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Sample records for carboxylation

  1. 1-Azaniumylcyclobutane-1-carboxylate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray J. Butcher

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C5H9NO2·H2O, the amino acid is in the usual zwitterionic form involving the α-carboxylate group. The cyclobutane backbone of the amino acid is disordered over two conformations, with occupancies of 0.882 (7 and 0.118 (7. In the crystal, N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the zwitterions [with the water molecule involved as both acceptor (with the NH3+ and donor (through a single carboxylate O from two different aminocyclobutane carboxylate moities], resulting in a two-dimensional layered structure lying parallel to (100.

  2. Carboxyl group reactivity in actin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While earlier work showed that the carboxyl groups of proteins could be quantitatively coupled to amino groups at pH 4.75 in the presence of EDC and a denaturing agent, the work presented here indicates that under milder conditions the modification of sidechain carboxyls is limited and somewhat specific. Most of the incorporated glycine ethyl ester (GEE) is apparently bound to five carboxyls. The total GEE incorporated was 3 to 4 moles/mole of protein as measured by an increase in Gly upon acid hydrolysis and amino acid analysis, as well as total radioactivity. 3.55 residues were found in peptides, 2.75 bound to residues 1 to 4, and 0.8 bound to Gly-100. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Manganese Carboxylates

    OpenAIRE

    Maryudi; R.M. Yunus; A.H. Nour; M.H. Abidin

    2009-01-01

    The explorations of prodegradant additives for plastics from trans-metals organic salts have been being conducted. This study reports a method of synthesis of manganese carboxylates and their characterization. The new method involves reaction between molten carboxylic acid with sodium hydroxide in alcoholic solution to produce sodium carboxylate and continued by reacting sodium carboxylate with chloride salt of manganese. First reaction and second reaction were conducted at 80-85°C and under ...

  4. Structure Property Relationships of Carboxylic Acid Isosteres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalas, Pierrik; Gay, Bryant; Lasfargeas, Caroline; James, Michael J; Tran, Van; Vijayendran, Krishna G; Brunden, Kurt R; Kozlowski, Marisa C; Thomas, Craig J; Smith, Amos B; Huryn, Donna M; Ballatore, Carlo

    2016-04-14

    The replacement of a carboxylic acid with a surrogate structure, or (bio)-isostere, is a classical strategy in medicinal chemistry. The general underlying principle is that by maintaining the features of the carboxylic acid critical for biological activity, but appropriately modifying the physicochemical properties, improved analogs may result. In this context, a systematic assessment of the physicochemical properties of carboxylic acid isosteres would be desirable to enable more informed decisions of potential replacements to be used for analog design. Herein we report the structure-property relationships (SPR) of 35 phenylpropionic acid derivatives, in which the carboxylic acid moiety is replaced with a series of known isosteres. The data set generated provides an assessment of the relative impact on the physicochemical properties that these replacements may have compared to the carboxylic acid analog. As such, this study presents a framework for how to rationally apply isosteric replacements of the carboxylic acid functional group. PMID:26967507

  5. Complicated Composting: Persistent Pyridine Carboxylic Acid Herbicides

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews pyridine carboxylic acid herbicide impacts on compost. Pyridine carboxylic acid herbicides are not completely broken down during grass growth, harvest and drying of hay, in the digestive tract of livestock, or during composting. These herbicides are a popular choice for broadleaf weed control because of this persistence: they remain effective for months or years. Pyridine carboxylic acids are also more effective than the common herbicide 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and ...

  6. Carboxylation and anaplerosis in neurons and glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, B

    2000-01-01

    Anaplerosis, or de novo formation of intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, compensates for losses of TCA cycle intermediates, especially alpha-ketoglutarate, from brain cells. Loss of alpha-ketoglutarate occurs through release of glutamate and GABA from neurons and through export of glutamine from glia, because these amino acids are alpha-ketoglutarate derivatives. Anaplerosis in the brain may involve four different carboxylating enzymes: malic enzyme, phosphoenopyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and pyruvate carboxylase. Anaplerotic carboxylation was for many years thought to occur only in glia through pyruvate carboxylase; therefore, loss of transmitter glutamate and GABA from neurons was thought to be compensated by uptake of glutamine from glia. Recently, however, anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylation was demonstrated in glutamatergic neurons, meaning that these neurons to some extent can maintain transmitter synthesis independently of glutamine. Malic enzyme, which may carboxylate pyruvate, was recently detected in neurons. The available data suggest that neuronal and glial pyruvate carboxylation could operate at as much as 30% and 40-60% of the TCA cycle rate, respectively. Cerebral carboxylation reactions are probably balanced by decarboxylation reactions,, because cerebral CO2 formation equals O2 consumption. The finding of pyruvate carboxylation in neurons entails a major revision of the concept of the glutamine cycle. PMID:11414279

  7. EPOXY RESINS TOUGHENED WITH CARBOXYL TERMINATED POLYETHERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yunchao; LI Yiming

    1983-01-01

    Carboxyl terminated polyethers, the adducts of hydroxyl terminated polytetrahydrofuran and maleic anhydride, were used as toughener for epoxy resins. The morphology of the toughened resins was investigated by means of turbidity measurement, dynamic mechanical testing and scanning electron microscope observation. It turned out that the molecular weight and the carboxyl content of the polyether and the cure conditions are important factors, which affect the particle size of the polyether-rich domains and, in turn, the mechanical properties of the cured resin. Carboxyl terminated polytetrahydrofurans have a low glass transition temperature, and in appropriate amount they do not affect the thermal resistance of the resin. These advantages make them preferable as toughener for epoxy resins.

  8. Novel Polymers with Carboxylic Acid Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anders Daugaard; Malmström, Eva; Hvilsted, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Click chemistry has been used to prepare a range of novel polymers with pendant carboxylic acid side groups. Four azido carboxylic acids, either mono- or difunctional and aliphatic or aromatic, have been prepared and thoroughly characterized. Extensive model reactions with 1-ethyl-4-hydroxybenzene......, the simplest model for poly(4-hydroxystyrene), and the four azido carboxylic acids have been conducted to establish the proper reaction conditions and provide an analytical frame for the corresponding polymers. Poly(4-hydroxystyrene) moieties in three different polymers—poly(4-hydroxystyrene), poly(4...... the polymers in general exhibit [when poly(4-hydroxystyrene) is a substantial part] significant changes in the glass-transition temperature from the polar poly(4-hydroxystyrene) (120–130 °C) to the much less polar alkyne polymers (46–60 °C). A direct correlation between the nature of the pendant groups...

  9. Hygroscopic Characteristics of Alkylaminium Carboxylate Aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Hernandez, Mario; McKeown, Megan; Secrest, Jeremiah; Marrero-Ortiz, Wilmarie; Lavi, Avi; Rudich, Yinon; Collins, Don R; Zhang, Renyi

    2016-03-01

    The hygroscopic growth factor (HGF) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity for a series of alkylaminium carboxylate aerosols have been measured using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer coupled to a condensation particle counter and a CCN counter. The particles, consisting of the mixtures of mono- (acetic, propanoic, p-toluic, and cis-pinonic acid) and dicarboxylic (oxalic, succinic, malic, adipic, and azelaic acid) acid with alkylamine (mono-, di-, and trimethylamines), represent those commonly found under diverse environmental conditions. The hygroscopicity parameter (κ) of the alkylaminium carboxylate aerosols was derived from the HGF and CCN results and theoretically calculated. The HGF at 90% RH is in the range of 1.3 to 1.8 for alkylaminium monocarboxylates and 1.1 to 2.2 for alkylaminium dicarboxylates, dependent on the molecular functionality (i.e., the carboxylic or OH functional group in organic acids and methyl substitution in alkylamines). The κ value for all alkylaminium carboxylates is in the range of 0.06-1.37 derived from the HGF measurements at 90% RH, 0.05-0.49 derived from the CCN measurements, and 0.22-0.66 theoretically calculated. The measured hygroscopicity of the alkylaminium carboxylates increases with decreasing acid to base ratio. The deliquescence point is apparent for several of the alkylaminium dicarboxylates but not for the alkylaminium monocarboxylates. Our results reveal that alkylaminium carboxylate aerosols exhibit distinct hygroscopic and deliquescent characteristics that are dependent on their molecular functionality, hence regulating their impacts on human health, air quality, and direct and indirect radiative forcing on climate. PMID:26794419

  10. Mass spectrometric behaviour of carboxylated polyethylene glycols and carboxylated octylphenol ethoxylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frańska, Magdalena; Zgoła, Agnieszka; Rychłowska, Joanna; Szymański, Andrzej; Łukaszewski, Zenon; Frański, Rafał

    2003-01-01

    Mass spectrometric behaviour of mono- and di-carboxylated polyethylene glycols (PEGCs and CPEGCs) and carboxylated octylphenol ethoxylates (OPECs) are discussed. The tendency for ionisation (deprotonation, protonation and cationisation by alkali metal cations) of carboxylated PEGs was compared with that of non-carboxylated correspondents by using both secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electrospray ionisation (ESI). The fragmentation of the PEGCs and CPEGCs is discussed and also compared with their neutral correspondents, PEGs. The B/E mass spectra were recorded, using secondary ion mass spectrometry as a method for generation, for deprotonated and protonated molecules and molecules cationised by alkali metal cations. The fragmentation behaviour of PEGs is found to be different from that of CPEGCs, The presence of carboxylic groups may be confirmed not only by the determination of molecular weights of the ethoxylates studied, but also on the basis of the fragment ions formed. The metastable decomposition of the [OPEC-H](-) ions proceed through the cleavage of the bond between the octylphenol moiety and the ethoxylene chain leading to the octylphenoxy anions. It permits determination of the mass of the hydrophobic moiety of the studied carboxylated alkylphenol ethoxylate. ESI mass spectra recorded in the negative ion mode were found to be more suitable for the determination of the average molecular weight of carboxylated ethoxylates than SI mass spectra. PMID:12939494

  11. Nitric Acid Dehydration Using Perfluoro Carboxylate and Mixed Sulfonate/Carboxylate Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Ames

    2004-09-01

    Perfluoro ionomer membranes are tetrafluoro ethylene-based materials with microheterogeneous structures consisting of a hydrophobic polymer backbone and a hydrophilic side-chain cluster region. Due to the ionomer cluster morphology, these films exhibit unique transport properties. Recent investigations with perfluoro sulfonate and perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate composite polymers have demonstrated their value in the dehydration of nitric acid and they show potential as an alternative to conventional, energy intensive unit operations in the concentration of acid feeds. As a result, investigations were conducted to determine the feasibility of using pure perfluoro carboxylate and mixed perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate films for the dehydration of nitric acid because of the speculation of improved water selectivity of the carboxylate pendant chain. During the first phase of these investigations the effort was focused on generating a thin, solution cast perfluoro carboxylate ionomer film, to evaluate the general, chemical and physical characteristics of the polymer, and to assess the material's aqueous transport performance (flux and nitrate separation efficiencies) in pervaporation and high-pressure environments. Results demonstrated that generating robust solution-cast films was difficult yet a number of membranes survived high trans-membrane pressures up to 700 psig. General characterization of the solution cast product showed reduced ion exchange capacities when compared with thicker, ''as received'' perfluoro carboxylate and similar sulfonate films. Small angle x-ray scattering analysis results suggested that the solution cast carboxylate films contained a small fraction of sulfonate terminated side-chains. Aqueous transport experimentation showed that permeate fluxes for both pure water and nitric acid were approximately two orders of magnitude smaller for the carboxylate solution cast membranes when compared to their sulfonate

  12. Methyl 3-(Quinolin-2-ylindolizine-1-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumaissa Belguedj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel compound, methyl 3-(quinolin-2-ylindolizine-1-carboxylate (2 has been synthesized by cycloaddition reaction of 1-(quinolin-2-ylmethylpyridinium ylide (1 with methyl propiolate in presence of sodium hydride in THF. The structure of this compound was established by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS data

  13. 2-Isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexyl quinoline-2-carboxylate

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    E. Fazal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C20H25NO2, the cyclohexyl ring adopts a slightly disordered chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the quinoline ring and the carboxylate group is 22.2 (6°. In the crystal, weak C—H...N interactions make chains along [010].

  14. Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2014-09-09

    This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

  15. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl...

  16. Carboxylated Polyurethanes Containing Hyperbranched Polyester Soft Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žigon, M.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available hyperbranched polyester soft segments (HB PU with functional carboxylic groups in order to enable the preparation of stable HB PU dispersions. Carboxylated hyperbranched polyurethanes were synthesized using a hyperbranched polyester based on 2,2-bis(methylolpropionic acid of the fourth pseudo-generation (Boltorn H40 and hexamethylene (HDI or isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI. The reactivity of hyperbranched polyester with HDI was lower than expected, possibly due to the presence of less reactive hydroxyl groups in the linear repeat units. A gel was formed at mole ratios rNCO/OH = 1:2 or 1:4. The synthesis of HB PU was performed with partly esterified hyperbranched polyester with lowered hydroxyl functionality. The carboxyl groups were incorporated in the HB PU backbone by reaction of residual hydroxyl groups with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride. HB PU aqueous dispersions were stable at least for two months, although their films were brittle. The tensile strength and Young's modulus of blends of linear and HB PU decreased with increasing content of HB PU whereas elongation at break remained nearly constant, which was explained in terms of looser chain packing due to more open tree-like hyperbranched structures.

  17. Surface chemical properties of sodium salts of carboxylic acids isolated from Green River shale. [Sodium carboxylates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKay, J.F.; Blanche, M.S.; Robertson, R.E.

    1985-12-01

    Organic material isolated from Green River shale varies substantially with the method of isolation. Short-time supercritical fluid treatment and solvent extraction of Green River shale produces large amounts of sodium carboxylates. These sodium salts were observed to form emulsions and therefore be surface active. Quantitative surface activity measurements were then determined using the shale extract. The material was found to have a limiting surface tension of about 41 dynes/cm (as expected) for carboxylates. However, the critical micelle concentration is quite high and has a measured molecular weight value of 600. This probably results from higher solubility of the lower molecular weight species. The solution did not display hysteresis. In general the carboxylic acid salts isolated from Green River shale displayed surface activity similar to those of model compounds cited in the literature.

  18. Carboxylic Acid Esters as Substrates of Cholinesterases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brestkin, A. P.; Rozengart, E. V.; Abduvakhabov, A. A.; Sadykov, A. A.

    1983-10-01

    Data on the kinetics of the hydrolysis of various carboxylic acid esters by two main types of cholinesterases — acetylcholinesterase from human erythrocytes and butyrylcholinesterase from horse blood serum — are surveyed. It is shown that the rate of enzyme hydrolysis depends significantly on the structure of the acyl part of the ester molecule, the nature of the ester heteroatom, the structure of the alcohol component, and particularly the structure of the onium group. Esters based on natural products are of special interest as specific substrates of these enzymes. The role of the productive and non-productive sorption of the substrates in enzyme catalysis is demonstrated. The bibliography includes 81 references.

  19. Metal extraction by amides of carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction ability of various amides was studied. Data on extraction of rare earths, vanadium, molybdenum, rhenium, uranium, niobium, tantalum by N,N-dibutyl-amides of acetic, nonanic acids and fatly synthetic acids of C7-C9 fractions are presented. Effect of salting-out agents, inorganic acid concentrations on extraction process was studied. Potential ability of using amides of carboxylic acids for extractional concentration of rare earths as well as for recovery and separation of iron, rhenium, vanadium, molybdenum, uranium, niobium, and tantalum was shown

  20. Carboxylation and Decarboxylation of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles Using Bifunctional Carboxylic Acids and Octylamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The carboxylation of alumina nanoparticles (NPs, with bifunctional carboxylic acids, provides molecular anchors that are used for building more complexed structures via either physisorption or chemisorption. Colloidal suspensions of the NPs may be prepared by covalently bonding a series of carboxylic acids with secondary functional groups (HO2C-R-X to the surface of the NPs: lysine (X = NH2, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (X = OH, fumaric acid (X = CO2H, and 4-formylbenzoic acid (X = C(OH. Subsequent reaction with octylamine at either 25°C or 70°C was investigated. Fourier transform IR-attenuated reflectance spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM along with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis were used to characterize the bifunctionalized monolayers and/or multilayer corona surrounding the alumina NPs and investigate the reaction mechanism of octylamine with the functional groups (X of the NPs. Except for the fumaric functionalized NPs, addition of octylamine to the functionalized NPs leads to removal of excess carboxylic acid corona from the surface via an amide formation. The extent of the multilayer is dependent on the strength of the acid⋯acid interaction.

  1. Carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile-toughened epoxy/carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube nanocomposites: Thermal and mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    H. F. Xie; Wang, Y. T.; Wang, C. S.; H. Y. Yin; Wang, L.L.; R. S. Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Carboxyl-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT–COOHs) as nanofillers were incorporated into diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) toughened with carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN). The carboxyl functional carbon nanotubes were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Furthermore, cure kinetics, glass transition temperature (Tg), mechanical properties, thermal stability and morphology of DGEBA/CTBN/MWCNT–COOH...

  2. Ion exchange properties of carboxylate bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagasse fibers were chemically modified using three different reactions: esterification using monochloro acetic acid, esterification using succinic anhydride, and oxidation using sodium periodate and sodium chlorite to prepare cation exchanger bearing carboxylic groups. Bagasse was crosslinked using epichlorohydrin before chemical modification to avoid loss of its constituents during the chemical modification. The structure of the prepared derivatives was proved using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and chemical methods. The ability of the prepared bagasse cation exchangers to adsorb heavy metal ions (Cu+2, Ni+2, Cr+3, Fe+3), on a separate basis or in a mixture of them, at different metal ion concentration was tested. Thermal stability of the different bagasse derivative was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

  3. 2-(Carboxymethylsulfanylpyridine-3-carboxylic acid monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Juan Wang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C8H7NO4S·H2O, was obtained by reaction of 2-mercaptopyridine-3-carboxylic acid with chloroacetic acid. In the molecular structure, the dihedral angle between the two least-squares planes defined by the pyridine ring and the carboxy group is 8.32 (9°. The carboxymethylsulfanyl group makes a torsion angle of 82.64 (12° with the pyridine ring. An intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond between the acidic function of the carboxymethylsulfanyl group and the pyridine N atom stabilizes the conformation, whereas intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonding with the uncoordinated water molecules is responsible for packing of the structure, leading to chains propagating in [001].

  4. Boron-containing amino carboxylic acid compounds and uses thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel compounds which are useful for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are disclosed. The compounds comprise a stable boron-containing group and an aminocycloalkane carboxylic acid group or a boronated acyclic hydrocarbon-linked amino carboxylic acid. Methods for synthesis of the compounds and for use of the compounds in BNCT are disclosed

  5. Lysine carboxylation: unveiling a spontaneous post-translational modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computational method for the prediction of lysine carboxylation (KCX) in protein structures is described. The method accurately identifies misreported KCXs and predicts previously unknown KCX sites. The carboxylation of lysine residues is a post-translational modification (PTM) that plays a critical role in the catalytic mechanisms of several important enzymes. It occurs spontaneously under certain physicochemical conditions, but is difficult to detect experimentally. Its full impact is unknown. In this work, the signature microenvironment of lysine-carboxylation sites has been characterized. In addition, a computational method called Predictor of Lysine Carboxylation (PreLysCar) for the detection of lysine carboxylation in proteins with available three-dimensional structures has been developed. The likely prevalence of lysine carboxylation in the proteome was assessed through large-scale computations. The results suggest that about 1.3% of large proteins may contain a carboxylated lysine residue. This unexpected prevalence of lysine carboxylation implies an enrichment of reactions in which it may play functional roles. The results also suggest that by switching enzymes on and off under appropriate physicochemical conditions spontaneous PTMs may serve as an important and widely used efficient biological machinery for regulation

  6. Biodegradation of cycloalkane carboxylic acids in oil sand tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biodegradation of both an n-alkane and several carboxylated cycloalkanes was examined experimentally within tailings produced by the extraction of bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands. The carboxylated cycloalkanes examined were structurally similar to naphthenic acids that have been associated with the acute toxicity of oil sand tailings. The biodegradation potential of naphthenic acids was estimated by determining the biodegradation of both the carboxylated cycloalkanes and hexadecane in oil sand tailings. Carboxylated cycloalkanes were biodegraded within oil sands tailings, although compounds with methyl substitutions on the cycloalkane ring were more resistant to microbial degradation. Microbial activity against hexadecane and certain carboxylated cycloalkanes was found to be nitrogen and phosphorus limited. 21 refs., 3 refs., 1 tab

  7. Critical Design Features of Phenyl Carboxylate-Containing Polymer Microbicides

    OpenAIRE

    Rando, Robert F.; Obara, Sakae; Osterling, Mark C.; Mankowski, Marie; Miller, Shendra R.; Ferguson, Mary L.; Krebs, Fred C.; Wigdahl, Brian; Labib, Mohamed; Kokubo, Hiroyasu

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies of cellulose-based polymers substituted with carboxylic acids like cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) have demonstrated the utility of using carboxylic acid groups instead of the more common sulfate or sulfonate moieties. However, the pKa of the free carboxylic acid group is very important and needs careful selection. In a polymer like CAP the pKa is approximately 5.28. This means that under the low pH conditions found in the vaginal lumen, CAP would be only minimally soluble an...

  8. Applications of Carboxylic Acid Reductases in Oleaginous Microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resch, Michael G.; Linger, Jeffrey; McGeehan, John; Tyo, Keith; Beckham, Gregg

    2016-04-24

    Carboxylic acid reductases (CARs) are recently emerging reductive enzymes for the direct production of aldehydes from biologically-produced carboxylic acids. Recent work has demonstrated that these powerful enzymes are able to reduce a very broad range of volatile- to long-chain fatty acids as well as aromatic acids. Here, we express four CAR enzymes from different fungal origins to test their activity against fatty acids commonly produced in oleaginous microbes. These in vitro results will inform metabolic engineering strategies to conduct mild biological reduction of carboxylic acids in situ, which is conventionally done via hydrotreating catalysis at high temperatures and hydrogen pressures.

  9. Novel Polymers with a High Carboxylic Acid Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anders Daugaard; Malmström, Eva; Hvilsted, Søren

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Click chemistry has been used to prepare a range of novel polymers with pendant carboxylic acid side groups. Four azido carboxylic acids, either mono- or difunctional and aliphatic or aromatic, have been prepared and thoroughly characterized. Extensive model reactions with 1-ethyl-4......-hydroxybenzene, the simplest model for poly(4-hydroxystyrene), and the four azido carboxylic acids have been conucted to establish the proper reaction conditions and provide an analytical frame for the corresponding polymers. Poly(4-hydroxystyrene) moieties in three different polymers—poly (4-hydroxystyrene......), poly(4-hydroxystyrene-co-methyl methacrylate), and poly(4-hydroxy- styrene-b-styrene)-----have been quantitatively transformed into oxypropynes by the use of either Williamson nr Mitsunobu strategies and subsequently reacted with the azido carboxylic acids. Detailed differential scanning calorimetry...

  10. Selective carboxyl methylation of structurally altered calmodulins in Xenopus oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The eucaryotic protein carboxyl methyltransferase specifically modifies atypical D-aspartyl and L-isoaspartyl residues which are generated spontaneously as proteins age. The selectivity of the enzyme for altered proteins in intact cells was explored by co-injecting Xenopus laevis oocytes with S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-3H]methionine and structurally altered calmodulins generated during a 14-day preincubation in vitro. Control experiments indicated that the oocyte protein carboxyl methyltransferase was not saturated with endogenous substrates, since protein carboxyl methylation rates could be stimulated up to 8-fold by increasing concentrations of injected calmodulin. The oocyte protein carboxyl methyltransferase showed strong selectivities for bovine brain and bacterially synthesized calmodulins which had been preincubated in the presence of 1 mM EDTA relative to calmodulins which had been preincubated with 1 mM CaCl2. Radioactive methyl groups were incorporated into base-stable linkages with recombinant calmodulin as well as into carboxyl methyl esters following its microinjection into oocytes. This base-stable radioactivity most likely represents the trimethylation of lysine 115, a highly conserved post-translational modification which is present in bovine and Xenopus but not in bacterially synthesized calmodulin. Endogenous oocyte calmodulin incorporates radioactivity into both carboxyl methyl esters and into base-stable linkages following microinjection of oocytes with S-adenosyl-[methyl-3H]methionine alone. The rate of oocyte calmodulin carboxyl methylation in injected oocytes is calculated to be similar to that of lysine 115 trimethylation, suggesting that the rate of calmodulin carboxyl methylation is similar to that of calmodulin synthesis. At steady state, oocyte calmodulin contains approximately 0.0002 esters/mol of protein, which turn over rapidly

  11. The essential activated carboxyl group of inorganic pyrophosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avaeva, S M; Bakuleva, N P; Baratova, L A; Nazarova, T I; Fink, N Y

    1977-05-12

    1. A carboxyl group of high reactivity has been found in inorganic pyrophosphatase (pyrophosphate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.1) from yeast. This group interacts with agents which react neither with carboxyl groups of low molecular weight compounds nor with other carboxyl groups of the protein. 2. The reaction of this activated carboxyl group with inorganic phosphate, hydroxylamine, N-methyl- and O-methylhydroxylamines, and glycine methyl ester has been studied. 3. Homoserine and homoserine lactone were found in the hydrolyzate of phosphorylated and NaBH4-reduced pyrophosphatase, indicating that an aspartyl residue is phosphorylated. 4. Hydroxylamine and other nucleophilic agents cause inactivation of pyrophosphatase as a result of interaction with a carboxyl group. Both diaminobutyric and diaminopropionic acids were seen in the acid hydrolyzate of the protein treated with hydroxylamine and subjected to rearrangement in the presence of carbodiimide. 5. The ways in which the activation of a carboxyl group in the enzyme is achieved and the presumed mechanism of action of inorganic pyrophosphatase are discussed. PMID:16652

  12. Selective esterification of non-conjugated carboxylic acids in the presence of conjugated or aromatic carboxylic acids over active carbon supported methanesulfonic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Non-conjugated carboxylic acids are selectively esterified in good yields in the presence of conjugated or aromatic carboxylic acids by stirring over active carbon supported methanesulfonic acid in di-chloromethane at room temperature.

  13. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Parameters for Uncatalyzed Esterification of Carboxylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde S. Bankole

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental study on uncatalyzed esterification of various biomass-derived aliphatic carboxylic acids with stoichiometric amount of ethanol has been investigated in an isothermal batch reactor, with the objective to convert carboxylic acids to corresponding ethyl esters and to determine both the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. The effects of temperature on the conversion of carboxylic acid, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters have been investigated. Temperature was found to have significant effect on the rate of reaction and conversion of carboxylic acid. A simple second order reversible kinetic model was developed to determine the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. The thermodynamic and kinetic parameters varied for uncatalyzed esterification reaction of both short-chain and long-chain carboxylic acids considered. The predicted data from the kinetic model were correlated with experimental data and the two sets of data agreed reasonably well for the uncatalyzed esterification systems. It was observed that the Van’t Hoff plot for uncatalyzed esterification of linoleic acid was non-linear curve, whereas for the Arrhenius and Eyring plots, they were linear. Additional experiments to assess the catalytic and corrosion effects of several metallic substances revealed Inconel 625 alloy, nickel wire and stainless steel materials were susceptible to corrosion problem with uncatalyzed esterification reaction at elevated reaction temperatures. However, tantalum and grade-5 titanium materials were corrosion resistance metals, suitable for similar reaction conditions and this can encourage the design of a flow reactor system. Although, uncatalyzed esterification of carboxylic acids at elevated reaction temperature is still at laboratory scale. It is our hope that the estimated kinetic and thermodynamic parameters would be the guiding tools for reactor scale-up, thus providing a new perspective into the conversion of biomass-derived carboxylic

  14. Pyrazine Carboxylic Acid Derivatives of Dichlorobis(Cyclopentadienyltitanium(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Chandra Dixit

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Reactions of dichlorobis(cyclopentadienyltitanium(IV with pyrazine carboxylic acids viz. 2-pyrazine carboxylic acid (2-PzCH, 5-methyl-2-pyrazine carboxylic acid (MPzCH and 2,3-pyrazine dicarboxylic acid (2,3-PzDCH2 were carried out in different stoichiometric ratios. Complexes of the type Cp2Ti(2-PzCCl , Cp2Ti(2-PzC2 ,Cp2Ti(MPzCCl,Cp2Ti(MPzC2, Cp2Ti(2,3-PzDCHCl and Cp2Ti(2,3-PzDCH2 were obtained. These newly synthesized complexes were characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, electrical conductance, magnetic moment and spectral data.

  15. Pyrazine Carboxylic Acid Derivatives of Dichlorobis(Cyclopentadienyl)titanium(IV)

    OpenAIRE

    Satish Chandra Dixit; Rohit Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of dichlorobis(cyclopentadienyl)titanium(IV) with pyrazine carboxylic acids viz. 2-pyrazine carboxylic acid (2-PzCH), 5-methyl-2-pyrazine carboxylic acid (MPzCH) and 2,3-pyrazine dicarboxylic acid (2,3-PzDCH2) were carried out in different stoichiometric ratios. Complexes of the type Cp2Ti(2-PzC)Cl , Cp2Ti(2-PzC)2 ,Cp2Ti(MPzC)Cl,Cp2Ti(MPzC)2, Cp2Ti(2,3-PzDCH)Cl and Cp2Ti(2,3-PzDCH)2 were obtained. These newly synthesized complexes were characterized on the basis of elemental analyse...

  16. Radiolysis of carboxylic acids adsorbed in clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is aimed at studying the effect of ionizing radiation in an heterogeneous system formed by a carboxylic acid adsorbed in a clay mineral. The study is focussed to discriminate if the presence of a solid surface alters the formation and distribution of radiolytic products in relation to the radiolysis of the carboxylic acid without the surface (clay). The results showed that the radiolysis of the system clay-acid goes along a defined path rather than showing various pathways of decomposition as in the case of simple aqueous solutions. The main pathway was the decarboxylation of the target compound rather than condensation/dimerization reactions

  17. Cyclodextrin derivatives with cyanohydrin and carboxylate groups as artificial glycosidases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bols, Mikael; Ortega-Caballero, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Two cyclodextrin derivatives (1 and 2) were prepared in an attempt to create glycosidase mimics with a general acid catalyst and a nucleophilic carboxylate group. The catalysts 1 and 2 were found to catalyse the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside at pH 8.0, but rapidly underwent...... decomposition with loss of hydrogen cyanide to convert the cyanohydrin to the corresponding aldehyde. The initial rate of the catalysis shows that the cyanohydrin group in these molecules functions as a good catalyst, but that the carboxylate has no positive effect. The decomposition product aldehydes display...

  18. Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein in Barley Chloroplast Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannangara, C. G.; Jense, C J

    1975-01-01

    Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained by...... solubilization of the lamellae in phenol/acetic acid/8 M urea. Feeding barley seedlings with [14C]-biotin revealed that the vitamin is not degraded into respiratory substrates by the plant, but is specifically incorporated into biotin carboxyl carrier protein....

  19. Synthesis, Crystal and Molecular Structure Studies and DFT Calculations of Phenyl Quinoline-2-Carboxylate and 2-Methoxyphenyl Quinoline-2-Carboxylate; Two New Quinoline-2 Carboxylic Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edakot Fazal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The crystal and molecular structures of the title compounds, phenyl quinoline-2-carboxylate and 2-methoxyphenyl quinoline-2-carboxylate, two new derivatives of quinolone-2-carboxylic acid, are reported and confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic data. Compound (I, C16H11NO2, crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c, with 8 molecules in the unit cell. The unit cell parameters are a = 14.7910(3 Å; b = 5.76446(12 Å; c = 28.4012(6 Å; β = 99.043(2°; V = 2391.45(9 Å3. Compound (II, C17H13NO5, crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n with 4 molecules in the unit cell. The unit cell parameters are a = 9.6095(3 Å; b = 10.8040(3 Å; c = 13.2427(4 Å; β = 102.012(3°; V = 1344.76(7 Å3. Density functional theory (DFT geometry optimized molecular orbital calculations were performed and frontier molecular orbitals of each compound are displayed. Correlation between the calculated molecular orbital energies (eV for the surfaces of the frontier molecular orbitals to the electronic excitation transitions from the absorption spectra of each compound has been proposed. Additionally, similar correlations observed among six closely related compounds examining small structural differences to their frontier molecular orbital surfaces and from their DFT molecular orbital energies, provide further support for the suggested assignments of the title compounds.

  20. Light dependence of carboxylation capacity for C3 photosynthesis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photosynthesis at high light is often modelled by assuming limitation by the maximum capacity of Rubisco carboxylation at low carbon dioxide concentrations, by electron transport capacity at higher concentrations, and sometimes by triose-phosphate utilization rate at the highest concentrations. Pho...

  1. Conformation of some carboxylic acids and their derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanters, J.A.; Kroon, Jan; Peerdeman, A.F.; Schoone, J.C.

    1967-01-01

    The conformation in the crystalline state of some aliphatic carboxylic acids and their derivatives has been analysed. This analysis, based upon the results of structure determinations by means of X-ray diffraction, seems to support the concept that the conformation of a molecule is governed chiefly

  2. Acidity of carboxylic acids: a rebuttal and redefinition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Otto; Čársky, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 39 (2001), s. 9564-9570. ISSN 0002-7863 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/1454 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : carboxylic acids Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 6.079, year: 2001

  3. Organometallic carboxylate resists for extreme ultraviolet with high sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarelli, James; Murphy, Michael; Re, Ryan Del; Sortland, Miriam; Hotalen, Jodi; Dousharm, Levi; Fallica, Roberto; Ekinci, Yasin; Neisser, Mark; Freedman, Daniel A.; Brainard, Robert L.

    2015-10-01

    We have developed organometallic carboxylate compounds [RnM)] capable of acting as negative-tone extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resists. The most sensitive of these resists contain antimony, three R-groups and two carboxylate groups, and carboxylate groups with polymerizable olefins (e.g., acrylate, methacrylate, or styrenecarboxylate). Evidence suggests that high sensitivity is achieved through the polymerization of olefins in the exposed region. We have performed a systematic sensitivity study of the molecules of the type RnM) where we have studied seven R groups, four main group metals (M), and three polymerizable carboxylate groups (O2CR‧). The sensitivity of these resists was evaluated using Emax or dose to maximum resist thickness after exposure and development. We found that the greatest predictor of sensitivity of the RnSb) resists is their level of polymerizable olefins. We mathematically define the polymerizable olefin loading (POL) as the ratio of the number of olefins versus the number of nonhydrogen atoms. Linear and log plots of Emax versus POL for a variety of molecules of the type R3Sb) lend insight into the behavior of these resists.

  4. Atmospheric chemistry of carboxylic acids: microbial implication versus photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaïtilingom, M.; Charbouillot, T.; Deguillaume, L.; Maisonobe, R.; Parazols, M.; Amato, P.; Sancelme, M.; Delort, A.-M.

    2011-02-01

    Clouds are multiphasic atmospheric systems in which the dissolved organic compounds, dominated by carboxylic acids, are subject to multiple chemical transformations in the aqueous phase. Among them, solar radiation, by generating hydroxyl radicals (•OH), is considered as the main catalyzer of the reactivity of organic species in clouds. We investigated to which extent the active biomass existing in cloud water represents an alternative route to the chemical reactivity of carboxylic acids. Pure cultures of seventeen bacterial strains (Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Clavibacter, Frigoribacterium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Rhodococcus), previously isolated from cloud water and representative of the viable community of clouds were first individually incubated in two artificial bulk cloud water solutions at 17 °C and 5 °C. These solutions mimicked the chemical composition of cloud water from "marine" and "continental" air masses, and contained the major carboxylic acids existing in the cloud water (i.e. acetate, formate, succinate and oxalate). The concentrations of these carboxylic compounds were monitored over time and biodegradation rates were determined. In average, they ranged from 2 ×10-19 for succinate to 1 × 10-18 mol cell-1 s-1 for formate at 17 °C and from 4 × 10-20 for succinate to 6 × 10-19 mol cell-1 s-1 for formate at 5 °C, with no significant difference between "marine" and "continental" media. In parallel, irradiation experiments were also conducted in these two artificial media to compare biodegradation and photodegradation of carboxylic compounds. To complete this comparison, the photodegradation rates of carboxylic acids by •OH radicals were calculated from literature data. Inferred estimations suggested a significant participation of microbes to the transformation of carboxylic acids in cloud water, particularly for acetate and succinate (up to 90%). Furthermore, a natural cloud water sample was incubated (including its indigenous microflora

  5. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10142 - Oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10142 Oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl... substance identified generically as oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (PMN P-06-199)...

  7. Functionalization of carbon nanotube by carboxyl group under radial deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Ivi Valentini; Zanella, Ivana; Fagan, Solange Binotto

    2014-01-01

    The dependence of the structural and the electronic properties of functionalized (5, 5) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) were investigated through ab initio density functional simulations when the carboxyl group is bonded on the flatter or curved regions. Radial deformations result in diameter decrease of up to 20 per cent of the original size, which was the limit reduction that maintains the SWNT functionalized structure. Changes on the electronic structure were observed due to the symmetry break of the SWNT caused by both the carboxyl group and the C-C bond distortions resulted by the radial deformation. It is observed that the functionalization process is specially favored by the sp3 hybridization induced on the more curved region of the deformed SWNT.

  8. Enhance decarboxylation reaction of carboxylic acids in clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay minerals are important constituents of the Earth's crust. These minerals catalyze reactions in several ways: by energy transfer processes, redox reactions, stabilization of intermediates and by Broensted or Lewis acidity behavior. Important set of organic reactions can be improved in the precedence of clay minerals. Besides the properties of clays to catalyze chemical reactions, it is possible to enhance some of its reactions by using ionizing radiation. The phenomenon of radiation-induced catalysis may be connected with ionizing process in the solid and with the trapped non-equilibrium charge carriers. In this paper we are reporting the decarboxylation reaction of carboxylic acids catalyzed by clay and by irradiation of the system acid-clay. We studied the behaviour of several carboxylic acids and analyzed them by gas chromatography, X-ray and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that decarboxylation of the target compound is the dominating pathway. The reaction is enhanced by gamma radiation in several orders of magnitude. (author)

  9. 1-(5,5-Dimethoxypentyl-3-methylimidazolium-2-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Walter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H20N2O4, represents one example of a zwitterionic imidazolium salt with a carboxylate group at the 2-position of the imidazolium ring. The dihedral angle between the heterocyclic ring and the carboxylate group is 31.3 (1°. The side chain linking the N atom of the ring and the methine C atom has a gauche–anti–anti conformation [torsion angles = −60.3 (2, −175.7 (2 and 178.7 (2°, respectively]. In the crystal, molecules are linked by short C—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the C—H groups in the aromatic ring to generate (001 sheets.

  10. Sensing of antipyretic carboxylates by simple chromogenic calix[4]pyrroles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyabu, Ryuhei; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2005-06-15

    We present a simple, two- or three-step method for the synthesis of chromogenic octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole-based (OMCP) sensors for anions. Electrophilic aromatic substitution allows for converting the pyrrole moieties of OMCP into a dye. The formation of a sensor-anion complex results in partial charge transfer and a dramatic change in color. The absorption (UV-vis) and NMR titration experiments show that the chromogenic OMCPs sense anions administered as aqueous solutions, even at high ionic strength ( approximately 0.1 M NaCl), while displaying selectivity for pyrophosphate and carboxylate anions. The experiments with polyurethane sensor films show a strong response for aqueous carboxylates, such as antipyretics naproxen approximately ibuprofen > salicylate, without being biased by bicarbonate or carboxy termini of blood plasma proteins. PMID:15941245

  11. Substrate specificity within a family of outer membrane carboxylate channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Eren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Gram-negative bacteria, including human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, do not have large-channel porins. This results in an outer membrane (OM that is highly impermeable to small polar molecules, making the bacteria intrinsically resistant towards many antibiotics. In such microorganisms, the majority of small molecules are taken up by members of the OprD outer membrane protein family. Here we show that OprD channels require a carboxyl group in the substrate for efficient transport, and based on this we have renamed the family Occ, for outer membrane carboxylate channels. We further show that Occ channels can be divided into two subfamilies, based on their very different substrate specificities. Our results rationalize how certain bacteria can efficiently take up a variety of substrates under nutrient-poor conditions without compromising membrane permeability. In addition, they explain how channel inactivation in response to antibiotics can cause resistance but does not lead to decreased fitness.

  12. Enhancing magnetoresistance in tetrathiafulvalene carboxylate modified iron oxide nanoparticle assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhong-Peng; Luan, Zhong-Zhi; Cai, Pei-Yu; Wang, Tao; Li, Cheng-Hui; Wu, Di; Zuo, Jing-Lin; Sun, Shouheng

    2016-06-01

    We report a facile approach to stabilize Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) by using tetrathiafulvalene carboxylate (TTF-COO-) and to control electron transport with an enhanced magnetoresistance (MR) effect in TTF-COO-Fe3O4 NP assemblies. This TTF-COO-coating is advantageous over other conventional organic coatings, making it possible to develop stable Fe3O4 NP arrays for sensitive spintronics applications.We report a facile approach to stabilize Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) by using tetrathiafulvalene carboxylate (TTF-COO-) and to control electron transport with an enhanced magnetoresistance (MR) effect in TTF-COO-Fe3O4 NP assemblies. This TTF-COO-coating is advantageous over other conventional organic coatings, making it possible to develop stable Fe3O4 NP arrays for sensitive spintronics applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details; supplementary figures and tables. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03311c

  13. Influences of Carboxyl Methyl Cellulose on Performances of Mortar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuli; ZHOU Mingkai; SHAN Junhong; XU Fang; YANG Yuhui

    2007-01-01

    Carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) was mixed into mortar to improve the waterretention performance of mortar, the quality of floated coat of aerated concrete became better. The consistency and compression strength of mortar with CMC were studied. The water absorption was studied with the method of filter paper. The micro mechanism was researched with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The experimental results show the water-holding performance of mortar with CMC is largely improved and it is better when the mixed amount is about 1.5%; the compression strength had a descending trend with the increase of CMC; CMC reacted with calcium hydroxide(CH) into the deposition of calcium carboxyl methyl cellulose.

  14. Fluorescently tuned nitrogen-doped carbon dots from carbon source with different content of carboxyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Yun; Dai, Xiao; Zou, Guifu, E-mail: kqzhang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Gao, Peng; Zhang, Ke-Qin, E-mail: kqzhang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn; Du, Dezhuang [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Guo, Jun [Testing and Analysis Center, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2015-08-01

    In this study, fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) were tuned via varying the sources with different number of carboxyl groups. Owing to the interaction between amino and carboxyl, more amino groups conjugate the surface of the NCDs by the source with more carboxyl groups. Fluorescent NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different content of carboxyl groups. Correspondingly, the nitrogen content, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetime of NCDs increases with the content of carboxyl groups from the source. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assay and cell imaging test indicate that the resultant NCDs possess low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility.

  15. Fluorescently tuned nitrogen-doped carbon dots from carbon source with different content of carboxyl groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) were tuned via varying the sources with different number of carboxyl groups. Owing to the interaction between amino and carboxyl, more amino groups conjugate the surface of the NCDs by the source with more carboxyl groups. Fluorescent NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different content of carboxyl groups. Correspondingly, the nitrogen content, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetime of NCDs increases with the content of carboxyl groups from the source. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assay and cell imaging test indicate that the resultant NCDs possess low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility

  16. Complex formation of Np(V) with various carboxylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability constants of Np(V) complexes with a series of aliphatic and aromatic carboxylates, including hydroxycarboxylates, hydroxydicarboxylates, dicarboxylates and pyridinecarboxylates have been obtained in 1.0 M NaClO4 by a solvent extraction method using thenoyltrifluoroacetone and 1,10- phenanthroline in isoamyl alcohol. Stabilities of these complexes are discussed in terms of their structures and ligand basicities. (orig.)

  17. Enhancing magnetoresistance in tetrathiafulvalene carboxylate modified iron oxide nanoparticle assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhong-Peng; Luan, Zhong-Zhi; Cai, Pei-Yu; Wang, Tao; Li, Cheng-Hui; Wu, Di; Zuo, Jing-Lin; Sun, Shouheng

    2016-06-16

    We report a facile approach to stabilize Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) by using tetrathiafulvalene carboxylate (TTF-COO(-)) and to control electron transport with an enhanced magnetoresistance (MR) effect in TTF-COO-Fe3O4 NP assemblies. This TTF-COO-coating is advantageous over other conventional organic coatings, making it possible to develop stable Fe3O4 NP arrays for sensitive spintronics applications. PMID:27271347

  18. Circulating Nonphosphorylated Carboxylated Matrix Gla Protein Predicts Survival in ESRD

    OpenAIRE

    Schlieper, Georg; Westenfeld, Ralf; Krüger, Thilo; Cranenburg, Ellen C.; Magdeleyns, Elke J.; Brandenburg, Vincent M.; Djuric, Zivka; Damjanovic, Tatjana; Ketteler, Markus; Vermeer, Cees; Dimkovic, Nada; Floege, Jürgen; Schurgers, Leon J.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms for vascular calcification and its associated cardiovascular mortality in patients with ESRD are not completely understood. Dialysis patients exhibit profound vitamin K deficiency, which may impair carboxylation of the calcification inhibitor matrix gla protein (MGP). Here, we tested whether distinct circulating inactive vitamin K–dependent proteins associate with all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. We observed higher levels of both desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP) a...

  19. Crystal structure of ethyl 2,4-dichloroquinoline-3-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cabrera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C12H9Cl2NO2, the mean planes through the quinoline and carboxylate groups have r.m.s. deviations of 0.006 and 0.021 Å, respectively, and form a dihedral angle of 87.06 (19°. In the crystal, molecules are linked via very weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming chains, which propagate along the c-axis direction.

  20. Carboxylate Shifts Steer Interquinone Electron Transfer in Photosynthesis*

    OpenAIRE

    Chernev, Petko; Zaharieva, Ivelina; Dau, Holger; Haumann, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of electron transfer (ET) in photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) may inspire novel catalysts for sunlight-driven fuel production. The electron exit pathway of type II RCs comprises two quinone molecules working in series and in between a non-heme iron atom with a carboxyl ligand (bicarbonate in photosystem II (PSII), glutamate in bacterial RCs). For decades, the functional role of the iron has remained enigmatic. We tracked the iron site using microsecond-resolu...

  1. Block and Graft Copolymers Containing Carboxylate or Phosphonate Anions

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Nan

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on synthesis and characterization of graft and block copolymers containing carboxylate or phosphonate anions that are potential candidates for biomedical applications such as drug delivery and dental adhesives. Ammonium bisdiethylphosphonate (meth)acrylate and acrylamide phosphonate monomers were synthesized based on aza-Michael addition reactions. Free radical copolymerizations of these monomers with an acrylate-functional poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) macromonomer...

  2. Carboxylic acid-functionalized SBA-15 nanorods for gemcitabine delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the functionalization of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as drug delivery systems. Mono, di, and tri amino-functionalized SBA-15 nanorods were synthesized by post-grafting method using (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane, N-(2-aminoethyl-)3- aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, and 3-[2-(2-aminoethylamino) ethylamino] propyl trimethoxysilane, respectively. The carboxylic acid derivatives of the amino-functionalized samples were obtained using succinic anhydride. Tminopropyltrimethoxysilanehe obtained modified materials were investigated as matrixes for the anticancer drug (gemcitabine) delivery. The prepared samples were characterized by SAXS, N2 adsorption/desorption, SEM, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and FTIR and UV spectroscopies. The adsorption and release properties of all samples were studied. It was revealed that the adsorption capacity and release behavior of gemcitabine were highly dependent on the type of the introduced functional groups. The carboxylic acid-modified samples have higher loading content, due to the strong interaction with gemcitabine. The maximum content of deposited drug in the modified SBA-15 nanorods is close to 40 wt%. It was found that the surface functionalization leads toward significant decrease of the drug release rate. The carboxylic acid-functionalized samples have slower release rate in contrast with the amino-functionalized samples

  3. Biarylalkyl Carboxylic Acid Derivatives as Novel Antischistosomal Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäder, Patrick; Blohm, Ariane S; Quack, Thomas; Lange-Grünweller, Kerstin; Grünweller, Arnold; Hartmann, Roland K; Grevelding, Christoph G; Schlitzer, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Parasitic platyhelminths are responsible for serious infectious diseases, such as schistosomiasis, which affect humans as well as animals across vast regions of the world. The drug arsenal available for the treatment of these diseases is limited; for example, praziquantel is the only drug currently used to treat ≥240 million people each year infected with Schistosoma spp., and there is justified concern about the emergence of drug resistance. In this study, we screened biarylalkyl carboxylic acid derivatives for their antischistosomal activity against S. mansoni. These compounds showed significant influence on egg production, pairing stability, and vitality. Tegumental lesions or gut dilatation was also observed. Substitution of the terminal phenyl residue in the biaryl scaffold with a 3-hydroxy moiety and derivatization of the terminal carboxylic acid scaffold with carboxamides yielded compounds that displayed significant antischistosomal activity at concentrations as low as 10 μm with satisfying cytotoxicity values. The present study provides detailed insight into the structure-activity relationships of biarylalkyl carboxylic acid derivatives and thereby paves the way for a new drug-hit moiety for fighting schistosomiasis. PMID:27159334

  4. ELECTROANALYTICAL APPLICATIONS OF CARBOXYL-MODIFIED CARBON NANOTUBE FILM ELECTRODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.G. Hu; W.L. Wang; K.J. Liao; W. Zhu

    2003-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of a carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube films was investigated to explore its possibility in electroanalytical applicaton. Cyclic voltammetry of quinone was conducted in 1mol/L Na2SO4, which showed a stable, quasi-reversible voltammetric response for quinone / hydroquinone, and the anodic and the cathodic peak potentials were 0.657V and -0.029V (vs. SCE) at a scan rate of 0.1V.s-1, respectively. Both anodic and cathodic peak currents depended linearly on the square root of the scan rate over the range of 0.01-0. 5 V.s-1, which suggested that the process of the electrode reactions was diffusion-controlled. Carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube electrodes made it possible to determine low level of dopamine selectively in the presence of a large excess of ascorbic acid in acidic media using derivative voltammetry.The results obtained were discussed in details. This work demonstrates the potential of carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube electrodes for electroanalytical applications.

  5. Cellular uptake and anticancer activity of carboxylated gallium corroles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribisko, Melanie; Palmer, Joshua; Grubbs, Robert H; Gray, Harry B; Termini, John; Lim, Punnajit

    2016-04-19

    We report derivatives of gallium(III) tris(pentafluorophenyl)corrole, 1 [Ga(tpfc)], with either sulfonic (2) or carboxylic acids (3, 4) as macrocyclic ring substituents: the aminocaproate derivative, 3 [Ga(ACtpfc)], demonstrated high cytotoxic activity against all NCI60 cell lines derived from nine tumor types and confirmed very high toxicity against melanoma cells, specifically the LOX IMVI and SK-MEL-28 cell lines. The toxicities of 1, 2, 3, and 4 [Ga(3-ctpfc)] toward prostate (DU-145), melanoma (SK-MEL-28), breast (MDA-MB-231), and ovarian (OVCAR-3) cancer cells revealed a dependence on the ring substituent: IC50values ranged from 4.8 to >200 µM; and they correlated with the rates of uptake, extent of intracellular accumulation, and lipophilicity. Carboxylated corroles 3 and 4, which exhibited about 10-fold lower IC50values ( 3 > 2 > 1 (intracellular accumulation of gallium corroles was fastest in melanoma cells). We conclude that carboxylated gallium corroles are promising chemotherapeutics with the advantage that they also can be used for tumor imaging. PMID:27044076

  6. Carboxylic acid-functionalized SBA-15 nanorods for gemcitabine delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrami, Zohreh; Badiei, Alireza, E-mail: abadiei@khayam.ut.ac.ir [University of Tehran, School of Chemistry, College of Science (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ziarani, Ghodsi Mohammadi [Alzahra University, Research Laboratory of Pharmaceutical (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The present study deals with the functionalization of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as drug delivery systems. Mono, di, and tri amino-functionalized SBA-15 nanorods were synthesized by post-grafting method using (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane, N-(2-aminoethyl-)3- aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, and 3-[2-(2-aminoethylamino) ethylamino] propyl trimethoxysilane, respectively. The carboxylic acid derivatives of the amino-functionalized samples were obtained using succinic anhydride. Tminopropyltrimethoxysilanehe obtained modified materials were investigated as matrixes for the anticancer drug (gemcitabine) delivery. The prepared samples were characterized by SAXS, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption, SEM, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and FTIR and UV spectroscopies. The adsorption and release properties of all samples were studied. It was revealed that the adsorption capacity and release behavior of gemcitabine were highly dependent on the type of the introduced functional groups. The carboxylic acid-modified samples have higher loading content, due to the strong interaction with gemcitabine. The maximum content of deposited drug in the modified SBA-15 nanorods is close to 40 wt%. It was found that the surface functionalization leads toward significant decrease of the drug release rate. The carboxylic acid-functionalized samples have slower release rate in contrast with the amino-functionalized samples.

  7. Green process for chemical functionalization of nanocellulose with carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino-Pérez, Etzael; Domenek, Sandra; Belgacem, Naceur; Sillard, Cécile; Bras, Julien

    2014-12-01

    An environmentally friendly and simple method, named SolReact, has been developed for a solvent-free esterification of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) surface by using two nontoxic carboxylic acids (CA), phenylacetic acid and hydrocinnamic acid. In this process, the carboxylic acids do not only act as grafting agent, but also as solvent media above their melting point. Key is the in situ solvent exchange by water evaporation driving the esterification reaction without drying the CNC. Atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses showed no significant change in the CNC dimensions and crystallinity index after this green process. The presence of the grafted carboxylic was characterized by analysis of the "bulk" CNC with elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and (13)C NMR. The ability to tune the surface properties of grafted nanocrystals (CNC-g-CA) was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The hydrophobicity behavior of the functionalized CNC was studied through the water contact-angle measurements and vapor adsorption. The functionalization of these bionanoparticles may offer applications in composite manufacturing, where these nanoparticles have limited dispersibility in hydrophobic polymer matrices and as nanoadsorbers due to the presence of phenolic groups attached on the surface. PMID:25353612

  8. Six new coordination polymers constructed by 3-carboxyl-5-oxycarboxymethylpyridinio-1-carboxylate: Crystal structures, topologies, photoluminescent and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six new two-dimensional (2D) coordination polymers, [ML(H2O)3]n (M=Zn (1), Cd (2), Mn (3), Co (4)), [CdL(H2O)]n (5), [CdL(4,4′-bipy)]n·nH2O (6), (H2L=3-carboxyl-5-oxycarboxymethylpyridinio-1-carboxylate, 4,4′-bipy=4,4′-bipyridine), have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, IR spectra, and thermogravimetric analyses. 1, 2, 3, 4 are isostructural and feature a binodal (4,6)-connected topology with left- and right-handed helical chains with a pitch of 9.9560 Å. 5 can be topologically presented as an uninodal 6-connected network if the hydrogen bonds are also considered. 6 is a binodal (3,5)-connected 2D layer network. The photoluminescent properties of 1, 2, 5, 6 and magnetic properties of 3, 4 have been studied and discussed. - Graphical abstract: The structural differences show that the ligand, the metal center, and the reaction conditions have great influence on the structure of the final assembly. - Highlights: • A new asymmetric flexible tricarboxylate ligand of 3-carboxyl-5-oxycarboxymethylpyridinio-1-carboxylate was synthesized. • Six new two-dimensional (2D) coordination polymers have been hydrothermally obtained. • 1, 2, 3, 4 are isostructural and feature a binodal (4,6)-connected topology with left- and right-handed helical chains. • The photoluminescent properties of 1, 2, 5, 6 and magnetic properties of 3, 4 have been studied

  9. Carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile-toughened epoxy/carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube nanocomposites: Thermal and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Xie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Carboxyl-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT–COOHs as nanofillers were incorporated into diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA toughened with carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN. The carboxyl functional carbon nanotubes were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Furthermore, cure kinetics, glass transition temperature (Tg, mechanical properties, thermal stability and morphology of DGEBA/CTBN/MWCNT–COOHs nanocomposites were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, universal test machine, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. DSC kinetic studies showed that the addition of MWCNT–COOHs accelerated the curing reaction of the rubber-toughened epoxy resin. DMA results revealed that Tg of rubber-toughened epoxy nanocomposites lowered with MWCNT–COOH contents. The tensile strength, elongation at break, flexural strength and flexural modulus of DGEBA/CTBN/MWCNT-COOHs nanocomposites were increased at lower MWCNT-COOH concentration. A homogenous dispersion of nanocomposites at lower MWCNT–COOH concentration was observed by SEM.

  10. Separation and determination of some carboxylic acids by capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sladkov, V.; Fourest, B

    2006-07-01

    Separation and determination of some organic acids, mono-carboxylic (formic and acetic), dicarboxylic (oxalic and tartaric), tricarboxylic (citric) acids and aromatic acids (phtalic, benzoic, mellitic and trimellitic), by capillary electrophoresis are reviewed. The method development parameters, such as separation and injection mode, are discussed. Special attention is paid to the comparison of different detection types (spectroscopic and electrochemical). The optimisation of the carrier electrolyte composition (choice of carrier electrolyte, effect of pH, ionic strength, electro-osmotic flow modifier) is treated. Different additives (alkali-earth and transition metal ions, cyclodextrins and alcohol), which are often used for improving organic acid separation, are also considered. (authors)

  11. (2S,4R-4-Fluoropyrrolidinium-2-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Hobart Jr

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, C5H8FNO2, at 100 K, displays intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonding between the ammonium and carboxylate groups as a result of its zwitterionic nature in the solid state. The five-membered ring adopts an envelope conformation with the C atom at the 3-position as the flap. The compound is of interest with respect to the synthesis and structural properties of synthetic collagens. The absolute structure was determined by comparison with the commercially available material.

  12. Sodium borohydride reduction of aromatic carboxylic acids via methyl esters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aamer Saeed; Zaman Ashraf

    2006-09-01

    A number of important aromatic carboxylic acids precursors, or intermediates in the syntheses of natural products, are converted into methyl esters and reduced to the corresponding primary alcohols using a sodium borohydride-THF-methanol system. The alcohols are obtained in 70-92% yields in 2-5 hours, in a pure state. This two-step procedure not only provides a better alternative to aluminum hydride reduction of acids but also allows the selective reduction of esters in presence of acids, amides, nitriles or nitro functions which are not affected under these conditions.

  13. Synthesis and properties of scandium carboxylate metal-organic frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Santiago, Berenice

    2015-01-01

    This work investigated the synthesis, characterisation and properties of known and novel scandium carboxylate Metal-organic Frameworks (MOFs). The first part reports the performance of these Sc-MOFs as Lewis acid catalysts. The porous MOF scandium trimesate MIL-100(Sc) and the scandium terephthalates such as MIL-101(Sc), MIL-88B(Sc) and MIL-68(Sc) (prepared as the Sc-analogue for the first time), and scandium biphenyldicarboxylate MIL-88D(Sc) were prepared and tested as Lewis acid catalysts. ...

  14. Carboxylic ester hydrolases in mitochondria from rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D; Zelander, T

    1990-01-01

    organophosphate and organomercury. The activity of the indoxyl acetate esterases was enhanced by the non-ionic detergents Tween-40 and Lubrol. After freezing, thawing and high speed centrifugation most of the alpha-naphthyl acetate splitting enzymes were found in the supernatant, indicating that the enzymes are......A mitochondrial pellet, prepared from rat skeletal muscle, contained a number of carboxylic ester hydrolase isoenzymes. The esterases which split alpha-naphthyl acetate were organophosphate sensitive, whereas two out of three indoxyl acetate hydrolysing enzymes were resistant to both...

  15. Separation and determination of some carboxylic acids by capillary electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separation and determination of some organic acids, mono-carboxylic (formic and acetic), dicarboxylic (oxalic and tartaric), tricarboxylic (citric) acids and aromatic acids (phtalic, benzoic, mellitic and trimellitic), by capillary electrophoresis are reviewed. The method development parameters, such as separation and injection mode, are discussed. Special attention is paid to the comparison of different detection types (spectroscopic and electrochemical). The optimisation of the carrier electrolyte composition (choice of carrier electrolyte, effect of pH, ionic strength, electro-osmotic flow modifier) is treated. Different additives (alkali-earth and transition metal ions, cyclodextrins and alcohol), which are often used for improving organic acid separation, are also considered. (authors)

  16. Toxicity of perfluorinated carboxylic acids for aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichý, Miloň; Valigurová, Radka; Cabala, Radomír; Uzlová, Rut; Rucki, Marián

    2010-06-01

    Toxicity of perfluorinated carboxylic acids with carbon chain C(8) to C(12) were tested with oligochaeta Tubifex tubifex. Toxicity was evaluated as the exposure time ET(50) from onset of damage of the oligochaeta in saturated aqueous solutions. The ET(50) fluctuated between 25 and 257 minutes. No statistically significant difference was found among the C(8), C(9) and C(12) acids (ET(50) between 143 and 257 minutes with large standard deviation). The acids with carbon chain C(10) and C(11) induced the effect significantly quicker (25 to 47 minutes). No acute toxicity measured in the three-minute test was observed in any case. PMID:21217876

  17. Toxicity of perfluorinated carboxylic acids for aquatic organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Tichý, Miloň; Valigurová, Radka; Čabala, Radomír; Uzlová, Rut; Rucki, Marián

    2010-01-01

    Toxicity of perfluorinated carboxylic acids with carbon chain C8 to C12 were tested with oligochaeta Tubifex tubifex. Toxicity was evaluated as the exposure time ET50 from onset of damage of the oligochaeta in saturated aqueous solutions. The ET50 fluctuated between 25 and 257 minutes. No statistically significant difference was found among the C8, C9 and C12 acids (ET50 between 143 and 257 minutes with large standard deviation). The acids with carbon chain C10 and C11 induced the effect sign...

  18. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TREATMENTS ON CELLULOSE TOWARD CARBOXYLATION AND ITS APPLICATION FOR METAL ION ABSORPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. A. Nada

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylation of cotton linters was investigated relative to its use in ion exchange. The effects of different treatments of cotton linters, such as alkali, acid, and activating agents, e.g. LiCl, on the molecular structure and carboxylation of cotton linters were taken in our consideration. The absence or presence of a crosslinking was considered, and the efficiency of these prepared carboxylated cotton linters toward metal ions uptake, as well as thermal analysis of treated and carboxylated cotton linters, was investigated. It was found that treatment of cotton linters with alkali and activating agent decreased the crystallinity index (band intensity at 1425/band intensity at 890 cm-1. On the other hand, the prepared carboxylated cotton linters had lower crystallinity index than uncarboxylated linters. Thermal analysis of the treated and carboxylated cotton linters allowed calculation of the activation energy of thermally treated materials. It was found that the crosslinked and acid treated cotton linters had a higher activation.

  19. Exploring the reductive capacity of Pyrococcus furiosus. The reduction of carboxylic acids and pyridine nucleotides

    OpenAIRE

    Ban, van den, A.W.

    2001-01-01

    This Ph.D. project started in 1997 and its main goal was to obtain insight in the reductive capacity of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus . The research was focused on the biocatalytic reduction of carboxylic acids.Reductions of carboxylic acids are interesting reactions, since the generated products, aldehydes and alcohols, are potentially applicable in the fine-chemical industry. However, the reduction of carboxylic acids to the corresponding aldehydes is a thermodynamicall...

  20. Electrochemical deposition of a copper carboxylate layer on copper as potential corrosion inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Elia, Alice; De Wael, Karolien; Dowsett, Mark; Adriaens, Annemie

    2012-01-01

    Carboxylic acids and sodium carboxylates are used to protect metals against aqueous and atmospheric corrosion. In this paper we describe the application of a layer of copper carboxylate on the surface of a copper electrode by means of cyclic voltammetry technique, and tests which measure the corresponding resistance to aqueous corrosion. Unlike the soaking process, which also forms a film on the surface, the use of cyclic voltammetry allows one to follow the deposition process of the copper c...

  1. A synthetic approach to carbon-14 labeled anti-bacterial naphthyridine and quinolone carboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekhato, I.V.; Huang, C.C. (Parke, Davis and Co., Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Labeled versions of (S)-clinafloxacin (1) and two napththyridine carboxylic acid anti-bacterial compounds 2 and 3 which are currently in development were synthesized. Preparations started from hitherto unknown bromo compounds 22 and 10, from which the corresponding [sup 14]C-labeled aromatic carboxylic acids 23 and 12 were generated by metal-halogen exchange followed by carboxylation reaction. Details of these preparations are given. (author).

  2. Biocompatibility studies of polyacrylonitrile membranes modified with carboxylated polyetherimide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthilkumar, S.; Rajesh, S.; Jayalakshmi, A.; Mohan, D., E-mail: mohantarun@gmail.com

    2013-10-15

    Poly (ether-imide) (PEI) was carboxylated and used as the hydrophilic modification agent for the preparation of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes. Membranes were prepared with different blend compositions of PAN and CPEI by diffusion induced precipitation. The modified membranes were characterized by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurement to understand the influence of CPEI on the properties of the membranes. The biocompatibility studies exhibited reduced plasma protein adsorption, platelet adhesion and thrombus formation on the modified membrane surface. The complete blood count (CBC) results of CPEI incorporated membranes showed stable CBC values and significant decrease in the complement activation were also observed. In addition to good cytocompatibility, monocytes cultured on these modified membranes exhibited improved functional profiles in 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Thus it could be concluded that PAN/CPEI membranes with excellent biocompatibility can be useful for hemodialysis. Highlights: • Carboxylated PEI was prepared and utilized as hydrophilic modification agent. • CPEI incorporated into PAN to improved biocompatibility and cyto compatibility • Biocompatibility of membranes was correlated with morphology and hydrophilicity. • Antifouling studies of the PAN/CPEI membranes was studied by BSA as model foulant.

  3. Adsorption behavior of epirubicin hydrochloride on carboxylated carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Pierre, Dramou; He, Hua; Tan, Shuhua; Pham-Huy, Chuong; Hong, Hao; Huang, Jilong

    2011-02-28

    The aim of this study was to understand the interaction between carboxylated carbon nanotubes (c-CNTs) and anticancer agents and evaluate the drug-loading ability of c-CNTs. We prepared carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWNTs) with nitric acid treatment, then evaluated the adsorption ability of c-MWNTs as adsorbents for loading of the anticancer drug, epirubicin hydrochloride (EPI), and investigated the adsorption behavior of EPI on c-MWNTs. Unmodified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were included as comparative adsorbents. The results showed that carbon nanotubes were able to form supramolecular complexes with EPI via π-π stacking and possessed favorable loading properties as drug carriers. The Freundilich adsorption model was successfully employed to describe the adsorption process. Because of the high surface area and hydrogen bonding, c-MWNTs' adsorption efficiency was the highest and the most stable and their drug-loading capacity was superior to that of MWNTs. With the increase of pH, the adsorption capacity of EPI on the c-MWNTs increased. Low-temperature facilitated the adsorption. More rapid EPI adsorption rate and higher drug-loading ability were observed from c-MWNTs with smaller diameter. Moreover, the adsorption kinetics of EPI on c-MWNTs could be well depicted by using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. PMID:21145959

  4. Integrated process for preparing a carboxylic acid from an alkane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benderly, Abraham (Elkins Park, PA); Chadda, Nitin (Radnor, PA); Sevon, Douglass (Fairless Hills, PA)

    2011-12-20

    The present invention relates to an integrated process for producing unsaturated carboxylic acids from the corresponding C.sub.2-C.sub.4 alkane. The process begins with performance of thermally integrated dehydrogenation reactions which convert a C.sub.2-C.sub.4 alkane to its corresponding C.sub.2-C.sub.4 alkene, and which involve exothermically converting a portion of an alkane to its corresponding alkene by oxidative dehydrogenation in an exothermic reaction zone, in the presence of oxygen and a suitable catalyst, and then feeding the products of the exothermic reaction zone to an endothermic reaction zone wherein at least a portion of the remaining unconverted alkane is endothermically dehydrogenated to form an additional quantity of the same corresponding alkene, in the presence of carbon dioxide and an other suitable catalyst. The alkene products of the thermally integrated dehydrogenation reactions are then provided to a catalytic vapor phase partial oxidation process for conversion of the alkene to the corresponding unsaturated carboxylic acid or nitrile. Unreacted alkene and carbon dioxide are recovered from the oxidation product stream and recycled back to the thermally integrated dehydrogenation reactions.

  5. On the intermediacy of carboxyphosphate in biotin-dependent carboxylations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the ATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin that is catalyzed by most biotin-dependent carboxylases, a fundamental mechanistic question is whether the ATP activates bicarbonate (via the formation of carboxyphosphate as an intermediate) or whether the ATP activates biotin (via the formation of O-phosphobiotin). The authors have resorted to three mechanistic tests using the biotin carboxylase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase from Escherichia coli: positional isotope exchange, intermediate trapping, and 18O tracer experiments on the ATPase activity. First, no catalysis of positional isotope exchange in adenosine 5'-([α,β-18O,β,β-18O2]triphosphate) was observed when either biotin or bicarbonate was absent, nor was any exchange seen in the presence of both N-1-methylbiotin and bicarbonate. Second, the putative carboxyphosphate intermediate could not be trapped as its trimethyl ester, under conditions of incubation and analysis where the authentic triester was shown to be adequately stable. In the third test, however, they showed that the ATPase activity of biotin carboxylase that is seen in the absence of biotin, an activity that is known to parallel the normal carboxylase reaction when biotin is present, occurs with the transfer of an 18O label directly from [18O]bicarbonate into the product Pi. This result suggests that the bicarbonate-dependent biotin-independent ATPase reaction catalyzed by biotin carboxylase goes via carboxyphosphate and that the carboxylation of biotin itself may proceed analogously

  6. Complexes of carboxyl-containing polymer and monosubstituted bipyridinium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merekalova, N. D.; Bondarenko, G. N.; Krylsky, D. W.; Zakirov, M. I.; Talroze, R. V.

    2013-09-01

    Semi-empirical PM3 method for the quantum calculations of molecular electronic structure based on NDDO integral approximation is used to investigate the complex formation of monosubstituted 4,4‧-bipyridinium salts BpyR (Hal) containing a halide anion interacting with the quaternary nitrogen atom and carboxylic group of the two-units construct. Significant effect of the BpyR (Hal) electronic structure is unveiled that contributes in two different structures of these salts, namely, partial charge transfer complex and ion pair structure, both having stable energy minima. We demonstrate that (i) the structure of the N-substituent modulates the energy and electronic characteristics of monosubstituted salts BpyR with chlorine and bromine anions and (ii) the coulomb interactions between quaternary N-atom, halogen anion, and the proton of carboxylic group stimulate the transformation of the charge transfer complex into the ion pair structure. Results of calculations are compared with the experimental FTIR spectra of blends of BpyR(Hal) with Eudragit copolymer.

  7. Biocompatibility studies of polyacrylonitrile membranes modified with carboxylated polyetherimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly (ether-imide) (PEI) was carboxylated and used as the hydrophilic modification agent for the preparation of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes. Membranes were prepared with different blend compositions of PAN and CPEI by diffusion induced precipitation. The modified membranes were characterized by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurement to understand the influence of CPEI on the properties of the membranes. The biocompatibility studies exhibited reduced plasma protein adsorption, platelet adhesion and thrombus formation on the modified membrane surface. The complete blood count (CBC) results of CPEI incorporated membranes showed stable CBC values and significant decrease in the complement activation were also observed. In addition to good cytocompatibility, monocytes cultured on these modified membranes exhibited improved functional profiles in 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Thus it could be concluded that PAN/CPEI membranes with excellent biocompatibility can be useful for hemodialysis. Highlights: • Carboxylated PEI was prepared and utilized as hydrophilic modification agent. • CPEI incorporated into PAN to improved biocompatibility and cyto compatibility • Biocompatibility of membranes was correlated with morphology and hydrophilicity. • Antifouling studies of the PAN/CPEI membranes was studied by BSA as model foulant

  8. Substituent effects on hydrogen bonding of aromatic amide-carboxylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ibrahim; Kara, Hulya; Azizoglu, Akın

    2016-10-01

    N-(p-benzoyl)-anthranilic acid (BAA) derivatives have been synthesized with different substituents (X: Br, Cl, OCH3, CH3), and their crystal structures have been analyzed in order to understand the variations in their molecular geometries with respect to the substituents by using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The carboxylic acid group forms classic OH⋯O hydrogen bonded dimers in a centrosymmetric R2(2)(8) ring motifs for BAA-Br and BAA-Cl. However, no carboxylic acid group forms classic OH⋯O hydrogen bonded dimers in BAA-OCH3 and BAA-CH3. The asymmetric unit consists of two crystallographically independent molecules in BAA-OCH3. DFT computations show that the interaction energies between monomer and dimer are in the range of 0.5-3.8kcal/mol with the B3LYP/6-31+G*, B3LYP/6-31++G*, B3LYP/6-31++G**, and B3LYP/AUG-cc-pVDZ levels of theory. The presence of different hydrogen bond patterns is also governed by the substrate. For monomeric compounds studied herein, theoretical calculations lead to two low-energy conformers; trans (a) and cis (b). Former one is more stable than latter by about 4kcal/mol. PMID:27239947

  9. [Synthesis and bronchodilator action of 4-(methoxycarbonylalkylsulfinyl)-4-pyrrol carboxylic esters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, F; Grusdt, U

    1989-11-01

    The dihydro-dimethoxyfuran carboxylic ester 3 reacts with different mercaptoalkyl carboxylates to give the carbomethoxyalkylthio-tetrahydrofuran carboxylic esters 4. Methanol elimination of 4 yields the dihydrofuran derivatives 5. 4 and 5 can be oxidized to afford the sulfoxides 6 and the sulfones 7, respectively. 4 reacts with primary amines to give the title compounds 8. Derivatives of 8 can be cyclized to afford the thienopyrroles 11 and 12 as well as the thienopyranopyrrole 14. The mercaptopyrrole carboxylic ester 10 is obtained from 8f by elimination of propenic acid. 8e shows bronchodilatoric activity in low concentration. PMID:2624526

  10. Atmospheric chemistry of carboxylic acids: microbial implication versus photochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vaïtilingom

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare experimentally the contribution of photochemistry vs. microbial activity to the degradation of carboxylic acids present in cloud water. For this, we selected 17 strains representative of the microflora existing in real clouds and worked on two distinct artificial cloud media that reproduce marine and continental cloud chemical composition. Photodegradation experiments with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as a source of hydroxyl radicals were performed under the same microcosm conditions using two irradiation systems. Biodegradation and photodegradation rates of acetate, formate, oxalate and succinate were measured on both media at 5 °C and 17 °C and were shown to be on the same order of magnitude (around 10−10–10−11 M s−1. The chemical composition (marine or continental origin had little influence on photodegradation and biodegradation rates while the temperature shift from 17 °C to 5 °C decreased biodegradation rates of a factor 2 to 5.

    In order to test other photochemical scenarios, theoretical photodegradation rates were calculated considering hydroxyl (OH radical concentration values in cloud water estimated by cloud chemistry modelling studies and available reaction rate constants of carboxylic compounds with both hydroxyl and nitrate radicals. Considering high OH concentration ([OH] = 1 × 10−12 M led to no significant contribution of microbial activity in the destruction of carboxylic acids. On the contrary, for lower OH concentration (at noon, [OH] = 1 × 10−14 M, microorganisms could efficiently compete with photochemistry and in similar contributions than the ones estimated by our experimental approach.

    Combining these two approaches (experimental and theoretical, our results led to the following conclusions: oxalate was only photodegraded; the photodegradation of formate was usually more

  11. Electrochemical properties of polyethylene membrane modified with carboxylic acid group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cation-exchange membranes modified with the carboxylic acid group for battery separator were prepared by radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid (AA) and methacrylic acid (MA) onto a polyethylene (PE) film. The surface area, thickness, volume, water uptake, ion-exchange capacity, specific electric resistance, and electrolyte flux were evaluated after PE film was grafted with AA and MA. It was found that KOH diffusion flux of AA-grafted PE membrane and MA-grafted PE membrane increased with an increase in the degree of grafting. AA-grafted PE membrane had a higher diffusion flux than MA-grafted PE membrane. Electrical resistance of two cation-exchange membranes modified with AA and MA decreased rapidly with an increase in the degree of grafting. (author)

  12. γ irradiation of carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crosslinking behavior of carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber latex (CSBRL) by using gamma radiation with 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate (2-EHA) as crosslinking sensitizer has been studied in detail. In addition, the variation of the particle size and distribution of latex, chemical structure and thermal property of CSBRL with absorbed dose have been discussed. Also the radiation vulcanization mechanism of CSBRL has been suggested. The experiments showed that, the dose rate has small effect on the cross-link behavior of CSBRL, and the swelling ratio decreased rapidly with the increase of absorbed dose. Increasing the dose, the average molecular weight per crosslinked units (Mc) decreased and crosslinking density increased. When the dose is below 25 kGy, no significant changes in the particle size and distribution of latex were observed. The micro-FTIR analysis and DSC curves confirmed the existence of grafting reaction accompanying the crosslinking reaction during the gamma irradiation with 2-EHA as sensitizer

  13. Improved preparation of halopropyl bridged carboxylic ortho esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Petroski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Bridged ortho esters of 3-halopropyl carboxylic acids were prepared by esterification of 3-methyl-3-hydroxymethyloxetane with 3-bromopropionyl chloride and pyridine in dry THF, followed by rearrangement with boron trifluoroetherate, to afford 1-(2-bromoethyl-4-methyl-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2,2,2]-octane. The 1-(2-iodoethyl-4-methyl-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2,2,2]-octane analogue could not be prepared directly by halogen exchange of 1-(2-bromoethyl-4-methyl-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2,2,2]-octane but could be prepared by halogen exchange of the (3-methyloxetan-3-ylmethyl 3-bromopropanoate with a mixture of sodium iodide and anhydrous sodium sulfate in acetone, followed by rearrangement with boron trifluoroetherate.

  14. Spectrofluorimetric determination of gallium with calon-carboxylic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric procedure for the analysis of microquantities of gallium in alloy wasdescribed. The method is based on the formation of Ga(Ⅲ)-CCA (calon-carboxylic acid) complex. The emission of thefluorescent complex was measured at λ = 620 nm with excitation at λ = 584 nm. A good linearity was found in the galliumrange of 0.7-280 ng/mL. The precision of the method is good and the relative standard deviation is 1.9% for a gallium stan-dard solution of 70 ng/mL. The procedure was proved to be suitable in terms of accuracy and selectivity for the mi-croamount of gallium in alloy.

  15. Preparations and applications in UV curing coatings of epoxy acrylates containing carboxyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces preparations of epoxy acrylates containing carboxyl through the reactions of epoxy acrylates with butanedioic anhydride, pentanedioic anhydride, cis-butenedioic anhydride, phthalic anhydride, tetrabromophthalic anhydride and -tetrahydrophthalic anhydride. These epoxy acrylates containing carboxyl have been applied to UV-curing coatings and their effects on properties of UV-curing coatings have been studied

  16. Carboxyl-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes negatively affect bacterial growth and denitrification activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Chen, Yinguang; Wan, Rui; Li, Mu; Wei, Yuanyuan; Huang, Haining

    2014-07-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been used in a wide range of fields, and the surface modification via carboxyl functionalization can further improve their physicochemical properties. However, whether carboxyl-modified SWNT poses potential risks to microbial denitrification after its release into the environment remains unknown. Here we present the possible effects of carboxyl-modified SWNT on the growth and denitrification activity of Paracoccus denitrificans (a model denitrifying bacterium). It was found that carboxyl-modified SWNT were present both outside and inside the bacteria, and thus induced bacterial growth inhibition at the concentrations of 10 and 50 mg/L. After 24 h of exposure, the final nitrate concentration in the presence of 50 mg/L carboxyl-modified SWNT was 21-fold higher than that in its absence, indicating that nitrate reduction was substantially suppressed by carboxyl-modified SWNT. The transcriptional profiling revealed that carboxyl-modified SWNT led to the transcriptional activation of the genes encoding ribonucleotide reductase in response to DNA damage and also decreased the gene expressions involved in glucose metabolism and energy production, which was an important reason for bacterial growth inhibition. Moreover, carboxyl-modified SWNT caused the significant down-regulation and lower activity of nitrate reductase, which was consistent with the decreased efficiency of nitrate reduction.

  17. Exploring the reductive capacity of Pyrococcus furiosus. The reduction of carboxylic acids and pyridine nucleotides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, van den E.C.D.

    2001-01-01

    This Ph.D. project started in 1997 and its main goal was to obtain insight in the reductive capacity of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus . The research was focused on the biocatalytic reduction of carboxylic acids.Reductions of carboxylic acids are interes

  18. 40 CFR 721.2088 - Carboxylic acids, (C6-C9) branched and linear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... linear. 721.2088 Section 721.2088 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2088 Carboxylic acids, (C6-C9) branched and linear. (a) Chemical... as carboxylic acids, (C6-C9) branched and linear (PMNs P-93-313, 314, 315, and 316) are subject...

  19. 14CO2 ratios method for detecting pyruvate carboxylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of oxidative metabolism of pyruvate may be assessed by comparing the steady-state 14CO2 production from four isotopes in identical samples. The assay requires measuring the ratios of steady-state 14CO2 production from two isotope pairs, [2-14C]pyruvate:[3-14C]pyruvate and [1-14C]acetate:[2-14C]acetate. These ratios are defined as the ''pyruvate 14CO2 ratio'' and the ''acetate 14CO2 ratio,'' respectively. If pyruvate is metabolized exclusively via pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), the two ratios will be identical. Alternatively, if any pyruvate enters the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle via pyruvate carboxylation (PC), the pyruvate 14CO2 ratio will be less than the acetate 14CO2 ratio. If pyruvate enters the TCA cycle only through PC (with oxaloacetate and fumarate in equilibrium) the pyruvate 14CO2 ratio will approach a value of 1.0. An equation is presented for the quantitative evaluation of pyruvate oxidation by these two pathways. We have used this method to detect relative changes in the pattern of pyruvate metabolism in rat liver mitochondria produced by exposure to 1 mM octanoyl carnitine, a compound known to alter the PC:PDH activity ratio. The major advantages of the method are (i) that it provides a sensitive method for detecting pyruvate carboxylation at physiological pyruvate concentrations and (ii) that it provides a method for distinguishing between effects on pyruvate transport and effects on pyruvate oxidation

  20. Solvent extraction studies on uranium (VI) with high molecular weight carboxylic acids from acetate medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboxylic acids are cation exchanger type of extractant which extract metal ions from weak acidic solutions by ion exchange mechanism. They are present as dimer (H2A2) in the non polar organic diluents. High molecular weight carboxylic acids such as versatic 10 acid and naphthenic acid are used for the separation of high purity of yttrium from heavy fraction of rare earths. Extraction behavior of rare earths with different types of carboxylic acids is also reported. Literature survey revealed that the extraction behavior of uranium from aqueous solutions with carboxylic acids is scanty. An attempt has been made in the present work to examine the extraction behavior of U(VI) with three different types of high molecular weight carboxylic acids namely cekanoic acid, neoheptanoic acid and versatic 10 acid dissolved in xylene. Extraction of metal ions is very much dependent on pH of the solution

  1. Efficient Fixation of Carbon Dioxide by Electrolysis - Facile Synthesis of Useful Carboxylic Acids -

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masao Tokuda

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical fixation of atmospheric pressure of carbon dioxide to organic compounds is a useful and attractive method for synthesizing of various carboxylic acids. Electrochemical fixation of carbon dioxide, electrochemical carboxylation, organic halides, organic triflates, alkenes, aromatic compounds, and carbonyl compounds can readily occur in the presence of an atmospheric pressure of carbon dioxide to form the corresponding carboxylic acids with high yields, when a sacrificial anode such as magnesium or aluminum is used in the electrolysis. The electrochemical carboxylation of vinyl bromides was successfully applied for the synthesis of the precursor of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents such as ibuprofen and naproxen. On the other hand, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) has significant potential as an environmentally benign solvent in organic synthesis and it could be used both as a solvent and as a reagent in these electrochemical carboxylations by using a small amount of cosolvent.

  2. 40 CFR 721.4097 - 7-Oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 7-Oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4097 7-Oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester. (a) Chemical...-oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester (PMN P-98-101) is subject to reporting under this...

  3. 40 CFR 721.984 - Amino-hydroxy sulfonaphthylazo-disubstituted phenyl azo benzene carboxylate salt (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-disubstituted phenyl azo benzene carboxylate salt (generic). 721.984 Section 721.984 Protection of Environment...-disubstituted phenyl azo benzene carboxylate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-disubstituted phenyl azo benzene carboxylate salt (PMN P-00-0351) is subject to reporting under this section...

  4. Thermal stability of carboxylic acid functionality in coal; Sekitanchu ni sonzaisuru karubokishiruki no netsubunkai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Y.; Aida, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    Carboxyl in coal was focused in discussing its pyrolytic behavior while tracking change of its absolute amount relative to the heating temperatures. A total of four kinds of coals, consisting of two kinds brown coals, sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were used. Change in the absolute amount of carboxyl due to heating varies with coalification degree. Decomposition starts in the bituminous coal from around 300{degree}C, and is rapidly accelerated when 400{degree}C is exceeded. Carboxyls in brown coals exist two to three times as much as those in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals, of which 40% is decomposed at a temperature as low as about 300{degree}C. Their pyrolytic behavior at temperatures higher than 400{degree}C resembles that of the bituminous coal. Carboxyls consist of those easy to decompose and difficult to decompose. Aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids with simple structure are stable at temperatures lower than 300{degree}C, and decompose abruptly from about 400{degree}C, hence their behavior resembles that of carboxyls in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. Structure of low-temperature decomposing carboxyls in brown coals is not known, but it is assumed that humic acid originated from natural materials remains in the structure. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Transition from Bioinert to Bioactive Material by Tailoring the Biological Cell Response to Carboxylated Nanocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Kai; Rocha, Igor; Zhang, Peng; Gustafsson, Simon; Ning, Yi; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert; Ferraz, Natalia

    2016-03-14

    This work presents an insight into the relationship between cell response and physicochemical properties of Cladophora cellulose (CC) by investigating the effect of CC functional group density on the response of model cell lines. CC was carboxylated by electrochemical TEMPO-mediated oxidation. By varying the amount of charge passed through the electrolysis setup, CC materials with different degrees of oxidation were obtained. The effect of carboxyl group density on the material's physicochemical properties was investigated together with the response of human dermal fibroblasts (hDF) and human osteoblastic cells (Saos-2) to the carboxylated CC films. The introduction of carboxyl groups resulted in CC films with decreased specific surface area and smaller total pore volume compared with the unmodified CC (u-CC). While u-CC films presented a porous network of randomly oriented fibers, a compact and aligned fiber pattern was depicted for the carboxylated-CC films. The decrease in surface area and total pore volume, and the orientation and aggregation of the fibers tended to augment parallel to the increase in the carboxyl group density. hDF and Saos-2 cells presented poor cell adhesion and spreading on u-CC, which gradually increased for the carboxylated CC as the degree of oxidation increased. It was found that a threshold value in carboxyl group density needs be reached to obtain a carboxylated-CC film with cytocompatibility comparable to commercial tissue culture material. Hence, this study demonstrates that a normally bioinert nanomaterial can be rendered bioactive by carefully tuning the density of charged groups on the material surface, a finding that not only may contribute to the fundamental understanding of biointerface phenomena, but also to the development of bioinert/bioactive materials. PMID:26886265

  6. Carboxyl-terminal sequences influence the import of mitochondrial protein precursors in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large subunit of carbamoyl phosphate synthase A from Neurospora crassa is encoded by a nuclear gene but is localized in the mitochondrial matrix. The authors have utilized N. crassa strains that produce both normal and carboxyl-terminal-truncated forms of carbamoyl phosphate synthase A to ask whether the carboxyl terminus affects import of the carbamoyl phosphate synthase A precursor. They found that carboxyl-terminal-truncated precursors were directed to mitochondria but that they were imported less efficiently than full-length proteins that were synthesized in the same cytoplasm. The results suggest that effective import of proteins into mitochondria requires appropriate combinations of targeting sequences and three-dimensional structure

  7. Palladium(II)-Catalyzed Tandem Synthesis of Acenes Using Carboxylic Acids as Traceless Directing Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiho; Vasu, Dhananjayan; Im, Honggu; Hong, Sungwoo

    2016-07-18

    A straightforward synthetic strategy for generating useful anthracene derivatives was developed involving palladium(II)-catalyzed tandem transformation with carboxylic acids as traceless directing groups. Carboxyl-directed C-H alkenylation, carboxyl-directed secondary C-H activation and rollover, intramolecular C-C bond formation, and decarboxylative aromatization are proposed as the key steps in the tandem reaction pathway. This novel synthetic route utilizes a broad range of substrates and provides a convenient synthetic tool that allows access to acenes. PMID:27244536

  8. The investigation of the reactions of some pyrazole-3-carboxylic acids with various diamines and diols

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmi Kasımoğulları; Makbule Maden; Samet Mert

    2012-01-01

    In this study, some new derivatives were synthesized of 4-benzoyl-1-(3-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (1) and 4-(ethoxycarbonyl)-1-(3-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (2) that they were pyrazole carboxylic acid derivatives. Firstly, 1 and 2 reacted with SOCl2 to transform them into acyl chlorides (3, 4). Then various bis-carboxamide derivatives (58) were obtained from the reaction of 3 and 4 with various diamines and also a ;#946;-hydroxy ester (9) deri...

  9. The investigation of the reactions of some pyrazole-3-carboxylic acids with various diamines and diols

    OpenAIRE

    Kasımoğulları, Rahmi; Maden, Makbule; Mert, Samet

    2012-01-01

    In this study, some new derivatives were synthesized of 4-benzoyl-1-(3-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (1) and 4-(ethoxycarbonyl)-1-(3-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (2) that they were pyrazole carboxylic acid derivatives. Firstly, 1 and 2 reacted with SOCl2 to transform them into acyl chlorides (3, 4). Then various bis-carboxamide derivatives (5–8) were obtained from the reaction of 3 and 4 with various diamines and also a β-hydroxy ester (9)...

  10. A novel synthesis of carbon-labelled quinolone-3-carboxylic acid antibacterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.M.; Sutherland, D.R. (Glaxo Research and Development Ltd., Greenford (United Kingdom). Isotope Chemistry Group)

    1994-10-01

    3-Iodoquinolones were prepared from the corresponding quinolone-3-carboxylic acids by Hunsdiecker-type iododecarboxylation reactions with lead tetraacetate and iodine. Cyanation of the iodo compounds with mixtures of potassium [[sup 13]C]cyanide and copper (1) iodide, gave [3-[sup 13]C]cyanoquinolones which on acidic hydrolysis afforded quinolone-[3-[sup 13]C]carboxylic acids. In this way, nalidixic acid, an immediate precursor of norfloxacin, and quinolone WIN57273 were labelled with carbon-13 in the metabolically stable carboxylic acid fragment. (author).

  11. Photophysics of indole-2-carboxylic acid (I2C) and indole-5-carboxylic acid (I5C): heavy atom effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska-Baron, Agnieszka; Gałęcki, Krystian; Wysocki, Stanisław

    2013-12-01

    In this study the effect of carboxylic group substitution in the 2 and 5 position of indole ring on the photophysics of the parent indole chromophore has been studied. The photophysical parameters crucial in triplet state decay mechanism of aqueous indole-2-carboxylic acid (I2C) and indole-5-carboxylic acid (I5C) have been determined applying our previously proposed methodology based on the heavy atom effect and fluorescence and phosphorescence decay kinetics [Kowalska-Baron et al., 2012]. The determined time-resolved phosphorescence spectra of I2C and I5C are red-shifted as compared to that of the parent indole. This red-shift was especially evident in the case of I2C and may indicate the possibility of hydrogen bonded complex formation incorporating carbonyl CO, the NH group of I2C and, possibly, surrounding water molecules. The possibility of the excited state charge transfer process and the subsequent electronic charge redistribution in such a hydrogen bonded complex may also be postulated. The resulting stabilization of the I2C triplet state is manifested by its relatively long phosphorescence lifetime in aqueous solution (912 μs). The relatively short phosphorescence lifetime of I5C (56 μs) may be the consequence of more effective ground-state quenching of I5 C triplet state. This hypothesis may be strengthened by the significantly larger value of the determined rate constant of I5C triplet state quenching by its ground-state (4.4 × 10(8)M(-1)s(-1)) as compared to that for indole (6.8 × 10(7)M(-1)s(-1)) and I2C (2.3 × 10(7)M(-1)s(-1)). The determined bimolecular rate constant for triplet state quenching by iodide [Formula: see text] is equal to 1 × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1); 6 × 10(3)M(-1)s(-1) and 2.7 × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1) for indole, I2 C and I5 C, respectively. In order to obtain a better insight into iodide quenching of I2C and I5C triplet states in aqueous solution, the temperature dependence of the bimolecular rate constants for iodide quenching of the

  12. Structural and thermal properties of carboxylic acid functionalized polythiophenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane de França Mescoloto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polythiophenes functionalized with polar groups at the end of side-chain have emerged as an alternative method to obtain good compatibility between this class of conjugated polymers and electron acceptor compounds. The aim is to prevent phase segregation and to improve the efficiency of the polythiophene technological devices. However, homopolymers synthesized from thiophene rings with high polar groups at the end of the side-chain, such as hydroxyl and carboxylic acid groups, are poorly soluble in common volatile organic solvents. We report on a systematic preparation of copolymers of 3-hexylthiophene (HT and thiophene-3-acetic acid (TAA, using different feed ratios. The chemical structures of the copolymers were confirmed by FTIR and ¹H-NMR. The TAA content in these copolymers were 33, 38 and 54 mol %. HPSEC results did not show any remarkable correlation with TAA contents in the copolymers. In contrast, the thermal analyses showed a decrease in the thermal stability and an increase in rigidity of their backbones, for the copolymers with high amounts of TAA. The solubility and optical property of copolymers were also related to the TAA contents. Thus, the properties of these copolymers can be modulated by a simple control of feed ratio of TAA in the copolymerization.

  13. Keto-Enol Tautomerizations Catalyzed by Water and Carboxylic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, G.

    2009-12-01

    The ability of weakly-bound complexes to influence the kinetics of gas phase reactions, particularly in atmospheric chemistry, has long been speculated. This study uses quantum chemistry and statistical reaction rate theory to identify that bound water molecules can significantly reduce barriers to intramolecular hydrogen shift reactions, via a double-hydrogen-shift mechanism. The bound water molecule directly participates in the hydrogen shift reaction, exchanging a H atom with its counterpart. For the vinyl alcohol to acetaldehyde keto-enol tautomerization this mechanism cuts the reaction barrier approximately in half, reducing it by over 30 kcal mol-1. In contrast, while a non-participatory ‘bystander’ water molecule also reduces the hydrogen shift barrier, it is only by around 3 kcal/mol. When a carboxylic acid replaces water in the double-hydrogen-shift mechanism the barrier to keto-enol tautomerization is decimated, reduced to less than 6 kcal/mol (around 15 kcal/mol in the reverse direction). This results from reduced strain in the hydrogen shift transition state, and achieves enol lifetimes in the troposphere that become short on relevant timescales. Rapid enol to ketone isomerizations are currently required to explain the oxidation products of isoprene. The wider significance of rapid hydrogen shift reactions in atmospherically relevant molecules and radicals is also explored.

  14. Variable Denticity in Carboxylate Binding to the Uranyl Coordination Complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tris-carboxylate complexes of the uranyl (UO2)2+ cation with acetate and benzoate were generated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and then isolated in a Fourier transformion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Wavelength-selective infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) of the tris-acetatouranyl anion resulted in a redox elimination of an acetate radical, which was used to generate an IR spectrum that consisted of six prominent absorption bands. These were interpreted with the aid of density functional theory calculations in terms of symmetric and antisymmetric -CO2 stretches of both the monodentate and bidentate acetate, CH3 bending and umbrella vibrations, and a uranyl O-U-O asymmetric stretch. The comparison of the calculated and measured IR spectra indicated that the tris-acetate complex contained two acetate ligands bound in a bidentate fashion, while the third acetate was monodentate. In similar fashion, the tris-benzoate uranyl anion was formed and photodissociated by loss of a benzoate radical, enabling measurement of the infrared spectrum that was in close agreement with that calculated for a structure containing one monodentate, and two bidentate benzoate ligands.

  15. Variable Denticity in Carboxylate Binding to the Uranyl Coordination Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenewold, G. S.; De Jong, Wibe A.; Oomens, Jos; Van Stipdonk, Michael J.

    2010-05-01

    Tris-carboxylate complexes of the uranyl [UO2]2+ cation with acetate and benzoate were generated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and then isolated in a Fourier transformion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Wavelength-selective infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) of the tris-acetatouranyl anion resulted in a redox elimination of an acetate radical, which was used to generate an IR spectrum that consisted of six prominent absorption bands. These were interpreted with the aid of density functional theory calculations in terms of symmetric and antisymmetric -CO2 stretches of both the monodentate and bidentate acetate, CH3 bending and umbrella vibrations, and a uranyl O-U-O asymmetric stretch. The comparison of the calculated and measured IR spectra indicated that the tris-acetate complex contained two acetate ligands bound in a bidentate fashion, while the third acetate was monodentate. In similar fashion, the tris-benzoate uranyl anion was formed and photodissociated by loss of a benzoate radical, enabling measurement of the infrared spectrum that was in close agreement with that calculated for a structure containing one monodentate, and two bidentate benzoate ligands.

  16. Z-effect reversal in carboxylic acid associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Michael G; Bushmarinov, Ivan S; Lyssenko, Konstantin A

    2016-05-01

    The carboxylic group is a common fragment in synthetic compounds and biomolecules. Its conformation is assumed to be dominantly cis due to so-called Z-effect. However, in this study, we show that the nature of the H-bond acceptor in RCOOHX directly affects the conformational preference of the resulting supermolecule. This result is evident from the statistical analysis of available crystallographic data and was quantified using accurate quantum chemical calculations. We propose the term "supramolecular stereoelectronic effect" for the observed conformational preference. The likely reason for this is the interaction of the O-HX hydrogen bond with the C[double bond, length as m-dash]O double bond in the trans conformation, which in case of anionic X is strong enough to reverse the Z-effect. Explicit consideration of trans COOHX stabilization can help crystal structure predictions and biomolecular simulations. In particular, this effect plays a key role in the transition between the T6 and R6 forms of human insulin. PMID:27109148

  17. Biogeochemistry of the stable carbon isotopes in carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carbon isotopic compositions of the carboxyl carbons of fatty acids were determined by measuring the isotopic composition of the carbon dioxide quantitatively released from the acid. A modified version of the Schmidt decarboxylation developed and tested in this work was employed. A study of the evolution of CO2 at 5 +- 20C from the Schmidt decarboxylation of octanoic acid during the developmental program revealed two kinetic phases, each characterized by different rate constants and carbon isotope effects. The first, slower reaction phase displayed overall first-order kinetics, its rate being independent of HN3 concentration. Both pre-equilibration of the HN3-CHCl3 decarboxylation reagent with H2SO4 and saturation of the catalytic H2SO4 phase with KHSO4 drastically altered the rate of evolution and isotopic composition of the product CO2. The mechanistic implications of these results were discussed. A review of the metabolism of saturated fatty acids was made in which the impact of potential isotope fractionations in the various chemical reactions comprising the biosynthetic pathways on the intramolecular carbon isotope distribution within fatty acids was discussed

  18. Plastic scintillators with high loading of one or more metal carboxylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepy, Nerine; Sanner, Robert Dean

    2016-01-12

    In one embodiment, a material includes at least one metal compound incorporated into a polymeric matrix, where the metal compound includes a metal and one or more carboxylate ligands, where at least one of the one or more carboxylate ligands includes a tertiary butyl group, and where the material is optically transparent. In another embodiment, a method includes: processing pulse traces corresponding to light pulses from a scintillator material; and outputting a result of the processing, where the scintillator material comprises at least one metal compound incorporated into a polymeric matrix, the at least one metal compound including a metal and one or more carboxylate ligands, where at least one of the one or more carboxylate ligands has a tertiary butyl group, and where the scintillator material is optically transparent and has an energy resolution at 662 keV of less than about 20%.

  19. High-level production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-11-labeled amino acids have significant potential as agents for positron tomographic functional imaging. We have developed a rapid, high-temperature, high-pressure modification of the Buecherer--Strecker amino acid synthesis and found it to be quite general for the production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled neutral amino acids. Production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled DL-tryptophan requires certain modifications in the procedure. Twelve different amino acids have been produced to date by this technique. Synthesis and chromatographic purification require approximately 40 min, and C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids have been produced in yields of up to 425 mCi. Two C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids are being investigated clinically for tumor scanning and two others for pancreatic imaging. Over 120 batches of the various agents have been produced for clinical use over a three-year period

  20. Pyrazole carboxamides and carboxylic acids as protein kinase inhibitors in aberrant eukaryotic signal transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Tobias; Yde, Christina W.; Rasmussen, Jakob Ewald;

    2007-01-01

    Densely functionalised pyrazole carboxamides and carboxylic acids were synthesised in an expedient manner through saponification and transamidation, respectively, of ester-functionalised pyrazoles. This synthetic protocol allowed for three diversifying steps in which appendages on the pyrazole...

  1. Thermal decomposition of freeze-dried μ-oxo-carboxylates of manganese and iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decomposition of freeze-dried mixed carboxylates of manganese and iron was investigated by means of DTA, TG, mass spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry. The three main steps of decomposition are characterized as release of (a) H2O, (b) carboxylic acid and CO2/CO, and (c) the corresponding carbonyl compound and CO2. In particular, the course of process (b) strongly depends on the stability of the metal-carboxylate link in the three investigated carboxylates. Well-crystallized single-phase manganese ferrites can be obtained on decomposition of formates of appropriate composition and thermal treatment of decomposition products at 600C while maintaining a p(O2) within the coexistence field of manganese ferrite. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Synthesis and Anti-influenza Virus Activity of Ethyl 6-Bromo-5-hydroxyindole-3-carboxylate Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Fang ZHAO; Jin Hua DONG; Ping GONG

    2004-01-01

    A series of ethyl 6-bromo-5-hydroxyindole-3-carboxylate derivatives were synthesized and their in vitro anti-influenza virus activity was evaluated. All the compounds were characterized by 1H NMR and MS.

  3. Efficient Debromination of Vicinal (, (-Dibromo Carboxylic Acid Derivatives with the Sm/HOAc System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The α, β vicinal dibromo carboxylic acid and its derivatives were debrominated with Sm/HOAc system to afford the corresponding cinnamic acid and its derivatives in good yields under mild conditions.

  4. EFFECT OF CARBOXYLIC IONOPHOROUS ANTIBACTERIALS ON THE GROWTH OF SELECTED MICROALGAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboxylic ionophorous antibiotics are routinely used in cattle, chicken and turkey concentrated feedlot operations as anticoccidial and growth promotant feed additives and may, through runoff and effluents, enter adjacent waterways. The effects of these compounds on the growth o...

  5. Palladium-Catalyzed C–C Bond Formations via Activation of Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Bingrui

    2013-01-01

    Applications of carboxylic acids and their derivatives in transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions regio-selectively forming Csp3-Csp2, and Csp2-Csp2 bonds were explored in this thesis. Several important organic building blocks such as aryl acetates, diaryl acetates, imines, ketones, biaryls, styrenes and polysubstituted alkenes were successfully accessed from carboxylic acids and their derivatives by the means of C–H activation and decarboxylative cross-couplings. An efficient ...

  6. A Simple Method for the Determination of Enantiomeric Excess and Identity of Chiral Carboxylic Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Leo A.; Maynor, Marc S.; Dragna, Justin M.; da Cruz, Gabriella M.; Lynch, Vincent M.; Canary, James W.; Eric V. Anslyn

    2011-01-01

    The association between an achiral copper(II) host (1) and chiral carboxylate guests was studied using exciton-coupled circular dichroism (ECCD). Enantiomeric complexes were created upon binding of the enantiomers of the carboxylate guests to the host, and the sign of the resultant CD signal allowed for determination of the configuration of the studied guest. The difference in magnitudes and shapes of the CD signals, in conjunction with linear discriminant analysis (LDA), allowed for the iden...

  7. 2-(2-Chlorophenyl-5-methyl-1,3-dioxane-5-carboxylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Kai Jia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C12H13ClO4, the 1,3-dioxane ring adopts a chair conformation and the 2-chlorobenzene and methyl substituents occupy equatorial sites. The carboxyl group is in an axial inclination. In the crystal, carboxylic acid inversion dimers linked by pairs of O—H...O hydrogen bonds generate R22(8 loops.

  8. Probing the orthosteric binding site of GABAA receptors with heterocyclic GABA carboxylic acid bioisosteres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jette G; Bergmann, Rikke; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl; Balle, Thomas; Frølund, Bente

    2013-01-01

    selective and potent GABAAR agonists. This review investigates the use of heterocyclic carboxylic acid bioisosteres within the GABAAR area. Several heterocycles including 3-hydroxyisoxazole, 3-hydroxyisoxazoline, 3-hydroxyisothiazole, and the 1- and 3-hydroxypyrazole rings have been employed in order to map...... the orthosteric binding site. The physicochemical properties of the heterocyclic moieties making them suitable for bioisosteric replacement of the carboxylic acid in the molecule of GABA are discussed. A variety of synthetic strategies for synthesis of the heterocyclic scaffolds are available...

  9. Redshift or adduct stabilization -- a computational study of hydrogen bonding in adducts of protonated carboxylic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Solveig Gaarn; Hammerum, Steen

    2009-01-01

    always yield consistent predictions, as illustrated by the hydrogen bonds formed by the E and Z OH groups of protonated carboxylic acids. The delta-PA and the stabilization of a series of hydrogen bonded adducts indicate that the E OH group forms the stronger hydrogen bonds, whereas the bond length...... carboxylic acids are different. The OH bond length and IR redshift afford the better measure of hydrogen bond strength....

  10. Expedited Synthesis of Benzofuran-2-Carboxylic Acids via Microwave-Assisted Perkin Rearrangement Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Marriott, Karla-Sue C.; Bartee, Rena; Morrison, Andrew Z.; Stewart, Leonard; Wesby, Julian

    2012-01-01

    3-Halocoumarins are readily converted into benzofuran-2-carboxylic acids via a Perkin (coumarin-benzofuran ring contraction) rearrangement reaction. This rearrangement entails initial base catalyzed ring fission. The resulting phenoxide anion then attacks a vinyl halide to produce the final benzofuran moiety. We explored this reaction under microwave reaction conditions and were able to significantly reduce reaction times as well as obtain very high yields of a series of benzofuran-2-carboxyl...

  11. Gamma-aminoadamantane carboxylic acids : orientating building blocks in peptide chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Wanka, Lukas

    2007-01-01

    The present thesis deals with gamma-aminoadamantane carboxylic acids. Allthough the simplest of these structural analogues of GABA were known for decades, no significant peptide chemistry has been disclosed. Therefore, improved syntheses of these compounds were worked out that allowed for facilitated syntheses of already known as well as new members of gamma-aminoadamantane carboxylic acids. Fmoc-/tert. butyl protective group chemistry was utilized to synthesize peptides incorporating the gam...

  12. Ozone-driven daytime formation of secondary organic aerosol containing carboxylic acid groups and alkane groups

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, S.; D. A. Day; J. E. Shields; L. M. Russell

    2011-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are present in substantial quantities in atmospheric particles, and they play an important role in the physical and chemical properties of aerosol particles. During measurements in coastal California in the summer of 2009, carboxylic acid functional groups were exclusively associated with a fossil fuel combustion factor derived from factor analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic measurements and closely correlated with oxygenated organic factors from aerosol mass...

  13. Copper-catalyzed intermolecular oxyamination of olefins using carboxylic acids and O-benzoylhydroxylamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemric, Brett N

    2016-01-01

    Summary This paper reports a novel approach for the direct and facile synthesis of 1,2-oxyamino moieties via an intermolecular copper-catalyzed oxyamination of olefins. This strategy utilizes O-benzoylhydroxylamines as an electrophilic amine source and carboxylic acids as a nucleophilic oxygen source to achieve a modular difunctionalization of olefins. The reaction proceeded in a regioselective manner with moderate to good yields, exhibiting a broad scope of carboxylic acid, amine, and olefin substrates. PMID:26877805

  14. Effect of the cement type on compatibility with carboxylate superplasticisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bundyra-Oracz, G.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An empirical study was conducted to gain a fuller understanding of the interactions taking place in cementsuperplasticiser systems. To this end, two clinkers of known chemical and phase composition were prepared in this study to gain insight into such interactions. One contained no tricalcium aluminate (C1, while the other had a 9% C3A content (C2. These clinkers were ground to approximately 340 m2/kg and blended with gypsum only or gypsum and Klein compound (3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4 (1, 2. Sufficient compound was added to C1 to ensure the formation of about the same amount of ettringite after 0.5 and 1 h of hydration as found in cement C2 + gypsum. The admixture used was a carboxylate superplasticiser. Rheology measurements showed that while paste yield stress was correlated to ettringite formation, no such simple relationship was observed for plastic viscosity. Plastic viscosity depended on the total hydrates formed, i.e., not only as ettringite but also as C-S-H gel. The findings revealed that in clinkers with very low sulfate and potassium contents, the rheology of carboxylate-containing cement paste is primarily controlled by ettringite formation.

    En el presente trabajo se ha realizado un estudio empírico con el objetivo de profundizar en el conocimiento de las interacciones del sistema cemento-superplastificante. Con este fin, se prepararon dos clínkeres con una composición química y de fases conocida: el primero (C1 sin aluminato tricálcico y el segundo (C2 con un contenido en C3A del 9%. Ambos se molieron hasta obtener una superficie específica aproximada de 340 m2/kg y se emplearon con dos adiciones: yeso y el compuesto de Klein (3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4 (1, 2. Se añadió la cantidad necesaria del compuesto de Klein a C1 para garantizar la formación, tras 0,5 y 1ª h. de hidratación, de aproximadamente la misma cantidad de etringita en dicho

  15. How many carboxyl groups does an average molecule of humic-like substances contain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Salma

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The carboxyl groups of atmospheric humic-like substances (HULIS are of special interest because they influence the solubility in water, affect the water activity and surface tension of droplets in the air, and allow formation of chelates with biologically active elements. Experimentally determined abundances of the carboxyl group within HULIS by functional group analysis are consistent with our knowledge on the average molecular mass of HULIS if the number of dissociable carboxyl groups is assumed to be rather small. The best agreement between the average molecular mass derived from the existing abundance data and the average molecular mass published earlier occurs for assuming approximately one dissociable carboxyl group only. This implies that HULIS can not be regarded as polycarboxilic acid in diluted solutions. The average molecular mass of HULIS derived from our electrochemical measurements with the assumption of one dissociable carboxyl group or equivalently, one dissociable sulphate ester per molecule ranges from 250 to 310 Da. It was concluded that HULIS are a moderately strong/weak acid with a dissociation constant of about pK=3.4, which fits well into the interval represented by fulvic and humic acids. The mean number of dissociable hydrogen (i.e. of carboxyl groups and sulphate esters jointly in HULIS molecules was refined to be between 1.1 and 1.4 in acidic solutions.

  16. How many carboxyl groups does an average molecule of humic-like substances contain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Salma

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The carboxyl groups of atmospheric humic-like substances (HULIS are of special interest because they influence the solubility in water, affect the water activity and surface tension of droplets in the air, and allow formation of chelates with biologically active elements. Experimentally determined abundances of the carboxyl group within HULIS by functional group analysis are consistent with our knowledge on the average molecular mass of HULIS if the number of dissociable carboxyl groups is assumed to be rather small. The best agreement between the average molecular mass derived from the existing abundance data and the average molecular mass published earlier occurs for assuming approximately one dissociable carboxyl group only. This implies that HULIS can not be regarded as polycarboxilic acid. The average molecular mass of HULIS derived from our electrochemical measurements with the assumption of one dissociable carboxyl group per molecule ranges from 248 to 305 Da. It was concluded that HULIS are a moderately strong/weak acid with a dissociation constant of about pK=3.4, which fits well into the interval represented by fulvic and humic acids. The mean number of dissociable carboxyl groups in HULIS molecules was refined to be between 1.1 and 1.4.

  17. Effect of substituent position on electrodeposition, morphology, and capacitance performance of polyindole bearing a carboxylic group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The effect of carboxylic substituent position on the electrodeposition, morphology, and capacitance performance of substituted polyindole derivative nanowires were investigated for the first time. The results indicated that the position of the carboxylic substitution had remarkable impact on the diameter size and capacitance performance of these polymer nanowires. Furthermore, these polymers with high specific capacitance and excellent stability would be strong candidates as electrode material for supercapacitor. - Highlights: • Three carboxylic group substituted polyindole nanowires were synthesized. • Effect of substituent position on their morphology was firstly reported. • Effect of substituent position on their capacitance performance was reported. • The three polyindole nanowires showed excellent capacitance performance. - Abstract: In this paper, the effects of carboxylic substituent position on their electrodeposition, morphology and capacitance properties were investigated for the first time. The results indicated that three carboxylic group substituted polyindole derivatives nanowires, namely poly(indole-5-carboxylic acid) (5-PICA), poly(indole-6-carboxylic acid) (6-PICA), and poly(indole-7-carboxylic acid) (7-PICA), were successfully electrochemically synthesized in acetonitrile containing 0.1 M LiClO4, whereas poly(indole-4-carboxylic acid) (4-PICA) was difficult to be obtained. For 5-PICA, 6-PICA and 7-PICA nanowires, the diameters of nanowires demonstrated by the scanning electron microscopy were about 100 nm, 50 nm, and 30 nm, respectively. Their specific capacitances and energy densities in 1.0 M H2SO4 solution were measured to be 355 F g−1, 383 F g−1, 430 F g−1 at 2.5 A g−1 and 40.0, 43.1, 48.3 Wh kg−1 at a power density of 1125 W kg−1, respectively, and their specific capacitance retentions after 1000 charge/discharge processes reached 94.5%, 95.1%, and 96%, respectively. These results indicated that the

  18. Density Functional Theory Study on the Interactions of Metal Ions with Long Chain Deprotonated Carboxylic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehandzhiyski, Aleksandar Y; Riccardi, Enrico; van Erp, Titus S; Koch, Henrik; Åstrand, Per-Olof; Trinh, Thuat T; Grimes, Brian A

    2015-10-01

    In this work, interactions between carboxylate ions and calcium or sodium ions are investigated via density functional theory (DFT). Despite the ubiquitous presence of these interactions in natural and industrial chemical processes, few DFT studies on these systems exist in the literature. Special focus has been placed on determining the influence of the multibody interactions (with up to 4 carboxylates and one metal ion) on an effective pair-interaction potential, such as those used in molecular mechanics (MM). Specifically, DFT calculations are employed to quantify an effective pair-potential that implicitly includes multibody interactions to construct potential energy curves for carboxylate-metal ion pairs. The DFT calculated potential curves are compared to a widely used molecular mechanics force field (OPLS-AA). The calculations indicate that multibody effects do influence the energetic behavior of these ionic pairs and the extent of this influence is determined by a balance between (a) charge transfer from the carboxylate to the metal ions which stabilizes the complex and (b) repulsion between carboxylates, which destabilizes the complex. Additionally, the potential curves of the complexes with 1 and 2 carboxylates and one counterion have been examined to higher separation distance (20 Å) by the use of relaxed scan optimization and constrained density functional theory (CDFT). The results from the relaxed scan optimization indicate that near the equilibrium distance, the charge transfer between the metal ion and the deprotonated carboxylic acid group is significant and leads to non-negligible differences between the DFT and MM potential curves, especially for calcium. However, at longer separation distances the MM calculated interaction potential functions converge to those calculated with CDFT, effectively indicating the approximate domain of the separation distance coordinate where charge transfer between the ions is occurring. PMID:26331433

  19. Ozone-driven photochemical formation of carboxylic acid groups from alkane groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylic acids are ubiquitous in atmospheric particles, and they play an important role in the physical and chemical properties of aerosol particles. During measurements in coastal California in the summer of 2009, carboxylic acid functional groups were highly associated with trajectories from an industrial region with high organic mass (OM, likely from fossil fuel combustion emissions. The concentration of carboxylic acid groups peaked during daytime, suggesting a photochemical secondary formation mechanism. This daytime increase in concentration was tightly correlated with O3 mixing ratio, indicating O3 was the likely driver in acid formation. Based on the diurnal cycles of carboxylic acid and alkane groups, the covariation of carboxylic acid groups with O3, and the composition of the Combustion factor resulted from the factor analyses, gas-phase alkane oxidation by OH radicals to form dihyfrofuran followed by further oxidation of dihydrofuran by O3 is the likely acid formation mechanism. Using the multi-day average of the daytime increase of carboxylic acid group concentrations and m/z 44-based Aged Combustion factor, we estimated the lower-bound contributions of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formed in 12-h daytime of processing in a single day to be 30% of the carboxylic acid groups and 25–45% of the Combustion factor concentration. These unique ambient observations of photochemically-driven acid formation suggest that gas-phase alkanes might be important sources of SOA formation in this coastal region.

  20. Photoelectrochemical properties of WO3 nanoparticulate thin films prepared by carboxylic acid-assisted electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimisation of particle sizes of WO3 films is important for photoelectrochemical applications. However, most of the developed size-controlled synthesis techniques involve complicated instruments or vacuum systems. The present work presents an alternative method using carboxylic acid-assisted electrodeposition where WO3 thin films were deposited from peroxotungstic acid (PTA) solution containing different carboxylic acids (formic, oxalic, citric). The effects of carboxylic acids on the electrodeposition and the resultant morphological, mineralogical, optical, and photoelectrochemical properties of the WO3 films were investigated. The analysis showed that the films consisted of equiaxed nanoparticulate monoclinic WO3. The deposition thicknesses and the average grain (individual particle and agglomerate) sizes of the films were dependent on the amount of hydronium ions and the molecular weight and associated sizes of the conjugate bases released upon the dissociation of carboxylic acids in the PTA solutions, which result in hydrogen bond formation and molecular dispersion. The photocurrent densities of the films deposited with carboxylic acids were greater than that of the film deposited from pure PTA. These differences were attributed to improvements in (1) grain size, which controls photogenerated electron-hole transport, and (2) effective grain boundary area, which controls the numbers of active reaction sites and electron-hole recombination sites. - Highlights: • Carboxylic acid-assisted electrodeposition of WO3 films from peroxotungstic acid. • The types of carboxylic acids control the deposition rates and microstructure. • WO3 grain sizes and effective grain boundary areas determine the photocurrents. • Maximal photocurrent measured in the smallest-aggregate films (∼ 83 nm)

  1. Asymmetric synthesis of crambescin A-C carboxylic acids and their inhibitory activity on voltage-gated sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazaki, Atsuo; Nakane, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Yuki; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari; Nishikawa, Toshio

    2016-06-21

    Synthesis of both enantiomers of crambescin B carboxylic acid is described. A cis-enyne starting material was epoxidized under the conditions of Katsuki asymmetric epoxidation to give 95% ee of the epoxide, which was transformed to crambescin B carboxylic acid via bromocation-triggered cascade cyclization as the key step. Enantiomerically pure crambescin A and C carboxylic acids were also synthesized from the product of the cascade reaction. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies against voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) inhibition using those synthetic compounds revealed that the natural enantiomer of crambescin B carboxylic acid was most active and comparable to tetrodotoxin, and the unalkylated cyclic guanidinium structure is indispensible, while the carboxylate moiety is not important. The absolute stereochemistry of crambescin A was determined by a comparison of the methyl ester derived from natural crambescin A with that derived from the stereochemically defined crambescin A carboxylic acid synthesized in this study. PMID:27215973

  2. Interaction Between the Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Domain and the Biotin Carboxylase Domain in Pyruvate Carboxylase from Rhizobium etli†

    OpenAIRE

    Lietzan, Adam D.; Menefee, Ann L.; Zeczycki, Tonya N.; Kumar, Sudhanshu; Attwood, Paul V.; Wallace, John C.; Cleland, W. Wallace; Maurice, Martin St.

    2011-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, an important anaplerotic reaction in mammalian tissues. To effect catalysis, the tethered biotin of PC must gain access to active sites in both the biotin carboxylase domain and the carboxyl transferase domain. Previous studies have demonstrated that a mutation of threonine 882 to alanine in PC from Rhizobium etli renders the carboxyl transferase domain inactive and favors the positioning of bioti...

  3. Phosphorescent emissions of phosphine copper(I) complexes bearing 8-hydroxyquinoline carboxylic acid analogue ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pseudotetrahedral complexes of [Cu(PPh3)2(L)], where L=8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline-7-carboxylic acid (1), 8-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylquinoline-7-carboxylic acid (2) or 5-chloro-8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline-7-carboxylic acid (3) have been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. Their properties have been examined through combinations of IR, NMR, electronic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The complexes exhibit extraordinary photophysical properties. Complex (1) in solid state exhibits an emission quantum yield of 4.67% and an excited life time of 1.88 ms (frozen DCM solution up to 6.7 ms). When dissolved in a coordinating solvent (acetonitrile) the charge transfer emission was quenched on a microsecond scale. - Highlights: • Synthesis of copper(I) complexes with 8-hydroxyquinoline carboxylic acid ligands. • Very long lived phosphorescent copper(I) complexes. • [Cu(PPh3)2(L)] where L=8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline-7-carboxylic acid luminesce in the solid state exhibits extremely long lifetime on millisecond scale (1.9 ms). • In frozen MeOH:EtOH solution lifetime increases to 7 ms. • Quantum efficiency equal to 4.7%

  4. Phosphorescent emissions of phosphine copper(I) complexes bearing 8-hydroxyquinoline carboxylic acid analogue ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Małecki, Jan G., E-mail: gmalecki@us.edu.pl [Department of Crystallography, Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, Szkolna 9 street, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Łakomska, Iwona, E-mail: iwolak@chem.umk.pl [Department of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń (Poland); Maroń, Anna [Department of Crystallography, Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, Szkolna 9 street, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Szala, Marcin [Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Fandzloch, Marzena [Department of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń (Poland); Nycz, Jacek E., E-mail: jacek.nycz@us.edu.pl [Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland)

    2015-05-15

    The pseudotetrahedral complexes of [Cu(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}(L)], where L=8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline-7-carboxylic acid (1), 8-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylquinoline-7-carboxylic acid (2) or 5-chloro-8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline-7-carboxylic acid (3) have been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. Their properties have been examined through combinations of IR, NMR, electronic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The complexes exhibit extraordinary photophysical properties. Complex (1) in solid state exhibits an emission quantum yield of 4.67% and an excited life time of 1.88 ms (frozen DCM solution up to 6.7 ms). When dissolved in a coordinating solvent (acetonitrile) the charge transfer emission was quenched on a microsecond scale. - Highlights: • Synthesis of copper(I) complexes with 8-hydroxyquinoline carboxylic acid ligands. • Very long lived phosphorescent copper(I) complexes. • [Cu(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}(L)] where L=8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline-7-carboxylic acid luminesce in the solid state exhibits extremely long lifetime on millisecond scale (1.9 ms). • In frozen MeOH:EtOH solution lifetime increases to 7 ms. • Quantum efficiency equal to 4.7%.

  5. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, biological screenings, DNA binding study and POM analyses of transition metal carboxylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Noor; Sirajuddin, Muhammad; Uddin, Nizam; Tariq, Muhammad; Ullah, Hameed; Ali, Saqib; Tirmizi, Syed Ahmed; Khan, Abdur Rehman

    2015-04-01

    This article contains the synthesis of a novel carboxylic acid derivative, its transition metal complexes and evaluation of biological applications. Six carboxylate complexes of transition metals, Zn(II) and Hg(II), have been successfully synthesized and characterized by FT-IR and NMR (1H, 13C). The ligand, HL, (4-[(2,6-Diethylphenyl)amino]-4-oxobutanoic acid) was also characterized by single crystal X-ray analysis. The complexation occurs via oxygen atoms of the carboxylate moiety. FT-IR date show the bidentate nature of the carboxylate moiety of the ligand as the Δν value in all complexes is less than that of the free ligand. The ligand and its complexes were screened for antifungal and antileishmanial activities. The results showed that the ligand and its complexes are active with few exceptions. UV-visible spectroscopy and viscometry results reveal that the ligand and its complexes interact with the DNA via intercalative mode of interaction. A new and efficient strategy to identify the pharmacophores and anti-pharmacophores sites in carboxylate derivatives for the antibacterial/antifungal activity using Petra, Osiris and Molinspiration (POM) analyses was also carried out.

  6. Improved antifouling properties of polyamide nanofiltration membranes by reducing the density of surface carboxyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yinghui; Tiraferri, Alberto; Yip, Ngai Yin; Adout, Atar; Huang, Xia; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-12-18

    Carboxyls are inherent functional groups of thin-film composite polyamide nanofiltration (NF) membranes, which may play a role in membrane performance and fouling. Their surface presence is attributed to incomplete reaction of acyl chloride monomers during the membrane active layer synthesis by interfacial polymerization. In order to unravel the effect of carboxyl group density on organic fouling, NF membranes were fabricated by reacting piperazine (PIP) with either isophthaloyl chloride (IPC) or the more commonly used trimesoyl chloride (TMC). Fouling experiments were conducted with alginate as a model hydrophilic organic foulant in a solution, simulating the composition of municipal secondary effluent. Improved antifouling properties were observed for the IPC membrane, which exhibited lower flux decline (40%) and significantly greater fouling reversibility or cleaning efficiency (74%) than the TMC membrane (51% flux decline and 40% cleaning efficiency). Surface characterization revealed that there was a substantial difference in the density of surface carboxyl groups between the IPC and TMC membranes, while other surface properties were comparable. The role of carboxyl groups was elucidated by measurements of foulant-surface intermolecular forces by atomic force microscopy, which showed lower adhesion forces and rupture distances for the IPC membrane compared to TMC membranes in the presence of calcium ions in solution. Our results demonstrated that a decrease in surface carboxyl group density of polyamide membranes fabricated with IPC monomers can prevent calcium bridging with alginate and, thus, improve membrane antifouling properties. PMID:23205860

  7. Absence of Vitamin K-Dependent γ-Carboxylation in Human Periostin Extracted from Fibrotic Lung or Secreted from a Cell Line Engineered to Optimize γ-Carboxylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, Douglas S.; Ma, Hanqing; Balas, Danika M.; Kumfer, Kraig T.; Sandbo, Nathan; Potts, Gregory K.; Coon, Joshua J.; Mosher, Deane F.

    2015-01-01

    Periostin (PN, gene name POSTN) is an extracellular matrix protein that is up-regulated in bronchial epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts by TH-2 cytokines. Its paralog, TGF-β-induced protein (βig-h3, gene name TGFBI), is also expressed in the lung and up-regulated in bronchial myofibroblasts by TGF-β. PN and βig-h3 contain fasciclin 1 modules that harbor putative recognition sequences for γ-glutamyl carboxylase and are annotated in UniProt as undergoing vitamin K-dependent γ-carboxylation of multiple glutamic acid residues. γ-carboxylation profoundly alters activities of other proteins subject to the modification, e.g., blood coagulation factors, and would be expected to alter the structure and function of PN and βig-h3. To analyze for the presence of γ-carboxylation, proteins extracted from fibrotic lung were reacted with monoclonal antibodies specific for PN, βig-h3, or modification with γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla). In Western blots of 1-dimensional gels, bands stained with anti-PN or -βig-h3 did not match those stained with anti-Gla. In 2-dimensional gels, anti-PN-positive spots had pIs of 7.0 to >8, as expected for the unmodified protein, and there was no overlap between anti-PN-positive and anti-Gla-positive spots. Recombinant PN and blood coagulation factor VII were produced in HEK293 cells that had been transfected with vitamin K 2, 3-epoxide reductase C1 to optimize γ-carboxylation. Recombinant PN secreted from these cells did not react with anti-Gla antibody and had pIs similar to that found in extracts of fibrotic lung whereas secreted factor VII reacted strongly with anti-Gla antibody. Over 67% coverage of recombinant PN was achieved by mass spectrometry, including peptides with 19 of the 24 glutamates considered targets of γ-carboxylation, but analysis revealed no modification. Over 86% sequence coverage and three modified glutamic acid residues were identified in recombinant fVII. These data indicate that PN and βig-h3 are not subject

  8. Absence of Vitamin K-Dependent γ-Carboxylation in Human Periostin Extracted from Fibrotic Lung or Secreted from a Cell Line Engineered to Optimize γ-Carboxylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S Annis

    Full Text Available Periostin (PN, gene name POSTN is an extracellular matrix protein that is up-regulated in bronchial epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts by TH-2 cytokines. Its paralog, TGF-β-induced protein (βig-h3, gene name TGFBI, is also expressed in the lung and up-regulated in bronchial myofibroblasts by TGF-β. PN and βig-h3 contain fasciclin 1 modules that harbor putative recognition sequences for γ-glutamyl carboxylase and are annotated in UniProt as undergoing vitamin K-dependent γ-carboxylation of multiple glutamic acid residues. γ-carboxylation profoundly alters activities of other proteins subject to the modification, e.g., blood coagulation factors, and would be expected to alter the structure and function of PN and βig-h3. To analyze for the presence of γ-carboxylation, proteins extracted from fibrotic lung were reacted with monoclonal antibodies specific for PN, βig-h3, or modification with γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla. In Western blots of 1-dimensional gels, bands stained with anti-PN or -βig-h3 did not match those stained with anti-Gla. In 2-dimensional gels, anti-PN-positive spots had pIs of 7.0 to >8, as expected for the unmodified protein, and there was no overlap between anti-PN-positive and anti-Gla-positive spots. Recombinant PN and blood coagulation factor VII were produced in HEK293 cells that had been transfected with vitamin K 2, 3-epoxide reductase C1 to optimize γ-carboxylation. Recombinant PN secreted from these cells did not react with anti-Gla antibody and had pIs similar to that found in extracts of fibrotic lung whereas secreted factor VII reacted strongly with anti-Gla antibody. Over 67% coverage of recombinant PN was achieved by mass spectrometry, including peptides with 19 of the 24 glutamates considered targets of γ-carboxylation, but analysis revealed no modification. Over 86% sequence coverage and three modified glutamic acid residues were identified in recombinant fVII. These data indicate that PN and

  9. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration

  10. Ni- and Fe-catalyzed Carboxylation of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons with CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliá-Hernández, Francisco; Gaydou, Morgane; Serrano, Eloisa; van Gemmeren, Manuel; Martin, Ruben

    2016-08-01

    The sustainable utilization of available feedstock materials for preparing valuable compounds holds great promise to revolutionize approaches in organic synthesis. In this regard, the implementation of abundant and inexpensive carbon dioxide (CO2) as a C1 building block has recently attracted considerable attention. Among the different alternatives in CO2 fixation, the preparation of carboxylic acids, relevant motifs in pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, is particularly appealing, thus providing a rapid and unconventional entry to building blocks that are typically prepared via waste-producing protocols. While significant advances have been realized, the utilization of simple unsaturated hydrocarbons as coupling partners in carboxylation events is undoubtedly of utmost academic and industrial relevance, as two available feedstock materials can be combined in a catalytic fashion. This review article aims to describe the main achievements on the direct carboxylation of unsaturated hydrocarbons with CO2 by using cheap and available Ni or Fe catalytic species. PMID:27573397

  11. Isotope-Encoded Carboxyl Group Footprinting for Mass Spectrometry-Based Protein Conformational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Haijun; Blankenship, Robert E.; Gross, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    We report an isotope-encoding method coupled with carboxyl-group footprinting to monitor protein conformational changes. The carboxyl groups of aspartic/glutamic acids and of the C-terminus of proteins can serve as reporters for protein conformational changes when labeled with glycine ethyl ester (GEE) mediated by carbodiimide. In the new development, isotope-encoded "heavy" and "light" GEE are used to label separately the two states of the orange carotenoid protein (OCP) from cyanobacteria. Two samples are mixed (1:1 ratio) and analyzed by a single LC-MS/MS experiment. The differences in labeling extent between the two states are represented by the ratio of the "heavy" and "light" peptides, providing information about protein conformational changes. Combining isotope-encoded MS quantitative analysis and carboxyl-group footprinting reduces the time of MS analysis and improves the sensitivity of GEE and other footprinting.

  12. Chiral trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane derivatives as chiral solvating agents for carboxylic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mariappan Periasamy; Manasi Dalai; Meduri Padmaja

    2010-07-01

    Efficient use of the readily accessible chiral 2-symmetric acyclic diamines (1-2) as well as macrocyclic amines (3-5) containing trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexyl moiety as chiral solvating agents (CSA) for the determination of enantiomeric excess of representative carboxylic acids (6-7) and an amino acid derivative (8) is illustrated. The enantiomeric composition of different carboxylic acids estimated here by the 1H NMR method, based on the integration of the corresponding methine proton signals are in good correlation with that determined using HPLC method. The data are in accordance with the formation of multimolecular diastereomeric complexes in solution, which render good splitting of NMR signals for the enantiomers of representative carboxylic acids as well as for -Ts-phenylglycine (up to = 0.295 ppm, 118 Hz).

  13. The investigation of the reactions of some pyrazole-3-carboxylic acids with various diamines and diols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Kasımoğulları

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some new derivatives were synthesized of 4-benzoyl-1-(3-nitrophenyl-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (1 and 4-(ethoxycarbonyl-1-(3-nitrophenyl-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (2 that they were pyrazole carboxylic acid derivatives. Firstly, 1 and 2 reacted with SOCl2 to transform them into acyl chlorides (3, 4. Then various bis-carboxamide derivatives (5–8 were obtained from the reaction of 3 and 4 with various diamines and also a ;#946;-hydroxy ester (9 derivative was obtained from the reaction of 3 with ethylene glycol. The structures of synthesized compounds were elucidated with using FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and elemental analysis methods.

  14. Crystal Structure and Properties of the Carboxylic Acid Derivatives of Schizonpeta mulifida (L.) Briq.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU,Ju-Tao; YU,Ji-Cheng; JIANG,Hui-Ming; ZHANG,Li-Ying; ZHAO,Xiao-Jing; FAN,Sheng-Di

    2008-01-01

    The chemical constituents of the carboxylic acid derivatives from the ear of Schizonepeta were investigated,1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the carboxylic acid derivatives were accurately assigned.Two carboxylic acid derivative constituents were separated by a silica gel column.The structures were elucidated by the physical and chemical properties,IR,1H NMR,13C NMR,MALDI-TDF-MS and X-ray single crystal diffractometry.They were identified as 3-imino-N-(a-imidoethylamino)butyrolactam and neononane tetracid,respectively.The antitumoral activity on liver tumor ceils SMMC-7721 was determined in vitro.The experimental results showed that the former was better than the latter,and with increasing the concentration of the former the inhibitory activity was increased.

  15. Beyond ketonization: selective conversion of carboxylic acids to olefins over balanced Lewis acid–base pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylon, Rebecca A. L.; Sun, Junming; Martin, Kevin J.; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Dwindling petroleum reserves combined with increased energy demand and political factors encouraging an increase in energy independence have led to a large amount of research on sustainable alternatives. To this end, biomass conversion has been recognized as themost readily viable technology to produce biofuel concerning our reliance on liquid fuels for transportation and has the advantage of being easily integrated into our heavy use of combustion engines. The interest in biomass conversion has also resulted in reduced costs and a greater abundance of bio-oil, a mixture of hundreds of oxygenates including alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and ketones. However, the presence of carboxylic acids in bio-oil derived from lignocellulose pyrolysis leads to low pH, instability, and corrosiveness. In addition, carboxylic acids (i.e. acetic acid) can also be produced via fermentation of sugars. This can be accomplished by a variety of homoacetogenic microorganisms that can produce acetic acid with 100% carbon yield.

  16. Communication: Physical origins of ionization potential shifts in mixed carboxylic acids and water complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Quanli; Tang, Zhen; Su, Peifeng; Wu, Wei; Yang, Zhijun; Trindle, Carl O.; Knee, Joseph L.

    2016-08-01

    The ionization potential (IP) of the aromatic alpha hydroxy carboxylic acid, 9-hydroxy-9-fluorene carboxylic acid (9HFCA), is shifted by complexation with hydrogen bonding ligands such as water and formic acid. Generalized Kohn-Sham energy decomposition analysis decomposes the intermolecular binding energies into a frozen energy term, polarization, correlation, and/or dispersion energy terms, as well as terms of geometric relaxation and zero point energy. We observe that in each dimer the attractive polarization always increases upon ionization, enhancing binding in the cation and shifting the IP toward the red. For 9HFCA—H2O, a substantial decrease of the repulsive frozen energy in cation further shifts the IP toward red. For 9HFCA—HCOOH, the increase of the frozen energy actually occurs in the cation and shifts the IP toward blue. Consistent with the experimental measurements, our analysis provides new, non-intuitive perspectives on multiple hydrogen bonds interactions in carboxylic acids and water complexes.

  17. Carboxylated dithiafulvenes and tetrathiafulvalene vinylogues: synthesis, electronic properties, and complexation with zinc ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A class of carboxyl and carboxylate ester-substituted dithiafulvene (DTF derivatives and tetrathiafulvalene vinylogues (TTFVs has been synthesized and their electronic and electrochemical redox properties were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopic and cyclic voltammetric analyses. The carboxyl-TTFV was applied as a redox-active ligand to complex with Zn(II ions, forming a stable Zn-TTFV coordination polymer. The structural, electrochemical, and thermal properties of the coordination polymer were investigated by infrared spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, powder X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetric analyses. Furthermore, the microscopic porosity and surface area of the Zn-TTFV coordination polymer were measured by nitrogen gas adsorption analysis, showing a BET surface of 148.2 m2 g−1 and an average pore diameter of 10.2 nm.

  18. On the one pot syntheses of chromeno[4,3-b]pyridine-3-carboxylate and chromeno[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxylate and dihydropyridines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarrete-Encina, Patricio A.; Vega-Retter, Christian, E-mail: pnavarre@vtr.ne [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmaceuticas. Lab. de Sintesis Organica y Fisicoquimica; Salazar, Ricardo; Perez, Karina; Squella, Juan A.; Nunez-Vergara, Luis J. [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Fac. de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmaceuticas. Lab. de Bioelectroquimica

    2010-07-01

    Substituted chromenos, dihydropyridines and pyridines have been important in the syntheses of compounds having interesting pharmacological properties. Therefore, we found of interest to synthesize chromenopyridines and chromeno dihydropyridines (i.e., fused chromeno and dihydropyridine or pyridine rings) to further study their biological activity. Here, we propose one-pot syntheses for substituted ethyl-2,4-dimethyl-5-oxo-5H-chromeno[4,3-b]pyridine-3-carboxylates, ethyl-2,4-dimethyl-5-oxo-5H-chromeno[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxylates and their respective 1,4-dihydropyridines based on a modified Hantzsch pyridine synthesis using 2-hydroxyaryl aldehydes, with electron withdrawing and electron donating groups on the phenyl ring, as starting reactants. Sixteen compounds were synthesized by the described method and fully characterized. An average yield of 37% was obtained for the different derivatives. (author)

  19. Carboxylic acid derivatives via catalytic carboxylation of unsaturated hydrocarbons: whether the nature of a reductant may determine the mechanism of CO2 incorporation?

    OpenAIRE

    Kirillov, E.; Carpentier, J.-F.; Bunel, E

    2015-01-01

    International audience Application of CO2 as a renewable feedstock and C1 building block for prodn. of commodity and fine chems. is a highly challenging but obvious industry-relevant task. Of particular interest is the catalytic coupling of CO2 with inexpensive unsatd. hydrocarbons (olefins, dienes, styrenes, alkynes), providing direct access to carboxylic acids and their derivs. Although not brand new for the scientific community, it is still a complete challenge, as no truly effective ca...

  20. Preparation of conjugated poly(ethyl acetylene carboxylate) as optical limiter of laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical limiting action of poly (ethylacetylene carboxylate) dissolved in dichloroethane were investigated under irradiation with 8 ns laser pulses at 532 nm. The optical limiting measurements were performed at a series of concentrations. The threshold limiting fluence was observed for high concentrations at 5 J/cm2 with a transmission of about 20 %. No optical limiting action was observed at very low concentration of the prepared polymer in the dichloroethane solvent. The observed data show that poly (ethylacetylene carboxylate) has the potential for the use as optical limiting material for future applications. (author)

  1. A Concise Synthesis and the Antibacterial Activity of 5,6-Dimethoxynaphthalene-2-carboxylic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    GÖKSU, Süleyman; UĞUZ, Metin Tansu

    2005-01-01

    5,6-Dimethoxynaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid was synthesized in 7 steps and with an overall yield of 46%. Bromination of 2-naphthol, and methylation with dimethyl sulfate followed by Friedel-Crafts acylation with AcCl gave 2-acetyl-5-bromo-6-methoxynaphthalene. 2-Acetyl-5-bromo-6-methoxynaphthalene was converted to 5-bromo-6- methoxynaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid by a haloform reaction. The esterification of the acid with methanol, methoxylation with NaOCH3 in the presence of CuI and s...

  2. Photosensitization of Nanocrystalline TiO2 Electrode Modifiedwith C60 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文; 史亚茹; 甘良兵; 黄春辉; 王艳琴; 虎民

    2001-01-01

    C60 carboxylic acid derivatives can be readily adsorbed on the surface of nanocrystalline TiO2 films act as charge-transfer sensitizer. The electron transport from TiO2 to the C60 derivatives results in the generation of the cathodic photocurrent. The short-circuit photocurrent of a C60 tetracarboxylic acid is 0.45 μA/cm2 under 464 um light illumination. The photoelectric behaviour of ITO electrodes modified by the same C60 carboxylic acids is different from that of the modified TiO2 electrodes, and shows anodic photocurrent.

  3. Facile synthesis of α-hydroxy carboxylic acids from the corresponding α-amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuhr-Hansen, Nicolai; Padrah, Shahrokh; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    An effective and improved procedure is developed for the synthesis of α-hydroxy carboxylic acids by treatment of the corresponding protonated α-amino acid with tert-butyl nitrite in 1,4-dioxane-water. The amino moiety must be protonated and located α to a carboxylic acid function in order to...... undergo initial diazotization and successive hydroxylation, since neither β-amino acids nor acid derivatives such as esters and amides undergo hydroxylations. The method is successfully applied for the synthesis of 18 proteinogenic amino acids. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. (±)-trans-3-Benzoyl-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalancette, Roger A; Thompson, Hugh W; Brunskill, Andrew P J

    2008-01-01

    The title keto acid, C(16)H(18)O(3), displays significant twisting of all three ethyl-ene bridges in its bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane structure owing to steric inter-actions; the bridgehead-to-bridgehead torsion angles are 13.14 (12), 13.14 (13) and 9.37 (13)°. The compound crystallizes as centrosymmetric carboxyl dimers [O⋯O = 2.6513 (12) Å and O-H⋯O = 178°], which have two orientations within the cell and contain no significant carboxyl disorder. PMID:21201657

  5. (±-trans-3-Benzoylbicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. J. Brunskill

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The title keto acid, C16H18O3, displays significant twisting of all three ethylene bridges in its bicyclo[2.2.2]octane structure owing to steric interactions; the bridgehead-to-bridgehead torsion angles are 13.14 (12, 13.14 (13 and 9.37 (13°. The compound crystallizes as centrosymmetric carboxyl dimers [O...O = 2.6513 (12 Å and O—H...O = 178°], which have two orientations within the cell and contain no significant carboxyl disorder.

  6. Determination of 13C and 18O isotopic abundances of carboxyl substances; application to amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flash pyrolysis of organic acids or of their salts gives off carbon dioxide which can be analysed by mass spectrometry for 13C and 18O abundance. This principle has been applied to Cd13C18O3 using an induction furnace, and used to determine the 13C and 18O content of the carboxylic group of some amino acids. The technique described has many advantages over the classical pyrolysis methods using sealed tubes. It is rapid and simple and especially effective in determining the isotopic composition of hygroscopic carboxyl substances. (U.K.)

  7. Comparative structure analysis of non-polar organic ferrofluids stabilized by saturated mono-carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdeev, M V; Bica, D; Vékás, L; Aksenov, V L; Feoktystov, A V; Marinica, O; Rosta, L; Garamus, V M; Willumeit, R

    2009-06-01

    The structure of ferrofluids (magnetite in decahydronaphtalene) stabilized with saturated mono-carboxylic acids of different chain lengths (lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids) is studied by means of magnetization analysis and small-angle neutron scattering. It is shown that in case of saturated acid surfactants, magnetite nanoparticles are dispersed in the carrier approximately with the same size distribution whose mean value and width are significantly less as compared to the classical stabilization with non-saturated oleic acid. The found thickness of the surfactant shell around magnetite is analyzed with respect to stabilizing properties of mono-carboxylic acids. PMID:19376524

  8. 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA): a First Principles Density-Functional Study

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, B J

    2016-01-01

    We report first principles density functional calculations for 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) and several reduced forms. DHICA and 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI) are believed to be the basic building blocks of the eumelanins. Our results show that carboxylation has a significant effect on the physical properties of the molecules. In particular, the relative stabilities and the HOMO-LUMO gaps (calculated with the $\\Delta$SCF method) of the various redox forms are strongly affected. We predict that, in contrast to DHI, the density of unpaired electrons, and hence the ESR signal, in DHICA is negligibly small.

  9. Catalytic ozonation not relying on hydroxyl radical oxidation: A selective and competitive reaction process related to metal-carboxylate complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic ozonation following non-hydroxyl radical pathway is an important technique not only to degrade refractory carboxylic-containing organic compounds/matter but also to avoid catalyst deactivation caused by metal-carboxylate complexation. It is unknown whether this process is effective for all carboxylates or selective to special molecule structures. In this work, the selectivity was confirmed using O3/(CuO/CeO2) and six distinct ozone-resistant probe carboxylates (i.e., acetate, citrate, malonate, oxalate, pyruvate and succinate). Among these probe compounds, pyruvate, oxalate, and citrate were readily degraded following the rate order of oxalate>citrate>pyruvate, while the degradation of acetate, malonate, and succinate was not promoted. The selectivity was independent on carboxylate group number of the probe compounds and solution pH. Competitive degradation was observed for carboxylate mixtures following the preference order of citrate, oxalate, and finally pyruvate. The competitive degradation was ascribed to competitive adsorption on the catalyst surface. It was revealed that the catalytically degradable compounds formed bidentate chelating or bridging complexes with surface copper sites of the catalyst, i.e., the active sites. The catalytically undegradable carboxylates formed monodentate complexes with surface copper sites or just electrostatically adsorbed on the catalyst surface. The selectivity, relying on the structure of surface metal-carboxylate complex, should be considered in the design of catalytic ozonation process. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Significant improvement in the pore properties of SBA-15 brought about by carboxylic acids and hydrothermal treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Milan Kanti Naskar; M Eswaramoorthy

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study of the pore properties of SBA-15 samples prepared under nonhydrothermal and hydrothermal conditions, in the absence and presence of carboxylic acids such as succinic, tartaric and citric acids has been carried out. In the absence of carboxylic acid, flake-like and spheroid particles were generally obtained irrespective of the preparative procedures. On the other hand, stirring of the pre-mix induces a rod-like morphology in presence of carboxylic acids. The samples prepared under non-hydrothermal conditions exhibit a higher degree of silicate condensation compared to those synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. SBA-15 samples prepared under hydrothermal conditions show higher values of the d (100) spacing independent of the presence of carboxylic acids. Presence of carboxylic acids as well as hydrothermal treatment improves the pore properties of SBA-15.

  11. Optimal activation of carboxyl-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles bioconjugated with antibody using orthogonal array design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Zhang, Xiaoqang; Zhang, Yu; Pu, Yuepu; Yin, Lihong; Tang, Meng; Liu, Hui

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to bioconjugate anti-EMMPRIN monoclonal antibody on the surface of carboxyl-SPIO nanoparticles and to optimize the activated conditions of bioconjugation. Anti-EMMPRIN monoclonal antibody bioconjugated carboxyl-SPIO nanoparticles were performed through a coupling strategy of EDC and sulfo-NHS. The procedure was comprised of two steps by activation of carboxyl-SPIO nanoparticles and conjugation with monoclonal antibody. The optimal activated parameters of bioconjugation were evaluated by single factor design and orthogonal array design. SDS-PAGE analysis and Bradford assay was used for testing and verifying the efficiency of activated conditions obtained from orthogonal array. The results show that pH value, temperature and reaction time were important factors that influence bioconjugated efficiency. The activated parameters with pH value 6.2, temperature 25 degrees C and reaction time 30 min were obviously optimal for activation of carboxyl-SPIO nanoparticles and conjugation with monoclonal EMMPEIN antibody. This coupling strategy for anti-EMMPRIN mAb bioconjugated on SPIO nanoparticles was efficient, and may be further applied in the fields of medical or biological practices. PMID:24266206

  12. Kinetics of the esterification of active pharmaceutical ingredients containing carboxylic Acid functionality in polyethylene glycol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Moesgaard, Birthe;

    2014-01-01

    reactions. In this study, kinetics of two active pharmaceutical ingredients, cetirizine and indomethacin possessing carboxylic acid functionality, has been studied in PEG 400 and PEG 1000 at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C. HPLC-UV was applied for the determination of concentrations in the kinetic studies...

  13. Carboxylic Group Embedded Carbon Balls as a New Supported Catalyst for Hydrogen Economic Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoloi, Ankur

    2016-03-01

    Carboxylic group functionalized carbon balls have been successfully synthesized by using a facile synthesis method and well characterized with different characterization techniques such as XPS, MAS NMR, SEM, ICP and N2 physi-sorption analysis. The synthesized material has been effectively utilized as novel support to immobilized ruthenium catalyst for hydrogen economic reactions. PMID:27455763

  14. Effects of intermediate metabolite carboxylic acids of TCA cycle on Microcystis with overproduction of phycocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shijie; Dai, Jingcheng; Xia, Ming; Ruan, Jing; Wei, Hehong; Yu, Dianzhen; Li, Ronghui; Jing, Hongmei; Tian, Chunyuan; Song, Lirong; Qiu, Dongru

    2015-04-01

    Toxic Microcystis species are the main bloom-forming cyanobacteria in freshwaters. It is imperative to develop efficient techniques to control these notorious harmful algal blooms (HABs). Here, we present a simple, efficient, and environmentally safe algicidal way to control Microcystis blooms, by using intermediate carboxylic acids from the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The citric acid, alpha-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, and malic acid all exhibited strong algicidal effects, and particularly succinic acid could cause the rapid lysis of Microcystis in a few hours. It is revealed that the Microcystis-lysing activity of succinic acid and other carboxylic acids was due to their strong acidic activity. Interestingly, the acid-lysed Microcystis cells released large amounts of phycocyanin, about 27-fold higher than those of the control. On the other hand, the transcription of mcyA and mcyD of the microcystin biosynthesis operon was not upregulated by addition of alpha-ketoglutaric acid and other carboxylic acids. Consider the environmental safety of intermediate carboxylic acids. We propose that administration of TCA cycle organic acids may not only provide an algicidal method with high efficiency and environmental safety but also serve as an applicable way to produce and extract phycocyanin from cyanobacterial biomass. PMID:25342454

  15. Carboxyl terminal of rhodopsin kinase is required for the phosphorylation of photo—activated rhodopsin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUQINGMING; LANMA; 等

    1998-01-01

    Human rhodopsin kinase (RK) and a carboxyl terminus-truncated mutant RK lacking the last 59 amino acids (RKC) were expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells to investigate the role of the carboxyl terminus of RK in recognition and phosphorylation of rhodopsin.RKC,like the wild-type RK,was detected in both plasma membranes and cytosolic fractions.The Cterminal truncated rhodopsin kinase was unable to phosphorylate photo-activated rhodopsin,but possesses kinase activity similar to the wild-type RK in phosphorylation of small peptide substrate.It suggests that the truncation did not disturb the gross structures of RK catalytic domain.Our results also show that RKC failed to translocate to photo-activated rod out segments.Taken together,our study demonstrate the carboxyl terminus of RK is required for phosphorylation of photo-activated rhodopsin and strongly indicate that carboxyl-terminus of RK may be involved in interaction with photo-activated rhodopsin.

  16. Mapping of Fab-1:VEGF Interface Using Carboxyl Group Footprinting Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wecksler, Aaron T.; Kalo, Matt S.; Deperalta, Galahad

    2015-12-01

    A proof-of-concept study was performed to demonstrate that carboxyl group footprinting, a relatively simple, bench-top method, has utility for first-pass analysis to determine epitope regions of therapeutic mAb:antigen complexes. The binding interface of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the Fab portion of a neutralizing antibody (Fab-1) was analyzed using carboxyl group footprinting with glycine ethyl ester (GEE) labeling. Tryptic peptides involved in the binding interface between VEGF and Fab-1 were identified by determining the specific GEE-labeled residues that exhibited a reduction in the rate of labeling after complex formation. A significant reduction in the rate of GEE labeling was observed for E93 in the VEGF tryptic peptide V5, and D28 and E57 in the Fab-1 tryptic peptides HC2 and HC4, respectively. Results from the carboxyl group footprinting were compared with the binding interface identified from a previously characterized crystal structure (PDB: 1BJ1). All of these residues are located at the Fab-1:VEGF interface according to the crystal structure, demonstrating the potential utility of carboxyl group footprinting with GEE labeling for mapping epitopes.

  17. A Combinatorial Interplay Among the 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate Isoforms Regulates Ethylene Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethylene (C2H4) is a unique plant-signaling molecule that regulates numerous developmental processes. The key enzyme in the two-step biosynthetic pathway of ethylene is 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), which catalyzes the conversion of Sadenosyl-methionine (AdoMet) to ACC, the precu...

  18. Facilitation of peptide fibre formation by arginine-phosphate/carboxylate interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Krishna Prasad; Sandeep Verma

    2008-01-01

    This study describes peptide fibre formation in a hexapeptide, derived from the V3 loop of HIV-1, mediated by the interactions between arginine residues and phosphate/carboxylate anions. This charge neutralization approach was further confirmed when the deletion of arginine residue from the hexapeptide sequence resulted in fibre formation, which was studied by a combination of microscopic techniques.

  19. ANTI-CORROSION PROPERTIES OF CARBOXYLIC ACID IN WATER-GLYCOL SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BASHKIRCEVA N.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium salts of carboxylic acids were investigated to evaluate the corrosion properties of the water-glycol solutions. Corrosion tests were performed by methods of gravimetry and galvanostatic dissolution with metals used in cooling systems. The compositions of anticorrosion systems and their concentration that provide the most effective inhibition of metals were determined.

  20. Templating route for mesostructured calcium phosphates with carboxylic acid- and amine-type surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, Nobuaki; Hori, Hideki; Kimura, Tatsuo; Oumi, Yasunori; Sano, Tsuneji

    2008-11-18

    Mesostructured calcium phosphates constructed by ionic frameworks were synthesized using carboxylic acid- and amine-type surfactants in mixed solvent systems of ethanol and water. A lamellar mesostructured calcium phosphate was prepared using palmitic acid as an anionic surfactant, as in the case using n-alkylamines. A wormhole-like mesostructured calcium phosphate can be obtained using dicarboxyl N-lauroyl- l-glutamic acid, whose headgroup is larger than that of palmitic acid. Similar mesostructured product was obtained using 4-dodecyldiethylenetriamine with a large headgroup containing two primary amine groups. Interactions of carboxyl and primary amino groups in the surfactant molecules with inorganic species are quite important for the formation of mesostructured calcium phosphates. The Ca/P molar ratio of mesostructured calcium phosphates was strongly affected by the molecular structure of surfactants containing carboxyl and primary amino groups. Ca-rich materials can be obtained using carboxylic acid-type surfactants (Ca/P approximately 1.7) rather than amine-type surfactants (Ca/P approximately 1.0). PMID:18947246

  1. Gas-Phase Reactivity of Carboxylic Acid Functional Groups with Carbodiimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Boone M.; Gilbert, Joshua D.; Stutzman, John R.; Forrest, William P.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Gas-phase modification of carboxylic acid functionalities is performed via ion/ion reactions with carbodiimide reagents [ N-cyclohexyl- N'-(2-morpholinoethyl)carbodiimide (CMC) and [3-(3-Ethylcarbodiimide-1-yl)propyl]trimethylaminium (ECPT)]. Gas-phase ion/ion covalent chemistry requires the formation of a long-lived complex. In this instance, the complex is stabilized by an electrostatic interaction between the fixed charge quaternary ammonium group of the carbodiimide reagent cation and the analyte dianion. Subsequent activation results in characteristic loss of an isocyanate derivative from one side of the carbodiimide functionality, a signature for this covalent chemistry. The resulting amide bond is formed on the analyte at the site of the original carboxylic acid. Reactions involving analytes that do not contain available carboxylic acid groups (e.g., they have been converted to sodium salts) or reagents that do not have the carbodiimide functionality do not undergo a covalent reaction. This chemistry is demonstrated using PAMAM generation 0.5 dendrimer, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and the model peptide DGAILDGAILD. This work demonstrates the selective gas-phase covalent modification of carboxylic acid functionalities.

  2. Application of IBX Method for the Synthesis of Ketones from Carboxylic Acids

    OpenAIRE

    KARABULUT, H. R. Ferhat; KAÇAN, Mesut

    2003-01-01

    Methoxy phenyl propionic acid and some derivatives are converted to ketones using a new method. All classical methods to obtain ketones from carboxylic acids via acid halide consistently gave very low yields and regularly generated intermolecular cyclisation products or polymeric materials. However, high ketones yields are obtained by using the new IBX method.

  3. Multilayer Film Fabrication and Photoelectric Conversion Property of Two Pyrrolidinofullerene Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two multilayer films of pyrrolidinofullerene carboxylic acid derivatives, which exhibit photoelectric conversion property, are reported here. The first monolayers were fabricated on hydrophilic indium-tin-oxide (ITO), quartz, and mica by esterification reaction. The multilayers were characterized by contact angle and UV spectrum. The photoelectric conversion properties of both multilayer films were studied.

  4. Ionic liquids as solvent for efficient esterification of carboxylic acids with alkyl halides

    OpenAIRE

    carboxylic, Ionic liquids as solvent for efficient e

    2010-01-01

    The selective esterification of carboxylic acid derivatives with a variety of alkyl halides was carried out using ionic liquid as solvent in the presence of triethylamine. The reaction was found to proceed under relatively mild conditions with excellent conversions (up to 99%) and selectivities. The ionic liquid was recycled and reused.

  5. Acyl Radicals from Aromatic Carboxylic Acids by Means of Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bergonzini, Giulia; Cassani, Carlo; Wallentin, Carl-Johan

    2015-01-01

    Simple and abundant carboxylic acids have been used as acyl radical precursor by means of visible-light photoredox catalysis. By the transient generation of a reactive anhydride intermediate, this redox-neutral approach offers a mild and rapid entry to high-value heterocyclic compounds without the need of UV irradiation, high temperature, high CO pressure, tin reagents, or peroxides.

  6. One-pot synthesis of arene-fused 2-acylcyclohexenones from propargylic carboxylates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    From readily available propargylic carboxylates, two sequential transformations―gold-catalyzed tandem reactions and Sc(OTf)3-catalyzed cyclization―in a one-pot process led to the formation of 2-acylcyclohexenones with an electron-rich arene ring fused at the 4,5-positions.

  7. One-pot synthesis of arene-fused 2-acylcyclohexenones from propargylic carboxylates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO SanSan; ZHANG LiMing

    2009-01-01

    From readily available propargylic carboxylates,two sequential transformations-gold-catalyzed tandem reactions and ScOTf3-catalyzed cyclization-in a one-pot process led to the formation of 2-acylcyclohexenones with an electron-rich arene ring fused at the 4,5-positions.

  8. Extraction and solubility characteristics of metal aliphatic carboxylates in a hexane medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extractions of 30 metal ions with aliphatic carboxylic acids into hexane were carried out to understand their extraction behavior. Results were expressed in an area-graph form for metal partitions among the three (aqueous, organic and/or solid) phases in the range pH 1-9. The difference in half-extraction pH (pH1/2) between various metals can be explained by the electrostatic effect (hard acids) and the polarizability. According to the solubility of the metal complexes into organic phase, the thirty metal ions were divided into two groups. The metal ions with high ionic potential (group A) were generally extractable by every carboxylic acid tested. The large size metal ions (group B) precipitated at the liquid/liquid interface by n-aliphatic carboxylic acids and were perfectly extracted by 2-ethylhexanoic acid. We propose that this difference in the group B is caused by interface-coagulation through inter-molecular hydrophobic bond formation in the former, while the branched chain in the carboxylic acid weakens the interaction in the latter. For group A, therefore, most of the extracted species would be origomers so that no coagulation would occur. (author)

  9. Carboxylic acid functional group analysis using constant neutral loss scanning-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dron, Julien [Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement, Marseille Universites (case 29), 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: julien.dron@up.univ-mrs.fr; Eyglunent, Gregory; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Wortham, Henri [Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement, Marseille Universites (case 29), 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)

    2007-12-12

    The present study describes the development of a new analytical technique for the functional group determination of the carboxylic moiety using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) operated in the constant neutral loss scanning (CNLS) mode. Carboxylic groups were first derivatized into their corresponding methyl esters by reacting with BF{sub 3}/methanol mix and the reaction mixture was then directly injected into the APCI chamber. The loss of methanol (m/z = 32 amu) resulting from the fragmentation of the protonated methyl esters was then monitored. Applying this method together with a statistical approach to reference mixtures containing 31 different carboxylic acids at randomly calculated concentrations demonstrated its suitability for quantitative functional group measurements with relative standard deviations below 15% and a detection limit of 0.005 mmol L{sup -1}. Its applicability to environmental matrices was also shown through the determination of carboxylic acid concentrations inside atmospheric aerosol samples. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to functional group analysis, offering great perspectives in the characterization of complex mixtures which are prevailing in the field of environmental analysis as well as in the understanding of the chemical processes occurring in these matrices.

  10. Carboxylic acid functional group analysis using constant neutral loss scanning-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study describes the development of a new analytical technique for the functional group determination of the carboxylic moiety using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) operated in the constant neutral loss scanning (CNLS) mode. Carboxylic groups were first derivatized into their corresponding methyl esters by reacting with BF3/methanol mix and the reaction mixture was then directly injected into the APCI chamber. The loss of methanol (m/z = 32 amu) resulting from the fragmentation of the protonated methyl esters was then monitored. Applying this method together with a statistical approach to reference mixtures containing 31 different carboxylic acids at randomly calculated concentrations demonstrated its suitability for quantitative functional group measurements with relative standard deviations below 15% and a detection limit of 0.005 mmol L-1. Its applicability to environmental matrices was also shown through the determination of carboxylic acid concentrations inside atmospheric aerosol samples. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to functional group analysis, offering great perspectives in the characterization of complex mixtures which are prevailing in the field of environmental analysis as well as in the understanding of the chemical processes occurring in these matrices

  11. Li-Carboxylate Anode Structure-Property Relationships from Molecular Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Burkhardt, Stephen E.

    2013-01-22

    The full realization of a renewable energy strategy hinges upon electrical energy storage (EES). EES devices play a key role in storing energy from renewable sources (which are inherently intermittent), to efficient transmission (e.g., grid load-leveling), and finally into the electrification of transportation. Organic materials represent a promising class of electrode active materials for Li-ion and post-Li-ion batteries. Organics consist of low-cost, lightweight, widely available materials, and their properties can be rationally tuned using the well-established principles of organic chemistry. Within the class of organic EES materials, carboxylates distinguish themselves for Li-ion anode materials based on their observed thermal stability, rate capability, and high cyclability. Further, many of the carboxylates studied to date can be synthesized from renewable or waste feedstocks. This report begins with a preliminary molecular density-functional theory (DFT) study, in which the calculated molecular properties of a set of 12 known Li-ion electrode materials based on carboxylate and carbonyl redox couples are compared to literature data. Based on the agreement between theoretical and experimental data, an expanded study was undertaken to identify promising materials and establish design principles for anodes based on Li-carboxylate salts. Predictive computational studies represent an important step forward for the identification of organic anode materials. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Substituted Amides of Pyrazine-2-carboxylic acids: Synthesis and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Kralova

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of 6-chloro-, 5-tert-butyl- or 6-chloro-5-tert-butylpyrazine-2-carboxylic acid chloride with ring substituted anilines yielded a series of amides, which were tested for their in vitro antimycobacterial, antifungal and photosynthesis-inhibiting activities. The highest antituberculotic activity (72% inhibition against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the highest lipophilicity (log P = 6.85 were shown by the 3,5-bistrifluoromethylphenyl amide of 5-tert-butyl-6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid (2o. The 3-methylphenyl amides of 6-chloro- and 5-tert-butyl-6-chloro-pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid (2d and 2f exhibited only a poor in vitro antifungal effect (MIC = 31.25-500 μmol·dm-3 against all strains tested, although the latter was the most active antialgal compound (IC50 = 0.063 mmol·dm-3. The most active inhibitor of oxygen evolution rate in spinach chloroplasts was the (3,5-bis-trifluoromethylphenylamide of 6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid (2m, IC50 = 0.026 mmol·dm-3.

  13. Highly Efficient Diastereoselective Synthesis of Tetrahydro-isoquinoline-3- carboxylate Ester Analogs from L-DOPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ye; LIU Zhan-Zhu; CHEN Shi-Zhi; LIANG Xiao-Tian

    2003-01-01

    @@ Tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylate esters are an important motif of naturally occurring bioactive alkaloids and pharmacophores. They are generally regarded as neurotoxic compounds and are putatively involved in a variety of pathologic conditions of central nervous system, including alcoholism, phenylketonuria, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease.

  14. A Clean and Selective Radical Homocoupling Employing Carboxylic Acids with Titania Photoredox Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Manley, David W; Walton, John C

    2014-01-01

    A titania photoredox catalysis protocol was developed for the homocoupling of C-centered radicals derived from carboxylic acids. Intermolecular reactions were generally efficient and selective, furnishing the desired dimers in good yields under mild neutral conditions. Selective cross-coupling with two acids proved unsuccessful. An intramolecular adaptation enabled macrocycles to be prepared, albeit in modest yields.

  15. Efficient, regioselective ring-opening of activated aziridine-2-carboxylates with [18F]fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth-Eskesen, Christina; Hansen, Paul Robert; Kjær, Andreas; Gillings, Nic

    2015-01-01

    -2-carboxylates with [18F]fluoride. The aziridine was activated for nucleophilic attack by substitution of various groups on the aziridine nitrogen atom. Fluorine-18 radiolabelling was followed by ester hydrolysis and removal of the activation group. Totally regioselective ring opening and subsequent...

  16. Iron-catalyzed decarboxylative alkenylation of cycloalkanes with arylvinyl carboxylic acids via a radical process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancan Zhao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A Fe(acac3-catalyzed decarboxylative coupling of 2-(arylvinyl carboxylic acids with cycloalkanes was developed by using DTBP as an oxidant through a radical process. This reaction tolerates a wide range of substrates, and products are obtained in good to excellent yields (71–95%. The reaction also shows excellent stereoselectivity, and only trans-isomers are obtained.

  17. Iron-catalyzed decarboxylative alkenylation of cycloalkanes with arylvinyl carboxylic acids via a radical process

    OpenAIRE

    Jiancan Zhao; Hong Fang; Jianlin Han; Yi Pan

    2013-01-01

    A Fe(acac)3-catalyzed decarboxylative coupling of 2-(aryl)vinyl carboxylic acids with cycloalkanes was developed by using DTBP as an oxidant through a radical process. This reaction tolerates a wide range of substrates, and products are obtained in good to excellent yields (71–95%). The reaction also shows excellent stereoselectivity, and only trans-isomers are obtained.

  18. Iron-catalyzed decarboxylative alkenylation of cycloalkanes with arylvinyl carboxylic acids via a radical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiancan; Fang, Hong; Han, Jianlin; Pan, Yi

    2013-01-01

    A Fe(acac)3-catalyzed decarboxylative coupling of 2-(aryl)vinyl carboxylic acids with cycloalkanes was developed by using DTBP as an oxidant through a radical process. This reaction tolerates a wide range of substrates, and products are obtained in good to excellent yields (71-95%). The reaction also shows excellent stereoselectivity, and only trans-isomers are obtained. PMID:24062833

  19. Ozone-driven daytime formation of secondary organic aerosol containing carboxylic acid groups and alkane groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylic acids are present in substantial quantities in atmospheric particles, and they play an important role in the physical and chemical properties of aerosol particles. During measurements in coastal California in the summer of 2009, carboxylic acid functional groups were exclusively associated with a fossil fuel combustion factor derived from factor analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic measurements and closely correlated with oxygenated organic factors from aerosol mass spectrometry measurements. The high fraction of acid groups and the high ratio of oxygen to carbon in this factor suggest that this factor is composed of secondary organic aerosol (SOA products of combustion emissions from the upwind industrial region (the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. Another indication of the photochemically-driven secondary formation of this combustion-emitted organic mass (OM was the daytime increase in the concentrations of acid groups and the combustion factors. This daytime increase closely tracked the O3 mixing ratio with a correlation coefficient of 0.7, indicating O3 was closely associated with the SOA maximum and thus likely the oxidant that resulted in acid group formation. Using a pseudo-Lagrangian framework to interpret this daytime increase of carboxylic acid groups and the combustion factors, we estimate that the carboxylic acid groups formed in a 12-h daytime period of one day ("Today's SOA" accounted for 25–33 % of the measured carboxylic acid group mass, while the remaining 67–75 % (of the carboxylic acid group mass was likely formed 1–3 days previously (the "Background SOA". A similar estimate of the daytime increase in the combustion factors suggests that "Today's SOA" and the "Background SOA" respectively contributed 25–50 % and 50–75 % of the combustion factor (the "Total SOA", for a "Total SOA" contribution to the OM of 60 % for the project average. Further, size

  20. Synthesis of 2-phenyl- and 2,3-diphenyl-quinolin-4-carboxylic acid derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinolin derivatives are a group of compounds known to possess a wide range of biological activities. The chemistry of quinolines together with their corresponding aldehydes were dealt with in chapter one of this study. Special emphasis was given to the chemistry of benzaldehyde. Twenty five 2-phenyl- and 2,3-diphenyl-quinolin-4-carboxylic acid derivatives together with their corresponding intermediates were prepared in this work. Basically, the synthetic design of these compounds arise from the appropriate disconnections of the target 2-phenyl and 2,3-diphenyl-quinolin-4-carboxylic acids. The retro synthesis analysis of these compounds reveals pyruvic acid, aromatic amine and benzaldehyde or phenyl pyruvic acid, aromatic amine and benzaldehyde as possible logical precursors for 2-phenyl-and 2,3-diphenyl- quinoline-4-carboxylic acids respectively. The purity and identities of the synthesized compounds were elucidated through chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The compounds were heavily subjected to spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, GC/MS, 1H-and 13C- NMR). The appropriate disconnections and the mechanisms of the corresponding reactions were given and discussed in chapter three. The spectral data were interpreted and correlated with the target structures. The prepared 2-phenyl- and 2,3-diphenyl-quinoline-4-carboxylic acid derivatives were screened for their antibacterial activity. The compounds were tested against the standard bacterial organisms B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli and P. vulgaris. Some of these compounds were devoid of antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. vulgaris, while others showed moderate activity. All of the tested compounds showed an activity against B. subtilis and E. coli. 2,3-diphenyl -6-sulphanilamide-quinolin-4-carboxylic acid showed the highest activity against the four standard tested organisms.(Author)

  1. Carboxyl terminus-truncated α1D-adrenoceptors inhibit the ERK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo-Méndez, Marco A; Castillo-Badillo, Jean A; Romero-Ávila, M Teresa; Rivera, Richard; Chun, Jerold; García-Sáinz, J Adolfo

    2016-08-01

    Human α1D-adrenoceptors are G protein-coupled receptors that mediate adrenaline/noradrenaline actions. There is a growing interest in identifying regulatory domains in these receptors and determining how they function. In this work, we show that the absence of the human α1D-adrenoceptor carboxyl tail results in altered ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) and p38 phosphorylation states. Amino terminus-truncated and both amino and carboxyl termini-truncated α1D-adrenoceptors were transfected into Rat-1, HEK293, and B103 cells, and changes in the phosphorylation state of extracellular signal-regulated kinase was assessed using biochemical and biophysical approaches. The phosphorylation state of other protein kinases (p38, MEK1, and Raf-1) was also studied. Noradrenaline-induced ERK phosphorylation in Rat-1 fibroblasts expressing amino termini-truncated α1D-adrenoceptors. However, in cells expressing receptors with both amino and carboxyl termini truncations, noradrenaline-induced activation was abrogated. Interestingly, ERK phosphorylation that normally occurs through activation of endogenous G protein-coupled receptors, EGF receptors, and protein kinase C, was also decreased, suggesting that downstream steps in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway were affected. A similar effect was observed in B103 cells but not in HEK 293 cells. Phosphorylation of Raf-1 and MEK1 was also diminished in Rat-1 fibroblasts expressing amino- and carboxyl-truncated α1D-adrenoceptors. Our data indicate that expression of carboxyl terminus-truncated α1D-adrenoceptors alters ERK and p38 phosphorylation state. PMID:27146292

  2. ANALYSIS OF AIRBORNE CARBOXYLIC ACIDS AND PHENOLS AS THEIR PENTAFLUOROBENZYL DERIVATIVES: GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY WITH A NOVEL CHEMICAL IONIZATION REAGENT, PFBOH. (R826247)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complex photochemical transformations of biogenichydrocarbons such as isoprene and of anthropogenichydrocarbons such as aromatics are an important sourceof carboxylic acids in the troposphere. Theidentificationof unknown carboxylic acids can be difficul...

  3. Cyclopentane-1,3-dione: A Novel Isostere for the Carboxylic Acid Functional Group. Application to the Design of Potent Thromboxane (A2)-Receptor Antagonists

    OpenAIRE

    Ballatore, Carlo; Soper, James; Piscitelli, Francesco; James, Michael; Huang, Longchuan; Atasoylu, Onur; Huryn, Donna M.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Brunden, Kurt R.; Smith, Amos B.

    2011-01-01

    Cyclopentane-1,3-diones are known to exhibit pKa values typically in the range of carboxylic acids. To explore the potential of the cyclopentane-1,3-dione unit as a carboxylic acid isostere, the physical-chemical properties of representative congeners were examined and compared with similar derivatives bearing carboxylic acid or tetrazole residues. These studies suggested that cyclopentane-1,3-diones may effectively substitute for the carboxylic acid functional group. To demonstrate the use o...

  4. Sm(II)-Mediated Electron Transfer to Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: Development of Complexity-Generating Cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just-Baringo, Xavier; Procter, David J

    2015-05-19

    Reductive electron transfer (ET) to organic compounds is a powerful method for the activation of substrates via the formation of radicals, radical anions, anions, and dianions that can be exploited in bond-cleaving and bond-forming processes. Since its introduction to the synthetic community in 1977 by Kagan, SmI2 has become one of the most important reducing agents available in the laboratory. Despite its widespread application in aldehyde and ketone reduction, it was widely accepted that carboxylic acid derivatives could not be reduced by SmI2; only recently has our work led to this dogma being overturned, and the reduction of carboxylic acid derivatives using SmI2 can now take its place alongside aldehyde/ketone reduction as a powerful activation mode for synthesis. In this Account, we set out our studies of the reduction of carboxylic acid derivatives using SmI2, SmI2-H2O, and SmI2-H2O-NR3 and the exploitation of the unusual radical anions that are now accessible in unprecedented carbon-carbon bond-forming processes. The Account begins with our serendipitous discovery that SmI2 mixed with H2O is able to reduce six-membered lactones to diols, a transformation previously thought to be impossible. After the successful development of selective monoreductions of Meldrum's acid and barbituric acid heterocyclic feedstocks, we then identified the SmI2-H2O-NR3 reagent system for the efficient reduction of a range of acyclic carboxylic acid derivatives that typically present a significant challenge for ET reductants. Mechanistic studies have led us to propose a common mechanism for the reduction of carboxylic acid derivatives using Sm(II), with only subtle changes observed as the carboxylic acid derivative and Sm(II) reagent system are varied. At the center of our postulated mechanism is the proposed reversibility of the first ET to the carbonyl of carboxylic acid derivatives, and this led us to devise several strategies that allow the radical anion intermediates to be

  5. 40 CFR 180.426 - 2-[4,5-Dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinoline carboxylic acid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2- -3-quinoline carboxylic acid... Tolerances § 180.426 2- -3-quinoline carboxylic acid; tolerance for residues. A tolerance is established for residues of the herbicide 2- -3-quinoline carboxylic acid, in or on the raw agricultural commodity...

  6. Wettability modification of graphene oxide by removal of carboxyl functional groups using non-thermal effects of microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the non-thermal effects of microwave on the wettability of graphene oxide. It is shown that removal of carboxyl compound by using the non-thermal microwave effects decrease the wettability of graphene oxide. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (C1s and O1s peaks) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy show that carboxyl compound decreases dramatically due to microwave irradiation while other functional groups were gradually reduced. Consequently, after 20 min microwave irradiation, carboxyl functional groups are removed. Wettability tests of carboxyl-reduced graphene oxide show that water uptake capability decreases to half and contact angle of water droplets increases from ~ 29.7° to ~ 69.9°. - Highlights: • Carboxyl compound is removed by using the non-thermal microwave effects after 20 min. • Water uptake capability decreases to half by removal of carboxyl functional groups. • Contact angle of water droplets increases from ~ 29.7° to ~ 69.9° in carboxyl-reduced graphene oxide

  7. Wettability modification of graphene oxide by removal of carboxyl functional groups using non-thermal effects of microwave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasuli, R., E-mail: r_rasuli@znu.ac.ir; Mokarian, Z.; Karimi, R.; Shabanzadeh, H.; Abedini, Y.

    2015-08-31

    We study the non-thermal effects of microwave on the wettability of graphene oxide. It is shown that removal of carboxyl compound by using the non-thermal microwave effects decrease the wettability of graphene oxide. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (C1s and O1s peaks) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy show that carboxyl compound decreases dramatically due to microwave irradiation while other functional groups were gradually reduced. Consequently, after 20 min microwave irradiation, carboxyl functional groups are removed. Wettability tests of carboxyl-reduced graphene oxide show that water uptake capability decreases to half and contact angle of water droplets increases from ~ 29.7° to ~ 69.9°. - Highlights: • Carboxyl compound is removed by using the non-thermal microwave effects after 20 min. • Water uptake capability decreases to half by removal of carboxyl functional groups. • Contact angle of water droplets increases from ~ 29.7° to ~ 69.9° in carboxyl-reduced graphene oxide.

  8. Electron-transfer fluorescence quenching processes in coaggregates between excited N-alkylcarbazoles as electron donors and 2, 4-dinitrophenyl carboxylates or pentafiuorophenyl carboxylates as acceptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI, Ji-Liang; YI, Hu-Nan; XU, Jia-Yi; JIANG, Xi-Kui

    2000-01-01

    Electron-transfer processes facilitated by hydrophobiclipophilic interaction (HLI) between excited N-alkylcarbazoles (1-n, n=4, 8, 12, 16) as electron donors and 2,4dinnrophenyl carboxylates (2-n, n = 4, 8, 12, 16) or pentafluorophenyl carboxylates (3-n, n = 4, 8, 12, 16) as electron acceptors have been investigated by means of fluorescence spectroscopy in aqueous or aquiorgano binary mixtures.The fluorescence quenching of-n* by2-n or-n indicates that preassociation precedes the electron transfer. The extent of HLI-drtven coaggregation of the acceptor and the donor may be assessed from the B value of the equation I0/I = A + B [Q]. The chain-length effect and possibly also a chain-foldability effect, as well as the solvent aggregating power (SAgP)effect have been observed. Comparison of the quenching constants ( B ) for 1-n* /2-n combinations and 1-n* / 3-n combinations shows that the order of increasing B values for the quenching processes is 3-n < 2-n.

  9. 'Scorpion-like' dithiocarbamato-carboxylate ligands for linking M(CO)3+ (M = Tc, Re)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexation of M(CO)3+ (M = Tc, Re) with dithiocarbamato-carboxylate ligands was studied. It was found that the dithiocarbamate chelation unit has rather high affinity to M(CO)3+ species and the resulting complexes are extremely stable in a wide pH range. The complex M(CO)3[S2CN(CH2COO)2] is monomeric in solution (ESI MS) and dimeric in the crystal phase (single-crystal XRD). The 'scorpion-like' dithiocarbamato-carboxylate ligands were prepared; it was shown that C5 chain is long enough to reach back to the free coordination vacancy in M(CO)3+ core and to block it. (author)

  10. Preparation and characterization of nonferrous oxide ceramics from metal carboxylates dissolved in organic solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvent extraction system used widely in hydrometallurgy metal-loaded carboxylate extractant was applied to prepare nonferrous oxide powders. When contacted with pure water at temperatures between 130 deg C and 240 deg C, tertiary carboxylate solutions of Ce(lll), Zr(lV), and Cu(ll) were hydrolyzed and precipitated CeO2 ZrO2 and Cu2O respectively. Characterization of the powders demonstrated that these precipitates were crystalline fine particles and were free from contamination by the organic starting material. The extent of precipitation of the oxide products was markedly dependent on process conditions such as temperature and organic phase compositions. For the processing of CeO2 vigorous stirring of the starting solution produced finer particles. (authors)

  11. Preparation and properties of fine hematite powders by hydrolysis of iron carboxylate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Takeshi; Asai, Satoru

    1994-04-01

    Submicrometer, crystalline hematite (α-Fe2O3) particles were prepared by hydrolysis of organic iron carboxylate solutions using water at 175 °C for 30 minutes. The particle size of hematite was significantly dependent on the liquid-phase stirring speed and the organic compositions. The precipitation rate of hematite from the organic solution followed first-order kinetics. The precipitation rate increased markedly with increasing temperature, and the activation energy for the process was 94.6 kJ mol-1. At 220 °C, the hydrolysis of iron carboxylate solution led to a mixture of hematite and magnetite (Fe3O4). The iron oxides prepared at 175 °C to 220 °C were found to be free from organic contamination by the starting material.

  12. A new carboxyl-copper-organic framework and its excellent selective absorbability for proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Linyan [Department of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Xin, Liangliang [School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Gu, Wen; Tian, Jinlei [Department of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Metal and Molecule Based Material Chemistry, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liao, Shengyun; Du, Peiyao; Tong, Yuzhang; Zhang, Yanping; Lv, Rui; Wang, Jingyao [Department of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liu, Xin, E-mail: liuxin64@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Metal and Molecule Based Material Chemistry, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-10-15

    One-pot solvothermal treatments of CuCl{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}L (5-(3-methyl-5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl) isophthalic acid) and Sm(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O in water yielded a rare carboxyl-copper-organic framework, [Cu(HL)]{sub n}·nH{sub 2}O (1). The existence of carboxyl groups in compound 1 may be due to the interference of Sm(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O at the relatively high temperature and autogenous pressure of the reaction. Compound 1 has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, PXRD, IR, and elemental analysis. Compound 1 is a 3D coordination polymer, and an xfe-4-Fddd, (4{sup 2}.6.8{sup 3}) topology in 1 is created. In addition, the optical properties have been investigated. Rhodamine B dyeing experiments exhibited that there were residual carboxyl groups on the surface of compound 1. UV–vis results showed that more lysozyme was adsorbed onto the surface of compound 1 than BSA at pH 7.4. At the same time, XPS spectra were also investigated to verify the results. - Graphical abstract: One-pot solvothermal treatments of CuCl{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O, H2L (5-(3-methyl-5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4H-1, 2, 4-triazol-4-yl) isophthalic acid) and Sm(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O in water yielded a rare carboxyl-copper-organic framework, [Cu(HL)]n·nH{sub 2}O (1). The existence of carboxyl groups in compound 1 may be due to the interference of Sm(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O at the relatively high temperature and autogenous pressure of the reaction. Compound 1 has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, XRPD, IR, and elemental analysis. Compound 1 is a 3D coordination polymer, and an xfe-4-Fddd, (4{sup 2}.6.8{sup 3}) topology in 1 is created. In addition, the optical properties have been investigated. Rhodamine B dyeing experiments exhibited that there were residual carboxyl groups on the surface of compound 1. UV-vis results showed that more lysozyme was adsorbed onto the surface of compound 1 than that of BSA at pH 7

  13. Controlled Electrochemical Carboxylation of Graphene To Create a Versatile Chemical Platform for Further Functionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerglund Pedersen, Emil; Kongsfelt, Mikkel S.; Shimizu, Kyoko;

    An electrochemical approach is introduced for the versatile carboxylation of multilayered graphene in 0.1 M Bu4NBF4/MeCN. First, the graphene substrate is negatively charged at −1.9 V vs. Ag/AgI to allow for intercalation of Bu4N+. In the second step, the strongly activated and nucleophilic graph...... in a multi-layered but expanded structure accessible for functionalization. On a more general level, this approach will provide a versatile way of forming new hybrid materials based on intimate bond coupling to graphene via carboxylate groups....... throughout the multilayered graphene structure, independent of the number of graphene sheets. This is assumed to be due to an opening of the entire graphene structure in response to the intercalation of Bu4N+. Hence, this electrochemical method offers a versatile procedure to make all graphene sheets...

  14. 5-Amino-1H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ium-3-carboxylate hemihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Fernandes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C3H4N4O2·0.5H2O, comprises two whole molecules of 5-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxylic acid in its zwitterionic form (proton transfer occurs from the carboxylic acid group to the N heteroatom at position 1, plus one water molecule of crystallization. The organic moieties are disposed into supramolecular layers linked by N—H...O and N—H...N hydrogen bonds parallel to the bc plane. Additional O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the water molecules and the organic molecules lead to the formation of double-deck supramolecular arrangements which are interconnected along the a axis via π–π stacking [centroid–centroid distance = 3.507 (3 Å].

  15. Synthesis of carboxyl superparamagnetic ultrasmall iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles by a novel flocculation-redispersion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Changming [Nano Biomedicine Research Center, Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Kou Geng [International Joint Cancer Institute, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wang Xiaoliang [Nano Biomedicine Research Center, Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang Shuhui [International Joint Cancer Institute, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Gu Hongchen [Nano Biomedicine Research Center, Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: hcgu@sjtu.edu.cn; Guo Yajun [International Joint Cancer Institute, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: yjguo@smmu.edu.cn

    2009-09-15

    We report a novel flocculation-redispersion method to synthesize and purify the biocompatible superparamagnetic ultrasmall iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles coated with carboxyl dextran derivative. First, USPIO nanoparticles were synthesized and flocculated to form the large clusters through bridging effect of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) during coprecipitation process. Then the flocculated USPIO was separated and purified from the solution conveniently through magnetic sedimentation. Finally, USPIO in the clusters were released again and well dispersed through electrostatic repelling effect of citric acid with the aid of ultrasonic. The dispersed carboxyl-functionalized USPIO was conjugated with the monoclonal antibodies. And it has been proved that the antibodies anchored on USPIO still retained their bioactivity after the conjugation. These results implied that the USPIO synthesized have good potential as active targeting molecular probe in biomedical application.

  16. Synthesis of carboxyl superparamagnetic ultrasmall iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles by a novel flocculation-redispersion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a novel flocculation-redispersion method to synthesize and purify the biocompatible superparamagnetic ultrasmall iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles coated with carboxyl dextran derivative. First, USPIO nanoparticles were synthesized and flocculated to form the large clusters through bridging effect of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) during coprecipitation process. Then the flocculated USPIO was separated and purified from the solution conveniently through magnetic sedimentation. Finally, USPIO in the clusters were released again and well dispersed through electrostatic repelling effect of citric acid with the aid of ultrasonic. The dispersed carboxyl-functionalized USPIO was conjugated with the monoclonal antibodies. And it has been proved that the antibodies anchored on USPIO still retained their bioactivity after the conjugation. These results implied that the USPIO synthesized have good potential as active targeting molecular probe in biomedical application.

  17. Factors influencing the rate of non-enzymatic activation of carboxylic and amino acids by ATP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, D. W., Jr.; Lacey, J. C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The nonenzymatic formation of adenylate anhydrides of carboxylic and amino acids is discussed as a necessary step in the origin of the genetic code and protein biosynthesis. Results of studies are presented which have shown the rate of activation to depend on the pKa of the carboxyl group, the pH of the medium, temperature, the divalent metal ion catalyst, salt concentration, and the nature of the amino acid. In particular, it was found that of the various amino acids investigated, phenylalanine had the greatest affinity for the adenine derivatives adenosine and ATP. Results thus indicate that selective affinities between amino acids and nucleotides were important during prebiotic chemical evolution, and may have played a major role in the origin of protein synthesis and genetic coding.

  18. Arginine-responsive terbium luminescent hybrid sensors triggered by two crown ether carboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Lasheng [Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tang, Ke; Ding, Xiaoping [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Qianming, E-mail: qmwang@scnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhou, Zhan; Xiao, Rui [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Crown ether carboxylic acids constitute main building blocks for the synthesis of terbium containing covalent cross-linked luminescent materials. Both the complexes and the hybrid nanomaterials could exhibit remarkable green emissions in pure water. More importantly, they were found to have a profound effect on the luminescence responses to arginine compared with glutamic acid, histidine, tryptophan, threonine, tyrosine and phenylalanine in aqueous environment. The present study provided the possibility of using a host–guest mechanism as a way of signal transduction based on lanthanide supramolecular hybrid materials. - Highlights: • Crown ether carboxylic acids were found to sensitize terbium ions among a group of ethers. • The complexes and silica hybrid materials were both prepared and characterized. • They could exhibit remarkable green emissions in pure water.

  19. A new carboxyl-copper-organic framework and its excellent selective absorbability for proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-pot solvothermal treatments of CuCl2·2H2O, H2L (5-(3-methyl-5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl) isophthalic acid) and Sm(NO3)3·6H2O in water yielded a rare carboxyl-copper-organic framework, [Cu(HL)]n·nH2O (1). The existence of carboxyl groups in compound 1 may be due to the interference of Sm(NO3)3·6H2O at the relatively high temperature and autogenous pressure of the reaction. Compound 1 has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, PXRD, IR, and elemental analysis. Compound 1 is a 3D coordination polymer, and an xfe-4-Fddd, (42.6.83) topology in 1 is created. In addition, the optical properties have been investigated. Rhodamine B dyeing experiments exhibited that there were residual carboxyl groups on the surface of compound 1. UV–vis results showed that more lysozyme was adsorbed onto the surface of compound 1 than BSA at pH 7.4. At the same time, XPS spectra were also investigated to verify the results. - Graphical abstract: One-pot solvothermal treatments of CuCl2·2H2O, H2L (5-(3-methyl-5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4H-1, 2, 4-triazol-4-yl) isophthalic acid) and Sm(NO3)3·6H2O in water yielded a rare carboxyl-copper-organic framework, [Cu(HL)]n·nH2O (1). The existence of carboxyl groups in compound 1 may be due to the interference of Sm(NO3)3·6H2O at the relatively high temperature and autogenous pressure of the reaction. Compound 1 has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, XRPD, IR, and elemental analysis. Compound 1 is a 3D coordination polymer, and an xfe-4-Fddd, (42.6.83) topology in 1 is created. In addition, the optical properties have been investigated. Rhodamine B dyeing experiments exhibited that there were residual carboxyl groups on the surface of compound 1. UV-vis results showed that more lysozyme was adsorbed onto the surface of compound 1 than that of BSA at pH 7.4. At the same time, XPS spectra were also investigated to verify the results. - Highlights: • A rare carboxyl-copper-organic framework has been

  20. Preparation and reactivity of carboxylic acid-terminated boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedziolka-Joensson, Joanna [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley, BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, UMR 8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Boland, Susan; Leech, Donal [School of Chemistry, National University of Irland, Galway (Ireland); Boukherroub, Rabah [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley, BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, UMR 8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Szunerits, Sabine, E-mail: sabine.szunerits@iri.univ-lille1.f [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley, BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, UMR 8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports on the formation of carboxy-terminated boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. The carboxylic acid termination was prepared in a controlled way by reacting photochemically oxidized BDD with succinic anhydride. The resulting interface was readily employed for the linking of an amine-terminated ligand such as an osmium complex bearing an amine terminal group. The interfaces were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Contact angle measurements were used to follow the changes in surface wetting properties due to surface functionalization. The chemical reactivity of the carboxyl-terminated BDD was investigated by covalent coupling of the acid groups to an amine-terminated osmium complex.

  1. Synthesis and Properties of Triphenylgermanium Heteroaromatic Carboxylates and Crystal Structure of Triphenylgermanium 2-Furoate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN,Han-Dong(尹汉东); WANG,Chuan-Hua(王传华); WANG,Yong(王勇); ZHANG,Ru-Fen(张如芬); MA,Chun-Lin(马春林); TAO,Xu-Quan(陶绪全)

    2001-01-01

    Ten triphenylgermaanium heteroaromatic carboxylates Ph3GeO2CR ( where R = 2-furanyl, 2-furanvinyl, 2-(5-tert-butyl) furonyl, 2-thiophenyl, 2-pyridinyl, 3-pyridinyl, 4-pyridinyl, 3-indolyl, 3-indolyhnethyl, 3-indolylpropyl) were synthesized by the reaction of sodium heteroaromatic carboxylates with the triphenylgermanium chloride. All compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR and MS spectra. The empounds were tested against two human tumour cell lines: MCF-7 and WiDr. The results showed that they had high activities. The crystal structure of triphenyler-mananium 2-furoate was determined by X-ray single crystal diffration. The crystal belongs to monoclinic with space grop P 21/c, a=1.1945(4), t=0.9934(3), c=1.6284(5)nm, β=91.59(5), Z=4. In this crystal, the structure consists of discrete molecule containing four-cnordinate germanimm atom in a distored tetrahedron.

  2. Ruthenium(II) multi carboxylic acid complexes: chemistry and application in dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Nasouti, Fahimeh; Sousaraei, Ahmad

    2014-04-01

    Novel ruthenium multi carboxylic complexes (RMCCs) have been synthesized by using ruthenium nitrosyl nitrate, 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (H4btec) and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen) as photosensitizers for titanium dioxide semiconductor solar cells. The complexes were characterized by (1)H-NMR, FT-IR, UV-Vis, ICP and CHN analyses. The reaction details and features were then described. SEM analysis revealed that the penetration of dyes into the pores of the nanocrystalline TiO2 surface was improved by increasing the number of btec units. The solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency of complexes shows that the number of attached carboxylates on a dye has an influence on the photoelectrochemical properties of the dye-sensitized electrode. An incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 13% at 510 nm was obtained for ruthenium complexes with three btec units. PMID:24500312

  3. Arginine-responsive terbium luminescent hybrid sensors triggered by two crown ether carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crown ether carboxylic acids constitute main building blocks for the synthesis of terbium containing covalent cross-linked luminescent materials. Both the complexes and the hybrid nanomaterials could exhibit remarkable green emissions in pure water. More importantly, they were found to have a profound effect on the luminescence responses to arginine compared with glutamic acid, histidine, tryptophan, threonine, tyrosine and phenylalanine in aqueous environment. The present study provided the possibility of using a host–guest mechanism as a way of signal transduction based on lanthanide supramolecular hybrid materials. - Highlights: • Crown ether carboxylic acids were found to sensitize terbium ions among a group of ethers. • The complexes and silica hybrid materials were both prepared and characterized. • They could exhibit remarkable green emissions in pure water

  4. A database study of intermolecular NH...O hydrogen bonds for carboxylates, sulfonates and monohydrogen phosphonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search of the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD, version 5.05, 1993) was performed in order to compare the geometrical features of the hydrogen bonds involving on the one hand amino groups and on the other hand carboxylates, sulfonates or monohydrogen phosponates. Phosphonates were not considered because only four entries containing amino and phosphonate moieities were located in the CSD. The hydroxylic group of monohydrogen phosphonates primarily acts as a hydrogen-bond donor. The three moieties under study show NH..O hydrogen bonds with similar geometrical features. This statistical analysis has focused on the hydrogen-bond distances and angles and on the distributions of the H atoms around the acceptor O atoms of carboxylates, sulfonates or monohydrogen phosphonates. (orig.)

  5. Supramolecular Coordination Assemblies Constructed From Multifunctional Azole-Containing Carboxylic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuheng Deng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief review of recent progress in the field of metal coordination polymers assembled from azole-containing carboxylic acids and gives a diagrammatic summary of the diversity of topological structures in the resulting infinite metal-organic coordination networks (MOCNs. Azole-containing carboxylic acids are a favorable kind of multifunctional ligand to construct various metal complexes with isolated complexes and one, two and three dimensional structures, whose isolated complexes are not the focus of this review. An insight into the topology patterns of the infinite coordination polymers is provided. Analyzed topologies are compared with documented topologies and catalogued by the nature of nodes and connectivity pattern. New topologies which are not available from current topology databases are described and demonstrated graphically.

  6. Chemical Analysis and Transplacental Transfer of Oseltamivir and Oseltamivir Carboxylic Acid in Pregnant Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chia-Chun; Yen, Jiin-Cherng; Wu, Yu-Tse; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2012-01-01

    In view of the limited information on the pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir (OSE) during pregnancy, this study aims to evaluate the placental transportation of OSE and its active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylic acid (OCA) in rats. A validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system coupled to an in vivo transplacental model has been developed to determine OSE and OCA in the placenta, amniotic fluids and fetus of 13-day pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. Concentrations of O...

  7. A novel application of horseradish peroxidase: Oxidation of alcohol ethoxylate to alkylether carboxylic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A novel application of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the oxidation of alcohol ethoxylate to alkylether carboxylie acid in the present of H2O2 was reported in this paper. We propose the mechanism for the catalytic oxidation reaction is that the hydrogen transfers from the substrate to the ferryl oxygen to form the a-hydroxy carbon radical intermediate. The reaction offers a new approach for further research structure and catalytic mechanism of HRP and production of alkylether carboxylic acid.

  8. Reductive carboxylation and 2-hydroxyglutarate formation by wild-type IDH2 in breast carcinoma cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolková, Katarína; Dvořák, Aleš; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Vítek, L.; Ježek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, AUG 15 (2015), s. 125-133. ISSN 1357-2725 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP301/12/P381; GA MŠk(CZ) LF14001 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : reductive carboxylation * NADPH-dependent isocitrate * dehydrogenase IDH2 * hypoxia * 2-hydroxyglutarate Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 4.046, year: 2014

  9. Mechanism of Inhibition of Aliphatic Epoxide Carboxylation by the Coenzyme M Analog 2-Bromoethanesulfonate*

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Jeffrey M.; Clark, Daniel D.; Kofoed, Melissa A.; Ensign, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    The bacterial metabolism of epoxypropane formed from propylene oxidation uses the atypical cofactor coenzyme M (CoM, 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate) as the nucleophile for epoxide ring opening and as a carrier of intermediates that undergo dehydrogenation, reductive cleavage, and carboxylation to form acetoacetate in a three-step metabolic pathway. 2-Ketopropyl-CoM carboxylase/oxidoreductase (2-KPCC), the terminal enzyme of this pathway, is the only known member of the disulfide oxidoreductase fam...

  10. New carboxylate and hydroxamate inhibitors of prostaglandin-H-synthase and their metal complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Al Agha, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    The thesis describes new carboxylate and hydroxamate inhibitors of prostaglandin-H-synthase (PGHS) as well as the synthesis and structures of metal complexes of the hydroxamates which were synthesised. This enzyme, also called cyclooxygenase (COX), has two active sites a cyclooxygenase (COX) active site which is the target for aspirin and a peroxidase (POX) active site, upon which the COX site depends. The thesis is divided in to three chapters. The first chapter describes the attempted sy...

  11. Accumulation of the Antibiotic Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid in the Rhizosphere of Dryland Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Mavrodi, Olga V; Parejko, James A.; Bonsall, Robert F.; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Paulitz, Timothy C.; Thomashow, Linda S.; Weller, David M

    2012-01-01

    Natural antibiotics are thought to function in the defense, fitness, competitiveness, biocontrol activity, communication, and gene regulation of microorganisms. However, the scale and quantitative aspects of antibiotic production in natural settings are poorly understood. We addressed these fundamental questions by assessing the geographic distribution of indigenous phenazine-producing (Phz+) Pseudomonas spp. and the accumulation of the broad-spectrum antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (P...

  12. Low-molecular-weight poly-carboxylate as crystal growth modifier in biomineralization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ballav Moni Borah; Bhaskar Jyoti Bhuyan; Gopal Das

    2006-11-01

    Construction of modified inorganic mineral with controlled mineralization analogues of those produced by nature is now of current interest for understanding the mechanism of the in vivo biomineralization processes, as well as looking for fresh industrial and technological applications. Lowmolecular-weight chiral poly-carboxylate ligands derived from naturally occurring L--amino acids have been used as model systems to study the effect of molecular properties on crystal growth modification.

  13. Calix[6]arene bearing carboxylic acid and amide groups in polymeric CTA membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calix[6]arene having both carboxylic acid (1,3,5-) and carboxamide (2,4,6-) in an alternative way was synthesized. Transport rates of alkali and alkaline-earth metal ions were tested in bulk liquid membrane and polymer inclusion membrane. Ba2+ ion was found to give the highest transport rate among tested metal ions in both BLM and PIM system. In PIM system, high durability (longer than 30 days) of the membrane was observed

  14. Nucleofugality of Aliphatic Carboxylates in Mixtures of Aprotic Solvents and Water

    OpenAIRE

    Matić, Mirela; Denegri, Bernard; Kronja, Olga

    2014-01-01

    The leaving group ability (nucleofugality) of fluoroacetate, chloroacetate, bromoacetate, dichloroace-tate, trifluoroacetate, trichloroacetate, heptafluorobutyrate, formate, isobutyrate, and pivalate have been derived from the solvolysis rate constants of the corresponding X,Y-substituted benzhydryl car-boxylates in 60 % and 80 % aqueous acetonitrile and 60 % aqueous acetone, applying the LFER equa-tion: log k = sf (Ef + Nf). The experimental barriers (∆G‡,exp) for solvolyses of 11 reference ...

  15. Aminolysis of resin-bound N-nosylaziridine-2-carboxylic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Christian A; Christensen, Caspar; Nielsen, Birgitte; Farah, Mohamed M; Mohamed, Farah M; Witt, Matthias; Clausen, Rasmus P; Kristensen, Jesper L; Franzyk, Henrik; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W

    2006-01-01

    [Structure: see text] Solid-phase synthesis is a rapidly developing area of organic chemistry, of particular importance for medicinal chemistry and chemical biology. Aziridines have previously only rarely been applied in solid-phase synthesis. In the present work, aminolysis of resin-bound, sprin......-loaded N-nitrobenzenesulfonyl-activated aziridine-2-carboxylic acids has been optimized and employed in the synthesis of a number of open-chain and heterocyclic scaffolds, including enantiopure products....

  16. Understanding Potential Exposure Sources of Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Mary A.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Barton, Catherine A.; Botelho, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper integrates perspectives from analytical chemistry, environmental engineering, and industrial hygiene to better understand how workers may be exposed to perfluorinated carboxylic acids when handling them in the workplace in order to identify appropriate exposure controls. Due to the dramatic difference in physical properties of the protonated acid form and the anionic form, this family of chemicals provides unique industrial hygiene challenges. Workplace monitoring, experimental dat...

  17. Grafting of cotton with [beta]-cyclodextrin via poly(carboxylic acid)

    OpenAIRE

    Vončina, Bojana; Majcen Le Marechal, Alenka

    2012-01-01

    Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides. Cyclodextrin molecules can form inclusion complexes with a large number of organic molecules. The properties of cyclodextrins enable them to be used in a variety of different textile applications. Cyclodextrins can act as auxiliaries in washing and dyeing processes, and they can also be fixed onto different fiber surfaces. Because of the complexing abilities of cyclodextrins, textiles with new functional properties can be prepared. Poly(carboxylic ac...

  18. Pancreatic carboxyl ester lipase: a circulating enzyme that modifies normal and oxidized lipoproteins in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Shamir, R; W.J. Johnson; Morlock-Fitzpatrick, K; Zolfaghari, R; Li, L.; E. Mas; Lombardo, D; Morel, D W; Fisher, E A

    1996-01-01

    Pancreatic carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) hydrolyzes cholesteryl esters (CE), triglycerides (TG), and lysophospholipids, with CE and TG hydrolysis stimulated by cholate. Originally thought to be confined to the gastrointestinal system, CEL has been reported in the plasma of humans and other mammals, implying its potential in vivo to modify lipids associated with LDL, HDL (CE, TG), and oxidized LDL (lysophosphatidylcholine, lysoPC). We measured the concentration of CEL in human plasma as 1.2+/-0....

  19. Carboxyl multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified polypyrrole (PPy) aerogel for enhanced electromagnetic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Xie, Aming; Wu, Fan; Jiang, Wanchun; Wang, Mingyang; Dong, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) aerogel is a low-cost and lightweight material with high-performance electromagnetic absorption (EA). However, it does not always meet the requirements of practical applications. In this study, we used trace amounts of carboxyl multiwalled carbon nanotubes to regulate the dielectric property of PPy aerogel, thus enhancing the EA performance. Furthermore, the reason for enhanced EA performance can be elaborated by an electron blocking mechanism.

  20. Gas-Phase Reactivity of Carboxylic Acid Functional Groups with Carbodiimides

    OpenAIRE

    Prentice, Boone M.; Gilbert, Joshua D.; Stutzman, John R.; Forrest, William P.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Gas-phase modification of carboxylic acid functionalities is performed via ion/ion reactions with carbodiimide reagents [N-cyclohexyl-N′-(2-morpholinoethyl)carbodiimide (CMC) and [3-(3-Ethylcarbodiimide-1-yl)propyl]trimethylaminium (ECPT). Gas-phase ion/ion covalent chemistry requires the formation of a long-lived complex. In this instance, the complex is stabilized by an electrostatic interaction between the fixed charge quaternary ammonium group of the carbodiimide reagent cation and the an...

  1. Process for recovering carboxylic acids from sugar cane industry by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Albet, Joël; Pislor, Emilie; Pontalier, Pierre-Yves

    2009-01-01

    Food industry by-products such as molasses and vinasses may provide an important source of organic acids. The aim of this study is to compare three processes, precipitation, chromatography and liquid-liquid extraction, for the recovery of carboxylic acids from sugarcane molasses from Réunion Island. Precipitation was performed with different temperatures by addition of calcium chloride. The results revealed that precipitation can recover aconitic acid efficiently from molasses. Liquid-liquid ...

  2. Hydrolytic activity of -alkoxide/acetato-bridged binuclear Cu(II) complexes towards carboxylic acid ester

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Weidong Jiang; Bin Xu; Zhen Xiang; Shengtian Huang; Fuan Liu; Ying Wang

    2013-09-01

    Two -alkoxide/acetate-bridged small molecule binuclear copper(II) complexes were synthesized, and used to promote the hydrolysis of a classic carboxylic acid ester, -nitrophenyl picolinate (PNPP). Both binuclear complexes exhibited good hydrolytic reactivity, giving rise to . 15547- and 17462-fold acceleration over background value for PNPP hydrolysis at neutral conditions, respectively. For comparing, activities of the other two mononuclear analogues were evaluated, revealing that binuclear complexes show approximately 150- and 171-fold kinetic advantage over their mononuclear analogues.

  3. A new and efficient method for the synthesis of isoquinoline-3-carboxylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Wei Liao; Bao He Guan; Zhan Zhu Liu

    2008-01-01

    An isoquinoline-3-carboxylate compound 3 was obtained with a moderate yield of 40% when N-acetyl-(3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxy-5'-methyl)phenylalanine methyl ester 1 was refluxed in HMTA/TFA. However, the anticipated product N-acetyl-(3'-hydroxy-4'-rnethoxy-5'-methyl-6'-formyl)phenylalanine methyl ester 2 could not be found. The possible mechanism was discussed in this article.

  4. Structure–anticancer activity relationships among 4-azolidinone-3-carboxylic acids derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Lesyk R. B.; Kaminskyy D. V.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of present research was investigation of anticancer activity of 4-azolidinone-3-carboxylic acids derivatives, and studies of structure–activity relationships (SAR) aspects. Methods. Organic synthesis; spectral methods; anticancer screening was performed according to the US NCI protocol (Developmental Therapeutic Program). Results. The data of new 4-thiazolidinone-3-alkanecarboxylic acids derivatives in vitro anticancer activity were described. The most active compounds which belong to...

  5. Enantioselective CuH-Catalyzed Reductive Coupling of Aryl Alkenes and Activated Carboxylic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandar, Jeffrey S; Ascic, Erhad; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2016-05-11

    A new method for the enantioselective reductive coupling of aryl alkenes with activated carboxylic acid derivatives via copper hydride catalysis is described. Dual catalytic cycles are proposed, with a relatively fast enantioselective hydroacylation cycle followed by a slower diastereoselective ketone reduction cycle. Symmetrical aryl carboxyclic anhydrides provide access to enantioenriched α-substituted ketones or alcohols with excellent stereoselectivity and functional group tolerance. PMID:27121395

  6. Novel 5-substituted benzyloxy-2-arylbenzofuran-3-carboxylic acids as calcium activated chloride channel inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Satish; Namkung, Wan; A S Verkman; Sharma, Pawan K

    2012-01-01

    Transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A) channels are recently discovered membrane proteins that functions as a calcium activated chloride channel (CaCC). CaCCs are major regulators of various physiological processes, such as sensory transduction, epithelial secretion, smooth muscle contraction and oocyte fertilization. Thirty novel 5-substituted benzyloxy-2-arylbenzofuran-3-carboxylic acids (B01–B30) were synthesized and evaluated for their TMEM16A inhibitory activity by using short circuit curre...

  7. Carboxyl-Functionalized Task-Specific Ionic Liquids for Solubilizing Metal Oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Nockemann, Peter; Thijs, Ben; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana; Van Hecke, Kristof; Van Meervelt, Luc; Tinant, Bernard; Hartenbach, Ingo; Schleid, Thomas; Vu Thi, Ngan; Nguyen, Minh Tho; Binnemans, Koen

    2008-01-01

    Imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, piperidinium, morpholinium, and quaternary ammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide salts were functionalized with a carboxyl group. These ionic liquids are useful for the selective dissolution of metal oxides and hydroxides. Although these hydrophobic ionic liquids are immiscible with water at room temperature, several of them form a single phase with water at elevated temperatures. Phase separation occurs upon cooling. This thermomorphic behavior ha...

  8. Effect of Alkyl Chain Length on Carboxylic Acid SAMs on Ti-6Al-4V

    OpenAIRE

    Buckholtz, Gavin A.; Gawalt, Ellen S.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of methyl-terminated carboxylic acid self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with even numbers of carbons, from eighteen to thirty, was investigated on the oxide surface of Ti-6Al-4V and component metal oxides. Modified surfaces were characterized using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and contact angle analysis. Infrared spectroscopy indicated that using aero...

  9. Determination of the thermodynamic quantities of complexation between Eu(III) and carboxylic acids by microcalorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potentiometric and microcalorimetric titration techniques were applied to determine the Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of the protonation of some carboxylic acids (acetic, glycolic, malonic and malic acids) and their complexation with Eu(III) in 1.0 M NaClO4 solution at 25 C, where Eu(III) was used as a chemical analogue of radiologically important Am(III). By using the values of ΔG determined by potentiometric titrations, the results of calorimetric titrations were analyzed to give the values of ΔH and ΔS. To support the discussion on the obtained thermodynamic quantities, the hydration numbers of Eu(III) in the complexes were obtained by TRLFS measurement, where the luminescence lifetime of Eu(III) excited by 394 nm laser was measured. A few to several kJ/mol of enthalpies were determined for the reactions within the uncertainties of ±0.01 to ±0.4. These enthalpy values indicated that the protonation of these carboxylates were entropy-driven, that is, vertical stroke - TΔS vertical stroke >> vertical stroke ΔH vertical stroke in ΔG = ΔH - TΔS. The complexations of Eu(III) were also shown to be controlled mainly by entropy term. The results of TRLFS measurement revealed that the number of dehydrated water molecule increased with the degree of complexation. A linear relation was found between total entropy change of the system (ΔST) and the net number of released molecules from the central Eu(III) ion. However, the values of ΔST for the hydroxy-carboxylates were smaller than that for simple carboxylates at the same net number of molecules released from Eu(III), suggesting that the dehydration occurred not only in the cation but also in the anion. (orig.)

  10. Borate esters as convenient reagents for direct amidation of carboxylic acids and transamidation of primary amides

    OpenAIRE

    Starkov, P.; Sheppard, T. D.

    2011-01-01

    Simple borates serve as effective promoters for amide bond formation with a variety of carboxylic acids and amines. With trimethyl or tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) borate, amides are obtained in good to excellent yield and high purity after a simple work-up procedure. Tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) borate can also be used for the straightforward conversion of primary amides to secondary amides via transamidation.

  11. Functionalization of carboxylated multiwall nanotubes with imidazole derivatives and their toxicity investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Azizian, Javad; Tahermansouri, Hasan; Biazar, Esmaeil; Heidari, Saeed; Khoei, Davood Chobfrosh

    2010-01-01

    Imidazoles and their derivatives are compounds with chemotherapeutic applications. In this study, we investigated the chemical functionalization of carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT–COOH) by 1,2-phenylendiamine. Multiwalled nanotube (MWNT)–benzimidazole was obtained by an MWNT–amide reaction with POCl3 after 72 hours, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and elemental analysis. These functionalizations wer...

  12. Substituted Amides of Pyrazine-2-carboxylic acids: Synthesis and Biological Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Kralova; Jiri Kunes; Miroslav Miletin; Martin Dolezal

    2002-01-01

    Condensation of 6-chloro-, 5-tert-butyl- or 6-chloro-5-tert-butylpyrazine-2-carboxylic acid chloride with ring substituted anilines yielded a series of amides, which were tested for their in vitro antimycobacterial, antifungal and photosynthesis-inhibiting activities. The highest antituberculotic activity (72% inhibition) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the highest lipophilicity (log P = 6.85) were shown by the 3,5-bistrifluoromethylphenyl amide of 5-tert-butyl-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbo...

  13. Ciprofloxacin, a quinolone carboxylic acid compound active against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, N X; Neu, H C

    1984-01-01

    The in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin, a quinolone-carboxylic acid derivative, was compared with those of norfloxacin, cefotaxime, cephalexin, ceftazidime, moxalactam, amoxicillin, and methicillin and other agents, as appropriate. The MICs of ciprofloxacin for 90% of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria spp., and Bacteroides fragilis were between 0.005 and 0.8 micrograms/ml, whereas streptococci and staphylococci were all inhibited by less than o...

  14. Biosynthesis of Bacterial Cellulose/Carboxylic Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Enzymatic Biofuel Cell Application

    OpenAIRE

    Pengfei Lv; Quan Feng; Qingqing Wang; Guohui Li; Dawei Li; Qufu Wei

    2016-01-01

    Novel nanocomposites comprised of bacterial cellulose (BC) with carboxylic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNTs) incorporated into the BC matrix were prepared through a simple method of biosynthesis. The biocathode and bioanode for the enzyme biological fuel cell (EBFC) were prepared using BC/c-MWCNTs composite injected by laccase (Lac) and glucose oxidase (GOD) with the aid of glutaraldehyde (GA) crosslinking. Biosynthesis of BC/c-MWCNTs composite was characterized by digital photos, scan...

  15. Extraction of actinide elements by trilaurylammonium nitrate carboxylic acid mixtures and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The addition of pelargonic, capric, α-bromocapric, α-fluorocapric, and 3-fluorobenzoic acids to organic trilaurylammonium nitrate solutions significantly modifies the extraction of U(VI), Np(IV), and Pu(IV). Antagonism appears at strong nitric acidities, while enhancement of the extraction of U(VI) and Pu(IV) is observed at weak acidities. The antagonism observed is due to the formation of addition compounds between trilaurylammonium nitrate (R3NHNO3) and carboxylic acids (HA) = R3NHNO3(HA)2 for pelargonic and capric acids, and R3NHNO3HA for α-bromocapric, α-fluorobenzoic acids. Extraction of UO22+, Am3+, Th4+, Np4+, and Pu4+ by capric, α-bromocapric, and 3-fluorobenzoic acids showed that the extractive power of these carboxylic acids is inadequate for the observation of extraction enhancement. The study of the organic phase by the measurement of nitric acid displacement and by dielectric method shows that trilaurylamine and carboxylic acids react to give the compounds R3N(HA)4 (pelargonic and capric acids) and R3N(HA)2

  16. Carboxylic Acid Fullerene (C60) Derivatives Attenuated Neuroinflammatory Responses by Modulating Mitochondrial Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shefang; Zhou, Tong; Cheng, Keman; Chen, Mingliang; Wang, Yange; Jiang, Yuanqin; Yang, Peiyan

    2015-05-01

    Fullerene (C60) derivatives, a unique class of compounds with potent antioxidant properties, have been reported to exert a wide variety of biological activities including neuroprotective properties. Mitochondrial dynamics are an important constituent of cellular quality control and function, and an imbalance of the dynamics eventually leads to mitochondria disruption and cell dysfunctions. This study aimed to assess the effects of carboxylic acid C60 derivatives (C60-COOH) on mitochondrial dynamics and elucidate its associated mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cell model. Using a cell-based functional screening system labeled with DsRed2-mito in BV-2 cells, we showed that LPS stimulation led to excessive mitochondrial fission, increased mitochondrial localization of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), both of which were markedly suppressed by C60-COOH pretreatment. LPS-induced mitochondria reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δ Ψm) were also significantly inhibited by C60-COOH. Moreover, we also found that C60-COOH pretreatment resulted in the attenuation of LPS-mediated activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that carboxylic acid C60 derivatives may exert neuroprotective effects through regulating mitochondrial dynamics and functions in microglial cells, thus providing novel insights into the mechanisms of the neuroprotective properties of carboxylic acid C60 derivatives.

  17. Gas-Phase Amidation of Carboxylic Acids with Woodward's Reagent K Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhou; Pilo, Alice L.; Luongo, Carl A.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2015-06-01

    Gas-phase amidation of carboxylic acids in multiply-charged peptides is demonstrated via ion/ion reactions with Woodward's reagent K (wrk) in both positive and negative mode. Woodward's reagent K, N-ethyl-3-phenylisoxazolium-3'-sulfonate, is a commonly used reagent that activates carboxylates to form amide bonds with amines in solution. Here, we demonstrate that the analogous gas-phase chemistry occurs upon reaction of the wrk ions and doubly protonated (or doubly deprotonated) peptide ions containing the carboxylic acid functionality. The reaction involves the formation of the enol ester intermediate in the electrostatic complex. Upon collisional activation, the ethyl amine on the reagent is transferred to the activated carbonyl carbon on the peptide, resulting in the formation of an ethyl amide (addition of 27 Da to the peptide) with loss of a neutral ketene derivative. Further collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the products and comparison with solution-phase amidation product confirms the structure of the ethyl amide.

  18. High salinity in molasses wastewaters shifts anaerobic digestion to carboxylate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vrieze, Jo; Coma, Marta; Debeuckelaere, Matthias; Van der Meeren, Paul; Rabaey, Korneel

    2016-07-01

    Biorefinery wastewaters are often treated by means of anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. Alternatively, these wastewaters can be fermented, leading to the formation of carboxylates. Here, we investigated how lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors could be shifted to fermentation by changing organic loading rate, hydraulic retention time, pH, and salinity. A strong increase in volatile fatty acid concentration up to 40 g COD L(-1) was achieved through increasing salinity above 30 mS cm(-1), as well as a decrease in methane production by more than 90%, which could not be obtained by adjusting the other parameters, thus, indicating a clear shift from methane to carboxylate production. Microbial community analysis revealed a shift in bacterial community to lower evenness and richness values, following the increased salinity and VFA concentration during the fermentation process. A selective enrichment of the hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales took place upon the shift to fermentation, despite a severe decrease in methane production. Particle size distribution revealed a strong degranulation of the sludge in the reactor, related to the high salinity, which resulted in a wash-out of the biomass. This research shows that salinity is a key parameter enabling a shift from methane to carboxylate production in a stable fermentation process. PMID:27110885

  19. Statistical investigation of lead removal with various functionalized carboxylate ferroxane nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moattari, Rozita M.; Rahimi, Safoora [Polymer Research Lab., Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabi, Laleh, E-mail: laleh.rajabii@gmail.com [Polymer Research Lab., Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Derakhshan, Ali Ashraf [Young Researchers Club, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Keyhani, Mohammad [Polymer Research Lab., Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Four new carboxylate ferroxane nanostructures were synthesized and characterized. • Carboxylate ferroxanes were used as nanosorbents for lead removal. • Taguchi method was used to design the experiments. • Statistical analyses evaluated the three model responses [R%, Logit (R%), C{sub ratio}]. • Maleate ferroxane performed the best of the four nanosorbents studied. - Abstract: Four new types of carboxylate-ferroxane nanoparticles, namely; maleate ferroxane (MF), fumarateferroxane (FF), para-amino benzoate ferroxane (PABF) and para-hydroxy benzoate ferroxane (PHBF) were synthesized, characterized and used for lead removal from aqueous solutions. Lepidocrocite nanoparticles were also synthesized and characterized asa precursorforcarboxylate-ferroxanes. FTIR, SEM and DLS analysis characterized the synthesized samplesand final Pb(II) concentration were analysed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. Performance evaluation of the nanoparticlesin adsorption process was achieved using Taguchi experimental design. Variables in adsorption process were initial pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, adsorbent typeand initial concentration of Pb{sup 2+} ions. The initial Pb(II) concentration was the most influential factor in the adsorption process among the five factors. Adsorption of lead was performed through two possible mechanisms; ion exchange and complex formation. Maleate ferroxane performed the best lead removal efficiency among the four types of ferroxane nanostructures studied. The adsorption kinetic data described well with a pseudo-second-order model and the equilibrium data fitted well to the Frendlich isotherm.

  20. On the formation of niacin (vitamin B3) and pyridine carboxylic acids in interstellar model ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, Brandon M.; Turner, Andrew M.; Saito, Sean E. J.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2016-06-01

    The formation of pyridine carboxylic acids in interstellar ice grains was simulated by electron exposures of binary pyridine (C5H5N)-carbon dioxide (CO2) ice mixtures at 10 K under contamination-free ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Chemical processing of the pristine ice and subsequent warm-up phase was monitored on line and in situ via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to probe for the formation of new radiation induced species. In the infrared spectra of the irradiated ice, bands assigned to nicotinic acid (niacin; vitamin B3; m-C5H4NCOOH) along with 2,3-, 2,5-, 3,4-, and 3,5-pyridine dicarboxylic acid (C5H3N(COOH)2) were unambiguously identified along with the hydroxycarbonyl (HOCO) radical. Our study suggests that the reactive pathway responsible for pyridine carboxylic acids formation involves a HOCO intermediate, which forms through the reaction of suprathermal hydrogen ejected from pyridine with carbon dioxide. The newly formed pyridinyl radical may then undergo radical-radical recombination with a hydroxycarbonyl radical to form a pyridine carboxylic acid.

  1. Gas Permeable Membranes Composed of Carboxylated Poly(vinyl chloride) and Polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas-permeable polymeric membranes containing carboxyl groups which are suitable for enzyme immobilization were investigated in order to use them as gas electrode membranes in biosensors. Carboxylated polyurethane (CPU) was synthesized via a reaction between 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid as a chain extender and prepolymers prepared from polycarprolactone (Mn=2,000) and 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocynate. It was difficult to prepare membranes from the pure CPU because of its high elasticity and cohesion. However, transparent free-standing membranes were easily prepared from the blend solutions of CPU and carboxylated poly(vinyl chloride) (CPVC) in tetrahydrofuran. Both elasticity and cohesion of the CPU/CPVC membranes were decreased with increasing the content of CPVC. DSC experiment suggests that CPU and CPVC may be well mixed. Permeability coefficients for O2 and CO2 (PO2 and PCO2) in the membranes increased as the proportion of CPU increased. The addition of dioctyl phthalate (DOP), a plasticizer, significantly enhanced the PO2 and PCO2 which were 4.4 and 30 Barrer, respectively, in the CPU/CPVC (80/20 wt/wt) membranes containing 20% of DOP at 25 .deg. C and 100 psi. Thus this type of membranes may have a potential for the use as gas electrode membranes in biosensors

  2. Gas Permeable Membranes Composed of Carboxylated Poly(vinyl chloride) and Polyurethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chun Won; Kim, Chai Gyun; Kim, Wan Young; Jeong, Yong Seob; Lee, Youn Sik [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    Gas-permeable polymeric membranes containing carboxyl groups which are suitable for enzyme immobilization were investigated in order to use them as gas electrode membranes in biosensors. Carboxylated polyurethane (CPU) was synthesized via a reaction between 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid as a chain extender and prepolymers prepared from polycarprolactone (Mn=2,000) and 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocynate. It was difficult to prepare membranes from the pure CPU because of its high elasticity and cohesion. However, transparent free-standing membranes were easily prepared from the blend solutions of CPU and carboxylated poly(vinyl chloride) (CPVC) in tetrahydrofuran. Both elasticity and cohesion of the CPU/CPVC membranes were decreased with increasing the content of CPVC. DSC experiment suggests that CPU and CPVC may be well mixed. Permeability coefficients for O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} (P{sub O2} and P{sub CO2}) in the membranes increased as the proportion of CPU increased. The addition of dioctyl phthalate (DOP), a plasticizer, significantly enhanced the P{sub O2} and P{sub CO2} which were 4.4 and 30 Barrer, respectively, in the CPU/CPVC (80/20 wt/wt) membranes containing 20% of DOP at 25 .deg. C and 100 psi. Thus this type of membranes may have a potential for the use as gas electrode membranes in biosensors

  3. Carboxylic acid functionalization of halloysite nanotubes for sustained release of diphenhydramine hydrochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNT) (cylindrical shape with external diameter and length in the range of 30–80 nm and 0.2–1 µm, respectively) were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) from hydroxyl groups by a coupling reaction. Subsequently, maleic anhydride was attached to the APTES moieties to yield carboxylic acid-functionalized HNT. Loading and subsequent release of a model drug molecule diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DPH) on modified and unmodified nanotubes were investigated. Morphology of HNT was studied by electron microscopy. Successful attachment of APTES and carboxylic acid groups to halloysite and drug loading were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The amount of surface modification and drug adsorption capacity were calculated via thermogravimetric analysis. The ordered crystal structure of loaded drug was evaluated by X-ray diffraction. UV–Visible spectrophotometer was used to study drug release from modified and unmodified samples. Carboxylated halloysite exhibits higher loading capacity and prolonged release of DPH as compared to that of the natural halloysite

  4. Adsorption of uranyl ion by chelate-type adsorbent with amidoxime and amidoxime/carboxyl group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Uranium recovery from seawater is important for security of future energy supply. The main difficulty in the recovery process arises from the low concentration (∼3 ppb) of the uranyl ion in seawater, whereas other metal ions are abundantly present. Thus, development of selective adsorbents with a high adsorption rate and a large adsorption capacity is essential for the economic recovery uranyl ion. The polymeric adsorbents containing the amidoxime group are mostly promising, but information on their adsorption characterization in the presence of other abundantly metal ions such as sodium, calcium, etc. is still insufficient. In order to obtain uranium from seawater, the resins with amidoxime and amidoxime/carboxylic acid group were prepared by radiation-induced polymerization of aclylonitrile (AN) and AN/acrylic acid and by the subsequent amidoximation of cyano group of poly(AN), respectively. The resins with amidoxime and amidoxime/carboxylic acid groups were characterized by FT-IR, FT-Raman, solid state 13C-NMR, SEM, thermal (TGA/DSC) analysis, and elemental analysis, respectively. The adsorption of uranyl ion was examined. In resin with amidoxime group, the uranyl uptake increased with increasing amidoxime content. The adsorption rate of uranyl ion by resin with amidoxime/carboxylic acid was higher than that of resin with amidoxime group

  5. Synthesis of antimony tris(mercaptoethyl carboxylates) as thermal stabilizer for polyvinyl chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒万艮; 刘又年; 陈启元

    2002-01-01

    A novel type of thermal stabilizers-antimony tris(mercaptoethyl carboxylates) (Sb(SCH2CH2OOCR) 3), was synthesized from carboxylic acid, antimony trioxide and 2-mercaptoethanol in two steps. The experimental results show that the molar ratio of carboxylic acid to antimony tris(2-hydroxyethyl mercaptide) is 1.2, when adding 0.6% tetra-n-butyl titanate as catalyst and xylene as isotropic solvent, heating and refluxing for about 2~4h. The thermal stability was measured by heat-aging oven test. The thermal stability time is about 8~40min(at 200℃) when adding 2% tetra-n-butyl titanate in polyvinyl chloride(PVC). Among these stabilizers, antimony tris(mercaptoethyl stearate) has best thermal stability. Its thermal stability is better than that of Ca-Zn complex and basic lead stabilizers, and equal to that of organotin. In addition, the stabilization mechanism of this kind of stabilizers for PVC was discussed briefly.

  6. Carboxylic acid functionalization of halloysite nanotubes for sustained release of diphenhydramine hydrochloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zargarian, S. Sh.; Haddadi-Asl, V., E-mail: haddadi@aut.ac.ir; Hematpour, H. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNT) (cylindrical shape with external diameter and length in the range of 30–80 nm and 0.2–1 µm, respectively) were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) from hydroxyl groups by a coupling reaction. Subsequently, maleic anhydride was attached to the APTES moieties to yield carboxylic acid-functionalized HNT. Loading and subsequent release of a model drug molecule diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DPH) on modified and unmodified nanotubes were investigated. Morphology of HNT was studied by electron microscopy. Successful attachment of APTES and carboxylic acid groups to halloysite and drug loading were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The amount of surface modification and drug adsorption capacity were calculated via thermogravimetric analysis. The ordered crystal structure of loaded drug was evaluated by X-ray diffraction. UV–Visible spectrophotometer was used to study drug release from modified and unmodified samples. Carboxylated halloysite exhibits higher loading capacity and prolonged release of DPH as compared to that of the natural halloysite.

  7. Solution-processable carboxylate-capped CuO nanoparticles obtained by a simple solventless method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboxylate-capped CuO nanoparticles were obtained via a simple solventless route, based on the thermal decomposition at 120 °C of solid precursors. The reaction mixture consisted of copper acetate monohydrate, acting as the CuO precursor, and different organic carboxylic acids (lauric, phenylvaleric or 3,6,9-trioxadecanoic acid) used as the capping agent. The proposed method, in good agreement with environmentally friendly practices, produced dry nanoparticles, thereby totally eliminating the need of washing, filtration, or other downstream steps. Transmission electron micrographs show crystalline roughly spherical CuO nanoparticles with average diameters between 3.1 and 5.5 nm depending on the capping ligand. The laurate-capped CuO nanoparticles showed a paramagnetic behaviour at room temperature, while a weak ferromagnetic component was detected at low temperature (<40 K). It was also proved that the chemical structure of the carboxylic acid tail enabled the straightforward dispersibility of nanoparticles in common solvents and assisted in the deposition of the material as thin films.

  8. Investigation of Carboxylic Acid-Neodymium Conversion Films on Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiufang; Liu, Zhe; Lin, Lili; Jin, Guo; Wang, Haidou; Xu, Binshi

    2015-01-01

    The new carboxylic acid-neodymium anhydrous conversion films were successfully prepared and applied on the AZ91D magnesium alloy surface by taking absolute ethyl alcohol as solvent and four kinds of soluble carboxylic acid as activators. The corrosion resistance of the coating was measured by potentiodynamic polarization test in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution in pH 7.0. The morphology, structure, and constituents of the coating were observed by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersivespectrum, x-ray photoelectron spectrum, and Fourier infrared spectrometer. Results show that corrosion resistance properties of samples coated with four different anhydrous conversion films were improved obviously. The corrosion potential increased, corrosion current density decreased, and polarization resistance increased. Among these four kinds of conversion films the one added with phytic exhibits the best corrosion resistant property. The mechanism of anhydrous-neodymium conversion film formation is also analyzed in this paper. It reveals that the gadolinium conversion coating is mainly composed of stable Nd2O3, MgO, Mg(OH)2, and carboxylate of Nd. And that the sample surface is rich in organic functional groups.

  9. (Benzoato-κ2O,O′(quinoline-2-carboxylato-κ2N,O(quinoline-2-carboxylic acid-κ2N,Omanganese(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno D. Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, [Mn(C7H5O2(C10H6NO2(C10H7NO2], contains manganese(II ions six-coordinated in a distorted octahedral environment. The equatorial plane is occupied by four O atoms, two from the carboxylate group of the benzoate ion, the other two from carboxylate/carboxyl groups of the quinaldate/quinaldic acid molecules. The axial positions are occupied by the N atoms of the quinoline ring systems. The metal ion lies on a twofold rotation axis that bisects the benzoate ligand; the quinaldate and quinaldic acid ligands are therefore equivalent by symmetry, and the carboxylate/carboxyl groups are disordered. The complexes are joined together by hydrogen bonds between the carboxylate/carboxyl groups of adjacent quinaldate/quinaldic acid molecules, forming zigzag chains that run along the c axis.

  10. Using the Chiral Organophosphorus Derivatizing Agents for Determination of the Enantiomeric Composition of Chiral Carboxylic Acids by 31PNMR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao CHE; Zhong Ning ZHANG; Gui Lan HUANG; Xin Xing WANG; Zhao Hai QIN

    2004-01-01

    The use of chiral organophosphorus derivatizing agents prepared in situ from chiral tartrate or chiral diamine for the 31PNMR determination of the enantiomeric composition of chiral carboxylic acids is described. The method is accurate, reliable and convenient.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF THE CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF CARBOXYLATED AND CARBOXYMETHYLATED FIBERS FROM WASTE PAPER VIA XRD AND FTIR ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mohkami Mail; Mohammad Talaeipour

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes preparation of carboxymethylated and carboxylated cellulosic fibers from waste paper. Chemical properties of the product were distinguished by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectral analysis. To produce carboxylated and crosslinked fibers and also to increase the anionic surface charge of the fibers, maleic anhydride was used in three different batches; 0, 1%, and 5%. The treatment condition for producing carboxymethylated fibe...

  12. Photovoltaic performance of ruthenium complex dye associated with number and position of carboxyl groups on bipyridine ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of ruthenium complex dyes with different number and position of carboxyl groups on bipyridine ligands, such as Ru(4-carboxyl-4′-methyl-2,2′-bipyridine)(4,4′-dimethyl-2,2′- bipyridine)(NCS)2 (denoted as Ru1A), Ru(4-carboxyl-4′-methyl-2,2′-bipyridine)2(NCS)2 (Ru11A), Ru(4,4′-dicarboxyl-2,2′-bipyridine)(4,4′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridine)(NCS)2 (Ru2A), and Ru(4-carboxyl-4′-methyl-2,2′-bipyridine)(4,4′-dicarboxyl-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS)2 (Ru3A) were synthesized and compared with Ru(4,4′-dicarboxyl-2,2′-bipyridine)2 (NCS)2, commonly known as N3 dye for the adsorption behavior on the TiO2 surface and photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells. The experimental results show that the tilt angle of ruthenium dyes on the TiO2 surface which is dependent on the number and position of their carboxyl groups strongly affected the photovoltaic performance. - Highlights: • Ruthenium dye with different number of carboxyl groups adsorbed on the TiO2 with different tilt angle. • Ruthenium dye injected the electrons to the TiO2 through the carboxyl groups. • Photocurrent of DSSC, increased with the number of carboxyl groups on the ruthenium dye

  13. Nano-graphene oxide carboxylation for efficient bioconjugation applications: a quantitative optimization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for carboxylation of graphene oxide (GO) with chloroacetic acid that precisely optimizes and controls the efficacy of the process for bioconjugation applications is proposed. Quantification of COOH groups on nano-graphene oxide sheets (NGOS) is performed by novel colorimetric methylene blue (MB) assay. The GO is synthesized and carboxylated by chloroacetic acid treatment under strong basic condition. The size and morphology of the as-prepared NGOS are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of acid to base molar ratio on the physical, chemical, and morphological properties of NGOS is analyzed by Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometry (FTIR), UV–Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, and zeta potential. For evaluation of bioconjugation efficacy, the synthesized nano-carriers with different carboxylation ratios are functionalized by octaarginine peptide sequence (R8) as a biomolecule model containing amine groups. The quantification of attached R8 peptides to graphene nano-sheets’ surface is performed with a colorimetric-based assay which includes the application of 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The results show that the thickness and lateral size of nano-sheets are dramatically decreased to 0.8 nm and 50–100 nm after carboxylation process, respectively. X-ray analysis shows the nano-sheets interlaying space is affected by the alteration of chloroacetic acid to base ratio. The MB assay reveals that the COOH groups on the surface of NGOS are maximized at the acid to base ratio of 2 which is confirmed by FTIR, XRD, and zeta potential. The TNBS assay also shows that bioconjugation of the optimized carboxylated NGOS sample with octaarginine peptide is 2.5 times more efficient compared to bare NGOS. The present work provides evidence that treatment of GO by chloroacetic acid under an optimized condition would create a functionalized high

  14. INVESTIGATION OF THE CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF CARBOXYLATED AND CARBOXYMETHYLATED FIBERS FROM WASTE PAPER VIA XRD AND FTIR ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohkami Mail

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes preparation of carboxymethylated and carboxylated cellulosic fibers from waste paper. Chemical properties of the product were distinguished by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD spectral analysis. To produce carboxylated and crosslinked fibers and also to increase the anionic surface charge of the fibers, maleic anhydride was used in three different batches; 0, 1%, and 5%. The treatment condition for producing carboxymethylated fibers also involved the use of isopropanol, sodium hydroxide solution, and monochloroacetic acid. The product was purified with 70/30 methanol/ water. Then one sample was neutralized with acetic acid and the other was considered as a sample without having been neutralized. Effects of these treatments were evaluated by FTIR and XRD analysis. The results of FTIR analysis indicated that the carboxyl and methyl functional groups had increased in the carboxymethylated fibers and that just carboxyl groups had increased in carboxylated fibers. The results of XRD analysis showed that the crystallinity of cellulose had decreased in both the carboxymethylated and carboxylated fibers.

  15. Glutathione Regulates 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Synthase Transcription via WRKY33 and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Oxidase by Modulating Messenger RNA Stability to Induce Ethylene Synthesis during Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Riddhi; Kumar, Deepak; Sultana, Asma; Hazra, Saptarshi; Bhattacharyya, Dipto; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila

    2015-12-01

    Glutathione (GSH) plays a fundamental role in plant defense-signaling network. Recently, we have established the involvement of GSH with ethylene (ET) to combat environmental stress. However, the mechanism of GSH-ET interplay still remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that GSH induces ET biosynthesis by modulating the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulations of its key enzymes, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO). Transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants with enhanced GSH content (AtECS) exhibited remarkable up-regulation of ACS2, ACS6, and ACO1 at transcript as well as protein levels, while they were down-regulated in the GSH-depleted phytoalexin deficient2-1 (pad2-1) mutant. We further observed that GSH induced ACS2 and ACS6 transcription in a WRKY33-dependent manner, while ACO1 transcription remained unaffected. On the other hand, the messenger RNA stability for ACO1 was found to be increased by GSH, which explains our above observations. In addition, we also identified the ACO1 protein to be a subject for S-glutathionylation, which is consistent with our in silico data. However, S-glutathionylation of ACS2 and ACS6 proteins was not detected. Further, the AtECS plants exhibited resistance to necrotrophic infection and salt stress, while the pad2-1 mutant was sensitive. Exogenously applied GSH could improve stress tolerance in wild-type plants but not in the ET-signaling mutant ethylene insensitive2-1, indicating that GSH-mediated resistance to these stresses occurs via an ET-mediated pathway. Together, our investigation reveals a dual-level regulation of ET biosynthesis by GSH during stress. PMID:26463088

  16. Specific catalysis of asparaginyl deamidation by carboxylic acids: kinetic, thermodynamic, and quantitative structure-property relationship analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Brian D; Tran, Benjamin; Moore, Jamie M R; Sharma, Vikas K; Kosky, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Asparaginyl (Asn) deamidation could lead to altered potency, safety, and/or pharmacokinetics of therapeutic protein drugs. In this study, we investigated the effects of several different carboxylic acids on Asn deamidation rates using an IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb1*) and a model hexapeptide (peptide1) with the sequence YGKNGG. Thermodynamic analyses of the kinetics data revealed that higher deamidation rates are associated with predominantly more negative ΔS and, to a lesser extent, more positive ΔH. The observed differences in deamidation rates were attributed to the unique ability of each type of carboxylic acid to stabilize the energetically unfavorable transition-state conformations required for imide formation. Quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) analysis using kinetic data demonstrated that molecular descriptors encoding for the geometric spatial distribution of atomic properties on various carboxylic acids are effective determinants for the deamidation reaction. Specifically, the number of O-O and O-H atom pairs on carboxyl and hydroxyl groups with interatomic distances of 4-5 Å on a carboxylic acid buffer appears to determine the rate of deamidation. Collectively, the results from structural and thermodynamic analyses indicate that carboxylic acids presumably form multiple hydrogen bonds and charge-charge interactions with the relevant deamidation site and provide alignment between the reactive atoms on the side chain and backbone. We propose that carboxylic acids catalyze deamidation by stabilizing a specific, energetically unfavorable transition-state conformation of l-asparaginyl intermediate II that readily facilitates bond formation between the γ-carbonyl carbon and the deprotonated backbone nitrogen for cyclic imide formation. PMID:24620787

  17. Carbon dioxide utilization via carbonate-promoted C-H carboxylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aanindeeta; Dick, Graham R.; Yoshino, Tatsuhiko; Kanan, Matthew W.

    2016-03-01

    Using carbon dioxide (CO2) as a feedstock for commodity synthesis is an attractive means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and a possible stepping-stone towards renewable synthetic fuels. A major impediment to synthesizing compounds from CO2 is the difficulty of forming carbon-carbon (C-C) bonds efficiently: although CO2 reacts readily with carbon-centred nucleophiles, generating these intermediates requires high-energy reagents (such as highly reducing metals or strong organic bases), carbon-heteroatom bonds or relatively acidic carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds. These requirements negate the environmental benefit of using CO2 as a substrate and limit the chemistry to low-volume targets. Here we show that intermediate-temperature (200 to 350 degrees Celsius) molten salts containing caesium or potassium cations enable carbonate ions (CO32-) to deprotonate very weakly acidic C-H bonds (pKa > 40), generating carbon-centred nucleophiles that react with CO2 to form carboxylates. To illustrate a potential application, we use C-H carboxylation followed by protonation to convert 2-furoic acid into furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (FDCA)—a highly desirable bio-based feedstock with numerous applications, including the synthesis of polyethylene furandicarboxylate (PEF), which is a potential large-scale substitute for petroleum-derived polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Since 2-furoic acid can readily be made from lignocellulose, CO32--promoted C-H carboxylation thus reveals a way to transform inedible biomass and CO2 into a valuable feedstock chemical. Our results provide a new strategy for using CO2 in the synthesis of multi-carbon compounds.

  18. Tuning metal–carboxylate coordination in crystalline metal–organic frameworks through surfactant media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although it has been widely demonstrated that surfactants can efficiently control the size, shape and surface properties of micro/nanocrystals of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) due to the strong interactions between surfactants and crystal facets of MOFs, the use of surfactants as reaction media to grow MOF single crystals is unprecedented. In addition, compared with ionic liquids, surfactants are much cheaper and can have multifunctional properties such as acidic, basic, neutral, cationic, anionic, or even block. These factors strongly motivate us to develop a new synthetic strategy: growing crystalline MOFs in surfactants. In this report, eight new two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) MOFs have been successfully synthesized in an industrially-abundant and environmentally-friendly surfactant: polyethylene glycol-200 (PEG-200). Eight different coordination modes of carboxylates, ranging from monodentate η1 mode to tetra-donor coordination µ3-η1:η2:η1 mode, have been founded in our research. The magnetic properties of Co-based MOFs were investigated and MOF NTU-Z6b showed a phase transition with a Curie temperature (Tc) at 5 K. Our strategy of growing crystalline MOFs in surfactant could offer exciting opportunities for preparing novel MOFs with diverse structures and interesting properties. - Graphical abstract: Surfactants have been used as reaction media to grow MOF single crystals for the first time. Eight new two-dimensional or three-dimensional MOFs were successfully synthesized in surfactant polyethylene glycol-200 (PEG-200). Coordination modes of carboxylates up to eight were founded. Our strategy of growing crystalline MOFs in surfactant could offer exciting opportunities for preparing novel MOFs with diverse structures and interesting properties. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Surfactant-thermal synthesis of crystalline metal–organic frameworks. • Eight new 2-D or 3-D metal–organic frameworks. • Eight different metal–carboxylate

  19. Moessbauer spectroscopic identification of thermal decomposition products in iron(III) carboxylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of carboxylatoferrate(III) complexes have been synthesized with monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids. Moessbauer spectra of all the complexes exhibit quadrupole doublets with δEQ = 0.36-0.88 mm s-1, suggesting a distorted octahedral geometry. The complexes start decomposing at ∼100 deg C and finally yield a constant weight at 2O3 of different particle sizes. It is proposed that decarboxylation occurs first, followed by the loss of one or two ligands, depending on the nature of the carboxylate and the heating temperature. The complex of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid shows an anomalous behavior. (author) 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of ruthenium using 1-pentyl 4,6-dihydroxy-5-nitrosopyridine-3-carboxylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of spectrophotometric analysis for ruthenium, using the reagent 1-pentyl 4,6-dihydroxy-5-nitrosopyridine-3-carboxylate, has been developed. Several interferences are removed by extraction prior to the development of the purple color formed between PDNHPC and ruthenium. The molar absorptivity of the PDHNPC-ruthenium complex is 4.2 x 104 at 535 nm. The complex forms at a 3 : 1 ligand-metal ratio. This procedure provides the most sensitive colorimetric method for the determination of ruthenium. (author)

  1. Porous, rigid metal(III)-carboxylate metal-organic frameworks for the delivery of nitric oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrod F. Eubank; Wheatley, Paul S.; Gaëlle Lebars; Alistair C. McKinlay; Hervé Leclerc; Patricia Horcajada; Marco Daturi; Alexandre Vimont; Morris, Russell E.; Christian Serre

    2014-01-01

    The room temperature sorption properties of the biological gas nitric oxide (NO) have been investigated on the highly porous and rigid iron or chromium carboxylate based metal-organic frameworks Material Institut Lavoisier (MIL)-100(Fe or Cr) and MIL-127(Fe). In all cases, a significant amount of NO is chemisorbed at 298 K with a loading capacity that depends both on the nature of the metal cation, the structure and the presence of additional iron(II) Lewis acid sites. In a second step, the r...

  2. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Methyl 1-(-2-amine-alkylcarbonyl piperidine-4-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimavat K

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of Methyl 1-(-2-amine-alkylcarbonyl piperidine-4-carboxylate derivatives of amino acids (3aewas synthesized. These new derivative was achieved by treating Isonipecotic acid methyl ester (1with Boc-protected amino acids (2a-e using CDI as coupling reagent in MDC at room temperature.Further deprotection with HCl/Dioxane gives the desired product. Structures of the synthesizedcompounds were established on the basis of spectral and elemental analysis. The synthesizedcompounds were screened for antimicrobial activity.

  3. Structural, spectroscopic, and computational studies of [2,2‧-bithiophene]-5-carboxylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einkauf, Jeffrey D.; Mathivathanan, Logesh; de Lill, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of [2,2‧-bithiophene]-5-carboxylic acid was obtained from in-situ decarboxylation of [2,2‧-bithiophene]-5,5‧-dicarboxylic acid during solvothermal treatment. UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies were conducted in solution and solid-state on these two molecules as well as the precursor, 2,2‧-bithiophene. These molecules were modeled using DFT level of theory to explain the observed structural features and spectroscopy.

  4. Unusual Regioselectivity in the Opening of Epoxides by Carboxylic Acid Enediolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Segura

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Addition of carboxylic acid dianions appears to be a potential alternative to the use of aluminium enolates for nucleophilic ring opening of epoxides. These conditions require the use of a sub-stoichiometric amount of amine (10% mol for dianion generation and the previous activation of the epoxide with LiCl. Yields are good, with high regioselectivity, but the use of styrene oxide led, unexpectedly, to a mixture resulting from the attack on both the primary and secondary carbon atoms. Generally, a low diastereoselectivity is seen on attack at the primary center, however only one diastereoisomer was obtained from attack to the secondary carbon of the styrene oxide.

  5. Aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids formed radiolytically in aqueous solutions of cyanides and simple nitriles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic search for aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids was carried out in aqueous solutions of HCN, NH4CN, CH3CN, and C2H4CN, that had received multikilogray doses of 60Co γ radiation. About 30 radiolytic products were identified, among them a large variety of dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids. Some of them might be of significant interest in molecular evolution studies of prebiotic processes. They originate in the free-radical-initiated chemical reactions where the additional oligomerization processes are particularly important. Most of the radiolytic products appear in both cyanides and nitriles and point to the importance of reactions involving the carbon-nitrogen triple bond

  6. The Structure-Activity Relationship of an Ozonide Carboxylic Acid (OZ78) Against Fasciola hepatica

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Qingjie; Vargas, Mireille; Dong, Yuxiang; ZHOU, Lin; Wang, Xiaofang; Sriraghavan, Kamaraj; Keiser, Jennifer; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the SAR of ozonide carboxylic acid OZ78 (1) as the first part of our search for a trematocidal synthetic peroxide drug development candidate. We found that relatively small structural changes to 1 resulted most commonly in loss of activity against Fasciola hepatica in vivo. A spiroadamantane substructure and acidic functional group (or ester prodrug) were required for activity. Of twenty-six new compounds administered at single 100 mg/kg oral doses to F. hepatica-in...

  7. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motas Guzmàn, Miguel; Clementini, Chiara; Pérez-Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Jiménez Rejón, Sandra; Cascone, Aurora; Martellini, Tania; Guerranti, Cristiana; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2016-02-15

    Human milk samples were collected from 67 mothers in 2014 at a Primary Care Centre in Murcia (Spain) and analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Concentrations measured for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) ranged from PFOA daily intakes and risk index (RI) were estimated for the first six months of life and we found that ingestion rates of PFOA did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). PMID:26674688

  8. Metal Carboxylate Nanorods and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Reverse Micelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashok.K.Ganguli(Department; of; Chemistry; Indian; Institute; of; Technology

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Nanorods of transition metal (Cu,Ni,Mn,Zn,Co and Fe) carboxylates (oxalates and succinates) have been synthesized using a reverse-micellar technique[1-3].These oxalate nanorods have been shown to be an ideal source for obtaining monophasic and homogeneous nanoparticles of transition metal oxides at low temperatures of 450 ℃.Grain size of oxide nanoparticles could be controlled by optimizing the nature of non-polar solvent and surfactant.The metal oxalate precursor could be decomposed in suitab...

  9. Mechanism of catalytic action of oxide systems in reactions of aldehyde oxidation to carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanism of selective action of oxide catalysts (on the base of V2O4, MoO3) of aldehyde oxidation to acids is considered, reaction acrolein oxidation to acrylic acid is taken as an example. Multistage mechanism of the process is established; it involves consequent transformation of coordination-bonded aldehyde into carbonyl-bonded aldehyde and symmetric carboxylate. Principles of active surface construction are formulated, they take into account the activity of stabilization center of concrete intermediate compound and bond energy of oxygen with surface. (author)

  10. STRUCTURAL FEATURE AND EXCHANGE KINETICS OF CARBOXYLATED POLYPROPYLENE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chinyung; YANG Chaoshiung; YANG Chong

    1987-01-01

    The present article deals with the exchange process of bivalent metal ions, such as Zn2 +, Cd2 + and Hg2+, etc., taken up by non-crosslinked carboxylated polypropylene (CPP) resin. The control factor of the exchange rate deduced from the kinetic data is governed basically by the chemical reaction rather than the mass transfer effect particle diffusion and/or liquid film diffusion. In solution, all the graft chains in the outer shell ofa CPP resin could form a "quasi-macromolecular solution" domain. This opinion further demonstrates the structural pattern of CPP resin proposed in earlier paper[1].

  11. Visible-Light-Induced Decarboxylative Functionalization of Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Jun; Zhang, Zhao-Guo; Xiao, Wen-Jing

    2015-12-21

    Visible-light-induced radical decarboxylative functionalization of carboxylic acids and their derivatives has recently received considerable attention as a novel and efficient method to create CC and CX bonds. Generally, this visible-light-promoted decarboxylation process can smoothly occur under mild reaction conditions with a broad range of substrates and an excellent functional-group tolerance. The radical species formed from the decarboxylation step can participate in not only single photocatalytic transformations, but also dual-catalytic cross-coupling reactions by combining photoredox catalysis with other catalytic processes. Recent advances in this research area are discussed herein. PMID:26509837

  12. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of 1- and 2-Substituted Indazoles: Ester and Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Bento; Teresa Duarte, M.; M. João M. Curto; Inês F. Antunes; Hélène Ramos; Fátima C. Teixeira

    2006-01-01

    A series of indazoles substituted at the N-1 and N-2 positions with ester-containing side chains -(CH2)nCO2R of different lengths (n = 0-6, 9, 10) are described.Nucleophilic substitution reactions on halo esters (X(CH2)nCO2R) by 1H-indazole inalkaline solution lead to mixtures of N-1 and N-2 isomers, in which the N-1 isomerpredominates. Basic hydrolysis of the ester derivatives allowed the synthesis of thecorresponding indazole carboxylic acids. All compounds were fully characterised bymultin...

  13. The First General Electron Transfer Reductions of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Using Samarium Diiodide

    OpenAIRE

    Spain, Malcolm Peter

    2014-01-01

    The development of new methods for the reduction of carboxylic acid derivatives is described. The ability to reduce these carbonyl derivatives through radical intermediates provides an orthogonal approach as compared with hydride based reductions.Initial experiments focused on the development of the SmI2–H2O system, where we have shown that chelation effects can be utilised to facilitate reduction of cyclic esters. Furthermore, a revised mechanism for the SmI2–H2O mediated reduction of lacton...

  14. Preparation of mono- and diacetyl 4,4′-dimethylbiphenyl and their corresponding carboxylic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titinchi, Salam J.J.; Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Abbo, Hanna S.

    2007-01-01

    Shape selective acetylation of 4,4′-dimethylbiphenyl using anhydrous aluminum chloride as catalyst is an effective route for the production of mono- and di-acetyl-4,4′-dimethylbiphenyl. Preparations, characterization and a catalytic study of the Friedel-Crafts acetylation of 4,4′-dimethylbiphenyl...... dimethylbiphenyls. In chloroalkane or carbon disulfide solvent, the yields of isomers were in the order: 2 -> 3-; in nitromethane 3-isomer predominated. On the other hand diacetylation of the hydrocarbon gave only the 2,3′-diacetyl isomer. The mono- and di-ketones are converted to the corresponding carboxylic acids...

  15. Cationic zinc (II) dimers and one dimensional coordination polymer from ionic carboxylic acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paladugu Suresh; Ganesan Prabusankar

    2014-09-01

    A rare example of chelating two tetra cationic paddle-wheel zinc dimers were synthesized from the reaction between flexible imidazolium carboxylate (LH2Br2) and corresponding zinc precursors. A zinc coordination polymer was synthesised by treating in situ generation of 2 in the presence of 4,4′-bipyridine. These new molecules, dimers and polymer, were characterized by FT-IR, NMR, UV-vis, fluorescent and single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. Zinc polymer is the first example of 1D coordination polymer constructed by tetra cationic zinc dimer as a secondary building unit in coordination polymer.

  16. Reinforcement of hydrogenated carboxylated nitrile-butadiene rubber by multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogenated carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (HXNBR) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites were prepared. The dispersion of MWCNT in HXNBR matrix was evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. HXNBR/MWCNT composite had shorter scorch time and optimum curing time compared with that of unfilled HXNBR. The tensile strength and modulus of HXNBR/MWCNT composites increased with increasing MWCNT content. Mooney-Rivlin equation was used to describe the stress-strain behavior of unfilled HXNBR and the strain amplification factor was taken into account for HXNBR/MWCNT composites. The Mullins effect and dynamic mechanical properties of HXNBR/MWCNT composite were also investigated.

  17. Cyclodextrin-poly(ε-caprolactone based nanoparticles able to complex phenolphthalein and adamantyl carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ailincai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new compound composed of poly(ε-caprolactone and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD was synthesized by click chemistry. This compound was used to obtain stable nanoparticles, which have been proven to be able to complex phenolphthalein and adamantyl carboxylate. The nanoparticles are characterized by a distinct morphology, i.e., a hydrophobic core formed by the polyester chain and a shell containing the CD part. Moreover, the formed nanoparticles have been proven to encapsulate umbelliferone in the polyester phase, which may serve as an example for the uptake of a drug. The formed nanoparticles were characterized in terms of sizes and morphology by both DLS and TEM.

  18. Fluorescence study of protein immobilization on poly(4-hydroxyphenyl thiophene-3-carboxylate)-coated electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis of poly(4-hydroxyphenyl thiophene-3-carboxylate) (PHPT) was carried out in acetonitrile(ACN)/TBAClO4(0.05 M) solvent-electrolyte medium using different working electrodes (glassy carbon and ITO) via potentiodynamic electrolysis. Characterization of the resulting polymer was performed using cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence microscopy (FS). The polymer exhibits well-defined and reversible redox behavior in an organic solvent. Flourescence microscopy indicates that protein immobilizes better onto the surface of PHPT-modified electrodes than onto those without such modification.

  19. CATALYTIC ESTERIFICATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS WITH ALCOHOLS BY SULFO—POLYVINYL CHLORIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuShanxin; ZHAOZongbao; 等

    1993-01-01

    Polyvinyl Chloride reacted with chlorosulfonic acid to from a polymer catalyst PVC-SO3H.This polymer catalyst was found to have high activity for resterification reaction between carboxylic acids and alcohols.This paper deals with the conditions in synthesis of n-butlyacetate catalyzed with PVC-SO3H.The PVC-SO3H was used as a catalyst for preparing 11 esters of acetic acid,propionic acid and butyric acid with the yields of 82-92%.

  20. A temperature induced ferrocene–ferrocenium interconversion in a ferrocene functionalized μ3-O chromium carboxylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The infrared spectra and 57Fe Mössbauer measurements of a ferrocenecarboxylate functionalized {Cr3O} complex in solid state are reported. It was established that conjugation of ferrocene Cp orbitals with the π orbitals of the adjacent carboxylic group stabilizes the trapped mixed-valence state leading to an intriguing coexistence of ferrocene and ferrocenium species giving rise to a new type of compound showing valence tautomerism in the solid state. - Highlights: • A stabilized ferrocene trapped mixed-valence state is reported. • New type of compound showing valence tautomerism in solid state. • A thermally induced electron transfer and a mixed-valence state near room temperature

  1. Sintering of superconducting ceramics of YBa2Cu3Ox prepared by pyrolysis of carboxylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic study is performed of the sintering process of high-tc ceramic prepared by pyrolysis of liquid metal carboxylates. Optimum conditions of sintering are: temperature 925 deg C; duration 4 hrs; air; slow cooling in the furnace. The method allows high values of superconducting transition temperature be achieved and provides a drastic transition to superconducting state due to better homogeneity and improved stoichiometry of the specimens; It is ascertained that the surface texture of the specimen and morphology of its granules affect mostly the magnitude of critical current density

  2. Hydrolysis of carboxylate ester catalyzed by a new artificial abzyme based on molecularly imprinted polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new kind of artificial abzyme MIP-3, which contains N-phenyl benzonic amide group and “nanochannel” formed by embedded ZnO nano materials, and is imprinted by a transition-state analogue of p-nitrophenyl methyphosphonate in the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate, was prepared by radical co-polymerization. Hydrolytic kinetics of p-nitrophenyl carboxylate catalyzed by MIP-3 was investigated. The results showed that the artificial abzyme exhibited notable substructure selectivity and strong catalytic ability in hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate

  3. Anomalous Behaviour of a Protein During Sds/Page Corrected by Chemical Modification of Carboxylic Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Matagne, André; Joris, Bernard; Frère, Jean-Marie

    1991-01-01

    The 29,000-Mr Actinomadura R39 beta-lactamase exhibited a remarkably low electrophoretic mobility on SDS/PAGE, yielding an Mr value almost twice that computed from the corresponding gene sequence. We showed that chemical modification of the carboxylic groups of glutamic acid and aspartic acid residues restored a normal electrophoretic mobility and that the anomalous behaviour of that protein on SDS/PAGE was due to its very large negative charge at neutral pH. We also compared the behaviour of...

  4. Cyclic Comonomers for the Synthesis of Carboxylic Acid and Amine Functionalized Poly(l-Lactic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Heiny

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Degradable aliphatic polyesters such as poly(lactic acid are widely used in biomedical applications, however, they lack functional moieties along the polymer backbone that are amenable for functionalization reactions or could be the basis for interactions with biological systems. Here we present a straightforward route for the synthesis of functional α-ω epoxyesters as comonomers for lactide polymerization. Salient features of these highly functionalized epoxides are versatility in functionality and a short synthetic route of less than four steps. The α-ω epoxyesters presented serve as a means to introduce carboxylic acid and amine functional groups into poly(lactic acid polymers via ring-opening copolymerization.

  5. ELECTROSTATIC INTERACTION HYBRIDS FROM WATER-BORNE CONDUCTIVE POLYANILINE AND INORGANIC PRECURSOR CONTAINING CARBOXYL GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Luo; Xian-hong Wang; Ji Li; Xiao-jiang Zhao; Fo-song Wang

    2007-01-01

    Electrostatic interaction conductive hybrids were prepared in water/ethanol solution by the sol-gel process from inorganic sol containing carboxyl group and water-borne conductive polyaniline(cPANI).The electrostatic interaction hybrids film displayed 1-2 orders of magnitude higher electrical conductivity in comparison with common hybrids film,showing remarkable conductivity stability against water soaking.Most strikingly,it displayed ideal electrochemical activity even in a solution with pH=14,which enlarged the conducting polyaniline application window to strong alkaline media.

  6. Bis(quinoline-2-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N,O)lead(II)

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamhossein Mohammadnezhad; Ali Reza Ghanbarpour; Amini, Mostafa M.; Seik Weng Ng

    2010-01-01

    The PbII atom in the title compound, [Pb(C10H6NO2)2], is N,O-chelated by two quinoline-2-carboxylate anions in a distorted Ψ-trigonal–bipyramidal environment; four atoms are connected to the PbII atom by regular coordination bonds. The structure also features two somewhat long Pb...O interactions [2.952 (3) and 3.014 (3) Å]. These long interactions give rise to a layer coordination polymer having the lead atom in a distorted Ψ...

  7. ZnO-coated carbon nanotubes: inter-diffusion of carboxyl groups and enhanced photocurrent generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chia-I; Wen, Hua-Chiang; Lai, Yao-Cheng; Chang, Shih-Hsin; Chou, Wu-Ching; Hsu, Wen-Kuang

    2015-03-16

    ZnO is a defect-governed oxide and emits light at both visible and UV regimes. This work employs atomic layer deposition to produce oxide particles on oxygenated carbon nanotubes, and the composites only show emission profiles at short wavelengths. The quenching of defect-related emissions at long wavelengths is verified, owing to carboxyl diffusion into oxygen vacancies, and doping is supported by ZnCO3 formation in oxide lattice. Fully coated tubes display an increased photocurrent and the quantum efficiency increases by 22 % relative to the bare nanotubes. PMID:25572260

  8. Structural Studies of the Serine-Carboxyl Proteinase Kumamolisin and the Metallopeptidase Peptidyl-Dipeptidase Dcp

    OpenAIRE

    Comellas Bigler, Mireia

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structure of the serine-carboxyl proteinase kumamolisin was solved in native form and in complex with two aldehyde inhibitors. The structures show a subtilisin-like fold with a modified catalytic triad (Ser-Glu-Asp), which allows proteolytic activity at acidic pH. The crystal structure analysis of the full-length prokumamolisin S278A exhibits an uncleaved linker segment that extends along the active-site cleft in a substrate-like manner. This evidence points to an autocatalytic cl...

  9. Identification of functional groups and determination of carboxyl formation temperature in graphene oxide using the XPS O 1s spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental information on the O 1s spectra of GO by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry is limited and this will prove to be a liability when analyzing samples that have high carbon to oxygen ratios. Here, the binding energy (B.E.) information of electrons from the O 1s orbital of oxygen atoms in different functional groups were identified by characterizing GO in an in-situ heating and characterization experiment, performed in a vacuum between 473 and 573 K, and chemically modified GO. The B.E.s of the O 1s electrons in hydroxyls, epoxides, carbonyls and carboxyls on GO were determined and carboxyl formation on GO was found to occur between 543 and 561 K. Here, carboxyl formation is a decrease in the proportion of oxygen atoms bound to GO as hydroxyls and epoxides groups, accompanied by a greater than proportional increase in the proportion of oxygen atoms bound as carboxyls, and this results in the formation of vacancies on the graphene basal plane. - Highlights: • Identification of functional groups in graphene oxide from O 1s spectra • Identification of carboxylation temperature regime in graphene oxide • Verification of the functional groups by chemical modification of GO

  10. Identification of functional groups and determination of carboxyl formation temperature in graphene oxide using the XPS O 1s spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Yue Chau Garen, E-mail: kwanyuechau@gmail.com [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Research and Technology Center 1 (Asia Pacific), Corporate Research, Robert Bosch (SEA) Pte Ltd, 11 Bishan Street 21, Singapore 573943 (Singapore); Ng, Ging Meng, E-mail: gingmeng.ng@sg.bosch.com [Research and Technology Center 1 (Asia Pacific), Corporate Research, Robert Bosch (SEA) Pte Ltd, 11 Bishan Street 21, Singapore 573943 (Singapore); Huan, Cheng Hon Alfred, E-mail: alfred@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Institute of High Performance Computing, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Fusionopolis, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #16-16 Connexis (Singapore)

    2015-09-01

    Experimental information on the O 1s spectra of GO by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry is limited and this will prove to be a liability when analyzing samples that have high carbon to oxygen ratios. Here, the binding energy (B.E.) information of electrons from the O 1s orbital of oxygen atoms in different functional groups were identified by characterizing GO in an in-situ heating and characterization experiment, performed in a vacuum between 473 and 573 K, and chemically modified GO. The B.E.s of the O 1s electrons in hydroxyls, epoxides, carbonyls and carboxyls on GO were determined and carboxyl formation on GO was found to occur between 543 and 561 K. Here, carboxyl formation is a decrease in the proportion of oxygen atoms bound to GO as hydroxyls and epoxides groups, accompanied by a greater than proportional increase in the proportion of oxygen atoms bound as carboxyls, and this results in the formation of vacancies on the graphene basal plane. - Highlights: • Identification of functional groups in graphene oxide from O 1s spectra • Identification of carboxylation temperature regime in graphene oxide • Verification of the functional groups by chemical modification of GO.

  11. Corrosion and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Water Dispersed with Carboxylate Additives and Multi Walled Carbon Nano Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Chellapilla V. K. N. S. N.; Srinivas, Vadapalli

    2016-02-01

    This paper summarizes a recent work on anti-corrosive properties and enhanced heat transfer properties of carboxylated water based nanofluids. Water mixed with sebacic acid as carboxylate additive found to be resistant to corrosion and suitable for automotive environment. The carboxylated water is dispersed with very low mass concentration of carbon nano tubes at 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 %. The stability of nanofluids in terms of zeta potential is found to be good with carboxylated water compared to normal water. The heat transfer performance of nanofluids is carried out on an air cooled heat exchanger similar to an automotive radiator with incoming air velocities across radiator at 5, 10 and 15 m/s. The flow Reynolds number of water is in the range of 2500-6000 indicating developing flow regime. The corrosion resistance of nanofluids is found to be good indicating its suitability to automotive environment. There is a slight increase in viscosity and marginal decrease in the specific heat of nanofluids with addition of carboxylate as well as CNTs. Significant improvement is observed in the thermal conductivity of nanofluids dispersed with CNTs. During heat transfer experimentation, the inside heat transfer coefficient and overall heat transfer coefficient has also improved markedly. It is also found that the velocity of air and flow rate of coolant plays an important role in enhancement of the heat transfer coefficient and overall heat transfer coefficient.

  12. Recovery of carboxylic acids at pH greater than pK{sub a}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, L.A.

    1993-08-01

    Economics of producing carboxylic acids by fermentation is often dominated, not by the fermentation cost, but by the cost of recovering and purifying the acids from dilute aqueous solutions. Experiments were performed to measure uptakes of lactic and succinic acids as functions of pH by basic polymeric sorbents; sorbent regeneration was also tested. Performance at pH > pK{sub a} and regenerability depend on sorbent basicity; apparent pK{sub a} and monomer pK{sub a} can be used to predict sorbent performance. Two basic amine extractants, Alamine 336 and Amberlite LA-2, in were also studied; they are able to sustain capacity to higher pH in diluents that stabilize the acid-amine complex through H bonding. Secondary amines perform better than tert-amines in diluents that solvate the additional proton. Competitive sulfate and phosphate, an interference in fermentation, are taken up by sorbents more strongly than by extractants. The third step in the proposed fermentation process, the cracking of the trimethylammonium (TMA) carboxylate, was also examined. Because lactic acid is more soluble and tends to self-esterify, simple thermal cracking does not remove all TMA; a more promising approach is to esterify the TMA lactate by reaction with an alcohol.

  13. Optimization and characterization of a homogeneous carboxylic surface functionalization for silicon-based biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiadò, Alessandro; Palmara, Gianluca; Ricciardi, Serena; Frascella, Francesca; Castellino, Micaela; Tortello, Mauro; Ricciardi, Carlo; Rivolo, Paola

    2016-07-01

    A well-organized immobilization of bio-receptors is a crucial goal in biosensing, especially to achieve high reproducibility, sensitivity and specificity. These requirements are usually attained with a controlled chemical/biochemical functionalization that creates a stable layer on a sensor surface. In this work, a chemical modification protocol for silicon-based surfaces to be applied in biosensing devices is presented. An anhydrous silanization step through 3-aminopropylsilane (APTES), followed by a further derivatization with succinic anhydride (SA), is optimized to generate an ordered flat layer of carboxylic groups. The properties of APTES/SA modified surface were compared with a functionalization in which glutaraldehyde (GA) is used as crosslinker instead of SA, in order to have a comparison with an established and largely applied procedure. Moreover, a functionalization based on the controlled deposition of a plasma polymerized acrylic acid (PPAA) thin film was used as a reference for carboxylic reactivity. Advantages and drawbacks of the considered methods are highlighted, through physico-chemical characterizations (OCA, XPS, and AFM) and by means of a functional Protein G/Antibody immunoassay. These analyses reveal that the most homogeneous, reproducible and active surface is achieved by using the optimized APTES/SA coupling. PMID:27022864

  14. Carboxylate-modified squaraine dye doped silica fluorescent pH nanosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel carboxylate-modified fluorescent silica pH nanosensors were synthesized using a reverse microemulsion method with a pH sensitive squaraine dye used as pH indicator. This pH sensitive squaraine dye was simply doped inside SiNPs without any complicated procedures. To avoid aggregation among the particles and to increase the water solubility of the pH nanosensors, the SiNPs were surface modified with a carboxyl group. This pH probe exhibits a good linear dynamic response between pH 3.01 and 5.72. Many alkali, alkaline earth, and transitional metal ions including Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Al3+, V5+, Cr3+, Cr6+, Mn2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Co2+, Ni3+, Cu2+, Zn2+, As3+, Se4+, Mo6+, Ag+, Cd2+, La3+, Er3+, Ir3+, Hg+, Hg2+, and Pb2+ had no significant interference on pH value determination. Artificial sample determination showed that the pH nanosensors developed in this work possess a very promising applicability in biological and biomedical fields.

  15. Experimental and computational studies of 4-(Trifluoromethyl)pyridine-2-carboxylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural, Hatice

    2016-05-01

    The vibrational spectrum of 4-(Trifluoromethyl)pyridine-2-carboxylic acid was recorded using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer in the range 4000-400 cm-1. The optimized geometric structure of 4-(Trifluoromethyl)pyridine-2-carboxylic acid was searched by B3LYP, CAMB3LYP, and PBEPBE levels of density functional theory (DFT). The vibrational wavenumbers of the title molecule in the ground state were computed by using B3LYP, CAMB3LYP, and PBEPBE methods with the 6-31G (d) basis set. NMR chemical shifts of the title compound were calculated using the gauge-independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The solvent effect on the UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the molecule was also examined using the B3LYP method by applying the integral equation formalism-polarized continuum model (IEF-PCM). The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were measured by means of hyperpolarizability calculation. The electric dipole moment, the mean polarizability and the mean first hyperpolarizability were calculated by using the DFT method with B3LYP, CAMB3LYP, and PBEPBE levels.

  16. Expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase during leaf ontogeny in white clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, D A; Yoo, S D; Butcher, S M; McManus, M T

    1999-05-01

    We examined the expression of three distinct 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase genes during leaf ontogeny in white clover (Trifolium repens). Significant production of ethylene occurs at the apex, in newly initiated leaves, and in senescent leaf tissue. We used a combination of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends to identify three distinct DNA sequences designated TRACO1, TRACO2, and TRACO3, each with homology to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase. Southern analysis confirmed that these sequences represent three distinct genes. Northern analysis revealed that TRACO1 is expressed specifically in the apex and TRACO2 is expressed in the apex and in developing and mature green leaves, with maximum expression in developing leaf tissue. The third gene, TRACO3, is expressed in senescent leaf tissue. Antibodies were raised to each gene product expressed in Escherichia coli, and western analysis showed that the TRACO1 antibody recognizes a protein of approximately 205 kD (as determined by gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis) that is expressed preferentially in apical tissue. The TRACO2 antibody recognizes a protein of approximately 36.4 kD (as determined by gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis) that is expressed in the apex and in developing and mature green leaves, with maximum expression in mature green tissue. No protein recognition by the TRACO3 antibody could be detected in senescent tissue or at any other stage of leaf development. PMID:10318691

  17. Novel carboxylated PEG-coating on magnetite nanoparticles designed for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illés, Erzsébet, E-mail: illese@chem.hu [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Szeged, Aradi Vt. 1, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Tombácz, Etelka, E-mail: tombacz@chem.u-szeged.hu [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Szeged, Aradi Vt. 1, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Szekeres, Márta; Tóth, Ildikó Y. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Szeged, Aradi Vt. 1, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Szabó, Ákos; Iván, Béla [Department of Polymer Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, HAS, P.O. Box 286, H-1519 Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-04-15

    Fabrication of PEG coating on magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) is one of the most favoured ways to ensure biocompatibility. Surface modification of magnetite by an own-prepared comb-like PEG-copolymer (PEGA-AA) was compared with two commercially available ones (carboxy-PEG (PEG-C) and phosphate-PEG (PEG-P)). ATR FT-IR data revealed that all polymers form complexes on the surface of MNPs. Electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments showed that both the type and quantity of the polymers' anchoring groups influence the aggregation of coated nanomagnets. PEG-C shell does not provide excess negative charges, so magnetite particles became aggregated. However PEG-P and PEGA-AA gradually modify the surface: neutralizing the originally positively charged MNPs below loading 0.5 mmol/g, while above it a polyanionic layer forms on nanomagnets dispersing them in salty media at pH ~6.5. The PEGA-AA comb-like copolymer is more efficient for MNPs PEGylation due to the uniform distribution of carboxylates and PEG chains along the carbon skeleton. - Highlights: • PEG-polymers were adsorbed through surface complexation on magnetite. • Increasing load of functionalized PEGs gradually modifies the MNP's surface. • MNPs coated completely by polyanionic shell can be dispersed in salty media at pH ~6.5. • Carboxylated comb-like PEG copolymer provides the most efficient biocompatible coating.

  18. Coordination chemistry of gadolinium complexes having pyridine carboxylate units in relation with the medical imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the influence of the coordination sphere on the properties which govern the relaxivity, ligands containing pyridine carboxylates units have been particularly studied. It has been shown that the tripodal ligand tpaa forms with gadolinium (III) a neutral complex having a relaxivity (r1p=13.3 mM-1 at 298 K and 60 MHz) which is three times superior to the contrast agents currently used in NMR Imaging. To explain this remarkably relaxivity, two new ligands analogous to the tpaa: the tpatcn and the bpeda containing pyridine carboxylate units bound to one or several aliphatic nitrogen have been studied in modulating the number of coordination sites and the symmetry degree. The study of the relaxivity of the corresponding gadolinium (III) complexes gives precious data on the understanding of the results in the case of the complex [Gd(tpaa)]. The synthesis and the properties of these gadolinium (III) complexes will be presented during this conference. (O.M.)

  19. Coordination polymers: trapping of radionuclides and chemistry of tetravalent actinides (Th, U) carboxylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclear energy obviously raises the question of the presence of radionuclides in the environment. Currently, their mitigation is a major issue associated with nuclear chemistry. This thesis focuses on both the trapping of radionuclides by porous solids called Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOF) and the crystal chemistry of the carboxylate of tetravalent actinides (AnIV). The academic knowledge of the reactivity of carboxylate of AnIV could help the understanding of actinides speciation in environment. We focused on the sequestration of iodine by aluminum based MOF. The functionalization (electron-donor group) of the MOF drastically enhances the iodine capture capacity. The removal of light actinides (Th and U) from aqueous solution was also investigated as well as the stability of (Al)-MOF under γ radiation. More than twenty coordination polymers based on tetravalent actinides have been synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The use of controlled hydrolysis promotes the formation of coordination polymers exhibiting polynuclear cluster ([U4], [Th6], [U6] and [U38]). In order to understand the formation of the largest cluster, the ex-situ study of the solvo-thermal synthesis of compound {U38} has also been investigated. (author)

  20. Chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of olefins by carboxylic acid esters and hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruesch gen. Klaas, M.; Warwel, S. [Inst. for Biochemistry and Technology of Lipids, H.P. Kaufmanm-Inst., Federal Centre for Cereal, Potato and Lipid Research, Muenster (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Ethylen and, recently, butadiene can be epoxidized directly with oxygen and for the epoxidation of propylene, the use of heterogeneous transition metals and organic peroxides (Halcon-Process) is the major player. But, beside from those notable exceptions, all other epoxidations, including large ones like the epoxidation of plant oils as PVC-stabilizers (about 200.000 t/year), are carried out with peroxy acids. Because mcpba is far to expensive for most applications, short chain peracids like peracetic acid are used. Being much less stable than mcpba and thus risky handled in large amounts and high concentrations, these peroxy acids were preferably prepared in-situ. However, conventional in-situ formation of peracids has the serious drawback, that a strong acid is necessary to catalyze peroxy acid formation from the carboxylic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The presence of a strong acid in the reaction mixture often results in decreased selectivity because of the formation of undesired by-products by opening of the oxirane ring. Therefore, we propose a new method for epoxidation based on the in-situ preparation of percarboxylic acids from carboxylic acid esters and hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by a commercial, immobilized lipase. (orig.)

  1. Structure and dynamics of the microbial communities underlying the carboxylate platform for biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollister, Emily B.; Gentry, Terry J. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Forrest, Andrea K.; Holtzapple, Mark T. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Wilkinson, Heather H.; Ebbole, Daniel J. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Plant Pathology and Microbiology; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Tringe, Susannah G. [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2010-09-15

    The carboxylate platform utilizes a mixed microbial community to convert lignocellulosic biomass into chemicals and fuels. While much of the platform is well understood, little is known about its microbiology. Mesophilic (40 C) and thermophilic (55 C) fermentations employing a sorghum feedstock and marine sediment inoculum were profiled using 16S rRNA tag-pyrosequencing over the course of a 30-day incubation. The contrasting fermentation temperatures converted similar amounts of biomass, but the mesophilic community was significantly more productive, and the two temperatures differed significantly with respect to propionic and butyric acid production. Pyrotag sequencing revealed the presence of dynamic communities that responded rapidly to temperature and changed substantially over time. Both temperatures were dominated by bacteria resembling Clostridia, but they shared few taxa in common. The species-rich mesophilic community harbored a variety of Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and {gamma}-Proteobacteria, whereas the thermophilic community was composed mainly of Clostridia and Bacilli. Despite differences in composition and productivity, similar patterns of functional class dynamics were observed. Over time, organisms resembling known cellulose degraders decreased in abundance, while organisms resembling known xylose degraders increased. Improved understanding of the carboxylate platform's microbiology will help refine platform performance and contribute to our growing knowledge regarding biomass conversion and biofuel production processes. (orig.)

  2. Effect of the cement type on compatibility with carboxylate super plasticisers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An empirical study was conducted to gain a fuller understanding of the interactions taking place in cement superplasticiser systems. To this end, two clinkers of clinkers of known chemical and phase composition were prepared in this study to gain insight into such interactions. One contained no tricalcium aluminate (C1), while the other had a 9% C3A content (C2). These clinkers were ground to approximately 340 m2/kg and blended with gypsum only or gypsum and Klein compound (3CaOx3Al2O3xCaSO4) (1, 2). Sufficient compound was added to C1 to ensure the formation of about the same amount of ettringite after 0.5 and 1 h of hydration as found in cement C2 + gypsum. The admixture used was a carboxylate superplasticiser. Rheology measurements showed that while paste yield stress was correlated to ettringite formation, no such simple relationship was observed for plastic viscosity. Plastic viscosity depended on the total hydrates formed, i.e., not only as ettringite but also as C-S-H gel. The findings revealed that in clinkers with very low sulfate and potassium contents, the rheology of carboxylate-containing cement paste is primarily controlled by ettringite formation. (Author) 15 refs.

  3. Assessment of Shock Pretreatment of Corn Stover Using the Carboxylate Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvekar, Pratik; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2016-03-01

    Corn stover was pretreated with lime and shock, a mechanical process that uses a shockwave to alter the biomass structure. Two pretreatments (lime-only and lime + shock) were evaluated using enzymatic hydrolysis, batch mixed-culture fermentations, and continuous countercurrent mixed-culture fermentation. In a 120-h enzymatic hydrolysis, shock pretreatment increased the glucan digestibility of submerged lime pretreatment (SLP) corn stover by 3.5 % and oxidative lime pretreatment (OLP) corn stover by 2.5 %. The continuum particle distribution model (CPDM) was used to simulate a four-stage continuous countercurrent mixed-culture fermentation using empirical rate models obtained from simple batch experiments. The CPDM model determined that lime + shock pretreatment increased the total carboxylic acids yield by 28.5 % over lime-only pretreatment in a countercurrent fermentation with a volatile solids loading rate (VSLR) of 12 g/(L/day) and liquid retention time (LRT) of 30 days. In a semi-continuous countercurrent fermentation performed in the laboratory for 112 days with a VSLR of 1.875 g/(L day) and LRT of 16 days, lime + shock pretreatment increased the total carboxylic acid yield by 14.8 %. The experimental results matched closely with CPDM model predictions (4.05 % error). PMID:26596582

  4. Carboxylic acid terminated, solution exfoliated graphite by organic acylation and its application in drug delivery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KOUSHIK BHOWMIK; AMRITA CHAKRAVARTY; U MANJU; GOUTAM DE; ARNAB MUKHERJEE

    2016-09-01

    Graphite nanosheets are considered as a promising material for a range of applications from flexible electronics to functional nanodevices such as biosensors, intelligent coatings and drug delivery. Chemical functionalizationof graphite nanosheets with organic/inorganic materials offers an alternative approach to control the electronic properties of graphene, which is a zero band gap semiconductor in pristine form. In this paper, we report the aromatic electrophilic substitution of solution exfoliated graphite nanosheets (SEGn). The highly conjugated π-electronic system of graphite nanosheets enable it to have an amphiphilic characteristic in aromatic substitution reactions. The substitution was achieved through Friedel–Crafts (FC) acylation reaction under mild conditions using succinic anhydride as acylating agent and anhydrous aluminum chloride as Lewisacid. Such reaction renders towards the carboxylic acid terminated graphite nanosheets (SEGn–FC) that usually requires harsh reaction conditions. The product thus obtained was characterized using various spectroscopicand microscopic techniques. Highly stable water-dispersed sodium salt of carboxylic acid terminated graphite nanosheets (SEGn–FC-Na) was also prepared. A comparative sheet-resistance measurements of SEGn, SEGn–FC and SEGn–FC-Na were also done. Finally, the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded on water dispersible SEGn–FC-Na with a loading capacity of 0.266 mg mg−1 of SEGn–FC-Na and the release of DOX from this water-soluble DOX-loaded SEGn–FC-Na at two different temperatures was found to be strongly pHdependent.

  5. Novel carboxylated PEG-coating on magnetite nanoparticles designed for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrication of PEG coating on magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) is one of the most favoured ways to ensure biocompatibility. Surface modification of magnetite by an own-prepared comb-like PEG-copolymer (PEGA-AA) was compared with two commercially available ones (carboxy-PEG (PEG-C) and phosphate-PEG (PEG-P)). ATR FT-IR data revealed that all polymers form complexes on the surface of MNPs. Electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments showed that both the type and quantity of the polymers' anchoring groups influence the aggregation of coated nanomagnets. PEG-C shell does not provide excess negative charges, so magnetite particles became aggregated. However PEG-P and PEGA-AA gradually modify the surface: neutralizing the originally positively charged MNPs below loading 0.5 mmol/g, while above it a polyanionic layer forms on nanomagnets dispersing them in salty media at pH ~6.5. The PEGA-AA comb-like copolymer is more efficient for MNPs PEGylation due to the uniform distribution of carboxylates and PEG chains along the carbon skeleton. - Highlights: • PEG-polymers were adsorbed through surface complexation on magnetite. • Increasing load of functionalized PEGs gradually modifies the MNP's surface. • MNPs coated completely by polyanionic shell can be dispersed in salty media at pH ~6.5. • Carboxylated comb-like PEG copolymer provides the most efficient biocompatible coating

  6. Carboxylic Acid Photochemistry is a Marine Source of Glyoxal and Other Aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, R.; Gonzalez, L.; Tinel, L.; George, C.; Volkamer, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Glyoxal is a highly water-soluble precursor in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Over land, glyoxal is known to be produced by the oxidation of volatile organic carbon (VOC) from both anthropogenic and natural sources. However, marine sources are still not well understood. Previous studies above the remote Pacific Ocean have detected typical glyoxal mixing ratios of 30-40 pptv, concentrations too high to be explained with current chemical understanding or atmospheric models. Because the lifetime of glyoxal is very short, the glyoxal found must have originated from, rather than been transported to, the open ocean. Furthermore, eddy covariance measurements indicate that an organic surface microlayer may be producing the glyoxal by as yet unknown processes. Here we present laboratory studies of the formation of glyoxal from carboxylic acids. Nonanoic, octanoic, and heptanoic acids floated on water and subjected to ultraviolet light are converted into their equivalent alkenals. Subsequent ozonolysis of the alkenals leads to the formation of glyoxal. We employ a PTR-MS to detect the alkenals, and a cavity-enhanced DOAS to detect the glyoxal. Considering the ubiquitous occurrence of carboxylic acids and their derivatives in the environment, this mechanism has the potential to be a significant source of glyoxal in the atmosphere.

  7. Functionalization of carboxylated multiwall nanotubes with imidazole derivatives and their toxicity investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Azizian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Javad Azizian1, Hasan Tahermansouri1, Esmaeil Biazar2, Saeed Heidari3, Davood Chobfrosh Khoei11Department of Chemistry, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Ponak, Tehran, Iran; 2Young researchers club – Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, Iran; 3Proteomics Research Center, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshty University of Medical Sciences,Tehran, IranAbstract: Imidazoles and their derivatives are compounds with chemotherapeutic applications. In this study, we investigated the chemical functionalization of carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT–COOH by 1,2-phenylendiamine. Multiwalled nanotube (MWNT–benzimidazole was obtained by an MWNT–amide reaction with POCl3 after 72 hours, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and elemental analysis. These functionalizations were chosen due to -NH2 and NHCO active sites in MWNT–amide for future application. Toxicity assays with fibroblast cells and MTT test for measurement of viable cell numbers were also performed. Cellular results did not show any toxicity change in modified samples from that of the reference samples.Keywords: functionalization, 1,2-phenylendiamine, carboxylated multiwall nanotubes, toxicity

  8. New radioiodinated carboxylic and hydroxamic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor tracers as potential tumor imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between tumor progression and expression of extracellular proteinases such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMP-2 and MMP-9 have become attractive targets for cancer research because of their increased expression in human malignant tumor tissues of various organs, providing a target for medical imaging techniques. Radioiodinated carboxylic and hydroxamic MMP inhibitors 2-(4'-[123I]iodo-biphenyl-4-sulfonylamino)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-propionic acid (9) and 2-(4'-[123I]iodo-biphenyl-4-sulfonylamino)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-propionamide (11) were synthesized by electrophilic aromatic substitution of the tributylstannyl derivatives and resulted in radiochemical yields of 60% ± 5% (n = 3) and 70% ± 5% (n = 6), respectively. In vitro zymography and enzyme assays showed high inhibition capacities of the inhibitors on gelatinases. In vivo biodistribution showed no long-term accumulation in organs and the possibility to accumulate in the tumor. These results warrant further studies of radioiodinated carboxylic and hydroxamic MMP inhibitor tracers as potential SPECT tumor imaging agents

  9. New radioiodinated carboxylic and hydroxamic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor tracers as potential tumor imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltenfreiter, Ruth E-mail: ruth.oltenfreiter@rug.ac.be; Staelens, Ludovicus; Lejeune, Annabelle; Dumont, Filip; Frankenne, Francis; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Slegers, Guido

    2004-05-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between tumor progression and expression of extracellular proteinases such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMP-2 and MMP-9 have become attractive targets for cancer research because of their increased expression in human malignant tumor tissues of various organs, providing a target for medical imaging techniques. Radioiodinated carboxylic and hydroxamic MMP inhibitors 2-(4'-[{sup 123}I]iodo-biphenyl-4-sulfonylamino)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-propionic acid (9) and 2-(4'-[{sup 123}I]iodo-biphenyl-4-sulfonylamino)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-propionamide (11) were synthesized by electrophilic aromatic substitution of the tributylstannyl derivatives and resulted in radiochemical yields of 60% {+-} 5% (n = 3) and 70% {+-} 5% (n = 6), respectively. In vitro zymography and enzyme assays showed high inhibition capacities of the inhibitors on gelatinases. In vivo biodistribution showed no long-term accumulation in organs and the possibility to accumulate in the tumor. These results warrant further studies of radioiodinated carboxylic and hydroxamic MMP inhibitor tracers as potential SPECT tumor imaging agents.

  10. Effect of carboxylic acids as compatibilizer agent on mechanical properties of thermoplastic starch and polypropylene blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Andréa Bercini; Santana, Ruth Marlene Campomanes

    2016-01-01

    In this work, polypropylene/thermoplastic starch (PP/TPS) blends were prepared as an alternative material to use in disposable packaging, reducing the negative polymeric environmental impact. Unfortunately, this material displays morphological characteristics typical of immiscible polymer blends and a compatibilizer agent is needed. Three different carboxyl acids: myristic (C14), palmitic (C16) and stearic acids (C18) were used as natural compatibilizer agent (NCA). The effects of NCA on the mechanical, physical, thermal and morphological properties of PP/TPS blends were investigated and compared against PP/TPS with and without PP-grafted maleic anhydride (PPgMA). When compared to PP/TPS, blends with C18, PPgMA and C14 presented an improvement of 25, 22 and 17% in tensile strength at break and of 180, 194 and 259% in elongation at break, respectively. The highest increase, 54%, in the impact strength was achieved with C14 incorporation. Improvements could be seen, through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, in the compatibility between the immiscible components by acids incorporation. These results showed that carboxylic acids, specifically C14, could be used as compatibilizer agent and could substitute PPgMA. PMID:26453854

  11. Low-line edge roughness extreme ultraviolet photoresists of organotin carboxylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Re, Ryan; Passarelli, James; Sortland, Miriam; Cardineau, Brian; Ekinci, Yasin; Buitrago, Elizabeth; Neisser, Mark; Freedman, Daniel A.; Brainard, Robert L.

    2015-10-01

    Pure thin films of organotin compounds have been lithographically evaluated using extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL, 13.5 nm). Twenty compounds of the type R2Sn) were spin-coated from solutions in toluene, exposed to EUV light, and developed in organic solvents. Exposures produced negative-tone contrast curves and dense-line patterns using interference lithography. Contrast-curve studies indicated that the photosensitivity is linearly related to the molecular weight of the carboxylate group bound to tin. Additionally, photosensitivity was found to be linearly related to free radical stability of the hydrocarbon group bound directly to tin (R=phenyl, butyl, and benzyl). Dense-line patterning capabilities varied, but two resists in particular show exceptionally good line edge roughness (LER). A resist composed of an amorphous film of )SnCC)2 (1) achieved 1.4 nm LER at 22-nm half-pitch patterning and a resist composed of )Sn) (2) achieved 1.1 nm LER at 35-nm half-pitch at high exposure doses (600 mJ/cm2). Two photoresists that use olefin-based carboxylates, )SnCCH (3) and )SnCC (4), demonstrated better photospeeds (5 mJ/cm2 and 27 mJ/cm2) but worse LER.

  12. A comparative study of the interaction of Tamiflu and Oseltamivir carboxylate with bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishkaee, Tahereh Sadigh; Mohajerani, Niloufar; Nafisi, Shohreh

    2013-02-01

    Oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu) is a pro-drug that is metabolized to its active form (Oseltamivir carboxylate), after oral administration. OC inhibits influenza A and B neuraminidases in vitro and OP inhibits influenza virus infection and replication in vitro. Serum albumin is the most abundant of the proteins in the circulatory system of a wide variety of organisms and plays an important role in the transport and deposition of many drugs. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of BSA with Tamiflu and Oseltamivir carboxylate in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using a constant protein concentration and various drug contents. FTIR, UV-Vis spectroscopic methods were used to determine the drugs binding mode, the binding constant and the effects of drug complexation on protein secondary structure. Structural analysis showed that OP and OC bind BSA with overall binding constants of K(OP-BSA)=1.88 (±0.16)×10(4)M(-1) and K(OC-BSA)=5.7 (±0.09)×10(2)M(-1). Drug complexation alters protein conformation by major reduction of α-helix and random coil and increase of β-sheet and turn structures that indicate a partial protein destabilization. The results suggest that BSA might act as carrier proteins for OP in delivering it to target molecules. PMID:23353784

  13. Particle tracking carboxyl and transferrin conjugated quantum dots diffusion at living cell surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Zhu, Zhaoqi; Xiao, Zhongdang

    2009-08-01

    Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials have gained much success in the fields of biological applications. In particular, quantum dots (QDs) are emerging as a revolutionary means for imaging and optical detection in opposition to conventional organic dyes. For their robust photostability, large extinction coefficients, and relatively small size, QDs present superior advantages in single molecules monitoring over long time period in living cell. The interaction between functionalized QDs and living cell is the primary problem of the QDs application in living cell. In this work, carboxyl and transferrin conjugated CdS QDs were evaluated using total internal reflect fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and single particle tracking (SPT) techniques at living cell surface. The diffusion and binding were quantitively measured by mean square displacement (MSD) versus time plotting. To study the influence of different QDs surface on interaction between QDs and cell, dynamic characters of carboxyl and transferrin conjugated QDs were calculated respectively. The photonic characters of QDs were also investigated, considering that functionalized surface can lead to behavior altering of QDs under illuminating. Simultaneous imaging of several QDs with frame rates of up to 30 frames/s and localization accuracy of ~10 nm was present.

  14. In Vitro Reactivity of Carboxylic Acid-CoA Thioesters with Glutathione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, Ulrik; Skonberg, Christian; Olsen, Jørgen;

    2004-01-01

    was to investigate whether a correlation could be found between the structure of acyl-CoA thioesters and their reactivities toward the tripeptide, glutathione (ç- Glu-Cys-Gly).  The  acyl-CoA  thioesters  of  eight  carboxylic  acids  (ibuprofen,  clofibric  acid, indomethacin,  fenbufen,  tolmetin,  salicylic  acid......The chemical reactivity of acyl-CoA thioesters toward nucleophiles has been demonstrated in several recent studies. Thus, intracellularly formed acyl-CoAs of xenobiotic carboxylic acids may react covalently with endogenous proteins and potentially lead to adverse effects. The purpose of this study......,  2-phenoxypropionic  acid,  and  (4-chloro-2-methyl-phenoxy)acetic  acid  (MCPA))  were  synthesized,  and  each  acyl-CoA  (0.5  mM)  was incubated with glutathione (5.0 mM) in 0.1 M potassium phosphate (pH 7.4, 37 °C). All of the acyl-CoAs reacted with glutathione to form the respective acyl...

  15. Nonradiative Deactivation of Lanthanoid Excited States by Inner-Sphere Carboxylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahsner, Jessica; Seitz, Michael

    2015-11-16

    The vibrational deactivation of metal-centered excited states is one of the fundamental processes that governs the luminescence of inorganic luminophores. In molecular lanthanoid luminescence, the most reliable way to modulate and systematically investigate these processes is deuteration of X-H stretching modes (X = O, N, C). Apart from the effect of these high-energy vibrational motifs, very little is known about the impact of other oscillator fragments present in lanthanoid complexes. We have developed a synthetic protocol to efficiently and selectively label the popular chelator motif "pyridine-2-carboxylic acid" with stable (13)C/(18)O isotope at the carboxylate group. The corresponding isotopologic lanthanoid complexes (Ln = Sm, Eu, Ho) show a decrease of the local-mode carbonyl stretching frequency of up to 5% after isotopic substitution. While this does not seems to have any effect on the luminescence of lanthanoids with medium- to high-energy gaps (Sm and Eu), we have found the first example of a quantifiable luminescence isotope effect for one of the near-IR transitions of holmium ((3)K8 → (5)I5) that only involves the isotopic editing of the vibrational environment at the four carbonyl oscillators. PMID:26501567

  16. Penarines A-F, (nor-)sesquiterpene carboxylic acids from Hygrophorus penarius (Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Alexander; Porzel, Andrea; Schmidt, Jürgen; Wessjohann, Ludger; Arnold, Norbert

    2014-12-01

    Five sesquiterpene carboxylic acids (1-5) and one nor-sesquiterpene carboxylic acid (6) of the very rare ventricosane type, named penarines A-F, were isolated from fruiting bodies of the basidiomycete Hygrophorus penarius (Hygrophoraceae). This is the first report of (nor)-sesquiterpenes isolated from basidiocarps of the family Hygrophoraceae. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D ((1)H, (13)C) and 2D (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, ROESY) NMR spectroscopic analyses as well as high-resolution mass spectrometry studies. Additionally, the only known member of this rare type of sesquiterpenes, ventricos-7(13)-ene (7), could be identified via headspace GC-MS analysis in a fruiting body of H. penarius. Compounds 1-6 were devoid of remarkable antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum. Additionally, the cytotoxic activities of compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated against the human prostate cancer cell line PC-3 and the colon cancer cell line HT-29 showing no significant cytotoxic activity. PMID:25269661

  17. Low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids produced from hydrothermal treatment of organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitain, Armando T; Faisal, Muhammad; Kang, Kilyoon; Daimon, Hiroyuki; Fujie, Koichi

    2002-07-22

    This article reports production of low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids from the hydrothermal treatment of representative organic wastes and compounds (i.e. domestic sludge, proteinaceous, cellulosic and plastic wastes) with or without oxidant (H(2)O(2)). Organic acids such as acetic, formic, propionic, succinic and lactic acids were obtained in significant amounts. At 623 K (16.5 MPa), acetic acid of about 26 mg/g dry waste fish entrails was obtained. This increased to 42 mg/g dry waste fish entrails in the presence of H(2)O(2). Experiments on glucose to represent cellulosic wastes were also carried out, getting acetic acid of about 29 mg/g glucose. The study was extended to terephthalic acid and glyceraldehyde, reaction intermediates of hydrothermal treatment of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic wastes and glucose, respectively. In addition, production of lactic acid, one of the interesting low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids, was discussed on the viewpoint of resources recovery. Studies on temperature dependence of formation of organic acids showed thermal stability of acetic acid, whereas, formic acid decomposed readily under hydrothermal conditions. In general, results demonstrated that the presence of oxidants favored formation of organic acids with acetic acid being the major product. PMID:12117467

  18. Effect of Alkyl Chain Length on Carboxylic Acid SAMs on Ti-6Al-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin A. Buckholtz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of methyl-terminated carboxylic acid self-assembled monolayers (SAMs with even numbers of carbons, from eighteen to thirty, was investigated on the oxide surface of Ti-6Al-4V and component metal oxides. Modified surfaces were characterized using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and contact angle analysis. Infrared spectroscopy indicated that using aerosol spray deposition techniques, stable, all-trans SAMs of octacosanoic (28 carbons and triacontanoic (30 carbons acids were formed on the alloy. Films were similarly formed on titanium and aluminum oxide. The surface of vanadium oxide exhibited limited reactivity. MALDI-TOF MS confirmed that formed films were monolayers, without multilayers or aggregates present. Water contact angles are indicative of the presence of hydrophobic methyl groups at the interface. This stable carboxylic acid SAM formation could be a useful alternative to phosphonic acid SAMs for corrosion and other applications.

  19. rac-3-exo-Ammonio-7-anti-carboxytricyclo[2.2.1.0.2,6]heptane-3-endo-carboxylate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The racemic title compound, C9H11NO4·H2O, a tricyclic rearranged aminonorbornane dicarboxylic acid, is a conformationally rigid analogue of glutamic acid and exists as an ammonium-carboxylate zwitterion, with the bridghead carboxylic acid group anti-related. In the crystal, N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the ammonium, carboxylic acid and water donor groups with both water and carboxyl O-atom acceptors give a three-dimensional framework structure.

  20. Biomimetic Decarboxylation of Carboxylic Acids with PhI(OAc)2 Catalyzed by Manganese Porphyrin [Mn(TPP)OAcl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GHOLAM REZA Karimipour; ROXANA Ahmadpour

    2008-01-01

    Manganese(Ⅲ) meso-tetraphenylporphyrin acetate [Mn(TPP)OAc] served as an effective catalyst for the oxidative decarboxylation of carboxylic acids with (diacetoxyiodo)benzene [Phl(OAc)2] in CH2C12-H2O(95:5,volume ratio),The aryl substituted acetic acids are more reactive than the less electron rich linear carboxylic acids in the presence of catalyst Mn(TPP)OAc,In the former case,the formation of carbonyl products was complete within just a few minutes with >97% selectivities,and no further oxidation of the produced aldehydes was achieved under these catalytic conditions,This method provides a benign procedure owing to the utilization of low toxic(diacetoxyiodo)benzene,biologically relevant manganese porphyrins,and carboxylic acids.

  1. (19)F NMR study of ligand dynamics in carboxylate-bridged diiron(II) complexes supported by a macrocyclic ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minier, Mikael A; Lippard, Stephen J

    2015-11-01

    A series of asymmetrically carboxylate-bridged diiron(ii) complexes featuring fluorine atoms as NMR spectroscopic probes, [Fe2(PIM)(Ar(4F-Ph)CO2)2] (10), [Fe2(F2PIM)(Ar(Tol)CO2)2] (11), and [Fe2(F2PIM)(Ar(4F-Ph)CO2)2] (12), were prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and VT (19)F NMR spectroscopy. These complexes are part of a rare family of syn N-donor diiron(ii) compounds, [Fe2(X2PIM)(RCO2)2], that are structurally very similar to the active site of the hydroxylase enzyme component of reduced methane monooxygenase (MMOHred). Solution characterization of these complexes demonstrates that they undergo intramolecular carboxylate rearrangements, or carboxylate shifts, a dynamic feature relevant to the reactivity of the diiron centers in bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases. PMID:26418547

  2. 19F NMR Study of Ligand Dynamics in Carboxylate-Bridged Diiron(II) Complexes Supported by a Macrocyclic Ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minier, Mikael A.; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    A series of asymmetrically carboxylate-bridged diiron(II) complexes featuring fluorine atoms as NMR spectroscopic probes, [Fe2(PIM)(Ar4F-PhCO2)2] (10), [Fe2(F2PIM)(ArTolCO2)2] (11), and [Fe2(F2PIM)(Ar4F-PhCO2)2] (12), were prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and VT 19F NMR spectroscopy. These complexes are part of a rare family of syn-N diiron(II) complexes, [Fe2(X2PIM)(RCO2)2], that are structurally very similar to the active site of the hydroxylase enzyme component of reduced methane monooxygenase (MMOHred). Solution characterization of these complexes demonstrates that they undergo intramolecular carboxylate rearrangements, or carboxylate shifts, a dynamic feature relevant to the reactivity of the diiron centers in bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases. PMID:26418547

  3. Sensitive method for dosing carboxylic functions of carbons and its application to the study of thermally processed carbon blacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis reports the development of a sensitive method for the dosing of carboxylic functions present at the surface of carbon blacks, and the use of this method to study the evolution of a carbon black during heat treatments. After a brief description of modes of fabrication of carbon blacks and of their structure, the author proposes an overview of knowledge on their oxidation and functional analysis. After having outlined that existing methods do not allow the measurement of function quantities less than ten micro-equivalent per gram of carbon, the author reports the development of a method which allows such measurements. By using this method, the author shows that carboxylic groups of a carbon black, oxidized by air or not, decompose during degassing by forming carbon dioxide, and that, reciprocally, the released carbon dioxide is exclusively produced by the decomposition of carboxylic groups

  4. A facile and novel approach towards carboxylic acid functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and efficient water dispersion

    KAUST Repository

    Rehman, Ata Ur

    2013-10-01

    A convenient, cheap and mild covalent functionalization route for multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been developed for the first time. The MWCNTs were treated with wet chemical oxidants (NaNO2/HCl, HNO3/H2O2) in order to modify MWCNTs with carboxyl groups. Surface functionality groups and morphology of MWCNTs were analyzed by FTIR, TGA, SEM and TEM. The results consistently confirmed the formation of carboxyl functionalities on MWCNTs, while the structure of MWCNTs has remained relatively intact. Functionalized MWCNTs showed good dispersion in aqueous media than untreated MWCNTs. Results show that NaNO2/HCl treatment is best suited for the chemical functionalization, giving optimum surface carboxyl groups and minimum length shortening of MWCNTs. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  5. 2-substituted thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids as prodrugs of L-cysteine. Protection of mice against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of 2-alkyl- and 2-aryl-substituted thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids were evaluated for their protective effect against hepatotoxic deaths produced in mice by LD90 doses of acetaminophen. 2(RS)-Methyl-, 2(RS)-n-propyl-, and 2(RS)-n- pentylthiazolidine -4(R)-carboxylic acids (compounds 1b,d,e, respectively) were nearly equipotent in their protective effect based on the number of surviving animals at 48 h as well as by histological criteria. 2(RS)-Ethyl-, 2(RS)-phenyl-, and 2(RS)-(4-pyridyl)thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids (compounds 1c,f,g) were less protective. The enantiomer of 1b, viz., 2(RS)- methylthiazolidine -4(S)-carboxylic acid (2b), was totally ineffective in this regard. Thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acid (1a), but not its enantiomer, 2a, was a good substrate for a solubilized preparation of rat liver mitochondrial proline oxidase [K/sub m/ 1.1 x 10(-4) M; V/sub max/ . 5.4 mumol min-1 (mg of protein)-1]. Compound 1b was not a substrate for proline oxidase but dissociated to L-cysteine in this system. At physiological pH and temperature, the hydrogens on the methyl group of 1b underwent deuterium exchange with solvent D2O (k1 . 2.5 X 10(-5) s), suggesting that opening of the thiazolidine ring must have taken place. Indeed, 1b labeled with 14C in the 2 and methyl positions was rapidly metabolized by the rat to produce 14CO2, 80% of the dose being excreted in this form in the expired air after 24 h. It is suggested that these 2-substituted thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids are prodrugs of L-cysteine that liberate this sulfhydryl amino acid in vivo by nonenzymatic ring opening, followed by solvolysis

  6. Benzene-Poly-Carboxylic Acid Complex, a Novel Anti-Cancer Agent Induces Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fares, Fuad; Azzam, Naiel; Fares, Basem; Larsen, Stig; Lindkaer-Jensen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Some cases of breast cancer are composed of clones of hormonal-independent growing cells, which do not respond to therapy. In the present study, the effect of Benzene-Poly-Carboxylic Acid Complex (BP-C1) on growth of human breast-cancer cells was tested. BP-C1 is a novel anti-cancer complex of benzene-poly-carboxylic acids with a very low concentration of cis-diammineplatinum (II) dichloride. Human breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and T47D, were used. Cell viability was detected by XTT assay and ap...

  7. Iodine-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Amidation of β,γ-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids with Chloramine Salts Leading to Allylic Amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Kojima, Takumi; Hishikawa, Yusuke; Minakata, Satoshi

    2015-10-26

    The iodine-catalyzed decarboxylative amidation of β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acids with chloramine salts is described. This method enables the regioselective synthesis of allylic amides from various types of β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acids containing substituents at the α- and β-positions. In the reaction, N-iodo-N-chloroamides, generated by the reaction of a chloramine salt with I2 , function as a key active species. The reaction provides an attractive alternative to existing methods for the synthesis of useful secondary allylic amine derivatives. PMID:26493878

  8. Selenium speciation in urine by ion-pairing chromatography with perfluorinated carboxylic acids and ICP-MS detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Bendahl, L.; Sidenius, U.; Jons, O.

    2002-01-01

    Five aqueous standards, selenomethionine (SeMet), methylselenomethionine (MeSeMet), methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys), selenogammaaminobutyric acid (SeGaba) and the trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe), were separated in ion-pairing chromatographic systems based on perfluorinated carboxylic acids in...... methanol. Two different perfluorinated carboxylic acids, heptafluorobutanoic acid (HFBA) and nonafluoropentanoic acid (NFPA), were used as ion-pairing agents in the separation. The selectivities of the ion-pairing agents were different. The separation was performed on a microbore column, which was...

  9. Benzylidene Acetal Protecting Group as Carboxylic Acid Surrogate: Synthesis of Functionalized Uronic Acids and Sugar Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amit; Senthilkumar, Soundararasu; Baskaran, Sundarababu

    2016-01-18

    Direct oxidation of the 4,6-O-benzylidene acetal protecting group to C-6 carboxylic acid has been developed that provides an easy access to a wide range of biologically important and synthetically challenging uronic acid and sugar amino acid derivatives in good yields. The RuCl3 -NaIO4 -mediated oxidative cleavage method eliminates protection and deprotection steps and the reaction takes place under mild conditions. The dual role of the benzylidene acetal, as a protecting group and source of carboxylic acid, was exploited in the efficient synthesis of six-carbon sialic acid analogues and disaccharides bearing uronic acids, including glycosaminoglycan analogues. PMID:26572799

  10. Iron-Catalyzed, Highly Regioselective Synthesis of alpha-Aryl Carboxylic Acids from Styrene Derivatives and CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Greenhalgh, Mark D.; Thomas, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    The iron-catalyzed hydrocarboxylation of aryl alkenes has been developed using a highly active bench-stable iron(II) precatalyst to give alpha-aryl carboxylic acids in excellent yields and with near-perfect regioselectivity. Using just 1 mol % FeCl2, bis(imino)pyridine 6 (1 mol %), CO2 (atmospheric pressure), and a hydride source (EtMgBr, 1.2 equiv), a range of sterically and electronically differentiated aryl alkenes were transformed to the corresponding alpha-aryl carboxylic acids (up to 96...

  11. Synthesis and Transformations of di-endo-3-Aminobicyclo-[2.2.2]oct-5-ene-2-carboxylic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Palkó

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available all-endo-3-amino-5-hydroxybicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid (13 and all-endo-5-amino-6-(hydroxymethylbicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-ol (10 were prepared via dihydro-1,3-oxazine or g-lactone intermediates by the stereoselective functionalization of an N-protected derivative of endo-3-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-ene-2-carboxylic acid (2. Ring closure of b-amino ester 4 resulted in tricyclic pyrimidinones 15 and 16. The structures, stereochemistry and relative configurations of the synthesized compounds were determined by IR and NMR.

  12. Facile syntheses of isotope-labeled chiral octahydroindole-2-carboxylic acid and its N-methyl analog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have synthesized deuterium and carbon-14 labeled enantiomerically pure octahydroindole-2-carboxylic acid (PD0140417), N-methyl octahydroindole-2-carboxylic acid (PD0348183) and their racemic analogs (PD0108405 and PD0338055). [ring-U-14C]PD0140417 was prepared from [ring-U-14C]benzoic acid in a seven-step synthesis in 6.2% overall radiochemical yield. [14C]PD0348183 was prepared from [14C]BaCO3 in a five-step synthesis in 16% radiochemical yield. Additionally, [D]PD0108405 and [D]PD0338055 were synthesized by direct platinum-catalyzed hydrogenation with deuterium gas. (author)

  13. EtAlCl2/2,6-Disubstituted Pyridine-Mediated Carboxylation of Alkenes with Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shinya; Watanabe, Kota; Tanaka, Yuuki; Hattori, Tetsutaro

    2016-06-01

    α-Arylalkenes and trialkyl-substituted alkenes undergo carboxylation with CO2 in the presence of EtAlCl2 and 2,6-dibromopyridine to afford the corresponding α,β- and/or β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acids. This reaction is suggested to proceed via the electrophilic substitution of EtAlCl2 with the aid of the base, followed by the carbonation of the resulting ate complex. This reaction can be applied to terminal dialkylalkenes by using a mixture of 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine and 2,6-dibromopyridine. PMID:27187716

  14. Gas-Phase Partial Oxidation of Lignin to Carboxylic Acids over Vanadium Pyrophosphate and Aluminum-Vanadium-Molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Samira; Boffito, Daria C; Patience, Gregory S

    2015-10-26

    Lignin is a complex polymer that is a potential feedstock for aromatic compounds and carboxylic acids by cleaving the β-O-4 and 5-5' linkages. In this work, a syringe pump atomizes an alkaline solution of lignin into a catalytic fluidized bed operating above 600 K. The vanadium heterogeneous catalysts convert all the lignin into carboxylic acids (up to 25 % selectivity), coke, carbon oxides, and hydrogen. Aluminum-vanadium-molybdenum mostly produced lactic acid (together with formic acid, acrylic acid, and maleic anhydride), whereas the vanadium pyrophosphate catalyst produced more maleic anhydride. PMID:26361086

  15. Tris(6-carb­oxy­pyridine-2-carboxyl­ato)terbium(III) 2.75-hydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Soumaila Zebret; Céline Besnard; Josef Hamacek

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, [Tb(C7H4NO4)3]·2.75H2O, the Tb3+ atom is coordinated by three tridentate 6-carboxypyridine-2-carboxylate ligands and lies on a crystallographic threefold rotation axis. The coordination polyhedron around TbIII adopts a distorted tricapped trigonal–prismatic geometry. Disordered water molecules with partial occupancy are also present in the crystal, one of which is associated with each of the carboxylate O atoms of the complex unit.

  16. Catalytic conversion of carboxylic acids in bio-oil for liquid hydrocarbons production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-oil must be upgraded to be suitable for use as a high-grade transport fuel. Crude bio-oil has a high content of carboxylic acids which can cause corrosion, and the high oxygen content of these acids also reduces the oil’s heating value. In this paper, acetic acid and propanoic acid were chosen as the model carboxylic acids in bio-oil. Their behavior in the production of liquid hydrocarbons during a catalytic conversion process was investigated in a micro-fixed bed reactor. The liquid organic phase from this catalytic conversion process mainly consisted of liquid hydrocarbons and phenol derivatives. Under the condition of low Liquid Hourly Space Velocity (LHSV), the liquid organic phase from acetic acid cracking had a selectivity of 22% for liquid hydrocarbons and a selectivity of 65% for phenol derivatives. The composition of the organic products changed considerably with the LHSV increasing to 3 h−1. The selectivity for liquid hydrocarbons increased up to 52% while that for phenol derivatives decreased to 32%. Propanoic acid performed much better in producing liquid hydrocarbons than acetic acid. Its selectivity for liquid hydrocarbons was as high as 80% at LHSV = 3 h−1. A mechanism for this catalytic conversion process was proposed according to the analysis of the components in the liquid organic phases. The pathways of the main compounds formation in the liquid organic phases were proposed, and the reason why liquid hydrocarbons were more effectively produced when using propanoic acid rather than acetic acid was also successfully explained. In addition, BET and SEM characterization were used to analyze the catalyst coke deposition. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► High content of carboxylic acids in bio-oil causes its corrosiveness. ► Acetic acid and propanoic acid are two dominant acids in bio-oil. ► Liquid hydrocarbons were produced by cracking of these two dominant acids. ► A mechanism model was proposed to explain the

  17. Optical characterization of ultrasmall, hydrogen-terminated and carboxyl-functionalized silicon nanoparticles in aqueous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhoff, Dean Alan

    The primary theme of this dissertation is to characterize the optical and chemical properties of ultrasmall (˜1 nm) silicon nanoparticles (Si-np) in aqueous environments, focusing on their potential for use as luminescent markers in biophysical and biological applications. Two systems are presented in detail: hydrogen-terminated Si-np prepared through electrochemical dispersion of a crystalline Si wafer and carboxyl-functionalized Si-np prepared via thermal hydrosilylation of surface Si-H bonds with an o-ester 1-alkene. Chemical and physical characterizations are done using nuclear magnetic resonance, size exclusion chromatography, and infrared spectroscopy. Optical characterization is done via absorption and steady-state photoluminescence (PL) and using capillary electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection. The behavior of the hydrogen-terminated Si-np is studied over time as-prepared in isopropanol and during treatments with water, NaOH, HCl, and H2O 2. The PL spectra show three distinct, near-Gaussian states with a FWHM ˜0.45 eV and their respective emissions in the UV-B (˜305 nm), UV-A (˜340 nm), and 'hard-blue' (˜400 nm) regions of the spectrum. The 'hard-blue' emission is shown to have a simple pH dependence with a pKa ˜3, demonstrating the possibility of using Si-np as environmental probes. These results offer some promise for tailoring the PL properties of ultrasmall Si-np through control of their surface chemistry. In the second part, three central elements establish that the carboxyl-functionalized Si-np have excellent potential for use as a luminescent marker in aqueous systems. First, they are shown to be ultrasmall, with a diameter of ˜1 nm, comparable to that of common organic fluorophores. Second, they are shown to have narrow PL in the near-UV with a nearly-symmetric lineshape and a FWHM as small as 30 nm. Third, it is shown that standard chemical means can be used to functionalize the Si-np with carboxyl groups, giving

  18. Catalytic, Conjugate Reduction-Aldol Addition Reaction of β'Oxoal kyl α, β-Unsatu rated Carboxylates%Catalytic, Conjugate Reduction-Aldol Addition Reaction of β'Oxoal kyl α, β-Unsatu rated Carboxylates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑爱军; 姜岚; 李争宁

    2012-01-01

    Intramolecular conjugate reduction-aldol addition reactions of β'-oxoalkyl a,fl-unsaturated carboxylates were performed in the presence of copper catalysts generated in situ from copper salts, phosphine ligands and silanes. Moderate to good yields and high diastereoselectivities were obtained in 15 min to 3 h using bis[(2-diphenyl- phosphino)phenyl] ether as the ligand.

  19. Electrochemical Reduction and Carboxylation of Ethyl Cinnamate in MeCN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huan; DU Yan-Fang; LIN Mei-Yu; ZHANG Kai; LU Jia-Xing

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction and carboxylation of ethyl cinnamate have been carded out in an undivided cell equipped with a Mg sacrificial anode using MeCN as solvent.Direct electroreduction led to the formation of the hydrodimers and saturated ester.And electrocarboxylation was carried out in the presence of CO2.The global yield and the ratio of mono- to dicarboxylic acids were strongly affected by various factors:electrode material,electrolysis potential,the substrate concentration and temperature.The high yield (78%) was obtained under an optimized reaction condition (cathode:Ni;electrolysis potential:-1.7V;substrate concentration:0.1 mol·L-1;and temperature:-10℃).

  20. Fluorescence of complexes of Eu( Ⅱ ) with aromatic carboxylic acid-1, 1O-phenanthroline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The 1, 10-phenanthroline-aromatic carboxylic acid (benzoic acid and o-phthalic acid) binary and ternary complexes of europium were synthesized. The fluorescence and FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, UV spectroscopic studies on these complexes were also performed. These complexes can emit strong red fluorescence of Eu( m ) excited by UV light. At the same excited wavelength, the fluorescence spectra of the complexes were also studied. The results indi cated that the fluorescence intensities of ternary complexes are stronger than that of binary complexes. The reason is that phenanthroline has higher electron density and higher orbit scope in the conjugated system and consequently an easier ener gy transfer to the europium ion, which makes the fluorescence intensity of ternary complexes be stronger than that of bi nary complexes.

  1. Catalyst-free multicomponent synthesis of novel adamantyl-containing tetrahydropyrimidine carboxylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Utpalparna; Kaping, Shunan; Vishwakarma, Jai Narain

    2016-08-01

    [Formula: see text]-Enaminoesters were generated in situ by the reaction of aliphatic or aromatic primary amines to electron-deficient alkynes, dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate, and methyl propiolate. [Formula: see text]-Enaminoesters thus formed were reacted with 1-adamantanamine and formaldehyde in methanol to give novel molecular hybrids: dimethyl 3-((3s,5s,7s)-adamantan-1-yl)-1-(alkyl/aralkyl/aryl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5,6-dicarboxylates (5a-j) and methyl 3-((3s,5s,7s)-adamantan-1-yl)-1-(alkyl/aralkyl/aryl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylates (9a-j). The structures of the molecular hybrids have been established based on the spectral and analytical data. Structural confirmation of the products was done by X-ray crystallography of 5d as a representative product of the series. PMID:26797716

  2. Binding of [3H]ethyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylate to brain benzodiazepine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is reported that in contrast to the changes in affinity of [3H]benzodiazepines elicited by halide ions, barbiturates, and pyrazolopyridines, the apparent affinity of β-[3H]CCE (ethyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylate) is unaffected by these agents. Furthermore, Scatchard analysis of β-[3H]CCE binding to cerebral cortical and cerebellar membranes revealed a significantly greater number of binding sites than was observed with either [3H]diazepam or [3H]flunitazepam, suggesting that at low concentrations benzodiazepines selectively label a subpopulation of the receptors labelled with β-[3H]CCE. Alternatively, β-[3H]CCE may bind to sites that are distinct from those labelled with [3H]-benzodiazepines. (Auth.)

  3. Potentiometric studies on mixed-ligand chelates of uranyl ion with carboxylic acid phenolic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed ligand complexes of UO22+ with bidentate carboxylic and phenolic acids have been studied potentiometrically at 30 ± 0.1degC and μ=0.2M (NaClO4). 1:1 and 1:2 complexes of UO22+ with phthalic acid (PTHA), maleic acid (MAE), malonic acid (MAL), quinolinic acid (QA), 5-sulphosalicylic acid (5-SSA), salicylic acid (SA), and only 1:1 complexes in the case of mandelic acid (MAD) have been detected. The formation of 1:1:1 mixed ligand complexes has been inferred from simultaneous equilibria in the present study. The values of ΔlogK, Ksub(DAL), Ksub(2LA) or Ksub(2AL) for the ternary complexes have been calculated. The stabilities of mixed ligand complexes depend on the size of the chelate ring and the stabilities of the binary complexes. (author). 15 refs

  4. Electrochemiluminescence Study of Europium (III Complex with Coumarin3-Carboxylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Grzyb

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The europium (III complex of coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (C3CA has been prepared and characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, and emission (photoluminescence and electrochemiluminescence spectroscopy. The synthesised complex having a formula Eu(C3CA2(NO3(H2O2 was photophysically characterized in solution and in the solid state. Electrochemiluminescence, ECL, of the system containing the Eu(III/C3CA complex was studied using an oxide-covered aluminium electrode. The goal of these studies was to show the possibility of the use of electrochemical excitation of the Eu(III ion in aqueous solution for emission generation. The generated ECL emission was very weak, and therefore its measurements and spectral analysis were carried out with the use of cut-off filters method. The studies proved a predominate role of the ligand-to-metal energy transfer (LMET in the generated ECL.

  5. Molecular hybrids of CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals with terthiophene carboxylic acid or its polymeric analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid materials consisting of CdSe nanocrystals (CdSe NCs) and 7-(4,4''-dioctyl-2,2':5',2''-terthiophene-3'-yl)heptanoic acid (TTHA) or its high molecular analogue-poly(7-(4,4''-dioctyl-2,2':5',2''-terthiophene-3'-yl)heptanoic acid) (PTTHA) have been prepared from TOPO capped NCs via ligand exchange. Detailed spectroscopic and spectroelectrochemical (UV-vis-NIR, Raman) studies of these hybrids enabled us to determine the alignment of the HOMO and LUMO levels of their components. Since, for NCs of 3.7 nm, the alignment of the energy levels in both hybrids is staggered, the elaborated new materials are of potential use in photovoltaic devices. In the CdSe-PTTHA hybrid material a uniform distribution of the NCs within the polymer matrix is evidenced by TEM images. This is caused by strong interactions between nanocrystals surface and coordinating carboxylic function of the polymer.

  6. Controlled Electrochemical Carboxylation of Graphene To Create a Versatile Chemical Platform for Further Functionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerglund Pedersen, Emil; Kongsfelt, Mikkel; Shimizu, Kyoko;

    2014-01-01

    solution at the graphene electrode for a given time. The same functionalization degree is obtained for all multi-layered regions, independent of the number of graphene sheets, which is due to the fact that the entire graphene structure is opened in response to the intercalation of Bu4N+. Hence......, this electrochemical method offers a versatile procedure to make all graphene sheets in a multi-layered but expanded structure accessible for functionalization. On a more general level, this approach will provide a versatile way of forming new hybrid materials based on intimate bond coupling to graphene via......An electrochemical approach is introduced for the versatile carboxylation of multi-layered graphene in 0.1 M Bu4NBF4/MeCN. First, the graphene substrate (i.e., graphene chemically vapor-deposited on Ni) is negatively charged at -1.9 V versus Ag/AgI in a degassed solution to allow for intercalation...

  7. Synthesis of 4, 5-dihydroxy-9, 10-dioxoanthracene-2- benzyl carboxylate ester from rhein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Laddha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhein and several analogues thereof, are particularly important from commercial point of view and are known for their use in the treatment of degenerative diseases of the joints, for example osteoarthritis, osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Rhein occurs in nature in plant families such as Cassia, Rheum and Rhamnus, but in a very less concentration. Aloin, a natural substance isolated from various species of aloe, consist almost exclusively of barbaloin (10-β-glucopyranosyl-1, 8-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-anthracen-9-one. Barbaloin, the C-glycoside of aloe-emodin anthrone, localizes in the outer rind of the aloe vera leaf, has been reported to constitute upto 30% of aloe plants dried leaf exudate and proposed as a part of defense mechanism against herbivores. In this paper, an attempt has been made to prepare rhein from barbaloin via formation of aloe-emodin and its chemical modification using benzyl alcohol to prepare its benzyl carboxylate ester.

  8. Aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids formed radiolytically in aqueous solutions of cyanides and simple nitriles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Draganic, Z.D.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Graganic, I.G.

    1983-08-01

    A systematic search for aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids was carried out in aqueous solutions of HCN, NH/sub 4/CN, CH/sub 3/CN, and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/CN, that had received multikilogray doses of /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. radiation. About 30 radiolytic products were identified, among them a large variety of dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids. Some of them might be of significant interest in molecular evolution studies of prebiotic processes. They originate in the free-radical-initiated chemical reactions where the additional oligomerization processes are particularly important. Most of the radiolytic products appear in both cyanides and nitriles and point to the importance of reactions involving the carbon-nitrogen triple bond.

  9. Structure-activity relationship of an ozonide carboxylic acid (OZ78) against Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingjie; Vargas, Mireille; Dong, Yuxiang; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Xiaofang; Sriraghavan, Kamaraj; Keiser, Jennifer; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L

    2010-05-27

    In this paper, we describe the SAR of ozonide carboxylic acid OZ78 (1) as the first part of our search for a trematocidal synthetic peroxide drug development candidate. We found that relatively small structural changes to 1 resulted most commonly in loss of activity against Fasciola hepatica in vivo. A spiroadamantane substructure and acidic functional group (or ester prodrug) were required for activity. Of 26 new compounds administered at single 100 mg/kg oral doses to F. hepatica infected rats, 8 had statistically significant worm burden reductions, 7 were partially curative, and 1 (acylsulfonamide 6) was completely curative and comparable to 1 in flukicidal efficacy. This study also showed that the activity of 1 is peroxide-bond-dependent, suggesting that its flukicidal efficacy depends upon hemoglobin digestion in F. hepatica. PMID:20423101

  10. Extraction of lanthanides with lipophilic crown ether carboxylic acids for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sym-dibenzo-16-crown-5-oxyacetic acid (I) and its modified analogues (II) and (III) were applied to the extraction of the lanthanides in solutions with high ionic strength and complex matrices. Increasing the length of the side arm alkyl group increases the lipophilicity of the crown ether carboxylic acids and enhances the distribution ratio of the lanthanide-macrocycle complexes in the organic phase. Three lanthanides, La, Eu, and Lu, in natural waters were analyzed by extraction with 2-(sym-dibenzo-16-crown-5-oxy)-steraric acid followed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The extraction method combined with NAA is capable of detecting the lanthanides at 10-4 μg/L level in complex aqueous systems

  11. Carboxyl-functionalized magnetic microparticle carrier for isolation and identification of DNA in dairy products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horák, Daniel; Rittich, Bohuslav; Španová, Alena

    2007-04-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles about 14 nm in diameter were obtained by chemical coprecipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts with aqueous ammonia in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) microspheres about 1 μm in diameter were prepared by dispersion polymerization of GMA in aqueous ethanol in the presence of PEG-coated magnetite nanoparticles. The microspheres were hydrolyzed and carboxyl groups introduced by oxidation with KMnO4. The particles reversibly bound bacterial DNA of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genera in the presence of high concentrations of PEG 6000 and sodium chloride from crude cell lysates of various dairy products (butter milk, cheese, yoghurt, probiotic tablets) or from cell lyophilisates. The presence of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus DNA in samples was confirmed by PCR amplification.

  12. Dielectric properties of supramolecular ionic structures obtained from multifunctional carboxylic acids and amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Lidia; Yu, Liyun; Hvilsted, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    The dielectric properties of several supramolecular ionic polymers and networks, linked by the ammonium salts of hexamethylene diamine (HMDA), tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TAEA), poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers and two short bis carboxymethyl ether-terminated poly(ethylene glycol)s (Di......COOH-PEG), are reported in this paper. All supramolecular ionic polymers and networks exhibit very high relative dielectric permittivities ( 3 0 )( 10 2 – 10 6 ) at low frequencies, and signi fi cantly lower values (from 1 up to 26) at high frequencies. Additionally, the dielectric properties of supramolecular......2000), are investigated. Here the relative dielectric permittivities of the supramolecular ionic structures formed with the multifunctional carboxylic acids were lower than those from the supramolecular ionic structures formed with the two carboxymethyl ether-terminated poly(ethylene glycol)s....

  13. Polymorphism in Self-Assembled Structures of 9-Anthracene Carboxylic Acid on Ag(111

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface self-assembly process of 9-anthracene carboxylic acid (AnCA on Ag(111 was investigated using STM. Depending on the molecular surface density, four spontaneously formed and one annealed AnCA ordered phases were observed, namely a straight belt phase, a zigzag double-belt phase, two simpler dimer phases, and a kagome phase. The two high-density belt phases possess large unit cells on the scale length of 10 nm, which are seldom observed in molecular self-assembled structures. This structural diversity stems from a complicated competition of different interactions of AnCA molecules on metal surface, including intermolecular and molecular-substrate interactions, as well as the steric demand from high molecular surface density.

  14. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of 1- and 2-Substituted Indazoles: Ester and Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Bento

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of indazoles substituted at the N-1 and N-2 positions with ester-containing side chains -(CH2nCO2R of different lengths (n = 0-6, 9, 10 are described.Nucleophilic substitution reactions on halo esters (X(CH2nCO2R by 1H-indazole inalkaline solution lead to mixtures of N-1 and N-2 isomers, in which the N-1 isomerpredominates. Basic hydrolysis of the ester derivatives allowed the synthesis of thecorresponding indazole carboxylic acids. All compounds were fully characterised bymultinuclear NMR and IR spectroscopies, MS spectrometry and elemental analysis; theNMR spectroscopic data were used for structural assignment of the N-1 and N-2 isomers.The molecular structure of indazol-2-yl-acetic acid (5b was determined by X-raydiffraction, which shows a supramolecular architecture involving O2-H...N1intermolecular hydrogen bonds.

  15. Synthesis, leishmanicidal and enzyme inhibitory activities of quinoline-4-carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of quinoline-4-carboxylic acids 1-13 was synthesized and screened for their leishmanicidal, phosphodiesterase, beta-glucuronidase and urease inhibitory properties. Only compounds 3 and 7 were found to be active against leishmaniasis with IC/sub 50/ values of 76.26 +- 0.71 and 62.86 +- 0.35 macro g/ml, respectively. In phosphodiesterase assay only compound 13 showed maximum percentage inhibition (47.2%) among all the tested compounds. Compound 9 showed maximum percentage inhibition value (47.4%) against p-glucuronidase enzyme. Compound 13 showed maximum percentage inhibition value i.e. 14.10 % against urease enzyme. The structures of all the synthetic compounds were deduced by spectroscopic techniques, including /sup 1/H NMR, EI-MS, IR, and UV spectroscopy. (author)

  16. Surface grafting of carboxylic groups onto thermoplastic polyurethanes to reduce cell adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of polymers with other materials is an important issue, being their surface properties clearly crucial. For some important polymer applications, their surfaces have to be modified. Surface modification aims to tailor the surface characteristics of a material for a specific application without affecting its bulk properties. Materials can be surface modified by using biological, chemical or physical methods. The aim of this work was to improve the reactivity of the thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) material (Elastollan®) surface and to make its surface cell repellent by grafting carboxylic groups onto its surface. Two TPU materials were studied: a polyether-based TPU and a polyester-based TPU. The grafting efficiency was evaluated by contact angle measurements and by analytical determination of the COOH groups. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the membranes surface was performed as well as cell adhesion tests. It was proved that the surfaces of the TPUs membranes were successfully modified and that cell adhesion was remarkably reduced.

  17. Electrocatalytic carboxylation of chloroacetonitrile at a silver cathode for the synthesis of cyanoacetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scialdone, Onofrio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)], E-mail: scialdone@dicpm.unipa.it; Galia, Alessandro; Filardo, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Isse, Abdirisak Ahmed [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 1, 35131 Padova (Italy)], E-mail: Abdirisak.ahmedisse@unipd.it; Gennaro, Armando [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 1, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2008-12-30

    The electrocatalytic carboxylation of chloroacetonitrile to cyanoacetic acid performed at silver cathodes was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Silver exhibits powerful electrocatalytic activities towards the reduction of chloroacetonitrile. In CO{sub 2}-saturated CH{sub 3}CN, reduction of NCCH{sub 2}Cl occurs at potentials that are about 0.7 V more positive than those observed at glassy carbon and gives cyanoacetic acid in good yields. Theoretical considerations on the effect of operative parameters on the performances of the process were confirmed by electrocarboxylation experiments performed in undivided cells equipped with sacrificial anodes both in a bench-scale electrochemical batch reactor and in a continuous batch recirculation reaction system equipped with a parallel plate electrochemical cell. Selectivities and Faradic efficiencies higher than 80% were obtained by working under anhydrous conditions both under amperostatic and potentiostatic alimentation at proper values of either current density or applied potential.

  18. Pyruvate carboxylation enables growth of SDH-deficient cells by supporting aspartate biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardaci, Simone; Zheng, Liang; MacKay, Gillian; van den Broek, Niels J F; MacKenzie, Elaine D; Nixon, Colin; Stevenson, David; Tumanov, Sergey; Bulusu, Vinay; Kamphorst, Jurre J; Vazquez, Alexei; Fleming, Stewart; Schiavi, Francesca; Kalna, Gabriela; Blyth, Karen; Strathdee, Douglas; Gottlieb, Eyal

    2015-10-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a heterotetrameric nuclear-encoded complex responsible for the oxidation of succinate to fumarate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Loss-of-function mutations in any of the SDH genes are associated with cancer formation. However, the impact of SDH loss on cell metabolism and the mechanisms enabling growth of SDH-defective cells are largely unknown. Here, we generated Sdhb-ablated kidney mouse cells and used comparative metabolomics and stable-isotope-labelling approaches to identify nutritional requirements and metabolic adaptations to SDH loss. We found that lack of SDH activity commits cells to consume extracellular pyruvate, which sustains Warburg-like bioenergetic features. We further demonstrated that pyruvate carboxylation diverts glucose-derived carbons into aspartate biosynthesis, thus sustaining cell growth. By identifying pyruvate carboxylase as essential for the proliferation and tumorigenic capacity of SDH-deficient cells, this study revealed a metabolic vulnerability for potential future treatment of SDH-associated malignancies. PMID:26302408

  19. Dichloridobis(4-pyridylmethyl 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate-κNzinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilong Zhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecule, [ZnCl2(C11H10N2O22], the ZnII ion, situated on a twofold axis, is in a distorted tetrahedral coordination environment formed by two chloride anions and two pyridine N atoms of the two organic ligands. In the pyrrole-2-carboxylate unit, the pyrrole N—H group and the carbonyl group point approximately in the same direction. The dihedral angle between the two pyridine rings is 54.8 (3°. The complex molecules are connected into chains extending along [101] by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds. The chains are further assembled into (-101 layers by C—H...O and C—H...Cl interactions.

  20. Determination of small carboxylic acids by capillary electrophoresis with electrospray-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is used with electrospray-mass spectrometry (ES-MS) to analyze a mixture of succinic, maleic, malonic, and glutaric acids as the negative parent ions ([M-H]-). The CE is coupled with the ES-MS via a make-up sheath flow. The CE mobile phase consists of an aqueous solution of naphthalene disulfonate (NDS), pyromellitic acid, and methanol, with diethylene triamine (DETA) as an electroosmotic flow modifier. Compromise experimental parameters for the CE separation and ES-MS detection are evaluated. Detection limits for CE-ES-MS determination of the sample are 1-10 ppm or 60-600 pg. The carboxylic acid sample is injected directly into the CE column with little or no preparation. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Facile Synthesis of N-Methylated Amino Acids from Chiral Aziridine-2-carboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jihye; Ha, Hyun-Joon [Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Our recent success with the so-called N-methylative aziridine ring-opening reaction of nonactivated aziridines led us to the preparation of N-methylated amino acids. The nucleophilic ring-opening reaction of nonactivated aziridines requires the prerequisite of activation of aziridine as aziridinium ion, as shown in Scheme 1. We activate this nonactivated aziridine by methylation with methyltriflate to methylated aziridinium ion whose counterpart triflate anion is not nucleophilic enough to open the aziridine ring. The following external nucleophiles are applicable to the ringopening reaction, yielding N-methylated aziridine. In conclusion, we described an efficient preparation of Nmethylated α- and β-amino acids by N-methylative aziridine ring-opening reaction of aziridine-2-carboxylate and carboxamide with various nucleophiles.

  2. Effect of pH and nitrogen source in carboxylation by seedlings of wheat and maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboxylation has been studied in leaves homogenate, expressed as RuBP-carboxylase activity, using as one of the substrates NaH14CO3, and giving the acitivity value as nanomols of 14CO2 incorporated by mg.. of protein per minute in the determined conditions. The variable is the pH of the culture media. Cultures has been studied with pH values between 3.5 and 6.2. Three different nitrogen sources has been used, carefully calculating the composition of each medium in order that all of them have same nitrogen content:1) Nitrate medium, 2) Ammonium sulfate medium and 3) Ammonium nitrate medium. The results are presented graphically with a discussion about them. It is shown that the effect of pH is less pronounced in maize that in wheat, with NO3 nitrogen source that with NH4+, and in plants 28 days age than in plants 7 days age. (author)

  3. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Synthase Genes in Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Hong Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene is an important factor that stimulates Hevea brasiliensis to produce natural rubber. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS is a rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis. However, knowledge of the ACS gene family of H. brasiliensis is limited. In this study, nine ACS-like genes were identified in H. brasiliensis. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis results confirmed that seven isozymes (HbACS1–7 of these nine ACS-like genes were similar to ACS isozymes with ACS activity in other plants. Expression analysis results showed that seven ACS genes were differentially expressed in roots, barks, flowers, and leaves of H. brasiliensis. However, no or low ACS gene expression was detected in the latex of H. brasiliensis. Moreover, seven genes were differentially up-regulated by ethylene treatment. These results provided relevant information to help determine the functions of the ACS gene in H. brasiliensis, particularly the functions in regulating ethylene stimulation of latex production.

  4. Occurrence and fate of oseltamivir carboxylate (Tamiflu) and amantadine in sewage treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Gopal Chandra; Nakada, Norihide; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the occurrence and fate of the two antiviral drugs oseltamivir carboxylate (OC)-the active metabolite of Tamiflu-and amantadine (AMT) at three sewage treatment plants (STPs) during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 influenza seasons in Japan. Both compounds were detected in all samples analyzed. The concentrations in raw influents at the STPs ranged from 140 to 460 ng L(-1) OC and from 184 to 538 ng L(-1) AMT. Primary treatment gave no substantial removal of the drugs (OC, 2-9%; AMT, 7-17%). Biological nutrient-removal-based secondary treatment (anoxic-oxic-anoxic-oxic and anaerobic-anoxic-oxic) removed 20-37% of OC, whereas extended-aeration-based conventional activated sludge treatment removed ozonation removed >90%. Ozonation after secondary treatment in STPs will be necessary during an influenza pandemic to reduce the risks associated with the widespread use of antiviral drugs. PMID:20692015

  5. Red-emitting alkaline-earth rare-earth pentaoxometallates powders prepared by metal carboxylates solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kyu-Seog Hwang; Sung-Dae Kim; Seung Hwangbo; Jin-Tae Kim

    2013-06-01

    Moisture-insensitive metal carboxylates that are mostly liquids at room temperature have been first applied to the preparation of strontium europium aluminate (Sr2EuAlO5) powders for red-emitting phosphor under near ultraviolet radiation. Strontium naphthenate, aluminium-2-ethylhexanoate and europium-2-ethylhexanoate were dissolved with toluene to prepare starting solution. Precursor pyrolyzed at 500 °C for 240 min was finally annealed at 900–1200 °C for 240 min in Ar. X-ray diffraction analysis, field emission–scanning electron microscope and fluorescent spectrophotometer were used to evaluate structural and optical properties. For the 1000 °C-annealed powders with regular shape and narrow size distribution confirmed by FE–SEM observation, strong red emission at 615nm under the excitation of 395nm maximum was reached, then the higher annealed samples at above 1100 °C gave the lower emission intensities.

  6. Conjugates of 1'-Aminoferrocene-1-carboxylic Acid and Proline: Synthesis, Conformational Analysis and Biological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kovačević

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies showed that alteration of dipeptides Y-Fca-Ala-OMe (III into Y-Ala-Fca-OMe (IV (Y = Ac, Boc; Fca = 1'-aminoferrocene-1-carboxylic acid significantly influenced their conformational space. The novel bioconjugates Y-Fca-Pro-OMe (1, Y = Ac; 2, Y = Boc and Y-Pro-Fca-OMe (3, Y = Boc; 4, Y = Ac have been prepared in order to investigate the influence of proline, a well-known turn-inducer, on the conformational properties of small organometallic peptides with an exchanged constituent amino acid sequences. For this purpose, peptides 1–4 were subjected to detailed spectroscopic analysis (IR, NMR, CD spectroscopy in solution. The conformation of peptide 3 in the solid state was determined. Furthermore, the ability of the prepared conjugates to inhibit the growth of estrogen receptor-responsive MCF-7 mammary carcinoma cells and HeLa cervical carcinoma cells was tested.

  7. Atom-economic catalytic amide synthesis from amines and carboxylic acids activated in situ with acetylenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Thilo; Baader, Sabrina; Erb, Benjamin; Gooßen, Lukas J.

    2016-01-01

    Amide bond-forming reactions are of tremendous significance in synthetic chemistry. Methodological research has, in the past, focused on efficiency and selectivity, and these have reached impressive levels. However, the unacceptable amounts of waste produced have led the ACS GCI Roundtable to label ‘amide bond formation avoiding poor atom economy' as the most pressing target for sustainable synthetic method development. In response to this acute demand, we herein disclose an efficient one-pot amide coupling protocol that is based on simple alkynes as coupling reagents: in the presence of a dichloro[(2,6,10-dodecatriene)-1,12-diyl]ruthenium catalyst, carboxylate salts of primary or secondary amines react with acetylene or ethoxyacetylene to vinyl ester intermediates, which undergo aminolysis to give the corresponding amides along only with volatile acetaldehyde or ethyl acetate, respectively. The new amide synthesis is broadly applicable to the synthesis of structurally diverse amides, including dipeptides. PMID:27282773

  8. Carboxyl-functionalized magnetic microparticle carrier for isolation and identification of DNA in dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetite nanoparticles about 14nm in diameter were obtained by chemical coprecipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts with aqueous ammonia in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) microspheres about 1μm in diameter were prepared by dispersion polymerization of GMA in aqueous ethanol in the presence of PEG-coated magnetite nanoparticles. The microspheres were hydrolyzed and carboxyl groups introduced by oxidation with KMnO4. The particles reversibly bound bacterial DNA of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genera in the presence of high concentrations of PEG 6000 and sodium chloride from crude cell lysates of various dairy products (butter milk, cheese, yoghurt, probiotic tablets) or from cell lyophilisates. The presence of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus DNA in samples was confirmed by PCR amplification

  9. Carboxyl-functionalized magnetic microparticle carrier for isolation and identification of DNA in dairy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, Daniel [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovskeho Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: horak@imc.cas.cz; Rittich, Bohuslav [Masaryk University Brno, Tvrdeho 14, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: rittich@sci.muni.cz; Spanova, Alena [Masaryk University Brno, Tvrdeho 14, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: spanova@sci.muni.cz

    2007-04-15

    Magnetite nanoparticles about 14nm in diameter were obtained by chemical coprecipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts with aqueous ammonia in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) microspheres about 1{mu}m in diameter were prepared by dispersion polymerization of GMA in aqueous ethanol in the presence of PEG-coated magnetite nanoparticles. The microspheres were hydrolyzed and carboxyl groups introduced by oxidation with KMnO{sub 4}. The particles reversibly bound bacterial DNA of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genera in the presence of high concentrations of PEG 6000 and sodium chloride from crude cell lysates of various dairy products (butter milk, cheese, yoghurt, probiotic tablets) or from cell lyophilisates. The presence of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus DNA in samples was confirmed by PCR amplification.

  10. Enriched surface acidity for surfactant-free suspensions of carboxylated carbon nanotubes purified by centrifugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth I. Braun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that surfactant-suspended carbon nanotube (CNT samples can be purified by centrifugation to decrease agglomerates and increase individually-dispersed CNTs. However, centrifugation is not always part of protocols to prepare CNT samples used in biomedical applications. Herein, using carboxylated multi-walled CNTs (cMWCNTs suspended in water without a surfactant, we developed a Boehm titrimetric method for the analysis of centrifuged cMWCNT suspensions and used it to show that the surface acidity of oxidized carbon materials in aqueous cMWCNT suspensions was enriched by ∼40% by a single low-speed centrifugation step. This significant difference in surface acidity between un-centrifuged and centrifuged cMWCNT suspensions has not been previously appreciated and is important because the degree of surface acidity is known to affect the interactions of cMWCNTs with biological systems.

  11. Preparation of non-covalently functionalized graphene using 9-anthracene carboxylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple way of achieving stable aqueous dispersion of graphene by non-covalent functionalization using 9-anthracene carboxylic acid has been successfully accomplished. Unlike in chemically reduced graphene, the C-sp2 network of the graphene remains undistorted and therefore of superior quality. The non-covalent functionalization facilitates the exfoliation of graphite layers in a polarity controlled combination of media. A detailed exfoliation mechanism is proposed based on the controlled experiment and is supported by the data from UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction studies. Formation of monolayer graphene has been confirmed from Raman spectroscopy. The graphene based ultracapacitor shows a high value of specific capacitance (148 F g-1).

  12. Titanium dioxide induced cell damage: A proposed role of the carboxyl radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodd, Nicholas J.F. [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Jha, Awadhesh N. [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.jha@plymouth.ac.uk

    2009-01-15

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles have been shown to be genotoxic to cells exposed to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. Using the technique of electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping, we have confirmed that the primary damaging species produced on irradiation of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles is the hydroxyl (OH) radical. We have applied this technique to TiO{sub 2}-treated fish and mammalian cells under in vitro conditions and observed the additional formation of carboxyl radical anions (CO{sub 2}{sup -}) and superoxide radical anions (O{sub 2}{sup -}). This novel finding suggests a hitherto unreported pathway for damage, involving primary generation of OH radicals in the cytoplasm, which react to give CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals. The latter may then react with cellular oxygen to form O{sub 2}{sup -} and genotoxic hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})

  13. Crowned spiropyran fluoroionophores with a carboxyl moiety for the selective detection of lithium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubing, D B; Heng, S; Abell, A D

    2016-04-12

    The absorbance and fluorescence spectra of carboxylated spiropyrans containing methyl-1-aza-12-crown-4, methyl-1-aza-15-crown-5, methyl-1-aza-18-crown-6 moieties are compared. Characteristic changes in spectra after addition of the alkali metal salts of Li(+), Na(+), K(+) and Cs(+) were observed. Chromism induced by the binding of the metal cations was observed as an increase in absorbance and fluorescence. Of these metal cations, the Li(+) ion produced the largest change in all three spiropyran systems. Reversible photoswitching of the spiropyran-metal complexes was observed on irradiation with alternating 352 nm UV and white light. This results in reversible fluorescence based sensing of lithium ions with potential for use in a biological sensor device. PMID:27001932

  14. Preparation and characterization of tannase immobilized onto carboxyl-functionalized superparamagnetic ferroferric oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changzheng; Xu, Caiyun; Ni, Hui; Yang, Qiuming; Cai, Huinong; Xiao, Anfeng

    2016-04-01

    Tannase from Aspergillus tubingensis was immobilized onto carboxyl-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (CMNPs), and conditions affecting tannase immobilization were investigated. Successful binding between CMNPs and tannase was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Vibrating sample magnetometry and X-ray diffraction showed that the CMNPs and immobilized tannase exhibit distinct magnetic responses and superparamagnetic properties. Free and immobilized tannase exhibited identical optimal temperatures of 50°C and differing pH optima at 6 and 7, respectively. The thermal, pH, and storage stabilities of the immobilized tannase were superior to those of free tannase. After six cycles of catalytic hydrolysis of propyl gallate, the immobilized tannase maintained over 60% of its initial activity. The Michaelis constant (Km) of the immobilized enzyme indicated its higher affinity for substrate binding than the free enzyme. PMID:26809129

  15. Atom-economic catalytic amide synthesis from amines and carboxylic acids activated in situ with acetylenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Thilo; Baader, Sabrina; Erb, Benjamin; Gooßen, Lukas J

    2016-01-01

    Amide bond-forming reactions are of tremendous significance in synthetic chemistry. Methodological research has, in the past, focused on efficiency and selectivity, and these have reached impressive levels. However, the unacceptable amounts of waste produced have led the ACS GCI Roundtable to label 'amide bond formation avoiding poor atom economy' as the most pressing target for sustainable synthetic method development. In response to this acute demand, we herein disclose an efficient one-pot amide coupling protocol that is based on simple alkynes as coupling reagents: in the presence of a dichloro[(2,6,10-dodecatriene)-1,12-diyl]ruthenium catalyst, carboxylate salts of primary or secondary amines react with acetylene or ethoxyacetylene to vinyl ester intermediates, which undergo aminolysis to give the corresponding amides along only with volatile acetaldehyde or ethyl acetate, respectively. The new amide synthesis is broadly applicable to the synthesis of structurally diverse amides, including dipeptides. PMID:27282773

  16. LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF CARBOXYLIC-ACIDS USING N-(4-AMINOBUTYL)-N-ETHYLISOLUMINOL AS CHEMILUMINESCENT LABEL - DETERMINATION OF IBUPROFEN IN SALIVA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEIJGER, OM; LINGEMAN, H; BRINKMAN, UAT; HOLTHUIS, JJM; SMILDE, AK; DOORNBOS, DA

    1993-01-01

    N-(4-Aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol was used for labelling of carboxylic acids. The derivatization reaction was carried out with 1-hydroxybenzotriazole as pre-activator of the carboxylic acid function and N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide as the coupling reagent. Optimum conditions for t

  17. The effect of aliphatic carboxylic acids on olfaction-based host-seeking of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Qiu, Y.T.; Bukovinszkine-Kiss, G.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2009-01-01

    The role of aliphatic carboxylic acids in host-seeking response of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto was examined both in a dual-choice olfactometer and with indoor traps. A basic attractive blend of ammonia + lactic acid served as internal standard odor. Single carboxylic acids w

  18. Identification of carboxyl terminal peptide of Fibrinogen as a potential serum biomarker for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng; Luo, Zhiwen; Tang, Dan; Liu, Lijie; Yao, Dingkang; Zhu, Liang; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a very common disease worldwide where new serum biomarkers are urgently needed to improve their early diagnosis. In this study, we aim to search for the potential serum protein/peptide biomarkers of GC by using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). We first obtained the serum protein/peptide profiles from a training dataset including 30 patients with GC, 16 cases with chronic benign gastric disease (CGD), and 30 normal controls (CON) where 15 protein peaks were identified to exhibit the obvious deviation (P CGD, and CON analyzed by Biomarker Wizard 3.1 software with three protein peaks with mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio 5910, 5342, and 6439 further confirmed in the validation dataset. Among the three protein peaks, peak 5910 displayed the most significantly different which could distinguish GC patients from CGD and CON with a sensitivity of 86.3 %, a specificity of 91.3 %, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.89 by using the optimal cutoff value of 17.3. We further identified peak 5910 as the carboxyl terminal fraction of Fibrinogen α by LC-MS and validated its identity by antiserum-mediated SELDI-based immunodepletion assays. In sum, SELDI-TOF-MS method could effectively generate serum peptidome in cancer patients and provide a new approach to identify potentially diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for cancer. The carboxyl terminal fraction of Fibrinogen α may be a potential serological biomarker for GC diagnosis. PMID:26662807

  19. Copper(II) ethylene glycol carboxylates as precursors for inkjet printing of conductive copper patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adner, David [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Technische Universität Chemnitz, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Wolf, Franziska M. [Laboratory of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry (IOMC), Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Humboldtstr. 10, 07743 Jena (Germany); Jena Center of Soft Matter (JCSM), Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Philosophenweg 7, 07743 Jena (Germany); Möckel, Stefan [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Technische Universität Chemnitz, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Perelaer, Jolke; Schubert, Ulrich S. [Laboratory of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry (IOMC), Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Humboldtstr. 10, 07743 Jena (Germany); Jena Center of Soft Matter (JCSM), Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Philosophenweg 7, 07743 Jena (Germany); Lang, Heinrich, E-mail: heinrich.lang@chemie.tu-chemnitz.de [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Technische Universität Chemnitz, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2014-08-28

    Copper(II) ethylene glycol carboxylates were investigated as precursors for inkjet printing of conductive copper patterns. The compounds with the general formula Cu[O{sub 2}CCRR′(OC{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}OCH{sub 3}]{sub 2} (R = R′ = H: 2a; R = H, R′ = Me: 2b; R = R′ = Me: 2c; R = H, R′ = Ph: 2d, R/R′ = O: 2e) show a high solubility in water and many organic solvents. By thermal decomposition the compounds yield pure copper as the only non-volatile product, as confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Depending on the substituents R and R′ the decomposition temperature varies between 175 and 220 °C. The mechanism of the thermal degradation was studied by thermogravimetry–mass spectrometry coupling experiments. For complex 2a, an aqueous 1.5 M solution (7.7 wt.% copper) exhibits rheological properties that are well-suited for inkjet printing. Thermal conversion of the as-printed structures under inert conditions yielded copper layers with only minor residues of carbon and oxygen. Electrical conductivities of 1.5 · 10{sup 6} S·m{sup −1} on polyimide and 8.1 · 10{sup 6} S·m{sup −1} on glass were found, which correspond to 2.6 and 14% of the bulk copper conductivity, respectively. - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterisation of metal–organic copper(II) carboxylates • Decomposition studies by thermogravimetric measurements and mass spectrometry • Inkjet printing of conductive copper structures on different substrate materials • High electrical conductivity was obtained without sintering in a reducing atmosphere.

  20. Analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids in anaerobic digestion process waters by ion-exclusion chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuaki ITO; Kazuhiko TANAKA; Jun SAKAMOTO; Kazuya NAGAOKA; Yohichi TAKAYAMA; Takashi KANAHORI; Hiroshi SUNAHARA; Tsuneo HAYASHI; Shinji SATO; Takeshi HIROKAWA

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of seven aliphatic carboxylic acids ( formic,acetic,propionic,iso-butyric,n-butyric,iso-valeric and n-valeric acid) in anaerobic digestion process waters for biogas production was examined by ion-exclusion chromatography with dilute acidic eluents (benzoic acid,perfluorobutyric acid (PFBA) and sulfuric acid) and non-suppressed conductivity/ultraviolet (UV) detection.The columns used were a styrene/divinylbenzene-based strongly acidic cation-exchange resin column ( TSKgel SCX) and a polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column ( TSKgel Super IC-A/C ).Good separation was performed on the TSKgel SCX in shorter retention times.For the TSKgel Super IC-A/C,peak shape of the acids was sharp and symmetrical in spite of longer retention times.In addition,the mutual separation of the acids was good except for iso- and n-butyric acids.The better separation and good detection was achieved by using the two columns (TSKgel SCX and TSKgel Super IC-A/C connected in series),lower concentrations of PFBA and sulfuric acid as eluents,non-suppressed conductivity detection and UV detection at 210 nm.This analysis was applied to anaerobic digestion process waters.The chromatograms with conductivity detection were relatively simpler compared with those of UV detection.The use of two columns with different selectivities for the aliphatic carboxylic acids and the two detection modes was effective for the determination and identification of the analytes in anaerobic digestion process waters containing complex matrices.

  1. Evaluation of toxic effects of several carboxylic acids on bacterial growth by toxicodynamic modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez José

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effects of organic acids on microbial fermentation are commonly tested in investigations about metabolic behaviour of bacteria. However, they typically provide only descriptive information without modelling the influence of acid concentrations on bacterial kinetics. Results We developed and applied a mathematical model (secondary model to capture the toxicological effects of those chemicals on kinetic parameters that define the growth of bacteria in batch cultures. Thus, dose-response kinetics were performed with different bacteria (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Carnobacterium pisicola, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Listonella anguillarum exposed at increasing concentrations of individual carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, butyric and lactic. In all bioassays the acids affected the maximum bacterial load (Xm and the maximum growth rate (vm but only in specific cases the lag phase (λ was modified. Significance of the parameters was always high and in all fermentations the toxicodynamic equation was statistically consistent and had good predictability. The differences between D and L-lactic acid effects were significant for the growth of E. coli, L. mesenteroides and C. piscicola. In addition, a global parameter (EC50,τ was used to compare toxic effects and provided a realistic characterization of antimicrobial agents using a single value. Conclusions The effect of several organic acids on the growth of different bacteria was accurately studied and perfectly characterized by a bivariate equation which combines the basis of dose-response theory with microbial growth kinetics (secondary model. The toxicity of carboxylic acids was lower with the increase of the molecular weight of these chemicals.

  2. Metallaphotoredox-catalysed sp(3)-sp(3) cross-coupling of carboxylic acids with alkyl halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Craig P; Smith, Russell T; Allmendinger, Simon; MacMillan, David W C

    2016-08-18

    In the past 50 years, cross-coupling reactions mediated by transition metals have changed the way in which complex organic molecules are synthesized. The predictable and chemoselective nature of these transformations has led to their widespread adoption across many areas of chemical research. However, the construction of a bond between two sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms, a fundamental unit of organic chemistry, remains an important yet elusive objective for engineering cross-coupling reactions. In comparison to related procedures with sp(2)-hybridized species, the development of methods for sp(3)-sp(3) bond formation via transition metal catalysis has been hampered historically by deleterious side-reactions, such as β-hydride elimination with palladium catalysis or the reluctance of alkyl halides to undergo oxidative addition. To address this issue, nickel-catalysed cross-coupling processes can be used to form sp(3)-sp(3) bonds that utilize organometallic nucleophiles and alkyl electrophiles. In particular, the coupling of alkyl halides with pre-generated organozinc, Grignard and organoborane species has been used to furnish diverse molecular structures. However, the manipulations required to produce these activated structures is inefficient, leading to poor step- and atom-economies. Moreover, the operational difficulties associated with making and using these reactive coupling partners, and preserving them through a synthetic sequence, has hindered their widespread adoption. A generically useful sp(3)-sp(3) coupling technology that uses bench-stable, native organic functional groups, without the need for pre-functionalization or substrate derivatization, would therefore be valuable. Here we demonstrate that the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis enables the direct formation of sp(3)-sp(3) bonds using only simple carboxylic acids and alkyl halides as the nucleophilic and electrophilic coupling partners, respectively. This metallaphotoredox

  3. Expression of a functional jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase is negatively correlated with strawberry fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuß, Anja; Augustin, Christiane; Figueroa, Carlos R; Hoffmann, Thomas; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Sevilla, José F; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-09-15

    The volatile metabolite methyl jasmonate (MeJA) plays an important role in intra- and interplant communication and is involved in diverse biological processes. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a S-adenosyl-l-methionine:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) from Fragaria vesca and Fragaria×ananassa. Biochemical assays and comprehensive transcript analyses showed that JMT has been erroneously annotated as gene fusion with a carboxyl methyltransferase (CMT) (gene15184) in the first published genome sequence of F. vesca. Recombinant FvJMT catalyzed the formation of MeJA with KM value of 22.3μM while FvCMT and the fusion protein were almost inactive. Activity of JMT with benzoic acid and salicylic acid as substrates was less than 1.5% of that with JA. Leucine at position 245, an amino acid missing in other JMT sequences is essential for activity of FvJMT. In accordance with MeJA levels, JMT transcript levels decreased steadily during strawberry fruit ripening, as did the expression levels of JA biosynthesis and regulatory genes. It appears that CMT has originated by a recent duplication of JMT and lost its enzymatic activity toward JA. In the newest version of the strawberry genome sequence (June 2014) CMT and JMT are annotated as separate genes in accordance with differential temporal and spatial expression patterns of both genes in Fragaria sp. In conclusion, MeJA, the inactive derivative of JA, is probably involved in early steps of fruit development by modulating the levels of the active plant hormone JA. PMID:25046752

  4. Biological roles and therapeutic potential of hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashan eAhmed

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, deorphanization studies have described intermediates of energy metabolism to activate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and to thereby regulate metabolic functions. GPR81, GPR109A and GPR109B, formerly known as the nicotinic acid receptor family, are encoded by clustered genes and share a high degree of sequence homology. Recently, hydroxy-carboxylic acids were identified as endogenous ligands of GPR81, GPR109A and GPR109B, and therefore these receptors have been placed into a novel receptor family of hydroxy-carboxylic acid (HCA receptors. The HCA1 receptor (GPR81 is activated by the glycolytic metabolite 2-hydroxy-propionic acid (lactate, the HCA2 receptor is activated by the ketone body 3-hydroxy-butyric acid and the HCA3 receptor (GPR109B is a receptor for the β-oxidation intermediate 3-hydroxy-octanoic acid. While HCA1 and HCA2 receptors are present in most mammalian species, the HCA3 receptor is exclusively found in humans and higher primates. HCA receptors are expressed in adipose tissue and mediate anti-lipolytic effects in adipocytes through Gi-type G-protein-dependent inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. HCA2 and HCA3 inhibit lipolysis during conditions of increased β-oxidation such as prolonged fasting, whereas HCA1 mediates the anti-lipolytic effects of insulin in the fed state. As HCA2 is a receptor for the established anti-dyslipidemic drug nicotinic acid, HCA1 and HCA3 also represent promising drug targets and several synthetic ligands for HCA receptors have been developed. In this article, we will summarize the deorphanization and pharmacological characterization of HCA receptors. Moreover, we will discuss recent progress in elucidating the physiological and pathophysiological role to further evaluate the therapeutic potential of the HCA receptor family for the treatment of metabolic disease.

  5. Copper(II) ethylene glycol carboxylates as precursors for inkjet printing of conductive copper patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper(II) ethylene glycol carboxylates were investigated as precursors for inkjet printing of conductive copper patterns. The compounds with the general formula Cu[O2CCRR′(OC2H4)2OCH3]2 (R = R′ = H: 2a; R = H, R′ = Me: 2b; R = R′ = Me: 2c; R = H, R′ = Ph: 2d, R/R′ = O: 2e) show a high solubility in water and many organic solvents. By thermal decomposition the compounds yield pure copper as the only non-volatile product, as confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Depending on the substituents R and R′ the decomposition temperature varies between 175 and 220 °C. The mechanism of the thermal degradation was studied by thermogravimetry–mass spectrometry coupling experiments. For complex 2a, an aqueous 1.5 M solution (7.7 wt.% copper) exhibits rheological properties that are well-suited for inkjet printing. Thermal conversion of the as-printed structures under inert conditions yielded copper layers with only minor residues of carbon and oxygen. Electrical conductivities of 1.5 · 106 S·m−1 on polyimide and 8.1 · 106 S·m−1 on glass were found, which correspond to 2.6 and 14% of the bulk copper conductivity, respectively. - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterisation of metal–organic copper(II) carboxylates • Decomposition studies by thermogravimetric measurements and mass spectrometry • Inkjet printing of conductive copper structures on different substrate materials • High electrical conductivity was obtained without sintering in a reducing atmosphere

  6. Stability study of ZnO nanoparticles in aqueous solutions of carboxylate anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godymchuk, Anna, E-mail: godymchuk@tpu.ru; Karepina, Elizaveta; Yunda, Elena; Lyamina, Galina [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Kosova, Natalia [National Research Tomsk State University (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, Denis [National University of Science and Technology “MISiS” (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    The paper is devoted to the use of carboxylic acids and salts for the elaboration of stable suspensions of ZnO engineered nanoparticles (40 and 200 nm) in physiological media at pH 6–8. It was shown that the aggregation degree of ZnO-200 particles increases with the growth of carboxylic anion activity, e.g., at pH 7 in the row «Acetate{sup −}–Citrate{sup 3−}–Oxalate{sup 2−}» the average size of ZnO-200 particles in suspensions amounts to «169–523–770» nm, zeta potential–«35.9–−19.9–+5.42 mV», respectively. The aggregation degree of ZnO-40 particles increases in the row «Citrate{sup 3−}–Acetate{sup −}–Oxalate{sup 2−}», at pH 7, the average size of ZnO-40 particles in suspension amounts to «50–121–430» nm, zeta potential–«−28.3–−14.5–+2.3» mV, respectively. pH-impact was found to be size-dependent: there was a significantly less effect of pH on adsorption, dispersion, and electrokinetic properties of ZnO-40 particles when compared to ZnO-200 particles. The main reason for the difference between micro- and nanosized particles behavior is a change of the ratio of acidic, basic, and neutral Bronsted centers for particles of nanosized scale.

  7. New divalent manganese complex with pyridine carboxylate N-oxide ligand: Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new manganese complexes, [Mn3(L1)4(NO3)2]n (1, HL1=nicotinate N-oxide acid) and [MnL2Cl]n (2, HL2=isonicotinate N-oxide acid)], have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In 1, the L1 ligands take two different coordinated modes bridging four and three MnII ions. The nitrate anions take chelating coordination modes, leading one type of the MnII ions as a 4-connected node. The whole net can be viewed as a 3, 4, 6-connected 4-nodal net with Schlaefli notation {43}2{44; 62}4{46; 66; 83}. Complex 2 has a honeycomb layer mixed bridged by chlorine, N-oxide and carboxylate. The adjacent layers are linked by the phenyl ring of L2 ligand, giving a 3D framework with a {34; 54} {32;4;56;66} 4, 6-connect net. Magnetic studies indicate that 1 is an antiferromagnet with low-dimensional characteristic, in which a -J1J1J2- coupled alternating chain is predigested. Fitting the data of 1 gives the best parameters J1=-2.77, J2=-0.67 cm-1. The magnetic properties of complex 2 represent the character of the 2D honeycomb layer with the J1=-2.05 and J2=0.55 cm-1, which results in a whole antiferromagnetic state. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of two new MnII complexes with pyridyl-carboxylate N-oxide ligands are reported.

  8. A Capillary Electrochromatographic Microchip Packed with Self-Assembly Colloidal Carboxylic Silica Beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, In Sun; Kim, Shin Seon; Park, Jong Man [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    An electrochromatographic microchip with carboxyl-group-derivatized mono-disperse silica packing was prepared from the corresponding colloidal silica solution by utilizing capillary action and self-assembly behavior. The silica beads in water were primed by the capillary action toward the ends of cross-patterned microchannel on a cyclic olefinic copolymer (COC) substrate. Slow evaporation of water at the front of packing promoted the self-assembled packing of the beads. After thermally binding a cover plate on the chip substrate, reservoirs for sample solutions were fabricated at the ends of the microchannel. The packing at the entrances of the microchannel was silver coated to fix utilizing an electroless silver-plating technique to prevent the erosion of the packed structure caused by the sudden switching of a high voltage DC power source. The electrochromatographic behavior of the microchip was explored and compared to that of the microchip with bare silica packing in basic borate buffer. Electrophoretic migration of Rhodamine B was dominant in the microchip with the carboxyl-derivatized silica packing that resulted in a migration approximated twice as fast, while the reversible adsorption was dominant in the bare silica-packed microchip. Not only the faster migration rates of the negatively charged FITC-derivatives of amino acids but also the different migration due to the charge interaction at the packing surface were observed. The electrochromatographic characteristics were studied in detail and compared with those of the bare silica packed microchip in terms of the packing material, the separation potential, pH of the running buffer, and also the separation channel length

  9. A Capillary Electrochromatographic Microchip Packed with Self-Assembly Colloidal Carboxylic Silica Beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrochromatographic microchip with carboxyl-group-derivatized mono-disperse silica packing was prepared from the corresponding colloidal silica solution by utilizing capillary action and self-assembly behavior. The silica beads in water were primed by the capillary action toward the ends of cross-patterned microchannel on a cyclic olefinic copolymer (COC) substrate. Slow evaporation of water at the front of packing promoted the self-assembled packing of the beads. After thermally binding a cover plate on the chip substrate, reservoirs for sample solutions were fabricated at the ends of the microchannel. The packing at the entrances of the microchannel was silver coated to fix utilizing an electroless silver-plating technique to prevent the erosion of the packed structure caused by the sudden switching of a high voltage DC power source. The electrochromatographic behavior of the microchip was explored and compared to that of the microchip with bare silica packing in basic borate buffer. Electrophoretic migration of Rhodamine B was dominant in the microchip with the carboxyl-derivatized silica packing that resulted in a migration approximated twice as fast, while the reversible adsorption was dominant in the bare silica-packed microchip. Not only the faster migration rates of the negatively charged FITC-derivatives of amino acids but also the different migration due to the charge interaction at the packing surface were observed. The electrochromatographic characteristics were studied in detail and compared with those of the bare silica packed microchip in terms of the packing material, the separation potential, pH of the running buffer, and also the separation channel length

  10. Δ(1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate/glutamate biogenesis is required for fungal virulence and sporulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziting Yao

    Full Text Available Proline dehydrogenase (Prodh and Δ(1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5Cdh are two key enzymes in the cellular biogenesis of glutamate. Recombinant Prodh and P5Cdh proteins of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica were investigated and showed activity in in vitro assays. Additionally, the C. parasitica Prodh and P5Cdh genes were able to complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae put1 and put2 null mutants, respectively, to allow these proline auxotrophic yeast mutants to grow on media with proline as the sole source of nitrogen. Deletion of the Prodh gene in C. parasitica resulted in hypovirulence and a lower level of sporulation, whereas deletion of P5Cdh resulted in hypovirulence though no effect on sporulation; both Δprodh and Δp5cdh mutants were unable to grow on minimal medium with proline as the sole nitrogen source. In a wild-type strain, the intracellular level of proline and the activity of Prodh and P5Cdh increased after supplementation of exogenous proline, though the intracellular Δ(1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C content remained unchanged. Prodh and P5Cdh were both transcriptionally down-regulated in cells infected with hypovirus. The disruption of other genes with products involved in the conversion of arginine to ornithine, ornithine and glutamate to P5C, and P5C to proline in the cytosol did not appear to affect virulence; however, asexual sporulation was reduced in the Δpro1 and Δpro2 mutants. Taken together, our results showed that Prodh, P5Cdh and related mitochondrial functions are essential for virulence and that proline/glutamate pathway components may represent down-stream targets of hypovirus regulation in C. parasitica.

  11. Erbium trifluoromethanesulfonate-catalyzed Friedel–Crafts acylation using aromatic carboxylic acids as acylating agents under monomode-microwave irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phuong Hoang; Hansen, Poul Erik; Nguyen, Hai Truong;

    2015-01-01

    Erbium trifluoromethanesulfonate is found to be a good catalyst for the Friedel–Crafts acylation of arenes containing electron-donating substituents using aromatic carboxylic acids as the acylating agents under microwave irradiation. An effective, rapid and waste-free method allows the preparation...... of a wide range of aryl ketones in good yields and in short reaction times with minimum amounts of waste...

  12. Characterisation and application of new carboxylic acid-functionalised ruthenium complexes as dye-sensitisers for solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duprez, Virginie; Biancardo, Matteo; Krebs, Frederik C

    2007-01-01

    A series of ruthenium complexes with and without TiO2, anchoring carboxylic acid groups have been synthesised and characterised using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), UV-vis and luminescence. These complexes were adsorbed on thin films of the wide band-gap semiconductor anatase and were tested as...

  13. Copper-Catalyzed N-Arylation of Amides Using (S-N-Methylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylate as the Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Sheng Ma

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available (S-N-methylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylate, a derivative of natural L-proline, was found to be an efficient ligand for the copper-catalyzed Goldberg-type N-arylation of amides with aryl halides under mild conditions. A variety of N-arylamides were synthesized in good to high yields.

  14. Octyl- and Nonylphenol Ethoxylates and Carboxylates in Wastewater and Sediments by Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work presents an LC-MS-MS-based method for the quantitation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) and octylphenol ethoxylates (OPEOs) in water, sediment, and suspended particulate matter, and three of their carboxylated derivatives in water. The alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) were analyzed using...

  15. Theoretical and experimental studies on the electronic, optical, and structural properties of poly-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Novel approach for preparing a functionalized polypyrrole film. • Comparative experimental and theoretical results – conjugated polymers. • Accurate electronic, structural, and optical properties obtained for poly-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid films. • Proposal of mechanism of electropolymerization of pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid films. - Abstract: A theoretical approach is used here to explain experimental results obtained from the electrosynthesis of polypyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (PPY-2-COOH) films in nonaqueous medium. An analysis of the Fukui function (reactivity index) indicates that the monomer (pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid, PY-2-COOH), and dimers and trimers are oxidized in the C4 or C5 positions of the heterocyclic ring of the PY-2-COOH structure. After calculating the heat of formation using semiempirical Austin Model 1 post-Hartree–Fock parameterization for dimer species, both C4 and C5 positions adjacent to the aromatic rings of PPY-2-COOH were considered the most susceptible ones to oxidative coupling reactions. The ZINDO-S/CI semiempirical method was used to simulate the electronic transitions typically seen in the UV–VIS–NIR range in monomer and oligomers with different conjugation lengths. The use of an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance provides sufficient information to propose a polymerization mechanism of PY-2-COOH based on molecular modeling and experimental results

  16. DETERMINATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS BY ION-EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH NON-SUPPRESSED CONDUCTIVITY AND OPTICAL DETECTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determination of carboxylic acids using non-suppressed conductivity and UV detections is described. The background conductance of 1-octanesulfonic acid, hexane sulfonic acid and sulfuric acid at varying concentrations was determined. Using 0.2 mM 1-octanesulfonic acid as a mobile...

  17. Microscopic mechanism of electron transfer through the hydrogen bonds between carboxylated alkanethiol molecules connected to gold electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yang

    2014-11-07

    © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. The atomic structure and the electron transfer properties of hydrogen bonds formed between two carboxylated alkanethiol molecules connected to gold electrodes are investigated by employing the non-equilibrium Green\\'s function formalism combined with density functional theory. Three types of molecular junctions are constructed, in which one carboxyl alkanethiol molecule contains two methylene, -CH2, groups and the other one is composed of one, two, or three -CH2 groups. Our calculations show that, similarly to the cases of isolated carboxylic acid dimers, in these molecular junctions the two carboxyl, -COOH, groups form two H-bonds resulting in a cyclic structure. When self-interaction corrections are explicitly considered, the calculated transmission coefficients of these three H-bonded molecular junctions at the Fermi level are in good agreement with the experimental values. The analysis of the projected density of states confirms that the covalent Au-S bonds localized at the molecule-electrode interfaces and the electronic coupling between -COOH and S dominate the low-bias junction conductance. Following the increase of the number of the -CH2 groups, the coupling between -COOH and S decreases deeply. As a result, the junction conductance decays rapidly as the length of the H-bonded molecules increases. These findings not only provide an explanation to the observed distance dependence of the electron transfer properties of H-bonds, but also help the design of molecular devices constructed through H-bonds.

  18. The influence of pendant carboxylic acid loading on surfaces of statistical poly(4-hydroxystyrene)-co-styrene)s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren

    2008-01-01

    synthesis with propargyl bromide and the copolymers were functionalized with pendant aliphatic or aromatic carboxylic acids by click chemistry. Differential scanning calorimetry of the copolymers demonstrates the large influence on Tg ofthe different functional groups and the backbone composition. In...... acid groups on the surface....

  19. Synthesis of 2,2'-Dipyrryl Ketones from Pyrrole-2-carboxylic Acids with Trifluoroacetic Anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Se Hee; Lim, Jin Woo; Yu, Jin; Kim, Jae Nyoung [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    An efficient synthesis of 2,2'-dipyrryl ketones has been carried out from pyrrole-2-carboxylic acids using trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA). Simultaneous generation of both mixed anhydride and 2-unsubstituted pyrrole, via facile decarboxylation with in-situ generated TFA, made their cross reaction (intermolecular Friedel-Crafts acylation) possible and efficient.

  20. The binding of 3'-N-piperidine-4-carboxyl-3'-deoxy-ara-uridine to ribonuclease A in the crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonidas, Demetres D; Maiti, Tushar Kanti; Samanta, Anirban; Dasgupta, Swagata; Pathak, Tanmaya; Zographos, Spyros E; Oikonomakos, Nikos G

    2006-09-01

    The binding of a moderate inhibitor, 3'-N-piperidine-4-carboxyl-3'-deoxy-ara-uridine, to ribonuclease A has been studied by X-ray crystallography at 1.7A resolution. Two inhibitor molecules are bound in the central RNA binding cavity of RNase A exploiting interactions with residues from peripheral binding sites rather than from the active site of the enzyme. The uracyl moiety of the first inhibitor molecule occupies the purine-preferring site of RNase A, while the rest of the molecule projects to the solvent. The second inhibitor molecule binds with the carboxyl group at the pyrimidine recognition site and the uridine moiety exploits interactions with RNase A residues Lys66, His119 and Asp121. Comparative structural analysis of the 3'-N-piperidine-4-carboxyl-3'-deoxy-ara-uridine complex with other RNase A-ligand complexes provides a structural explanation of its potency. The crystal structure of the RNase A-3'-N-piperidine-4-carboxyl-3'-deoxy-ara-uridine complex provides evidence of a novel ligand-binding pattern in RNase A for 3'-N-aminonucleosides that was not anticipated by modelling studies, while it also suggests ways to improve the efficiency and selectivity of such compounds to develop pharmaceuticals against pathologies associated with RNase A homologues. PMID:16730994

  1. Synthesis of quinoline-3-carboxylates by a Rh(II)-catalyzed cyclopropanation-ring expansion reaction of indoles with halodiazoacetates

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus Mortén; Martin Hennum; Tore Bonge-Hansen

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we report a novel synthesis of ethyl quinoline-3-carboxylates from reactions between a series of indoles and halodiazoacetates. The formation of the quinoline structure is probably the result of a cyclopropanation at the 2- and 3-positions of the indole followed by ring-opening of the cyclopropane and elimination of H–X.

  2. Alkaline battery containing a separator of a cross-linked copolymer of vinyl alcohol and unsaturated carboxylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, L. C.; Philipp, W. H.; Sheibley, D. W.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A battery separator for an alkaline battery is described. The separator comprises a cross linked copolymer of vinyl alcohol units and unsaturated carboxylic acid units. The cross linked copolymer is insoluble in water, has excellent zincate diffusion and oxygen gas barrier properties and a low electrical resistivity. Cross linking with a polyaldehyde cross linking agent is preferred.

  3. 1,3,7-Trimethyl-2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropteridine-6-carboxylic acid hemihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel N. Moreno-Carretero

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H10N4O4·0.5H2O, the two rings of the pteridine system are nearly coplanar [dihedral angle = 4.25 (9°]. The atoms of the carboxyl group are also coplanar with the pteridine unit [r.m.s. deviation from the mean plane of the pteridine skeleton = 0.092 (2 Å]. In the crystal, the presence of the water molecule of crystallization (O atom site symmetry 2 leads to a hydrogen-bonding pattern different from the one shown by many carboxylic acid compounds (dimers formed through O—H...O hydrogen bonds between neighbouring carboxyl groups: in the present structure, the water molecule, which lies on a binary axis, acts as a bridge between two molecules, forming a hydrogen-bonded dimer. In addition to the hydrogen bonds, there are π–π ring stacking interactions involving the pyrimidine and pyrazine rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.689 (1Å], and two different pyrazine rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.470 (1Å]. Finally, there is a C—O...π contact involving a carboxylate C—O and the pyrimidine ring with a short O...Cg distance of 2.738 (2 Å.

  4. Effect of γ-radiation on cross-linking of carboxylated oligobutadiene in the presence of diethylene glycol divinyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiothermal cross-linking of carboxylated oligobutadiene in the presence of diethylene glycol divinyl ether was studied. It was shown that preliminary radiation treatment increases the efficiency of subsequent cross-linking of the system, and the number of intermolecular cross-links attains the maximum possible value in this case, versus 40% of the theoretical value for purely thermal cross-linking

  5. Design, Synthesis and Anti-HIV Integrase Evaluation of 4-Oxo-4H-quinolizine-3-carboxylic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ming Hu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available 4-Oxo-4H-quinolizine-3-carboxylic acid derivatives bearing sulfamido, carboxylamido, benzimidazole and benzothiazole substituents have been designed and synthesized. The structures of these new compounds were confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C- NMR, IR and ESI (or HRMS spectra. Compounds were screened for possible HIV integrase inhibitory activity.

  6. 7-(3-Chlorophenylamino-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-8-nitro-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan F. Shattat

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available 7-(3-Chlorophenylamino-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-8-nitro-4-oxo-1,4-dihydro-quinoline-3-carboxylic acid (2 was prepared and fully characterized by NMR, IR, and MS. Compound 2 exhibited good antibacterial activity against gram-positive standard and resistant strains.

  7. Solid-state fluorescence property and crystal structure of biphenyl derivatives with carboxyl and n-alkyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Yoshitane, E-mail: y-imai@apch.kindai.ac.j [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Kamon, Kensaku [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Tajima, Nobuo [First-Principles Simulation Group, Computational Materials Science Center, NIMS, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Kinuta, Takafumi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Sato, Tomohiro [JST ERATO-SORST Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, 4-7-6 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-0041 (Japan); Kuroda, Reiko [JST ERATO-SORST Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, 4-7-6 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-0041 (Japan); Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Matsubara, Yoshio, E-mail: y-matsu@apch.kindai.ac.j [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    By introducing carboxyl and n-alkyl groups into a biphenyl molecule, we can increase the photoluminescence quantum yields of biphenyl derivatives in the solid state. The solid-state fluorescence maxima (lambda{sub em}) of 4-biphenylcarboxylic acid derivatives change according to the n-alkyl group introduced.

  8. A comparison of properties between carboxylated acrylic rubbers prepared by γ-ray irradiation and chemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acrylic rubbers (ACM) carboxylated by acrylic acid or itaconic acid were prepared by 60Co γ-ray or chemical-initiator (K2S2O8) induced emulsion copolymerization. The polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Acid value, molecular weight and polydispersity index (PDI) of the polymers were determined by non-aqueous titration method and gel permeation chromatography (GPC), respectively. Vulcanization and mechanical properties of the filled ACM were studied by rheometric measurement, gel fraction analysis, mechanical property tests and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The results show that the ACMs prepared by γ-ray irradiation have lower acid value, higher molecular weight and narrower PDI than chemically prepared ACMs of the same compositions. The itaconic acid carboxylated ACM has better cure characteristics and mechanical properties than the acrylic acid carboxylated ACM. The itaconic acid carboxylated ACM prepared by γ-ray irradiation has higher gel fraction and better cure characteristics as well as mechanical properties than that prepared by chemical method. (authors)

  9. Anodic coupling of carboxylic acids to electron-rich double bonds: A surprising non-Kolbe pathway to lactones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Perkins

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylic acids have been electro-oxidatively coupled to electron-rich olefins to form lactones. Kolbe decarboxylation does not appear to be a significant competing pathway. Experimental results indicate that oxidation occurs at the olefin and that the reaction proceeds through a radical cation intermediate.

  10. Conformational studies of esters of 2-isothiocyanato carboxylic acids by IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of solvent on the νsub(as)(NCS) and ν(C=O) bands, and the effects of temperature and concentration on the chemical shifts of protons in eleven alkyl 2-isothiocyanato and ω-isothiocyanato carboxylates were investigated. (author)

  11. Selective preparation of terminal alkenes from aliphatic carboxylic acids by a palladium-catalysed decarbonylation-eliminiation reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notre, le J.E.L.; Scott, E.L.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Trialkylamines were used as additives in the decarbonylation–elimination reaction catalysed by the combination of palladium(II) chloride and DPE-Phos. Aliphatic carboxylic acids were transformed at relatively low temperature into terminal alkenes in high yield and high selectivity, without the need

  12. Synthesis of new series of 4, 5-dihydroisoxazole-5-carboxylate derivatives for the study of their liquid crystalline properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUMANA Y KOTIAN; NARAYANA U KUDVA N; K M LOKANATHA RAI; K BYRAPPA

    2016-07-01

    A new series of 4,5-dihydroisoxazole-5-carboxylate derivatives were synthesized via [3+2] cycloaddition reaction between ethyl acrylate and nitrile oxide generated in situ in presence of Chloramine-T. The synthesized derivatives were characterized by Mass, IR and NMR Spectroscopy and their mesomorphic behavior were studied using DSC and Polarising Optical Microscopy.

  13. EFFECTS OF SUNLIGHT ON CARBOXYL CONTENT OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN THE SATILLA RIVER OF GEORGIA, UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study examined the effect of sunlight-initiated photo-degradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on its carboxyl content, and the role of oxygen and iron in this process. Solar-simulated irradiations were performed on 0.2-mm filtered water samples collected from the highly c...

  14. Synthesis, Characterization and catalytic activity of triorganotin(IV) carboxylates for the production of biodiesel from rocket seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organotin(IV) carboxylates have a wide range of industrial applications such as antifouling paints, PVC stabilization, ion carries in electrochemical membranes and homogeneous catalysts. The catalytic application of organotin carboxylates are in the field of silicone curing, polyurethane formation and esterification. Only a limited literature is available regarding the use of organotin carboxylates in the transesterification of vegetable oil to produce biodiesel . The present study deals with the synthesis of some new triorganotin(IV) carboxylates for their subsequent use as catalyst for transesterification of rocket seed oil to produce biodiesel. The three new triorganotin(IV) i.e. (Me/sub 3/SnL) (1),(Bu/sub 3/Snl) (2) and (Ph/sub 3/SnL) (3), were synthesized by refluxing sodium salt of ligand (NaL), where L=O/sub 2/C(CH/sub 3/)C=CHC/sub 6/H/sub 4/F with trimethyl, tributyl and triphenyl tin(IV) chlorides, respectively for 10 hrs. The synthesized compounds were characterized by instrumental techniques like FT-IR and NMR (1H, 13C). The catalytic activity of these compounds was assessed for transesterification of triglycerides in rocket seed oil to produce biodiesel. All the tested compounds showed good catalytic activity in the order 1> 2 > 3. (author)

  15. Contribution of the gamma-carboxyl group of Glu-43(beta) to the alkaline Bohr effect of hemoglobin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M J; Acharya, A S

    1992-08-18

    Glu-43(beta) of hemoglobin A exhibits a high degree of chemical reactivity around neutral pH for amidation with nucleophiles in the presence of carbodiimide. Such a reactivity is unusual for the side-chain carboxyl groups of proteins. In addition, the reactivity of Glu-43(beta) is also sensitive to the ligation state of the protein [Rao, M. J., & Acharya, A. S. (1991) J. Protein Chem. 10, 129-138]. The influence of deoxygenation of hemoglobin A on the chemical reactivity of the gamma-carboxyl group of Glu-43(beta) has now been investigated as a function of pH (from 5.5 to 7.5). The chemical reactivity of Glu-43(beta) for amidation increases upon deoxygenation only when the modification reaction is carried out above pH 6.0. The pH-chemical reactivity profile of the amidation of hemoglobin A in the deoxy conformation reflects an apparent pKa of 7.0 for the gamma-carboxyl group of Glu-43(beta). This pKa is considerably higher than the pKa of 6.35 for the oxy conformation. The deoxy conformational transition mediated increase in the pKa of the gamma-carboxyl group of Glu-43(beta) implicates this carboxyl group as an alkaline Bohr group. The amidated derivative of hemoglobin A with 2 mol of glycine ethyl ester covalently bound to the protein was isolated by CM-cellulose chromatography.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1354984

  16. Synthesis and complexation properties towards uranyl cation of carboxylic acid derivatives of p-tert-butyl-calix[6]arene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fuel reprocessing plants radioactive metals, and more particularly, uranium in UO22+ form in the various installations, have many varied physico-chemical forms and there is a risk of exposure and internal contamination in the nuclear industry. It is necessary to exert a medical control to ensure the protection of the health of the workers. This medical control is done by dosing uranyl cation in the urine of the exposed people. This work forms part of this context. Indeed, we prepared a ligand able to complex the ion uranyl and which is also to be grafted on a solid support. In the family of calixarenes, the calix[6]arenes functionalized by three or four carboxylic functions were selected like chelating molecules of the ion uranyl. The properties of complexation of these calixarenes were studied by potentiometry in methanol, under these conditions balances of protonation and complexation were determined and the constant partners were obtained using the Hyperquad program. We synthesized tri-carboxylic calix[6]arenes comprising of the groupings nitro (NO2) in para position of phenol in order to see the influence of a substitution in para position on the complexation. We also synthesized calix[6]arenes tetra-carboxylic in order to show the role of an additional carboxylic acid grouping. The potentiometric study determined thermodynamic parameters of protonation and complexation of carboxylic calix[6]arenes. The results of the complexation highlighted which complex UO2L corresponding to the ligand para-tert-butyl-calix[6]arene tetra-acid is more stable than that corresponding to the ligand mono-nitro calix[6]arene tri-acid (ΔlogΒ110 = 4.3), and than the effect of the groupings nitro in para position has low influence on the complexation of UO22+. This makes it possible to consider as possible the grafting of the calix[6]arenes which one knows the behaviour of trapping. To this end we synthesized the ligand 23. (author)

  17. Aromatic carboxylate effect on dimensionality of three bis(benzimidazole)-based cobalt(II) coordination polymers: Syntheses, structures and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ju-Wen; Gong, Chun-Hua; Hou, Li-Li; Tian, Ai-Xiang; Wang, Xiu-Li, E-mail: wangxiuli@bhu.edu.cn

    2013-09-15

    Three new metal-organic coordination polymers [Co(4-bbc){sub 2}(bbbm)] (1), [Co(3,5-pdc)(bbbm)]·2H{sub 2}O (2) and [Co(1,4-ndc)(bbbm)] (3) (4-Hbbc=4-bromobenzoic acid, 3,5-H{sub 2}pdc=3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, 1,4-H{sub 2}ndc=1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid and bbbm=1,1-(1,4-butanediyl)bis-1H-benzimidazole) were hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Polymer 1 is a 1D chain formed by the bbbm ligands and Co{sup II} ions. Polymer 2 exhibits a 2D network with a (3·4·5)(3{sup 2}·4·5·6{sup 2}·7{sup 4}) topology. Polymer 3 possesses a 3D three-fold interpenetrating framework. The versatile structures of title polymers indicate that the aromatic carboxylates have an important influence on the dimensionality of 1–3. Moreover, the thermal stability, electrochemical and luminescent properties of 1–3 were investigated. - graphical abstract: Three bis(benzimidazole)-based cobalt(II) coordination polymers tuned by aromatic carboxylates were hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. The aromatic carboxylates play a key role in the dimensionality of three polymers. The electrochemical and luminescent properties of three polymers were investigated. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Three bis(benzimidazole)-based cobalt(II) coordination polymers tuned by aromatic carboxylates were obtained. • The aromatic carboxylates have an important influence on the dimensionality of three polymers. • The electrochemical and luminescent properties of three polymers were investigated.

  18. Carboxylated nanodiamonds inhibit γ-irradiation damage of human red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Silva-Campa, E.; Melendrez-Amavizca, R.; Teran Arce, F.; Mata-Haro, V.; Landon, P. B.; Zhang, C.; Pedroza-Montero, M.; Lal, R.

    2016-03-01

    Nanodiamonds when carboxylated (cNDs) act as reducing agents and hence could limit oxidative damage in biological systems. Gamma (γ)-irradiation of whole blood or its components is required in immunocompetent patients to prevent transfusion-associated graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD). However, γ-irradiation of blood also deoxygenates red blood cells (RBCs) and induces oxidative damage, including abnormalities in cellular membranes and hemolysis. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy, we examined the effect of cNDs on γ-irradiation mediated deoxygenation and morphological damage of RBCs. γ-Radiation induced several morphological phenotypes, including stomatocytes, codocytes and echinocytes. While stomatocytes and codocytes are reversibly damaged RBCs, echinocytes are irreversibly damaged. AFM images show significantly fewer echinocytes among cND-treated γ-irradiated RBCs. The Raman spectra of γ-irradiated RBCs had more oxygenated hemoglobin patterns when cND-treated, resembling those of normal, non-irradiated RBCs, compared to the non-cND-treated RBCs. cND inhibited hemoglobin deoxygenation and morphological damage, possibly by neutralizing the free radicals generated during γ-irradiation. Thus cNDs have the therapeutic potential to preserve the quality of stored blood following γ-irradiation.Nanodiamonds when carboxylated (cNDs) act as reducing agents and hence could limit oxidative damage in biological systems. Gamma (γ)-irradiation of whole blood or its components is required in immunocompetent patients to prevent transfusion-associated graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD). However, γ-irradiation of blood also deoxygenates red blood cells (RBCs) and induces oxidative damage, including abnormalities in cellular membranes and hemolysis. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy, we examined the effect of cNDs on γ-irradiation mediated deoxygenation and morphological damage of RBCs. γ-Radiation induced several

  19. Alpha-bungarotoxin binding to target cell in a developing visual system by carboxylated nanodiamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuang-Kai; Chen, Mei-Fang; Chen, Po-Yi; Lee, Tony J. F.; Cheng, Chia-Liang; Chang, Chia-Ching; Ho, Yen-Peng; Chao, Jui-I.

    2008-05-01

    Biological molecules conjugating with nanoparticles are valuable for applications including bio-imaging, bio-detection, and bio-sensing. Nanometer-sized diamond particles have excellent electronic and chemical properties for bio-conjugation. In this study, we manipulated the carboxyl group produced on the surface of nanodiamond (carboxylated nanodiamond, cND) for conjugating with alpha-bungarotoxin (α-BTX), a neurotoxin derived from Bungarus multicinctus with specific blockade of alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR). The electrostatic binding of cND-α-BTX was mediated by the negative charge of the cND and the positive charge of the α-BTX in physiological pH conditions. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS) spectra displayed that α-BTX proteins were conjugated with cND particles via non-covalent bindings. The green fluorescence of the cND particles combining with the red fluorescence of tetramethylrhodamine-labeled α-BTX presented a yellow color at the same location, which indicated that α-BTX proteins were conjugated with cND particles. Xenopus laevis's oocytes expressed the human α7-nAChR proteins by microinjection with α7-nAChR mRNA. The cND-α-BTX complexes were bound to α7-nAChR locating on the cell membrane of oocytes and human lung A549 cancer cells analyzed by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The choline-evoked α7-nAChR-mediated inward currents of the oocytes were blocked by cND-α-BTX complexes in a concentration-dependent manner using two-electrode voltage-clamp recording. Furthermore, the fluorescence intensity of cND-α-BTX binding on A549 cells could be quantified by flow cytometry. These results indicate that cND-conjugated α-BTX still preserves its biological activity in blocking the function of α7-nAChR, and provide a visual system showing the binding of α-BTX to α7-nAChR.

  20. Alpha-bungarotoxin binding to target cell in a developing visual system by carboxylated nanodiamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological molecules conjugating with nanoparticles are valuable for applications including bio-imaging, bio-detection, and bio-sensing. Nanometer-sized diamond particles have excellent electronic and chemical properties for bio-conjugation. In this study, we manipulated the carboxyl group produced on the surface of nanodiamond (carboxylated nanodiamond, cND) for conjugating with alpha-bungarotoxin (α-BTX), a neurotoxin derived from Bungarus multicinctus with specific blockade of alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR). The electrostatic binding of cND-α-BTX was mediated by the negative charge of the cND and the positive charge of the α-BTX in physiological pH conditions. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS) spectra displayed that α-BTX proteins were conjugated with cND particles via non-covalent bindings. The green fluorescence of the cND particles combining with the red fluorescence of tetramethylrhodamine-labeled α-BTX presented a yellow color at the same location, which indicated that α-BTX proteins were conjugated with cND particles. Xenopus laevis's oocytes expressed the human α7-nAChR proteins by microinjection with α7-nAChR mRNA. The cND-α-BTX complexes were bound to α7-nAChR locating on the cell membrane of oocytes and human lung A549 cancer cells analyzed by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The choline-evoked α7-nAChR-mediated inward currents of the oocytes were blocked by cND-α-BTX complexes in a concentration-dependent manner using two-electrode voltage-clamp recording. Furthermore, the fluorescence intensity of cND-α-BTX binding on A549 cells could be quantified by flow cytometry. These results indicate that cND-conjugated α-BTX still preserves its biological activity in blocking the function of α7-nAChR, and provide a visual system showing the binding of α-BTX to α7-nAChR

  1. Photo- and thermochromic and adsorption properties of porous coordination polymers based on bipyridinium carboxylate ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Oksana; Mercier, Nicolas; Allain, Magali; Kassiba, Abdel Adi; Bellat, Jean-Pierre; Weber, Guy; Bezverkhyy, Igor

    2015-09-21

    The zwitterionic bipyridinium carboxylate ligand 1-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium (hpc1) in the presence of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate anions (BDC(2-)) and Zn(2+) ions affords three porous coordination polymers (PCPs): [Zn5(hpc1)2(BDC)4(HCO2)2]·2DMF·EtOH·H2O (1), [Zn3(hpc1)(BDC)2(HCO2)(OH)(H2O)]·DMF·EtOH·H2O (2), and [Zn10(hpc1)4(BDC)7(HCO2)2(OH)4(EtOH)2]·3DMF·3H2O (3), with the formate anions resulting from the in situ decomposition of dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent molecules. 1 and 3 are photo- and thermochromic, turning dark green as a result of the formation of bipyridinium radicals, as shown by electron paramagnetic resonance measurements. Particularly, crystals of 3 are very photosensitive, giving an eye-detectable color change upon exposure to the light of the microscope in air within 1-2 min. A very nice and interesting feature is the regular discoloration of crystals from the "edge" to the "core" upon exposition to O2 (reoxidation of organic radicals) due to the diffusion of O2 inside the pores, with this discoloration being slower in an oxygen-poor atmosphere. The formation of organic radicals is explained by an electron transfer from the oxygen atoms of the carboxylate groups to pyridinium cycles. In the structure of 3', [Zn10(hpc1)4(BDC)7(OH)6(H2O)2], resulting from the heating of sample 3 (desolvation and loss of CO molecules due to the decomposition of formate anions), no suitable donor-acceptor interaction is present, and as a consequence, this compound does not exhibit any chromic properties. The presence of permanent porosity in desolvated 1, 2, and 3' is confirmed by methanol adsorption at 25 °C with the adsorbed amount reaching 5 wt % for 1, 10 wt % for 3', and 13 wt % for 2. The incomplete desorption of methanol at 25 °C under vacuum points to strong host-guest interactions. PMID:26370743

  2. Conjugation of Methotrexate-Amino Derivatives to Macromolecules through Carboxylate Moieties Is Superior Over Conventional Linkage to Amino Residues: Chemical, Cell-Free and In Vitro Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Itzik; Fridkin, Mati; Shechter, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined the possibility of introducing methotrexate (MTX) to the carboxylate rather than to the ε-amino side chains of proteins. We found that MTX—amino compounds covalently linked to the carboxylate moieties of macromolecules, undergo unusual peptide-bond cleavage, with the release of the MTX amino derivatives from the conjugates. This event takes place at an accelerated rate under acidic conditions, and at a slower rate at physiological pH values. The glutamate portion of MTX is responsible for this behavior, with little or no contribution of the p-aminobenzoate-pteridine ring that is linked to the α-amino side chain of the glutamate. Carboxylate-linked Fmoc-Glu-γ-CONH-(CH2)6-NH2 undergoes hydrolysis in a nearly indistinguishable fashion. A free α carboxylate moiety is essential for this effect. Carboxylate linked Fmoc-glutamic-amide-γ-CONH-(CH2)6-NH2 undergoes no hydrolysis under acidic conditions. Based on these findings, we engineered a cysteine specific MTX containing reagent. Its linkage to bovine serum albumin (BSA) yielded a conjugate with profound antiproliferative efficacy in a MTX-sensitive glioma cell line. In conclusion, carboxylate linked MTX-amino derivatives in particular, and carboxylate linked R-α-GLU-γ amino compounds in general are equipped with‘built-in chemical machinery’ that releases them under mild acidic conditions. PMID:27403959

  3. Studies on the physico-mechanical and thermal characteristics of blends of DGEBA epoxy, 3,4 epoxy cyclohexylmethyl, 3',4'-epoxycylohexane carboxylate and carboxyl terminated butadiene co-acrylonitrile (CTBN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toughening of blend of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) and 3,4 epoxy cyclohexylmethyl, 3',4'-epoxycylohexane carboxylate, i.e. cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (CAE) with varying weight ratios (0-25 wt%) of carboxyl terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) copolymer have been investigated. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis established that the interaction between oxirane groups of DGEBA, CAE and CTBN were responsible for characteristics peak shifts in the blends compared to their counterparts. Physico-mechanical properties of the prepared samples, e.g. tensile, flexural and impact strengths showed an optimum concentration of CTBN (15 wt%) into epoxy matrix, which offered maximum toughening. Thermal stability of the prepared samples was analyzed by dynamic thermogravimetric runs. Cross-sections of the cured samples which failed during impact testing have been critically studied through scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis to gain insight into the phase morphology

  4. Studies on the physico-mechanical and thermal characteristics of blends of DGEBA epoxy, 3,4 epoxy cyclohexylmethyl, 3',4'-epoxycylohexane carboxylate and carboxyl terminated butadiene co-acrylonitrile (CTBN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Garima [Department of Plastic Technology, H. B. Technological Institute, Kanpur 208002 (India); Srivastava, Deepak [Department of Plastic Technology, H. B. Technological Institute, Kanpur 208002 (India)], E-mail: deepak_sri92@rediffmail.com

    2008-11-25

    Toughening of blend of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) and 3,4 epoxy cyclohexylmethyl, 3',4'-epoxycylohexane carboxylate, i.e. cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (CAE) with varying weight ratios (0-25 wt%) of carboxyl terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) copolymer have been investigated. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis established that the interaction between oxirane groups of DGEBA, CAE and CTBN were responsible for characteristics peak shifts in the blends compared to their counterparts. Physico-mechanical properties of the prepared samples, e.g. tensile, flexural and impact strengths showed an optimum concentration of CTBN (15 wt%) into epoxy matrix, which offered maximum toughening. Thermal stability of the prepared samples was analyzed by dynamic thermogravimetric runs. Cross-sections of the cured samples which failed during impact testing have been critically studied through scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis to gain insight into the phase morphology.

  5. [11C]Carbon Monoxide in Palladium- / Selenium-Promoted Carbonylation Reactions : Synthesis of 11C-Imides, Hydrazides, Amides, Carboxylic Acids, Carboxylic Esters, Carbothioates, Ketones and Carbamoyl Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Farhad

    2002-01-01

    [11C]Carbon monoxide in low concentrations has been used in palladium- or seleniummediated carbonylation reactions such as the synthesis of 11C-imides, hydrazides, amides, carboxylic acids, esters, carbothioates, ketones and carbamoyl compounds. In these reactions aryl iodides have been used in most cases. However, less reactive aryl triflate, chloride and bromides were activated using tetrabutylammonium iodide. The reactivities of nucleophiles may have influence on the radiochemical yield of...

  6. A Metallacycle Fragmentation Strategy for Vinyl Transfer from Enol Carboxylates to Secondary Alcohol C-H Bonds via Osmium- or Ruthenium-Catalyzed Transfer Hydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung Y; Luong, Tom; Sato, Hiroki; Krische, Michael J

    2015-06-24

    A strategy for catalytic vinyl transfer from enol carboxylates to activated secondary alcohol C-H bonds is described. Using XPhos-modified ruthenium(0) or osmium(0) complexes, enol carboxylate-carbonyl oxidative coupling forms transient β-acyloxy-oxametallacycles, which eliminate carboxylate to deliver allylic ruthenium(II) or osmium(II) alkoxides. Reduction of the metal(II) salt via hydrogen transfer from the secondary alcohol reactant releases the product of carbinol C-H vinylation and regenerates ketone and zero-valent catalyst. PMID:26066660

  7. Nature of olefins and carboxyl groups in an Australian brown coal resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.A.; Collin, P.J.; Vassallo, A.M.; Russell, N.J.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical structure of the resin from an Australian soft brown coal (Yallourn) has been investigated by cross-polarization nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with magic angle spinning (/sup 13/C CP MAS NMR). Some additional solution /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C data were also obtained. Solid-state experiments were performed with and without a delay period before data acquisition. The resulting free induction decays were Fourier transformed with respect to acquisition time and delay period to produce two-dimensional solid-state spectra. Assignments made from the spectra clearly demonstrate that the gross chemical structure of the Yallourn resin is best described as a polymerized diterpenoid with one axial carboxylic group and two double bonds. One double bond is trisubstituted, the other is monosubstituted. After consideration of various mechanisms for polymerization of diterpenoid units during biogenesis and coalification, it was concluded that polymerization occurs at the C/sub 15/ carbon atoms in the diterpenoids without cyclization of the methylene units at C/sub 8/. 26 references.

  8. Surface grafting of carboxylic groups onto thermoplastic polyurethanes to reduce cell adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, P., E-mail: palves@eq.uc.pt [CIEPQPF, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Universidade de Coimbra, Polo II, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-790 Coimbra (Portugal); Ferreira, P. [CIEPQPF, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Universidade de Coimbra, Polo II, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-790 Coimbra (Portugal); Kaiser, Jean-Pierre [EMPA, St. Gallen, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, CH-9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Salk, Natalie [Mikrofertigung – Micro Engineering, Fraunhofer IFAM, Wiener Strasse 12, D-288359 Bremen (Germany); Bruinink, Arie [EMPA, St. Gallen, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, CH-9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Sousa, Hermínio C. de; Gil, M.H. [CIEPQPF, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Universidade de Coimbra, Polo II, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-790 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2013-10-15

    The interaction of polymers with other materials is an important issue, being their surface properties clearly crucial. For some important polymer applications, their surfaces have to be modified. Surface modification aims to tailor the surface characteristics of a material for a specific application without affecting its bulk properties. Materials can be surface modified by using biological, chemical or physical methods. The aim of this work was to improve the reactivity of the thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) material (Elastollan{sup ®}) surface and to make its surface cell repellent by grafting carboxylic groups onto its surface. Two TPU materials were studied: a polyether-based TPU and a polyester-based TPU. The grafting efficiency was evaluated by contact angle measurements and by analytical determination of the COOH groups. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the membranes surface was performed as well as cell adhesion tests. It was proved that the surfaces of the TPUs membranes were successfully modified and that cell adhesion was remarkably reduced.

  9. Production and Characterization of Activated Carbon from Oil-Palm Shell for Carboxylic Acid Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the recovery of volatile carboxylic acids (VCA by adsorption onto activated carbon adsorbent (CA was explored. The CA was synthesized from palm-oil kernel shells using H3PO4 at 10 and 60% w/w as activating agent. The samples produced in this manner were labeled as CA10A, CA60A respectively. Also KOH was used as activating agent at 10 and 60% w/w. In this case, the produced samples were labeled as CA10B, CA60B respectively. After activation, the surface of all four CA samples was extensively characterized both physically and chemically. The obtained CA adsorption behavior for VCA was assessed by submerging samples of CA in solutions at a fixed initial VCA concentration. Because some of the acids were adsorbed on the CA surface, the VCA concentration in solution was reduced. Carbon CA60B exhibited the greatest adsorption capacity, reaching 1300 mg of adsorbed acids/g carbon. Five adsorption isotherms models were fitted to experimental data. The Langmuir-Freundlich model described best the adsorption phenomena. Desorption behavior was assessed by placing CA after adsorption in water and was not high, which forces to reconsider either de desorption mechanism proposed in this study and/or the use CA as synthesized here for VCA recovery.

  10. Jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase regulates development and herbivory-induced defense response in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jinfeng; Li, Jiancai; Han, Xiu; Li, Ran; Wu, Jianqiang; Yu, Haixin; Hu, Lingfei; Xiao, Yutao; Lu, Jing; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and related metabolites play a key role in plant defense and growth. JA carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) may be involved in plant defense and development by methylating JA to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and thus influencing the concentrations of JA and related metabolites. However, no JMT gene has been well characterized in monocotyledon defense and development at the molecular level. After we cloned a rice JMT gene, OsJMT1, whose encoding protein was localized in the cytosol, we found that the recombinant OsJMT1 protein catalyzed JA to MeJA. OsJMT1 is up-regulated in response to infestation with the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens). Plants in which OsJMT1 had been overexpressed (oe-JMT plants) showed reduced height and yield. These oe-JMT plants also exhibited increased MeJA levels but reduced levels of herbivore-induced JA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile). The oe-JMT plants were more attractive to BPH female adults but showed increased resistance to BPH nymphs, probably owing to the different responses of BPH female adults and nymphs to the changes in levels of H2 O2 and MeJA in oe-JMT plants. These results indicate that OsJMT1, by altering levels of JA and related metabolites, plays a role in regulating plant development and herbivore-induced defense responses in rice. PMID:26466818

  11. The microbial transglutaminase immobilization on carboxylated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) for thermo-responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian Qin; He, Ting; Wang, Jian Wen

    2016-06-01

    Microbial transglutaminase (mTG) is widely utilized in the PEGylation of pharmaceutical proteins. mTG immobilization can be achieved via covalent bonding on solid supports. However, the catalytic efficiency of mTG immobilized on solid supports was significantly reduced by mass transfer limitation. To overcome this limitation, mTG was covalently immobilized on the thermo-responsive carboxylated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM). The pNIPAM-mTG conjugate exhibited reversibly solubility in aqueous solution with a low critical solution temperature (LCST) at 39°C, i.e., it was insoluble above 39°C and soluble below 39°C. The pH dependence of the pNIPAM-mTG conjugate was similar with that of the native mTG. Upon conjugation to pNIPAM, the optimal temperature of mTG shifted down from 50-55°C to 40-45°C, and the thermal stability of the conjugate was elevated. The easy separation of the pNIPAM-mTG conjugate with its substrate and the catalytic efficiency of the pNIPAM-mTG conjugate were demonstrated by employing the pNIPAM-mTG conjugate to cross-link bovine serum albumin (BSA) and catalyze PEGylation of therapeutic protein, cytochrome c (Cyt C), respectively. The thermo-responsive mTG is suitable to modify proteins in food processing and biomedical engineering. PMID:27178794

  12. Solid phase extraction of petroleum carboxylic acids using a functionalized alumina as stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Conto, Juliana Faccin; Nascimento, Juciara dos Santos; de Souza, Driele Maiara Borges; da Costa, Luiz Pereira; Egues, Silvia Maria da Silva; Freitas, Lisiane Dos Santos; Benvenutti, Edilson Valmir

    2012-04-01

    Petroleum essentially consists of a mixture of organic compounds, mainly containing carbon and hydrogen, and, in minor quantities, compounds with nitrogen, sulphur, and oxygen. Some of these compounds, such as naphthenic acids, can cause corrosion in pipes and equipment used in processing plants. Considering that the methods of separation or clean up the target compounds in low concentrations and in complex matrix use large amounts of solvents or stationary phases, is necessary to study new methodologies that consume smaller amounts of solvent and stationary phases to identify the acid components present in complex matrix, such as crude oil samples. The proposed study aimed to recover acid compounds using the solid phase extraction method, employing different types of commercial stationary ion exchange phases (SAX and NH(2)) and new phase alumina functionalized with 1,4-bis(n-propyl)diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride silsesquioxane (Dab-Al(2)O(3)), synthesized in this work. Carboxylic acids were used as standard mixture in the solid phase extraction for further calculation of recovery yield. Then, the real sample (petroleum) was fractionated into saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes, and the resin fraction of petroleum (B1) was eluted through stationary ion exchange phases. The stationary phase synthesized in this work showed an efficiency of ion exchange comparable to that of the commercial stationary phases. PMID:22589166

  13. Secondary structural analysis of the carboxyl-terminal domain from different connexin isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnol, Gaëlle; Al-Mugotir, Mona; Kopanic, Jennifer L; Zach, Sydney; Li, Hanjun; Trease, Andrew J; Stauch, Kelly L; Grosely, Rosslyn; Cervantes, Matthew; Sorgen, Paul L

    2016-03-01

    The connexin carboxyl-terminal (CxCT) domain plays a role in the trafficking, localization, and turnover of gap junction channels, as well as the level of gap junction intercellular communication via numerous post-translational modifications and protein-protein interactions. As a key player in the regulation of gap junctions, the CT presents itself as a target for manipulation intended to modify function. Specific to intrinsically disordered proteins, identifying residues whose secondary structure can be manipulated will be critical toward unlocking the therapeutic potential of the CxCT domain. To accomplish this goal, we used biophysical methods to characterize CxCT domains attached to their fourth transmembrane domain (TM4). Circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance were complementary in demonstrating the connexin isoforms that form the greatest amount of α-helical structure in their CT domain (Cx45 > Cx43 > Cx32 > Cx50 > Cx37 ≈ Cx40 ≈ Cx26). Studies compared the influence of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, pH, phosphorylation, and mutations (Cx32, X-linked Charcot-Marie Tooth disease; Cx26, hearing loss) on the TM4-CxCT structure. While pH modestly influences the CT structure, a major structural change was associated with phosphomimetic substitutions. Since most connexin CT domains are phosphorylated throughout their life cycle, studies of phospho-TM4-CxCT isoforms will be critical toward understanding the role that structure plays in regulating gap junction function. PMID:26542351

  14. The effect of secretagogues on protein carboxyl methylation in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of various substrates which are known to alter free intracellular calcium concentrations on protein carboxyl methyltransferase (PCM) activity was investigated in rat brain synaptosomes. The synaptosomes were labeled with [3H]-L-methionine and the 3H-methyl esters of proteins were formed from the methyl donor [3H]-S-adenosyl-L-methionine ([3H]-AdoMet). The calcium ionophore A23187 and ouabain decreased PCM activity and the decrease produced by A23187 was antagonized by ethylene glycol bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and MnCl2. On the other hand, ruthenium red, an inhibitor of calcium uptake, stimulated PCM activity. These data suggest that PCM activity is inversely related to the free cytoplasmic calcium concentration. Veratridine, A23187 and elevated potassium ions decreased the levels of ATP and [3H]-AdoMet. The A23187-mediated decrease in ATP levels and the reduced [3H]-AdoMet formation was antagonized by EGTA and MnCl2. Inhibition of metabolic activity of the synaptosomes by NaCN led to: (1) decreased ATP levels; (2) inhibition of [3H]-AdoMet formation; and (3) inhibition of PCM activity. Four endogenously methylated proteins were isolated from synaptosomes by acidic gel electrophoresis

  15. Spectroscopy characterization of the interaction between brevifolin carboxylic acid and bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jianniao; Xie, Yuhuan; Zhao, Yanchun; Li, Caifeng; Zhao, Shulin

    2011-01-01

    Themechanism of binding of the antivirus drug, brevifolin carboxylic acid (BCA) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy under pseudo-physiological conditions for the first time. A strong fluorescence quenching was observed and the quenching mechanism was considered as static quenching. Various binding parameters were evaluated. The quantitative analysis of CD spectral data revealed that the a-helical content of BSA increased from 48.91% (in free BSA) to 52.46% (in bound form) in the presence of BCA. Based on the Förster's theory of non-radiation energy transfer, the relation of the binding average distance r between the donor (BSA) and acceptor (BCA) and acceptor concentration was determined. The changes in association constants of BCA-BSA in the presence of the common ions are also discussed. From the CD, FT-IR, time-resolved fluorescence and Raman spectroscopic results, it is apparent that the interaction of BCA with BSA causes a conformational change in the protein, and the Trp and Tyr residues are buried in more hydrophobic surroundings. BCA mainly binds to residue Trp 212 located in domain II of BSA by hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond. PMID:20737652

  16. Oxidation of ethoxylated fatty alcohols to alkylpolyglycol carboxylic acids using noble metals as catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagredos, Angelos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of ethoxylated fatty alcohols to the corresponding carboxylic acids through dehydrogenation/ oxidation using noble-metal catalysts has been studied. Ethoxylated primary aliphatic alcohols, ethoxylated random secondary aliphatic alcohols and ethoxylated alkylphenols have been converted to the corresponding acids in the presence of a base. The noble metal catalysts Palladium and Platinum were used without significant degradation of the ethoxyl chain in yields that exceeded 90%. On the other hand, the catalysts Rhodium and Ruthenium gave yields of about 80% and 60% respectively.La conversión de alcoholes grasos etoxilados a los correspondientes ácidos carboxílicos por deshidrogenación/ oxidación con metales nobles como catalizador ha sido estudiada. Alcoholes primarios alifáticos etoxilados, alcoholes alifáticos secundarios etoxilados al azar y alquilfenoles etoxilados han sido convertidos a los correspondientes ácidos en presencia de base. Los catalizadores paladio y platino fueron usados sin degradación significativa de las cadenas etoxiladas con un rendimiento que excedió del 90%. Por otra parte catalizadores de rodio y rutenio produjeron rendimientos del 80 y 60%, respectivamente.

  17. Jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase regulates development and herbivory-induced defense response in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinfeng Qi; Yonggen Lou; Jiancai Li; Xiu Han; Ran Li; Jianqiang Wu; Haixin Yu; Lingfei Hu; Yutao Xiao; Jing Lu

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and related metabolites play a key role in plant defense and growth. JA carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) may be involved in plant defense and development by methylating JA to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and thus influencing the concentrations of JA and related metabolites. However, no JMT gene has been well characterized in monocotyledon defense and development at the molecular level. After we cloned a rice JMT gene, OsJMT1, whose encoding protein was localized in the cytosol, we found that the recombinant OsJMT1 protein catalyzed JA to MeJA. OsJMT1 is up-regulated in response to infestation with the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens). Plants in which OsJMT1 had been overexpressed (oe-JMT plants) showed reduced height and yield. These oe-JMT plants also exhibited increased MeJA levels but reduced levels of herbivore-induced JA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile). The oe-JMT plants were more attractive to BPH female adults but showed increased resistance to BPH nymphs, probably owing to the different responses of BPH female adults and nymphs to the changes in levels of H2O2 and MeJA in oe-JMT plants. These results indicate that OsJMT1, by altering levels of JA and related metabolites, plays a role in regulating plant development and herbivore-induced defense responses in rice.

  18. Hydroxy Ketones Part XIII-Fries Rearrangement of the Phenyl Esters of Thiophene-2-Carboxylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Saharia

    1971-04-01

    Full Text Available Fries migration of the esters of phenol, isomeric cresols and naphthols with thiophene-2-carboxylic acid has been investigated at 120 Degree C and 160 Degree C in absence of a solvent, with a view to study the behaviour of the sulphur atom in the thiophene ring towards an acid catalyst and its interference in the complex formation necessary for the migration. The isomeric ortho- and para-hydroxy ketones have been isolated employing chemical methods and each is characterised by the preparation of its 2:4-dinitrophenylhydrazone. The yields of the hydroxy ketones were poor and ranged from 4-8% in the case of para and from 9-18% in the case of ortho. Further, in all cases studied, above 50% of the ester was recovered unchanged. These suggest that the charge density at the sulphur atom is greater than at the phenoxyl oxygen atom as compared with similar migrations high and no unreached ester was encountered.

  19. The cysteine releasing pattern of some antioxidant thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önen Bayram, F Esra; Sipahi, Hande; Acar, Ebru Türköz; Kahveci Ulugöl, Reyhan; Buran, Kerem; Akgün, Hülya

    2016-05-23

    Oxidative stress that corresponds to a significant increase in free radical concentration in cells can cause considerable damage to crucial biological macromolecules if not prevented by cellular defense mechanisms. The low-molecular-weight thiol glutathione (GSH) constitutes one of the main intracellular antioxidants. It is synthesized via cysteine, an amino acid found only in limited amounts in cells because of its neurotoxicity. Thus, to ensure an efficient GSH synthesis in case of an oxidative stress, cysteine should be provided extracellularly. Yet, given its nucleophilic properties and its rapid conversion into cystine, its corresponding disulfide, cysteine presents some toxicity and therefore is usually supplemented in a prodrug approach. Here, some thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids were synthesized and evaluated for their antioxidant properties via the DDPH and CUPRAC assays. Then, the cysteine releasing capacity of the obtained compounds was investigated in aqueous and organic medium in order to correlate the relevant antioxidant properties of the molecules with their cysteine releasing pattern. As a result, the structures' antioxidative properties were not only attributed to cysteine release but also to the thiazolidine cycle itself. PMID:27017266

  20. Syntheses, structures, and properties of multidimensional lithium coordination polymers based on aliphatic carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pei-Chi; Lin, Wei-Cheng; Tseng, Feng-Shuen; Kao, Ching-Che; Chang, Ting-Guang; Senthil Raja, Duraisamy; Liu, Wei-Ren; Lin, Chia-Her

    2013-02-28

    Three lithium coordination polymers, [Li4(H2O)2(EDTA)] (1), [Li4(H2O)4(BTCA)] (2), and (H2NMe2)2[Li2(H2O)2(BTCA)] (3) (H4EDTA = ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, H4BTCA = 1,2,3,4-butane tetracarboxylic acid, H2NMe2 = dimethyl amine), have been synthesized by reacting lithium salts with aliphatic carboxylic acids using a solvothermal method. The structures of all the three complexes have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The single crystal structure analysis revealed that complex 1 has a three-dimensional framework, whereas complex 2 has 2D sheets and complex 3 has 1D chains. In addition, these lithium complexes contain various inorganic motifs with a tetramer in 1 and 2, and discrete tetrahedra in 3 and have further been connected through organic ligands to construct multidimensional structures. Further, the electrochemical properties of complexes 1–3 have been studied to evaluate these compounds as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries with discharge capacities of around 100 mA h g(-1) in the first thirty cycles. PMID:23235699

  1. The physical and degradation properties of starch-graft-acrylonitrile/carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber latex films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misman, M A; Azura, A R; Hamid, Z A A

    2015-09-01

    Starch-graft-acrylonitrile (ANS) is compounded with carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The control XNBR and the ANS/XNBR latex films were prepared through a coagulant dipping process. The films were subjected to ageing and soil burial procedures. For the biodegradation experiment, the surface of the film was assessed after the 2nd, 4th and 8th week of soil burial. The ANS, XNBR, and ANS/XNBR colloidal stability were determined with a Malvern Zetasizer. For the dipped latex films, the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties were analyzed. The addition of ANS into the XNBR latex increased the stability of the colloidal dispersions, decreased the latex film tensile strength, but increased the elongation at break due to the bipolar interaction of the ANS and XNBR particles. The ANS/XNBR latex films aged faster than the control films while the morphological analysis showed the existence of a starch crystal region and the formation of microbial colonies on the surfaces of the films. Based on the TGA-DTA curves, a higher ΔT was observed for the ANS/XNBR latex films signifying high thermal energy needed for the film to thermally degrade. PMID:26005134

  2. Structure of eight molecular salts assembled from noncovalent bonding between carboxylic acids, imidazole, and benzimidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shouwen; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Hui; Wen, Xianhong; Li, Minghui; Wang, Daqi

    2015-09-01

    Eight organic salts of imidazole/benzimidazole have been prepared with carboxylic acids as 2-methyl-2-phenoxypropanoic acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, 5-nitrosalicylic acid, isophthalic acid, 4-nitro-phthalic acid, and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid. The eight crystalline forms reported are proton-transfer compounds of which the crystals and compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. These structures adopted hetero supramolecular synthons, with the most common R22(7) motif observed at salts 2, 3, 5, 6 and 8. Analysis of the crystal packing of 1-8 suggests that there are extensive strong Nsbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) between acid and imidazolyl components in all of the salts. Except the classical hydrogen bonding interactions, the secondary propagating interactions also play important roles in structure extension. This variety, coupled with the varying geometries and number of acidic groups of the acids utilized, has led to the creation of eight supramolecular arrays with 1D-3D structure. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is analyzed. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the Nsbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds between acids and imidazole/benzimidazole are sufficient to bring about the formation of organic salts.

  3. Clozapine-carboxylic acid plasticized co-amorphous dispersions: Preparation, characterization and solution stability evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmed Mahmoud Abdelhaleem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed the possibility of forming of co-amorphous systems between clozapine (CZ and various carboxylic acid plasticizers (CAPs. The aim was to improve the solubility and oral bioavailability of clozapine. Co-amorphous dispersions were prepared using modified solvent evaporation methodology at drug/plasticizer stoichiometric ratios of 1:1, 1:1.5 and 1:2. Solid state characterization was performed using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and infra red spectroscopy. Highly soluble homogeneous co-amorphous dispersions were formed between clozapine and CAPs via hydrogen bonding. The co-amorphous dispersions formed with tartaric acid (1:2 showed the highest dissolution percentage (> 95 % in 20 minutes compared to pure crystalline CZ (56 %. Highly stable solutions were obtained from co-amorphous CZ-citric and CZ-tartaric acid at 1:1.5 molar ratio. The prepared dispersions suggest the possibility of peroral or sublingual administration of highly soluble clozapine at a reduced dose with the great chance to bypass the first pass metabolism.

  4. Binary and ternary complexation of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} with carboxylate and aminocarboxylate ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Punam [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Van Luik, Abraham E. [Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office, NM (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The complex formation of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} with carboxylates: oxalic acid (Ox), malonic acid (Mal) succinic acid (Suc); glutaric acid (Glu), methylmalonic acid (Memal), oxydiacetic acid (ODA), TDA (thiodiacetic acid) and citric acid (Cit) and aminocarboxylates: iminodiacetic acid (IDA), methyliminodiacetic acid (MIDA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), 2-hydroxyethylethylenediamine triacetic acid (HEDTA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was studied by solvent extraction in 6.60 m NaClO{sub 4} at 25 C. The formation of only the 1: 1 NpO{sub 2}{sup +} complex was observed with the ligands under investigation. The complexation of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} with Ox, IDA, ODA and TDA was also measured at variable temperatures ranging from 25-60 C in 6.60 m NaClO{sub 4}. Results show that the complexation of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} with these ligands increases with increasing temperature. The enthalpy and entropy of complexation of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} were calculated from the temperature dependence of the stability constants using the Van't Hoff equation. Additionally, the formation of an aqueous ternary complex of the form NpO{sub 2}(X)(L) (X = EDTA or HEDTA; L = Ox or ODA) was identified for NpO{sub 2}{sup +} at 25 C. Stabilities of these complexes are measured and discussed in term of their structures and basicities.

  5. Binary and ternary complexation of NpO2+ with carboxylate and aminocarboxylate ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complex formation of NpO2+ with carboxylates: oxalic acid (Ox), malonic acid (Mal) succinic acid (Suc); glutaric acid (Glu), methylmalonic acid (Memal), oxydiacetic acid (ODA), TDA (thiodiacetic acid) and citric acid (Cit) and aminocarboxylates: iminodiacetic acid (IDA), methyliminodiacetic acid (MIDA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), 2-hydroxyethylethylenediamine triacetic acid (HEDTA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was studied by solvent extraction in 6.60 m NaClO4 at 25 C. The formation of only the 1: 1 NpO2+ complex was observed with the ligands under investigation. The complexation of NpO2+ with Ox, IDA, ODA and TDA was also measured at variable temperatures ranging from 25-60 C in 6.60 m NaClO4. Results show that the complexation of NpO2+ with these ligands increases with increasing temperature. The enthalpy and entropy of complexation of NpO2+ were calculated from the temperature dependence of the stability constants using the Van't Hoff equation. Additionally, the formation of an aqueous ternary complex of the form NpO2(X)(L) (X = EDTA or HEDTA; L = Ox or ODA) was identified for NpO2+ at 25 C. Stabilities of these complexes are measured and discussed in term of their structures and basicities.

  6. Tissue-specific concentrations and patterns of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates in East Greenland polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W

    2012-11-01

    Several perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) of varying chain length are bioaccumulative in biota. However, wildlife reports have focused on liver and with very little examination of other tissues, and thus there is a limited understanding of their distribution and potential effects in the mammalian body. In the present study, the comparative accumulation of C(6) to C(15) PFCAs, C(4), C(6), C(8) and C(10) PFSAs, and select precursors were examined in the liver, blood, muscle, adipose, and brain of 20 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Scoresby Sound, Central East Greenland. Overall, PFSA and PFCA concentrations were highest in liver followed by blood > brain > muscle ≈ adipose. Liver and blood samples contained proportionally more of the shorter/medium chain length (C(6) to C(11)) PFCAs, whereas adipose and brain samples were dominated by longer chain (C(13) to C(15)) PFCAs. PFCAs with lower lipophilicities accumulated more in the liver, whereas the brain accumulated PFCAs with higher lipophilicities. The concentration ratios (±SE) between perfluorooctane sulfonate and its precursor perfluorooctane sulfonamide varied among tissues from 9 (±1):1 (muscle) to 36 (±7):1 (liver). PFCA and PFSA patterns in polar bears indicate that the pharmacokinetics of these compounds are to some extent tissue-specific, and are the result of several factors that may include differing protein interactions throughout the body. PMID:23057644

  7. Effects of ultrasound on molecular properties, structure, chain conformation and degradation kinetics of carboxylic curdlan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing-Kun; Pei, Juan-Juan; Ma, Hai-Le; Wang, Zhen-Bin

    2015-05-01

    In this study, high-intensity ultrasound (20 kHz), a simple, effective and without any additive method, was used to the degradation of carboxylic curdlan (Cc) produced by 4-acetamido-TEMPO-mediated oxidation. The effects of ultrasound on molecular properties, structure and chain conformations of Cc were investigated by viscometry, size-exclusion chromatography with multiangle laser-light scattering (SEC-MALLS) analysis, as well as FTIR and NMR spectroscopies. The results indicated that the intrinsic viscosity [η] and the weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of Cc decreased obviously after ultrasound, and a uniform and narrow distribution of degradation product was obtained. The z-average radius of gyrations (Rg) firstly increased and then decreased as the sonication time prolonged. Ultrasound destroyed the hydrogen bonds resulting in the transition from compact random coil conformation to more flexible and even shorter extended chains. Ultrasonic treatment could not alter the primary chemical structure of Cc molecules according to the structural analysis by FTIR and NMR spectroscopies. Degradation kinetics based on Schmid model was applied to estimate the degradation rate constant k. It was found that the k value of Cc decreased with increasing the polymer concentration from 0.05 to 0.2% (w/v). PMID:25659672

  8. Biointerfacial impedance characterization of reduced graphene oxide supported carboxyl pendant conducting copolymer based electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report, a comprehensive physical and biointerfacial electrochemical characteristics of electrodeposited poly(pyrrole-co-pyrrolepropylic acid) (PPy-PPa) copolymer film on the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets attached over a silane modified indium-tin-oxide coated glass, for biosensing applications. The highly specific cardiac myoglobin protein antibody, Ab-cMb, has been covalently immobilized on the copolymer film through its pendent carboxyl group by carbodiimide coupling reaction. The factor ‘n’ describing divergence of the system from ideal capacitor characteristics exhibits a low value (n = 0.59) in a constant phase element of the impedance. This low value of ‘n’ showing a porous rough microstructure of PPy-PPa film on RGO exhibiting a diffusive characteristic that has been replaced by dominant charge transfer characteristic (Ret) with n = 0.78 on biomolecular immobilization and subsequent immunoreaction. The bioelectrode exhibits a linear impedance response to human cardiac cMb marker in the range of 10 ng mL−1 to 1 μg mL−1 in phosphate buffer solution (PBS; pH 7.4) at a low frequency region of et sensitivity of 70.30 Ω cm2 per decade

  9. Enhanced Hydrothermal Stability and Catalytic Performance of HKUST-1 by Incorporating Carboxyl-Functionalized Attapulgite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Yin, Xiao-Qian; Liu, Xiao-Qin; Li, Xing-Yang; Sun, Lin-Bing

    2016-06-29

    Much attention has been paid to metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) due to their large surface areas, tunable functionality, and diverse structure. Nevertheless, most reported MOFs show poor hydrothermal stability, which seriously hinders their applications. Here a strategy is adopted to tailor the properties of MOFs by means of incorporating carboxyl-functionalized natural clay attapulgite (ATP) into HKUST-1, a well-known MOF. A new type of hybrid material was thus fabricated from the hybridization of HKUST-1 and ATP. Our results indicated that the hydrothermal stability of the MOFs as well as the catalytic performance was apparently improved. The frameworks of HKUST-1 were severely destroyed after hydrothermal treatment (hot water vapor, 60 °C), while that of the hybrid materials was maintained. For the hybrid materials containing 8.4 wt % of ATP, the surface area reached 1302 m(2)·g(-1) and was even higher than that of pristine HKUST-1 (1245 m(2)·g(-1)). In the ring-opening of styrene oxide, the conversion reached 98.9% at only 20 min under catalysis from the hybrid material, which was obviously higher than that over pristine HKUST-1 (80.9%). Moreover, the hybrid materials showed excellent reusability and the catalytic activity was recoverable without loss after six cycles. Our materials provide promising candidates for heterogeneous catalysis owing to the good catalytic activity and reusability. PMID:27268731

  10. Structure–anticancer activity relationships among 4-azolidinone-3-carboxylic acids derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesyk R. B.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present research was investigation of anticancer activity of 4-azolidinone-3-carboxylic acids derivatives, and studies of structure–activity relationships (SAR aspects. Methods. Organic synthesis; spectral methods; anticancer screening was performed according to the US NCI protocol (Developmental Therapeutic Program. Results. The data of new 4-thiazolidinone-3-alkanecarboxylic acids derivatives in vitro anticancer activity were described. The most active compounds which belong to 5-arylidene-2,4- thia(imidazolidinone-3-alkanecarboxylic acids; 5-aryl(heterylidenerhodanine-3-succinic acids derivatives were selected. Determination of some SAR aspects which allowed to determine directions in lead- compounds structure optimization, as well as desirable molecular fragments for design of potential anticancer agents based on 4-azolidinone scaffold were performed. 5-Arylidenehydantoin-3-acetic acids amides were identified as a new class of significant selective antileukemic agents. Possible pharmacophore scaffold of 5-ylidenerhodanine-3-succinic acids derivatives was suggested. Conclusions. The series of active compounds with high anticancer activity and/or selectivity levels were selected. Some SAR aspects were determined and structure design directions were proposed.

  11. Aracyl triflates for preparing fluorescent and UV absorbing derivatives of unreactive carboxylates, amines and other metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storer, Malina K. [Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, P.O. Box 151, Christchurch (New Zealand); Department of Pathology, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago, Christchurch (New Zealand); Lever, Michael [Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, P.O. Box 151, Christchurch (New Zealand) and Department of Pathology, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago, Christchurch (New Zealand)]. E-mail: michael.lever@chmeds.ac.nz

    2006-02-03

    Aracyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate) reagents alkylate the unreactive carboxyl groups of betaines. The reagents also derivatise tertiary amines, amine oxides, phosphates and thioethers. A general derivatisation procedure is to dilute the sample with a polar aprotic organic solvent containing a trace of water, followed by adding an appropriate base and the aracyl triflate reagent. Limits of detection were 40 nM for glycine betaine (GB) and carnitine, 0.14 {mu}M for N,N-dimethylglycine, 70 nM for trimethylamine (TMA), and 5.9 {mu}M trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Limits of detection were improved when derivatisation yield was optimised for different analytes by changing solvent, base and water content of the reaction mixture. Solvents used include acetonitrile, acetone, butanone, dimethoxyethane and dimethoxyethyl ether, with the presence of some water or alcohol tolerated. Suitable bases include the inorganic bases magnesium hydroxide, silver oxide and lithium phosphate. These bases are sparingly soluble in the reaction solvent so sustain weakly basic conditions during derivatisation and can be removed by centrifugation to stop the reaction. This is particularly important for betaine assays since the derivatives are base-sensitive. The information presented here can be used to develop assays for many metabolites using these versatile reagents.

  12. In vitro apatite formation on polyamide containing carboxyl groups modified with silanol groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Takahiro; Ohtsuki, Chikara; Kamitakahara, Masanobu; Hosoya, Kayo; Tanihara, Masao; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Sakaguchi, Yoshimitsu; Konagaya, Shigeji

    2007-06-01

    Modification of organic polymer with silanol groups in combination with calcium salts enables the polymer to show bioactivity, that is, the polymer forms apatite on its surface after exposure to body environment. However, how modification with silanol groups influences ability of apatite formation on the polymer substrate and adhesive strength between polymer and apatite is not yet known. In the present study, polyamide containing carboxyl groups was modified with different amounts of silanol groups, and its apatite-forming ability in 1.5SBF, which contained ion concentrations 1.5 times those of simulated body fluid (SBF), was examined. The rate of apatite formation increased with increasing content of silanol groups in the polyamide films. This may be attributed to enhancement of dipole interactions. A tendency for the adhesive strength of the apatite layer on the polyamide film to be decreased with increasing content of silanol groups was observed. This may be attributed to swelling in 1.5SBF and having a high degree of shrinkage after drying. These findings clearly show that modification of organic polymers with the functional groups induces apatite deposition, and also determines the adhesive strength of the apatite layer to the organic substrates. PMID:17243002

  13. Copper Complexes of Nicotinic-Aromatic Carboxylic Acids as Superoxide Dismutase Mimetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virapong Prachayasittikul

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acid (also known as vitamin B3 is a dietary element essential for physiological and antihyperlipidemic functions. This study reports the synthesis of novel mixed ligand complexes of copper with nicotinic and other select carboxylic acids (phthalic, salicylic and anthranilic acids. The tested copper complexes exhibited superoxide dismutase (SOD mimetic activity and antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, with a minimum inhibition concentration of 256 μg/mL. Copper complex of nicotinic-phthalic acids (CuNA/Ph was the most potent with a SOD mimetic activity of IC50 34.42 μM. The SOD activities were observed to correlate well with the theoretical parameters as calculated using density functional theory (DFT at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory. Interestingly, the SOD activity of the copper complex CuNA/Ph was positively correlated with the electron affinity (EA value. The two quantum chemical parameters, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO, were shown to be appropriate for understanding the mechanism of the metal complexes as their calculated energies show good correlation with the SOD activity. Moreover, copper complex with the highest SOD activity were shown to possess the lowest HOMO energy. These findings demonstrate a great potential for the development of value-added metallovitamin-based therapeutics.

  14. The Ameliorative Effects of L-2-Oxothiazolidine-4-Carboxylate on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Shin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the ameliorative effects and the mechanism of action of L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC on acetaminophen (APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Mice were randomly divided into six groups: normal control group, APAP only treated group, APAP + 25 mg/kg OTC, APAP + 50 mg/kg OTC, APAP + 100 mg/kg OTC, and APAP + 100 mg/kg N-acetylcysteine (NAC as a reference control group. OTC treatment significantly reduced serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels in a dose dependent manner. OTC treatment was markedly increased glutathione (GSH production and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px activity in a dose dependent manner. The contents of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal in liver tissues were significantly decreased by administration of OTC and the inhibitory effect of OTC was similar to that of NAC. Moreover, OTC treatment on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity significantly reduced the formation of nitrotyrosin and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling positive areas of liver tissues in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, the activity of caspase-3 in liver tissues was reduced by administration of OTC in a dose dependent manner. The ameliorative effects of OTC on APAP-induced liver damage in mice was similar to that of NAC. These results suggest that OTC has ameliorative effects on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice through anti-oxidative stress and anti-apoptotic processes.

  15. Latex stage blending of multiwalled carbon nanotube in carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber: Mechanical and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► MWCNT can act as a reinforcing filler in XNBR at very low concentration. ► SEM and XRD analysis confirm uniform distribution of nanotube in the matrix. ► Mechanical properties showed considerable improvement. ► Thermal stability of the composite is marginally improved. -- Abstract: Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was dispersed in sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS) by sonication. The dispersed MWCNT (0.05–0.3 gm) was incorporated in carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. Mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of these composites were studied. Mechanical properties of the composites increased up to an optimum concentration and then decreased. Dielectric properties of the composites were studied in the S band (frequency range 2–4 GHz) by Cavity Perturbation method. Direct current (DC) electrical conductivity shows a percolation behaviour and conductivity increased by about 10 orders of magnitude. Thermal studies were conducted using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). As expected with the very small concentration of multiwalled carbon nanotube, glass transition temperature (Tg) and thermal stability of the composite showed a marginal increase. Composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis.

  16. Aracyl triflates for preparing fluorescent and UV absorbing derivatives of unreactive carboxylates, amines and other metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aracyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate) reagents alkylate the unreactive carboxyl groups of betaines. The reagents also derivatise tertiary amines, amine oxides, phosphates and thioethers. A general derivatisation procedure is to dilute the sample with a polar aprotic organic solvent containing a trace of water, followed by adding an appropriate base and the aracyl triflate reagent. Limits of detection were 40 nM for glycine betaine (GB) and carnitine, 0.14 μM for N,N-dimethylglycine, 70 nM for trimethylamine (TMA), and 5.9 μM trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Limits of detection were improved when derivatisation yield was optimised for different analytes by changing solvent, base and water content of the reaction mixture. Solvents used include acetonitrile, acetone, butanone, dimethoxyethane and dimethoxyethyl ether, with the presence of some water or alcohol tolerated. Suitable bases include the inorganic bases magnesium hydroxide, silver oxide and lithium phosphate. These bases are sparingly soluble in the reaction solvent so sustain weakly basic conditions during derivatisation and can be removed by centrifugation to stop the reaction. This is particularly important for betaine assays since the derivatives are base-sensitive. The information presented here can be used to develop assays for many metabolites using these versatile reagents

  17. Porous, rigid metal(III-carboxylate metal-organic frameworks for the delivery of nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrod F. Eubank

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The room temperature sorption properties of the biological gas nitric oxide (NO have been investigated on the highly porous and rigid iron or chromium carboxylate based metal-organic frameworks Material Institut Lavoisier (MIL-100(Fe or Cr and MIL-127(Fe. In all cases, a significant amount of NO is chemisorbed at 298 K with a loading capacity that depends both on the nature of the metal cation, the structure and the presence of additional iron(II Lewis acid sites. In a second step, the release of NO triggered by wet nitrogen gas has been studied by chemiluminescence and indicates that only a partial release of NO occurs as well as a prolonged delivery at the biological level. Finally, an in situ infrared spectroscopy study confirms not only the coordination of NO over the Lewis acid sites and the stronger binding of NO on the additional iron(II sites, providing further insights over the partial release of NO only in the presence of water at room temperature.

  18. Design, Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of Some New 2-Phenyl-quinoline-4-carboxylic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of new 2-phenyl-quinoline-4-carboxylic acid derivatives was synthesized starting from aniline, 2-nitrobenzaldehyde, pyruvic acid followed by Doebner reaction, amidation, reduction, acylation and amination. All of the newly-synthesized compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and HRMS. The antibacterial activities of these compounds against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, as well as one strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA bacteria were evaluated by the agar diffusion method (zone of inhibition and a broth dilution method (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, and their structure-activity relationships were obtained and discussed. The results revealed that some compounds displayed good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, and Compounds 5a4 and 5a7 showed the best inhibition with an MIC value of 64 μg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and with an MIC value of 128 μg/mL against Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the MTT assay illustrated the low cytotoxicity of Compound 5a4.

  19. Design, Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of Some New 2-Phenyl-quinoline-4-carboxylic Acid Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Xie, Xiaoyang; Cai, Yuanhong; Yang, Xiaolan; Li, Jiayu; Li, Yinghan; Chen, Wenna; He, Minghua

    2016-01-01

    A series of new 2-phenyl-quinoline-4-carboxylic acid derivatives was synthesized starting from aniline, 2-nitrobenzaldehyde, pyruvic acid followed by Doebner reaction, amidation, reduction, acylation and amination. All of the newly-synthesized compounds were characterized by ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and HRMS. The antibacterial activities of these compounds against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis), as well as one strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria were evaluated by the agar diffusion method (zone of inhibition) and a broth dilution method (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)), and their structure-activity relationships were obtained and discussed. The results revealed that some compounds displayed good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, and Compounds 5a₄ and 5a₇ showed the best inhibition with an MIC value of 64 μg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and with an MIC value of 128 μg/mL against Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the MTT assay illustrated the low cytotoxicity of Compound 5a₄. PMID:26978336

  20. Modification of dicyanate ester resin by liquid carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphenol A dicyanate ester (BADCy) was modified with liquid carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (LCTBN). The cured BADCy resin was formed through the cyclotrimerization of cyanate functional groups into triazine rings, and there was the chemical reaction between BADCy and LCTBN. Mechanical performance indicated that the introduction of LCTBN into BADCy resin improved the impact strength with maintenance in flexural strength. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the pure resin had a smooth glassy fracture surface, whereas cured blends containing LCTBN showed rougher fracture surfaces, and exhibited enhanced impact resistance. The TEM observation showed that the two phases in the cured resins exhibit a good interaction adhesion. Thermograms of BADCy modified with LCTBN showed the little reduction of heat deflection temperature, and a reduction in thermal stability temperature by 30 K. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed that the pure BADCy had higher storage modulus (E') values than that of the BADCy modified with LCTBN, whereas the loss modulus (E'') was lower, and that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of modified BADCy was 229 deg. C and lower than that (249 deg. C) of pure BADCy resin.

  1. Radioimmunoassay for anileridine, meperidine, and other N-substituted phenylpiperidine carboxylic acid esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vunakis, H.; Freeman, D.S.; Gjika, H.B.

    1975-10-01

    Antibodies that bind an /sup 125/I-tyramyl derivative of N-succinylanileridine have been produced in animals immunized with N-succinylanileridine-hemocyanin conjugate. Several congeners and metabolites have been tested as competitors of this antigen-antibody reaction. The concentrations (in picomoles) required for 50 percent inhibition have been found to be: anileridine (0.2), meperidine (3.5), piminodine (3.8), diphenoxylate (20.5), normeperidine (20.0), meperidine acid (45,000) and anileridine acid (3,400). Although ester hydrolysis results in changes in inhibiting capacities on the order of 10/sup 4/, major structural changes in the substituent on the nitrogen of the piperidine ring are not readily recognized by the antibody. This radioimmunoassay can be used to study a variety of N-substituted phenylpiperidine carboxylic acid esters by relating the results to the standard curve obtained for the drug under investigation. For all practical purposes, alphaprodine, morphine and methadone do not interfere with the assay.

  2. Radioimmunoassay for anileridine, meperidine, and other N-substituted phenylpiperidine carboxylic acid esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibodies that bind an 125I-tyramyl derivative of N-succinylanileridine have been produced in animals immunized with N-succinylanileridine-hemocyanin conjugate. Several congeners and metabolites have been tested as competitors of this antigen-antibody reaction. The concentrations (in picomoles) required for 50 percent inhibition have been found to be: anileridine (0.2), meperidine (3.5), piminodine (3.8), diphenoxylate (20.5), normeperidine (20.0), meperidine acid (45,000) and anileridine acid (3,400). Although ester hydrolysis results in changes in inhibiting capacities on the order of 104, major structural changes in the substituent on the nitrogen of the piperidine ring are not readily recognized by the antibody. This radioimmunoassay can be used to study a variety of N-substituted phenylpiperidine carboxylic acid esters by relating the results to the standard curve obtained for the drug under investigation. For all practical purposes, alphaprodine, morphine and methadone do not interfere with the assay

  3. Carboxylated nanodiamond and re-oxygenation process of gamma irradiated red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta-Elias, M. [Doctorado en Nanotecnologia, Universidad de Sonora (Mexico); Sarabia-Sainz, A.; Silva-Campa, E.; Angulo-Molina, A.; Soto-Puebla, D.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Melendrez, R.; Alvarez-Garcia, S.; Pedroza-Montero, M. [Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Pedroso-Santana, S. [Doctorado en Ciencias (Fisica), Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Castaneda, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) possess exceptional physical, chemical, and biological properties, which make them suitable for potential biomedical applications. They are biocompatible and their usefulness as effective Raman/fluorescence probes for labeling as well as for drug delivery has been demonstrated. Related to their biocompatibility, the interaction between NDs and red blood cells (RBCs) is of great interest. In this work, the influence of carboxylated NDs (cNDs) in the re-oxygenation capability of both γ-irradiated and stored RBCs was studied. The standard 25 Gy γ dose recommended to prevent transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease was used. A 5-day maximum storage time was used to evaluate the ''storage lesion''. The hemoglobin (Hb) oxygenation state was assessed by Raman microspectroscopy and the morphologic changes on cells were tracked by optical imaging. Our results show that irradiated RBCs have a better re-oxygenation capability and morphological recovery when they are in presence of cNDs. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Purification of homologous protein carboxyl methyltransferase isozymes from human and bovine erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have purified the two major isozymes of the L-isoaspartyl/D-aspartyl protein methyltransferase from both human and bovine erythrocytes. These four enzymes all have polypeptide molecular weights of approximately 26,500 and appear to be monomers in solution. Each of these enzymes cross-reacts with antibodies directed against protein carboxyl methyltransferase I from bovine brain. Their structures also appear to be similar when analyzed by dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis for the large fragments produced by digestion with Staphylococcus aureus protease V8 or when analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for tryptic peptides. The structural relatedness of these enzymes was confirmed by sequence analysis of a total of 433 residues in 32 tryptic fragments of the human erythrocyte isozymes I and II and of the bovine erythrocyte isozyme II. They found sequence identity or probable identity in 111 out of 112 residues when they compared the human isozymes I and II and identities in 127 out of 134 residues when the human and bovine isozymes II were compared. These results suggest that the erythrocyte isozymes from both organisms may have nearly identical structures and confirm the similarities in the function of these methyltransferases that have been previously demonstrated

  5. Purification and characterization of pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase from rat liver mitochondrial matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) dehydrogenase catalyzes the second step of the irreversible two-step oxidation of proline to glutamate or the oxidative second step of the two-step conversion of ornithine to glutamate in mitochondria. Activity was assayed by monitoring directly the conversion of (3H) L-P5C to (3H) L-glutamate. Using this assay, the authors find P5C dehydrogenase most prevalent in liver in rat, with kidney having 71%, heart 51%, and and spleen 15% of the specific activity of liver. Starting with a subcellular fraction enriched for mitochondria, they have isolated a protein fraction enriched in this activity. The soluble protein fraction of the mitochondrial isolate was subjected to (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and successive chromatography on DE 52 anion exchange and Brown 10 dye ligand affinity resins. This procedure yielded a fraction purified more than 500-fold over whole liver homogenate. HPLC and 5'-AMP agarose fractionation experiments now in progress to achieve further purification show promise. Physical studies show a M/sub r/ of 105,000 upon sucrose density gradient centrifugation and 94,000 on molecular sieve HPLC for the activity. Flat bed gel isoelectric focusing of the protein indicates a pI of 5.7. The purified protein exhibits an apparent K/sub m/ of 0.1 mM for L-P5C

  6. The antimicrobial effects and metabolomic footprinting of carboxyl-capped bismuth nanoparticles against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, P; Dowlatabadi-Bazaz, R; Mofid, M R; Pourmand, M R; Daryani, N E; Faramarzi, M A; Sepehrizadeh, Z; Shahverdi, A R

    2014-01-01

    Organic salts of bismuth are currently used as antimicrobial agents against Helicobacter pylori. This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of elemental bismuth nanoparticles (Bi NPs) using a serial agar dilution method for the first time against different clinical isolates and a standard strain of H. pylori. The Bi NPs were biologically prepared and purified by a recently described method and subjected to further characterization by infrared spectroscopy and anti-H. pylori evaluation. Infrared spectroscopy results showed the presence of carboxyl functional groups on the surface of biogenic Bi NPs. These biogenic nanoparticles showed good antibacterial activity against all tested H. pylori strains. The resulting MICs varied between 60 and 100 μg/ml for clinical isolates of H. pylori and H. pylori (ATCC 26695). The antibacterial effect of bismuth ions was also tested against all test strains. The antimicrobial effect of Bi ions was lower than antimicrobial effect of bismuth in the form of elemental NPs. The effect of Bi NPs on metabolomic footprinting of H. pylori was further evaluated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Exposure of H. pylori to an inhibitory concentration of Bi NPs (100 μg/ml) led to release of some metabolites such as acetate, formic acid, glutamate, valine, glycine, and uracil from bacteria into their supernatant. These findings confirm that these nanoparticles interfere with Krebs cycle, nucleotide, and amino acid metabolism and shows anti-H. pylori activity. PMID:24104691

  7. Ascorbic acid absorption in Crohn's disease. Studies using L-[carboxyl-14C]ascorbic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total body pool and intestinal absorption of ascorbic acid were studied in 12 patients undergoing operation for Crohn's disease (six with fistulae and six without) and in six control patients undergoing operation for reasons other than Crohn's disease. L-[carboxyl-14C]Ascorbic acid, 0.19-0.40 megabecquerels (MBq), was given orally. After a period of equilibration, the labeled ascorbic acid was flushed out of the patient's body tissues using large doses of unlabeled ascorbic acid. Intestinal absorption of ascorbic acid, assessed from the total cumulative urinary 14C recovery, was found to be similar in patients with fistulizing Crohn's disease (73.9 +/- 8.45%), those without fistulas (72.8 +/- 11.53%), and in controls (80.3 +/- 8.11%). Total body pools of ascorbic acid, calculated using the plasma 14C decay curves, were similar in patients with Crohn's disease with fistulas (17.1 +/- 5.91 mg/kg), patients without fistulas (9.6 +/- 3.58 mg/kg), and in controls (13.3 +/- 4.28 mg/kg). The results indicate that ascorbic acid absorption is normal in patients with both fistulizing and nonfistulizing Crohn's disease. The results suggest that routine supplements of vitamin C are not necessary unless oral ascorbic acid intake is low

  8. Synthesis, Antifungal Activity and QSAR of Some Novel Carboxylic Acid Amides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Du

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel aromatic carboxylic acid amides were synthesized and tested for their activities against six phytopathogenic fungi by an in vitro mycelia growth inhibition assay. Most of them displayed moderate to good activity. Among them N-(2-(1H-indazol-1-ylphenyl-2-(trifluoromethylbenzamide (3c exhibited the highest antifungal activity against Pythium aphanidermatum (EC50 = 16.75 µg/mL and Rhizoctonia solani (EC50 = 19.19 µg/mL, compared to the reference compound boscalid with EC50 values of 10.68 and 14.47 µg/mL, respectively. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA were employed to develop a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship model for the activity of the compounds. In the molecular docking, a fluorine atom and the carbonyl oxygen atom of 3c formed hydrogen bonds toward the hydroxyl hydrogens of TYR58 and TRP173.

  9. Biosynthesis of Bacterial Cellulose/Carboxylic Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Enzymatic Biofuel Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Lv

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Novel nanocomposites comprised of bacterial cellulose (BC with carboxylic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNTs incorporated into the BC matrix were prepared through a simple method of biosynthesis. The biocathode and bioanode for the enzyme biological fuel cell (EBFC were prepared using BC/c-MWCNTs composite injected by laccase (Lac and glucose oxidase (GOD with the aid of glutaraldehyde (GA crosslinking. Biosynthesis of BC/c-MWCNTs composite was characterized by digital photos, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR. The experimental results indicated the successful incorporation of c-MWCNTs into the BC. The electrochemical and biofuel performance were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV. The power density and current density of EBFCs were recorded at 32.98 µW/cm3 and 0.29 mA/cm3, respectively. Additionally, the EBFCs also showed acceptable stability. Preliminary tests on double cells indicated that renewable BC have great potential in the application field of EBFCs.

  10. Clozapine-carboxylic acid plasticized co-amorphous dispersions: Preparation, characterization and solution stability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmed Mahmoud Abdelhaleem; Ali, Adel Ahmed; Maghrabi, Ibrahim Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    This study addressed the possibility of forming of co-amorphous systems between clozapine (CZ) and various carboxylic acid plasticizers (CAPs). The aim was to improve the solubility and oral bioavailability of clozapine. Co-amorphous dispersions were prepared using modified solvent evaporation methodology at drug/plasticizer stoichiometric ratios of 1:1, 1:1.5 and 1:2. Solid state characterization was performed using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and infra red spectroscopy. Highly soluble homogeneous co-amorphous dispersions were formed between clozapine and CAPs via hydrogen bonding. The co-amorphous dispersions formed with tartaric acid (1:2) showed the highest dissolution percentage (>95% in 20 minutes) compared to pure crystalline CZ (56%). Highly stable solutions were obtained from co-amorphous CZ-citric and CZ-tartaric acid at 1:1.5 molar ratio. The prepared dispersions suggest the possibility of peroral or sublingual administration of highly soluble clozapine at a reduced dose with the great chance to bypass the first pass metabolism. PMID:26011930

  11. A new fluorinated urethane dimethacrylate with carboxylic groups for use in dental adhesive compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buruiana, Tinca; Melinte, Violeta; Aldea, Horia; Pelin, Irina M; Buruiana, Emil C

    2016-05-01

    A urethane macromer containing hexafluoroisopropylidene, poly(ethylene oxide) and carboxylic moieties (UF-DMA) was synthesized and used in proportions varying between 15 and 35 wt.% (F1-F3) in dental adhesive formulations besides BisGMA, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. The FTIR and (1)H ((13)C) NMR spectra confirmed the chemical structure of the UF-DMA. The experimental adhesives were characterized with regard to the degree of conversion, water sorption/solubility, contact angle, diffusion coefficient, Vickers hardness, and morphology of the crosslinked networks and compared with the specimens containing 10 wt.% hydroxyapatite (HAP) or calcium phosphate (CaP). The conversion degree (after 180 s of irradiation with visible light) ranged from 59.5% (F1) to 74.8% (F3), whereas the water sorption was between 23.15 μg mm(-3) (F1) and 40.52 μg mm(-3) (F3). Upon the addition of HAP or CaP this parameter attained values of 37.82-49.14 μg mm(-3) (F1-F3-HAP) and 34.58-45.56 μg mm(-3), respectively. Also, the formation of resin tags through the infiltration of a dental composition (F3) was visualized by SEM analysis. The results suggest that UF-DMA taken as co-monomer in dental adhesives of acrylic type may provide improved properties in the moist environment of the mouth. PMID:26952402

  12. Effective removal of cationic dyes using carboxylate-functionalized cellulose nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Han; Zhou, Yanmei; Yu, Fang; Wang, Enze; Min, Yinghao; Huang, Qi; Pang, Lanfang; Ma, Tongsen

    2015-12-01

    A novel carboxylate-functionalized adsorbent (CNM) based on cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) was prepared and adsorptive removal of multiple cationic dyes (crystal violet, methylene blue, malachite green and basic fuchsin) were investigated. The maximum cationic dyes uptakes ranged from 30.0 to 348.9mgg(-1) following the order of: CNM>CNCs>raw cellulose. Furthermore, the removal of crystal violet by CNM was investigated representatively where kinetics, thermodynamics and isotherm analysis were employed to explain in-depth information associated with the adsorption process. The adsorption kinetics fitted well to the pseudo-second-order model and thermodynamic analysis revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. Meanwhile, isothermal study demonstrated a monolayer adsorption behavior following the Langmuir model with a calculated maximum absorption capacity of 243.9mgg(-1), which is higher than those of many other reported adsorbents. These findings prefigure the promising potentials of CNM as a versatile adsorbent for the efficient removal of cationic dyes from wastewater. PMID:26298027

  13. Phosphazene-promoted metal-free ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide initiated by carboxylic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Junpeng

    2014-03-11

    The effectiveness of carboxylic acid as initiator for the anionic ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide was investigated with a strong phosphazene base (t-BuP4) used as promoter. Kinetic study showed an induction period, i.e., transformation of carboxylic acid to hydroxyl ester, followed by slow chain growth together with simultaneous and fast end-group transesterification, which led to poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) consisting of monoester (monohydroxyl), diester, and dihydroxyl species. An appropriate t-BuP4/acid ratio was proven to be essential to achieve better control over the polymerization and low dispersity of PEO. This work provides important information and enriches the toolbox for macromolecular and biomolecular engineering with protic initiating sites. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  14. Carboxyl functionalization of carbon fibers via aryl diazonium reaction in molten urea to enhance interfacial shear strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuwei; Meng, Linghui; Fan, Liquan; Wu, Guangshun; Ma, Lichun; Zhao, Min; Huang, Yudong

    2016-01-01

    Using molten urea as the solvent, carbon fibers were functionalized with carboxylic acid groups via aryl diazonium reaction in 15 min to improve their interfacial bonding with epoxy resin. The surface functionalization was quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which showed that the relative surface coverage of carboxylic acid groups increased from an initial percentage of 3.17-10.41%. Mechanical property test results indicated that the aryl diazonium reaction in this paper could improve the interfacial shear strength by 66%. Meanwhile, the technique did not adopt any pre-oxidation step to produce functional groups prior to grafting and was shown to maintain the tensile strength of the fibers. This methodology provided a rapid, facile and economically viable route to produce covalently functionalized carbon fibers in large quantities with an eco-friendly method.

  15. /sup 67/Zn and /sup 1/H NMR studies of Zn/sup 2 +/-imidazole and carboxylate complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, T. (Chemical Research Inst. of Non-Aqueous Solutions, Katahira, Japan); Kudaka, M.; Hatano, M.

    1982-06-15

    /sup 67/Zn NMR studies of naturally abundant Zn/sup 2 +/-imidazole and carboxylate ligands. Complexes are shown. Thus, quadrupolar relaxation changes in /sup 67/Zn NMR caused by adding imidazole ligands are more remarkable than those by carboxylate ligands. The changes caused by adding less bulky imidazole ligands are more prominent than those caused by a bulky imidazole ligand. Changes in Zn/sup 2 +/ quadrupolar relaxation rate caused by adding a cyclic hexapeptide consisting of L-histidine, L-cystein(Acm) and D-leucine are larger than those by a corresponding linear hexapeptide. Those changes in the quadrupolar relaxation rate of /sup 67/Zn NMR among Zn/sup 2 +/ complexes can be reasonably interpreted in terms of the differences of equilibrium constants of those complexes to a first approximation.

  16. A Novel and Facile Synthesis of 2-(Benzofuran-2-yl)benzo[h]- quinoline-3-carboxylic Acid Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文涛; 姜云; 李阳; 李凤; 闫岩

    2012-01-01

    A simple and concise approach for the synthesis of a series of new heterocyclic systems of 2-(benzofuran-2-yl)- benzo[h]quinoline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives (3a--3g) is described. The synthetic strategy features the one-pot reaction of ethyl 2-(chloromethyl)benzo[h]quinoline-3-carboxylate (2) with various substituted salicylaldehydes as well as 2-hydroxy-l-naphthaldehyde as a key step. The substrate 2 was prepared in good yield by a mild, efficient and direct reaction of 1-naphthylamine (1) with Vilsmeier-Haack reagent. The structures of all the new compounds were identified by spectral data and elemental analysis.

  17. Engineering Light-Mediated Bistable Azobenzene Switches Bearing Urea d-Aminoglucose Units for Chiral Discrimination of Carboxylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowa, Kajetan; Niedbała, Patryk; Jurczak, Janusz

    2016-05-01

    The symmetrical molecular receptors 1a and 1b consisting of a photochemically addressable azobenzene tether functionalized with urea hydrogen-bonding groups and d-carbohydrates as chiral selectors were developed to achieve control over the chiral recognition of α-amino acid-derived carboxylates. The photo- and thermally interconvertible planar E-1 and concaved Z-1 were found to exhibit different affinities, selectivities, and binding modes toward these biologically important anions in a highly polar medium (DMSO + 0.5% H2O). Binding affinity for the same enantiomerically pure guest was up to 3 times higher for E-1 than for Z-1 (cf. parameter β). In addition, the rate of thermal Z → E isomerization was found to depend on the chiral binding ability of Z-1, i.e., more strongly bound carboxylate enantiomer as well as higher enantiomer concentration caused faster relaxation to E-1. PMID:27057921

  18. Recovery of carboxylic acids produced during dark fermentation of food waste by adsorption on Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Ahasa; Bonk, Fabian; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2016-10-01

    Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon were tested as promising candidates for carboxylic acid recovery by adsorption. Dark fermentation was performed without pH control and without addition of external inoculum at 37°C in batch mode. Lactic, acetic and butyric acids, were obtained, after 7days of fermentation. The maximum acid removal, 74%, from the Amberlite IRA-67 and 63% from activated carbon was obtained from clarified fermentation broth using 200gadsorbent/Lbroth at pH 3.3. The pH has significant effect and pH below the carboxylic acids pKa showed to be beneficial for both the adsorbents. The un-controlled pH fermentation creates acidic environment, aiding in adsorption by eliminating use of chemicals for efficient removal. This study proposes simple and easy valorization of waste to valuable chemicals. PMID:26898679

  19. Enhanced dispersion stability and mobility of carboxyl-functionalized carbon nanotubes in aqueous solutions through strong hydrogen bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispersion of carbon nanotubes has been heavily studied due to its importance for their technical applications, toxic effects, and environmental impacts. Common electrolytes, such as sodium chloride and potassium chloride, promote agglomeration of nanoparticles in aqueous solutions. On the contrary, we discovered that acetic electrolytes enhanced the dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with carboxyl functional group through the strong hydrogen bond, which was confirmed by UV–Vis spectrometry, dispersion observations and aerosolization-quantification method. When concentrations of acetate electrolytes such as ammonium acetate (CH3CO2NH4) and sodium acetate (CH3CO2Na) were lower than 0.03 mol per liter, MWCNT suspensions showed better dispersion and had higher mobility in porous media. The effects by the acetic environment are also applicable to other nanoparticles with the carboxyl functional group, which was demonstrated with polystyrene latex particles as an example

  20. RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION WITH A TRIISOOCTYLAMINE DILUENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Malmary

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Tertiary alkylamines in solution with organic diluents are attractive extractants for the recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous phases. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism for extraction of organic acids from water by a long-chain aliphatic tertiary amine. In order to attain this objective, we studied the liquid-liquid equilibria between the triisooctylamine + 1-octanol + n-heptane system as solvent and an aqueous solution of an individual carboxylic acid such as citric, lactic and malic acids. The experiments showed that the partition coefficient for a particular organic acid depends on the kind of solute, notably when the acid concentration in the aqueous phase is low. A mathematical model, where both chemical association and physical distribution are taken into consideration, is proposed. The model suggests that the various complexes obtained between amine and organic acids contribute to the distribution of the solute between the coexisting phases in equilibrium.