dan penyimpanan pada suhu ruang (0, 3,6, 9, 12, dan 15 jam serta dilakukan sebanyak 3 kali ulangan. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap mutu kimia, fisik dan mikrobiologi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penanganan nira dengan penyaringan menggunakan saringan kasar dan pasteurisasi dapat mempertahankan kestabilan nira aren selama 15 jam dalam penyimpanan di suhu ruang, dengan kandungan sukrosa 14,48 %, TSS 16,4 °Briks, total alkohol 1,39 %, total asam 0,182 %, pH 6,82, viskositas 14,53 cp, indeks bias 1,355 nd, dan pertumbuhan total bakteri, khamir dan kapang yang diperlambat.

  5. Clinical, Radiographic and Microbiological Evaluation of High Level Laser Therapy, a New Photodynamic Therapy Protocol, in Peri-Implantitis Treatment; a Pilot Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Caccianiga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Endosseous implants are widely used to replace missing teeth but mucositis and peri-implantitis are the most frequent long-term complications related with dental implants. Removing all bacterial deposits on contaminated implant surface is very difficult due to implant surface morphology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal potential of photodynamic therapy by using a new high level laser irradiation protocol associated with hydrogen peroxide in peri-implantitis. Materials and Methods. 10 patients affected by peri-implantitis were selected for this study. Medical history, photographic documentation, periodontal examination, and periapical radiographs were collected at baseline and 6 months after surgery. Microbiological analysis was performed with PCR Real Time. Each patient underwent nonsurgical periodontal therapy and surgery combined with photodynamic therapy according to High Level Laser Therapy protocol. Results. All peri-implant pockets were treated successfully, without having any complication and not showing significant differences in results. All clinical parameters showed an improvement, with a decrease of Plaque Index (average decrease of 65%, range 23–86%, bleeding on probing (average decrease of 66%, range 26–80%, and probing depth (average decrease of 1,6 mm, range 0,46–2,6 mm. Periapical radiographs at 6 months after surgery showed a complete radiographic filling of peri-implant defect around implants treated. Results showed a decrease of total bacterial count and of all bacterial species, except for Eikenella corrodens, 6 months after surgery. Conclusion. Photodynamic therapy using HLLT appears to be a good adjunct to surgical treatment of peri-implantitis.

  6. Applying spatial regression to evaluate risk factors for microbiological contamination of urban groundwater sources in Juba, South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Emma; Mörtberg, Ulla; Karlström, Anders; Mangold, Mikael

    2016-12-01

    This study developed methodology for statistically assessing groundwater contamination mechanisms. It focused on microbial water pollution in low-income regions. Risk factors for faecal contamination of groundwater-fed drinking-water sources were evaluated in a case study in Juba, South Sudan. The study was based on counts of thermotolerant coliforms in water samples from 129 sources, collected by the humanitarian aid organisation Médecins Sans Frontières in 2010. The factors included hydrogeological settings, land use and socio-economic characteristics. The results showed that the residuals of a conventional probit regression model had a significant positive spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I = 3.05, I-stat = 9.28); therefore, a spatial model was developed that had better goodness-of-fit to the observations. The most significant factor in this model (p-value 0.005) was the distance from a water source to the nearest Tukul area, an area with informal settlements that lack sanitation services. It is thus recommended that future remediation and monitoring efforts in the city be concentrated in such low-income regions. The spatial model differed from the conventional approach: in contrast with the latter case, lowland topography was not significant at the 5% level, as the p-value was 0.074 in the spatial model and 0.040 in the traditional model. This study showed that statistical risk-factor assessments of groundwater contamination need to consider spatial interactions when the water sources are located close to each other. Future studies might further investigate the cut-off distance that reflects spatial autocorrelation. Particularly, these results advise research on urban groundwater quality.

  7. Quality characteristics and microbiological safety evaluation of oils extracted from gamma irradiated almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid, S. A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical attributes and microbial decontamination of oils extracted from gamma-irradiated almond (Mission and Price varieties seeds, to the absorbed doses of 2-10 kGy, have been evaluated. Gamma irradiation exerted no considerable effect on the proximate seed composition. The physicochemical properties such as density and refractive index of the oils, extracted from gammairradieted seeds, were almost unaffected; the iodine value decreased while saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acids increased. The oxidative status and tocopherol content of almond oils were negatively affected while the fatty acid profile slightly changed due to irradiation stress. Interestingly, these effects on the oil quality attributes were more pronounced at higher irradiation doses (> 6 kGy. Besides, microbial contamination was completely eliminated in the oils irradiated to an absorbed dose of 6.0 kGy. It could be concluded from the present findings that irradiation has a considerably positive or negative effect on some attributes of the almond oil. Therefore, an appropriate magnitude of gamma irradiation should be exercised to treat almond seeds in order to retain maximum nutritive benefits.Se ha evaluado las caracteristicas fisico-químicas y la descontaminación microbiana de aceites extraídos de semillas de almendras (variedades Misión y Price gamma-irradiadas a dosis absorbidas de 2-10 kGy. La radiación gamma no ejerce ningún efecto considerable en la composición próximal de las semillas. Las características fisico-químicas tales como la densidad y el índice de refracción de los aceites, extraídos a partir de semillas gamma-irradiadas, permanecieron casi sin afectar; el índice de yodo disminuye mientras que el valor de saponificación, la materia insaponificable y los ácidos grasos libres aumentan. El estado oxidativo y el contenido de tocoferoles de los aceites de almendra se vieron afectados negativamente, mientras

  8. Avaliação da qualidade microbiológica de hortaliças minimamente processadas Microbiological quality evaluation minimally processed vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Fernanda Metler Tresseler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A microbiota é um fator de grande importância na qualidade e conservação de vegetais minimamente processados. Muitos microrganismos podem afetar adversamente a qualidade e a segurança desses produtos, considerando que microrganismos patogênicos, que normalmente não estariam presentes, passam a compor a microbiota contaminante decorrente do manuseio a que são submetidos. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar a qualidade microbiológica de hortaliças, anterior e posteriormente ao processo de sanitização, como também o período final da vida-de-prateleira dos produtos sanitizados, avaliando-se a presença de Listeria sp., Listeria monocytogenes e Salmonella sp. Foram analisadas amostras de agrião, alface, cenoura ralada, espinafre, repolho verde ralado e rúcula minimamente processados. As amostras não sanitizadas foram analisadas no dia da coleta, e as sanitizadas analisadas a 1, 5 e 8 dias após o processamento, a fim de determinar a condição microbiológica dos produtos. As hortaliças foram armazenadas sob temperatura de 5ºC. Salmonella sp. foi detectada em 12,7% das amostras, enquanto L. monocytogenes não foi encontrada em nenhuma delas, embora outras espécies de Listeria tenham sido isoladas de alface e cenoura. A presença de Salmonella sp. tornaram 16 amostras impróprias para o consumo humano, de acordo com a RDC nº 12.The microbiota is a factor of great importance to the quality and conservation of minimally processed vegetables. Many microorganisms may adversely affect the quality and safety of these products, considering that normally present pathogenic microorganisms may eventually compose the polluting microbiota whenever being submitted to handling. This work aimed to determine both: vegetable microbiologic quality, prior and post-sanitization process as well as products post-sanitization shelf-life expiring date, while the presence of Listeria sp., Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella sp. was evaluated. The

  9. Modeling the Biological Diversity of Pig Carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen

    for extracting and modeling meaningful information from the vast amount of information available from non-invasive imaging data. The lean meat percentage (LMP) is a common standard for measuring the quality of pig carcasses. Measuring the LMP using CT and using this as a reference for calibration of online......This thesis applies methods from medical image analysis for modeling the biological diversity of pig carcasses. The Danish meat industry is very focused on improving product quality and productivity by optimizing the use of the carcasses and increasing productivity in the abattoirs. In order...... to achieve these goals there is a need for more detailed information about pig carcasses in relation to measures of quality. Non-invasive imaging such as X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) can provide this very detailed information discerning the major tissue types. Medical image analysis provides the tools...

  10. Agreement between gastrointestinal panel testing and standard microbiology methods for detecting pathogens in suspected infectious gastroenteritis: Test evaluation and meta-analysis in the absence of a reference standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Taylor-Phillips, Sian; McCarthy, Noel; Mistry, Hema; Manuel, Rohini; Mason, James

    2017-01-01

    Objective Multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) tests simultaneously identify bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens from the stool samples of patients with suspected infectious gastroenteritis presenting in hospital or the community. We undertook a systematic review to compare the accuracy of GPP tests with standard microbiology techniques. Review methods Searches in Medline, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane library were undertaken from inception to January 2016. Eligible studies compared GPP tests with standard microbiology techniques in patients with suspected gastroenteritis. Quality assessment of included studies used tailored QUADAS-2. In the absence of a reference standard we analysed test performance taking GPP tests and standard microbiology techniques in turn as the benchmark test, using random effects meta-analysis of proportions. Results No study provided an adequate reference standard with which to compare the test accuracy of GPP and conventional tests. Ten studies informed a meta-analysis of positive and negative agreement. Positive agreement across all pathogens was 0.93 (95% CI 0.90 to 0.96) when conventional methods were the benchmark and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.58 to 0.77) when GPP provided the benchmark. Negative agreement was high in both instances due to the high proportion of negative cases. GPP testing produced a greater number of pathogen-positive findings than conventional testing. It is unclear whether these additional ‘positives’ are clinically important. Conclusions GPP testing has the potential to simplify testing and accelerate reporting when compared to conventional microbiology methods. However the impact of GPP testing upon the management, treatment and outcome of patients is poorly understood and further studies are needed to evaluate the health economic impact of GPP testing compared with standard methods. The review protocol is registered with PROSPERO as CRD42016033320. PMID:28253337

  11. Avaliação de características de carcaça de suínos utilizando-se a análise dos componentes principais Evaluation of swine carcass traits using principal components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Barbosa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Dados de 367 animais de uma população F2 de suínos foram utilizados na análise estatística, utilizando-se os componentes principais, para avaliação da possibilidade de redução da dimensionalidade do espaço multivariado em 33 características de carcaça. Dos 33 componentes principais, 17 apresentaram variância inferior a 0,7 (autovalor inferior a 0,7, que sugere 17 variáveis para descarte e correlação linear simples significativa com as demais, ou seja, foram redundantes. Com base nos resultados, recomenda-se que as seguintes variáveis sejam mantidas em experimentos futuros: idade ao abate; peso da meia-carcaça direita; comprimento da carcaça pelo Método Brasileiro de Classificação de Carcaça; maior espessura de toucinho na região da copa, na linha dorso-lombar; profundidade de lombo; e pesos do baço, do coração, da meia-carcaça direita resfriada, do pernil, da copa, da paleta, do carré, das costelas, da papada, do filezinho e do rim.Principal component analyses were applied to carcass records of 367 animals of a F2 swine population. Starting from 33 traits, 17 showed variation lower than 0.7 (eigenvalue lower than 0.7 and significant simple linear correlations with the other traits, indicating they were redundant. These results suggest the following variables to be used in future carcass studies: slaughter age; right side carcass weight; carcass length by the Brazilian Method of Carcass Classification; higher backfat thickness at boston shoulder area and in the midline; loin depth; spleen, heart, cold right side carcass, ham, boston shoulder, picnic shoulder, loin (bone-in, spareribs, jowl, sirloin and kidney weights.

  12. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Harvest-floor assessments of targeted characteristics that affect quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Beef Quality Audit-2011(NBQA-2011) was conducted to assess targeted characteristics on the harvest floor that affect the quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts. Survey teams evaluated approximately 18,000 cattle/carcasses between May and November 2011 in 8 beef processin...

  13. Carcass composition of market weight pigs subjected to heat stress in utero and during finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzen, S M; Boddicker, R L; Graves, K L; Johnson, T P; Arkfeld, E K; Baumgard, L H; Ross, J W; Safranski, T J; Lucy, M C; Lonergan, S M

    2015-05-01

    Objectives were to investigate the effects of prolonged gestational and/or postnatal heat stress on performance and carcass composition of market weight pigs. Pregnant gilts were exposed to gestational heat stress (GHS, 28°C to 34°C, diurnal) or thermal neutral (18°C to 22°C, diurnal) conditions during the entire gestation or during the first or second half of gestation. At 14 wk of age (58 ± 5 kg), barrows were housed in heat stress (32°C, HS) or thermal neutral (21°C, TN) conditions. Feed intake and BW were recorded weekly, and body temperature parameters were monitored twice weekly until slaughter (109 ± 5 kg). Organs were removed and weighed, and loin eye area (LEA) and back fat thickness (BF) were measured after carcass chilling. Carcass sides were separated into lean, separable fat, bone, and skin components and were weighed. Moisture, lipid, and protein content were determined in the LM at the 10th rib. Data were analyzed using a split plot with random effect of dam nested within gestational treatment. Carcass measurements included HCW as a covariate to control for weight. Planned orthogonal contrast statements were used to evaluate the overall effect of GHS in the first half, second half, or any part of gestation. Gestational heat stress did not alter postnatal performance or most body temperature parameters (P > 0.10). However, ADFI in the finishing period was increased (P heat stress during the first half of gestation decreased head weight as a percent of BW (P = 0.02), whereas GHS in the second half of gestation decreased bone weight as a percent of BW (P = 0.02). Heat stress reduced ADG, BW, and HCW (P < 0.0001). Lean tissue was increased in HS pigs on both a weight and percentage basis (P < 0.0001), but LEA was similar to TN carcasses (P = 0.38). Carcasses from HS barrows also had less carcass separable fat (P < 0.01) and tended to have less BF (P = 0.06) compared with those from TN barrows, even after controlling for HCW. However, percent

  14. Microbiological methods for assessing soil quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.; Hopkins, D.W.; Benedetti, A.

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a selection of microbiological methods that are already applied in regional or national soil quality monitoring programs. It is split into two parts: part one gives an overview of approaches to monitoring, evaluating and managing soil quality. Part two provides a selection of meth

  15. Microbiology of ensiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in our understanding of silage microbiology are reviewed. The ability to extract microbial DNA from silages, amplify portions of DNA, and then separate those portions by the strains of microorganisms that have produced them has been at the core of the changes that have occurred recen...

  16. Making Microbiology Even Smaller!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Linda Mull; Motz, Vicki Abrams

    2013-01-01

    We outline protocols for producing slant-minis (SLINIs) and mini-deeps (MEEPs) and examples of their use in simple microbiology experiments suitable for high school students. The principal benefits of these protocols are decreased cost associated with significantly reduced media use; easier, less expensive disposal of waste; and increased safety…

  17. Microbiology--Safety Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sheryl K.

    This paper discusses the risk assessment associated with microbiology instruction based on grade level, general control measures, appropriate activities for middle school and high school students, the preparation and sterilization of equipment, and safe handling techniques. Appended are instructions and figures on making wire loops and the…

  18. Carcass characteristics of lambs fed diets containing silage of different genotypes of sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraci Marcos Alves Suassuna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-five feedlot lambs (without defined breed, aged between 5 and 7 months, with average live weight of 17.7±3.7 kg were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effect of diets containing different genotypes of sorghum on morphometric measurements and qualitative characteristics of carcass and yields of primal cuts. The animals stayed in individual indoor pens for 42 days and slaughtered at an average weight of 26.24 kg. No significant differences were observed on morphometric measurements, hot (11.67 kg and cold (11.39 kg carcass weight, hot (44.46% and cold (43.37% carcass yields, biological yield and on cooling losses. There was also no significant effect of silages of different genotypes of sorghum on the weights and yields of retail cuts (neck, shoulder, rib, loin and leg and on the subjective evaluation of carcasses. It is possible to finish sheep without defined breed feeding them diets based on silages of sorghum, resulting in carcasses with high yield and good conformation.

  19. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle VIII): carcass, yield, and longissimus palatability traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate alternative sources of tropically adapted cattle germplasm and compare them with Angus- (AN) and Hereford- (HE) sired steers. Carcass, yield, and longissimus thoracis palatability traits from F(1) steers (n = 621) obtained from mating AN and MARC III cows to HE, AN, Brangus (BR), Beefmaster (BM), Bonsmara (BO), or Romosinuano (RO) sires were compared. Data were adjusted to constant age (426 d), carcass weight (340 kg), fat thickness (1.0 cm), fat trim percentage (25%), and marbling (Small(00)) endpoints. For Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force and trained and untrained sensory panel traits, data were obtained on LM from ribeye steaks stored at 2 degrees C for 14 or 15 d postmortem. The following comparisons were from the age-constant endpoint. Carcasses from BM-, AN-, and BR-sired steers (358, 355, and 351 kg, respectively) were heavier (P Carcass yield of boneless, totally trimmed retail product was least (P < 0.05) for AN-sired steers (60.1%) and greatest (P < 0.05) for RO- and BO-sired steers (64.4 to 63.5%). Considering all measurements, AN LM tended to be more tender and BM LM tended to be least tender. American composite breeds BM and BR were heavier, fatter, lesser yielding, with similar marbling scores but less tender LM than BO and RO. Angus carcasses were similar in size, fatter, lesser yielding, with more marbling and more tender LM compared with BM and BR. Bonsmara and RO provide tropically adapted germplasm and produce carcasses that are lighter, leaner, greater yielding, with similar marbling and LM that tend to be more tender than carcasses from BM and BR.

  20. Carcass Persistence and Detectability: Reducing the Uncertainty Surrounding Wildlife-Vehicle Collision Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Reis, Margarida; Picanço de Figueiredo, Almir; Bager, Alex; Aguiar, Ludmilla M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Carcass persistence time and detectability are two main sources of uncertainty on roadkill surveys. In this study, we evaluate the influence of these uncertainties on roadkill surveys and estimates. To estimate carcass persistence time, three observers (including the driver) surveyed 114km by car on a monthly basis for two years, searching for wildlife-vehicle collisions (WVC). Each survey consisted of five consecutive days. To estimate carcass detectability, we randomly selected stretches of 500m to be also surveyed on foot by two other observers (total 292 walked stretches, 146 km walked). We expected that body size of the carcass, road type, presence of scavengers and weather conditions to be the main drivers influencing the carcass persistence times, but their relative importance was unknown. We also expected detectability to be highly dependent on body size. Overall, we recorded low median persistence times (one day) and low detectability (<10%) for all vertebrates. The results indicate that body size and landscape cover (as a surrogate of scavengers’ presence) are the major drivers of carcass persistence. Detectability was lower for animals with body mass less than 100g when compared to carcass with higher body mass. We estimated that our recorded mortality rates underestimated actual values of mortality by 2–10 fold. Although persistence times were similar to previous studies, the detectability rates here described are very different from previous studies. The results suggest that detectability is the main source of bias across WVC studies. Therefore, more than persistence times, studies should carefully account for differing detectability when comparing WVC studies. PMID:27806125

  1. The Effect of Choice Feeding Based on Threonine on Performance and Carcass Parameters of Male Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugay Ayasan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of choice feeding based on threonine on performance characteristics and carcass parameters of male broiler chicks. Day old, thirty Ross 308 male chicks were divided into two dietary treatment groups. In the experiment, choice feding did not affect on body weight gain, feed conversion ratio. Feed intake and carcass parameters significantly affected by experimental treatments.

  2. Instructions for collection and shipment of avian and mammalian carcasses

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instructions for collecting and shipping wildlife carcasses, carcass parts, and samples extracted from animals to the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) to...

  3. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 4A on Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Microbial Enumeration Tests General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-08

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 4A: Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Microbial Enumeration Tests General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Microbial Enumeration Tests General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  4. Characteristics of the carcass of goats of different genotypes fed pineapple (Ananas comosus L. stubble hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Maria Brito Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the substitution of Tifton hay (0, 33, 66, 100 g/100 g for pineapple (Ananas comosus L. stubble hay was evaluated in the characteristics of the carcasses of goats of an unknown breed (UB in feedlot. Thirty-two bucks with an average initial live weight of 17.5±1.3 kg, at approximately 150 days of age, were housed in individual stalls provided with feeding and drinking troughs. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight replications. There was a quadratic effect on the weights of hot carcass and cold carcass, empty body, and loin eye area. A linear increase was observed for losses by carcass cooling. The weights of commercial cuts and the weights of total muscle, total bone, intramuscular fat, and total fat decreased linearly. All morphometric measurements were influenced by the inclusion of pineapple stubble hay in the .diets. Substitution of Tifton hay for pineapple stubble hay at the level of 33 g/100 g improves the carcasses of UB goats qualitatively and quantitatively

  5. Acetic acid as an intervention strategy to decontaminate beef carcasses in mexican commercial slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Reyes Carranza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Beef can be contaminated during the slaughter process, thus other methods, besides the traditional water washing, must be adopted to preserve meat safety. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2% acetic acid interventions on the reduction of indicator bacteria on beef carcasses at a commercial slaughterhouse in Mexico. Reduction was measured by the count of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TPC, total coliform (TC, and fecal coliform (FC (log CFU/ cm². Among the different interventions tested, treatments combining acetic acid solution sprayed following carcass water washing had greater microbial reduction level. Acetic acid solution sprayed at low pressure and longer time (10-30 psi/ 60 s reached higher TPC, TC, and FC reductions than that obtained under high pressure/ shorter time (1,700 psi/ 15 s; P<0.05. Exposure time significantly affected microbial reduction on carcasses. Acetic acid solution sprayed after carcass washing can be successfully used to control sources of indicator bacteria on beef carcasses under commercial conditions.

  6. Effect of Supplementing Spirulina on Live Performance, Carcass Composition and Meat Quality of Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Swee Weng CHEONG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis inclusion in feed on live performance, carcass composition and meat quality of Japanese quails during growing stage to identify the best inclusion range for Japanese quails without affecting the growth and carcass parameters. Three hundred Japanese quails of 15 days of age were used in this experiment, randomly divided into 5 groups with 3 replication comprised of 30 males and 30 females. The quails were fed with a basal diet as a control and 4 levels of Spirulina inclusion diet 1, 2, 4 and 8 %. Diets were fed to birds from 15 days to 35 days of age. Body weight gain (BWG, Feed intake (FI, Feed conversion ratio (FCR and Mortality rate (MR were recorded weekly during the experiment. Carcass composition and meat quality tests were done after slaughtering. BWG, FI, FCR and MR were significantly different (p < 0.05 in the experiment. Carcass composition was found to be significantly different in the leg percentage (p < 0.05. Meat color and meat shear force value were also found to differ significantly (p < 0.05 with the Spirulina inclusion diet showing a better result than the control. Therefore, the result of this experiment suggests that diets up to 4 % of Spirulina achieve the best live performance, carcass composition and meat quality.

  7. CARCASS YIELD OF BROILER CHICKENS FED BANANA (Musa paradisiaca LEAVES FERMENTED WITH Trichoderma viride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Mandey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of level of banana (Musa paradisiaca leaves fermented with Trichoderma viride at different days on the carcass yield of broiler chickens. A hundred and eighty 3-weeks-old broiler chicks were used in this present experiment based on factorial design (3×4. The birds were randomly allocated into three experimental diets containing of 5, 10 and 15% of banana leaves fermented within 0, 5, 10 and 15 days. Each treatment was divided into three replicates of five chicks in each. The experiment was terminated after 4 weeks or when the birds were 7-weeks-old. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass yield were measured during the study. The data were subjected to the analysis of variance test followed by least significant difference (LSD test. Results showed that daily feed intake was significantly affected (P˂0.01 by the dietary treatments, in which feed intake was highest in broilers fed diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days. The daily weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass yield were significantly affected (P˂0.01 by the treatments, in which the highest values of daily weight gain, feed efficiency, and carcass yield were observed in birds fed diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days. It can be concluded that diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days can be included in broiler ration without detrimental effects on the performance and carcass yield. 

  8. Effect of nucleotides on broiler performance and carcass yield

    OpenAIRE

    VC Pelícia; JR Sartori; KC Zavarize; AC Pezzato; AC Stradiotti; PC Araujo; MAO Mituo; LA Madeira

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of nucleotides on the performance and carcass yield of broilers fed diets with no antibiotic growth promoters (AGP), anticoccidials, or animal feedstuffs. In the trial, 600 Ross 308 male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CD), CD + AGP, CD + 0.04%, CD + 0.05%, CD + 0.06%, and CD + 0.07% nucleotides. The experimental ...

  9. IDENTIFICATIONS OF CARCASS CHARACTERISTIC FOR ESTIMATING THE COMPOSITION OF BEEF CARCASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hafid

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to identify carcass characteristic that can be used for estimating composition ofbeef carcass. It was used 165 Brahman crossbred cattle in this research. Carcass characteristics wereweight of a half cold carcass (WC ranged from 96 to 151 kg, loin eye area (LEA ranged from 22.09 to304.8 mm2, 12th rib fat thickness (FT12 ranged from 0.80 to 2.90 mm, meat ranged from 53.55 to 90.10kg and carcass fat ranged from 5.54 to 39.72 kg. Result showed that a half weight cold carcass as asingle indicator major may be used to predict meat weight and carcass fat with regression linearequation: Meat (kg = 10.64 + 0.49 WC (R2=0.728 and SE=3.58, and Fat (kg = -21.70 + 0.36 WC**(R2=0.582 and SE=3.65. Multiple regression to predict meat weight based on fat percentage of kidney,pelvic and heart (KPH was Meat (kg = 7.99 + 0.58 WC** - 4.41 KPH** (R2=0.751 and SE=3.43.

  10. Microbiological Advances in Biohydrometallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Watling

    2016-01-01

    The most exciting advances in biohydrometallurgy are occurring in the field of microbiology. The two main technologies employed in biohydrometallurgy, agitated tanks for the processing of refractory concentrates and heaps and dumps for the processing of low-grade ores, are technologically sound and widely practised at commercial scale, but their development began at a time when very little was known of the microorganisms that assisted metals extraction from sulfide ores. During and subsequent...

  11. Trends in wine microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón, D

    1997-12-01

    During the last few years many winemakers have started to use pure Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, frequently isolated from their own geographical regions, to produce wines of more reproductable quality. This microbiological simplification has opened the way for the genetic modification of wine yeast strains. This review concerns the application of molecular techniques in oenology, not only from the point of view of the construction of recombinant strains but also for the study of the population dynamics of wine fermentations.

  12. Contextual Analysis of CT Scanned Pig Carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Larsen, Rasmus; Christensen, Lars Bager;

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of the weight of tissue types in pig carcasses is generally only available after manual dissection. The use of computed tomography (CT) has demonstrated to be a promising approach to gain knowledge on the lean meat weight (Romvari, 2005), but less effort has been put into gaining...... knowledge about the weight of other tissue types from CT. Knowing the weight of individual tissue types will directly give access to other measures such as the weight of the carcass and the Lean Meat Percentage (LMP). Until now, most analyses of CT scans have been based on the Hounsfield spectra that does...... not consider the spatial context in CT scan. Applying contextual methods from the field of image analysis we hope to make a virtual dissection of pig carcasses....

  13. Effects of weight at slaughter and sex on the carcass characteristics of Florida suckling kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Francisco; Perea, J; García, A; Acero, R

    2007-03-01

    The effect of slaughter weight and sex on some carcass traits of suckling kids of the Florida breed was evaluated. A total of 60 kids (30 male and 30 female), fed exclusively on milk replacers, were slaughtered at 7-8kg (group 1), 10-11kg (group 2) or 14-15kg (group 3) of liveweight (mean weights of 7.6kg, 10.8kg and 14.4kg, respectively). Higher slaughter weights decreased the percentage of subproducts (blood, skin, head, feet) and internal organs (lungs+traquea, heart, liver, spleen, thymus) but significantly increased the percentage of intestine and fat depots (omental fat and mesenteric fat). Higher slaughter weights also increased carcass measures (L 40.5 vs 49.1; F 22.5 vs 25.9; G 10.4 vs 14.2; Wr 10.1 vs 13.9; Wth 8.0 vs 10.5; Th 16.5 vs 199; B 32.3 vs 42.4; PT 41.5 vs 50.8), compactness carcass index (96.6 vs 152.3) and compactness leg index (27.5 vs 44.1). Sex only significantly affected the percentages of feet, internal organs, omental fat, measure L, carcass compactness index and hind limb compactness index. The meat colour and fat colour were mainly scored as pale and white respectively in the carcasses of the lightest animals, whereas heavier kids were scored as pink and cream. Slaughter weight also influenced significantly the carcass fatness (score 1 in lightest kids and 2 or 3 in heavier ones). There were no significant (p>0.05) differences between slaughter weight group and sex in dressing percentages. Percentages corresponding to the long leg, back and neck (30-33%, 18-19% and 8-10%, respectively) decreased when the slaughter weight increased, whereas the ribs (23-25%) and the flank (10-11%) increased slightly. The carcasses comprised 57-58% muscle, 22-25% bone, 5-6% subcutaneous fat and 9-12% intermuscular fat. The percentage muscle stayed the same with increasing slaughter weight, whereas the bone decreased and the fat increased. The carcasses of the heavier females contained less lean and more fat than the males. The bone percentage was

  14. Carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs fed crude glycerin contaminated with high concentrations of crude fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, J F; Paulino, P V R; Pereira, L G R; Duarte, M S; Valadares Filho, S C; Oliveira, A S; Souza, N K P; Lima, J C M

    2014-01-01

    Thirty non-castrated male lambs with 20±2.3 kg average body weight (BW) were randomly assigned to five treatments consisted of different dietary concentrations of crude glycerin (CG; 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12% on DM basis) to evaluate the effects on performance, carcass and meat quality traits. A quadratic effect was observed for performance (P=0.04), final BW (P0.05) on carcass pH neither on shear-force, cooking loss and ether extract content in longissimus. The inclusion of CG tended to reduce the Zn content in meat (P=0.09). The data suggests that CG (36.2% of glycerol and 46.5% of crude fat) may be used in diets of finishing lambs with concentrations up to 3% without negative effects on performance and main carcass traits. Moreover, inclusion of CG seems to not affect quality and safety of meat for human consumption.

  15. Carcass and cut yields and meat qualitative traits of broilers fed diets containing probiotics and prebiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERL Pelicano

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of different probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics on the quality of carcasses and meat of broiler chickens. One hundred and eight day-old Cobb male broilers were used (n=108 in a completely randomized design according to a 3x3 factorial, with 3 probiotics in the diet (no probiotics, probiotics 1, probiotics 2 and 3 prebiotics in the diet (no prebiotics, prebiotics 1, prebiotics 2. There were nine treatments with 4 replicates and 3 birds per replicate. The results showed that the carcass and cut yields, color (L* - lightness, a* - redness, and b* - yellowness, pH, cooking losses, shearing force and sensory analysis were not affected by the use of different growth promoters at 42 days of age. It was concluded that growth promoters supplemented to the diet did not affect the studied quantitative and qualitative parameters of the carcass and breast meat of broiler chickens.

  16. Microbiological Advances in Biohydrometallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Watling

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The most exciting advances in biohydrometallurgy are occurring in the field of microbiology. The two main technologies employed in biohydrometallurgy, agitated tanks for the processing of refractory concentrates and heaps and dumps for the processing of low-grade ores, are technologically sound and widely practised at commercial scale, but their development began at a time when very little was known of the microorganisms that assisted metals extraction from sulfide ores. During and subsequent to those developments it has been shown that microbial communities in metals extraction are more diverse than originally thought, and extremely robust and adaptable to different and variable environments. Recent advances in genomics and proteomics, exploiting hugely increased computing power and speed, have made it possible to describe not only which microorganisms are present in bioleaching systems, but also what physiological functions are being exercised. The body of knowledge being acquired through the application of molecular biology methods will be used increasingly to monitor microbial behaviour, optimise conditions for more appropriate microbiological activity and/or infer the “microbiological health” of bioreactors (tanks and heaps.

  17. Proteomics in medical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, P

    2000-04-01

    The techniques of proteomics (high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis and protein characterisation) are widely used for microbiological research to analyse global protein synthesis as an indicator of gene expression. The rapid progress in microbial proteomics has been achieved through the wide availability of whole genome sequences for a number of bacterial groups. Beyond providing a basic understanding of microbial gene expression, proteomics has also played a role in medical areas of microbiology. Progress has been made in the use of the techniques for investigating the epidemiology and taxonomy of human microbial pathogens, the identification of novel pathogenic mechanisms and the analysis of drug resistance. In each of these areas, proteomics has provided new insights that complement genomic-based investigations. This review describes the current progress in these research fields and highlights some of the technical challenges existing for the application of proteomics in medical microbiology. The latter concern the analysis of genetically heterogeneous bacterial populations and the integration of the proteomic and genomic data for these bacteria. The characterisation of the proteomes of bacterial pathogens growing in their natural hosts remains a future challenge.

  18. CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FIRST FARROWING GILTS IN RELATION TO SIZE OF WEANED LITTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA BOCIAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was an evaluation of carcass slaughter value of fi rst farrowing gilts depending on the number of weaned piglets. The number of born and weaned piglets did not have a negative infl uence on gilt’s slaughter value. Carcasses of fi rst farrowing gilts characterised with a low fatness, large loin eye area and high lean content. Results of ham dissection of first farrowing gilts point high usefulness of this material to long maturing hams production in a view of the fact they have required weight, appropriate lean content and low fatness.

  19. Microbiological evaluation of bristles of frequently used toothbrushes Avaliação microbiológica das cerdas de escovas dentárias de uso frequente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso André Ferreira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brushing teeth is probably the practice of oral hygiene most common in the world; however, inadequate use can become a risk to the population health, once they may be contaminated with various microorganisms. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial contamination on toothbrush bristles using different methodologies. METHOD: We used 40 toothbrushes from healthy individuals aged 3 to 58 years. The samples were grown in test tubes containing trypticase soy broth sterile, and with the help of a tracking 0.1 μl samples were placed on plates containing sheep blood agar 5% and MacConkey agar then the samples were stored in a bacteriological incubator at 37°C for 24 hours for later analysis. It was counted the colony forming units and bacteria identification present in the brush. RESULTS: On the microbiological analysis, there was a growth of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus coagulase negative. CONCLUSION: According to the results presented in this study, we observed a high incidence of bacterial contamination in the brushes analyzed. The most frequent microorganisms were members of the Enterobacteriaceae. The usage time of toothbrushes may be related to contamination found and, therefore, not only good hygiene ensures the reduction of microbial load, but replacing the toothbrush can also ensure individuals better oral health.INTRODUÇÃO: a escovação de dentes é, provavelmente, a prática de higiene bucal mais comumente realizada no mundo; entretanto, o acondicionamento inadequado pode se transformar em um risco para a saúde da população, uma vez que podem estar contaminadas com vários tipos de microrganismos. OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a contaminação bacteriana de cerdas de escovas dentais através de diferentes métodos. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas 40 escovas de dentes provenientes de indivíduos sadios, com idade entre 3 a 58 anos. As

  20. Microbiological evaluation of precooked goat "buchada" Avaliação microbiológica da "buchada" caprina pré-cozida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Germano Costa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the microbiological characteristics of the precooked goat "buchada", a typical dish in North East of Brazil, composed mainly by goat viscera such as heart, lungs, liver, spleen, intestines, stomach and blood. Samples of "buchada" produced at the different areas of the State of Paraíba, Brazil, presented a high number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, with values ranging from 5.5 to 6.9 log10 CFU/g. All samples presented total coliforms, and 96.6% presented fecal coliforms, with values between 2.3 and 5.0 log10 NMP/g. The occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus was observed in one sample only, at a proportion of 4.0 log10 CFU/g. Salmonella was absent in all samples. Water activity was around 0.98 and pH close to neutrality except for the samples collected in Campina Grande which presented pH 5.1, significantly lowar (pObjetivou-se com o trabalho avaliar as características microbiológicas da "buchada" caprina pré-cozida, produto típico da culinária nordestina no Brasil, normalmente composta por vísceras, como coração, pulmões, fígado, baço, intestinos, estômago e sangue. As amostras de "buchada" produzidas em diferentes mesorregiões do estado da Paraíba apresentaram elevado número de bactérias mesófilas aeróbias, com valores variando de 5,5 a 6,9 log10 UFC/g. Todas as amostras apresentaram coliformes totais, das quais 96,6% continham coliformes fecais, entre 2,3 e 5,0 log10 NMP/g. A ocorrência de Staphylococcus aureus foi observada apenas em uma amostra proveniente do município de Campina Grande, na proporção de 4,0 log10 UFC/g. Salmonella foi ausente para todas as amostras avaliadas. A atividade de água obtida foi em torno de 0,98, com valores de pH próximos da neutralidade, exceto nas amostras adquiridas em Campina Grande que apresentaram pH em torno de 5,1, diferente (p<0,05 dos demais produtos. Conclui-se com os resultados, condições higiênico-sanitárias inadequadas nas

  1. Characteristics of bruises in carcasses of cows sourced from farms or from livestock markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strappini, A C; Frankena, K; Metz, J H M; Gallo, C; Kemp, B

    2012-03-01

    Bruises in cattle develop after the application of force, and they provide evidence for sub-optimal animal welfare. The aim of this study was to describe the gross characteristics of bruises in cows arriving at the slaughterhouse directly from farms or through the livestock market. The number of bruises and their distribution on the carcass as well as their severity, shape, size and colour were assessed post mortem in a slaughterhouse in Chile. A total of 258 cow carcasses were evaluated, and a total of 846 bruises were found on 243 of the carcasses. Cows that had passed through a livestock market (M-carcasses) had in total 563 bruises (mean 3.8 bruises/carcass, s.d. 2.0), whereas cows transported directly from farms (F-carcasses) had in total 283 bruises (mean 2.5 bruises/carcass, s.d. 1.8). The backs of F-carcasses had twice as many bruises as M-carcasses (32.9% and 16.2%, respectively), whereas bruises in the rib area were more frequently observed in M-carcasses (13.1%) than in F-carcasses (8.1%). Superficial bruises (grade 1) were the most frequently observed (66.2% of all bruises). Regarding the size of the bruises, 64 (7.6%) were classified as large, 271 (32.0%) as medium and 511 (60.4%) as small. Irregularly shaped bruises were the most frequent (91.1%, n = 771), followed by linear (3.8%, n = 32), circular (3.1%, n = 26) and tramline-shaped bruises (1.9%, n = 16). The latter were noticed only in M-carcasses, which may indicate that these animals were beaten more frequently with sticks or other rod-shaped objects. Fresh, bright red-coloured bruises were found more frequently on all the animals (69.5% from farms and 70.5% from market) compared with bluish (29.7% and 29.3%, respectively) and yellow bruises (0.4% and 0.2%, respectively). The method of selling was significantly associated with the number of bruises on the carcass (P < 0.001) and the anatomical site (P < 0.05), but not with the severity, shape and colour of the bruises. Increased fat coverage

  2. Expert systems in clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice

    2011-07-01

    This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the "big three": Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically.

  3. Perspective: microfluidic applications in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh-Lakha, Saleema; Trevors, Jack T

    2010-07-01

    The application of microfluidics technology to microbiology research is an excellent platform for the analysis of microorganisms and their nucleic acids. This technology combines engineering, physics, chemistry, biology and computing to control the devices. In this perspective we discuss how microfluidics can be applied to microbiological research and used in diagnostic applications. We also summarize advantages and limitations of this technology, as well as highlight some recent microbiological applications.

  4. Relationship between the Porcine Stress Syndrome gene and carcass and performance traits in F2 pigs resulting from divergent crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme de Oliveira Band

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The PSS genotypes of 596 F2 pigs produced by initial mating of Brazilian native boars commercial sows and were characterized by PCR-RFLP and their carcass and performance traits were evaluated. Among the 596 animals analyzed, 493 (82.72% were characterized as NN and 103 (17.28% as Nn. With respect to carcass traits, Nn animals presented higher (p < 0.05 right half carcass weight, left half carcass weight, loin depth and loin eye area, and lower shoulder backfat thickness, backfat thickness between last and next to last but one lumbar vertebrae and backfat thickness after last rib at 6.5 cm from the midline compared to NN animals. Nn animals also showed (p < 0.05 higher values for most of the cut yields, indicating higher cutting yields for animals carrying the n allele and lower values for bacon depth, confirming lower fat deposition in carcass. In addition, Nn animals presented (p < 0.05 lower values for the performance trait weight at 105 days of age. These results indicate that animals carrying the PSS gene generate leaner carcasses, higher cut yields, and that the effects of the gene can be observed even in divergent crosses.

  5. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-04-01

    The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been proposed to offset this nutrient deficit including: allowing greater salmon spawning escapement, stocking hatchery salmon carcasses, and stocking inorganic nutrients. Unfortunately, each of these methods has some ecological or socio-economic shortcoming. We intend to overcome many of these shortcomings by making and evaluating a pathogen free product that simulates a salmon carcass (analog). Abundant sources of marine derived nutrients are available such as fish offal from commercial fishing and salmon carcasses from hatcheries. However, a method for recycling these nutrients into a pathogen free analog that degrades at a similar rate as a natural salmon carcass has never been developed. We endeavored to (1) develop a salmon carcass analog that will increase the food available to salmonids, (2) determine the pathways that salmonids use to acquire food from analogs, and (3) determine the benefits to salmonids and the potential for application to salmonid restoration. We used a before-after-control-impact-paired design in six tributaries of the upper Yakima basin to determine the utility of stocking carcass analogs. Our preliminary results suggest that the introduction of carcass analogs into food-limited streams can be used to restore food pathways previously provided by anadromous salmon. The analogs probably reproduced both of the major food pathways that salmon carcasses produce: direct consumption and food chain enhancement. Trout and salmon fed directly on the carcass analogs during the late summer and presumably benefited from the increased

  6. [Evaluation of the status of patients with severe infection, criteria for intensive care unit admittance. Spanish Society for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology. Spanish Society of Intensive and Critical Medicine and Coronary Units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaechea, Pedro M; Alvarez-Lerma, Francisco; Sánchez, Miguel; Torres, Antonio; Palomar, Mercedes; Fernández, Pedro; Miró, José M; Cisneros, José Miguel; Torres, Manuel

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that early attention in patients with serious infections is associated with a better outcome. Assistance in intensive care units (ICU) can effectively provide this attention; hence patients should be admitted to the ICU as soon as possible, before clinical deterioration becomes irreversible. The objective of this article is to compile the recommendations for evaluating disease severity in patients with infections and describe the criteria for ICU admission, updating the criteria published 10 years ago. A literature review was carried out, compiling the opinions of experts from the Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica (SEIMC, Spanish Society for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) and the Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Crítica y Unidades Coronarias (SEMICYUC, Spanish Society for Intensive Medicine, Critical Care and Coronary Units) as well as the working groups for infections in critically ill patients (GEIPC-SEIMC and GTEI-SEMICYUC). We describe the specific recommendations for ICU admission related to the most common infections affecting patients, who will potentially benefit from critical care. Assessment of the severity of the patient's condition to enable early intensive care is stressed.

  7. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  8. Effect of Substrate on Identification of Microbial Communities in Poultry Carcass Composting and Microorganisms Associated with Poultry Carcass Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Du, Xueqing; Zhang, Yitao; Li, Ting; Liao, Xindi

    2016-09-14

    Three composting systems, which consisted of different ratios of chicken manure, sawdust, and poultry carcasses, were used to investigate the effect of substrate on the identification of microbial communities and microorganisms associated with poultry carcass decomposition by characterizing the microbial communities and physicochemical parameters. The physicochemical and Miseq Illumina sequencing results showed the composition of substrate had a significant effect on the identification and metabolic capabilities of microbial communities in decomposting process. Poultry carcasses might be the potential driver for the identification of bacterial communities in poultry carcass composting, whereas the initial C/N ratio may mainly contribute to the diversity of fungal communities and the similar dominant microbial communities in treatments. Poultry carcasses and initial C/N ratio could respectively affect the composition and abundance of microorganisms associated with the decomposition of poultry carcasses. Understanding the potential composting driver could allow development of an efficient carcass degradation system.

  9. Production of Ceratonova shasta Myxospores from Salmon Carcasses: Carcass Removal Is Not a Viable Management Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foott, J S; Stone, R; Fogerty, R; True, K; Bolick, A; Bartholomew, J L; Hallett, S L; Buckles, G R; Alexander, J D

    2016-06-01

    Severe infection by the endemic myxozoan parasite, Ceratonova (synonym, Ceratomyxa) shasta, has been associated with declines in and impaired recovery efforts of populations of fall-run Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Klamath River, California. The parasite has a complex life cycle involving a polychaete worm host as well as a salmon host. Myxospore transmission of this parasite, from salmon to polychaete, is a life cycle step during which there is a potential for applied disease management. A 3-year data set on prevalence, intensity, and spore characteristics of C. shasta myxospores was obtained from adult Chinook Salmon carcasses surveyed in the main stem of the Klamath River and three of its tributaries, Bogus Creek and the Shasta and Trinity rivers. Annual prevalence of myxospore detection in salmon intestines ranged from 22% to 52%, and spore concentration values per intestinal scraping ranged from 3.94 × 10(2) to 1.47 × 10(7) spores. A prevalence of 7.3% of all carcasses examined produced >5.0 × 10(5) spores, and these carcasses with "high" spore counts accounted for 76-95% of the total spores in a given spawning season. Molecular analysis of visually negative carcasses showed that 45-87% of these samples had parasite DNA, indicating they contained either low spore numbers or presporogonic stages of the parasite. Myxospores were rarely found in carcasses of freshly spawned adults but were common in decomposed carcasses of both sexes. The date of collection or age (based indirectly on FL) did not influence detection. The longer prespawn residence time for spring-run Chinook Salmon compared with that for fall-run Chinook Salmon in the Trinity River was associated with higher spore loads. The dye exclusion method for assessing spore viability in fresh smears indicated an inverse relationship in spore integrity and initial spore concentration. A carcass-removal pilot project in Bogus Creek for 6 weeks in the fall of 2008 (907 carcasses removed

  10. EVALUATION OF THE SHELF LIFE AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN A CHILLED READY TO EAT MEAT PRODUCT: THE “VITEL TONNÈ”

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    A. Cereser

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the recent “Hygiene Package” it is the responsibility of Food Business Operator to validate foods’ shelf-life, also considering normal storage and use conditions. The aim of this research was to define the shelf-life of a refrigerated ready-to-eat meat product: the vitel tonnè. 175 samples taken from a producer were stored at 2 different temperatures: +3°C (as declared in label and +8±1°C (in order to simulate the thermal abuses during transport and domestic storage and analyzed at different intervals for microbiological parameters as TVC at 30°C, Lactic Acid Bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Sulphate-Reducing Clostridia, B. cereus, Coagulase-positive Staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp Preliminary results show that temperature abuse shorten shelf-life significantly, mainly for the parameters TVC and LAB.

  11. Design of a tablet computer app for facilitation of a molecular blood culture test in clinical microbiology and preliminary usability evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Lasse L.; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Meltzer, Michelle C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: User mobility is an important aspect of the development of clinical information systems for health care professionals. Mobile phones and tablet computers have obtained widespread use by health care professionals, offering an opportunity for supporting the access to patient information...... through specialized applications (apps) while supporting the mobility of the users. The use of apps for mobile phones and tablet computers may support workflow of complex tasks, for example, molecular-based diagnostic tests in clinical microbiology. Multiplex Blood Culture Test (MuxBCT) is a molecular...... of microorganisms from positive blood culture samples. The study participants were observed, and their interactions with the app were recorded. After the study, the participants were debriefed to clarify observations. RESULTS: Four medical laboratory technicians, for example, representative of end users of the app...

  12. Microbiologically active nanocomposite media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petranovskii, Vitalii; Panina, Lyudmila; Bogomolova, Eugenia; Belostotskaya, Galina

    2003-07-01

    The most recent approach to the development of novel antimicrobial and antifungal agents is based on the application of synthetic and natural zeolites, because zeolites are known to be the carrier and slow releaser of the heavy metals with olygodynamic properties. The microbiological activity of the ion-exchanged zeolites is attributed to the ionic state of the metal sreleased from the zeolites by ion re-exchange. In the present work we used low cost natural clinoptilolite (Cli) as a substrate for copper and silver in different states. The state of oxidation of the exchanged metal in zeolite with supported Cu and Ag species (in the form of cations, small clusters, sub-coloidal particles, large particles) in order to fit them to fulfill the following criteria: to demonstrate their high protective abilities against fungi and long-term stability. The study of structure of samples with XRD, UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, their stability with temperature and during storage was carried out for obtaining the correct correlation with microbiological activity.

  13. Predictive Food Microbiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre

    Listeria monocytogenes is a well-known food borne pathogen that potentially causes listeriosis. No outbreaks or cases of listeriosis have been associated with cottage cheese, but several confirmed cases and outbreaks in the EU and the US have been related to dairy products made from raw or pasteu......Listeria monocytogenes is a well-known food borne pathogen that potentially causes listeriosis. No outbreaks or cases of listeriosis have been associated with cottage cheese, but several confirmed cases and outbreaks in the EU and the US have been related to dairy products made from raw...... or pasteurised milk. This, in combination with the fact that cottage cheese support growth of Listeria monocytogenes, induces a documentation requirement on the food producer. In the EU regulatory framework, mathematical models are recognised as a suitable supplement to traditional microbiological methods....... The models can be used for documentation of compliance with microbiological criteria for Listeria monocytogenes under reasonably foreseeable conditions. Cottage cheese is a fresh, fermented dairy product. It consists of a fermented cheese curd mixed with a fresh or cultured cream dressing. The product...

  14. The microbiological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological risk in the first part of life is endowed with peculiar features when compared to the same risk in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to highlight these age-related traits. While pathogens harmful for neonates and infants have been reviewed, less attention has been paid to the role played by the infant gut as battle field between pathogens and protecting bacteria or between pathogens and the immune system. Immediately after birth a race for colonizing the gut begins; the main tool for neonates to select good bacteria is represented by mother's milk. Quite surprisingly, this milk carries potentially harmful bacteria, but antibodies, oligosaccharides and the whole breast milk composition provide a powerful selective tool. Nevertheless this selective action is deeply influenced by the type and/or time (i.e. premature) of delivery or in premature subjects; recent data also show that breast milk could have a different potential in selecting bacterial species. The hygienic conditions of parents and, more generally, of the surrounding environment play a role in the selection of the intestinal biota of infants. It is then possible to group neonates according to the composition of the microbiota. Results of ecological studies suggest that neonates with a different microbiota could have a different microbiological risk.

  15. MICROBIOLOGY OF ITCHY EARS

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    Vijin Ravindran Nambiar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study microbiology of external auditory canal in patients with itchy ears and to also study susceptibility profiles of pathogenic organisms to aid in appropriate management. Materials & Methods: A total of hundred patients were selected. An external ear canal swab was taken. For recovery of bacteria, the samples were emulsified in a solution of BHI broth to study aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Fungal microbiology was studied by KOH mount and fungal culture. Culture and sensitivity was done for the pathogenic organisms. Results: Of the total hundred patients, 48% patients had no growth. There were no anaerobes isolated. Of the remaining 52% cases, 33% of the growth was aerobic bacteria and 19% of the growth was fungi. Of the aerobic bacteria, coagulase negative staphylococcus was isolated from 22 patients, staphylococcus aureus from 9 patients and pseudomonas aeruginosa from 2 patients. Of the fungal species, candida was isolated from 11 patients and aspergillus niger from 8 patients. Conclusion: Our study concluded that there need not be an underlying bacterial or fungal infection to cause itching as evidenced by a condition called asteatosis. Hence, asteatosis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis for chronic and persistent itching when all other causes have been ruled out. We also found that topical ciprofloxacin drops is equally effective against the common bacterial pathogens.

  16. Recent advances in silage microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in our understanding of silage microbiology are reviewed. The ability to extract microbial DNA from silages, amplify portions of DNA, and use the amplified regions to identify strains of microorganisms is at the core of the changes occurring recently in silage microbiology. These dev...

  17. Use of a commercial household steam cleaning system to decontaminate beef and hog carcasses processed by four small or very small meat processing plants in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Suvang; Reynolds, A Estes; Chen, Jinru

    2007-03-01

    Small and very small meat-processing facilities in the United States are in need of a pathogen reduction technology that would be both effective and economical. In the present study, the effectiveness of a commercial household steam cleaner for reducing naturally occurring bacterial populations on freshly slaughtered beef and hog carcasses was evaluated in four small or very small meat-processing plants. Three anatomical sites on the right half of each carcass were exposed to a 60-s steam treatment, and the corresponding left half of the carcass remained untreated. Samples were collected from 72 beef and 72 hog carcasses before, immediately after, and 24 h after the steam treatment. The mean populations of total aerobes, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae recovered from three anatomical sites on the beef carcasses were 1.88, 1.89, and 1.36 log CFU/cm2, respectively, before the steam treatment, 1.00, 0.71, and 0.52 log CFU/cm2, respectively, immediately after the steam treatment, and 1.10, 0.95, and 0.50 log CFU/cm2, respectively, 24 h after the steam treatment. On hog carcasses, the mean populations of total aerobes, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae recovered from the three anatomical sites were 2.50, 2.41, and 1.88 log CFU/cm2, respectively, before the steam treatment, 0.50, 0.94, and 0.21 log CFU/cm2, respectively, immediately after the steam treatment, and 0.91, 1.56, and 0.44 log CFU/cm2, respectively, 24 h after the steam treatment. The steam treatment significantly reduced the total aerobes, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae at all three anatomical locations on both types of carcasses (P steam treatment was midline > neck > rump for beef carcasses and belly > jowl > ham for hog carcasses except for the total coliform counts at the midline and neck areas on the beef carcasses. Of the 144 carcasses evaluated, 5 (3.47%) were positive for Salmonella before steam treatment, but all carcasses tested negative for Salmonella after the treatment. Results indicate that

  18. Successful Application of Active Learning Techniques to Introductory Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Hoffman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available While the traditional lecture format may be a successful way to teach microbiology to both medical and nursing students, it was not an effective means of learning for many prenursing and preprofessional students enrolled in either of the introductory microbiology courses at Ashland Community College, an open enrollment institution. The structure of both Medical Microbiology and Principles of Microbiology was redesigned to allow students to address the material in an active manner. Daily quizzes, student group discussions, scrapbooks, lab project presentations and papers, and extra credit projects were all added in order to allow students maximum exposure to the course material in a manner compatible with various methods of learning. Student knowledge, course evaluations, and student success rates have all improved with the active learning format.

  19. Evaluation of sunflower meal on growth and carcass traits of finishing pigs Avaliação de farelo de girassol no desempenho e características de carcaca de suínos em terminação

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    Douglas de Carvalho Carellos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to evaluate the influence of increasing levels of inclusion of sunflower meal (SFM solvent extraction (DM: 92.71%, CP: 27.50%, NDF: 43.57%, ADF: 32.96%, CF: 25.91%, EE: 3,08% and GE: 4390 kcal on the performance and carcass characteristics of finishing swine, a performance trial was conducted in the Department of Animal Science of the Federal University of Lavras - MG. A total of 80 crossbred pigs (LD x LW with initial weight of 62.20 ± 4.21 kg were utilized, one barrow and one gilt per experimental unit, allocated in a randomized block design. The treatments were represented by five diets with increasing levels of inclusion (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16% of SFM. At the end of the experimental period, all pigs were slaughtered (99.80 ± 6.91kg and submitted to the carcass evaluation by the Brazilian Method of Carcass Evaluation (ABCS, 1973. The increasing levels of SFM shown a linear reduction (P0.05 for any increasing levels of SFM in the diets, however, sex effect was found, in the barrows, which shown higher ETM, P2, AG and RCG and lower AOL in relation to the females In conclusion Sunflower meal should be included up to 16% in pig diet (isocaloric and isolysinic, basis with no major effects on growth performance or carcass traits of finishing pigs.Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de níveis crescentes de inclusão do farelo de girassol (FG em rações (MS: 92,71%; PB: 27,50%; FDN: 43,57%; FDA: 32,96%; FB: 25,91% e a atuação deste no desempenho e características de carcaça para suínos em terminação, conduziu-se uma pesquisa no Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras-MG. Foram utilizados 80 suínos mestiços (LD x LW com peso inicial de 62,20 ± 4,21 kg, sendo 1 macho e 1 fêmea por baia, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos ao acaso. As rações apresentaram níveis crescentes de inclusão (0, 4, 8, 12 e 16% de FG. Ao final do ensaio de desempenho os 80 suínos foram abatidos (99,80 ± 6,91kg

  20. Prevalence of Campylobacter Jejuni and Coli in Sheep Carcasses by Using

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    Reza Shahrokhabadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Campylobacter species are common bacterial pathogens causing gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Materials and Methods: A total of 148 randomly sheep carcasses were sampled by surface section of neck meat taken immediately after slaughter analyzed using microbiological examinations. Results: Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 10.13% meat cultures samples examined. Among these 80% sample were C. jejuni and 20% sample were C. coli. Using PCR assays, the number of positive campylobacters increased to 11.48%. Of these positive samples, 82.35% were C. jejuni and 17.65% were C. coli. Significantly higher prevalence rates of Campylobacter spp. (p<0.05 were found in the meat samples taken in summer (47.05%. Conclusion: The PCR is a reliable and sensitive method which can be used as a diagnostic technique for the detection of campylobacter in lamb samples.

  1. Microbiology of aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könönen, Eija; Müller, Hans-Peter

    2014-06-01

    For decades, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been considered the most likely etiologic agent in aggressive periodontitis. Implementation of DNA-based microbiologic methodologies has considerably improved our understanding of the composition of subgingival biofilms, and advanced open-ended molecular techniques even allow for genome mapping of the whole bacterial spectrum in a sample and characterization of both the cultivable and not-yet-cultivable microbiota associated with periodontal health and disease. Currently, A. actinomycetemcomitans is regarded as a minor component of the resident oral microbiota and as an opportunistic pathogen in some individuals. Its specific JP2 clone, however, shows properties of a true exogenous pathogen and has an important role in the development of aggressive periodontitis in certain populations. Still, limited data exist on the impact of other microbes specifically in aggressive periodontitis. Despite a wide heterogeneity of bacteria, especially in subgingival samples collected from patients, bacteria of the red complex in particular, and those of the orange complex, are considered as potential pathogens in generalized aggressive periodontitis. These types of bacterial findings closely resemble those found for chronic periodontitis, representing a mixed polymicrobial infection without a clear association with any specific microorganism. In aggressive periodontitis, the role of novel and not-yet-cultivable bacteria has not yet been elucidated. There are geographic and ethnic differences in the carriage of periodontitis-associated microorganisms, and they need to be taken into account when comparing study reports on periodontal microbiology in different study populations. In the present review, we provide an overview on the colonization of potential periodontal pathogens in childhood and adolescence, and on specific microorganisms that have been suspected for their role in the initiation and progression of aggressive

  2. [Laboratory unification: advantages and disadvantages for clinical microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Antonia; Matas, Lurdes

    2010-10-01

    This article aims to reflect on which areas or tasks of microbiology laboratories could be unified with those of clinical biochemistry, hematology, immunology or pathology laboratories to benefit patients and the health system, as well as the areas that should remain independent since their amalgamation would not only fail to provide a benefit but could even jeopardize the quality of microbiological diagnosis, and consequently patient care. To do this, the distinct analytic phases of diagnosis are analyzed, and the advantages and disadvantages of amalgamation are evaluated in each phase. The pros and cons of the unification of certain areas such as the computer system, occupational risk units, customer service, purchasing logistics, and materials storage, etc, are also discussed. Lastly, the effect of unification on urgent microbiology diagnosis is analyzed. Microbiological diagnosis should be unique. The microbiologist should perform an overall evaluation of the distinct techniques used for a particular patient, both those that involve direct diagnosis (staining, culture, antigen detection techniques or molecular techniques) and indirect diagnosis (antibody detection). Moreover, the microbiology laboratory should be independent, with highly trained technicians and specialists in microbiology that provide added value as experts in infection and as key figures in the process of establishing a correct etiological diagnosis.

  3. Carcass yield traits of kids from a complete diallel of Boer, Kiko, and Spanish meat goat breeds semi-intensively managed on humid subtropical pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R; Phelps, O; Chisley, C; Getz, W R; Hollis, T; Leite-Browning, M L

    2012-03-01

    Bucklings (n = 275) from a complete diallel of Boer, Kiko, and Spanish meat goats were slaughtered at 7 mo of age (4 mo postweaning) to evaluate genetic effects on carcass yield. Breed of sire did not affect (P > 0.05) live, carcass, and primal weights. Conversely, breed of dam was a consistently significant source of variation for carcass weight traits. Kiko dams produced kids with heavier (P Kiko with the significance of differences varying by trait. Cold carcass dressing percent was affected (P Kiko and Spanish sires. Dressing percent was also less (P Kiko dams; Spanish dams were intermediate and did not differ (P > 0.05) from Boer or Kiko. Subjective conformation scores for muscularity were affected (P Kiko-sired kids. Progeny of Boer dams had better (P Kiko-sired and Spanish-sired kids. Breed differences for primal cut proportions were negligible. Proportional boneless meat yields did not vary (P > 0.05) by breeds of sire or dam. Direct effects of Boer were negative for carcass weight, dressing percent, and shoulder weight and positive for proportional leg weight. Direct effects of Kiko were positive for carcass weight and shoulder weight and negative for proportional leg weight. Direct effects of Spanish did not differ (P > 0.10) from 0 for any trait tested. Heterosis levels were similar among breed pairings. Heterosis was substantial (P ≤ 0.05) for live, carcass, and primal weights (5 to 9%) but not for dressing percent, proportional boneless meat yield, or primal weight proportions (Kiko or Spanish germplasm for carcass yield when semi-intensively managed on humid, subtropical pasture. Results emphasize the importance of comparative breed evaluations to provide industry with reliable information on carcass yield among goat genotypes.

  4. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance and carcass characteristics in wool and hair lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel M. Romero-Maya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics of wool and hair lambs. For this purpose, 48 lambs averaging 31.3 kg body weight, of which twenty were wool (Ramboullet x Suffolk and twenty eight were hair (Tabasco lambs, and four levels of RAC (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg diet, dry matter basis were used. Wool lambs fed 20 and 30 mg RAC had higher (P<0.05 total gain weight and lower feed conversion than 0 and 10 mg RAC. Wool lambs fed 20 mg RAC had the highest carcass weight, dressing, legs weight and longissimus area as compared to 0, 10 and 30 mg RAC.  In hair lambs there were not effect of RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics.It was concluded that addition of RAC to finishing diets offered the best growth performance and carcass traits in wool lambs as compared to hair lambs. 

  5. Performance, carcass and meat quality of ewes supplemented with magnesium oxide

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    Camila Constantino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance, the carcass and meat characteristics of ewes supplemented with magnesium oxide. Eighteen 6-year-old Santa Ines ewes were used in a completely randomized experimental design, where three levels of supplementation (0.0, 0.1 and 0.2% magnesium oxide in the concentrate were tested, with six replicates. Final weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were not affected by levels of magnesium supplementation. Hot and cold carcass weights showed linear increasing and quadratic responses, respectively, according to supplementation with magnesium. Carcass measurements such as length, depth, and measures of arm and leg were not affected by supplementation. Depth and width of the longissimus muscle and rib-eye area were not affected; however, marbling and ether extract increased linearly with supplementation. Water loss and color were not affected. Lipid oxidation and shear force were not affected by supplementation, while the myofibrillar fragmentation index showed a quadratic regression. There was a linear decrease in pH with magnesium supplementation. Supplementation with magnesium can improve carcass and meat pH, but can act negatively by increasing the amount of marbling and ether extract of meat.

  6. ASSOCIATION OF SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS IN THE LEPR CANDIDATE GENE WITH CARCASS TRAITS OF PIGS

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    Anton Kováčik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Leptin and leptin receptor genetic variants are associated with obese phenotypes in humans and mice and are expected to influence fat deposition in pigs. This study aimed to investigate the associations of LEPR polymorphism with carcass traits (half carcass weight, lean meat percentage, back-fat thickness, MLT area - musculus longisimus thoracis and evaluation of genotypic values, additive values and dominance deviations. To identify the genotypes of LEPR candidate genes, we used biological material obtained from sows (55 and boars (51 of hybrid combination Large White x Landrace after reaching the slaughter weight. We identified three genotypes using restriction endonuclease HpaII in a group of 106 pigs. The AA genotype was the dominant one (42.45%, AB heterozygotes constituted 39.62%, while the BB genotype was the lowest (17.93%. Analyzing the half carcass weight the highest value detected was the highest in the dominant AA homozygotes together with the highest genotypic value (GAA = 0.3649. The pork genotype AA presented the highest back-fat thickness, A high correlation between the additive genetic effect of the A allele and back-fat thickness (0.8183 has been observed while the effect of the allelic dominance was relatively low (0.1907. Based on our results we may conclude that there is an inverse and antagonistic relationship between the quality of the half carcass weight together with the back-fat thickness and the lean meat marker.

  7. Performance and carcass traits in the diallel crossing of pacu and tambaqui

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    Rafael Vilhena Reis Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of evaluating the changes and the degree of heterosis on performance and carcass traits of fish from the diallel crossing between Pacu and Tambaqui, four genetic groups were generated through hormonal induction: pacu, tambaqui, tambacu and paqui. For 196 days, 400 juveniles of each genetic group were stocked in a pond divided into four parts of equal size, one for each group. At the end of this period, when the fish weighed on average 1024 g (±115.52 g, 20 specimens of each genetic group were sampled, weighed, measured: head length; standard length; body height; and width; and also processed resulting in following body yield: viscera; carcass; head; fillet; rib; residue and skin yields. There was positive heterosis for body weight, viscera and skin yield and head measures and negative heterosis for carcass and filet yield and body width, indicating that the hybrids have better performance on weight gain, but are inferior in relation to the carcass conformation.

  8. Performance and carcass characteristics of young cattle fed with soybean meal treated with tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Rafael; Paulino, Pedro Veiga Rodrigues; Barbosa, Marcília Medrado; da Silva Martins, Taiane; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Dos Santos Monnerat, João Paulo Ismério

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of replacement of soybean meal (SBM) with soybean meal treated with tannin (SBMT) on the intake, digestibility, performance and characteristics of the carcasses of young cattle fed a high-concentrate diet. Forty-two Nellore bulls with body weight of 244.5 ± 4.99 kg were used. Diets had the inclusion of 7.5% SBM, with a proportion of that SBM (0, 33, 66 or 100%) replaced for SBMT; and other treatment (SBMT + urea) just with 2.5% of SBM which was treated with tannins. Seven animals were randomly selected and slaughtered, and the remaining animals were distributed on treatments and remained for 112 days. After, all animals were slaughtered. There was a linear decline in dry matter intake (P = 0.026) when SBM was replaced with SBMT. No decrease in carcass weight (P > 0.05) was observed. The efficiency of carcass weight gain showed a quadratic function effect (P = 0.049). There were changes in carcass gain composition when SBMT was added (P < 0.05), with an increase in muscle and reduction in fat deposition. The use of SBMT in place of SBM causes changes in body gain composition in animals and reduces DM intake by the animals, achieving a better feed conversion efficiency.

  9. Feedlot performance, feed efficiency and carcass traits in Nellore cattle selected for postweaning weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lucila Sobrinho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlated responses to selection for growth in feed efficiency and carcass traits of Nellore animals. A total of 121 animals of the Nellore control (NeC and selection herds were subjected to performance testing and classified regarding residual feed intake (RFI. Sixty-seven of these animals were selected and finished until reaching 4 mm of subcutaneous fat thickness between the 12th and 13th ribs. The animals were slaughtered at a mean age of 541 days and mean live weight of 423 kg for NeS and of 363 kg for NeC, and carcass traits were measured. Animals in NeS presented higher initial and slaughter weights, dry matter intake, hot and cold carcass weight, weight of retail cuts, and carcass yield than NeC animals for the same slaughter age and feedlot time. No significant differences in RFI were observed between herds, showing that the weight gain from selection for growth did not cause changes in the energy efficiency of the animals.

  10. Influence of immunocastration (Bopriva® in weight gain, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nellore

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    Nayara Andreo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the effects of immunocastration on body weight gain, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nellore beef cattle. Eighty Nellore beef cattle, with initial body weight of 357±8.63 kg, were placed in feedlots and distributed in two treatments (40 animals per treatments as follow: one - non-vaccinated bulls and two - immunocastrated bulls (Bopriva®, Pfizer Animal Health. The animals placed on treatment two were vaccinated in two doses, first application 30 days before they arrive on the feedlots and second on the day they arrive on feedlots. After 67 days of experimental period, was calculated the daily gain of live weight in kg/day of the 80 animals and selected 20 animals from each treatment for the slaughter and carcass evaluations, and ten from each group for the meat analyzes. The data were submitted to analysis of variance. Immunocastrated animals showed lower daily weight gain, hot carcass weight, carcass yield, pH, leg thickness, muscle depth, loin muscle area, carcass muscle percentage, shear force and moisture. However, this animals had higher concentration of lactate and cortisol blood, chest depth, fat thickness, finishing degree, a *, b * and c*, liquid loss in thawing process, myofibrillar fragmentation index and ether extract of meat when compared to non-vaccinated bulss. The immunocastration (Bopriva® is an alternative for improving the quality of meat by the higher fat deposition and by the reduction of the shear force of the meat when compared to non-vaccinated bulls.

  11. Isolation of Arcobacter spp from poultry carcasses, in Brazil

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    Oliveira Sérgio José de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourty eight isolates of Arcobacter spp were obtained from 37 poultry carcasses, from abattoir, among 80 carcasses examined. Attempts for culturing were made from the skin and muscle, resulting on 25 positive cultures from muscle and 23 from skin. Classification was achieved by phenotypic characterization and PCR and multiplex PCR, resulting 41 samples of Arcobacter butzleri and 07 Arcobacter sp. This is the first report on the occurrence of Arcobacter in animal carcasses in Brazil.

  12. Periodontal health status in patients treated with the Invisalign® system and fixed orthodontic appliances: A 3 months clinical and microbiological evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrini, Luca; Mangano, Alessandro; Montanari, Paola; Margherini, Silvia; Caprioglio, Alberto; Abbate, Gian Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this prospective study was to compare the periodontal health and the microbiological changes via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances and Invisalign® system (Align Technology, Santa Clara, California). Materials and Methods: Seventy-seven patients were enrolled in this study and divided into three groups (Invisalign® group, fixed orthodontic appliances group and control group). Plaque index, probing depth, bleeding on probing were assessed. Total biofilm mass and periodontal pathogens were analyzed and detected via real-time PCR. All these data were analyzed at the T0 (beginning of the treatment) T1 (1-month) and T2 (3 months); and statistically compared using the Mann–Whitney test for independent groups. Results: After 1-month and after 3 months of treatment there was only one sample with periodontopathic anaerobes found in patient treated using fixed orthodontic appliances. The Invisalign® group showed better results in terms of periodontal health and total biofilm mass compared to the fixed orthodontic appliance group. A statistical significant difference (P Invisalign® System show a superior periodontal health in the short-term when compared to patients in treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Invisalign® should be considered as a first treatment option in patients with risk of developing periodontal disease. PMID:26430371

  13. Avaliação de características da carcaça e da qualidade da carne de queixada (Tayassu pecari [Link, 1795] Evaluation of carcass characteristics and meat quality of white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari [Link, 1795

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mendes Ramos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, propôs-se avaliar os parâmetros de qualidade na carcaça e carne de queixadas adultas. Um total de quatro queixadas (três machos e uma fêmea, com peso vivo (PV médio de 29,47 ± 3,45 kg, foi abatido, determinado o rendimento de carcaça quente (RCQ, e avaliada a área do olho do lombo (AOL, gordura de marmoreio (GM, espessura da gordura de cobertura (EGC, pH, perda de peso por cozimento (PPC, concentração de pigmentos heme totais (PHT e composição centesimal no músculo Longissimus dorsi (LD. O RCQ em relação ao PV foi de 53,80%, assemelhando-se aos índices observados em bovinos e búfalos, sendo encontrada uma quebra de peso de 3,22% após refrigeração. O pH médio final, após 24 horas, foi de 5,54, dentro da faixa considerada normal para carnes suínas. Os valores médios obtidos para AOL (14,44 cm² e EGC (3,75 mm indicam um bom desenvolvimento muscular e uma menor proporção de gordura na carcaça, também evidenciada pela existência de traços de GM e pelo baixo conteúdo de lipídeos observados no lombo. De forma geral, o lombo apresentou composição média de 74,59% de umidade, 20,25% de proteína, 1,08% de lipídeos e 1,17% de cinzas, muito similares aos observados em animais convencionais. Os dados médios de PHT (69,49 ppm e PPC (13,68% demonstram a qualidade da carne de queixada, uma vez que refletem no favorecimento da cor vermelha do produto final e em uma baixa perda de peso do corte, durante o preparo.This work was carried out to evaluate carcass and meat quality attributes of adult white-lipped peccaries. A total of four white-lipped peccaries (three males and one female, with average of live weights (LW of 29.47 ± 3.45 kg, were slaughtered and evaluated for hot carcass dressing (HCD, ribeye area (REA, rib fat thickness (RFT, intramuscular fat (marbling, pH, cook loss (CL, total haem pigments (THP and proximate composition of Longissimus dorsi (LD. The HCD in relation to LW was of 53

  14. PRICE DEVELOPMENTS OF BEEF CARCASSES IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

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    IOANA BĂLAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of the classification of cattle carcasses (beef and veal are represented by the correct payment to cattle breeders, according to carcass weight and quality, and standardization, the common language in the international meat trade. The European Union set uniform procedures for quality assessment (the EUROP system, defined by the same parameters in the whole continent. Romania is at the beginning of cattle carcass classification; it is in the third year of reporting on the classification results to the European Commission. In this context, we consider it is very important to analyze these results, for a continuous improvement of carcass quality.

  15. Performance, carcass characteristics and gain cost of feedlot cattle fed a high level of concentrate and different feed additives

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    Érico Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding cattle with isoprotein and isoenergetic diets, with and without the addition of polyclonal antibody preparation (PAP, yeasts (YST or monensin sodium (MON on performance, carcass characteristics and gain cost in feedlot. Ninety-five 20-month old bullocks (323.3±21.8 kg were distributed in 25 pens. The completely randomized experimental design had a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement and the treatments were replicated 5 times. There was no effect of MON for DMI throughout the feedlot period; however, MON reduced the dry matter intake (DMI in g/kg of BW in the first 28 days when compared with the other treatments. The gain cost decreased with MON addition in relation to the other treatments. Inclusion of YST decreased average daily gain (ADG, final body weight, hot carcass weight, carcass weight, gain to feed ratio and DMI in g/kg body weight, worsening feed conversion and increasing the gain cost in the feeding periods. Inclusion of PAP increased ADG and decreased the gain cost, besides improving feed conversion. For MON and PAP, a difference was found for kidney-pelvic fat and kidney-pelvic fat per 100 kg of hot carcass weight. For MON and YST, there was a difference in ADG, feed conversion, gain cost and carcass yield and kidney-pelvic fat per 100 kg of hot carcass. Treatment YST worsened performance in relation to the non-supplemented treatments. Feeding PAP to animals did not influence performance and carcass characteristics of bullocks in feedlot negatively. Thus, PAP shows potential to substitute MON in cattle feeding using isoprotein and isoenergetic diets.

  16. Postweaning growth and carcass traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano maternal grandsires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A; Cundiff, L V

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for postweaning growth and carcass composition traits in terminal crossbred cattle. Postweaning growth and carcass traits were analyzed on 464 steers and 439 heifers obtained by mating F(1) cows to Charolais and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) sires. The F(1) cows were obtained from mating Angus and MARC III dams to Hereford, Angus, Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano sires. Traits evaluated were postweaning ADG, slaughter weight, HCW, dressing percentage, percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, retail product yield (percentage), and retail product weight. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P carcass weights, the least percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, and the least amount of marbling and fat thickness. Animals with inheritance from these 2 breeds had a more desirable yield grade with the greatest retail product yield. Maternal granddam breed was significant (P < 0.05) for marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, and retail product yield. Sex class was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits except for retail product yield. Steers grew faster, were heavier, had heavier carcasses, and were leaner than heifers. Heifers had a greater dressing percentage, a greater percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, a greater LM area, and a decreased yield grade when compared with steers. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems.

  17. Characterization of two Pro-opiomelanocortin gene variants and their effects on carcass traits in beef cattle

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    Deobald Heather M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcass quantity (lean meat yield and quality (degree of marbling in beef cattle determines much of their economic value. Consequently, it is important to study genes that are part of the appetite pathway and that may ultimately affect carcass composition. Pro-opiomelanocortin is a prohormone that codes for many different peptides, several of which are involved in the appetite pathway. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP c.288C>T in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC has previously been associated with hot carcass weight (HCW and shipping weight (Ship wt in beef cattle. Results While developing a commercial real time PCR test for POMC c.288C>T a 12 bp deletion (POMC c.293_304delTTGGGGGCGCGG was identified. The deletion results in the removal of four amino acids (a valine, two glycines, and an alanine. Both the POMC c.288C>T and the deletion were genotyped in 386 crossbred steers and evaluated for associations with carcass traits. The animals with one copy of the deletion had a significantly smaller carcass rib-eye area (7.91 cm2; P = 0.02 in comparison to homozygous normal animals. Significant associations were observed between POMC c.288C>T with start-of-finishing weight (SOF WT; P = 0.04, hot carcass weight (HCW; P = 0.02, average fat and grade fat (both P = 0.05, carcass rib-eye area (REA; P = 0.03 and marbling (P = 0.02. Conclusions These results suggest that it could be beneficial for beef producers to know both the deletion and POMC c.288C>T genotypes when making marketing and culling decisions.

  18. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects in microbiology, physical and chemical and sensory aspects of ice cream; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante nos aspectos microbiologicos, fisico-quimicos e sensoriais de sorvetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir Dias

    2015-06-01

    The ice cream is defined as an emulsion of fats and proteins or a mixture of water and sugar, other ingredients may be added provided since they do not affect the product. It is considered a food of high nutritional value, providing lipids, carbohydrates, protein, calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals and vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6, C, D, E and K), and it is considered one of the most important products and higher interest to the dairy industry due to great demand by the consumers. The diseases related to food consumption are considered one of the most significant problems. Several outbreaks related to microbiological contamination of ice cream have been reported in recent decades in Asia, Europe and America. It is believed that the ice cream, as a frozen food, presents no risk to the population health. However, it is considered an excellent environment for the growth of microorganisms due to its composition, pH close to neutrality and long storage period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, sensory and physicochemical aspects of ice cream. The ice cream samples were irradiated with gamma rays (60Co) with the doses of LOkGy, 2.0kGy, 3.0kGy and 4.0kGy. The samples intended for the inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229) and Salmonella abaetetuba (ATCC 35640) have been irradiated with doses of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0kGy. It can be concluded that the dose of 3.0kGy was adequate to reduce most of the studied microorganisms to undetected levels. The use of gamma radiation affected the texture and the parameters of the colorimetric analyses of the ice cream. The results of the sensorial analyses showed that the better accepted dose was 3.0kGy. (author)

  19. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  20. Medical Microbiology: Deficits and Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabridge, Michael G.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiology is a typical medical science in which basic information can have direct application. Yet, surveys and questionnaires of recent medical school graduates indicate a serious lack of retentiion in regard to basic biological science. (Author)

  1. Updated Cases for Medical Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinda Govindan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 4th ed.; Peter H. Gilligan, Daniel S. Shapiro, and Melissa B. Miller; (2014. ASM Press, Washington, DC. 589 pages.

  2. Effects of dietary wheat middlings, distillers dried grains with solubles, and choice white grease on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, J A; DeRouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Petry, D B

    2012-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of adding combinations of wheat middlings (midds), distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), and choice white grease (CWG) to growing-finishing pig diets on growth, carcass traits, and carcass fat quality. In Exp. 1, 288 pigs (average initial BW = 46.6 kg) were used in an 84-d experiment with pens of pigs randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments with 8 pigs per pen and 9 pens per treatment. Treatments included a corn-soybean meal-based control, the control with 30% DDGS, the DDGS diet with 10% midds, or the DDGS diet with 20% midds. Diets were fed in 4 phases and formulated to constant standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys:ME ratios within each phase. Overall (d 0 to 84), pigs fed diets containing increasing midds had decreased (linear, P ≤ 0.02) ADG and G:F, but ADFI was not affected. Feeding 30% DDGS did not influence growth. For carcass traits, increasing midds decreased (linear, P pigs (initial BW = 42.3 kg) were used in an 87-d experiment with pens of pigs randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 8 pigs per pen and 6 pens per treatment. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 2 amounts of midds (0 or 20%) and 3 amounts of CWG (0, 2.5, or 5.0%). All diets contained 15% DDGS. Diets were fed in 4 phases and formulated to constant SID Lys:ME ratios in each phase. No CWG × midds interactions were observed. Overall (d 0 to 87), feeding 20% midds decreased (P Pigs increasing CWG had improved ADG (quadratic, P = 0.03) and G:F (linear, P Dietary midds or CWG did not affect ADFI. For carcass traits, feeding 20% midds decreased (P Pigs fed CWG had decreased (linear, P pig growth performance, carcass yield, and increased jowl fat iodine value. Although increasing diet energy with CWG can help mitigate negative effects on live performance, CWG did not eliminate negative impacts of midds on carcass yield, HCW, and jowl fat iodine value.

  3. Prevalence and Serogroup Diversity of Salmonella for Broiler Neck Skin, Whole Carcass Rinse, and Whole Carcass Enrichment Sampling Methodologies following Air or Immersion Chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, D V; Holmes, J M; Cason, J A; Cox, N A; Rigsby, L L; Buhr, R J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck skin (NS), whole carcass rinse (WCR), and whole carcass enrichment (WCE) sampling procedures for Salmonella isolation and serogroup identification from the same broiler chicken carcass treated with air or immersion chilling. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler carcasses were collected from a commercial processing plant, individually bagged, and transported to the pilot processing plant. In experiment 1, carcasses were air chilled to 4°C. In experiment 2, carcasses were immersion chilled with or without chlorine. After air chilling, Salmonella was detected on 78% of NS and 89% of WCE samples. Only one Salmonella serogroup was detected from each of 13 Salmonella-positive NS samples, and two serogroups were detected on 1 Salmonella-positive NS sample. Only one Salmonella serogroup was detected from each of 13 Salmonella-positive WCE samples, and two serogroups were detected from 3 Salmonella-positive WCE samples. After immersion chilling without chlorine, Salmonella was detected on 38% of NS, 45% of WCR, and 100% of WCE samples. Without chlorine, the 15 Salmonella-positive NS samples included 14 samples with one serogroup and 1 sample with two serogroups. Only one Salmonella serogroup was detected from WCR samples after immersion chilling. Of 40 Salmonella-positive WCE samples, 23 had a one, 14 had two, and 3 had three Salmonella serogroups. After immersion chilling with chlorine, Salmonella was detected on 35% of NS, 0% of WCR, and 90% of WCE samples. With chlorine, the 14 Salmonella-positive NS samples included 11 samples with one serogroup and 3 samples with two serogroups. No Salmonella serogroups were detected from WCR samples after immersion chilling with 20 mg/liter free chlorine. The 36 Salmonella-positive WCE samples included 21 samples with one serogroup and 15 samples with two serogroups. NS and WCE sampling methodologies yielded similar prevalence and serogroup diversity after air chilling. However

  4. MICROBIOLOGICAL TESTING OF SELECTED CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS QUALITY

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    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality and water activity of confectionery products as corpus of desserts, stuffing cakes and finished cakes. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: total count of bacteria, coliforms bacteria, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeasts, microscopic filamentous fungi, counts of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. were observed. These confectionery products were evaluated: 5 corpus of Kremeš, 5 stuffing of Kremeš and 5 Venček cake. For microbiological tests 15 samples of confectionery products were used. The numbers of total count of bacteria ranged from 2.9 to 3.65 log CFU.g-1, the number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria ranged from 2.00 to 3.28 log CFU.g-1, coliforms bacteria in confectionery products ranged from 0.00 to 3.15 CFU.g-1, number of yeasts ranged from 0.00 to 3.30 log CFU.g-1and the number of microscopic fungi ranged from 0.00 to 2.90 CFU.g-1. None of the samples showed any growth of coliforms bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. From microscopic fungi were isolated genera Alternaria, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Eight from fifteen investigated samples of confectionary products were in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic. The lowest water activity was found in Kremeš corpus samples (0.953 and higher in Venček samples (0.973.

  5. MICROBIOLOGICAL ASSAY FOR VITAMIN B

    OpenAIRE

    Bishnoi Kapil*, , ,; Kataria Mahesh; Singhal Vipin; Gupta Deepika

    2012-01-01

    Micronutrients added to foods are analyzed using various procedures depending on their nature and properties. The microbiological assays are better than chemical method because any suitable change in vitamin molecule which may not be detected by chemical method will be revealed by change in microbial activity. The microbiological assay of vitamins is based upon the comparison of the stimulation of growth of bacteria by measured concentration of vitamin with that produced by known concentratio...

  6. CARCASS QUALITY, MARBLING AND CHOLESTEROL CONTENT OF MALE BALI CATTLE FED FERMENTED COCOA SHELL

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    E. Suryanto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of fermented cacao shell on the carcassquality, percentage of non carcass components, marbling and cholesterol content of Bali cattle. NineBali cattle of 1.5-2 year old and 165-175 kg weight were grouped into three feeding trials. The firstgroup P0 was fed ration containing 30% cacao shell fermented with its own microorganism and 70%corn straw, the second group P1 was fed ration containing 30% cacao shell fermented with ruminal fluidand 70% corn straw, and the third group P2 was fed ration containing 30% cacao shell fermented withBioplus and 70% corn straw. All cattle were also given commercial concentrate amounting to 1% oftheir bodyweight. The cattle were slaughtered at the end of feeding trial and their carcasses, meat andnon carcass components were analysed. Experimental design used was completely randomized design.The results showed that carcass percentage, back fat thickness, rib eye area and meat index of Bali cattle were as follows group PO 53.33%, 3.08 mm, 59.65 cm2, 0.79%; group P1 52.64%, 5.31 mm, 58.52 cm,0.82% and group P2 5.32%, 5.7 mm, 57.75 cm, 0.79%, respectively. The marbling and cholesterolcontent of Bali beef were group PO 2.65% and 71.25 mg/100g, group P1 2.12% and 48.75 mg/100g,and P2 2.63% and 74.50 mg/100g. It could be concluded that fermented cacao shell could be used asfeed ingredient without any effect on the carcass and meat quality, marbling and cholesterol contents ofmale Bali beef.

  7. Growth, puberty, and carcass characteristics of Brahman-, Senepol-, and Tuli-sired F1 Angus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J; Larsen, R E; Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; West, R L; Johnson, D D

    2001-08-01

    Postweaning growth, sexual development, libido, and carcass data were collected from two consecutive calf crops using 31 Brahman x Angus (B x A), 41 Senepol x Angus (S x A), and 38 Tuli x Angus (T x A) F1 bulls. Following weaning (by mid-September) and preconditioning, at the start of the study (late September) bulls were fed concentrate (three times each week at a rate equivalent to 4.5 kg/d) on bahiagrass pasture for approximately 250 d. At the start of the study and at 28-d intervals, BW, hip height, and scrotal circumference (SC) were measured. Concurrently at 28-d intervals, when the SC of a bull was > or = 23 cm, semen collection was attempted using electroejaculation. Ejaculates were evaluated for presence of first spermatozoa (FS), 50 x 10(6) sperm with at least 10% motility (PU), and 500 x 10(6) sperm with at least 50% motility (PP). After all bulls reached PP they were subjected to two libido tests. Carcass data were collected on all bulls (n = 110) and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values were assessed on a subset (n = 80). For both years, B x A bulls were heavier (P 0.10) gain in BW or hip height during the study. Scrotal circumference of T x A bulls was larger (P 0.10) of breed type by the end of the study. At PU and PP, B x A bulls were older (P carcass traits; B x A bulls had the heaviest (P carcass weight, greatest (P 0.10) USDA quality grade. In conclusion, tropically adapted F1 bulls produced from Senepol (Bos taurus) and Tuli (Sanga) sires bred to Angus cows in Florida had lighter BW, shorter hip heights, and smaller carcasses than those from Brahman sires but reached puberty earlier and had higher libido scores and lower WBS force values.

  8. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of milk according to the seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fagnani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The seasons have a major influence on milk production, especially when animals are exposed to climatic variations. This situation is very common in Brazil and further investigation is needed to understand the losses caused by oscillations in milk constituents. The aim was to evaluate how seasonality can affect the physicochemical and microbiological quality of raw milk in Ivaiporã region, state of Paraná, Brazil. In this research, the milk from properties in northern Paraná was evaluated during 24 months for lactose, protein, fat, total solids, total bacteria count and somatic cell count. The regional rainfall and average temperature recorded at each station were analyzed for determination of Thermal Comfort Index and evaluation of heat stress. This study concluded that seasonality have influence on microbiological and physicochemical quality of milk in Ivaiporã region, with higher percentages of solids in the fall and inferior microbiological quality in the spring.

  9. [Authorized Qualifications of Staff Conducting Examinations in the Field of Clinical Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-01

    Because of the increase in healthcare-associated infections, appearance of highly resistant bacteria, and that of emerging/re-emerging infectious diseases, it is necessary for the skills of clinical microbiological technologists and the associated technology to be improved. Technologist in Microbiology (4,717 certified) and Specialist in Microbiology (58 certified) are authorized qualifications in the field of examination for clinical microbiology, with a history of 60 years, and Clinical Microbiological Technologist (670 certified) and Infection Control Microbiological Technologist (ICMT) (528 certified) are necessary qualifications to become a member of an infection control team. As problems to be resolved, clarifying the relationships among the authorized qualifications, reconsidering the fairness of evaluating written examinations, and further consideration of the administration method for an increasing number of examinees need to be tackled.

  10. Effect of fermented noni leaf (Morinda citrifolia L. in diets on cholesterol content of broiler chicken carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erman Syahruddin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken meat is very nutritious. It is sometimes blamed to cause strock attack and coronary heart disease in human, because of high fat and cholesterol contents in the chicken meat. Therefore, the aim of this experiment is to evaluate the effect of fermented noni leaf levels in diets on the cholesterol content of broiler chicken carcass. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with eight experimental diets containing 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21% of fermented noni leaf powder. All diets were formulated to contain 22% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg. Each treatment had three replicates with ten chickens per replicate. Two hundred and forty day old unsex broiler chicks Arbor Acress were fed ad lib. for eight weeks and then sacrificed. Feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and cholesterol content of carcass were taken as variable responses. Data were analyzed based on analysis of variance and orthogonal comparisons. Results showed that feed consumption, daily weight gain, FCR and carcass content were not affected by the levels of fermented noni leaf in the diet. However, cholesterol content of broiler carcass was significantly (P < 0.05 affected by the dietary treatments. Cholesterol content of the carcass was reduced processed 26.18% 73.06 to 53.76 mg/100g mg/100g chicken meat. The lowest cholesterol level was obtained by feeding the chickens with diets containing 21% fermented noni leaf.

  11. Effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride with and without monensin and tylosin on carcass cutability and meat palatability of beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, G G; Montgomery, J L; Krehbiel, C R; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T; Streeter, M N; Blanton, J R; Miller, M F

    2009-04-01

    An experiment was conducted using 200 beef carcasses to evaluate the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride with or without monensin and tylosin on carcass cutability and meat sensory variables. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design with treatments arranged as a 2 (no zilpaterol vs. zilpaterol) x 2 (monensin and tylosin withdrawn vs. monensin and tylosin fed) factorial. Cattle (n=3,757) were fed zilpaterol hydrochloride, a beta(2)-adrenergic agonist, for 30 d at the end of the finishing period and withdrawn from zilpaterol hydrochloride for the last 5 d on feed. Five carcasses (weighing between 305 and 421 kg and free of slaughter defects) were selected from each of 40 feedlot treatment pens. Strip loins from the left sides were collected for sensory analysis and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) testing, and the rib was collected for 9th, 10th, 11th-rib dissections. A subsample of 3 carcass right sides per pen was fabricated into boneless subprimals according to Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications. Carcasses from zilpaterol-fed steers had greater (P or= 0.26). For the main effect of monensin and tylosin, withdrawal of monensin and tylosin decreased (P=0.01) consumer juiciness scores, although other yield and compositional measurements were not affected (P >or= 0.07). Zilpaterol is a strong repartitioning agent that increases meat yield through increased protein and decreased fat deposition.

  12. Broiler chicken PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat and water release during chicken carcass thawing and brazilian legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Kato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the relationship between poultry PSE meat and water loss of frozen chicken carcass in two experiments. The first experiment was carried out in commercial abattoir. Poultry carcass were classified as PSE meat (n=59 (pH 5.8. Water absorption and drip test were performed according to the Brazilian legislation methodologies. The second experiment was carried out with commercial whole five brands frozen carcasses purchased from the local supermarkets (n=30 and analyzed for pH, water holding capacity (WHC and drip test. PSE poultry meats absorbed 3.59% of water during the processing similar to the control samples; however, released 0.38% more water during thawing of the carcasses. From these five brands evaluated, three presented drip values above 6.0%. The highest drip value was showed by the brand sample that had pH and WHC values characteristics of PSE meat. It could be postulated that PSE meat phenomenon promoted more water release during thawing leading to a misinterpretation in relation to the Brazilian legislation for water carcass liberation during thawing.

  13. Relationships between carcass characteristics, meat quality, age and sex of free-ranging Alaskan reindeer: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A. Renecker

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four reindeer (Rangifer tarandus carcasses from male and female animals that ranged in age from calves to adults were purchased from Bering Sea Reindeer Products (BSRP, Nunivak Island, Alaska, USA. Preslaughter and abattoir procedures were observed and evaluated. Carcasses were split in half, weighed, and broke into wholesale primal cuts of chuck, rib, loin, and hindquarter. Each primal cut was weighed, boxed, and frozen. Each half carcass of primal cuts was later dissected into lean tissue, bone, and the three compartments of fat: subcutaneous, intermuscular, and peritoneal. A portion of the loin was collected from each animal in order to obtain data on pH and shear force. Sensory panel analysis was performed on loin steaks. Due to management and environmental effects, pH values were high and the meat was dark in colour. Carcasses from adult male reindeer contained significantly lower levels of fat than carcasses of adult females. Data indicated that yearling reindeer are of greatest economic value for meat production.

  14. Antibiotic expected effectiveness and cost under real life microbiology: evaluation of ertapenem and ceftriaxone in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia for elderly patients in Spain

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    Grau S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Santiago Grau,1 Virginia Lozano,2 Amparo Valladares,3 Rafael Cavanillas,4 Yang Xie,5 Gonzalo Nocea3 1Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain; 2Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Iberia, Madrid, Spain; 3Outcomes Research Merck Sharp and Dohme Ltd, Madrid, Spain; 4Medical Affairs, Merck Sharp and Dohme Ltd, Madrid, Spain; 5Global Health Outcomes, Merck Sharp and Dohme Ltd, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA Background: Clinical efficacy of antibiotics may be affected by changes in the susceptibility of microorganisms to antimicrobial agents. The purpose of this study is to assess how these changes could affect the initial efficacy of ertapenem and ceftriaxone in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP in elderly patients and the potential consequences this may have in health care costs. Methods: Initial efficacy in elderly was obtained from a combined analysis of two multicenter, randomized studies. An alternative scenario was carried out using initial efficacy data according to the pneumonia severity index (PSI. Country-specific pathogens distribution was obtained from a national epidemiological study, and microbiological susceptibilities to first- and second-line therapies were obtained from Spanish or European surveillance studies. A decision analytic model was used to compare ertapenem versus ceftriaxone for CAP inpatient treatment. Inputs of the model were the expected effectiveness previously estimated and resource use considering a Spanish national health system perspective. Outcomes include difference in proportion of successfully treated patients and difference in total costs between ertapenem and ceftriaxone. The model performed one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results: First-line treatment of CAP with ertapenem led to a higher proportion of successfully treated patients compared with ceftriaxone in Spain. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that length of stay was the key parameter of the model. Probabilistic

  15. Avaliação das proporções dos cortes da carcaça, características da carne e avaliação dos componentes do peso vivo de cordeiros Evaluation of carcass cuttings proportion, meat characteristics and evaluation of live weight components of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Batista Medeiros Frescura

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a composição física da carcaça, as características da carne e a proporção dos não-componentes da carcaça do peso vivo de cordeiros abatidos aos 28 kg submetidos a diferentes sistemas alimentares. Dezoito cordeiros (Ile de France x Texel foram distribuídos aleatoriamente, com as respectivas mães, em três tratamentos: PCA - pastagem cultivada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., CON - confinamento sem alimentação privativa e CCF - confinamento com alimentação privativa para os cordeiros. A alimentação privativa foi oferecida aos cordeiros pelo sistema de creep feeding. Não houve diferença para o percentual do pescoço entre PCA, CON e CCF, com valores de 9,27; 9,17 e 8,72%, respectivamente. Para o percentual de perna, os animais da CON (34,02% e CCF (34,17% apresentaram valores semelhantes entre si e superiores aos da PCA (31,73%. A maciez medida na porção do Longissimus dorsi entre a 9ª e 12ª costelas foi semelhante entre os animais dos três tratamentos, de 2,33; 3,03 e 3,08 para PCA, CON e CCF, respectivamente. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre a palatabilidade e suculência da carne. O percentual de pele dos animais da PCA (11,05% e do CON (10,50% foram semelhantes entre si, enquanto o PCA apresentou valores mais elevados que o percentual dos animais do CCF (9,70%. Para o percentual do conteúdo gástrico, os valores observados para os animais do CCF (11,47% foram superiores àqueles da PCA (5,09% e semelhantes aos obtidos para os animais do CON (8,72%.This study aimed to evaluate carcass physical comp0sition, meat characteristics and live weight carcass no component of lambs slaughter at 28 kg under different feeding systems. Eighteen lambs (Ile de France X Texel were randomly allotted, with their respective mothers, to three treatments: RP - ryegrass pasture (Lolium multiflorum Lam., COM - confinament of lamb and sheep together and CCF - confinament with creep feeding. A

  16. Establishing molecular microbiology facilities in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Salman S; Alp, Emine; Ulu-Kilic, Aysegul; Doganay, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories play an important role in epidemiology and infection control programs. Within microbiology laboratories, molecular microbiology techniques have revolutionized the identification and surveillance of infectious diseases. The combination of excellent sensitivity, specificity, low contamination levels and speed has made molecular techniques appealing methods for the diagnosis of many infectious diseases. In a well-equipped microbiology laboratory, the facility designated for molecular techniques remains indiscrete. However, in most developing countries, poor infrastructure and laboratory mismanagement have precipitated hazardous consequences. The establishment of a molecular microbiology facility within a microbiology laboratory remains fragmented. A high-quality laboratory should include both conventional microbiology methods and molecular microbiology techniques for exceptional performance. Furthermore, it should include appropriate laboratory administration, a well-designed facility, laboratory procedure standardization, a waste management system, a code of practice, equipment installation and laboratory personnel training. This manuscript lays out fundamental issues that need to be addressed when establishing a molecular microbiology facility in developing countries.

  17. Evaluating the use of Atriplex nummularia Hay on Feed Intake, Growth, and Carcass Characteristics of Creole Kids Evaluación del Uso de Heno de Atriplex nummularia en el Consumo de Alimento, Crecimiento y Características de Canal de Cabritos Criollos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Meneses

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a surplus of Atriplex nummularia Lindl. grazing that can be used as animal feed. This material was harvested to assess the effects on intake, growth, and carcass characteristics of kids. Atriplex replaced alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L. in a proportion of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% for 60 creole kids weighing 13 kg and was assigned to the diets in a completely randomized design. The process was conducted from March to May. Two males and two females were used from each group to evaluate individual nutrient intake. Height at withers, thoracic diameter, and weight change were evaluated in all the animals. The carcasses of four females per group were evaluated. Offered and rejected hay diet samples were chemically analyzed. Atriplex hay crude protein (CP, metabolizable energy (ME, chlorine (Cl, and sodium (Na contents were 20.20%, 1.99 Mcal kg-1, 4.78%, and 6.47% respectively. Hemicellulose (Hc, ash intake, height at withers, thoracic diameter, and carcass component, except for the kidney, were not different (P > 0.05 among treatments. Over 20% of A. nummularia hay content in the diet caused an increase in mineral consumption (P Existe excedente del pastoreo de Atriplex nummularia Lindl. que puede ser usado en la alimentación animal. Este material fue cosechado para evaluar el efecto en el consumo, crecimiento y en las características de canal de caprinos. El Atriplex fue entregado en reemplazo de heno de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. en una proporción de 0, 10, 20, 30 y 40%, a 60 crías criollas, de 13 kg de peso, asignadas a las cinco dietas, en un diseno completamente al azar, entre marzo y mayo. El consumo individual se evaluó en dos hembras y dos machos por grupo. La altura a la cruz, variación de peso y diámetro de tórax fueron evaluados en todos los animales. Las canales se evaluaron en cuatro hembras por grupo. Muestras de heno, dietas ofrecidas y rechazadas fueron analizadas químicamente. El contenido de proteína cruda (PC

  18. Performance evaluation of the microbiology laboratories in Turkey for culture and antibiotic susceptibility tests and the selection of laboratories to provide data for National Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System: Questionnary application

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    Ayşegül Gözalan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION[|]Due to the increase in of the antimicrobial resistance problem, in our country, the studies to establish National Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (NAMRSS was started. It is important to provide reliable data for the laboratories those will be included in NAMRSS. For this purpose, a questionnaire was applied to evaluate the culture and antimicrobial susceptibility tests performance capacities (AST of the laboratories in the country. [¤]METHODS[|]This study was done between 2009 and 2010 years, and included 90 queries which were focused on the capacities of microbiology laboratories to perform culture and AST. The questionnaires were sent to medical microbiology laboratories of 354 public hospitals, where the presence of a specialist knowledge is achieved by TR Ministry of Health. Results were analysed by using SPSS 18.0 statistical program.[¤]RESULTS[|]Three hundred twenty two laboratories replied the questionnaire among which were 70.5% state hospital, 16.5% training and research hospital and 13% university hospital laboratories. The number of laboratories which have positive reply to all three questions which are the first stage of the selecton criteria; presence of microbiolog specialist (99.1%, presence of bacteriology laboratory (97.5% and performance of blood culture (83.6%, were 259 (80.4% and they were included in further evaluation. The queries and percentage of the replies used for the second stage were: i The number of AST performed to be more than the average monthly number for Escherichia coli (mean: 74.7, Klebsiella spp. (mean: 22.9, Staphylococcus aureus (mean: 19.6, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (mean: 19.5, Enterococcus spp. (mean: 16.1 and Streptococcus pneumoniae (mean: 3.7, ii performance of AST when a microorganism that is generally accepted as clinically significant or significant for the patient from whom the microorganism was isolated; 49.2% and 30.2% for blood culture, and 88.7% and 75.5% for CSF

  19. Microbiological Methodology in Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyzov, S. S.; Gerasimenko, L. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Mitskevich, I. N.; Mulyukin, A. L.; Poglazova, M. N.; Rozanov, A. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Searching for life in astromaterials to be delivered from the future missions to extraterrestrial bodies is undoubtedly related to studies of the properties and signatures of living microbial cells and microfossils on Earth. As model terrestrial analogs of Martian polar subsurface layers are often regarded the Antarctic glacier and Earth permafrost habitats where alive microbial cells preserved viability for millennia years due to entering the anabiotic state. For the future findings of viable microorganisms in samples from extraterrestrial objects, it is important to use a combined methodology that includes classical microbiological methods, plating onto nutrient media, direct epifluorescence and electron microscopy examinations, detection of the elemental composition of cells, radiolabeling techniques, PCR and FISH methods. Of great importance is to ensure authenticity of microorganisms (if any in studied samples) and to standardize the protocols used to minimize a risk of external contamination. Although the convincing evidence of extraterrestrial microbial life will may come from the discovery of living cells in astromaterials, biomorphs and microfossils must also be regarded as a target in search of life evidence bearing in mind a scenario that alive microorganisms had not be preserved and underwent mineralization. Under the laboratory conditions, processes that accompanied fossilization of cyanobacteria were reconstructed, and artificially produced cyanobacterial stromatolites resembles by their morphological properties those found in natural Earth habitats. Regarding the vital importance of distinguishing between biogenic and abiogenic signatures and between living and fossil microorganisms in analyzed samples, it is worthwhile to use some previously developed approaches based on electron microscopy examinations and analysis of elemental composition of biomorphs in situ and comparison with the analogous data obtained for laboratory microbial cultures and

  20. ESCHERICHIA COLI O157 IN WITHE VEAL CALVES CARCASSES

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    V. D’Orio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During 2006 one hundred and three white veal calves slaughtered at an abattoir in Isernia (Italy were examined for E. coli O157 intestinal carriage and carcass contamination, using Immuno-Magnetic Separation (IMS and multiplex PCR. Faecal material before slaughtering and carcass samples, using sponge-bag, were collected. E. coli O157 isolates were found in 10 (9,71% faecal and 9 (8,7% carcass samples. PCR analysis showed that all the strains from faecal and from carcass samples carried eaeA, hlyA and stx2 genes, while five strains stx1 gene. The results confirm that the slaughter practices can largely influence the rate of E. coli O157 carcasses contamination and suggest that white veal calves meat could be an important risk for human health.

  1. Learning Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases by Means of a Board Game: Can It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struwig, Magdalena C.; Beylefeld, Adriana A.; Joubert, Georgina

    2014-01-01

    Innovative teaching and learning is increasingly becoming part of medical education. We report the evaluation of a medical microbiology board game, Med Micro Fun With Facts (MMFWF), based on Trivial Pursuit™ principles. The game was developed to stimulate medical students' interest in microbiology and expose students to the subject content of an…

  2. Learning Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases by Means of a Board Game: Can It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struwig, Magdalena C.; Beylefeld, Adriana A.; Joubert, Georgina

    2014-01-01

    Innovative teaching and learning is increasingly becoming part of medical education. We report the evaluation of a medical microbiology board game, Med Micro Fun With Facts (MMFWF), based on Trivial Pursuit™ principles. The game was developed to stimulate medical students' interest in microbiology and expose students to the subject content of…

  3. Risk based microbiological criteria for Campylobacter in broiler meat in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.J.; Sanaa, M.; Havelaar, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) allows evaluating the public health impact of food safety targets to support the control of foodborne pathogens. We estimate the risk reduction of setting microbiological criteria (MCs) for Campylobacter on broiler meat in 25 European countries, ap

  4. Haematology, Blood Chemistry and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Rabbits Fed Grasshopper Meal as a Substitute for Fish Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Njidda* and C. E. Isidahomen1

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with grasshopper meal on haematology, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits. Forty rabbits of mixed breeds, aged 6-10 weeks, were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments in a complete randomized design with eight rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were fed with diets containing 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5% grasshopper meal in diets designated as T1 (control, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period of nine weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three rabbits per treatment were slaughtered for carcass evaluation, while blood samples were collected for analysis. The result of the experiment showed significant differences (P0.05 on haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC. The results also revealed significant differences (P0.05 on serum albumin and total protein. The results of carcass characteristics showed significant differences among treatments (P<0.05 for slaughter weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, skin pelt, tail, feet and abdominal fat. The slaughter weight and carcass weight were better in groups receiving 2.5% grass hopper meal (50% fish meal replacement. From the results, it can be concluded that inclusion of 2.50% grasshopper meal as a replacement for fish meal (50% replacement has no adverse effects on the haematological parameters, serum biochemistry and carcass characteristics of rabbits.

  5. [Optimization of microbiological diagnosis of endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukadida, Jalel

    2002-11-01

    The endocarditis stays a dangerous illness. The positive microbiological diagnosis has a precious contribution for a successful hold in charge of the patient. To optimise the microbiological diagnosis of the endocarditis, essentially it comes back to respect the maximum rules of good practice of the blood cultures and the microbiological cardiac valve exams. During the last decades, techniques of molecular biology came to remedy insufficiencies of the conventional microbiology. We arrange rich microbiological data to guide the therapist while waiting the current microbiological data of the patient.

  6. [The modern microbiology in the clinical managing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal Román, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The tuberculosis is one of the most important and mortal diseases of the world. The microbiological confirmatory diagnosis and the microbiological therapeutic orientation are fundamental nowadays in the tuberculosis in AIDS and in the Resistant tuberculosis. They are described throughout the time by the classic Microbiology: From 1882 to final 20th century (130 years). With the modern current Microbiology: In the beginning of the 21st century (20-30 years). And as will be done with the future Microbiology: From the years 2020-30. The important advances are outlined in the modern and future clinical microbiology, for the control of the Tuberculosis.

  7. Microbiological analysis of water used in hydrotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Perestrelo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water used in hydrotherapy units of Nova Iguaçu and Nilópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was microbiologically analyzed. Thirty samples (5ml each were weekly collected from September 2001 to June 2002 before the beginning and after the end of activities in the units. For analysis, routine techniques were used, which showed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp, Candida spp, Penicillium spp, Epidermophyton spp, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus spp, Cephalosporium spp, Cladosporium spp, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton spp. Results indicated a need for improving hygienic conditions, suggesting that water might be a contamination source in the evaluated units.

  8. Effect of litter substrates on the performance, carcass traits, and environmental comfort of red-winged tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Nunes, Joao; Carvalho, M.M.; Sugui, J.K.; Queiroz, F.A.; Santana, A.E.; Hata, M.E.; Aiura, A.L.O.; Oliveira, J.A.; Queiroz, De Sandra Aidar

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the effect of litter substrates on the performance, carcass traits, and environmental comfort of red-winged tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens). In this experiment, 160 birds, with 100 and 300 days of age, were housed into 20 pens, and distributed according to a completel

  9. Two-year study: Effect of backgrounding system on growing and finishing performance, and carcass characteristics of beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 2-yr study evaluated growing and finishing performance, as well as carcass characteristics of spring-born calves backgrounded using 1 of 3 treatments: 1) corn residue grazing supplemented 6 d/wk with 2.77 kg DM/head of distillers (CRD), 2) oat-brassica forage grazing (OBF), or 3) drylotting on a g...

  10. VARIATION OF THE ECONOMICAL EFFICIENCY OF PIG CARCASSES ACCORDING QUALITY CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PETROMAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The profitability of pork disjoint-packing activity depends on the carcass quality. Carcasses of superior types, respectively „E” and „U” generate higher profit on the kilogram of disjoint carcass, in comparison with the carcasses of medium type „R” and inferior types „O” and „P”.

  11. Effect of source of dietary fat on pig performance, carcass characteristics and carcass fat content, distribution and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, C E; Duran-Montgé, P; Lizardo, R; Gispert, M; Oliver, M A; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2010-08-01

    Seventy gilts were used to compare the effect of including 10% tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO), linseed oil (LO), a fat blend (FB), or an oil blend (OB) in finishing diets vs. feeding a semi-synthetic diet with no added fat (NF) on pig performance, carcass traits and carcass fatty acid (FA) composition. Carcasses from SFO-fed gilts had greater fat and lower lean compositions than carcasses from T-fed gilts. Gilts fed NF had greater loin fat than FB-fed gilts, and greater flare fat, loin intermuscular fat and fat:lean than T-fed gilts. Bellies from NF-fed gilts had lower lean and higher intermuscular fat and fat:lean than other diets except HOSF. Fat source had minor effects on animal performance, carcass characteristics and carcass fat content and distribution, whereas feeding NF resulted in carcasses and major cuts with higher fat content. Diets rich in polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) did not reduce fat deposition in separable fat depots with respect to monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and saturated FA (SFA). Carcasses from gilts fed NF had a high degree of saturation (40.6% SFA) followed by carcasses of T- and FB-fed gilts. Feeding HOSF, SFO and LO enriched diets elevated the percentages of MUFA (56.7%), n-6 (30.0%) and n-3 (16.6%) PUFA, respectively, whereas carcasses from gilts fed OB had greater percentages of n-3 FA (14.8% n-3, 0.9% EPA, 1.0% DPA, 3.1% DHA) than gilts fed FB (6.72% n-3, 0.1% EPA, 0.4% DPA, 0.1% DHA).

  12. [Post-mortem microbiology analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Amparo; Alberola, Juan; Cohen, Marta Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    Post-mortem microbiology is useful in both clinical and forensic autopsies, and allows a suspected infection to be confirmed. Indeed, it is routinely applied to donor studies in the clinical setting, as well as in sudden and unexpected death in the forensic field. Implementation of specific sampling techniques in autopsy can minimize the possibility of contamination, making interpretation of the results easier. Specific interpretation criteria for post-mortem cultures, the use of molecular diagnosis, and its fusion with molecular biology and histopathology have led to post-mortem microbiology playing a major role in autopsy. Multidisciplinary work involving microbiologists, pathologists, and forensic physicians will help to improve the achievements of post-mortem microbiology, prevent infectious diseases, and contribute to a healthier population.

  13. Evaluation of the Effect of Probiotic (Inersan®) Alone, Combination of Probiotic with Doxycycline and Doxycycline Alone on Aggressive Periodontitis – A Clinical and Microbiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Mishal Piyush; Gujjari, Sheela Kumar; Chandrasekhar, Veerendrakumar Siddhpur

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a probiotic (Inersan®) alone, a combination of the probiotic with doxycycline and doxycycline alone on aggressive periodontitis patients.

  14. Quality control for diagnostic oral microbiology laboratories in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Smith

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB Network was created. At the European Oral Microbiology Workshop in 2008, 12 laboratories processing clinical oral microbiological samples were identified. All these were recruited to participate into the study and six laboratories from six European countries completed both the online survey and the first QC round. Three additional laboratories participated in the second round. Based on the survey, European oral microbiology laboratories process a significant (mean per laboratory 4,135 number of diagnostic samples from the oral cavity annually. A majority of the laboratories did not participate in any internal or external QC programme and nearly half of the laboratories did not have standard operating procedures for the tests they performed. In both QC rounds, there was a large variation in the results, interpretation and reporting of antibiotic susceptibility testing among the laboratories. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate the need for harmonisation of laboratory processing methods and interpretation of results for oral microbiology specimens. The QC rounds highlighted the value of external QC in evaluating the efficacy and safety of processes, materials and methods used in the laboratory. The use of standardised methods is also a prerequisite for multi-centre epidemiological studies that can provide important information on emerging microbes and trends in anti-microbial susceptibility for empirical prescribing in oro-facial infections.

  15. Transforming a Sequence of Microbiology Courses Using Student Profile Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa J. Buxeda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed in the General Microbiology and Industrial Microbiology courses to increase research awareness at an early stage of the educational process and to establish collaboration between students in an Industrial Microbiology program and industry. In both courses, the professor helped students determine their learning styles and then used these data to design activities in order to accomplish the above objectives. In both the treatment and the control sections, students learned about strategies to optimize learning based on their learning styles. A cooperative learning format was introduced to promote active learning and team-building skills. The diverse learning styles data profile was used by students during cooperative learning activities for effective team integration. In the General Microbiology course, a mentor-mentee structure was introduced to expose students to research in microbiology by visiting research facilities on campus. This structure was an addition to the regular curriculum, which meets American Society for Microbiology curriculum recommendations. The results suggest an increase in interest in research by students. In the Industrial Microbiology course, a strategy was introduced to establish collaboration with industry in which students visit the workplace and identify microbial processes, microbiologist roles, and skills needed by microbiologists. Evaluation of these topics using pre- and posttest data indicates a significant increase in acquired knowledge relevant to daily workplace environments with the reformed course. In both courses, students gain information early in their academic experience to help them consider participation in research experiences while providing them with real-world experience toward the end of their academic careers, when they see the need for it.

  16. Avaliação das condições microbiológicas em unidades de alimentação e nutrição Evaluation of microbiological conditions in food service stablishiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio José de Andrade

    2003-06-01

    se encontram, os restaurantes avaliados devem determinar, numa fase inicial, metas a serem atingidas. Em etapas posteriores, deverão atender a recomendações mais exigentes.The microbiological quality of the air in 63 processing areas, in the hands of 68 manipulator personnel, and on 36 equipments and utensils in food service establishments were evaluated. No more than 19% and 32% of the air in processing areas were in good hygienic conditions for mesophilic aerobics, and molds and yeasts, respectively. The number of microorganisms in those areas was below the APHA recommendation, 30 cfu/cm2/per week. As there is no microbiological specification or recommendation for manipulators, in this study, five ranges of microbiological numbers per hand were established (105, in cfu per hand. For mesophilic aerobic bacteria, it was determined the following percentages in the different ranges 12, 21, 35, 19, and 13%, for total coliforms: 54, 27, 13, 6, and 0%, for molds and yeasts: 63, 21, 13, 14, and 0%, and for S. aureus 72, 13, 16, 0, and 0%. Some results showed an inadequate personal hygiene procedure. For mesophilic aerobics, the results showed that 19% of the equipment and utensil surfaces were in good hygienic conditions, according to APHA recommendations (2 cfu/cm2. Using the same recommendations for total coliforms and molds and yeasts, it could be observed that 46 and 45% of the surfaces, respectively, were in good hygienic conditions. It was observed that is necessary to establish standards or specifications more adequate to control microbiological conditions in Brazilian food service establishments. Firstly, these establishments should determine goals for microbiological specification to be reached. After that, they should attend harder specifications.

  17. Carcass characteristics, the calpain proteinase system, and aged tenderness of Angus and Brahman crossbred steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, T D; Williams, S E; Lamb, B S; Johnson, D D; West, R L

    1997-11-01

    We used 69 steers of varying percentage Brahman (B) breeding (0% B, n = 11; 25% B, n = 13; 37% B, n = 10; 50% B, n = 12; 75% B, n = 12; 100% B, n = 11) to study the relationship between carcass traits, the calpain proteinase system, and aged meat tenderness in intermediate B crosses. Calpains and calpastatin activities were determined on fresh longissimus muscle samples using anion-exchange chromatography. The USDA yield and quality grade data (24 h) were collected for each carcass. Longissimus steaks were removed and aged for 5 or 14 d for determination of shear force and 5 d for sensory panel evaluation. Even though some yield grade factors were affected by the percentage of B breeding, USDA yield grades did not differ (P > .15) between breed types. Marbling score and USDA quality grade decreased linearly (P Brahman crosses.

  18. Effect of carcass fat and conformation class on consumer perception of various grilled beef muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzek, Dominika; Głąbska, Dominika; Gutkowska, Krystyna; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the attributes influencing consumer perception of grilled beef steaks. The objects were 30 carcasses out of which eight cuts were obtained (2100 single samples were prepared). A total of 350 consumers were asked to rate the meat samples (6 samples for each consumer) by assessing: tenderness, juiciness, flavour, overall acceptability and satisfaction. The MQ4, which is a combination of consumer rates for tenderness, juiciness, flavour and overall acceptability that is transformed into a single parameter with greater discriminatory ability, was calculated using linear discriminate analysis. The tenderloin was the cut that had the highest ratings for all attributes, however, tenderness, juiciness, MQ4 and consumer satisfaction evaluated for oyster blade were not significantly different from tenderloin. The results of this study indicated that consumer preferences regarding grilled steak were not influenced by fat class, conformation rib fat thickness and ossification score of the carcasses but only by the type of meat cuts.

  19. Carcass and meet characteristics of very young Angus x Nelore steers in the Agreste Potiguar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Andréa Evangelista Façanha

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the carcass and meat of very young steers, ½ Red Angus x Nelore (NEL and ¾ Red Angus x Nelore (RED. Fifty males were used, 25 from each genetic group, fed in feedlots from weaning (7 months until reaching the age for slaughter (15 months. A difference was observed between the genetic groups for gains at weaning (158.57 kg NEL and 181.60 kg RED but the weight at slaughter showed no statistical differences (412.33 kg NEL and 426.53 kg RED. Cold and hot carcass yield was not affected by the genetic group, with NEL bovines showing a yield of 50.49% and 52.55% and the RED of 50.91% and 52.89% respectively. The percentage of muscle (55% NEL and 53% RED, fat (26% NEL and 27% RED, bone (18% NEL and 18% RED, and thickness of subcutaneous fat (4.1 mm NEL and 4.0 mm RED were similar for both genetic groups. The ¾ Angus x Nelore animals showed a higher loss when thawing (9.05%. There was no difference in such sensory characteristics as overall impression, tenderness, juiciness and shear force in the evaluated genotypes. The genetic groups showed a similarity of characteristics for meat as well as carcass.

  20. Tenderization potential of Hanwoo beef muscles from carcasses with differed genders and loin intramuscular fat content levels during post mortem ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Beom Young; Seong, Pil Nam; Ba, Hoa Van; Park, Kyoung Mi; Cho, Soo Hyun; Moon, Sung Sil; Kang, Geun Ho

    2015-06-01

    Carcasses from Hanwoo steers (n = 15) and cows (n = 15) were classified into three groups: group 1 (G1), the carcasses had 10% to muscles; group 2 (G2), the carcasses had 13% to muscles; and group 3(G3), the carcasses had 17% to muscles. These were used to evaluate the effects of gender and carcass group on quality traits and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of Psoas major (PM), Longissimus thoracis (LT), Longissimus lumborum (LL), Longus colli (LC), Supraspinatus (SS), Latissimus dorsi (LAD), Semimembranosus (SM), Quadriceps femoris (QF), Biceps femoris (BF) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles. Our results showed that pH values of LT, LL, LC, BF and QF muscles were lower in steers than in cows (P muscles of steers (P muscles in G1, and QF muscle in G3; however, with additional ageing, the gender effect was observed for most of the muscles. Most muscles showed ageing responses; however, the rates of ageing response significantly varied depending on gender and carcass groups. The muscles of G1 and G2 had generally higher tenderization potentials than those of G3. Furthermore, most muscles in G3 had generally lower WBSF values than in G1 and G2. These results clearly indicate that ageing has a significant effect on quality and WBSF of beef muscles, and the classification by loin IMF level may be useful for prediction of the tenderness of other muscles.

  1. Effects of beef production system on animal performance and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, C L; Krehbiel, C R; Wilson, B K; Johnson, B T; Bernhard, B C; O'Neill, C F; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Step, D L; Richards, C J

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate conventional (CONV) and natural (NAT) beef production systems from annual pasture through finishing through grazing. Beef steers (n=180, initial BW=250±19 kg) were assigned randomly to 2 treatments in the pasture phase. Steers were implanted with 40 mg of trenbolone acetate (TBA), 8 mg estradiol, and 29 mg tylosin tartrate (CONV), or received no implant (NAT). Steers on the 2 treatments grazed wheat or cereal rye for 109 d. Conventional steers had an 18.5% improvement in ADG (1.22 vs. 1.03 kg/d, Ptylosin, and fed zilpaterol hydrochloride for the last 20 d of the experiment. There were no program×roughage level interactions (P>0.07). The CONV steers ate 6.9% more feed (11.8 vs. 11.0 kg/d, P<0.01), gained 28.4% faster (1.90 vs. 1.48 kg/d, P<0.01), and were 24.2% more efficient (0.164 vs. 0.132, P<0.01) compared with NAT steers. The LOW steers had greater G:F (0.153 vs. 0.144, P<0.01) compared with HIGH steers. There was a 28.3% improvement in estimated carcass weight gain (1.36 vs. 1.06 kg/d), 18.6% improvement in carcass efficiency (0.115 vs. 0.097, P<0.01), and 21.6% improvement (1.52 vs. 1.25 Mcal/kg, P<0.01) in calculated dietary NEg for CONV compared with NAT steers. Hot carcass weight was increased by 62 kg (424 vs. 362 kg, P<0.01) and LM area was increased by 16.9 cm2 (100.9 vs. 84.0 cm2, P<0.01), decreasing USDA yield grade (YG, 3.09 vs. 3.54, P<0.01) for CONV steers compared with NAT steers. Natural steers had a greater percentage of carcasses in the upper 2/3 of USDA Choice grade (48.7 vs. 18.7%, P<0.01), a greater percentage of YG 4 and 5 carcasses (25.4 vs. 9.3%, P<0.01), and a greater percentage of abscessed livers (39.6 vs. 10.5%, P<0.01) compared with CONV steers. The results show that CONV production results in more rapid and efficient production that resulted in heavier carcasses with superior YG and desirable quality grades with both roughage levels.

  2. Impacts of temperament on Nellore cattle: physiological responses, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, C L; Resende, F D; Benatti, J M B; Castilhos, A M; Cooke, R F; Jorge, A M

    2015-11-01

    Forty-four feedlot-finished Nellore cattle were used to evaluate the impacts of temperament on performance, meat and carcass traits, and serum concentrations of hormones, proteins, enzymes, and immunoglobulins. Individual temperament was assessed at feedlot entry (d 0), 67 d, and 109 d, utilizing chute score (CS; 5-point scale) and exit velocity (EV). Temperament scores were calculated averaging CS and EV scores, and cattle were subsequently classified according to their temperament (an average of ≤3 = adequate temperament [ADQ], or an average of >3 = excitable temperament [EXC]). At the end of the experiment (d 109), all 44 animals were slaughtered, and 16 were randomly selected for final empty body weight (EBW) estimation. Blood samples were collected at 0, 67, and 109 d and analyzed for serum variables (cortisol, insulin, haptoglobin, total protein, lactate, creatinine kinase [CK], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], and IgA). The incidence of carcass bruises was verified immediately after the hide was removed. Carcass pH was obtained at 0 and 24 h postmortem. Samples of the LM were collected for meat quality analyses. Cattle classified as ADQ had greater final BW ( = 0.03), final EBW ( = 0.02), metabolic weight ( = 0.03), ADG ( = 0.02), feed efficiency ( = 0.03), HCW ( = 0.02), cold carcass weight ( = 0.02), and LM area ( Cattle classified as ADQ tended to have a lower percentage of cooler shrink ( = 0.06) compared to that of EXC cattle. No temperament effects were detected for initial BW ( = 0.70), DMI ( = 0.14), cold dressing percentage ( = 0.98), or backfat thickness ( = 0.29). Cattle classified as ADQ had greater marbling ( = 0.02) and meat fat content ( = 0.05) compared with that of EXC cattle. No temperament effects ( > 0.05) were detected for unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), SFA, MUFA, PUFA, and n-6:n-3 ratio. For blood parameters, EXC cattle had greater values of cortisol ( = 0.04) and haptoglobin ( = 0.05) and tended ( = 0.06) to have reduced serum insulin

  3. Performance and carcass characteristics of free-range broiler chickens fed diets containing alternative feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PB Faria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alternative feedstuffs as partial substitutes of corn and soybean in free-range broiler diets on performance, carcass yield and technical-economic viability. A total of 400 Pescoço Pelado broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design (CRD, with four treatments (treatment 1:Control; treatment 2: 10% rice bran inclusion; treatment 3: 10% ground cassava leaves; and treatment 4: 10% ground lead tree hay with four replicates per treatment. Each replicate consisted of a group of 25 birds per paddock, separated per sex. Initial weight (IW, final weight (FW, body weight (BW, daily weight gain (DWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated. Carcass, cuts (breast, thigh, drumstick, back, neck, leg and wings, abdominal fat and giblets (gizzard, heart and liver yields were determined. The technical-economic viability of each treatment was assessed by determining the cost of feed per kg body weight, economic efficiency index and cost. The highest final weights were obtained with the use of rice bran. Rice bran and cassava leaves promoted higher carcass yield, as well as lower back and abdominal fat yields. The use of cassava leaves showed better economic efficiency among the treatments with alternative feedstuffs. The use of alternative feedstuffs at 10% inclusion in substitution of corn and soybean meal did not not result in major changes in performance and carcass parameters, and economic efficiency, and therefore, their use is recommended when the availability or the price of key ingredients, such as soybean meal and corn, increase.

  4. Respiratory virology and microbiology in intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østby, Anne-Cathrine; Gubbels, Sophie; Baake, Gerben

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the frequency of 12 common respiratory viruses in patients admitted to intensive care units with respiratory symptoms, evaluate the clinical characteristics and to compare the results to routine microbiological diagnostics. Throat swabs from 122 intensive care-patients >18...

  5. Impact of medical microbiology : A clinical and financial analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Jan-Willem

    2016-01-01

    To be able to provide cost-effective healthcare, it is important to evaluate the impact of interventions. This thesis looked at interventions performed by the Department of Medical Microbiology at the University Medical Center Groningen. This department plays an important role in infection managemen

  6. 42 CFR 493.909 - Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Microbiology. 493.909 Section 493.909 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.909 Microbiology. The subspecialties under the specialty of microbiology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are...

  7. 42 CFR 493.821 - Condition: Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Microbiology. 493.821 Section 493.821 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.821 Condition: Microbiology. The specialty of microbiology includes, for purposes...

  8. From the Field: Carbofuran detected on weathered raptor carcass feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Bauer, W.; Olson, S.

    2005-01-01

    The cause of death for raptors poisoned at illegal carbofuran-Iaced predator baits is often not confirmed because the carcass matrices that are conventionally analyzed are not available due to decomposition and scavenging. However, many such carcasses retain intact feet that may have come into contact with carbofuran. Eastern screech owls (Otus asio) were exposed to carbofuran via simulated predator baits. Detection of carbofuran from owl feet weathered for 28 days demonstrated the temporal reliability of using feet during a forensic investigation. Raptor carcasses previously not submitted for residue analysis because of a lack of the conventional matrices may now be salvaged for their feet.

  9. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  10. Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 4th edition of Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry Edited by Eldor Paul continues in the vein of the 3rd edition by providing an excellent, broad-reaching introduction to soil biology. The new edition improves on the previous by providing extensive supplementary materials, links to outs...

  11. Validation of a same-day real-time PCR method for screening of meat and carcass swabs for Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Flemming

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major sources of human Salmonella infections is meat. Therefore, efficient and rapid monitoring of Salmonella in the meat production chain is necessary. Validation of alternative methods is needed to prove that the performance is equal to established methods. Very few of the published PCR methods for Salmonella have been validated in collaborative studies. This study describes a validation including comparative and collaborative trials, based on the recommendations from the Nordic organization for validation of alternative microbiological methods (NordVal of a same-day, non-commercial real-time PCR method for detection of Salmonella in meat and carcass swabs. Results The comparative trial was performed against a reference method (NMKL-71:5, 1999 using artificially and naturally contaminated samples (60 minced veal and pork meat samples, 60 poultry neck-skins, and 120 pig carcass swabs. The relative accuracy was 99%, relative detection level 100%, relative sensitivity 103% and relative specificity 100%. The collaborative trial included six laboratories testing minced meat, poultry neck-skins, and carcass swabs as un-inoculated samples and samples artificially contaminated with 1–10 CFU/25 g, and 10–100 CFU/25 g. Valid results were obtained from five of the laboratories and used for the statistical analysis. Apart from one of the non-inoculated samples being false positive with PCR for one of the laboratories, no false positive or false negative results were reported. Partly based on results obtained in this study, the method has obtained NordVal approval for analysis of Salmonella in meat and carcass swabs. The PCR method was transferred to a production laboratory and the performance was compared with the BAX Salmonella test on 39 pork samples artificially contaminated with Salmonella. There was no significant difference in the results obtained by the two methods. Conclusion The real-time PCR method for

  12. Meat and carcass characteristics of free-living capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele A. Felix

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate carcass and meat characteristics of free-living capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris from agricultural areas of Grande Dourados, MS, Brazil. Carcass weight, yield and measures, as well as of commercial cuts weight of five animals (2 males and 3 females, body weight between 63.4-100 kg were determined. The following parameters: moisture, protein, fat, ash, Ca, P and Fe, water holding capacity, cooking losses, shear force and color Instrumental color in CIE-Lab coordinates were determined to meat cuts (Loin, ribs, L. dorsi, chuck/brisket, ham and bottom sirloin. The dressing percentage average value was 62.47% of body weight and cold carcass yield was 57.89% of body weight, with no difference between sexes. The mean percentage of cold loss was 4.10%. Cuts yielding (ribs 24.98% and ham 27.29% were not statistically different (P>0.05. There was no significantly (P> 0.05 difference between the moisture, protein and minerals content between the different cuts, but lipids content was significantly (P< 0.05 lower in loin. The results shown that free-living capybara have characteristics appropriate for commercialization, thus it is possible to development projects for the sustainable management of rural populations.

  13. Genetic parameters for carcass traits and body size in sheep for meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo Filho, Luiz Antonio Silva; Do Ó, Alan Oliveira; Sarmento, José Lindenberg Rocha; Santos, Natanael Pereira Da Silva; Torres, Tatiana Saraiva

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to estimate the covariance components and genetic parameters of carcass traits and body size of meat sheep by employing animal models for single and multi-trait analyses. Data were collected from herds of adult Santa Ines sheep. The ribeye area, subcutaneous fat thickness, and rump fat thickness, evaluated in vivo by ultrasound images of the carcass; and morphometric traits: fat depth, rump height, chest circumference, chest depth, body length, and rump length were measured. The covariance components and genetic parameters for these traits were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood methodology, considering the random additive direct-genetic effects of the animal and errors associated with each observation, and the fixed effects of the contemporary group, the type of birth, and the age of the animal classes. Heritability estimates for carcass traits and animal size were higher in the three-trait analyses than in the single-trait analyses. The magnitudes of the values obtained indicate that genetic progress can be achieved by selection based on the traits studied.

  14. Effects of dietary lysine levels on carcass performance and biochemical characteristics of Chinese local broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuncong Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lysine is typically the second-limiting amino acid in poultry diets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary lysine concentration on carcass and meat quality traits, and serum parameters in two lines – SD02 and SD03 – which originated from a Chinese local breed, the Erlang Mountainous chicken. Live body weight, carcass traits, meat quality traits (myofibre diameter and density, and serum metabolic markers were measured in high and low dietary lysine groups (HL and LL, respectively at the end of the starter (1-28 days, grower (29-49 days and finisher (50-70 days periods. The results showed that mortality, live weight (LW, myofibre diameter of leg muscle (LFDM and serum cholesterol (CHO were greater in HL than LL (P<0.05. The chickens from HL had reduced subcutaneous fat thickness and heart weight than LL (P<0.05. The chickens from line SD02 had greater leg muscle weight, myofibre diameter in breast, and LFDM than line SD03 (P<0.05. The chickens from line SD02 had more serum urea nitrogen and less total proteins than line SD03 (P<0.05. In conclusion, high lysine diets improved slaughter performance and muscle fibre diameter, and SD02 chickens had greater carcass yield and superior meat quality compared with chickens from line SD03.

  15. Effect of dietary energy and protein content on growth and carcass traits of Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q F; Cherry, P; Doster, A; Murdoch, R; Adeola, O; Applegate, T J

    2015-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary energy and protein concentrations on growth performance and carcass traits of Pekin ducks from 15 to 35 d of age. In experiment 1, 14-d-old ducks were randomly assigned to 3 dietary metabolizable energy (11.8, 12.8, and 13.8 MJ/kg) and 3 crude protein concentrations (15, 17, and 19%) in a 3×3 factorial arrangement (6 replicate pens; 66 ducks/pen). Carcass characteristics were evaluated on d 28, 32, and 35. In Experiment 2, 15-d-old ducks (6 replicate cages; 6 ducks/cage) were randomly allotted to the 9 diets that were remixed with 0.5% chromic oxide. Excreta were collected from d 17 to 19, and ileal digesta was collected on d 19 to determine AMEn and amino acid digestibility. In Experiment 1, there were interactions (Pducks were fed a high dietary AMEn (13.75 MJ/kg) and high CP (19%, 1.21% SID Lys). These results provide a framework for subsequent modeling of amino acid and energy inputs and the corresponding outputs of growth performance and carcass components.

  16. Bioelectrical impedance analysis for the prediction of hot carcass weight in buffalo calf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Iannuzzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty young buffalo male calves were fed ad libitum with a total mix ration and with vitamin-mineral integration for 14 months. Seven days before slaughter, the animals were weighed and bioelectrical impedance measurements were collected in live animals. Physical and chemical characteristics were assessed on the Longissimus dorsi muscle after slaughter. Correlations and regression equations were calculated to determine the possible use of bioelectrical impedance for evaluating hot carcass weight. Bioelectrical impedance analysis at different frequencies, simple correlation and analysis of regression were examined for all the data collected, supporting the possibility of hot carcass weight prediction with equation at multifrequency. The results show that, probably due to the variability in animal live weight, the distribution of the colour parameters was not normally distributed. Moreover, using different frequencies of resistance and reactance, hot carcass weight in buffalo may be predicted with the following equation: Y=98.47–8.84(Rs100KHz+4.41(Rs1000 KHz-116.27(Xc5 KHz+51.04(Xc50 KHz+20.30(Xc100 KHz-33.92(Xc500 KHz+9.01(Xc1000 KHz±ε (Adjusted R Square value of .907 and SE of 5.728 However, further studies are required to improve the technique also in buffalo, after standardization of the method.

  17. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing bulls fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Chaves Françozo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of Longissimusmuscle (LM of the bulls. Twenty-four Nellore bulls were used in a complete randomised design. The bulls were randomly assigned to one of the three diets containing 0, 5 or 12% glycerin. Final BW and ADG were similar (P>0.05 between the bulls fed with 5 or 12% of glycerin but were higher (P0.05 by glycerin level. Hot carcass weight increased (P0.05 the conformation, colour, texture, marbling and pH. There was difference (P>0.05 for moisture, ashes and crude protein among glycerin levels. Bulls fed 12% glycerin present the highest (P<0.03 total lipids on LM. The percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, monounsaturated acids (MUFA, polyunsaturated acids (PUFA, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and PUFA/SFA and n-6:n-3 ratios of the LM were similar among the diets. In conclusion, glycerin level did not affect the animal performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot.

  18. Effects of gestational maternal undernutrition on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of rabbit offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeon, George K; Goliomytis, Michael; Bizelis, Iosif; Papadomichelakis, George; Pagonopoulou, Olga; Abas, Zafeiris; Deligeorgis, Stelios G; Chadio, Stella E

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of gestational undernutrition of rabbit does on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of the offsprings. Thirty primiparous non lactating rabbit does were artificially inseminated and randomly divided in three treatment groups: Control (C; fed to 100% of maintenance requirements throughout gestation, n = 10), early undernourished (EU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 7-19 of gestation, n = 10) and late undernourished (LU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 20-27 of gestation, n = 10). During the 4th week of the gestation period, LU does significantly lost weight compared to C and EU groups (Ptotal litter size (alive and stillborn kits) was not different among groups (10.7, 12.8 and 12.7 kits in C, EU and LU groups, respectively). Kit birth weight tended to be lower in the LU group. During fattening, body weight and feed intake were not different among offsprings of the three experimental groups. Moreover, the maternal undernutrition did not have any impact on carcass composition of the offsprings in terms of carcass parts and internal organs weights as well as meat quality of L. lumborum muscle (pH24, colour, water holding capacity and shear values) at slaughter (70 days of age). Therefore, it can be concluded that the gestational undernutrition of the mother does not have detrimental effects on the productive and quality traits of the offsprings.

  19. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs that are fed diets with palm kernel cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rozilda da Conceição Dos; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Sacramento, Samara Bianca Moraes; Lima, Elizanne de Moura; Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos de

    2016-11-17

    The aim was to evaluate carcass characteristics, cut yield, and meat quality in lambs that were fed different inclusion levels of palm kernel cake. Forty-five woolless castrated male Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an initial average body weight of 23.16 ± 0.35 kg were used. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments, with palm kernel cake in the proportions of 0.0, 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, and 30.0% with nine replications per treatment. The empty body weight, carcass weight and yield, and fat thickness decreased linearly (Pkernel inclusion in the diet. There was not difference (P>0.05) for the rib eye area of animals that were fed palm kernel cake. There was a reduction in the commercial cut weight (P0.05). The sarcomere length decreased linearly (Pkernel cake was not observed in other meat quality variables. It is worth noting that the red staining intensity, indicated as A, had a tendency to decrease (P=0.050). The inclusion of palm kernel cake up to 30% in the diet does not lead to changes in meat quality characteristics, except for sarcomere length. Nevertheless, carcass quantitative characteristics decrease with the use of palm kernel cake.

  20. Analysis and Optimisation of Carcass Production for Flexible Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe

    structure that provides mechanical and collapse strength for the flexible pipe. The manufacturing process of carcass is a combination of roll forming stainless steel strips and helical winding the profiles around a mandrel interlocking the profiles with themselves. The focus of the present project...... is the analysis and optimisation of the carcass manufacturing process by means of a fundamental investigation in the fields of formability, failure modes / mechanisms, Finite Element Analysis (FEA), simulative testing and tribology. A study of failure mechanisms in carcass production is performed by being present...... strip thickness deep. Simulative tribo-testing in the strip-reduction-test showed that biodegradable rapeseed oil is an acceptable lubricant for the carcass process. Testing of two lean duplex stainless steel surfaces showed that a EN 2E brushed surface had better lubricant entrapment capabilities than...

  1. Carcass Search & Recovery Guidelines for Black Tailed Prairie Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of dead or intoxicated prairie dogs above ground will be monitored, recorded and these carcasses will be properly disposed of, in accordance with the procedures described on this page.

  2. 9 CFR 381.77 - Carcasses held for further examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Post Mortem Inspection; Disposition of... thereof, in which there is any lesion of disease, or other condition which might render such carcass...

  3. 9 CFR 354.126 - Carcasses held for further examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Post-Mortem... which there is any lesion of disease or other condition, which might render such carcass or any...

  4. Animal Carcass Pricing Grid. Evidences from the Romanian Pigmeat Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savescu Roxana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Until the introduction of SEUROP system, price negotiation between pig producers and slaughterhouses was based on two subjective criteria: animal weight and visual inspection of the quality of pigs. To ensure producers a fair payment, European Union created the possibility of binding the price on two objective factors: carcass weight and carcass composition. This paper describes the pricing mechanism developed by Romania in order to respond to European Union requirements for ensuring a fair payment to pig producers. It raises the attention on the difficulties encountered by the producers in understanding the way the commercial value of a pig carcass is calculated in case the selling price is negotiated on a flat rate basis or on a lean content basis (per kg of carcass weight or per kg of live weight.

  5. Liver Contaminants in Bald eagles Carcasses from Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fifty-one livers were extracted from bald eagle carcasses recovered in Maine between 2001 and 2007. Approximately 50% of the birds were collected during the spring...

  6. Feedlot performance, carcass traits, and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbeck, J A; Tatum, J D; Field, T G; Morgan, J B; Smith, G C

    1995-12-01

    Short-yearling steer of known genotypes-straightbred Hereford (100H, n = 80) 75% Hereford x 25% Brahman (75H:25B, n = 80), and 50% Hereford x 50% Brahman (50H:50B, n = 80) were sampled serially at four time-on-feed endpoints (84, 98, 112, 126 d) to compare feedlot performance and carcass and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers. After slaughter, USDA yield grade and quality grade factors were recorded, and a portion of the longissimus muscle was removed from the left side of each carcass and fabricated into four 2.54-cm steaks for palatability analyses. Paired steaks from each carcass were aged (6 and 18 d after death), and sensory panel and shear force evaluations were performed. At a constant live weight, 100H steers had higher ADG and produced less mature carcasses with smaller longissimus muscle areas and higher marbling scores than did 75H:25B and 50H:50B steers. The 50H:50B steers had the highest (P Brahman breeding increased. EXtending the postmortem aging period from 6 to 18 d improved shear force values by 20% and panel tenderness ratings by approximately 14%. Beef from steers of the three breeds responded similarly to aging. When Certified Hereford Beef (CHB) specifications were applied, steaks from 100H steers and 75H:25B steers had similar shear force values, suggesting that beef from quarter-blood Brahman crossbred steers could be included in the CHB Program without detrimental effects on product tenderness.

  7. Association of myostatin on early calf mortality, growth, and carcass composition traits in crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L; Cundiff, L V

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a potential association of an inactive myostatin allele with early calf mortality, and evaluate its effect on growth and carcass traits in a crossbred population. Animals were obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British Breed) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford, Angus, Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Belgian Blue was the source of the inactive myostatin allele. Myostatin genotypes were determined for all animals including those that died before weaning. Early calf mortality was examined in the F2 subpopulation (n = 154), derived from the F1 sires mated to F1 cows from Belgian Blue sires, to evaluate animals with zero, one, or two copies of inactive myostatin allele. An overall 1:2:1 ratio (homozygous active myostatin allele:heterozygous:homozygous inactive myostatin allele) was observed in the population; however, a comparison between calves dying before weaning and those alive at slaughter showed an unequal distribution across genotypes (P Carcass composition traits analyzed were hot carcass weight, fat thickness, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, retail product yield and weight, fat yield and weight, bone yield and weight, and percentage of carcasses classified as Choice. Charolais lack the inactive myostatin allele segregating in Belgian Blue; thus, in the population sired by Charolais (n = 645), only animals with zero or one copy of the inactive myostatin allele were evaluated. Animals carrying one copy were heavier at birth and at weaning, and their carcasses were leaner and more muscled. In the population sired by Belgian Blue x British Breed (n = 725), animals with two copies of inactive myostatin allele were heavier at birth, leaner, and had a higher proportion of muscle mass than animals with zero or one copies

  8. Use of microbiological indicators for assessing hygiene controls for the manufacture of powdered infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Robert L; Oni, Ruth

    2012-05-01

    Microbiological testing for various indicator microorganisms is used extensively as a means of verifying the effectiveness of efforts to ensure the microbiological quality and safety of a wide variety of foods. However, for each use of an indicator organism the underlying scientific assumptions related to the behavior of the target microorganism, the characteristics of the food matrix, the details of the food manufacturing processes, environment, and distribution system, and the methodological basis for the assay must be evaluated to determine the validity, utility, and efficacy of potential microbiological indicator tests. The recent adoption by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of microbiological criteria for powdered infant formulae and related products provides an excellent example of an evidence-based approach for the establishment of consensus microbiological criteria. The present article reviews these criteria and those of various national governments in relation to emerging principles for the evidence-based establishment of effective indicator organisms.

  9. The capability of alfalfa grazing- and concentrate-based feeding systems to produce homogeneous carcass quality in light lambs over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Ripoll

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of grazing on the carcasses and meat of light lambs are unclear, mainly due to variations in weather conditions and pasture production, which affect the growth of lambs and the quality of their carcasses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding systems, which varied in intensification due to the use of concentrate, on the growth and carcass traits of light lambs and the capability of these feeding systems to produce homogeneous lamb carcasses over the course of several years. The average daily weight gain of grazing lambs, but not lambs fed indoors was affected over years. The colour of the Rectus abdominis muscle and the amount of fat were more variable in grazing lambs (from 2.7 to 6.3 than indoor lambs (from 4.5 to 5.1. Grazing feeding systems without concentrate supplementation are more dependent than indoor feeding systems on the year. This climatologic dependence could lead to slaughter of older grazing lambs (77 days to achieve the target slaughter weight when temperatures are low or the rainfall great. All feeding systems evaluated produced light lambs carcasses with a conformation score from O to R- that is required by the market. Even the potential change in fat colour found in both grazing treatments was not enough to change the subjective evaluation of fat colour.

  10. The capability of alfalfa grazing- and concentrate-based feeding systems to produce homogeneous carcass quality in light lambs over time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripoll, G.; Alvarez-Rodriguez, J.; Sanz, A.; Joy, M.

    2014-06-01

    The effects of grazing on the carcasses and meat of light lambs are unclear, mainly due to variations in weather conditions and pasture production, which affect the growth of lambs and the quality of their carcasses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding systems, which varied in intensification due to the use of concentrate, on the growth and carcass traits of light lambs and the capability of these feeding systems to produce homogeneous lamb carcasses over the course of several years. The average daily weight gain of grazing lambs, but not lambs fed indoors was affected over years. The colour of the Rectus abdominis muscle and the amount of fat were more variable in grazing lambs (from 2.7 to 6.3) than indoor lambs (from 4.5 to 5.1). Grazing feeding systems without concentrate supplementation are more dependent than indoor feeding systems on the year. This climatologic dependence could lead to slaughter of older grazing lambs (77 days) to achieve the target slaughter weight when temperatures are low or the rainfall great. All feeding systems evaluated produced light lambs carcasses with a conformation score from O to R that is required by the market. Even the potential change in fat colour found in both grazing treatments was not enough to change the subjective evaluation of fat colour. (Author)

  11. Post-test evaluation of the geology, geochemistry, microbiology, and hydrology of the in situ air stripping demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy Dilek, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Hazen, T.C.; Nichols, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.; Parker, W.H.; Dougherty, J.M.; Kaback, D.S.; Simmons, J.L.

    1993-07-01

    A full-scale demonstration of the use of horizontal wells for in situ air stripping for environment restoration was completed as part of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Program. The demonstration of in situ air stripping was the first in a series of demonstrations of innovative remediation technologies for the cleanup of sites contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The in situ air stripping system consisted of two directionally drilled wells that delivered gases to and extract contamination from the subsurface. The demonstration was designed to remediate soils and sediments in the unsaturated and saturated zones as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds. The demonstration successfully removed significant quantities of solvent from the subsurface. The field site and horizontal wells were subsequently used for an in situ bioremediation demonstration during which methane was added to the injected air. The field conditions documented herein represent the baseline status of the site for evaluating the in situ bioremediation as well as the post-test conditions for the in situ air stripping demonstration. Characterization activities focused on documenting the nature and distribution of contamination in the subsurface. The post-test characterization activities discussed herein include results from the analysis of sediment samples, three-dimensional images of the pretest and post-test data, contaminant inventories estimated from pretest and post-test models, a detailed lithologic cross sections of the site, results of aquifer testing, and measurements of geotechnical parameters of undisturbed core sediments.

  12. Microbiological evaluation of different reprocessing methods for cuffed and un-cuffed tracheostomy tubes in home-care and hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonhard, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Manufacturers’ recommendations on cleaning of tracheostomy tubes focus on general warning information and non-specific manual cleaning procedures. The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate different reprocessing methods and to determine the mechanical integrity and functionality of tracheostomy tubes following reprocessing.Methods: Sixteen cuffed or un-cuffed tracheostomy tubes obtained from hospital in-patients were reprocessed using one of the following reprocessing methods: a manual brushing and rinsing with tap water, brushing followed by disinfection with a glutaraldehyde solution, c manual brushing followed machine-based cleaning in a dishwasher, and d manual brushing followed by ultrasound cleaning in a commercially available ultrasound device. Microbial burden of the tubes before and after reprocessing was assessed by measurement of microbial colony-forming units per mL (CFU/mL of rinsing fluid. After cleaning, tracheostomy tubes were investigated for loss of functionality. Findings: Manual brushing and rinsing with tap water reduced microbial colonization in average by 10 CFU/mL, but with poor reproducibility and reliability. Complete microbial reduction was achieved only with additional chemical or machine-based thermal disinfection. Ultrasound sonification yielded no further microbial reduction after manual brushing. Conclusion: Manual brushing alone will not result in complete eradication of microorganism colonising cuffed or un-cuffed tracheostomy tubes. However, manual cleaning followed by chemical or thermal disinfection may be regarded as safe and reproducible reprocessing method. If a machine-based reprocessing method is used for cuffed tubes, the cuffs’ ventilation hose must be secured in a safe position prior to thermal disinfection.

  13. Qualidade microbiologica da carne de frango irradiada em embalagem convencional e a vácuo Microbiological evaluation of chicken breast meat irradiated in conventional and vacuum package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Oliveira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos da radiação gama nas doses de 1,5 e 3,0kGy, em peitos de frango embalados em embalagem convencional e a vácuo. As amostras embaladas foram submetidas à irradiação e estocadas sob refrigeração (4ºC por 30 dias. A radiação mostrou-se eficiente na redução de mesófilos aeróbios estritos e facultativos viáveis, coliformes totais e termotolerantes, com destaque para Salmonella spp. Os bolores e leveduras mostraram-se bastante resistentes à radiação. Os resultados sugerem que a dose de 3,0kGy pode ser utilizada no controle da microbiota do peito de frango armazenado sob refrigeração, sendo uma alternativa para o aumento da vida de prateleira por até 10 dias, ao garantir a segurança do consumidor pela eliminação de possíveis patógenos.The effects of gamma radiation doses of 1.5 and 3.0kGy on chicken breasts packed under conventional or vacuum atmosphere were evaluated. The packed samples were subjected to irradiation and stored under refrigeration (4°C for 30 days. The radiation was efficient in reducing strict and facultative aerobic mesophiles, total and fecal coliforms, and mainly Salmonella spp. The molds and yeasts were very resistant to radiation. The results suggest that gamma radiation at 3.0kGy can be used to control the microbiota in chicken breast stored under refrigeration, as an alternative to extend the shelf-life for more than ten days and ensure the food safety by eliminating potential pathogens.

  14. Microbiological and Sensory Quality of Milk on the Domestic Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowska Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the microbiological and sensory quality of 30 assortments of market milk was the objective of the presented research. The study also compared the sensory profile of selected samples of milk differing in preservation method. Microbiological tests included determination of the presence and number of Enterobacteriaceae and the total number of microorganisms. Sensory characteristics of all the milk samples was performed by scaling method (5-points scale. Selected samples of milk were additionally assessed by means of profile method. Microbiological tests showed satisfactory microbiological purity of milk, which indicates the effectiveness of the heat treatment and the lack of secondary contamination. Regardless of the preservation method, all the evaluated milk samples were characterised by a high sensory quality (4.25-5 points. There were no changes in smell and taste, resulting from the development of undesirable microflora. The tested samples of milk differing in the preservation method (sterilisation, pasteurisation at high temperature and subjected to microfiltration and low pasteurisation varied in the sensory profile. Milk pasteurised at high temperature was characterised by the most harmonised overall quality.

  15. Clinical, Radiological, Microbiological, and Histopathological Aspects of Acquired Dacryocystoceles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selam Yekta Sendul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study is to investigate the etiology and the clinical, microbiological, histopathological, and radiological findings of acquired dacryocystoceles. Methods. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the clinical records of 10 eyes of 8 patients with dacryocystoceles who underwent external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR surgery. Etiology, presenting symptoms and radiological findings as well as microbiological and histopathological assessment results and outcome were analyzed. Results. The records of 8 patients with dacryocystoceles were included in this study. In the histopathological evaluations of the samples collected from the lacrimal sac wall, chronic inflammation was found in all biopsied samples and fibrosis was observed in two histopathological evaluations. Computerized tomography (CT imaging showed fluid collection separated from adjacent tissues by a thin rim, corresponding to dacryocystoceles in the sac. In the microbiological culture examination of samples collected from the fluid within the cyst, no bacterial growth in 5 eyes, gram-negative bacillus growth in 3 eyes, and gram-positive cocci growth in 2 eyes were found. Conclusions. Acquired dacryocystoceles were observed extremely rarely and a definite pathogenic agent could not be identified in any of the cases, either microbiologically or histologically, whereas chronic inflammation was detected in all cases in our study.

  16. [Safety in the Microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Alados, Juan Carlos; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gómez G; Leiva, José; Pérez, José L

    2015-01-01

    The normal activity in the laboratory of microbiology poses different risks - mainly biological - that can affect the health of their workers, visitors and the community. Routine health examinations (surveillance and prevention), individual awareness of self-protection, hazard identification and risk assessment of laboratory procedures, the adoption of appropriate containment measures, and the use of conscientious microbiological techniques allow laboratory to be a safe place, as records of laboratory-acquired infections and accidents show. Training and information are the cornerstones for designing a comprehensive safety plan for the laboratory. In this article, the basic concepts and the theoretical background on laboratory safety are reviewed, including the main legal regulations. Moreover, practical guidelines are presented for each laboratory to design its own safety plan according its own particular characteristics.

  17. Microbiology and Human Spaceflight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark

    2016-01-01

    As humans continue to travel further into space, microorganisms will accompany them. Thus, understanding how microorganisms can impact the crew, the spacecraft, and spacecraft systems is critical to enable future spaceflight exploration. To mitigate microbial risks during spaceflight, NASA relies heavily on preventative measures, including appropriate vehicle design, crew quarantine prior to flight, and extensive microbial monitoring. While these precautions minimize the proliferation of infectious agents, their presence cannot be completely eliminated. Microbiological contamination of vehicle systems can also be a key issue for long duration missions, as system deterioration and fouling have been previously observed in spacecraft. Current studies of the microbiomes of the crew and the International Space Station environment are providing a wealth of information and hold the potential to help refine microbiological requirements for NASA mission beyond low Earth orbit, as spaceflight environments and mission architectures rapidly evolve.

  18. Tools for Microbiological risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassett, john; Nauta, Maarten; Lindqvist, Roland

    Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) has emerged as a comprehensive and systematic approach for addressing the risk of pathogens in specific foods and/or processes. At government level, MRA is increasingly recognised as a structured and objective approach to understand the level of risk in a given...... food/pathogen scenario. Tools developed so far support qualitative and quantitative assessments of the risk that a food pathogen poses to a particular population. Risk can be expressed as absolute numbers or as relative (ranked) risks. The food industry is beginning to appreciate that the tools for MRA...... can increase the understanding of microbiological risks in foods. It is timely to inform food safety professionals about the availability and utility of MRA tools. Therefore, the focus of this report is to aid the food safety manager by providing a concise summary of the tools available for the MRA...

  19. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed babassu cake (Orbignya speciosa) as a replacement for elephant grass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Janaina Barros; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Ribeiro Dos Santos Neta, Ernestina; Gomes, Daiany Íris; Sampaio Oliveira, Luis Rennan; Silva, Josiane Costa; Ramos de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of the partial replacement of elephant grass silage with babassu cake (Orbignya speciosa) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot lambs. Forty-five castrated male Santa Ines sheep (19.08 ± 0.41 kg) approximately 4 months old were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments 0.0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50 % (%DM) replacement of babassu cake with silage forming isoproteic diets formulated at a ratio of 40 % roughage to 60 % concentrate. All of the studied animals were slaughtered at the end of the experiment. The liver weights and yields increased with the inclusion of babassu cake. The weight of the shoulder increased from 2.31 to 2.61 kg, while the loin yield decreased from 7.38 to 6.64 % with the inclusion of babassu cake, both linearly. The body length, thoracic perimeter, rump perimeter and carcass compactness index showed high and positive correlations with the hot and cold carcass weights. The myofibrillar fragmentation index decreased linearly as a function of the inclusion level of babassu cake, but other quality variables were not affected. The replacement of up to 50 % of the elephant grass silage with babassu cake in the diet of lambs does not cause negative effects on carcass characteristics or meat quality.

  20. The effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Rajabiyan Moghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens. A total of 200 broilers (Ross 308, 10 days old, were randomly allotted to five experimental equal groups with four replicates of 10 chickens (five male and five female and fed with basal diet + ground wheat (without grit; basal diet + whole wheat (without grit and basal diet contain 1.5% grit of diet with sizes of 2, 3 and 4 mm. Growth performance (evaluated through weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio was determined on day 24 and 42. Also, carcass traits (relative weights of carcass, breast, thigh, liver, heart, gizzard and intestine and intestine length were assessed on day 42. Weight gains and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in broilers added with grit 2 mm compared to the control group (p<0.05, whereas; carcass traits were not significantly altered. These data suggest that grit with size of 2 mm improve growth performance in broiler chickens.

  1. Fatty acid profile, carcass and quality traits of meat from Nellore young bulls on pasture supplemented with crude glycerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Vito, E; Lage, J F; Ribeiro, A F; Silva, R A; Berchielli, T T

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls (279.5±16.3 initial body weight) raised on pasture supplemented with crude glycerin at 0%, 7%, 14%, 21% or 28% (DM basis). The diets were similar in energy and protein levels, and the glycerin replaced corn in the supplement. After slaughter, the carcass characteristics were measured, and the longissimus muscle was collected to determine the meat quality. The inclusion of crude glycerin in the supplement did not change (P>0.05) any of the carcass characteristics and meat quality assessed; however, the pH decreased linearly (P=0.03), and margaric acid (17:0) increased (P=0.02) in the longissimus muscle with the addition of glycerin in the diet. Our conclusion is that the inclusion of crude glycerin up to the level of 28% of dry matter in the supplement does not alter the carcass characteristics or the meat quality from animals raised on pasture.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella serovars isolated from edible offal and carcasses of slaughtered poultry in the state of Tocantins, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Minharro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella isolated from the carcasses, livers and hearts of chickens slaughtered in the state of Tocantins, Brazil, as recommended by the Normative Instruction 70 of 2003 of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply and the National Monitoring Program Prevalence and Bacterial Resistance in Chicken. Carcasses, livers and hearts from chicken with or without pericarditis/perihepatitis were studied in 60 lots of poultry slaughtered under the Federal Inspection System in the state of Tocantins, Brazil between August 2010 and June 2011. Twenty-six indicative Salmonella sp. were isolated in 11 lots (18.33%. Different strains of Salmonella were isolated more than a kind of sample/lot. The most frequent serovar was Enteriditis (38.46%, 10/26, while the second was Mbandaka (19.23%, 5/26, both isolated from hearts, livers and carcasses. Regarding antimicrobial resistance, of 12 tested principal pharmacological agents, the samples appeared to be most sensitive to tetracyclines, but showed 100% resistance to one or more active principal agents, especially sulfamethoxazole (30 mcg and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (30 mcg. Although Salmonella sp. was isolated from normal carcasses, the results are within permitted levels for unfrozen products according to Brazilian legislation. However, one should always be aware of the hygienic and sanitary conditions of production processes and food processing, especially regarding good manufacturing practices.

  3. Microbiological quality of natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, J J; Figueras, M J

    1997-12-01

    Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed. The importance of the water as a vehicle and/or a reservoir of human pathogenic microorganisms is also discussed. In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.

  4. [Modified lateral condensation (microbiological analysis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jácome Musule, J L; Vázquez del Mercado, M A; Hernández, J L; Granillo, N E

    1989-05-01

    In order to ascertain the presence of endodontobacterial flora, an in vivo microbiological study on fifty human teeth with necrotic pulp and periapical bone destruction, is submitted. The study verifies elimination of bacteria through a technique for the preparation of root canals. Results of this research ratify the presence of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, as well as the means to inhibit them. That will allow performing obturation under optimal conditions, thus increasing assurance of success in the endodontic therapy.

  5. Tools for microbiological risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Bassett, J; Nauta, M; Lindqvist, R.; Zwietering, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) has emerged as a comprehensive and systematic approach for addressing the risk of pathogens in specific foods and/or processes. At government level, MRA is increasingly recognised as a structured and objective approach to understand the level of risk in a given food/pathogen scenario. Tools developed so far support qualitative and quantitative assessments of the risk that a food pathogen poses to a particular population. Risk can be expressed as absolute ...

  6. Microbiological Control of Eurasian Watermilfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    mediated changes in the littoral zone alter the metabolism and structure of epiphytic and surrounding phyto- planktonic communities (Godmaire and Planas 1986...cellulolytic and gelatinous utilizer bacteria increase (Bastardo 1979). 13. In stagnant and anaerobic bodies of water, the dominant types of anoxygenic...Macrophyte Decom- position on Growth Rate and Community Structure of Okefenokee Swamp Bacterio- plankton ," Applied Environmental Microbiology, Vol 51, No

  7. International Journal of Food Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Isabella M.M.; Almeida, R.C.C.; Alves, M.A.O.; Almeida, P F

    2002-01-01

    Texto completo. Acesso restrito. p. 241– 248 Critical control points (CCPs) associated with Minas Frescal cheese (a Brazilian soft white cheese, eaten fresh) processing in two dairy factories were determined using flow diagrams and microbiological tests for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and other species of Listeria. A total of 218 samples were collected along the production line and environment. The CCPs identified were reception of raw milk, pasteurization, coagulation and...

  8. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Santa Inês lambs fed with sunflower cake replacing cottonseed meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fernandes Júnior

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed sunflower cake to replace the protein of cottonseed meal. The experiment was conducted at the sheep sector at the Farm School, State University of Londrina. Thirty Santa Inês lambs, intact males, with age and weight at the beginning of the experiment of 80 days and 21.45 ± 2.16 kg, respectively, were used. It was used a completely randomized experimental design. The animals were divided into 5 treatments, with 6 replicates per treatment, according to the amount of protein of cottonseed meal replaced by protein of the sunflower cake (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of replacement. Carcasses were evaluated and the Longissimus dorsi was removed for analyzes of shear force, color, pH, marbling, water loss by pressure, sensory analysis, chemical analyses and lipid oxidation. Hot and cold carcass yields showed quadratic distributions, where the best values were found for treatments with low inclusion of sunflower cake. Carcass measurements, as well as cut yields were not affected by the content of sunflower cake. Regarding the parameters of lamb meat, only water losses during cooking and shear force were affected, being quadratic and linear, respectively. The meat was more tender in animals fed higher amounts of sunflower cake. The tasters of the sensory panel did not identify differences between treatments, and classified the meat with moderate odor intensity, good tenderness, low to moderate juiciness and medium acceptability. The replacement of cottonseed meal protein by sunflower cake protein in the levels used, did not affect the majority of the carcass characteristics and the meat quality.

  9. [Development of a record-keeping strategy for improvement of information retention in microbiological processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jaime Alberto; Cuartas, Mónica Cecilia; Molina, Olga Lucía; Restrepo, Ana Cristina; Maya, Claudia Yarely; Jaramillo, Sergio

    2004-09-01

    The improvement of microbiological information processing in clinical laboratories depends on retention of information concerning who, what, when, how, and why each process was performed, the implementation of quality control procedures, and finally, its evaluation. The four objectives to be addressed are as follows: (1) to improve the collection of information concerned with microbiological processes, (2) to evaluate results of implemented strategies, (3) to offer a model data base to be used in research projects, and (4) to propose an evaluation model for comparative studies. To do this, microbiological cultures were collected from hospitalized patients from June 1997 to June 2003. Data for the analytical matrix were obtained from lab requests, medical history and the microbiological data. Statistical analyses were performed in Epi-Info 6. The laboratory records for 46,072 microbiological cultures were analyzed. Completion levels in data collection were compared between years 1997 and 2003. Samples from 1997 and 2003 showed 11% and 99% of the request forms specifically requesting microbiological culture, 11% and 99% were completed in 1997 and 2003, respectively. For the same years, 9% and 85% specifically stated the time of the request. Ten percent and 68%, respectively, provided complete information. Zero and 83% respectively stated who had collected the sample. Zero and 77%, respectively, specified the time of sample collection. Forms containing all relevent microbiological data were most complete with 78% and 96%, respectively. A database with 44 variables related to microbiological processes was created. In conclusion, improvement of microbiological data processing depends not only on the method of collection and completion of recorded information, but also on constant quality control and evaluation.

  10. Microbiological Quantitative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Silvia; Schaffner, Donald W.

    The meat and poultry industry faces ongoing challenges due to the natural association of pathogens of concern (e.g., Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7) with a variety of domesticated food animals. In addition, pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes pose a significant cross-contamination risk during further meat and poultry processing, distribution, and storage. Furthermore, the meat and poultry industries are constantly changing with the addition of new products, use of new raw materials, and targeting of new consumer populations, each of which may give rise to potential new risks. National and international regulations are increasingly using a “risk-based” approach to food safety (where the regulatory focus is driven by the magnitude of the risk), so risk assessment is becoming a valuable tool to systematically organize and evaluate the potential public health risk posed by food processing operations.

  11. Avaliação físico-química e microbiológica da carne soleada do Pantanal Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of Pantanal's soleada beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Lima Alves

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A carne soleada é um produto similar à carne de sol e originária exclusivamente do Pantanal. O objetivo foi avaliar variáveis físico-químicas e microbiológicas da carne soleada produzida em sistema modelo. Foram avaliados os efeitos da utilização dos recursos tecnológicos do congelamento e embalagem a vácuo sobre as variáveis microbiológicas. Prepararam-se amostras usando o corte comercial coxão duro (m. biceps femural e avaliadas as variáveis de pH, atividade de água, teor de cloretos e perdas de água por pressão, exsudação e cozimento. As contagens de S. aureus e E. coli foram realizadas na matéria-prima, carne soleada in natura e carne soleada congelada e embalada a vácuo. Os resultados mostram que a carne soleada precisa de adaptações para que se possa sugerir sua produção em escala. A atividade de água com valor médio de 0,97, pH em 5,72 e teor de cloretos em torno de 2,7% sugerem um produto com baixa vida de prateleira e que pode ser substrato para microrganismos patogênicos para o homem. O congelamento e a embalagem a vácuo não são recursos adequados para a conservação da carne soleada tradicional.Soleada beef is similar to sun-dried beef, and it is typical of Pantanal region. The aim of this study was to assess the physicochemical and microbiological variables of soleada beef produced in a model system. The effects of freezing technology resources and vacuum packing on the microbiological variables were assessed. Hence, biceps femoris samples were prepared, and the variables pH, water activity, chloride content, and water loss through pressure, sweating, and cooking were evaluated. The samples were separated into two aliquots; one was analyzed immediately and the other was vacuum packed and frozen. The S. aureus and E. coli count was done in the raw material, soleada beef in natura, and in frozen and vacuum packed soleada beef. Water activity with an average value of 0.97, pH of 5.72, and chloride

  12. Hazardous animal waste carcasses transformation into slow release fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, Patrick; Fiallo, Marina; Nzihou, Ange; Chkir, Mouna

    2009-08-15

    Because of the need to address disposal of materials infected with pathogens new regulations have come into effect for the transport and disposal of dead farm animals or carcasses. For precautionary reasons, disposal to landfill, composting, biogas generation or fertilizer use are banned recycling paths because of incomplete knowledge about contamination transmission paths. Thermal treatment is recognized as a safe elimination process. Animal wastes have a high calorific value (above 16 MJ/kg). However, combustion of the organics leaves mineral residues (near 30%). The ashes contain mostly calcium and phosphate with some sodium, potassium and magnesium. We have examined the transformation of the ashes into a slow release fertilizer. We used a mixture of acids to partly dissolve the combustion residues and form slurry. In a second step, base was added to neutralize and solidify the reaction mixture. The final product was a whitish polycrystalline solid. Leaching tests were made to evaluate the nutrient release rate in laboratory columns. Water leachates were analyzed for up to ten pore-bed volumes and showed, as expected, large differences in release rates. Nitrate release was slowed and phosphate did not level even after ten pore-bed volumes. This demonstrates that insoluble precipitates (gypsum) contribute to control soluble ion release.

  13. Influence of Feed Additives in Quality of Broiler Carcasses

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    F.A. Khalafalla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the effect of some feed additives on quality of broiler carcasses. A total of one hundred and eighty of one day old broiler chicks were reared and divided into six groups. Five groups were fed on treated rations (20 g of freshly minced of each of garlic and onion to 1 Kg of ration, 400mg of vitamin E in one liter of drinking water, B.subtilis 4 ×108 c.f.u was added in amount 1.5 g to 1 Kg ration, 10 g hot pepper to one Kg of ration and 50g zinc bacitracin added to the ration in amount 1.5 g to 1 Kg ration, and the sixth group used as control group. Broilers were slaughtered at age of 45 days to evaluate pH, moisture content, cooking loss, shear force and instrumental color. The feed additives (onion and garlic, Vit.E, hot pepper, B.subtilis and zinc bacitracin were decreased pH in broiler meat. Moisture did not influence by dietary supplementation. Cooking loss was decreased with storage of broiler meat. Vit.E, B.subtilis and hot Pepper groups increased tenderness in broiler meat. Onion and garlic and Vit.E increased lightness and yellowness of broiler meat. Zinc bacitracin and hot pepper decreased redness of broiler meat.

  14. Seasonal variation exceeds effects of salmon carcass additions on benthic food webs in the Elwha River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, S.A.; Coe, H.J.; Duda, J.J.; Dunphy, L.S.; McHenry, M.L.; Beckman, B.R.; Elofson, M.; Sampson, E. M.; Ward, L.

    2016-01-01

    Dam removal and other fish barrier removal projects in western North America are assumed to boost freshwater productivity via the transport of marine-derived nutrients from recolonizing Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). In anticipation of the removal of two hydroelectric dams on the Elwha River in Washington State, we tested this hypothesis with a salmon carcass addition experiment. Our study was designed to examine how background nutrient dynamics and benthic food webs vary seasonally, and how these features respond to salmon subsidies. We conducted our experiment in six side channels of the Elwha River, each with a spatially paired reference and treatment reach. Each reach was sampled on multiple occasions from October 2007 to August 2008, before and after carcass placement. We evaluated nutrient limitation status; measured water chemistry, periphyton, benthic invertebrates, and juvenile rainbow trout (O. mykiss) response; and traced salmon-derived nutrient uptake using stable isotopes. Outside of winter, algal accrual was limited by both nitrogen and phosphorous and remained so even in the presence of salmon carcasses. One month after salmon addition, dissolved inorganic nitrogen levels doubled in treatment reaches. Two months after addition, benthic algal accrual was significantly elevated. We detected no changes in invertebrate or fish metrics, with the exception of 15N enrichment. Natural seasonal variability was greater than salmon effects for the majority of our response metrics. Yet seasonality and synchronicity of nutrient supply and demand are often overlooked in nutrient enhancement studies. Timing and magnitude of salmon-derived nitrogen utilization suggest that uptake of dissolved nutrients was favored over direct consumption of carcasses. The highest proportion of salmon-derived nitrogen was incorporated by herbivores (18–30%) and peaked 1–2 months after carcass addition. Peak nitrogen enrichment in predators (11–16%) occurred 2–3

  15. Avaliação microbiológica de amostras de mel de trigoníneos (Apidae: Trigonini do Estado da Bahia Microbiological evaluation of trigonine bee (Apidae: Trigonini honey samples from the State of Bahia - Brazil

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    Bruno de Almeida Souza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O mel é um produto que apresenta atividade antimicrobiana atribuída a fatores físicos e químicos. Mesmo assim, ainda é possível encontrar uma série de microrganismos presentes neste produto e que servem como indicadores de qualidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica do mel produzido por espécies de abelhas sem ferrão (Trigonini do Estado da Bahia. Quatorze amostras de mel foram avaliadas quanto ao teor de umidade, atividade de água, contagem padrão de bolores e leveduras, e presença de microrganismos do grupo coliforme. Um total de 50,0% das amostras apresentou contagem padrão para bolores e leveduras acima do máximo permitido pela regulamentação brasileira para alimentos. Esta desclassificação de amostras assepticamente colhidas indica a necessidade de identificação desta microbiota e sua possível ocorrência natural no mel produzido por este grupo de abelhas. Nenhuma das amostras foi desclassificada em relação à contagem de microrganismos do grupo coliforme.Honey is a product that presents antimicrobial activity attributed to physical and chemical factors. Even so, it is still possible to find many microorganisms present in this product, which can be used as quality indicators. The objective of this work was to evaluate the microbiologic quality of the honey produced by stingless bee species from the State of Bahia, Brazil. Fourteen samples of honey were evaluated for the moisture content, water activity, standard counting of moulds and yeasts, and presence of microorganisms of coliform group. A total of 50.0% of the samples presented standard counting of moulds and yeasts above the maximum value permmited by the Brazilian food legislation. This disqualification of samples asseptically harvested indicates the need of identification of this microbiota and its possible natural occurrence in the honey produced by this group of bees. None of the samples was disqualified regarding the

  16. Evaluation of a multiplex real-time PCR method for detecting shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef and comparison to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology laboratory guidebook method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratamico, Pina M; Wasilenko, Jamie L; Garman, Bradley; Demarco, Daniel R; Varkey, Stephen; Jensen, Mark; Rhoden, Kyle; Tice, George

    2014-02-01

    The "top-six" non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) most frequently associated with outbreaks and cases of foodborne illnesses have been declared as adulterants in beef by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). Regulatory testing in beef began in June 2012. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the DuPont BAX System method for detecting these top six STEC strains and strains of E. coli O157:H7. For STEC, the BAX System real-time STEC suite was evaluated, including a screening assay for the stx and eae virulence genes and two panel assays to identify the target serogroups: panel 1 detects O26, O111, and O121, and panel 2 detects O45, O103, O145. For E. coli O157:H7, the BAX System real-time PCR assay for this specific serotype was used. Sensitivity of each assay for the PCR targets was ≥1.23 × 10(3) CFU/ml in pure culture. Each assay was 100% inclusive for the strains tested (20 to 50 per assay), and no cross-reactivity with closely related strains was observed in any of the assays. The performance of the BAX System methods was compared with that of the FSIS Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top six STEC and E. coli O157:H7 strains in ground beef and beef trim. Generally, results of the BAX System method were similar to those of the MLG methods for detecting non-O157 STEC and E. coli O157:H7. Reducing or eliminating novobiocin in modified tryptic soy broth (mTSB) may improve the detection of STEC O111 strains; one beef trim sample inoculated with STEC O111 produced a negative result when enriched in mTSB with 8 mg/liter novobiocin but was positive when enriched in mTSB without novobiocin. The results of this study indicate the feasibility of deploying a panel of real-time PCR assay configurations for the detection and monitoring of the top six STEC and E. coli O157:H7 strains in beef. The approach could easily be adapted

  17. Microbiological Contamination of Cosmetic Creams in Tehran

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    Keshtvarz, M. (Msc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Transmission of pathogens by cosmetics is one of the major health complications. Direct contact with contaminated non-standard cosmetics can have irreparable side effects for the consumers. Thus, the evaluation of microbial contamination in cosmetic products is important. The aim of this study was to assess the microbiological contamination of one of frequently used cream. Material and Methods: In the present study, 135 samples of a special moisturizing cream were randomly selected from pharmacies in Tehran. The microbial contamination assessment, sampling and culturing method were based on the protocol (No.3978 of Iranian Institute of Standard and Industrial Research. Results: sixty-two (46% out of 135 samples were contaminated. The highest and lowest contaminations observed were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus, respectively. Conclusion: Due to the high contamination rate of cosmetic creams, we recommend extremely monitoring and controlling these products by health centers. Keywords: Cosmetics, Microbial Contamination, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

  18. [Microbiology--laboratory examinations for bacterias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Renjun; Imafuku, Yuji; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2002-11-01

    As it has been required to identify pathogenic microbes in shorter times, simple and rapid methods have been developed and used. Here, we summarized the present situation of rapid diagnostic testing in clinical microbiology in Japan, and also presented our results on PBP2' detection. The rapid test kits available in Japan for E. coli, Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus were described. Rapid examination methods are based mainly on immunologic reactions, which included slide agglutination using latex particle, immunochromatography and ELISA. Times required for the identification are 10 to 15 minutes. Moreover, rapid test kits employing PCR are also marketed. Further, we evaluated MRSA-LA "Seiken" which is a rapid detection kit for PBP2' produced by MRSA. The test was shown to be highly sensitive and specific. For the rapid identification of pathogenic microbes, simple and rapid test kits described here will be used more in clinical diagnosis.

  19. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  20. Effects of ractopamine supplementation on growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers differing in biological type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, S L; Tatum, J D; Engle, T E; Mitchell, M A; Laudert, S B; Schroeder, A L; Platter, W J

    2007-07-01

    Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) supplementation on growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers differing in biological type were investigated using British, Continental crossbred, and Brahman crossbred calf-fed steers (n = 420). Steers of each type were weighed at reimplantation [British, mean BW = 375 kg (SD = 38 kg); Continental crossbred, mean BW = 379 kg (SD = 42 kg); Brahman crossbred, mean BW = 340 (SD = 32 kg)] and sorted into 7 BW blocks, each block consisting of 2 pens (10 steers per pen) per type. Pens within a block x type subclass were randomly assigned to RAC treatments (0 or 200 mg x steer(-1) x d(-1) fed during the final 28 d of the finishing period). The type x RAC interaction did not affect (P > 0.05) any of the traits evaluated in this study. Feeding RAC improved (P = 0.001) ADG (1.50 vs. 1.73 +/- 0.09 kg) and G:F (0.145 vs. 0.170 +/- 0.005), but did not affect (P = 0.48) DMI of steers. Dressing percentage, adjusted fat thickness, KPH percentage, and yield grade were not affected by RAC supplementation. Carcasses of steers fed RAC had heavier (P = 0.01) HCW (359 vs. 365 +/- 4.9 kg), larger (P = 0.046) LM areas (81.7 vs. 84.0 +/- 1.1 cm(2)), and tended (P = 0.07) to have lower mean marbling scores (487 vs. 477 +/- 5.2; Slight = 400, Small = 500) than did carcasses of control steers. Among the 3 biological types, Brahman crossbred steers had the lowest DMI and produced the lightest-weight carcasses that had the lowest mean marbling score (P Brahman crossbred steers, British steers produced carcasses with the greatest (P = 0.001) mean marbling scores. Continental crossbred steers had the heaviest BW and greatest dressing percentages and produced the heaviest carcasses with the largest LM areas (P Brahman crossbred steers. In the present study, 28 d of supplementation with RAC at a dosage rate of 200 mg x steer(-1) x d(-1) elicited consistent responses in growth performance and carcass traits among 3 diverse biological

  1. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Pei; Ning Li; Yunchang Guo; Xiumei Liu; Lin Yan; Ying Li; Shuran Yang; Jing Hu; Jianghui Zhu; Dajin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the na...

  2. Teaching microbiological food safety through case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Florence Dubois-Brissonnet; Laurent Guillier; Murielle Naïtali

    2015-01-01

    Higher education students usually ask for more training based on case studies. This was addressed by designing a specific food safety module (24 hours) in which students were shown how to predict microbiological risks in food products i.e. they were asked to determine product shelf-life according to product formulation, preservation methods and consumption habits using predictive microbiology tools. Working groups of four students first identified the main microbiological hazards associated w...

  3. Microbiology in the post-genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medini, Duccio; Serruto, Davide; Parkhill, Julian; Relman, David A; Donati, Claudio; Moxon, Richard; Falkow, Stanley; Rappuoli, Rino

    2008-06-01

    Genomics has revolutionized every aspect of microbiology. Now, 13 years after the first bacterial genome was sequenced, it is important to pause and consider what has changed in microbiology research as a consequence of genomics. In this article, we review the evolving field of bacterial typing and the genomic technologies that enable comparative analysis of multiple genomes and the metagenomes of complex microbial environments, and address the implications of the genomic era for the future of microbiology.

  4. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study also consisted of the counting of microorganisms colonies forming units in samples of intrauterine content, tests of antimicrobial susceptibility of the E. coli isolates and the histological examination of the uterus. E. coli was the most prevalent microorganism isolated (76.6%) and 120 strains (79.5%) were positive for sfa, 86 (56.9%) were positive for cnf, 87 (57.6%) were positive for pap, 52 (34.4%) were positive for hly, 51 (33.8%) were positive for iuc and 5 (3.3%) were positive for afa genes. One observed more sensitivity of E. coli to norfloxacin, polimixin B, sulphazotrin, chloranfenicol and enrofloxacin. In 42% of the samples of uterine walls where microorganisms were isolated, the sizes of the areas of the inflammatory responses corresponded to 39–56%. Virulence factors were identified in 98.0% of the strains evaluated, demonstrating a high frequency of potentially pathogenic E. coli. It must be considered that dogs are animals that are living in close proximity to man for thousands of years and have an important role in the transmission of E. coli to other animals and to man. PMID:24031249

  5. Carcass and meat characteristics of steers or bulls, finished in feedlot and fed with diets containing three levels of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Moletta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate quantitative and qualitative characters of carcass and meat from bulls and steers finished in feedlot during a 116 day period, in individual stalls and fed with a diet of corn silage and three levels of concentrate (0.70; 0.97 and 1.23% of body weight. The concentrate was formulated with 25% soybean meal, 73% of ground corn grain 1% of a mineral mix and 1% of limestone. A total of 169 composite Purunã animals, being 94 bulls and 75 steers with average age of 20 months. The interaction between physiological condition and level of concentrate was not significant (P>0.05 for any of the studied variables. Likewise, no effect of level of concentrate was detected upon the same traits. The bulls presented heavier slaughter weight (493.1 kg in comparison with the steers (450.0 kg as well as higher carcass yield (55.2 vs. 53.5%, resulting in a hot carcass weight 12.1% heavier than bulls animals, though with a lower degree of carcass finishing (3.6 vs. 4.2 mm, respectively. Bulls produced carcasses with better conformation and higher area of Longissimus dorsi (68.6 vs. 63.3 cm2, and higher percentage of muscle in comparison with castrated (66.5 vs. 62.8%. The meat from bulls was darker and with lower degree of marbling in relation to steers. Nevertheless, no differences were observed for tenderness nor for juiciness, though steers had more palatable meat.

  6. Transfer of Campylobacter from a Positive Batch to Broiler Carcasses of a Subsequently Slaughtered Negative Batch: A Quantitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Van Damme, Inge; Gisbert Algaba, Ignacio; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify Campylobacter cross-contamination from a positive batch of broiler chicken carcasses to a negative batch at selected processing steps and to evaluate the duration of this cross-contamination. During each of nine visits conducted in three broiler slaughterhouses, Campylobacter levels were determined on broiler carcasses originating from Campylobacter-negative batches processed immediately after Campylobacter-positive batches. Data were collected after four steps during the slaughter process (scalding, plucking, evisceration, and washing) at 1, 10, and 20 min after the start of the slaughter of the batches. Campylobacter levels in ceca of birds from Campylobacter-positive batches ranged from 5.62 to 9.82 log CFU/g. When the preceding positive batch was colonized at a low level, no (enumerable) carcass contamination was found in a subsequent negative batch. However, when Campylobacter levels were high in the positive batch, Campylobacter was found on carcasses of the subsequent negative batch but at levels significantly lower than those found on carcasses from the preceding positive batch. The scalding and the evisceration process contributed the least (< 1.5 log CFU/g) and the most (up to 4 log CFU/ g), respectively, to the Campylobacter transmission from a positive batch to a negative batch. Additionally, the number of Campylobacter cells transferred from positive to negative batches decreased over the first 20 min of sampling time. However, the reduction was slower than previously estimated in risk assessment studies, suggesting that pathogen transfer during crosscontamination is a complex process.

  7. Relationship between teat morphology and microbiological quality of sheep milk

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    Sylwia Bielińska-Nowak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the size of the udder and morphological changes in ewe’s teats, as well as relationship of these features with microbiological quality of milk. The examinations of morphological structures of ewe’s teats were performed with 10 MHz ultrasound linear probe. The experiment was conducted on 40 dairy sheep, in three consecutive calendar years. To clarify the correlation between total bacteria count, teat morphology and size of the udder, the results of determination of the microbiological quality of milk were grouped in four ranges: total bacteria count < 50 000, 50 000-100 000, 100 000-200 000 and > 200 000 in 1 cm3 of milk. The width of the udders increased with increasing concentration of total bacteria count (p < 0.001. The widest udders were observed in sheep with the highest total bacteria count concentration – up to 200 000 of bacteria in 1 cm3 of milk: 122.7 mm. With increasing concentration of total bacteria count in milk, decreased udder height (p < 0.001. The smallest height of udder was found in ewes producing milk of the lowest microbiological quality (p < 0.001. The experiment showed no statistically significant correlations between teat’s length, width, morphological structures and total bacteria count (p > 0.05. Therefore, the application of these features in a rapid evaluation of the microbiological quality of sheep milk is unusable.  

  8. Microbiological Aspects In Periodontal Disease And Diabetes Mellitus

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    Velea Oana A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Scientists are constantly showing a high interest for the relationship between Periodontal Disease (PD and Diabetes Mellitus (DM. PD, “the sixth complication” of DM is recognized to be a chronic gram-negative anaerobic infectious disease. This paper is aimed at reviewing and evaluating the correlations between PD and DM from a microbiological point of view. Treatment implications of PD’s management as an important component of DM care is reviewed in the light of microbiological current knowledge. Materials and Methods. Microbiological studies and clinical trials were selected from medical and dental journals, and studied thoroughly. Results. Plaque biofilm and prolonged hyperglycemia increase the risk of PD development in DM. These two features determine inflammatory reactions that end-up in tissue destruction and impaired healing responses. Few pathogens are considered highly prevalent periodontal pathogens, with destructive actions. Studies have shown that metabolic balance or lack of balance determines bacterial variations in diabetic patients with PD. Other results demonstrate the importance of microbial tests (especially PCR techniques as indicators for healing or disease progression. Conclusions. There aren’t many studies assessing the relationship between PD and DM from microbiological points of view. In light of increasing evidence, larger interventional studies are needed

  9. Assessment of the microbiological quality of the poultry products from convenience food group

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    Bożena Danyluk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of chosen poultry products from convenience food group, taking into account the seasons. There were assessed products after heat treatment (marinated, roasted leg; two-phase method breaded, fried and roasted piquant wings; three-phase method breaded, fried and roasted filet and frozen (marinated: leg, wings and filet. Microbiological examination involved determining the total number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coagulase-positive staphylococci and glucuronidase-positive E. coli and presence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in 25 g. The obtained results showed, that the level of microbiological contamination of the samples was without reservation.

  10. 9 CFR 310.8 - Passing and marking of carcasses and parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.8 Passing and marking of carcasses and parts... lesions are passed for food or for cooking and “U.S. Retained” tags are attached to the carcasses,...

  11. In-situ Iberian pig carcass classification using a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based near infrared (NIR) spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Rojas, E; Pérez-Marín, D; De Pedro-Sanz, E; Guerrero-Ginel, J E; Garrido-Varo, A

    2012-03-01

    Iberian pig (IP) products are gourmet foods highly appreciated at international markets, reaching high prices, because of its exquisite flavors. At present, there aren't practical and affordable analytical methods which can authenticate every single piece put on the market. This paper reports on the performance of a handheld micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based spectrometer (1600-2400nm) for authentication-classification of individual IP carcasses into different commercial categories. Performance (accuracy and instrumental design) of the instrument was compared with that of high-resolution NIRS monochromators (400-2500nm). A total of 300 carcasses of IPs raised under different feeding regimes ("Acorn", "Recebo" and "Feed") were analyzed in three modes (intact fat in the carcass, skin-free subcutaneous fat samples and melted fat samples). The best classification results for the MEMS instrument were: 93.9% "Acorn" carcasses correctly classified, 96.4% "Feed" and 60.6% "Recebo", respectively. Evaluation of model performance confirmed the suitability of the handheld device for individual, fast, non-destructive, low-cost analysis of IP carcasses on the slaughterhouse line.

  12. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  13. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle fed different levels of macadamia oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong-Boateng, O; Mikasi, M S; Benyi, K; Amey, A K A

    2008-04-01

    Eighteen cattle (six Bonsmara males, seven Simmanteler x Beefmaster males and five Simmanteler x Beefmaster females) were assigned to three diets containing 0% (Control), 10% and 20% Macadamia oil cake to evaluate the effects of different levels of Macadamia oilcake (MOC) on feed intake, growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle. Differences in average feed intake were not significant (P > 0.05). Average daily gains on the 0% and 20% MOC diets were not significantly different (P 0.05). There were no condemned livers, suggesting that either there were no toxic factors in the feed or, even if present, were probably inactive in the liver.

  14. Sex effect on productive parameters, carcass and body fat composition of two commercial broilers lines

    OpenAIRE

    S Rondelli; Martinez, O; PT García

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate sex effect on behavior of two commercial broilers lines. Productive parameters, carcass composition and yield, amount and quality of fat deposited in the meat and skin and total body fat were studied. A completely randomized design with four treatments (MR-Male Ross, HR-Female Ross, MAF-Male Avian Farm and HAF-Female Avian Farm) and eight repetitions of 40 chickens was used. Animals received water and food ad libitum. After 50 days, two birds (a male and a...

  15. Carcass and meet characteristics of very young Angus x Nelore steers in the Agreste Potiguar region

    OpenAIRE

    Debora Andréa Evangelista Façanha; Jacinara Hody Gurgel Morais Leite; Rita de Cássia Ramos Egypto Queiroga; Roberto Germano Costa; Déborah dos Santos Garruti; Tâmara Lúcia dos Santos Silva

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the carcass and meat of very young steers, ½ Red Angus x Nelore (NEL) and ¾ Red Angus x Nelore (RED). Fifty males were used, 25 from each genetic group, fed in feedlots from weaning (7 months) until reaching the age for slaughter (15 months). A difference was observed between the genetic groups for gains at weaning (158.57 kg NEL and 181.60 kg RED) but the weight at slaughter showed no statistical differences (412...

  16. Competency assessment of microbiology medical laboratory technologists in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Marc; Fleming, Christine Ann

    2014-08-01

    Accreditation in Ontario, Canada, requires that licensed clinical laboratories participate in external quality assessment (also known as proficiency testing) and perform competency evaluation of their staff. To assess the extent of ongoing competency assessment practices, the Quality Management Program--Laboratory Services (QMP-LS) Microbiology Committee surveyed all 112 licensed Ontario microbiology laboratories. The questionnaire consisted of a total of 21 questions that included yes/no, multiple-choice, and short-answer formats. Participants were asked to provide information about existing programs, the frequency of testing, what areas are evaluated, and how results are communicated to the staff. Of the 111 responding laboratories, 6 indicated they did not have a formal evaluation program since they perform only limited bacteriology testing. Of the remaining 105 respondents, 87% perform evaluations at least annually or every 2 years, and 61% include any test or task performed, whereas 16% and 10% focus only on problem areas and high-volume complex tasks, respectively. The most common methods of evaluation were review of external quality assessment (EQA) challenges, direct observation, and worksheet review. With the exception of one participant, all communicate results to staff, and most take remedial action to correct the deficiencies. Although most accredited laboratories have a program to assess the ongoing competency of their staff, the methods used are not standardized or consistently applied, indicating that there is room for improvement. The survey successfully highlighted potential areas for improvement and allowed the QMP-LS Microbiology Committee to provide guidance to Ontario laboratories for establishing or improving existing microbiology-specific competency assessment programs.

  17. Avaliação de dietas fornecidas dos 14 aos 42 dias de idade sobre o desempenho e a composição de carcaça de leitões Evaluation of diets fed from 14 to 42 days of age on piglets performance and carcass composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gimenez Mascarenhas

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar dietas fornecidas dos 14 aos 42 dias de idade sobre o desempenho e a composição de carcaça de leitões. Vinte e oito leitegadas mestiças (Landrace × Large White foram alimentadas à vontade com quatro tipos de dietas: duas simples e duas complexas. No desmame, aos 21 dias de idade, quatro animais (dois machos castrados e duas fêmeas, foram transferidos para creches e alojados em gaiolas metálicas, onde continuaram a ser alimentados com rações à vontade. Oitenta e quatro animais, 21 para cada tratamento (sete animais aos 14 dias e 14 animais aos 42 dias de idade, foram abatidos para determinar as taxas de deposição de proteína e gordura na carcaça. Foi usado delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e sete repetições por tratamento. Dos 14 aos 21 dias de idade, o consumo diário de ração (CDR foi insignificante. Após o desmame, os maiores CDR e ganho diário de peso (GDP foram observados em leitões alimentados com as dietas complexa e simples, que tinham maior nível de proteína bruta e lisina (19 e 1,25%, que os alimentados com dietas simples contendo 16 e 0,80% de proteína bruta e lisina, respectivamente. As dietas simples e complexas com os mesmos níveis de proteína bruta, lisina e energia digestível proporcionaram resultados semelhantes de desempenho. A redução do nível de proteína bruta dietético piorou o desempenho dos leitões desmamados aos 21 dias.The objective of this work was to evaluate diets fed from 14 to 42 days of age on piglets performance and carcass composition. Twenty-eight crossbred litters (Landrace x Large White were full fed four types of diets: two simple and two complex. In the weaning time, at 21 days of age, four animals (two barrows and two gilts were transferred to a nursery and allotted to metallic cages, where they continued to be full fed with diets. Eight-four animals, 21 animals from each treatment (seven animals at 14

  18. Microbiological findings in prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and

  19. Microbiology Learning and Education Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarner, Jeannette; Niño, Silvia M

    2016-05-01

    The ubiquity of devices that connect to the Internet has exploded, allowing for easy dissemination of information. Many teachers from kindergarten to universities use the information obtained online or post material they want their students to access. Online media readily places articles, books, videos, and games at our fingertips. The public in general also gathers health information from the Internet. The following review will explore what has been published regarding microbiology education and learning online and the use of electronic media by microbiologists for scientific purposes.

  20. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of peroxyacetic acid solutions for reduction of pathogens on poultry carcasses and meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    Studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of solutions, containing peroxyacetic acid (PAA) as the active ingredient, in mixtures with acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP) and possibly octanoic acid and peroxyoctanoic acid, for reduction of pathogens...... include monitoring of the concentration of HEDP and of the decontaminating substance in the working solution and post-marketing surveillance for resistance in both pathogenic and commensal bacteria....

  1. Níveis de suplemento à base de fubá de milho para novilhos Nelore terminados a pasto na seca: desempenho, características de carcaça e avaliação do pasto Levels of corn meal based supplement in Nellore steers finished on pasture in the dry season: performance, carcass characteristics and pasture evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Sverzut Baroni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a disponibilidade dos componentes da pastagem, o ganho de peso e as características de carcaça de novilhos Nelore recebendo suplemento na fase de terminação durante o período seco. O experimento foi realizado em pastagem de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha, cv. Marandu, em seis piquetes de 9 hectares. Utilizaram-se 48 novilhos com 30 meses e peso inicial de 412 ± 16 kg, distribuídos ao acaso em seis lotes de oito animais. Cada lote foi alojado em um piquete e pesado no início e a cada 21 dias, durante 84 dias. Os suplementos foram fornecidos nos níveis de 0,25; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; e 4,0 kg/animal.dia em comparação a um suplemento controle, com apenas mistura mineral. Os suplementos, à exceção do controle, apresentaram níveis variáveis de proteína bruta (87,4 a 25,0% da matéria seca e 25:25:50, 15:15:70, 10:10:80, 5:5:90 e 2,5:2,5:95 para 0,25; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; e 4,0 kg/animal.dia, respectivamente, uma vez que a ureia foi usada como controladora do consumo de suplemento. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado e os níveis de suplementação foram avaliados por análise de regressão. A proporção de colmo e folha seca aumentou no decorrer dos períodos experimentais, caracterizando déficit hídrico da estação seca. Houve efeito linear crescente dos níveis de suplemento sobre o peso vivo final, o ganho de peso médio diário e o ganho médio por período, tanto em relação ao consumo de suplemento quanto em relação ao consumo de proteína bruta e nutrientes digestíveis totais. Os níveis de suplemento têm efeito linear crescente sobre o peso de carcaça e a espessura de gordura subcutânea e efeito quadrático sobre o rendimento de carcaça.The objective of this study was to evaluate the availability of pasture components, average daily gain and carcass characteristics of Nellore steers receiving supplements in the finishing phase during the dry season. The experiment was

  2. Collaboration between courses in the interdisciplinary course Food Microbiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Andersson, Pernille Hammar

    2014-01-01

    Food Microbiology is an interdisciplinary 12.5 ETCS second-year) course in a CDIO-based Bachelor of Engineering program in Food Science at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The course was first offered in 2011. Each session in the Food Microbiology course combines theory and practice...... in order to strengthen the students’ application-oriented competences and engagement. In this paper the results from the evaluation of the course will be presented and a discussion will be carried out about how the students responded to the multidisciplinary, real-life projects and how it affects student...... learning. The aims of this study were to test 1) the students’ perception combining theory with small laboratory exercises and 2) the students’ perception of how the course collaborates with and combines theories and practices from other current semester courses. The students evaluated the course...

  3. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail broiler chicken meat carcasses in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city/department) were collected using a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the ...

  4. Effects of pasture on carcass composition in Cinta Senese pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giuliotti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The trial was performed to investigate on the effects of different periods of grass pasture in fattening Cinta Senese pigs; growth performances, carcass characteristics and meat quality were studied. Control group was reared in paddock and fed concentrate, while experimental group grazed on grass pasture with an integration of 1.4 kg/pig/d of concentrate. Initial live weight was not different between the two groups and individual weights were periodically recorded. Animals were slaughtered from 36 to 160 days from the trial beginning. Carcass weight, body measures, backfat thickness, pH45 and pH24 were recorded. After 24 hours of refrigeration, each carcass was dissected into lean, fat and bone cuts. Results didn’t show differences between the two groups, revealing that Cinta Senese pigs can profitably utilize pasture on grass even in fattening period.

  5. Influence of dietary oils and protein level on pork quality. 1. Effects on muscle fatty acid composition, carcass, meat and eating quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teye, G A; Sheard, P R; Whittington, F M; Nute, G R; Stewart, A; Wood, J D

    2006-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of three dietary oils - palm kernel (PKO), palm (PO) and soyabean (SBO) - and two protein levels - high (HP) and low (LP) in a 3×2 factorial design involving 60 pigs on growth performance, muscle fatty acid composition and content, carcass, meat and eating qualities. Oil type did not have a significant effect on growth and carcass quality. PKO significantly reduced the polyunsaturated (PUFA) to saturated (SFA) fatty acid (P:S) ratio in longissimus muscle (Palternatives to SBO for the production of good quality and healthy pork, but their limits of inclusion need to be determined.

  6. Microbiological Aspects In Periodontal Disease And Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Velea Oana A.; Onisei Dan; Onisei Doina; Pogan Andreea; Paganelli Corrado; Velea Iulian P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims. Scientists are constantly showing a high interest for the relationship between Periodontal Disease (PD) and Diabetes Mellitus (DM). PD, “the sixth complication” of DM is recognized to be a chronic gram-negative anaerobic infectious disease. This paper is aimed at reviewing and evaluating the correlations between PD and DM from a microbiological point of view. Treatment implications of PD’s management as an important component of DM care is reviewed in the light of microbi...

  7. Biogas Production: Microbiology and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnürer, Anna

    Biogas, containing energy-rich methane, is produced by microbial decomposition of organic material under anaerobic conditions. Under controlled conditions, this process can be used for the production of energy and a nutrient-rich residue suitable for use as a fertilising agent. The biogas can be used for production of heat, electricity or vehicle fuel. Different substrates can be used in the process and, depending on substrate character, various reactor technologies are available. The microbiological process leading to methane production is complex and involves many different types of microorganisms, often operating in close relationships because of the limited amount of energy available for growth. The microbial community structure is shaped by the incoming material, but also by operating parameters such as process temperature. Factors leading to an imbalance in the microbial community can result in process instability or even complete process failure. To ensure stable operation, different key parameters, such as levels of degradation intermediates and gas quality, are often monitored. Despite the fact that the anaerobic digestion process has long been used for industrial production of biogas, many questions need still to be resolved to achieve optimal management and gas yields and to exploit the great energy and nutrient potential available in waste material. This chapter discusses the different aspects that need to be taken into consideration to achieve optimal degradation and gas production, with particular focus on operation management and microbiology.

  8. Manual of Environmental Microbiology - Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The field of environmental microbiology has made tremendous strides since the original microscopic observations of Antony van Leeuwenhock in 1677. The Manual of Environmental Microbiology, 3rd edition embraces these technological advances and is perhaps the most comprehensive and informative book s...

  9. Determination of Coleoptera fauna on carcasses in Ankara province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Senem; Sert, Osman

    2009-01-10

    In this study, 40 species from Staphylinidae, Histeridae, Dermestidae, Silphidae, Nitidulidae and Cleridae families of Coleoptera which were found in 12 pig (Sus scrofa L.) carcasses were identified and recorded during a one-year period at the Hacettepe University Beytepe Campus located in Ankara, Turkey. According to the duration of their presence on the carcasses, 22 of these species were accepted to be important in decomposition. Their distribution over the months and the duration of their presence in the various decomposition stages over the seasons were determined.

  10. Carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore cattle fed different non-fiber carbohydrates sources associated with crude glycerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, V R; Ezequiel, J M B; Almeida, M T C; D'Aurea, A P; Paschoaloto, J R; van Cleef, E H C B; Carvalho, V B; Junqueira, N B

    2016-08-01

    Crude glycerin, a potential energy source for ruminant animals, has been evaluated, mainly, in diets with high starch content. However, a limit number of studies have evaluated the inclusion of crude glycerin in low starch diets. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the association of crude glycerin with corn grain or citrus pulp on carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls (n=30, 402±31 kg initial weight). The treatment consisted of: CON=control, without crude glycerin; CG10=10% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CG15=15% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CP10=10% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp; CP15=15% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp. The performance parameters and carcass traits were not affected by treatments (P>0.05). The inclusion of crude glycerin decreased yellow color intensity and increased fatty acids pentadecanoic and heptadecenoic in meat (Pglycerin with corn or citrus pulp has no adverse effects on carcass characteristics and meat quality.

  11. Effect of low or high stress in pre-slaughter handling on pig carcass and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Manha Peres

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequences of low or high stress during pre-slaughter handling of pigs on their carcass and meat quality. Forty-four animals of a commercial lineage, with an average weight of 107.23±5.23 kg, were used. At lairage the animals were randomly divided into two groups, the least and the most stressed. At slaughter, during bleeding, blood samples were collected for later cortisol and lactate tests. Forty-five minutes after slaughter the initial pH of th carcasses was measured and samples of the semitendinosus muscle were collected for R-value calculation. After 24 hours of cooling, the final pH was measured, damage scores were assessed and samples of the longissimus dorsi muscle were collected to evaluate drip loss, liquid loss from defrosting and cooking, shear force, lipid oxidation, and color. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey´s test. It was found that cortisol, lactate and R-value were lower and initial pH was higher for the least stressed animals, whereas the other parameters were not significantly affected. Thus, low stress in the pre-slaughter handling of pigs is effective in reducing stress and carcass damage, but has no effect on meat quality.

  12. [Quality control in microbiology (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, A

    1977-01-01

    The microbiology quality control importance is emphasized and some particular problems that quality control presents in microbiology are also indicated. There are two types of microbiology quality control as well as for hematology and chemical chemistry: collective quality control, between more laboratories, and individual quality control, in the sphere of each laboratory. A.M.O.I. (Associazione Microbiologi Ospedalieri Italiani) and I.S.V.T. (Istituto Sieroterapico Vaccinogeno Toscano) Sclavo collaborating, have organized a collective quality control between laboratories of different hospitals during the year 1974 and 1975. The results of this control are reported. Although preliminary, they indicate practical importance of microbiology control. During 1975, in fact, the pathogens isolated have been in high percentage than 1976. At last, the future quality control's program aiming at methods's standardization and technical, methodical instructions is indicated.

  13. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Pei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  14. Effects of sorghum wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and digestibility characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of sorghum wet distillers grains (SWDGS) in finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and nutrient digestibility. In Exp. 1, 240 steers (initial BW = 379 +/-1 kg) were fed steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets with or without 25%...

  15. Consequences of two or four months of finishing feeding of culled dry dairy cows on carcass characteristics and technological and sensory meat quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M.; Madsen, N. T.; Bligaard, H. B.;

    2007-01-01

    Finishing feeding was evaluated as a way to improve carcass-, meat- and eating quality of culled dairy cows. In total, 125 Danish Friesian cows were purchased from commercial dairy herds. Cows were culled for various typical reasons at different stages of lactation, were non-pregnant and had milk...... and better technological as well as sensory quality characteristics....

  16. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 4C on Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Acceptance Criteria for Pharmaceutical Preparations and Substances for Pharmaceutical Use General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-08

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 4C: Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Acceptance Criteria for Pharmaceutical Preparations and Substances for Pharmaceutical Use General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Acceptance Criteria for Pharmaceutical Preparations and Substances for Pharmaceutical Use General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  17. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 4B on Microbiological Examination of nonsterile products: Tests for Specified Microorganisms General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-08

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 4B: Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Tests for Specified Microorganisms General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Tests for Specified Microorganisms General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  18. Avaliação microbiológica e sensorial da vida-útil de cortes de peito de frango irradiados Microbiological and sensory evaluation of the shelf-life of irradiated chicken breast meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Miyagusku

    2003-12-01

    exposed to 1.5; 3.0 and 7.0 kGy doses in the static mode at 0º and 180º in relation to the irradiation beam. Set of 18 alanine+paraffin dosimeters per treatment were distributed inside the boxes for evaluation of irradiation dose homogeneity. A separeted dose calibration curve was obtained by irradiating in the range of 1 to 10kGy. After the irradiation, the chicken breasts were stored at 5±1ºC for 39 days and were analysed microbiologically in total psychrotrophic aerobic bacteria, total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, molds and yeasts, Pseudomonas spp, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic bacteria counts and E.coli during the storage period. The results revealed a linear behaviour of the alanine+paraffin dosimeters in the range of 1 to 10kGy irradiation. In regard to the microbiological aspect, compared to the shelf-life of 5 days for the controls, there were a increasing of 1.75; 4.40 e 7.0 times shelf-life for chicken breasts irradiated with 1.5; 3.0 and 7.0kGy, respectively. There was an increasing change of the smell of burnt as the irradiation doses increased. Thus, 3kGy dose was considered as the ideal dose to assure a longer shelf-life to the product, without perceptible changes in the aspect.

  19. Roasted sesame hulls improve broiler performance without affecting carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Z. Mahmoud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of using graded levels of roasted sesame hulls (RSH on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in broiler chickens. A total of 360 day-old Lohmann chicks were randomly allocated into 24 floor pens and raised over 42 days. One of four dietary treatments was assigned to each group of six pens in a completely randomized fashion. The chicks in the control group were fed a corn-soybean based diet (RSH-0, while the chicks in treatments two, three, and four were fed graded levels of RSH at 4% (RSH-4, 8% (RSH-8, and 12% (RSH-12, respectively. Diets were formulated to meet broiler chicks’ requirements according to the National Research Council for both starter and finisher rations. The results showed that RSH inclusion increased (P<0.05 feed intake and final body weight without adversely affecting the feed conversion ratio. Broiler chicks fed RSH-12 had heavier (P<0.05 breast and leg cuts compared to the control-fed group with no change to their chemical composition. Water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL, and shear force (SF reported similar results in all dietary groups. The chemical composition of both thigh and breast cuts was not affected by the RSH. After one day of thawing, colour coordinates of breast cuts behaved similarly in all dietary groups. The results of this study suggest that the addition of RSH to broiler diets up to 12% improves their growth performance; nevertheless, carcass characteristics and meat quality showed no alterations compared to the control-fed group.

  20. Genetic effects on carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits in straightbred and crossbred Romosinuano steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Phillips, W A; Miller, M F; Brooks, J C; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this work were to estimate heterosis and breed genetic effects for carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits of steers (Bos spp.) produced from matings of Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle. Steers (n = 464) were weaned at 7 mo of age and transported to the Southern Great Plains where they grazed winter wheat for 6 mo and were then fed a finishing diet until serial slaughter after different days on feed (average 130 d). Carcass quality and quantity traits were measured; steaks (aged 7 d) were obtained for palatability evaluation. Heterosis was detected for BW, HCW, dressing percentage, LM area, and yield grade for all pairs of breeds. Generally, Romosinuano-Angus heterosis estimates were smallest, Romosinuano-Brahman estimates were intermediate, and Brahman-Angus heterosis estimates were largest. The direct Romosinuano effect was to decrease (P Brahman direct effects were detected for BW (34 ± 17 kg), HCW (29 ± 10 kg), dressing percentage (1.6 ± 0.6 %), LM area per 100 kg HCW (-3.3 ± 0.4 cm(2)/100 kg), and yield grade (0.6 ± 0.1). Significant Angus direct effects were to increase 12th rib fat thickness (3.8 ± 1 mm). Among sire breed means, Romosinuano had reduced (P = 0.002) marbling score (393 ± 9) than Angus, but greater mean sensory tenderness scores (5.8 ± 0.1), and reduced percentage Standard carcasses (10 ± 2%) than Brahman (P Brahman sire breed means (360 ± 11, 5.4 ± 0.1, 31 ± 5%). From consideration only of characteristics of the end product of beef production, Romosinuano did not provide a clearly superior alternative to Brahman for U.S. producers, as they had some quality and palatability advantages relative to Brahman, but at lighter HCW.

  1. In take, performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed diets containing dried cassava peel meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Juliano Valério Geron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of inclusion of 0, 10, 20 and 30% dried cassava peel meal (DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens over the period from 1 to 42 days of age on nutrient intake, animal performance, and carcass yield. Two hundred Cobb broiler chickens (1 day old were allocated in a completely randomized design consisting of four inclusion levels of DCPM (treatment, with 10 animals per box and 5 boxes per treatment. The different levels of DCPM did not alter (P>0.05 dietary dry matter (DM or organic matter intake, expressed as g/animal/day, kg DMS/kg0.75, and percentage of body weight. However, the addition of DCPM resulted in a linear increase (P<0.05 in crude protein intake and in a quadratic increase (P<0.05 in neutral detergent fiber intake. Furthermore, the different DCPM levels led to a linear decrease (P<0.05 in average daily gain, average total gain, and feed efficiency of broiler chickens during the period studied. Feed conversion increased linearly (P<0.05 in broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age with inclusion of DCPM in the diets. The inclusion of increasing levels of DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens slaughtered at 42 days of age exerted a linear decreasing effect (P<0.05 on slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and chest, wing, thigh and back weight. The inclusion of more than 10% DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age reduces feed and nutrient intake, weight gain, and carcass and noble cut yield.

  2. Effect of season and stocking density during transport on carcass and meat quality of suckling lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sanchez-Sanchez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Many factors related to transport to abattoir affects meat quality, but scarce information is available in suckling lambs. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of season and stocking density on carcass and meat quality of suckling lambs during commercial transport to the abattoir. A factorial design (2 × 3 was used: two seasons (winter and summer and three stocking densities (SD; 0.08, 0.12 and 0.20 m2 animal-1. Meat quality variables were measured in the M. longissimus at 24 h post-mortem and after 5 days of refrigerated storage. Lambs transported in summer showed lower liver weight (p<0.001, h* (p<0.05, deoxymyoglobin content (p<0.001, pressed juice (p<0.01, shear force (p<0.001 and firmness (p<0.001, and higher initial pH (p<0.001, L*, b*, C* (p<0.001 and a* (p<0.01, as well as metmyoglobin and oxymyoglobin content (p<0.001, than those transported in winter. The effect of season was dependent on storage time, being colour changes more evident at 24 h than after 5 days of storage, whereas lipid oxidation was only observed in stored meat, which may be explain because the natural antioxidative system decreases with time after slaughter. Scarce effect of SD was found on the carcass and meat quality parameters, thus under our experimental conditions the three SD studied appear to be suitable for suckling lambs transport. However, both carcass and meat quality were within the normal commercial range.

  3. Effects of crude glycerin on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing wether lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, P J; Neary, M K; Lemenager, R P; Lake, S L

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of crude glycerin on performance and carcass characteristics in finishing wether lambs. Thirty black-faced, Suffolk-cross wether lambs (44.1 +/- 5.6 kg initial BW) were stratified and blocked by BW to 1 of 5 individually fed, isocaloric, isonitrogenous dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% crude glycerin (88% pure) on a DM basis. Diets were fed once daily for ad libitum consumption and contained 15% chopped hay, approximately 25% dried distillers grains with solubles, and the specified treatment combination of cracked corn replaced with increasing amounts of crude glycerin. Wethers were weighed on 14-d intervals and were selected for slaughter when they reached an approximate 12th-rib fat depth of 0.51 cm (28 to 84 d on trial). Carcass characteristics were collected after a 48-h chill. Dry matter intake (linear, P = 0.004) and ADG (quadratic, P = 0.05) increased with increasing concentrations of glycerin in the diet during the first 14 d of the feeding period. Similarly, G:F tended to increase quadratically (P = 0.06) with increasing concentrations of crude glycerin in the diet during the first 14 d. However, there were no differences among treatments for final BW, days on feed, or cumulative DMI, cumulative ADG, and cumulative G:F (P >or= 0.11). Body wall thickness, dressing percent, HCW, LM area, flank streaking, leg score, conformation score, quality grade, yield grade, and percent boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts did not differ (P >or= 0.21). Adding up to 15% crude glycerin to finishing wether diets improved feedlot performance, particularly during the first 14 d, without any concomitant effect on carcass characteristics.

  4. Effect of dietary supplementation of herbal seeds on carcass traits of turkey poults

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    Darshana B. Bhaisare

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find the effect of four herbal seeds on carcass traits of turkey poults. Materials and Methods: A biological study using Nandanam turkey poults (Meleagris gallapavo for 8 weeks duration was carried out to evaluate the effect of phytobiotics-containing four herbal seeds influence on production performances like biweekly body weight and on carcass traits. 150 poults were randomly subjected to five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with basal diet (T1, 0.5% (5 g/kg level of each seeds thyme (Thymus vulgaris (T2, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum (T3, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare (T4 and cumin (Cuminum cyminum (T5. Carcass traits like blood loss, feather loss, dressed weight, New York dressed weight, ready to cook yield and cut-up parts yield were studied. Results: The body weight at 8th week was higher (p<0.05 in poults fed with thyme; whereas at 6th week, fennel and cumin fed birds had better (p<0.05 body weight. Inclusion of herbal seeds did not affect the blood loss, dressed weight and ready to cook yield but it significantly (p<0.05 affected the feathered loss, New York dressed weight and giblet percentages. Feeding of fenugreek has improved New York dressed weight of poults. Feeding of fennel had depressive (p<0.05 effect on liver and gizzard weights. All the four phytobiotic seeds in feed had significant (p<0.05 reduction in breast weight with a compensatory improvement in drumstick and neck weights. Conclusion: The present study revealed that supplementation of phytobiotic herbal seeds has resulted in numerical improvement of body weight of poults throughout the study period whereas these seeds had negative effect on the yield of breast, with increased proportion of drumstick and neck.

  5. Effects of gestational maternal undernutrition on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of rabbit offspring.

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    George K Symeon

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of gestational undernutrition of rabbit does on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of the offsprings. Thirty primiparous non lactating rabbit does were artificially inseminated and randomly divided in three treatment groups: Control (C; fed to 100% of maintenance requirements throughout gestation, n = 10, early undernourished (EU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 7-19 of gestation, n = 10 and late undernourished (LU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 20-27 of gestation, n = 10. During the 4th week of the gestation period, LU does significantly lost weight compared to C and EU groups (P<0.05. At kindling, C does produced litters with higher proportions of stillborn kits (P<0.05 while the total litter size (alive and stillborn kits was not different among groups (10.7, 12.8 and 12.7 kits in C, EU and LU groups, respectively. Kit birth weight tended to be lower in the LU group. During fattening, body weight and feed intake were not different among offsprings of the three experimental groups. Moreover, the maternal undernutrition did not have any impact on carcass composition of the offsprings in terms of carcass parts and internal organs weights as well as meat quality of L. lumborum muscle (pH24, colour, water holding capacity and shear values at slaughter (70 days of age. Therefore, it can be concluded that the gestational undernutrition of the mother does not have detrimental effects on the productive and quality traits of the offsprings.

  6. Carcass mass has little influence on the structure of gravesoil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Sophie; Carter, David O; Metcalf, Jessica L; Knight, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how variables, such as carcass mass, affect the succession pattern of microbes in soils during decomposition. To investigate the effects of carcass mass on the soil microbial community, soils associated with swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcasses of four different masses were sampled until the 15th day of decomposition during the month of June in a pasture near Lincoln, Nebraska. Soils underneath swine of 1, 20, 40, and 50 kg masses were investigated in triplicate, as well as control sites not associated with a carcass. Soil microbial communities were characterized by sequencing the archaeal, bacterial (16S), and eukaryotic (18S) rRNA genes in soil samples. We conclude that time of decomposition was a significant influence on the microbial community, but carcass mass was not. The gravesoil associated with 1 kg mass carcasses differs most compared to the gravesoil associated with other carcass masses. We also identify the 15 most abundant bacterial and eukaryotic taxa, and discuss changes in their abundance as carcass decomposition progressed. Finally, we show significant decreases in alpha diversity for carcasses of differing mass in pre-carcass rupture (days 0, 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 postmortem) versus post-carcass rupture (days 9 and 15 postmortem) microbial communities.

  7. Patterns of seabird and marine mammal carcass deposition along the central California coast, 1980-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, J.L.; Jameson, R.

    1991-01-01

    At monthly intervals from February 1980 through December 1986, a 14.5-km section of central California coastline was systematically surveyed for beach-cast carcasses of marine birds and mammlas. Five hundred and fifty-four bird carcasses and 194 marine mammal carcasses were found. Common murres, western grebes, and Brandt's cormorants composed 45% of the bird total. California sea lions, sea otters, and harbor seals composed 90% of the mammal total. Several factors appeared to affect patterns of carcass deposition. The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) of 1982-1983 was the dominate influence in terms of interannual variation in carcassdeposition. During this ENSO, 56% of the seabirds and 48% of the marine mammals washed ashore. Patterns of intra-annual variation were species specificand were related to animal migration patterns, reproduction, and seasonal changes in weather. Nearshore currents and winds influenced the general area of carcass deposition, while beach subtrate type and local patterns of san deposition influenced the location of carcass carcass deposition on a smaller spatial scale. Weekly surveys along a 1.1-km section of coastline indicated that 62% of bird carcasses and 41% of mammal carcasses remained on the beach less than 9 days. Cause of death determined for only 8% of the carcasses. Oiling was the most common indication of cause of death in birds (6%). Neonates composed 8% of all mammal carcasses.

  8. EFFECTS OF WHOLE COTTON SEED SUPPLEMENTATION ON CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITIES OF THE DJALLONKE SHEEP RAISED ON STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. TEYE

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This on-station study evaluated the effects of whole cotton seed supplementation on the carcass and meat qualities of Djallonke sheep. Twelve sheep of similar age and weight were randomly selected and supplemented with whole cotton seed (WCS for fifteen weeks in a completely randomized design. Three treatment levels of 0 g, 200 g and 400 g were offered with four replicates. Supplementation had no adverse effect on carcass quality but significantly (P<0.001 improved juiciness and overall liking of the meat. The results suggest that whole cotton seed could be used as a supplementary feed with 200 g being enough to ensure the survival and to improve the productivity and meat quality of the Djallonke sheep.

  9. Dental abscess: A microbiological review

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    Shweta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental abscess is a frequently occurring infectious process known to the health practice. The fate of the infection depends on the virulence of the bacteria, host resistance factors, and regional anatomy. Serious consequences arising from the spread of a dental abscess lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Acute dental abscess is polymicrobial, comprising of strict anaerobes, such as anaerobic cocci, Prevotella, Fusobacterium species, and facultative anaerobes, such as viridans group streptococci and the Streptococcus anginosus group. Numerous novel, uncultivable and fastidious organisms have been identified as potential pathogens with the use of non-culture techniques. The majority of localized dental abscesses respond to surgical treatment while the use of antimicrobials is limited to severe spreading infections. There is a need for good-quality clinical trials of sufficient size to identify the ideal treatment. The microbiology of the acute dentoalveolar abscess and its treatment in the light of improved culture and diagnostic methods are reviewed.

  10. MICROBIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN MAXILLARY OSTEITIS

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    I.Al. BONCHIS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteitis is an inflammatory process localized accurately at maxillary bones. The microbiological exams of the biopsy punch fragments obtained by curettage of the post‐ extraction wound have evidenced the occurrence and the degree of severity of the inflammatory background of the lesion, giving the possibility to reconstruct the dynamics of the inflammatory process in osteitis. Evolution of the healing process could be followed on the biopsy punches taken over from patients who followed a correct treatment. The fragments taken over from patients were fixed for 24 hours in 10% neuter formol and processed according to the classic methodology, for their inclusion in paraffin blocks. The most important conclusions are that osteitis with nor‐ mal scarring evolution contains a very small number of bacilli and Gram positive cocci, while follow‐up of micro‐ organisms and cell elements in osteitis may serve as scien‐ tific methods for controlling the evolution toward healing of the inflammatory lesion.

  11. Sex effect on productive parameters, carcass and body fat composition of two commercial broilers lines

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    S Rondelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate sex effect on behavior of two commercial broilers lines. Productive parameters, carcass composition and yield, amount and quality of fat deposited in the meat and skin and total body fat were studied. A completely randomized design with four treatments (MR-Male Ross, HR-Female Ross, MAF-Male Avian Farm and HAF-Female Avian Farm and eight repetitions of 40 chickens was used. Animals received water and food ad libitum. After 50 days, two birds (a male and a female per repetition were chosen at random and slaughtered for carcass evaluation. Samples of breast, leg, skin and abdominal fats were analyzed to determine the percentage of intramuscular fat, total cholesterol and fatty acid composition. The Ross line showed higher final weight and weight gain, better intake and feed conversion rate. Also, it was observed that females of both lines had similar results in relation to these parameters. Better yield of breast with bone was found in Ross males and females. In relation to legs and thigh, Ross males showed better results and no differences were observed among females of both lines. Males deposited less fat than females. Finally, differences in percentage of intramuscular fat, content of cholesterol in breast with skin, leg with skin and skin, percentage of saturated, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed between sex and lines.

  12. Duodenal histology and carcass quality of feedlot cattle supplemented with calcium butyrate and Bacillus subtilis

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    Thiago Simas de Oliveira Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out at the Comigo Technology Center, in Rio Verde, State of Goiás, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the effects of supplementation with calcium butyrate, as a growth promoting agent for the duodenal mucosa and Bacillus subtilis as a probiotic performance enhancer in feedlot cattle. Calcium butyrate (5 and 10 g per animal per day and Bacillus (10 g per animal per day were added to a basal diet. There were used 85 Nelore bulls, with average weight of 315 ± 7 kg. The experiment lasted 118 days, including the adaptation period, until slaughter at 30 months of age. Diets were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments, where: T1 = control (basal diet; T2 = basal diet + 5 g calcium butyrate; T3 = basal diet + 10 g calcium butyrate and T4 = basal diet + 10 g calcium butyrate + 10 g probiotic with four replications and five to six animals per replication. It was used a forage: concentrate ratio of 30:70, the roughage used was the corn silage. Height and width measurements of intestinal villi were taken, and carcass and meat quality were evaluated. The supplementation of calcium butyrate and Bacillus subtilis positively influenced (p < 0.05 the carcass marbling level and calcium butyrate increased the villus height in the small intestine.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for bruises in Chilean bovine carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strappini, A.C.; Frankena, K.; Metz, J.H.M.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Records of cattle slaughtered at two Chilean slaughterhouses (SLH1 and SLH2) were used to determine prevalence and risk factors for carcasses with bruises. Bruise prevalence amounted to 12.3% but differed between slaughterhouses (20.8% for SLH1 and 8.6% for SLH2 respectively). Bruise severity grade

  14. Microbiological toxicity of tilmicosin on human colonic microflora in chemostats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haihong; Yao, Junping; Wu, Qinghua; Wei, Yajing; Dai, Menghong; Iqbal, Zahid; Wang, Xu; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the microbiological safety of tilmicosin on human intestinal microflora, four chemostat models of healthy human colonic ecosystems were exposed to tilmicosin (0, 0.436, 4.36, and 43.6 μg/mL) for 7 days. Prior to and during drug exposure, three microbiological endpoints were monitored daily including short-chain fatty acids, bacterial counts and macrolide susceptibility. Colonization resistance of each community was determined by 3 successive daily challenges of Salmonella typhimurium. Genes associated with virulence and macrolide resistance in Enterococcus faecalis were determined by PCR. Transcriptional expression of the virulence gene (gelE) in E. faecalis was determined by real-time RT-PCR. Our results showed that different concentrations of tilmicosin did not disrupt the colonization resistance in each chemostat. During exposure to 4.36 and 43.6 μg/mL tilmicosin, the Bacteroides fragilis population was significantly decreased while the proportion of resistant Enterococci increased. After long-term exposure to the highest concentration (43.6 μg/mL) of tilmicosin, the gelE gene was significantly up-regulated in the high-level macrolide resistant strains that also contained the ermB resistance gene. This study was the first of its kind to evaluate the microbiological toxicity of tilmicosin using a chemostat model. These findings also provide new insight into the co-occurrence of macrolide resistance and virulence in E. faecalis under tilmicosin selective pressure.

  15. Nutritional, immunological and microbiological profiles of burn patients

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    ASAA Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A burn is a lesion on an organic tissue resultant from direct or indirect action of heat on the organism. The present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional, immunological and microbiological status of burn patients at the Bauru State Hospital, São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2007. Eight patients, aged more than 18 years and injured up to 24 hours, were evaluated at the moment of hospitalization and seven days later. All victims were males with a mean age of 38 years. On average, 17.5% of their body surfaces were burned and 50% of the patients were eutrophic. There were significant alterations in levels of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total protein and albumin due to increased endothelial permeability, direct destruction of proteins in the heat-affected area and blood loss from lesions or debridement. At a second moment, cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α had augmented significantly, with IL-6 presenting elevated levels in relation to controls at the first moment. Microbiological analysis showed that 100% of the samples collected at hospital admission were negative and after one week Staphylococcus aureus was found in all cultures. Therefore, a burn patient may be considered immunosuppressed and these results indicate significant nutritional, immunological and microbiological alterations that can interfere in his recovery.

  16. Microbiological examination and proficiency testing in dairy laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teger, S G

    2001-03-01

    This paper considers the main factors in the assessment of microbiological examination of food and discusses a few points related to validation of quantitative and qualitative microbiological methods. Within the scope of accredited methods, the author defines the terms such as conform reference, equivalence of reference method, and in-house method. The paper describes evaluation of a routine method with respect to the official method based on results obtained by automatic epifluorescent microscopy using the BactoScan 8000 instrument for determination of bacteriological quality of milk and provides general guidance for the establishment of a conversion relationship between the two methods. The paper gives an overview of the quality assurance aspects involved in the application of the routine method and concludes with an example of interlaboratory proficiency study for the epifluorescent microscopic method which is regularly applied in dairy laboratories.

  17. Effects of energy level in finisher diets and slaughter age of on the performance and carcass yield in broiler chickens

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    R de Albuquerque

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Male broilers were used to evaluate the effects of different energy levels in finisher diets and age of slaughter on performance, production pattern and carcass yield. Experimental design was a 2x3 factorial arrangement: energy level (ME in the finisher diet (3,200 and 3,600 kcal ME/kg and age of slaughter (42, 49 and 56 days, resulting in six treatments with four replicates. The finisher diet was fed only in the last week of the growing period. Characteristics evaluated were feed consumption (FC, body weight gain (WG, feed conversion (FC, energy intake (EI, caloric conversion (CC, efficiency production index, production pattern, and carcass yield. The results showed better WG and CC for broilers fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg finisher diet. Broilers slaughtered at 42 and 49 days of age had better performance and higher annual production than broilers slaughtered at 56 days of age. Carcass yield was influenced by slaughter age and better breast yield was seen at 49 and 56 days than at 42 days of age. It was concluded that 3,200 kcal ME/kg induced the best overall performance. Poultry houses were efficiently used when broilers were slaughtered at 42 days of age. Meat:bone ratio was improved for broilers slaughtered at 49 and 56 days of age.

  18. Effects of organic chromium supplementation to ifnishing lambs diet on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura Moreno-Camarena; Ignacio Domnguez-Vara; Jos Brquez-Gastelum; Juan Snchez-Torres; Juan Pinos-Rodrguez; Antonia Mariezcurrena-Berasain; Ernesto Morales-Almarz; Abdelfattah Z M Salem

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate supplemental organic chromium (Cr) to ifnishing lambs on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Eighteen Suffolk lambs (age (4.5±0.2) mon;(25.8±3.6) kg body weight (BW)) were randomly assigned to three levels of supplemental organic Cr (0.0, 0.2 and 0.4 mg kg–1 dry matter (DM)) in a com-plete random design. Growth performance was evaluated for 70 d, and then lambs were slaughtered to study carcass characteristics and chemical composition of meat. Orthogonal contrasts were performed (contrast one-average level 0.2 ppm Cr vs. average level 0.4 ppm Cr;contrast two-level 0 vs. average levels (0.2+0.4) ppm Cr). Orthogonal polynomials were used to estimate the linear and quadratic effects of Cr concentrations. Growth and carcass performance were not affected by supplemental organic Cr. Muscle conformation and leg perimeter linearly increased (P<0.05) as organic Cr level increased in the diet. Kidney fat decreased linearly (P<0.05) as supplemental Cr increased. In Longissimus dorsi (LD), the ash content decreased linearly, and shear force (kg cm–2) increased (P<0.05) as organic Cr level increased in the diet. It is concluded that organic Cr did not affect growth performance, but it improved positively the muscle conformation, reduced kidney fat, whereas in LD there was an increment in shear force in ifnishing carcass lambs.

  19. AVALIAÇÃO MICROBIOLÓGICA DA CARNE-DE-SOL ELABORADA COM BAIXOS TEORES DE CLORETO DE SÓDIO MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SUN DRIED MEAT WITH LOW SODIUM CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Lourenço da COSTA

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas 96 amostras de carne-de-sol, das quais 48 foram coletadas em estabelecimentos inspecionados e 48 em estabelecimentos não-inspecionados. Com o objetivo de avaliar as condições higiênico-sanitárias desse produto, durante o processamento e a comercialização, pesquisou-se a incidência de bactérias mesófilas, bolores e leveduras, Staphylococcus aureus, coliformes fecais e Escherichia coli. Foram analisados ainda, alguns parâmetros físico-químicos como atividade de água e teor de cloreto de sódio. Nos dois grupos os resultados obtidos nas análises microbiológicas foram bastante elevados. Nas amostras provenientes de estabelecimentos inspecionados as médias da contagem total de bactérias mesófilas, bolores e leveduras, Staphylococcus spp e coliformes fecais foram 6,2Log UFC/g, 3,8Log UFC/g, 7,4Log UFC/g e 1,3Log NMP/g, respectivamente, e, nas comercializadas sem inspeção foram 7,4Log UFC/g, 4,4Log UFC/g, 6,8Log UFC/g e 2,6Log NMP/g, respectivamente. Esses resultados sugerem que houve falhas tanto no processamento como na manipulação desses produtos, sendo que a contaminação fecal foi bem mais elevada nas amostras coletadas nos estabelecimentos sem inspeção. A variação dos teores de cloreto de sódio e atividade de água das amostras indicou falta de padronização de qualidade da carne-de-sol, havendo a necessidade de se estabelecer parâmetros legais tanto microbiológicos como físico-químicos, capazes de oferecer ao consumidor um alimento seguro.A total of 96 samples of sun meat were analyzed, 48 of them were collected in inspected establishments and the other 48 in establishments without inspection. This work was developed in order to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary conditions of these products during their processing and marketing. The incidence of mesophilic bacterias, molds, yeasts, Staphylococcus aureus, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli was investigated. Also, some physical-chemical parameters

  20. Influence of brahman-derivative breeds and Angus on carcass traits, physical composition, and palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidner, T D; Wyattt, W E; Humes, P E; Franke, D E; Blouin, D C

    2002-08-01

    Steers were generated from Angus (A), Beefmaster (BM), Brangus (BA), Gelbray (GB), and Simbrah (SB) sires mated to cows of their breed and to Brahman x Hereford F1 cows (except A) to characterize their carcass traits, composition, and palatability. The 290 steers (48 A, 48 BM, 36 BA, 31 GB, and 46 SB) were slaughtered at an equal fatness end point as determined by real-time ultrasound and visual evaluation. Angus steers had lighter (P < 0.01), more youthful (P < 0.01) carcasses with a higher (P < 0.05) quality grade, more (P < 0.01) fat thickness, and a larger (P < 0.01) longissimus area/100 kg than BM-, BA-, GB-, and SB-sired steers. Angus steers also had a lower (P < 0.01) specific gravity, a higher (P < 0.01) percentage fat and less (P < 0.05) lean in the 9th to 11th rib, and steaks aged for 10 d were more tender (P < 0.01) than steaks from Brahman-derivative sired steers. The BM- and BA-sired steers had lighter (P < 0.01), more youthful (P < 0.05) carcasses, and smaller (P < 0.01) longissimus area than GB- and SB-sired steers. The 9th to 11th rib section from the BM- and BA-sired steers had less lean and more bone (P < 0.01) than GB- and SB-sired steers. The BA-sired steers had more (P < 0.01) marbling and a higher (P < 0.05) quality grade than BM-sired steers. The SB-sired steers had heavier (P < 0.01) carcasses than the GB-sired steers. There were no differences in shear force for steaks aged for 3 d for any of the breed types, but with 10 d of aging, steaks from Angus steers were more tender, possibly indicating that steaks of Brahman-derivative breeds aged at a slower rate than those from Angus.

  1. Estimated genetic parameters for carcass traits of Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Hammond, A C; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A; Coleman, S W

    2002-04-01

    Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated from feedlot and carcass data collected from Brahman calves (n = 504) in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Data were analyzed using animal models in MTDFREML. Models included contemporary group (n = 44; groups of calves of the same sex, fed in the same pen, slaughtered on the same day) as a fixed effect and calf age in days at slaughter as a continuous variable. Estimated feedlot trait heritabilities were 0.64, 0.67, 0.47, and 0.26 for ADG, hip height at slaughter, slaughter weight, and shrink. The USDA yield grade estimated heritability was 0.71; heritabilities for component traits of yield grade, including hot carcass weight, adjusted 12th rib backfat thickness, loin muscle area, and percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat were 0.55, 0.63, 0.44, and 0.46, respectively. Heritability estimates for dressing percentage, marbling score, USDA quality grade, cutability, retail yield, and carcass hump height were 0.77, 0.44, 0.47, 0.71, 0.5, and 0.54, respectively. Estimated genetic correlations of adjusted 12th rib backfat thickness with ADG, slaughter weight, marbling score, percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, and yield grade (0.49, 0.46, 0.56, 0.63, and 0.93, respectively) were generally larger than most literature estimates. Estimated genetic correlations of marbling score with ADG, percentage shrink, loin muscle area, percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, USDA yield grade, cutability, retail yield, and carcass hump height were 0.28, 0.49, 0.44, 0.27, 0.45, -0.43, 0.27, and 0.43, respectively. Results indicate that sufficient genetic variation exists within the Brahman breed for design and implementation of effective selection programs for important carcass quality and yield traits.

  2. Leaching of mercury from seal carcasses into Antarctic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvěřina, Ondřej; Coufalík, Pavel; Brat, Kristián; Červenka, Rostislav; Kuta, Jan; Mikeš, Ondřej; Komárek, Josef

    2017-01-01

    More than 400 seal mummies and skeletons are now mapped in the northern part of James Ross Island, Antarctica. Decomposing carcasses represent a rare source of both organic matter and associated elements for the soil. Owing to their high trophic position, seals are known to carry a significant mercury body burden. This work focuses on the extent of the mercury input from seal carcasses and shows that such carcasses represent locally significant sources of mercury and methylmercury for the environment. Mercury contents in soil samples from the surrounding areas were determined using a single-purpose AAS mercury analyzer. For the determination of methylmercury, an ultra-sensitive isotopic dilution HPLC-ICP-MS technique was used. In the soils lying directly under seal carcasses, mercury contents were higher, with levels reaching almost 40 μg/kg dry weight of which methylmercury formed up to 2.8 % of the total. The spatial distribution implies rather slow vertical transport to the lower soil layers instead of a horizontal spread. For comparison, the background level of mercury in soils of the investigated area was found to be 8 μg/kg dry weight, with methylmercury accounting for less than 0.1 %. Apart from the direct mercury input, an enhanced level of nutrients in the vicinity of carcasses enables the growth of lichens and mosses with accumulative ability with respect to metals. The enhanced capacity of soil to retain mercury is also anticipated due to the high content of total organic carbon (from 1.6 to 7.5 %). According to the results, seal remains represent a clear source of mercury in the observed area.

  3. Automation in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Susan M; Marlowe, Elizabeth M

    2013-09-01

    Imagine a clinical microbiology laboratory where a patient's specimens are placed on a conveyor belt and sent on an automation line for processing and plating. Technologists need only log onto a computer to visualize the images of a culture and send to a mass spectrometer for identification. Once a pathogen is identified, the system knows to send the colony for susceptibility testing. This is the future of the clinical microbiology laboratory. This article outlines the operational and staffing challenges facing clinical microbiology laboratories and the evolution of automation that is shaping the way laboratory medicine will be practiced in the future.

  4. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of molecular typing methods for major food-borne microbiological hazards and their use for attribution modelling, outbreak investigation and scanning surveillance: Part 1 (evaluation of methods and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of molecular typing methods that can be applied to the food-borne pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes is presented. This evaluation is divided in two parts. Firstly, commonly used molecular typing methods are assessed against a set of predefined criteria relating to discriminatory capacity, reproducibility, repeatability and current or potential suitability for international harmonisation. Secondly, the methods are evaluated for their appropriateness for use in different public health-related applications. These applications include outbreak detection and investigation, attribution modelling, the potential for early identification of food-borne strains with epidemic potential and the integration of the resulting data in risk assessment. The results of these evaluations provide updated insights into the use and potential for use of molecular characterisation methods, including whole genome sequencing technologies, in microbial food safety. Recommendations are also made in order to encourage a holistic and structured approach to the use of molecular characterisation methods for food-borne pathogens; in particular, on the importance of structured co-ordination at international level to help overcome current limitations in harmonisation of data analysis and interpretation.

  5. Clinical microbiology: Should microbiology be a clinical or a laboratory speciality?

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    Bhattacharya Sanjay

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Clinical microbiology is a specific combination of knowledge, attitude and practice aimed at direct clinical involvement in infectious disease management using the core principles of medical microbiology and clinical medicine. In this article certain areas in microbiology, where a more proactive approach could make a significant difference in clinical outcome has been delineated. The article reiterates the role of a medical microbiologist in a hospital setting. The practices described are the norm in well-organized hospitals. These areas include management of positive blood cultures, management of patients in intensive care units (ICUs, hospital infection control and public health microbiology, development of hospital and community anti-infective policy, organization of clinical-microbiological meetings and provision of emergency out-of-hours service. The implementation of this clinical approach and increased engagement with direct patient care would require changes in existing training structure and working patterns of medical and technical staffs in microbiology.

  6. Pathomorphological and microbiological studies in sheep with special emphasis on gastrointestinal tract disorders

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    Sarvan Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was envisaged to elucidate the pathomorphological and microbiological aspects of gastrointestinal tract (GIT disorders of sheep/lambs. Materials and Methods: Samples for research were collected from 12 sheep died with a history of GIT disorders which were brought for post-mortem examination to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, for pathomorphological and microbiological examination. Results: Gross pathological changes in various organs noticed were abomasitis, congestion and hemorrhages in intestine; necrotic foci on liver surface; enlarged, hard, and indurated mesenteric lymph nodes, hydropericardium, congestion, hemorrhages and consolidation of lungs and congestion and soft kidneys as the major change. On histopathological examination, there were abomasitis with leukocyte infiltration, enteritis with desquamation of mucosal epithelium and goblet cell hyperplasia, lymphadenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the germinal center of lymphoid follicle, and splenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the white pulp. In the liver congestion, degenerative changes in hepatocytes including cloudy swelling, fatty changes, congestion in sinusoids, and dilatation of sinusoids leading to atrophy of hepatocytes. Lungs evidenced edema, congestion, emphysema, serous inflammation, thickening of interlobular septa, fibrinous pleuritis, and peribronchiolar lymphoid follicle formation. Heart revealed sarcocystosis, fibrinous pericarditis, and hyalinization of the myocardium. In kidneys, congestion, focal interstitial nephritis, hyaline degeneration, and coagulative necrosis were seen. For microbiological aspects; cultural isolation was done from samples of liver, abomasum, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, heart blood, lungs, and kidneys from the carcasses of sheep/lambs. Escherichia coli was the only bacterium isolated during present studies. E. coli isolates from

  7. The effects of finishing diet and postmortem ageing on the eating quality of the M. longissimus thoracis of electrically stimulated Brahman steer carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, H L; Stark, J L; Beilken, S L

    2004-06-01

    Beef from cattle finished on grass will be of similar quality to that from cattle finished on grain when their carcasses are processed using best practice protocols. To test this hypothesis, carcasses of twenty Brahman steers, finished to 400 kg live weight on either Buffel grass pasture (n=10) or grain (n=10), were electrically stimulated with 400 V for 50 s 45 min postmortem, and their beef quality assessed 1 and 14 days postmortem. Hot weight, rump subcutaneous fat thickness and animal rate of growth in the 205 days preceding slaughter were recorded for each carcass as potential influences on beef quality. Quality of the M. longissimus thoracis (LT) at 1 and 14 days postmortem was evaluated using peak Warner-Bratzler shear force, compression, pH, cooking loss and taste panel acceptability, as well as by moisture and crude fat contents measured at 1 day postmortem. Results showed that steers finished on pasture grew the slowest and had the least subcutaneous fat at the same carcass weight. LT from carcasses of steers finished on pasture also had the shortest mean sarcomere lengths, suggesting these muscles may have been cold-affected, but there was no effect of diet on peak shear force. LT from carcasses of steers finished on pasture had the highest mean compression value, possibly because of increased collagen cross-linking associated with slow growth or increased exercise. Ageing significantly decreased LT peak shear force and compression values and increased cooking loss, L (∗), a (∗) and b (∗) values. Taste panellists rated the aged, grass-finished beef the most tender and the best quality; however, the taste panel in this study may have favoured LT from grass-finished steers because it was significantly juicier than LT from the grain-finished steer carcasses. These results indicated that carcass composition and processing conditions interact to exert a greater effect on LT toughness and sensory acceptability than finishing diet. Ageing LT from steers

  8. Testing of older houses for microbiological pollutants: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitby, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Field investigation of 28 homes in Tillsonburg, Ontario was undertaken in early 1991 to investigate indoor air quality, and in particular, microbiological pollutants. Measurements of temperature and humidity, airborne fungal spores and bacteria were made in the living areas under natural conditions, and with the house depressurized to more than 20 pa. Surface samples were obtained and analyzed for mould and bacterium. The relative airtightness and air-change rate of the houses was evaluated by depressurization testing and slow-release tracer gas testing. A physical evaluation of the building was done emphasizing aspects that would lead to higher levels of dampness and/or mould growth.

  9. Fatty acid profile, carcass and meat quality traits of young Nellore bulls fed crude glycerin replacing energy sources in the concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, J F; Berchielli, T T; San Vito, E; Silva, R A; Ribeiro, A F; Reis, R A; Dallantonia, E E; Simonetti, L R; Delevatti, L M; Machado, M

    2014-03-01

    Carcass and meat quality traits of 60 Nellore young bulls fed diets without crude glycerin (CG); with CG replacing corn (CGc; 10% of dry matter - DM) in the concentrate; and with CG replacing soybean hull (CGsh; 10% of DM) in the concentrate were evaluated. Diets were evaluated at two concentrate levels (CLs). The CL did not affect cold carcass weight (CCW; P=0.6074), cold carcass dressing (CCD; P=0.9636), rib fat thickness (RFT; P=0.8696) and longissimus muscle area (LMA; P=0.7524). Animals fed diets with CGc or CGsh showed meat with greater deposition of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA; P=0.0022) and CLA (18:2 cis-9, trans-11) contents (P=0.0001) than animals fed diets without CG. The inclusion of 10% of CG in diets CGc or CGsh does not affect the carcass and meat quality traits; however, it increases the MUFA and CLA contents in beef, although these changes are very small in nutritional terms.

  10. Efficiency of prebiotics and probiotics on the performance, yield, meat quality and presence of Salmonella spp in carcasses of free-range broiler chickens

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    SE Takahashi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Two trials were carried out in the present study. Trial I evaluated the performance, carcass yield and breast meat quality, whereas Trial II evaluated the efficacy of utilizing prebiotics + probiotics on the control of Salmonella spp incidence in the carcasses of free-range broilers. In Trial I, 688 one-day-old male chicks of the Naked Neck Label Rouge strain were used, distributed in a randomized block design arranged according to a 2 x 2 factorial: control diet or diet supplemented with probiotics and prebiotics; and two rearing systems (confined or with access to paddocks - 3m²/bird, using four replicates with 35 birds each. The birds were reared until 84 days of age following the recommendations of management and nutrition for free-range strains, and had access to paddocks after 35 days of age. Water and food were given inside the experimental poultry house. Birds fed probiotics and prebiotics in the diet and the confined birds showed better performance, carcass yield and meat quality compared to the birds of the other treatments. In Trial II, 128 one-day-old male chicks of the free-range Naked Neck Label Rouge strain were used. The birds were distributed into four treatments: NCC (non-challenged control, NCS (non-challenged supplemented, CC (challenged control and CS (challenged supplemented. There were no significant effects of adding probiotics and prebiotics in the diet in regard to Salmonella enteritidis recovery from the carcasses.

  11. Establishment of minimum operational parameters for a high-volume static chamber steam pasteurization system (SPS 400-SC) for beef carcasses to support HACCP programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzlaff, Deanna; Phebus, Randall; Kastner, Curtis; Marsden, James

    2005-01-01

    A static chamber steam pasteurization unit (SPS 400-SC()) was installed in a high-volume commercial beef slaughter facility. The SPS 400-SC consists of a three-phase carcass treatment cycle of water removal, steam pasteurization, and water chilling. Seven chamber temperatures (71.1, 73.9, 76.7, 79.4, 82.2, 85.0, and 87.8 degrees C) were evaluated at the midline area of pre-rigor beef carcasses. For each temperature evaluated, 20 carcass sides were randomly selected and aseptically sampled by tissue excision immediately before and after steam pasteurization to determine total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, generic E. coli, and total coliform populations. The 87.8 and 85.0 degrees C treatment temperatures were highly effective at reducing total aerobic bacterial populations, with log(10) reductions of 1.4 and 1.5 CFU/cm(2), respectively, from pretreatment mean population levels of 1.7 and 1.9 log10 CFU/cm(2). These temperatures also reduced Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and generic E. coli to undetectable levels (HACCP)-based system employing steam pasteurization of carcasses as a critical control point, a critical limit of 85.0 degrees C as a minimum chamber temperature should be established, with a targeted operating temperature of 87.8 degrees C providing optimum antimicrobial activity.

  12. Clinical and economic evaluation of BBL CHROMagar Salmonella (CHROMSal) versus subculture after selenite broth enrichment to CHROMSal and Hektoen enteric agars to detect enteric Salmonella in a large regional microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Deirdre L; Emshey, Diana; Lloyd, Tracie; Pitout, Johann

    2010-09-01

    Stool culture for enteric pathogens is one of the most labor-intensive clinical microbiology procedures. Direct plating of stool to BBL CHROMagar Salmonella (CHROMSal) (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD) versus subculture after selenite broth enrichment (Sel) to CHROMSal (Sel-CHROMSal) and Hektoen enteric agar (Sel-Hek) (PML Microbiologicals, Eugene, OR) to detect Salmonella were compared. The number of colony picks and biochemical/serotyping tests per plate was recorded. A cost comparison was done. Fifty-one of 2999 (1.7%) stools yielded Salmonella sp., and 80% of isolates grew on CHROMSal by 24 h. CHROMSal demonstrated much less false-positive growth compared to Sel-Hek (P < 0.0001), which reduced biochemical and serotyping tests by 85% and 20%, respectively. Sel-CHROMSal and CHROMSal versus Sel-Hek improved enteric Salmonella detection when compared to a true positive "gold standard" (i.e., recovery by any culture method) with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100% and 94.12%, 100% and 99.97%, 100% and 97.96%, and 100% and 99.90%, respectively. CHROMSal use would result in substantial cost and labor savings.

  13. Characteristics of carcasses and meat from feedlot lambs fed with sunflower cake

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    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the characteristics of the carcasses and meat of feedlot lambs that received diets supplemented with sunflower cake; correlations among the variables were also performed. The experimental design was a randomized block design with four treatments (sunflower cake added at 0, 10, 20, and 30% dry matter to the base diet and seven replications per treatment. The diets were formulated with genotypes of Cynodon hay and corn- and soybean meal-based concentrate that were premixed at the ratio of 50:50 (hay:concentrate and were fed to the lambs in two portions daily at 08:00 and 14:00. The feed conversion of the animals was adversely affected (P<0.05 by the increase in the feedlot period in the individual stalls. For each additional day of confinement, the feed conversion increased by 0.0096 kg DM/kg of weight gain. Based on the linear regression model for the average loin pH, one hour after slaughter, the pH was reduced by 0.04 units. The marginal change in pH between the longest and the shortest times after slaughter was 14.11%. The weights of the animals at slaughter were not significantly correlated with the carcass yields. Sunflower cake is a suitable dietary supplement for lambs in intensive production systems and can be a substitute for soybean meal at up to 20%.

  14. Prebiotic and antimicrobials on performance, carcass characteristics, and antibody production in broilers

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    Maíra Fomentini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of supplementation with mannan oligosaccharides, avilamycin and halquinol, alone or in combination, on the performance, carcass characteristics and antibody production in broilers (1-49 days old, male broiler chicks (n=1440; Cobb 500; one day old were housed and distributed into a completely randomized design into six treatments (eight replicates; 30 animals per pen. To produce the experimental diets, three types of performance enhancer additives were used. Halquinol (HAL, avilamycin (AVI and mannan oligosaccharides (MOS were included (alone or in combination in the basal diet (instead of corn starch. Effects of diet were observed on results of animal performance in the period 1-21 and 1-42 days old. Broilers fed with a diet without growth promoter showed lower weight gain in relation to those fed with diets with antimicrobials, MOS or a combination of them. In the period 1-49 days old, feed conversion increased in broilers fed with rations without promoter. At the end of the experimental period no influence of diets was observed on the carcass yield and cuts, and titles of specific antibodies to avian infectious bronchitis. The use of MOS and/or antimicrobials (AVI or HAL, alone or in combination, improves feed conversion of broilers reared until 49 days of age.

  15. SALMONELLA SPP. IN SEVERAL TISSUES AND PIG CARCASSES AND IN SLAUGHTERHOUSES: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

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    A.M. Cosseddu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sources of direct and cross-contamination by Salmonella spp. of swine meat at slaughterhouse. The study was carried out in 4 plants of Sardinia, where pigs of different origin (Regional, Nederland, Spain, France were slaughtered. Two-hundred ninetyfour samples were examined for Salmonella spp.: samples of caecal material, tonsils and limphonodes, carcass and liver, from 67 pigs randomly selected, and 21 environmental samples were collected. A selection of strains were submitted to phenotypical identification (API ID32E and serotyping (N.R.C. for Salmonellosis. Salmonella spp. was isolated from the 21,4% of samples, both from pigs and environmental samples. The highest prevalence was observed in limphonodes samples (37,3%, whereas the lowest on the carcasses (10,4%. Eight different serotypes were detected, the more common was S. Derby (67%, followed by S. Livingstone (8% and S. Typhimurium (6,3%. The 8% of the strains were unknown serotype. Our preliminary results confirm the important role of pigs in the diffusion of Salmonella in the slaughterhouses. The recovering of unusual serotypes from liver surfaces and slaughterhouse environments, pointed out the importance of a better Good Slaughtering Practices application by the workers, in order to prevent the possibility of crosscontamination of raw meats.

  16. Performance, carcass and meat quality of pigs fed diets with antioxidants and ractopamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Abrami Monteiro Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was evaluated the effects of the use of additives antioxidants associated or not with ractopamine in feed for finishing pigs. Were used 51 crossbred pigs, 27 barrows and 24 females with initial weight of 83.38 kg. Three experimental treatments were established based on the inclusion of two complexes to feed: complex 1 (4g de vitamin E + 1g de vitamin C/kg of product and complex 2 (0.2g de ractopamine + 4g de vitamin E + 2g de vitamin C/kg of product, defining the ration control (free of complexes, ration control + complex 1 (0.1% and ration control + complex 2 (0.05%. The experimental design was blocked randomically, presenting a factorial model 3x2 (3 treatments and 2 sexes. Were observed difference (P<0.05 for daily feed intake, feed, hot and cold carcass weight to the treatment with ractopamine. The values of vitamin E in meat were higher (P <0.05 in muscle of animals in groups receiving the vitamin. There was a difference (P <0.05 in the values of oxidation and marbling in the treatments with antioxidant. The inclusion of ractopamine, with the antioxidants, resulted in improvement in performance and carcass characteristics, and supplementation with the antioxidant, alone, showed improvement in parameters related to meat quality

  17. Clinical and microbiological effects of the initial periodontal therapy

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    Predin Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Periodontitis is a destructive inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, primarily caused by Gram-negative microorganisms. Thus, the primary objective of cause-related initial periodontal therapy is disruption and removal of the subgingival biofilm. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and microbiological effects of the initial therapy in patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis. Methods. Forty patients with chronic periodontitis were included in the study. As a part of the clinical assessment undertaken prior to the initial therapy, as well as one month and three months post-therapy, plaque index, gingival index, papilla bleeding index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level were recorded. Microbiological testing was performed prior to the initial therapy and three months after therapy. Polymerase chain reaction assays were used to determine the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis, Prevotella intermedia and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Results. All clinical parameters were significantly reduced after therapy. The prevalence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was reduced by 22.5%, which was a statistically significant decrease compared to the baseline. The prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis and Prevotella intermedia tended to decrease after therapy; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion. The results of the present study demonstrated the beneficial effects of the initial periodontal therapy on both the clinical and microbiological parameters. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175075

  18. Effect of investigator disturbance in experimental forensic entomology: carcass biomass loss and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Grant D; Hoback, W Wyatt; Higley, Leon G

    2011-01-01

    Often carrion decomposition studies are conducted using a single carcass or a few carcasses sampled repeatedly through time to reveal trends in succession community composition. Measurements of biomass and other abiotic parameters (e.g., temperature) are often collected on the same carcasses but are rarely a focal point of the studies. This study investigated the effects that repeated sampling during experiments have on the decomposition of carrion, measured as both gross biomass (carcass plus fauna) and net biomass (carcass only), on carcasses disturbed on every visit (with weighing only or also with the collection of fauna) and on carcasses disturbed only once. Each trial lasted at least 21 days, with samples taken in triplicate. Rat carcasses used in this study were placed in the field on the same day and either weighed on every visit or ignored until a given day. Internal and ambient air temperatures were recorded on each carcass at the time of sampling and on undisturbed carcasses using temperature loggers. The presence of succession fauna did not result in significant biomass loss on most days; however, there were individual days early in decomposition (days 3 through 6) when the succession fauna comprised a large portion of the gross biomass. With the exception of biomass loss by the emigration of maggots on days 4 and 5, neither repeated weighing of the carcasses nor repeated weighing and faunal sampling of the carcasses statistically affected the rate of biomass loss. Internal temperatures of carcasses sampled repeatedly were frequently 2-5°C lower than those that had not been disturbed, and ambient temperatures differed significantly depending on the location of measurement device. Results indicate that methods used historically for biomass loss determination in experimental forensic entomology studies are adequate, but further refinements to experimental methodology are desirable.

  19. Scavenger removal: Bird and bat carcass persistence in a tropical wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Patraca, Rafael; Macías-Sánchez, Samuel; MacGregor-Fors, Ian; Muñoz-Robles, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    Energy produced by wind farms has diverse positive environmental effects, but can also be related to negative impacts, including wildlife mortality through collisions with wind turbines. Bird and bat mortality caused by collisions with wind turbines can be estimated indirectly by counting carcasses within wind farms. However, carcass removal by scavengers often biases such measurements. In this study, we identified the main scavengers removing bird and bat carcasses in a tropical wind farm. A known fate analysis was done to assess the effect of carcass type (i.e., small bird, large bird, bat), vegetation type (i.e., secondary vegetation, croplands) and season (dry and rainy seasons of 2009) on carcass persistence rates. We identified three main scavenger groups, with mammals being the most abundant group. Our results show high rates of carcass removal relative to previous studies, especially for bats; there were fewer remaining carcasses after 20 days in our tropical site than in non-tropical environments reported elsewhere. We found a higher carcass persistence rate during the rainy season than in the dry season, possibly due to a greater abundance of food resources for scavenger organisms in the rainy season. Although we found some evidence for higher persistence rates for large bird carcasses than for small bird and bat carcasses during the rainy season, overall carcass type was not a strong predictor of persistence rates. Similarly, we did not find a strong effect of vegetation type on carcass persistence rates. Results suggest that in order to estimate accurate bird and bat mortality in tropical wind farm areas, seasonality should be incorporated to correction factors of carcass removal rates.

  20. Carcass and meat quality traits of Iberian pig as affected by sex and crossbreeding with different Duroc genetic lines

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    A. Robina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 144 pigs were used to study the effects of sex (barrows or gilts and terminal sire line (Iberian or three genetic lines of Duroc: Duroc 1, Duroc 2 and Duroc 3 on performance and carcass and meat quality traits. Gilts showed slightly lower average daily gain, shoulder weight and trimming losses, but slightly better primal cuts yields and higher loin weight, while there was no significant effect of sex on meat quality traits or on the fatty acid composition of lard and muscle. There were important differences in performance and in carcass and primal cuts quality traits between pure Iberian pigs and all Iberian × Duroc crossbreeds evaluated, partly due to the lower slaughter weights reached by the formers. The different sire lines showed differences in several traits; Duroc 1 group showed lower backfat thickness and ham and shoulder trimming losses, and higher primal cut yields than Duroc 2 and Duroc 3 groups. Intramuscular fat (IMF content remained unaffected by crossbreeding, but meat color resulted more intense and redder in crosses from the Duroc 1 sire line. The accumulation of fatty acids in lard was not affected by Duroc sire line, while animals of the group Duroc 2 showed higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acid and lower of polyunsaturated ones in IMF. These results highlight the importance of considering not only performance, but also carcass and meat quality traits when deciding the Duroc sire line for crossbreeding in Iberian pig production.

  1. Growth and carcass production responses of EPMp broiler ducks to various levels of crude fiber and protein in the diet

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    Maijon Purba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion of crude fiber in diet is important for duck growth, but there is a limit in its use in order for the ducks to grow normally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth and carcass production responses of EPMp broiler ducks under different levels of crude fiber and protein in diets. Four hundreds and twenty day old ducklings were allocated into 7 treatments with 6 replications and each replication consisted of 10 ducks. The treatments were the factorial combinations of crude fiber content of 6 or 9% and protein content of 19, 21, or 23%; and BR-1 (starter diet as positive control. The variables observed were: feed intake, weekly body weight, and percentage of carcass production. The results showed that all variables observed were not significantly affected by CF content, but highly significantly affected by crude protein levels in diet. Protein content of 19 or 21% in diet resulted in a better performance for EPMp ducks. The inclusion of high CF in diet did not affect carcass percentage, except for reduced abdominal fat. The study implies that administration of high CF (6 or 9% with a protein content of 19 or 21% in the diet are still acceptable to EPMp ducks at 12 weeks.

  2. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed high concentrations of crude glycerin in low-starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, V B; Leite, R F; Almeida, M T C; Paschoaloto, J R; Carvalho, E B; Lanna, D P D; Perez, H L; Van Cleef, E H C B; Homem Junior, A C; Ezequiel, J M B

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of total corn replacement with crude glycerin on carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot lambs fed high-concentrate diets with low starch. Forty non-castrated Santa Ines lambs (23.5 ± 3.56 kg BW) were assigned to a randomized complete block design with five dietary treatments: 0%, 7.5%, 15%, 22.5%, or 30% crude glycerin, replacing corn. Animals were slaughtered at a BW of 38 kg after 72 ± 20 days. The addition of up to 30% crude glycerin reduced carcass weight and yield (P ≤ 0.02). Odd-chain fatty acids, oleic, palmitoleic, total unsaturated, and monounsaturated fatty acids were increased (P ≤ 0.01) while CLA tended to increase in glycerin-fed lambs (P = 0.06). Crude glycerin decreased stearic, palmitic, transvaccenic, total saturated fatty acids, and atherogenicity index (P glycerin in low-starch diets reduced carcass weights, nevertheless improved meat quality by increasing unsaturated and odd-chain fatty acid contents.

  3. Effects of supplemental vitamin D3 on feed intake, carcass characteristics, tenderness, and muscle properties of beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karges, K; Brooks, J C; Gill, D R; Breazile, J E; Owens, F N; Morgan, J B

    2001-11-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of supplemental dietary vitamin D3 on DMI, carcass traits, Warner Bratzler shear (WBS) force, calpastatin activity, plasma minerals, pH (0, 3, 12, and 24 h after slaughter), water-holding capacity (WHC), and sensory characteristics of three muscles. Pre-slaughter vitamin D3 treatments included no supplemental vitamin D3, 6 x 106 IU (MIU) of vitamin D3 for 4 d, or 6 MIU of vitamin D3 for 6 d. Cattle were slaughtered and carcasses were chilled for 48 h before removal of steaks from the longissimus, gluteus medius, and biceps femoris muscles. Steaks were aged at 2 degrees C for 7, 14, or 21 d before cooking to a final internal temperature of 70 degrees C for WBS and sensory panel analysis. Dry matter intake was lower for steers supplemented with vitamin D3 for 4 or 6 d. Live and carcass weights were lower (P or = 3.86 kg for all steaks. Feeding vitamin D3 had no effect on palatability traits evaluated by trained panelists. Blood Ca concentrations were greater (P 0.02) after 0 h, 24 h, and 21 d postmortem when vitamin D3 was fed and was greater at 0 and 24 h if vitamin D3 was fed for 6 d rather than 4 d. These data suggest that supplementing 6 MIU of vitamin D3 will decrease DMI and improve beef tenderness through increased blood plasma Ca concentrations and WHC.

  4. Carcass Traits and Immune Response of Broiler Chickens Fed Dietary L-Carnitine, Coenzyme Q10 and Ractopamine

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    H Asadi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of coenzyme Q10, L-carnitine and ractopamine supplementation, alone and in combinations, on carcass traits and immune response of broiler chickens. Five hundred and twelve one-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens were randomly allocated into eight treatments with four replicates each. A 2×2×2 factorial arrangement was applied, with two levels of coenzyme Q10 (0 and 40 mg/kg, two levels of L-carnitine (0 and 200 mg/kg and two levels of ractopamine (0 and 10 mg/kg. The birds were reared until day 42 of age under standard conditions. Blood samples were collected at the end of grower and finisher periods from the wing vein. Four birds per group were sacrificed at day 42 of age. Except for carcass yield, other carcass traits were not significantly affected (p>0.05 by different levels of coenzyme Q10, L-carnitine, or ractopamine. Immune response parameters were significantly (p<0.05 different between the treatments. The lowest antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus and relative spleen weight were observed in control group. The results of this study suggest that addition of coenzyme Q10 and L-carnitine to broiler diets has benefit effect on immune response of broiler chickens.

  5. Microbiological status of mechanically separated poultry meat

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović, Jelena; Borović, Branka; Velebit, Branko; Lakićević, Brankica; Baltić, Tatjana; Mitrović, Radmila; Milijašević, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Mechanically separated meat is often contaminated with microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbiological status of mechanically separated poultry meat samples from June 2011 to December 2012. Microbiological testing included Salmonella species, Escherichia coli and the number of aerobic bacteria. In 5.26% of the samples the presence of Salmonella species was revealed, whereas 22.95% and 4.92% of the mechanically separated poultry meat samples were incompliant in reg...

  6. Microbiological stability of homeopathic medicines using purified water as vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Teresa Cegalla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homeopathic medicines are prepared in homeopathic pharmacies. This leads to freedom of prescription but requires more knowledge of the clinicians to achieve the best results. Preparations made of purified water receive a validity of 24 hours, but there are prescriptions for up to 30 days. This contradiction raises tensions among physicians, pharmacists and patients. Aims: to evaluate the increase in microbiological contamination in homeopathic medicines using purified water as vehicle compared with the microbiological stability of purified water. Contribute to the quality of homeopathic medicine and treatment. Methodology: daily microbiological analysis for one week to assess the growth of heterotrophic bacteria, Pseudomonas, yeasts and molds. The reference used was the USP 32/NF 27 and the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia 5th edition. Results: there was a higher growth of microorganisms on the medicine, compared with purified water. From the 2nd day on, this growth has been beyond the legal limits. Discussion: medicines for oral use are not sterile preparations, but they must remain stable during its shelf life. Our results indicate that contamination occurs from the earliest days of use. This shows the need to change the prescription in relation of the vehicle, to ensure hygiene and avoid potential contamination of the patient. It is necessary to prevent conflict of information between pharmacists and patients, and the contradiction of the doctor's advice, besides the potential risk of responsibility to be attributed to the pharmacy. It is necessary to promote a discussion between pharmacists and clinicians, to spread this information for those that prescribe. Conclusion: there was an increased of microbiological contamination of the medicines dispensed in purified water, which harms the quality of homeopathic medicine and homeopathic treatment.

  7. Genetic parameters for growth and carcass traits of Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T; Domingue, J D; Paschal, J C; Franke, D E; Bidner, T D; Whipple, G

    2007-06-01

    Spring-born purebred Brahman bull calves (n = 467) with known pedigrees, sired by 68 bulls in 17 private herds in Louisiana, were purchased at weaning from 1996 through 2000 to study variation in growth, carcass, and tenderness traits. After purchase, calves were processed for stocker grazing on ryegrass, fed in a south Texas feedlot, and processed in a commercial facility. Carcass data were recorded 24 h postmortem. Muscle samples and primal ribs were taken to measure calpastatin activity and shear force. An animal model was used to estimate heritability, genetic correlations, and sire EPD. Relatively high heritability estimates were found for BW at slaughter (0.59 +/- 0.16), HCW (0.57 +/- 0.15), LM area (0.50 +/- 0.16), yield grade (0.46 +/- 0.17), calpastatin enzyme activity (0.45 +/- 0.17), and carcass quality grade (0.42 +/- 0.16); moderate heritability estimates were found for hump height (0.38 +/- 0.16), marbling score (0.37 +/- 0.16), backfat thickness (0.36 +/- 0.17), feedlot ADG (0.33 +/- 0.14), 7-d shear force (0.29 +/- 0.14), and 14-d shear force (0.20 +/- 0.11); relatively low heritability estimates were found for skeletal maturity (0.10 +/- 0.10), lean maturity (0.00 +/- 0.07), and percent KPH (0.00 +/- 0.07). Most genetic correlations were between -0.50 and +0.50. Other genetic correlations were 0.74 +/- 0.27 between calpastatin activity and 7-d shear force, 0.72 +/- 0.25 between calpastatin activity and 14-d shear force, (0.90 +/- 0.30 between yield grade and 7-d shear force, and -0.82 +/- 0.27 between backfat thickness and 7-d shear force. Heritability estimates and genetic correlations for most traits were similar to estimates reported in the literature. Sire EPD ranges for carcass traits approached those reported for sires in other breeds. The magnitude of heritability estimates suggests that improvement in carcass yield, carcass quality, and consumer acceptance traits can be made within the Brahman population.

  8. Carcass Composition of Turopolje Pig, the Autochthonous Croatian Breed

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    Marija Đikić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this research was to establish carcass composition in Turopolje pig breed by analyzing the percentage of muscle (M, fat (F and bone (B tissue, percentage of these tissues in different parts of carcass (ham, loin, back, neck, belly-rib part . BRP, as well as share of the parts in carcass. Animals were divided into two groups of different age and slaughtering weight (TI 584 ± 20 days and 81,9 kg; TII 679 ± 20 days and 100,3 kg ± 4,9 kg. Purpose of this investigation was to define the standards for traits mentioned for the remainder of the population of Turopolje pig and to set the selection and production programs, as this breed has been under protection since 1993 and re-establishment since 1996 as cultural and biological heritage of Croatia and the World. In order to define Turopolje pig in production sense, we presented characteristics of the old breeds Mongolitza and Black Slavonian and some selected breeds. Pigs were fattened in the outdoor system of flood forests and marsh meadows biocenosis (Quercus robur . Deschampsietum caespitosae, according to traditional Croatian technology of low input (Ðikić et al., 2002.Slaughtering weight and weight of warm and cold carcass were measured on the slaughtering line. The halves were separately weight and dissected (tissues and parts according to Weninger et al., 1963 and by total dissection. Data were processed by statistical-mathematical procedure GSM and SAS software package (1996 and results were compared within and between the groups ( t-test.In groups TI and TII the percentages tissues in carcass were established to be as follows: M 38.2% and 40.5%, B 10.6% and 9.7%, respectively, and were significantly different ( P< 0.05, while share of F, 34.2% and 33.8% were not significantly different.Fattened pigs in group TI, in relation to TII, had lower relative share of muscle tissue in the carcass of loin, back, neck and BRP and higher share of fat tissue of neck and BRP, as well as

  9. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination. PMID:27973398

  10. Microbiological Study of Cast Posts before Cementation

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    Maricela Vallejo-Labrada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the most common microorganisms present in type III gold cast posts related to pulpal disease and evaluates the sterilization/disinfection method before cementation in the root canal. Forty-five type III gold cast posts were aseptically collected in sterile sealed plastic bags and taken to the microbiology laboratory to carry out the study: fifteen cast posts had no treatment, fifteen were disinfected (immersion in 70% alcohol during 15 minutes, and fifteen were autoclaved at 121°C for 15 minutes by using saturated steam under 15 psi pressure. By using a two-proportion z-test, the difference was statistically significant (p>0.05 and demonstrates that, in spite of the aseptic pattern used in the cast post collection and laboratory procedures, some cast posts arrive contaminated at the consulting office. The disinfection process worked out in a high percentage and demonstrated that the sterilization by autoclaving eliminated completely the pathogenic microbiota without affecting the cast post shape and integrity that could compromise their final fitting.

  11. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

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    Ana María Hernández-Anguiano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162 made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05 in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  12. Microbiological Study of Cast Posts before Cementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-Garces, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This study identifies the most common microorganisms present in type III gold cast posts related to pulpal disease and evaluates the sterilization/disinfection method before cementation in the root canal. Forty-five type III gold cast posts were aseptically collected in sterile sealed plastic bags and taken to the microbiology laboratory to carry out the study: fifteen cast posts had no treatment, fifteen were disinfected (immersion in 70% alcohol during 15 minutes), and fifteen were autoclaved at 121°C for 15 minutes by using saturated steam under 15 psi pressure. By using a two-proportion z-test, the difference was statistically significant (p > 0.05) and demonstrates that, in spite of the aseptic pattern used in the cast post collection and laboratory procedures, some cast posts arrive contaminated at the consulting office. The disinfection process worked out in a high percentage and demonstrated that the sterilization by autoclaving eliminated completely the pathogenic microbiota without affecting the cast post shape and integrity that could compromise their final fitting.

  13. Microbiological quality of poultry meat: a review

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    GC Mead

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat can be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms, including those capable of spoiling the product during chill storage, and certain foodborne pathogens. Human illness may follow from handling of raw meat, undercooking or mishandling of the cooked product. While Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. remain the organisms of greatest global concern in this respect, others present include the more recently reported Arcobacter and Helicobacter spp. and, occasionally, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Also considered here is the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance among poultry-associated pathogens. Because of the need for a systematic and universally applicable approach to food safety control, the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP concept is increasingly being introduced into the Poultry Industry, and Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA is being applied to microbial hazards. Among a number of completed and on-going studies on QRA are those undertaken by FAO/WHO on Salmonella and Campylobacter in broilers. In the case of Campylobacter, however, any QRA must assume at present that all strains have the same pathogenic potential for humans and comparable survival capabilities, even though this is unlikely to be the case. Implementation of the HACCP system in poultry processing plants addresses zoonotic agents that are not detectable by conventional meat inspection procedures and can help to control contamination of carcasses with spoilage organisms. The system brings obvious benefits in optimising plant hygiene, ensuring compliance with legislation and providing evidence of 'due diligence' on the part of the processor. It is now being applied globally in two different situations: in one, such as that occurring in the USA, carcass contamination is clearly reduced as carcasses pass through the process and are finally chilled in super-chlorinated water. There is also the option to use a chemical-rinse treatment for further

  14. THE EFFECT OF TRANSITION FROM EUROP 5-POINT SCALE TO 15-POINT SCALE BEEF CARCASS CLASSIFICATION ON CARCASS DISTRIBUTION OF YOUNG SLAUGHTERED BULLS IN SLOVENIA

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    Silvester Žgur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the EUROP 15-point scale of carcass conformation and fatness classification system was introduced in Slovenia and replaced existing 5-point scale. Data (carcass weight, carcass conformation and fatness from Slovenian commercial slaughterhouses were collected from January 2005 to December 2013. In total, data from 374,122 animals were used. The analysis was conducted for the category of young bulls from 12 to less than 24 months of age. In the first year after the transition, the classifiers preferentially used 0 classes in classification of carcass conformation and carcass fatness as well. In period 2008 - 2009 the classifiers adapted the new scale and started to use + and – subclasses more frequently. The distribution of conformation and fatness subclasses was brought near normal distribution.

  15. Residuos de antimicrobianos en canales de vacas Antimicrobial residues in cow carcasses

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    E. GESCHE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de conocer la presencia de residuos de antibióticos y sulfamidas en animales de abasto, se analizaron las canales de 300 vacas faenadas en una Planta Faenadora de Carnes de la X Región de Chile. Para ello se obtuvieron muestras de tejido muscular diafragmático y de riñón que fueron examinadas por el método microbiológico que emplea Bacillus subtilis BGA como cepa sensible, en un substrato de cultivo a tres niveles de pH. De las vacas analizadas, 259 correspondieron a matanza normal y 41 a faenamiento de urgencia. Del análisis de las 300 canales resultaron 13 vacas positivas (4.3% a la detección de antimicrobianos de las cuales 6 casos correspondieron a vacas de faenamiento normal (2.3% y 7 muestras a vacas de faenamiento de urgencia (17.1%. Entre las causas más frecuentes de faenamiento de urgencia que presentaron residuos de antibióticos está la mastitis (4 de 10, seguida de cojera ( 2 de 7 y cuerpo extraño (1 de 7. Cotejando los resultados obtenidos en este estudio, con el criterio de decomiso aplicado en otros países, habría correspondido a decomiso total el 2% de la totalidad de las vacas faenadas en el período de muestreo. Considerando las vacas clínicamente sanas y aquellas de faenamiento de urgencia como poblaciones separadas, el decomiso total habría afectado a un 1.5% de las vacas sanas y a un 4.9% de las vacas de faenamiento de urgenciaTo determine the incidence of antimicrobial residues in slaughtered animals, 300 cow carcasses from a slaughter house the Xth region, Chile were analysed. Muscle and kidney samples were obtained and analysed with the three plates microbiological method which uses Bacillus subtilis BGA as sensible strain included in a nutrient agar at three pH levels (6.0; 7.2 and 8.0. Of the 300 cows analysed, 259 corresponded to normal slaughter and 41 to urgency slaughter. he results show 13 cows positive to antimicrobial residues (4.3% of the total. Six cases correspond to normal

  16. In vitro efficiency of disinfectants against salmonella enteritidis samples isolated from broiler carcasses

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    MO Cardoso

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The threat to public health represented by Salmonella is at least partially a consequence of its ecology in poultry hosts. Good manufacturing practices in the processing plant can reduce the contamination of poultry products, and critical control point principles are essential throughout the chain production. One procedure adopted in critical points control to prevent and to reduce Salmonella in farms and poultry products is the use of disinfectants. This study aimed at evaluating disinfectant efficiency against Salmonella enteritidis samples isolated from broiler carcasses in Rio Grande do