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Sample records for carcass analogue addition

  1. RESPONSE OF NUTRIENTS, BIOFILM, AND BENTHIC INSECTS TO SALMON CARCASS ADDITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon carcass addition to streams is expected to increase stream productivity at multiple trophic levels. This study examined stream nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon), epilithic biofilm (ash-free dry mass and chlorophyll a), leaf-litter decomposition, and macroinverte...

  2. Carcass Characteristics of Growing Male Pig in Different Level of Clenbuterol Addition

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    Wayan Sukarya Dilaga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Abstract - Nowadays, pig has becomes an important role in meat supply chain and demand in the world. However, in the intensive maintenance system, raising pig still has problems especially in feed supplements. The investigation on carcass characteristics of growing male pig in different level of clenbuterol addition in feed was conducted. CRD factorial 2 x 3 with 4 repetitions was used in the experiment. The first factor is the nation's pig (L = local pigs & pig off spring K=imports and the second factor is the level of clenbuterol (T0 = 0 mg/kg feed; T1 = 0.20 mg/kg feed & T2 = 0.40 mg/kg feed. The materials were 24 male grower pigs (12 local & 12 imported pigs with 52.5 ± 28.27 kg body weight. Pigs were reared in individual cages for 6 weeks consisting 2 weeks for adaptation and 4 weeks for data collection. The pigs were given the same feed consisting of rice bran 27.8%, 55.5% and 16.7% corn concentrate. Feeding pigs was given in appropriate growth phase as much as 2 times a day. Drink provided using ad-libitum method. At the end of the study, the pigs were slaughtered. The meat was then analyzed based on the weight of the cut meat, weight of hot carcass, carcass percentage and carcass components (meat, bones and fat. The data was analyzed in variety followed by various orthogonal polynomial tests. Results shown that there were a real interaction between carcass weight and weight cut with quadratic pattern. Clenbuterol also found out to give an reduction effect on carcass percentage in both local and imported pig. In fact the local pigs give the lower carcass percentage than the imported one. Key Words – clenbuterol; weight cut; carcass percentag; carcass component /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso

  3. Pork carcass injury in slaughterhouse waiting area and nutrient addition in pre-slaughter fasting

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    Tiago G Petrolli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Two experiments were conducted on a slaughterhouse located in Brazil, which the first aimed at evaluating the injuries on pig skin and carcass resulting from slaughterhouse waiting area management and the second aimed at assessing how glucose (G, sodium bicarbonate (SB and vitamin E (VE added to water during pre-slaughter fasting may affect carcass yield, organ relative weight and pork meat quality characteristics. Materials and methods. First trial included 1000 pigs, which were observed in the slaughterhouse resting area until the moment they entered the stunning process area. In the second trial were used 500 animals distributed on the last pre-slaughter day in a completely randomized design, including ten treatments and ten replicates. The treatments were: water; 50 g/L G; 50 g/L G + 200 mg/L of VE; 75 g/L of G; 75 g/L of G + 200 mg VE; 0.45% SB; 0.45% SB + 200 mg/L of VE; 0.55% SB; 0.55% SB + 200 mg/L of VE; 200 mg/L of VE. Results. Carcass yield and relative organ weight were not affected by treatments. The addition of 0.55% SB + 200 mg VE reduced the final pH of meat, and of 0.45% SB reduced the red pigment intensity. Conclusions. The main occurrences of injuries to the skin and carcass of pigs are due to fights. Also, adding glucose, sodium bicarbonate, and vitamin E to diet did not affect the carcass and viscera yield and meat quality.

  4. Seasonal variation exceeds effects of salmon carcass additions on benthic food webs in the Elwha River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, S.A.; Coe, H.J.; Duda, J.J.; Dunphy, L.S.; McHenry, M.L.; Beckman, B.R.; Elofson, M.; Sampson, E. M.; Ward, L.

    2016-01-01

    Dam removal and other fish barrier removal projects in western North America are assumed to boost freshwater productivity via the transport of marine-derived nutrients from recolonizing Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). In anticipation of the removal of two hydroelectric dams on the Elwha River in Washington State, we tested this hypothesis with a salmon carcass addition experiment. Our study was designed to examine how background nutrient dynamics and benthic food webs vary seasonally, and how these features respond to salmon subsidies. We conducted our experiment in six side channels of the Elwha River, each with a spatially paired reference and treatment reach. Each reach was sampled on multiple occasions from October 2007 to August 2008, before and after carcass placement. We evaluated nutrient limitation status; measured water chemistry, periphyton, benthic invertebrates, and juvenile rainbow trout (O. mykiss) response; and traced salmon-derived nutrient uptake using stable isotopes. Outside of winter, algal accrual was limited by both nitrogen and phosphorous and remained so even in the presence of salmon carcasses. One month after salmon addition, dissolved inorganic nitrogen levels doubled in treatment reaches. Two months after addition, benthic algal accrual was significantly elevated. We detected no changes in invertebrate or fish metrics, with the exception of 15N enrichment. Natural seasonal variability was greater than salmon effects for the majority of our response metrics. Yet seasonality and synchronicity of nutrient supply and demand are often overlooked in nutrient enhancement studies. Timing and magnitude of salmon-derived nitrogen utilization suggest that uptake of dissolved nutrients was favored over direct consumption of carcasses. The highest proportion of salmon-derived nitrogen was incorporated by herbivores (18–30%) and peaked 1–2 months after carcass addition. Peak nitrogen enrichment in predators (11–16%) occurred 2–3

  5. Establishing the volatile profile of pig carcasses as analogues for human decomposition during the early postmortem period

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    P. Armstrong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Following a mass disaster, it is important that victims are rapidly located as the chances of survival decrease greatly after approximately 48 h. Urban search and rescue (USAR teams may use a range of tools to assist their efforts but detector dogs still remain one of the most effective search tools to locate victims of mass disasters. USAR teams can choose to deploy human scent dogs (trained to locate living victims or human remains detection (HRD dogs (trained to locate deceased victims. However, little is known about the variation between live human scent and postmortem human remains scent and the timeframe during which one type of scent transitions to the other. The aim of the current study was to measure the change in the scent profile of human decomposition analogues during the first 72 h postmortem by measuring the volatile organic compounds (VOCs that comprise the odour. Three pig carcasses (Sus scrofa domesticus L. were placed on a soil surface and allowed to decompose under natural conditions. Decomposition odour was sampled frequently up to 75 h postmortem and analysed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography – time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS. A total of 105 postmortem VOCs were identified during the early postmortem period. The VOC profile during the early postmortem period was highly dynamic, changing both hourly and daily. A transition period was observed after 43 h postmortem, where the VOC profile appeared to shift from a distinct antemortem odour to a more generalised postmortem odour. These findings are important in informing USAR teams and their use of detector dogs for disaster victim recovery.

  6. Effects of riparian canopy opening and salmon carcass addition on the abundance and growth of resident salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret A. Wilzbach; Bret C. Harvey; Jason L. White; Rodney J. Nakamoto

    2005-01-01

    We studied the concurrent effects of riparian canopy opening and salmon carcass addition on salmonid biomass, density and growth rates in small streams over 2 years. In each of six streams in the Smith and Klamath River basins in northern California, red alder (Alnus rubra) and other hardwoods were removed along both banks of a 100-m reach to...

  7. Chemical additive to enhance antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine and control cross-contamination during immersion chill of broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schambach, B T; Berrang, M E; Harrison, M A; Meinersmann, R J

    2014-09-01

    Immersion chilling of broiler carcasses can be a site for cross-contamination between the occasional highly contaminated carcass and those that are co-chilled. Chlorine is often used as an antimicrobial but can be overcome by organic material. A proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128) based on phosphoric acid-propylene glycol was tested as a chill tank additive in experiments simulating commercial broiler chilling. In bench-scale experiments, 0.5% T-128 was compared with plain water (control), 50 ppm of chlorine, and the combination of 0.5% T-128 with 50 ppm of chlorine to control transfer of Salmonella and Campylobacter from inoculated wing drummettes to co-chilled uninoculated drummettes. Both chlorine and T-128 lessened cross-contamination with Salmonella (P additional experiment demonstrated that the antimicrobial effect of T-128 was not due merely to a lower pH. In commercial broiler chilling, a pH close to 6.0 is preferred to maximize chlorine effectiveness, while maintaining water-holding capacity of the meat. In a set of pilot-scale experiments with T-128, a near-ideal pH of 6.3 was achieved by using tap water instead of the distilled water used in bench-scale experiments. Pilot-scale chill tanks were used to compare the combination of 0.5% T-128 and 50 ppm of chlorine with 50 ppm of plain chlorine for control of cross-contamination between whole carcasses inoculated with Salmonella and Campylobacter and co-chilled uninoculated carcasses. The T-128 treatment resulted in significantly less crosscontamination by either direct contact or water transfer with both organisms compared with plain chlorine treatment. T-128 may have use in commercial broiler processing to enhance the effectiveness of chlorine in processing water.

  8. Effect of feeding olive-pulp ensiled with additives on feedlot performance and carcass attributes of fat-tailed lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Mohammad Reza; Zamiri, Mohammad Javad; Rowghani, Ebrahim; Akhlaghi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Feed cost has a significant effect on the economic efficiency of feedlot lambs; therefore, the use of low-cost non-conventional feedstuffs, such as olive pulp (OP), has the potential to decrease the production costs. Because optimum inclusion of OP-treated silages has not been determined in feedlot lambs, an experiment was conducted to determine the effect of inclusion of OP ensiled with additives in the diet on the feedlot performance and carcass attributes of feedlot lambs. Ram lambs of Mehraban and Ghezel breeds (n = 50 lambs per breed) were randomly allotted to 10 groups and fed with one of the nine diets containing OP silage or a control diet. Silage treatments were: (1) OP silage without additives (OPS), (2) OP ensiled with 8 % beet molasses and 0.4 % formic acid (OP-MF), and (3) OP ensiled with 8 % beet molasses, 0.4 % formic acid and 0.5 % urea (OP-MFU). The control diet contained 50 % alfalfa hay and 50 % barley grain. Three levels from each silage were chosen to replace the barley grain (10, 20, or 30 % dry matter basis). The lambs were slaughtered after 92 days, and the average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and carcass characteristics were determined. Feeding OPS to fat-tailed lambs, at an inclusion level of 30 %, decreased the carcass dressing percentage, mainly as a result of decreased brisket percentage, but the ADG and FCR values were not adversely affected. Ghezel lambs had higher ADG than Mehraban lambs, but the visceral fat weight percentage, flap weight percentage, and back fat depth were higher in Mehraban. The crude protein content in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle was higher in Ghezel, but the dry matter percentage was higher in Mehraban (P 0.05). Most carcass characteristics, including major cuts, were not affected by OPS feeding; therefore, feeding OPS (up to 30 %) can be economical for feedlot lambs. Most carcass characteristics, including major cuts, were not affected by OPS levels used in this experiment; therefore

  9. A fenbendazole oral drench in addition to an ivermectin pour-on reduces parasite burden and improves feedlot and carcass performance of finishing heifers compared with endectocides alone.

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    Reinhardt, C D; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T

    2006-08-01

    Two studies utilizing 1,862 yearling heifers were conducted to determine the effects of a fenbendazole oral drench in addition to an ivermectin pour-on (SG+IVPO), compared with an ivermectin pour-on (IVPO) or a doramectin injectable (DMX) alone, on parasite burden, feedlot performance, and carcass merit of feedlot cattle. In the first study, heifers receiving the SG+IVPO had fewer (P = 0.02) cattle retreated for disease and 73% fewer (P = 0.06) worm eggs per fecal sample 98 d after treatment than heifers treated with IVPO. Heifers treated with SG+IVPO consumed more DM, had greater ADG, were heavier at slaughter, and had heavier carcasses than IVPO-treated heifers (P fenbendazole oral drench and an ivermectin pour-on reduced parasite burden and increased feed intake, ADG, and carcass weight in feedlot heifers compared with treatment with an endectocide alone.

  10. A whole genome association study to detect additive and dominant single nucleotide polymorphisms for growth and carcass traits in Korean native cattle, Hanwoo

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    Yi Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective A whole genome association study was conducted to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with additive and dominant effects for growth and carcass traits in Korean native cattle, Hanwoo. Methods The data set comprised 61 sires and their 486 Hanwoo steers that were born between spring of 2005 and fall of 2007. The steers were genotyped with the 35,968 SNPs that were embedded in the Illumina bovine SNP 50K beadchip and six growth and carcass quality traits were measured for the steers. A series of lack-of-fit tests between the models was applied to classify gene expression pattern as additive or dominant. Results A total of 18 (0, 15 (3, 12 (8, 15 (18, 11 (7, and 21 (1 SNPs were detected at the 5% chromosome (genome - wise level for weaning weight (WWT, yearling weight (YWT, carcass weight (CWT, backfat thickness (BFT, longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA and marbling score, respectively. Among the significant 129 SNPs, 56 SNPs had additive effects, 20 SNPs dominance effects, and 53 SNPs both additive and dominance effects, suggesting that dominance inheritance mode be considered in genetic improvement for growth and carcass quality in Hanwoo. The significant SNPs were located at 33 quantitative trait locus (QTL regions on 18 Bos Taurus chromosomes (i.e. BTA 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 23, 26, 28, and 29 were detected. There is strong evidence that BTA14 is the key chromosome affecting CWT. Also, BTA20 is the key chromosome for almost all traits measured (WWT, YWT, LMA. Conclusion The application of various additive and dominance SNP models enabled better characterization of SNP inheritance mode for growth and carcass quality traits in Hanwoo, and many of the detected SNPs or QTL had dominance effects, suggesting that dominance be considered for the whole-genome SNPs data and implementation of successive molecular breeding schemes in Hanwoo.

  11. Supercritical fluid chromatography of metoprolol and analogues on aminopropyl and ethylpyridine silica without any additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Johanna; Salomonsson, John; Gyllenhaal, Olle; Johansson, Erik

    2007-06-22

    Metoprolol and a number of related amino alcohols and similar analytes have been chromatographed on aminopropyl (APS) and ethylpyridine (EPS) silica columns. The mobile phase was carbon dioxide with methanol as modifier and no amine additive was present. Optimal isocratic conditions for the selectivity were evaluated based on experiments using design of experiments. A central composite circumscribed model for each column was used. Factors were column temperature, back-pressure and % (v/v) of modifier. The responses were retention and selectivity versus metoprolol. The % of modifier mainly controlled the retention on both columns but pressure and temperature could also be important for optimizing the selectivity between the amino alcohols. The compounds could be divided into four and five groups on both columns, with respect to the selectivity. Furthermore, on the aminopropyl silica the analytes were more spread out whereas on the ethylpyridine silica, due to its aromaticity, retention and selectivity were closer. For optimal conditions the column temperature and back-pressure should be high and the modifier concentration low. A comparison of the selectivity using optimized conditions show a few switches of retention order between the two columns. On aminopropyl silica an aldehyde failed to be eluted owing to Schiff-base formation. Peak symmetry and column efficiency were briefly studied for some structurally close analogues. This revealed some activity from the columns that affected analytes that had less protected amino groups, a methyl group instead of isopropyl. The tailing was more marked with the ethylpyridine column even with the more bulky alkyl substituents. Plate number N was a better measure than the asymmetry factor since some analyte peaks broadened without serious deterioration of symmetry compared to homologues.

  12. Curcumin and Its Analogue Induce Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells and Have Additive Effects with Bortezomib in Cellular and Xenograft Models

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    L. I. Nagy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combination therapy of bortezomib with other chemotherapeutics is an emerging treatment strategy. Since both curcumin and bortezomib inhibit NF-κB, we tested the effects of their combination on leukemia cells. To improve potency, a novel Mannich-type curcumin derivative, C-150, was synthesized. Curcumin and its analogue showed potent antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on the human leukemia cell line, HL60, with different potency but similar additive properties with bortezomib. Additive antiproliferative effects were correlated well with LPS-induced NF-κB inhibition results. Gene expression data on cell cycle and apoptosis related genes, obtained by high-throughput QPCR, showed that curcumin and its analogue act through similar signaling pathways. In correlation with in vitro results similar additive effect could be obsereved in SCID mice inoculated systemically with HL60 cells. C-150 in a liposomal formulation given intravenously in combination with bortezomib was more efficient than either of the drugs alone. As our novel curcumin analogue exerted anticancer effects in leukemic cells at submicromolar concentration in vitro and at 3 mg/kg dose in vivo, which was potentiated by bortezomib, it holds a great promise as a future therapeutic agent in the treatment of leukemia alone or in combination.

  13. Patient specific root-analogue dental implants – additive manufacturing and finite element analysis

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    Gattinger Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to prove the possibility of manufacturing patient specific root analogue two-part (implant and abutment implants by direct metal laser sintering. The two-part implant design enables covered healing of the implant. Therefore, CT-scans of three patients are used for reverse engineering of the implants, abutments and crowns. Patient specific implants are manufactured and measured concerning dimensional accuracy and surface roughness. Impacts of occlusal forces are simulated via FEA and compared to those of standard implants.

  14. Effects of an Addition of Different Essential Oils and Their Combinations to Diets on Performance and Carcass Characteristics Parameters in Broilers

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    Behlül Sevim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of thymus (Thymus vulgaris L., rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and French lavender (Lavandua stoechas L. essential oils and their mixtures on body weight and body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, carcass characteristics in broiler. A total of one day old 640 broiler chicks (Ross 308 were used divided into 8 groups each having five replicates, ramdomly. There were 80 chicks in each experimental group. The experimental diets were consisted of control (0 mg/kg, addition to thymus essential oil (50 mg/kg, rosemary essential oil (50 mg/kg, lavandula essential oil (50 mg/kg tymus + rosemary (25+25 mg/kg, tymus + lavandula (25+25 mg/kg, rosemary + lavandula (25+25 mg/kg, tymus + rosemary + lavandula (16.7+16.7+16.7 mg/kg, respectively. Feed and water were provided as ad libitum. Experimental period was six weeks. The according to results that dietary different essential oil and their combinations did not significantly effect on body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and carcass characteristics.

  15. The effect of the additive containing Artichoke extract (APC on growth performance, blood cholesterol level, carcass characteristics and immune system of broiler chickens

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    farang Rouzmehr

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different levels of the additive containing Artichoke premix concentrated (APC on growth performance, serum cholesterol level, carcass characteristics and immune responses of broilers two separate trials were conducted. In the first trial, APC was added at three levels of 0, 100 and 200 gr/ton diet during the first 21 days of growing period. One hundred and fifty unsexed day old broiler chickens of Ross strain were randomly divided in three groups with 5 replicate of 10 chicks in each cage, by a completely randomized design. At the end of each week, the birds were weighed individually and feed conversion ratios calculated. In order to determine serum cholesterol level, at day 21 blood sample was taken from 15 chickens per treatment. At the end of the 42nd day, 5 birds from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered for investigation of carcass characteristics. In the second trial, the effects of APC at 150gr/ton feed were studied on growth parameters and immune function of broiler chickens in a commercial farm. The results showed that application of APC in a level of 200 gr/ton diet significantly increased body weight of chickens at the first (p

  16. Effect of the addition of two superoxide dismutase analogues (Tempo and Tempol) to alpaca semen extender for cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiani, Alexei; Acosta, Alexei Santiani; Evangelista, Shirley; Vargas, Shirley Evangelista; Valdivia, Martha; Cuya, Martha Valdivia; Risopatrón, Jennie; González, Jennie Risopatrón; Sánchez, Raúl; Gutiérrez, Raúl Sánchez

    2013-03-15

    The main objective was to study the effects, on sperm function, of the addition of two superoxide dismutase (SOD) analogues (Tempo and Tempol) to alpaca semen extender for cryopreservation. Twelve alpaca semen samples were collected using an artificial vagina and then diluted at a 1:3 ratio in an extender based on skim milk, egg yolk, and fructose. Each semen sample was divided into three equal parts to form the following groups: control, Tempo (1 mM), and Tempol (1 mM). Groups were cooled to 5 °C in 90 minutes (-1 °C in 3 minutes); when samples reached approximately 10 °C, SOD analogues were added to the respective groups. At 5 °C, ethylene glycol (final concentration, 0.1 M) was added to each group. After 30 minutes at 5 °C, samples were loaded in 0.25 mL plastic straws, placed in liquid nitrogen vapor for 15 minutes, and then plunged. Percentages of sperm motility, functional sperm membrane integrity, and viable sperm with intact acrosomes were evaluated before and after freeze-thaw using visual analysis, the hypoosmotic swelling test, and the double-stain trypan blue/giemsa technique, respectively. The Terminal deoxymucleotidyl transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling assay was performed for evaluation of sperm DNA fragmentation of frozen-thawed sperm. Sperm motility was higher (P < 0.05) in the Tempol and Tempo groups than in the control group (mean, 22.1%, 19.7%, and 11.2%, respectively), with similar results for functional sperm membrane integrity. Additionally, DNA fragmentation was lower (P < 0.05) in the Tempol group (16.7%) than in the control group (38.8%). Viable sperm with intact acrosomes were not affected by the use of SOD analogues. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.58) between DNA fragmentation of alpaca sperm and sperm motility after freeze-thawing, but DNA damage was neither related to functional membrane integrity nor viable sperm with intact acrosomes. We concluded that DNA fragmentation and loss of motility during cryopreservation of

  17. Effects of the Addition of Glucose, Sodium Bicarbonate, and Vitamin E to the Drinking Water of Pre-Slaughter Broiler Chickens on Carcass Yield, Gastric Emptying and Meat Quality

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    TG Petrolli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted of the poultry facilities of La Salle Agricultural College in Xanxerê, SC, Brazil, to evaluate the effect of the administration of sodium bicarbonate, glucose and vitamin E to the drinking water during pre-slaughter feed withdrawal on carcass yield, organ relative weights (heart, liver, proventriculus, and gizzard, gizzard emptying, and meat quality of broiler chickens. The applied treatments were: water as control; 50g/L of glucose; 50g/L de glucose + 200mg/L of vitamin E; 75g/L of glucose; 75g/L + 200mg/L of vitamin E; 0.45% of sodium bicarbonate; 0.45% of sodium bicarbonate + 200mg/L of vitamin E; 0.55% of sodium bicarbonate; 0.55% of sodium bicarbonate + 200mg/L of vitamin E; 200mg/L de vitamin E. On the last day before slaughter, during the water diet period,500 birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with ten treatments and ten replicates of five birds each. No difference in broiler carcass yield and organ relative weights was found. There were no significant changes in gizzard contents, in ultimate meat, cooking loss, shear force value, or in the meat color parameters L* (lightness, a* (redness and b* (yellowness. It was concluded is that the addition of glucose, sodium bicarbonate, and vitamin E to the drinking water during pre-slaughter feed withdrawal period has no influence on carcass yield or on relative organ weight, neither on the emptying of the gizzard contents and the meat quality of broiler chickens.

  18. Effect of Carcass Traits on Carcass Prices of Holstein Steers in Korea

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    Alam, M.; Cho, K. H.; Lee, S. S.; Choy, Y. H.; Kim, H. S.; Cho, C. I.; Choi, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of carcass traits on carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea. Phenotypic data consisted of 76,814 slaughtered Holsteins (1 to 6 yrs) from all over Korea. The means for live body weight at slaughter (BWT), chilled carcass weight (CWT), dressing percentage (DP), quantity grade index (QGI), eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS), carcass unit price (CUP), and carcass sell prices (CSP) were 729.0 kg, 414.2 kg, 56.79%, 64.42, 75.26 cm2, 5.77 mm, 1.98, 8,952.80 Korean won/kg and 3,722.80 Thousand Korean won/head. Least squares means were significantly different by various age groups, season of slaughter, marbling scores and yield grades. Pearson’s correlation coefficients of CUP with carcass traits ranged from 0.12 to 0.62. Besides, the relationships of carcass traits with CSP were relatively stronger than those with CUP. The multiple regression models for CUP and CSP with carcass traits accounted 39 to 63% of the total variation, respectively. Marbling score had maximum economic effects (partial coefficients) on both prices. In addition, the highest standardized partial coefficients (relative economic weights) for CUP and CSP were calculated to be on MS and CWT by 0.608 and 0.520, respectively. Path analyses showed that MS (0.376) and CWT (0.336) had maximum total effects on CUP and CSP, respectively; whereas BF contributed negatively. Further sub-group (age and season of slaughter) analyses also confirmed the overall outcomes. However, the relative economic weights and total path contributions also varied among the animal sub-groups. This study suggested the significant influences of carcass traits on carcass prices; especially MS and CWT were found to govern the carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea. PMID:25049722

  19. Analogue Gravity

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    Barceló Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.

  20. Analogue Gravity

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    Carlos Barceló

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.

  1. Associations between animal traits, carcass traits and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study the associations between animal traits, carcass traits and carcass classification within cattle, sheep and pigs slaughtered in a high throughput abattoir were determined. Classes of carcasses from cattle, sheep and pigs delivered for slaughter at this abattoir were recorded and analysed. Significant associations ...

  2. BALANOL ANALOGUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to a solid phase methodology for the preparation of a combinatorial library of structural analogues of the natural product balanol (ophiocordin, azepinostatin), which is a protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. The method comprises solid...

  3. Carcass yield and characteristics of Karadi lambs as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    rations of karadi lambs on carcass characteristics, using 2 x 2 factorial experiment. Sixteen ..... Effect of medicinal plants as feed additives on performance of growing sheep. .... supplement of fish meal.2-Effects of level of feeding. Anim. Prod.

  4. Carcass Management During Avian Influenza Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page on Avian Influenza (AI) describes carcass management during Avian Flu outbreaks, including who oversees carcass management, how they're managed, environmental concerns from carcass management, and disinfection. The page also describes what AI is.

  5. Performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs fed peach-palm by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Cabral, Ícaro; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; dos Santos Cruz, Cristiane Leal; Nogueira, Abdon Santos; Souza, Lígia Lins; de Oliveira, Gisele Andrade

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplying the by-product of peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes) on performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of feedlot lambs. Twenty Santa Ines lambs of 150 days average age and 22.4 ± 3.4 kg body weight were confined in individual pens. A completely randomized design was utilized with four experimental diets composed of: fresh peach-palm by-product enriched with urea, fresh peach-palm by-product + concentrate, silage of peach-palm by-product + concentrate, and silage of peach-palm by-product enriched with 15 % corn meal + concentrate. Intake was evaluated daily, and at the end of 42 days of experiments, lambs were slaughtered and the characteristics of carcass and non-carcass parts were evaluated. Performance and carcass characteristics showed differences between the animals' intake of total mixed rations (TMR) and only the diet with roughage. For the lambs that intaked TMR, the form of utilization of roughage (fresh or as silage) affected animal performance but did not change the carcass characteristics. Dry matter intake and feed conversion were influenced by the form of utilization of the silage (with and without additive). Providing fresh by-product plus concentrate improves lamb performance but does not interfere in the carcass characteristics, compared with the use of by-product in the form of silage.

  6. Predicting carcass cut yield by carcass weight and visual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strydom

    Predicting yields of high priced trimmed beef cuts by means of carcass weight and visual assessments ... E-mail: pstrydom@arc.agric.za ... The lack of consensus in the scientific literature about the effect of conformation or shape of the carcass ...

  7. Effect of age and gender on carcass traits and meat quality of farmed brown hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocino, A; Birolo, M; Dabbou, S; Gratta, F; Rigo, N; Xiccato, G

    2018-04-01

    A total of 48 sub-adult hares and adult reproducing farmed hares were used to characterize carcass and meat traits according to the age and gender of animals. With respect to carcass traits, when age increased, the carcass weight significantly increased (2022 to 3391 g; Pcarcass traits. In conclusion, farmed hares have favourable slaughter results (high dressing percentage), carcass traits (high hind legs and loins rates), and meat nutritional value (high-protein, low-fat meat). This fact would offer additional commercial opportunities, in addition to restocking, to hare farmers.

  8. NATURAL ANALOGUE SYNTHESIS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Description (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement-drift degradation, waste-form degradation, waste-package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated-zone (SZ) transport, impact of radionuclide release on the biosphere

  9. Natural Analogue Synthesis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Simmons

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature, along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement drift degradation, waste form degradation, waste package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated zone (SZ) transport

  10. The value of muscular and skeletal scores in the live animal and carcass classification scores as indicators of carcass composition in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, M J; McGee, M; Keane, M G

    2008-05-01

    The objective was to determine the relationship of muscular and skeletal scores taken on the live animal and carcass conformation and fat scores with carcass composition and value. Bulls (n = 48) and heifers (n = 37) of 0.75 to 1.0 late-maturing breed genotypes slaughtered at 16 and 20 months of age, respectively, were used. At 8 months of age (weaning) and immediately pre-slaughter, visual muscular scores were recorded for each animal and additionally skeletal scores were recorded pre-slaughter. Carcass weight, kidney and channel fat weight, carcass conformation and fat scores, fat depth over the longissimus dorsi muscle at the 12th (bulls) or 10th (heifers) rib and carcass length were recorded post-slaughter. Each carcass was subsequently dissected into meat, fat and bone using a commercial dissection procedure. Muscular scores taken pre-slaughter showed positive correlations with killing-out rate (r ≈ 0.65), carcass meat proportion (r ≈ 0.60), value (r ≈ 0.55) and conformation score (r ≈ 0.70), and negative correlations with carcass bone (r ≈ -0.60) and fat (r ≈ -0.4) proportions. Corresponding correlations with muscular scores at weaning were lower. Correlations of skeletal scores taken pre-slaughter, carcass length and carcass weight with killing-out rate and the various carcass traits were mainly not significant. Carcass fat depth and kidney and channel fat weight were negatively correlated with carcass meat proportion and value, and positively correlated with fat proportion. Correlations of carcass conformation score were positive (r = 0.50 to 0.68) with killing-out rate, carcass meat proportion and carcass value and negative with bone (r ≈ -0.56) and fat (r ≈ -0.40) proportions. Corresponding correlations with carcass fat score were mainly negative except for carcass fat proportion (r ≈ 0.79). A one-unit (scale 1 to 15) increase in carcass conformation score increased carcass meat proportion by 8.9 and 8.1 g/kg, decreased fat proportion by

  11. Salmon carcass movements in forest streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke Strobel; Daniel R. Shivley; Brett B. Roper

    2009-01-01

    The movements of salmon carcasses over time were studied in two forest streams in the context of a large-scale salmon carcass supplementation program. The objectives were to assess both the level of treatment after stream flows had displaced carcasses and to evaluate whether the magnitude of carcass movements outside of a given reach could be predicted. The movements...

  12. Carcass and meat palatability breed differences and heterosis effects in an Angus-Brahman multibreed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; Johnson, D D; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2012-01-01

    Additive genetic Angus-Brahman differences, heterosis effects, and least squares means for six carcass and six meat palatability traits were estimated using data from 1367 steers from the Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of the University of Florida collected from 1989 to 2009. Brahman carcasses had higher dressing percent (PAngus carcasses. Brahman beef was less tender (PAngus beef. Heterosis increased hot carcass weight (PAngus-Brahman crossbred steers. Results indicated that crossbred animals with up to 50% Brahman showed limited negative impact on meat quality while maximizing meat yield due to heterosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 9 CFR 201.99 - Purchase of livestock by packers on a carcass grade, carcass weight, or carcass grade and weight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of livestock by packers on a carcass grade, carcass weight, or carcass grade and weight basis. 201.99 Section 201.99 Animals and Animal... livestock by packers on a carcass grade, carcass weight, or carcass grade and weight basis. (a) Each packer...

  14. The Palmottu analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, L.; Blomqvist, R.; Suksi, J.

    1993-01-01

    The report gives a summary of the results of investigations carried out in 1992 at the Palmottu natural analogue study site, which is a small U-Th mineralization in Nummi-Pusula, southwestern Finland. Additionally, the report includes several separate articles dealing with various aspects of the Palmottu Analogue Project: (1) deep groundwater flow, (2) interpretation of hydraulic connections, (3) characterization of groundwater colloids, (4) uranium mineral-groundwater equilibrium, (5) water-rock interaction and (6) modelling of in situ matrix diffusion. The Palmottu Analogue Project aims at a more profound understanding of radionuclide transport processes in fractured crystalline bedrock. The essential factors controlling transport are groundwater flow and interaction between water and rock. Accordingly, the study includes (1) structural interpretations partly based on geophysical measurements, (2) hydrological studies including hydraulic drill-hole measurements, (3) flow modelling, (4) hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater, uranium chemistry and colloid chemistry, (5) mineralogical studies, (6) geochemical interpretation and modelling, (7) studies of radionuclide mobilization and retardation including matrix diffusion, and (8) modelling of uranium series data. Palaeohydrogeological aspects, due to the anticipated future glaciation of the Fennoscandian Shield, are of special interest. Quaternary sediments are studied to gain information on post-glacial migration in the overburden. (orig.)

  15. OCURRENCE OF Campylobacter sp IN BROILER FLOCKSAND CORRESPONDING CARCASSES OCORRÊNCIA DE Campylobacter sp EM LOTES DE FRANGOS DE CORTE E NAS CARCAÇAS CORRESPONDENTES

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton Luiz de Souza Moraes; Carlos Tadeu Pippi Salle; Laura Beatriz Rodrigues; Luciana Ruschel dos Santos; Suzete Lora Kuana; Vladimir Pinheiro do Nascimento

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the dissemination and levels of Campylobacter contamination in broiler flocks and related carcasses. Twenty-two flocks aged 3 weeks or older were assessed, and 110 cecal droppings and 96 carcasses (38 carcasses after defeathering and 58 after the last chilling operation) were enumerated. Bolton selective enrichment broth was used for enumeration of the organism. Additionally, the carcasses wer...

  16. Master Dataset for Elwha Carcass Addition Experiment - Elwha River salmon carcass addition experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dam removal and other fish-barrier removal projects in western North America are assumed to boost freshwater productivity via the transport of marine-derived...

  17. Effect on HBs antigen clearance of addition of pegylated interferon alfa-2a to nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy versus nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy alone in patients with HBe antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B and sustained undetectable plasma hepatitis B virus DNA: a randomised, controlled, open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlière, Marc; Rabiega, Pascaline; Ganne-Carrie, Nathalie; Serfaty, Lawrence; Marcellin, Patrick; Barthe, Yoann; Thabut, Dominique; Guyader, Dominique; Hezode, Christophe; Picon, Magali; Causse, Xavier; Leroy, Vincent; Bronowicki, Jean Pierre; Carrieri, Patrizia; Riachi, Ghassan; Rosa, Isabelle; Attali, Pierre; Molina, Jean Michel; Bacq, Yannick; Tran, Albert; Grangé, Jean Didier; Zoulim, Fabien; Fontaine, Hélène; Alric, Laurent; Bertucci, Inga; Bouvier-Alias, Magali; Carrat, Fabrice

    2017-03-01

    Findings from uncontrolled studies suggest that addition of pegylated interferon in patients with HBe antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B receiving nucleos(t)ide analogues with undetectable plasma hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA might increase HBs antigen (HBsAg) clearance. We aimed to assess this strategy. In this randomised, controlled, open-label trial, we enrolled patients aged 18-75 years with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B and documented negative HBV DNA while on stable nucleos(t)ide analogue regimens for at least 1 year from 30 hepatology tertiary care wards in France. Patients had to have an alanine aminotransferase concentration of less than or equal to five times the upper normal range, no hepatocellular carcinoma, and a serum α fetoprotein concentration of less than 50 ng/mL, normal dilated fundus oculi examination, and a negative pregnancy test in women. Patients with contraindications to pegylated interferon were not eligible. A centralised randomisation used computer-generated lists of random permuted blocks of four with stratification by HBsAg titres (sida et les hépatites virales (France Recherche Nord&sud Sida-vih Hepatites). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of broiler processing scalding and chilling profiles on carcass and breast meat yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, R J; Walker, J M; Bourassa, D V; Caudill, A B; Kiepper, B H; Zhuang, H

    2014-06-01

    The effect of scalding and chilling procedures was evaluated on carcass and breast meat weight and yield in broilers. On 4 separate weeks (trials), broilers were subjected to feed withdrawal, weighed, and then stunned and bled in 4 sequential batches (n = 16 broilers/batch, 64 broilers/trial). In addition, breast skin was collected before scalding, after scalding, and after defeathering for proximate analysis. Each batch of 16 carcasses was subjected to either hard (60.0°C for 1.5 min) or soft (52.8°C for 3 min) immersion scalding. Following defeathering and evisceration, 8 carcasses/batch were air-chilled (0.5°C, 120 min, 86% RH) and 8 carcasses/batch were immersion water-chilled (water and ice 0.5°C, 40 min). Carcasses were reweighed individually following evisceration and following chilling. Breast meat was removed from the carcass and weighed within 4 h postmortem. There were significant (P defeathered eviscerated weights did not differ between the scalding and chilling treatments. During air-chilling all carcasses lost weight, resulting in postchill carcass yield of 73.0% for soft-scalded and 71.3% for hard-scalded carcasses, a difference of 1.7%. During water-chilling all carcasses gained weight, resulting in heavier postchill carcass weights (2,031 g) than for air-chilled carcasses (1,899 g). Postchill carcass yields were correspondingly higher for water-chilled carcasses, 78.2% for soft-scalded and 76.1% for hard-scalded carcasses, a difference of 2.1%. Only in trials 1 and 4 was breast meat yield significantly lower for hard-scalded, air-chilled carcasses (16.1 and 17.5%) than the other treatments. Proximate analysis of skin sampled after scalding or defeathering did not differ significantly in moisture (P = 0.2530) or lipid (P = 0.6412) content compared with skin sampled before scalding. Skin protein content was significantly higher (P defeathering. The hard-scalding method used in this experiment did not result in increased skin lipid loss either

  19. Genetic estimation of hot carcass weight in indigenous Matebele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameter estimation for simple carcass traits has been confined to the improved goat breeds worldwide unlike in the unimproved breeds in developing countries where goats are numerous. Variance components for additive direct, additive maternal, permanent environmental maternal effects, the covariance ...

  20. A comparison between the body composition, carcass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jasper

    The carcass was then swivelled so that the spinal column was sawn through at right angles. The flank ..... Carcass quality of crossbred lambs expressing the callipyge phenotype born to ... Genetic studies on the South African Mutton Merino:.

  1. Ab initio calculation of the transition-state properties and addition rate constants for H + C2H2 and selected isotopic analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.B.; Wagner, A.F.; Bowman, J.M.; Schatz, G.C.; Christoffel, K.

    1982-01-01

    GVB-POL-CI ab initio calculations of the geometries, energetics, and normal mode frequencies of C 2 H 2 , C 2 H 3 , and the transition state for the addition reaction of H + C 2 H 2 are presented. In addition, normal mode frequencies for the isotopic variants D + C 2 D 2 , D + C 2 H 2 , and H + C 2 D 2 are preented. These results are compared to experimental values for C 2 H 2 and to ab initio values of Hagase and Kern, and semiempirical values of Keil, Lynch, Cowfer, and Michael. The results are also used to calculate the apparent bimolecular addition rate constant using conventional RRKM theory for chemical activation. The calculated rate constants and their isotopic variants are compared as a function of temperature and pressure to available experimental information. The agreement is little different from that obtained by Keil et al. with a similar calculation using semiempirical values for acetylene, transition-state, and vinyl radical properties. In particular, the calculated high-pressure limit of the rate constant appears to be at least 1 order of magnitude higher than the experimental limit. Several possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed

  2. Analogue MIMO Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNamara Darren

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we propose an analogue receiver that can perform turbo detection in MIMO systems. We present the case for a receiver that is built from nonlinear analogue devices, which perform detection in a "free-flow" network (no notion of iterations. This contribution can be viewed as an extension of analogue turbo decoder concepts to include MIMO detection. These first analogue implementations report reductions of few orders of magnitude in the number of required transistors and in consumed energy, and the same order of improvement in processing speed. It is anticipated that such analogue MIMO decoder could bring about the same advantages, when compared to traditional digital implementations.

  3. THE EFFECT OF ADDING WHOLE WHEAT GRAIN TO FEED MIXTURE ON SLAUGHTER YIELD AND CARCASS COMPOSITION IN GAME PHEASANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARIUSZ KOKOSZYŃSKI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The mean body weight of pheasant cocks (1226 g and hens (946.9 g receiving feed mixtures was lower than that of birds fed diets with wheat (♂ 1421.4 g, ♀ 953.2 g. The dressing percentage of both sexes pheasants fed wheat grain also (69.9% was only 0.3% lower than in birds receiving feed mixtures only (70.2%. The carcasses of birds (♂♀ fed the diet with whole wheat grain contained more breast muscles (251.2 g, leg muscles (198.8 g and other carcass components. The carcass percentage of breast muscles, leg muscles, wings and skin with fat was lower, and that of remainders of carcass higher in pheasants receiving wheat grain. In addition, the carcasses of pheasants (♂♀ fed the wheat diets were characterized by a higher weight of meat and fat and lower carcass meat and fat percentage.

  4. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Validity of methods

    Experiments were carried out In which it was assessed which Salmonella isolation method is the most productive one In the examination of broiler carcasses. Refrigerated, refrigerated and radiated (2.50 kGy), frozen and frozen and

  5. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis reports investigations using gamma-radiation to decontaminate poultry carcasses. The application to foods of doses of ionizing radiation sufficient to reduce the number of viable specific non-sporeforming pathogenic microorganisms so that none is detectable in the treated food by any standard method is termed radicidation. The doses used in this study were at such a level that no undesirable or unfavourable side-effects occurred. The effects of these doses were studied on salmonellae and other microorganisms present in, or associated with poultry carcasses and in liquid and on solid culture media as well. Decimal reduction (D 10 ) values were estimated. These represent the dose (kGy) required to achieve a reduction in initial colony count from N 0 to 0.1 N 0 . Together with the estimation of the numbers of Salmonella present per carcass the data were used to predict the effect of an ionizing radiation treatment of poultry. Data on the effect of ionizing radiation on the total microflora of poultry carcasses were also collected. (Auth.)

  6. Identifications of Carcass Characteristic for Estimating the Composition of Beef Carcass

    OpenAIRE

    Hafid, H; Gurnadi, R.E; Priyanto, R; Saefuddin, A

    2010-01-01

    The research aimed to identify carcass characteristic that can be used for estimating composition ofbeef carcass. It was used 165 Brahman crossbred cattle in this research. Carcass characteristics wereweight of a half cold carcass (WC) ranged from 96 to 151 kg, loin eye area (LEA) ranged from 22.09 to304.8 mm2, 12th rib fat thickness (FT12) ranged from 0.80 to 2.90 mm, meat ranged from 53.55 to 90.10kg and carcass fat ranged from 5.54 to 39.72 kg. Result showed that a half weight cold carcass...

  7. Efeito do probiótico sobre o desempenho, rendimento de carcaça e exigências nutricionais de proteína bruta de codornas de corte Effect of the addition of probiotic on performance, carcass yield and crude protein nutritional requirements of meat quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Kazue Otutumi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o efeito do probiótico (Lactobacillus sp. associado a diferentes níveis de proteína bruta (PB sobre o desempenho, as exigências nutricionais de PB, o rendimento de carcaça e de cortes de codornas de corte, foram utilizadas 2.304 codornas de corte, distribuídas em esquema fatorial 2 × 4 (com e sem probiótico e 15, 20, 25 ou 30% de PB, com duas repetições por nível de PB, repetido duas vezes no tempo (dois períodos experimentais, totalizando 32 unidades experimentais. A adição do probiótico reduziu o consumo de ração e melhorou a conversão alimentar no período de 1 a 7 dias de idade. De acordo com os pesos médios do modelo Linear Response Plateau (LRP, aos 7 e aos 14 dias, as estimativas de exigência foram de 27% de PB e aos 21, 28 e 35 dias, 22 a 24% de PB. A adição do probiótico não influenciou o rendimento de carcaça e de cortes. Para o rendimento de carcaça, a exigência de PB, de acordo com o modelo quadrático, foi estimada em 23,53%, mas, pelo modelo LRP, a estimativa reduziu para 17,13% de PB. Nas condições ambientais em que as codornas foram criadas, a adição do probiótico não influenciou o desempenho, as exigências nutricionais de PB e o rendimento de carcaça de codornas de corte. As exigências de PB para aves de até 14 dias de idade são de 27% e, após esta idade, reduzem para 22 a 24%.To evaluate the effect of probiotic (Lactobacillus sp. associated with different crude protein (CP levels on performance, CP nutritional requirements, carcass and cut yields of meat quails, a total of 2304 meat quails were distributed in a 2 × 4 factorial design (with and without probiotic and four CP levels - 15, 20, 25 and 30%, with two replications per treatment, repeated twice in time (two experimental periods, totalizing 32 experimental units. The addition of probiotic decreased the feed intake and improved the feed conversion rate at 1 to 7 days of age. According to the mean weight of the LRP model

  8. Video image analysis as a potential grading system for Uruguayan beef carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vote, D J; Bowling, M B; Cunha, B C N; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D; Montossi, F; Smith, G C

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted in 2 phases to evaluate the effectiveness of 1) the VIAscan Beef Carcass System (BCSys; hot carcass system) and the CVS BeefCam (chilled carcass system), used independently or in combination, to predict Uruguayan beef carcass fabrication yields; and 2) the CVS BeefCam to segregate Uruguayan beef carcasses into groups that differ in the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values of their LM steaks. The results from the meat yield phase of the present study indicated that the prediction of saleable meat yield percentages from Uruguayan beef carcasses by use of the BCSys or CVS BeefCam is similar to, or slightly better than, the use of USDA yield grade calculated to the nearest 0.1 and was much more effective than prediction based on Uruguay National Institute of Meat (INAC) grades. A further improvement in fabrication yield prediction could be obtained by use of a dual-component video image analysis (VIA) system. Whichever method of VIA prediction of fabrication yield is used, a single predicted value of fabrication yield for every carcass removes an impediment to the implementation of a value-based pricing system. Additionally, a VIA method of predicting carcass yield has the advantage over the current INAC classification system in that estimates would be produced by an instrument rather than by packing plant personnel, which would appeal to cattle producers. Results from the tenderness phase of the study indicated that the CVS BeefCam output variable for marbling was not (P > 0.05) able to segregate steer and heifer carcasses into groups that differed in WBSF values. In addition, the results of segregating steer and heifer carcasses according to muscle color output variables indicate that muscle maturity and skeletal maturity were useful for segregating carcasses according to differences in WBSF values of their steaks (P > 0.05). Use of VIA to predict beef carcass fabrication yields could improve accuracy and reduce subjectivity in comparison

  9. Efecto de la Adición de dos Tipos de Almidones en las Propiedades Texturales de Queso Análogo / Effect of the Addition of Two Types of Starch in the Textural Properties of Analogue Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Agudelo Chaparro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se estudió el efecto que tienen dos tipos de almidónmodificado, maíz ceroso y papa, en las propiedades texturalesde un queso análogo con fibra prebiótica soluble. Se elaboraronquesos semiblandos, con humedad de 48%, reemplazando el10% de proteína por los almidones modificados, dando lugar atres tratamientos: Formulación control (FC, formulación maízceroso (FMC y formulación papa (FP. Se observó que la adiciónde los almidones afecta significativamente (P<0,05 la dureza, laadhesividad, la gomosidad, la elasticidad y la masticabilidad delproducto. /  Abstract. The effect they have two types of modified starch (waxycorn and potato in the textural properties of an analogue cheesewas studied. Semi-soft cheeses were made with 48% moisture,replacing the 10% protein by modified starches, resulting in threetreatments: Control formulation (CF, waxy corn formulation(WCF and potato formulation (PF. The study allowed note thatthe addition of starches significantly affect (P<0.05 the hardness,adhesiveness, gumminess, elasticity and chewiness of the product

  10. Record and foraging behavior of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in vertebrate carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Tagliatti Maciel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the importance of participation by insects at cadaverous decomposition processes, and the limited use of the family Formicidae in criminal investigations, this study aims to record the foraging activity of four genera of ants in carcasses of birds and mammals. Observations occurred accidentally in two locations in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In total, seven species of ants foraging in eight vertebrate carcasses were recorded. In addition, the study reported for the first time the presence of Wasmannia in carcasses in Brazil.

  11. The Effect of Carcass Quality on the Grid versus Dressed Weight Carcass Revenue Differential

    OpenAIRE

    Fausti, Scott W.; Qasmi, Bashir A.; Diersen, Matthew A.; Stockton, Matthew C.; Adamson, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Our study investigates the fed cattle grid pricing system and its premium and discount incentive mechanism over time. We hypothesize that the influence of an animal's carcass quality attributes on a price grid's incentive mechanism can be revealed by evaluating the effect of carcass quality on an individual animal's grid determined carcass premium or discount. A pooled-crossed sectional data set containing carcass information on 604 fed steers evaluated weekly on the USDA-AMS publically repor...

  12. Carcass percentage and quality of broilers given a ration containing probiotics and prebiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Daud

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics is a feed additive in the form of life microorganisms that balance microorganism population in the digestive tract. While prebiotics is a feed substance which is not digested, and selectively improves growth and activity of useful microbes in large intestine. The objectives of this research were to study the carcass percentage and carcass quality of broilers given a ration containing probiotics and prebiotics. Four hundred eighty day-old chicks of broiler Arbor Acres strain were divided into four dietary treatments and three replications (40 birds / replicate. Ration used was consisted of: R1 = basal ration + 0.01% antibiotics (Zinc bacitracin, R2 = basal ration + 0.2% probiotics (Bacillus spp, R3 = basal ration + 0.2% probiotics + 0.5% prebiotics and R4 = basal ration + 0.5% prebiotics (katuk leaves. The variables observed were: carcass percentage, fat content in the abdomen, liver and carcass, cholesterol content in the liver, carcass and blood serum. The results showed that the carcass quality of broiler received probiotics and prebiotics either independently or the combination was significantly (P<0.05 different. The fat content of liver and thigh, and breast cholesterol of R3 was significantly (P<0.05 lower than that of the control (R1. It is concluded that combination of probiotics and prebiotics were able to decrease the carcass fat and cholesterol content at six week of age.

  13. Dressing percentage and Carcass characteristics of four Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dressing percentage and Carcass characteristics of four Indigenous cattle breeds in Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Their feed intake, live and carcasses weights and the weights of their major carcass components and ...

  14. Carcass enrichment detects Salmonella from broiler carcasses found to be negative by other sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most frequently used methods to recover Salmonella from processed broiler chicken carcasses involve carcass rinsing or neck skin maceration. These methods are nondestructive and practical, but have limited sensitivity. The standard carcass rinse method uses only 7.5% of the residual rinsate an...

  15. Effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of buried human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Denton, John; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Ivaneanu, Tatiana; Leentjes, Sarah; Janaway, Rob C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2012-04-10

    Recent casework in Belgium involving the search for human remains buried with lime, demonstrated the need for more detailed understanding of the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition and its micro-environment. Six pigs (Sus scrofa) were used as body analogues in field experiments. They were buried without lime, with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)(2)) and with quicklime (CaO) in shallow graves in sandy loam soil in Belgium and recovered after 6 months of burial. Observations from these field recoveries informed additional laboratory experiments that were undertaken at the University of Bradford, UK. The combined results of these studies demonstrate that despite conflicting evidence in the literature, hydrated lime and quicklime both delay the decay of the carcass during the first 6 months. This study has implications for the investigation of clandestine burials and for a better understanding of archaeological plaster burials. Knowledge of the effects of lime on decomposition processes also has bearing on practices involving burial of animal carcasses and potentially the management of mass graves and mass disasters by humanitarian organisations and DVI teams. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Carcass Traits on Carcass Prices of Holstein Steers in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, M.; Cho, K. H.; Lee, S. S.; Choy, Y. H.; Kim, H. S.; Cho, C. I.; Choi, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of carcass traits on carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea. Phenotypic data consisted of 76,814 slaughtered Holsteins (1 to 6 yrs) from all over Korea. The means for live body weight at slaughter (BWT), chilled carcass weight (CWT), dressing percentage (DP), quantity grade index (QGI), eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS), carcass unit price (CUP), and carcass sell prices (CSP) were 729.0 kg, 414.2 kg, 56.79...

  17. Growth performance, body measurements, carcass composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gizzard percentage was significantly greater in males, and heart percentage was significantly greater in females. Due to their high bodyweight, good FCR, and favourable carcass composition, SM3 Heavy male ducks are more useful as broiler duck than females. Keywords: carcasses, digestive system, growth, Pekin duck, ...

  18. Effects of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide application during defeathering on the microbiological quality of broiler carcasses prior to evisceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, J A; Whittemore, A D

    1997-04-01

    The microbiological quality and skin appearance of New York dressed broiler carcasses were determined in two separate experiments after a water control, acetic acid, or H2O2 spray during defeathering. Broilers were picked up from a local processor and transported in coops to the pilot facility. In both experiments, commercial processing parameters were followed up to the defeathering step. After feather removal, the vents of all carcasses were blocked with a cotton plug to prevent contamination of the whole carcass rinse diluent with fecal material from the lower gut. The neck and feet were removed, and the carcasses were placed in individual plastic bags in preparation for a whole carcass rinse. Results showed a statistically significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the log10 total aerobic plate counts for carcasses treated with 1% acetic acid in comparison to the water control (log10 cfu counts = 3.93 and 4.53, respectively). No differences were observed in skin appearance due to the 1% acid treatment. The addition of 0.5, 1, or 1.5% H2O2 to spray waters had no effect on microbiological quality of the carcasses when compared to the water control (4.92, 5.01, 4.91, and 4.99 log10 counts, respectively). The skin of carcasses treated with hydrogen peroxide, regardless of the concentration was bleached and bloated.

  19. Allelic frequencies and association with carcass traits of six genes in local subpopulations of Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimaki, Takahiro; Ibi, Takayuki; Siqintuya; Kobayashi, Naohiko; Matsuhashi, Tamako; Akiyama, Takayuki; Yoshida, Emi; Imai, Kazumi; Matsui, Mayu; Uemura, Keiichi; Eto, Hisayoshi; Watanabe, Naoto; Fujita, Tatsuo; Saito, Yosuke; Komatsu, Tomohiko; Hoshiba, Hiroshi; Mannen, Hideyuki; Sasazaki, Shinji; Kunieda, Tetsuo

    2016-04-01

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is expected to accelerate the genetic improvement of Japanese Black cattle. However, verification of the effects of the genes for MAS in different subpopulations is required prior to the application of MAS. In this study, we investigated the allelic frequencies and genotypic effects for carcass traits of six genes, which can be used in MAS, in eight local subpopulations. These genes are SCD, FASN and SREBP1, which are associated with the fatty acid composition of meat, and NCAPG, MC1R and F11, which are associated with carcass weight, coat color and blood coagulation abnormality, respectively. The frequencies of desirable alleles of SCD and FASN were relatively high and that of NCAPG was relatively low, and NCAPG was significantly associated with several carcass traits, including carcass weight. The proportions of genotypic variance explained by NCAPG to phenotypic variance were 4.83 for carcass weight. We thus confirmed that NCAPG is a useful marker for selection of carcass traits in these subpopulations. In addition, we found that the desirable alleles of six genes showed no negative effects on carcass traits. Therefore, selection using these genes to improve target traits should not have negative impacts on carcass traits. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Analogue circuits simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendo, C

    1988-09-01

    Most analogue simulators have evolved from SPICE. The history and description of SPICE-like simulators are given. From a mathematical formulation of the electronic circuit the following analysis are possible: DC, AC, transient, noise, distortion, Worst Case and Statistical.

  1. Relationships Between Live Body and Carcass Measurements and Carcass Components in Omani Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mahgoub

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty two Omani sheep including eight intact males. 16 castrated males and eight intact females were fed ad libitum a concentrate diet (l6% CP plus chopped Rhodesgrass hay (8% CP from weaning until slaughter at an average weight of 26 kg. Correlation and regression analyses were carried out to evaluate relationships between live body and carcass measurements with major body components. Generally there were positive correlations between slaughter weight, empty body weight (EBW and hot carcass weight with total carcass muscle (r2 =0.57, 0.59, 0.59. fat (r2= 0.47, 0.48, 0.68 and bone (r2 = 0.51, 0.44, 0.31 contents respectively. There were also positive correlations (r2 = 0.44- 0.59 between linear live body and carcass measurements with carcass muscle content. The depth of tissue over the 11th rib (GR had a high positive correlation (r2= 0.67 with total carcass fat content. The weight of most individual bones and muscles had positive correlations (r2=0.39 - 0.85 with carcass muscle and bone content. There was a positive correlation between weight chuck (r2 = 0.62, brisket and shank (r2< 0.38, leg (r2 = 0.79 and loin (r2 = 0.45 carcass cuts with total carcass muscle content. Muscle content in all carcass cuts had a positive correlation (r2 = 0.46-0.86 with total carcass muscle content. Bone content in all carcass cuts had a high positive correlation (r2 = 0.46-0.90 with the total carcass bone content. A 3-variahle (body length,  chest depth and leg length and a 4-variable (hot carcass weight , hook width,  rib width and GR models were generated which accounted for 84% and 70% of the variation in the total muscle content, respectively. This study showed that live body and carcass measurements have significant relationships with carcass components in Omani sheep. These relationships may be utilized for prediction of carcass composition in live animals as well as for carcass quality assessment.

  2. Do termites avoid carcasses? Behavioral responses depend on the nature of the carcasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Boon Neoh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Undertaking behavior is a significant adaptation to social life in enclosed nests. Workers are known to remove dead colony members from the nest. Such behavior prevents the spread of pathogens that may be detrimental to a colony. To date, little is known about the ethological aspects of how termites deal with carcasses. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we tested the responses to carcasses of four species from different subterranean termite taxa: Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe (lower termites and Microcerotermes crassus Snyder and Globitermes sulphureus Haviland (higher termites. We also used different types of carcasses (freshly killed, 1-, 3-, and 7-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses and mutilated nestmates to investigate whether the termites exhibited any behavioral responses that were specific to carcasses in certain conditions. Some behavioral responses were performed specifically on certain types of carcasses or mutilated termites. C. formosanus and R. speratus exhibited the following behaviors: (1 the frequency and time spent in antennating, grooming, and carcass removal of freshly killed, 1-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses were high, but these behaviors decreased as the carcasses aged; (2 the termites repeatedly crawled under the aging carcass piles; and (3 only newly dead termites were consumed as a food source. In contrast, M. crassus and G. sulphureus workers performed relatively few behavioral acts. Our results cast a new light on the previous notion that termites are necrophobic in nature. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the behavioral response towards carcasses depends largely on the nature of the carcasses and termite species, and the response is more complex than was previously thought. Such behavioral responses likely are associated with the threat posed to the colony by the carcasses and the feeding habits and nesting ecology of a given species.

  3. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of three Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breed affected the weights of internal fat depots. The findings indicate that breed affected the carcass characteristics of the three Ethiopian goat breeds. Keywords: Indigenous goats; carcass yield; carcass composition; primal cuts; non-carcass components. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol. 37 (4) 2007: pp.221- ...

  4. Live animal and carcass characteristics of South African indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sex, age and pre-slaughter conditioning on live animal, carcass dimensions and carcass composition were evaluated. The goats were large with live weight, carcass weight and carcass dimensions in the range of the large breeds of southern Africa. They had a high lean and low fat content. Intact males were ...

  5. 9 CFR 381.79 - Passing of carcasses and parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passing of carcasses and parts. 381.79 Section 381.79 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Carcasses and Parts § 381.79 Passing of carcasses and parts. Each carcass and all organs and other parts of...

  6. 9 CFR 381.77 - Carcasses held for further examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses held for further examination. 381.77 Section 381.77 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Carcasses and Parts § 381.77 Carcasses held for further examination. Each carcass, including all parts...

  7. Development and validation of equations utilizing lamb vision system output to predict lamb carcass fabrication yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, B C N; Belk, K E; Scanga, J A; LeValley, S B; Tatum, J D; Smith, G C

    2004-07-01

    This study was performed to validate previous equations and to develop and evaluate new regression equations for predicting lamb carcass fabrication yields using outputs from a lamb vision system-hot carcass component (LVS-HCC) and the lamb vision system-chilled carcass LM imaging component (LVS-CCC). Lamb carcasses (n = 149) were selected after slaughter, imaged hot using the LVS-HCC, and chilled for 24 to 48 h at -3 to 1 degrees C. Chilled carcasses yield grades (YG) were assigned on-line by USDA graders and by expert USDA grading supervisors with unlimited time and access to the carcasses. Before fabrication, carcasses were ribbed between the 12th and 13th ribs and imaged using the LVS-CCC. Carcasses were fabricated into bone-in subprimal/primal cuts. Yields calculated included 1) saleable meat yield (SMY); 2) subprimal yield (SPY); and 3) fat yield (FY). On-line (whole-number) USDA YG accounted for 59, 58, and 64%; expert (whole-number) USDA YG explained 59, 59, and 65%; and expert (nearest-tenth) USDA YG accounted for 60, 60, and 67% of the observed variation in SMY, SPY, and FY, respectively. The best prediction equation developed in this trial using LVS-HCC output and hot carcass weight as independent variables explained 68, 62, and 74% of the variation in SMY, SPY, and FY, respectively. Addition of output from LVS-CCC improved predictive accuracy of the equations; the combined output equations explained 72 and 66% of the variability in SMY and SPY, respectively. Accuracy and repeatability of measurement of LM area made with the LVS-CCC also was assessed, and results suggested that use of LVS-CCC provided reasonably accurate (R2 = 0.59) and highly repeatable (repeatability = 0.98) measurements of LM area. Compared with USDA YG, use of the dual-component lamb vision system to predict cut yields of lamb carcasses improved accuracy and precision, suggesting that this system could have an application as an objective means for pricing carcasses in a value

  8. Effects of Black Pepper (, Turmeric Powder ( and Coriander Seeds ( and Their Combinations as Feed Additives on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Some Blood Parameters and Humoral Immune Response of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abou-Elkhair

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum, turmeric powder (Curcuma longa, coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1, 0.5% turmeric powder (T2, 2% coriander seeds (T3, a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4, a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5, and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6. Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001 were observed in broilers on T1, T3, T5, and T6 compared to control. Dietary supplements with T1, T2, T3, and T6 improved the cumulative G:F of broilers during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001 compared with control. The dressing percentage and edible giblets were not influenced by dietary supplements, while higher values of relative weight of the liver (p<0.05 were obtained in T5 and T6 compared to control. The addition of feed supplements in T5 and T6 significantly increased serum total protein and decreased serum glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase concentrations compared with the control group (p<0.05. Broilers on T6 showed significant decrease in the serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase concentration (p<0.05 compared to control. The broilers having T5 and T6 supplemented feed had relatively greater antibody titre (p<0.001 at 35 d of age than control. It is concluded that dietary supplements with black pepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens.

  9. Effects of black pepper (piper nigrum), turmeric powder (curcuma longa) and coriander seeds (coriandrum sativum) and their combinations as feed additives on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elkhair, R; Ahmed, H A; Selim, S

    2014-06-01

    Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1), 0.5% turmeric powder (T2), 2% coriander seeds (T3), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5), and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6). Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (ppepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens.

  10. Procedures for evaluating pork carcass and cut composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemens, A.L.H.

    1989-01-01

    Five studies were completed to investigate various production and evaluation procedures related to pork carcass composition and meat quality. A comparison of market hog characteristics of pigs selected by feeder pig frame size or current USDA feeder pig standards was made. In general, feeder pig frame size did differentiate between carcass skeletal traits (i.e., carcass length, radius length). However, frame sizing did not improve on current feeder pig grades in discriminating between carcass composition characteristics. Liquid scintillation of potassium-40 was used to estimate pork carcass composition of 124 boars barrows and gilts, ranging from 23 to 114 kg live weight. Pigs were counted live, slaughtered and one side of the carcass was counted. The side was then ground and sampled for percent protein, fat and moisture. Carcass weight and 40 K determined potassium of the carcass explain more of the variation in carcass composition than live animal traits. Carcass measurements were used to determine value and percentages of fat standardized lean, protein, fat and moisture in the carcass using 265 barrow and gilt carcasses. In a separate study, belly composition was estimated from carcass and belly parameters (n = 338). Ribbed carcasses measurements were almost always superior to unribbed carcass measurements when estimating carcass or belly composition. Tenth rib fat depth was the most useful single variable for predicting belly fat, protein, moisture and lean. Some precision and accuracy were lost when using parameters from unribbed carcasses to estimate carcass or belly composition as compared to including parameters from ribbed carcasses. The sensory and nutritive value of cooked pork center loin chops and roasts were investigated. Levels of fat cover and internal temperature did not greatly affect cholesterol content

  11. Ocean Disposal of Marine Mammal Carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean dumping of marine mammal carcasses is allowed with a permit issued by EPA under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. Includes permit information, potential environmental impacts, and instructions for getting the general permit.

  12. 10491 PERFORMANCE, CARCASS, HAEMATOLOGY AND BLOOD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    such studies is the health assessment impact of unconventional feedstuff ... investigate the performance, carcass, haematology and serum metabolites of hybro .... muscular work required to process these former diets which were relatively ...

  13. Effects of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (Paylean) to physical and immunological castrates (Improvest) in a commercial setting on carcass cutting yields and loin quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, B K; Gerlemann, G D; Carr, S N; Rincker, P J; Schroeder, A L; Petry, D B; McKeith, F K; Allee, G L; Dilger, A C

    2014-08-01

    Effects of feeding ractopamine (RAC; 5 mg/kg) to physically castrated (PC) and immunologically castrated (IC) pigs on carcass characteristics, cutting yields, and loin quality were evaluated using 285 carcasses. Male pigs were randomly assigned to sex treatments (PC and IC) at birth and fed the same nursery diets before allotment into 32 pens with 22 pigs per pen in a grow-finish barn. Pigs in the PC group were physically castrated at approximately 5 d of age, and pigs in the IC group were administered Improvest at 11 and 18 wk of age. Diet treatments (control or RAC) were initiated on study d 87. Pigs were marketed at 12 d (4.5 wk post-second Improvest dose), 19 d (5.5 wk post-second Improvest dose), and 33 d (7.5 wk post-second Improvest dose) following the start of final diet treatments. Three carcasses per pen were selected for evaluation of cutting yields and loin quality. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS with fixed effects of sex, diet, market group, and their interaction; carcass (N = 285) was the experimental unit. Carcasses from RAC-fed pigs were heavier (P cutting yields, RAC-fed carcasses had greater (P ≤ 0.03) bone-in lean and total carcass cutting yields than control-fed carcasses while there were no differences (P > 0.05) between RAC-fed and control-fed carcasses when evaluating LM color, marbling, firmness, pH, drip loss, and tenderness. Carcasses from IC pigs had greater (P cutting yields than PC carcasses. There were minimal differences (P cutting yields, LM color, marbling and firmness scores, pH, purge loss, composition, and tenderness. The results from this study indicated RAC and immunological castration were additive in terms of improving carcass cutting yields while having minimal effects on pork quality.

  14. Performance and carcass characteristics of lambs fed diets with fat and vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Paiva Paula Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to determine the influence of diets with inclusion of protected fat and vitamin E on performance, yield and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs with different weights. Thirty-two non-castrated Santa Ines lambs were fed diets with a ratio of 40% forage and 60% concentrate ad libitum, with presence or absence of protected fat and/or vitamin E, in a total of four diets. Two weights of early containment were also considered: between 20 and 25 kg and between 30 and 35 kg. All animals were slaughtered at 84 days of confinement. Animals fed diets without addition of protected fat, regardless of the use of vitamin E, had the highest intakes of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and ash, and decreased intake of ether extract. The variables investigated did not affect daily weight gain and total gain. Feed conversion was better for the lighter confined animals not fed protected fat. The heavier feedlot lambs fed diets with vitamin E showed higher cold carcass. The warm carcass for the lighter animals confined fed with vitamin E, and the heavier ones, fed with protected fat and vitamin E, showed the best yields of cold carcass. Objective measures of the carcass cold had the highest mean for heavier feedlot lambs. The addition of fat in the diet reduces the intake of dry matter and increases the ether extract. Although the inclusion of vitamin has no effect on intake of nutrients, it protects the carcasses from losses during cooling, and weight differences at containment directly reflect the measures of the carcasses.

  15. Re-visiting the detection of porcine cysticercosis based on full carcass dissections of naturally Taenia solium infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chembensofu, Mwelwa; Mwape, K E; Van Damme, I; Hobbs, E; Phiri, I K; Masuku, M; Zulu, G; Colston, A; Willingham, A L; Devleesschauwer, B; Van Hul, A; Chota, A; Speybroeck, N; Berkvens, D; Dorny, P; Gabriël, S

    2017-11-16

    Taenia solium is a neglected zoonotic parasite. The performances of existing tools for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis need further assessment, and their shortcomings call for alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of tongue palpation and circulating antigen detection for the detection of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs of slaughter age compared to full carcass dissections (considered the gold standard). Additionally, alternative postmortem dissection procedures were investigated. A total of 68 rural pigs of slaughter age randomly selected in the Eastern Province of Zambia were dissected. Dissections were conducted on full carcasses (or half carcass in case cysticerci were already detected in the first half), including all the organs. Total cysticercus counts, location and stages were recorded and collected cysticerci were identified morphologically and molecularly. All sera were analysed with the B158/B60 antigen detecting ELISA (Ag-ELISA). Key findings were the high occurrence of T. solium infected pigs (56%) and the presence of T. solium cysticerci in the livers of 26% of infected animals. More than half of the infected carcasses contained viable cysticerci. Seven carcasses had T. hydatigena cysticerci (10%), out of which five carcasses were co-infected with T. hydatigena and T. solium; two carcasses (3%) had only T. hydatigena cysticerci. Compared to full carcass dissection, the specificity of the Ag-ELISA to detect infected carcasses was estimated at 67%, the sensitivity at 68%, increasing to 90% and 100% for the detection of carcasses with one or more viable cysticerci, and more than 10 viable cysts, respectively. Tongue palpation only detected 10% of the cases, half carcass dissection 84%. Selective dissection of the diaphragm, tongue and heart or masseters can be considered, with an estimated sensitivity of 71%, increasing to 86% in carcasses with more than 10 cysticerci. Depending on the aim of the

  16. Re-visiting the detection of porcine cysticercosis based on full carcass dissections of naturally Taenia solium infected pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwelwa Chembensofu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taenia solium is a neglected zoonotic parasite. The performances of existing tools for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis need further assessment, and their shortcomings call for alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of tongue palpation and circulating antigen detection for the detection of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs of slaughter age compared to full carcass dissections (considered the gold standard. Additionally, alternative postmortem dissection procedures were investigated. A total of 68 rural pigs of slaughter age randomly selected in the Eastern Province of Zambia were dissected. Dissections were conducted on full carcasses (or half carcass in case cysticerci were already detected in the first half, including all the organs. Total cysticercus counts, location and stages were recorded and collected cysticerci were identified morphologically and molecularly. All sera were analysed with the B158/B60 antigen detecting ELISA (Ag-ELISA. Results Key findings were the high occurrence of T. solium infected pigs (56% and the presence of T. solium cysticerci in the livers of 26% of infected animals. More than half of the infected carcasses contained viable cysticerci. Seven carcasses had T. hydatigena cysticerci (10%, out of which five carcasses were co-infected with T. hydatigena and T. solium; two carcasses (3% had only T. hydatigena cysticerci. Compared to full carcass dissection, the specificity of the Ag-ELISA to detect infected carcasses was estimated at 67%, the sensitivity at 68%, increasing to 90% and 100% for the detection of carcasses with one or more viable cysticerci, and more than 10 viable cysts, respectively. Tongue palpation only detected 10% of the cases, half carcass dissection 84%. Selective dissection of the diaphragm, tongue and heart or masseters can be considered, with an estimated sensitivity of 71%, increasing to 86% in carcasses with more than

  17. ACTINOMYCIN D ANALOGUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to new compounds being structurally and functionally similar to Actinomycin D and to combinatorial libraries of such compounds. The Actinomycin D analogues according to the present invention comprise two linear or cyclic peptide moieties constituted by $g...

  18. Cobalamin analogues in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Obeid, Rima; Herrmann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Haptocorrin (HC) carries cobalamin analogues (CorA), but whether CorA are produced in the body is unknown. All cobalamins (Cbl) to the foetus are delivered by the Cbl-specific protein transcobalamin (TC), and therefore analysis of cord serum for CorA may help to clarify the origin...

  19. Mercury transfer from fish carcasses to scavengers in boreal lakes: the use of stable isotopes of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarica, Jose; Amyot, Marc; Hare, Landis; Blanchfield, Paul; Bodaly, R.A.; Hintelmann, Holger; Lucotte, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Scavengers play an important role in the flow of energy, matter and pollutants through food webs. For methylmercury (MeHg), which biomagnifies along food chains, the movement of this metal from fish carcasses to aquatic scavengers has never been demonstrated. We measured the transfer of MeHg from fish carcasses to scavenging leeches in two lakes and in the laboratory. The results of a field experiment indicated that leeches were attracted to fish carcasses and that their Hg concentrations increased by as much as a factor of 5 during the time that Hg-rich fish were available for consumption. Under controlled conditions, we exposed leeches to 202 Hg-labelled fish that had been marked in situ following a whole lake 202 Hg addition. Leeches rapidly accumulated Hg from carcasses, and within two weeks assumed the isotopic signature of the carcasses. Necrophagous invertebrates could therefore return Hg from fish carcasses to other trophic levels in lakes. - Scavengers such as leeches accumulate mercury from fish carcasses which then may return into the food web

  20. A comparison of carcass decomposition and associated insect succession onto burnt and unburnt pig carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Craig S; Dadour, Ian R; Voss, Sasha C

    2017-05-01

    The rate of decomposition and insect succession onto decomposing pig carcasses were investigated following burning of carcasses. Ten pig carcasses (40-45 kg) were exposed to insect activity during autumn (March-April) in Western Australia. Five replicates were burnt to a degree described by the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) level #2, while five carcasses were left unburnt as controls. Burning carcasses greatly accelerated decomposition in contrast to unburnt carcasses. Physical modifications following burning such as skin discolouration, splitting of abdominal tissue and leathery consolidation of skin eliminated evidence of bloat and altered microambient temperatures associated with carcasses throughout decomposition. Insect species identified on carcasses were consistent between treatment groups; however, a statistically significant difference in insect succession onto remains was evident between treatments (PERMANOVA F (1, 224)  = 14.23, p < 0.01) during an 8-day period that corresponds with the wet stage of decomposition. Differences were noted in the arrival time of late colonisers (Coleoptera) and the development of colonising insects between treatment groups. Differences in the duration of decomposition stages and insect assemblages indicate that burning has an effect on both rate of decomposition and insect succession. The findings presented here provide baseline data for entomological casework involving burnt remains criminal investigations.

  1. Copepod carcasses as microbial hot spots for pelagic denitrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Ronnie N.; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Larsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Copepods are exposed to a high non-predatory mortality and their decomposing carcasses act as microniches with intensified microbial activity. Sinking carcasses could thereby represent anoxic microenvironment sustaining anaerobic microbial pathways in otherwise oxic water columns. Using non...... investigated carcass samples and thereby documented the potential for microbial denitrification in carcasses. The nirS gene was occasionally expressed in live copepods, but not as consistently as in carcasses. Incubations of sinking carcasses in 15NO2 3 amended seawater demonstrated denitrification, of which...

  2. CEC natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    The second meeting of the CEC Natural Analogue Working Group took place on June 17-19, 1986, hosted by the Swiss NAGRA in Interlaken (CH). A review of recent progress in natural analogue programmes was carried out, and complemented by detailed discussions about geomicrobiology, archaeological analogues, natural colloids, and use of analogues to increase confidence in safety assessments for radioactive waste disposal. A statement drafted by the Group, and the presentations made, are put together in this report

  3. CEC Natural Analogue Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    The central theme for the third meeting of the CEC analogue working group was ''How can analogue data be used for performance assessments, both in support of the results and for presentation to the public''. This report puts together the most recent achievements in this field, together with a review of on-going natural analogue programmes

  4. Insulin analogues with improved absorption characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, J; Hansen, J F; Langkjaer, L; Markussen, J; Ribel, U; Sørensen, A R

    1992-01-01

    The insulin preparations available today are not ideal for therapy as s.c. injection does not provide a physiological insulin profile. With the aim to improve the absorption properties recombinant DNA technology has been utilized to design novel insulin molecules with changed physico-chemical characteristics and hence altered subcutaneous absorption kinetics. Soluble, long-acting human insulin analogues in which the isoelectric point has been increased from 5.4 to approx. 7 are absorbed very slowly, providing a more constant basal insulin delivery with lower day-to-day variation than present protracted preparations. In addition they have better storage stability. Rapid-acting human insulin analogues with largely reduced self-association are absorbed substantially faster from subcutaneous tissue than current regular insulin and thus are better suited for bolus injection. The absorption kinetics of these analogues have been able to explain the mechanism behind the dose effect on insulin absorption rate.

  5. Natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.

    1986-01-01

    A Natural Analogue Working Group was established by the Commission of the European Communities in 1985. The purpose of this group is to bring together modellers with earth scientists and others, so that maximum benefit can be obtained from natural analogue studies with a view to safe geological disposal of radioactive waste. The first meeting of this group was held in Brussels from November 5 to 7, 1985. The discussions mainly concerned the identification of the modellers' needs and of the earth scientists' capacity to provide for them. Following the debates, a written statement was produced by the Group; this document forms the core of the present Report. Notes and outlines of many of the presentations made are grouped in four appendixes. The valuable contribution of all those involved in the meeting is gratefully acknowledged

  6. Effect Of Dietary Protein Levels On The Performance And Carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect Of Dietary Protein Levels On The Performance And Carcass ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Response criteria such as weight gain and feed conversion ratio, among others, and carcass characteristics were measured.

  7. Performance and carcass yield of sexed broiler chickens reared on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and carcass yield of sexed broiler chickens reared on two housing types. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... This study thereby determined the performance, carcass yield and meat composition of 300 sexed ...

  8. Performance and carcass characteristics of Yankasa ram fed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remember me ... and 50% maize and wheat offal mixture, were better when compared to the control (B0) and other test diet in terms of performance and carcass characteristics. ... Key words: Performance, carcass, biscuit waste, Yankasa ram.

  9. Aspartame and Its Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

    1981-04-01

    The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  10. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter species isolated from chicken carcasses during processing in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, E; Momtaz, H; Ameri, M; Ghasemian-Safaei, H; Ali-Kasemi, M

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from chicken carcasses during different stages of broiler processing in a major commercial poultry processing plant in southwestern Iran. Overall, 84 chicken carcasses were sampled from 4 sites along the processing line during a total of 7 visits. In addition, 14 water samples from the chiller tank were taken. Using the cultural method, 186 of 336 (55.4%) carcasses were positive for Campylobacter. Campylobacter jejuni was more frequently isolated (89.4%) than Campylobacter coli (10.6%). The frequency of Campylobacter spp. on carcasses was 54.8% after defeathering, 51.2% after evisceration, 69.0% 20 min after the chilling period started, and 46.4% 24 h after the chilling period completed. Campylobacter was positive in 85.7% of the samples taken from the chilling water. The frequency of Campylobacter spp.-positive carcasses was reduced in complete chilled chickens but not during the slaughtering process. Susceptibilities of Campylobacter isolates were determined for 10 antimicrobial drugs using the disk diffusion method. Of the 198 Campylobacter isolates tested, 92.9% were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. Resistance to tetracycline was the most common finding (78.3%), followed by resistance to ciprofloxacin (62.1%), nalidixic acid (58.6%), and enrofloxacin (44.4%).

  11. Improving the microbial safety and quality of quail carcasses by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, A.H.; Khalaf, H.H.; Afifi, E.A.; Nasr, E.H.

    2002-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the possibility of using gamma irradiation for improving the microbial safety quality of quail carcasses. One hundred quail carcasses were examined for the presence of salmonella. The examination illustrated that 70 carcasses from all examined carcasses were positive for salmonella. therefore, the contaminated quail carcasses were gamma irradiated at 2, 4 and 6 kGy doses and the effects of these treatments on the microbiological aspects and chemical properties of samples under investigation were evaluated. The results indicated that, the chemical composition of samples did not alter by gamma irradiation treatment. Furthermore, irradiation of samples at doses of 2, 4 and kGy greatly reduced its microbial count. Moreover, irradiation doses of 2 and 4 kGy completely destroyed salmonella and enterococcus faecalis, respectively. In addition, the acid value, peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid value were increased after irradiation. On the other hand, irradiation treatment had no real effects on the total volatile basic nitrogen content and amino acid composition of samples under investigation

  12. Quantum analogue computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendon, Vivien M; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J

    2010-08-13

    We briefly review what a quantum computer is, what it promises to do for us and why it is so hard to build one. Among the first applications anticipated to bear fruit is the quantum simulation of quantum systems. While most quantum computation is an extension of classical digital computation, quantum simulation differs fundamentally in how the data are encoded in the quantum computer. To perform a quantum simulation, the Hilbert space of the system to be simulated is mapped directly onto the Hilbert space of the (logical) qubits in the quantum computer. This type of direct correspondence is how data are encoded in a classical analogue computer. There is no binary encoding, and increasing precision becomes exponentially costly: an extra bit of precision doubles the size of the computer. This has important consequences for both the precision and error-correction requirements of quantum simulation, and significant open questions remain about its practicality. It also means that the quantum version of analogue computers, continuous-variable quantum computers, becomes an equally efficient architecture for quantum simulation. Lessons from past use of classical analogue computers can help us to build better quantum simulators in future.

  13. Comparison of the loads and antibiotic-resistance profiles of Enterococcus species from conventional and organic chicken carcasses in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y-J; Park, J-H; Seo, K-H

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in poultry meat are a threat to public health. In this study, we compared the Enterococcus spp. loads and antibiotic-resistance profiles between carcasses of conventionally and organically raised chickens. A total of 144 chicken carcasses (72 conventional and 72 organic) was collected from local retail markets in Seoul, South Korea. Overall, 77.7% (112 of 144; 75% conventional and 80% organic) of chicken carcasses were positive for Enterococcus. The mean loads of Enterococcus spp. were greater in conventional chicken carcasses, at 2.9 ± 0.4 log CFU/mL, than those in organic chicken carcasses, at 1.78 ± 0.3 log CFU/mL (p organic chicken carcasses) was randomly selected for further analysis. The predominant species was Enterococcus faecalis in both conventional and organic chicken carcasses (57.7 and 76.9%, respectively; P > 0.05). Rates of resistance to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, which are used in veterinary medicine in South Korea, were significantly higher in conventional chicken carcasses than in organic chicken carcasses. However, we found no difference between the rates of resistance to antibiotics such as vancomycin and tigecycline, which were not registered for use in veterinary medicine in South Korea, of Enterococcus isolates from conventional and organic chicken carcasses. In addition, although multidrug resistant isolates were obtained from both types of chicken samples, the prevalence of samples positive for Enterococcus was significantly higher in conventional chicken carcasses than in organic chicken carcasses (P organic chicken carcasses. A high level of gentamicin resistance was observed in isolates from not only conventional (5.8%) but also organic chicken (1.9%) carcasses, with no significant difference in rates between them (P > 0.05). Despite this, our results suggest that organic food certification is effective in reducing fecal contamination and the burden of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus spp. in

  14. Towards a regional beef carcass classification system for Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is partly because the current beef carcass grading and classification systems used in the region value inappropriately carcasses from slow-maturing indigenous cattle breeds that are ideally suited to being marketed off natural pasture. The existing systems use carcass yield and quality attributes, but do not predict ...

  15. 78 FR 63959 - Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...] Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... pests or diseases. Large numbers of animals and carcasses may need to be disposed of or otherwise... management of large numbers of carcasses during an animal health emergency must be timely, safe, biosecure...

  16. 9 CFR 354.126 - Carcasses held for further examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses held for further examination. 354.126 Section 354.126 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Inspection § 354.126 Carcasses held for further examination. Each carcass, including all parts thereof, in...

  17. 78 FR 79658 - Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...] Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... prepare an environmental impact statement to examine the potential environmental effects of animal carcass... of animal carcass management options used throughout the United States. The EIS will analyze and...

  18. 9 CFR 354.128 - Certification of carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of carcasses. 354.128 Section 354.128 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Inspection § 354.128 Certification of carcasses. Each carcass and all parts and organs thereof which are...

  19. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section... Dead animal carcasses. (a) With the exception of dead livestock which have died en route and are received with livestock for slaughter at an official establishment, no dead animal or part of the carcass...

  20. Estimation of genetic parameters for carcass traits in Japanese quail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of some carcass characteristics in the Japanese quail. For this aim, carcass weight (Cw), breast weight (Bw), leg weight (Lw), abdominal fat weight (AFw), carcass yield (CP), breast percentage (BP), leg percentage (LP) and abdominal fat percentage (AFP) were ...

  1. Modeling the Biological Diversity of Pig Carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen

    This thesis applies methods from medical image analysis for modeling the biological diversity of pig carcasses. The Danish meat industry is very focused on improving product quality and productivity by optimizing the use of the carcasses and increasing productivity in the abattoirs. In order...... equipment is investigated, without the need for a calibration against a less accurate manual dissection. The rest of the contributions regard the construction and use of point distribution models (PDM). PDM’s are able to capture the shape variation of a population of shapes, in this case a 3D surface...

  2. On Using Current Steering Logic in Mixed Analogue-digital Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Torsten

    1998-01-01

    The authors investigate power supply noise in mixed analogue-digital circuits, arising from communication between the analogue and digital parts of the circuit. Current steering techniques and proper buffering are used to show which noise currents can be reduced and which cannot. In addition......, a high-swing current steering buffer for driving analogue switches or external digital signals is proposed....

  3. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-04-01

    invertebrate biomass later in the year. Future reports will analyze whether any benefits are statistically detectable. The risks of using carcass analogs also appear to be low. Pathogens appear to be killed in the manufacturing process of the analogs. In addition, preliminary results suggest that fish exposed to the analogs did not have higher incidences of pathogens. The water quality was also not degraded by the analog additions with the exception of a temporary surface film. Finally, our anecdotal observations, suggested that there was not an increase in the number of predators during the first year of analog distribution. In summary, the risks of analog placement appear to be low but the benefits appear to be high. All results should be considered preliminary until further analyses and field work are conducted.

  4. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations from..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS... § 94.6 Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

  5. Relationship between aerobic bacteria, salmonellae and Campylobacter on broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, J A; Bailey, J S; Stern, N J; Whittemore, A D; Cox, N A

    1997-07-01

    Broiler carcasses were removed from commercial processing lines immediately after defeathering, before chilling, and after chilling to determine whether any relationship exists between aerobic bacteria and the human enteropathogens salmonellae and Campylobacter. In two experiments, a whole carcass rinse procedure was used to sample 30 carcasses after defeathering, 90 carcasses before chilling, and 90 carcasses after chilling, for a total of 210 different carcasses. Aerobic bacteria and Campylobacter spp. were enumerated and the incidence of salmonellae was determined. Salmonellae and Campylobacter incidences were 20 and 94%, respectively, for all carcasses sampled. After picking, neither salmonellae-positive nor Campylobacter-positive carcasses had mean aerobic most probable number (MPN) values that were different from carcasses negative for those organisms. Immediately before chilling, aerobic and Campylobacter counts were 7.12 and 5.33 log10 cfu per carcass, respectively. Immersion chilling reduced aerobic counts by approximately 1.8 log and Campylobacter by 1.5 log, with no change in salmonellae-positive carcasses. There was no difference in aerobic or Campylobacter counts between carcasses that were positive or negative for salmonellae at any of the sampling locations, nor was any correlation found between levels of aerobic organisms and Campylobacter. Carcasses with aerobic counts above the mean or more than one standard deviation above the mean also failed to show any correlation. Discriminant analysis indicated error rates as high as 50% when numbers of aerobic bacteria were used to predict incidence of salmonellae or Campylobacter on individual carcasses. Aerobic bacteria are not suitable as index organisms for salmonellae or Campylobacter on broiler carcasses.

  6. Revealing Television's Analogue Heroes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Jackson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will argue that we need to create new archival models in order to preserve and share knowledge of historical, ‘hidden’ television professions and production cultures. Oral history traditions of recording life stories give us a useful starting point. Engineering ‘encounters’ between skilled television technicians, and the now obsolete equipment they operated in the 1970s and 80s, is challenging for a myriad of reasons, but videoing the interaction of man and machine provides us with a rich insight into how analogue television was produced and broadcast. Social media enables us to disseminate these histories in new and innovative ways..

  7. Mortality estimation from carcass searches using the R-package carcass: a tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Behr, Oliver; Brinkmann, Robert; Etterson, Matthew A.; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Dalthorp, Daniel; Korner-Nievergelt, Pius; Roth, Tobias; Niermann, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    This article is a tutorial for the R-package carcass. It starts with a short overview of common methods used to estimate mortality based on carcass searches. Then, it guides step by step through a simple example. First, the proportion of animals that fall into the search area is estimated. Second, carcass persistence time is estimated based on experimental data. Third, searcher efficiency is estimated. Fourth, these three estimated parameters are combined to obtain the probability that an animal killed is found by an observer. Finally, this probability is used together with the observed number of carcasses found to obtain an estimate for the total number of killed animals together with a credible interval.

  8. an assessment of billing electricity consumers via analogue meters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Electricity Distribution, Consumers, Analogue Meter, Billing, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Electricity ... the energy usage of a typical electricity consumer in one month is several ..... improve on distribution network. In addition it should.

  9. Evaluation of Columbia, USMARC Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: VII. Accuracy of ultrasound predictors and their association with carcass weight, yield, and value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter, D R; Mousel, M R; Leeds, T D; Zerby, H N; Moeller, S J; Lewis, G S; Taylor, J B

    2014-06-01

    Use of lamb BW or chilled carcass weights (CCW), live-animal ultrasound or direct carcass measurements of backfat thickness (BF; mm) and LM area (LMA; cm(2)), and carcass body wall thickness (BWall; mm) to predict carcass yield and value was evaluated using 512 crossbred lambs produced over 3 yr by mating Columbia, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams to adult Rambouillet ewes. Lambs were harvested at 3 BW endpoints within each year. The predictive value of 3 to 5 additional linear measurements of live-animal or carcass size and shape was also evaluated. Residual correlations (adjusted for effects of year, breed, and harvest group) between ultrasound and direct measurements were 0.69 for BF and 0.65 for LMA. Increasing ultrasound or carcass LMA had positive effects (P carcass (i.e., on dressing percentage) and, at comparable CCW, on weight of high-value cuts (rack, loin, leg, and sirloin) before trimming (HVW), weight of trimmed high-value cuts (trimmed rack and loin and trimmed boneless leg and sirloin; TrHVW), and carcass value before (CVal) and after (TrCVal) trimming of high-value cuts. By contrast, ultrasound and direct measures of BF had positive effects on yields of CCW and on HVW and CVal but large negative effects on TrHVW and TrCVal. After adjusting for BW at scanning, increases of 1 mm in ultrasound BF or 1 cm(2) in ultrasound LMA were associated with changes of US$-0.32 (P Carcass BWall was generally superior to carcass BF as a predictor of TrHVW and TrCVal. Carcass LMA was superior to ultrasound LMA but carcass BF was inferior to ultrasound BF for prediction of carcass yield and value. Increasing LMA thus would be expected to improve carcass yield and value. Addition of linear measurements of live-animal or carcass size and shape to the prediction model reduced residual SD (RSD) for TrHVW and TrCVal by 0.4 to 2.2%, but subsequent removal of ultrasound or direct measures of BF and LMA from the prediction model increased

  10. Factors influencing Salmonella carcass prevalence in Danish pig abattoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitas de Matos Baptista, Filipa; Dahl, J.; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2010-01-01

    The Danish Salmonella Surveillance-and-Control Programme in finisher pigs includes both herd and carcass surveillance. Herd surveillance consists of serological testing of meat-juice samples and classification of herds into three Salmonella seroprevalence levels. At the abattoirs, carcass swabs...... from five pigs are collected daily and analysed as a pooled sample to evaluate the Salmonella carcass prevalence. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with Salmonella carcass prevalence in Denmark. A total of 20,196 pooled carcass swabs collected in 23 Danish abattoirs were included...... in the analysis. A multilevel logistic regression model was used taking into account the two-level data structure (abattoir, carcass pool) and adjusting the parameter estimates to the random variation at the abattoir level. Study results indicated that carcass contamination was mainly influenced...

  11. The interactive effects of transportation and lairage time on welfare indicators, carcass and meat quality traits in slaughter pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čobanović, N.; Vasilev, D.; Dimitrijević, M.; Teodorović, V.; Parunović, N.; Betić, N.; Karabasil, N.

    2017-09-01

    This study assessed the effects of transportation and lairage time and their interaction on welfare, carcass and meat quality traits in slaughter pigs under commercial conditions. The study was conducted on 120 pigs with a live weight of approximately 115 kg and about six months old. A complete blood picture was measured in pigs to assess pre-slaughter stress. Also, nine different carcass quality parameters including live weight, hot and cold carcass weights, cooling loss, dressing percentage, backfat thickness, meatiness and skin lesions score were measured. The pH and temperature measurements were performed 45 minutes post-mortem. The results showed that short transportation time and slaughtering without lairaging and long transportation time and overnight lairaging negatively influenced the hematological parameters, which meant that the animal welfare was seriously compromised under these pre-slaughter conditions. Long transportation time and overnight lairaging reduced live and carcass weights and increased the incidence of skin lesions on the carcass and DFD pork. In addition, short transportation time and slaughtering without lairaging caused a significant deterioration in pork quality. It can be concluded that, from the standpoint of animal welfare, carcass and meat quality, the above-mentioned pre-slaughter conditions are not recommended to the farmers and/or pork producers.

  12. Additional disulfide bonds in insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N; Pettersson, Ingrid; Huus, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    The structure of insulin, a glucose homeostasis-controlling hormone, is highly conserved in all vertebrates and stabilized by three disulfide bonds. Recently, we designed a novel insulin analogue containing a fourth disulfide bond located between positions A10-B4. The N-terminus of insulin's B......-chain is flexible and can adapt multiple conformations. We examined how well disulfide bond predictions algorithms could identify disulfide bonds in this region of insulin. In order to identify stable insulin analogues with additional disulfide bonds, which could be expressed, the Cβ cut-off distance had...... in comparison to analogues with additional disulfide bonds that were more difficult to predict. In contrast, addition of the fourth disulfide bond rendered all analogues resistant to fibrillation under stress conditions and all stable analogues bound to the insulin receptor with picomolar affinities. Thus...

  13. Growth performance, carcass and hematological characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance, carcass and hematological characteristics of rabbits fed graded levels of tiger nuts ( Cyperus esculentus ) ... (p>0.05) difference between treatments. Results demonstrated that (Cyperus esculentus) could be used up to 5% in rabbit's diets without adverse effect on the animals' performance and health.

  14. Methionine supplementation in the productive efficiency, carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of dietary methionine supplementation at varying levels on the productive efficiency, carcass characteristics and economics of growing indigenous turkey was investigated. Four Isocaloric and Isonitrogenous diets were formulated. The diets were supplemented with 0.00%, 0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.15% respectively.

  15. Feeding of whole cottonseed on performance, carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of including different levels of whole cottonseed (WCS) in the finishing diet of lambs on their dry matter intake (DMI), live weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR, kg feed/kg gain), carcass characteristics and small intestinal morphology. Twenty Zandi male lambs (29.8 ...

  16. Growth performance, blood parameters and carcass characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out with one hundred and twenty (120) day-old marshal chicks to investigate the effect of Maxigrain® enzyme supplementation of corn bran based diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics, haematology and serum biochemistry of broilers in an eight weeks experiment. Four experimental ...

  17. Grupo genético, sistema de acasalamento e efeitos genéticos aditivos e não-aditivos nas características de musculosidade da carcaça de novilhos oriundos do cruzamento rotativo Charolês × Nelore Genetic group, breeding system and additive and non-additive genetic effects on characteristics that express muscularity of steer carcasses derived from Charolais × Nellore rotative crossbreeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Santana Pacheco

    2010-03-01

    , cushion thickness, arm perimeter, Longissimus dorsi area, Longissimus dorsi area divided by 100 kg of cold carcass weight (AOL100. Two models were used for the data analyses: Model 1 included the genetic effects of the breeding system and steer genetic group nested within the breeding system and Model 2 corresponded to Model 1, but the breeding and genetic group were substituted by the covariables corresponding to the percentage of Charolais breed of the individual and its mother and the percentage of heterozygosis of the individual and its mother. From the analysis in Model 1, Charolais steers were superior to the Nelores in all assessed traits. The retained heterosis was significant for conformation (4.2%, cushion thickness (3.2%, arm perimeter (4.2%, Longissimus dorsi area (7.3% and AOL100 (-6.7%. The individual additive genetic effect of Charolais breed regarded to Nelore was 1.89 points for conformation, 1.37 cm for cushion thickness, 2.55 cm for arm perimeter, 12.70 cm² for Longissimus dorsi area and 3.13 cm² for AOL100. The individual heterotic genetic effect (regarded to the straightbred mean was 3.9% for conformation, 3.8% for cushion thickness, 3.1% for arm perimeter and 9.8% for Longissimus dorsi area. Maternal heterosis is significant only for arm perimeter (1.6% and AOL100 (-5.4%. The nonadditive genetic effects, represented by epistasis and linkage, do not influence the evaluated characteristics.

  18. Development of Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination Near the Carcass Burial Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Choi, J.; Kim, M.; Choi, J.; Lee, M.; Lee, H.; Jeon, S.; Bang, S.; Noh, H.; Yoo, J.; Park, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, D.; Lee, Y.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    A serious outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) and avian influenza (AI) led to the culling of millions of livestock in South Korea from late 2010 to earlier 2011. Because of the scale of FMD and AI epidemic in Korea and rapid spread of the diseases, mass burial for the disposal of carcass was conducted to halt the outbreak. The improper construction of the burial site or inappropriate management of the carcass burial facility can cause the contamination of groundwater mainly due to the discharges of leachate through the base of disposal pit. The leachate from carcass burial contains by products of carcass decay such as amino acids, nitrate, ammonia and chloride. The presence of these chemical components in groundwater can be used as indicators demonstrating contamination of groundwater with leachate from carcass. The major concern about using these chemical indicators is that other sources including manures, fertilizers and waste waters from human or animal activities already exist in farming area. However, we lack the understanding of how groundwater contamination due to mass burial of carcass can be differentiated from the contamination due to livestock manures which shows similar chemical characteristics. The chemical compositions of the leachate from carcass burial site and the wastewater from livestock manure treatment facilities were compared. The chemical compositions considered include total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, organic nitrogen (Organic nitrogen =TN-Ammonium Nitrogen- Nitrate nitrogen), ammonia, chloride, sodium, potassium and amino acids (20 analytes). The ratios of concentrations of the chemical compositions as indicators of contamination were determined to distinguish the sources of contamination in groundwater. Indicators which showed a linear relationship between two factors and revealed a distinct difference between the carcass leachate and livestock manure were chosen. In addition, the background level of the

  19. Alligator Rivers analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerden, P.

    1990-01-01

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization has extensively evaluated uranium ore bodies in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Province in Australia as analogues of radioactive waste repositories. The work was extended for a three-year program as an international project based on the Koongarra uranium deposit and sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The technical program comprises six major sub-projects involving modelling and experimental work: modelling of radionuclide migration; hydrogeology of the Koongarra uranium deposit; uranium/thorium series disequilibria studies; groundwater and colloid studies; fission product studies; transuranic nuclide studies; an outline of the technical programs and a summary of progress in the technical sub-projects is given. This is followed by a series of technical reports which briefly describe current research tasks, and which have been separately indexed

  20. A Short Term Analogue Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Peter Jivan

    1992-01-01

    A short term analogue memory is described. It is based on a well-known sample-hold topology in which leakage currents have been minimized partly by circuit design and partly by layout techniques. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a standard 2.4 micron analogue CMOS process show a droop...

  1. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of feed efficiency with growth performance, ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F; Chen, L; Vinsky, M; Okine, E; Wang, Z; Basarab, J; Crews, D H; Li, C

    2013-05-01

    Feed efficiency is of particular importance to the beef industry, as feed costs represent the single largest variable cost in beef production systems. Selection for more efficient cattle will lead to reduction of feed related costs, but should not have adverse impacts on quality of the carcass. In this study, we evaluated phenotypic and genetic correlations of residual feed intake (RFI), RFI adjusted for end-of-test ultrasound backfat thickness (RFIf), and RFI adjusted for ultrasound backfat thickness and LM area (RFIfr) with growth, ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in an Angus population of 551 steers and in a Charolais population of 417 steers. In the Angus steer population, the phenotypic and genetic correlation of RFI with carcass merit traits including HCW, carcass backfat, carcass LM area, lean meat yield, and carcass marbling were not significant or weak with correlations coefficients ranging from -0.0007 ± 0.05 to 0.18 ± 0.21. In the Charolais steer population, the phenotypic and genetic correlations of RFI with the carcass merit traits were also weak, with correlation coefficients ranging from -0.07 ± 0.06 to 0.19 ± 0.18, except for the genetic correlation with carcass average backfat, which was moderate with a magnitude of 0.42 ± 0.29. Inclusion of ultrasound backfat thickness in the model to predict the expected daily DMI for maintenance explained on average an additional 0.5% variation of DMI in the Angus steers and 2.3% variation of DMI in the Charolais steer population. Inclusion of both the ultrasound backfat and LM area in the model explained only 0.7% additional variance in DMI in the Angus steer population and only 0.6% in the Charolais steer population on top of the RFIf model. We concluded that RFIf adjusted for ultrasound backfat at the end of the test will lead to decreases of both the phenotypic and genetic correlations with carcass backfat and marbling score to a greater extent for late-maturing beef breeds such as Charolais than

  2. Impact of feathers and feather follicles on broiler carcass bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, J A; Hinton, A; Buhr, R J

    2004-08-01

    Genetically featherless and feathered broiler siblings were used to test the contribution of feathers and feather follicles to the numbers of aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter in whole-carcass rinse samples taken immediately after carcasses were defeathered for 30 or 60 s. Numbers of spoilage bacteria were counted after the same fully processed carcasses were stored for 1 wk at 2 degrees C. In each of 3 replications, twenty-eight 11-wk-old, mixed-sex, genetically featherless or feathered broilers were processed in a laboratory processing facility. Immediately after individual defeathering in a mechanical picker, carcasses were sampled using a carcass rinse technique. Carcasses were eviscerated, immersion chilled at 2 degrees C for 30 min, individually bagged, and stored for 1 wk at 2 degrees C, after which all carcasses were rinsed again, and spoilage bacteria in the rinsate were enumerated. There were no significant differences (P defeathering and no differences between carcasses picked for 30 or 60 s. There were no differences in numbers of spoilage bacteria after 1 wk of refrigeration for any of the feather presence-picking length combinations. Although the defeathering step in poultry processing has been identified as an opportunity for bacterial contamination from the intestinal tract and cross-contamination between carcasses, the presence of feathers and feather follicles does not make a significant difference in carcass bacterial contamination immediately after defeathering or in spoilage bacteria after 1 wk of refrigeration.

  3. Bali Cattle Carcass Characteristic of Different Butt Shape Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafid, H.; Nuraini; Inderawati; Kurniawan, W.

    2018-02-01

    Carcass was main product on cattle slaughtering which contain beef for human consumption and it has high nutritional and economical value. Carcass production on cattle has been influenced by several factors, such as cattle breed, feed, and body conformation. Cattle Butt Shape was one of part cattle body conformation which allegedly has have positive correlation on produced carcass. This research was aimed to evaluate Butt Shape condition influenced on Bali cattle carcass characteristic. The research was using Bali cattle which slaughter in Kendari Slaughtering House (Rumah Potong Hewan/RPH - Kendari). The observation includes weighing, and measuring parts of carcass was conducted on 60 heads of Halal process slaughtered Bali cattle which traditionally maintained. The research parameters were carcass productivity parameters i.e: slaughtering weight, carcass weight and length, leg length and circumstances. Obtained data were analyzed using Complete Randomized Design and post hoc analyzed using Least Significant Different if have any influence. The research result showed that cattle Butt Shape condition have significant (pBali cattle carcass productivity parameters. Butt shape with B category was result the best carcass productivity compare the others, while C category was better than D. It can be concluded that body and carcass weight were linearly influenced by cattle butt shape.

  4. Estimation of Relative Economic Weights of Hanwoo Carcass Traits Based on Carcass Market Price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Yun Ho; Park, Byoung Ho; Choi, Tae Jung; Choi, Jae Gwan; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Seung Soo; Choi, You Lim; Koh, Kyung Chul; Kim, Hyo Sun

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate economic weights of Hanwoo carcass traits that can be used to build economic selection indexes for selection of seedstocks. Data from carcass measures for determining beef yield and quality grades were collected and provided by the Korean Institute for Animal Products Quality Evaluation (KAPE). Out of 1,556,971 records, 476,430 records collected from 13 abattoirs from 2008 to 2010 after deletion of outlying observations were used to estimate relative economic weights of bid price per kg carcass weight on cold carcass weight (CW), eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS) and the phenotypic relationships among component traits. Price of carcass tended to increase linearly as yield grades or quality grades, in marginal or in combination, increased. Partial regression coefficients for MS, EMA, BF, and for CW in original scales were +948.5 won/score, +27.3 won/cm2, −95.2 won/mm and +7.3 won/kg when all three sex categories were taken into account. Among four grade determining traits, relative economic weight of MS was the greatest. Variations in partial regression coefficients by sex categories were great but the trends in relative weights for each carcass measures were similar. Relative economic weights of four traits in integer values when standardized measures were fit into covariance model were +4:+1:−1:+1 for MS:EMA:BF:CW. Further research is required to account for the cost of production per unit carcass weight or per unit production under different economic situations. PMID:25049531

  5. Carcass Type Affects Local Scavenger Guilds More than Habitat Connectivity.

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    Zachary H Olson

    Full Text Available Scavengers and decomposers provide an important ecosystem service by removing carrion from the environment. Scavenging and decomposition are known to be temperature-dependent, but less is known about other factors that might affect carrion removal. We conducted an experiment in which we manipulated combinations of patch connectivity and carcass type, and measured responses by local scavenger guilds along with aspects of carcass depletion. We conducted twelve, 1-month trials in which five raccoon (Procyon lotor, Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana, and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus spp. carcasses (180 trials total were monitored using remote cameras in 21 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA. Of 143 trials with complete data, we identified fifteen species of vertebrate scavengers divided evenly among mammalian (N = 8 and avian species (N = 7. Fourteen carcasses (9.8% were completely consumed by invertebrates, vertebrates exhibited scavenging behavior at 125 carcasses (87.4%, and four carcasses (2.8% remained unexploited. Among vertebrates, mammals scavenged 106 carcasses, birds scavenged 88 carcasses, and mammals and birds scavenged 69 carcasses. Contrary to our expectations, carcass type affected the assemblage of local scavenger guilds more than patch connectivity. However, neither carcass type nor connectivity explained variation in temporal measures of carcass removal. Interestingly, increasing richness of local vertebrate scavenger guilds contributed moderately to rates of carrion removal (≈6% per species increase in richness. We conclude that scavenger-specific differences in carrion utilization exist among carcass types and that reliable delivery of carrion removal as an ecosystem service may depend on robust vertebrate and invertebrate communities acting synergistically.

  6. Carcass Type Affects Local Scavenger Guilds More than Habitat Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Zachary H.; Beasley, James C.; Rhodes, Olin E.

    2016-01-01

    Scavengers and decomposers provide an important ecosystem service by removing carrion from the environment. Scavenging and decomposition are known to be temperature-dependent, but less is known about other factors that might affect carrion removal. We conducted an experiment in which we manipulated combinations of patch connectivity and carcass type, and measured responses by local scavenger guilds along with aspects of carcass depletion. We conducted twelve, 1-month trials in which five raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus spp.) carcasses (180 trials total) were monitored using remote cameras in 21 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA. Of 143 trials with complete data, we identified fifteen species of vertebrate scavengers divided evenly among mammalian (N = 8) and avian species (N = 7). Fourteen carcasses (9.8%) were completely consumed by invertebrates, vertebrates exhibited scavenging behavior at 125 carcasses (87.4%), and four carcasses (2.8%) remained unexploited. Among vertebrates, mammals scavenged 106 carcasses, birds scavenged 88 carcasses, and mammals and birds scavenged 69 carcasses. Contrary to our expectations, carcass type affected the assemblage of local scavenger guilds more than patch connectivity. However, neither carcass type nor connectivity explained variation in temporal measures of carcass removal. Interestingly, increasing richness of local vertebrate scavenger guilds contributed moderately to rates of carrion removal (≈6% per species increase in richness). We conclude that scavenger-specific differences in carrion utilization exist among carcass types and that reliable delivery of carrion removal as an ecosystem service may depend on robust vertebrate and invertebrate communities acting synergistically. PMID:26886299

  7. Carcass Type Affects Local Scavenger Guilds More than Habitat Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Zachary H; Beasley, James C; Rhodes, Olin E

    2016-01-01

    Scavengers and decomposers provide an important ecosystem service by removing carrion from the environment. Scavenging and decomposition are known to be temperature-dependent, but less is known about other factors that might affect carrion removal. We conducted an experiment in which we manipulated combinations of patch connectivity and carcass type, and measured responses by local scavenger guilds along with aspects of carcass depletion. We conducted twelve, 1-month trials in which five raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus spp.) carcasses (180 trials total) were monitored using remote cameras in 21 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA. Of 143 trials with complete data, we identified fifteen species of vertebrate scavengers divided evenly among mammalian (N = 8) and avian species (N = 7). Fourteen carcasses (9.8%) were completely consumed by invertebrates, vertebrates exhibited scavenging behavior at 125 carcasses (87.4%), and four carcasses (2.8%) remained unexploited. Among vertebrates, mammals scavenged 106 carcasses, birds scavenged 88 carcasses, and mammals and birds scavenged 69 carcasses. Contrary to our expectations, carcass type affected the assemblage of local scavenger guilds more than patch connectivity. However, neither carcass type nor connectivity explained variation in temporal measures of carcass removal. Interestingly, increasing richness of local vertebrate scavenger guilds contributed moderately to rates of carrion removal (≈6% per species increase in richness). We conclude that scavenger-specific differences in carrion utilization exist among carcass types and that reliable delivery of carrion removal as an ecosystem service may depend on robust vertebrate and invertebrate communities acting synergistically.

  8. Cephalostatin analogues--synthesis and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessner, Timo; Jautelat, Rolf; Scholz, Ulrich; Winterfeldt, Ekkehard

    2004-01-01

    Starting off in the early 90's the field of cephalostatin analogues has continually expanded over the last 10 years. First syntheses prepared symmetric analogues like 14b (119) and 26 (65), which were subsequently desymmetrized to provide analogues like beta-hydroxy ketone 31 (19). Importantly the straightforward approach provided already compounds with mu-molar potency and the same pattern of activity as cephalostatin 1 (1) (see Chapter 2.1). Chemically more demanding, two new methods for the directed synthesis of (bissteroidal) pyrazines were devised and subsequently applied to a wide variety of differently functionalized coupling partners. These new methods allowed for the synthesis of various analogues (Chapter 2.2.; and, last but not least, for the totals synthesis of several cephalostatin natural products; Chapter 1.). Functionalization and derivatization of the 12-position was performed (Chapter 2.1 and 3) and synthetic approaches to establish the D-ring double bond were successfully investigated (Chapter 3). [figure: see text] Dealing synthetically with the spiroketal moiety, novel oxidative opening procedures on monomeric delta 14, 15-steroids were devised as well as intensive studies regarding spiroketal synthesis and spiroketal rearrangements were conducted (Chapter 3.2. and 4.). Last but not least direct chemical modification of ritterazines and cephalostatins were studied, which provided a limited number of ritterazine analogues (Chapter 4.). All these synthetic activities towards analogues are summarized in Fig. 18. During this period of time the growing number of cephalostatins and ritterazines on the one hand and of analogues on the other hand provided several SAR trends, which can guide future analogue synthesis. The combined SAR findings are displayed in Fig. 19. So far it is apparent that: Additional methoxylations or hydroxylations in the steroidal A ring core structure (1-position) are slightly decreasing activity (compare cephalostatin 1 1 to

  9. Carcass traits of four rabbit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Kermauner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-three rabbits of four genotypes (A - SIKA maternal line; C - SIKA sire line; AxC - hybrids between line A and C; AxCal - crossbreds between line A and the Californian breed were used to evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days and slaughtered at 93 days of age. Rabbits were fed standard feed mixture ad libitum. The highest live weight at slaughter and dressing percentage was achieved by line C, and the lowest in line A. Hybrids between line A and C exhibited slightly worse carcass traits than rabbits in line C, but the differences were not statistically significant. The Californian breed gave worse results than crossbreeding with line C, though in most cases the differences between AxC and AxCal were not significant. The differences between genotypes in hind leg tissue composition, pH and meat colour were not statistically significant.

  10. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance and carcass characteristics in wool and hair lambs

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    Ángel M. Romero-Maya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics of wool and hair lambs. For this purpose, 48 lambs averaging 31.3 kg body weight, of which twenty were wool (Ramboullet x Suffolk and twenty eight were hair (Tabasco lambs, and four levels of RAC (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg diet, dry matter basis were used. Wool lambs fed 20 and 30 mg RAC had higher (P<0.05 total gain weight and lower feed conversion than 0 and 10 mg RAC. Wool lambs fed 20 mg RAC had the highest carcass weight, dressing, legs weight and longissimus area as compared to 0, 10 and 30 mg RAC.  In hair lambs there were not effect of RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics.It was concluded that addition of RAC to finishing diets offered the best growth performance and carcass traits in wool lambs as compared to hair lambs. 

  11. A preliminary study on insects associated with pig (Sus scrofa) carcasses in Phitsanulok, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichat, Vitta; Wilawan, Pumidonming; Udomsak, Tangchaisuriya; Chanasorn, Poodendean; Saengchai, Nateeworanart

    2007-12-01

    preliminary study on insects associated with pig carcasses was conducted in Phitsanulok, northern Thailand. Five decomposition stages of pig carcasses were categorized: fresh (0-1 day after death), bloated (2 days after death), active (3 days after death), advanced (4- 6 days after death) and dry (7-30 days after death). The arthropod species collected from the corpses in the field sites were mainly classified belonging to two orders and nine families, namely order Diptera (family Calliphoridae: Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya megacephala, family Muscidae: Musca domestica, family Faniidae: Fannia canicularis, family Sarcophagidae: Parasarcophaga ruficornis and family Piophilidae: Piophila casei,) and order Coleoptera (family Dermestidae: Dermestes maculatus, family Histeridae: Hister sp., family Cleridae: Necrobia rufipes and family Trogidae: Trox sp). The forensically dominant fly was C. rufifacies, while the beetle was D. maculatus. The beetles associated with pig carcasses found in this study are first reported in Phitsanulok, Thailand. In addition, ants, bees, spiders and millipedes were also associated with the carcasses. These findings may provide data for further use in legal investigations in Thailand.

  12. The Effect of Chinese Propolis Supplementation on Ross Broiler Performance and Carcass Characteristics

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    Usama T. Mahmoud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Ether Extract of Propolis (EEP on Ross (308 broiler performance and carcass characteristics. This experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments (different levels of propolis including 0, 100, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg diet for 6 weeks. The mean weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were recorded weekly. In addition At 42 days old the total body weight, total body weight gain, carcass and some internal organs relative weights were recorded. The results clarified that, the weight gain was significantly reduced in the 4th and 6th week (P0.05 reduced for propolis fed birds in comparison to those fed control diet, Furthermore, inclusion of 100, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg diet Propolis significantly reduced body weight at 42 days old and total body weight gain in comparison to control diet (P < 0.05. Under the condition of this experiment, prolonged use of propolis had adverse effect on performance of broilers. Also, all doses of propolis had non-significant negative effect on liver, heart, gizzard and carcass relative weight. In conclusion, EEP has no beneficial effect on performance and Carcass characteristics of Broilers.

  13. The Effect of Water Pressure and Chlorine Concentration on Microbiological Characteristics of Spray Washed Broiler Carcasses

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    Pissol AD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of water pressure and concentration of dichloromethane after the evisceration system under the fecal decontamination of chicken carcasse  surfaces with and without apparent contamination. From a total of  322 carcasses, 50% were intentionally added chicken droppings in an area of more  than 2 cm2 and the rest of carcasses were kept without fecal inoculation. Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae counting was carried out in samples immediately after the inoculation (initial counting and after different treatments. Treatments consisted of water with different pressures (1.5,  3.5 and  5.5 Kgf/cm2, and the addition of a echnological adjuvant (dichloride at the concentrations of 0, 5 and 10 ppm. The results were validated using  40 chicken carcasses for each treatment by means of a  22  factorial statistical design. The results showed no significant differences (P

  14. Pathogen analysis of NYSDOT road-killed deer carcass compost facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Composting of deer carcasses was effective in reducing pathogen levels, decomposing the : carcasses and producing a useable end product after 12 months. The composting process used in this project : involved enveloping the carcasses of road-killed de...

  15. The West African Dwarf Sheep II. Carcass Traits Mutton Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcasses of thirty African Dwarf ewes had a yield of 42.5%, about 5mm backfat thickness and a loin eye of about 8cm2 primal cuts made up of 85% of the carcass. The best carcasses came from ewes slaughtered between two and four years of age. Average composition of retail cuts was 66.5% muscle, 26.5% bone and ...

  16. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil in diets on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objective This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. Methods Twenty-four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian) uncastrated male goats (16.8± 0.46 kg body weight [BW]) were assigned to a completely randomized design and subjected to four experimental diets containing 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% of CGWVO (63.42% of glycerol and 47.78% of crude fat) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations twice daily. The feed intake, feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass and meat traits, and muscle chemical composition were evaluated. Results Based on this experiment, there were significant differences (p>0.05) among groups regarding DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits where goats receiving 6% of CGWVO had lower daily DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits than those fed on 0%, 2%, and 4% of CGWVO. There were no effects of CGWVO on carcass length, carcass width, Longissimus muscle (LM) area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color of LM at 45 min after slaughter, as well as on other carcass cut and muscle chemical composition. Conclusion In conclusion, the addition of up to 4% of DM in the diets for crossbred finishing goats seems to be the most interesting strategy, since it promotes greatest animal performance. Moreover, this study was a suitable approach to exploit the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production. PMID:28830128

  17. Genetic and Phenotypic Correlations between Performance Traits with Meat Quality and Carcass Characteristics in Commercial Crossbred Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miar, Younes; Plastow, Graham; Bruce, Heather; Moore, Stephen; Manafiazar, Ghader; Kemp, Robert; Charagu, Patrick; Huisman, Abe; van Haandel, Benny; Zhang, Chunyan; McKay, Robert; Wang, Zhiquan

    2014-01-01

    Genetic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass traits were estimated on 6,408 commercial crossbred pigs with performance traits recorded in production systems with 2,100 of them having meat quality and carcass measurements. Significant fixed effects (company, sex and batch), covariates (birth weight, cold carcass weight, and age), random effects (additive, litter and maternal) were fitted in the statistical models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASREML to estimate heritability, phenotypic, and genetic correlations between performance traits (n = 9) with meat quality (n = 25) and carcass (n = 19) traits. The animals had a pedigree compromised of 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Performance traits had low-to-moderate heritabilities (±SE), ranged from 0.07±0.13 to 0.45±0.07 for weaning weight, and ultrasound backfat depth, respectively. Genetic correlations between performance and carcass traits were moderate to high. The results indicate that: (a) selection for birth weight may increase drip loss, lightness of longissimus dorsi, and gluteus medius muscles but may reduce fat depth; (b) selection for nursery weight can be valuable for increasing both quantity and quality traits; (c) selection for increased daily gain may increase the carcass weight and most of the primal cuts. These findings suggest that deterioration of pork quality may have occurred over many generations through the selection for less backfat thickness, and feed efficiency, but selection for growth had no adverse effects on pork quality. Low-to-moderate heritabilities for performance traits indicate that they could be improved using traditional selection or genomic selection. The estimated genetic parameters for performance, carcass and meat quality traits may be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations. PMID:25350845

  18. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil in diets on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjula, Pin; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2018-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. Twenty-four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian) uncastrated male goats (16.8± 0.46 kg body weight [BW]) were assigned to a completely randomized design and subjected to four experimental diets containing 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% of CGWVO (63.42% of glycerol and 47.78% of crude fat) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations twice daily. The feed intake, feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass and meat traits, and muscle chemical composition were evaluated. Based on this experiment, there were significant differences (p>0.05) among groups regarding DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits where goats receiving 6% of CGWVO had lower daily DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits than those fed on 0%, 2%, and 4% of CGWVO. There were no effects of CGWVO on carcass length, carcass width, Longissimus muscle (LM) area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color of LM at 45 min after slaughter, as well as on other carcass cut and muscle chemical composition. In conclusion, the addition of up to 4% of DM in the diets for crossbred finishing goats seems to be the most interesting strategy, since it promotes greatest animal performance. Moreover, this study was a suitable approach to exploit the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  19. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil in diets on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Chanjula

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. Methods Twenty-four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian uncastrated male goats (16.8± 0.46 kg body weight [BW] were assigned to a completely randomized design and subjected to four experimental diets containing 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% of CGWVO (63.42% of glycerol and 47.78% of crude fat on a dry matter (DM basis. The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations twice daily. The feed intake, feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass and meat traits, and muscle chemical composition were evaluated. Results Based on this experiment, there were significant differences (p>0.05 among groups regarding DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits where goats receiving 6% of CGWVO had lower daily DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits than those fed on 0%, 2%, and 4% of CGWVO. There were no effects of CGWVO on carcass length, carcass width, Longissimus muscle (LM area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color of LM at 45 min after slaughter, as well as on other carcass cut and muscle chemical composition. Conclusion In conclusion, the addition of up to 4% of DM in the diets for crossbred finishing goats seems to be the most interesting strategy, since it promotes greatest animal performance. Moreover, this study was a suitable approach to exploit the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  20. Chemopreventive properties of curcumin analogues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemopreventive properties of curcumin analogues, ... These compounds .... using microscope with 400 × magnification. APC ... Figure 3: Microscopic images of rat colorectal tissue stained with APC rabbit polyclonal antibody with different.

  1. Biocontained carcass composting for control of infectious disease outbreak in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Tim; Xu, Weiping; Alexander, Trevor W; Gilroyed, Brandon H; Inglis, G Douglas; Larney, Francis J; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A

    2010-05-06

    Intensive livestock production systems are particularly vulnerable to natural or intentional (bioterrorist) infectious disease outbreaks. Large numbers of animals housed within a confined area enables rapid dissemination of most infectious agents throughout a herd. Rapid containment is key to controlling any infectious disease outbreak, thus depopulation is often undertaken to prevent spread of a pathogen to the larger livestock population. In that circumstance, a large number of livestock carcasses and contaminated manure are generated that require rapid disposal. Composting lends itself as a rapid-response disposal method for infected carcasses as well as manure and soil that may harbor infectious agents. We designed a bio-contained mortality composting procedure and tested its efficacy for bovine tissue degradation and microbial deactivation. We used materials available on-farm or purchasable from local farm supply stores in order that the system can be implemented at the site of a disease outbreak. In this study, temperatures exceeded 55 degrees C for more than one month and infectious agents implanted in beef cattle carcasses and manure were inactivated within 14 days of composting. After 147 days, carcasses were almost completely degraded. The few long bones remaining were further degraded with an additional composting cycle in open windrows and the final mature compost was suitable for land application. Duplicate compost structures (final dimensions 25 m x 5 m x 2.4 m; L x W x H) were constructed using barley straw bales and lined with heavy black silage plastic sheeting. Each was loaded with loose straw, carcasses and manure totaling approximately 95,000 kg. A 40-cm base layer of loose barley straw was placed in each bunker, onto which were placed 16 feedlot cattle mortalities (average weight 343 kg) aligned transversely at a spacing of approximately 0.5 m. For passive aeration, lengths of flexible, perforated plastic drainage tubing (15 cm diameter) were

  2. Comparison normal composting with composting using effective microorganisms for poultry carcasses disposal in poultry farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Taher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Composting offers a convenient and environmentally acceptable safe, effective method for the disposal of carcasses as an alternative method to burning, burial and rendering. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a natural biological products containing an effective microorganisms namily; Lactic acid bacill (Lactobacillus plantarum; L. casei Streptococcus Lactis., Photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas palustris; Rhodobacter sphaeroides,Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Candida utilis Toula, Pichia Jadinii, Actinomycetes (Streptomyces albus; S. griseus., and Fermenting fungi (Aspergillus oryzae; Mucor hiemalis in the composting activity of poultry carcasses. The composting stacks constitute multi alternative layers of wood shaves, hay, poultry carcasses and then wood shaves and so on. The layers have been bypassed with plastic tubes for oxygen supply. Moreover, a petri dishes of salmonella and E. coli colonies were introduced within poultry carcasses layer. After 8 days of the experimental period this study follows the physical properties of the composting process according to its odor intesity, color and pH level as well as the bacterial reisolation from the stored colonies. Results indicate that the biological products increase the temperature of the composting stack (66-68° C with a minimal odors as the pH meters recording 5.4 as compared to the control composting stack (52-64° C and pH 6.8 with offender odors. On the other hand ,the biological product inhibit the bacterial reisolation offers since the 10the day of the experiment, however, in the normal composting stack that periods will prolonged till the 17 days of the experiment. Interestingly, the biological product induce high and rapid digestable rate for the poultry carcasses which shown within 25 days of the experiment, in comparison to the normal composting stack which induce that effects in 60 days. In conclusion, the addition of effective microorganism to the

  3. Slaughter weight and carcass of male New Zealand White rabbits after rationing with koro bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUTARNO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Santoso U, Sutarno. 2009. Slaughter weight and carcass of male New Zealand White rabbits after rationing with koro bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 117-122. The objectives of the research were to know the effects of koro bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis present on slaughter weight and carcass of rabbits and to know the optimum dosage that resulted the best slaughter weight and carcass. The research used Randomized Block Design whereas 25 heads of six weeks old rabbits with 450-1270 g of body weight were devided into five groups according to the body weight. Each group were treated with different treatment. The treatment were unpresent of M. pruriens as a control (R0 and various percentage of M. pruriens as much as 21.5%, in the ration with treatment as follows: R1 (raw, R2 (heating, R3 (boiling, and R4 (fermentation. The parameters observed were slaughter weight, carcass weight, meat weight, bone weight, and adipose tissue weigth. The data analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA followed with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The present of processed M. pruriens could increase production of slaughter weight better than the present of unprocessed M. pruriens. The additional of 21.5% of fermented M. pruriens resulted in the best production of slaughter weight and carcass of rabbits.

  4. Longissimus muscle transcriptome profiles related to carcass and meat quality traits in fresh meat Pietrain carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Keuning, E.; Hulsegge, B.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Evans, G.; Mulder, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    High quality pork is consumed as fresh meat while other carcasses are used in the processing industry. Meat quality is determined measuring technical muscle parameters. The objective of this research was to investigate the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying meat quality differences of pork

  5. Analysis of carcass characteristics and fat deposition of Merino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Van der Merwe, DA, Mnr

    2018-02-15

    Feb 15, 2018 ... and renal fat was removed and expressed as a percentage of carcass weight. .... the posterior end of the 13th rib of the carcass, following the spine up to ...... Genetic studies on the South African Mutton Merino: Growth traits.

  6. Influence of electrical stimulation on carcass and meat quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agbeniga

    2014-08-24

    Aug 24, 2014 ... meat and carcass quality attributes of cattle, based on the way cattle were slaughtered. ... the release of Ca2+ at higher temperatures (Savell et al., 1981). ... pH of carcasses after slaughter, stress before or at slaughter could ...

  7. Microsatellite markers associated with body and carcass weights in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsatellite markers are presently used in selection to facilitate the genetic improvement of growth and carcass traits in chickens. The genetic improvement of six weeks live body and carcass weights of Cairo B-2 line, after six generation of selection, was compared with the control line (C line). Cairo B-2 line had higher ...

  8. Microwave/vacuum drying treatment of radioactively contaminated animal carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zongming; Zhang Yinsheng; Teng Hongdi; Zhu Chongde; Ge Lixin; Wang Jinliang

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes a microwave/vacuum drying process for the treatment of radioactively contaminated animal carcasses. The experiment demonstrated the feasibility of the process. The treatment process could completely remove the water from carcasses and effectively extend the preservation period. No radiological impact was found on workplace and environment

  9. Factors determining the carcass value of culled dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Stokvisch, P.E.; Korver, S.; Oldenbroek, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Data from 763 cows culled during the period September 1973–May 1982 on two experimental farms have been analysed. The carcass value of each individual cow was adjusted for seasonal fluctuations in price per kilogram carcass weight. The grade was assessed through in vivo scoring by experts of a

  10. Carcass glycogen repletion on carbohydrate re-feeding after starvation.

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, D J; Palmer, T N

    1987-01-01

    In mice, the response of carcass glycogen to glucose re-feeding after starvation is biphasic. The initial repletive phase is followed by partial (greater than 50%) glycogen mobilization. This turnover of carcass glycogen in response to carbohydrate re-feeding may play an important role in the provision of C3 precursors for hepatic glycogen synthesis.

  11. Prevalence of Salmonella on Sheep Carcasses Slaughtered at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... indicated that Salmonella is a common problem in slaughtered sheep carcasses in Adama municipal abattoir. Therefore, Sources of pathogens in food animals need to be investigated and a further study of pathogens in the food chain is recommended. Keywords: Adama Carcass Ethiopia Prevalence Salmonella Sheep.

  12. Influence of trough versus pasture feeding on average daily gain and carcass characteristics in ruminants: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agastin, A; Sauvant, D; Naves, M; Boval, M

    2014-03-01

    Quantitative meta-analysis was run on 108 publications featuring 116 experiments and 399 treatments dealing with the effect of trough or pasture feeding environment (FE) on ruminant performances. The objective was to compare the effect of trough or pasture FE on ADG, diet OM digestibility (OMD), various carcass characteristics, and the interaction between FE and complementation modalities. Live weight was adjusted to compare results between species. Results showed that trough-fed animals had higher ADG (+17.89%; P carcass yield (HYield; + 2.47%; P carcass fat content (+ 24.87%; P animals but lower carcass muscle and bone percentages (-1.60% [P = 0.010] and -7.63% [P = 0.003], respectively). Feeding environment had no effect on diet OMD (P = 0.818), but the number of observations was low. After considering the addition or not of concentrate in the diet (addiCO), FE effect persisted on ADG (P = 0.024) and carcass fat content (P = 0.027) but not on HYield (P = 0.078) or muscle and bone percentages (P = 0.119 and P = 0.581, respectively). After considering the nature of the concentrate (natCO), FE effect persisted on ADG (P carcass fat and muscle contents (P = 0.040 and P = 0.040, respectively) although the FE effect on carcass bone content persisted (P = 0.550). Animal species and physiological stage had no effect on any of the variables studied (P > 0.05) but experiment did (P ≤ 0.001). The increase in ADG was positively correlated to HYield in cattle (P = 0.002) and small ruminants (P = 0.003) and positively linked to carcass fat content (P = 0.007) but not carcass muscle content, which actually decreased (P = 0.001). Overall, this meta-analysis confirmed previous reports of FE effects and revealed how the differences generally reported result from a confounding effect of FE and nature of the diet. Indeed, in most of the studies used, trough-fed animals were supplemented with concentrate whereas pasture-fed animals were not. This research also highlighted the fact

  13. An evaluation of the lamb vision system as a predictor of lamb carcass red meat yield percentage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, A S; Belk, K E; LeValley, S B; Dalsted, N L; Scanga, J A; Tatum, J D; Smith, G C

    2003-06-01

    An objective method for predicting red meat yield in lamb carcasses is needed to accurately assess true carcass value. This study was performed to evaluate the ability of the lamb vision system (LVS; Research Management Systems USA, Fort Collins, CO) to predict fabrication yields of lamb carcasses. Lamb carcasses (n = 246) were evaluated using LVS and hot carcass weight (HCW), as well as by USDA expert and on-line graders, before fabrication of carcass sides to either bone-in or boneless cuts. On-line whole number, expert whole-number, and expert nearest-tenth USDA yield grades and LVS + HCW estimates accounted for 53, 52, 58, and 60%, respectively, of the observed variability in boneless, saleable meat yields, and accounted for 56, 57, 62, and 62%, respectively, of the variation in bone-in, saleable meat yields. The LVS + HCW system predicted 77, 65, 70, and 87% of the variation in weights of boneless shoulders, racks, loins, and legs, respectively, and 85, 72, 75, and 86% of the variation in weights of bone-in shoulders, racks, loins, and legs, respectively. Addition of longissimus muscle area (REA), adjusted fat thickness (AFT), or both REA and AFT to LVS + HCW models resulted in improved prediction of boneless saleable meat yields by 5, 3, and 5 percentage points, respectively. Bone-in, saleable meat yield estimations were improved in predictive accuracy by 7.7, 6.6, and 10.1 percentage points, and in precision, when REA alone, AFT alone, or both REA and AFT, respectively, were added to the LVS + HCW output models. Use of LVS + HCW to predict boneless red meat yields of lamb carcasses was more accurate than use of current on-line whole-number, expert whole-number, or expert nearest-tenth USDA yield grades. Thus, LVS + HCW output, when used alone or in combination with AFT and/or REA, improved on-line estimation of boneless cut yields from lamb carcasses. The ability of LVS + HCW to predict yields of wholesale cuts suggests that LVS could be used as an objective

  14. A Stochastic Model to Assess the Effect of Meat Inspection Practices on the Contamination of the Pig Carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Freitas Costa, Eduardo; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; da Silva, Ana Paula Serafini Poeta

    2017-01-01

    The objective of meat inspection is to promote animal and public health by preventing, detecting, and controlling hazards originating from animals. With the improvements of sanitary level in pig herds, the hazards profile has shifted and the inspection procedures no longer target major foodborne...... pathogens (i.e., not risk based). Additionally, carcass manipulations performed when searching for macroscopic lesions can lead to cross-contamination. We therefore developed a stochastic model to quantitatively describe cross-contamination when consecutive carcasses are submitted to classic inspection...... procedures. The microbial hazard used to illustrate the model was Salmonella, the data set was obtained from Brazilian slaughterhouses, and some simplifying assumptions were made. The model predicted that due to cross-contamination during inspection, the prevalence of contaminated carcass surfaces increased...

  15. Evaluation of Columbia, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: VI. Measurements of live-lamb and carcass shape and their relationship to carcass yield and value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter, D R; Mousel, M R; Leeds, T D; Zerby, H N; Moeller, S J; Lewis, G S; Taylor, J B

    2014-05-01

    Linear measurements on live lambs and carcasses can be used to characterize sheep breeds and may have value for prediction of carcass yield and value. This study used 512 crossbred lambs produced over 3 yr by mating Columbia, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams to adult Rambouillet ewes to assess sire-breed differences in live-animal and carcass shape and to evaluate the value of shape measurements as predictors of chilled carcass weight (CCW), weight of high-value cuts (rack, loin, leg, and sirloin; HVW), weight of trimmed high-value cuts (trimmed rack and loin and trimmed, boneless leg and sirloin; TrHVW), and estimated carcass value before (CVal) and after trimming of high-value cuts (TrCVal). Lambs were produced under extensive rangeland conditions, weaned at an average age of 132 d, fed a concentrate diet in a drylot, and harvested in each year in 3 groups at target mean BW of 54, 61, and 68 kg. Canonical discriminant analysis indicated that over 93% of variation among sire breeds was accounted for by the contrast between tall, long, less-thickly muscled breeds with greater BW and CCW (i.e., the Columbia and Suffolk) compared with shorter, more thickly muscled breeds with smaller BW and CCW. After correcting for effects of year, harvest group, sire breed, and shipping BW, linear measurements on live lambs contributed little to prediction of CCW. Similarly, after accounting for effects of CCW, linear measurements on live animals further reduced residual SD (RSD) of dependent variables by 0.2 to 5.7%, with generally positive effects of increasing live leg width and generally negative effects of increasing heart girth. Carcass measurements were somewhat more valuable as predictors of carcass merit. After fitting effects of CCW, additional consideration of carcass shape reduced RSD by 2.1, 3.6, 9.5, and 2.2% for HVW, TrHVW, CVal, and TrCVal, respectively. Effects of increasing carcass leg width were positive for HVW, Tr

  16. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be marked...

  17. Genetic parameters for EUROP carcass traits within different groups of cattle in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hickey, J.M.; Keane, M.G.; Kenny, D.A.; Cromie, A.R.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to test the ability of systems of weighing and classifying bovine carcasses used in commercial abattoirs in Ireland to provide information that can be used for the purposes of genetic evaluation of carcass weight, carcass fatness class, and carcass conformation

  18. Introduction to electronic analogue computers

    CERN Document Server

    Wass, C A A

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Electronic Analogue Computers, Second Revised Edition is based on the ideas and experience of a group of workers at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Hants. This edition is almost entirely the work of Mr. K. C. Garner, of the College of Aeronautics, Cranfield. As various advances have been made in the technology involving electronic analogue computers, this book presents discussions on the said progress, including some acquaintance with the capabilities of electronic circuits and equipment. This text also provides a mathematical background including simple differen

  19. Microbial Contamination Level Profiles Attributed to Contamination of Beef Carcasses, Personnel, and Equipment: Case of Small and Medium Enterprise Slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambui, Joseph; Lamuka, Peter; Karuri, Edward; Matofari, Joseph; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau

    2018-04-01

    The microbial contamination level profiles (MCLPs) attributed to contamination of beef carcasses, personnel, and equipment in five Kenyan small and medium enterprise slaughterhouses were determined. Aerobic plate counts, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus, and Salmonella were used to determine contamination at four different slaughter stages, namely, dehiding, evisceration, splitting, and dispatch. Microbiological criteria of the four microorganisms were used to score contamination levels (CLs) as poor (0), poor to average (1), average (2), or good (3). MCLPs were further assigned to carcasses, personnel, and equipment at each stage by summing up the CL scores. The CL score attributed to aerobic plate count contamination was 2 or 3 for carcasses but 0 for personnel and equipment in almost all slaughterhouses. A score of 0 on carcasses was mostly attributed to Enterobacteriaceae at evisceration and to Salmonella at dehiding and evisceration. In addition, a score of 0 was mostly attributed to Staphylococcus contamination of personnel at dehiding. A score of 3 was attributed mostly to Enterobacteriaceae on hands at splitting, whereas a score of 2 was mostly attributed to the clothes at dehiding and evisceration. A CL score of 3 was mostly attributed to Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella contamination of equipment at dehiding and splitting, respectively. Although CLs attributed to contamination of carcasses, personnel, and equipment ranged from 0 to 3, the maximum MCLP score of 9 was only attained in carcasses from two slaughterhouses at dehiding and from one slaughterhouse at dispatch. There is, therefore, a lot of room for small and medium enterprise slaughterhouses to improve their food safety objectives by improving food safety management systems at the points characterized by low CL scores.

  20. Effects of extensive system versus semi-intensive and intensive systems on growth and carcass quality of dairy kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Zurita Herrera

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effects of three different management systems on growth and carcass quality of 61 Murciano-Granadina breed kids and their interaction with sex. In the extensive system, 21 kids were allocated to suckle from their dams on free-range pasture with no additional feedstuff. In the semi-intensive system, 20 kids were suckled from their dams and had access to alfalfa hay and cereal straw (no free-range pasture. In the intensive system, 20 kids were separated from the dams at birth and then fed with milk replacer and alfalfa hay. Animals were slaughtered at 7.00 ± 1.00 kg of average BW. The semi-intensive system and extensive system kids grew faster than intensive system animals (127, 113 and 96 g/d, respectively. Differences in energy intake may explain these differences. Intensive system kids displayed the lowest real dressing percentages, calculated as 100 × (hot carcass weight/empty body weight, due to high development of empty gastrointestinal tract. The long leg and carcass were larger in extensive system kids than in kids from other management systems, presumably due to high physical activity on the free-range pastures. The carcasses and cuts from semi-intensive system and extensive system kids displayed more fat than those of intensive system kids. Males grew faster than females (122 and 103 g/d, respectively. Carcasses in male kids showed a higher content of bones but a lower content of fat than carcasses in female kids. The extensive system is feasible for producing kid meat from a dairy breed.

  1. Detection of quantitative trait loci for carcass composition traits in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renard Christine

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis of carcass composition data from a three-generation experimental cross between Meishan (MS and Large White (LW pig breeds is presented. A total of 488 F2 males issued from six F1 boars and 23 F1 sows, the progeny of six LW boars and six MS sows, were slaughtered at approximately 80 kg live weight and were submitted to a standardised cutting of the carcass. Fifteen traits, i.e. dressing percentage, loin, ham, shoulder, belly, backfat, leaf fat, feet and head weights, two backfat thickness and one muscle depth measurements, ham + loin and back + leaf fat percentages and estimated carcass lean content were analysed. Animals were typed for a total of 137 markers covering the entire porcine genome. Analyses were performed using a line-cross (LC regression method where founder lines were assumed to be fixed for different QTL alleles and a half/full sib (HFS maximum likelihood method where allele substitution effects were estimated within each half-/full-sib family. Additional analyses were performed to search for multiple linked QTL and imprinting effects. Significant gene effects were evidenced for both leanness and fatness traits in the telomeric regions of SSC 1q and SSC 2p, on SSC 4, SSC 7 and SSC X. Additional significant QTL were identified for ham weight on SSC 5, for head weight on SSC 1 and SSC 7, for feet weight on SSC 7 and for dressing percentage on SSC X. LW alleles were associated with a higher lean content and a lower fat content of the carcass, except for the fatness trait on SSC 7. Suggestive evidence of linked QTL on SSC 7 and of imprinting effects on SSC 6, SSC 7, SSC 9 and SSC 17 were also obtained.

  2. Dry matter intake, performance and carcass characteristics of hair sheep reared under different grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Rodrigues Ventolin dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different grazing systems: isolated, alternate and simultaneous, on feed intake, performance and carcass characteristics of sheep. About 5.2 ha area of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximun Jacq cultivate Tanzania was divided into 13 paddocks. This area was used as a stocking rate of two animal units (AU per ha for 7 days’ occupation and 21 days rest. A total number of 58 animals were used consisting of 12 heifers and 30 Santa Ines lambs with the addition of 16 adult ewes that were used to stabilize grazing pressure in the isolated system. The sheep were fed on 200 g per head per day of concentrate and cattle 2 kg per head per day. The parameters determined were the following: weekly weight (WW, total live weight gain (LWG and mean daily weight gain (MDW. Also dry matter intake was estimated 84 days after the start of the experiment using external indicators (Purified and Enriched Lignin in addition to carcass traits and composition which were also estimated. The result obtained for carcass composition revealed that the muscle:bone ratio and bone percentage were better in the alternate system. Moreover, the simultaneous and isolated systems showed higher lamb performance than the alternate system, while there was no effect on dry matter intake. Furthermore, there was no difference of the different systems on carcass traits and feed intake of sheep. Nevertheless, the simultaneous grazing system showed better sheep performance than the alternate grazing system.

  3. Genetic parameters for EUROP carcass traits within different groups of cattle in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Hickey, J.M.; Keane, M.G.; Kenny, D.A.; Cromie, A.R.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to test the ability of systems of weighing and classifying bovine carcasses used in commercial abattoirs in Ireland to provide information that can be used for the purposes of genetic evaluation of carcass weight, carcass fatness class, and carcass conformation class. Secondly, the study aimed to test whether genetic and phenotypic variances differed by breed of sire. Variance components for carcass traits were estimated for crosses between dairy cows and...

  4. Superconductive analogue of spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigel'man, M.; Ioffe, L.; Vinokur, V.; Larkin, A.

    1987-07-01

    The properties of granular superconductors in magnetic fields, namely the existence of a new superconductive state analogue of the low-temperature superconductive state in spin glasses are discussed in the frame of the infinite-range model and the finite-range models. Experiments for elucidation of spin-glass superconductive state in real systems are suggested. 30 refs

  5. Causal structure of analogue spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelo, Carlos; Liberati, Stefano; Sonego, Sebastiano; Visser, Matt

    2004-01-01

    The so-called 'analogue models of general relativity' provide a number of specific physical systems, well outside the traditional realm of general relativity, that nevertheless are well-described by the differential geometry of curved spacetime. Specifically, the propagation of perturbations in these condensed matter systems is described by 'effective metrics' that carry with them notions of 'causal structure' as determined by an exchange of quasi-particles. These quasi-particle-induced causal structures serve as specific examples of what can be done in the presence of a Lorentzian metric without having recourse to the Einstein equations of general relativity. (After all, the underlying analogue model is governed by its own specific physics, not necessarily by the Einstein equations.) In this paper we take a careful look at what can be said about the causal structure of analogue spacetimes, focusing on those containing quasi-particle horizons, both with a view to seeing what is different from standard general relativity, and what the similarities might be. For definiteness, and because the physics is particularly simple to understand, we will phrase much of the discussion in terms of acoustic disturbances in moving fluids, where the underlying physics is ordinary fluid mechanics, governed by the equations of traditional hydrodynamics, and the relevant quasi-particles are the phonons. It must however be emphasized that this choice of example is only for the sake of pedagogical simplicity and that our considerations apply generically to wide classes of analogue spacetimes

  6. Liposomes containing alkylated methotrexate analogues for phospholipase A(2) mediated tumor targeted drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Jensen, Simon Skøde

    2009-01-01

    of alkylated compounds in liposomes, it was demonstrated that the MTX-analogue partitioned into the water phase and thereby became available for cell uptake. It was concluded that liposomes containing alkylated MTX-analogues show promise as a drug delivery system, although the MTX-analogue needs to be more......Two lipophilic methotrexate analogues have been synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxicity against KATO III and HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Both analogues contained a C-16-alkyl chain attached to the gamma-carboxylic acid and one of the analogues had an additional benzyl group attached...... cytotoxicity was incorporated into liposomes that were designed to be particularly Susceptible to a liposome degrading enzyme, secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)), which is found in high concentrations in tumors of several different cancer types. Liposome incorporation was investigated by differential...

  7. The impact of bone development on final carcass weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.

    2006-01-01

    Proper development and function of the skeleton is crucial for the optimal growth of an organism, with rapid growth rates often resulting in skeletal disorders in farm animals. Yet, despite clear benefits for breed selection and animal welfare (HARRISON et al., 2004), the impact of bone development...... was removed and its parameters correlated with carcass weight. Results suggest that both femur length and femur weight act as good predictors of final carcass weight in lambs. However, no effect of paternal genetics, on the femur to carcass correlations, was noted....

  8. Application of natural analogues in the Yucca Mountain project - overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.

    2003-01-01

    takes into account the relevant processes in appropriate ways. Validation of a predictive model by such comparison provides reasonable assurance that the model reflects future behavior. This is the level of confidence required by regulation 10 CFR 63, which states, in (section)63.101(a): 'Demonstrating compliance will involve the use of complex predictive models that are supported by limited data from field and laboratory tests, site-specific monitoring, and natural analogue studies that may be supplemented by prevalent expert judgment'. In addition to using natural analogues for long-term predictions, models must be able to explain and match the transport times and pathways from contaminated sites that provide anthropogenic analogues, such as Hanford, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL); and the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

  9. Carcass and non-carcass characteristics of sheep fed on annatto byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Annatto byproduct is the residue from the extraction of powder dye that covers the seed pericarp; after processing, between 94% and 98% of the original product is considered a byproduct. The aim was to evaluate the influence of increasing levels of annatto byproduct on the components of sheep body weight. Thirty-two male sheep, not castrated, with initial weight of 23.17 ± 1.45 kg, without a defined breed, were used in randomized blocks in all four treatments (0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg?1 of annatto byproduct in the diet dry matter. The increase to 300 g kg?1 of annatto byproduct had a negative linear effect (P < 0.05 for hot carcass weight (kg and cold carcass weight (kg. Increasing levels of annatto byproduct resulted in a linear reduction (P < 0.05 for palette weight (kg, leg weight (kg, carcass compactness index (kg cm?1, liver weight (kg and skin weight (kg. The inclusion of annatto byproduct up to 200 g kg?1 of dry matter in sheep diets did not affect the components of sheep body weight.

  10. Carcass and non-carcass characteristics of sheep fed on cassava (Manihot pseudoglaziovii Pax & K. Hoffm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel V Maciel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sheep production systems installed in the semi-arid region of Brazil depend on the forage support the 'caatinga' biome. This study aimed at evaluating the substitution of hybrid 'Tifton 85' (Cynodon spp. by cassava (Manihotpseudoglaziovii Pax & K. Hoffm. hay or silage on the components of sheep's' body weight. Twenty-four animals, with no defined breed, were used for the study, with an initial body weight of 19.77 ± 1.95 kg and an average age of 6-mo, being divided into three treatments ('Tifton 85' hay, cassava silage, and cassava hay. The animals were slaughtered at 56 d and all the body parts of the animals were weighed. Data were subjected to ANOVA and mean comparison test (P = 0.05. Means were superior (P 0.05 for body weight at slaughter and cold carcass weight, which had means of 28.10 and 12.38 kg, respectively. The hot carcass and leg yields showed values of 58% and 34%, respectively, and were not influenced (P > 0.05 by different forages. The constituents that were not components of the carcass, organs, offal, and by-products were not affected by the replacement of 'Tifton 85' hay by cassava hay or silage. Cassava hay or silage can replace 'Tifton 85' hay for feeding sheep in complete diets without compromising their body components' yields and weights.

  11. The relationship of live animal muscular and skeletal scores, ultrasound measurements and carcass classification scores with carcass composition and value in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, S B; Drennan, M J; Kenny, D A; McGee, M

    2009-11-01

    This study examined the relationship of muscular and skeletal scores and ultrasound measurements in the live animal, and carcass conformation and fat scores with carcass composition and value using 336 steers, slaughtered at 2 years of age. Live animal scores and measurements were recorded at 8 to 12 months of age and pre-slaughter. Following slaughter, each carcass was classified for conformation and fatness and the right side dissected into meat, fat and bone. Carcass conformation scores and fat scores were both measured on a continuous 15-point scale and ranged from 2.0 to 12.0 and from 2.8 to 13.3, respectively. Pre-slaughter muscular scores showed positive correlations (P carcass meat proportion, proportion of high-value cuts in the carcass, conformation score and carcass value, significant negative correlations with carcass fat (r = -0.13) and bone (r = -0.81) proportions, and generally low non-significant relationships with the proportion of high-value cuts in meat and carcass fat score. Pre-slaughter ultrasound muscle depth and carcass conformation score showed similar correlations with carcass traits to those using the pre-slaughter muscular scoring procedure. Pre-slaughter ultrasound fat depth showed positive correlations (P carcass fat proportion (r = 0.59) and fat score (r = 0.63), and significant negative correlations (-0.23 to -0.50) with carcass meat and bone proportions, high-value cuts in the carcass and in meat, and carcass value. Pre-slaughter skeletal scores generally showed poor correlations ranging from -0.38 to 0.52 with the various carcass traits. Corresponding correlations (-0.26 to 0.44) involving records collected at 8 to 12 months of age were lower than those using pre-slaughter records. A one-unit increase in carcass conformation score increased carcass meat proportion and value by 11.2 g/kg and 5.6 cents/kg, respectively. Corresponding values for fat score were -8.2 g/kg and -5.1 cents/kg. In conclusion, both pre-slaughter live animal

  12. Insulin analogues and cancer: a note of caution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A.M.J.L. eJanssen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In view of the lifelong exposure and large patient populations involved, insulin analogues with an increased mitogenic effect in comparison to human insulin may potentially constitute a major health problem, since these analogues may possibly induce the growth of pre-existing neoplasms. At present, the available data suggest that insulin analogues are safe. In line with these findings, we observed that serum of diabetic patients treated with insulin analogues, compared to that of diabetic patients treated with human insulin, did not induce an increased phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR. However, the classical model of the IGF-IR signaling may be insufficient to explain (all mitogenic effects of insulin analogues since also non-canonical signaling pathways of the IGF-IR may play a major role in this respect. Although phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of the IGF-IR is generally considered to be the initial activation step within the intracellular IGF-IR signaling pathway, it has been found that cells undergo a signaling switch under hyperglycemic conditions. After this switch, a completely different mechanism is utilized to activate the mitogenic (mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways of the IGF-IR that is independent from tyrosine phosphorylation of the IGF-IR. At present it is unknown whether activation of this alternative intracellular pathway of the IGF-IR occurs during hyperglycemia in vivo and whether it is stronger in patients treated with (some insulin analogues than in patients treated with human insulin. In addition, it is unknown whether the insulin receptors (IRs also undergo a signaling switch during hyperglycemia. This should be investigated in future studies. Finally, relative overexpression of IR isoform A (IR-A in (pre cancer tissues may play a key role in the development and progression of human cancers during treatment with insulin (analogues. Further

  13. The Greenland analogue project. Yearly report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J; Brinkerhoff, D; Johnson, J [University of Montana, Missoula (United States); Ruskeeniemi, T; Engstroem, J; Kukkonen, I [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland); and others

    2012-04-15

    A four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and subsurface conditions, Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO to advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet, east of Kangerlussuaq, and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project begins in 2009 and is scheduled for completion in 2012. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with cold climate conditions and glacial cycles, and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel, will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a better understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository, and will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve our safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios. This report was produced by the GAP team members and presents an overview of the activities within the GAP during the interval January 1 to December 31, 2010, as well as research results obtained during this time frame. Research for the GAP is ongoing, and additional results related to the data presented here may become available in the future and will be presented in subsequent annual reports. (orig.)

  14. The Greenland analogue project. Yearly report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.; Brinkerhoff, D.; Johnson, J.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Engstroem, J.; Kukkonen, I.

    2012-04-01

    A four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and subsurface conditions, Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO to advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet, east of Kangerlussuaq, and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project begins in 2009 and is scheduled for completion in 2012. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with cold climate conditions and glacial cycles, and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel, will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a better understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository, and will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve our safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios. This report was produced by the GAP team members and presents an overview of the activities within the GAP during the interval January 1 to December 31, 2010, as well as research results obtained during this time frame. Research for the GAP is ongoing, and additional results related to the data presented here may become available in the future and will be presented in subsequent annual reports. (orig.)

  15. Growth rate, carcass characteristics and meat quality of growing lambs fed buckwheat or maize silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurhan Keles

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated inclusion of buckwheat silage to the diet of growing lambs in terms of meat quality as compared to maize silage. Methods Buckwheat, rich in total phenols (TP, 33 g/kg dry matter [DM], was harvested at the end of the milk stage and ensiled in 40 kg plastic bags after wilting (294 g/kg silage DM. A total of 18 growing lambs (21.6±1.2 were individually fed isonitrogenous and isoenergetic total mixed rations (TMR for 75 d that either contained buckwheat or maize silage at DM proportions of 0.50. At the end of feeding trail all lambs were slaughtered to assess carcass characteristics and meat quality. Results Buckwheat silage increased (p0.05 on live weight gain and feed efficiency. Carcass weight, dressing percentage, meat pH, water holding capacity, cooking loss, shear force (kg/cm2, and total viable bacteria count of meat did not differ (p>0.05 between the treatments. However, TP content of meat increased (p<0.001 by feeding buckwheat TMR. Feeding buckwheat TMR also decreased (p<0.05 the b* values of meat. Conclusion The results provide that buckwheat silage is palatable and could successfully include TMR of growing lambs with no adverse effects on performance, carcass and meat quality. Additionally, feeding buckwheat silage to lambs offers increased TP in meat.

  16. The estimation of pork carcass primal cuts value based on backfat thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Duziński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of pork carcass backfat thickness on the dissection efficiency of four primal cuts (ham, loin, shoulder, belly, including correlation coefficients. The research material consisted of 80 pork carcasses. Backfat thickness (mm was measured on cold half-carcasses using a vernier caliper at 6 points: at the first cervical vertebra (atlas, over shoulder at the thickest point, on the back, at the beginning, center, end of the gluteus medius muscle (CI, CII, CIII. On the basis of the average backfat thickness, measurements from 6 points were separated into two experimental groups: I (<25 mm; II (≥25 mm. Detailed dissection of the elements was performed to define mass (g: total, intermuscular fat, bones and lean meat. The significant effect of fat thickness on intermuscular fat content regardless of the cut was noted. Correlations between the average backfat thickness of 6 points and the total weight of the four main elements were calculated. In addition, the correlation coefficients were compared between the dissection elements and the average backfat thickness of 6 and 5 points. Higher backfat thickness determined the increase in the total mass of loin, shoulder and belly. A statistically proven correlation was shown between the average backfat thickness and the total mass of the analysed elements (r=0.293. When comparing the correlation coefficients of a different number of measurements a specific tendency was observed. Positive correlation coefficients were slightly higher for an average of 5 points of backfat thickness and negative correlation coefficients were slightly higher for an average of 6 points. Statistical differences between groups were recorded at the same level for the same parameters (P≤0.001 and 0.01carcass primal cuts, with no adverse effects compared to

  17. Identification of Biomarkers Associated with the Rearing Practices, Carcass Characteristics, and Beef Quality: An Integrative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Monteils, Valérie; Couvreur, Sébastien; Picard, Brigitte

    2017-09-20

    Data from birth to slaughter of cull cows allowed using a PCA-based approach coupled with the iterative K-means algorithm the identification of three rearing practices classes. The classes were different in their carcass characteristics. Old cows raised mainly on pasture have better carcass characteristics, while having an equivalent tenderness, juiciness, flavor, intramuscular fat content, and pHu to those fattened with hay or haylage. The Longissimus thoracis muscle of the cows raised on pasture (with high physical activity) showed greater proportions of IIA fibers at the expense of the fast IIX ones. Accordingly, the meat of these animals have better color characteristics. Superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and αB-crystallin quantified by Dot-Blot were the only other biomarkers to be more abundant in "Grass" class compared to "Hay" and "Haylage" classes. The relationships between the biomarkers and the 6 carcass and 11 meat quality traits were investigated using multiple regression analyses per rearing practices. The associations were rearing practice class and phenotype trait-dependent. ICDH and TP53 were common for the three classes, but the direction of their entrance was different. In addition, rearing practices and carcass traits were not related with Hsp70-Grp75 and μ-calpain abundances. The other relationships were specific for two or one rearing practices class. The rearing practices dependency of the relationships was also found with meat quality traits. Certain proteins were for the first time related with some beef quality traits. MyHC-IIx, PGM1, Hsp40, ICDH, and Hsp70-Grp75 were common for the three rearing practices classes and retained to explain at list one beef quality trait. A positive relationship was found between PGM1 and hue angle irrespective of rearing practices class. This study confirms once again that production-related traits in livestock are the result of sophisticated biological processes finely orchestrated during the life of the animal

  18. Genetic parameter estimates for carcass traits and visual scores including or not genomic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, D G M; Espigolan, R; Tonussi, R L; Júnior, G A F; Bresolin, T; Magalhães, A F Braga; Feitosa, F L; Baldi, F; Carvalheiro, R; Tonhati, H; de Oliveira, H N; Chardulo, L A L; de Albuquerque, L G

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether visual scores used as selection criteria in Nellore breeding programs are effective indicators of carcass traits measured after slaughter. Additionally, this study evaluated the effect of different structures of the relationship matrix ( and ) on the estimation of genetic parameters and on the prediction accuracy of breeding values. There were 13,524 animals for visual scores of conformation (CS), finishing precocity (FP), and muscling (MS) and 1,753, 1,747, and 1,564 for LM area (LMA), backfat thickness (BF), and HCW, respectively. Of these, 1,566 animals were genotyped using a high-density panel containing 777,962 SNP. Six analyses were performed using multitrait animal models, each including the 3 visual scores and 1 carcass trait. For the visual scores, the model included direct additive genetic and residual random effects and the fixed effects of contemporary group (defined by year of birth, management group at yearling, and farm) and the linear effect of age of animal at yearling. The same model was used for the carcass traits, replacing the effect of age of animal at yearling with the linear effect of age of animal at slaughter. The variance and covariance components were estimated by the REML method in analyses using the numerator relationship matrix () or combining the genomic and the numerator relationship matrices (). The heritability estimates for the visual scores obtained with the 2 methods were similar and of moderate magnitude (0.23-0.34), indicating that these traits should response to direct selection. The heritabilities for LMA, BF, and HCW were 0.13, 0.07, and 0.17, respectively, using matrix and 0.29, 0.16, and 0.23, respectively, using matrix . The genetic correlations between the visual scores and carcass traits were positive, and higher correlations were generally obtained when matrix was used. Considering the difficulties and cost of measuring carcass traits postmortem, visual scores of

  19. Carcass characteristics of South African native chicken lines | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venda and Ovambo chicken lines were evaluated. The highest dressed-carcass mass was recorded for Ovambo chickens and the highest percentage breast muscle was recorded for Naked-Neck chickens. Percentage fat and fatty acid ...

  20. Live and carcass measurements of steers castrated at three different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    marbling, and fat thickness on the eye muscle between the three castrated groups. ... to compare the growth and development, feedlot performance and carcass .... is dependent upon the secretion of testosterone in the case of the bull. Thus ...

  1. Carcass Search & Recovery Guidelines for Black Tailed Prairie Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of dead or intoxicated prairie dogs above ground will be monitored, recorded and these carcasses will be properly disposed of, in accordance with the procedures described on this page.

  2. Animal Carcass Pricing Grid. Evidences from the Romanian Pigmeat Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savescu Roxana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Until the introduction of SEUROP system, price negotiation between pig producers and slaughterhouses was based on two subjective criteria: animal weight and visual inspection of the quality of pigs. To ensure producers a fair payment, European Union created the possibility of binding the price on two objective factors: carcass weight and carcass composition. This paper describes the pricing mechanism developed by Romania in order to respond to European Union requirements for ensuring a fair payment to pig producers. It raises the attention on the difficulties encountered by the producers in understanding the way the commercial value of a pig carcass is calculated in case the selling price is negotiated on a flat rate basis or on a lean content basis (per kg of carcass weight or per kg of live weight.

  3. Effect of fermented Banana peel on Broiler Carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koni TNI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to examine effect of inclusion of fermented banana peel by Rhyzopus oligosporus in diets on slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass percentage, weight and percentage abdominal fat of broiler. The experiment was done based on Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and four replications and each replication consisted of six chickens. The treatment were R0 = without banana peel fermented, R1 = 5% banana peel fermented, R2 = 10% banana peel fermented, R3 = 15% banana peel fermented. Data of the experiment were analyzed, using ANOVA and then continued with Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Result showed that level of fermented banana peel affected slaughter weight and carcass weight. However carcass persentage, weight and percentage of abdominal fat was not affected by treatment. Banana peel fermented by Rhizopus oligosporus could can be used maximally 10% in broiler ration.

  4. Comparison of broiler performance, carcass yields and intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of broiler performance, carcass yields and intestinal microflora when fed diets containing transgenic (Mon-40-3-2) and conventional soybean meal. Jianzhuang Tan, Shasha Liu, Zhe Sun, Hongfu Zhang, Yongwei wang, Dan Liu ...

  5. Evaluation of carcass performance of Matebele goats managed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    users

    KEYWORDS: Permanent Incisors; Carcass; Matebele Goats. INTRODUCTION ... Africa's goat population increased by ... local farmers to maximize on pricing of their goats. The ..... goats of Northern Mexico: Part 1- The effects of body weight on ...

  6. Effects of stocking density on growth performance, carcass grade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    2016-09-09

    Sep 9, 2016 ... This study determined the effect of space allowance on performance, carcass .... The individual pen for the pigs was considered the experimental unit for the ..... This work was carried out with the support of the Cooperative ...

  7. Studies on treatment of radioactive animal carcass, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu; Koizumi, Akira; Fukuda, Satoshi

    1979-01-01

    A new method of waste treatment of animal carcass contaminated with plutonium was proposed. A multi-step process was designed and tested at a laboratory scale which was composed of the following processes; microwave dehydration, heat decomposition and ashing. Microwave dehydration was found the most adequate as the first step of the treatment because of the negligible release of nonvolatile radioactivity. About 70% of body weight was reduced by microwave dehydration. Dehydrated animal carcass was decomposed by graded electric heating under anaerobic condition. Burnable gas and vapour produced by the heat decomposition were oxidized by passing through a reheating tube with excess air. The exhaust gas had no significant radioactivity. The residue of charred carcass was oxidized by heating with excess air. The weight of final product was up to 8% of original wet weight. The proposed multi-step process provided to be adequate for the waste disporsal of Pu contaminated animal carcass. (author)

  8. Towards a regional beef carcass classification system for Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapiye, C, Dr

    2017-05-15

    May 15, 2017 ... beef carcass grading and classification systems used in the region ..... between cattle breeds (genetic), pre-slaughter stress and growth- ..... Nguni cattle for example, owing to their adaptability (i.e. drought and heat tolerant,.

  9. Effects of sweet potato meal on performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of sweet potato meal on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler finisher birds. ... International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems ... Feed and water were supplied ad libitum to the experimental birds, while ...

  10. Body weight and carcass characteristics of broilers fed different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight and carcass characteristics of broilers fed different mixtures of ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... The experimental diets (starter and finisher diets) were offered to the respective bids with water ad libitum.

  11. Analogues of uracil nucleosides with intrinsic fluorescence (NIF-analogues): synthesis and photophysical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Meirav; Fischer, Bilha

    2012-02-28

    Uridine cannot be utilized as fluorescent probe due to its extremely low quantum yield. For improving the uracil fluorescence characteristics we extended the natural chromophore at the C5 position by coupling substituted aromatic rings directly or via an alkenyl or alkynyl linker to create fluorophores. Extension of the uracil base was achieved by treating 5-I-uridine with the appropriate boronic acid under the Suzuki coupling conditions. Analogues containing an alkynyl linker were obtained from 5-I-uridine and the suitable boronic acid in a Sonogashira coupling reaction. The uracil fluorescent analogues proposed here were designed to satisfy the following requirements: a minimal chemical modification at a position not involved in base-pairing, resulting in relatively long absorption and emission wavelengths and high quantum yield. 5-((4-Methoxy-phenyl)-trans-vinyl)-2'-deoxy-uridine, 6b, was found to be a promising fluorescent probe. Probe 6b exhibits a quantum yield that is 3000-fold larger than that of the natural chromophore (Φ 0.12), maximum emission (478 nm) which is 170 nm red shifted as compared to uridine, and a Stokes shift of 143 nm. In addition, since probe 6b adopts the anti conformation and S sugar puckering favored by B-DNA, it makes a promising nucleoside analogue to be incorporated in an oligonucleotide probe for detection of genetic material.

  12. Bacteria recovered from whole-carcass rinsates of broiler carcasses washed in a spray cabinet with lauric acid-potassium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of spray washing carcasses with lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) on bacteria recovered from whole-carcass-rinsates (WCR) was examined. Skin of carcasses was inoculated with a cecal paste containing antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimirum, and Camp...

  13. Effect of fermented Banana peel on Broiler Carcass

    OpenAIRE

    Koni TNI

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to examine effect of inclusion of fermented banana peel by Rhyzopus oligosporus in diets on slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass percentage, weight and percentage abdominal fat of broiler. The experiment was done based on Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and four replications and each replication consisted of six chickens. The treatment were R0 = without banana peel fermented, R1 = 5% banana peel fermented, R2 = 10% banana peel fermented...

  14. Quality of Italian Istrian Milk lamb meat. Influence of carcass weight and feeding system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Kompan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Istrian Milk sheep is an endangered breed of the Pramenka group raised in the North-Adriatic Karst region. Carcass and meat characteristics of 46 suckling, 6- to 14- week-old intact male light lambs from two feeding systems were analysed. Thirty-two lambs were raised in a flock fed only with forage (hay supplied in stall during winter or fresh herbage directly grazed during the other seasons. The lambs had free access to the forage supplied to their dams (feeding sys- tem: milk and forage; MF. The other fourteen suckling ovine were grown on a farm with a feeding system incorporat- ing a concentrated supply of the forage base. The lambs were stabled and creep fed on a concentrate (20% CP at a daily rate of 100 g/head, in addition to the suckled milk (feeding system: milk and concentrate; MC. The carcasses were divid- ed into three categories of weight, following the Community scale of light lambs classification: A (lesser than or equal to 7 kg, n=17, B (7.1-10 kg, n=15 and C (10.1-13 kg, n=14. The frequency of 1st quality carcasses increased with carcass weight, reaching 100% in category C. On average, 72% of the carcasses were scored as 1st quality, without significant differences between feeding systems. The lightness of lamb meat from A carcasses was higher than that from the heaviest ones. Cooking losses showed a pattern opposite to that of pH (mean 5.44; SE 0.058, increasing where pH decreased (cate- gories A and B and concentrate-fed lambs. Shear force values were significantly affected by factors linked to the feed- ing system; in fact, MC lambs provided more tender meat than MF ones (32.6 vs 46.6 N. As carcass weight increased, moisture concentration decreased steadily (from 77.8% to 75.5%, while lipid content increased progressively (from 1.58% to 3.14%. In agreement with these patterns, the contribution of individual fatty acids (FA to muscle weight gen- erally increased with carcass weight. A similar trend was observed for the

  15. Necrophagous diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ândrio Z. da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous Diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge concerning the diversity of necrophagous Diptera that develop on wild animal carcasses. For this purpose, the decomposition of six wild animal carcasses was observed in order to collect and identify the main species of necrophagous flies associated with the decomposition process. The carcasses were found on highways near the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão in the initial stage of decomposition, with no significant injuries or prior larval activity. Four wild animal models were represented in this study: two specimens of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840; two Tupinambis merianae Linnaeus, 1758; one Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815; and one Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. A total of 16,242 flies from 14 species were reared in the laboratory, where Muscidae presented the greatest diversity of necrophagous species. Overall, (i carcasses with larger biomass developed a higher abundance of flies and (ii the necrophagous community was dominated by Calliphoridae, two patterns that were predicted from published literature; and (iii the highest diversity was observed on the smaller carcasses exposed to the lowest temperatures, a pattern that may have been caused by the absence of the generalist predator Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. (iv An UPGMA analysis revealed a similar pattern of clusters of fly communities, where the same species were structuring the groupings.

  16. Studies on treatment of radioactive animal carcass, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Akira; Fukuda, Satoshi; Matsuoka, Osamu

    1980-01-01

    A method of dehydration for the waste treatment of radioactive animal carcass by microwave heating was developed. A heating apparatus was devised by annexing the microwave output controlling circuit to a 600 W commercial microwave oven, and the aqueous vapour from the animal carcass was collected by duplex cold traps. Body weight of the carcass was reduced to 20-30% by dehydration, and a three-year storage test proved that the dehydrated carcass was very hard to decompose. Time needed for dehydration was about 10 min for a 25 g mouse, and about 1 hr for 668 g dog. Violent rupture of the carcass, and/or fuming due to overheating that had often been observed during dehydration were proved to be avoidable by controlling the microwave output during the process. The ratio of radioactivity ( 60 Co, 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 144 Ce) that escaped from the carcass during dehydration was found to be less than 3 x 10 -4 by a series of experiment. Some related radiation safety problems were discussed. (author)

  17. Carcass characteristics of llamas (Lama glama) reared in Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez; Maino; Guzmán; Vaquero; Köbrich; Pokniak

    2000-07-01

    Body and carcass composition were studied on 10 male and 10 female naturally reared llamas (Lama glama). Half the animals were young (9-12 months) and the other half adult (>3 year). The average live weights for young and adult males were 104.4 and 100.6kg, and for females 67.6 and 104.6kg, respectively. Average carcass weights for the four groups were 58.9, 56.2, 36.8 and 56.7kg, respectively. Carcass composition for males and females was similar, but males had slightly higher dressing percentages than females (56.1 and 55.8 vs. 54.1 and 54.2 for young and adult males and females, respectively). Carcass length and fat depth at the loin and proportions of cuts in the carcass were similar for both the sexes, except for leg and tail, which were proportionately heavier in young females compared to the other groups. The composition of meat on fresh basis was: moisture 70.2%, protein 20.5%, ether extract 8.23% and ash 3.4%. Age and sex seemed to have no effects on the body and carcass characteristics studied nor on the chemical composition of meat.

  18. Status of natural analogue studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Keiichi

    1994-03-01

    This report is based on the materials for the meeting at the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan held on September 1993. Details are as follows: Alteration of glass as the study of alteration of natural minerals; alteration of uranium minerals, migration of uranium and thorium series radionuclides, alteration of chlorite, fixation of uranium alteration of minerals and migration of uranium as the study of alligator rivers analogue project held at Koongarra uranium deposit, Australia. (author)

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies major loci for carcass weight on BTA14 in Hanwoo (Korean cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Lee

    Full Text Available This genome-wide association study (GWAS was conducted to identify major loci that are significantly associated with carcass weight, and their effects, in order to provide increased understanding of the genetic architecture of carcass weight in Hanwoo. This genome-wide association study identified one major chromosome region ranging from 23 Mb to 25 Mb on chromosome 14 as being associated with carcass weight in Hanwoo. Significant Bonferroni-corrected genome-wide associations (P<1.52×10(-6 were detected for 6 Single Nucleotide Polymorphic (SNP loci for carcass weight on chromosome 14. The most significant SNP was BTB-01280026 (P = 4.02×10(-11, located in the 25 Mb region on Bos taurus autosome 14 (BTA14. The other 5 significant SNPs were Hapmap27934-BTC-065223 (P = 4.04×10(-11 in 25.2 Mb, BTB-01143580 (P = 6.35×10(-11 in 24.3 Mb, Hapmap30932-BTC-011225 (P = 5.92×10(-10 in 24.8 Mb, Hapmap27112-BTC-063342 (P = 5.18×10(-9 in 25.4 Mb, and Hapmap24414-BTC-073009 (P = 7.38×10(-8 in 25.4 Mb, all on BTA 14. One SNP (BTB-01143580; P = 6.35×10(-11 lies independently from the other 5 SNPs. The 5 SNPs that lie together showed a large Linkage disequilibrium (LD block (block size of 553 kb with LD coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.89 within the block. The most significant SNPs accounted for 6.73% to 10.55% of additive genetic variance, which is quite a large proportion of the total additive genetic variance. The most significant SNP (BTB-01280026; P = 4.02×10(-11 had 16.96 kg of allele substitution effect, and the second most significant SNP (Hapmap27934-BTC-065223; P = 4.04×10(-11 had 18.06 kg of effect on carcass weight, which correspond to 44% and 47%, respectively, of the phenotypic standard deviation for carcass weight in Hanwoo cattle. Our results demonstrated that carcass weight was affected by a major Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL with a large effect and by many SNPs with small effects that are normally

  20. Saltelli Global Sensitivity Analysis and Simulation Modelling to Identify Intervention Strategies to Reduce the Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 Contaminated Beef Carcasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J Brookes

    Full Text Available Strains of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157 are important foodborne pathogens in humans, and outbreaks of illness have been associated with consumption of undercooked beef. Here, we determine the most effective intervention strategies to reduce the prevalence of STEC O157 contaminated beef carcasses using a modelling approach.A computational model simulated events and processes in the beef harvest chain. Information from empirical studies was used to parameterise the model. Variance-based global sensitivity analysis (GSA using the Saltelli method identified variables with the greatest influence on the prevalence of STEC O157 contaminated carcasses. Following a baseline scenario (no interventions, a series of simulations systematically introduced and tested interventions based on influential variables identified by repeated Saltelli GSA, to determine the most effective intervention strategy.Transfer of STEC O157 from hide or gastro-intestinal tract to carcass (improved abattoir hygiene had the greatest influence on the prevalence of contaminated carcases. Due to interactions between inputs (identified by Saltelli GSA, combinations of interventions based on improved abattoir hygiene achieved a greater reduction in maximum prevalence than would be expected from an additive effect of single interventions. The most effective combination was improved abattoir hygiene with vaccination, which achieved a greater than ten-fold decrease in maximum prevalence compared to the baseline scenario.Study results suggest that effective interventions to reduce the prevalence of STEC O157 contaminated carcasses should initially be based on improved abattoir hygiene. However, the effect of improved abattoir hygiene on the distribution of STEC O157 concentration on carcasses is an important information gap-further empirical research is required to determine whether reduced prevalence of contaminated carcasses is likely to result in reduced

  1. Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli on broiler carcasses subjected to a high pH scald and low pH postpick chlorine dip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, M E; Windham, W R; Meinersmann, R J

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the individual and combined effects of a high pH scald and a postpick chlorine dip on bacteria present on broiler carcasses. In each of 3 replications, a flock was sampled at several sites within a commercial broiler processing plant. Carcasses were sampled by whole carcass rinse before and after treated scalding at mean pH 9.89 or control scalding at mean pH 6.88. Other carcasses from the same flock run on both the treated and control scald lines were collected and sampled before and after a chlorine dip tank operated at mean total chlorine level of 83.3 mg/kg and pH 6.04. Rinses were cultured for numbers of Campylobacter and Escherichia coli and presence or absence of Salmonella. High pH scald was more effective than standard scald to lessen the prevalence and numbers of Campylobacter on broiler carcasses; a lower prevalence was maintained through the postpick chlorine dip tank. The pH of the scald tank made no difference in numbers of E. coli recovered from broiler carcasses at any tested point on the processing line. High pH scald was not more effective than standard scald to lessen Salmonella prevalence. Furthermore, it is unclear why the postpick chlorine dip effectively lessened Salmonella prevalence on only the control scald line. Although no evidence exists that these treatments have an additive effect when used in series, each treatment shows some promise individually. Further optimization may result in more effective decontamination of broiler carcasses.

  2. Effect of dietary supplementation with Rhizopus oryzae or Chrysonilia crassa on growth performance, blood profile, intestinal microbial population, and carcass traits in broilers exposed to heat stress

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sugiharto; T. Yudiarti; I. Isroli; E. Widiastuti; F. D. Putra

    2017-01-01

    Dietary supplementation of additives has recently been part of strategies to deal with the detrimental effects of heat stress (HS) on the performance and carcass traits in broiler chicks. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with the fungi Rhizopus oryzae or Chrysonilia crassa on growth, blood profile, intestinal microbial population and carcass traits in broiler chicks subjected to HS. R. oryzae and C. crassa are filamentous fungi isolated from...

  3. Carcass and meat traits, and non-carcass components of lambs fed ration containing increasing levels of urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rozanski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcass and meat traits, and the non-carcass components of crossbred Dorper lambs fed diets with increasing levels of urea (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% of dry matter – DM. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments (urea inclusion levels and six replicates per treatment. Lambs were fed ad libitum for 56 days and slaughtered at 37.9 ± 5.1 kg of body weight (BW. The weight and yield of carcass before and after cooling were not influenced by urea levels, with average values of 16.9 kg and 44.6% for cold carcass weight and yield. Urea levels did not affect the morphometric measurements, the fat deposition on the carcass, the weight of carcass cuts and the weight of non-carcass components. There was a quadratic effect of urea levels on the loin yield, which may achieve maximum value of 11.31% with the inclusion of 0.84% DM urea in the feed. The pH and the color coordinates L* (brightness, a* (red intensity and C* (saturation of the meat also showed quadratic response to the urea levels, where in the minimum value of 5.53 for pH, maximum value of 48.67 for L* and minimum values of 14.04 and 16.21 for a* and C* may be obtained by including 0.53 to 0.70% DM urea in the ration. The inclusion of 0.84% DM urea in the ration is recommended to obtain maximum yield of loin and meat with attractive characteristics to the consumer, which is characterized by high red intensity and brightness. If consumers have preference for lamb meat with a more intense red color, the inclusion of 1.5% DM urea should be considered in the ration formulation.

  4. Broiler carcass contamination with Campylobacter from feces during defeathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, M E; Buhr, R J; Cason, J A; Dickens, J A

    2001-12-01

    Three sets of experiments were conducted to explore the increase in recovery of Campylobacter from broiler carcasses after defeathering. In the first set of experiments, live broilers obtained from a commercial processor were transported to a pilot plant, and breast skin was sampled by a sponge wipe method before and after defeathering. One of 120 broiler breast skin samples was positive for Campylobacter before defeathering, and 95 of 120 were positive after defeathering. In the second set of experiments, Campylobacter-free flocks were identified, subjected to feed withdrawal, and transported to the pilot plant. Carcasses were intracloacally inoculated with Campylobacter (10(7) CFU) just prior to entering the scald tank. Breast skin sponge samples were negative for Campylobacter before carcasses entered the picker (0 of 120 samples). After defeathering, 69 of 120 samples were positive for Campylobacter, with an average of log10 2.7 CFU per sample (approximately 30 cm2). The third set of experiments was conducted using Campylobacter-positive broilers obtained at a commercial processing plant and transported live to the pilot plant. Just prior to scalding, the cloacae were plugged with tampons and sutured shut on half of the carcasses. Plugged carcasses were scalded, and breast skin samples taken before and after defeathering were compared with those collected from control broilers from the same flock. Prior to defeathering, 1 of 120 breast skin sponge samples were positive for the control carcasses, and 0 of 120 were positive for the plugged carcasses. After passing through the picker, 120 of 120 control carcasses had positive breast skin sponge samples, with an average of log10 4.2 CFU per sample (approximately 30 cm2). Only 13 of 120 plugged carcasses had detectable numbers of Campylobacter on the breast skin sponge, with an average of log10 2.5 CFU per sample. These data indicate that an increase in the recovery of Campylobacter after defeathering can be related

  5. Effects of increased vertebral number on carcass weight in PIC pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jieping; Zhang, Mingming; Ye, Runqing; Ma, Yun; Lei, Chuzhao

    2017-12-01

    Variation of the vertebral number is associated with carcass traits in pigs. However, results from different populations do not match well with others, especially for carcass weight. Therefore, effects of increased vertebral number on carcass weight were investigated by analyzing the relationship between two loci multi-vertebra causal loci (NR6A1 g.748 C > T and VRTN g.20311_20312ins291) and carcass weight in PIC pigs. Results from the association study between vertebral number and carcass weight showed that increased thoracic number had negative effects on carcass weight, but the results were not statistically significant. Further, VRTN Ins/Ins genotype increased more than one thoracic than that of Wt/Wt genotype on average in this PIC population. Meanwhile, there was a significant negative effect of VRTN Ins on carcass weight (P carcass weight in PIC pigs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Application of bioelectrical impedance analysis in prediction of light kid carcass and muscle chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S R; Afonso, J; Monteiro, A; Morais, R; Cabo, A; Batista, A C; Guedes, C M; Teixeira, A

    2018-06-01

    Carcass data were collected from 24 kids (average live weight of 12.5±5.5 kg; range 4.5 to 22.4 kg) of Jarmelista Portuguese native breed, to evaluate bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) as a technique for prediction of light kid carcass and muscle chemical composition. Resistance (Rs, Ω) and reactance (Xc, Ω), were measured in the cold carcasses with a single frequency bioelectrical impedance analyzer and, together with impedance (Z, Ω), two electrical volume measurements (VolA and VolB, cm2/Ω), carcass cold weight (CCW), carcass compactness and several carcass linear measurements were fitted as independent variables to predict carcass composition by stepwise regression analysis. The amount of variation explained by VolA and VolB only reached a significant level (Pcarcass fat weight (0.814⩽R 2⩽0.862; Pcarcass fat weight (combined with carcass length, CL; R 2=0.943; Pcarcass composition.

  7. 9 CFR 354.132 - Disposal of condemned carcasses and parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Disposition of Diseased Rabbit Carcasses and Parts § 354.132 Disposal of condemned carcasses and parts. All... carbolic acid, (2) Kerosene, fuel oil, or used crank case oil, (3) Any phenolic disinfectant conforming to...

  8. Carcass and Meat Quality Pelung Sentul Kampung Broiler Crossbreed Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwati, S.; Afnan, R.; Prabowo, S.; Nurcahya, H.

    2018-01-01

    Crossbreed chicken of pelung sentul kampung broiler (PSKR) has good growth and ready to slaughter at the age of 10 weeks. So, it has potential as a local chicken for meat producers. Potential of PSKR crossbreed chicken need to know about the percentage of carcass and the physical quality of meat for holistic information. This study aimed to evaluate the carcass and the quality of the physical meat of pelung sentul kampung broiler chicken (PSKR). Material of 12 chickens PSKR 12 weeks unsexing were used and observed for the percentage of carcass in the chest, upper and lower thighs and physical quality of breast meat included pH, water-binding power, cooking impurities, and tenderness. Chickens fed 100% commercial feed for broiler chicken phase starter until age 3 weeks, then gradually added rice bran and age > 5 weeks fed 60% commercial feed plus 40% rice bran. Chicken is slaughter at 12 weeks of age. The data obtained are presented descriptively. Percentage of PSKR carcass was 68%, chest was 27.17%, upper thigh was 17.12%, lower thigh was 16.64% respectively. Physical quality of breast meat has a pH performance of 5.30,% mgH2O of 28.08%, cooking loss of 29.13%, and tenderness of 2.63 respectively. PSKR chicken had potential for meat producers based on carcass percentage with chest meat was very tender because the genetic of broiler in PSKR as much as 25%.

  9. improving the hygienic quality of quail carcasses by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, E.H.A.

    2002-01-01

    this investigation aimed to use gamma irradiation doses as compared to chemical preservative sodium tripolyphosphate (stpp) for increasing the shelf-life and improving the hygienic quality of quail carcasses during cold and frozen storage. one hundred quail carcasses were examined for the presence of salmonella. the examination illustrated that 70 carcasses from all examined carcasses were positive for salmonella. therefore, the contaminated quail carcasses were gamma irradiated at 2,4,6 and 8 kGy doses and soaking in 3% stpp and the effect of these treatments on the organoleptic, microbiological aspects and chemical properties during cold (4±1 o C) and frozen storage (-18 o C) of samples under investigation were evaluated .the results indicated that, the chemical composition of samples did not alter by gamma irradiation and soaking in STPP treatments. furthermore, treatments had no deleterious effects on the organoleptic properties of quail samples. irradiation of samples at doses of 2,4,6 and 8 kGy or soaking in STPP greatly reduced its microbial count and prolonged its shelf- life for 12,15,21,24 and 9 days at 4±1 o C, respectively against only 6 days for control samples

  10. Natural and archaeological analogues: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    In this chapter natural analogues in the geomedia for various aspects of radioactive waste disposal are discussed. Particular reference is made to the Okla Natural Reactor in Gabon. Igneous contact zones are discussed and natural analogues of waste-form materials. The importance of archaeological remains and anthropogenic materials left by man, in assessing weathering conditions and serving as radioactive waste analogues, is also emphasised. (UK)

  11. Description of carcass classification goals and the current situation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, E.C.

    2015-01-01

    Carcass classification is an essential part of efficient animal production, price fixing and meeting consumer demands. Carcass classification (or grading) is based on the description of carcasses by means of clearly defined characteristics that are of prime importance to the meat industry, retailers and consumers. Significant variation exists in carcass composition and quality due to the effects of species, age, maturity type, sex and interaction effects with animal production systems. A numb...

  12. The Valles natural analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockman, H.; Krumhansl, J.; Ho, C.; McConnell, V.

    1994-12-01

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a highlevel waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, X-ray diffraction; and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and 39 Ar/ 4O isotopic composition. Overall,the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 meters of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks

  13. Rheological and physical characteristics of crustal-scaled materials for centrifuge analogue modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waffle, Lindsay; Godin, Laurent; Harris, Lyal B.; Kontopoulou, M.

    2016-05-01

    We characterize a set of analogue materials used for centrifuge analogue modelling simulating deformation at different levels in the crust simultaneously. Specifically, we improve the rheological characterization in the linear viscoelastic region of materials for the lower and middle crust, and cohesive synthetic sands without petroleum-binding agents for the upper crust. Viscoelastic materials used in centrifuge analogue modelling demonstrate complex dynamic behaviour, so viscosity alone is insufficient to determine if a material will be an effective analogue. Two series of experiments were conducted using an oscillating bi-conical plate rheometer to measure the storage and loss moduli and complex viscosities of several modelling clays and silicone putties. Tested materials exhibited viscoelastic and shear-thinning behaviour. The silicone putties and some modelling clays demonstrated viscous-dominant behaviour and reached Newtonian plateaus at strain rates clays demonstrated elastic-dominant power-law relationships. Based on these results, the elastic-dominant modelling clay is recommended as an analogue for basement cratons. Inherently cohesive synthetic sands produce fine-detailed fault and fracture patterns, and developed thrust, strike-slip, and extensional faults in simple centrifuge test models. These synthetic sands are recommended as analogues for the brittle upper crust. These new results increase the accuracy of scaling analogue models to prototype. Additionally, with the characterization of three new materials, we propose a complete lithospheric profile of analogue materials for centrifuge modelling, allowing future studies to replicate a broader range of crustal deformation behaviours.

  14. Genetic parameters for carcass and ultrasound traits in Hereford and admixed Simmental beef cattle: Accuracy of evaluating carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H; Golden, B; Hyde, L; Sanders, S; Garrick, D

    2017-11-01

    Genetic parameters are required to evaluate carcass merit using correlated real-time ultrasound (RTU) measurements. Many registered bulls and heifers are measured using RTU before consideration for selection as parents, whereas few animals are recorded for carcass traits and those are often crossbred steers. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters required for evaluating carcass merit in the American Hereford Association (AHA) and the American Simmental Association (ASA) using multivariate models and to assess accuracy of carcass trait estimated breeding values (EBV) for selection candidates. All available carcass data including carcass weight (CWT), fat thickness (FAT), longissimus muscle area (LMA), and marbling score (MRB) were provided by the AHA and the ASA along with RTU data including fat thickness (UFAT), longissimus muscle area (ULMA), and percentage of intramuscular fat (UIMF). Carcass data comprised 6,054 AHA and 9,056 ASA cattle, while RTU data in comparable numbers from close relatives comprised 6,074 AHA and 7,753 ASA cattle. Pedigrees included 33,226 AHA and 37,665 ASA animals. Fixed effects for carcass and RTU data included contemporary group, age at scan/slaughter, and major breed percentages. Restricted maximum likelihood procedures were applied to all the carcass and RTU measurements, along with birth weight to account for selection, fitting 8-trait multivariate models separately for each breed association. Heritability estimates for AHA and ASA carcass traits were 0.41 ± 0.04 and 0.25 ± 0.03 for FAT, 0.47 ± 0.04 and 0.32 ± 0.03 for LMA, 0.48 ± 0.04 and 0.43 ± 0.04 for MRB, 0.51 ± 0.04 and 0.34 ± 0.03 for CWT, and for RTU traits were 0.29 ± 0.04 and 0.37 ± 0.03 for UFAT, 0.31 ± 0.04 and 0.44 ± 0.03 for ULMA, and 0.45 ± 0.04 and 0.42 ± 0.03 for UIMF. Genetic correlations for AHA and ASA analyses between FAT and UFAT were 0.74 ± 0.08 and 0.28 ± 0.13, between LMA and ULMA were 0.81 ± 0.07 and 0.57 ± 0.10, and

  15. The variation in the eating quality of beef from different sexes and breed classes cannot be completely explained by carcass measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Hocquette, J-F; Pethick, D W; Farmer, L J; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Polkinghorne, R J; Gardner, G E

    2016-06-01

    . Breed also influenced eating quality beyond differences in carcass traits. However, in this case, it was only for certain muscles. This should be taken into account when estimating the eating quality of meat. In addition, the coefficients used by the Australian MSA model for some muscles, marbling score and ultimate pH do not exactly reflect the influence of these factors on eating quality in this data set, and if this system was to be applied to Europe then the coefficients for these muscles and covariates would need further investigation.

  16. 9 CFR 311.8 - Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... anasarca or generalized edema. 311.8 Section 311.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.8 Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema. (a... characterized by an extensive or well-marked generalized edema shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses of cattle...

  17. 9 CFR 310.6 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.6 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking shall be marked conspicuously on the surface tissues thereof by a...

  18. 7 CFR 59.303 - Mandatory reporting of lamb carcasses and boxed lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory reporting of lamb carcasses and boxed lamb... INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Lamb Reporting § 59.303 Mandatory reporting of lamb carcasses and boxed lamb. (a) Daily reporting of lamb carcass transactions. The corporate officers or...

  19. Novel deboning method of chilled broiler carcasses (prior to evisceration) and its effect on meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    During traditional poultry processing, the two main sources of contamination of the broiler carcasses are (1) microorganisms on the exterior of the carcasses, that results in skin surface contamination and (2) microorganisms from the gastrointestinal contents of the carcass and subsequent cross cont...

  20. Effect of finisher diets treated with organic acids on carcass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of 4 weeks, 3 birds from each replicate giving a total of 9 birds per treatment were slaughtered for carcass and internal organ evaluation. Result from the carcass evaluation showed that dressed carcass, breast, thigh, wing and drumstick of OA treated groups were not significantly (P>0.05) different from the control.

  1. Genetic Parameters for carcass composition and pork quality estimated in a commercial production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van H.J.; Arts, D.J.G.; Matthews, J.O.; Webster, M.; Ducro, B.J.; Knol, E.F.

    2005-01-01

    Breeding goals in pigs are subject to change and are directed much more toward retail carcass yield and meat quality because of the high economic value of these traits. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of growth, carcass, and meat quality traits. Carcass components

  2. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay-A rapid detection tool for identifying red fox (Vulpes vulpes) DNA in the carcasses of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heers, Teresa; van Neer, Abbo; Becker, André; Grilo, Miguel Luca; Siebert, Ursula; Abdulmawjood, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Carcasses of wild animals are often visited by different scavengers. However, determining which scavenger caused certain types of bite marks is particularly difficult and knowledge thereof is lacking. Therefore, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay (target sequence cytochrome b) was developed to detect red fox DNA in carcasses of harbour porpoises. The MSwab™ method for direct testing without prior DNA isolation was validated. As a detection device, the portable real-time fluorometer Genie® II was used, which yields rapid results and can be used in field studies without huge laboratory equipment. In addition to in vitro evaluation and validation, a stranded and scavenged harbour porpoise carcass was successfully examined for red fox DNA residues. The developed LAMP method is a valuable diagnostic tool for confirming presumable red fox bite wounds in harbour porpoises without further DNA isolation steps.

  3. The food safety value of de-boning finishing pig carcasses with lesions indicative of prior septicaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækbo, A.K.; Petersen, J.V.; Larsen, Marianne Halberg

    2016-01-01

    procedure to ensure food safety. Instead, thorough inspection (requiring deep cuts into the predilection sites for the abscesses) in the rework area could replace de-boning. In addition, if overlooked in the rework area, such abscesses would probably be found during cutting, and dealt with at the abattoir....... A strict and thorough handling of the carcasses in the rework area, along with extra focus during processing, should therefore be sufficient....

  4. Effect of ractopamine and sex on growth, carcass characteristics, processing yield, and meat quality characteristics of crossbred swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttaro, B E; Ball, R O; Dick, P; Rae, W; Vessie, G; Jeremiah, L E

    1993-09-01

    One hundred twenty-eight 64-kg crossbred barrows and gilts were administered either 0 or 20 ppm of Ractopamine (RAC) in a pelleted corn-soybean meal diet that contained either 17.5 or 19.6% CP. Carcass quality was evaluated after slaughter at 100 kg. Dietary protein levels produced few significant effects; therefore, data were pooled for analysis. Pigs fed RAC exhibited improvement in feed efficiency (P processed ham was greater from both pigs fed RAC (P additive.

  5. Trehalose Analogues: Latest Insights in Properties and Biocatalytic Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Walmagh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose (α-d-glucopyranosyl α-d-glucopyranoside is a non-reducing sugar with unique stabilizing properties due to its symmetrical, low energy structure consisting of two 1,1-anomerically bound glucose moieties. Many applications of this beneficial sugar have been reported in the novel food (nutricals, medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Trehalose analogues, like lactotrehalose (α-d-glucopyranosyl α-d-galactopyranoside or galactotrehalose (α-d-galactopyranosyl α-d-galactopyranoside, offer similar benefits as trehalose, but show additional features such as prebiotic or low-calorie sweetener due to their resistance against hydrolysis during digestion. Unfortunately, large-scale chemical production processes for trehalose analogues are not readily available at the moment due to the lack of efficient synthesis methods. Most of the procedures reported in literature suffer from low yields, elevated costs and are far from environmentally friendly. “Greener” alternatives found in the biocatalysis field, including galactosidases, trehalose phosphorylases and TreT-type trehalose synthases are suggested as primary candidates for trehalose analogue production instead. Significant progress has been made in the last decade to turn these into highly efficient biocatalysts and to broaden the variety of useful donor and acceptor sugars. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the latest insights and future perspectives in trehalose analogue chemistry, applications and production pathways with emphasis on biocatalysis.

  6. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W R; Mazurek, M; Waber, H N [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J; Erlandson, A C; Hallbeck, L; Pedersen, K [Goeteborg University (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W; Fritz, P; Geyer, S; Geyer, W; Hanschman, G; Kopinke, F D; Poerschmann, J [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A V; Haworth, A; Ilett, D; Linklater, C M; Tweed, C J [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S R.N.; Kemp, S J; Milodowski, A E; Pearce, J M; Reeder, S; Rochelle, C A; Smith, B; Wetton, P D; Wragg, J [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I D [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E; Hughes, C R [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E K [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H N; Salameh, E [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B [Cement Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A F [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J A.T. [ed.; Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  7. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W.R.; Mazurek, M.; Waber, H.N.; Arlinger, J.; Erlandson, A.C.; Hallbeck, L.; Pedersen, K.; Chambers, A.V.; Haworth, A.; Ilett, D.; Linklater, C.M.; Tweed, C.J.; Chenery, S.R.N.; Kemp, S.J.; Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.; Reeder, S.; Rochelle, C.A.; Smith, B.; Wetton, P.D.; Wragg, J.; Clark, I.D.; Karlsson, F.; Khoury, H.N.; Salameh, E.; Lagerblad, B.; Longworth, G.; Savage, D.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH) 2 type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the 'alkali disturbed zone' of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  8. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W R; Mazurek, M; Waber, H N [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J; Erlandson, A C; Hallbeck, L; Pedersen, K [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W; Fritz, P; Geyer, S; Geyer, W; Hanschman, G; Kopinke, F D; Poerschmann, J [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A V; Haworth, A; Ilett, D; Linklater, C M; Tweed, C J [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S R.N.; Kemp, S J; Milodowski, A E; Pearce, J M; Reeder, S; Rochelle, C A; Smith, B; Wetton, P D; Wragg, J [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I D [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E; Hughes, C R [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E K [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H N; Salameh, E [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B [Cement Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A F [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J A.T. [ed.; Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  9. Ostrich (Struthio camellus carcass yield and meat quality parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Balog

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed at compiling recent studies on the main factors that influence ostrich meat quality and carcass yield. Few articles investigated the effect of subspecies, which generally are not even mentioned. There are important dietary effects, particularly those caused by dietary protein to energy ratio. Rigor mortis follow-up studies showed that there are no losses in meat quality when carcasses are hot-deboned. Age at slaughter influences some meat quality traits, such as tenderness and lipid content. Few effects of gender have been observed, and at the same age at slaughter, both male and female present the same meat quality traits.

  10. Classication Methods for CT-Scanned Carcass Midsections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has successfully been applied in medical environments for decades. In recent years CT has also made its entry to the industrial environments, including the slaughterhouses. In this paper we investigate classication methods for an online CT system, in order to assist...... in the segmentation of the outer fat layer in the mid- section of CT-scanned pig carcasses. Prior information about the carcass composition can potentially be applied for a fully automated solution, in order to optimize the slaughter line. The methods comprise Markov Random Field and contextual Bayesian classication...

  11. Carcass and meat quality traits of rabbits under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Fernandes, S; Sartori, J R; Teixeira, P S S; Moura, A S A M T

    2013-03-01

    Rabbits are very sensitive to heat stress because they have difficulty eliminating excess body heat. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of heat stress on slaughter weight, dressing percentage and carcass and meat quality traits of rabbits from two genetic groups. Ninety-six weaned rabbits were used: half were from the Botucatu genetic group and half were crossbreds between New Zealand White sires and Botucatu does. They were assigned to a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (two genetic groups and three ambient temperatures: 18°C, 25°C and 30°C) and kept under controlled conditions in three environmental chambers from 5 to 10 weeks of age. Slaughter took place at 10 weeks, on 2 consecutive days. Meat quality measurements were made in the longissimus muscle. Actual average ambient temperature and relative humidity in the three chambers were 18.4°C and 63.9%, 24.4°C and 80.2% and 29.6°C and 75.9%, respectively. Purebred rabbits were heavier at slaughter and had heavier commercial and reference carcasses than crossbreds at 30°C; however, no differences between genetic groups for these traits were found at lower temperatures. No genetic group × ambient temperature interaction was detected for any other carcass or meat quality traits. The percentages of distal parts of legs, skin and carcass forepart were higher in crossbred rabbits, indicating a lower degree of maturity at slaughter in this group. The percentage of thoracic viscera was higher in the purebreds. Lightness of the longissimus muscle was higher in the purebreds, whereas redness was higher in the crossbreds. Slaughter, commercial and reference carcass weights and the percentages of thoracic viscera, liver and kidneys were negatively related with ambient temperature. Commercial and reference carcass yields, and the percentage of distal parts of legs, on the other hand, had a positive linear relationship with ambient temperature. Meat redness and

  12. Estimation of carcass composition using rib dissection of calf-fed Holstein steers supplemented zilpaterol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvers, T J; May, N D; Reed, J A; Walter, L J; Hutcheson, J P; Lawrence, T E

    2018-04-14

    A serial harvest was conducted every 28 d from 254 to 534 d on feed (DOF) to quantify changes in growth and composition of calf-fed Holstein steers (n = 115, initial body weight (BW) = 449.2 ± 19.9 kg). One-half were supplemented with the β-2 adrenergic agonist zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 8.33 mg/kg 100% dry matter (DM) basis) during the final 20 d followed by a 3-d withdrawal prior to harvest; the remainder was fed a non-ZH control (CON) ration. Five steers were randomly selected and harvested after 226 DOF which served as a reference point for modeling purposes. Fabricated carcass soft tissue was ground, mixed, and subsampled for proximate analysis. Moreover, following the traditional method of rib dissection which includes the 9th, 10th, and 11th rib contained within the IMPS 103 primal, the relationship of carcass chemical composition to 9-10-11 rib composition was evaluated. Carcasses in this investigation had more (P carcasses and rib dissections. Using regression procedures, models were constructed to describe the relationship of rib dissection (RD) composition including separable lean (RDSL), separable fat (RDSF), separable bone (RDSB), ether extract (RDEE), protein (RDP), moisture (RDM), and ash (RDA) with carcass composition. Carcass lean (CL), carcass fat (CF), and carcass bone (CB) were correlated (P carcass, carcass ether extract (CEE), carcass protein (CP), carcass moisture (CM), and carcass ash (CA) were correlated (P ≤ 0.01) with simple r values of 0.75, 0.31, 0.66, and 0.37, respectively. Equations to predict carcass fatness from rib dissection variables and ZH supplementation status were only able to account for 50 and 56%, of the variability of CF and CEE, respectively. Overall, the relationships quantified and equations developed in this investigation do not support use of 9/10/11 rib dissection for estimation of carcass composition of calf-fed Holstein steers.

  13. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-11-08

    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  14. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of spermatinamine analogues

    KAUST Repository

    Moosa, Basem; Sagar, Sunil; Li, Song; Esau, Luke; Kaur, Mandeep; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2016-01-01

    analogues and their cytotoxic evaluation against three human cancer cell lines i.e. cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and prostate carcinoma (DU145). Analogues 12, 14 and 15 were found to be the most potent against one or more cell

  15. Performance, Carcass Production, and Meat Quality of Sumba Ongole Bulls Fed Ration Containing Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Yantika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study performance, carcass production, meat quality, and economic feasibility of male Sumba Ongole cattle fed ration supplemented with velvet bean (M. pruriens. The research was designed in a completely randomized block design using 16 cattle with average body weight of 488+37.08 kg. The treatments were: T0= 15% straw + 85% concentrate; T1= T0 + 12% of velvet bean flour supplement; T2= T0 + 16% of velvet bean tempeh supplement; and T3= T0 + 200 mg/head/d of ractopamine hydrocloride. Data were analyzed by using analysis of variance with orthogonal contrast. The observed variables included feed consumption, average daily body weight gain (ADG, feed efficiency (FE, income over feed cost (IOFC, hot carcass weight (HCW, carcass percentage, subcutaneous fat thickness, meat pH, tenderness, cooking loss, and water holding capacity (WHC. The result revealed that the addition of 12% velvet bean flour into the rations increased dry matter consumption (P<0.05, but did not affect ADG, FE, IOFC, carcass production, and meat quality. The addition of 12% velvet bean flour produced the lowest cooking loss (P<0.05. The addition of 16% velvet bean tempeh into the rations significantly increased (P<0.05 dry matter consumption, however reduced (P<0.05 ADG, FE, and IOFC compared to control treatment. It is concluded that velvet bean flour at the level of 12% can be used as an alternative feed supplement in the ration of Sumba Ongole cattle and can replace the use of synthetic ß-agonist.

  16. The ketamine analogue methoxetamine and 3- and 4-methoxy analogues of phencyclidine are high affinity and selective ligands for the glutamate NMDA receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan L Roth

    Full Text Available In this paper we determined the pharmacological profiles of novel ketamine and phencyclidine analogues currently used as 'designer drugs' and compared them to the parent substances via the resources of the National Institute of Mental Health Psychoactive Drug Screening Program. The ketamine analogues methoxetamine ((RS-2-(ethylamino-2-(3-methoxyphenylcyclohexanone and 3-MeO-PCE (N-ethyl-1-(3-methoxyphenylcyclohexanamine and the 3- and 4-methoxy analogues of phencyclidine, (1-[1-(3-methoxyphenylcyclohexyl]piperidine and 1-[1-(4-methoxyphenylcyclohexyl]piperidine, were all high affinity ligands for the PCP-site on the glutamate NMDA receptor. In addition methoxetamine and PCP and its analogues displayed appreciable affinities for the serotonin transporter, whilst the PCP analogues exhibited high affinities for sigma receptors. Antagonism of the NMDA receptor is thought to be the key pharmacological feature underlying the actions of dissociative anaesthetics. The novel ketamine and PCP analogues had significant affinities for the NMDA receptor in radioligand binding assays, which may explain their psychotomimetic effects in human users. Additional actions on other targets could be important for delineating side-effects.

  17. Roasted sesame hulls improve broiler performance without affecting carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Z. Mahmoud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of using graded levels of roasted sesame hulls (RSH on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in broiler chickens. A total of 360 day-old Lohmann chicks were randomly allocated into 24 floor pens and raised over 42 days. One of four dietary treatments was assigned to each group of six pens in a completely randomized fashion. The chicks in the control group were fed a corn-soybean based diet (RSH-0, while the chicks in treatments two, three, and four were fed graded levels of RSH at 4% (RSH-4, 8% (RSH-8, and 12% (RSH-12, respectively. Diets were formulated to meet broiler chicks’ requirements according to the National Research Council for both starter and finisher rations. The results showed that RSH inclusion increased (P<0.05 feed intake and final body weight without adversely affecting the feed conversion ratio. Broiler chicks fed RSH-12 had heavier (P<0.05 breast and leg cuts compared to the control-fed group with no change to their chemical composition. Water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL, and shear force (SF reported similar results in all dietary groups. The chemical composition of both thigh and breast cuts was not affected by the RSH. After one day of thawing, colour coordinates of breast cuts behaved similarly in all dietary groups. The results of this study suggest that the addition of RSH to broiler diets up to 12% improves their growth performance; nevertheless, carcass characteristics and meat quality showed no alterations compared to the control-fed group.

  18. The effect of slaughter operations on the contamination of chicken carcasses with thermotolerant Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle M; Nielsen, Niels L; Christensen, Bjarke B

    2006-04-25

    To evaluate the effect of specific slaughter operations on the contamination of broiler carcasses with naturally occurring thermotolerant Campylobacter, experiments were carried out in two Danish commercial slaughter plants (Plant I and Plant II). Six broiler flocks determined Campylobacter positive prior to slaughter were investigated at four sampling locations within each slaughter plant. Quantification of thermotolerant Campylobacter in 30 neck skin samples per flock per sampling location showed that the evisceration operation in Plant I led to a significant increase in the Campylobacter concentration of 0.5 log(10) cfu/g in average, whereas no significant changes were observed during this operation in Plant II. Air chilling (Plant I) and water chilling (Plant II), both including a carcass wash prior to the chilling operation, caused similar, but significant reductions of 0.83 and 0.97 log(10) cfu/g, respectively. In packed frozen chickens (Plant II) an additional reduction of 1.38 log(10) cfu/g in average was obtained due to the freezing operation. In packed chilled chickens (Plant I), however, the number of thermotolerant Campylobacter per gram remained at the same level as after air chilling. Enumeration of thermotolerant Campylobacter in 30 intestinal samples per flock showed that in two of the six flocks examined the within flock colonization was very low (defeathering operation was documented. This finding indicates that a reduction in the Campylobacter concentration on chicken carcasses may also be obtained by interventions aimed at reducing the concentration of Campylobacter in the intestines of the living birds.

  19. In take, performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed diets containing dried cassava peel meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Juliano Valério Geron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of inclusion of 0, 10, 20 and 30% dried cassava peel meal (DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens over the period from 1 to 42 days of age on nutrient intake, animal performance, and carcass yield. Two hundred Cobb broiler chickens (1 day old were allocated in a completely randomized design consisting of four inclusion levels of DCPM (treatment, with 10 animals per box and 5 boxes per treatment. The different levels of DCPM did not alter (P>0.05 dietary dry matter (DM or organic matter intake, expressed as g/animal/day, kg DMS/kg0.75, and percentage of body weight. However, the addition of DCPM resulted in a linear increase (P<0.05 in crude protein intake and in a quadratic increase (P<0.05 in neutral detergent fiber intake. Furthermore, the different DCPM levels led to a linear decrease (P<0.05 in average daily gain, average total gain, and feed efficiency of broiler chickens during the period studied. Feed conversion increased linearly (P<0.05 in broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age with inclusion of DCPM in the diets. The inclusion of increasing levels of DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens slaughtered at 42 days of age exerted a linear decreasing effect (P<0.05 on slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and chest, wing, thigh and back weight. The inclusion of more than 10% DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age reduces feed and nutrient intake, weight gain, and carcass and noble cut yield.

  20. Patterns of seabird and marine mammal carcass deposition along the central California coast, 1980-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Jameson, Ronald J.

    1991-01-01

    At monthly intervals from February 1980 through December 1986, a 14.5-km section of central California coastline was systematically surveyed for beach-cast carcasses of marine birds and mammals. Five hundred and fifty-four bird carcasses and 194 marine mammal carcasses were found. Common murres, western grebes, and Brandt's cormorants composed 45% of the bird total. California sea lions, sea otters, and harbor seals composed 90% of the mammal total. Several factors appeared to affect patterns of carcass deposition. The El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) of 1982–1983 was the dominant influence in terms of interannual variation in carcass deposition. During this ENSO, 56% of the seabirds and 48% of the marine mammals washed ashore. Patterns of intra-annual variation were species specific and were related to animal migration patterns, reproduction, and seasonal changes in weather. Nearshore currents and winds influenced the general area of carcass deposition, while beach substrate type and local patterns of sand deposition influenced the location of carcass deposition on a smaller spatial scale. Weekly surveys along a 1.1-km section of coastline indicated that 62% of bird carcasses and 41% of mammal carcasses remained on the beach less than 9 days. Cause of death was determined for only 8% of the carcasses. Oiling was the most common indication of cause of death in birds (6%). Neonates composed 8% of all mammal carcasses.

  1. Hot Carcass Specific Gravity: Could Be Used Accurately for In-vivo Body Composition Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekry, A.E.; Shebaita, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Twelve mature male goats (Bucks) of Egyptian Baladi breed aged 4 years old and body weight of 30.5 kg were used to verify the validation of predicting equations by which carcass specific gravity and body weight can be used to estimate body composition. Live body weight, TOH-space, Blood and plasma volume were determined. Two weeks later, all bucks were slaughtered and each of empty body weight, hot carcass weight, hot carcass specific gravity, offals, along with separating carcass components (muscle, fat, bone) and chemical components (water, protein, fat, ash) of the whole body, empty body and carcass were determined. Step-wise regression analyses of the relationships among hot carcass specific gravity, body and carcass weight (as independent variables) and body composition parameters were performed. The validation of the obtained predicting equations was examined by calculating the intercept and the slope of the regression of the predicted parameter on the observed parameter. The valid equation should have an insignificant intercept from zero and insignificant slope from one. The data revealed that hot carcass specific gravity has not any valid equation to predict body and carcass composition. Live body weight can be used to predict empty body weight and red blood cells volume. Empty body weight has a valid equation to estimate empty body water. However, hot carcass weight can be used to estimate carcass water, muscle and edible portion

  2. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, A L; Goh, Y M; Samsudin, A A; Alimon, A R; Sazili, A Q

    2014-04-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (pAndrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05).

  3. Performance and Carcass Yield of Sexed Broiler Chickens Reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of availability of specially formulated feeds and other aids to intensive poultry production, the provision of appropriate housing remains the most basic requirement for successful poultry production. This study thereby determined the performance, carcass yield and meat composition of 300 sexed Arbor Acre broiler ...

  4. Comparison of carcass yield and meat composition of three classes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to compare the carcass yield and meat composition of three classes of chicken. Twenty one (21) birds in total consisting of 7 birds each of broilers, cockerel and spent hens were purchased from a reputable farm in Aiyepe, Ogun State. Birds were acclimatized for two weeks under similar ...

  5. Phenotypic Variation and Correlation of Some Carcass Traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slaughter data on 619 castrated males and 423 does of three year of age were analyzed to evaluate the variabilities in heart girth measurement and carcass traits in local Matebele goats. There was a significant (p<0.01) difference between heart girth in does and castrated males. The does had lower (p<0.01) mean (13.64 ...

  6. Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Finisher Birds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty (60) 4 weeks old Anak broiler strain were subjected to 28 days feeding trial at the Poultry Unit of the Teaching and Research Farm, Evan Enwerem, Owerri, Nigeria, to determine the dietary effect of pineapple wine sediment (PWSM) on their performance and carcass characteristics. The birds were divided into four ...

  7. Influence of electrical stimulation on carcass and meat quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a previous study regarding the effects of Kosher and conventional slaughter techniques on carcass and meat quality of cattle, it was speculated that electrical stimulation may have affected some of the meat qualities. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) and ...

  8. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters from rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of restricted feeding and realimentation during pregnancy was studied to know the carryover effect on carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters.Young does fed ad libitum diets often show parturition problems (Dystokia and abnormal presentation) with the subsequent reduction of number of kits, ...

  9. The effect of the malignant hyperthermia gene on carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    expressed as a percentage of the carcass mass. The ham was sub- sequently separated into meat, fat and bone and the mass of each determined separately. A sample of marrow was extracted from the femur for genotyping using the technique described by Fujii et al. (1991). Chilling loss was determined by subtracting the.

  10. Effect of finishing system on carcass characteristics and composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of finishing system on carcass characteristics and composition of Mubende goats and their Boer goat crossbreds. ... Dissectible lean and fat percentages varied in an ascending order of 66%, 72%, 72.6% and 8%, 14% and 16.5% for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. A reverse trend was observed for bone percentages with ...

  11. Carcass and internal organ characteristics of brioler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and forty-four (144) broiler chickens were used to evaluate the carcass and internal organ characteristics of broiler chickens fed soybean diet partially replaced with variable levels of raw jackfruit seed meal (RJFSM). The study lasted for 7 weeks. The inclusion levels of RJFSM were 10, 20 and 30% respectively ...

  12. Effect of days in feedlot on growth performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of days in feedlot on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Merino, South African Mutton Merino and Dorper lambs. T.S. Brand, E.J. van der Westhuizen, D.A. van der Merwe, L.C. Hoffman ...

  13. Quinolone Resistance in Bacterial Isolates from Chicken Carcasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred bacterial isolates including Escherichia coli (95; 47.5%), Salmonella serotypes (78; 38.0%), Klebsiella (17; 8.5%) and Staphylococcus aureus (12; 6.0%) were isolated from chicken carcasses within the six-year period. On the overall, the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (40.5%), enrofloxacin (21.0%), ...

  14. Aspects of the serum biochemistry, carcass quality and organoleptic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of feeding alkaline treated date pits (TDP) on serum biochemistry, carcass quality and organoleptic characteristics were investigated in 396 commercial broiler chicks of the Hybro strain. The values of glucose, albumin, protein, calcium, pH and GPT and GOT showed no significance difference when compared ...

  15. Non-genetic factors affecting growth performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science ... This study was based on 20 079 and 12 169 growth and 5 406 and 2 533 carcass data collected on performance tested pigs between 1990 and 2008 from Large White and Landrace breeds ... Herd of origin, year of testing and their interaction significantly affected all traits.

  16. Chemical composition of carcass sawdust residue as a predictor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I I th rib cut; dissection of the carcass into fat, bone and lean meat; determining the ..... ing the effect of various shelters on the milk yield of dairy cows is available in ... determine the effect of providing protection during winter on the production ...

  17. The Main Index of Carcasses Conformation at Young Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ilişiu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Research purpose is to obtain information on the development of carcasses obtained from Tsigai race and its hybrids with Suffolk and German blackface breeds. The results showed that hybrids Suffolk x Tsigai and German blackface x Tsigai have made a better form of carcass compared with Tsigai race, being superior with 1.86% to the Suffolk x Tsigai hybrids and 1.48% German blackface x Tsigai hybrids. Regarding the index of carcass compacted, its value is around the value of 100% in all three groups. The best development of the leg of mutton is found at Suffolk x Tsigai hybrids. Value of leg of mutton development index was 203.58% for hybrids with race Suffolk, being superior with 14.91% compared with Tsigai race, while the index value at German blackface x Tsigai hybrids was higher only 4.56% compared to Tsigai breed. The best proportionality of leg of mutton meets to the Suffolk x Tsigai hybrids, the index value was 65.42%, with 11.05% higher, compared with Tsigai race. At German blackface x Tsigai hybrids, the index was higher with 6.45%, compared with that obtained at Tsigai breed. Carcasses obtained from hybrids are appropriate format, to those corresponding meat breeds.

  18. Growth and carcass characteristics of Japanese quails ( Coturnix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The values of other primal cuts were statistically similar (P>0.05). Therefore, it is concluded that substituting synthetic vitamin mineral premixes with natural vitamin mineral premixes in diets is possible with no adverse effects on performance and carcass characteristics of growing Japanese quail. Key words: Proprietary ...

  19. Delayed Post Mortem Predation in Lightning Strike Carcasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    An adult giraffe was struck dead by lightning on a game farm outside. Phalaborwa, South Africa in March 2014. Interestingly, delayed post-mortem predation occurred on the carcass, which according to the farm owners was an atypical phenomenon for the region. Delayed post-mortem scavenging on lightning strike ...

  20. carcass amino acid composition and utilization of dietary amino

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maynard (1954), Fisher & Scott (1954), Forbes &. Rao (1959), Hartsook & Mitchell (1956). King (1963) showed that individual amino acids in the carcass could differ widely from the requirement by the anirnal for those particular amino acids used for purposes other than protein synthesis and subsequent retention. How-.

  1. Performance, Carcass Evaluation And Economics Of Production Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight-weeks feeding trial involving 162,8-week old goldline cockerel birds was carried out in a completely randomized design to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and economics of production of cockerels fed whole cassava plant meal (WCPM). Diet 1 was maize based and served as the control, diet 2 ...

  2. Mineral profiling, carcass quality and sensory evaluation of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation to determine the mineral composition, carcass quality and organoleptic properties of the meat of broilers fed basal broiler feeds supplemented with different leaf meals was conducted. Four treatments: basal proprietary broiler feed only (T1 - PBF) as control, basal proprietary broiler feeds supplemented with ...

  3. Effects of feed refreshing frequency on growth and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    2006) meal frequency referred to the frequency with which animals actually consume feed, not to the frequency with which animals were presented with fresh feed. The literature is inconclusive on the effect of feed refreshening on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of lambs. Therefore, the present study was ...

  4. Carcass mass gains of steers grazing star grass, with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass mass gains of steers grazing dryland Cynodon aethiopicus cv. No. 2 Star grass pastures during the growing season were determined for each of 16 treatments comprising four levels of nitrogen fertilisation in combination with four overlapping sets of stocking rates. The treatments were repeated over four growing ...

  5. Color classification of veal carcasses: Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.; Megen, R. van

    2010-01-01

    In The Netherlands, veal carcasses are classified on color, conformation and fatness. In the past 20 years, major efforts have been put into the development of a reliable color classification system. Initially, the color of the musculus rectus abdominis was visually matched to a 10-point scale.

  6. Growth performance, carcass and organ characteristics of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at the Department of Animal Science teaching and research farm, Bayero University Kano, to evaluate the effect of feeding graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) in diets on growth performance, carcass and organ characteristics of weaned rabbits. Twenty eight grower rabbits of ...

  7. Effects of calpastain (CAST) polymorphisms on carcass and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calpastain (CAST) activity plays a major role in muscle growth and proteolytic changes post-mortem and the CAST gene has been considered as a candidate gene for carcass and pork quality characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of two polymorphisms namely CAST_HinfI (allele A and B) and ...

  8. Association of LXRA gene variants with carcass and meat quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    T1891C in intron 2, and A2377G in exon 3) in the bovine LXRA gene with carcass and meat .... was detected at position 42 of the intron 2 and created a .... accumulation in type 2 diabetes may involve the liver X receptor pathway.

  9. A comparative study of sampling techniques for monitoring carcass contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, J.M.A.; Janssen, M.H.W.; Gerats, G.E.; Corstiaensen, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Four bacteriological sampling techniques i.e. the excision, double swab, agar contract and modified agar contact techniques were compared by sampling pig carcasses before and after chilling. As well as assessing the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques particular attention was paid to

  10. Carcass properties, chemical content and fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine carcass properties and variability in chemical content and fatty acid composition in the musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT) of different genotypes of pigs. Of 36 male castrated animals used in the trial, 24 were from two strains of Mangalitsa pigs (12 Swallow - bellied ...

  11. Performance and carcass characteristics of Japanese quail as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sex and the supplementation of the prebiotic, mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), the acidifier, calcium propionate (CPr) or their combination in the feed of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) on their performance and carcass quality was examined in this experimentation. Three hundred, 1-day old Japanese quail ...

  12. Blood, carcass and organ measurements as influenced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of feeding Aspergillus treated cassava wastes on haematological values, organs and carcass measurements of West African dwarf goats (WAD) were determined. Twelve West African dwarf goats (weighing between 2.8 and 5.4kg) in a completely randomized design (CRD) model with 56d periods consumed diets A ...

  13. Haematology, Carcass and Relative Organ Weights of Growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    IJAAAR 9 (1&2): 167-174, 2013 International Journal of Applied Agricultural and .... and at 16.00 hrs while water was supplied .... Table 4: Carcass and organ characteristics of rabbits on skip-a-day concentrate feeding .... Granada Publications.

  14. Dietary energy level for optimum productivity and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine dietary energy levels for optimum productivity and carcass characteristics of indigenous Venda chickens raised in closed confinement. Four dietary treatments were considered in the first phase (1 to 7 weeks) on two hundred day-old unsexed indigenous Venda chicks indicated as EVS1, ...

  15. The effect of the malignant hyperthermia gene on carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) genotype, as expressed by the halo- thane genotype, was determined on a random sample of 100 pigs originating fiom the Western Cape. The pigs were slaughtered to investigate the effect of MH genotype on certain carcass character- istics and meat quality traits. Genotypes were determined ...

  16. Genetic and phenotypic relationships of feed intake and measures of efficiency with growth and carcass merit of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Basarab, J A; Wang, Z; Li, C; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Crews, D H; Moore, S S

    2007-10-01

    Feed intake and efficiency of growth are economically important traits of beef cattle. This study determined the relationships of daily DMI, feed:gain ratio [F:G, which is the reciprocal of the efficiency of gain (G:F) and therefore increases as the efficiency of gain decreases and vice versa, residual feed intake (RFI), and partial efficiency of growth (efficiency of ADG, PEG) with growth and carcass merit of beef cattle. Residual feed intake was calculated from phenotypic regression (RFIp) or genetic regression (RFIg) of ADG and metabolic BW on DMI. An F1 half-sib pedigree file containing 28 sires, 321 dams, and 464 progeny produced from crosses between Alberta Hybrid cows and Angus, Charolais, or Alberta Hybrid bulls was used. Families averaged 20 progeny per sire (range = 3 to 56). Performance, ultrasound, and DMI data was available on all progeny, of which 381 had carcass data. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were obtained using SAS and ASREML software, respectively. Differences in RFIp and RFIg, respectively, between the most and least efficient steers (i.e., steers with the lowest PEG) were 5.59 and 6.84 kg of DM/d. Heritabilities for DMI, F:G, PEG, RFIp, and RFIg were 0.54 +/- 0.15, 0.41 +/- 0.15, 0.56 +/- 0.16, 0.21 +/- 0.12, and 0.42 +/- 0.15, respectively. The genetic (r = 0.92) and phenotypic (r = 0.97) correlations between RFIp and RFIg indicated that the 2 indices are very similar. Both indices of RFI were favorably correlated phenotypically (P 0.50), but only DMI had strong genetic (r = 0.87 +/- 0.10) and phenotypic (r = 0.65) correlations with metabolic BW. Generally, the phenotypic and genetic correlations of RFI with carcass merit were not different from zero, except genetic correlations of RFI with ultrasound and carcass LM area and carcass lean yield and phenotypic correlations of RFI with backfat thickness (P < 0.01). Daily DMI had moderate to high phenotypic (P < 0.01) and genetic correlations with all the ultrasound and carcass traits

  17. Carcass treatments for improved meat quality (In Swedish with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Meat quality is a term that includes many different aspects like e.g. safety, ethics, nutrition, taste and functionality. What is regarded as most important is mainly related to where a person is placed in the chain from production to consumption. Along this chain are also many factors that influence the quality of meat. By measuring the pH value of meat it is possible to get good information about shelf life, tenderness, colour and water-holding capacity. Meat pH also gives an indication to whether the animals have been exposed to stress prior to slaughter or not. Good pastures and supplementary feeding using grain-based feed mixtures have been demonstrated to increase the energy stores in the animals' muscles and therefore have a positive effect on pH values in venison. What the animals had been eating prior to slaughter also affected the fat composition and meat flavour. Meat from animals grazing pasture had more polyunsaturated fatty acids and a "wild" flavour compared with meat from animals fed grain-based pellets. It is possible to change the fat composition in a commercial grain-based feed mixture, without altering the protein or energy content, so that the fat composition mimic that of a natural pasture. Pelvic suspension of a carcass will stretch the muscles in valuable cuts and improve the tenderness of the meat. In fallow deer carcasses the tenderness was improved in several meat cuts and in addition the water-holding capacity of the meat increased after pelvic suspension. Electrical stimulation of the carcass quickly empties the energy stores in the muscles and accelerates the onset of rigor mortis. In red deer venison electrical stimulation accelerated the rate of meat tenderisation, but this benefit was lost after approx. 3 weeks of ageing (-1.5 °C. A study from Alaska demonstrated no effects of electrical stimulation of reindeer carcasses on meat tenderness or water-holding capacity. We recommend further studies of pelvic

  18. Cross contamination of turkey carcasses by Salmonella species during defeathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nde, C W; McEvoy, J M; Sherwood, J S; Logue, C M

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella present on the feathers of live birds could be a source of contamination to carcass skin during defeathering. In this study, the possibility of transfer of Salmonella from the feathers of live turkeys to carcass tissue during the defeathering process at a commercial turkey processing plant was investigated. The contribution of scald water and the fingers of the picker machines to cross contamination were also examined. Over 4 visits, swab samples were collected from 174 randomly selected tagged birds before and after defeathering. Two swab samples from the fingers of the picker machines and a sample of scald water were also collected during each visit. Detection of Salmonella was carried out following standard cultural and identification methods. The DNA fingerprints obtained from pulsed field gel electrophoresis of Salmonella serotypes isolated before and after defeathering, from scald water, and from the fingers of the picker machines were compared to trace cross contamination routes. Salmonella prevalence was similar before and after defeathering during visits 2 and 3 and significantly increased after defeathering during visits 1 and 4. Over the 4 visits, all Salmonella subtypes obtained after defeathering were also isolated before defeathering. The results of this study suggest that Salmonella was transferred from the feathers to carcass skin during each visit. On each visit, the Salmonella subtypes isolated from the fingers of the picker machines were similar to subtypes isolated before and after defeathering, indicating that the fingers facilitate carcass cross contamination during defeathering. Salmonella isolated from scald water during visit 4 was related to isolates obtained before and after defeathering, suggesting that scald water is also a vehicle for cross contamination during defeathering. By using molecular subtyping, this study demonstrated the relationship between Salmonella present on the feathers of live turkeys and carcass skin after

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of febrifugine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Huong Doan Thi; Thanh, Giang Vo; Tran, Van Hieu; Vu, Van Nam; Vu, Van Loi; Le, Cong Vinh; Nguyen, Thuy Linh; Phi, Thi Dao; Truong, Bich Ngan; Chau, Van Minh; Pham, Van Cuong

    2014-12-01

    A series of febrifugine analogues were designed and synthesized. Antimalarial activity evaluation of the synthetic compounds indicated that these derivatives had a strong inhibition against both chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Many of them were found to be more active than febrifugine hydrochloride. The tested analogues had also a significant cytotoxicity against four cancer cell lines (KB, MCF7, LU1 and HepG2). Among the synthetic analogues, two compounds 17b and 17h displayed a moderate cytotoxicity while they exhibited a remarkable antimalarial activity.

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Resveratrol Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Chalal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew. Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold. The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups and antimicrobial activity.

  1. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  2. Effect of sulfur analogue of lysine on bacterial protein biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hidehiko; Soda, Kenji.

    1976-01-01

    S-(beta-Aminoethyl)-L-cysteine, a sulfur analogue of lysine inhibited strongly growth of Escherichia coli A-19, and weakly that of Corynebacterium sp. isolated from soil, but did not inhibit growth of Aerobacter aerogenes. In Corynebacterium sp. the inhibitory effect was markedly enhanced in the presence of L-threonine. The inhibition of growth by S-(beta-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine was rapidly reversed by the addition of L-lysine. S-(beta-Aminoethyl)-L-cysteine inhibited protein synthesis and the activity of lysyl-tRNA synthetase from E. coli and A. aerogenes. All the other lysine analogues tested inhibited the activity of enzyme, but S-(beta-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine derivatives, S-(beta-N-acetyl-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine and S-(beta-aminoethyl)-alpha-N-acetyl-L-cysteine were not effective. (auth.)

  3. Systematic Review of the Cost Effectiveness of Insulin Analogues in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Ng, Chin Hui; Tan, Yui Ping; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2017-02-01

    Insulin analogues have a pharmacokinetic advantage over human insulin and are increasingly used to treat diabetes mellitus. A summary of their cost effectiveness versus other available treatments was required. Our objective was to systematically review the published cost-effectiveness studies of insulin analogues for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We searched major databases and health technology assessment agency reports for economic evaluation studies published up until 30 September 2015. Two reviewers performed data extraction and assessed the quality of the data using the CHEERS (Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards) guidelines. Seven of the included studies assessed short-acting insulin analogues, 12 assessed biphasic insulin analogues, 30 assessed long-acting insulin analogues and one assessed a combination of short- and long-acting insulin analogues. Only 17 studies involved patients with T1DM, all were modelling studies and 12 were conducted in Canada. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for short-acting insulin analogues ranged from dominant to $US435,913 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained, the ICERs for biphasic insulin analogues ranged from dominant to $US57,636 per QALY gained and the ICERs for long-acting insulin analogues ranged from dominant to $US599,863 per QALY gained. A total of 15 studies met all the CHEERS guidelines reporting quality criteria. Only 26 % of the studies assessed heterogeneity in their analyses. Current evidence indicates that insulin analogues are cost effective for T1DM; however, evidence for their use in T2DM is not convincing. Additional evidence regarding compliance and efficacy is required to support the broader use of long-acting and biphasic insulin analogues in T2DM. The value of insulin analogues depends strongly on reductions in hypoglycaemia event rates and its efficacy in lowering glycated haemoglobin

  4. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore Cattle Are Modulators of Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirene G T Pereira

    Full Text Available Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS, were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1 as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1, IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2, GH1 (growth hormone 1, IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor and GHR (growth hormone receptor, suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway.

  5. Rethinking of the criteria for natural analogue study. A case of Tono natural analogue study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hidekazu

    1996-01-01

    Natural analogue regarding long-term performance of the geological disposal system for radioactive waste isolation is essentially the study of geochemical process which has been evolved in geological environment. All geochemical studies, however, will not be nominated as natural analogue studies. It is, therefore, important to be clear the criteria for natural analogue study with the view of analogy by following three categories, (1) Conceptual model development, (2) Data provision and (3) Model testing, for the concept of geological disposal and safety assessment model. Rethinking of the criteria for natural analogue study through the case of Tono Natural Analogue Study, and the usefulness of natural analogue study for the safety assessment of geological disposal system in Japan have been presented in this paper. (author)

  6. The effect of the humic acid and garlic (Allium sativum L. on performance parameters and carcass characteristic of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika PISTOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of humic acids and humic acids and garlic powder (Allium sativum L. combination on performance parameters and carcass characteristic of broiler chickens were studied. A total of 120 Ross 308 broiler chickens were divided into 3 treatments (n=40. The control group of chickens was fed complete feed mixtures without any additives. Treatment T1 was fed complete feed mixtures containing 1% of humic acid. Treatment T2 was fed complete feed mixtures containing 1.8% of humic acid and 0.2% of garlic powder (Allium sativum L.. At the end of the experiment was average body weight (values in the order of the groups: 1796.4±188.1; 1999.1±355.8 and 1958.6±201.2 g±SD significantly higher (P≤0.05 in both treatments groups compared to control group. In T1 was weight of gizzard (values in the order of the groups: 34.9±5.2; 43.1±9.4 and 38.9±7.0 g±SD significantly higher (P≤0.05 compared to control group. Carcass weight, weight of heart weight of liver and carcass yield of treatments groups was higher, but differences in these indicators were not statistically significant (P≥0.05. The results of this experiment indicate that humic acids may by an alternative replacement of feed antibiotics.

  7. Scavenger removal: Bird and bat carcass persistence in a tropical wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Patraca, Rafael; Macías-Sánchez, Samuel; MacGregor-Fors, Ian; Muñoz-Robles, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    Energy produced by wind farms has diverse positive environmental effects, but can also be related to negative impacts, including wildlife mortality through collisions with wind turbines. Bird and bat mortality caused by collisions with wind turbines can be estimated indirectly by counting carcasses within wind farms. However, carcass removal by scavengers often biases such measurements. In this study, we identified the main scavengers removing bird and bat carcasses in a tropical wind farm. A known fate analysis was done to assess the effect of carcass type (i.e., small bird, large bird, bat), vegetation type (i.e., secondary vegetation, croplands) and season (dry and rainy seasons of 2009) on carcass persistence rates. We identified three main scavenger groups, with mammals being the most abundant group. Our results show high rates of carcass removal relative to previous studies, especially for bats; there were fewer remaining carcasses after 20 days in our tropical site than in non-tropical environments reported elsewhere. We found a higher carcass persistence rate during the rainy season than in the dry season, possibly due to a greater abundance of food resources for scavenger organisms in the rainy season. Although we found some evidence for higher persistence rates for large bird carcasses than for small bird and bat carcasses during the rainy season, overall carcass type was not a strong predictor of persistence rates. Similarly, we did not find a strong effect of vegetation type on carcass persistence rates. Results suggest that in order to estimate accurate bird and bat mortality in tropical wind farm areas, seasonality should be incorporated to correction factors of carcass removal rates.

  8. Effect of investigator disturbance in experimental forensic entomology: carcass biomass loss and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Grant D; Hoback, W Wyatt; Higley, Leon G

    2011-01-01

    Often carrion decomposition studies are conducted using a single carcass or a few carcasses sampled repeatedly through time to reveal trends in succession community composition. Measurements of biomass and other abiotic parameters (e.g., temperature) are often collected on the same carcasses but are rarely a focal point of the studies. This study investigated the effects that repeated sampling during experiments have on the decomposition of carrion, measured as both gross biomass (carcass plus fauna) and net biomass (carcass only), on carcasses disturbed on every visit (with weighing only or also with the collection of fauna) and on carcasses disturbed only once. Each trial lasted at least 21 days, with samples taken in triplicate. Rat carcasses used in this study were placed in the field on the same day and either weighed on every visit or ignored until a given day. Internal and ambient air temperatures were recorded on each carcass at the time of sampling and on undisturbed carcasses using temperature loggers. The presence of succession fauna did not result in significant biomass loss on most days; however, there were individual days early in decomposition (days 3 through 6) when the succession fauna comprised a large portion of the gross biomass. With the exception of biomass loss by the emigration of maggots on days 4 and 5, neither repeated weighing of the carcasses nor repeated weighing and faunal sampling of the carcasses statistically affected the rate of biomass loss. Internal temperatures of carcasses sampled repeatedly were frequently 2-5°C lower than those that had not been disturbed, and ambient temperatures differed significantly depending on the location of measurement device. Results indicate that methods used historically for biomass loss determination in experimental forensic entomology studies are adequate, but further refinements to experimental methodology are desirable. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. International video project on natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guentensperger, Marcel

    1993-01-01

    A natural analogue can be defined as a natural process which has occurred in the past and is studied in order to test predictions about the future evolution of similar processes. In recent years, natural analogues have been used increasingly to test the mathematical models required for repository performance assessment. Analogues are, however, also of considerable use in public relations as they allow many of the principles involved in demonstrating repository safety to be illustrated in a clear manner using natural systems with which man is familiar. The international Natural Analogue Working Group (NAWG), organised under the auspices of the CEC, has recognised that such PR applications are of considerable importance and should be supported from a technical level. At the NAWG meeting in Pitlochry, Scotland (June 1990), it was recommended that the possibilities for making a video film on this topic be investigated and Nagra was requested to take the lead role in setting up such a project

  10. Natural analogues and radionuclide transport model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lever, D.A.

    1987-08-01

    In this paper, some possible roles for natural analogues are discussed from the point of view of those involved with the development of mathematical models for radionuclide transport and with the use of these models in repository safety assessments. The characteristic features of a safety assessment are outlined in order to address the questions of where natural analogues can be used to improve our understanding of the processes involved and where they can assist in validating the models that are used. Natural analogues have the potential to provide useful information about some critical processes, especially long-term chemical processes and migration rates. There is likely to be considerable uncertainty and ambiguity associated with the interpretation of natural analogues, and thus it is their general features which should be emphasized, and models with appropriate levels of sophistication should be used. Experience gained in modelling the Koongarra uranium deposit in northern Australia is drawn upon. (author)

  11. The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library (PTAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, S. C.; Dypvik, H.; Poulet, F.; Rull Perez, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bultel, B.; Casanova Roque, C.; Carter, J.; Cousin, A.; Guzman, A.; Hamm, V.; Hellevang, H.; Lantz, C.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Manrique, J. A.; Maurice, S.; Medina Garcia, J.; Navarro, R.; Negro, J. I.; Neumann, E. R.; Pilorget, C.; Riu, L.; Sætre, C.; Sansano Caramazana, A.; Sanz Arranz, A.; Sobron Grañón, F.; Veneranda, M.; Viennet, J.-C.; PTAL Team

    2018-04-01

    The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library project aims to build and exploit a spectral data base for the characterisation of the mineralogical and geological evolution of terrestrial planets and small solar system bodies.

  12. Characteristics of carcass and of non-carcass components of lambs and hoggets fed high-concentrate corn or sorghum diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sanches Venturini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs and hoggets finished in the feedlot with high-concentrate corn or sorghum grain-based diets. Thirty-two animals were finished, comprising 16 lambs (milk teeth and 16 hoggets (two teeth, which were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (two sheep categories × two grains. For the variables final live weight, live weight at slaughter, hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, hot carcass yield, cold carcass yield, carcass compactness index, subjective color, loin-eye area, fasting losses, external organs, internal organs, and for the weights, in kilograms, of neck, shoulder, ribs, and leg, there was a significant difference between categories. In the variables studied for the high-concentrate diets, significant differences were found for the ribs, expressed in relative values. Lambs have much higher fasting losses, a greater proportion of internal organs, and lighter-colored meat compared with hoggets. Hot and cold carcass yields, meat subjective color, and percentage of ribs are higher in feedlot-finished lambs and hoggets fed high-concentrate sorghum-based diets compared with those fed corn-based diets.

  13. The potential of non-invasive pre- and post-mortem carcass measurements to predict the contribution of carcass components to slaughter yield of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Lida; Sánchez-Macías, Davinia; Barba, Iván; Rodríguez, Nibaldo

    2018-06-01

    Guinea pig meat consumption is increasing exponentially worldwide. The evaluation of the contribution of carcass components to carcass quality potentially can allow for the estimation of the value added to food animal origin and make research in guinea pigs more practicable. The aim of this study was to propose a methodology for modelling the contribution of different carcass components to the overall carcass quality of guinea pigs by using non-invasive pre- and post mortem carcass measurements. The selection of predictors was developed through correlation analysis and statistical significance; whereas the prediction models were based on Multiple Linear Regression. The prediction results showed higher accuracy in the prediction of carcass component contribution expressed in grams, compared to when expressed as a percentage of carcass quality components. The proposed prediction models can be useful for the guinea pig meat industry and research institutions by using non-invasive and time- and cost-efficient carcass component measuring techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of neck skin excision and whole carcass rinse sampling methods for determining Salmonella prevalence and E. coli counts on broiler carcasses before and after immersion chilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A regulatory agency (FSIS) in the U.S. rinses whole broiler carcasses with 400 ml of 1% buffered peptone water (BPW) for Salmonella detection, while the European Union (EU) samples a 25g composited neck skin from three carcasses. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the FSIS and EU procedures fo...

  15. Treatment of animal carcasses in poultry farms using sealed ditches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M; González, J L; Gutiérrez, M A Díez; Guimaraes, A Correa; Gracia, L M Navas

    2008-10-01

    Several hen carcass elimination experiments were conducted by isolating corpses in a sealed ditch and adding different doses of lime. The aim was to evaluate the viability of this method as an alternative to other elimination techniques, as required in the European regulation CE 1774/2002 [Reglamento CE 1774/2002, de 3 de octubre por el que se establecen las normas sanitarias aplicables a los subproductos animales no destinados a consumo humano]. The experiments were carried out at a natural scale, in a 200m3 ditch located in a livestock enterprise, using a proportion of 200g of lime/kg of carcass. We observed a high degradation of carcasses after six months, the method being also safe from a microbiological point of view. The material extracted from the ditch had a high calcium content (330.7gkg(-1)), which makes it an ideal product for soil lacking this element, or as an acidity corrector in acid soils due to its basic (pH 8.48) nature. It also contains a significant amount of mineral nutrients (17.0gkg(-1) N, 2.4gkg(-1) P and 4.9gkg(-1) K) and organic matter (101.5gkg(-1)). We also analysed the material extracted from the ditch prior to its renovation for the experiments and followed the processes taking place in the ditch during the first six months, when lime doses of 100, 200 and 300 gkg(-1) of treated carcass were applied. Simultaneously, we carried out laboratory experiments in cylindrical 25L deposits to evaluate the gas release of the three (100, 200 and 300g of lime/kg carcass) doses of lime used. After the tenth week, we observed CO2 concentrations ranging from 5% for the lower lime doses to very low levels for the 300g lime/kg carcass dose. As regards methane, in the three series of experiments, the release was highest during the first weeks, began to decrease in the eighth week and reached its lower value during the fourteenth week. Emissions of NO2 were not observed, and the levels of NH3 and SH2 were usually so high that they exceeded the detection

  16. Synthesis and antioxidant activity of peptide-based ebselen analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheeshkumar, Kandhan; Mugesh, Govindasamy

    2011-04-18

    A series of di- and tripeptide-based ebselen analogues has been synthesized. The compounds were characterized by (1)H, (13)C, and (77)Se NMR spectroscopy and mass spectral techniques. The glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-like antioxidant activity has been studied by using H(2)O(2) , tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBuOOH), and cumene hydroperoxide (Cum-OOH) as substrates, and glutathione (GSH) as a cosubstrate. Although all the peptide-based compounds have a selenazole ring similar to that of ebselen, the GPx activity of these compounds highly depends on the nature of the peptide moiety attached to the nitrogen atom of the selenazole ring. It was observed that the introduction of a phenylalanine (Phe) amino acid residue in the N-terminal reduces the activity in all three peroxide systems. On the other hand, the introduction of aliphatic amino acid residues such as valine (Val) significantly enhances the GPx activity of the ebselen analogues. The difference in the catalytic activity of dipeptide-based ebselen derivatives can be ascribed mainly to the change in the reactivity of these compounds toward GSH and peroxide. Although the presence of the Val-Ala-CO(2) Me moiety facilitates the formation of a catalytically active selenol species, the reaction of ebselen analogues that has a Phe-Ile-CO(2) Me residue with GSH does not generate the corresponding selenol. To understand the antioxidant activity of the peptide-based ebselen analogues in the absence of GSH, these compounds were studied for their ability to inhibit peroxynitrite (PN)-mediated nitration of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123. In contrast to the GPx activity, the PN-scavenging activity of the Phe-based peptide analogues was found to be comparable to that of the Val-based compounds. However, the introduction of an additional Phe residue to the ebselen analogue that had a Val-Ala dipeptide significantly reduced the potency of the parent compound in PN-mediated nitration. Copyright

  17. Genetic parameters for carcass weight, conformation and fat in five beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kause, A; Mikkola, L; Strandén, I; Sirkko, K

    2015-01-01

    Profitability of beef production can be increased by genetically improving carcass traits. To construct breeding value evaluations for carcass traits, breed-specific genetic parameters were estimated for carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat in five beef cattle breeds in Finland (Hereford, Aberdeen Angus, Simmental, Charolais and Limousin). Conformation and fat were visually scored using the EUROP carcass classification. Each breed was separately analyzed using a multitrait animal model. A total of 6879-19 539 animals per breed had phenotypes. For the five breeds, heritabilities were moderate for carcass weight (h 2=0.39 to 0.48, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and slightly lower for conformation (h 2=0.30 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and carcass fat (h 2=0.29 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04). The genetic correlation between carcass weight and conformation was favorable in all breeds (r G=0.37 to 0.53, s.e.=0.04 to 0.05), heavy carcasses being genetically more conformed. The phenotypic correlation between carcass weight and carcass fat was moderately positive in all breeds (r P=0.21 to 0.32), implying that increasing carcass weight was related to increasing fat levels. The respective genetic correlation was the strongest in Hereford (r G=0.28, s.e.=0.05) and Angus (r G=0.15, s.e.=0.05), the two small body-sized British breeds with the lowest conformation and the highest fat level. The correlation was weaker in the other breeds (r G=0.08 to 0.14). For Hereford, Angus and Simmental, more conformed carcasses were phenotypically fatter (r P=0.11 to 0.15), but the respective genetic correlations were close to zero (r G=-0.05 to 0.04). In contrast, in the two large body-sized and muscular French breeds, the genetic correlation between conformation and fat was negative and the phenotypic correlation was close to zero or negative (Charolais: r G=-0.18, s.e.=0.06, r P=0.02; Limousin: r G=-0.56, s.e.=0.04, r P=-0.13). The results indicate genetic variation for the genetic

  18. Comparison of variability in pork carcass composition and quality between barrows and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, M F; Arkfeld, E K; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2016-10-01

    Pigs ( = 8,042) raised in 8 different barns representing 2 seasons (cold and hot) and 2 production focuses (lean growth and meat quality) were used to characterize variability of carcass composition and quality traits between barrows and gilts. Data were collected on 7,684 pigs at the abattoir. Carcass characteristics, subjective loin quality, and fresh ham face color (muscles) were measured on a targeted 100% of carcasses. Fresh belly characteristics, boneless loin weight, instrumental loin color, and ultimate loin pH measurements were collected from 50% of the carcasses each slaughter day. Adipose tissue iodine value (IV), 30-min loin pH, LM slice shear force, and fresh ham muscle characteristic measurements were recorded on 10% of carcasses each slaughter day. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS as a 1-way ANOVA in a randomized complete block design with 2 levels (barrows and gilts). Barn (block), marketing group, production focus, and season were random variables. A 2-variance model was fit using the REPEATED statement of the MIXED procedure, grouped by sex for analysis of least squares means. Homogeneity of variance was tested on raw data using Levene's test of the GLM procedure. Hot carcass weight of pigs (94.6 kg) in this study was similar to U.S. industry average HCW (93.1 kg). Therefore, these data are representative of typical U.S. pork carcasses. There was no difference ( ≥ 0.09) in variability of HCW or loin depth between barrow and gilt carcasses. Back fat depth and estimated carcass lean were more variable ( ≤ 0.0001) and IV was less variable ( = 0.05) in carcasses from barrows than in carcasses from gilts. Fresh belly weight and thickness were more variable ( ≤ 0.01) for bellies of barrows than bellies of gilts, but there was no difference in variability for belly length, width, or flop distance ( ≥ 0.06). Fresh loin subjective color was less variable ( ham traits. Overall, traits associated with carcass fatness, including

  19. Effects of increasing crude glycerol and dried distillers grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duttlinger, A J; Derouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Houser, T A; Sulabo, R C

    2012-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary crude glycerol and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on growing-finishing pig performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality. We hypothesized that because dietary crude glycerol has been observed to increase carcass SFA, it might ameliorate the negative effects of DDGS on fat quality. The 97-d study was conducted at a commercial swine research facility in southwestern Minnesota with 1,160 barrows (initial BW = 31.0 ± 1.1 kg). Pigs were blocked by initial BW, and pens were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 7 replications per treatment. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with main effects of crude glycerol (0, 2.5, or 5%) and DDGS (0 or 20%). All corn-soybean meal-based diets contained 3% added fat (choice white grease). There were no glycerol × DDGS interactions for any response criteria evaluated. Increasing dietary glycerol did not affect finishing pig growth performance. Adding 20% DDGS to the diet did not affect ADG; however, finishing pigs fed diets with added DDGS had greater (2.47 vs. 2.41 kg/d; P = 0.02) ADFI and poorer (0.39 vs. 0.40; P = 0.01) G:F than pigs not fed DDGS. Feeding increasing dietary glycerol or 20% DDGS did not affect carcass characteristics. For carcass fat quality, feeding 20% DDGS resulted in decreased (P carcass fat iodine value, whereas feeding crude glycerol did not influence growth performance, carcass characteristics, and had a minor influence on fatty acids of carcass fat. Both of these biofuel coproducts can be used in combination without affecting finishing pig performance or carcass traits; however, feeding crude glycerol did not fully mitigate the increased unsaturation of carcass fat observed when feeding DDGS.

  20. Correlations among Stress Parameters, Meat and Carcass Quality Parameters in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokmanovic, Marija; Baltic, Milan Z.; Duric, Jelena; Ivanovic, Jelena; Popovic, Ljuba; Todorovic, Milica; Markovic, Radmila; Pantic, Srdan

    2015-01-01

    Relationships among different stress parameters (lairage time and blood level of lactate and cortisol), meat quality parameters (initial and ultimate pH value, temperature, drip loss, sensory and instrumental colour, marbling) and carcass quality parameters (degree of rigor mortis and skin damages, hot carcass weight, carcass fat thickness, meatiness) were determined in pigs (n = 100) using Pearson correlations. After longer lairage, blood lactate (prigor mortis (p<0.05), suggesting that lactate could be a predictor of both meat quality and the level of preslaughter stress. Cortisol affected carcass quality, so higher levels of cortisol were associated with increased hot carcass weight, carcass fat thickness on the back and at the sacrum and marbling, but also with decreased meatiness. The most important meat quality parameters (pH and temperature after 60 minutes) deteriorated when blood lactate concentration was above 12 mmol/L. PMID:25656214

  1. Apparent prevalence of beef carcasses contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sampled from Danish slaughter cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Pozzato, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain MAP in tissues that are used for human consumption. Associations between MAP carcasses contamination and animal characteristics...... of two dairy cows were positive by culture whereas 4% of the animals were estimated with =10¿CFU/gram muscle based on realtime PCR. Age was found to be associated with carcass contamination with MAP. The observed viable MAP prevalence in beef carcasses was low. However, detection of MAP and MAP DNA...... such as age, breed, production type, and carcass classification were assessed. Cheek muscles from 501 carcasses were sampled cross-sectionally at a Danish abattoir and tested for presence of viable MAP and MAP DNA by bacterial culture and IS900 realtime PCR, respectively. Cheek muscle tissues from carcasses...

  2. Decomposition of dioxin analogues and ablation study for carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Toshihiko

    2002-01-01

    Two application studies associated with the free electron laser are presented separately, which are the titles of 'Decomposition of Dioxin Analogues' and 'Ablation Study for Carbon Nanotube'. The decomposition of dioxin analogues by infrared (IR) laser irradiation includes the thermal destruction and multiple-photon dissociation. It is important for us to choose the highly absorbable laser wavelength for the decomposition. The thermal decomposition takes place by the irradiation of the low IR laser power. Considering the model of thermal decomposition, it is proposed that adjacent water molecules assist the decomposition of dioxin analogues in addition to the thermal decomposition by the direct laser absorption. The laser ablation study is performed for the aim of a carbon nanotube synthesis. The vapor by the ablation is weakly ionized in the power of several-hundred megawatts. The plasma internal energy is kept over an 8.5 times longer than the vacuum. The cluster was produced from the weakly ionized gas in the enclosed gas, which is composed of the rough particles in the low power laser more than the high power which is composed of the fine particles. (J.P.N.)

  3. Analysis and Optimisation of Carcass Production for Flexible Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe

    Un-bonded flexible pipes are used in the offshore oil and gas industry worldwide transporting hydrocarbons from seafloor to floating production vessels topside. Flexible pipes are advantageous over rigid pipelines in dynamic applications and during installation as they are delivered in full length......-axial tension FLC points were attained. Analysis of weld fracture of duplex stainless steel EN 1.4162 is carried out determining strains with GOM ARAMIS automated strain measurement system, which shows that strain increases faster in the weld zone than the global strain of the parent material. Fracture...... is the analysis and optimisation of the carcass manufacturing process by means of a fundamental investigation in the fields of formability, failure modes / mechanisms, Finite Element Analysis (FEA), simulative testing and tribology. A study of failure mechanisms in carcass production is performed by being present...

  4. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dipterofauna Associated with Sus scrofa Linné, 1758, Carcasses in Urban and Coastal Regions of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Cavallari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadaverous entomofauna successions vary according to the region, environment, and climate, and such differences may occur within the same country due to seasonal variations. The present study aimed to analyze and compare the dipterofauna that visit or colonize carcasses in the urban and coastal areas of São Paulo, Brazil, during summer and winter seasons. Four swine (Sus scrofa Linné, 1758 carcasses of approximately 12 kg were used. The animals were previously euthanized and then placed in metal cages covered with a flight intercept trap (Shannon, modified. In total, 10,495 flies from 39 families were collected, with 15 species belonging to the Calliphoridae family, 14 species belonging to the Fanniidae family, 43 species belonging to the Muscidae family, and 22 species belonging to the Sarcophagidae family. Flies from these four families visited all carcasses; however, they did not show the highest visitation frequencies in all of the trials. Species variations occurred between the experiments that were performed at different locations and in different seasons. Furthermore, difference in the number of insects attracted to each stage of decomposition was observed. In addition to the four families highlighted above, the families Phoridae, Sepsidae, Otitidae, and Piophilidae were observed in all carcasses.

  6. Performance and some carcass measurements in starter broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28 day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the performance and some carcass measurements in starter broiler birds fed sweet potato meal. Three hundred and five (305) Anak broilers of one week old were randomly assigned to five treatment diets. Diets 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 contain 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0% levels of ...

  7. CARCASS COMPOSITION OF MATURE MALE BLES$OK AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cold carcass yields 52,g% t d 56,6%andlean meat yi€lds 43,4/0 ^nd,45,4% tespcctively. Both specis wcre found to be morc productive of high quality rctail cutr and of lean mert than ... meat production of our indigenous ungulates with that of farm animals will become possible. The present account is based on mature male ...

  8. Effects of feed refreshing frequency on growth and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty, two-month old male Awassi lambs were used in this study to investigate the effects of feed refreshing (FR) frequencies on their growth and carcass characteristics over a period of 65 days. Treatments were: Feed refreshing at 2 h (FR2), 4 h (FR4), 8 h (FR8), 12 h (FR12) and 24 h (FR24) intervals. The lambs were fed ...

  9. Temporal dynamics in microbial soil communities at anthrax carcass sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valseth, Karoline; Nesbø, Camilla L; Easterday, W Ryan; Turner, Wendy C; Olsen, Jaran S; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Haverkamp, Thomas H A

    2017-09-26

    Anthrax is a globally distributed disease affecting primarily herbivorous mammals. It is caused by the soil-dwelling and spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The dormant B. anthracis spores become vegetative after ingestion by grazing mammals. After killing the host, B. anthracis cells return to the soil where they sporulate, completing the lifecycle of the bacterium. Here we present the first study describing temporal microbial soil community changes in Etosha National Park, Namibia, after decomposition of two plains zebra (Equus quagga) anthrax carcasses. To circumvent state-associated-challenges (i.e. vegetative cells/spores) we monitored B. anthracis throughout the period using cultivation, qPCR and shotgun metagenomic sequencing. The combined results suggest that abundance estimation of spore-forming bacteria in their natural habitat by DNA-based approaches alone is insufficient due to poor recovery of DNA from spores. However, our combined approached allowed us to follow B. anthracis population dynamics (vegetative cells and spores) in the soil, along with closely related organisms from the B. cereus group, despite their high sequence similarity. Vegetative B. anthracis abundance peaked early in the time-series and then dropped when cells either sporulated or died. The time-series revealed that after carcass deposition, the typical semi-arid soil community (e.g. Frankiales and Rhizobiales species) becomes temporarily dominated by the orders Bacillales and Pseudomonadales, known to contain plant growth-promoting species. Our work indicates that complementing DNA based approaches with cultivation may give a more complete picture of the ecology of spore forming pathogens. Furthermore, the results suggests that the increased vegetation biomass production found at carcass sites is due to both added nutrients and the proliferation of microbial taxa that can be beneficial for plant growth. Thus, future B. anthracis transmission events at carcass sites may be

  10. Carcass characteristics of Karadi lambs as affect by different levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The objective of the work described here was to investigate the effect of two levels of Nigella sativa (0 and 7.5 g NS / kg DM) supplementation to rations of Karadi lambs fed three levels of rumen degradable nitrogen (1, 1.3 and 1.6 g RDN / MJ of ME) on carcass characteristics, using 2 x 3 factorial ...

  11. Between Analogue and Digital Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Bun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay is about the interstitial. About how the diagram, as a method of design, has lead fromthe analogue deconstruction of the eighties to the digital processes of the turn of the millennium.Specifically, the main topic of the text is the interpretation and the critique of folding (as a diagramin the beginning of the nineties. It is necessary then to unfold its relationship with immediatelypreceding and following architectural trends, that is to say we have to look both backwards andforwards by about a decade. The question is the context of folding, the exchange of the analogueworld for the digital. To understand the process it is easier to investigate from the fields of artand culture, rather than from the intentionally perplicated1 thoughts of Gilles Deleuze. Both fieldsare relevant here because they can similarly be used as the yardstick against which the era itselfit measured. The cultural scene of the eighties and nineties, including performing arts, movies,literature and philosophy, is a wide milieu of architecture. Architecture responds parallel to itsera; it reacts to it, and changes with it and within it. Architecture is a medium, it has always beena medium, yet the relations are transformed. That’s not to say that technical progress, for exampleusing CAD-software and CNC-s, has led to the digital thinking of certain movements ofarchitecture, (it is at most an indirect tool. But the ‘up-to-dateness’ of the discipline, however,a kind of non-servile reading of an ‘applied culture’ or ‘used philosophy’2 could be the key.(We might recall here, parenthetically, the fortunes of the artistic in contemporary mass society.The proliferation of museums, the magnification of the figure of the artist, the existence of amassive consumption of printed and televised artistic images, the widespread appetite for informationabout the arts, all reflect, of course, an increasingly leisured society, but also relateprecisely to the fact

  12. Effect of protein level on performance, nitrogen utilisation and carcass composition in finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Assadi Soumeh, Elham

    2014-01-01

    cages. Feed intake, gain and feed utilisation were not significantly affected. Plasma urea (P carcass tended to increase linearly by reducing CP, but neither nitrogen retention nor carcass meat percentage...... and back fat depth differed among treatments. In conclusion, the study indicated that CP could be decreased to 136 g/kg as-fed for growing pigs in the weight range 50–100 kg without negative impact on growth performance and carcass traits. Moreover, leanness was not affected by excess CP....

  13. Using actual and ultrasound carcass information in beef genetic evaluation programs

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand,Joseph Keith

    2009-01-01

    Increased movement toward alliances and grid pricing in the U.S. has led to an increase interest in genetic values for carcass traits. The literature suggests that carcass genetic values are an effective tool to enhance selection for carcass traits, and that it is possible to select sires within a breed that can increase marbling score without adversely affecting external fat thickness or percent retail product relative to the breed mean. Ultrasound has been investigated as a cheaper means of...

  14. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. ON POULTRY CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberghini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In Europe, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial diseases and the consumption of poultry meats is suspected to be one of the major causes of illness. The aim of our research was to determine the number of Campylobacter spp. in poultry carcasses and in poultry meat samples during their storage till to retail markets. The study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 at slaughterhouse in Veneto region, followed by a test of fresh poultry meat placed on the market for sale. A total of 90 poultry carcass and 90 samples of poultry meat were examined. The quantitative examination resulted in Campylobacter spp. counts (mean: for carcasses between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 1,5 ∙103 ufc/g (4,2 ∙102 and poultry meat between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 3,7 ∙102 ufc/g (8,1 ∙101. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (58,3%, Campylobacter coli (22,9% or Arcobacter cryaerophilus (4,2%. Acknowledgments: The project was funded with grants from Fondazione Cariverona 2007.

  15. CHARACTERISTICS OF CATTLE CARCASSES SLAUGHTERED IN SINOP-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Arruda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of classification and typication of cattle carcasses has been a great reference in the meat selection concept with the highest degree of quality, using characteristic grouping of parameters that differ according to sex, maturity, weight, conformation and finish. The referent study was to evaluate the characteristics of cattle carcasses slaughtered in a period of drought in the north of Mato Grosso, specifically in the city of Sinop, during the month of August 2015 were evaluated in 2250 cattle carcasses of animals of various classes and maturities, which mostly were female 77.15%, followed by non-castrated males and barrows with 16.93% and 5.91% respectively. Analyzing the class of uncastrated male animals, it can be seen that the non castration gave an early slaughter. The weight gain, and in finish shaping, as advanced maturity, and character had differences (P <0.05. Figures show that young animals with a nutritional management can have both gains as adult animals.

  16. An Analytical Tire Model with Flexible Carcass for Combined Slips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tire mechanical characteristics under combined cornering and braking/driving situations have significant effects on vehicle directional controls. The objective of this paper is to present an analytical tire model with flexible carcass for combined slip situations, which can describe tire behavior well and can also be used for studying vehicle dynamics. The tire forces and moments come mainly from the shear stress and sliding friction at the tread-road interface. In order to describe complicated tire characteristics and tire-road friction, some key factors are considered in this model: arbitrary pressure distribution; translational, bending, and twisting compliance of the carcass; dynamic friction coefficient; anisotropic stiffness properties. The analytical tire model can describe tire forces and moments accurately under combined slip conditions. Some important properties induced by flexible carcass can also be reflected. The structural parameters of a tire can be identified from tire measurements and the computational results using the analytical model show good agreement with test data.

  17. Visual and chemical tissue markers for bovine carcass components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lary, R.Y.; Byers, F.M.; Cross, H.R.; Schelling, G.T.; Petersen, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    A two-component, nontoxic, quantifiable animal/carcass tracing system was developed using riboflavin as an on-premises, initial carcass identifier visible under longwave ultraviolet (UV) light and deuterium oxide (D 2 O) as a tracer analytically quantified via fixed wavelength infrared spectrophotometry. Twenty-four cull cows and heifers were allocated into eight antemortem treatment groups (1, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 h) for evaluation of the efficacy of riboflavin and D 2 O as tissue tracers in postmortem meat tissues. All cattle were slaughtered using conventional procedures and inspection. To study postmortem riboflavin marker changes due to constant light exposure over time, fluorescence and emission intensity scores were obtained by a trained panel 24, 48, and 168 h postslaughter. The riboflavin marker intensity rating means for UV fluorescence were classified as identifiable on all carcasses when evaluated under UV light, but were classified as not identifiable when evaluated under ambient light. Deuterium oxide levels in all tissue water samples, regardless of antemortem infusion group, contained D 2 O concentrations at least 2.5 times greater than those found in background water. Deuterium oxide was shown to disperse rapidly throughout living tissues. Correlations within animals for D 2 O levels from blood and muscle were all highly significant (r = .99)

  18. Carcass and meat quality traits in Nellore and F1 Nellore-Araguaia crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, N V; Aboujaoude, C; Vieira, G S; Paiva, V V; Moraes Neto, R A; Gondim, V S; Alves, L R; Torres, M C L; Antunes, R C

    2015-05-22

    We evaluated and compared carcass traits and meat quality in Nellore cattle and F1 crosses between Nellore and Araguaia, where 17 individuals were from the Nellore group and 19 were ½ Nellore and ½ Araguaia crosses. All animals belonged to the same birth season and were raised in pasture systems under the same nutritional, environmental, and management conditions. When the animals reached slaughter weight, they were taken to an industrial slaughterhouse where food was not provided for 24 h (free access to water); they were then stunned, bled, the leather was removed, and they were eviscerated. The carcasses were weighed (hot weight), kept in chilled storage for approximately 24 h at 4°C, and weighed again to obtain the chilled carcass weight. Carcass yield, carcass length, carcass width, leg length, thigh perimeter, loin eye area (LEA), retail cuts, cooling loss, pH, fat depth, marbling rate, intramuscular fat, color, and shear force were analyzed and sensory analysis of the meat was conducted. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed for the following variables: slaughter weight, hot and chilled carcass weights, carcass and leg lengths, thigh perimeter, LEA, retail cuts, and lightness (L*), where the ½ Nellore ½ Araguaia individuals showed higher means for all of these traits, except leg length and L*. Therefore, crossbreeding between Nellore and Araguaia did not affect the meat's sensory characteristics, but contributed to an improvement in carcass traits, providing an alternative for farmers that aim for good meat quality, with a higher meat percentage.

  19. Coleopterofauna found on fresh and frozen rabbit carcasses in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KM. Mise

    Full Text Available Many arthropod species are associated with carrion and some of them can be used as forensic indicators in murder investigations to estimate the time of death. Different physical conditions of cadavers may influence the fauna and the importance of freezing and thawing is unknown. The present paper sought to survey the Coleoptera species encountered in frozen and fresh rabbit carcasses, at a forest in Curitiba, Brazil. Four rabbit carcasses, two of them fresh and the other frozen were used. The coleopterofauna was sampled daily, and analyzed using non-parametric tests. A total of 666 beetles were sampled, belonging to 28 species in 10 families. Most of the beetles captured were larvae of Oxelytrum spp. (433 which are known to be necrophagous. The two frozen carcasses accounted for most of the beetles (338 and 180 in comparison with the two fresh carcasses (103 and 45. The tests were based on the most abundant species. Oxelytrum spp. median differed significantly between carcasses (H = 12.47844; p = 0.0059. The two fresh carcasses differed significantly (U = 190.0; p = 0.00019, but there was no significant difference between the frozen carcasses (U = 336.0; p = 0.29755. The data indicate that the freezing process prevents certain species to colonize carcasses, in this case with the dominance of species of Oxelytrum. These data also indicate that careful attention is necessary before using frozen carcasses in forensic entomology studies.

  20. The relationship between the carcass characteristics and meat composition of young Simmental beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćirić, J.; Lukić, M.; Radulović, S.; Janjić, J.; Glamočlija, N.; Marković, R.; Baltić, M. Ž.

    2017-09-01

    The objective was to study the relationships between the carcass characteristics and meat composition of young Simmental beef, classified with regard to conformation and degree of fatness scores, and total lipid content, depending on gender. For this purpose, 90 animals (60 male and 30 female Simmental beef cattle) were analysed. The results of the study showed that gender affected carcass measurement scores and chemical composition of meat through its important effect on overall animal fatness. Referring to correlations, male carcass conformation score was negatively related to slaughter weight, total lipid content and fatness score. On the other hand, slaughter weight, hot and cold carcass weight, dressing percentage and carcass conformation was positively related to fatness score, all of them being significant. However, female carcass conformation score was positively related to slaughter weight, total lipid content and fatness score. Hot and cold carcass weights of female Simmental beef cattle were positively correlated to slaughter weight, total lipid content and carcass conformation score. Carcass conformation score and fatness score were affected by gender of young Simmental beef cattle.

  1. Performance and carcass yield of crossbred dairy steers fed diets with different levels of concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gabriel Santana; Chaves Véras, Antônia Sherlanea; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Moreira Dutra, Wilson; Menezes Wanderley Neves, Maria Luciana; Oliveira Souza, Evaristo Jorge; Ramos de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando; de Lima, Dorgival Morais

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of diets with increasing concentrate levels (170, 340, 510 and 680 g/kg of total dry matter) on dry matter intake, digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics of 25 Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers in a feedlot. A completely randomized design was used, and data were submitted to analysis of variance and regression. The dry matter intake and digestibility coefficients of all nutrients increased linearly. The total weight gain and average daily gain added 1.16 kg and 9.90 g, respectively, for each 10 g/kg increase in concentrate. The empty body weight, hot carcass weight and cold carcass weight responded linearly to increasing concentrate. The hot carcass yield and cold carcass yield, gains in empty body weight and carcass gain were also influenced, as were the efficiencies of carcass deposition and carcass deposition rate. It is concluded that increasing concentrate levels in feedlot diets increase the intake and digestibility of dry matter and other nutrients, improving the feed efficiency, performance and physical characteristics of the carcass. Furthermore and of importance concerning the climate change debate, evidence from the literature indicates that enteric methane production would be reduced with increasing concentrate levels such as those used.

  2. Xylanase, protease and superdosing phytase interactions in broiler performance, carcass yield and digesta transit time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago T. dos Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of xylanase, protease and superdosing (1,500 FTU/kg phytase in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was studied in broilers fed sorghum-based diets. A total of 2,800 one-day-old unsexed Ross 308 chicks were housed in 56 pens with 50 birds per pen, with or without inclusion of xylanase, protease and phytase, totaling 8 treatments and 7 replicates per treatment. Body weight (BW and feed intake (FI were measured at 21 and 42 days of age, and mortality corrected feed conversion ratio (FCR was calculated for each period and cumulatively. Tibia ash and carcass yield were determined in 2 birds per replicate at 21 and 42 days of age, respectively. Digesta transit time was determined at 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age using 5 birds per replicate. Results showed that superdosing phytase increased BW and FI at 42 days of age (P < 0.05 and xylanase improved FCR (P < 0.05. Xylanase and phytase also positively influenced carcass yield and breast weight, respectively. Overall, inclusion of superdosing phytase increased transit time when included in a diet containing xylanase, and no change with protease inclusion. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of xylanase, protease and superdosing phytase in broiler performance were not additive. This limitation is likely not related to the lack of efficacy of any one of the individual enzymes but to a limitation of the bird to respond additively to successive additions of enzymes.

  3. Carcass and meat quality in light lambs from different fat classes in the EU carcass classification system

    OpenAIRE

    Sañudo, C.; Alfonso, M.J.; Sánchez, A.; Delfa, R.; Teixeira, A.

    2000-01-01

    Ninety commercial lamb carcasses were analysed according to the four different fat classes in the light lamb European classiffication system. Shoulder fat increased 3%, muscle decreased 2% and bone decreased 1% for each class increase. No signifficant differences were found among fat classes regarding pH, WHC, cooking losses, juiciness, myoglobin content, meat colour measured immediately after cutting (L*, a*, b*), odour intensity or flavour quality. Some differences were found in colour e...

  4. Impact of respiratory disease, diarrhea, otitis and arthritis on mortality and carcass traits in white veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardon, Bart; Hostens, Miel; Duchateau, Luc; Dewulf, Jeroen; De Bleecker, Koen; Deprez, Piet

    2013-04-15

    Little is known on the effects of common calf diseases on mortality and carcass traits in the white veal industry (special-fed veal), a highly integrated production system, currently criticized for the intensive pro- and metaphylactic use of antimicrobials. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), diarrhea, arthritis and otitis on the economically important parameters of mortality, hot carcass weight (HCW), carcass quality, fat cover and meat color. For this purpose, a prospective study on 3519 white veal calves, housed in 10 commercial herds, was conducted. Case definitions were based on clinical observation by the producers and written treatment records were used. Calves received oral antimicrobial group treatments in the milk during 25.2% of the production time on average. With an increasing percentage of the production cycle spent on oral antimicrobials, HCW reduced, whereas the odds for insufficient fat cover or an undesirable red meat color both decreased. Of the calves, 14.8%, 5.3%, 1.5% and 1.6% were individually diagnosed and treated for BRD, diarrhea, arthritis and otitis, respectively. Overall, 5.7% of the calves died and the mortality risk was higher in the first weeks after arrival. Calves that experienced one BRD episode showed a 8.2 kg reduction in HCW, a lower fat cover and an increased mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 5.5), compared to calves which were not individually diagnosed and treated for BRD. With an increasing number of BRD episodes, these losses increased dramatically. Additionally, calves, which experienced multiple BRD episodes, were more likely to have poor carcass quality and an undesirable red meat color at slaughter. Arthritis increased the mortality risk (HR = 3.9), and reduced HCW only when associated with BRD. Otitis did only increase the mortality risk (HR = 7.0). Diarrhea severely increased the mortality risk (HR = 11.0), reduced HCW by 9.2 kg on

  5. Development of a natural analogue database to support the safety case of the Korean radioactive waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, M.H.; Park, T.J.; Kim, I.Y.; Jeong, J. [Korea Atomic Research Institute, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, K.W. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this study, the status of natural analogue studies in Korea is briefly summarized and applicability of existing natural analogue information to the Korean safety case has been evaluated. To enable effective application of natural analogue information to the overall evaluation of long-term safety (the 'safety case') for the geological disposal of radioactive wastes, a natural analogue database has been developed by collecting, classifying, and evaluating relevant data. The natural analogue data collected were classified into categories based on site information, components/processes of the disposal system, properties/phenomena, reference, safety case application, application method, and suitability to a safety case. Suitability of the natural analogue data to a specific safety case was evaluated based upon the importance and the applicability to the Korean safety case. As a result, 75 natural analogue datasets were selected as important for the Korean safety case. The database developed can now be utilized in the RD and D (Research, Development, and Demonstration) program development for natural analogue studies. In addition, the methodology developed and the database compiled in this study may assist in the development of safety case including safety assessment for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Korea as well as in other countries. (authors)

  6. Development of a natural analogue database to support the safety case of the Korean radioactive waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, M.H.; Park, T.J.; Kim, I.Y.; Jeong, J.; Choi, K.W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the status of natural analogue studies in Korea is briefly summarized and applicability of existing natural analogue information to the Korean safety case has been evaluated. To enable effective application of natural analogue information to the overall evaluation of long-term safety (the 'safety case') for the geological disposal of radioactive wastes, a natural analogue database has been developed by collecting, classifying, and evaluating relevant data. The natural analogue data collected were classified into categories based on site information, components/processes of the disposal system, properties/phenomena, reference, safety case application, application method, and suitability to a safety case. Suitability of the natural analogue data to a specific safety case was evaluated based upon the importance and the applicability to the Korean safety case. As a result, 75 natural analogue datasets were selected as important for the Korean safety case. The database developed can now be utilized in the RD and D (Research, Development, and Demonstration) program development for natural analogue studies. In addition, the methodology developed and the database compiled in this study may assist in the development of safety case including safety assessment for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Korea as well as in other countries. (authors)

  7. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of heavy swine fed different citrus pulp levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.H. Watanabe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An assay with 36 swine initially weighting 83.7±5.1kg body weight (BW was carried out to evaluate the effects of the use of different dietary citrus pulp levels, 0, 10%, 20%, and 30%, upon digestive organs weights, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of animals subjected to qualitative feed restriction program, and slaughtered at 130kg BW. Linear response (P0.05. Higher levels of citrus pulp neither decreased backfat thickness nor increased amount of lean meat, indicative that qualitative feed restriction was not efficient. Positive linear effect (P<0.05 on pH measured 24 hours after slaughter and negative linear effect (P<0.05 on color characteristics as function of citrus pulp dietary levels were verified. Citrus pulp addition in qualitative feed restriction program may not be effective. As no deleterious effects upon meat qualities were observed, citrus pulp can be used as an alternative feedstuff for finishing swine.

  8. Carcass and meat quality of dual-purpose chickens (Lohmann Dual, Belgian Malines, Schweizerhuhn) in comparison to broiler and layer chicken types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, S; Kreuzer, M; Siegrist, M; Mannale, K; Messikommer, R E; Gangnat, I D M

    2018-05-18

    Currently, there is an intensive ethical discussion about the practice of culling day-old layer cockerels. One solution to avoid this practice could be using dual-purpose types, where males are fattened for meat and females used for egg production. The aim of the present study was to compare fattening performance, carcass conformation, and composition as well as meat quality of Lohmann Dual, a novel dual-purpose type, and 2 traditional dual-purpose types (Belgian Malines and Schweizerhuhn) with 2 broiler types and 1 layer type (Lohmann Brown Plus). Broilers included a conventional line (Ross PM3) and a slower-growing line (Sasso 51) fulfilling requirements of organic farming. Nine birds of each type were fed on a conventional broiler diet. Feed intake and metabolizability of nitrogen and energy were recorded per pen (n = 3), the latter through excreta sampling. For each bird, carcass conformation was assessed, and weights of body, carcass, breast meat, legs, wings, and inner organs were determined. Additionally, breast angle, an indicator for carcass appeal, and skin color were recorded. Meat quality assessment included determinations of thaw and cooking loss, shear force, meat color, and proximate composition of the breast meat. None of the dual-purpose types (20 to 30 g ADG) performed as well in growth as the intensively growing broiler line (68 g ADG). However, Lohmann Dual could compete with the slower-growing broiler line (slower growth but better feed efficiency, similar in carcass weight and breast proportion). Also breast angle was quite similar between Lohmann Dual (100°) and the extensive broiler type (115°C) compared to the intensive broiler line (180°). Meat quality was most favorable in the intensive broilers with the smallest shear force and thawing loss, whereas meat quality was not different between the other types. The Schweizerhuhn performed only at the level of the layer hybrid, and the Belgian Malines was ranked only slightly better.

  9. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of spermatinamine analogues

    KAUST Repository

    Moosa, Basem

    2016-02-04

    Spermatinamine was isolated from an Australian marine sponge, Pseudoceratina sp. as an inhibitor of isoprenylcystiene carboxyl methyltransferase (Icmt), an attractive and novel anticancer target. Herein, we report the synthesis of spermatinamine analogues and their cytotoxic evaluation against three human cancer cell lines i.e. cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and prostate carcinoma (DU145). Analogues 12, 14 and 15 were found to be the most potent against one or more cell lines with the IC50 values in the range of 5 - 10 μM. The obtained results suggested that longer polyamine linker along with aromatic oxime substitution provided the most potent analogue compounds against cancer cell lines.

  10. Reliable prediction and determination of Norwegian lamb carcass composition and value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kongsro, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to study prediction and determination of Norwegian lamb carcass composition with different techniques spanning from subjective appraisal to computer-intensive methods. There is an increasing demand, both from farmers and processors of meats, for a more objective and reliable system for prediction of muscle (lean meat), fat, bone and value of a lamb carcass. When introducing new technologies for determination of lamb carcass composition, the reference method used for calibration must be precise and reliable. The precision and reliability of the current dissection reference for lamb carcass classification and grading has never been quantified. A poor reference method will not benefit even the most optimal system for prediction and determination of lamb carcasses. To help achieve reliable systems, the uncertainty or errors in the reference method and measuring systems needs to be quantified. Using proper calibration methods for the measuring systems, the uncertainty and modeling power can be determined for lamb carcasses. The results of the work presented in this thesis show that the current classification system using subjective appraisal (EUROP) is reliable; however the accuracy with respect to carcass composition, especially for lean meat or muscle and carcass value, is poor. The reference method used for determining lamb carcass composition with respect to lamb carcass classification and grading is precise and reliable for carcass composition. For the composition and yield of sub-primal cuts, the reliability varied, and was especially poor for the breast cut. Further attention is needed for jointing and cutting of sub-primals to achieve even higher precision and reliability of the reference method. As an alternative to butcher or manual dissection, Computer Tomography (CT) showed promising results with respect to prediction of lamb carcass composition. This method is nicknamed “virtual dissection”. By utilizing the

  11. The Effect of Different Dietary Purslane Seed (Portulaca Oleracea L. Levels on Carcass, Blood Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Activity in Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Konca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effect of dietary purslane seed (Portulaca oleracea L. diets on the carcass, serum lipid profile and antioxidant activity in quails. A total of 140 one-day-old quail chicks allocated into 4 treatment groups with 5 replicates. The treatment groups as follows: (1 Control (C, without purslane seed addition, (2 2.5% purslane seed addition to the control diet, (3 5% purslane seed addition to the control diet, (4 10% purslane seed addition to the control diet. The treatments did not affect the slaughter weight, carcass, and carcass part yields (p>0.05 of the birds in the treatment groups. However, the total intestinal weights of the birds in the 2.5% purslane supplemented group were lower than those of the other groups (p0.05. The dietary inclusion of 10% purslane seed caused an increase to MDA level compared to C and 2.5% purslane seed supplemented groups (p

  12. Analogue alternative the electronic analogue computer in Britain and the USA, 1930-1975

    CERN Document Server

    Small, James S

    2013-01-01

    We are in the midst of a digital revolution - until recently, the majority of appliances used in everyday life have been developed with analogue technology. Now, either at home or out and about, we are surrounded by digital technology such as digital 'film', audio systems, computers and telephones. From the late 1940s until the 1970s, analogue technology was a genuine alternative to digital, and the two competing technologies ran parallel with each other. During this period, a community of engineers, scientists, academics and businessmen continued to develop and promote the analogue computer.

  13. Carcass Fungistasis of the Burying Beetle Nicrophorus nepalensis Hope (Coleoptera: Silphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbe Hwang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study investigated the fungistatic effects of the anal secretions of Nicrophorus nepalensis Hope on mouse carcasses. The diversity of fungi on carcasses was investigated in five different experimental conditions that corresponded to stages of the burial process. The inhibition of fungal growth on carcasses that were treated by mature beetles before burial was lost when identically treated carcasses were washed with distilled water. Compared with control carcasses, carcasses that were prepared, buried, and subsequently guarded by mature breeding pairs of beetles exhibited the greatest inhibition of fungal growth. No significant difference in fungistasis was observed between the 3.5 g and the 18 to 22 g guarded carcasses. We used the growth of the predominant species of fungi on the control carcasses, Trichoderma sp., as a biological indicator to examine differences in the fungistatic efficiency of anal secretions between sexually mature and immature adults and between genders. The anal secretions of sexually mature beetles inhibited the growth of Trichoderma sp., whereas the secretions of immature beetles did not. The secretions of sexually mature females displayed significantly greater inhibition of the growth of Trichoderma sp. than those of sexually mature males, possibly reflecting a division of labor in burying beetle reproduction.

  14. Sponge and skin excision sampling for recovery of Salmonella and Campylobacter from defeathered broiler carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcass skin increases during feather removal. There are several methods for sampling carcasses including sponging or swabbing of skin surface and skin excision. It is unclear whether sponge sampling is adequate to remove bacteria f...

  15. Variations on standard broiler processing in an effort to reduce Campylobacter numbers on postpick carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter numbers increase on broiler carcasses during defeathering due to leakage of gut contents through the vent. We tested several processing modifications designed to interfere with the transfer of Campylobacter from gut contents to carcass surface. Numbers of Campylobacter detected on br...

  16. Effect of stunning methods on quality of rabbit carcass and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thereafter the were dissected into 2 halves and fabricated into primal cuts. Carcass characteristics as well as physical, chemical and sensory properties of the rabbit meat were determined. The results showed that carcasses of rabbits stunned with gas gave higher (P<0.05) blood loss and lower (P<0.05) chilling loss.

  17. Common factors method to predict the carcass composition tissue in kid goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fernanda Barros Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the interrelations among weights and carcass measures of the longissimus lumborum muscle thickness and area, and of sternum tissue thickness, measured directly on carcass and by ultrasound scan. Measures were taken on live animals and after slaughter to develop models of multiple linear regression, to estimate the composition of shoulder blade, from selected variables in 89 kids of both genders and five breed groups, raised in feedlot system. The variables considered relevant and not redundant on the information they carry, for the common factor analysis, were used in the carcass composition estimate development models. The presuppositions of linear regression models relative to residues were evaluated, the estimated residues were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were compared by the Student t test. Based in these results, the group of 32 initial variables could be reduced to four variables: hot carcass weight, rump perimeter, leg length and tissue height at the fourth sternum bone. The analysis of common factors was shown as an effective technique to study the interrelations among the independent variables. The measures of carcass dimension, alone, did not add any information to hot carcass weight. The carcass muscle weight can be estimated with high precision from simple models, without the need for information related to gender and breed, and they could be built based on carcass weight, which makes it easy to be applied. The fat and bones estimate models were not as accurate.

  18. 9 CFR 310.18 - Contamination of carcasses, organs, or other parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contamination of carcasses, organs, or... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.18 Contamination of carcasses... prevent contamination with fecal material, urine, bile, hair, dirt, or foreign matter; however, if...

  19. Influence of washing time on residual contamination of carcasses sprayed with lauric acid-potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed for various times in a spray cabinet with a 2% lauric acid (LA)-1% potassium hydroxide (KOH) (w/v) solution. Forty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing l...

  20. Role of lauric acid-potassium hydroxide concentration on bacterial contamination of spray washed broiler carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed in a spray cabinet with various concentrations of lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions. Fifty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing line of...

  1. The use of seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) to predict the carcass composition of lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cadavez, Vasco A. P.; Henningsen, Arne

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate models for predicting the carcass composition of lambs. Forty male lambs of two different breeds were included in our analysis. The lambs were slaughtered and their hot carcass weight was obtained. After cooling for 24 hours, the subcutaneous fat...

  2. The use of seemingly unrelated regression to predict the carcass composition of lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cadavez, V.A.P.; Henningsen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate models for predicting the carcass composition of lambs. Forty male lambs were slaughtered and their carcasses were cooled for 24 hours. The subcutaneous fat thickness was measured between the 12th and 13th rib and breast bone tissue thickness...

  3. The Notes on Mammal Carcasses Collected in Pangandaran Nature Reserve, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamato Tsuji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A field survey was conducted in Pangandaran Nature Reserve (PNR, West Java, Indonesia between 2011 and 2015, during which fresh carcasses of wild mammals were collected. Body sizes of these carcasses were performed. This paper reports relevant data for future applications.

  4. On the dose distribution in chicken carcasses irradiated with electron beams for control of pathogenic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mager, B.; Ehlermann, D.A.E.

    1999-01-01

    Whole chicken carcasses packed as commercial batches (cardboard boxes containing 8-12 carcasses) can be irradiated with bremsstrahlung, which permits compliance with the required quotient of 2.0 of maximal and minimal radiation dose, so that this radiation treatment is equal to treatment with γ radiation from cobalt sources. (orig./CB) [de

  5. Response to selection and genetic parameters of body and carcass weights in Japanese quail selected for 4-week body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaldari, M; Pakdel, A; Yegane, H Mehrabani

    2010-01-01

    , respectively. There was a significant effect of sex, generation, and line (P difference for BW and carcass weights but not for carcass percentage components between sexes (P ... to improve carcass traits. Also, intense selection resulting in high rates of inbreeding might result in decreased response to selection due to inbreeding depression....

  6. 9 CFR 310.2 - Identification of carcass with certain severed parts thereof and with animal from which derived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of carcass with certain... INSPECTION § 310.2 Identification of carcass with certain severed parts thereof and with animal from which... derived from the particular animal involved, until the post-mortem examination of the carcass and parts...

  7. Impact comparative study of phone carcasses behavior by FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Cărăuşu; Plăvănescu, Simona; Dumitru, Nedelcu

    2015-07-01

    A constant concern of scientific research is based on plastics replace with biodegradable materials that reduce the adverse impact of waste on the environment. A biodegradable material that arouses interest lately is Arboform which is made of lignin, a component of wood and woody plants. Replacing plastic with Arboform in carrying components of products requires technical and economic studies on the implications of such replacement. Numerical simulation methods are a fast and economical way of analyzing the behavior of a product in various mechanical, thermal, electromagnetic and so on. The paper presents comparative results of numerical simulation using the software package SolidWorks impact behavior through the “Drop Test” of half shells made of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and of the Arboform LV3 Nature. Simulation watched the half-carcass behavior in three cases of accidental impact, “head”, “corner” and the “back side”. We analyzed the size and location of the maximum voltage and maximum deformation resulting from impact. Simulations have shown for all three cases a maximum voltage increase when using Arboform to use PEDH 93% for impact “forward” and “corner” and only 48.77% “back side” impact. If the maximum displacement, it increasing from carcasses of Arboform 4% for impact “head” and 6% for impact “corner”, but fell by 2.7% for the “back side” impact. The significant increase of stress can be attributed to the higher density of Arboform to PEDH, which led to different weights of the two half-carcasses.

  8. Prussian Blue Analogues of Reduced Dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengler, Regis Y. N.; Toma, Luminita M.; Pardo, Emilio; Lloret, Francesc; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-valence polycyanides (Prussian Blue analogues) possess a rich palette of properties spanning from room-temperature ferromagnetism to zero thermal expansion, which can be tuned by chemical modifications or the application of external stimuli (temperature, pressure, light irradiation). While

  9. The Palmottu analogue project: overview for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskeeniemi, T.; Blomqvist, R.; Suksi, J.; Niini, H.

    1994-01-01

    This article gives a summary of the activities carried out within the Palmottu analogue project in 1993. It consists of (1) an introductory part, followed by (2) a geological description of the site, and (3)an up-to-date summary of the results of the project. (orig.) (33 refs., 6 figs.)

  10. Somatostatin analogue scintigraphy and tuberculosis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biancheri, I.; Rudenko, B.; Vautrin, P.; Raddoul, J.; Lamfichek, N.; Kantelip, B.; Mantion, G.

    2005-01-01

    Scintigraphy using a radiolabelled somatostatin analogue (111 In-pentetreotide) is useful in the detection of neuroendocrine tumors. But this radiopharmaceutical accumulates also in solid tumours or in inflammatory diseases such as granulomatosis. We present a case of 111 In-pentetreotide uptake in a tuberculous adenopathy. (author)

  11. Analogue computer display of accelerator beam optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, K.

    1984-01-01

    Analogue computers have been used years ago by several authors for the design of magnetic beam handling systems. At Bochum a small analogue/hybrid computer was combined with a particular analogue expansion and logic control unit for beam transport work. This apparatus was very successful in the design and setup of the beam handling system of the tandem accelerator. The center of the stripper canal was the object point for the calculations, instead of the high energy acceleration tube a drift length was inserted into the program neglecting the weak focusing action of the tube. In the course of the installation of a second injector for heavy ions it became necessary to do better calculations. A simple method was found to represent accelerating sections on the computer and a particular way to simulate thin lenses was adopted. The analogue computer system proved its usefulness in the design and in studies of the characteristics of different accelerator installations over many years. The results of the calculations are in very good agreement with real accelerator data. The apparatus is the ideal tool to demonstrate beam optics to students and accelerator operators since the effect of a change of any of the parameters is immediately visible on the oscilloscope

  12. Scintigraphy with labelled analogues of the somatostatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duet, M.; Ajzenberg, C.; Warnet, A.; Mundler, O.

    1998-01-01

    The receptors of the somatostatin have been localized in a big number of tumors, whom a great number are neuro-endocrine tumors. However, some tumors that have not this differentiation (breast cancer, lymphomas, cerebral tumors) possess them as well. Analogues of somatostatin, labelled with isotopes having a gamma emission, allow from now their detection in vivo. (N.C.)

  13. Ultrasound exfoliation of inorganic analogues of graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Slušná, Michaela; Ecorchard, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, APR (2014), s. 1-14 ISSN 1556-276X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Ultrasound * Exfoliation * Graphene inorganic analogues Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.779, year: 2014

  14. MARSI: metabolite analogues for rational strain improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, João G. R.; Zeidan, Ahmad A; Jensen, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    reactions in an organism can be used to predict effects of MAs on cellular phenotypes. Here, we present the Metabolite Analogues for Rational Strain Improvement (MARSI) framework. MARSI provides a rational approach to strain improvement by searching for metabolites as targets instead of genes or reactions...

  15. Pilot-Scale Bio-Augmented Aerobic Composting of Excavated Foot-And-Mouth Disease Carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghoon Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we tested the validity of using novel, bio-augmented, aerobic composting with carcass-degrading microorganisms for the ex situ stabilization of carcasses at pilot scale with previously poorly decomposed carcasses excavated from a 3-year old burial site. The significantly decreased chemical oxygen demand (COD, 160,000 mg/kg to 40,000 mg/kg and inorganic nitrogen species (total nitrogen, 5000 mg/kg to 2000 mg/kg indicated effective bio-stabilization of carcasses by bio-augmented composting. The subsequent germination assays and the quantitative characterization of potentially pathogenic bacteria using NGS (next-generation sequencing showed that the burial–composting sequential system with the carcass-degrading microorganisms and mechanical agitation successfully reduced plant toxicity as well as microbial risk to human health, suggesting that the composting by-product is suitable for farming or/and landfill use(s.

  16. The effect of Bovine Growth Hormone on Growth, Carcass Composition and Meat Quality of Dairy Heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Foldager, John

    1993-01-01

    , one animal was given daily subcutaneous injections of 20 IU of pituitary-derived bGH (15-20 mg), while the other animal was injected with saline (excipient). Treatments started at 179±2 kg body weight and lasted for 15.6 weeks. At slaughter, carcass composition and meat quality were analyzed. b......Our objective was to examine the effects of bovine growth hormone (bGH) on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of dairy heifers. Nine monozygotic twin pairs of Friesian or Red Danish cattle were used, and pair-fed diet consisting of grass silage, barley and soybean meal. Within each pair......GH treatment increased gain by 8% (948 vs. 877 g/d; P carcass and lean content of four main carcass cuts were on average increased by 2% (P carcass fat trim was reduced by 12% (P

  17. THE ESTIMATION OF CARCASS TRAITS OF BALI BULLS USING ULTRASOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Sri Rachma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to collect information on Bali bulls carcass traits estimation as one of theselection criteria using ultrasound. Ultrasonic estimation of carcass traits such as M. longissimusthoracis area (MLTA, Subcutaneous Fat Thickness (SFT, Inter Muscular Fat Thickness (IMFT, RibThickness (RT and Beef Marbling Score (BMS were obtained from 92 head of bulls at Barru districtand 74 head of bulls at Bone district, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The carcass traits estimation werescanned between the 6th - 7th ribs using ultrasound. The ultrasound is made of Fujihira Super-Eye FHK,Co. Meat. Ltd. with B-Mode and electronic linear probe, which used frequency of 2 MHz. The carcasstraits estimation photos were printed by video-copy machine (Aloka Co. Ltd., SSZ-300S. The dataobtained were analyzed using basic statistic and was discussed descriptively. The averages of all carcasstraits estimation of the Bali bull at Bone district at 12, 18 and 24 months of ages were higher than thoseat Barru district. The MLTA estimation of Bali bulls at Bone and Barru districts were 18.0 cm2, 24.3cm2, 23.8 cm2 Vs 16.6 cm2, 18.5 cm2, 23.3 cm2, respectively; the BMS estimated were 0.14, 0.24 and0.20 Vs 0.00, 0.15 and 0.17, respectively; the SFT estimation were 0.26 mm, 0.33 mm, 0.34 mm Vs0.28 mm, 0.26 mm, 0.34 mm, respectively; the IMFT estimation were 1.13 mm, 1.24 mm, 1.31 mm Vs0.97 mm, 1.06 mm, 1.14 mm, respectively; the RT estimation were 2.04 mm, 2.52 mm, 2.72 mm Vs1.19 mm, 2.12 mm, 2.30 mm, respectively. The growth of MLTA, SFT, IMFT, RT and BMS of thebulls of Bali cattle at the 12, 18 and 24 months of age were not reaching the optimally performances,yet. Therefore the selection process of the bulls of Bali cattle to be candidate of sire based on theestimation of carcass traits should be done after since 4 years of age.

  18. A novel lunar bed rest analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Peter R; Rice, Andrea J; Licata, Angelo A; Kuklis, Matthew M; Novotny, Sara C; Genc, Kerim O; Englehaupt, Ricki K; Hanson, Andrea M

    2013-11-01

    Humans will eventually return to the Moon and thus there is a need for a ground-based analogue to enable the study of physiological adaptations to lunar gravity. An important unanswered question is whether or not living on the lunar surface will provide adequate loading of the musculoskeletal system to prevent or attenuate the bone loss that is seen in microgravity. Previous simulations have involved tilting subjects to an approximately 9.5 degrees angle to achieve a lunar gravity component parallel to the long-axis of the body. However, subjects in these earlier simulations were not weight-bearing, and thus these protocols did not provide an analogue for load on the musculoskeletal system. We present a novel analogue which includes the capability to simulate standing and sitting in a lunar loading environment. A bed oriented at a 9.5 degrees angle was mounted on six linear bearings and was free to travel with one degree of freedom along rails. This allowed approximately 1/6 body weight loading of the feet during standing. "Lunar" sitting was also successfully simulated. A feasibility study demonstrated that the analogue was tolerated by subjects for 6 d of continuous bed rest and that the reaction forces at the feet during periods of standing were a reasonable simulation of lunar standing. During the 6 d, mean change in the volume of the quadriceps muscles was -1.6% +/- 1.7%. The proposed analogue would appear to be an acceptable simulation of lunar gravity and deserves further exploration in studies of longer duration.

  19. Seasonal carcass composition and energy balance of female black ducks in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, K.J.; Stone, T.L.; Owen, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Female Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) collected in Maine during the summer, fall, and winter of 1974-1976 showed significant seasonal variation in body weight, nonfat dry weight, gizzard and pectoral muscle weight, and fat, moisture, and protein content. Variation of body weight within and among seasons was correlated more strongly with carcass protein content, and with fat content during seasons of heavy lipid deposition, than with three structural size variables (culmen, tarsus, and sternum). Regression equations including fat and protein as independent variables accounted for 80-90% of the annual and seasonal variation in body weight; structural size variables alone accounted for less than 30%. Immature females averaged 54 and 99 g lighter, and carried 54 and 59 g less fat than adults during the fall and winter. Ducks of both age classes lost weight in December and January. Adult and immature females metabolized 59 and 64 g of fat and 17 and 25 g of protein in winter compared with 46 g of fat during the nesting season. Nutrient reserves are thus equally as important for the winter survival of these birds as for successfurl eproduction. Seasonal changes in carcass composition suggest that (1) fat deposited in late fall provides an energy reserve during winter, (2) a reduction in lean weight during winter may lower daily energy requirements and increase the effective amount of energy reserves, and (3) declining body weights during late winter may be an endogenous rhythm that reflects a shift in the expected benefits of an energy reserve compared to the costs of carrying additional weight,

  20. Genome–wide association study of carcass weight in commercial Hanwoo cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edea, Zewdu; Jeoung, Yeong Ho; Shin, Sung-Sub; Ku, Jaeul; Seo, Sungbo; Kim, Il-Hoi; Kim, Sang-Wook

    2018-01-01

    Objective The objective of the present study was to validate genes and genomic regions associated with carcass weight using a low-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Chip in Hanwoo cattle breed. Methods Commercial Hanwoo steers (n = 220) were genotyped with 20K GeneSeek genomic profiler BeadChip. After applying the quality control of criteria of a call rate ≥90% and minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥0.01, a total of 15,235 autosomal SNPs were left for genome-wide association (GWA) analysis. The GWA tests were performed using single-locus mixed linear model. Age at slaughter was fitted as fixed effect and sire included as a covariate. The level of genome-wide significance was set at 3.28×10−6 (0.05/15,235), corresponding to Bonferroni correction for 15,235 multiple independent tests. Results By employing EMMAX approach which is based on a mixed linear model and accounts for population stratification and relatedness, we identified 17 and 16 loci significantly (pcarcass weight for the additive and dominant models, respectively. The second most significant (p = 0.000049) SNP (ARS-BFGL-NGS-28234) on bovine chromosome 4 (BTA4) at 21 Mb had an allele substitution effect of 43.45 kg. Some of the identified regions on BTA2, 6, 14, 22, and 24 were previously reported to be associated with quantitative trait loci for carcass weight in several beef cattle breeds. Conclusion This is the first genome-wide association study using SNP chips on commercial Hanwoo steers, and some of the loci newly identified in this study may help to better DNA markers that determine increased beef production in commercial Hanwoo cattle. Further studies using a larger sample size will allow confirmation of the candidates identified in this study. PMID:29103288

  1. Genetic gain for body weight, feed conversion and carcass traits in selected broiler strains

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    GS Schmidt

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Swine and Poultry Research Center (Embrapa Suínos e Aves maintains a chicken breeding program for meat production since 1985. Two control lines (LLc and PPc are maintained, whereas two male lines (TT and ZZ and three female lines (PP, VV and KK have been selected. This paper reports the genetic gain after 15 generations of combined selection (mass and independent culling levels in order to develop the commercial broiler stocks Embrapa 021 and Embrapa 022. Selection pressure has been exerted on weight gain, carcass traits and fertility. In addition, female lines have also been selected for egg production, whereas males have been selected for feed efficiency since 1992. All lines have been selected for breast area instead of carcass traits since 1999. The genetic gain was estimated as the deviation between selected lines and the respective unselected lines at 42 days of age. In female lines, body weight improved 504, 548 and 587 g; average breast area increased 27.60; 16.99 and 26.43 cm²; adjusted feed conversion (42-49 d improved -1.46; -0.97 and 1.76 units, and egg production varied 6.99; 7.12 and -3.43% units for PP, VV and KK, respectively. In male lines, body weight improved 758 and 408 g; average breast area increased 31.95 and 19.38 cm², and adjusted feed conversion improved (42-49 d -0.99 and 1.26 for TT and ZZ, respectively. This breeding program has been effective to generate genetic gain and to develop two commercial products, Embrapa 021 (standard and Embrapa 022 (high yield. Nevertheless, feed efficiency is still not satisfactory.

  2. Effect of propolis alcoholic extract on the weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH of growing rabbits

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    Joseli Alves Ferreira Zanato

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of different rates of propolis alcoholic extract (PAE on the weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH of growing rabbits. Forty White New Zealand rabbits were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of four treatments and ten replicates per treatment. The rabbits were allocated individually in wire cages containing a nipple drinker and a semi-automatic feeder. The treatments were: T1 = control, T2 = 1ml of ethanol, T3 = 0.8ml of PAE, and T4 = 1.5ml of PAE. Commercial feed and water were provided ad libitum to the animals, and the treatment with cereal alcohol and PAE was administered orally using a 2ml syringe. It was concluded that the addition of PAE to the rabbits’ feeding resulted in weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH similar to those of animals which received the diets with ethanol without any addition, except for the paw weight, that was higher in the rabbits which were given PAE, and for the gastric system, that had a higher weight in the rabbits which received no addition to their diet.

  3. Use of bird carcass removals by urban scavengers to adjust bird-window collision estimates

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    Justine A. Kummer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carcass removal by scavengers has been identified as one of the largest biases in estimating bird mortality from anthropogenic sources. Only two studies have examined carcass removal by scavengers in an urban environment, and previous estimates of bird-window collision mortality at houses have relied on carcass removal rates from wind turbine studies. We placed a bird carcass and time-lapse camera at 44 houses in Edmonton, Alberta. In total, 166 7-day trials were conducted throughout 2015. Time-to-event (survival analysis was used to identify covariates that affected removal. The carcass removal rate was determined for use in estimating the number of birds killed from bird-window collisions at houses in Alberta. In total, 67.5% of carcasses were removed. The date the carcass was placed, the year the house was built, and the level of development within 50 m of the house were the covariates that had the largest effect on carcass removal. In calculating our removal rate, the number of detected carcasses in the first 24 hours was adjusted by 1.47 to account for removal by scavengers. Previously collected citizen science data were used to create an estimate of 957,440 bird deaths each year in Alberta as a result of bird-window collisions with houses. This number is based on the most detailed bird-window collision study at houses to date and a carcass removal study conducted in the same area. Similar localized studies across Canada will need to be completed to reduce the biases that exist with the previous bird-window collision mortality estimate for houses in Canada.

  4. Carcass composition of market weight pigs subjected to heat stress in utero and during finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzen, S M; Boddicker, R L; Graves, K L; Johnson, T P; Arkfeld, E K; Baumgard, L H; Ross, J W; Safranski, T J; Lucy, M C; Lonergan, S M

    2015-05-01

    Objectives were to investigate the effects of prolonged gestational and/or postnatal heat stress on performance and carcass composition of market weight pigs. Pregnant gilts were exposed to gestational heat stress (GHS, 28°C to 34°C, diurnal) or thermal neutral (18°C to 22°C, diurnal) conditions during the entire gestation or during the first or second half of gestation. At 14 wk of age (58 ± 5 kg), barrows were housed in heat stress (32°C, HS) or thermal neutral (21°C, TN) conditions. Feed intake and BW were recorded weekly, and body temperature parameters were monitored twice weekly until slaughter (109 ± 5 kg). Organs were removed and weighed, and loin eye area (LEA) and back fat thickness (BF) were measured after carcass chilling. Carcass sides were separated into lean, separable fat, bone, and skin components and were weighed. Moisture, lipid, and protein content were determined in the LM at the 10th rib. Data were analyzed using a split plot with random effect of dam nested within gestational treatment. Carcass measurements included HCW as a covariate to control for weight. Planned orthogonal contrast statements were used to evaluate the overall effect of GHS in the first half, second half, or any part of gestation. Gestational heat stress did not alter postnatal performance or most body temperature parameters (P > 0.10). However, ADFI in the finishing period was increased (P carcasses (P = 0.38). Carcasses from HS barrows also had less carcass separable fat (P carcasses had a greater moisture to protein ratio (P = 0.04). HS barrows also had decreased heart (P carcass composition. Chronic HS during finishing results in longer times to reach market weight and a leaner carcass once market weight is achieved.

  5. Effects of diet and Aspergillus oryzae extract or Saccharomyces cervisiae on growth and carcass characteristics of lambs and steers fed to meet requirements of natural markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerby, H N; Bard, J L; Loerch, S C; Kuber, P S; Radunz, A E; Fluharty, F L

    2011-07-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of diet and feed additive on growth and carcass characteristics of lambs and cattle destined for all natural markets. In Exp. 1, 48 Dorset × Hampshire lambs (initial BW 29.4 ± 0.1 kg) were used in a randomized complete block experiment to determine the effects of Aspergillus oryzae extract, Amaferm (AMF) supplementation (1 g/d) in an 85% concentrate diet on growth and carcass characteristics. Lambs were allotted to 12 pens (4 lambs per pen), and blocked by sex and BW. Lambs were fed until the average BW of each pen reached a target BW (55.4 kg for wethers and 50.0 kg for ewes), at which time the entire pen of lambs was slaughtered. Amaferm resulted in a greater (P=0.07) G:F. In Exp. 2, 168 crossbred steers (initial BW 300 ± 0.7 kg) were used in a trial with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to examine the effects of 0.5 g/d of Saccaromyces cervisiae boulardii CNCM 1079-Levucell SB (LEV), or 3 g/d of AMF with 2 corn sources, dry whole-shelled corn or high moisture corn, on growth and carcass characteristics. Neither LEV nor AMF improved (P>0.10) carcass characteristics compared with control or non-feed-supplemented steers. Addition of LEV to high-concentrate, corn-based diets did not improve (P>0.10) growth performance of feedlot steers. However, addition of AMF to a diet composed of dry whole-shelled corn resulted in an improvement (P<0.05) in G:F (0.208 vs. 0.194). Results indicate that at the amounts fed, AMF may improve G:F for lambs and steers fed dry corn-based finishing diets. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

  6. Design of insulin analogues for meal-related therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, J

    1993-01-01

    The human insulin in replacement therapy has a hexameric structure. Hexamerization of the insulin molecule facilitates biosynthesis and beta-cell storage of insulin, but is unnecessary for biologic activity and appears to contribute to delayed absorption of exogenous insulin from the subcutis. Insulin analogues with reduced self-association that are produced through recombinant DNA techniques have been shown to have in vivo activity comparable to that of human insulin and absorption kinetics characterized by higher and more constant rates of disappearance from the subcutaneous injection site. In preliminary studies in patients receiving insulin therapy, monomeric insulin analogues have been found to provide glycemic control in the postprandial period that is at least equivalent to that of human insulin. Findings in these studies suggest that the use of such analogues may provide meal-related insulin effects closer to those observed in the physiologic state by limiting excessive postprandial glucose excursions and decreasing the risk of late hypoglycemia. Banting and Best revolutionized diabetes therapy 70 years ago with the extraction of insulin from animal pancreas glands (J Lab Clin Med 7:464-472, 1922). Since that time, many refinements of the therapeutic properties of pharmaceutical preparations of the hormone have been introduced. Until recently, however, such advances have been limited to improvements in insulin purity, insulin species, and adjustment of the composition of the vehicle with respect to auxiliary substances and other additives. With the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, it has become possible to optimize the insulin molecule itself for purposes of replacement therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Performance and carcass traits of different commercial pig lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Levi de Oliveira Carvalho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to evaluate the performance and the quantitative and qualitative carcass traits of three different commercial pig lines. Seventy-two animals were included, 24 animals of each lineage, 36 females and 36 immunocastrated males, with an initial and final average weight of 26 ± 6.5 kg and 139.49 ± 4.05 kg, respectively. These animals were identified and distributed in randomised blocks in a 2 x 3 factorial analysis (two sexes and three lineages with three replicates per treatment and four animals per experimental unit. The daily gain (kg, feed conversion (kg kg-1, daily feed intake (kg, carcass weight (kg, backfat thickness (mm, loin depth (mm, lean meat percentage (% lean beef kilograms (kg, marbling, water loss by leaking (%, water loss by defrosting (%, water loss by cooking (%, shear force (kgf cm2 -1 and objective colour were measured. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and means (Tukey’s test of 5%. There was no interaction between factors, and evaluating the factors separately did not yield significant differences between the lineages for any of the evaluated parameters. For the gender factor, a difference was obtained only for loin depth during the growth phase, lean meat percentage and defrosting water loss. Overall, the evaluated commercial lines were similar and gender influenced some performance parameters.

  8. Explanatory Variables Associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli Concentrations on Broiler Chicken Carcasses during Processing in Two Slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacholewicz, Ewa; Swart, Arno; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Lipman, Len J A; Havelaar, Arie H

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed at identifying explanatory variables that were associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations throughout processing in two commercial broiler slaughterhouses. Quantative data on Campylobacter and E. coli along the processing line were collected. Moreover, information on batch characteristics, slaughterhouse practices, process performance, and environmental variables was collected through questionnaires, observations, and measurements, resulting in data on 19 potential explanatory variables. Analysis was conducted separately in each slaughterhouse to identify which variables were related to changes in concentrations of Campylobacter and E. coli during the processing steps: scalding, defeathering, evisceration, and chilling. Associations with explanatory variables were different in the slaughterhouses studied. In the first slaughterhouse, there was only one significant association: poorer uniformity of the weight of carcasses within a batch with less decrease in E. coli concentrations after defeathering. In the second slaughterhouse, significant statistical associations were found with variables, including age, uniformity, average weight of carcasses, Campylobacter concentrations in excreta and ceca, and E. coli concentrations in excreta. Bacterial concentrations in excreta and ceca were found to be the most prominent variables, because they were associated with concentration on carcasses at various processing points. Although the slaughterhouses produced specific products and had different batch characteristics and processing parameters, the effect of the significant variables was not always the same for each slaughterhouse. Therefore, each slaughterhouse needs to determine its particular relevant measures for hygiene control and process management. This identification could be supported by monitoring changes in bacterial concentrations during processing in individual slaughterhouses. In addition, the possibility that management

  9. Effects of feeding green forage of sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) on lamb growth and carcass and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, A; Di Miceli, G; Di Grigoli, A; Frenda, A S; Tornambè, G; Giambalvo, D; Amato, G

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional effects of sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) forage containing condensed tannins (CT) on growth of lambs, and carcass and meat quality were investigated. Thirty-two male Comisana lambs aged 100 ± 8 days weighing 19.0 ± 2.8 kg were fed fresh forage of sulla or CT-free annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. subsp. Wersterwoldicum) for 49 days until slaughter; in addition, each lamb was supplied with 200 g/days of concentrate. Eight lambs per diet had been previously treated with anthelmintic drugs to remove nematode parasites. Measurements of BW and feed intake, and counts of faecal nematode eggs were made. Carcass parameters were recorded after slaughter, and tissue components of the hind leg were determined. Longissimus dorsi meat was evaluated for pH, colour, thawing and cooking losses, Warner-Bratzler shear force, chemical composition and sensory properties based on triangle tests. Relative to ryegrass-fed lambs, sulla-fed lambs had significantly greater dry matter (DM) and protein intake, a more favourable feed conversion ratio, and superior growth rate, final BW at 150 days of age, carcass weight, yield and fatness. These results were attributed to the high protein and non-structural carbohydrate content of sulla, and also to the moderate CT content of sulla (16.7 and 20.3 g/kg of DM in offered and consumed sulla forage, respectively). Anthelmintic treatment did not affect lamb growth, as the level of parasitic infection (initial and final) was low. The physical, chemical and sensory properties of the lamb meat were not influenced by diet.

  10. Development, economic viability and attributes of lamb carcass from confined animals fed on different amounts of crude glycerin

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    Fabiola Cristine de Almeida Rego

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to assess the effect from crude glycerin inclusion (0, 7, 14, and 21% dry matter in the diet of slaughtered lamb on their development, nutrient consumption, biometrical measures, diet economic viability and carcass features. Thirty two (32 non-castrated male Texel lambs were used in the study, they presented mean initial weight 15.9 ± 4.1 kilos and were distributed in casual outlining. They were fed with four treatments, with 8 repetitions. Animals were slaughtered when they reached approximately 35 kilos. The mean total weight gain was 20.72 kilos and mean daily weight gain was 260 grams. No changes resulted from glycerin use. The carcass performance was similar among treatments (P>0.05 and the cold carcass performance (CCP was 44.68%. There were no effects (P>0.05 on the loin eye area (LEA and on fat thickness (FT; they showed averages of 13.66 cm2 and 0.84 mm, respectively. Nutrition cost per animal during the whole confinement period varied between R$82.60 (eighty-two Reais and forty-eight cents to R$92.48. The smallest nutrition amount consisted of 21% crude glycerin. The gross profit ranged from R$30.75 to R$ 34.01 per animal, for feed without glycerin and 21% glycerin, respectively. Animal development was not impacted by glycerin introduction, even with decrease on dry and organic mass consumption. The result showed that crude glycerin inclusion might be used in lambs’ diet. Whenever there are big amounts of feed involved in the process, the 21% crude glycerin addition may be an interesting cost reduction. Seventy eight percent (78% glycerol crude glycerin to replace corn-based feed in confined lambs’ diet appeared to be nutritionally and economically viable. 

  11. The effects of “Beijing grass” in diets on growth performance, humoral antibody and carcass characteristics in quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chethanond, U.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological study on Beijing grass (Bj. grass: Murdannia loriformis showed immunomodulator and anticancer activities. Thus, the effect of Bj. grass in diets was investigated in Japanese quails (aged 0-6 weeks on growth performances, humoral immunity and carcass characteristics. 708 1-day-old quails (Corturnix type which had no vaccination program were used in this study. They were experimented using completely randomized design and were divided into 6 treatments consisted of 4 replications with 27-31 heads each. The treatments were assigned as follows: Treatment 1 (T1 no vaccination and no Bj.grass, Treatment 2 (T2 vaccination and no Bj.grass, Treatment 3 (T3 vaccination and 3% Bj.grass, Treatment 4 (T4 vaccination and 6% Bj.grass, Treatment 5 (T5 vaccination and 9% Bj.grass and Treatment 6 (T6 vaccination and 10% Bj.grass juice (w/v. Vaccination program by 1 Newcastle disease + Infectious Bronchitis and 2 Pox were given at 1 and 3 weeks. Approximately 25% of quails were bled for determination of packed cell volume, gamma globulin levels and ND-HI titers. All male quails were put to sleep at 6 weeks. The results showed weight gain in the 3rd week was different in treatments using Bj. grass and treatments using control diet which body weight gain reduced when the level of Bj. grass increased (p 0.05. It was noted that not more than 6% Bj. grass could be used in quail diet without abnormal clinical signs. However, the more grass showed the tendency of poor weight gain. There were no differences in packed cell volume or gamma IgG level and ND-HI titers did not reach protection level. For carcass characteristics, Bj. grass 3% in diet gave the best carcass characteristics. (p < 0.05 In addition there was a dose-related reduction of abdominal fat (P=0.001.

  12. Genome-wide Association Study to Identify Quantitative Trait Loci for Meat and Carcass Quality Traits in Berkshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Asif; Kim, You-Sam; Kang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Yun-Mi; Rai, Rajani; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Oh, Dong-Yup; Nam, Ki-Chang; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Meat and carcass quality attributes are of crucial importance influencing consumer preference and profitability in the pork industry. A set of 400 Berkshire pigs were collected from Dasan breeding farm, Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea that were born between 2012 and 2013. To perform genome wide association studies (GWAS), eleven meat and carcass quality traits were considered, including carcass weight, backfat thickness, pH value after 24 hours (pH24), Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage lightness in meat color (CIE L), redness in meat color (CIE a), yellowness in meat color (CIE b), filtering, drip loss, heat loss, shear force and marbling score. All of the 400 animals were genotyped with the Porcine 62K SNP BeadChips (Illumina Inc., USA). A SAS general linear model procedure (SAS version 9.2) was used to pre-adjust the animal phenotypes before GWAS with sire and sex effects as fixed effects and slaughter age as a covariate. After fitting the fixed and covariate factors in the model, the residuals of the phenotype regressed on additive effects of each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) under a linear regression model (PLINK version 1.07). The significant SNPs after permutation testing at a chromosome-wise level were subjected to stepwise regression analysis to determine the best set of SNP markers. A total of 55 significant (p<0.05) SNPs or quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected on various chromosomes. The QTLs explained from 5.06% to 8.28% of the total phenotypic variation of the traits. Some QTLs with pleiotropic effect were also identified. A pair of significant QTL for pH24 was also found to affect both CIE L and drip loss percentage. The significant QTL after characterization of the functional candidate genes on the QTL or around the QTL region may be effectively and efficiently used in marker assisted selection to achieve enhanced genetic improvement of the trait considered. PMID:26580276

  13. Performance and carcass characteristics of steers fed with two levels of metabolizable energy intake during summer and winter season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, R A; Keim, J P; Gandarillas, M; Velásquez, A; Alvarado-Gilis, C; Mader, T L

    2018-05-22

    Climate change is producing an increase on extreme weather events around the world such as flooding, drought and extreme ambient temperatures impacting animal production and animal welfare. At present, there is a lack of studies addressing the effects of climatic conditions associated with energy intake in finishing cattle in South American feed yards. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of environmental variables and level of metabolizable energy intake above maintenance requirements (MEI) on performance and carcass quality of steers. In each experiment (winter and summer), steers were fed with 1.85 or 2.72 times of their requirements of metabolizable energy of maintenance. A total of 24 crossbred steers per experiment were used and located in four pens (26.25 m2/head) equipped with a Calan Broadbent Feeding System. Animals were fed with the same diet within each season, varying the amount offered to adjust the MEI treatments. Mud depth, mud scores, tympanic temperature (TT), environmental variables, average daily gain, respiration rates and carcass characteristics plus three thermal comfort indices were collected. Data analysis considered a factorial arrangement (Season and MEI). In addition, a repeated measures analysis was performed for TT and respiration rate. Mean values of ambient temperature, solar radiation and comfort thermal indices were greater in the summer experiment as expected (Pcarcass characteristics were affected by season but not by the level of MEI. Finally, due to the high variability of data as well as the small number of animals assessed in these experiments, more studies on carcass characteristics under similar conditions are required.

  14. Growth and acid production of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 in the fermentation of algal carcass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Zhang, G F; Mao, X; Wang, J Y; Duan, C Y; Wang, Z J; Liu, L B

    2016-06-01

    Algal carcass is a low-value byproduct of algae after its conversion to biodiesel. Dried algal carcass is rich in protein, carbohydrate, and multiple amino acids, and it is typically well suited for growth and acid production of lactic acid bacteria. In this study, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was used to ferment different algal carcass media (ACM), including 2% ACM, 2% ACM with 1.9% glucose (ACM-G), and 2% ACM with 1.9% glucose and 2g/L amino acid mixture (ACM-GA). Concentrations of organic acids (lactic acid and acetic acid), acetyl-CoA, and ATP were analyzed by HPLC, and activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acetokinase (ACK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK) were determined by using a chemical approach. The growth of L. bulgaricus cells in ACM-GA was close to that in the control medium (de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe). Lactic acid and acetic acid contents were greatly reduced when L. bulgaricus cells were grown in ACM compared with the control medium. Acetyl-CoA content varied with organic acid content and was increased in cells grown in different ACM compared with the control medium. The ATP content of L. bulgaricus cells in ACM was reduced compared with that of cells grown in the control medium. Activities of PFK and ACK of L. bulgaricus cells grown in ACM were higher and those of PK and LDH were lower compared with the control. Thus, ACM rich in nutrients may serve as an excellent substrate for growth by lactic acid bacteria, and addition of appropriate amounts of glucose and amino acids can improve growth and acid production. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genome-wide Association Study to Identify Quantitative Trait Loci for Meat and Carcass Quality Traits in Berkshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Iqbal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Meat and carcass quality attributes are of crucial importance influencing consumer preference and profitability in the pork industry. A set of 400 Berkshire pigs were collected from Dasan breeding farm, Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea that were born between 2012 and 2013. To perform genome wide association studies (GWAS, eleven meat and carcass quality traits were considered, including carcass weight, backfat thickness, pH value after 24 hours (pH24, Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage lightness in meat color (CIE L, redness in meat color (CIE a, yellowness in meat color (CIE b, filtering, drip loss, heat loss, shear force and marbling score. All of the 400 animals were genotyped with the Porcine 62K SNP BeadChips (Illumina Inc., USA. A SAS general linear model procedure (SAS version 9.2 was used to pre-adjust the animal phenotypes before GWAS with sire and sex effects as fixed effects and slaughter age as a covariate. After fitting the fixed and covariate factors in the model, the residuals of the phenotype regressed on additive effects of each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP under a linear regression model (PLINK version 1.07. The significant SNPs after permutation testing at a chromosome-wise level were subjected to stepwise regression analysis to determine the best set of SNP markers. A total of 55 significant (p<0.05 SNPs or quantitative trait loci (QTL were detected on various chromosomes. The QTLs explained from 5.06% to 8.28% of the total phenotypic variation of the traits. Some QTLs with pleiotropic effect were also identified. A pair of significant QTL for pH24 was also found to affect both CIE L and drip loss percentage. The significant QTL after characterization of the functional candidate genes on the QTL or around the QTL region may be effectively and efficiently used in marker assisted selection to achieve enhanced genetic improvement of the trait considered.

  16. OCURRENCE OF Campylobacter sp IN BROILER FLOCKSAND CORRESPONDING CARCASSES OCORRÊNCIA DE Campylobacter sp EM LOTES DE FRANGOS DE CORTE E NAS CARCAÇAS CORRESPONDENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Luiz de Souza Moraes

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of the present study was to assess the dissemination and levels of Campylobacter contamination in broiler flocks and related carcasses. Twenty-two flocks aged 3 weeks or older were assessed, and 110 cecal droppings and 96 carcasses (38 carcasses after defeathering and 58 after the last chilling operation were enumerated. Bolton selective enrichment broth was used for enumeration of the organism. Additionally, the carcasses were submitted to pre-enrichment for the detection of the agent at low levels of contamination. Was noted that 18.18% of broiler flocks (4/22 was not colonized by Campylobacter; however, their carcasses were found to be contaminated after defeathering. The mean levels of colonization of positive flocks were 7.00 log10 cfu/g of cecal droppings, 5.15 log10 cfu per carcass after defeathering and 4.24 log cfu per carcass after the last chilling operation. The prevalence of Campylobacter in carcasses after defeathering and chilling were positively correlated, whereas a reduction of around 1 log10 was observed in the contamination initially found in the carcasses, showing that current measures, such as Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP and Good Production Practices, are useful but insufficient for thoroughly eliminating Campylobacter from the end product.

     

    Key words: Chicken, contamination, slaughterhouse.

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a ocorrência de Campylobacter em lotes de frango de corte durante a criação e nas carcaças correspondentes após o abate. Foram avaliados 22 lotes a partir das três semanas de idade, com a análise de 110 conteúdos cecais e 96 carcaças (38 após a depenadeira e 58 após o último chiller. Para a enumeração do Campylobacter, utilizou-se o caldo Bolton

  17. Structure activity relationship study of curcumin analogues toward the amyloid-beta aggregation inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hitoshi; Nikaido, Yuri; Nakadate, Mamiko; Ise, Satomi; Konno, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-15

    Inhibition of the amyloid β aggregation process could possibly prevent the onset of Alzheimer's disease. In this article, we report a structure-activity relationship study of curcumin analogues for anti amyloid β aggregation activity. Compound 7, the ideal amyloid β aggregation inhibitor in vitro among synthesized curcumin analogues, has not only potent anti amyloid β aggregation effects, but also water solubility more than 160 times that of curcumin. In addition, new approaches to improve water solubility of curcumin-type compounds are proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Record of postmortem injuries caused by the Neotropical social wasp Agelaia fulvofasciata (Degeer (Hymenoptera, Vespidae on pig carcasses in the Eastern Amazon region: implications in forensic taphonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo R. Barbosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPostmortem injuries are a source of misinterpretations in forensic analysis and therefore are subject matter of taphonomic interest. Many types of injuries can cause different artifacts, which deserve attention of the forensic pathologists when evaluating corpses, either at the crime scene or during an autopsy. Insects can be important biotaphonomic agents and their activity may result in artifacts that resemble antemortem injuries. Here, we describe postmortem injuries caused by the Neotropical wasp Agelaia fulvofasciata (Degeer, 1773 on domestic pig carcasses weighting 15 kg. The specimens showed extensive injuries to the lower lip, similar to lacerations, and some minor lesions on the snout and anus. In addition, we observed the same wasp species preying on larvae of Sarcophagidae (Peckia sp.. Besides causing postmortem injuries, the ability of this species to detect carcasses in the early and fresh decomposition stages should be noted. Thus, future applications aiming criminal, any biotaphonomic events caused by carrion insects need to be disclosed.

  19. Additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumith, A; Thomas, M; Shah, Z; Coathup, M; Blunn, G

    2018-04-01

    Increasing innovation in rapid prototyping (RP) and additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is bringing about major changes in translational surgical research. This review describes the current position in the use of additive manufacturing in orthopaedic surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:455-60.

  20. The mucosal toxicity of different benzalkonium chloride analogues evaluated with an alternative test using slugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, E; Dierckens, K; Bauters, T G; Nelis, H J; van Goethem, F; Vanparys, P; Remon, J P

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the mucosal toxicity of different benzalkonium chloride (BAC) analogues using slugs as the alternative test organism. The effect of different BAC analogues on the mucosal tissue of slugs was determined from the protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase released from the foot mucosa after treatment. Additionally, mucus production and reduction in body weight of the slugs were measured. The eye irritation potency of the molecules was evaluated with the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay. The antimicrobial activity of the different BAC analogues was also assessed. All BAC analogues induced severe damage to the mucosal epithelium of the slugs, and the irritation increased with decreasing alkyl chain length: BAC-C16 or = BAC-C16 > BAC-C12. The BAC-C14 exhibited higher activity than the BAC-mix. The toxicity and activity of BAC analogues depend on the alkyl chain length. The use of BAC-C14 as a conservative agent in pharmaceutical preparations instead of the BAC-mix should be considered.

  1. Accumulation of radium in relation to some chemical analogues in Dicranopteris linearis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, J.H.; Chuang, C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This study elucidates the uptake and accumulation of radium in the field-growing fern Dicranopteris linearis by relating the radium concentration to some potential chemical analogues, including alkaline earth metals, rare earth elements, and some important heavy metals. Time-dependent accumulation of radium and these chemical analogues for D. linearis were described by the 228 Th/ 228 Ra activity ratio, an index for inferring plant age. The correlation between radium and these elements was assessed by statistical analysis and used as a reference to elucidate the uptake and accumulation of radium in relation to the chemical analogues. Analytical and statistical results showed that the concentrations of alkaline earth metals (except for Mg) rare earth elements and some heavy metals in D. linearis increased linearly with plant age. These elements, exhibiting a similar accumulation pattern to radium and significant correlation coefficients with radium, were considered as the chemical analogues to radium. Additionally, the plant/soil concentration ratios (CRs) for radium and most of these analogues in D. linearis exceeded 1, consistent with the definition of hyper-accumulator plants.

  2. Effect of type of suckling and polyunsaturated fatty acid use on lamb production. 1. Productive performances and quanti-qualitative characteristics of the carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bozzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of artificial rearing and of the addition of polyunsaturated fatty acids(PUFA to an acidified milk replacer on the productive performances and on the quanti-qualitative characteristics of thecarcass. Fifty one twin-born Gentile di Puglia lambs were subdivided into three homogenous groups (9 females and 8males assigned the following feeding treatments: maternal milk (MM; acidified milk replacer (MR; acidified milk replacer+ 10 ml/l of a mixture of linseed and fish oil rich in PUFA (MR+PUFA.Milk consumptions and live weights were recorded weekly. Seven males from each group were slaughtered at 45 days ofage and the net warm dressing percentage, the composition of the carcass and the colorimetric characteristics of theLongissimus lumborum muscle were estimated. Artificial rearing improved the daily weight gain (0.182-0.172 vs 0.128Kg; PThe addition of omega-3 fatty acids to the diet did not influence the weight gain, the feed conversion index, the net warmdressing percentage and the incidence of the different meat cuts of the half carcass. However, it significantly increasedthe half carcass length (37.86 vs 35.0 cm; Pto the MR group reduced the proportion of lean (63.21 vs 53.98 %; PP<0.01 in the lumbar region.

  3. Quantum Analogues: From Phase Transitions to Black Holes and Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberati, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    gentle hint of where the main 'research flow' is going (to use another analogy!). For example, it seems to me that it clearly puts into evidence some of the most prominent present-day trends-like the growing attention devoted to particularly 'malleable' systems like Bose-Einstein condensates (four over nine lectures are entirely or largely based on these striking condensed matter systems), as well as the remarkable degree of complexity achievable in 3He-based analogues. With the exception of the Schuetzhold article (which can be considered a nice introduction to the issue of horizon physics in analogue models), I would consider each of the articles to be a self consistent account of a particular line of research. In this sense, I think it should be made clear to a potential reader that this book does not propose itself as a systematic review of the entire field (there are already several monographs available online for this purpose) and one should not expect any explicit logic flow linking the various contributions. Rather I would say that this book should be seen as a very useful source of information for researchers with some knowledge of the field, readers who might be looking for several mini-reviews on some of the hot research issues (each of the articles often collects results from several papers of the authors). In conclusion, I think this book is definitely a worthwhile addition to any scientific library, and necessary reading for anybody interested in understanding present trends in analogue models of gravity. (book review)

  4. Lobatamide C: total synthesis, stereochemical assignment, preparation of simplified analogues, and V-ATPase inhibition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ruichao; Lin, Cheng Ting; Bowman, Emma Jean; Bowman, Barry J; Porco, John A

    2003-07-02

    The total synthesis and stereochemical assignment of the potent antitumor macrolide lobatamide C, as well as synthesis of simplified lobatamide analogues, is reported. Cu(I)-mediated enamide formation methodology has been developed to prepare the highly unsaturated enamide side chain of the natural product and analogues. A key fragment coupling employs base-mediated esterification of a beta-hydroxy acid and a salicylate cyanomethyl ester. Three additional stereoisomers of lobatamide C have been prepared using related synthetic routes. The stereochemistry at C8, C11, and C15 of lobatamide C was assigned by comparison of stereoisomers and X-ray analysis of a crystalline derivative. Synthetic lobatamide C, stereoisomers, and simplified analogues have been evaluated for inhibition of bovine chromaffin granule membrane V-ATPase. The salicylate phenol, enamide NH, and ortho-substitution of the salicylate ester have been shown to be important for V-ATPase inhibitory activity.

  5. Premenstrual Exacerbation of Life-Threatening Asthma: Effect of Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone Analogue Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alun L Edwards

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability in the severity of asthma during various phases of the menstrual cycle has been frequently suspected. However, the hormonal changes that might affect mediators of bronchospasm have yet to be elucidated. The case of a 41-year-old woman suffering from longstanding asthma with life-threatening exacerbations is reported. The patient was treated with buserelin, a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH analogue, which created a temporary chemical menopause and thus permitted diagnosis of a premenstrual exacerbation of asthma and offered insight into potential therapy. GnRH analogues may therefore be of value in assessing women with severe asthma suspected to vary with the menstrual cycle. The addition of estrogens and progestins at the same time as treatment with GnRH analogue may be of value in determining the role of these hormones in the pathogenesis of menstrually related exacerbations of asthma.

  6. Arcobacter contamination on pre- and post-chilled bovine carcasses and in minced beef at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, S; De Zutter, L; Van Hende, J; Houf, K

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the Arcobacter contamination on bovine carcasses postevisceration and postcooling in two slaughterhouses and in ready-to-eat minced beef. Carcasses (n = 247) were sampled at four sites in two slaughterhouses and 100 minced beef samples were collected at retail. Isolation was performed by a quantitative and qualitative Arcobacter selective method, and the isolates were identified by multiplex PCR, after which a part of them were characterized by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR. Although arcobacters were isolated from 37% of the bovine carcasses postevisceration with the chest and the foreleg as most contaminated sites, cooling the carcasses for at least 24 h reduced the incidence of Arcobacter (7%) on the carcass surface significantly. Arcobacter butzleri was the species most frequently isolated, although co-contamination with multiple species also occurred. At retail, arcobacters were present in 9% of the minced beef samples, with Arcobacter butzleri as the dominant species. Forced air cooling of bovine carcasses for at least 24 h decreased the number of positive carcasses, but did not eliminate all arcobacters. This study demonstrates that maintaining good hygiene practices throughout the food supply chain is crucial to ensure safe food products at the consumer level.

  7. Effect of sex and carcass weight on sensory quality of goat meat of Cabrito Transmontano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, S; Teixeira, A

    2009-02-01

    The main purpose of this work was the characterization of Cabrito Transmontana goat kid carcass and meat, which is a Protected Origin Designation product. The effects of sex and carcass weight were studied. Sensory attributes of toughness, juiciness, flavor intensity, flavor quality, odor intensity, fiber presence (stringy), sweet intensity, and overall acceptability were evaluated in 60 males and females allocated to 3 carcass weight groups: 4, 6, and 8 kg. Sensory quality of meat was evaluated by a trained taste panel of 11 experts in 5 sessions. Generalized Procrustes analysis was performed, and 93% of total variability was explained by the 2 first factors (axes). Correlation between sensory traits and factors 1 and 2 allowed the factors to be renamed as toughness/aroma and juiciness/acceptability, respectively. Procrustes analysis indicated that a sex effect was detected by experts. Meat from males presented greater juiciness, flavor quality, and general acceptability than did meat from females. Cabrito Transmontano Protected Origin Designation includes animals from 4 to 9 kg of carcass weight. However, differences among them can be important, because the taste panel found differences between animals from distinct carcass weight ranges. Lighter weight carcasses were considered more tender with less flavor and odor intensity than heavier carcasses.

  8. Parameters of Carcass Cuts and Measurements of Martinik Lambs Managed under Intensive Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alexandre

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The Martinik sheep is selected for its good adaptive and reproductive traits. The production sector reproaches it with low carcass conformation, although its carcasses have been little described. Two intensive fattening experiments were conducted, whereby lambs were slaughtered for linear measurements and cuts. The variables were analyzed and allometric equations were determined. The database (n = 43 was adjusted for feeding levels and slaughter weight groups (SW: 28, 32 and 36 kg. Mean cold carcass (CC weights varied (P 0.05. The weights of all carcass cuts significantly (P < 0.01 increased with CC increase. Shoulders and legs represented 18 and 34% of CC, respectively. Various measurements taken on the carcass and pelvis width significantly increased (P < 0.05 with CC increase (near 9% difference between extreme weights. Indices of carcass and leg compactness (0.32 and 0.45, respectively did not vary with SW, whereas weight indices did. Allometric coefficients of the shoulder (0.915 and leg (0.891 were in line with those of the literature. This preliminary description of Martinik sheep carcasses could be made available to the sector actors in order to pursue the work and help to better select breeds and management systems.

  9. Boron hydride analogues of the fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quong, A.A.; Pederson, M.R.; Broughton, J.Q.

    1994-01-01

    The BH moiety is isoelectronic with C. We have studied the stability of the (BH) 60 analogue of the C 60 fullerene as well as the dual-structure (BH) 32 icosahedron, both of them being putative structures, by performing local-density-functional electronic calculations. To aid in our analysis, we have also studied other homologues of these systems. We find that the latter, i.e., the dual structure, is the more stable although the former is as stable as one of the latter's lower homologues. Boron hydrides, it seems, naturally form the dual structures used in algorithmic optimization of complex fullerene systems. Fully relaxed geometries are reported as well as electron affinities and effective Hubbard U parameters. These systems form very stable anions and we conclude that a search for BH analogues of the C 60 alkali-metal supeconductors might prove very fruitful

  10. Studies of natural analogues and geological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandberg, F.; Grundfelt, B.; Hoeglund, L.; Skagius K.; Karlsson, F.; Smellie, J.

    1993-04-01

    This review has involved studies of natural analogues and natural geological systems leading to the identification and quantification of processes and features of importance to the performance and safety of repositories for radioactive waste. The features and processes selected for the study comprise general geochemical issues related to the performance of the near- and far-field, the performance and durability of construction materials and the effects of glaciation. For each of these areas a number of potentially important processes for repository performance have been described, and evidence for their existence, as well as quantification of parameters of models describing the processes have been sought from major natural analogue studies and site investigations. The review has aimed at covering a relatively broad range of issues at the expense of in-depth analysis. The quantitative data presented are in most cases compilations of data from the literature; in a few cases results of evaluations made within the current project are included

  11. Investigating hominin carnivory in the Okote Member of Koobi Fora, Kenya with an actualistic model of carcass consumption and traces of butchery on the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Stephen R

    2017-11-01

    Previous zooarchaeological analysis at Koobi Fora indicates that Okote Member hominins were the primary agents of bone assemblage formation, gained early access to large and small mammal flesh, and consumed both high- and low-ranked carcass parts. The discovery of additional butchered specimens prompted the re-analysis presented here of three large and well-preserved zooarchaeological assemblages from the Okote member, GaJi14, FwJj14N and FwJj14S, to revisit paleoecological hypotheses about tool-assisted carnivory. Cow and goat limb butchery documenting the skeletal location of cut marks created by skinning, defleshing, and disarticulation was used to build an actualistic model to infer hominin consumption of distinct carcass resources. Archaeological specimens were assigned to early (defleshing limbs), middle (defleshing ribs, viscera, vertebrae, and head) and late (metapodial tendon removal, element disarticulation, long bone fragmentation) carcass consumption stages, and the incidence of these butchery behaviors was examined for specimens and minimum number of element and individual aggregates. Elbow specimens, where traces of defleshing, disarticulation, and percussion co-occur, offer a sequential view of carcass consumption behaviors that is free from fragmentation bias. Classification trees populated with actualistic data were used to identify defleshing and disarticulation cut mark clusters on archaeological elbow portions by their location, cut mark count, median length, and median cross-sectional width. Actualistically-informed configurational analysis offers high-resolution behavioral reconstruction of the butchered sub-assemblage and should be integrated with assemblage-scale zooarchaeological methods. These experiments highlight the bias for detecting butchery traces of early carcass access, because defleshing cut marks are abundant and introduced to dense midshaft portions, whereas disarticulation cut marks are rare and occur on epiphyseal portions

  12. Lead optimization of antimalarial propafenone analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, David; Pradhan, Anupam; Iyer, Lalitha V; Parman, Toufan; Gow, Jason; Zhu, Fangyi; Furimsky, Anna; Lemoff, Andrew; Guiguemde, W Armand; Sigal, Martina; Clark, Julie A; Wilson, Emily; Tang, Liang; Connelly, Michele C; Derisi, Joseph L; Kyle, Dennis E; Mirsalis, Jon; Guy, R Kiplin

    2012-07-12

    Previously reported studies identified analogues of propafenone that had potent antimalarial activity, reduced cardiac ion channel activity, and properties that suggested the potential for clinical development for malaria. Careful examination of the bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, and efficacy of this series of compounds using rodent models revealed orally bioavailable compounds that are nontoxic and suppress parasitemia in vivo. Although these compounds possess potential for further preclinical development, they also carry some significant challenges.

  13. The Brookhaven electron analogue, 1953--1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, M.

    1991-12-18

    The following topics are discussed on the Brookhaven electron analogue: L.J. Haworth and E.L. VanHorn letters; Original G.K. Green outline for report; General description; Parameter list; Mechanical Assembly; Alignment; Degaussing; Vacuum System; Injection System; The pulsed inflector; RF System; Ferrite Cavity; Pick-up electrodes and preamplifiers; Radio Frequency power amplifier; Lens supply; Controls and Power; and RF acceleration summary.

  14. Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode

    OpenAIRE

    Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by ...

  15. The Brookhaven electron analogue, 1953--1957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotkin, M.

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are discussed on the Brookhaven electron analogue: L.J. Haworth and E.L. VanHorn letters; Original G.K. Green outline for report; General description; Parameter list; Mechanical Assembly; Alignment; Degaussing; Vacuum System; Injection System; The pulsed inflector; RF System; Ferrite Cavity; Pick-up electrodes and preamplifiers; Radio Frequency power amplifier; Lens supply; Controls and Power; and RF acceleration summary

  16. Deer carcass decomposition and potential scavenger exposure to chronic wasting disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennelle, C.S.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Berkley, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy afflicting the Cervidae family in North America, causing neurodegeneration and ultimately death. Although there are no reports of natural cross-species transmission of CWD to noncervids, infected deer carcasses pose a potential risk of CWD exposure for other animals. We placed 40 disease-free white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses and 10 gut piles in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin (USA) from September to April in 2003 through 2005. We used photos from remotely operated cameras to characterize scavenger visitation and relative activity. To evaluate factors driving the rate of carcass removal (decomposition), we used KaplanMeier survival analysis and a generalized linear mixed model. We recorded 14 species of scavenging mammals (6 visiting species) and 14 species of scavenging birds (8 visiting species). Prominent scavengers included American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). We found no evidence that deer consumed conspecific remains, although they visited gut piles more often than carcasses relative to temporal availability in the environment. Domestic dogs, cats, and cows either scavenged or visited carcass sites, which could lead to human exposure to CWD. Deer carcasses persisted for 18 days to 101 days depending on the season and year, whereas gut piles lasted for 3 days. Habitat did not influence carcass decomposition, but mammalian and avian scavenger activity and higher temperatures were positively associated with faster removal. Infected deer carcasses or gut piles can serve as potential sources of CWD prions to a variety of scavengers. In areas where surveillance for CWD exposure is practical, management agencies should consider strategies for testing primary scavengers of deer carcass material.

  17. Campylobacter spp. contamination of chicken carcasses during processing in relation to flock colonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, V M; Bull, S A; Corry, J E L; Domingue, G; Jørgensen, F; Frost, J A; Whyte, R; Gonzalez, A; Elviss, N; Humphrey, T J

    2007-01-01

    The presence and numbers of campylobacters on chicken carcasses from 26 slaughter groups, originating from 22 single-house flocks and processed in four UK plants, were studied in relation to the level of flock colonisation determined by examining the caecal contents of at least ten birds per group. The prevalence of campylobacters on carcasses from five campylobacter-negative flocks processed just after other negative flocks was low (8.0 log(10) cfu) than carcasses originating from low prevalence flocks (average of 2.3 log(10) cfu; range: defeathering and evisceration areas but not in the chillers. This was the case even when campylobacters were not isolated from the target flock. Campylobacters on carcasses from two partly colonised flocks were either the same subtype, as determined by speciation, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and flaA Restricted Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) typing, as those in the fully colonised flocks processed previously, although not necessarily the most prevalent ones; or were the same subtypes as those found in the caeca of the flock itself. The prevalences of the different campylobacter subtypes found on carcasses from two fully colonised flocks did not closely reflect those found in the caeca. MLST combined with flaA RFLP provided a good method for ascertaining the relatedness of strains isolated from carcasses and caecal contents. This study showed that carcass contamination is related to the within-flock prevalence of campylobacter colonisation, but that contamination from previously processed flocks was also significant, especially on carcasses from low prevalence flocks. Forced dry air cooling of carcasses reduced contamination levels.

  18. Detecting grizzly bear use of ungulate carcasses using global positioning system telemetry and activity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, Michael R.; Haroldson, Mark A.; van Manen, Frank T.; Costello, Cecily M.; Bjornlie, Daniel D.; Thompson, Daniel J.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Fortin, Jennifer K.; Teisberg, Justin E.; Pils, Shannon R; White, P J; Cain, Steven L.; Cross, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) wildlife collars have revolutionized wildlife research. Studies of predation by free-ranging carnivores have particularly benefited from the application of location clustering algorithms to determine when and where predation events occur. These studies have changed our understanding of large carnivore behavior, but the gains have concentrated on obligate carnivores. Facultative carnivores, such as grizzly/brown bears (Ursus arctos), exhibit a variety of behaviors that can lead to the formation of GPS clusters. We combined clustering techniques with field site investigations of grizzly bear GPS locations (n = 732 site investigations; 2004–2011) to produce 174 GPS clusters where documented behavior was partitioned into five classes (large-biomass carcass, small-biomass carcass, old carcass, non-carcass activity, and resting). We used multinomial logistic regression to predict the probability of clusters belonging to each class. Two cross-validation methods—leaving out individual clusters, or leaving out individual bears—showed that correct prediction of bear visitation to large-biomass carcasses was 78–88%, whereas the false-positive rate was 18–24%. As a case study, we applied our predictive model to a GPS data set of 266 bear-years in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (2002–2011) and examined trends in carcass visitation during fall hyperphagia (September–October). We identified 1997 spatial GPS clusters, of which 347 were predicted to be large-biomass carcasses. We used the clustered data to develop a carcass visitation index, which varied annually, but more than doubled during the study period. Our study demonstrates the effectiveness and utility of identifying GPS clusters associated with carcass visitation by a facultative carnivore.

  19. Effect of different levels of green tea (Camellia sinensis on productive performance, carcass characteristics and organs of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hrnčár

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we aimed to determine the effect of different levels of green tea in powder form to feed on productive performance, carcass parameters and organs in broiler chickens. Totally 240 day-old broiler chickens Ross 308 were divided to four dietary groups (n = 60 namely control and three experimental groups with supplementation of green tea to feed mixture in levels 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%. Broiler chickens were feeding with commercial feed mixtures and feed and drinking water were provided ad libittum. The feeding period lasted 42 days. Individual body weight of broiler chickens was determined at 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 day, feed sonsumption and mortality per group were determined at 42 day of fattening period. Carcass quality and organs weight of broiler chickens were determined at the end of the experiment. The results indicated that supplementation of different levels of green tea statistically significant decreased body weight gain and we recorded lower body weight in 21 days of age compared with control group. However, in second period of fattening, broiler chickens in experimental groups growing faster and in 42 days of age we found statistically no significantly differences among control and experimental groups. Feed consumption did not differ among the dietary groups at 42 days of fattening. Mortality no affected by supplementation of green tea to broiler chickens diets in comparison with control group. From the carcass parameters addition of green tea significantly decreased percentage of abdominal fat between control and 1.5% green tea level, in other parameters (percentage of breast, percentage of drumstick, carcass yield were different among control and experimental groups not statistically significant. The caecum and small intestine weights was significantly (p ≤0.05 decreased in chickens fed diets containing 0.5% green tea supplement compared to 1% and 1.5%. For neck, crop, heart, liver, proventriculus, gizzard, pancreas

  20. Effect and mode of action of the Texel muscling QTL (TM-QTL) on carcass traits in purebred Texel lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, J M; Lambe, N R; Matika, O; Johnson, P L; Wolf, B T; Haresign, W; Bishop, S C; Bünger, L

    2014-07-01

    TM-QTL is a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on ovine chromosome 18 (OAR18) known to affect loin muscling in Texel sheep. Previous work suggested that its mode of inheritance is consistent with paternal polar overdominance, but this has yet to be formally demonstrated. This study used purebred Texel sheep segregating for TM-QTL to confirm its presence in the chromosomal region in which it was first reported and to determine its pattern of inheritance. To do so, this study used the first available data from a Texel flock, which included homozygote TM-QTL carriers (TM/TM; n=34) in addition to homozygote non-carriers (+/+; n=40 and, heterozygote TM-QTL-carriers inheriting TM-QTL from their sire (TM/+; n=53) or their dam (+/TM; n=17). Phenotypes included a wide range of loin muscling, carcass composition and tissue distribution traits. The presence of a QTL affecting ultrasound muscle depth on OAR18 was confirmed with a paternal QTL effect ranging from +0.54 to +2.82 mm UMD (s.e. 0.37 to 0.57 mm) across the sires segregating for TM-QTL. Loin muscle width, depth and area, loin muscle volume and dissected M. longissimus lumborum weight were significantly greater for TM/+ than +/+ lambs (+2.9% to +7.9%; Pcarcass weight; TM/TM animals were significantly (Panimals (+11.9% and +11.7%, respectively), with TM/+ intermediate. Weights of the leg, saddle and shoulder region (corrected for carcass weight) were similar in the genotypic groups. There was a tendency for lambs inheriting TM-QTL from their sire to be less fat with slightly more muscle than non-carriers. For example, carcass muscle weight measured by live animal CT-scanning was 2.8% higher in TM/TM than +/+ lambs (Pcarcass muscle weight measured by carcass CT-scanning was 1.36% higher in TM/+ than +/+ lambs (Pcarcass cuts was significantly lower for TM/+ than +/+ lambs (-11.2%; Pcarcass traits were found. Optimal commercial use of TM-QTL within the sheep industry would require some consideration, due to the apparently

  1. Food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Food additives URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  2. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER YIELD AND CARCASS TISSUE COMPOSITION IN BROILER CHICKENS OF VARIOUS ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARIUSZ KOKOSZYŃSKI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Slaughter yield and carcass tissue composition were compared in three different broiler chicken production sets. The highest body weight (1892.5 g, eviscerated carcass weight with neck (1406.9 g and slaughter yield (74.5% were found in Ross 308 chickens, whilst the lowest values of these traits occurred in JV chickens (respectively: 1753.3; 1288.2 g; 73.3%. The highest muscle contents (45.4% breast muscles and leg muscles in carcass and the lowest fattiness (7.9% skin with subcutaneous fat and 1.5% abdominal fat were found in Hubbard Evolution chickens.

  3. A standardised study to compare prostate cancer targeting efficacy of five radiolabelled bombesin analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Rogier P.J. [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Department of Experimental Urology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Mueller, Cristina; Melis, Marleen L.; Breeman, Wout A.P.; Blois, Erik de; Krenning, Eric P.; Jong, Marion de [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Reneman, Suzanne; Bangma, Chris H.; Weerden, Wytske M. van [Erasmus MC, Department of Experimental Urology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-07-15

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening for prostate cancer (PC) has dramatically increased early diagnosis. Current imaging techniques are not optimal to stage early PC adequately. A promising alternative to PC imaging is peptide-based scintigraphy using radiolabelled bombesin (BN) analogues that bind to gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPR) being overexpressed in PC. When labelled to appropriate radionuclides BN targeting of GRPRs may also provide applications for peptide radionuclide receptor therapy (PRRT). Assessment studies under identical experimental conditions allowing a reliable comparison of the potential of such analogues are lacking. This study was performed to evaluate and directly compare five promising radiolabelled BN analogues for their targeting efficacy for PC under standardised conditions. The BN agonists [{sup 111}In]DOTA-PESIN, [{sup 111}In]AMBA, [{sup 111}In]MP2346 and [{sup 111}In]MP2653 and one antagonist [{sup 99m}Tc]Demobesin-1 were evaluated in GRPR-overexpressing human PC-3 tumour-bearing mice to determine peptide stability in vivo, biodistribution and GRPR targeting potential by animal SPECT/CT imaging and ex vivo autoradiography. HPLC analysis of blood showed intact Demobesin-1 at 5 and 15 min after injection (64.1{+-}1.6% and 41.0{+-}01%, respectively) being much less for the other compounds. AMBA, the second most stable analogue, showed 36.1{+-}2.7% and 9.8{+-}1.1% intact peptide after 5 and 15 min. PC-3 tumour uptake at 1 h was comparable for Demobesin-1, AMBA, PESIN and MP2346 (3.0{+-}0.4, 2.7{+-}0.5, 2.3{+-}0.5 and 2.1{+-}0.9%ID/g, respectively), but very low for MP2653 (0.9 {+-} 0.2%ID/g). In addition, MP2346 showed undesirably high uptake in the kidneys (7.9{+-}1.9%ID/g) being significantly less for the other analogues. AMBA, MP2346 and PESIN revealed favourable increases in tumour to blood ratios over time while changes in tumour to kidney and pancreas ratios for Demobesin-1 from 1 to 24 h after injection were

  4. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ji-Lu, E-mail: triace@163.com; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels.

  5. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Ji-Lu; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels

  6. Discovery of novel alkylated (bis)urea and (bis)thiourea polyamine analogues with potent antimalarial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Bianca K; Niemand, Jandeli; Snyman, Janette; Sharma, Shiv K; Beattie, Ross J; Woster, Patrick M; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie

    2011-10-13

    A series of alkylated (bis)urea and (bis)thiourea polyamine analogues were synthesized and screened for antimalarial activity against chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. All analogues showed growth inhibitory activity against P. falciparum at less than 3 μM, with the majority having effective IC(50) values in the 100-650 nM range. Analogues arrested parasitic growth within 24 h of exposure due to a block in nuclear division and therefore asexual development. Moreover, this effect appears to be cytotoxic and highly selective to malaria parasites (>7000-fold lower IC(50) against P. falciparum) and is not reversible by the exogenous addition of polyamines. With this first report of potent antimalarial activity of polyamine analogues containing 3-7-3 or 3-6-3 carbon backbones and substituted terminal urea- or thiourea moieties, we propose that these compounds represent a structurally novel class of antimalarial agents.

  7. Nitenpyram analogues with 1,4-dihydropyridine fixed cis-configuration:synthesis,insecticidal activities and molecular docking studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XUE Sijia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of Nitenpyram analogues(Ia-Ij with 1,4-dihydropyridine fixed cis-configuration were designed and synthesized.Preliminary bioassays showed that most of them exhibited good insecticidal activities against Aphis medicagini and Brown rice planthopper at 500 mg/L and 100 mg/L.The analogue Ij afforded the best activity in vitro,that had 100% mortality at 4 mg/L against Brown rice planthopper and Aphis medicagin.In addition,the molecular docking simulations revealed that the structural uniqueness of these analogues may lead to a unique molecular recognition and binding mode,and the results explained the SARs observed in vitro, which shed light on the novel insecticidal mechanism of these novel nitenpyam analogues.

  8. Equivariant analogues of the Euler characteristic and Macdonald type equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusein-Zade, S. M.

    2017-02-01

    One of the simplest and, at the same time, most important invariants of a topological space is the Euler characteristic. A generalization of the notion of the Euler characteristic to the equivariant setting, that is, to spaces with an action of a group (say, finite) is far from unique. An equivariant analogue of the Euler characteristic can be defined as an element of the ring of representations of the group or as an element of the Burnside ring of the group. From physics came the notion of the orbifold Euler characteristic, and this was generalized to orbifold Euler characteristics of higher orders. The main property of the Euler characteristic (defined in terms of the cohomology with compact support) is its additivity. On some classes of spaces there are additive invariants other than the Euler characteristic, and they can be regarded as generalized Euler characteristics. For example, the class of a variety in the Grothendieck ring of complex quasi-projective varieties is a universal additive invariant on the class of complex quasi-projective varieties. Generalized analogues of the Euler characteristic can also be defined in the equivariant setting. There is a simple formula — the Macdonald equation — for the generating series of the Euler characteristics of the symmetric powers of a space: it is equal to the series (1-t)-1=1+t+t^2+\\cdots independent of the space, raised to a power equal to the Euler characteristic of the space itself. Equations of a similar kind for other invariants (`equivariant and generalized Euler characteristics') are called Macdonald type equations. This survey discusses different versions of the Euler characteristic in the equivariant setting and describes some of their properties and Macdonald type equations. Bibliography: 59 titles.

  9. Analogue to Digital and Digital to Analogue Converters (ADCs and DACs): A Review Update

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, J.

    2015-06-15

    This is a review paper updated from that presented for CAS 2004. Essentially, since then, commercial components have continued to extend their performance boundaries but the basic building blocks and the techniques for choosing the best device and implementing it in a design have not changed. Analogue to digital and digital to analogue converters are crucial components in the continued drive to replace analogue circuitry with more controllable and less costly digital processing. This paper discusses the technologies available to perform in the likely measurement and control applications that arise within accelerators. It covers much of the terminology and 'specmanship' together with an application-oriented analysis of the realisable performance of the various types. Finally, some hints and warnings on system integration problems are given.

  10. Radiosensitivity of some bacteria isolated from broiler chicken carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiszer, W.; Mroz, J.; Zabielski, J.

    1981-01-01

    Two groups of bacteria of Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. were isolated from poultry carcasses. The samples of a ground meat were poisoned by suspensions of these bacteria and on the next day they were irradiated. Quantitative estimation of surviving cells after irradiation was done according to TPC method. The surviving curve and dose D 10 (23 Gy) for Pseudomonas sp. group 1 is typical for this kind of bacterium. D 10 value = 2,3 kGy for Bacillus sp. is consistent with data of literature. Exceptionally high D 10 value of Pseudomonas sp. group 2 (170 Gy) seems to indicate the fact that the isolated bacteria could be the mixture often defined as Pseudomonas-Achromobacter group. Nevertheless, some scientific data show that D 10 value for Pseudomonas can reach even 120 Gy. (author)

  11. Bacterial Succession on Rat Carcasses and Applications for PMI Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Guo, Juan-juan; Telet-Siyit; Peng, Yu-long; Xie, Dan; Guo, Ya-dong; Yan, Jie; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Cai, Ji-feng

    2016-02-01

    Abstract: To investigate the bacterial succession on rat carcasses and to evaluate the use of bacterial succession for postmortem interval (PMI) estimation. Adult female SD rat remains were placed in carton boxes. The bacterial colonization of circumocular skin, mouth and vagina was collected to be identified using culture-dependent biochemical methods. The changes in community composition were regularly documented. The bacterial succession in three habitats showed that Staphylococcus and Neisseria were predominated in early PMI, especially Staphylococcus aureus and Neisseria lactamica in 6 hours after death. Lactobacillus casei developed on the 3-4 days regularly, and kept stable at a certain level in late PMI. The involvement of normal and putrefactive bacteria in three body habitats of rat remains can be used for PMI estimation.

  12. Carcass traits and meat quality of two different rabbit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D'Agata

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits and meat quality, thirty-two rabbits for two genotypes (local population – LP; commercial hybrids – HY were used. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days old and slaughtered at 103 days of age for LP and 87 days of age for HY. Comparing the slaughtering traits of two genotypes, LP provided higher dressing out (59.4% vs 56.2%, Pvs 14.2%, Pvs 22.3, Pvs 8,9%, Pvs 0.86%, Pvs 1.12%; Pvs 19.2%; Pvs 31.6%; Pvs 3.8%; P*, higher redness (a*, yellowness (b* and C* value than HY (P

  13. Comparative muscle transcriptome associated with carcass traits of Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Vignato, Bárbara; Coutinho, Luiz L; Cesar, Aline S M; Poleti, Mirele D; Regitano, Luciana C A; Balieiro, Júlio C C

    2017-07-03

    Commercial cuts yield is an important trait for beef production, which affects the final value of the products, but its direct determination is a challenging procedure to be implemented in practice. The measurement of ribeye area (REA) and backfat thickness (BFT) can be used as indirect measures of meat yield. REA and BFT are important traits studied in beef cattle due to their strong implication in technological (carcass yield) and nutritional characteristics of meat products, like the degree of muscularity and total body fat. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the Longissimus dorsi muscle transcriptome of Nellore cattle, associated with REA and BFT, to find differentially expressed (DE) genes, metabolic pathways, and biological processes that may regulate these traits. By comparing the gene expression level between groups with extreme genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV), 101 DE genes for REA and 18 for BFT (false discovery rate, FDR 10%) were identified. Functional enrichment analysis for REA identified two KEGG pathways, MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) signaling pathway and endocytosis pathway, and three biological processes, response to endoplasmic reticulum stress, cellular protein modification process, and macromolecule modification. The MAPK pathway is responsible for fundamental cellular processes, such as growth, differentiation, and hypertrophy. For BFT, 18 biological processes were found to be altered and grouped into 8 clusters of semantically similar terms. The DE genes identified in the biological processes for BFT were ACHE, SRD5A1, RSAD2 and RSPO3. RSAD2 has been previously shown to be associated with lipid droplet content and lipid biosynthesis. In this study, we identified genes, metabolic pathways, and biological processes, involved in differentiation, proliferation, protein turnover, hypertrophy, as well as adipogenesis and lipid biosynthesis related to REA and BFT. These results enlighten some of the molecular processes

  14. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Yusuf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL, whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0, on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05 between the dietary treatments in dressing percentage and chilling loss. Goats fed on AP0 (control had significantly higher proportions of fat and bone, as well as thicker back fat than the supplemented animals (APL and APWP. Higher gut fill in animals fed Andrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05.

  15. Effect of protein, carbohydrate, lipid, and selenium levels on the performance, carcass yield, and blood changes in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FH Hada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance, carcass and parts yield, and blood changes in broilers fed different protein, carbohydrate, and lipid levels. Birds were fed a commercial diet until seven days of age. On day 8, birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement (control diet, low protein diet, low carbohydrate diet or low lipid diet vs. supplementation of 0 or 0.3ppm organic selenium with four replicates of 15 birds each. Broilers fed low protein presented lower body weight, feed intake, and worse feed conversion ratio on day 42, as well as lower carcass and breast yields, higher leg and abdominal fat yields, higher triglyceride and lower uric acid blood levels. Broilers fed the low carbohydrate diets presented low glucose levels on days 14 and 42.Creatine-kinase (CK levels increased as birds aged. The livability of broilers fed the low protein diets improved and of those fed low carbohydrate diets worsened with dietary selenium addition on days 35 and 42. Selenium supplementation increased glucose levels in 42-d-old broilers. Changes in dietary protein caused more impact on broiler performance compared with carbohydrates and lipids. Changes in macronutrients caused metabolic changes in broilers. Selenium affected broiler livability as measured on days 35 and 42, and glucose blood levels.

  16. Ensiled citrus pulp as a by-product feedstuff for finishing pigs: nutritional value and effects on intestinal microflora and carcass quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Moset

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Forty pigs of 76.8 ± 4.2 kg body weight were fed four different diets varying in ensiled citrus pulp (ECP inclusion level (0, 50, 100, and 150 g of ECP/kg of diet on dry matter base. The trial lasted 5 weeks. During the last week, faecal samples were obtained to calculate apparent nutrient digestibility; also volatile fatty acids (VFA content in faeces was determined. The digestible energy and protein of ECP was estimated by regression analysis. During the trial faecal samples were collected to determine enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts. At slaughter, carcass characteristics were registered. The inclusion of ECP in the diets decreased energy digestibility but increased neutral and acid detergent fibre digestibility linearly (p<0.05. The estimated digestible energy and protein of ECP were lower than expected (7.0 MJ/kg dry matter (DM and 33.8 g/kg DM, respectively. Total VFA production in faeces was not affected by the diet. Both enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts were lower (p<0.01 with than without ECP inclusion at the end of the study. Carcass yield decreased linearly (p<0.05 and backfat at gluteus medius increased quadratically (p<0.05 with the inclusion of ECP in the diet. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the internal subcutaneous fat layer decreased quadratically (p<0.05 with the inclusion of ECP. Thus, the nutritive value of ECP for finishing pigs is low and levels of 150g/kg can negatively affect carcass yield. However, including up to 100 g of ECP/kg in finishing pig diets did not affect nutrient digestibility, carcass yield and subcutaneous fat FA profile. Additionally, increasing ECP levels in diets decreases faecal enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts in faeces.

  17. Management of Animal Carcass Disposal Sites Using a Biochar Permeable Reactive Barrier and Fast Growth Tree (Populus euramericana: A Field Study in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hwan Yoon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among many disposal options of animal carcasses due to animal diseases including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD and avian influenza (AI, on-farm burial has been the most frequently used one in Korea. Animal carcasses generate contaminants such as ammonium-N and chloride. This study aimed at testing biochar (BC as a permeable reactive barrier (PRB material in combination with fast growing tree species (Populus euramericana to mitigate groundwater pollution from animal burial sites. For this, a PRB filled with BC was installed and 400 poplar tree (P. euramericana seedlings were planted. Tested BC was obtained from rice husk and its efficiency to mitigate contaminant migration from a burial site of pig carcasses was tested using ammonium-N, chloride, electrical conductivity (EC, and pH as monitoring parameters. Monitoring wells downstream from the burial site were used. Leachates from a monitoring well, three wells inside the burial site close to PRB and three wells outside the burial site close to PRB were sampled and analyzed for ammonium-N, Cl−, EC, and pH for four years from PRB installation. The pH, EC, and ammonium-N of leachate fluctuated during the test period depending on precipitation. pH, EC, and ammonium-N of the leachate samples collected from outside of the burial site close to PRB decreased compared to those from inside of the burial site close to PRB. The concentrations of ammonium-N in the leachate from the monitoring well kept under the threshold value of 10 mg·L−1 for two years from PRB construction. In addition, the growth of poplar plants appeared to be increased via uptaking available N and P released from the burial sites. Achieved results suggest that BC PRBs can be used to in situ mitigate contaminant release from buried animal carcasses.

  18. The effect of the humic substances, garlic (Allium sativum L., wormwood (Artemisia absinthium and walnut (Juglans regia on carcass parameters of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Pistová

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of humic substances, garlic (Allium sativum L., wormwood (Artemisia absinthium and walnut (Juglans regia on carcass parameters of broiler chickens were studied. Broiler chickens Ross 308 (n=60 were divided into 3 groups (n=20. The chickens of the control group were fed with complete feed mixtures without any additives. Chickens in the first experimental group E1were fed a diet containing 1.5% of humic substances, 0.4% of garlic powder and 0.1% of wormwood. Chickens in the second experimental group E2 were fed a diet containing 1.5% of humic substances, 0.4% of garlic powder and 0.1% of walnut.  The carcass weight, weight of heart, liver, gizzard, carcass yield and EPEF were evaluated. The carcass weight was in both experimental groups higher, but no statistically significant (P>0.05 in compare with the control group (values in the order of the groups: 1246.93±172.61; 1352.16±139.89 and 1308.30±166.17 g±SD. In the first experimental group E1 were weight of heart (12.15±2.29 g±SD and weight of gizzard (41.58±7.44 g±SD significantly higher (P≤0.05 compared to the control group (9.99 ±1.82; 33.62±5.03 g±SD.

  19. Fabrication and variation of the cut-out yield of beef carcasses in Venezuela: anatomical description of the process and equivalency of cut nomenclature to North American counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Montero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The typical processes of beef carcass fabrication in Venezuela are anatomically described and the equivalence in cut nomenclature with that of México and United States is provided. Additionally, 910 carcasses were fabricated to assess yield (kg and percentages of carcass weight in products (subprimals, subprimal groups of distinct commercial value (High, Medium, Low and by-products (bone, fat trimmings using mean values ± standard deviation (DE, coefficient of variation (CV and range of values. Once the carcass is ribbed at the 5th intercostal space, subprimals are obtained by deboning and dissecting the muscle masses (saw cutting is seldom used. In terms of yield, the top three (out of 18 individual subprimals were: Solomo Abierto (boneless Chuck Roll, 39.1± 10.88kg; 14.3± 2.84%, Costilla (bone-in Plate, 22kg± 4.15; 8.12± 0.88% and Solomo de Cuerito (boneless Rib and Loin, 21.6± 3.10kg; 8.0± 0.59%. Cutability values for High-Valued and Medium-Valued subprimal groups were 81.5± 10.3kg (30.2± 1.43% and 67.3± 14.57kg (24.8± 3.22%, respectively; the latter showing the highest CV (13.0%. Fat trimmings were the most variable by-product (10.1± 2.84%, CV = 28.0%. This report serves as a reference for future studies and could facilitate the commercial language for trading beef cuts between the countries involved

  20. Ensiled citrus pulp as a by-product feedstuff for finishing pigs: nutritional value and effects on intestinal microflora and carcass quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moset, V.; Piquer, O.; Cervera, C.; Fernández, J.; Hernández, P.; Cerisuelo, A.

    2015-07-01

    Forty pigs of 76.8 ± 4.2 kg body weight were fed four different diets varying in ensiled citrus pulp (ECP) inclusion level (0, 50, 100, and 150 g of ECP/kg of diet on dry matter base). The trial lasted 5 weeks. During the last week, faecal samples were obtained to calculate apparent nutrient digestibility; also volatile fatty acids (VFA) content in faeces was determined. The digestible energy and protein of ECP was estimated by regression analysis. During the trial faecal samples were collected to determine enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts. At slaughter, carcass characteristics were registered. The inclusion of ECP in the diets decreased energy digestibility but increased neutral and acid detergent fibre digestibility linearly (p<0.05). The estimated digestible energy and protein of ECP were lower than expected (7.0 MJ/kg dry matter (DM) and 33.8 g/kg DM, respectively). Total VFA production in faeces was not affected by the diet. Both enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts were lower (p<0.01) with than without ECP inclusion at the end of the study. Carcass yield decreased linearly (p<0.05) and backfat at gluteus medius increased quadratically (p<0.05) with the inclusion of ECP in the diet. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the internal subcutaneous fat layer decreased quadratically (p<0.05) with the inclusion of ECP. Thus, the nutritive value of ECP for finishing pigs is low and levels of 150g/kg can negatively affect carcass yield. However, including up to 100 g of ECP/kg in finishing pig diets did not affect nutrient digestibility, carcass yield and subcutaneous fat FA profile. Additionally, increasing ECP levels in diets decreases faecal enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts in faeces. (Author)

  1. Carcass quality of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis finished in silvopastoral system in the Eastern Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.S. Peixoto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the diet on the quality of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis carcasses of crossbred Murrah and Mediterranean, concentrate fed on traditional (corn/soybean or on agro-industrial residues (palm oil and coconut cakes was studied. The animals were sacrificed in a slaughterhouse, and physical and physical-chemical analyses in the carcasses were carried out after 24 hours, and instrumental color and texture analyses of the Longissimus dorsi were carried out 48 hours after cooling. The animals supplemented with palm oil cake had better carcass conformation and fat trim, and differences (P<0.05 in the percentage of fat in the carcass fat thickness and coverage were observed.

  2. Effect of Housing System, Slaughter Age and Sex on Slaughter and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hrnčár

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of housing system slaughterage and sex on performance and carcass parameters of broiler ducks. Theexperiment was carried out in half-operation conditions experimental base ofDepartment of Poultry Science and Small Animal Husbandry of Slovak Universityof Agriculture in Nitra. A total of 60 one day old ducklings (type Peking DuckWhite were randomly divided to 2 housing groups: three-floor cage system anddeep litter system, both under uniform microclimate conditions. The housingsystem, slaughter age and sex significantly affected the slaughter weights ofbroiler ducks in 49 and 56 day of fattening. The results of this study showed the influenceof housing system, sex and slaughter age on slaughter and carcass parameters.The slaughter and carcass parameters were statistically higher (P0.05. The some slaughterand carcass parameters of male ducks were statistically higher (P<0.05 comparedwith female ducks.

  3. The effect of slaughter operations on the contamination of chicken carcasses with thermotolerant Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Nielsen, Niels L.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of specific slaughter operations on the contamination of broiler carcasses with naturally occurring thermotolerant Campylobacter, experiments were carried out in two Danish commercial slaughter plants (Plant I and Plant 11). Six broiler flocks determined Campylobacter...

  4. Reduction of thermotolerant Campylobacter species on broiler carcasses following physical decontamination at slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    through physical decontamination of the meat. The current study was conducted to compare the Campylobacter-reducing ability of three physical decontamination techniques, forced air chilling, crust freezing, and steam-ultrasound, performed in the plant with naturally contaminated broiler chickens....... The effects of all three techniques were evaluated and compared with the effect of freezing. Mean reductions obtained were 0.44 log CFU per carcass, 0.42 log CFU per sample, and 2.51 log CFU per carcass, respectively. All techniques resulted in significant reductions of the Campylobacter concentration...... on the carcasses (P freezing based on reductions in Campylobacter counts and on adverse effects. The increase in Campylobacter counts on carcasses following visceral rupture during the evisceration operation also was examined. Visceral rupture resulted...

  5. Diversity of forensic rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) associated with decaying pig carcass in a forest biotope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Bacteriological quality of freshly processed broiler chickens as affected by carcass pretreatment and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamuka, P.O.; Sunki, G.R.; Chawan, C.B.; Rao, D.R.; Shackelford, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    Chicken carcasses dipped in whey fermented by Streptococcus thermophilus, lactic acid solution or water and irradiated at 2.5 kGy by 60Co were evaluated for bacteriological quality on day 1, day-3 and at 3-day intervals for an 18-day storage (4 degrees C) period. Unirradiated carcasses treated similarly were used as control. Gram negative bacteria, Yersinia and Campylobacter counts were significantly (p0.01) lower in irradiated samples, but no significant (p0.05) differences were observed ammong the dipping solutions. Salmonellae were completely eliminated in irradiated samples. Whey fermented by S. thermophilus reduced the proportion of Salmonella contaminated carcasses from 67% to 20%. As evidenced by the bacterial counts the shelf-life was found to be 15 days for irradiated carcasses compared to about 6 days for the unirradiated samples

  7. Genetic Parameter Estimates of Carcass Traits under National Scale Breeding Scheme for Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChangHee Do

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Carcass and price traits of 72,969 Hanwoo cows, bulls and steers aged 16 to 80 months at slaughter collected from 2002 to 2013 at 75 beef packing plants in Korea were analyzed to determine heritability, correlation and breeding value using the Multi-Trait restricted maximum likelihood (REML animal model procedure. The traits included carcass measurements, scores and grades at 24 h postmortem and bid prices at auction. Relatively high heritability was found for maturity (0.41±0.031, while moderate heritability estimates were obtained for backfat thickness (0.20±0.018, longissimus muscle (LM area (0.23±0.020, carcass weight (0.28±0.019, yield index (0.20±0.018, yield grade (0.16±0.017, marbling (0.28±0.021, texture (0.14±0.016, quality grade (0.26±0.016 and price/kg (0.24±0.025. Relatively low heritability estimates were observed for meat color (0.06±0.013 and fat color (0.06±0.012. Heritability estimates for most traits were lower than those in the literature. Genetic correlations of carcass measurements with characteristic scores or quality grade of carcass ranged from −0.27 to +0.21. Genetic correlations of yield grade with backfat thickness, LM area and carcass weight were 0.91, −0.43, and −0.09, respectively. Genetic correlations of quality grade with scores of marbling, meat color, fat color and texture were −0.99, 0.48, 0.47, and 0.98, respectively. Genetic correlations of price/kg with LM area, carcass weight, marbling, meat color, texture and maturity were 0.57, 0.64, 0.76, −0.41, −0.79, and −0.42, respectively. Genetic correlations of carcass price with LM area, carcass weight, marbling and texture were 0.61, 0.57, 0.64, and −0.73, respectively, with standard errors ranging from ±0.047 to ±0.058. The mean carcass weight breeding values increased by more than 8 kg, whereas the mean marbling scores decreased by approximately 0.2 from 2000 through 2009. Overall, the results suggest that genetic improvement of

  8. Genetic correlations between ewe reproduction and carcass and meat quality traits in Merino sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, E; Fogarty, N M; Hopkins, D L; Greeff, J C; Brien, F D; Atkins, K D; Mortimer, S I; Taylor, P J; van der Werf, J H J

    2008-12-01

    Genetic correlations between reproduction traits in ewes and carcass and meat quality traits in Merino rams were obtained using restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The carcass data were from 5870 Merino rams slaughtered at approximately 18 months of age that were the progeny of 543 sires from three research resource flocks over 7 years. The carcass traits included ultrasound scan fat and eye muscle depth (EMDUS) measured on live animals, dressing percentage and carcass tissue depth (at the GR site FATGR and C site FATC), eye muscle depth, width and area and the meat quality indicator traits of muscle final pH and colour (L*, a*, b*). The reproduction data consisted of 13 464 ewe joining records for number of lambs born and weaned and 9015 records for LS. The genetic correlations between reproduction and fat measurements were negative (range -0.06 +/- 0.12 to -0.37 +/- 0.12), with smaller correlations for live measurement than carcass traits. There were small favourable genetic correlations between reproduction traits and muscle depth in live rams (EMDUS, 0.10 +/- 0.12 to 0.20 +/- 0.12), although those with carcass muscle traits were close to zero. The reproduction traits were independent of meat colour L* (relative brightness), but tended to be favourably correlated with meat colour a* (relative redness, 0.12 +/- 0.17 to 0.19 +/- 0.16). There was a tendency for meat final pH to have small negative favourable genetic correlations with reproduction traits (0.05 +/- 0.11 to -0.17 +/- 0.12). This study indicates that there is no antagonism between reproduction traits and carcass and meat quality indicator traits, with scope for joint improvement of reproduction, carcass and meat quality traits in Merino sheep.

  9. Candidate genes affecting fat deposition, carcass composition and meat quality traits in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Gandolfi, Greta

    2011-01-01

    Pig meat quality is determined by several parameters, such as lipid content, tenderness, water-holding capacity, pH, color and flavor, that affect consumers’ acceptance and technological properties of meat. Carcass quality parameters are important for the production of fresh and dry-cure high-quality products, in particular the fat deposition and the lean cut yield. The identification of genes and markers associated with meat and carcass quality traits is of prime interest, for the possibilit...

  10. Failure of photoperiod to alter body growth and carcass composition in beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, S A; Chapin, L T; Enright, W J; Tucker, H A

    1989-05-01

    In each of two experiments, 70 crossbred steers were blocked by BW and assigned to initial slaughter groups or to treatments in a 2 x 2 design. In Exp. 1, treatments were 168 d of photoperiod (8 h of light [L]:16 h of dark [D] or 16L:8D) and plane of nutrition (high energy [HPN] or low energy [LPN]). On d -22, 67 and 155, blood was sampled every 20 min for 8 h. Relative to LPN, HPN increased (P less than .01) ADG by 28%, carcass weight by 26% and accretion of carcass fat by 109% and carcass protein by 20%. On d 155, compared with LPN, HPN increased (P less than .01) serum insulin (INS; 1.09 vs .64 ng/ml) and lowered (P less than .05) growth hormone (GH; 2.14 vs 3.70 ng/ml), but prolactin was not affected. Photoperiod did not affect BW gains, carcass composition or serum hormones. In Exp. 2, treatments were 113 d of photoperiod (8L:16D or 16L:8D) and Synovex-S implant (presence [IMP] or absence [NONIMP]). On d 93, blood was sampled every 30 min for 10 h. Relative to NONIMP, IMP increased (P less than .01) ADG by 12% and accretion of carcass protein by 16%. Implants did not affect carcass weight or accretion of fat. Compared with NONIMP, IMP increased (P less than .05) GH (3.16 vs 2.39 ng/ml) and INS (.68 vs .46 ng/ml) but did not affect PRL. Photoperiod did not affect BW gain, carcass composition or serum hormones. We conclude that photoperiod fails to influence growth and carcass composition of steers.

  11. Genotype × Sex Interaction Effects on Carcass Traits of Three Strains of Commercial Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    S.O. OLAWUMI; S.O. FAJEMILEHIN; S.S. FAGBUARO

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to rank commercial broiler chicken breeds vis-à-vis their sexes based on their carcass evaluation at 56days of age. The strains were Marshall, Arbor Acre and Hubbard, and the traits considered were live weight, dressing weight and percent, eviscerated weight, carcass weight and percent, breast muscle, back muscle, thigh, drumstick, head, neck, wing and leg weights. Other traits measured were wing and leg lengths, edible giblets and abdominal fat. There ...

  12. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Churra and Assaf suckling lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, J; Caro, I; Carballo, D E; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Arranz, J J; Gutiérrez-Gil, B

    2018-05-01

    Suckling lamb meat is traditionally produced in Mediterranean Europe. Breed can affect the quality of the lamb carcass and meat. This study is aimed at comparing the carcass and meat quality between suckling lambs from a local and a non-native dairy breed, Churra and Assaf. Churra is included in the Spanish Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) 'Lechazo de Castilla y León', whereas Assaf is not. However, Assaf breeders have requested the inclusion of the breed in the PGI. Carcasses and meat from 16 male lambs (eight Churra and eight Assaf) were used in this study. The lambs were all raised under an intensive rearing system and fed on a milk substitute to minimise maternal influence. The carcasses were evaluated for conformation, fatness, joint and leg tissue proportions and the meat was analysed for composition (i.e. proximate composition, iron, haematin, fatty acids and volatiles) and technological quality traits (i.e. texture, water holding capacity, colour and lipid stability). Churra carcasses were larger than Assaf carcasses. However, the proportions of commercial joints and main tissues did not differ between breeds. Cavity and intermuscular leg fat, but not total leg fat, were higher in Churra carcasses. Churra meat showed a higher proportion of n-6 fatty acids, higher redness and better colour stability during aerobic storage. In contrast, Assaf lamb was more resistant to lipid oxidation after cooking. This is a preliminary study to measure the influence of breed on a wide range of quality characteristics in Churra and Assaf suckling lamb carcass and meat. It may be of relevance for breeders, consumers and food policy makers, setting the basis for future studies that include larger commercial populations.

  13. Synthesis and antimalarial evaluation of prodrugs of novel fosmidomycin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faísca Phillips, Ana Maria; Nogueira, Fátima; Murtinheira, Fernanda; Barros, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The continuous development of drug resistance by Plasmodium falciparum, the agent responsible for the most severe forms of malaria, creates the need for the development of novel drugs to fight this disease. Fosmidomycin is an effective antimalarial and potent antibiotic, known to act by inhibiting the enzyme 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), essential for the synthesis of isoprenoids in eubacteria and plasmodia, but not in humans. In this study, novel constrained cyclic prodrug analogues of fosmidomycin were synthesized. One, in which the hydroxamate function is incorporated into a six-membered ring, was found have higher antimalarial activity than fosmidomycin against the chloroquine and mefloquine resistant P. falciparum Dd2 strain. In addition, it showed very low cytotoxicity against cultured human cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Breast cancer imaging using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalm, Simone U.; Melis, Marleen; Emmering, Jasper; Kwekkeboom, Dik J.; Jong, Marion de

    2016-01-01

    Imaging and therapy using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues are methods successfully used in patients with somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-expressing neuroendocrine tumours. Since these techniques were first introduced, many improvements have been made. SSTR expression has also been reported on breast cancer (BC). Currently mammography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound are the most frequent methods used for BC imaging. Since SSTR expression on BC was demonstrated, clinical studies examining the feasibility of visualizing primary BC using SSTR radioligands have been performed. However, to date SSTR-mediated nuclear imaging is not used clinically in BC patients. The aim of this review is to assess whether recent improvements made within nuclear medicine may enable SSTR-mediated imaging to play a role in BC management. For this we critically analysed results of past studies and discussed the potential of the improvements made within nuclear medicine on SSTR-mediated nuclear imaging of BC. Seven databases were searched for publications on BC imaging with SSTR radioligands. The papers found were analysed by 3 individual observers to identify whether the studies met the pre-set inclusion criteria defined as studies in which nuclear imaging using radiolabelled SST analogues was performed in patients with breast lesions. Twenty-four papers were selected for this review including studies on SSTR-mediated nuclear imaging in BC, neuroendocrine BC and other breast lesions. The analysed studies were heterogeneous with respect to the imaging method, imaging protocol, patient groups and the radiolabelled SST analogues used. Despite the fact that the analysed studies were heterogeneous, sensitivity for primary BC ranged from 36–100%. In a subset of the studies LN lesions were visualized, but sensitivity was lower compared to that for primary tumours. A part of the studies included benign lesions and specificity ranged from 22–100%. Furthermore, false negatives and

  15. The Lehmer Matrix and Its Recursive Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    LU factorization of matrix A by considering det A = det U = ∏n i=1 2i−1 i2 . The nth Catalan number is given in terms of binomial coefficients by Cn...for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number . 1. REPORT DATE 2010 2. REPORT...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Lehmer matrix and its recursive analogue 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  16. Nuclear waste geochemistry: natural and anthropic analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    The geochemical evolution of nuclear waste storage is difficult to describe, due to the long time scales involved, the radioactivity confinement complexity and the un-natural radionuclides which evolution is not known. In order to carry out a long term prediction, a special approach is used, based on a combination of experiments conducted in laboratories and in situ, modelizations and comparisons with process and material analogues (natural or man-made, such as basaltic and rhyolitic volcanic glasses, plutonium, historical and archaeological artefacts)

  17. Electronic analogue simulator of radio cardiograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, G.; Lansiart, A.; Vernejoul, P. de; Kellershohn, C.

    1967-01-01

    The various parameters of the heart pump and of the blood circulation can be determined by radio-cardio-graphical techniques. The curves thus obtained can be more easily used in radiocardiography if the electronic analogue simulator described here is employed. The experimental and simulated radio-cardiograms are made to coincide by varying the electrical parameters of the simulator. Using simple charts it is possible to obtain directly the actual original physiological parameters from these electrical parameters. Some examples are given showing the excellent accuracy obtained in the determination of ejection indices by the simulator. (authors) [fr

  18. Natural Analogues of CO2 Geological Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez del Villar, L.; Pelayo, M.; Recreo, F.

    2007-01-01

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is nowadays, internationally considered as the most effective method for greenhouse gas emission mitigation, in order to minimize the global climate change universally accepted. Nevertheless, the possible risks derived of this long-term storage have a direct influence on its public acceptance. Among the favourable geological formations to store CO2, depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline reservoirs, and unamiable coal seams are highlighted. One of the most important objectives of the R and D projects related to the CO2 geological storage is the evaluation of the CO2 leakage rate through the above mentioned geological formations. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to increase our knowledge on the interaction among CO2, storage and sealing formations, as well as on the flow paths and the physical resistance of the sealing formation. The quantification of the CO2 leakage rate is essential to evaluate the effects on the human and animal health, as well as for the ecosystem and water quality. To achieve these objectives, the study of the natural analogues is very useful in order to know the natural leakage rate to the atmosphere, its flow paths, the physical, chemical and mineralogical modifications due to the long term interaction processes among the CO2 and the storage and sealing formations, as well as the effects on the groundwaters and ecosystems. In this report, we have tried to summarise the main characteristics of the natural reservoirs and surficial sources of CO2, which are both natural analogues of the geological storage and CO2 leakage, studied in EEUU, Europe and Australia. The main objective of this summary is to find the possible applications for long-term risk prediction and for the performance assessment by means of conceptual and numerical modelling, which will allow to validate the predictive models of the CO2 storage behaviour, to design and develop suitable monitoring techniques to control the CO2 behaviour

  19. Digital and analogue industrial radiography, application fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willems, Peter; Millord, Erik Yardin

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Reusable phosphor screens for computer radiography (CR), amorphous selenium screens for direct radiography (DR), film digitalisation (FD) constitute imaging methods accepted by industry and are used for non-destructive radiographic testing (RT). Economic pressures are involving and affecting digital RT technology. Standards and codes for film radiography and radioscopy qualification do no longer cover the wide range of digital RT applications. It will be our task to optimise the performance of digital RT characterisation and to create appropriate examination methods to use all these new and existent technologies. In the meantime, an increasing automation and control of manual methods of analogue radiography can as well be expected. (author)

  20. Carcass Production of Cattle Slaughtered at Salatiga City Slaughter House, Salatiga, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purbowati, E.; Lestari, C. M. S.; Ma'ruf, M. J.; Sutaryo, S.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the breed, age, sex, slaughter weight, carcass weight, and carcass percentage of cattle which was slaughtered at Slaughter House in Salatiga, Central Java. The materials used in the study were 156 head of catlle. The sampling used was incidental sampling to identify the breed, age, sex, slaughter weight and carcass weight. The data gathered were analyzed descriptively. The result showed that the sex of all the cattle slaughtered were male. The breeds of the cattle were Frisian Holstein Grade (70.51%), Simmental (15.38+3.21), Simmental-Ongole Grade (5.13%), and Limousine-Ongole Grade (5.77%). The average age of the cattle were 2.34 year old, with an average of slaughter weight of 529.34 kg, while the averages of carcass weight were 277.61 kg. The average of carcass percentage was as high as 52.56%. The conclusion of the study was the highest number of breeds of the cattle slaughtered at Slaughter House in Salatiga were young Frisian Holstein, the body weights were included in large frame score, and the carcass percentage were moderate.

  1. Contamination of turkey carcasses by thermotolerant species of Campylobacter during postslaughter processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysok, B; Uradziński, J

    2009-01-01

    Ample literature data indicate explicitly that the major source of alimentary infections induced by Campylobacter spp. is poultry meat and its products. The undertaken research was aimed at determining the level of contamination of turkey carcasses during selected stages of postslaughter processing. Analyses were conducted on 200 turkey carcasses that were examined in 10 experimental series. In each series, 5 carcasses were analyzed at the selected stages of processing, i.e.: after defeathering, evisceration, washing and chilling. Swabs were collected from each carcass from 20 cm2 skin surface at the area of neck, steak and wall of the body cavity. Out of 550 samples of swabs from the skin surface and wall of the body cavity, 385 isolates were classified as Campylobacter--positive, which constituted 70% of the samples. Out of 100 analyzed swabs collected from the carcasses after defeathering, 73 (73%) were found to contain Campylobacter species. In turn, the presence of this pathogen was confirmed in 122 (81.33%) out of 150 swabs collected from carcasses after evisceration, in 106 (70.66%) swabs collected after washing and in 84 (56%) swabs collected after chilling.

  2. Correlations among Stress Parameters, Meat and Carcass Quality Parameters in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Dokmanovic

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Relationships among different stress parameters (lairage time and blood level of lactate and cortisol, meat quality parameters (initial and ultimate pH value, temperature, drip loss, sensory and instrumental colour, marbling and carcass quality parameters (degree of rigor mortis and skin damages, hot carcass weight, carcass fat thickness, meatiness were determined in pigs (n = 100 using Pearson correlations. After longer lairage, blood lactate (p<0.05 and degree of injuries (p<0.001 increased, meat became darker (p<0.001, while drip loss decreased (p<0.05. Higher lactate was associated with lower initial pH value (p<0.01, higher temperature (p<0.001 and skin blemishes score (p<0.05 and more developed rigor mortis (p<0.05, suggesting that lactate could be a predictor of both meat quality and the level of preslaughter stress. Cortisol affected carcass quality, so higher levels of cortisol were associated with increased hot carcass weight, carcass fat thickness on the back and at the sacrum and marbling, but also with decreased meatiness. The most important meat quality parameters (pH and temperature after 60 minutes deteriorated when blood lactate concentration was above 12 mmol/L.

  3. Effect of Tumbling Marination on Marinade Uptake of Chicken Carcass and Parts Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J U-chupaj

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of marination on marinade uptake of chicken carcasses and to determine the meat quality of carcass parts. In total, 45 eviscerated chicken carcasses were divided into three marinating treatments: no marination, marination in water, marination in non-phosphate and low-salt solution (NPLS. The study showed that the marinade uptake of chicken carcasses was higher than 4.0% for NPLS marination and than 3.5% for water marination when compared with the non-marinated treatment. However, raw chicken meat yield after cut-up was not significantly different (p≥0.05 among treatments. Carcasses marinated in NPLS solution presented higher water-holding capacity (WHC. The results showed that NPLS marination may reduce cooking loss and expressible water of chicken meat after cooking. Based on the Warner-Bratzler Shear (WBSF results, NPLS marination had a stronger effect on textural quality of cooked breast meat than thighs and drumsticks. However, no significant differences of texture profile analysis (TPA parameters were observed (p≥0.05. In the sensory evaluation, NPLS marination influenced the sensory quality of cooked meat, particularly texture and appearance attributes, but not the taste and aftertaste attributes of cooked meat. It is concluded that NPLS marination effectively increased carcass weight, despite its effects on meat quality varied according to the anatomical location of the parts.

  4. Genetic Relationships of Carcass Traits with Retail Cut Productivity of Hanwoo Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeyoung Koh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate genetic correlation between carcass grading and retail productivity traits and to estimate the correlated response on retail productivity traits through selection for carcass grading traits in order to assess the efficacy of indirect selection. Genetic parameters were estimated with the data from 4240 Hanwoo steers using mixed models, and phenotypes included carcass weight (CWT, back fat thickness (BFT, eye muscle area (EMA, marbling (MAR, and estimated lean yield percentage (ELP as the carcass grading traits, and weight and portion of retail cuts (RCW and RCP, trimmed fats (TFW and TFP and trimmed bones (TBW and TBP as the lean productivity traits. The CWT had positive genetic correlations with RCW (0.95 and TFW (0.73, but its genetic correlation with RCP was negligible (0.02. The BFT was negatively correlated with RCP (−0.63, but positively correlated with TFW and TFP (0.77 and 0.70. Genetic correlations of MAR with TFW and TFP were low. Among the carcass grading traits, only EMA was positively correlated with both RCW (0.60 and RCP (0.72. The EMA had a relatively strong negative genetic correlation with TFW (−0.64. The genetic correlation coefficients of ELP with RCP, TFW, and TFP were 0.76, −0.90, and −0.82, respectively. These correlation coefficients suggested that the ELP and EMA might be favorable traits in regulating lean productivity of carcass.

  5. Carcass and meat quality in double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; De Campeneere, S; Van Caelenbergh, W; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M

    2003-03-01

    Carcass and meat quality of 37 bulls and 91 cows of the Belgian Blue breed (double-muscled type) were compared. Age at slaughter averaged 648±73 and 1820±689 days, respectively. Both groups of cattle were finished on maize silage supplemented with concentrate, and were slaughtered at about 750 kg live weight. Females had a lower (P=0.004) cold carcass weight (469.7 kg) in comparison with bulls (500.8 kg), due to a reduced dressing percentage (63.8 vs. 66.6; P M. longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle (2.3 vs. 1.1%; P <0.001) were higher for females than for males. The LT of cows was darker (lower L* and higher a*-value; P <0.001), had a better waterholding capacity (P⩽0.063) and was slightly more tender (P=0.120) than the LT of bulls. Increasing parity reduced dressing percentage and increased LT lightness (L*-value) in cows. Several carcass (SEUROP-grading, composition, LT-area) and meat quality traits (protein and fat contents, drip and cooking losses, a*-value) were better correlated with carcass weight than parity. It is concluded that meat quality of the aged LT of cows is not negatively affected by age, while some carcass quality traits decreased with advancing age. Carcass quality traits adjusted for age at slaughter were better for bulls, but LT meat quality characteristics were at least as good for females as for males.

  6. Carcass characteristics of sheep fed diets with slow-release urea replacing conventional urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanilton Moura Alves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of adding slow-release urea to replace conventional urea in the diet on carcass characteristics of feedlot sheep. We used 20 Santa Ines x SRD rams, with average body weight of 21.1±1.2 kgand average age of 120 days, distributed in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments. The replacement levels used as treatments were 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80%, composing diets of about 12% crude protein, with 50 % Tifton-85 hay and 50% concentrate. There was no influence of slow release urea on weight at slaughter (35.17 kg, and on hot (16.75 kg and cold (16.24 kg carcass weight, but the yield of these carcasses showed quadratic trend, revealing lower percentages at 48.5 and 47.63% replacement levels, respectively. The weights and yields of cuts did not change, except for the posterior arm, whose values showed a cubic trend. Objective measures of carcass, loin eye area, and subjective evaluations of conformation, finishing and marbling of carcasses were not affected. The subcutaneous fat thickness decreased linearly (4.25 to2.48 mm. The inclusion of slow release urea in the diet changes the yield and reduces subcutaneous fat, however, it does not influence other carcass characteristics.

  7. Genetic relationships between temperament of calves at auction and carcass traits in Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kazuya; Uchida, Hiroshi; Inoue, Keiichi

    2017-10-01

    Correlations of calves' temperament with carcass traits were estimated to clarify the genetic relationships between them in Japanese Black cattle. The temperament records for 3128 calves during auction at a calf market were scored on a scale of 1 (calm) to 5 (nervous) as temperament score (TS), and the TS were divided into two groups (TSG): TS 1 and 2 comprised TSG 1, and 3 to 5 constituted TSG 2. Carcass data were obtained from 33 552 fattened cattle. A threshold animal model was used for analyzing the underlying liability for TSG, whereas a linear one was used for TS and carcass traits. The heritability estimates for TS and TSG were 0.12 and 0.11, respectively. On the other hand, moderate to high heritability estimates were obtained for carcass traits (0.40 to 0.68). The temperament scores were negatively correlated with carcass weight, rib thickness and subcutaneous fat thickness (-0.13 to -0.59). In contrast, weak to moderate positive correlations were found between the temperament scores and rib eye area or yield estimate (0.16 to 0.45). The temperament scores and beef marbling score had no correlation. These results showed that it is possible to improve temperament and carcass traits simultaneously. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Herd-specific random regression carcass profiles for beef cattle after adjustment for animal genetic merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englishby, Tanya M; Moore, Kirsty L; Berry, Donagh P; Coffey, Mike P; Banos, Georgios

    2017-07-01

    Abattoir data are an important source of information for the genetic evaluation of carcass traits, but also for on-farm management purposes. The present study aimed to quantify the contribution of herd environment to beef carcass characteristics (weight, conformation score and fat score) with particular emphasis on generating finishing herd-specific profiles for these traits across different ages at slaughter. Abattoir records from 46,115 heifers and 78,790 steers aged between 360 and 900days, and from 22,971 young bulls aged between 360 and 720days, were analysed. Finishing herd-year and animal genetic (co)variance components for each trait were estimated using random regression models. Across slaughter age and gender, the ratio of finishing herd-year to total phenotypic variance ranged from 0.31 to 0.72 for carcass weight, 0.21 to 0.57 for carcass conformation and 0.11 to 0.44 for carcass fat score. These parameters indicate that the finishing herd environment is an important contributor to carcass trait variability and amenable to improvement with management practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimation of Abdominal Fat by Plasma Triglycerides and Carcass Dry Matter in Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Pour-Reza

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to determine the relationship of plasma triglycerides and carcass dry matter with abdominal fat. One of the problems of broiler is carcass fatness, especially abdominal fat due to rapid growth of broilers which is not the consumer preference. Six hundred one-day-old commercial broiler chicks (Lohman were divided into 40 groups, 15 chicks per group. Each one of the 10 experimental diets, in which barley was substituted for corn at levels of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40%, was fed to 4 groups of chicks for 56 days. All diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. Rice hulls was used to make diets isoenergetic. At days 42, 49 and 56, one male and one female were selected from each pen and after blood sampling, the birds were killed, eviscerated and percentages of carcass and amount of abdominal fats were measured. Blood samples were used to determine plasma triglycerides, cholesterol and total lipids. The results showed that increasing abdominal fat reduced carcass moisture content. Correlation between abdominal fat and plasma triglycerides was positive and significant (p<0.05. Correlation between abdominal fat and carcass moisture was negative and significant (P<0.01. The regression equations indicated that abdominal fat can be estimated from plasma triglycerides and carcass moisture content. The equations also indicated that using several parameters for estimating abdominal fat is better than single parameter estimation.

  10. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission natural analogue research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, L.A.; Ott, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the natural analogue research program of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). It contains information on the regulatory context and organizational structure of the high-level radioactive waste research program plan. It also includes information on the conditions and processes constraining selection of natural analogues, describes initiatives of the US NRC, and describes the role of analogues in the licensing process

  11. Conformationally restrained aromatic analogues of fosmidomycin and FR900098.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Thomas; Schlüter, Katrin; Pein, Miriam; Behrendt, Christoph; Bergmann, Bärbel; Walter, Rolf D

    2007-07-01

    The synthesis and in-vitro antimalarial activity of conformationally restrained bis(pivaloyloxymethyl) ester analogues of the natural product fosmidomycin is presented. In contrast to alpha-aryl-substituted analogues, conformationally restrained aromatic analogues exhibit only moderate in-vitro antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7 of Plasmodium falciparum. The most active derivative displays an IC(50) value of 47 microM.

  12. Implementation of a validated HACCP system for the control of microbiological contamination of pig carcasses at a small abattoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jeffrey; Brereton, Donald A.; Gill, Colin O.

    2003-01-01

    To guide the implementation of a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system at a small abattoir, the microbiological conditions of pig carcasses at various stages of processing were assessed by enumerating total aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli in samples collected from randomly selected sites on the carcasses. Those data indicated that carcasses were contaminated with bacteria mainly during dehairing and operations on the head. When carcasses were pasteurized after head removal, the numbers of total aerobes on dressed carcasses were reduced by about 1 order and the numbers of coliforms and E. coli were reduced by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Implementation of an HACCP system on the basis of the microbiological data gave cooled carcasses with mean numbers of total aerobes < 100/cm2, and mean numbers of coliforms and E. coli about 1/1000 cm2. PMID:12619556

  13. A silyl andrographolide analogue suppresses Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reabroi, Somrudee; Chairoungdua, Arthit; Saeeng, Rungnapha; Kasemsuk, Teerapich; Saengsawang, Witchuda; Zhu, Weiming; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

    2018-05-01

    Hyperactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling implicated in oncogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is a potential molecular target for chemotherapy. An andrographolide analogue, 3A.1 (19-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-8, 17-epoxy andrographolide) has previously been reported to be potently cytotoxic toward cancer cells by unknown molecular mechanisms. The present study explored the anti-cancer activity of analogue 3A.1 on Wnt/β-catenin signaling in colon cancer cells (HT29 cells) which were more sensitive to the others (HCT116 and SW480 cells). Analogue 3A.1 inhibited viability of HT29 cells with IC 50 value of 11.1 ± 1.4 μM at 24 h, which was more potent than that of the parent andrographolide. Analogue 3A.1 also suppressed the proliferation of HT29 cells and induced cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Its apoptotic activity was accompanied with increased expressions of proteins related to DNA damages; PARP-1 and γ-H2AX. In addition, analogue 3A.1 significantly inhibited T-cell factor and lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) promoter activity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Accordingly, the expressions of Wnt target genes and β-catenin protein were suppressed. Moreover, analogue 3A.1 increased the activity of GSK-3β kinase, which is a negative regulator responsible for degradation of intracellular β-catenin. This mode of action was further supported by the absence of the effects after treatment with a GSK-3β inhibitor, and over-expression of a mutant β-catenin (S33Y). Our findings reveal, for the first time, an insight into the molecular mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of analogue 3A.1 through the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin/GSK-3β pathway and provide a therapeutic potential of the andrographolide analogue 3A.1 in CRC treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Biological Evaluation of Double Point Modified Analogues of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D2 as Potential Anti-Leukemic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife Corcoran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Structurally similar double-point modified analogues of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (1,25D2 were screened in vitro for their pro-differentiating activity against the promyeloid cell line HL60. Their affinities towards human full length vitamin D receptor (VDR and metabolic stability against human vitamin D 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1 were also tested. The analogues (PRI-1730, PRI-1731, PRI-1732, PRI-1733 and PRI-1734 contained 5,6-trans modification of the A-ring and of the triene system, additional hydroxyl or unsaturation at C-22 in the side chain and reversed absolute configuration (24-epi at C-24 of 1,25D2. As presented in this paper, introduction of selected structural modifications simultaneously in two distinct parts of the vitamin D molecule resulted in a divergent group of analogues. Analogues showed lower VDR affinity in comparison to that of the parent hormones, 1,25D2 and 1,25D3, and they caused effective HL60 cell differentiation only at high concentrations of 100 nM and above. Unexpectedly, introducing of a 5,6-trans modification combined with C-22 hydroxyl and 24-epi configuration switched off entirely the cell differentiation activity of the analogue (PRI-1734. However, this analogue remained a moderate substrate for CYP24A1, as it was metabolized at 22%, compared to 35% for 1,25D2. Other analogues from this series were either less (12% for PRI-1731 and PRI-1733 or more (52% for PRI-1732 resistant to the enzymatic deactivation. Although the inactive analogue PRI-1734 failed to show VDR antagonism, when tested in HL60 cells, its structure might be a good starting point for our design of a vitamin D antagonist.

  15. Andrographolide and analogues in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Siddhartha Kumar; Tripathi, Swati; Shukla, Archana; Oh, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal plant traditionally used for treatment of cough and cold, fever, laryngitis, and several infectious diseases. Extracts of A. paniculata have shown versatile potency against various diseases including cancer. The active biomolecules of A. paniculata mainly are lactone and diterpene. Andrographolide and analogues have been widely used for prevention of different diseases. Andrographolides have shown potent antiinflammatory and anticancer activities. It showed potentials as chemopreventive agents by suppressing growth of cancer cells by inhibiting NF-kappaB, PI3K/AKT and other kinase pathways and by inducing apoptosis. Andrographolide induced both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathway in different cancer cells via expression of different anti-apoptotic protein like Bax, p53, and activated caspases. Andrographolide was successfully used as an antineoplastic drug in cancer chemotherapy. Andrographolide inhibited the growth of human breast, prostate, and hepatoma tumors. Andrographolide and analogues need to be subjected to further clinical and biomedical studies in cancer chemoprevention. Andrographolide could be potent anticancer agent when used in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents.

  16. Statistical analogues of thermodynamic extremum principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramshaw, John D.

    2018-05-01

    As shown by Jaynes, the canonical and grand canonical probability distributions of equilibrium statistical mechanics can be simply derived from the principle of maximum entropy, in which the statistical entropy S=- {k}{{B}}{\\sum }i{p}i{log}{p}i is maximised subject to constraints on the mean values of the energy E and/or number of particles N in a system of fixed volume V. The Lagrange multipliers associated with those constraints are then found to be simply related to the temperature T and chemical potential μ. Here we show that the constrained maximisation of S is equivalent to, and can therefore be replaced by, the essentially unconstrained minimisation of the obvious statistical analogues of the Helmholtz free energy F = E ‑ TS and the grand potential J = F ‑ μN. Those minimisations are more easily performed than the maximisation of S because they formally eliminate the constraints on the mean values of E and N and their associated Lagrange multipliers. This procedure significantly simplifies the derivation of the canonical and grand canonical probability distributions, and shows that the well known extremum principles for the various thermodynamic potentials possess natural statistical analogues which are equivalent to the constrained maximisation of S.

  17. EVALUATION OF A “DRY” SYSTEM FOR THE SLAUGHTER OF POULTRY: MICROBIAL PROFILE OF CARCASSES - PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    G. Soncini; S. Milesi; L. Valnegri; L. Vercellotti; M. Franzoni

    2008-01-01

    The “dry” system for the slaughter of poultry provides mechanical defeathering followed by waxing, without scalding. The microbical contamination of n. 60 poultry carcasses was evaluated in different phases of a “dry” slaughter process. Samples from the neck region after stun and from breast after defeathering and waxing were carried out by non-destructive methods, by swabbing (n. 30 carcasses) and by sponging (n. 30 carcasses). The collected samples were examined for ...

  18. Influence of diet and rearing system on heavy pig performance, carcass and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Falaschini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying alternative dietary protein sources and new types of outdoor rearing techniques that enhance animal welfare, thus optimising costs and production performance, are among the main objectives of nutritionists and breeders. The aim of this study was to compare two types of rations where pea and potato concentrate completely substituted soybean in intensively and extensively bred swine. Forty Large White × Duroc piglets weighing about 40 kg were divided into 4 groups of 10 sex- and weightmatched individuals: Indoor rearing + Control diet, Indoor rearing + Experimental diet, Outdoor rearing + Control diet, Outdoor rearing + Experimental diet. Different diets were formulated for the growing phase (40-100 kg and the fattening period (100-slaughter; pigs, weighed individually every 40 days to estimate the average daily gain and feed conversion rate, were slaughtered when they reached the weight for Italian ham production. The following measurements were obtained: carcass weight, slaughtered yield, weight of lean cuts, pH 45 minutes and 24 hours post mortem. 40 semimembranosus muscle samples were analysed for colour parameters (L*, a* and b*, moisture, fat, protein and ash while the energy values were calculated. Semimembranosus intramuscular fat and ham backfat were analysed for fatty acid profile. Statistical analysis of performances data was conducted using design with repeated measures and the slaughterhouse, meat and fat composition data were subjected to ANOVA. The results show that soybean can be completely substituted with other protein crops. Rearing and slaughterhouse performances were not affected by the diet, whereas significant differences emerged with the rearing system. Diet composition significantly affected lean meat proportion (50.0 vs 48.2 and fat thickness of 3/4 Thoracic Vertebra (25.3 vs 28.3 mm, while the rearing system significantly affected all carcass quality measures. Some parameters were better in outdoorthan

  19. Field Exploration and Life Detection Sampling for Planetary Analogue Research (FELDSPAR): Variability and Correlation in Biomarker and Mineralogy Measurements from Icelandic Mars Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Amador, E.; Cable, M. L.; Cantrell, T.; Chaudry, N.; Cullen, T.; Duca, Z.; Jacobsen, M.; Kirby, J.; McCaig, H.; hide

    2018-01-01

    In situ exploration of planetary environments allows biochemical analysis of sub-centimeter-scale samples; however, landing sites are selected a priori based on measurable meter- to kilometer-scale geological features. Optimizing life detection mission science return requires both understanding the expected biomarker distributions across sample sites at different scales and efficiently using first-stage in situ geochemical instruments to justify later-stage biological or chemical analysis. Icelandic volcanic regions have an extensive history as Mars analogue sites due to desiccation, low nutrient availability, and temperature extremes, in addition to the advantages of geological youth and isolation from anthropogenic contamination. Many Icelandic analogue sites are also rugged and remote enough to create the same type of instrumentation and sampling constraints typically faced by robotic exploration.

  20. Influence of carcass weight on meat quality of commercial feedlot steers with similar feedlot, slaughter and post-mortem management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbeniga, Babatunde; Webb, Edward C

    2018-03-01

    The effects of beef carcass weight on muscle pH/temperature profile and selected meat quality attributes were evaluated. Twenty-six carcasses from light (≤260kg, n=15) and heavy (≥290kg, n=11) feedlot steers were randomly allocated and stimulated with low voltage electrical stimulation (LVES) for 30s at 7min post-mortem (pm). Quality evaluations were carried out on samples from the Longissimus et lumborum (LL) muscle from the left side of each carcass. Heavier carcasses showed faster pH decline and slower (P35°C) but there was no sign of sarcomere shortening in any carcass. Significantly lower (P0.05) drip loss at 3 and 14days pm as well as higher L* (meat lightness) (P<0.05) and C* (chroma) (P<0.05) values early (2days) pm. However, at 14days pm, there were no significant differences between the light and heavy carcasses in terms of L* and C*. No significant difference was observed between heavy and light carcasses in terms of H* at 2 and 14days pm. The study showed that heavier carcasses which favor slaughter house pricing can be produced and processed alongside lighter carcasses without significant detrimental effects on meat quality by using low voltage electrical stimulation (LVES). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of breed (wool and hair and sex on the carcass quality of suckling lambs under intensive management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Camacho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Carcasses of twenty lambs (10 males and 10 females from the Canaria Hair breed (CHB and another twenty (10 males and 10 females from the Canaria breed (CB of 9.91±0.73 kg and 9.87±0.80 kg live weight, respectively, were studied. In the principal component (PC analysis, the projection of carcass measurement data in the first PC allowed for clearly distinguishing between CB and CHB. In the analysis of variance, breed effect was observed in the morphology of the carcass: CB lambs showed the longest carcasses and CHB lambs showed the widest carcasses. Due to their wider rump and shorter legs, CHB lambs presented a more compact leg index. The carcasses from Canaria lambs had the highest fat score, the heaviest shoulder and the highest total fat percentage. The carcasses from CHB lambs showed a higher lean percentage. The carcass yield, conformation, degree of fatness and tissue composition were similar in both sexes. However, significant differences in the commercial cut yield were observed: males showed heavier shoulders than females. The effect of sex on carcass quality is unimportant. The breeds are different in important characteristics for the market, such as fatness. This fact is of significant interest because it diversifies the offer and means that different markets can be satisfied.

  2. Short-term effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues: Laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Denton, John; Fletcher, Jonathan N; Janaway, Robert C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2014-05-01

    Contradictions and misconceptions regarding the effect of lime on the decay of human remains have demonstrated the need for more research into the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition. This study follows previous research by the authors who have investigated the effect of lime on the decomposition of human remains in burial environments. A further three pig carcasses (Sus scrofa), used as human body analogues, were observed and monitored for 78 days without lime, with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and with quicklime (CaO) in the taphonomy laboratory at the University of Bradford. The results showed that in the early stages of decay, the unlimed and hydrated lime cadavers follow a similar pattern of changes. In contrast, the application of quicklime instigated an initial acceleration of decay. Microbial investigation demonstrated that the presence of lime does not eliminate all aerobic bacteria. The experiment also suggested that lime functions as a sink, buffering the carbon dioxide evolution. This study complements the field observations. It has implications for the investigation of time since death of limed remains. Knowledge of the effects of lime on decomposition processes is of interest to forensic pathologists, archaeologists, humanitarian organisations and those concerned with disposal of animal carcasses or human remains in mass disasters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues: Field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Fletcher, Jonathan N; Denton, John; Janaway, Robert C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2014-05-01

    An increased number of police enquiries involving human remains buried with lime have demonstrated the need for more research into the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition and its micro-environment. This study follows previous studies by the authors who have investigated the effects of lime on the decay of human remains in laboratory conditions and 6 months of field experiments. Six pig carcasses (Sus scrofa), used as human body analogues, were buried without lime with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and quicklime (CaO) in shallow graves in sandy-loam soil in Belgium and recovered after 17 and 42 months of burial. Analysis of the soil, lime and carcasses included entomology, pH, moisture content, microbial activity, histology and lime carbonation. The results of this study demonstrate that despite conflicting evidence in the literature, the extent of decomposition is slowed down by burial with both hydrated lime and quicklime. The more advanced the decay process, the more similar the degree of liquefaction between the limed and unlimed remains. The end result for each mode of burial will ultimately result in skeletonisation. This study has implications for the investigation of clandestine burials, for a better understanding of archaeological plaster burials and potentially for the interpretation of mass graves and management of mass disasters by humanitarian organisation and DVI teams. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Comparative evaluation of carcass traits and meat quality in native Aseel chickens and commercial broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, U; Muthukumar, M; Haunshi, S; Niranjan, M; Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Chatterjee, R N

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to analyse the meat quality attributes, composition and carcass traits in Aseel chickens and commercial broilers at market age on the basis of physiological age. A total of 20 Aseel (26 and 56 weeks) and 20 broiler (6 weeks) chickens were divided into two groups on a live weight basis, i.e. large (≥2.5 kg) and small (dressing percentage was significantly higher in larger chickens. Commercial broilers recorded significantly higher meat proportion and lower proportion of bone. The meat:bone ratio was 1.07:1.0 in Aseel and 1.31-1.0 in broiler chicken. Breast muscle content was significantly lower in smaller Aseel chickens. Aseel chicken had stronger and heavier backs and shanks. Abdominal fat percentage was significantly lower in Aseel (0.73-0.78%). The study concluded that the firm texture of Aseel meat was due to the high collagen content and interlocking connective tissue between the muscle fibres. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat was higher. Aseel cocks had strong legs, lean meat and less abdominal fat, making them a high-value meat bird in addition to their aggressive fighting ability.

  5. Phenotypic and Genotypic Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella from Chicken Carcasses Marketed at Ibague, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cortes Vélez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica is responsible for alimentary toxic infections associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry products and the antimicrobial resistant patterns of Salmonella circulating in the Tolima region are currently unknown. To address this issue, both the phenotype and genotype antibiotic resistance patterns of 47 Salmonella isolated from raw chicken carcasses sold at the Ibague city were analyzed by the disc diffusion, microdilution and PCR assays. All 47 Salmonella isolates showed resistance to five or more antimicrobial agents. Resistance to Ampicillin (AMP, Amikacin (AMK, Gentamicin (GEN, Tobramycin (TOB, Cefazoline (CFZ, Cefoxitin (FOX, Nitrofurantoin (NIT, Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (SXT, Tetracycline (TET, Ciprofloxacin (CIP and Enrofloxacin (ENR was observed in 42.35% of Salmonella isolates. All tested S. Paratyphi B var Java isolates showed resistance to at least 12 antibiotics. S. Hvittingfoss showed resistance to 5 antibiotics, whereas S. Muenster showed resistance to seven antibiotics. Amplification of a number of antibiotic resistance genes showed that blaTEM (100% correlated well with resistance to Ampicilin and Cephalosporin, whereas aadB (87% correlated well with resistance to Aminoglycosides. It is concluded that Salmonella isolated from raw chicken meat marketed at Ibague showed MDR by both phenotypic and genotypic methods and they may represent an important threat to human health. Additional studies are needed to establish the relationship between antibiotic resistance in Salmonella from poultry products and clinical isolates.

  6. Fourth natural analogue working group meeting and Pocos de Caldas project final workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    The fourth meeting of the CEC-sponsored natural analogue working group (NAWG) was held in Pitlochry, Scotland, from 18 to 22 June 1990, and also included the final workshop of the Pocos de Caldas (Brazil) natural analogue project, sponsored by Nagra (CH), SKB (S) UK-DOE and US-DOE. About 80 specialists attended this meeting, originating from EC Member States and also Australia, Brazil, Canada, Finland, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland and the USA. The IAEA and OCDE-NEA were also represented. This plenary meeting was the opportunity to review and discuss five years of progress and activities of natural analogues in central areas of performance assessment: waste forms and engineered barriers, geochemistry and radionuclide speciation, radionuclide migration and the overall geological context of radwaste disposal. In addition, a feedback session provided the opportunity for regulators and those individuals who had advisory roles to give their views and impressions on the significance of natural analogue research. These proceedings, divided into two sessions, contain 32 technical papers and 14 abstracts of published papers

  7. Natural analogue synthesis report, TDR-NBS-GS-000027 REV00 ICN02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A.; Nieder-Westermann, G.; Stuckless, J.; Dobson, P.; Unger, A.J.A.; Kwicklis, E.; Lichtner, P.; Carey, B.; Wolde, G.; Murrel, M.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Meijer, A.; Faybishenko, B.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Description (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature, along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement drift degradation, waste form degradation, waste package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated zone (SZ) transport, impact of radionuclide

  8. Natural analogue synthesis report, TDR-NBS-GS-000027 rev00 icn02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, A.; Nieder-Westermann, G.; Stuckless, J.; Dobson, P.; Unger, A.J.A.; Kwicklis, E.; Lichtner, P.; Carey, B.; Wolde, G.; Murrel,M.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Meijer, A.; Faybishenko, B.

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Description (CRWMS M&O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature, along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement drift degradation, waste form degradation, waste package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated zone (SZ) transport, impact of radionuclide release

  9. Impact of dry chilling on the genetic diversity of Escherichia coli on beef carcasses and on the survival of E. coli and E. coli O157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvalingam, Jeyachchandran; Liu, Yang; Yang, Xianqin

    2017-03-06

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dry chilling on the genetic diversity of naturally occurring Escherichia coli on beef carcasses, and to examine whether two populations of E. coli recovered from carcasses during chilling and E. coli O157 differed in their response to desiccation. Isolates of E. coli were obtained from beef carcasses during a 67h dry chilling process and were genotyped using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Ten E. coli genotypes found only at 0h (group A) and found more than once (group B), as well as five strains of E. coli O157 (group C) were inoculated on stainless steel coupons and their survival was examined after exposure to 75 and 100% relative humidity (RH) at 0 or 35°C for 67h. A total of 450 E. coli isolates were obtained, with 254, 49, 49, 51, 23, 20, and 4 from 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24h of chilling, respectively. No E. coli were recovered at 67h. MLVA of the isolates revealed 173 distinct genotypes. Genetic diversity of E. coli isolates, defined as ratio of the number of isolates to the number of genotypes, remained between 2.3 and 1.3 during the 24h of chilling. All strains inoculated on stainless steel coupons and exposed to 75% RH at 35°C were completely inactivated, irrespective of their groups. Inactivation of E. coli of the three groups was not significantly (P>0.05) different by exposure to 75% RH at 0°C. The findings indicate that the genetic diversity of E. coli on beef carcasses was not affected by dry chilling. In addition, inactivation of E. coli genotypes and E. coli O157 by desiccation on stainless steel simulating dry chilling conditions did not differ significantly (P>0.05). Thus, dry chilling may be used as an effective antimicrobial intervention for beef carcasses. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The suitability of visual taphonomic methods for digital photographs: An experimental approach with pig carcasses in a tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribéreau-Gayon, Agathe; Rando, Carolyn; Morgan, Ruth M; Carter, David O

    2018-05-01

    In the context of increased scrutiny of the methods in forensic sciences, it is essential to ensure that the approaches used in forensic taphonomy to measure decomposition and estimate the postmortem interval are underpinned by robust evidence-based data. Digital photographs are an important source of documentation in forensic taphonomic investigations but the suitability of the current approaches for photographs, rather than real-time remains, is poorly studied which can undermine accurate forensic conclusions. The present study aimed to investigate the suitability of 2D colour digital photographs for evaluating decomposition of exposed human analogues (Sus scrofa domesticus) in a tropical savanna environment (Hawaii), using two published scoring methods; Megyesi et al., 2005 and Keough et al., 2017. It was found that there were significant differences between the real-time and photograph decomposition scores when the Megyesi et al. method was used. However, the Keough et al. method applied to photographs reflected real-time decomposition more closely and thus appears more suitable to evaluate pig decomposition from 2D photographs. The findings indicate that the type of scoring method used has a significant impact on the ability to accurately evaluate the decomposition of exposed pig carcasses from photographs. It was further identified that photographic taphonomic analysis can reach high inter-observer reproducibility. These novel findings are of significant importance for the forensic sciences as they highlight the potential for high quality photograph coverage to provide useful complementary information for the forensic taphonomic investigation. New recommendations to develop robust transparent approaches adapted to photographs in forensic taphonomy are suggested based on these findings. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Space Analogue Environments: Are the Populations Comparable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandal, G. M.

    Background: Much of our present understanding about psychology in space is based on studies of groups operating in so-called analogue environments where personnel are exposed to many of the same stressors as those experienced by astronauts in space. One possible problem with extrapolating results is that personnel operating in various hazardous and confined environments might differ in characteristics influencing coping, interaction, and performance. The object of this study was to compare the psychological similarity of these populations in order to get a better understanding of whether this extrapolation is justifiable. The samples investigated include polar crossings (N= 22), personnel on Antarctic research stations (N= 183), several military occupations (N= 187), and participants in space simulation studies (N=20). Methods: Personnel in each of these environments were assessed using the Personality Characteristic Inventory (PCI) and Utrecht Coping List (UCL). The PCI is a multidimensional trait assessment battery that measures various aspects of achievement orientation and social competence. The UCL is a questionnaire designed to assess habitual coping strategies when encountering stressful or demanding situations. Results: Only minor differences in use of habitual coping strategies were evident across the different samples. In relation to personality scores, the military subjects and participants in space simulation studies indicated higher competitiveness and negative instrumentality compared to both the personnel on Antarctic research stations and participants in polar expedition. Among the personnel on Antarctic research stations, significant gender differences were found with women scoring lower on competitiveness, negative instrumentality and impatience/irritability. Compared to the other samples, the participants in polar expeditions were found to be more homogeneous in personality and no significant gender differences were evident on the traits that

  12. Glaciation and geosphere evolution - Greenland Analogue Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschorn, S.; Vorauer, A.; Belfadhel, M.B.; Jensen, M.

    2011-01-01

    The deep geological repository concept for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel involves the containment and isolation of used nuclear fuel in a suitable geological formation. A key objective of the Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) geoscience technical research program is to advance the understanding of geosphere stability and its resilience to perturbations over time frames of relevance to a deep geological repository. Glaciation has been identified as the most probable and intense perturbation relevant to a deep geological repository associated with long-term climate change in northern latitudes. Given that the North American continent has been re-glaciated nine times over the past million years, it is strongly expected that a deep geological repository within a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation in Canada will be subject to glaciation events associated with long-term climate change. As such, NWMO's geoscience research program has placed particular emphasis on investigations of the response of the geosphere to glaciations. As surface conditions change from present day conditions to periglacial, followed by ice-sheet cover of variable thickness and rapid glacial retreat, transient geochemical, hydraulic, mechanical and temperature conditions will be simultaneously imposed on groundwater systems. NWMO research activities related to glaciation events and their impacts on groundwater system evolution are being undertaken using a multi-disciplinary approach aimed at collecting multiple lines of evidence. These investigations include assessment of the: Impact of an ice sheet on groundwater composition at repository depth using the Greenland Ice Sheet as an analogue to future glaciations in North America; Expected physical and temporal surface boundary conditions related to potential future glaciation events by estimating the magnitude and time rate of change of ice sheet thickness, ground surface temperature and

  13. Effect of Wagyu- versus Angus-sired calves on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radunz, A E; Loerch, S C; Lowe, G D; Fluharty, F L; Zerby, H N

    2009-09-01

    Wagyu-sired (n = 20) and Angus-sired (n = 19) steers and heifers were used to compare the effects of sire breed on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat tenderness. Calves were weaned at 138 +/- 5 d of age and individually fed a finishing diet consisting of 65% whole corn, 20% protein/vitamin/mineral supplement, and 15% corn silage on a DM basis. Heifers and steers were slaughtered at 535 and 560 kg of BW, respectively. Carcasses were ribbed between the 12th and 13th (USDA grading system) and the 6th and 7th ribs (Japanese grading system) to measure fat thickness, LM area (LMA), and intramuscular fat (IMF). Two steaks were removed from the 12th rib location and aged for 72 h and 14 d to determine Warner-Bratzler shear force and cooking loss. Sire breed x sex interactions were not significant (P > 0.05). Angus-sired calves had greater (P Angus. Sire breed did not affect (P > 0.20) HCW, 12th-rib fat, or USDA yield grade. Carcasses of Wagyu had greater (P = 0.0001) marbling scores at the 12th rib than those of Angus (770.9 vs. 597.3 +/- 41.01, respectively). Carcasses of Wagyu also had greater (P Angus, resulting in a greater proportion of carcasses grading Prime (65.0 vs. 21.1%; P = 0.006). Carcasses from Wagyu tended (P = 0.08) to have greater LMA at the 12th rib, whereas Angus carcasses had greater (P Angus and Wagyu had similar (P > 0.50) tenderness at aging times of 72 h and 14 d. Cooking loss was greater (P Angus than Wagyu steaks at 72 h and 14 d. Using Wagyu sires vs. Angus sires on British-based commercial cows combined with early weaning management strategies has the potential to produce a product with greater marbling, but is unlikely to significantly enhance tenderness.

  14. Methane and carbon dioxide production from simulated anaerobic degradation of cattle carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Qi; Saunders, Samuel E.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This study evaluates methane and carbon dioxide production after land burial of cattle carcasses. ► Disposal of animal mortalities is often overlooked in evaluating the environmental impacts of animal production. ► we quantify annual emissions from cattle carcass disposal in the United States as 1.6 Tg CO 2 equivalents. - Abstract: Approximately 2.2 million cattle carcasses require disposal annually in the United States. Land burial is a convenient disposal method that has been widely used in animal production for disposal of both daily mortalities as well as during catastrophic mortality events. To date, greenhouse gas production after mortality burial has not been quantified, and this study represents the first attempt to quantify greenhouse gas emissions from land burial of animal carcasses. In this study, anaerobic decomposition of both homogenized and unhomogenized cattle carcass material was investigated using bench-scale reactors. Maximum yields of methane and carbon dioxide were 0.33 and 0.09 m 3 /kg dry material, respectively, a higher methane yield than that previously reported for municipal solid waste. Variability in methane production rates were observed over time and between reactors. Based on our laboratory data, annual methane emissions from burial of cattle mortalities in the United States could total 1.6 Tg CO 2 equivalents. Although this represents less than 1% of total emissions produced by the agricultural sector in 2009, greenhouse gas emissions from animal carcass burial may be significant if disposal of swine and poultry carcasses is also considered.

  15. Genetic parameters of Visual Image Analysis primal cut carcass traits of commercial prime beef slaughter animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K L; Mrode, R; Coffey, M P

    2017-10-01

    Visual Image analysis (VIA) of carcass traits provides the opportunity to estimate carcass primal cut yields on large numbers of slaughter animals. This allows carcases to be better differentiated and farmers to be paid based on the primal cut yields. It also creates more accurate genetic selection due to high volumes of data which enables breeders to breed cattle that better meet the abattoir specifications and market requirements. In order to implement genetic evaluations for VIA primal cut yields, genetic parameters must first be estimated and that was the aim of this study. Slaughter records from the UK prime slaughter population for VIA carcass traits was available from two processing plants. After edits, there were 17 765 VIA carcass records for six primal cut traits, carcass weight as well as the EUROP conformation and fat class grades. Heritability estimates after traits were adjusted for age ranged from 0.32 (0.03) for EUROP fat to 0.46 (0.03) for VIA Topside primal cut yield. Adjusting the VIA primal cut yields for carcass weight reduced the heritability estimates, with estimates of primal cut yields ranging from 0.23 (0.03) for Fillet to 0.29 (0.03) for Knuckle. Genetic correlations between VIA primal cut yields adjusted for carcass weight were very strong, ranging from 0.40 (0.06) between Fillet and Striploin to 0.92 (0.02) between Topside and Silverside. EUROP conformation was also positively correlated with the VIA primal cuts with genetic correlation estimates ranging from 0.59 to 0.84, whereas EUROP fat was estimated to have moderate negative correlations with primal cut yields, estimates ranged from -0.11 to -0.46. Based on these genetic parameter estimates, genetic evaluation of VIA primal cut yields can be undertaken to allow the UK beef industry to select carcases that better meet abattoir specification and market requirements.

  16. Carcass characteristics of lambs fed spineless cactus as a replacement for sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Juliana Paula Felipe; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Alves, Adryanne Marjorie Souza Vitor; de Melo, Ana Caroline Cerqueira; de Andrade, Ida Barbosa; Urbano, Stela Antas; Suassuna, Juraci Marcos Alves; de Barros, Leonardo José Assis; de Barros Melo, Tobias Tobit

    2018-04-01

    Fresh sugarcane has been a new roughage source for ruminant's in semiarid regions, a function of the decline of sugar and alcohol industry in recent years. However, there is little data published regarding lambs fed sugarcane associated with spineless cactus. This study evaluated the effect of sugarcane replacement with spineless cactus (0%, 33%, 66%, and 100%) in the diet of Santa Inês lambs on carcass characteristics. Thirty-six non-castrated Santa Ines lambs at four months of age and an initial body weight of 22±2.3 kg were assigned in a randomized block design and slaughtered after 70 days of confinement. The effects of spineless cactus as a replacement for sugarcane in the diet of the lambs on the carcass characteristics, commercial cut weight and yield, leg tissue composition, and carcass measurements were studied. The study revealed quadratic behavior in slaughter body weight, and hot and cold carcass weight, with maximum values of 38.60, 18.60, and 18.11 kg and replacement levels of 40.18%, 44.42%, and 43.14%, respectively. The cold carcass yield presented an increasing linear behavior. The compactness index of carcass and leg presented a quadratic effect, with estimated maximal values of 0.28 and 0.57 kg/cm and replacement levels of 43.37% and 45.5%, respectively. The weights of commercial cuts of leg, loin, shoulder, and breast showed quadratic behavior, with maximum values of 2.79, 0.852, 1.46, and 1.30 kg and replacement levels of 49.5, 45.32, 39.0, and 40.7, respectively. For tissue composition, quadratic behavior was verified for leg weight, subcutaneous fat, and total fat. The replacement of sugarcane by spineless cactus at level 44% is recommended for finishing lambs considering that this level improved most of the carcass characteristics, weights, and yields of commercial cuts and leg tissue composition.

  17. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from retail chicken carcasses and pet workers in Northwest Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Irene; Gilmore, David; Pendleton, Sean; Fleck, Scott; Clement, Ashley; Park, Si Hong; Scott, Erin; Ricke, Steven C

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can be carried on the skin and nasal passages of humans and animals as a commensal. A case of human methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection resulting from contact with pork has been reported. Poultry carcasses are sold at retail with the skin intact, but pork and beef typically are not. Thus, the risk of methicillin-resistant S. aureus human infection from whole raw poultry carcasses may be greater than that of exposure from pork or beef. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize S. aureus from whole retail poultry carcasses and compare the isolates to S. aureus isolates from humans. A total of 25 S. aureus isolates were collected from 222 whole poultry carcasses. The isolates were characterized phenotypically with antibiotic resistance disc diffusion assays and genotypically using multilocus sequence typing. A total of 17 S. aureus isolates obtained from healthy humans were included and characterized in the same way as the poultry isolates. Staphylococcus spp. were recovered from all poultry carcasses. Only 25 poultry carcasses (11.2%) were contaminated with S. aureus. Of these 25 isolates, 36% were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested and 20% were resistant to two or more antibiotics tested. However, 100% of the human isolates were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics and 94% were resistant to two or more antibiotics. The results of the multilocus sequence typing indicate that most of the isolates grouped according to source. These results indicate a low prevalence of S. aureus present in poultry, and the isolates were not phenotypically similar to human isolates. The low number of S. aureus isolates from this study indicates that chicken carcasses would appear to not be a significant source of this bacterium.

  18. An assessment of the animal carcass disposal practices of the Virginia Department of Transportation and guidance for the selection of alternative carcass management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    More than 54,000 deer-vehicle collisions occurred in Virginia from 2007 through 2008, the fifth highest number of all U.S. states, and the number of these incidents is increasing each year. Removing animal carcasses from the road and properly disposi...

  19. Double Muscling in Cattle: Genes, Husbandry, Carcasses and Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo O. Fiems

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular biology has enabled the identification of the mechanisms whereby inactive myostatin increases skeletal muscle growth in double-muscled (DM animals. Myostatin is a secreted growth differentiation factor belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. Mutations make the myostatin gene inactive, resulting in muscle hypertrophy. The relationship between the different characteristics of DM cattle are defined with possible consequences for livestock husbandry. The extremely high carcass yield of DM animals coincides with a reduction in the size of most vital organs. As a consequence, DM animals may be more susceptible to respiratory disease, urolithiasis, lameness, nutritional stress, heat stress and dystocia, resulting in a lower robustness. Their feed intake capacity is reduced, necessitating a diet with a greater nutrient density. The modified myofiber type is responsible for a lower capillary density, and it induces a more glycolytic metabolism. There are associated changes for the living animal and post-mortem metabolism alterations, requiring appropriate slaughter conditions to maintain a high meat quality. Intramuscular fat content is low, and it is characterized by more unsaturated fatty acids, providing healthier meat for the consumer. It may not always be easy to find a balance between the different disciplines underlying the livestock husbandry of DM animals to realize a good performance and health and meat quality.

  20. CARCASS QUALITY OF PIGS OF DIFFERENT GENOTYPES ON FAMILY FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petričević

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the project titled “Optimal pig production models on family farms of eastern Croatia”, researches have been curried on in several family farms from three counties. Together with establishing the current state, researches on the possibilities of improvement of reproductive, production and other quality traits of pigs have been started. This improvement should be reached by getting the suitable sires and dams whose crosses (2- and 3-way crossbreeds would give fattening pigs with satisfying lean meat yield. Fattenng pigs as final products of pig productions were monitored in this study. Carcass quality of 1592 fattening pigs from 6 family farms were determined at the slaughter line during 1999 and 2000 year. The highest shares of lean meat determined by “two points” according to current national regulations method (1999 have been founded in Hypor hybrid pigs (55.49%, n=51 and 3-way crossbreeds (SLxLWxP (55.28%, n=692. Markedly lower results have been recorded in GLxSL and SLxGL crossbred pigs (50.37%, n=204; GLxP (50.34%, n=195; GL and GLxP (49.00%, n=96; SLxGL and GLxSL (47.51%, n=354. Poorer results achieved at those four farms could be explained by evidently inapropriate feeding of fattening pigs which should, regarding the genotype, yield in higher share of lean meat.

  1. Electromagnetic wave analogue of an electronic diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrivov, Ilya V; Powell, David A; Kivshar, Yuri S; Fedotov, Vassili A; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2011-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of rotation of the polarization state and is also a key component in optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by an extraordinarily strong nonlinear wave propagation effect in the same way as the electronic diode function is provided by the nonlinear current characteristic of a semiconductor junction. The effect exploited in this new electromagnetic diode is an intensity-dependent polarization change in an artificial chiral metamolecule. This microwave effect exceeds a similar optical effect previously observed in natural crystals by more than 12 orders of magnitude and a direction-dependent transmission that differs by a factor of 65.

  2. Reflective analogue optical link operating issues

    CERN Document Server

    Batten, Jeremy

    1996-01-01

    The proposed readout of analogue data from CMS tracker will use an optical fibre link. The choice of transmitter/receiver technology, however, has been the subject of intense research and development by the RD23 collaboration. One solution uses passive devices, multi-quantum well modulators, at the detector front end, and continuous wave driving lasers at the readout back end. This system has been tested at Imperial College. We report on the following: problems of noise associated with multimoded behaviour of a degraded laser; measurements of laser wavelength dependence on both drive current and temperature; and modulator reflectance dependence on laser wavelength. We extrapolate the findings to system issues, highlighting the degree of temperature control required of the driving laser.

  3. The gravitational analogue of the Witten effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.

    1984-06-01

    In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP-violation, the Witten effect [a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP-non-conservation] is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a theta R-tilde R term in the Lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed. (author)

  4. Gravitational analogue of the Witten effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))

    1985-07-22

    In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP violation, the Witten effect (a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP non-conservation) is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a thetaR tildeR term in the lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed.

  5. The gravitational analogue of the Witten effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.

    1985-01-01

    In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP violation, the Witten effect (a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP non-conservation) is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a thetaR tildeR term in the lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  6. Solution Processed PEDOT Analogues in Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österholm, Anna M; Ponder, James F; Kerszulis, Justin A; Reynolds, John R

    2016-06-01

    We have designed fully soluble ProDOTx-EDOTy copolymers that are electrochemically equivalent to electropolymerized PEDOT without using any surfactants or dispersants. We show that these copolymers can be incorporated as active layers in solution processed thin film supercapacitors to demonstrate capacitance, stability, and voltage similar to the values of those that use electrodeposited PEDOT as the active material with the added advantage of the possibility for large scale, high-throughput processing. These Type I supercapacitors provide exceptional cell voltages (up to 1.6 V), highly symmetrical charge/discharge behavior, promising long-term stability exceeding 50 000 charge/discharge cycles, as well as energy (4-18 Wh/kg) and power densities (0.8-3.3 kW/kg) that are comparable to those of electrochemically synthesized analogues.

  7. Synthesis of an Orthogonal Topological Analogue of Helicene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wixe, Torbjörn; Wallentin, Carl‐Johan; Johnson, Magnus T.

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of an orthogonal topological pentamer analogue of helicene is presented. This analogue forms a tubular structure with its aromatic systems directed parallel to the axis of propagation, which creates a cavity with the potential to function as a host molecule. The synthetic strategy r...

  8. Uncertainties and credibility building of safety analyses. Natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laciok, A.

    2001-07-01

    The substance of natural analogues and their studies is defined as a complementary method to laboratory and in-situ experiments and modelling. The role of natural analogues in the processes of development of repositories is defined, mainly in performance assessment of repository system and communication with public. The criteria for identification of natural analogues which should be evaluated in the phase of initiation of new studies are specified. Review part of this report is divided to study of natural analogues and study of anthropogenic and industrial analogues. The main natural analogue studies performed in various countries, in different geological setting, with various aims are characterized. New results acquired in recently finished studies are included: Palmottu (2nd phase of project financed by European Commission), Oklo (results of research financed also by European Commission), Maqarin (3rd phase) and other information obtained from last meetings and workshops of NAWG. In view of the fact that programmes of development of deep repositories in Czech and Slovak Republics are interconnected, the natural analogues studies carried out in the Czech republic are incorporated in separate chapter - study of uranium accumulation in Tertiary clays at Ruprechtov site and study of degradation of natural glasses. In final part the areas of natural analogue studies as an integral part of development of deep geological repository are proposed along with characterization of broader context and aspects of realization of these studies (international cooperation, preparation and evaluation of procedures, communication with public). (author)

  9. Insulin analogues and severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P L; Hansen, L S; Jespersen, M J

    2012-01-01

    The effect of insulin analogues on glycaemic control is well-documented, whereas the effect on avoidance of severe hypoglycaemia remains tentative. We studied the frequency of severe hypoglycaemia in unselected patients with type 1 diabetes treated with insulin analogues, human insulin, or mixed...

  10. Carcass analysis to improve a meat-based diet for the artificial rearing of the predatory mirid bug Dicyphus tamaninii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Rafael; Specty, Olivier; Grenier, Simon; Febvay, Gérard; Pageaux, Jean François; Delobel, Bernard; Castañé, Cristina

    2005-10-01

    Improvement of an existing meat-based diet has been obtained for rearing the generalist predator Dicyphus tamaninii (Heteroptera: Miridae). The approach followed, different from the classical addition/deletion method, was performing biochemical analysis of adult carcasses in order to have information about the nutritional status of the predator. Comparison of total, free amino acids and lipid composition of meat-reared and conventionally reared females allowed detecting some nutritional deficiencies. A reformulated diet with new sources of proteins and lipids was tested again with the predator. Some biological parameters of bugs that were inferior in the initial meat diet when compared with those of the conventionally reared insects, such as nymphal development time and fresh weight, have been improved with the reformulated diet. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Magnetic properties of Proxima Centauri b analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Bustamante, Sebastian

    2018-03-01

    The discovery of a planet around the closest star to our Sun, Proxima Centauri, represents a quantum leap in the testability of exoplanetary models. Unlike any other discovered exoplanet, models of Proxima b could be contrasted against near future telescopic observations and far future in-situ measurements. In this paper we aim at predicting the planetary radius and the magnetic properties (dynamo lifetime and magnetic dipole moment) of Proxima b analogues (solid planets with masses of ∼ 1 - 3M⊕ , rotation periods of several days and habitable conditions). For this purpose we build a grid of planetary models with a wide range of compositions and masses. For each point in the grid we run the planetary evolution model developed in Zuluaga et al. (2013). Our model assumes small orbital eccentricity, negligible tidal heating and earth-like radiogenic mantle elements abundances. We devise a statistical methodology to estimate the posterior distribution of the desired planetary properties assuming simple lprior distributions for the orbital inclination and bulk composition. Our model predicts that Proxima b would have a mass 1.3 ≤Mp ≤ 2.3M⊕ and a radius Rp =1.4-0.2+0.3R⊕ . In our simulations, most Proxima b analogues develop intrinsic dynamos that last for ≥4 Gyr (the estimated age of the host star). If alive, the dynamo of Proxima b have a dipole moment ℳdip >0.32÷2.9×2.3ℳdip , ⊕ . These results are not restricted to Proxima b but they also apply to earth-like planets having similar observed properties.

  12. Evolving a polymerase for hydrophobic base analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loakes, David; Gallego, José; Pinheiro, Vitor B; Kool, Eric T; Holliger, Philipp

    2009-10-21

    Hydrophobic base analogues (HBAs) have shown great promise for the expansion of the chemical and coding potential of nucleic acids but are generally poor polymerase substrates. While extensive synthetic efforts have yielded examples of HBAs with favorable substrate properties, their discovery has remained challenging. Here we describe a complementary strategy for improving HBA substrate properties by directed evolution of a dedicated polymerase using compartmentalized self-replication (CSR) with the archetypal HBA 5-nitroindole (d5NI) and its derivative 5-nitroindole-3-carboxamide (d5NIC) as selection substrates. Starting from a repertoire of chimeric polymerases generated by molecular breeding of DNA polymerase genes from the genus Thermus, we isolated a polymerase (5D4) with a generically enhanced ability to utilize HBAs. The selected polymerase. 5D4 was able to form and extend d5NI and d5NIC (d5NI(C)) self-pairs as well as d5NI(C) heteropairs with all four bases with efficiencies approaching, or exceeding, those of the cognate Watson-Crick pairs, despite significant distortions caused by the intercalation of the d5NI(C) heterocycles into the opposing strand base stack, as shown by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Unlike Taq polymerase, 5D4 was also able to extend HBA pairs such as Pyrene: varphi (abasic site), d5NI: varphi, and isocarbostyril (ICS): 7-azaindole (7AI), allowed bypass of a chemically diverse spectrum of HBAs, and enabled PCR amplification with primers comprising multiple d5NI(C)-substitutions, while maintaining high levels of catalytic activity and fidelity. The selected polymerase 5D4 promises to expand the range of nucleobase analogues amenable to replication and should find numerous applications, including the synthesis and replication of nucleic acid polymers with expanded chemical and functional diversity.

  13. Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses

  14. Natural analogues in Posiva's Safety Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, Nuria; Seppaelae, T.

    2008-01-01

    The Safety Case is a broader concept than Performance Assessment that allows better the use of natural analogues and observations from nature to understand the behaviour of the system and the processes at the site. Natural analogues are mostly use to add confidence to the safety of geological disposal with respect to: Design (depth and multi-barrier system), Materials (long-term durability), and Processes (understanding the long-term behaviour/evolution of the system). Ice ages and erosion: largest boulders released and transported by ice during the most recent ice age are well below 20 m. 25 glacial cycles would be necessary to erode in this fashion 500 m of bedrock. During the last million years only about 8-9 glacial cycles are known to have occurred. Geosphere stability: Minor possibility of damaging earthquakes due to the geological position of the Olkiluoto site in the Fennoscandian Shield. Magnitudes of earthquakes historically and over the last 40 years have been less than 3 in the area next to Olkiluoto. Stability, U, and flow rates at Olkiluoto: Shallow ground-waters: Assuming a discharge flow rate (DFR) of about 200000 m"3/km"2/year, the average concentration of U in gw was 3.7 μg/L. At depth 375 m: Assuming a discharge flow rate of about 1680 m"3/km"2/year, the average concentration of U in gw was 0.21 μg/L. At depth 475 m: Discharge flow rate of about 730 m"3/km"2/year, the average concentration of U in gw was 0.04 μg/L

  15. Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.

    1999-01-06

    This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses.

  16. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms with carcass traits in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, J B S; Pinto, L F B; Meirelles, F V; Eler, J P; de Rezende, F M; Oliveira, E C M; Almeida, H B; Woodward, B; Nkrumah, D

    2009-11-17

    The association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), T945M and UCP1SNP1, with hot carcass weight (HCW, kg, N = 618), longissimus dorsi muscle area (REA, cm(2), N = 633), and backfat thickness (BF, mm, N = 625), measured in Nellore cattle in Brazil, was evaluated. Likelihood ratio tests were used to evaluate reduced (fixed effects of general mean, contemporary group, yearling weight, age at slaughter, and random effect of infinitesimal genetic value) and full model (reduced model effects plus quantitative trait locus effects). Additive and dominance effects were tested for each SNP. Genotypic and gene frequencies were also obtained for the SNPs and a descriptive phenotype analysis was made. Mean values for HCW, REA and BF were equal to 288.13 +/- 0.55 kg, 73.14 +/- 0.27 cm(2), and 4.28 +/- 0.07 mm, respectively; the coefficients of variation were 4.74, 9.24, and 42.43%, respectively. Gene frequencies for T945M and UCP1SNP1 were f(C) = 0.89, f(T) = 0.11, f(C) = 0.81, and f(G) = 0.19. The SNP T945M had a genotypic frequency of only three animals for TT genotype. Additive effects were observed for T945M on REA and BF, while UCP1SNP1 affected HCW and BF. Based on the significant additive effects of the SNPs and the gene frequencies that we found, we can expect genetic gains with marker assisted selection.

  17. The effects on the microbiological condition of product of carcass dressing, cooling, and portioning processes at a poultry packing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, C O; Moza, L F; Badoni, M; Barbut, S

    2006-07-15

    The log mean numbers of aerobes, coliforms, Escherichia coli and presumptive staphylococci plus listerias on chicken carcasses and carcass portions at various stages of processing at a poultry packing plant were estimated from the numbers of those bacteria recovered from groups of 25 randomly selected product units. The fractions of listerias in the presumptive staphylococci plus listerias groups of organisms were also estimated. Samples were obtained from carcasses by excising a strip of skin measuring approximately 5 x 2 cm(2) from a randomly selected site on each selected carcass, or by rinsing each selected carcass portion. The log mean numbers of aerobes, coliforms, E. coli and presumptive staphylococci plus listerias on carcasses after scalding at 58 degrees C and plucking were about 4.4, 2.5, 2.2 and 1.4 log cfu/cm(2), respectively. The numbers of bacteria on eviscerated carcasses were similar. After the series of operations for removing the crop, lungs, kidneys and neck, the numbers of aerobes were about 1 log unit less than on eviscerated carcasses, but the numbers of the other bacteria were not substantially reduced. After cooling in water, the numbers of coliforms and E. coli were about 1 log unit less and the numbers of presumptive staphylococci plus listerias were about 0.5 log unit less than the numbers on dressed carcasses, but the numbers of aerobes were not reduced. The numbers of aerobes were 1 log unit more on boneless breasts, and 0.5 log units more on skin-on thighs and breasts that had been tumbled with brine than on cooled carcasses; and presumptive staphylococci plus listerias were 0.5 log unit more on thighs than on cooled carcasses. Otherwise the numbers of bacteria on the product were not substantially affected by processing. Listerias were 40% of the organisms were listerias.

  18. Bacterial recovery from breast skin of genetically feathered and featherless broiler carcasses immediately following scalding and picking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, R J; Berrang, M E; Cason, J A

    2003-10-01

    Genetically feathered and featherless sibling broilers selected for matched BW were killed, scalded, and defeathered to determine the consequences of feathers and empty feather follicles on the recovery of bacteria from carcass breast skin. In trial 1, the vents of all carcasses were plugged and sutured before scalding to prevent the expulsion of cloacal contents during picking. In trial 2, half of the carcasses had their vents plugged and sutured. Immediately after defeathering, breast skin was aseptically removed, and bacteria associated with it were enumerated. In trial 1, the levels of bacteria recovered did not differ between feathered and featherless carcasses: Campylobacter log10 1.4 cfu/mL of rinse, coliform log10 1.8, Escherichia coli log10 1.6, and total aerobic bacteria log10 3.1. In trial 2, the carcasses that had vents plugged and sutured had lower levels of all four types of bacteria (differences of Campylobacter log10 0.7 cfu/mL, coliform log10 1.8, E. coli log10 1.7, and total aerobic bacteria log10 0.5) than those carcasses with open vents. The lower levels of bacteria recovered from carcasses with the vents plugged and sutured during picking enabled detection of small but significant differences between feathered and featherless carcasses. The level of coliform and E. coli recovered was slightly higher by log10 0.7 cfu for feathered carcasses, but featherless carcasses had marginally higher levels of total aerobic bacteria by log10 0.4 cfu. Feathered and featherless carcasses with open vents during picking did not differ in the levels of recovery of coliform, E. coli, and total aerobic bacteria from breast skin.

  19. Effects of vertebral number variations on carcass traits and genotyping of Vertnin candidate gene in Kazakh sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective The vertebral number is associated with body length and carcass traits, which represents an economically important trait in farm animals. The variation of vertebral number has been observed in a few mammalian species. However, the variation of vertebral number and quantitative trait loci in sheep breeds have not been well addressed. Methods In our investigation, the information including gender, age, carcass weight, carcass length and the number of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae from 624 China Kazakh sheep was collected. The effect of vertebral number variation on carcass weight and carcass length was estimated by general linear model. Further, the polymorphic sites of Vertnin (VRTN gene were identified by sequencing, and the association of the genotype and vertebral number variation was analyzed by the one-way analysis of variance model. Results The variation of thoracolumbar vertebrae number in Kazakh sheep (18 to 20 was smaller than that in Texel sheep (17 to 21. The individuals with 19 thoracolumbar vertebrae (T13L6 were dominant in Kazakh sheep (79.2%. The association study showed that the numbers of thoracolumbar vertebrae were positively correlated with the carcass length and carcass weight, statistically significant with carcass length. To investigate the association of thoracolumbar vertebrae number with VRTN gene, we genotyped the VRTN gene. A total of 9 polymorphic sites were detected and only a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP (rs426367238 was suggested to associate with thoracic vertebral number statistically. Conclusion The variation of thoracolumbar vertebrae number positively associated with the carcass length and carcass weight, especially with the carcass length. VRTN gene polymorphism of the SNP (rs426367238 with significant effect on thoracic vertebral number could be as a candidate marker to further evaluate its role in influence of thoracolumbar vertebral number.

  20. Effects of vertebral number variations on carcass traits and genotyping of Vertnin candidate gene in Kazakh sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Yawei; Du, Wei; He, Sangang; Liu, Mingjun; Tian, Changyan

    2017-09-01

    The vertebral number is associated with body length and carcass traits, which represents an economically important trait in farm animals. The variation of vertebral number has been observed in a few mammalian species. However, the variation of vertebral number and quantitative trait loci in sheep breeds have not been well addressed. In our investigation, the information including gender, age, carcass weight, carcass length and the number of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae from 624 China Kazakh sheep was collected. The effect of vertebral number variation on carcass weight and carcass length was estimated by general linear model. Further, the polymorphic sites of Vertnin ( VRTN ) gene were identified by sequencing, and the association of the genotype and vertebral number variation was analyzed by the one-way analysis of variance model. The variation of thoracolumbar vertebrae number in Kazakh sheep (18 to 20) was smaller than that in Texel sheep (17 to 21). The individuals with 19 thoracolumbar vertebrae (T13L6) were dominant in Kazakh sheep (79.2%). The association study showed that the numbers of thoracolumbar vertebrae were positively correlated with the carcass length and carcass weight, statistically significant with carcass length. To investigate the association of thoracolumbar vertebrae number with VRTN gene, we genotyped the VRTN gene. A total of 9 polymorphic sites were detected and only a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs426367238) was suggested to associate with thoracic vertebral number statistically. The variation of thoracolumbar vertebrae number positively associated with the carcass length and carcass weight, especially with the carcass length. VRTN gene polymorphism of the SNP (rs426367238) with significant effect on thoracic vertebral number could be as a candidate marker to further evaluate its role in influence of thoracolumbar vertebral number.