WorldWideScience

Sample records for carburetors

  1. Evaluation of the micro-carburetor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, M.F.; Hall, R.A.; Mazor, S.D.

    1981-08-01

    A prototype sonic, variable-venturi automotive carburetor, developed by Micro Carburetor Corporation, was evaluated for its effects on vehicle performance, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions. A 350 CID Chevrolet Impala vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over the 1975 Federal Test Procedure, urban driving cycle. The Micro-carburetor was tested and compared with stock and modified-stock engine configurations. Subsequently, the test vehicle's performance characteristics were examined with the stock carburetor and again with the Micro-carburetor in a series of on-road driveability tests. The test engine was then removed from the vehicle and installed on an engine dynamometer. Engine tests were conducted to compare the fuel economy, thermal efficiency, and cylinder-to-cylinder mixture distribution of the Micro-carburetor to that of the stock configuration. Test results show increases in thermal efficiency and improvements in fuel economy at all test conditions.

  2. 14 CFR 23.1095 - Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. 23.1095... Induction System § 23.1095 Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. (a) If a carburetor deicing fluid system is used, it must be able to simultaneously supply each engine with a rate of fluid flow, expressed...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  6. 14 CFR 23.1099 - Carburetor deicing fluid system detail design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system detail design. 23.1099 Section 23.1099 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1099 Carburetor deicing fluid system detail design. Each carburetor...

  7. 40 CFR 80.166 - Carburetor deposit control performance test and test fuel guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carburetor deposit control performance... § 80.166 Carburetor deposit control performance test and test fuel guidelines. EPA will use the...)(ii)(B). (a) Carburetor Deposit Control Test Procedure and Performance Standard Guidelines....

  8. Detection Combustion Data Pattern on Gasoline Fuel Motorcycle with Carburetor System

    OpenAIRE

    Andrizal Andrizal; Budhi Bakhtiar; Rivanol Chadry

    2016-01-01

    Tune up combustion motorcycle engine made in order to obtain a perfect engine combustion category with maximum engine performance and fuel efficiency. Motorcycles with 4-stroke petrol injection system has facilities to process tune up in the form of engine control unit and engine scanner tool. While petrol 4 stroke motorcycle carburetor system is not equipped with facilities such as a motorcycle injection system, consequently, tune up the engine combustion process is done manually. Category o...

  9. Service the Two-Piece Flo-Jet Carburetor. Fuel System. Student Manual 3. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual, part of a small-engine repair series on servicing fuel systems, is designed for use by special needs students in Texas. The manual explains in pictures and short sentences, written on a low reading level, the job of servicing two-piece flo-jet carburetors. Along with the steps of this repair job, specific safety and caution…

  10. Detection Combustion Data Pattern on Gasoline Fuel Motorcycle with Carburetor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrizal Andrizal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tune up combustion motorcycle engine made in order to obtain a perfect engine combustion category with maximum engine performance and fuel efficiency. Motorcycles with 4-stroke petrol injection system has facilities to process tune up in the form of engine control unit and engine scanner tool. While petrol 4 stroke motorcycle carburetor system is not equipped with facilities such as a motorcycle injection system, consequently, tune up the engine combustion process is done manually. Category of the combustion engine can be determined based on the levels of emissions of HC, CO, CO2 and O2 contained in the exhaust gases of vehicles. This study aims to create a system to detect and display patterns of data categories motorcycle combustion gasoline engine carburetor system through the detection of exhaust emissions. This system is made using four gas sensors are integrated with the system FPGA (Field Progrmable Gate Array as the main system and a display system using a PC or Laptop. Tests performed on a number of motorcycles with the brand, manufacturer and year of manufacture are different. Detection results shown in graphical form a pattern data categories perfect combustion engine and the data pattern of incomplete combustion category with a response time to 10 seconds. This system is expected to be used as an alternative tool for mechanics in performing tune up combustion motorcycle engine.

  11. Comparative Performance of Engines Using a Carburetor, Manifold Injection, and Cylinder Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schey, Oscar W; Clark, J Denny

    1939-01-01

    The comparative performance was determined of engines using three methods of mixing the fuel and the air: the use of a carburetor, manifold injection, and cylinder injection. The tests were made of a single-cylinder engine with a Wright 1820-G air-cooled cylinder. Each method of mixing the fuel and the air was investigated over a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.10 to the limit of stable operation and at engine speeds of 1,500 and 1,900 r.p.m. The comparative performance with a fuel-air ratio of 0.08 was investigated for speeds from 1,300 to 1,900 r.p.m. The results show that the power obtained with each method closely followed the volumetric efficiency; the power was therefore the highest with cylinder injection because this method had less manifold restriction. The values of minimum specific fuel consumption obtained with each method of mixing of fuel and air were the same. For the same engine and cooling conditions, the cylinder temperatures are the same regardless of the method used for mixing the fuel and the air.

  12. Replace the Carburetor Diaphragm. Pulsa-Jet Style with Automatic Choke. Fuel System. Student Manual 2. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual, part of a small-engine repair series on servicing fuel systems, is designed for use by special needs students in Texas. The manual explains in pictures and short sentences, written on a low reading level, the job of replacing carburetor diaphragms. Along with the steps of this repair job, specific safety and caution…

  13. Comparative performance studies of a 4-stroke CI engine operated on dual fuel mode with producer gas and Honge oil and its methyl ester (HOME) with and without carburetor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Poona Bangalore Road, Hubli, Karnataka 580031 (India)

    2009-04-15

    carburetor was suitably designed to maximize the engine performance in dual fuel mode with Honge oil-producer gas and HOME-producer gas respectively. Thus bio-derived gas and vegetable oil, when used in a dual fuel mode with carburetor, resulted in better performance with reduced emissions. (author)

  14. Fuel Consumption of a Carburetor Engine at Various Speeds and Torques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schey, Oscar W; Clark, J Denny

    1938-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to obtain fuel-consumption curves for a single-cylinder engine with a Wright 1820-G and Pratt & Whitney 1340-H cylinder at varying speeds, manifold pressures, and air-fuel ratios. The 1340- H cylinder was tested at speeds from 1,200 to 2,400 r.p.m. and at manifold pressures from 21 to 38 inches of mercury absolute. Less than extensive tests were made of the 1820-G cylinder. The results of the tests showed that the minimum brake fuel consumption was obtained when the engines were operating at high torques and at speeds from 60 to 70 percent of the rated speed. The fuel consumption increased at an increasing rate as the torque was reduced; and, at 45 percent of maximum torque, the fuel consumption was 20 percent higher than at maximum torque when the engines were operating at 70 percent of rated speed. Minimum specific fuel consumption was obtained at the same air-fuel ratio regardless of compression ratio. No improvement in fuel consumption was obtained when mixtures leaner than an air-fuel ratio of 15.5 were used. The leanest mixture ratio on which the engine with the 1340-H cylinder would operate smoothly was 18.5 and the spark advance for maximum power with this mixture ratio was 50 degrees B.T.C. A method is discussed for reducing the amount of testing necessary to obtain curves for minimum brake fuel consumption.

  15. 14 CFR 23.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or level flight attitudes, unless drainage is provided. Any drain valve installed must be accessible... will constitute a fire hazard or from which fumes may enter personnel compartments; and (7) Vents must... venting capacity must allow the rapid relief of excessive differences of pressure between the interior...

  16. 切诺基发动机化油器的检查与调整%The Inspection and Adjustment of Cherokee Engine Carburetor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚延成; 王龙洲

    2000-01-01

    北京切诺基发动机采用卡特YFA单腔、下吸式、三重喉管化油器.该化油器结构比较复杂,检查和调整项目较多,难度大,与一般化油器有较大的区别.介绍了该化油器常用的检查与调整方法.

  17. 14 CFR 23.1305 - Powerplant instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... controllable propeller. (6) For each turbocharger installation: (i) If limitations are established for either carburetor (or manifold) air inlet temperature or exhaust gas or turbocharger turbine inlet...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 86 - Vehicle and Engine Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Carburetor-idle RPM, mixture ratio. (3) Choke mechanism. (4) Fuel system filter and fuel system lines and.... Lubricant. II. Fuel System. (1) Fuel type. (2) Fuel pump. (3) Fuel filters. (4) Injectors. (5) Governor. III... Components. (1) Carburetor air cleaner filter. (2) Hot air control valve. (b) Diesel Light-Duty......

  19. Tractor Mechanics: Maintaining and Servicing the Fuel System. Learning Activity Packages 20-33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for instruction in tractor mechanics. The packages deal with the duties involved in maintaining the fuel system. The following fourteen learning activity packages are included: servicing fuel and air filters, servicing fuel tanks and lines, adjusting a carburetor, servicing a carburetor, servicing the…

  20. 78 FR 42944 - Proposed Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act, as Amended, Carter Carburetor Superfund Site, St. Louis, Missouri...

  1. 40 CFR 1033.901 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) For testing, high-sulfur diesel fuel has the meaning given in 40 CFR part 1065. Hotel power means the..., low-sulfur diesel fuel has the meaning given in 40 CFR part 1065. Malfunction means a condition in..., fuel tank cap, fuel pump, fuel filters, fuel lines, carburetor or fuel-injection components, and......

  2. Automobile air pollution: control equipment. Volume 1. 1964-1978 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1964-78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-02-01

    Research reports on air pollution control equipment used in automobiles are cited. Topics include the design and performance of catalytic and thermal reactors, retrofit devices, carburetors, and ignition timing systems. Also covered are studies of the catalysts as well as the equipment regulations that the industry must follow. (This updated bibliography contains 259 abstracts, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  3. Where Computer Science and Cultural Studies Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschenbaum, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Most users have no more knowledge of what their computer or code is actually doing than most automobile owners have of their carburetor or catalytic converter. Nor is any such knowledge necessarily needed. But for academics, driven by an increasing emphasis on the materiality of new media--that is, the social, cultural, and economic factors…

  4. Attempt of lean burn of a 4 cycle gasoline engine by the aid of low pressure air assisted in-cylinder injection; Tonai kuki nenryo funsha ni yoru lean burn no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatakeyama, S.; Kondo, M.; Sekiya, Y.; Murayama, T. [Hokkaido Automotive Engineering College, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Comparable performance and exhaust emission with conventional carburetor was obtained by a low Pressure air assisted in-cylinder injection system. And lean burn of idling and light load operation till A/F=70 was realized by installing a spark Plug and a reed type injection nozzle in a divided combustion chambaer of a 4 cycle gasoline engine. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  5. 40 CFR 59.202 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... carburetor, or solvent use regulated under 40 CFR part 63, subpart T (halogenated solvent national emission... used in parts washing equipment, or any solvent use regulated under 40 CFR part 63, subpart T... asphalt, cork, linoleum, no-wax, rubber, seamless vinyl, and vinyl composite flooring. Floor polish or...

  6. Fakir fuel pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    1922-01-01

    In designing the Fakir fuel pump, the fundamental idea was to obtain a simple and reliable method of conveying the fuel from a low tank to the carburetor, with the avoidance of the faults of all former methods and the simultaneous warming of the fuel by means of the heat of compression generated. The principle of the Fakir fuel pump rests on the well-known principle of the diaphragm pump, which must be suitably adapted to the present purpose.

  7. Automobile air pollution: control equipment. Volume 2. 1979-January, 1980 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1979-jan 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-02-01

    This bibliography of Federally-sponsored research cites control equipment and retrofit techniques to control automobile exhaust emissions. The topics include the design and performance of catalytic and thermal reactors, retrofit devices, carburetors, and ignition timing systems. Also covered are studies of the catalysts as well as the equipment regulations that the industry must follow. (This updated bibliography contains 59 abstracts, all of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  8. Fatal fulminant hepatic failure in a 'solvent abuser'.

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, A S; Long, R G

    1992-01-01

    The case of a 17 year old abuser of butane aerosols who developed fulminant hepatic failure after taking a proprietary engine or carburetor cleaner is described. Fatalities as a result of liver failure due to volatile hydrocarbons or solvents have not previously been reported. The likely toxins included isopropyl alcohol, methyl amyl alcohol, butylated hydroxytoluene as well as petroleum products, and evidence for their toxicity is reviewed. The possibility of increased susceptibility to hepa...

  9. Multivariate analysis between driving condition and vehicle emission for light duty gasoline vehicles during rush hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liang; Li, Mengliang; Chen, Dong; Lu, Kaibo; Jin, Taosheng; Xu, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    Fourteen light-duty gasoline vehicles were tested by an OBS-2200 portable emission measurement system (PEMS). Vehicle speed, acceleration and emission rates of HC, CO, NOx and CO2 were recorded during rush hours (7:00-9:00 and 16:30-18:30 local time) in Tianjin, China. The emission factors of HC, CO and NOx for carbureted vehicles were 10, 4, 3 times higher than those with MPI (multi-points injection) and TWC (three-way catalytic converter), respectively. The emission factors of CO2 for carburetor car were 29% lower than those with MPI and TWC. For both types of vehicles, the Pearson correlation coefficients, between speed and CO2 emission in the mode of accelerating as well as between VSP (vehicle specific power) and CO2 emission when VSP > 0, remained relatively high (r > 0.5, p correlation was also found for NOx in carburetor vehicles. Linear trends between emission rates and VSP (bin-averaged data) were observed for NOx and CO2 from MPI vehicles, and HC, NOx and CO2 from carburetor vehicles.

  10. Fundamentals and applications of neutron imaging. Application part 3. Application of neutron imaging in aircraft, space rocket, car and gunpowder industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron imaging is applied to nondestructive test. Four neutron imaging facilities are used in Japan. The application examples of industries are listed in the table: space rocket, aircraft, car, liquid metal, and works of art. Neutron imaging of transportation equipments are illustrated as an application to industry. X-ray radiography testing (XRT) image and neutron radiography testing (NRT) image of turbine blade of aircraft engine, honeycomb structure of aircraft, helicopter rotor blade, trigger tube, separation nut of space rocket, carburetor of car, BMW engine, fireworks and ammunitions are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  11. Researches on direct injection in internal-combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuscher, Jean E

    1941-01-01

    These researches present a solution for reducing the fatigue of the Diesel engine by permitting the preservation of its components and, at the same time, raising its specific horsepower to a par with that of carburetor engines, while maintaining for the Diesel engine its perogative of burning heavy fuel under optimum economical conditions. The feeding of Diesel engines by injection pumps actuated by engine compression achieves the required high speeds of injection readily and permits rigorous control of the combustible charge introduced into each cylinder and of the peak pressure in the resultant cycle.

  12. COMPARISON STUDY ON PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS CHARACTERISTICS OF LPG AND GASOLINE IN A TWO STROKE SI ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. GOPALAKRISHNAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work a single cylinder two stroke three wheeler SI engine (199.3cc, 6.2 kW and 4500 rpm was used for the test. The engine manifold was altered to run in LPG mode. The gas carburetor was used here to mix the air and LPG thoroughly. Initially the engine was operated with gasoline in carburetor mode for the constant speed of 3000 rpm at different load. Then the engine was operated with LPG mode at the same speed. The performance and emission parameters were compared with gasoline carburetion mode. The maximum brake thermal efficiency with LPG was 22.3% and that with gasoline was 20.3%. The engine could generally operate with lean mixtures with LPG due to its good mixture formation capability. The brake specific fuel consumption decreased for LPG compared to gasoline. The HC and CO levels were lower considerably at LPG mode compared to gasoline operation. High NO and exhaust gas temperature levels were the main problems with LPG.

  13. The Use of Large Valve Overlap in Scavenging a Supercharged Spark-ignition Engine Using Fuel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schey, Oscar W; Young, Alfred W

    1932-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to determine the effect of more complete scavenging on the full throttle power and the fuel consumption of a four-stroke-cycle engine. The NACA single-cylinder universal test engine equipped with both a fuel-injection system and a carburetor was used. The engine was scavenged by using a large valve overlap and maintaining a pressure in the inlet manifold of 2 inches of mercury above atmospheric. The maximum valve overlap used was 112 degrees. Tests were conducted for a range of compression ratios from 5.5 to 8.5. Except for variable speed tests, all tests were conducted at an engine speed of 1,500 r.p.m. The results of the tests show that the clearance volume of an engine can be scavenged by using a large valve overlap and about 2 to 5 inches of mercury pressure difference between the inlet and exhaust valve. With a fuel-injection system when the clearance volume was scavenged, a b.m.e.p. of over 185 pounds per square inch and a fuel consumption of 9.45 pound per brake horsepower per hour were obtained with a 6.5 compression ratio. An increase of approximately 10 pounds per square inch b.m.e.p. was obtained with a fuel-injection system over that with a carburetor.

  14. Effect of Air Temperature and Relative Humidity at Various Fuel-Air Ratios on Exhaust Emissions on a Per-Mode Basis of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320 Diad Light Aircraft Engine: Volume 1: Results and Plotted Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempe, E. E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions include carburetor lean out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity.

  15. Effect of air temperature and relative humidity at various fuel-air ratios on exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis of an Avco Lycoming 0-320 DIAD light aircraft engine. Volume 2: Individual data points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempke, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions included carburetor lean-out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel-air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity. Volume II contains the data taken at each of the individual test points.

  16. Measurement of 238U and 232Th in Petrol, Gas-oil and Lubricant Samples by Using Nuclear Track Detectors and Resulting Radiation Doses to the Skin of Mechanic Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misdaq, M A; Chaouqi, A; Ouguidi, J; Touti, R; Mortassim, A

    2015-10-01

    Workers in repair shops of vehicles (cars, buses, truck, etc.) clean carburetors, check fuel distribution, and perform oil changes and greasing. To explore the exposure pathway of (238)U and (232)Th and its decay products to the skin of mechanic workers, these radionuclides were measured inside petrol, gas-oil, and lubricant material samples by means of CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs), and corresponding annual committed equivalent doses to skin were determined. The maximum total equivalent effective dose to skin due to the (238)U and (232)Th series from the application of different petrol, gas-oil, and lubricant samples by mechanic workers was found equal to 1.2 mSv y(-1) cm(-2). PMID:26313584

  17. Free automotive and heating fuels for home and farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is for farmers or any landowners with access to free materials, such as agricultural wastes, that can be converted with minimum expense to heating fuel of to ethanol for automotive use. Farmers can learn how to make and use stoves, furnaces or stills for processing their own free materials for their own use or their neighbors. If one is a good mechanic one can learn how to adjust carburetors, to start a business converting engines to burn ethanol. The book is intended to provide the information you need to make practical use of waste materials and to save money. The book contains five chapters: Ethanol feedstocks; Crops for burning; Conversion to fuel; Fuel Utilization; and Business Opportunities. These chapters have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  18. Characteristics of real-world vehicular emissions in Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhiliang; Wang, Qidong; He, Kebin; Huo, Hong; Ma, Yongliang; Zhang, Qiang

    2007-11-01

    On-board emission measurements were performed on 49 light-duty gasoline vehicles in seven cities of China. Vehicle-specific power mode distribution and emission characteristics were analyzed based on the data collected. The results of our study show that there were significant differences in different types of roads. The emission factors and fuel consumption rates on arterial roads and residential roads were approximately 1.4-2 times those on freeways. The carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nitrogen oxides emission factors of Euro II vehicles were on average 86.2, 88.2, and 64.5% lower than those of carburetor vehicles, respectively. The new vehicle emission standards implemented in China had played an important role in reducing individual vehicle emissions. More comprehensive measures need to be considered to reduce the total amount of emissions from vehicles. PMID:18069461

  19. Performance and emissions of a small scale generator powered by a spark ignition engine with adaptive fuel injection control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Analysis of a cost competitive injection system with adaptive control strategy for stationary spark ignition engines. • Good running characteristics and power quality for the proposed control system. • Efficiency and emissions analysis during multi-fuel operation of a small scale generation unit. • Brief financial analysis of payback periods for the proposed injection system compared to carburetor fueling. - Abstract: Distributed generation of electricity is more and more viewed as a solution for reducing transmission losses and provide better catering for the needs of end users. Small-scale generation is therefore likely to increase its share in the energy sector, as it ensures high degree of flexibility, quick start-up and good performance in combination with intermittent power sources such as solar or wind. One drawback of small scale generators driven by internal combustion engines is, however, low fuel conversion efficiency and high specific emissions compared to medium or high scale power units. A new control strategy for fuel injection and emissions reduction is proposed to mitigate both aspects, while ensuring flexibility in the choice of fuels for a spark ignition engine powered generator. Performance and emissions are compared for carburetor and fuel injection combined with the use of a three way catalytic converter, with the latter solution proving to be more efficient and environmentally friendly. Significant improvements in fuel conversion efficiency and reductions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons emissions were obtained by employing the proposed setup and control strategy. Flexibility in the use of different fuel types was evaluated by performing measurements with gasoline, iso-butanol and combined use of alcohol and natural gas. Financial aspects are also covered through a brief analysis of initial capital costs and payback time in order to offer a more detailed view of both fuel systems

  20. Experimental studies on fumigation of ethanol in a small capacity Diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To diversify the mix of domestic energy resources and to reduce dependence on imported oil, ethanol is widely investigated for applying in combination with Diesel fuel to reduce pollutants, including smoke and NOx. Present work aims at developing a fumigation system for introduction of ethanol in a small capacity Diesel engine and to determine its effects on emission. Fumigation was achieved by using a constant volume carburetor. Different percentages of ethanol fumes with air were then introduced in the Diesel engine, under various load conditions. Ethanol is an oxygenated fuel and lead to smooth and efficient combustion. Atomization of ethanol also results in lower combustion temperature. During the present study, gaseous emission has been found to be decreasing with ethanol fumigation. Results from the experiment suggest that ethanol fumigation can be effectively employed in existing compression ignition engine to achieve substantial saving of the limited Diesel oil. Results show that fumigated Diesel engine exhibit better engine performance with lower NOx, CO, CO2 and exhaust temperature. Ethanol fumigation has resulted in increase of unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emission in the entire load range. Considering the parameters, the optimum percentage was found as 15% for ethanol fumigation. -- Research highlights: → To diversify energy resources and to reduce dependence on imported oil, ethanol is used in Diesel engine to reduce pollutants. → Developing a fumigation system to inject ethanol in a small capacity Diesel engine, to determine its effects on emissions. → Different percentages of ethanol fumes with air were introduced in Diesel engine, under various load conditions by using a constant volume carburetor. → Results show that fumigated Diesel engine exhibits better engine performance with lower NOx, CO, CO2 and exhaust temperature. → Results show increase of unburned hydrocarbon emission in entire load range. Optimum percentage found as 15% for

  1. Improving of diesel combustion-pollution-fuel economy and performance by gasoline fumigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The effects of gasoline fumigation on the engine performance and NOx emission were investigated in Ford XLD 418 T automotive diesel engine. • Gasoline at approximately (2, 4, 6, 8 10, and 12)% (by vol.) ratios was injected into intake air by a carburetor. • GF enhances effective power and reduces brake specific fuel consumption, cost, and NOx emission. - Abstract: One of the most important objectives of the studies worldwide is to improve combustion of diesel engine to meet growing energy needs and to reduce increasing environmental pollution. To accomplish this goal, especially to reduce pollutant emissions, researchers have focused their interest on the field of alternative fuels and alternative solutions. Gasoline fumigation (GF) is one of these alternative solutions, by which diesel combustion, fuel economy, and engine performance are improved, and environmental pollution is decreased. In the fumigation method, gasoline is injected into intake air, either by a carburetor, which main nozzle section is adjustable or by a simple injection system. In the present experimental study, a simple carburetor was used, and the effects of gasoline fumigation at (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12)% (by vol.) gasoline ratios on the combustion, NOx emission, fuel economy, and engine performance sophisticatedly investigated for a fully instrumented, four-cylinder, water-cooled indirect injection (IDI), Ford XLD 418 T automotive diesel engine. Tests were conducted for each of the above gasoline fumigation ratios at three different speeds and for (1/1, 3/4, and 1/2) fuel delivery ratios (FDRs). GF test results showed that NOx emission is lower than that of neat diesel fuel (NDF). NOx emission decreases approximately 4.20%, 2.50%, and 9.65% for (1/1, 3/4, and 1/2) FDRs, respectively. Effective power increases approximately 2.38% for 1/1 FDR. At (2500 and 3000) rpms, effective power decreases at low gasoline ratios, but it increases at high gasoline ratios for 3/4 and 1/2 FDRs

  2. Emissions of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320-DIAD air cooled light aircraft engine as a function of fuel-air ratio, timing, and air temperature and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, P. R.; Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted aircraft engine was operated over a range of test conditions to establish the exhaust levels over the EPA seven-mode emissions cycle. Baseline (full rich production limit) exhaust emissions at an induction air temperature of 59 F and near zero relative humidity were 90 percent of the EPA standard for HC, 35 percent for NOx, and 161 percent for CO. Changes in ignition timing around the standard 25 deg BTDC from 30 deg BTDC to 20 deg BTDC had little effect on the exhaust emissions. Retarding the timing to 15 deg BTDC increased both the HC and CO emissions and decreased NOx emissions. HC and CO emissions decreased as the carburetor was leaned out, while NOx emissions increased. The EPA emission standards were marginally achieved at two leanout conditions. Variations in the quantity of cooling air flow over the engine had no effect on exhaust emissions. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased.

  3. Low Cost Intelligent Real Time Fuel Mileage Indicator for Motorbikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Jaimon Chacko Varghese,

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The design of “Low Cost Intelligent Real Time Fuel Mileage Indicator for Motorbikes” is intended to developing a low cost device that can actively display the fuel mileage of a motorbike and display it in real time onto a display which is attached/placed on the dashboard of a vehicle along with other driver information system. A unique method and system has been devised for giving instantaneous mileage readings in real time during both driving conditions and idling conditions corresponding to the amount of fuel consumed and the distance travelled by the motorbike. This device can be added as an enhancement to existing motorbikes too which works on carburetor and even on bikes with fuel injection technology. The mathematical calculations done by humans to manually check the mileage of a vehicle can be automated with the implementation of this device. Also, the probable distance that can be travelled by the vehicle corresponding to the amount of fuel in the fuel tank can also be estimated. The method and apparatus in this device includes a flowmeter from which the amount of fuel consumed is sensed and given as the input signal to a microcontroller which in turn also receives the signals from vehicle speed sensors indicating the distance travelled. The microcontroller access the data obtained from both the sensors and computes numerical value which can be displayed onto a display unit digitally.

  4. Modification and tuning of diesel bus engine for biogas electricity production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sittiboon Siripornakarachai

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is to convert and tune a bus diesel engine for electricity production in a farm using biogas as fuel. The engine under study is a Hino K-13CTI 13,000 cc 24 valve turbocharged engine coupled to a 3 phase 4 pole induction motor to produce electricity at 50 Hz. Modifications include an addition of biogas carburetor for air-fuel mixing, replacing the fuel injection system with spark ignition system, reduction of compression ratio from the original 16:1 to 8:1 using a cylinder head spacer, and modification of the turbocharger waste gate so the boost pressure can be adjusted. When the induction motor is synchronized to the power grid, the running speed of the engine is 1,500 rpm. Optimal engine efficiency was achieved at 28.6% by setting the lambda factor at 1.097, ignition timing at 54o before top dead center, and the turbocharger boost at 56 kPa. With this setting, the generator power output is 134.20 kilowatt with emission of CO and NOX being 1,154 and 896 ppm respectively.

  5. Unjuk Kerja Motor Bakar Bensin Dengan Turbojet Accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekadewi Anggraini Handoyo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One of several devices attached in an ignition engine to improve its performance is turbojet accelerator. The manufacturer claims that it will improve the engine's performance. To verify this advertisement, a research is done in Motor Bakar Laboratory in Petra Christian University. From the research done, it is found out that the device, turbojet accelerator, makes the pressure of the air incoming to the carburetor decreases while its velocity increases. Meanwhile, the performances of the engine including Brake Horse Power (BHP, torque, Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP and thermal efficiency are increasing. The engine equipped with turbojet accelerator will save its fuel consumption. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Salah satu alat yang ditambahkan pada motor bakar untuk menaikkan unjuk kerjanya adalah turbojet accelerator. Produsen alat ini mengatakan bahwa unjuk kerja motor bakar akan meningkat dengan pemasangan alat ini. Untuk membuktikan promosi ini dilakukan penelitian di laboratorium Motor Bakar, Universitas Kristen Petra. Hasil yang didapat dari percobaan yang dilakukan adalah bahwa turbojet accelerator menyebabkan aliran udara masuk karburator dengan lebih rendah dan kecepatan lebih tinggi. Sedang unjuk kerja yang meliputi daya BHP, Torsi, BMEP dan efisiensi termis motor bakar meningkat. Selain itu konsumsi bahan bakar menjadi lebih hemat jika motor bakar dilengkapi turbojet accelerator. Kata kunci: Turbojet accelerator, Motor bakar bensin, BHP, SFC, Torsi, Efisiensi termis.

  6. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION STUDIES ON DI-DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH PONGAMIA METHYL ESTER INJECTION AND METHANOL CARBURETION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARIBABU, N.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The target of the present study is to clarify ignition characteristics, combustion process and knock limit of methanol premixture in a dual fuel diesel engine, and also to improve the trade-off between NOx and smoke markedly without deteriorating the high engine performance. Experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of direct injection diesel engine operating in duel fuel mode using Pongamia methyl ester injection and methanol carburetion. Methanol is introduced into the engine at different throttle openings along with intake air stream by a carburetor which is arranged at bifurcated air inlet. Pongamia methyl ester fuel was supplied to the engine by conventional fuel injection. The experimental results show that exhaust gas temperatures are moderate and there is better reduction of NOx, HC, CO and CO2 at methanol mass flow rate of 16.2 mg/s. Smoke level was observed to be low and comparable. Improved thermal efficiency of the engine was observed.

  7. 汽车发动机在节能和排放领域的新进展%New Development of Energy Save and Emission of Automotive Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘巽俊

    2001-01-01

    回顾了内燃机的发展历程,并对为降低内燃机排放而采取各种动力的汽车进行分析,指出燃油汽车仍具有很大的发展前景。论述了汽油机从化油器式直至均燃直喷式的发展历程,并阐述了它们各自的优缺点;指出了柴油机为达到提高功率密度、降低燃油消耗及改善环境的目的应采取的措施。%The developing history of internal combustion engine is reviewed,all kinds of motor vehicles to reduce emissions are analyzed.It is noted that fuel-combusted motor vehicles have still a better developing prospect.Explained the developing history of gasoline engines from carburetor type to homogeneous combustion and direct injection type,their advantages and disadvantages are also explained respectively.The measures necessary to be adopted for increasing the power density,reducing the fuel consumption and improving the environment performance of diesel engines are introduced.

  8. Hydrogen transport studies using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron cross-sections and their angular and energy-dependence as characteristics of neutron interaction with hydrogen isotopes and compounds are presented. It is shown how deuteration and different molecular modifications (e.g. ortho and parahydrogen) affect the cross-sections and hence the beam attenuation. A comparison of neutron radiographic methods with other neutron techniques used for hydrogen detection is made and the necessary formalism to describe diffusion processes is given. The results obtained by neutron radiography on the measurement of hydrogen motion in various substances are reviewed, in particular diffusion measurements made on liquids (water, liquid hydrogen and methanol) and of hydrogen in metals (β-titanium, vanadium, niobium and tantalum). Finally, neutron-radiographic measurements of water transport in concrete and of carburetor icing are discussed. The advantages of the high detection efficiency of hydrogen by neutron radiography and the integral sample scan technique are simultaneously used for such measurements. Some typical results of this detection method in the field of physical and applied research are shown. (author)

  9. Correlation of cylinder-head temperatures and coolant heat rejections of a multicylinder, liquid-cooled engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Bruce T; Povolny, John H; Chelko, Louis J

    1949-01-01

    Data obtained from an extensive investigation of the cooling characteristics of four multicylinder, liquid-cooled engines have been analyzed and a correlation of both the cylinder-head temperatures and the coolant heat rejections with the primary engine and coolant variables was obtained. The method of correlation was previously developed by the NACA from an analysis of the cooling processes involved in a liquid-cooled-engine cylinder and is based on the theory of nonboiling, forced-convection heat transfer. The data correlated included engine power outputs from 275 to 1860 brake horsepower; coolant flows from 50 to 320 gallons per minute; coolants varying in composition from 100 percent water to 97 percent ethylene glycol and 3 percent water; and ranges of engine speed, manifold pressure, carburetor-air temperature, fuel-air ratio, exhaust-gas pressure, ignition timing, and coolant temperature. The effect on engine cooling of scale formation on the coolant passages of the engine and of boiling of the coolant under various operating conditions is also discussed.

  10. Experimental investigation of improving diesel combustion and engine performance by ethanol fumigation-heat release and flammability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We investigated ethanol fumigation experimentally. • Evaluations based on heat release and flammability analyses have been done. • Ethanol fumigation improves engine characteristics. • Nitrogen oxide and smoke index K decrease significantly. • Total fuel cost for ethanol fumigation becomes higher than neat diesel fuel. - Abstract: The effects of ethanol fumigation (EF) on combustion, smoke index K and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission and performance parameters of a turbocharged IDI automotive diesel engine have been examined experimentally. Also, evaluations based on heat release and flammability analysis have been done. Experiments were performed at three diesel fuel delivery rates (FDRs), three different engine speeds and various EF ratios (EFRs). Ethanol was introduced into intake air by a carburetor, which main nozzle section is adjustable, given approximately 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12% (by vol.) ethanol ratios. Experimental results show that smoke index K reduces for up to 4–8% EFRs but then it begins to increase. EF tests results showed that NOx emission takes lower values than that of neat diesel fuel (NDF). NOx emission decreases approximately 8.5%, 9.79% and 11.02% for 1/1, 3/4 and 1/2 FDRs respectively, at the selected engine speeds. For ethanol ratios higher than 8–10%, engine performance parameters improve for 1/1 and 3/4 FDRs but they deteriorate for 1/2 FDR at selected engine speeds. In heat release rate diagram two distinct peaks are observed for high ethanol additions. The first peak occurs before top dead center (TDC) and the second peak takes place after TDC. On the other hand, the first peak becomes larger, but the second peak diminishes as ethanol percentage increases. That is, premixed combustion of ethanol–air improves engine performance and also it increases in-cylinder pressure. However, total fuel cost of EF becomes higher than NDF because actual ethanol price is six times of diesel fuel in Turkey

  11. Real-world vehicle emission factors in Chinese metropolis city--Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi-dong; HE Ke-bin; HUO Hong; James Lents

    2005-01-01

    The dynamometer tests with different driving cycles and the real-world tests are presented. Results indicated the pollutants emission factors and fuel consumption factor with ECE15 + EUDC driving cycle usually take the lowest value and with real world driving cycle occur the highest value, and different driving cycles will lead to significantly different vehicle emission factors with the same vehicle.Relative to the ECE15 + EUDC driving cycle, the increasing rate of pollutant emission factors of CO, NOx and HC are - 0.42-2.99,- 0.32-0.81 and - 0.11-11 with FTP75 testing, 0.11-1.29, - 0.77-0.64 and 0.47-10.50 with Beijing 1997 testing and 0.25-1.83,0.09-0.75 and - 0.58-1.50 with real world testing. Compared to the carburetor vehicles, the retrofit and MPI + TWC vehicles' pollution emission factors decrease with different degree. The retrofit vehicle (Santana) will reduce 4.44%-58.44% CO, - 4.95%-36.79% NOx, - 32.32%-33.89% HC, and - 9.39%-14.29% fuel consumption, and especially that the MPI + TWC vehicle will decrease CO by 82.48%-91.76%, NOx by 44.87%-92.79%, HC by 90.00%-93.89% and fuel consumption by 5.44%-10.55%. Vehicles can cause pollution at a very high rate when operated in high power modes; however, they may not often operate in these high power modes.In analyzing vehicle emissions, it describes the fraction of time that vehicles operate in various power modes. In Beijing, vehicles spend 90% of their operation in low power modes or decelerating.

  12. The Pilatus Unmanned Aircraft System for Lower Atmospheric Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, Gijs; Palo, Scott; Agrow, Brian; LoDolce, Gabriel; Mack, James; Gao, Ru-Shan; Telg, Hagen; Trussell, Cameron; Fromm, Joshua; Long, Charles N.; Bland, Geoff I.; Maslanik, James; Schmid, Beat; Hock, Terry

    2016-04-28

    This paper presents the University of Colorado Pilatus unmanned research aircraft, assembled to provide measurements of aerosols, radiation and thermodynamics in the lower troposphere. This aircraft has a wingspan of 3.2 meters and a maximum take off weight of 25 kg and is pow-ered by an electric motor to reduce engine exhaust and concerns about carburetor icing. It carries instrumentation to make measurements of broadband up- and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, aerosol particle size distribution, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure and to collect video of flights for subsequent analysis of atmospheric conditions during flight. In order to make the shortwave radiation measurements, care was taken to carefully position a high-quality compact inertial measurement unit (IMU) and characterize the orientation offset between it and the upward looking radiation sensor. Using measurements from both of these sensors, a cor-rection is applied to the raw measurements to correct for aircraft attitude and sensor tilt relative to he sun. The data acquisition system was designed from the ground up in order to accommodate the variety of sensors deployed. Initial test flights completed in Colorado provide promising results with measurements from the radiation sensors generally agreeing with those from a nearby surface site. Additionally, estimates of surface albedo from onboard sensors were consistent with local surface conditions, including melting snow and bright runway surface. Aerosol size distributions collected are internally consistent and have previously been shown to agree well with larger, surface-based instrumentation. Finally the atmospheric state measurements evolve as would be expected, with the near-surface atmosphere warming over time as the day goes on, and the atmospheric relative humidity decreasing with increased temperature. No directional bias on measured temperature, as might be expected due to uneven heating of the sensor

  13. New energy-saving and environmentally friendly technologies for buses and trucks; Nieuwe energiezuinige en milieuvriendelijke technologien voor bussen en vracthtwagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, R.; De Keukeleere, D.; Lenaers, G.

    1998-09-01

    The point of departure was the statement that people find public transport buses highly polluting. A lot of attention went to the advantages and the disadvantages of buses and trucks on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and natural gas. These fuels don`t cause any particle emissions from the combustion process. To quantify the other environmental advantages of gas technology, the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO) carried out measurements of different bus technologies. Fuel consumption, emission of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxides and hydrocarbons of 8 buses were measured in the Brussels traffic. 3 technologies of the early nineties were taken as a reference: the Euro-1 diesel, the current Brussels public transport company natural gas bus and a LPG bus. Comparisons were made with the modern diesel bus (Euro-2) and the newest buses on natural gas and LPG. To achieve minimal emissions, the best available technology for buses on natural gas or LPG is multipoint injection, the constructors of engines for heavy-duty traffic are changing from carburetor to fuel injection. The best available gas technologies has emissions that can be 50 to 95 per cent lower than the most modern diesel bus. Users mentioned problems at the introduction of vehicles on gas, such as lower reliability and availability. The cost price continues to be a disadvantage of buses and trucks on gas. The extra consumption of fuel doesn`t necessarily imply higher costs. Often fuel suppliers and distributors offer a favourable unit price, which includes the cost for the infrastructure. The purchase price of the vehicle remains higher and the workplaces must be adjusted for maintenance and repairs of vehicles on gas. The bus or truck on diesel is very reliable and cheaper to use than a similar vehicle on gas. The environmental perspectives are much less marked. Heavy-duty traffic emits nitrogen oxides and particles. With respect to these harmful substances in particular, constructors must

  14. Combustion Characteristics of Methane in A Direct Injection Engine Using Spark Plug Fuel Injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taib Iskandar Mohamad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The combustion characteristics of methane in a direct injection spark ignition engine using Spark Plug Fuel Injector (SPFI was investigated. SPFI is a system developed to convert any externally-mixing (port injection, carburetor spark ignition engine to direct injection by combining fuel injectors into spark plugs. The burning rates of methane were measured using normalized combustion pressure method, where the normalized pressure rise due to combustion is equivalent to the mass fraction burnt at the specific crank angle. A single cylinder research engine was installed with the SPFI system. Cylinder pressures were taken with engine running at 1100 rpm and stoichiometric air/fuel ratio. The spark timing was set at 25oBTDC. For comparison, the engine was run with methane port injection. The optimal fuel injection timing with SPFI was found to be 170o BTDC. Results showed that SPFI direct injection, increased the volumetric efficiency by 11% compared to port injection, resulting in higher heating value of cylinder charge per cycle. Combustion analysis show that the overall burning rate of methane direct injection is faster than the ones of port injection although is slower at the initial stage. Injection pressures affect ignition delay but not the combustion duration. Changing mixture stoichiometry affects the magnitude of ignition delay. Combustion duration increases with leaner mixture. Different load conditions have significant effect on combustion process. Lower loads tend to increase combustion duration but shorten ignition delay. SPFI Di methane system has the potential of increasing engine performance due to increased volumetric efficiency and faster burning rate.

  15. Information draft on the development of air standards for methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Methanol is a clear, colourless. very mobile liquid with a slightly alcoholic odour in pure form, but a repulsive pungent odour in crude form. Methanol is the raw material in the production of many gasoline additives, is used as a solvent or antifreeze in paint strippers, aerosol spray paints, wall paints, carburetor cleaners, and car windshield washer compounds. Methanol is one of the top pollutants by release quantities in Ontario, the highest release being generated by the pulp and paper industry. Other large emissions come from the plastics and synthetic resin industry. Total release to the air in Canada was 3,668 tonnes in 1996 and the top ten methanol emitting facilities were in Ontario. Methanol is readily absorbed through inhalation, ingestion and skin exposures. Once absorbed, it is oxidized to formaldehyde and then to formic acid. Common symptoms of exposure are visual disturbances, dizziness, nausea, vertigo, pain in the extremities, and headaches. No information was found as to the carcinogenicity of methanol to humans or animals. Current Ontario half-hour POI standard for methanol is 84,000 microgram/cubic meter and the 24-hour AAQC is 28,000 microgram/cubic meter. Both values were established more than 20 years ago. Review of relevant literature, summarized in this report, indicates that five US states have promulgated air quality guidelines or reference exposure levels for methanol, based on occupational exposure limits. The US Environmental Protection Agency is currently reviewing its reference concentration value for methanol. The World Health Organization and the Canadian federal government have not set air quality guidelines for methanol. 37 refs., 1 tab., appendix.

  16. The pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, G.; Palo, S.; Argrow, B.; LoDolce, G.; Mack, J.; Gao, R.-S.; Telg, H.; Trussel, C.; Fromm, J.; Long, C. N.; Bland, G.; Maslanik, J.; Schmid, B.; Hock, T.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents details of the University of Colorado (CU) Pilatus unmanned research aircraft, assembled to provide measurements of aerosols, radiation and thermodynamics in the lower troposphere. This aircraft has a wingspan of 3.2 m and a maximum take off weight of 25 kg and is powered by an electric motor to reduce engine exhaust and concerns about carburetor icing. It carries instrumentation to make measurements of broadband up- and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, aerosol particle size distribution, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure and to collect video of flights for subsequent analysis of atmospheric conditions during flight. In order to make the shortwave radiation measurements, care was taken to carefully position a high-quality compact inertial measurement unit (IMU) and characterize the attitude of the aircraft and it's orientation to the upward looking radiation sensor. Using measurements from both of these sensors, a correction is applied to the raw radiometer measurements to correct for aircraft attitude and sensor tilt relative to the sun. The data acquisition system was designed from scratch based on a set of key driving requirements to accommodate the variety of sensors deployed. Initial test flights completed in Colorado provide promising results with measurements from the radiation sensors agreeing with those from a nearby surface site. Additionally, estimates of surface albedo from onboard sensors were consistent with local surface conditions, including melting snow and bright runway surface. Aerosol size distributions collected are internally consistent and have previously been shown to agree well with larger, surface-based instrumentation. Finally the atmospheric state measurements evolve as expected, with the near-surface atmosphere warming over time as the day goes on, and the atmospheric relative humidity decreasing with increased temperature. No directional bias on measured temperature, as might be

  17. Motorcycles, mopeds: polluting emissions and energy consumption. Initial observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbusse, St.

    2001-05-01

    The present French fleet of two-wheel vehicles is very heterogeneous (2- and 4-stroke engines with cubic capacity from 50 cm{sup 3} to 1300 cm{sup 3} and automatic or manual transmissions) and generally lacking in any anti-pollution system, which leads to high emission levels of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. Mopeds have high emission levels compared to those of 4-wheel vehicles, which have decreased markedly since 1970. The following chart of limit values confirms that the gap between these two vehicle categories in polluting emissions has increased in just a few years. The implementation of more restrictive regulations about pollution emissions was delayed for a long time because of cumulative technological delays in comparison to private vehicles. But in the end a European directive differentiating two kinds of two-wheel vehicles: mopeds and motorcycles was voted in 1997 (no. 97/24). There are two stages (in 1999 and 2002 respectively) for lowering emissions levels for mopeds (engine size smaller than 50 cm{sup 3}). For motorcycles a single stage was set for 1999, with a second stage still under consideration. Given the high stakes in terms of decreased pollution emission rom the necessary technological leap for the shift from outmoded carburetor engines to more refined technology (injection + post-treatment) under ADEME's guidance, the issue of exhaust-pollution reduction of two-wheel vehicles was included in both the PRIMEQUAL programme, 'Automobile Pollution Emissions' and the PREDIT call for proposals, 'Cycle Fuel Engine Pollution Reduction' in 1999. Several projects of varying technical natures (evaluations of existing engines and technological studies of new solutions in engines and exhaust pollution reduction) have been implemented in partnership with specialist research laboratories (such as the IFP) and manufacturers and outfitters in the sector (Sagem, Arvin Exhaust, Peugeot Motorcycles). Moreover, as the principle

  18. The pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. de Boer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents details of the University of Colorado (CU Pilatus unmanned research aircraft, assembled to provide measurements of aerosols, radiation and thermodynamics in the lower troposphere. This aircraft has a wingspan of 3.2 m and a maximum take off weight of 25 kg and is powered by an electric motor to reduce engine exhaust and concerns about carburetor icing. It carries instrumentation to make measurements of broadband up- and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, aerosol particle size distribution, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure and to collect video of flights for subsequent analysis of atmospheric conditions during flight. In order to make the shortwave radiation measurements, care was taken to carefully position a high-quality compact inertial measurement unit (IMU and characterize the attitude of the aircraft and it's orientation to the upward looking radiation sensor. Using measurements from both of these sensors, a correction is applied to the raw radiometer measurements to correct for aircraft attitude and sensor tilt relative to the sun. The data acquisition system was designed from scratch based on a set of key driving requirements to accommodate the variety of sensors deployed. Initial test flights completed in Colorado provide promising results with measurements from the radiation sensors agreeing with those from a nearby surface site. Additionally, estimates of surface albedo from onboard sensors were consistent with local surface conditions, including melting snow and bright runway surface. Aerosol size distributions collected are internally consistent and have previously been shown to agree well with larger, surface-based instrumentation. Finally the atmospheric state measurements evolve as expected, with the near-surface atmosphere warming over time as the day goes on, and the atmospheric relative humidity decreasing with increased temperature. No directional bias on measured

  19. The Pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Gijs; Palo, Scott; Argrow, Brian; LoDolce, Gabriel; Mack, James; Gao, Ru-Shan; Telg, Hagen; Trussel, Cameron; Fromm, Joshua; Long, Charles N.; Bland, Geoff; Maslanik, James; Schmid, Beat; Hock, Terry

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents details of the University of Colorado (CU) "Pilatus" unmanned research aircraft, assembled to provide measurements of aerosols, radiation and thermodynamics in the lower troposphere. This aircraft has a wingspan of 3.2 m and a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg, and it is powered by an electric motor to reduce engine exhaust and concerns about carburetor icing. It carries instrumentation to make measurements of broadband up- and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, aerosol particle size distribution, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure and to collect video of flights for subsequent analysis of atmospheric conditions during flight. In order to make the shortwave radiation measurements, care was taken to carefully position a high-quality compact inertial measurement unit (IMU) and characterize the attitude of the aircraft and its orientation to the upward-looking radiation sensor. Using measurements from both of these sensors, a correction is applied to the raw radiometer measurements to correct for aircraft attitude and sensor tilt relative to the sun. The data acquisition system was designed from scratch based on a set of key driving requirements to accommodate the variety of sensors deployed. Initial test flights completed in Colorado provide promising results with measurements from the radiation sensors agreeing with those from a nearby surface site. Additionally, estimates of surface albedo from onboard sensors were consistent with local surface conditions, including melting snow and bright runway surface. Aerosol size distributions collected are internally consistent and have previously been shown to agree well with larger, surface-based instrumentation. Finally the atmospheric state measurements evolve as expected, with the near-surface atmosphere warming over time as the day goes on, and the atmospheric relative humidity decreasing with increased temperature. No directional bias on measured temperature, as might

  20. The Use of E100 to Fuel a Used 4-Stroke Motorcycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Suthisripok

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Though ethanol and gasohol are proved to be used as alternative fuels in vehicles, 4-stoke motorcycles used nationwide mainly consumed gasoline 91/95. Approach: The motorcycle tested, the used Honda Wave125 model, was properly tuned at the rich relative air-fuel ratio (λ 0.85, which theoretically gave the maximum power output. For the use of E100, the engine required richer air-fuel mixture condition, the main nozzle and idle nozzle sizes were therefore increased from the sizes used for gasoline91; by 21.4% from 0.78 mm for the main nozzle and 76% from 0.35 mm for the idle nozzle. Due to having three times higher in heat of vaporization, the stronger current ignition coil was used instead. This eased the engine starting without any trace amount of gasoline. The ignition timing was advanced by about +9Ocrank angle to suit E100’s high octane number of 107. Results: The performance test results of E100 on dynamometer showed that the maximum power output was 9 hp@7428 rpm and the maximum torque was 11 Nm@4728 rpm. Comparing to the use of gasoline91, the engine performance decreased 12-15% over the speed range of around 4000-8000 rpm. From the road tests; city road test and long driving test, at the average speed of 60 km h-1 the average consumption rate of E100 was about 25-28% more. The calculated fuel conversion efficiency of E100 was 38.2% higher. For emission measurements when using E100, the concentrations of CO and of HC were 3.14 vol % and 2143 ppm. Those were higher than in the exhaust of the use of gasoline91 but below the regulations which required 1.0 condition. Since a particular instrument was not available, aldehyde concentration in the E100’s emission was not measured. Conclusion: It clearly confirmed that E100, 95.5 vol % ethanol, can be effectively used as an alternative fuel in used 4-stroke motorcycles whose carburetors were purposely designed for the use of gasoline91. If the engines were properly tuned up

  1. 双燃料发动机气缸压力变动研究%Study on the Cylinder Pressure Fluctuate for a Double Fuel S.I. Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张博彦; 雷艳; 周大森

    2005-01-01

    A high-speed data acquisition system for multi-cylinder spark ignition engine was developed in order to measure the indicator diagrams of each cylinder simultaneously with the maximum sampling frequency of 1 MHz and the total input signals of 16 channels at the same time. A carburetor S.I. engine reconstructed into a double fuel engine has been tested using the data acquisition system in this research. At lease 50 cycles' pressure data of each cylinder were measured. The average value and the fluctuant coefficient of maximum pressure were calculated. The comparison among different cylinder's inlet air quantity has been made using the maximum pressure's average value. Then the combustion pressures of each cylinder have been measured continuously and simultaneously on condition that either burning gasoline or compressed natural gas (CNG). The comparison of combustion and variation among each cylinder has been made using the averaged value and the variation coefficient of the maximum combustion pressure. The experiment results show that the variation coefficient of the maximum combuction prossure when burning CNG is lower than the value of gasoline engine.%为了准确测量发动机气缸压力、分析燃烧过程,开发了一套可同时测量多缸汽油机各缸示功图的高速数据采集系统,最多同时采集16路信号,最大采样频率1MHz. 应用本数据采集系统对化油器发动机改造的双燃料发动机进行了测试. 每个气缸测量了至少50循环的压力数据,用倒拖最大压力的平均值为评价标准比较了各缸的进气量差异.同时,分别连续测量了各个气缸燃烧汽油和CNG时的燃烧压力.最后,用最大燃烧压力的平均值和变动系数比较了各缸的燃烧变动.实验结果表明,实验用发动机的各缸进气和燃烧状况存在明显差异,而燃用CNG时最大燃烧压力的变动系数小于燃用汽油时的数据.