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Sample records for carboxykinase links anaplerosis

  1. The regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and the NADP-linked malic enzyme in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J M; Hynes, M J

    1981-04-01

    It has previously been suggested that the synthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (EC 4.1.1.32) in Aspergillus nidulans is regulated by a repression-derepression mechanism involving a glycolytic intermediate, and not by induction. Results obtained using compounds that enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle via 2-oxoglutarate, and that can supply both a carbon and a nitrogen source for A. nidulans, suggest it is more likely that the synthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase is inducible, and only weakly regulated by carbon catabolite repression. a similar study of the regulation of the NADP-linked malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.40) indicates that it too may be inducible.

  2. Breast Cancer-Derived Lung Metastases Show Increased Pyruvate Carboxylase-Dependent Anaplerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Christen; Doriane Lorendeau; Roberta Schmieder; Dorien Broekaert; Kristine Metzger; Koen Veys; Ilaria Elia; Joerg Martin Buescher; Martin Franz Orth; Shawn Michael Davidson; Thomas Georg Philipp Grünewald; Katrien De Bock; Sarah-Maria Fendt

    2016-01-01

    Cellular proliferation depends on refilling the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to support biomass production (anaplerosis). The two major anaplerotic pathways in cells are pyruvate conversion to oxaloacetate via pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and glutamine conversion to α-ketoglutarate. Cancers often show an organ-specific reliance on either pathway. However, it remains unknown whether they adapt their mode of anaplerosis when metastasizing to a distant organ. We measured PC-dependent anaplerosis ...

  3. Cardiac anaplerosis in health and disease: food for thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Rosiers, Christine; Labarthe, François; Lloyd, Steven G; Chatham, John C

    2011-05-01

    There has been a resurgence of interest for the field of cardiac metabolism catalysed by the increased need for new therapeutic targets for patients with heart failure. The primary focus of research in this area to date has been on the impact of substrate selection for oxidative energy metabolism; however, anaplerotic metabolism also has significant interest for its potential cardioprotective role. Anaplerosis refers to metabolic pathways that replenish the citric acid cycle intermediates, which are essential to energy metabolism; however, our understanding of the role and regulation of this process in the heart, particularly under pathophysiological conditions, is very limited. Therefore, the goal of this article is to provide a foundation for future directions of research on cardiac anaplerosis and heart disease. We include an overview of anaplerotic metabolism, a critical evaluation of current methods available for its quantitation in the intact heart, and a discussion of its role and regulation both in health and disease as it is currently understood based mostly on animal studies. We also consider genetic diseases affecting anaplerotic pathways in humans and acute intervention studies with anaplerotic substrates in the clinics. Finally, as future perspectives, we will share our thoughts about potential benefits and practical considerations on modalities of interventions targeting anaplerosis in heart disease, including heart failure.

  4. Enhanced mitochondrial glutamine anaplerosis suppresses pancreatic cancer growth through autophagy inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung Min; Hwang, Sunsook; Park, Kyungsoo; Yang, Seungyeon; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells use precursors derived from tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to support their unlimited growth. However, continuous export of TCA cycle intermediates results in the defect of mitochondrial integrity. Mitochondria glutamine metabolism plays an essential role for the maintenance of mitochondrial functions and its biosynthetic roles by refilling the mitochondrial carbon pool. Here we report that human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells have a distinct dependence on mitochondrial glutamine metabolism. Whereas glutamine flux into mitochondria contributes to proliferation of most cancer cells, enhanced glutamine anaplerosis results in a pronounced suppression of PDAC growth. A cell membrane permeable α-ketoglutarate analog or overexpression of glutamate dehydrogenase lead to decreased proliferation and increased apoptotic cell death in PDAC cells but not other cancer cells. We found that enhanced glutamine anaplerosis inhibits autophagy, required for tumorigenic growth of PDAC, by activating mammalian TORC1. Together, our results reveal that glutamine anaplerosis is a crucial regulator of growth and survival of PDAC cells, which may provide novel therapeutic approaches to treat these cancers. PMID:27477484

  5. Interrelations between C4 ketogenesis, C5 ketogenesis, and anaplerosis in the perfused rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuang; Zhang, Guo-Fang; Kasumov, Takhar; Roe, Charles R; Brunengraber, Henri

    2009-10-09

    We investigated the interrelations between C(4) ketogenesis (production of beta-hydroxybutyrate + acetoacetate), C(5) ketogenesis (production of beta-hydroxypentanoate + beta-ketopentanoate), and anaplerosis in isolated rat livers perfused with (13)C-labeled octanoate, heptanoate, or propionate. Mass isotopomer analysis of C(4) and C(5) ketone bodies and of related acyl-CoA esters reveal that C(4) and C(5) ketogenesis share the same pool of acetyl-CoA. Although the uptake of octanoate and heptanoate by the liver are similar, the rate of C(5) ketogenesis from heptanoate is much lower than the rate of C(4) ketogenesis from octanoate. This results from the channeling of the propionyl moiety of heptanoate into anaplerosis of the citric acid cycle. C(5) ketogenesis from propionate is virtually nil because acetoacyl-CoA thiolase does not favor the formation of beta-ketopentanoyl-CoA from propionyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA. Anaplerosis and gluconeogenesis from heptanoate are inhibited by octanoate. The data have implications for the design of diets for the treatment of long chain fatty acid oxidation disorders, such as the triheptanoin-based diet.

  6. Interrelations between C4 Ketogenesis, C5 Ketogenesis, and Anaplerosis in the Perfused Rat Liver*

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Shuang; Zhang, Guo-Fang; Kasumov, Takhar; Roe, Charles R.; Brunengraber, Henri

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the interrelations between C4 ketogenesis (production of β-hydroxybutyrate + acetoacetate), C5 ketogenesis (production of β-hydroxypentanoate + β-ketopentanoate), and anaplerosis in isolated rat livers perfused with 13C-labeled octanoate, heptanoate, or propionate. Mass isotopomer analysis of C4 and C5 ketone bodies and of related acyl-CoA esters reveal that C4 and C5 ketogenesis share the same pool of acetyl-CoA. Although the uptake of octanoate and heptanoate by the liver ar...

  7. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert P; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Leegood, Richard C; Famiani, Franco

    2011-11-01

    In this study the abundance and location of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was determined in the flesh and skin of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivar Durone Nero II during development. PEPCK was not present in young fruit but appeared in both tissues as the fruit increased in size. In these there was no net dissimilation of malic acid, which accounts for the bulk of their organic acid contents when PEPCK was present. To assist in understanding the function of PEPCK, the abundance of a number of other enzymes was determined. These enzymes were aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), glutamine synthetase (GS), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco). A potential role for PEPCK in the regulation of pH and the utilization of malate in gluconeogenesis in the flesh and skin of cherries is presented.

  8. Phylogenetic Study of the Evolution of PEP-Carboxykinase

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    Sanjukta Aich

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK is the key enzyme to initiate the gluconeogenic pathway in vertebrates, yeast, plants and most bacteria. Nucleotide specificity divided all PCKs into two groups. All the eukaryotic mammalian and most archaeal PCKs are GTP-specifi c. Bacterial and fungal PCKs can be ATP-or GTP-specific but all plant PCKs are ATPspecific. Amino acid sequence alignment of PCK enzymes shows that the nucleotide binding sites are somewhat conserved within each class with few exceptions that do not have any clear ATP- or GTP-specific binding motif. Although the active site residues are mostly conserved in all PCKs, not much significant sequence homology persists between ATP- and GTPdependent PCK enzymes. There is only one planctomycetes PCK enzyme (from Cadidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis that shows sequence homology with both ATP-and GTP-dependent PCKs. Phylogenetic studies have been performed to understand the evolutionary relationship of various PCKs from different sources. Based on this study a flowchart of the evolution of PCK has been proposed.

  9. Replication of the Shrimp Virus WSSV Depends on Glutamate-Driven Anaplerosis.

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    Chun-Yuan Li

    Full Text Available Infection with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV induces a metabolic shift in shrimp that resembles the "Warburg effect" in mammalian cells. This effect is triggered via activation of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway, and it is usually accompanied by the activation of other metabolic pathways that provide energy and direct the flow of carbon and nitrogen. Here we show that unlike the glutamine metabolism (glutaminolysis seen in most cancer cells to double deaminate glutamine to produce glutamate and the TCA cycle intermediate α-ketoglutarate (α-KG, at the WSSV genome replication stage (12 hpi, although glutaminase (GLS expression was upregulated, only glutamate was taken up by the hemocytes of WSSV-infected shrimp. At the same time, we observed an increase in the activity of the two enzymes that convert glutamate to α-KG, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH and aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT. α-ketoglutarate concentration was also increased. A series of inhibition experiments suggested that the up-regulation of GDH is regulated by mTORC2, and that the PI3K-mTORC1 pathway is not involved. Suppression of GDH and ASAT by dsRNA silencing showed that both of these enzymes are important for WSSV replication. In GDH-silenced shrimp, direct replenishment of α-KG rescued both ATP production and WSSV replication. From these results, we propose a model of glutamate-driven anaplerosis that fuels the TCA cycle via α-KG and ultimately supports WSSV replication.

  10. Inhibition of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 2 Protects Against Hepatic Steatosis Through Modulation of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Anaplerosis and Ketogenesis.

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    Go, Younghoon; Jeong, Ji Yun; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Jeon, Jae-Han; Park, Bo-Yoon; Kang, Hyeon-Ji; Ha, Chae-Myeong; Choi, Young-Keun; Lee, Sun Joo; Ham, Hye Jin; Kim, Byung-Gyu; Park, Keun-Gyu; Park, So Young; Lee, Chul-Ho; Choi, Cheol Soo; Park, Tae-Sik; Lee, W N Paul; Harris, Robert A; Lee, In-Kyu

    2016-10-01

    Hepatic steatosis is associated with increased insulin resistance and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux, but decreased ketogenesis and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) flux. This study examined whether hepatic PDC activation by inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDK2) ameliorates these metabolic abnormalities. Wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, and increased levels of pyruvate, TCA cycle intermediates, and malonyl-CoA but reduced ketogenesis and PDC activity due to PDK2 induction. Hepatic PDC activation by PDK2 inhibition attenuated hepatic steatosis, improved hepatic insulin sensitivity, reduced hepatic glucose production, increased capacity for β-oxidation and ketogenesis, and decreased the capacity for lipogenesis. These results were attributed to altered enzymatic capacities and a reduction in TCA anaplerosis that limited the availability of oxaloacetate for the TCA cycle, which promoted ketogenesis. The current study reports that increasing hepatic PDC activity by inhibition of PDK2 ameliorates hepatic steatosis and insulin sensitivity by regulating TCA cycle anaplerosis and ketogenesis. The findings suggest PDK2 is a potential therapeutic target for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  11. Regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene transcription by insulin and cAMP: reciprocal actions on initiation and elongation.

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    Nuclei isolated from H4IIE rat hepatoma cells were used in an in vitro run-on assay, with probes directed against various regions of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase [GTP: oxaloacetate carboxy-lyase (transphosphorylating); EC 4.1.1.32] gene, to analyze whether transcription proceeds uniformly across this gene in response to insulin and cAMP treatment. Fewer polymerase II complexes were associated with the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene after insulin treatment, as compared with cA...

  12. Arginine Deprivation Inhibits the Warburg Effect and Upregulates Glutamine Anaplerosis and Serine Biosynthesis in ASS1-Deficient Cancers

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    Jeff Charles Kremer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeting defects in metabolism is an underutilized strategy for the treatment of cancer. Arginine auxotrophy resulting from the silencing of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1 is a common metabolic alteration reported in a broad range of aggressive cancers. To assess the metabolic effects that arise from acute and chronic arginine starvation in ASS1-deficient cell lines, we performed metabolite profiling. We found that pharmacologically induced arginine depletion causes increased serine biosynthesis, glutamine anaplerosis, oxidative phosphorylation, and decreased aerobic glycolysis, effectively inhibiting the Warburg effect. The reduction of glycolysis in cells otherwise dependent on aerobic glycolysis is correlated with reduced PKM2 expression and phosphorylation and upregulation of PHGDH. Concurrent arginine deprivation and glutaminase inhibition was found to be synthetic lethal across a spectrum of ASS1-deficient tumor cell lines and is sufficient to cause in vivo tumor regression in mice. These results identify two synthetic lethal therapeutic strategies exploiting metabolic vulnerabilities of ASS1-negative cancers.

  13. Inhibition of Pig Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Isoenzymes by 3-Mercaptopicolinic Acid and Novel Inhibitors

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    Hidalgo, Jorge; Latorre, Pedro; Carrodeguas, José Alberto; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Sancho, Javier; López-Buesa, Pascual

    2016-01-01

    There exist two isoforms of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C) in pig populations that differ in a single amino acid (Met139Leu). The isoenzymes have different kinetic properties, affecting more strongly the Km and Vmax of nucleotides. They are associated to different phenotypes modifying traits of considerable economic interest. In this work we use inhibitors of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity to search for further differences between these isoenzymes. On the one hand we have used the well-known inhibitor 3-mercaptopicolinic acid. Its inhibition patterns were the same for both isoenzymes: a three-fold decrease of the Ki values for GTP in 139Met and 139Leu (273 and 873 μM, respectively). On the other hand, through screening of a chemical library we have found two novel compounds with inhibitory effects of a similar magnitude to that of 3-mercaptopicolinic acid but with less solubility and specificity. One of these novel compounds, (N'1-({5-[1-methyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]-2-thienyl}methylidene)-2,4-dichlorobenzene-1-carbohydrazide), exhibited significantly different inhibitory effects on either isoenzyme: it enhanced threefold the apparent Km value for GTP in 139Met, whereas in 139Leu, it reduced it from 99 to 69 μM. The finding of those significant differences in the binding of GTP reinforces the hypothesis that the Met139Leu substitution affects strongly the nucleotide binding site of PEPCK-C. PMID:27391465

  14. Examination of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene promoter in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

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    Ludwig, D.S. [Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)]|[Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Vidal-Puig, A.; Moller, D.E. [Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    Expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), a rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis, is under dominant negative regulation by insulin. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that mutations in the PEPCK gene promoter may impair the ability of insulin to suppress hepatic glucose production, thereby contributing to both the insulin resistance and increased rate of gluconeogenesis characteristic of NIDDM. The proximal PEPCK promoter region in 117 patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 20 obese Pima Indians was amplified by PCR and analyzed with single strand conformation of polymorphism techniques. In addition, limited direct DNA sequencing was performed on the insulin response sequence and flanking regions. No DNA sequence polymorphisms were found in any patient. This result suggests that mutations in cis-acting PEPCK gene regulatory elements do not constitute a common cause of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The significance of genetic variation in promoter regions to human disease is discussed. 40 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Rates of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells are enhanced by coupling to anaplerosis and Kreb's cycle flux independent of ATP synthesis

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    Cline, Gary W., E-mail: gary.cline@yale.edu [The Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Zhao, Xiaojian [The Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Papas, Klearchos K. [Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied media effects on mechanisms of insulin secretion of INS-1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion was higher in DMEM than KRB despite identical ATP synthesis rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion rates correlated with rates of anaplerosis and TCA cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondria metabolism and substrate cycles augment secretion signal of ATP. -- Abstract: Mechanistic models of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) established in minimal media in vitro, may not accurately describe the complexity of coupling metabolism with insulin secretion that occurs in vivo. As a first approximation, we have evaluated metabolic pathways in a typical growth media, DMEM as a surrogate in vivo medium, for comparison to metabolic fluxes observed under the typical experimental conditions using the simple salt-buffer of KRB. Changes in metabolism in response to glucose and amino acids and coupling to insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 832/13 cells. Media effects on mitochondrial function and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were determined by fluorometrically measured oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) combined with {sup 31}P NMR measured rates of ATP synthesis. Substrate preferences and pathways into the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of mitochondrial 2nd messengers by anaplerosis were determined by {sup 13}C NMR isotopomer analysis of the fate of [U-{sup 13}C] glucose metabolism. Despite similar incremental increases in insulin secretion, the changes of OCR in response to increasing glucose from 2.5 to 15 mM were blunted in DMEM relative to KRB. Basal and stimulated rates of insulin secretion rates were consistently higher in DMEM, while ATP synthesis rates were identical in both DMEM and KRB, suggesting greater mitochondrial uncoupling in DMEM. The relative rates of anaplerosis, and hence synthesis and export of 2nd messengers from the mitochondria were found

  16. The role of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in neuronal steroidogenesis under acute inflammation.

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    Sadasivam, Mohanraj; Ramatchandirin, Balamurugan; Balakrishnan, Sivasangari; Selvaraj, Karthikeyan; Prahalathan, Chidambaram

    2014-12-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is a key gluconeogenic enzyme found in many tissues throughout the body including brain. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on PEPCK and its role in neuronal steroidogenesis. Adult female albino rats were administered LPS (5mg/kg body weight) to induce acute inflammation. LPS administration resulted in a significant increase of PEPCK mRNA expression with concomitant increase in mRNA levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein and other steroidogenic enzymes including 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) and aromatase in brain tissue. Further, the inhibition of PEPCK expression by glipizide significantly decreased the mRNA expression of steroidogenic proteins and concurrently increased the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines under LPS administration. The results of this study suggest a novel finding that PEPCK may have an important role in neuronal steroidogenesis; which serves as an adaptive response under inflammation.

  17. The Role of Cysteine Residues in Catalysis of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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    Machová, Iva; Hubálek, Martin; Lepšík, Martin; Bednárová, Lucie; Pazderková, Markéta; Kopecký, Vladimír; Snášel, Jan; Dostál, Jiří; Pichová, Iva

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb), the causative agent of tuberculosis, can persist in macrophages for decades, maintaining its basic metabolic activities. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck; EC 4.1.1.32) is a key player in central carbon metabolism regulation. In replicating MTb, Pck is associated with gluconeogenesis, but in non-replicating MTb, it also catalyzes the reverse anaplerotic reaction. Here, we explored the role of selected cysteine residues in function of MTb Pck under different redox conditions. Using mass spectrometry analysis we confirmed formation of S–S bridge between cysteines C391 and C397 localized in the C-terminal subdomain. Molecular dynamics simulations of C391-C397 bridged model indicated local conformation changes needed for formation of the disulfide. Further, we used circular dichroism and Raman spectroscopy to analyze the influence of C391 and C397 mutations on Pck secondary and tertiary structures, and on enzyme activity and specificity. We demonstrate the regulatory role of C391 and C397 that form the S–S bridge and in the reduced form stabilize Pck tertiary structure and conformation for gluconeogenic and anaplerotic reactions. PMID:28135343

  18. An assessment of the capacity for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase to contribute to C4 photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteyeva, Nuria K; Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Edwards, Gerald E

    2015-06-01

    Three C4 acid decarboxylases, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), and NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) were recruited from C3 plants to support C4 photosynthesis. In Poaceae, there are established lineages having PEPCK type species, and some NADP-ME lineages in which PEPCK contributes to C4. Besides family Poaceae, recently PEPCK has been reported to function in C4 photosynthesis in eudicot species including Cleome gynandra (Cleomaceae), Trianthema portulacastrum and Zaleya pentandra (Aizoaceae). We evaluated PEPCK by enzyme assay and western blots in representatives of Poaceae, Aizoaceae, Cleomaceae, and Chenopodiaceae compared to that in the PEPCK type C4 grass Spartina anglica. Eragrostis nutans was identified as the first NAD-ME type C4 grass having substantial amounts of PEPCK. In the eudicots, including C. gynandra, Cleome angustifolia, T. portulacastrum, Z. pentandra, and nine C4 members of family Chenopodiaceae (which has the most C4 species and diversity in forms among eudicot families), amounts of PEPCK were generally very low (barely detectable up to 4% of that in S. anglica). Based on these results, C4 species can be classified biochemically according to the dominant decarboxylase recruited for C4 function; and, Poaceae remains the only family in which PEPCK is known to have a significant role in C4 photosynthesis.

  19. Inflammation inhibits the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in liver and adipose tissue.

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    Feingold, Kenneth R; Moser, Arthur; Shigenaga, Judy K; Grunfeld, Carl

    2012-04-01

    Inhibition of adipocyte triglyceride biosynthesis is required for fatty acid mobilization during inflammation. Triglyceride biosynthesis requires glycerol 3-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) plays a key role. We demonstrate that LPS, zymosan, and TNF-α decrease PEPCK in liver and fat. Turpentine decreases PEPCK in liver, but not in fat. The LPS-induced decrease in PEPCK does not occur in TLR4 deficient animals, indicating that this receptor is required. The LPS-induced decrease in hepatic PEPCK does not occur in TNF receptor/IL-1 receptor knockout mice, but occurs in fat, indicating that TNF-α/IL-1 is essential for the decrease in liver but not fat. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and IFNγ inhibit PEPCK indicating that there are multiple pathways by which PEPCK is decreased in adipocytes. The binding of PPARγ and RXRα to the PPARγ response element in the PEPCK promoter is markedly decreased in adipose tissue nuclear extracts from LPS treated animals. Lipopolysaccharide and zymosan reduce PPARγ and RXRα expression in fat, suggesting that a decrease in PPARγ and RXRα accounts for the decrease in PEPCK. Thus, there are multiple cytokine pathways by which inflammation inhibits PEPCK expression in adipose tissue which could contribute to the increased mobilization of fatty acids during inflammation.

  20. Establishment of a canine model of human type 2 diabetes mellitus by overexpressing phosphoenolypyruvate carboxykinase.

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    Jeong, Yeon Woo; Lee, Geun-Shik; Kim, Joung Joo; Park, Sun Woo; Ko, Kyeong Hee; Kang, Mina; Kim, Yu Kyung; Jung, Eui-Man; Hyun, Sang Hwan; Shin, Taeyoung; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2012-08-01

    Dogs are useful models for studying human metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus due to similarities in physiology, anatomy and life styles with humans. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) facilitates the production of transgenic dogs. In this study, we generated transgenic dogs expressing the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene, which is closely involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, we assessed the cloning efficiency associated with adult or fetal (cloned or natural mating) fibroblasts as a nuclear source. Cloning efficiency was determined by the fusion, pregnancy and cloning rates. The fusion rates were significantly high for fibroblasts from cloned fetuses, but the pregnancy and cloning rates were relatively high for cells from normal fetuses. Based on these data, fetal fibroblasts were selected as the nuclear donor for SCNT and genetically engineered to overexpress the PEPCK gene and dual selection marker genes controlled by the PEPCK promoter. The transgenic cells were introduced into oocytes and transferred into five recipient dogs, resulting in two pregnancies. Finally, three puppies were born and confirmed by microsatellite analysis to be genetically identical to the donor. One puppy successfully overexpressed PEPCK mRNA and protein in the liver. This canine disease model may be useful for studying the pathogenesis and/or therapeutic targets of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Trypanosoma evansi contains two auxiliary enzymes of glycolytic metabolism: Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate phosphate dikinase.

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    Rivero, Luz Amira; Concepción, Juan Luis; Quintero-Troconis, Ender; Quiñones, Wilfredo; Michels, Paul A M; Acosta, Héctor

    2016-06-01

    Trypanosoma evansi is a monomorphic protist that can infect horses and other animal species of economic importance for man. Like the bloodstream form of the closely related species Trypanosoma brucei, T. evansi depends exclusively on glycolysis for its free-energy generation. In T. evansi as in other kinetoplastid organisms, the enzymes of the major part of the glycolytic pathway are present within organelles called glycosomes, which are authentic but specialized peroxisomes. Since T. evansi does not undergo stage-dependent differentiations, it occurs only as bloodstream forms, it has been assumed that the metabolic pattern of this parasite is identical to that of the bloodstream form of T. brucei. However, we report here the presence of two additional enzymes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and PPi-dependent pyruvate phosphate dikinase in T. evansi glycosomes. Their colocalization with glycolytic enzymes within the glycosomes of this parasite has not been reported before. Both enzymes can make use of PEP for contributing to the production of ATP within the organelles. The activity of these enzymes in T. evansi glycosomes drastically changes the model assumed for the oxidation of glucose by this parasite.

  2. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) micro plus embryogenesis and starvation larvae

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    Andrade, J.G. de; Mentizingen, L.G.; Logullo, C. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia. Lab.de Quimica e Funcao de Proteinas e Peptideos (LQFPP); Andrade, C.P. de; Vaz Junior, Itabajara [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia; Daffre, S.; Esteves, E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is considered a key rate controlling enzyme in gluconeogenesis pathway. Gluconeogenesis is a highly regulated process, catalyzed by several enzymes subject to regulation by insulin. Normally, insulin rapidly and substantially inhibits PEPCK gene transcription and the PEPCK activity is proportional to the rate of gene transcription. The transcriptional regulation of the PEPCK gene has been extensively studied. CREM is the transcription factor that bind efficiently to the putative cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in PEPCK gene. Several other transcription factors can bind to this element and activate transcription. In oviparous animals, such as bovine tick R. microplus, the embryonic development occurs outside the maternal organism, implying that all the nutrients necessary for embryogenesis must be present in the oocytes. We observed the relationship between the main energy sources and the morphogenetic changes that occur during R. microplus tick embryogenesis. Energy homeostasis is maintained by glycogen mobilization in the beginning of embryogenesis, as its content is drastically decreased during the first five days of development. Afterwards, the activity of the gluconeogenesis enzyme PEPCK increases enormously, as indicated by a concomitant increase in glucose content (Moraes et al., 2007). Here, we analyzed PEPCK gene transcription by qPCR during the embryogenesis and starvation larvae. The PEPCK transcription was higher at first and 15th day eggs of the development. In larvae the levels of PEPCK transcripts is increased at fifth day after hatch. However, the activity is continuous increased in larvae the form first up to 15th day. Now we are investigating the involvement of CREM in the PEPCK gene transcription in these cells. In this sense, we obtained CREM sequence from TIGR ESTs R. microplus bank and designed the specific primers to qPCR. Taken together our results suggest the involvement of PEPCK to the

  3. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and the critical role of cataplerosis in the control of hepatic metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalhan Satish C

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic function of PEPCK-C is not fully understood; deletion of the gene for the enzyme in mice provides an opportunity to fully assess its function. Methods The gene for the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP (EC 4.1.1.32 (PEPCK-C was deleted in mice by homologous recombination (PEPCK-C-/- mice and the metabolic consequences assessed. Results PEPCK-C-/- mice became severely hypoglycemic by day two after birth and then died with profound hypoglycemia (12 mg/dl. The mice had milk in their stomachs at day two after birth and the administration of glucose raised the concentration of blood glucose in the mice but did not result in an increased survival. PEPCK-C-/- mice have two to three times the hepatic triglyceride content as control littermates on the second day after birth. These mice also had an elevation of lactate (2.5 times, β-hydroxybutyrate (3 times and triglyceride (50% in their blood, as compared to control animals. On day two after birth, alanine, glycine, glutamine, glutamate, aspartate and asparagine were elevated in the blood of the PEPCK-C-/- mice and the blood urea nitrogen concentration was increased by 2-fold. The rate of oxidation of [2-14C]-acetate, and [5-14C]-glutamate to 14CO2 by liver slices from PEPCK-C-/- mice at two days of age was greatly reduced, as was the rate of fatty acid synthesis from acetate and glucose. As predicted by the lack of PEPCK-C, the concentration of malate in the livers of the PEPCK-C-/- mice was 10 times that of controls. Conclusion We conclude that PEPCK-C is required not only for gluconeogenesis and glyceroneogenesis but also for cataplerosis (i.e. the removal of citric acid cycle anions and that the failure of this process in the livers of PEPCK-C-/- mice results in a marked reduction in citric acid cycle flux and the shunting of hepatic lipid into triglyceride, resulting in a fatty liver.

  4. Compartmentation of Metabolism of the C12-, C9-, and C5-n-dicarboxylates in Rat Liver, Investigated by Mass Isotopomer Analysis: ANAPLEROSIS FROM DODECANEDIOATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhicheng; Bian, Fang; Tomcik, Kristyen; Kelleher, Joanne K; Zhang, Guo-Fang; Brunengraber, Henri

    2015-07-24

    We investigated the compartmentation of the catabolism of dodecanedioate (DODA), azelate, and glutarate in perfused rat livers, using a combination of metabolomics and mass isotopomer analyses. Livers were perfused with recirculating or nonrecirculating buffer containing one fully (13)C-labeled dicarboxylate. Information on the peroxisomal versus mitochondrial catabolism was gathered from the labeling patterns of acetyl-CoA proxies, i.e. total acetyl-CoA, the acetyl moiety of citrate, C-1 + 2 of β-hydroxybutyrate, malonyl-CoA, and acetylcarnitine. Additional information was obtained from the labeling patterns of citric acid cycle intermediates and related compounds. The data characterize the partial oxidation of DODA and azelate in peroxisomes, with terminal oxidation in mitochondria. We did not find evidence of peroxisomal oxidation of glutarate. Unexpectedly, DODA contributes a substantial fraction to anaplerosis of the citric acid cycle. This opens the possibility to use water-soluble DODA in nutritional or pharmacological anaplerotic therapy when other anaplerotic substrates are impractical or contraindicated, e.g. in propionic acidemia and methylmalonic acidemia.

  5. Activation of SIRT1 by resveratrol represses transcription of the gene for the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) by deacetylating hepatic nuclear factor 4alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cytosolic isoform of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (PEPCK-C) is a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis and glyceroneogenesis. While this enzyme is often over-expressed in diabetes and obesity, studies showed that decrease in its expression results in lessening the diseases condition in animal...

  6. Increased Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (PEPCK) Gene Expression and Steatosis During Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Subgenome Replication: Role of Nonstructural Component-5A (NS5A) and CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein ß (C/EBPß)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection greatly increases the risk for type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; however, the pathogenic mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we report gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) transcription and associated tra...

  7. Cloning and expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase from a cestode parasite and its solubilization from inclusion bodies using l-arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Asim K; Ramnath; Dkhar, Barilin; Tandon, Veena; Das, Bidyadhar

    2016-09-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase is an essential regulatory enzyme of glycolysis in the cestode parasite, Raillietina echinobothrida, and is considered a potential target for anthelmintic action because of its differential activity from that of its avian host. However, due to the unavailability of its structure, the mechanism of regulation of PEPCK from R. echinobothrida (rePEPCK) and its interaction with possible modulators remain unclear. Hence, in this study, the rePEPCK gene was cloned into pGEX-4T-3 and overexpressed for its characterization. On being induced by IPTG, the recombinant rePEPCK was expressed as inclusion bodies (IBs); hence, various agents, like different inducer concentrations, temperature, time, host cell types, culture media, pH, and additives, were used to bring the protein to soluble form. Finally, a significant amount (∼46%) of rePEPCK was solubilized from IBs by adding 2M l-arginine. Near-UV circular dichroism spectra analysis indicated that l-arginine (2M) had no effect on the conformation of the protein. In this study, we have reported a yield of ∼73mg of purified rePEPCK per 1L of culture. The purified rePEPCK retained its biological activity, and Km of the enzyme for its substrate was determined and discussed. The availability of recombinant rePEPCK may help in biochemical- and biophysical-studies to explore its molecular mechanisms and regulations.

  8. Insulinotropic effect of cinnamaldehyde on transcriptional regulation of pyruvate kinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and GLUT4 translocation in experimental diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Prachi; Murali, K Y; Tandon, Vibha; Murthy, P S; Chandra, Ramesh

    2010-06-07

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder affecting about 6% of population worldwide with its complications and is rapidly reaching epidemic scale. Cinnamomum zeylanicum is widely used in alternative system of medicine for treatment of diabetes. In the present study, we have performed bioassay guided fractionation of chloroform extract of C. zeylaniucm and identified cinnamaldehyde (CND) as an active principle against diabetes. In continuation to it, a detailed study was undertaken to elucidate its mode of antidiabetic action in STZ induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of CND (20 mg/kg bw) to diabetic rats for 2 months showed significant improvement (pCND enhanced the insulin release compared to glibenclamide. The insulinotropic effect of CND was found to increase the glucose uptake through glucose transporter (GLUT4) translocation in peripheral tissues. The treatment also showed a significant improvement in altered enzyme activities of pyruvate kinase (PK) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and their mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of CND could not be obtained even at 20 times (0.4 g/kg bw) of its effective dose. With the high margin of safety of CND, it can be developed as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of diabetes.

  9. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) deficiency affects the germination, growth and fruit sugar content in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Xing; Yin, Yong-Gen; Sanuki, Atsuko; Fukuda, Naoya; Ezura, Hiroshi; Matsukura, Chiaki

    2015-11-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is a key regulatory enzyme and is utilized in the gluconeogenesis pathway in plants. Although, its catalytic and regulatory properties are quite well understood, there are uncertainties regarding its physiological role in many plants tissues such as the flesh of developing fruits. To further understand the function of PEPCK in fruits and other tissues, RNAi transgenic tomato plants in which SlPEPCK transcription was down-regulated by either CaMV 35S constitutive promoter or the fruit-specific E8 promoter were generated and characterized on the basis of their phenotypic and metabolic aspects. In the PEPCK-deficient lines, prominent growth suppression of germinated seedlings was observed and other vegetative suppression appeared during the early stage of plant growth in the 35S promoter-driven lines. In particular, root elongation was most obviously suppressed in the germinated seedlings, indicating that the gluconeogenesis pathway is involved in the root growth of seedlings. Regarding the primary metabolism in fruit, the soluble sugar content tended to decrease, whereas the malate content tended to increase in ripening fruits of the RNAi lines compared with the wild type. These results indicate that activation of the gluconeogenesis pathway from organic acids to sugars occurs during ripening but is suppressed by the knocking down of the PEPCK gene, suggesting that PEPCK participates in determining the sugar/acid ratio in ripening fruit.

  10. Reciprocal Changes in Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase and Pyruvate Kinase with Age Are a Determinant of Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yiyuan; Hakimi, Parvin; Kao, Clara; Kao, Allison; Liu, Ruifu; Janocha, Allison; Boyd-Tressler, Andrea; Hang, Xi; Alhoraibi, Hanna; Slater, Erin; Xia, Kevin; Cao, Pengxiu; Shue, Quinn; Ching, Tsui-Ting; Hsu, Ao-Lin; Erzurum, Serpil C; Dubyak, George R; Berger, Nathan A; Hanson, Richard W; Feng, Zhaoyang

    2016-01-15

    Aging involves progressive loss of cellular function and integrity, presumably caused by accumulated stochastic damage to cells. Alterations in energy metabolism contribute to aging, but how energy metabolism changes with age, how these changes affect aging, and whether they can be modified to modulate aging remain unclear. In locomotory muscle of post-fertile Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified a progressive decrease in cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C), a longevity-associated metabolic enzyme, and a reciprocal increase in glycolytic pyruvate kinase (PK) that were necessary and sufficient to limit lifespan. Decline in PEPCK-C with age also led to loss of cellular function and integrity including muscle activity, and cellular senescence. Genetic and pharmacologic interventions of PEPCK-C, muscle activity, and AMPK signaling demonstrate that declines in PEPCK-C and muscle function with age interacted to limit reproductive life and lifespan via disrupted energy homeostasis. Quantifications of metabolic flux show that reciprocal changes in PEPCK-C and PK with age shunted energy metabolism toward glycolysis, reducing mitochondrial bioenergetics. Last, calorie restriction countered changes in PEPCK-C and PK with age to elicit anti-aging effects via TOR inhibition. Thus, a programmed metabolic event involving PEPCK-C and PK is a determinant of aging that can be modified to modulate aging.

  11. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 gene (Pck1) displays parallel evolution between Old World and New World fruit bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Yin, Qiuyuan; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi

    2015-01-01

    Bats are an ideal mammalian group for exploring adaptations to fasting due to their large variety of diets and because fasting is a regular part of their life cycle. Mammals fed on a carbohydrate-rich diet experience a rapid decrease in blood glucose levels during a fast, thus, the development of mechanisms to resist the consequences of regular fasts, experienced on a daily basis, must have been crucial in the evolution of frugivorous bats. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PEPCK1, encoded by the Pck1 gene) is the rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis and is largely responsible for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis during fasting in fruit-eating bats. To test whether Pck1 has experienced adaptive evolution in frugivorous bats, we obtained Pck1 coding sequence from 20 species of bats, including five Old World fruit bats (OWFBs) (Pteropodidae) and two New World fruit bats (NWFBs) (Phyllostomidae). Our molecular evolutionary analyses of these sequences revealed that Pck1 was under purifying selection in both Old World and New World fruit bats with no evidence of positive selection detected in either ancestral branch leading to fruit bats. Interestingly, however, six specific amino acid substitutions were detected on the ancestral lineage of OWFBs. In addition, we found considerable evidence for parallel evolution, at the amino acid level, between the PEPCK1 sequences of Old World fruit bats and New World fruit bats. Test for parallel evolution showed that four parallel substitutions (Q276R, R503H, I558V and Q593R) were driven by natural selection. Our study provides evidence that Pck1 underwent parallel evolution between Old World and New World fruit bats, two lineages of mammals that feed on a carbohydrate-rich diet and experience regular periods of fasting as part of their life cycle.

  12. Two phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinases coexist in the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism plant Ananas comosus. Isolation and characterization of the smaller 65 kDa form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Mariana; Rius, Sebastián Pablo; Podestá, Florencio Esteban

    2011-06-01

    Two phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, EC 4.1.1.49) isoforms of 74 and 65 kDa were found to coexist in vivo in pineapple leaves, a constitutive Crassulacean Acid Metabolism plant. The 65 kDa form was not the result of proteolytic cleavage of the larger form since extraction methods reported to prevent PEPCK proteolysis in other plant tissues failed to yield a single immunoreactive PEPCK polypeptide in leaf extracts. In this work, the smaller form of 65 kDa was purified to homogeneity and physically and kinetically characterized and showed parameters compatible with a fully active enzyme. The specific activity was nearly twice higher for decarboxylation of oxaloacetate when compared to carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate. Kinetic parameters fell within the range of those estimated for other plant PEPCKs. Its activity was affected by several metabolites, as shown by inhibition by 3-phosphoglycerate, citrate, malate, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, l-asparagine and activation of the decarboxylating activity by succinate. A break in the Arrhenius plot at about 30°C indicates that PEPCK structure is responsive to changes in temperature. The results indicate that pineapple leaves contain two PEPCK forms. The biochemical characterization of the smaller isoform performed in this work suggests that it could participate in both carbon and nitrogen metabolism in vivo by acting as a decarboxylase.

  13. Effect of 7-Hydroxy-2-(4-Hydroxy-3-Methoxy-Phenyl-Chroman-4-One (Swietenia Macrophylla King Seed on Retinol Binding Protein-4 and Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Gene Expression in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasetyastuti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to a defect of insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. There are increasing evidence that active compounds of medicinal plants may be used to treat diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a 7-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl-chroman-4-one flavonoid compound of the Swietenia macrophylla King seed on homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4 gene expression in diabetic rats.

  14. Scandinavian links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Knowles, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    centres, one joins more thinly populated regions, and the last one links peripheral areas. Two of them (The Great Belt Link and the Oresund Link) have been constructed and are in full operation. The third (the Fehmarnbelt Link) has been decided 2008 on bilateral government level. The three links...

  15. The link in Linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jane C; Chiale, Pablo A; Gonzalez, Mario D; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    We present 2 cases of the slow-fast form of AVNRT with initially narrow QRS complexes followed by sudden unexpected transition to persistently wide QRS complexes due to aberrant intraventricular conduction. Introduction of a properly timed extrastimulus in one case and critical oscillations in cycle length due to short-long coupling in the second case set the stage for the initial bundle branch block. However, persistence of the aberrancy pattern once the initial event abated was maintained by the "linking" phenomenon. Delayed, retrograde concealed activation from the contralateral bundle branch perpetuated the initial bundle branch block. PMID:23840106

  16. Communication Links

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This interactive tutorial helps learners to: Identify key upward, lateral, downward, and informal communication links in their organizations. , Reflect on the benefits, control, satisfaction, information filters, and feedback mechanism of various communication links in the organizations. OCL1000 Communicating Change in Complex Organizations

  17. Link Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, Steve

    Link analysis is a collection of techniques that operate on data that can be represented as nodes and links. This chapter surveys a variety of techniques including subgraph matching, finding cliques and K-plexes, maximizing spread of influence, visualization, finding hubs and authorities, and combining with traditional techniques (classification, clustering, etc). It also surveys applications including social network analysis, viral marketing, Internet search, fraud detection, and crime prevention.

  18. Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity, glucose homeostasis and plasma amino acid concentrations in the most TCDD-susceptible and the most TCDD-resistant rat strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viluksela, M.; Pohjanvirta, R.; Tuomisto, J.T.; Tuomisto, J. (National Public Health Inst., Laboratory of Toxicology, Kuopio (Finland)); Unkila, M. (Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Univ. of Kuopio (Finland)); Stahl, B.U.; Rozman, K.K. (Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States) Section of Environmental Toxicology, GSF-Institut fuer Toxikologie, Neuherberg (Germany))

    1999-08-01

    Reduced gluconeogenesis due to decreased activity of key gluconeogenic enzymes in liver, together with feed refusal, has been suggested to play an important role in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced lethality in rats. This study was carried out to further analyse the toxicological significance of reduced gluconeogenesis by comparing dose-responses and time-courses of effects of TCDD on the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in liver, liver glycogen concentration as well as plasma concentrations of glucose and amino acids in both genders of TCDD-sensitive Long-Evans (L-E) rats and TCDD-resistant Han/Wistar (H/W) rats. A dose-dependent decrease in PEPCK activity was observed in H/W rats, but in L-E rats the activity was not decreased. However, TCDD impaired the strong increase in liver PEPCK activity observed in pair-fed controls of the L-E strain. Liver glycogen concentrations were severely decreased in L-E rats and moderately in H/W rats. This effect seems to be secondary to reduced feed intake, since a similar decrease was seen in pair-fed controls. Decreases in plasma glucose concentrations were also more profound in L-E rats than in H/W rats, but pair-fed controls were generally less affected. Circulating concentrations of amino acids were markedly increased in TCDD-treated L-E rats, which is likely to reflect increased mobilization of amino acids and their decreased metabolism in liver. Reduction of liver PEPCK activity cannot account for the sensitivity difference of these two strains of rats in terms of mortality. Nevertheless, the response of both strains of TCDD-treated rats regarding gluconeogenesis is different from that seen in pair-fed controls and suggesting that impairment of this pathway contributes to the development of the wasting syndrome. (orig.) With 7 figs., 2 tabs., 47 refs.

  19. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    educational approaches. Methods: Mixed qualitative design: survey based on telephone interviews with health managers (n=72), personal and focus group interviews with health professionals (n=84) and pupils (n=108) from 18 school classes, and comparative case studies in five selected municipalities of various...... educational goals, learning content, or value clarification. Health pedagogy is often a matter of retrospective rationalization rather than the starting point of planning. Health and risk behaviour approaches override health educational approaches. Conclusions: Operational links between health education...

  20. Dancing links

    CERN Document Server

    Knuth, Donald E

    2009-01-01

    The author presents two tricks to accelerate depth-first search algorithms for a class of combinatorial puzzle problems, such as tiling a tray by a fixed set of polyominoes. The first trick is to implement each assumption of the search with reversible local operations on doubly linked lists. By this trick, every step of the search affects the data incrementally. The second trick is to add a ghost square that represents the identity of each polyomino. Thus puts the rule that each polyomino be used once on the same footing as the rule that each square be covered once. The coding simplifies to a more abstract form which is equivalent to 0-1 integer programming. More significantly for the total computation time, the search can naturally switch between placing a fixed polyomino or covering a fixed square at different stages, according to a combined heuristic. Finally the author reports excellent performance for his algorithm for some familiar puzzles. These include tiling a hexagon by 19 hexiamonds and the N queen...

  1. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  2. Anaplerosis for Glutamate Synthesis in the Neonate and in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Eva; Morken, Tora Sund; Walls, Anne B;

    2016-01-01

    A central task of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA, Krebs, citric acid) cycle in brain is to provide precursors for biosynthesis of glutamate, GABA, aspartate and glutamine. Three of these amino acids are the partners in the intricate interaction between astrocytes and neurons and form the so-called g...

  3. Linked alternating forms and linked symplectic Grassmannians

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by applications to higher-rank Brill-Noether theory and the Bertram-Feinberg-Mukai conjecture, we introduce the concepts of linked alternating and linked symplectic forms on a chain of vector bundles, and show that the linked symplectic Grassmannians parametrizing chains of subbundles isotropic for a given linked symplectic form has good dimensional behavior analogous to that of the classical symplectic Grassmannian.

  4. Linked data management

    CERN Document Server

    Hose, Katja; Schenkel, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Linked Data Management presents techniques for querying and managing Linked Data that is available on today’s Web. The book shows how the abundance of Linked Data can serve as fertile ground for research and commercial applications. The text focuses on aspects of managing large-scale collections of Linked Data. It offers a detailed introduction to Linked Data and related standards, including the main principles distinguishing Linked Data from standard database technology. Chapters also describe how to generate links between datasets and explain the overall architecture of data integration systems based on Linked Data. A large part of the text is devoted to query processing in different setups. After presenting methods to publish relational data as Linked Data and efficient centralized processing, the book explores lookup-based, distributed, and parallel solutions. It then addresses advanced topics, such as reasoning, and discusses work related to read-write Linked Data for system interoperation. Desp...

  5. Linking open vocabularies

    CERN Document Server

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  6. Let's "Downscale" Linked Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gueret, Christophe; de Boer, Victor; Schlobach, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Open data policies and linked data publication are powerful tools for increasing transparency, participatory governance, and accountability. A closer look at linked data technologies, however, proves that their design and deployment exclude the majority of the world’s population. It will take small

  7. Dynamical fat link fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Kamleh, W; Williams, A G; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.; 10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2003.12.058

    2004-01-01

    The use of APE smearing or other blocking techniques in fermion actions can provide many advantages. There are many variants of these fat link actions in lattice QCD currently, such as FLIC fermions. Frequently, fat link actions make use of the APE blocking technique in combination with a projection of the blocked links back into the special unitary group. This reunitarisation is often performed using an iterative maximisation of a gauge invariant measure. This technique is not differentiable with respect to the gauge field and thus prevents the use of standard Hybrid Monte Carlo simulation algorithms. The use of an alternative projection technique circumvents this difficulty and allows the simulation of dynamical fat link fermions with standard HMC and its variants.

  8. Link to paper

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Link to the paper. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Naile, J., A.W. Garrison, J. Avants, and J. Washington. Isomers/enantiomers of...

  9. Latest Research: Genetic Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Latest Research: Genetic Links Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents ... inside the eye is a risk factor for glaucoma. Summer 2008 Issue: Volume 3 Number 3 Page ...

  10. Linked Ocean Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, Adam; Arko, Robert; Chandler, Cynthia; Shepherd, Adam

    2014-05-01

    "Linked Data" is a term used in Computer Science to encapsulate a methodology for publishing data and metadata in a structured format so that links may be created and exploited between objects. Berners-Lee (2006) outlines the following four design principles of a Linked Data system: Use Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) as names for things. Use HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) URIs so that people can look up those names. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (Resource Description Framework [RDF] and the RDF query language [SPARQL]). Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things. In 2010, Berners-Lee revisited his original design plan for Linked Data to encourage data owners along a path to "good Linked Data". This revision involved the creation of a five star rating system for Linked Data outlined below. One star: Available on the web (in any format). Two stars: Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. An Excel spreadsheet instead of an image scan of a table). Three stars: As two stars plus the use of a non-proprietary format (e.g. Comma Separated Values instead of Excel). Four stars: As three stars plus the use of open standards from the World Wide Web Commission (W3C) (i.e. RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point to your data and metadata. Five stars: All the above plus link your data to other people's data to provide context Here we present work building on the SeaDataNet common vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server, connecting projects such as the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) and other vocabularies such as the Marine Metadata Interoperability Ontology Register and Repository and the NASA Global Change Master Directory to create a Linked Ocean Data cloud. Publishing the vocabularies and metadata in standard RDF XML and exposing SPARQL endpoints renders them five-star Linked

  11. Linking Literacy and Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2010-01-01

    There are many links between literacy and movement. Movement and language are both forms of communication and self-expression. Rhythm is an essential component of both language and movement. While people may think of rhythm primarily in musical terms, there is a rhythm to words and sentences as well. Individuals develop an internal rhythm when…

  12. Link Influence Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priti; Chakraborty, Abhishek; Manoj, B. S.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new metric, Link Influence Entropy (LInE), which describes importance of each node based on the influence of each link present in a network. Influence of a link can neither be effectively estimated using betweenness centrality nor using degree based probability measures. The proposed LInE metric which provides an effective way to estimate the influence of a link in the network and incorporates this influence to identify nodal characteristics, performs better compared to degree based entropy. We found that LInE can differentiate various network types which degree-based or betweenness centrality based node influence metrics cannot. Our findings show that spatial wireless networks and regular grid networks, respectively, have lowest and highest LInE values. Finally, performance analysis of LInE is carried out on a real-world network as well as on a wireless mesh network testbed to study the influence of our metric as well as influence stability of nodes in dynamic networks.

  13. Links, Exchanges, Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, James

    1992-01-01

    Describes the international activities of the Thames Valley University's Department of Information Management, including formal academic links with overseas institutions, development of short courses for practitioners, discussion meetings, staff and student visits, and enrollment of international students. Topics addressed include personnel,…

  14. Response model parameter linking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrett, Michelle Derbenwick

    2015-01-01

    With a few exceptions, the problem of linking item response model parameters from different item calibrations has been conceptualized as an instance of the problem of equating observed scores on different test forms. This thesis argues, however, that the use of item response models does not require

  15. Linking Wayfinding and Wayfaring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    -called mobilities turn in which mobility is viewed as a complex, multilayered process that entails much more than simply getting from point A to point B (see Cresswell 2006 ; Jensen 2013 ; Urry 2007 ).The structure of the chapter is simple: We fi rst introduce the concepts that are key to linking wayfi nding...

  16. Secure Link Middleware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Secure Link middleware as specified by the circled ‘sld’, sld . Using a network traffic analyzer (e.g., tcpdump) at router bulldog and tiger, ARL...or nfs (remote accessing file systems) to be securely operated and used among networked computer systems without any bulldog (router3) bear (router2

  17. Volumes of chain links

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, James; Rollins, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Agol has conjectured that minimally twisted n-chain links are the smallest volume hyperbolic manifolds with n cusps, for n at most 10. In his thesis, Venzke mentions that these cannot be smallest volume for n at least 11, but does not provide a proof. In this paper, we give a proof of Venzke's statement. The proof for n at least 60 is completely rigorous. The proof for n between 11 and 59 uses a computer calculation, and can be made rigorous for manifolds of small enough complexity, using methods of Moser and Milley. Finally, we prove that the n-chain link with 2m or 2m+1 half-twists cannot be the minimal volume hyperbolic manifold with n cusps, provided n is at least 60 or |m| is at least 8, and we give computational data indicating this remains true for smaller n and |m|.

  18. Collaboratively Patching Linked Data

    CERN Document Server

    Knuth, Magnus; Sack, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Today's Web of Data is noisy. Linked Data often needs extensive preprocessing to enable efficient use of heterogeneous resources. While consistent and valid data provides the key to efficient data processing and aggregation we are facing two main challenges: (1st) Identification of erroneous facts and tracking their origins in dynamically connected datasets is a difficult task, and (2nd) efforts in the curation of deficient facts in Linked Data are exchanged rather rarely. Since erroneous data often is duplicated and (re-)distributed by mashup applications it is not only the responsibility of a few original publishers to keep their data tidy, but progresses to be a mission for all distributers and consumers of Linked Data too. We present a new approach to expose and to reuse patches on erroneous data to enhance and to add quality information to the Web of Data. The feasibility of our approach is demonstrated by example of a collaborative game that patches statements in DBpedia data and provides notifications ...

  19. The weakest link

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumley, G. [GBI Consulting, Qld. (Australia)

    2005-08-01

    In part seven of his series on dragline productivity, the author tackles the subject of the dump rope, the weakest link in the operation of the dragline, is traded. Five factors have been identified as critical to dump life: ratio of dump block to dump rope diameter; excessive loads in dumps rope; rope abrasion against dump block; rope abrasion against bucket; dump rope construction. These factors are considered in the article. The author comments that in the drive to increase dragline productivity, rope life has been sacrificed. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. EEE Links. Volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Robert (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The EEE Links Newsletter is a quarterly publication produced by Code 562 in support of the NASA HQ funded NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. The newsletter is produced as an electronic format deliverable made available via the referenced www site administered by Code 562, The newsletter publishes brief articles on topics of interest to NASA programs and projects in the area of electronic parts and packaging. The newsletter does not provide information pertaining to patented or proprietary information. The information provided is at the level of that produced by industry and university researchers and is published at national and international conferences.

  1. Linking consumer experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Karina Madsen

    Consumers consume products in various ways serving a number of purposes. Much attention has been paid to experiences attached to consumption, sometimes very explicitly, e.g. in tourism, the essence of which is experiences of various sorts, but often also implicitly as internalised experiences...... become part of the individual self, worldview, and behaviour. This paper seeks to explore links between consumer experiences through the exploration of narrative sequences in travel blogs. Findings indicate that non-consumption is a central element to the bloggers and also indicative of a community...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors ... GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved June 2012 How are Drug Abuse and HIV Related? Drug abuse and addiction ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Projects » Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 – ... and to help us Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the link between drug abuse and HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and teachers, ... present time. The virus (HIV) and the disease it causes (AIDS) are often linked and referred to ...

  5. ITK optical links backup document

    CERN Document Server

    Huffman, B T; The ATLAS collaboration; Flick, T; Ye, J

    2013-01-01

    This document describes the proposed optical links to be used for the ITK in the phase II upgrade. The current R&D for optical links pursued in the Versatile Link group is reviewed. In particular the results demonstrating the radiation tolerance of all the on-detector components are documented. The bandwidth requirements and the resulting numerology are given.

  6. Hyperbolic semi-adequate links

    OpenAIRE

    Futer, David; Kalfagianni, Efstratia; Purcell, Jessica S.

    2013-01-01

    We provide a diagrammatic criterion for semi-adequate links to be hyperbolic. We also give a conjectural description of the satellite structures of semi-adequate links. One application of our result is that the closures of sufficiently complicated positive braids are hyperbolic links.

  7. Linking place and mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Møller

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the salience of vernacular Tyneside forms on the basis of theories of enregisterment and exemplar processing. On one level, exemplar theory provides a psycholinguistic account of how the link between social value and linguistic features is possible. Conversely, integrating...... the notion of social value into exemplar theory extends the value of this originally cognitive theory to social domains. It is suggested that the association of social value and particular local, linguistic forms may contribute to the salience of these forms among local speakers. The empirical work reported...... here takes the form of a questionnaire study, which aims to uncover Tyneside inhabitants' awareness of forms as well as their affiliation with the local community. Results showed differences in frequency perceptions between participants themselves and others which indicate that speakers can identify...

  8. Linking to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-09-01

    of JCE in the mail each month, and I expect you do too. I can glance at the cover to get an overview of an issue's content, and I usually am enticed inside by intriguing cover art. I can scan the table of contents to find articles I want to read, or I can just browse through the issue to see what looks interesting. Usually the editors have juxtaposed related articles so that I often find a small treasure trove. The printed Journal is quite portable and can be read in a car or airplane. It will last a long time, and until the paper deteriorates, I will never have a problem reading back issues. I have almost every issue from the first day I subscribed and have even added some older ones from collections of retired colleagues who no longer had shelf space for them. I certainly would not want to give up my printed copies, and I want to keep getting them. I find that JCE Online provides a different kind of resource that is equally valuable. It contains more information, and information that is more appropriate in electronic form. It links related ideas into a much more complex web of information than is possible in print. And it opens pathways to lots of information that is not part of JCE but resides elsewhere. Using this issue as an example, let's take a tour of what JCE Online can do. Point your Web browser to http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu Click on Journal and then on Current Issue (unless September 1999 is no longer the current issue, in which case you will find it in Past Issues). In the table of contents, find the article "UV Catalysis, Cyanotype Photography, and Sunscreens". Click on the title. When the abstract appears, click on Full Text (PDF) to see the article, just as it appears on page 1199 in this issue. When you are prompted, enter the name and subscriber number from your address label. At the end of the article you will find that supplementary materials are available (including a procedure for testing sunscreens) and you can click on the link to view them

  9. Using ATM over SATCOM links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparetto, Gary M.

    1995-01-01

    The Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) protocol is studied from the standpoint of determining what limitations, if any, exist in using it over satellite links. It is concluded that, while there is nothing intrinsic about ATM that would generally preclude its use over satellite links, there are, however, several intrinsic characteristics of satellite links, as well as some satellite system configuration-specific issues, that must be taken into account.

  10. Protective link for superconducting coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2009-12-08

    A superconducting coil system includes a superconducting coil and a protective link of superconducting material coupled to the superconducting coil. A rotating machine includes first and second coils and a protective link of superconducting material. The second coil is operable to rotate with respect to the first coil. One of the first and second coils is a superconducting coil. The protective link is coupled to the superconducting coil.

  11. "Conjectural" links in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snarskii, A. A.; Zorinets, D. I.; Lande, D. V.

    2016-11-01

    This paper introduces the concept of Conjectural Link for Complex Networks, in particular, social networks. Conjectural Link we understand as an implicit link, not available in the network, but supposed to be present, based on the characteristics of its topology. It is possible, for example, when in the formal description of the network some connections are skipped due to errors, deliberately hidden or withdrawn (e.g. in the case of partial destruction of the network). Introduced a parameter that allows ranking the Conjectural Link. The more this parameter - the more likely that this connection should be present in the network. This paper presents a method of recovery of partially destroyed Complex Networks using Conjectural Links finding. Presented two methods of finding the node pairs that are not linked directly to one another, but have a great possibility of Conjectural Link communication among themselves: a method based on the determination of the resistance between two nodes, and method based on the computation of the lengths of routes between two nodes. Several examples of real networks are reviewed and performed a comparison to know network links prediction methods, not intended to find the missing links in already formed networks.

  12. Linking Information for Mobile Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    interface after reading the XML. .. 30 Figure 8. Display of an item’s content with linked items one click away. ........... 31 Figure 9. Movement...related, but the user has not viewed recently. Figure 8. Display of an item’s content with linked items one click away. Figure 9 shows the

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plus Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging ... Badges Other Resources Strategic Plan Search Share Print Home » News & Events » Public Education Projects » Learn the Link - ...

  14. Optimizing pointer linked data structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, Carl Wilhelm Mattias

    2013-01-01

    The thesis explores different ways of optimizing pointer linked data structures, and especially restructuring them. The mechanisms are based on compiler technology, theory, computer languages and hardware architecture that are capable of optimizing the memory layout of complex pointer linked data st

  15. Game Changer: Linked Learning Detroit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ConnectEd: The California Center for College and Career, 2016

    2016-01-01

    JP Morgan Chase joins the Skillman Foundation, the Ford Foundation, and the Ford Motor Company Fund, whose grants total $7 million and will connect 10,000 Detroit high school students to career education and work experiences over the next three years through Linked Learning Detroit. Learn about Linked Learning Detroit through interviews with…

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... link between drug abuse and HIV. http://1.usa.gov/1z20ww6 How many of us think about ... can’t ignore. Learn the Link: http://1.usa.gov/1uSUAI3 Think you’re not at risk? ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Google Plus Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs ... HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug abuse ...

  18. Amsterdam Museum Linked Open Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, V. de; Wielemaker, J.; Gent, J. van; O'Connell, J.; Oosterbroek, M; Hildebrand, M.; Isaac, A.; Ossenbruggen, J.R. van; Schreiber, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this document we describe the Amsterdam Museum Linked Open Data set. The dataset is a five-star Linked Data representation and comprises the entire collection of the Amsterdam Museum consisting of more than 70,000 object descriptions. Furthermore, the institution's thesaurus and person authority

  19. Nullification of knots and links

    CERN Document Server

    Diao, Yuanan; Montemayor, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study a geometric/topological measure of knots and links called the nullification number. The nullification of knots/links is believed to be biologically relevant. For example, in DNA topology, one can intuitively regard it as a way to measure how easily a knotted circular DNA can unknot itself through recombination of its DNA strands. It turns out that there are several different ways to define such a number. These definitions lead to nullification numbers that are related, but different. Our aim is to explore the mathematical properties of these nullification numbers. First, we give specific examples to show that the nullification numbers we defined are different. We provide detailed analysis of the nullification numbers for the well known 2-bridge knots and links. We also explore the relationships among the three nullification numbers, as well as their relationships with other knot invariants. Finally, we study a special class of links, namely those links whose general nullification numbe...

  20. Integrating Linked Data into Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Götz Hatop

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the Linked Data paradigm has evolved from a research idea to a practical approach for publishing structured data on the web, the performance gap between currently available RDF data stores and the somewhat older search technologies could not be closed. The combination of Linked Data with a search engine can help to improve ad-hoc retrieval. This article presents and documents the process of building a search index for the Solr search engine from bibliographic records published as linked open data.

  1. Substrate overload: Glucose oxidation in human myotubes conquers palmitate oxidation through anaplerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2009-01-01

    To date, two cardinal principles govern oxidation of glucose and fatty acids in skeletal muscle; exogenous fatty acid reduces glucose oxidation and glucose reduces fatty acid oxidation. Both glucose and palmitate (PA) oxidation was increased by increasing their concentration and inhibited...... by increasing concentrations of the other in human myotubes established from healthy, lean subjects exposed to acute stepwise increases in glucose and PA levels. At high substrate levels; PA oxidation was reduced while release of acid soluble metabolites was increased and, both glucose oxidation and release...... of citrate was increased which could be abolished by phenylacetic acid (inhibitor of pyruvate carboxylase (PC)). The present data challenges above preconceptions. Although they operate at low-moderate substrate levels additional two principles determine substrate oxidation at higher substrate concentrations...

  2. The Role of TCA Cycle Anaplerosis in Ketosis and Fatty Liver in Periparturient Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M. White

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The transition to lactation period in dairy cattle is characterized by metabolic challenges, negative energy balance, and adipose tissue mobilization. Metabolism of mobilized adipose tissue is part of the adaptive response to negative energy balance in dairy cattle; however, the capacity of the liver to completely oxidize nonesterified fatty acids may be limited and is reflective of oxaloacetate pool, the carbon carrier of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Alternative metabolic fates of acetyl-CoA from nonesterified fatty acids include esterification to triacylglycerides and ketogenesis, and when excessive, these pathways lead to fatty liver and ketosis. Examination of the anaplerotic and cataplerotic pull of oxaloacetate by the tricarboxylic acid cycle and gluconeogenesis may provide insight into the balance of oxidation and esterification of acetyl-CoA within the liver of periparturient dairy cows.

  3. Propionate Increases Hepatic Pyruvate Cycling and Anaplerosis and Alters Mitochondrial Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Rachel J; Borders, Candace B; Cline, Gary W;

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, pyruvate kinase (PK) plays a key role in regulating the balance between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis; however, in vivo regulation of PK flux by gluconeogenic hormones and substrates is poorly understood. To this end, we developed a novel NMR-liquid chromatography....../tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to directly assess pyruvate cycling relative to mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism (VPyr-Cyc/VMito) in vivo using [3-(13)C]lactate as a tracer. Using this approach, VPyr-Cyc/VMito was only 6% in overnight fasted rats. In contrast, when propionate was infused simultaneously...... glucagon suppressed VPyr-Cyc/VMito These data show that under fasting conditions, when hepatic gluconeogenesis is stimulated, pyruvate recycling is relatively low in liver compared with VMito flux and that liver metabolism, in particular pyruvate cycling, is sensitive to propionate making it an unsuitable...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patients who do not abuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the amount ... behaviors. NIDA researchers have studied and continue to study the links between drug abuse and HIV/AIDS. ...

  5. Study Links Disasters to Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_161672.html Study Links Disasters to Dementia Losing home was tied to greater mental decline ... Earthquakes, floods and other natural disasters may raise dementia risk for seniors forced to leave their homes, ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with ... Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the ...

  7. Protein Linked to Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters January 14, 2013 Protein Linked to Atopic Dermatitis Normal skin from a ... in mice suggests that lack of a certain protein may trigger atopic dermatitis, the most common type ...

  8. Advanced solderless flexible thermal link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian G.; Jensen, Scott M.; Batty, J. Clair

    1996-10-01

    Flexible thermal links play an important role int he thermal management of cryogenically cooled components. The purpose of these links is to provide a means of transferring heat from a cooled component to a cooler reservoir with little increase in temperature. The standard soldered approach although effective proves to be time consuming and contributes to added thermal impedances which degrade the performance of the link. For system with little tolerance for temperature differences between cooled components and a cooling source this is undesirable. The authors of this paper have developed a technique by which thin metal foil or braided wire can be attached to metal end blocks without any solder using the swaging process. Swaging provides a fast, simple method for providing a low thermal impedance between the foils and blocks. This paper describes the characteristics of these thermal links in terms of length, mass, thermal resistance, flexibility, and survivability.

  9. Study Links Celiac Disease, Anorexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164453.html Study Links Celiac Disease, Anorexia Chances of being diagnosed with eating ... April 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Young women with celiac disease may face a heightened risk of being ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other organizations in your tweets to spread the word even further. Tweet About Learn the Link To ... other organizations in your tweets to spread the word even further. Share with Flickr, Pinterest or Instagram ...

  11. Decouplink: Dynamic Links for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Lykke Rytter; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    -based systems: On the one hand, violating the open/closed principle by allowing for modification compromises independent extensibility. On the other hand, trying to enforce the open/closed principle by prohibiting modification precludes unanticipated dimensions of extension. Dynamic links increase the number...... of dimensions of extension that can be exploited without performing modification of existing types. Thus, dynamic links make it possible to enforce the open/closed principle in situations where it would otherwise not be possible. We present Decouplink – a library-based implementation of dynamic links for Java.......We also present experience with the use of dynamic links during the evolution of a component-based control system....

  12. Medicare and Medicaid Linked Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare-Medicaid Linked Enrollee Analytic Data Source (MMLEADS) has been developed to allow for the examination of all Medicare and Medicaid enrollment and...

  13. Intermediate links of line arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Bodin, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    We investigate several topological properties of line arrangements. The first result is that two generic complex line arrangements are equivalent. In fact for a line arrangement A we associate its defining polynomial f= prod_i (a_ix+b_iy+c_i), so that A = (f=0). We even prove that the defining polynomials of two generic line arrangements are topologically equivalent. In higher dimension the related result is that within a family of equivalent hyperplane arrangements the defining polynomials are topologically equivalent. A second type of objects associated to a line arrangement are links A cap S^3_r(0) obtained by intersecting the arrangement with some spheres. Several topics are discussed: (a) some link configurations can be realized by complex line arrangements but not by real line arrangements; (b) if we intersect the arrangements with a vertical band instead of a sphere, what link configurations can be obtained? (c) relations between link configurations obtained by bands and spheres.

  14. Linking Ethics and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2012-01-01

    Hunt (2012) builds on his work concerning ethics and resource-advantage theory to link personal ethical standards, societal norms, and economic growth but offers few details concerning the precise mechanisms that link ethics and growth. This comment suggests a number of such mechanisms...... – for example, the influence of prevailing ethical norms on the aggregate elasticity of substitution and, therefore, total factor productivity and growth....

  15. Linked data and user interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Cervone, H Frank

    2015-01-01

    This collection of research papers provides extensive information on deploying services, concepts, and approaches for using open linked data from libraries and other cultural heritage institutions. With a special emphasis on how libraries and other cultural heritage institutions can create effective end user interfaces using open, linked data or other datasets. These papers are essential reading for any one interesting in user interface design or the semantic web.

  16. Linking DC together with TRSL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Yong, X.

    2000-01-01

    Duration Calculus (DC) is an interval-based real-time logic, which can be used in capturing and eliciting users' real-time requirements. The Timed RAISE Specification Language (TRSL) is an extension of the RAISE Specification Language with real-time features. This paper links DC and TRSL together...... approach for linking state-based real-time logics together with event-based, timed process algebra languages....

  17. LinkMind: link optimization in swarming mobile sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    2011-01-01

    A swarming mobile sensor network is comprised of a swarm of wirelessly connected mobile robots equipped with various sensors. Such a network can be applied in an uncertain environment for services such as cooperative navigation and exploration, object identification and information gathering. One of the most advantageous properties of the swarming wireless sensor network is that mobile nodes can work cooperatively to organize an ad-hoc network and optimize the network link capacity to maximize the transmission of gathered data from a source to a target. This paper describes a new method of link optimization of swarming mobile sensor networks. The new method is based on combination of the artificial potential force guaranteeing connectivities of the mobile sensor nodes and the max-flow min-cut theorem of graph theory ensuring optimization of the network link capacity. The developed algorithm is demonstrated and evaluated in simulation.

  18. LinkMind: Link Optimization in Swarming Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Dung Ngo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A swarming mobile sensor network is comprised of a swarm of wirelessly connected mobile robots equipped with various sensors. Such a network can be applied in an uncertain environment for services such as cooperative navigation and exploration, object identification and information gathering. One of the most advantageous properties of the swarming wireless sensor network is that mobile nodes can work cooperatively to organize an ad-hoc network and optimize the network link capacity to maximize the transmission of gathered data from a source to a target. This paper describes a new method of link optimization of swarming mobile sensor networks. The new method is based on combination of the artificial potential force guaranteeing connectivities of the mobile sensor nodes and the max-flow min-cut theorem of graph theory ensuring optimization of the network link capacity. The developed algorithm is demonstrated and evaluated in simulation.

  19. Seismic link at plate boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Faical Ramdani; Omar Kettani; Benaissa Tadili

    2015-06-01

    Seismic triggering at plate boundaries has a very complex nature that includes seismic events at varying distances. The spatial orientation of triggering cannot be reduced to sequences from the main shocks. Seismic waves propagate at all times in all directions, particularly in highly active zones. No direct evidence can be obtained regarding which earthquakes trigger the shocks. The first approach is to determine the potential linked zones where triggering may occur. The second step is to determine the causality between the events and their triggered shocks. The spatial orientation of the links between events is established from pre-ordered networks and the adapted dependence of the spatio-temporal occurrence of earthquakes. Based on a coefficient of synchronous seismic activity to grid couples, we derive a network link by each threshold. The links of high thresholds are tested using the coherence of time series to determine the causality and related orientation. The resulting link orientations at the plate boundary conditions indicate that causal triggering seems to be localized along a major fault, as a stress transfer between two major faults, and parallel to the geothermal area extension.

  20. Links

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Russo

    2006-01-01

    La lista de enlaces ofrecida a continuación tiene como objetivo la creación de una base de datos sobre los principales sitios de interés para el estudio de la imagen (en America Latina y más allá). Se ha tratado de incluir una vasta gama de instituciones (museos, colecciones, institutos), representando sin embargo también a revistas, proyectos de investigación, y catálogos en línea. Sin tener la pretensión de ser exhaustiva, esta selección es evolutiva y se pone al día continuamente. MuseosI...

  1. Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Russo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available La lista de enlaces ofrecida a continuación tiene como objetivo la creación de una base de datos sobre los principales sitios de interés para el estudio de la imagen (en America Latina y más allá. Se ha tratado de incluir una vasta gama de instituciones (museos, colecciones, institutos, representando sin embargo también a revistas, proyectos de investigación, y catálogos en línea. Sin tener la pretensión de ser exhaustiva, esta selección es evolutiva y se pone al día continuamente. MuseosI...

  2. On ω-Linked Overrings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin XIE; Fang Gui WANG; Yan TIAN

    2011-01-01

    Let R (C) T be an extension of commutative rings. T is called ω-linked over R if T as an R-module is a ω-module. In the case of R (C) T (C) Q0(R), T is called a ω-linked overring of R. As a generalization of Wang-McCsland-Park-Chang Theorem, we show that if R is a reduced ring, then R is a ω-Noetherian ring with ω-dim(R) ≤1 if and only if each ω-linked overring T of R is a ω-Noetherian ring with ω-dim(T) ≤ 1. In particular, R is a ω-Noetherian ring with ω-dim(R) = 0 if and only if R is an Artinian ring.

  3. Deformation of Linked Polymer Coils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董朝霞; 李明远; 吴肇亮; 林梅钦

    2003-01-01

    Linked polymer solution (LPS) is defined as the solution of linked polymer coils (LPCs) dispersed in water, composed of low concentration partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) and aluminum citrate (crosslinker). In the work, the conformational changes of LPCs under different conditions were investigated by the methods of membrane filtering under low pressure, dynamic light scattering and core flooding experiments. The results showed that in some conditions the LPCs could be compressed mechanically to 1/158.5 of their original volume because of relatively lower HPAM cross-linking. The hydration property of LPCs was similar to that of normal polymer coils. The deformation of LPCs was more restricted than that of ordinary polymer coils under the flow shear stress or the shift of hydration equilibrium caused in the variation of the electrolyte concentration which is responsible for the effective plugging in the throats of porous media when LPCs are used for deep diverting.

  4. Link Prediction via Matrix Completion

    CERN Document Server

    Pech, Ratha; Pan, Liming; Cheng, Hong; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by practical importance of social networks, economic networks, biological networks and so on, studies on large and complex networks have attracted a surge of attentions in the recent years. Link prediction is a fundamental issue to understand the mechanisms by which new links are added to the networks. We introduce the method of robust principal component analysis (robust PCA) into link prediction, and estimate the missing entries of the adjacency matrix. On one hand, our algorithm is based on the sparsity and low rank property of the matrix, on the other hand, it also performs very well when the network is dense. This is because a relatively dense real network is also sparse in comparison to the complete graph. According to extensive experiments on real networks from disparate fields, when the target network is connected and sufficiently dense, whatever it is weighted or unweighted, our method is demonstrated to be very effective and with prediction accuracy being considerably improved comparing wit...

  5. The OceanLink Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narock, T.; Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Cheatham, M.; Finin, T.; Hitzler, P.; Krisnadhi, A.; Raymond, L. M.; Shepherd, A.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    A wide spectrum of maturing methods and tools, collectively characterized as the Semantic Web, is helping to vastly improve the dissemination of scientific research. Creating semantic integration requires input from both domain and cyberinfrastructure scientists. OceanLink, an NSF EarthCube Building Block, is demonstrating semantic technologies through the integration of geoscience data repositories, library holdings, conference abstracts, and funded research awards. Meeting project objectives involves applying semantic technologies to support data representation, discovery, sharing and integration. Our semantic cyberinfrastructure components include ontology design patterns, Linked Data collections, semantic provenance, and associated services to enhance data and knowledge discovery, interoperation, and integration. We discuss how these components are integrated, the continued automated and semi-automated creation of semantic metadata, and techniques we have developed to integrate ontologies, link resources, and preserve provenance and attribution.

  6. When He Said Linking, He Really Meant Linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnov, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    There are many reasons to improve web links, starting with their design. The author tends to think about "design" on the web in terms of two things: (1) graphic/industrial design; and (2) human usability. A nice, clean URI (uniform resource identifier) that does not change, is readable to humans, is amenable to common web behaviors such as…

  7. Linking DC together with TRSL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne; Yong, Xia

    1999-01-01

    In this talk we present a method for linking the Duration Calculus together with the Timed RAISE Specification Language. Duration Calculus (DC) [ZHR91] is an interval-based real time logic, which can be used naturally in capturing and eliciting users' real time requirements in the form of constra...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to ... clear that injection drug abuse played a significant role in the widespread transmission of the disease. Since ...

  9. What is Linked Historical Data?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, A.; Hoekstra, R.

    2014-01-01

    Datasets that represent historical sources are relative newcomers in the Linked Open Data (LOD) cloud. Following the standard LOD practices for publishing historical sources raises several questions: how can we distinguish between RDF graphs of primary and secondary sources? Should we treat archived

  10. Property Testing on Linked Lists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshani, Peyman; Matulef, Kevin; Wilkinson, Bryan Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We define a new property testing model for algorithms that do not have arbitrary query access to the input, but must instead traverse it in a manner that respects the underlying data structure in which it is stored. In particular, we consider the case when the underlying data structure is a linked...

  11. Tweaking Synchronisation by Link Addition

    CERN Document Server

    Schultz, Paul; Eroglu, Deniz; Stemler, Thomas; Ávila, G Marcelo Ramírez; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Natural and man-made networks often possess locally tree-like sub-structures. Taking such tree networks as our starting point, we show how the addition of links changes the synchronization properties of the network. We focus on two different methods of link addition. The first method adds single links that create cycles of a well-defined length. Following a topological approach we introduce cycles of varying length and analyze how this feature, as well as the position in the network, alters the synchronous behaviour. We show that in particular short cycles can lead to a maximum change of the Laplacian's eigenvalue spectrum, dictating the synchronization properties of such networks. The second method connects a certain proportion of the initially unconnected nodes. We simulate dynamical systems on these network topologies, with the nodes' local dynamics being either a discrete or continuous. Here our main result is that a certain amount of additional links, with the relative position in the network being cruci...

  12. Linking aboveground and belowground diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deyn, de G.B.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2005-01-01

    Aboveground and belowground species interactions drive ecosystem properties at the local scale, but it is unclear how these relationships scale-up to regional and global scales. Here, we discuss our current knowledge of aboveground and belowground diversity links from a global to a local scale. Glob

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV/AIDS, and the general public. U.S. National Library of Medicine HIV/AIDS Information : Specialized Information Services. ... link between drug abuse and HIV. Post on Facebook or Twitter ; add photos to your Flickr , Pinterest , ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and ... Health Blog The NIDA Science Fair Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering Festival Drug & Alcohol Chat ...

  15. What Is Linked Historical Data?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Hoekstra, Rinke; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Schlobach, Stefan; Lambrix, Patrick; Hyvönen, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Datasets that represent historical sources are relative new- comers in the Linked Open Data (LOD) cloud. Following the standard LOD practices for publishing historical sources raises several questions: how can we distinguish between RDF graphs of primary and secondary sources? Should we treat archiv

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV > Learn the Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use can lead to poor decision making, which can result in risky sexual behaviors and HIV infection. Although the characters are fictional, ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to ... available for your use to share on your social media accounts. About the Campaign Overview The Learn the ...

  18. LCSH, SKOS and Linked Data

    CERN Document Server

    Summers, Ed; Redding, Clay; Krech, Dan

    2008-01-01

    A technique for converting Library of Congress Subject Headings MARCXML to Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) RDF is described. Strengths of the SKOS vocabulary are highlighted, as well as possible points for extension, and the integration of other semantic web vocabularies such as Dublin Core. An application for making the vocabulary available as linked-data on the Web is also described.

  19. New links in the family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marion Duimel; Jos de Haan

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Nieuwe links in het gezin. Virtually all families with teenagers have at least one computer with an Internet connection, often more. Teenagers spend much of their daily lives on the Internet. They use it to communicate with each other, to do their schoolwork, to meet new friends and

  20. Reconceptualizing the Linked Courses Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Mary

    2008-01-01

    To help students meet the demands of society, the University of Houston is using the framework of learning communities and constructivism to create a cross-disciplinary approach to teaching to provide media-rich thematically linked courses to engage a diverse student population. A case study investigated three semesters of thematically linked…

  1. Architecture of Platonic and Archimedean polyhedral links

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new methodology for understanding the construction of polyhedral links has been developed on the basis of the Platonic and Archimedean solids by using our method of the 'three-cross-curve and doubletwist-line covering'. There are five classes of polyhedral links that can be explored: the tetrahedral and truncated tetrahedral links; the hexahedral and truncated hexahedral links; the dodecahedral and truncated dodecahedral links; the truncated octahedral and icosahedral links. Our results show that the tetrahedral and truncated tetrahedral links have T symmetry; the hexahedral and truncated hexahedral links, as well as the truncated octahedral links, O symmetry; the dodecahedral and truncated dodecahedral links, as well as the truncated icosahedral links, I symmetry, respectively. This study provides further insight into the molecular design, as well as theoretical characterization, of the DNA and protein catenanes.

  2. Architecture of Platonic and Archimedean polyhedral links

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new methodology for understanding the construction of polyhedral links has been developed on the basis of the Platonic and Archimedean solids by using our method of the ‘three-cross-curve and dou- ble-twist-line covering’. There are five classes of polyhedral links that can be explored: the tetrahedral and truncated tetrahedral links; the hexahedral and truncated hexahedral links; the dodecahedral and truncated dodecahedral links; the truncated octahedral and icosahedral links. Our results show that the tetrahedral and truncated tetrahedral links have T symmetry; the hexahedral and truncated hexahedral links, as well as the truncated octahedral links, O symmetry; the dodecahedral and truncated dodeca- hedral links, as well as the truncated icosahedral links, I symmetry, respectively. This study provides further insight into the molecular design, as well as theoretical characterization, of the DNA and protein catenanes.

  3. The importance of link evidence in Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, J.; Koolen, M.

    2008-01-01

    Wikipedia is one of the most popular information sources on the Web. The free encyclopedia is densely linked. The link structure in Wikipedia differs from the Web at large: internal links in Wikipedia are typically based on words naturally occurring in a page, and link to another semantically relate

  4. Using turbocodes on optical links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Claes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The fast evolving telecommunication world is permanently in search for faster and better communication links. On one hand, turbo codes are like a dream come true. Due to their amazing performance, they have become the reference in the word of error detecting and correcting codes. On the other hand, broadband transmission channels like optical fibres can meet the need for higher transmission velocity. In this paper therefore we will bring these two elements together and thus the performance of turbocodes on optical links will be studied. First the turbocode will be optimised throughout an individual analysis of each of its design parameters. Moreover it wil be shown that turbocodes have much better performance than the well known Reed-Solomon codes. Finally we will show that the 8Bit/10Bit code, which is required to comply with the Gigabit Ethernet standard, becomes superfluous when working with turbocodes. All tests were carried out on multimode graded-index glass fibres.

  5. The Øresund Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob Steen

    of hydrodynamic modelling, on line monitoring and access to all environmental information through a GIS based information system. The public attitude towards the project in general and the environmental impact in particular shifted from a very sceptical one at the beginning of the project to a very positive one......-km link across the Sound could potentially impact the water exchange between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, and the dredging activities during construction were a threat to the local marine environment. The public interest in the environmental issues together with a pro-active environmental policy...... towards the completion of the link. It is believed that the careful use of new technology both for environmental prediction and for public information has played a major role in this development....

  6. Collagen cross linking: Current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas K Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus is a common ectatic disorder occurring in more than 1 in 1,000 individuals. The condition typically starts in adolescence and early adulthood. It is a disease with an uncertain cause and its progression is unpredictable, but in extreme cases, vision deteriorates and can require corneal transplant surgery. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CCL with riboflavin (C3R is a recent treatment option that can enhance the rigidity of the cornea and prevent disease progression. Since its inception, the procedure has evolved with newer instrumentation, surgical techniques, and is also now performed for expanded indications other than keratoconus. With increasing experience, newer guidelines regarding optimization of patient selection, the spectrum of complications and their management, and combination procedures are being described. This article in conjunction with the others in this issue, will try and explore the uses of collagen cross-linking (CXL in its current form.

  7. X-linked Alport syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jais, Jean Philippe; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Giatras, Iannis

    2003-01-01

    Alport syndrome (AS) is a type IV collagen hereditary disease characterized by progressive hematuric nephritis, hearing loss, and ocular changes. Mutations in the COL4A5 collagen gene are responsible for the more common X-linked dominant form of the disease characterized by much less severe disease...... in girls and women. A "European Community Alport Syndrome Concerted Action" (ECASCA) group was established to delineate the Alport syndrome phenotype in each gender and to determine genotype-phenotype correlations in a large number of families. Data concerning 329 families, 250 of them with an X...... to increase after the age of 60 yr in women. Because of the absence of genotype-phenotype correlation and the large intrafamilial phenotypic heterogeneity, early prognosis of the disease in X-linked Alport syndrome carriers remains moot. Risk factors for developing renal failure have been identified...

  8. Linking nutrition-health-agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural production is intimately linked with health and nutrition as a form of income, a source of food, and a cause of disease. Citing a variety of previous studies, this presentation demonstrates the complexity of the relationships among agriculture and food consumption, food safety, infection, and stunting. The authors demonstrate that increasing agricultural production does not necessarily result in improved nutrition: Although more food may be available, this greater yield may suppl...

  9. How expensive is link utilization?

    OpenAIRE

    Stanojević, Rade; Shorten, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between queueing delays and link utilization for general traffic conditions is an important open problem in networking research. Difficulties in understanding this relationship stem from the fact that it depends on the complex nature of arriving traffic and the problems associated with modelling such traffic. Existing AQM schemes achieve a "low delay" and "high utilization" by responding early to congestion without considering the exact relationship betwee...

  10. Linking GHG Emission Trading Systems and Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Several different types of links are possible between different GHG-mitigation systems. These include: Linking two or more emission trading schemes so that emissions trading can occur both within and between different schemes ('direct links'); and Linking emission trading systems to registries/mechanisms and systems that generate offsets from project based mechanisms or from direct purchases/transfers of AAUs ('indirect links').

  11. Managing Your Team's Weakest Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Do you have a poor-performing employee on your medical practice team? If so, you're not alone. Unfortunately, this is a problem that many medical practice managers face. This article describes the best strategies for managing your team's weakest link. It explores common yet very difficult circumstances that cause low employee performance and that test the patience, heart, and skills of a practice manager. It guides readers through a process of self-discovery to determine whether their negative biases or grudges may be causing employees to perform poorly. It suggests several possible other reasons for weak employee performance, including problems with the job, practice, leadership, communication, and fit between the employee and the job. This article also suggests the best strategy for communicating concerns about performance to the weakest-link employee. It offers guidance to practice managers about protecting their time and energy when handling a poor performer. It provides a simple formula for calculating the cost of a low-performing employee, 10 possible personal reasons for the employee's poor work performance, specific questions to ask to uncover the reasons for poor performance, and an eight-rule strategy for confronting poor performance effectively. Finally, this article offers practice managers a practical strategy for handling resistance from their weakest link, illustrated with a sample dialogue.

  12. Researchers Pinpoint More Genes Linked to Vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 161452.html Researchers Pinpoint More Genes Linked to Vitiligo Genetic clues to this autoimmune disease could lead ... identified more genes linked to the autoimmune disease vitiligo, which causes patches of white skin and hair. ...

  13. Zika Linked to Deformed Limbs in Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160324.html Zika Linked to Deformed Limbs in Newborns Cause isn' ... 2016 TUESDAY, Aug. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus has already been linked to serious birth ...

  14. Study Links Psychiatric Disorders to Stroke Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_163750.html Study Links Psychiatric Disorders to Stroke Risk Mental health woes may trigger chronic fight- ... may be linked to a higher risk of stroke in the following weeks and months, new research ...

  15. Seizures and X-linked intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Roger E; Holden, Kenton R.; Rogers, R. Curtis; Schwartz, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Intellectual disability occurs as an isolated X-linked trait and as a component of recognizable X-linked syndromes in the company of somatic, metabolic, neuromuscular, or behavioral abnormalities. Seizures accompany intellectual disability in almost half of these X-linked disorders. The spectrum of seizures found in the X-linked intellectual disability syndromes is broad, varying in time of onset, type of seizure, and response to anticonvulsant therapy. The majority of the genes associated wi...

  16. Track with overlapping links for dry coal extrusion pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Timothy; Brady, John D

    2014-01-21

    A chain for a particulate material extrusion pump includes a plurality of links, each of the plurality of links having a link body and a link ledge, wherein each link ledge of the plurality of links at least partially overlaps the link body of an adjacent one of the plurality of links.

  17. Production and Consumption of University Linked Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablith, Fouad; Fernandez, Miriam; Rowe, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Linked Data increases the value of an organisation's data over the web by introducing explicit and machine processable links at the data level. We have adopted this new stream of data representation to produce and expose existing data within The Open University (OU) as Linked Data. We present in this paper our approach for producing the data,…

  18. Electrospinning formaldehyde cross-linked zein solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to develop zein fibers with improved physical properties and solvent resistance, formaldehyde was used as the cross-linking reagent before spinning. The cross-linking reaction was carried out in either acetic acid or ethanolic-HCl where the amount of cross-linking reagent was between 1 and...

  19. Linking Customer Interaction and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Laursen, Keld; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    The notion that firms can improve their innovativeness by tapping users and customers for knowledge has become prominent in innovation studies. Similar arguments have been made in the marketing literature. We argue that neither literatures take sufficient account of firm organization. Specifically......, firms that attempt to leverage user and customer knowledge in the context of innovation must design an internal organization appropriate to support it. This can be achieved in particular through the use of new organizational practices, notably, intensive vertical and lateral communication, rewarding...... employees for sharing and acquiring knowledge, and high levels of delegation of decision rights. In this paper, six hypotheses were developed and tested on a data set of 169 Danish firms drawn from a 2001 survey of the 1,000 largest firms in Denmark. A key result is that the link from customer knowledge...

  20. X-linked congenital retinoschisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, U; Brümmer, S; Foerster, M H; Wessing, A

    1990-01-01

    The natural history and electrophysiological findings of 52 patients with X-linked congenital retinoschisis with a follow-up of up to 26 years are described. The mean visual acuity was reduced to 0.24 +/- 0.2 and remained unchanged in most patients during this time. If visual loss occurred, it usually happened in the first decennium. The complications were retinal detachments in 11% and vitreous hemorrhages in 4% of the eyes. In general, the vitreous hemorrhages resolved spontaneously. Retinal detachments were treated successfully with conventional buckling procedures. Redetachments occurred in about 40%. Prophylactic laser coagulation was of no use because it was complicated by detachment in 43% of our series. The electro-oculogram was usually normal. In addition to the known electrorentinographic findings of normal a-wave and reduced b-wave amplitudes, we found prolonged b-wave latencies and implicit times, as well as a reduced 30 Hz flicker response.

  1. PIPELINES AS COMMUNICATION NETWORK LINKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; C.H. Wu; Shari Dunn-Norman

    2005-03-14

    This report presents the results of an investigation into two methods of using the natural gas pipeline as a communication medium. The work addressed the need to develop secure system monitoring and control techniques between the field and control centers and to robotic devices in the pipeline. In the first method, the pipeline was treated as a microwave waveguide. In the second method, the pipe was treated as a leaky feeder or a multi-ground neutral and the signal was directly injected onto the metal pipe. These methods were tested on existing pipeline loops at UMR and Batelle. The results reported in this report indicate the feasibility of both methods. In addition, a few suitable communication link protocols for this network were analyzed.

  2. X-linked Alport syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jais, J P; Knebelmann, B; Giatras, I

    2000-01-01

    . Considerable allelic heterogeneity has been observed. A "European Community Alport Syndrome Concerted Action" has been established to delineate accurately the AS phenotype and to determine genotype-phenotype correlations in a large number of families. Data concerning 329 families, 250 of them with an X......-linked transmission, were collected. Characteristics of the 401 male patients belonging to the 195 families with COL4A5 mutation are presented. All male patients were hematuric, and the rate of progression to end-stage renal failure and deafness was mutation-dependent. Large deletions, non-sense mutations, or small...... mutations changing the reading frame conferred to affected male patients a 90% probability of developing end-stage renal failure before 30 yr of age, whereas the same risk was of 50 and 70%, respectively, in patients with missense or splice site mutation. The risk of developing hearing loss before 30 yr...

  3. Library links on medical school home pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sheila L

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the websites of American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC)-member medical schools for the presence of library links. Sixty-one percent (n = 92) of home pages of the 150 member schools of the AAMC contain library links. For the 58 home pages not offering such links, 50 provided a pathway of two or three clicks to a library link. The absence of library links on 39% of AAMC medical school home pages indicates that the designers of those pages did not consider the library to be a primary destination for their visitors.

  4. Adaptive link selection algorithms for distributed estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songcen; de Lamare, Rodrigo C.; Poor, H. Vincent

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents adaptive link selection algorithms for distributed estimation and considers their application to wireless sensor networks and smart grids. In particular, exhaustive search-based least mean squares (LMS) / recursive least squares (RLS) link selection algorithms and sparsity-inspired LMS / RLS link selection algorithms that can exploit the topology of networks with poor-quality links are considered. The proposed link selection algorithms are then analyzed in terms of their stability, steady-state, and tracking performance and computational complexity. In comparison with the existing centralized or distributed estimation strategies, the key features of the proposed algorithms are as follows: (1) more accurate estimates and faster convergence speed can be obtained and (2) the network is equipped with the ability of link selection that can circumvent link failures and improve the estimation performance. The performance of the proposed algorithms for distributed estimation is illustrated via simulations in applications of wireless sensor networks and smart grids.

  5. Hacking 360 Link: A hybrid approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Durno

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available When the University of Victoria Libraries switched from a locally-hosted link resolver (SFX to a vendor-hosted link resolver (360Link, new strategies were required to effectively integrate the vendor-hosted link resolver with the Libraries' other systems and services. Custom javascript is used to add links to the 360Link page; these links then point at local PHP code running on UVic servers, which can then redirect to appropriate local service or display a form directly. An open source PHP OpenURL parser class is announced. Consideration is given to the importance of maintaining open protocols and standards in the transition to vendor-hosted services.

  6. Sirtuins Link Inflammation and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidula T. Vachharajani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sirtuins (SIRT, first discovered in yeast as NAD+ dependent epigenetic and metabolic regulators, have comparable activities in human physiology and disease. Mounting evidence supports that the seven-member mammalian sirtuin family (SIRT1–7 guard homeostasis by sensing bioenergy needs and responding by making alterations in the cell nutrients. Sirtuins play a critical role in restoring homeostasis during stress responses. Inflammation is designed to “defend and mend” against the invading organisms. Emerging evidence supports that metabolism and bioenergy reprogramming direct the sequential course of inflammation; failure of homeostasis retrieval results in many chronic and acute inflammatory diseases. Anabolic glycolysis quickly induced (compared to oxidative phosphorylation for ROS and ATP generation is needed for immune activation to “defend” against invading microorganisms. Lipolysis/fatty acid oxidation, essential for cellular protection/hibernation and cell survival in order to “mend,” leads to immune repression. Acute/chronic inflammations are linked to altered glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation, at least in part, by NAD+ dependent function of sirtuins. Therapeutically targeting sirtuins may provide a new class of inflammation and immune regulators. This review discusses how sirtuins integrate metabolism, bioenergetics, and immunity during inflammation and how sirtuin-directed treatment improves outcome in chronic inflammatory diseases and in the extreme stress response of sepsis.

  7. Corneal collagen cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankov II Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL with riboflavin and ultraviolet-A (UVA is a new technique of corneal tissue strengthening by using riboflavin as a photosensitizer and UVA to increase the formation of intra- and interfibrillar covalent bonds by photosensitized oxidation. Keratocyte apoptosis in the anterior segment of the corneal stroma all the way down to a depth of about 300 microns has been described and a demarcation line between the treated and untreated cornea has been clearly shown. It is important to ensure that the cytotoxic threshold for the endothelium has not been exceeded by strictly respecting the minimal corneal thickness. Confocal microscopy studies show that repopulation of keratocytes is already visible 1 month after the treatment, reaching its pre-operative quantity and quality in terms of functional morphology within 6 months after the treatment. The major indication for the use of CXL is to inhibit the progression of corneal ectasias, such as keratoconus and pellucid marginal degeneration. CXL may also be effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of iatrogenic keratectasia, resulting from excessively aggressive photoablation. This treatment has also been used to treat infectious corneal ulcers with apparent favorable results. Combination with other treatments, such as intracorneal ring segment implantation, limited topography-guided photoablation and conductive keratoplasty have been used with different levels of success.

  8. A new representation of Links: Butterflies

    CERN Document Server

    Hilden, H M; Tejada, D M; Toro, M M

    2012-01-01

    With the idea of an eventual classification of 3-bridge links,\\ we define a very nice class of 3-balls (called butterflies) with faces identified by pairs, such that the identification space is $S^{3},$ and the image of a prefered set of edges is a link. Several examples are given. We prove that every link can be represented in this way (butterfly representation). We define the butterfly number of a link, and we show that the butterfly number and the bridge number of a link coincide. This is done by defining a move on the butterfly diagram. We give an example of two different butterflies with minimal butterfly number representing the knot $8_{20}.$ This raises the problem of finding a set of moves on a butterfly diagram connecting diagrams representing the same link. This is left as an open problem.

  9. Materializing the web of linked data

    CERN Document Server

    Konstantinou, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the Linked Data domain by adopting a bottom-up approach: it introduces the fundamental Semantic Web technologies and building blocks, which are then combined into methodologies and end-to-end examples for publishing datasets as Linked Data, and use cases that harness scholarly information and sensor data. It presents how Linked Data is used for web-scale data integration, information management and search. Special emphasis is given to the publication of Linked Data from relational databases as well as from real-time sensor data streams. The authors also trace the transformation from the document-based World Wide Web into a Web of Data. Materializing the Web of Linked Data is addressed to researchers and professionals studying software technologies, tools and approaches that drive the Linked Data ecosystem, and the Web in general.

  10. Community Detection Based on Link Prediction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    Community detection and link prediction are both of great significance in network analysis, which provide very valuable insights into topological structures of the network from diffrent perspectives. In this paper, we propose a novel community detection algorithm with inclusion of link prediction, motivated by the question whether link prediction can be devoted to improve the accuracy of community partition. For link prediction, we propose two novel indices to compute the similarity between each pair of nodes, one of which aims to add missing links, and the other tries to remove spurious edges. Extensive experiments are conducted on benchmark data sets, and the results of our proposed algorithm are compared with two classes of baselines. In conclusion, our proposed algorithm is competitive, revealing that link prediction does improve the precision of community detection.

  11. micromap: A Package for Linked Micromaps

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn C. Payton; Michael G. McManus; Weber, Marc H.; Anthony R. Olsen; Thomas M. Kincaid

    2015-01-01

    The R package micromap is used to create linked micromaps, which display statistical summaries associated with areal units, or polygons. Linked micromaps provide a means to simultaneously summarize and display both statistical and geographic distributions by linking statistical summaries to a series of small maps. The package contains functions dependent on the ggplot2 package to produce a row-oriented graph composed of different panels, or columns, of information. These panels at a minimum t...

  12. Counting Links and Knots in Complete Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Loren

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the minimal number of links and knots in complete partite graphs. We provide exact values or bounds on the minimal number of links for all complete partite graphs with all but 4 vertices in one partition, or with 9 vertices in total. In particular, we find that the minimal number of links for $K_{4,4,1}$ is 74. We also provide exact values or bounds on the minimal number of knots for all complete partite graphs with 8 vertices.

  13. Coherent band pathways between knots and links

    CERN Document Server

    Buck, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    We categorise coherent band (aka nullification) pathways between knots and 2-component links. Additionally, we characterise the minimal coherent band pathways (with intermediates) between any two knots or 2-component links with small crossing number. We demonstrate these band surgeries for knots and links with small crossing number. We apply these results to place lower bounds on the minimum number of recombinant events separating DNA configurations, restrict the recombination pathways and determine chirality and/or orientation of the resulting recombinant DNA molecules.

  14. Robotic manipulation with flexible link fingers

    OpenAIRE

    Sur, Sudipto

    1997-01-01

    A robot manipulator is a spatial mechanism consisting essentially of a series of bodies, called "links", connected to each other at "joints". The joints can be of various types: revolute, rotary, planar, prismatic, telescopic or combinations of these. A serial connection of the links results in an open-chain manipulator. Closed-chain manipulators result from non-serial (or parallel) connections between links. Actuators at the joints of the manipulator provide power for motion. A rob...

  15. Link prediction via generalized coupled tensor factorisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ermiş, Beyza; Evrim, Acar Ataman; Taylan Cemgil, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the missing link prediction problem: the problem of predicting the existence of missing connections between entities of interest. We address link prediction using coupled analysis of relational datasets represented as heterogeneous data, i.e., datasets in the form of matrices...... different loss functions. Numerical experiments demonstrate that joint analysis of data from multiple sources via coupled factorisation improves the link prediction performance and the selection of right loss function and tensor model is crucial for accurately predicting missing links....

  16. Fast Link Adaptation for MIMO-OFDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Kant, Shashi; Wehinger, Joachim;

    2010-01-01

    We investigate link-quality metrics (LQMs) based on raw bit-error-rate, effective signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio, and mutual information (MI) for the purpose of fast link adaptation (LA) in communication systems employing orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing and multiple-input–mult......We investigate link-quality metrics (LQMs) based on raw bit-error-rate, effective signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio, and mutual information (MI) for the purpose of fast link adaptation (LA) in communication systems employing orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing and multiple...

  17. LINKING STATE, UNIVERSITY AND BUSINESS IN NICARAGUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo Andrés Rodríguez Pérez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Nicaragua levels Linking state, university and business are low, Nicaraguan universities have initiated communication strategies with the state and the private sector. The idiosyncrasies of its citizens favor this link. The entailment policies formalize the communications and information networks. Universities have a key role in building models and organizations that provide alternatives to economic development. Linking the university with the environment, generating virtuous circles, where companies achieve greater competitiveness, the state, higher taxes and public stability, universities generate new knowledge. This article analyzes the strategies linking U-E- E that can be applied in Nicaragua, to strengthen and achieve positive developments in the country.

  18. micromap: A Package for Linked Micromaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn C. Payton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The R package micromap is used to create linked micromaps, which display statistical summaries associated with areal units, or polygons. Linked micromaps provide a means to simultaneously summarize and display both statistical and geographic distributions by linking statistical summaries to a series of small maps. The package contains functions dependent on the ggplot2 package to produce a row-oriented graph composed of different panels, or columns, of information. These panels at a minimum typically contain maps, a legend, and statistical summaries, with the color-coded legend linking the maps and statistical summaries. We first describe the layout of linked micromaps and then the structure required for both the spatial and statistical datasets. The function create_map_table in the micromap package converts the input of an sp SpatialPolygonsDataFrame into a data frame that can be linked with the statistical dataset. Highly detailed polygons are not appropriate for display in linked micromaps so we describe how polygon boundaries can be simplified, decreasing the time required to draw the graphs, while retaining adequate detail for detection of spatial patterns. Our worked examples of linked micromaps use public health data as well as environmental data collected from spatially balanced probabilistic surveys.

  19. Link-Net : improving railcar fleet management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, G.; Partington, M. [Procor Limited, Oakville, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Information about Link-Net, a new rail car information facility available on Netscape, was presented. Link-Net was developed by Ontario`s Procor Limited. It can be used to find a comprehensive list of data on rail fleet management, down to details about the status of single cars. 6 figs.

  20. Biosecurity--The Bio-Link Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elaine A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes Bio-Link, the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Center for Biotechnology established with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF). Reports that Bio-Link, headquartered at City College of San Francisco, has created a national network and resource base for community colleges, industry, and others interested in biotechnology…

  1. Using linked data in Learning Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathieu, d'Aquin; Stefan, Dietze; Eelco, Herder; Hendrik, Drachsler; Davide, Taibi

    2014-01-01

    d’Aquin, M., Dietze, S., Herder, E., Drachsler, H., & Taibi, D. (2014). Using linked data in learning analytics. eLearning Papers. Nr. 36/2. ISSN: 1887-1542. http://www.openeducationeuropa.eu/en/article/Using-linked-data-in-Learning-Analytics?paper=134810

  2. Biosimilars : linking quality data to clinical outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halim, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a link between quality attributes of biosimilars and potential clinical outcomes with regards to safety and immunogenicity. As we have access to multiple biosimilar and copy biologic products as well to patient data, the research involved linking comparative qu

  3. CTS/Comstar communications link characterization experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, D. B.; Taylor, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of angle of arrival and amplitude fluctuations on millimeter wavelength Earth-space communication links are described. Measurement of rainfall attenuation and radiometric temperature statistics and the assessment of the performance of a self-phased array as a receive antenna on an Earth-space link are also included.

  4. YASGUI: Feeling the Pulse of Linked Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, L.; Hoekstra, R.

    2014-01-01

    Existing studies of Linked Data focus on the availability of data rather than its use in practice. The number of query logs available is very much restricted to a small number of datasets. This paper proposes to track Linked Data usage at the client side. We use YASGUI, a feature rich web-based quer

  5. Exploring the obesity-asthma link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Vidal, C;

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and risk of asthma are linked. Different distributions of adiposity, such as visceral, subcutaneous or ectopic adiposity, may affect asthma risk differently.......Obesity and risk of asthma are linked. Different distributions of adiposity, such as visceral, subcutaneous or ectopic adiposity, may affect asthma risk differently....

  6. OCLC's Linking Strategy: Internet and NREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electronic Library, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes OCLC's linking strategy for national networks, i.e., the Internet and the National Research and Education Network (NREN). The telecommunications environment for libraries is discussed and aspects of network links are considered, including governance, performance/support, economics, and future developments. Planning strategies for…

  7. Chemical cross-linking of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1988-01-01

    Purified elementary bodies (EBs) of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 were analyzed by chemical cross-linking with disuccinimidyl selenodipropionate. The effect of the cross-linking was analyzed by immunoblotting sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated components which...

  8. Causality and Borromean linking in twistor space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Robert J, E-mail: mtx014@coventry.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Engineering Science, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-01

    We consider the notion of the Borromean triple from classical linking theory, and develop an analogue of it in the case of linking of skies in twistor space. I would like to dedicate this paper to Roger Penrose, on the occasion of his 80th birthday.

  9. Propagation engineering in radio links design

    CERN Document Server

    Ghasemi, Abdollah; Ghasemi, Farshid

    2013-01-01

    Propagation Engineering in Radio Link Design covers the basic principles of radiowaves propagation in a practical manner.  This fundamental understanding enables the readers to design radio links efficiently. This book elaborates on new achievements as well as recently developed propagation models.  This is in addition to a comprehensive overview of fundamentals of propagation in various scenarios. It examines theoretical calculations, approaches and applied procedures needed for radio links design. The authors study and analysis of the main propagation phenomena and its mechanisms based on the recommendations of International Telecommunications Union, (ITU). The book has been organized in 9 chapters and examines the role of antennas and passive reflectors in radio services, propagation mechanisms related to radar, satellite, short distance, broadcasting and trans-horizon radio links, with two chapters devoted to radio noise and main  parameters of radio link design. The book presents some 278 illustration...

  10. Mapping the x-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skare, J.C.; Milunsky, A.; Byron, K.S.; Sullivan, J.L.

    1987-04-01

    The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is triggered by Epstein-Barr virus infection and results in fatal mononucleosis, immunodeficiency, and lymphoproliferative disorders. This study shows that the mutation responsible for X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is genetically linked to a restriction fragment length polymorphism detected with the DXS42 probe (from Xq24-q27). The most likely recombination frequency between the loci is 4%, and the associated logarithm of the odds is 5.26. Haplotype analysis using flanking restriction fragment length polymorphism markers indicates that the locus for X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is distal to probe DXS42 but proximal to probe DXS99 (from Xq26-q27). It is now possible to predict which members of a family with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome are carrier females and to diagnose the syndrome prenatally.

  11. The Link Prediction Problem in Bipartite Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kunegis, Jérôme; Albayrak, Sahin

    2010-01-01

    We define and study the link prediction problem in bipartite networks, specializing general link prediction algorithms to the bipartite case. In a graph, a link prediction function of two vertices denotes the similarity or proximity of the vertices. Common link prediction functions for general graphs are defined using paths of length two between two nodes. Since in a bipartite graph adjacency vertices can only be connected by paths of odd lengths, these functions do not apply to bipartite graphs. Instead, a certain class of graph kernels (spectral transformation kernels) can be generalized to bipartite graphs when the positive-semidefinite kernel constraint is relaxed. This generalization is realized by the odd component of the underlying spectral transformation. This construction leads to several new link prediction pseudokernels such as the matrix hyperbolic sine, which we examine for rating graphs, authorship graphs, folksonomies, document--feature networks and other types of bipartite networks.

  12. The Versatile Link Demo Board (VLDB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Lesma, R.; Alessio, F.; Barbosa, J.; Baron, S.; Caplan, C.; Leitao, P.; Pecoraro, C.; Porret, D.; Wyllie, K.

    2017-02-01

    The Versatile Link Demonstrator Board (VLDB) is the evaluation kit for the radiation-hard Optical Link ecosystem, which provides a 4.8 Gbps data transfer link for communication between front-end (FE) and back-end (BE) of the High Energy Physics experiments. It gathers the Versatile link main radiation-hard custom Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and modules: GBTx, GBT-SCA and VTRx/VTTx plus the FeastMP, a radiation-hard in-house designed DC-DC converter. This board is the first design allowing system-level tests of the Link with a complete interconnection of the constitutive components, allowing data acquisition, control and monitoring of FE devices with the GBT-SCA pair.

  13. Ubiquitousness of link-density and link-pattern communities in real-world networks

    CERN Document Server

    Šubelj, Lovro

    2011-01-01

    Community structure appears to be an intrinsic property of many complex real-world networks. However, recent work shows that real-world networks reveal even more sophisticated modules than classical cohesive (link-density) communities. In particular, networks can also be naturally partitioned according to similar patterns of connectedness between the nodes, revealing link-pattern communities. We here propose a balanced propagation based algorithm that can extract both link-density and link-pattern communities, without any prior knowledge of the true structure. The algorithm was first validated on different classes of synthetic benchmark networks with community structure, and also on random networks. We have then further applied the algorithm to different social, information, technological and biological networks, where it indeed reveals meaningful (composites of) link-density and link-pattern communities. The results thus seem to imply that, similarly as link-density counterparts, link-pattern communities app...

  14. Web Applications of Bibliometrics and Link Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faribourz Droudi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to introduce and analyze bibliometric application within Web and also to expounds on the status of link analysis in order to point out its application with respect to the existing web-based information sources. Findings indicate that bibliometrics could have required application in the area of digital resources available through Net. Link analysis is a process by which one could make statistical analysis of correlation between hyperlinks and therefore understand the accuracy, veracity and efficacy of citations within a digital document. Link analysis, in effect, is counted as a part of information ranking algorithm within the web environment. The number, linkage and quality of given links to a website are of utmost importance for ranking/status in the Web. The tools applied in this topic include, page ranking strategy, link analysis algorithm, latent semantic indexing and the classical input-output model. The present study analyzes Big Web and Small Web link analysis and explains the means for utilizing web charts in order to better understand the link analysis process.

  15. Link Characteristics and Forecast for Internet Users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINZhigang; LUOYongmei

    2004-01-01

    For a user sharing Internet resources the “Weather Forecast” of the Internet is important. As a user, he has no right to access the status of routers/switches and has not enough information about the overall network. In order to give users useful information and the forecast, this paper proposes a new approach to measure and forecast Internet link status and Local area network (LAN) traffic. In this paper, the design and implementation of a user-oriented, generalized system are proposed for characterizing the links and producing short-term performance forecasts based on historical link characteristics. Pathchar, packet pair are used to measure the latency of hops along a link, and TCPdump is used to collect the traffic of the local LAN. When using these measurement tools in appropriate time scales, we can set up a set of indicators for link status and do prediction for the link characteristics in the future. To improve the accuracy of the estimate of bandwidth, the Extreme value theory (EVT) is deployed. The experimental data show the feasibility of EVT filters. The data show that the EVT resuits are more close to nominal bandwidth. The FARIMA (p,d,q) (fractional autoregressive integrated moving average) based prediction is also presented to forecast the furure status of links and the local traffic.

  16. Predicting Anchor Links between Heterogeneous Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sajadmanesh, Sina; Khodadadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    People usually get involved in multiple social networks to enjoy new services or to fulfill their needs. Many new social networks try to attract users of other existing networks to increase the number of their users. Once a user (called source user) of a social network (called source network) joins a new social network (called target network), a new inter-network link (called anchor link) is formed between the source and target networks. In this paper, we concentrated on predicting the formation of such anchor links between heterogeneous social networks. Unlike conventional link prediction problems in which the formation of a link between two existing users within a single network is predicted, in anchor link prediction, the target user is missing and will be added to the target network once the anchor link is created. To solve this problem, we use meta-paths as a powerful tool for utilizing heterogeneous information in both the source and target networks. To this end, we propose an effective general meta-pat...

  17. What Makes a Link Successful on Wikipedia?

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrov, Dimitar; Lemmerich, Florian; Strohmaier, Markus

    2016-01-01

    While a plethora of hypertext links exist on the Web, only a small amount of them are regularly clicked. Starting from this observation, we set out to study large-scale click data from Wikipedia in order to understand what makes a link successful. We systematically analyze effects of link properties on the popularity of links. By utilizing mixed-effects hurdle models supplemented with descriptive insights, we find evidence of user preference towards links leading to the periphery of the network, towards links leading to semantically similar articles, and towards links in the top and left-side of the screen. We integrate these findings as Bayesian priors into a navigational Markov chain model and by doing so successfully improve the model fits. We further adapt and improve the well-known classic PageRank algorithm that assumes random navigation by accounting for observed navigational preferences of users in a weighted variation. This work facilitates understanding navigational click behavior and thus can contr...

  18. Jamming Technique to Link 11 Data Link%Link 11数据链干扰技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万洪; 蔡啸; 王烟青

    2007-01-01

    Link 11数据链的数学模型入手,分析其在噪声干扰、单音干扰、多音干扰等下的误码性能.仿真结论表明,对Link 11的干扰技术中,不论采用噪声干扰,或者是采用单音或多音干扰,只要掌握其工作原理,就可以采取适当方式对其进行干扰.从另一方面可以看出,Link 11由于易损性等原因,已经暴露了许多不尽人意的缺点,一种新型的数据链--Link 22产生,并对其特点作了简单分析.

  19. Link mining models, algorithms, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Philip S; Faloutsos, Christos

    2010-01-01

    This book presents in-depth surveys and systematic discussions on models, algorithms and applications for link mining. Link mining is an important field of data mining. Traditional data mining focuses on 'flat' data in which each data object is represented as a fixed-length attribute vector. However, many real-world data sets are much richer in structure, involving objects of multiple types that are related to each other. Hence, recently link mining has become an emerging field of data mining, which has a high impact in various important applications such as text mining, social network analysi

  20. Novel fat-link fermion actions

    CERN Document Server

    Zanotti, J M; Bonnet, F D R; Coddington, P D; Leinweber, D B; Williams, A G; Zhang, J B; Melnitchouk, W; Lee, F X

    2002-01-01

    The hadron mass spectrum is calculated in lattice QCD using a novel fat-link clover fermion action in which only the irrelevant operators of the fermion action are constructed using smeared links. The simulations are performed on a 16^3 X 32 lattice with a lattice spacing of a=0.125 fm. We compare actions with n=4 and 12 smearing sweeps with a smearing fraction of 0.7. The n=4 Fat Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) action provides scaling which is superior to mean-field improvement, and offers advantages over nonperturbative O(a) improvement.

  1. External Link Policy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following graphic notice means that you are leaving the DCP Web site: (link is external)This external link provides additional information that is consistent with the intended purpose of DCP.The National Cancer Institute (NCI) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal site.Linking to a non-federal site does not constitute an endorsement by HHS or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the site.You will be subject to the destination site |

  2. Mobile Recommendation Based on Link Community Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since traditional mobile recommendation systems have difficulty in acquiring complete and accurate user information in mobile networks, the accuracy of recommendation is not high. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel mobile recommendation algorithm based on link community detection (MRLD. MRLD executes link label diffusion algorithm and maximal extended modularity (EQ of greedy search to obtain the link community structure, and overlapping nodes belonging analysis (ONBA is adopted to adjust the overlapping nodes in order to get the more accurate community structure. MRLD is tested on both synthetic and real-world networks, and the experimental results show that our approach is valid and feasible.

  3. Link Prediction in Complex Networks: A Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Linyuan

    2010-01-01

    Link prediction in complex networks has attracted increasing attention from both physical and computer science communities. The algorithms can be used to extract missing information, identify spurious interactions, evaluate network evolving mechanisms, and so on. This article summaries recent progress about link prediction algorithms, emphasizing on the contributions from physical perspectives and approaches, such as the random-walk-based methods and the maximum likelihood methods. We also introduce three typical applications: reconstruction of networks, evaluation of network evolving mechanism and classification of partially labelled networks. Finally, we introduce some applications and outline future challenges of link prediction algorithms.

  4. The Gigabit Link Interface Board (GLIB) ecosystem

    CERN Document Server

    Vichoudis, P; Baron, S; Barros Marin, M; Bobillier, V; Chramowitz, J; Haas, S; Hansen, M; Joos, M; Lobato Pardavila, L; Petit, P; Prosser, A; Vasey, F

    2013-01-01

    The Gigabit Link Interface Board (GLIB) project is an FPGA-based platform for users of high-speed optical links in high energy physics experiments. The major hardware component of the platform is the GLIB Advanced Mezzanine Card (AMC). Additionally to the AMC, auxiliary components are developed that enhance GLIB platform's I/O bandwidth and compatibility with legacy and future triggering and/or data acquisition interfaces. This article focuses on the development of the auxiliary components that together with the GLIB AMC offer a complete solution for beam/irradiation tests of detector modules and evaluation of optical links.

  5. The effect of cross-link distributions in axially-ordered, cross-linked networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C. Brad; Kruczek, James; Rabson, D. A.; Matthews, W. Garrett; Pandit, Sagar A.

    2013-07-01

    Cross-linking between the constituent chains of biopolymers has a marked effect on their materials’ properties. In certain of these materials, such as fibrillar collagen, increases in cross-linking lead to an increase in the melting temperature. Fibrillar collagen is an axially-ordered network of cross-linked polymer chains exhibiting a broadened denaturation transition, which has been explained in terms of the successive denaturation with temperature of multiple species. We model axially-ordered, cross-linked materials as stiff chains with distinct arrangements of cross-link-forming sites. Simulations suggest that systems composed of chains with identical arrangements of cross-link-forming sites exhibit critical behavior. In contrast, systems composed of non-identical chains undergo a crossover. This model suggests that the arrangement of cross-link-forming sites may contribute to the broadening of the denaturation transition in fibrillar collagen.

  6. Linked-OWL: A new approach for dynamic linked data service workflow composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussien Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The shift from Web of Document into Web of Data based on Linked Data principles defined by Tim Berners-Lee posed a big challenge to build and develop applications to work in Web of Data environment. There are several attempts to build service and application models for Linked Data Cloud. In this paper, we propose a new service model for linked data "Linked-OWL" which is based on RESTful services and OWL-S and copes with linked data principles. This new model shifts the service concept from functions into linked data things and opens the road for Linked Oriented Architecture (LOA and Web of Services as part and on top of Web of Data. This model also provides high level of dynamic service composition capabilities for more accurate dynamic composition and execution of complex business processes in Web of Data environment.

  7. Cellular Defect May Be Linked to Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160862.html Cellular Defect May Be Linked to Parkinson's: Study Abnormality might apply to all forms of ... that may be common to all forms of Parkinson's disease. The defect plays a major role in ...

  8. Heart Disease Linked to Anxiety, Negative Feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163702.html Heart Disease Linked to Anxiety, Negative Feelings And that's especially ... Feb. 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- People with mild heart disease are more likely to say they have poorer ...

  9. Prenatal Inflammation Linked to Autism Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thursday, January 24, 2013 Prenatal inflammation linked to autism risk Maternal inflammation during early pregnancy may be related to an increased risk of autism in children, according to new findings supported by ...

  10. Link Seen Between Concussions and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_163025.html Link Seen Between Concussions and Alzheimer's But study didn't prove head injuries cause ... mental decline of people already at risk for Alzheimer's disease? In a new study, researchers examined 160 ...

  11. Bounded link prediction in very large networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wei; Pu, Cunlai; Xu, Zhongqi; Cai, Shimin; Yang, Jian; Michaelson, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Evaluating link prediction methods is a hard task in very large complex networks due to the prohibitive computational cost. However, if we consider the lower bound of node pairs' similarity scores, this task can be greatly optimized. In this paper, we study CN index in the bounded link prediction framework, which is applicable to enormous heterogeneous networks. Specifically, we propose a fast algorithm based on the parallel computing scheme to obtain all node pairs with CN values larger than the lower bound. Furthermore, we propose a general measurement, called self-predictability, to quantify the performance of similarity indices in link prediction, which can also indicate the link predictability of networks with respect to given similarity indices.

  12. Using Linked Data in Learning Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Aquin, Mathieu; Dietze, Stefan; Drachsler, Hendrik; Herder, Eelco

    2013-01-01

    d'Aquin, M., Dietze, S., Drachsler, H., & Herder, E. (2013, April). Using Linked Data in Learning Analytics. Tutorial given at LAK 2013, the Third Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge, Leuven, Belgium.

  13. Too Much Iron Linked to Gestational Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161946.html Too Much Iron Linked to Gestational Diabetes Supplements should only be given to pregnant women ... an increased risk of developing diabetes during pregnancy (gestational diabetes), begging the question whether routine recommendations of iron ...

  14. Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure Linked with Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IDEAL reports linked prenatal methamphetamine exposure to reduced neonatal size (“ Methamphetamine Restricts Fetal Growth, Increases Lethargy in ... AIDS Medical Consequences Mental Health Military and Veterans Pain Prevention Research Training Treatment Research Trends and Statistics ...

  15. Tackling the Limits of Optical Fiber Links

    CERN Document Server

    Stefani, Fabio; Bercy, Anthony; Lee, Won-Kyu; Chardonnet, Christian; Santarelli, Giorgio; Pottie, Paul-Eric; Amy-Klein, Anne

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally investigate relevant noise processes arising in optical fiber links, which fundamentally limit their relative stability. We derive the unsuppressed delay noise for three configurations of optical links: two-way method, Sagnac interferometry, and actively compensated link, respectively designed for frequency comparison, rotation sensing, and frequency transfer. We also consider an alternative two-way setup allowing real-time frequency comparison and demonstrate its effectiveness on a proof-of-principle experiment with a 25-km fiber spool. For these three configurations, we analyze the noise arising from uncommon fiber paths in the interferometric ensemble and design optimized interferometers. We demonstrate interferometers with very low temperature sensitivity of respectively -2.2, -0.03 and 1 fs/K. We use one of these optimized interferometers on a long haul compensated fiber link of 540km. We obtain a relative frequency stability of 3E-20 after 10,000 s of integration time...

  16. Gallstones Linked to Higher Heart Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_160497.html Gallstones Linked to Higher Heart Disease Risk Researcher says study highlights a connection between ... may have a slightly increased risk of developing heart disease down the road, a large new study suggests. ...

  17. A Robust Parsing Algorithm For Link Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Grinberg, D; Sleator, D; Grinberg, Dennis; Lafferty, John; Sleator, Daniel

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present a robust parsing algorithm based on the link grammar formalism for parsing natural languages. Our algorithm is a natural extension of the original dynamic programming recognition algorithm which recursively counts the number of linkages between two words in the input sentence. The modified algorithm uses the notion of a null link in order to allow a connection between any pair of adjacent words, regardless of their dictionary definitions. The algorithm proceeds by making three dynamic programming passes. In the first pass, the input is parsed using the original algorithm which enforces the constraints on links to ensure grammaticality. In the second pass, the total cost of each substring of words is computed, where cost is determined by the number of null links necessary to parse the substring. The final pass counts the total number of parses with minimal cost. All of the original pruning techniques have natural counterparts in the robust algorithm. When used together with memoization...

  18. Predicting missing links via correlation between nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Hao; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    As a fundamental problem in many different fields, link prediction aims to estimate the likelihood of an existing link between two nodes based on the observed information. Since this problem is related to many applications ranging from uncovering missing data to predicting the evolution of networks, link prediction has been intensively investigated recently and many methods have been proposed so far. The essential challenge of link prediction is to estimate the similarity between nodes. Most of the existing methods are based on the common neighbor index and its variants. In this paper, we propose to calculate the similarity between nodes by the correlation coefficient. This method is found to be very effective when applied to calculate similarity based on high order paths. We finally fuse the correlation-based method with the resource allocation method, and find that the combined method can substantially outperform the existing methods, especially in sparse networks.

  19. More Evidence Linking Obesity to Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161494.html More Evidence Linking Obesity to Liver Cancer And type 2 diabetes more than doubles the ... type 2 diabetes, may raise your risk for liver cancer, a new study suggests. "We found that each ...

  20. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... situations, criminal prosecution. back to top Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  1. Linking Medicare, Medicaid, and Cancer Registry Data...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Linking Medicare, Medicaid, and Cancer Registry Data to Study the Burden of Cancers in West Virginia In the United States, the elderly carry an unequal burden of...

  2. Development Issues on Linked Data Weblog Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rube, Iván; Cornejo, Carlos M.; Dodero, Juan Manuel; García, Vicente M.

    In this paper, we describe the issues found during the development of LinkedBlog, a Linked Data extension for WordPress blogs. This extension enables to enrich text-based and video information contained in blog entries with RDF triples that are suitable to be stored, managed and exploited by other web-based applications. The issues have to do with the generality, usability, tracking, depth, security, trustiness and performance of the linked data enrichment process. The presented annotation approach aims at maintaining web-based contents independent from the underlying ontological model, by providing a loosely coupled RDFa-based approach in the linked data application. Finally, we detail how the performance of annotations can be improved through a semantic reasoner.

  3. Effect of burn injury on relative anaplerosis and gluconeogenesis in rats by 13C magnetic resonance spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏照帆; 田建广; 王光毅; 葛绳德; 唐洪泰

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To introduce a safe and specific approachof 13C magnetic resonance spectrum (13C MRS )spectroscopy and investigate the alterations in hepaticanabolism.Methods: Relative anaplerotic, pyruvate recyclingand gluconeogenic fluxes were measured by 13C MRSisotopomer analysis of blood glucose from rats with 40%body surface area burn injury, and from rats exposed tosham injury. A short chain fatty acid, [U-13C] propionatewhich was avidly extracted by the liver, was infusedintravenously to deliver 13C into the citric acid cycle.Proton-decoupled 13C MRS of deproteinized plasma orextracts of the freeze-clamped liver were used to determinethe distribution of 13C in blood or hepatic glucose.Results: There was no difference in the multipletsdetected in the glucose carbon-2 anomer from blood or liverafter 45 or 60 minutes of the infusion of the propionate,indicating that steady-state isotopic conditions wereachieved. Gluconeogenesis relative to citric acid cycle fluxwas not altered by burn injury; in both sham and burngroups the rate of glucose production was about equal toflux through citrate synthase. In the sham group ofanimals, the rate of entry of carbon skeletons into the citricacid cycle was about 4 times than that in the burn group.Similarly, flux through pyruvate kinase (again relative tocitrate synthase) was significantly increased after the burninjury.Conclusions: Since results from analysis of the bloodglucose are the same as that of the hepatic glucose, 13Cdistribution in the glucose and hepatic metabolism can beassessed based on the 13C MRS analysis of the bloodglucose.

  4. Network Communication by Optical Directional Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Biolkova

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, infrared point-to-point technologies (optical directional links are discussed which are designed for digital transmissions. Optical directional links (ODLs are transparent for the SDH/ATM, FDDI-II, Ethernet, and Token Ring protocols. Depending on type, ODL ranges are 300 m, 500 m, 1000 m and 2000 m. Steady and statistical models of ODL are presented as well as the measuring ODL arrangement and the graphs concerning the fluctuations of the received signal.

  5. Energy: The Link between GDP and Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Jan-Erik Lane

    2013-01-01

    The global energy-environment conundrum unfolds now with more and more evidence confirming the climate change hypothesis. The accumulation of greenhouses gases in the atmosphere is strongly linked with economic production, the GDP indicator. Here we give the exact relationships between GDP, energy consumption and greenhouse gases emissions, over time and cross-sectionally for the entire globe. The intermediating link between total GDP and total emissions is, it must be emphasized, the energy ...

  6. Negative Link Prediction in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jiliang; Chang, Shiyu; Aggarwal, Charu; Liu, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Signed network analysis has attracted increasing attention in recent years. This is in part because research on signed network analysis suggests that negative links have added value in the analytical process. A major impediment in their effective use is that most social media sites do not enable users to specify them explicitly. In other words, a gap exists between the importance of negative links and their availability in real data sets. Therefore, it is natural to explore whether one can pr...

  7. Star repeaters for fiber optic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, D H; Gravel, R L

    1977-02-01

    A star repeater combines the functions of a passive star coupler and a signal regenerating amplifier. By more effectively utilizing the light power radiated by a light emitting diode, the star repeater can, when used with small diameter channels, couple as much power to all receivers of a multiterminal link as would be coupled to the single receiver of a simple point-to-point link.

  8. Microwaves photonic links components and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Rumelhard, Christian; Billabert, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the electrical models for the different elements of a photonic microwave link like lasers, external modulators, optical fibers, photodiodes and phototransistors. The future trends of these components are also introduced: lasers to VCSEL, external modulators to electro-absorption modulators, glass optical fibers to plastic optical fibers, photodiodes to UTC photodiodes or phototransistors. It also describes an original methodology to evaluate the performance of a microwave photonic link, based on the developed elcetrical models, that can be easily incorporated in

  9. The missing link between values and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen

    For a long time human values have been perceived as abstrat cognitions representing desired goals or end-states which motivate humnan behaviour. A number of studies have tried to explore the link between values and behaviour, but often different constructs are included as intermediate links betwe...... and lifestyle and behaviour. Based on this appraoch we collected data covering values, lifestyle and behaviour, and estimated the cogntiive hierarchy from values to lifestyle to behaviour by structural equation models....

  10. Emerging semantics to link phenotype and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E. Thessen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the interplay between environmental conditions and phenotypes is a fundamental goal of biology. Unfortunately, data that include observations on phenotype and environment are highly heterogeneous and thus difficult to find and integrate. One approach that is likely to improve the status quo involves the use of ontologies to standardize and link data about phenotypes and environments. Specifying and linking data through ontologies will allow researchers to increase the scope and flexibility of large-scale analyses aided by modern computing methods. Investments in this area would advance diverse fields such as ecology, phylogenetics, and conservation biology. While several biological ontologies are well-developed, using them to link phenotypes and environments is rare because of gaps in ontological coverage and limits to interoperability among ontologies and disciplines. In this manuscript, we present (1 use cases from diverse disciplines to illustrate questions that could be answered more efficiently using a robust linkage between phenotypes and environments, (2 two proof-of-concept analyses that show the value of linking phenotypes to environments in fishes and amphibians, and (3 two proposed example data models for linking phenotypes and environments using the extensible observation ontology (OBOE and the Biological Collections Ontology (BCO; these provide a starting point for the development of a data model linking phenotypes and environments.

  11. Khovanov homology of links and graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosic, Marko

    2006-05-01

    In this thesis we work with Khovanov homology of links and its generalizations, as well as with the homology of graphs. Khovanov homology of links consists of graded chain complexes which are link invariants, up to chain homotopy, with graded Euler characteristic equal to the Jones polynomial of the link. Hence, it can be regarded as the "categorification" of the Jones polynomial. We prove that the first homology group of positive braid knots is trivial. Futhermore, we prove that non-alternating torus knots are homologically thick. In addition, we show that we can decrease the number of full twists of torus knots without changing low-degree homology and consequently that there exists stable homology for torus knots. We also prove most of the above properties for Khovanov-Rozansky homology. Concerning graph homology, we categorify the dichromatic (and consequently Tutte) polynomial for graphs, by categorifying an infinite set of its one-variable specializations. We categorify explicitly the one-variable specialization that is an analog of the Jones polynomial of an alternating link corresponding to the initial graph. Also, we categorify explicitly the whole two-variable dichromatic polynomial of graphs by using Koszul complexes. textbf{Key-words:} Khovanov homology, Jones polynomial, link, torus knot, graph, dichromatic polynomial

  12. Effect of Link Flexibility on tip position of a single link robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudan Raju, E.; Siva Rama Krishna, L.; Mouli, Y. Sharath Chandra; Nageswara Rao, V.

    2015-12-01

    The flexible robots are widely used in space applications due to their quick response, lower energy consumption, lower overall mass and operation at high speed compared to conventional industrial rigid link robots. These robots are inherently flexible, so that the kinematics of flexible robots can't be solved with rigid body assumptions. The flexibility in links and joints affects end-point positioning accuracy of the robot. It is important to model the link kinematics with precision which in turn simplifies modelling of dynamics of flexible robots. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the effect of link flexibility on a tip position of a single link robotic arm for a given motion. The joint is assumed to be rigid and only link flexibility is considered. The kinematics of flexible link problem is evaluated by Assumed Modes Method (AMM) using MAT LAB Programming. To evaluate the effect of link flexibility (with and without payload) of robotic arm, the normalized tip deviation is found for flexible link with respect to a rigid link. Finally, the limiting inertia for payload mass is found if the allowable tip deviation is 5%.

  13. Link Analysis in the Mission Planning Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jessica A.; Cervantes, Benjamin W.; Daugherty, Sarah C.; Arroyo, Felipe; Mago, Divyang

    2011-01-01

    The legacy communications link analysis software currently used at Wallops Flight Facility involves processes that are different for command destruct, radar, and telemetry. There is a clear advantage to developing an easy-to-use tool that combines all the processes in one application. Link Analysis in the Mission Planning Lab (MPL) uses custom software and algorithms integrated with Analytical Graphics Inc. Satellite Toolkit (AGI STK). The MPL link analysis tool uses pre/post-mission data to conduct a dynamic link analysis between ground assets and the launch vehicle. Just as the legacy methods do, the MPL link analysis tool calculates signal strength and signal- to-noise according to the accepted processes for command destruct, radar, and telemetry assets. Graphs and other custom data are generated rapidly in formats for reports and presentations. STK is used for analysis as well as to depict plume angles and antenna gain patterns in 3D. The MPL has developed two interfaces with the STK software (see figure). The first interface is an HTML utility, which was developed in Visual Basic to enhance analysis for plume modeling and to offer a more user friendly, flexible tool. A graphical user interface (GUI) written in MATLAB (see figure upper right-hand corner) is also used to quickly depict link budget information for multiple ground assets. This new method yields a dramatic decrease in the time it takes to provide launch managers with the required link budgets to make critical pre-mission decisions. The software code used for these two custom utilities is a product of NASA's MPL.

  14. Publishing Data on Physical Samples Using the GeoLink Ontology and Linked Data Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, P.; Arko, R. A.; Lehnert, K. A.; Song, L.; Carter, M. R.; Hsu, L.

    2015-12-01

    Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance (IEDA), one of partners in EarthCube GeoLink project, seeks to explore the extent to which the use of GeoLink reusable Ontology Design Patterns (ODPs) and linked data platforms in IEDA data infrastructure can make research data more easily accessible and valuable. Linked data for the System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR) is the first effort of IEDA to show how linked data enhance the presentation of IEDA data system architecture. SESAR Linked Data maps each table and column in SESAR database to RDF class and property based on GeoLink view, which build on the top of GeoLink ODPs. Then, uses D2RQ dumping the contents of SESAR database into RDF triples on the basis of mapping results. And, the dumped RDF triples is loaded into GRAPHDB, an RDF graph database, as permanent data in the form of atomic facts expressed as subjects, predicates and objects which provide support for semantic interoperability between IEDA and other GeoLink partners. Finally, an integrated browsing and searching interface build on Callimachus, a highly scalable platform for publishing linked data, is introduced to make sense of data stored in triplestore. Drill down and through features are built in the interface to help users locating content efficiently. The drill down feature enables users to explore beyond the summary information in the instance list of a specific class and into the detail from the specific instance page. The drill through feature enables users to jump from one instance to another one by simply clicking the link of the latter nested in the former region. Additionally, OpenLayers map is embedded into the interface to enhance the attractiveness of the presentation of instance which has geospatial information. Furthermore, by linking instances in the SESAR datasets to matching or corresponding instances in external sets, the presentation has been enriched with additional information about related classes like person, cruise, etc.

  15. Age differences in search of web pages: the effects of link size, link number, and clutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahame, Michael; Laberge, Jason; Scialfa, Charles T

    2004-01-01

    Reaction time, eye movements, and errors were measured during visual search of Web pages to determine age-related differences in performance as a function of link size, link number, link location, and clutter. Participants (15 young adults, M = 23 years; 14 older adults, M = 57 years) searched Web pages for target links that varied from trial to trial. During one half of the trials, links were enlarged from 10-point to 12-point font. Target location was distributed among the left, center, and bottom portions of the screen. Clutter was manipulated according to the percentage of used space, including graphics and text, and the number of potentially distracting nontarget links was varied. Increased link size improved performance, whereas increased clutter and links hampered search, especially for older adults. Results also showed that links located in the left region of the page were found most easily. Actual or potential applications of this research include Web site design to increase usability, particularly for older adults.

  16. A generalized theory of preferential linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haibo; Guo, Jinli; Liu, Xuan; Wang, Xiaofan

    2014-12-01

    There are diverse mechanisms driving the evolution of social networks. A key open question dealing with understanding their evolution is: How do various preferential linking mechanisms produce networks with different features? In this paper we first empirically study preferential linking phenomena in an evolving online social network, find and validate the linear preference. We propose an analyzable model which captures the real growth process of the network and reveals the underlying mechanism dominating its evolution. Furthermore based on preferential linking we propose a generalized model reproducing the evolution of online social networks, and present unified analytical results describing network characteristics for 27 preference scenarios. We study the mathematical structure of degree distributions and find that within the framework of preferential linking analytical degree distributions can only be the combinations of finite kinds of functions which are related to rational, logarithmic and inverse tangent functions, and extremely complex network structure will emerge even for very simple sublinear preferential linking. This work not only provides a verifiable origin for the emergence of various network characteristics in social networks, but bridges the micro individuals' behaviors and the global organization of social networks.

  17. Cross-linking chemistry of squid beak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miserez, Ali; Rubin, Daniel; Waite, J Herbert

    2010-12-03

    In stark contrast to most aggressive predators, Dosidicus gigas (jumbo squids) do not use minerals in their powerful mouthparts known as beaks. Their beaks instead consist of a highly sclerotized chitinous composite with incremental hydration from the tip to the base. We previously reported l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa)-histidine (dopa-His) as an important covalent cross-link providing mechanical strengthening to the beak material. Here, we present a more complete characterization of the sclerotization chemistry and describe additional cross-links from D. gigas beak. All cross-links presented in this report share common building blocks, a family of di-, tri-, and tetra-histidine-catecholic adducts, that were separated by affinity chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified by tandem mass spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). The data provide additional insights into the unusually high cross-link density found in mature beaks. Furthermore, we propose both a low molecular weight catechol, and peptidyl-dopa, to be sclerotization agents of squid beak. This appears to represent a new strategy for forming hard tissue in animals. The interplay between covalent cross-linking and dehydration on the graded properties of the beaks is discussed.

  18. Local Type Checking for Linked Data Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ciobanu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Web of Linked Data is the cumulation of over a decade of work by the Web standards community in their effort to make data more Web-like. We provide an introduction to the Web of Linked Data from the perspective of a Web developer that would like to build an application using Linked Data. We identify a weakness in the development stack as being a lack of domain specific scripting languages for designing background processes that consume Linked Data. To address this weakness, we design a scripting language with a simple but appropriate type system. In our proposed architecture some data is consumed from sources outside of the control of the system and some data is held locally. Stronger type assumptions can be made about the local data than external data, hence our type system mixes static and dynamic typing. Throughout, we relate our work to the W3C recommendations that drive Linked Data, so our syntax is accessible to Web developers.

  19. Novel Link Adaptation Schemes for OFDM System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Ming; CAI Peng; XU Yue-shan; ZHANG Ping

    2003-01-01

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is the most promising technique supporting the high data rate transmission. The combination of the link adaptation and OFDM can further increase the spectral efficiency. In this paper, we put forward two link adaptation schemes for OFDM system which have the advantages of both flexibility and practicability. Both of the two novel link adaptation schemes are based on the iterative mechanism to allocate the bit and power to subcarriers according to their channel gains and noisy levels which are assumed to be already known at the transmitter. The candidate modulation modes are determined freely before the link adaptation schemes are performed. The distinction between the two novel link adaptation schemes is that in the novel scheme A, the modulation mode is upgraded to the neighboring higher-order mode, while in the novel scheme B the modulation is upgraded to the genuine optimal mode. Therefore, the novel scheme A has the advantage of lower complexity and the novel scheme B has the advantage of higher spectral efficiency.

  20. Why should we publish Linked Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, Jon; Riechert, Maik; Koubarakis, Manolis; Pace, Nino

    2016-04-01

    We use the Web every day to access information from all kinds of different sources. But the complexity and diversity of scientific data mean that discovering accessing and interpreting data remains a large challenge to researchers, decision-makers and other users. Different sources of useful information on data, algorithms, instruments and publications are scattered around the Web. How can we link all these things together to help users to better understand and exploit earth science data? How can we combine scientific data with other relevant data sources, when standards for describing and sharing data vary so widely between communities? "Linked Data" is a term that describes a set of standards and "best practices" for sharing data on the Web (http://www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb/data). These principles can be summarised as follows: 1. Create unique and persistent identifiers for the important "things" in a community (e.g. datasets, publications, algorithms, instruments). 2. Allow users to "look up" these identifiers on the web to find out more information about them. 3. Make this information machine-readable in a community-neutral format (such as RDF, Resource Description Framework). 4. Within this information, embed links to other things and concepts and say how these are related. 5. Optionally, provide web service interfaces to allow the user to perform sophisticated queries over this information (using a language such as SPARQL). The promise of Linked Data is that, through these techniques, data will be more discoverable, more comprehensible and more usable by different communities, not just the community that produced the data. As a result, many data providers (particularly public-sector institutions) are now publishing data in this way. However, this area is still in its infancy in terms of real-world applications. Data users need guidance and tools to help them use Linked Data. Data providers need reassurance that the investments they are making in

  1. Editorial: Link Spam and Search Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Noruzi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing number of blogs has caused problems for search engines, problems such as the highly frequent blog spam. Spammers use blogs to promote their websites. Spammers are trying to win the attention of search engines, not of bloggers or their readers. Link spam dishonestly and deliberately manipulates link-based ranking algorithms of search engines like Google's PageRank to increase the rank of a web site or page so that it is placed as close to the top of search results as possible. A link-based ranking algorithm gives a higher ranking to a site that has many backlinks, especially from highly-ranked sites/pages.

  2. Discovering and Mining Links for Protein Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Immaculate Mercy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces a link analysis procedure for discovering relationships in a protein database or a relational database generalizing simple correspondence analysis. It is based on extracting the links to the rela ted protein database and malfunctioned protein database. The datasets are trained in order to find out missing interactions and the sequences related to them. Further the analysis of links proceeds by performing a random walk defining a Markov chain. The e lements of interest are analysed through stochastic complementation which gives a reduced Markov chain. This reduced map is then analysed by projecting the elements of interest through Principal component analysis. Several Protein datasets are analysed using the proposed methodology, showing the usefulness of the technique for extracting relationships in relational databases or graphs.

  3. Discovering and Mining Links for Protein Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Immaculate Mercy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available link analysis procedure for discovering relationships in a protein database or a relational database generalizing simple correspondence analysis. It is based on extracting the links to the related protein database and malfunctioned protein database. The datasets are trained in order to find out missing interactions and the sequences related to them. Further the analysis of links proceeds by performing a random walk defining a Markov chain. The elements of interest are analysed through stochastic complementation which gives a reduced Markov chain. This reduced map is then analysed by projecting the elements of interest through Principal component analysis. Several Protein datasets are analysed using the proposed methodology, showing the usefulness of the technique for extracting relationships in relational databases or graphs.

  4. Mining Electronic Health Records using Linked Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, David J; Dumontier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Meaningful Use guidelines have pushed the United States Healthcare System to adopt electronic health record systems (EHRs) at an unprecedented rate. Hospitals and medical centers are providing access to clinical data via clinical data warehouses such as i2b2, or Stanford's STRIDE database. In order to realize the potential of using these data for translational research, clinical data warehouses must be interoperable with standardized health terminologies, biomedical ontologies, and growing networks of Linked Open Data such as Bio2RDF. Applying the principles of Linked Data, we transformed a de-identified version of the STRIDE into a semantic clinical data warehouse containing visits, labs, diagnoses, prescriptions, and annotated clinical notes. We demonstrate the utility of this system though basic cohort selection, phenotypic profiling, and identification of disease genes. This work is significant in that it demonstrates the feasibility of using semantic web technologies to directly exploit existing biomedical ontologies and Linked Open Data.

  5. Service Migration Protocol for NFC Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Anders; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Martin, Miquel

    2010-01-01

    of use while preserving state. This paper focuses on the scenario of migration between two devices in which the actual migration procedure is executed over near-field communication (NFC) ad-hoc links. The NFC link is interesting as it gives the user the perception of trust and enables service continuity...... in cases where mid- or long-range wireless connectivity is unavailable. Based on an experimental performance analysis of a specific NFC platform, the paper presents a migration orchestration protocol with low overhead and low delays to be used with NFC links. Experimental results allow to conclude...... on the sizes of application state that can be expected to be feasible for such ad-hoc NFC migration....

  6. Improving personalized link prediction by hybrid diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by traditional link prediction and to solve the problem of recommending friends in social networks, we introduce the personalized link prediction in this paper, in which each individual will get equal number of diversiform predictions. While the performances of many classical algorithms are not satisfactory under this framework, thus new algorithms are in urgent need. Motivated by previous researches in other fields, we generalize heat conduction process to the framework of personalized link prediction and find that this method outperforms many classical similarity-based algorithms, especially in the performance of diversity. In addition, we demonstrate that adding one ground node who is supposed to connect all the nodes in the system will greatly benefit the performance of heat conduction. Finally, better hybrid algorithms composed of local random walk and heat conduction have been proposed. Numerical results show that the hybrid algorithms can outperform other algorithms simultaneously in all four ...

  7. Quantitative linking hypotheses for infant eye movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Yurovsky

    Full Text Available The study of cognitive development hinges, largely, on the analysis of infant looking. But analyses of eye gaze data require the adoption of linking hypotheses: assumptions about the relationship between observed eye movements and underlying cognitive processes. We develop a general framework for constructing, testing, and comparing these hypotheses, and thus for producing new insights into early cognitive development. We first introduce the general framework--applicable to any infant gaze experiment--and then demonstrate its utility by analyzing data from a set of experiments investigating the role of attentional cues in infant learning. The new analysis uncovers significantly more structure in these data, finding evidence of learning that was not found in standard analyses and showing an unexpected relationship between cue use and learning rate. Finally, we discuss general implications for the construction and testing of quantitative linking hypotheses. MATLAB code for sample linking hypotheses can be found on the first author's website.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Open All Close All Description X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia is a rare condition characterized by ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked sideroblastic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions X-linked sideroblastic anemia X-linked sideroblastic anemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description X-linked sideroblastic anemia is an inherited disorder that prevents developing red ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Open All Close All Description X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita is a disorder that mainly affects males. ...

  11. Urban rainfall estimation employing commercial microwave links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko; ten Veldhuis, Marie-claire

    2015-04-01

    Urban areas often lack rainfall information. To increase the number of rainfall observations in cities, microwave links from operational cellular telecommunication networks may be employed. Although this new potential source of rainfall information has been shown to be promising, its quality needs to be demonstrated more extensively. In the Rain Sense kickstart project of the Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Metropolitan Solutions (AMS), sensors and citizens are preparing Amsterdam for future weather. Part of this project is rainfall estimation using new measurement techniques. Innovative sensing techniques will be utilized such as rainfall estimation from microwave links, umbrellas for weather sensing, low-cost sensors at lamp posts and in drainage pipes for water level observation. These will be combined with information provided by citizens in an active way through smartphone apps and in a passive way through social media posts (Twitter, Flickr etc.). Sensor information will be integrated, visualized and made accessible to citizens to help raise citizen awareness of urban water management challenges and promote resilience by providing information on how citizens can contribute in addressing these. Moreover, citizens and businesses can benefit from reliable weather information in planning their social and commercial activities. In the end city-wide high-resolution rainfall maps will be derived, blending rainfall information from microwave links and weather radars. This information will be used for urban water management. This presentation focuses on rainfall estimation from commercial microwave links. Received signal levels from tens of microwave links within the Amsterdam region (roughly 1 million inhabitants) in the Netherlands are utilized to estimate rainfall with high spatial and temporal resolution. Rainfall maps will be presented and compared to a gauge-adjusted radar rainfall data set. Rainfall time series from gauge(s), radars and links will be compared.

  12. LinkMF: Collaborative Filtering Recommendation Algorithm with Linked Data%LinkMF:结合Linked Data的协同过滤推荐算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄山山; 马军; 郭磊; 王帅强

    2016-01-01

    协同过滤(CF)是推荐系统中应用最为广泛的推荐算法之一,然而数据稀疏性和冷启动问题是协同过滤方法的两个主要挑战.由于Linked Data整合了关于实体的丰富且结构化的特征,可以作为额外的信息源来缓解以上两种挑战.该文中我们首次提出了结合Linked Data改进CF推荐算法,基于矩阵分解提出了一种新的CF模型——LinkMF,在保证推荐准确度的基础上利用Linked Data缓解数据稀疏性和冷启动问题.首先,我们从Linked Data中抽取项目的特征表示并为项目建模;然后提出新的相似度度量方法计算项目相似度;最后利用项目相似度约束和指导MF分解过程产生推荐.在MovielLens和YAGO标准数据集上的大量实验结果表明,LinkMF优于现有的一些CF方法,特别在缓解数据稀疏性和冷启动问题上取得很好地效果.

  13. Microwave line of sight link engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Angueira, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to the design, implementation, and operation of line of sight microwave link systems The microwave Line of Sight (LOS) transport network of any cellular operator requires at least as much planning effort as the cellular infrastructure itself. The knowledge behind this design has been kept private by most companies and has not been easy to find. Microwave Line of Sight Link Engineering solves this dilemma. It provides the latest revisions to ITU reports and recommendations, which are not only key to successful design but have changed dramatically in

  14. Link prediction based on path entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhongqi; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Information theory has been taken as a prospective tool for quantifying the complexity of complex networks. In this paper, we first study the information entropy or uncertainty of a path using the information theory. Then we apply the path entropy to the link prediction problem in real-world networks. Specifically, we propose a new similarity index, namely Path Entropy (PE) index, which considers the information entropies of shortest paths between node pairs with penalization to long paths. Empirical experiments demonstrate that PE index outperforms the mainstream link predictors.

  15. HTS 20 M 600 a link assembled

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A

    2013-01-01

    The final deliverable of the EuCARD Task 7.5 activity is a 20 m long Superconducting Link made of HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) cables of the type and in quantity as required for the powering of the LHC superconducting circuits fed from LHC P7 (50 cables rated at 600 A). Following an intense R&D activity, which included the study of novel concepts of cables made from HTS tape conductor and the development and test of prototype units, the final deliverable was successfully assembled at CERN in May 2013. This document reports on the activity that culminated with the assembly of the 20 m long HTS Superconducting Link.

  16. The political dimension of "linking social capital"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    . Through an analysis of existing analytical practices, the article concludes that linking social capital is often subordinated to the two related social capital concepts of bonding and bridging, and that linking social capital is often exclusively defined and operationalized based on expressions...... of organizational trust and participation. The article proposes a recalibration to encompass the political dynamics, and political survival theory is recommended as a way to address the hitherto underexplored governance dimension. Rather than using trust as the analytical pivot, this analytical entry point may...

  17. Enterprise Linked Data as Core Business Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Steve; Ilube, Tom; Tuffield, Mischa

    This chapter describes Garlik's motivation, interest, and experiences of using Linked Data technologies in its online services. It describes the methodologies and approaches that were taken in order to deploy online services to hundreds of thousands of users, and describes the trade-offs inherent in our choice of these technologies for our production systems. In order to help illustrate and aid the arguments for the adoption of SemanticWeb technologies this chapter will focus on two of our customer facing products, DataPatrol, a consumer-centric personal information protection product, and QDOS a Linked Data service that is used to measure peoples' online activity

  18. Combinatorics of Link Diagrams and Volume

    OpenAIRE

    Giambrone, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We show that the volumes of certain hyperbolic A-adequate links can be bounded (above and) below in terms of two diagrammatic quantities: the twist number and the number of certain alternating tangles in an A-adequate diagram. We then restrict our attention to plat closures of certain braids, a rich family of links whose volumes can be bounded in terms of the twist number alone. Furthermore, in the absence of special tangles, our volume bounds can be expressed in terms of a single stable coef...

  19. Inheritance of most X-linked traits is not dominant or recessive, just X-linked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobyns, WB; Filauro, A; Tomson, BN; Chan, AS; Ho, AW; Ting, NT; Oosterwijk, JC; Ober, C

    2004-01-01

    The existence of X-linked disorders in humans has been recognized for many centuries, based on lessons in religious texts and observations of specific human families (e.g., color blindness or Daltonism). Our modern concepts of Mendelian (including X-linked) inheritance originated just after the turn

  20. FormLink/FeynCalcFormLink : Embedding FORM in Mathematica and FeynCalc

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Feng

    2012-01-01

    FORM, a symbolic manipulation system, has been widely used in a lot of calculations for High Energy Physics due to its high performance and fficient design. Mathematica, another computational software program, has also widely been used, but more for reasons of generality and user-friendliness than for speed. Especially calculations involving tensors and noncommutative operations like calculating Dirac traces can be rather slow in Mathematica, compared to FORM. In this article we describe FormLink and FeynCalcFormLink, two Mathematica packages to link Mathematica and FeynCalc with FORM. FormLink can be used without FeynCalc and FeynCalcFormLink, which is an extension loading FormLink and FeynCalc automatically. With these two packages the impressive speed and other special features of FORM get embedded into the generality of Mathematica and FeynCalc in a simple manner. FeynCalcFormLink provides a FORM-based turbo for FeynCalc, making it much more efficient. FormLink turns Mathematica into an editor and code or...

  1. Use of link to mammography screening information and link sharing strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukai, Thomas; Bro, Flemming; Olesen, Frede

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Internet is increasingly being used for disseminating knowledge in health care. Often this is done through a ‘Uniform Resource Locator’ (URL), better known as a link. There are three ways of sharing a link: verbally, in print or electronically. Furthermore, timing and exposure...

  2. Link Margin Optimization of Free Space Optical Link under the Impact of Varying Meteorological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Kaur Virk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available FSO is a free space optical technology synonymous to optical wireless communication and often called as openair photonics or infrared broadband. In free space optical communication, data is transmitted from point-to-point and multipoint using low-powered infrared lasers. FSO allows transmitting and receiving of voice, video, and data information. High speed and license free installation are the key features of this technology. The performance of FSO link is significantly affected by meteorological conditions viz. rain, scintillation, geometric attenuation and snow etc. In this paper we have formulated the link margin equation for the performanceevaluation of FSO link under varying meteorological conditions. Performance of the considered FSO link has been optimized on the basis of signal wavelength, link length and launched power level.

  3. Linked data for libraries, archives and museums how to clean, link and publish your metadata

    CERN Document Server

    Hooland, Seth van

    2014-01-01

    This highly practical handbook teaches you how to unlock the value of your existing metadata through cleaning, reconciliation, enrichment and linking and how to streamline the process of new metadata creation. Libraries, archives and museums are facing up to the challenge of providing access to fast growing collections whilst managing cuts to budgets. Key to this is the creation, linking and publishing of good quality metadata as Linked Data that will allow their collections to be discovered, accessed and disseminated in a sustainable manner. This highly practical handbook teaches you how to unlock the value of your existing metadata through cleaning, reconciliation, enrichment and linking and how to streamline the process of new metadata creation. Metadata experts Seth van Hooland and Ruben Verborgh introduce the key concepts of metadata standards and Linked Data and how they can be practically applied to existing metadata, giving readers the tools and understanding to achieve maximum results with limited re...

  4. Mechanically linked polyrotaxanes : A stepwise approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werts, MPL; van den Boogaard, M; Tsivgoulis, GM; Hadziioannou, G

    2003-01-01

    A new synthetic approach for the preparation of mechanically linked polyrotaxanes was developed. Two variations of rotaxane monomers were synthesized, based on diphenylmethane and tetraphenylmethane blocking groups. Both rotaxanes bear a protected phenol functionality in the dumbbell-shaped part and

  5. Link Enhancer for Vehicular Wireless ATM Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Arun Kumar, S P; Kumar, Amrendra

    2008-01-01

    Majority of the applications used in defense are voice, video and data oriented and has strict QoS requirements. One of the technologies that enabled this is Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networking. Traditional ATM networks are wired networks. But Tactical networks are meant to be mobile and this necessitates the use of radio relays for Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) and Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications. ATM networks assume a physical link layer BER of 10^-9 or better because of the availability of reliable media like optical fiber links. But this assumption is no longer valid when ATM switches are connected through radio relay where error rates are in the rage of 10^-3. This paper presents the architecture of a Link Enhancer meant to improve the Bit Error Rate of the Wireless links used for V2I and V2V communications from 1 in 10^4 to 1 in 10^8

  6. Linking online news and social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsagkias, M.; de Rijke, M.; Weerkamp, W.

    2011-01-01

    Much of what is discussed in social media is inspired by events in the news and, vice versa, social media provide us with a handle on the impact of news events. We address the following linking task: given a news article, find social media utterances that implicitly reference it. We follow a three-s

  7. Link-space formalism for network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David M D; Lee, Chiu Fan; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Johnson, Neil F

    2008-03-01

    We introduce the link-space formalism for analyzing network models with degree-degree correlations. The formalism is based on a statistical description of the fraction of links l(i,j) connecting nodes of degrees i and j. To demonstrate its use, we apply the framework to some pedagogical network models, namely, random attachment, Barabási-Albert preferential attachment, and the classical Erdos and Rényi random graph. For these three models the link-space matrix can be solved analytically. We apply the formalism to a simple one-parameter growing network model whose numerical solution exemplifies the effect of degree-degree correlations for the resulting degree distribution. We also employ the formalism to derive the degree distributions of two very simple network decay models, more specifically, that of random link deletion and random node deletion. The formalism allows detailed analysis of the correlations within networks and we also employ it to derive the form of a perfectly nonassortative network for arbitrary degree distribution.

  8. Extracting Macroscopic Information from Web Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelwall, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of Web-based link analysis focuses on an evaluation of Ingversen's proposed external Web Impact Factor for the original use of the Web, namely the interlinking of academic research. Studies relationships between academic hyperlinks and research activities for British universities and discusses the use of search engines for Web link…

  9. A Verified Algebra for Linked Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Horne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A foundation is investigated for the application of loosely structured data on the Web. This area is often referred to as Linked Data, due to the use of URIs in data to establish links. This work focuses on emerging W3C standards which specify query languages for Linked Data. The approach is to provide an abstract syntax to capture Linked Data structures and queries, which are then internalised in a process calculus. An operational semantics for the calculus specifies how queries, data and processes interact. A labelled transition system is shown to be sound with respect to the operational semantics. Bisimulation over the labelled transition system is used to verify an algebra over queries. The derived algebra is a contribution to the application domain. For instance, the algebra may be used to rewrite a query to optimise its distribution across a cluster of servers. The framework used to provide the operational semantics is powerful enough to model related calculi for the Web.

  10. Analysis Links Zoning Policies and Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    Location, location, location. This mantra of real estate agents and their clients alike is now the target of a new report from the Brookings Institution linking housing prices and zoning practices to effectively depriving low-income students of high-quality schools. Using test scores from schools in the 100 largest metropolitan areas in the…

  11. Testing a missing spectral link in turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kellay, H.; Tran, A.T.; Goldburg, W.; Goldenfeld, N.; Gioia, G.; Chakraborty, P.

    2012-01-01

    Although the cardinal attribute of turbulence is the velocity fluctuations, these fluctuations have been ignored in theories of the frictional drag of turbulent flows. Our goal is to test a new theory that links the frictional drag to the spectral exponent , a property of the velocity fluctuations i

  12. Polybinary modulation for bandwidth limited optical links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Jurado-Navas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Optical links using traditional modulation formats are reaching a plateau in terms of capacity, mainly due to bandwidth limitations in the devices employed at the transmitter and receivers. Advanced modulation formats, which boost the spectral efficiency, provide a smooth migration path towards e...

  13. Inter-satellite links for cubesats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budianu, A.; Castro, T.J.W.; Meijerink, A.; Bentum, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Realizing inter-satellite links is a must for ensuring the success of cubesat swarm missions. Nevertheless, it has hardly been considered until now. The communication systems for cubesats have to deal with a few peculiar demands regarding consumed power, geometry and throughput. Depending on the typ

  14. Linking Estrogens, Prostatitis and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    provide the first direct evidence linking phy siologic estr ogen up- regulation an d pr ostate ma lignancy via inflammation. Ellem, Stuart J...inflammation and malignancy in the prostate. The identification of estr ogen as a cause of prostatitis, as well as a fac tor in the development of

  15. Linking Individual Creativity to Organizational Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, Robert C.; Ford, Cameron M.; Gentry, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    We draw on 146 employee-co-worker-supervisor triads from 146 organizations to examine the role of individual perspective-taking and team creative environment in the association between individual creativity and organizational innovation. Adopting an interactionist perspective, we find that the link between individual creativity and organizational…

  16. Regulatory mechanisms link phenotypic plasticity to evolvability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Weissing, Franz J

    2016-01-01

    Organisms have a remarkable capacity to respond to environmental change. They can either respond directly, by means of phenotypic plasticity, or they can slowly adapt through evolution. Yet, how phenotypic plasticity links to evolutionary adaptability is largely unknown. Current studies of plasticit

  17. Linking brain imaging signals to visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welchman, Andrew E; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2013-11-01

    The rapid advances in brain imaging technology over the past 20 years are affording new insights into cortical processing hierarchies in the human brain. These new data provide a complementary front in seeking to understand the links between perceptual and physiological states. Here we review some of the challenges associated with incorporating brain imaging data into such "linking hypotheses," highlighting some of the considerations needed in brain imaging data acquisition and analysis. We discuss work that has sought to link human brain imaging signals to existing electrophysiological data and opened up new opportunities in studying the neural basis of complex perceptual judgments. We consider a range of approaches when using human functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify brain circuits whose activity changes in a similar manner to perceptual judgments and illustrate these approaches by discussing work that has studied the neural basis of 3D perception and perceptual learning. Finally, we describe approaches that have sought to understand the information content of brain imaging data using machine learning and work that has integrated multimodal data to overcome the limitations associated with individual brain imaging approaches. Together these approaches provide an important route in seeking to understand the links between physiological and psychological states.

  18. Using Linked Data in Learning Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Aquin, Mathieu; Dietze, Stefan; Herder, Eelco; Drachsler, Hendrik; Taibi, David

    2014-01-01

    Learning Analytics has a lot to do with data, and the way to make sense of raw data in terms of the learner’s experience, behaviour and knowledge. In this article, we argue about the need for a closer relationship between the field of Learning Analytics and the one of Linked Data, which in our view

  19. Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galina-Pantoja, L.; Siggens, K.; Schriek, M.G.; Heuven, H.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Anim Genet. 2009 Jun 3. [Epub ahead of print] Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility. Galina-Pantoja L, Siggens K, van Schriek MG, Heuven HC. PIC/Genus, 100 Bluegrass Commons Blvd, Hendersonville, TN 37075, USA. The goal of this study was to identify pig chromosomal regions a

  20. Eponyms in dermatology literature linked to Otorhinolaryngology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahed Aqeel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In some disorders, there are symptoms or signs shared by dermatology and ears, nose and throat (ENT specialty. It is also known that there are eponyms in dermatology and ENT. The aim in this short communication is to shed some lights on the eponyms in dermatology literature linked to ENT.

  1. Self-assembly of knots and links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandini, Enzo; Polles, Guido; Marenduzzo, Davide; Micheletti, Cristian

    2017-03-01

    Guiding the self-assembly of identical building blocks towards complex three-dimensional structures with a set of desired properties is a major goal in material science, chemistry and physics. A particularly challenging problem, especially explored in synthetic chemistry, is that of self-assembling closed structures with a target topology starting by simple geometrical templates. Here we overview and revisit recent advancements, based on stochastic simulations, where the geometry of rigid helical templates with functionalised sticky ends has been designed for self-assembling efficiently and reproducibly into a wide range of three-dimensional closed structures. Notably, these include non trivial topologies of links and knots, including the 819 knot that we had predicted to be highly encodable and that has only recently been obtained experimentally. By appropriately tuning the parameters that define the template shape, we show that, for fixed concentration of templates, the assembly process can be directed towards the formation of specific knotted and linked structures such as the trefoils, pentafoil knots, Hopf and Solomon links. More exotic and unexpected knots and links are also found. Our results should be relevant to the design of new protocols that can both increase and broaden the population of synthetise molecular knots and catenanes.

  2. Cross-linked structure of network evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, Danielle S., E-mail: dsb@seas.upenn.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Sage Center for the Study of the Mind, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Grafton, Scott T. [Department of Psychology and UCSB Brain Imaging Center, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Porter, Mason A. [Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); CABDyN Complexity Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 1HP (United Kingdom); Mucha, Peter J. [Carolina Center for Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Applied Physical Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    We study the temporal co-variation of network co-evolution via the cross-link structure of networks, for which we take advantage of the formalism of hypergraphs to map cross-link structures back to network nodes. We investigate two sets of temporal network data in detail. In a network of coupled nonlinear oscillators, hyperedges that consist of network edges with temporally co-varying weights uncover the driving co-evolution patterns of edge weight dynamics both within and between oscillator communities. In the human brain, networks that represent temporal changes in brain activity during learning exhibit early co-evolution that then settles down with practice. Subsequent decreases in hyperedge size are consistent with emergence of an autonomous subgraph whose dynamics no longer depends on other parts of the network. Our results on real and synthetic networks give a poignant demonstration of the ability of cross-link structure to uncover unexpected co-evolution attributes in both real and synthetic dynamical systems. This, in turn, illustrates the utility of analyzing cross-links for investigating the structure of temporal networks.

  3. The Missing Link: Research on Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher education has recently come under attack for its perceived lack of efficacy in preparing teachers for classroom duty. A lack of comprehensive research in teacher education makes it difficult to understand the effects of teacher education programs on student learning. There is a missing link between what happens in teacher education…

  4. One-Way Temperature Compensated Fiber Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    individual compensated links. [1] R. Wynands and S. Weyers, “Atomic Fountain Clocks,” Metrologia , vol. 42, pp. S64-S79, 2005. [2] A. D. Ludlow...3] A. Bauch, et al. ,”Comparison Between Frequency Standards oin Europe and the USA at the 10-15 Uncertainty Level,” Metrologia , vol. 43, pp.109

  5. Gut Microbes Linked to Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of microorganisms that live in and on the human body. These microbes outnumber the body’s cells by 10 ... this is indeed the case.” — by Carol Torgan, Ph.D. Related Links Feeling Out of ... Autoimmune Diseases Rheumatoid Arthritis References: Expansion ...

  6. Auditing dynamic links to online information resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhua; Cimino, James J

    2007-10-11

    The Columbia University Infobutton Manager (IM) is a system that provides dynamically generated, context-specific links between clinical information systems and online information resources. The resources range from local documents, to commercially available document sets and search engines. The links provided by the IM can be reliably created, but there is no guarantee that they will function reliably, since the resources to which they point are subject to unannounced changes and failures. We have developed a set of tools to audit the links periodically to determine if the resources are available and if the IM has sufficient information to generate all the links needed by its users. These tools have been in use since February, 2006 and have provided timely warnings on many occasions. These warnings have allowed us to correct problems with resource access before they became apparent to our users and often before the resource maintainers were aware of the problems. The tools have thus helped us provide clinicians with a dependable level of service.

  7. Sharp Connection: Linking Competitive Intelligence and Intranets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, P.H.J.; Jacobs, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the value of ICT to support Competitive Intelligence presumes an understanding of the relationship between the two. The chapter argues that starting from either the ICT or CI side to this relationship and linking to the other, as most studies do, cannot secure a fully adequate conception o

  8. Improving personalized link prediction by hybrid diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Zhou, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Inspired by traditional link prediction and to solve the problem of recommending friends in social networks, we introduce the personalized link prediction in this paper, in which each individual will get equal number of diversiform predictions. While the performances of many classical algorithms are not satisfactory under this framework, thus new algorithms are in urgent need. Motivated by previous researches in other fields, we generalize heat conduction process to the framework of personalized link prediction and find that this method outperforms many classical similarity-based algorithms, especially in the performance of diversity. In addition, we demonstrate that adding one ground node that is supposed to connect all the nodes in the system will greatly benefit the performance of heat conduction. Finally, better hybrid algorithms composed of local random walk and heat conduction have been proposed. Numerical results show that the hybrid algorithms can outperform other algorithms simultaneously in all four adopted metrics: AUC, precision, recall and hamming distance. In a word, this work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the effect of physical processes in personalized link prediction.

  9. Link prediction in multiplex online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mahdi; Orouskhani, Yasin; Asgari, Milad; Alipourfard, Nazanin; Perc, Matjaž

    2017-02-01

    Online social networks play a major role in modern societies, and they have shaped the way social relationships evolve. Link prediction in social networks has many potential applications such as recommending new items to users, friendship suggestion and discovering spurious connections. Many real social networks evolve the connections in multiple layers (e.g. multiple social networking platforms). In this article, we study the link prediction problem in multiplex networks. As an example, we consider a multiplex network of Twitter (as a microblogging service) and Foursquare (as a location-based social network). We consider social networks of the same users in these two platforms and develop a meta-path-based algorithm for predicting the links. The connectivity information of the two layers is used to predict the links in Foursquare network. Three classical classifiers (naive Bayes, support vector machines (SVM) and K-nearest neighbour) are used for the classification task. Although the networks are not highly correlated in the layers, our experiments show that including the cross-layer information significantly improves the prediction performance. The SVM classifier results in the best performance with an average accuracy of 89%.

  10. Glucocorticoid Antagonism by Endotoxin: Biological Effects during Stress and Basis for Inhibition of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    nitrocellulose con- taining samples was saturated bW incubaticn in 15 ml of a 10% milk-Trin-saline (MTS) solution C10% Carnation instant nonfat drW milk, 10 mM...saturation of all binding sites in the wells, the plates were then incubated overnight at 40C with 200 ul of 0.5% Carnation nonfat drW milk in sensi...in the subsequent oxidation of OPD and formation of an orange - *~ yellow chromagen. The reaction was allowed to proceed at room temperature for 30

  11. High speed radiation tolerant data links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, Forrest [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Incandela, Joseph [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This project was slated to design and develop Rad-Hard IP components for 1Gb/s links and supporting hardware designs such as PLL, SER/DES, pad drivers and receivers and custom protocol hardware for the 1Gb/s channel. Also included in the proposal was a study of a hardened memory to be used as a packet buffer for channel and data concentrator components to meet the 1 Gb/s specification. Over the course of the proposal, technology change and innovation of hardware designs lead us away from the 1 Gb/s goal to contemplate much higher performance link IP which, we believed better met the goals of physics experiments. Note that CERN microelectronics had managed to create a 4.7 Gb/s link designed to drive optical fibers and containing infrastructure for connecting much lower bandwidth front-end devices. Our own work to that point had shown the possibility of constructing a link with much lower power, lower physical overhead but of equivalent performance that could be designed to integrate directly onto the front-end ASIC (ADC and data encoding) designs. Substantial overall power savings and experimental simplicity could be achieved by eliminating data transmission to data concentrators and data concentrators and related hardened buffering themselves, with conversion to optical media at a removed distance from the experiment core. We had already developed and tested Rad-Hard SER/DES components (1Gb in 130nm standard cells) and redundant Pad Drivers/Receivers (3+ Gb/s designed and measured performance), and had a viable 1Gb/s link design based on redundant a stuttered clock receiver and classical PLL, so the basic goals of the proposal had been achieved. Below, in chronological order, are the products and tools we constructed, as well as our tests and publications.

  12. DC-Link Compensation Method for Slim DC Link Drives Fed by Soft Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Rosendahl Andersen, Henrik; Lazar, Radu

    2010-01-01

    harmonic distortion (PWHD) of the line current are degraded, if resonance between the line impedance and the DC-link capacitance occurs. Likewise, the motor performance is affected negatively giving extra torque ripple, vibration and acoustic-noise emission. This paper proposes a novel DC-link compensation...... method, which ensures the stability of the slim DC-link on a soft grid. The proposed compensation method may be used for open- and closedloop control schemes, requiring a small overhead in the digital implementation....

  13. Weighting links based on edge centrality for community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng Gang

    2014-01-01

    Link weights have the equally important position as links in complex networks, and they are closely associated with each other for the emergence of communities. How to assign link weights to make a clear distinction between internal links of communities and external links connecting communities is of vital importance for community detection. Edge centralities provide a powerful approach for distinguishing internal links from external ones. Here, we first use edge centralities such as betweenness, information centrality and edge clustering coefficient to weight links of networks respectively to transform unweighted networks into weighted ones, and then a weighted function that both considers links and link weights is adopted on the weighted networks for community detection. We evaluate the performance of our approach on random networks as well as real-world networks. Better results are achieved on weighted networks with stronger weights of internal links of communities, and the results on unweighted networks outperform that of weighted networks with weaker weights of internal links of communities. The availability of our findings is also well-supported by the study of Granovetter that the weak links maintain the global integrity of the network while the strong links maintain the communities. Especially in the Karate club network, all the nodes are correctly classified when we weight links by edge betweenness. The results also give us a more comprehensive understanding on the correlation between links and link weights for community detection.

  14. On the classification of links up to finite type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habegger, Nathan; Meilhan, Jean-Baptiste

    We use an action, of 2l-component string links on l-component string links, defined by the first author and Xiao-Song Lin, to lift the indeterminacy of finite type link invariants. The set of links up to this new indeterminacy is in bijection with the orbit space of the restriction of this action...

  15. Method of preparing cross-linked enzyme particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo, C.; Van Langen, L.M.; Van Rantwijk, F.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of preparing cross-linked enzyme particles using a cross-linking agent. According to the invention, the enzyme particles are formed and subsequently cross-linked using a cross-linking agent having at least n reactive groups where N>=3 and a molecular weight of >2,00

  16. Semantic analysis of links in the musical Wikipedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Wikipedia has significant potential in music information retrieval research. In this work we analyze the of the link structure in the musical Wikipedia. Wikipedia links differ in certain ways from links on the Web at large. There are an over-abundance of internal links in Wikipedia, links...... are generated automatically, and they may even maliciously be used to promote certain topics. Wikipedia has been analyzed recently using methods fromWeb and text mining, however, the fact the link structure is different from the Web’s makes this approach questionable. To better understand the link structure...

  17. The cross linking of EPDM and NBR rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžija-Jovanović Suzana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of macromolecule cross linking, the choice of type and quantity of the components and the experimental conditions are important to obtain the new cross linked materials with better mechanical and chemical characteristics. The cross linking method depends on the rubber type and structure. Intermolecular cross linking results in the formation elastomer network. The basis of the cross linking process, between ethylene propylene diene rubber (EPDM and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR, is a chemical reaction. Fillers and other additives are present in different mass ratios in the material. The exploitation properties of the cross linked materials depend on the quantity of additive in the cross linked systems.

  18. An Accurate Link Correlation Estimator for Improving Wireless Protocol Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Zhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless link correlation has shown significant impact on the performance of various sensor network protocols. Many works have been devoted to exploiting link correlation for protocol improvements. However, the effectiveness of these designs heavily relies on the accuracy of link correlation measurement. In this paper, we investigate state-of-the-art link correlation measurement and analyze the limitations of existing works. We then propose a novel lightweight and accurate link correlation estimation (LACE approach based on the reasoning of link correlation formation. LACE combines both long-term and short-term link behaviors for link correlation estimation. We implement LACE as a stand-alone interface in TinyOS and incorporate it into both routing and flooding protocols. Simulation and testbed results show that LACE: (1 achieves more accurate and lightweight link correlation measurements than the state-of-the-art work; and (2 greatly improves the performance of protocols exploiting link correlation.

  19. Computational intelligence, medicine and biology selected links

    CERN Document Server

    Zaitseva, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This book contains an interesting and state-of the art collection of chapters presenting several examples of attempts to developing modern tools utilizing computational intelligence in different real life problems encountered by humans. Reasoning, prediction, modeling, optimization, decision making, etc. need modern, soft and intelligent algorithms, methods and methodologies to solve, in the efficient ways, problems appearing in human activity. The contents of the book is divided into two parts. Part I, consisting of four chapters, is devoted to selected links of computational intelligence, medicine, health care and biomechanics. Several problems are considered: estimation of healthcare system reliability, classification of ultrasound thyroid images, application of fuzzy logic to measure weight status and central fatness, and deriving kinematics directly from video records. Part II, also consisting of four chapters, is devoted to selected links of computational intelligence and biology. The common denominato...

  20. Link Graph Analysis for Adult Images Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Kharitonov, Evgeny; Muchnik, Ilya; Romanenko, Fedor; Belyaev, Dmitry; Kotlyarov, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    In order to protect an image search engine's users from undesirable results adult images' classifier should be built. The information about links from websites to images is employed to create such a classifier. These links are represented as a bipartite website-image graph. Each vertex is equipped with scores of adultness and decentness. The scores for image vertexes are initialized with zero, those for website vertexes are initialized according to a text-based website classifier. An iterative algorithm that propagates scores within a website-image graph is described. The scores obtained are used to classify images by choosing an appropriate threshold. The experiments on Internet-scale data have shown that the algorithm under consideration increases classification recall by 17% in comparison with a simple algorithm which classifies an image as adult if it is connected with at least one adult site (at the same precision level).

  1. kpath: integration of metabolic pathway linked data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Delgado, Ismael; García-Godoy, María Jesús; López-Camacho, Esteban; Rybinski, Maciej; Reyes-Palomares, Armando; Medina, Miguel Ángel; Aldana-Montes, José F

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, the Life Sciences domain has experienced a rapid growth in the amount of available biological databases. The heterogeneity of these databases makes data integration a challenging issue. Some integration challenges are locating resources, relationships, data formats, synonyms or ambiguity. The Linked Data approach partially solves the heterogeneity problems by introducing a uniform data representation model. Linked Data refers to a set of best practices for publishing and connecting structured data on the Web. This article introduces kpath, a database that integrates information related to metabolic pathways. kpath also provides a navigational interface that enables not only the browsing, but also the deep use of the integrated data to build metabolic networks based on existing disperse knowledge. This user interface has been used to showcase relationships that can be inferred from the information available in several public databases.

  2. Regulatory mechanisms link phenotypic plasticity to evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Weissing, Franz J

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have a remarkable capacity to respond to environmental change. They can either respond directly, by means of phenotypic plasticity, or they can slowly adapt through evolution. Yet, how phenotypic plasticity links to evolutionary adaptability is largely unknown. Current studies of plasticity tend to adopt a phenomenological reaction norm (RN) approach, which neglects the mechanisms underlying plasticity. Focusing on a concrete question - the optimal timing of bacterial sporulation - we here also consider a mechanistic approach, the evolution of a gene regulatory network (GRN) underlying plasticity. Using individual-based simulations, we compare the RN and GRN approach and find a number of striking differences. Most importantly, the GRN model results in a much higher diversity of responsive strategies than the RN model. We show that each of the evolved strategies is pre-adapted to a unique set of unseen environmental conditions. The regulatory mechanisms that control plasticity therefore critically link phenotypic plasticity to the adaptive potential of biological populations.

  3. Phase slips in superconducting weak links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmel, Gregory; Glatz, Andreas; Aranson, Igor S.

    2017-01-01

    Superconducting vortices and phase slips are primary mechanisms of dissipation in superconducting, superfluid, and cold-atom systems. While the dynamics of vortices is fairly well described, phase slips occurring in quasi-one- dimensional superconducting wires still elude understanding. The main reason is that phase slips are strongly nonlinear time-dependent phenomena that cannot be cast in terms of small perturbations of the superconducting state. Here we study phase slips occurring in superconducting weak links. Thanks to partial suppression of superconductivity in weak links, we employ a weakly nonlinear approximation for dynamic phase slips. This approximation is not valid for homogeneous superconducting wires and slabs. Using the numerical solution of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation and bifurcation analysis of stationary solutions, we show that the onset of phase slips occurs via an infinite period bifurcation, which is manifested in a specific voltage-current dependence. Our analytical results are in good agreement with simulations.

  4. Stabilized Optical Fiber Links for the XFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Axel; Grawert, Felix J; Ilday, Fatih O; Kaertner, Franz X; Kim, Jung-Won; Schlarb, Holger; Schmidt, Bernhard

    2005-01-01

    The timing synchronization scheme for the European X-Ray free electron laser facility (XFEL) is based on the generation and distribution of sub-picosecond laser pulses with actively stabilized repetition rate which are used to synchronize local RF oscillators. An integral part of the scheme is the distribution of the optical pulse stream to parts of the facility via optical fiber links. The optical path length of the fiber has to be stabilized against short-term and long-term timing jitter due to environmental effects, such as temperature drifts and acoustic vibrations, to better than 10 fs for distances ranging from tens of meters to several kilometers. In this paper, we present first experimental results for signal transmission through a km-long fiber link with femtosecond stability.

  5. [Corneal collagen cross-linking for keratoconus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotov, V V; Pashtaev, N P; Pozdeeva, N A

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) has become a conventional treatment method for progressive keratoconus. Laboratory studies have shown that CXL increases the diameter of collagen fibers and also the number of intra- and interfibrillar cross-links, thus, increasing biomechanical strength of the irradiated cornea. As confirmed by a series of clinical and randomized controlled trials, CXL is able to slow down and, perhaps, to stop the progression of keratoconus. In most post-CXL patients visual acuity improves, while keratometric readings, spherical equivalent, and higher order aberrations reduce. Although published results prove CXL effective in the treatment of progressive keratoconus, its late consequences are yet unknown. This article reviews the stages of CXL development and results of published experimental and clinical studies. Prospects for CXL modifications that do not require epithelial debridement are discussed.

  6. Link failure detection in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Megerian, Mark G.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-11-09

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for link failure detection in a parallel computer including compute nodes connected in a rectangular mesh network, each pair of adjacent compute nodes in the rectangular mesh network connected together using a pair of links, that includes: assigning each compute node to either a first group or a second group such that adjacent compute nodes in the rectangular mesh network are assigned to different groups; sending, by each of the compute nodes assigned to the first group, a first test message to each adjacent compute node assigned to the second group; determining, by each of the compute nodes assigned to the second group, whether the first test message was received from each adjacent compute node assigned to the first group; and notifying a user, by each of the compute nodes assigned to the second group, whether the first test message was received.

  7. Depression And The Link With Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Dhar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an outline of the association between major depressive disorder (MDD and coronary heart disease (CHD. Much is known about the two individual clinical conditions; however it is not until recently, that biological mechanisms have been uncovered that link both MDD and CHD. The activation of stress pathways have been implicated as a neurochemical mechanism that links MDD and CHD. Depression is known to be associated with poorer outcomes of CHD. Psychological factors such as major depression and stress are now known as risk factors for developing CHD which is as important and is independent of classic risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cigarette smoking. Both conditions have great socioeconomic importance given that depression and CHD are likely to be two of the three leading causes of global burden of disease. Better understanding of the common causal pathways will help us delineate more appropriate treatments.

  8. Classification of Framed Links in 3-Manifolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Matija Cencelj; Dušan Repovš; Mikhail B Skopenkov

    2007-08-01

    We present a short and complete proof of the following Pontryagin theorem, whose original proof was complicated and has never been published in detail. Let be a connected oriented closed smooth 3-manifold, $L_1(M)$ be the set of framed links in up to a framed cobordism, and $\\deg: L_1(M)→ H_1(M;\\mathbb{Z})$ be the map taking a framed link to its homology class. Then for each $\\in H_1(M;\\mathbb{Z})$ there is a one-to-one correspondence between the set $\\deg^{-1}$ and the group $\\mathbb{Z}_{2d()}$, where () is the divisibility of the projection of to the free part of $H_1(M;\\mathbb{Z})$.

  9. IVOA recommendation: IVOA DataLink

    CERN Document Server

    Dowler, Patrick; Michel, Laurent; Demleitner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the linking of data discovery metadata to access to the data itself, further detailed metadata, related resources, and to services that perform operations on the data. The web service capability supports a drill-down into the details of a specific dataset and provides a set of links to the dataset file(s) and related resources. This specification also includes a VOTable-specific method of providing descriptions of one or more services and their input(s), usually using parameter values from elsewhere in the VOTable document. Providers are able to describe services that are relevant to the records (usually datasets with identifiers) by including service descriptors in a result document.

  10. Performance measurements of a data link protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakia, Hemant; Tobagi, Fouad

    The end-to-end performance of a program implementing IEEE Std 802.2 logical link control protocol, which provides virtual circuit and datagram service and which constitutes the top sublayer of the data link layer of the reference model for Local Area Networks is studied. The measurements of relative execution times of various functions required in transferring data, over virtual circuits or as datagrams, showed that most of the program execution time is spent in a few relatively low-level functions. One of these functions performs block movement of data in memory, and two other functions provide access to various queues. Based on this result, two alternative versions of the program which move data efficiently were written and measured. In this paper the results of the study are reported and their impact on designing hardware and software systems for a network interface are discussed.

  11. [Leptin: a link between obesity and osteoarthritis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlain, Bernard; Presle, Nathalie; Pottie, Pascale; Mainard, Didier; Netter, Patrick

    2006-10-01

    In addition to aging, obesity is one of the most common underlying causes of osteoarthritis (OA). Mechanical loading, together with biochemical and systemic factors linked to altered lipid metabolism, are thought to contribute to the onset of OA. It has been suggested that OA is a systemic metabolic disease associated with lipid disorders affecting joint homeostasis. These gradual changes may be due to the local effect of adipokines, and especially leptin. Indeed, their relative levels in joints differ from that found in plasma. In particular, leptin levels are increased and adiponectin and resistin levels are reduced This hypothesis is supported by--leptin overexpression in OA cartilage and its correlation with the degree of cartilage destruction,--abundant leptin synthesis by osteophytes, and--the high leptin levels found in OA joints from female patients. This link between OA and adipokines provides new leads regarding the prevention of OA and the identification of new drug targets.

  12. Chloroacetamide-Linked Nucleotides and DNA for Cross-Linking with Peptides and Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Agata; Pohl, Radek; Brázdová, Marie; Fojta, Miroslav; Hocek, Michal

    2016-09-21

    Nucleotides, 2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), and DNA probes bearing reactive chloroacetamido group linked to nucleobase (cytosine or 7-deazadaenine) through a propargyl tether were prepared and tested in cross-linking with cysteine- or histidine-containing peptides and proteins. The chloroacetamide-modifed dNTPs proved to be good substrates for DNA polymerases in the enzymatic synthesis of modified DNA probes. Modified nucleotides and DNA reacted efficiently with cysteine and cysteine-containing peptides, whereas the reaction with histidine was sluggish and low yielding. The modified DNA efficiently cross-linked with p53 protein through alkylation of cysteine and showed potential for cross-linking with histidine (in C277H mutant of p53).

  13. Linked Health Data: how linked data can help provide better health decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinelli, Fernanda; Barcellos de Almeida, Maurício; Linhares de Souza, Yóris

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a brief survey about the use of linked data in healthcare to foster better health decisions and increase health knowledge. We present real cases from the Brazilian experience and emphasize some issues in research. This paper is not intending to be fully comprehensive, we discuss some open issues and research challenges in linked data and the technologies involved. We conclude that even though linked data has been adopted in many countries, some challenges have to be overcome, for example, interoperability between different standards. A defined solution able to foster the semantic interoperability between different standards must be developed. Benefits contributed through linked health data involve better decision making on diagnostics, assertive treatments, knowledge acquisition, improvements in quality healthcare service to citizens.

  14. Blind links, a big challenge in the linked data idea: Analysis of Persian Subject Headings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Sharif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this survey, Linked data concept as exposing, sharing, and connecting pieces of data, information, and knowledge on the Semantic Web and some potential problems in converting Persian subject headings (PSHs Records into linked data were discussed. A data set (11233 records of PSHs was searched in three information retrieval systems including National Library of Iran (NLI online catalog, Library of Congress (LC online catalog and NOSA books. Correct links between Persian and English subject headings in the 9519 common records of two catalogs were recorded. The results indicate that the links between Persian and English subjects in 20% of records were failed. The maximum error was associated with the anonymous databases (6/7 % in NLI online catalog. It is recommended to preprocess the PSHs records before any conversion projects. It seems that, during the preprocessing, the potential errors could be identified and corrected.

  15. A New Approach to the Link Budget Concept for an OAM Communication Link

    CERN Document Server

    Cagliero, Andrea; Gaffoglio, Rossella; Sacco, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Following on from the increasing interest for electromagnetic waves carrying Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM), different configurations of antenna systems able to generate such beams have been proposed. However, in our opinion, a traditional radiation pattern approach does not provide the right picture of an OAM-based communication link. For this reason we propose a new general concept, the "OAM-link pattern", which takes into account the peculiar phase structure characterizing these waves. Focusing on OAM transmissions between antenna arrays, we introduce a formula for the link budget evaluation which describes the whole communication link and directly leads to a "classically shaped" main lobe pattern for a proper rephased reception in the case of uniform circular arrays.

  16. Hypercubic smeared links for dynamical fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenfratz, A.; Hoffmann, R. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Schaefer, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2007-02-15

    We investigate a variant of hypercubic gauge link smearing where the SU(3) projection is replaced with a normalization to the corresponding unitary group. This smearing is differentiable and thus suitable for use in dynamical fermion simulations using molecular dynamics type algorithms. We show that this smearing is as efficient as projected hypercubic smearing in removing ultraviolet noise from the gauge fields. We test the normalized hypercubic smearing in dynamical improved (clover) Wilson and valence overlap simulations. (orig.)

  17. DeckLink SDI采集卡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Blackmagic Design的DeckLink SDI采集卡,具有高质量10b高/标清SDI采集和回放能力。它还配有广播级SDI,能够在SD—SDI和HD—SDI格式之间即时转换,非常适合连接HDCAM、HD—D5和Digital Betacam等录机。

  18. Link Biased Strategies in Network Formation Games

    OpenAIRE

    Lichter, Shaun; Griffin, Christopher; Friesz, Terry

    2011-01-01

    We show a simple method for constructing an infinite family of graph formation games with link bias so that the resulting games admits, as a \\textit{pairwise stable} solution, a graph with an arbitrarily specified degree distribution. Pairwise stability is used as the equilibrium condition over the more commonly used Nash equilibrium to prevent the occurrence of ill-behaved equilibrium strategies that do not occur in ordinary play. We construct this family of games by solving an integer progr...

  19. Linking Virus Genomes with Host Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Tomoko; Nishimura, Yosuke; Shimizu, Yugo; Nishiyama, Hiroki; Yoshikawa, Genki; Uehara, Hideya; Hingamp, Pascal; Goto, Susumu; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    Environmental genomics can describe all forms of organisms--cellular and viral--present in a community. The analysis of such eco-systems biology data relies heavily on reference databases, e.g., taxonomy or gene function databases. Reference databases of symbiosis sensu lato, although essential for the analysis of organism interaction networks, are lacking. By mining existing databases and literature, we here provide a comprehensive and manually curated database of taxonomic links between viruses and their cellular hosts.

  20. Thermal Analyse sof Cross-Linked Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Polansky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes results obtained during the structural analyses measurements (Differential Scanning Calorimetry DSC, Thermogravimetry TG, Thermomechanical analysis TMA and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FT-IR. The samples of cross-linked polyethylene cable insulation were tested via these analyses. The DSC and TG were carried out using simultaneous thermal analyzer TA Instruments SDT Q600 with connection of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer Nicolet 380. Thermomechanical analysis was carried out by TMA Q400EM TA Instruments apparatus.

  1. Link between chips and cutting moments evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Cahuc, Olivier; Gérard, Alain; 10.4028/WWW.scientific.net/AMR.423.89

    2012-01-01

    The better understanding of the material cutting process has been shown with the benefit of the forces and moments measurement since some years ago. In paper, simultaneous six mechanical components and chip orientation measurements were realized during turning tests. During these tests, the influence of the depth of cut or feed rate has been observed and a link between the chip orientation and the moment vector orientation or the central axis characteristics has been shown.

  2. The BREMSAT Phase-Modulated Communications Link

    OpenAIRE

    Lefevre, Don

    1990-01-01

    BREMSAT is a small scientific satellite being constructed by the west German Zentrum fur angewandte Raumfahrttechnologie und Mikrogravitation (ZARM), at Bremen University. BREMSAT's payload consists of five scientific experiment packages. The satellite is scheduled for Get-Away-Special (GAS) Canister launch during the German D-2 shuttle mission in March 1992. Cynetics Corporation is constructing the TT&C link for the satellite, using its standard CMX9600 modem. This modem is the result of Cyn...

  3. Conditioned reinforcement dynamics in three-link chained schedules.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    In two experiments rats were trained on three-link concurrent-chains schedules of reinforcement. In Experiment 1, additional entries to one terminal link were added during one of the middle links to a baseline schedule that was otherwise equal for the two chains, and, depending on the condition, these additional terminal-link presentations ended either in food or in no food. When food occurred, preference was always in favor of the chain with the additional terminal-link presentations (which ...

  4. Radio link quality estimation in low-power wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive survey on related work for radio link quality estimation, which covers the characteristics of low-power links, the fundamental concepts of link quality estimation in wireless sensor networks, a taxonomy of existing link quality estimators and their performance analysis. It then shows how link quality estimation can be used for designing protocols and mechanisms such as routing and hand-off. The final part is dedicated to radio interference estimation, generation and mitigation.

  5. Arthritis and X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Pedro; Santos, Alexandra; Faria, Emília; Silva, Jorge; Malcata, Armando; Chieira, Celso

    2008-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies are defined as genetically determined functional and/or quantitative abnormalities in one or more of the components of the immune system. Immunodeficiency and arthritis can be related, although the mechanisms are not always clear. Different causes for immunodeficiency can secondarily be found in patients with arthritis; on the other hand, arthritis can be a manifestation of primary immunodeficiency. Arthritis occurs chiefly in humoral primary immunodeficiencies, namely in X-linked agammaglobulinemia and common variable immunodeficiency, and may be one of the warning signs for primary immunodeficiency. We report a case of arthritis as the presenting feature of X-linked agammaglobulinemia. In X-linked agammaglobulinemia, arthritis may be a consequence of infection, most notably by Mycoplasma, or of immune dysfunction itself. In children, and occasionally in young adults, a combination of arthritis and hypogammaglobulinemia should suggest primary immunodeficiency, although other causes of hypogammaglobulinemia must be excluded. Physicians evaluating patients with arthritis should be aware of this fact so that an early diagnosis can be pursued as it is of extreme importance in the optimal management and prognosis of these patients.

  6. The linked medical data access control framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamateri, Eleni; Kalampokis, Evangelos; Tambouris, Efthimios; Tarabanis, Konstantinos

    2014-08-01

    The integration of medical data coming from multiple sources is important in clinical research. Amongst others, it enables the discovery of appropriate subjects in patient-oriented research and the identification of innovative results in epidemiological studies. At the same time, the integration of medical data faces significant ethical and legal challenges that impose access constraints. Some of these issues can be addressed by making available aggregated instead of raw record-level data. In many cases however, there is still a need for controlling access even to the resulting aggregated data, e.g., due to data provider's policies. In this paper we present the Linked Medical Data Access Control (LiMDAC) framework that capitalizes on Linked Data technologies to enable controlling access to medical data across distributed sources with diverse access constraints. The LiMDAC framework consists of three Linked Data models, namely the LiMDAC metadata model, the LiMDAC user profile model, and the LiMDAC access policy model. It also includes an architecture that exploits these models. Based on the framework, a proof-of-concept platform is developed and its performance and functionality are evaluated by employing two usage scenarios.

  7. DOIs Should Not Link to Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourcle, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    In August of 2011, the National Academy of Science's Board of Research Data and Information (BRDI) had a meeting on the topic of "Developing Data Attribution and Citation Practices and Standards". As part of that meeting were various breakout groups to discuss issues that still remained regarding technical, scientific, and socio-cultural issues, the roles and actors that needed to be involved, and how to get additional feedback from the community. The technical breakout group decided that the majority of the technical problems with citing data revolved around establishing the identity of what it was that we were attempting to cite. As such, our recommendations were to push some of the work back onto the data publishers to tell us how scientists should cite their data (to avoid different disciplines applying different rules), establish 'data landing pages' to describe, document and link to the data, and to provide those pages with persistent identifiers such as a DOI. We present here some of the reasons that were discussed about why not to link directly to data, including: * recalibration, reaccessioning and other data impermanence, * setting context and providing for links to documentation, and * allowing selection of different packaging formats

  8. Collagen cross-linking in thin corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prema Padmanabhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagen cross-linking (CXL has become the standard of care for progressive keratoconus, after numerous clinical studies have established its efficacy and safety in suitably selected eyes. The standard protocol is applicable in eyes which have a minimum corneal thickness of 400 μm after epithelial debridement. This prerequisite was stipulated to protect the corneal endothelium and intraocular tissues from the deleterious effect of ultraviolet-A (UVA radiation. However, patients with keratoconus often present with corneal thickness of less than 400 μm and could have otherwise benefited from this procedure. A few modifications of the standard procedure have been suggested to benefit these patients without a compromise in safety. Transepithelial cross-linking, pachymetry-guided epithelial debridement before cross-linking, and the use of hypoosmolar riboflavin are some of the techniques that have been attempted. Although clinical data is limited at the present time, these techniques are worth considering in patients with thin corneas. Further studies are needed to scientifically establish their efficacy and safety.

  9. Local Community Detection Using Link Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Jun Wu; Han Huang; Zhi-Feng Hao; Feng Chen

    2012-01-01

    Exploring local community structure is an appealing problem that has drawn much recent attention in the area of social network analysis.As the complete information of network is often difficult to obtain,such as networks of web pages,research papers and Facebook users,people can only detect community structure from a certain source vertex with limited knowledge of the entire graph.The existing approaches do well in measuring the community quality,but they are largely dependent on source vertex and putting too strict policy in agglomerating new vertices.Moreover,they have predefined parameters which are difficult to obtain.This paper proposes a method to find local community structure by analyzing link similarity between the community and the vertex.Inspired by the fact that elements in the same community are more likely to share common links,we explore community structure heuristically by giving priority to vertices which have a high link similarity with the community.A three-phase process is also used for the sake of improving quality of community structure.Experimental results prove that our method performs effectively not only in computer-generated graphs but also in real-world graphs.

  10. Active semi-supervised community detection based on must-link and cannot-link constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Cheng

    Full Text Available Community structure detection is of great importance because it can help in discovering the relationship between the function and the topology structure of a network. Many community detection algorithms have been proposed, but how to incorporate the prior knowledge in the detection process remains a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised community detection algorithm, which makes full utilization of the must-link and cannot-link constraints to guide the process of community detection and thereby extracts high-quality community structures from networks. To acquire the high-quality must-link and cannot-link constraints, we also propose a semi-supervised component generation algorithm based on active learning, which actively selects nodes with maximum utility for the proposed semi-supervised community detection algorithm step by step, and then generates the must-link and cannot-link constraints by accessing a noiseless oracle. Extensive experiments were carried out, and the experimental results show that the introduction of active learning into the problem of community detection makes a success. Our proposed method can extract high-quality community structures from networks, and significantly outperforms other comparison methods.

  11. Challenges and Usage of Link Mining to Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaved Akhtar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available - It is an emerging challenge for data mining is the problem of mining richly structures datasets, where the objects are linked in some way. Links among the objects may demonstrate certain patterns, which can be helpful for many data mining tasks and are usually hard to capture with traditional statistical models. Many datasets of interest today are best described as a linked collection of interrelated objects. These may represent homogeneous networks, in which there is a single-object type and link type (eg. people connected by friendship links, or the WWW, a collection of linked web pages or richer, heterogeneous networks, in which there may be multiple object and link types (and possibly other semantic information. Examples of heterogeneous networks include those in medical domains describing patients, diseases, treatments and contacts, or in bibliographic domains describing publications, authors, and venues. Link mining refers to data mining techniques that explicitly consider these links when building predictive or descriptive models of the linked data. Commonly addressed link mining tasks include object ranking, group detection, collective classification, link prediction and subgraph discovery. This is an exciting and rapidly expanding area. In this article we review some of the common emerging themes and discuss ongoing link mining challenges; open issues and suggest ideas that could be opportunities for solutions. The most conclusion of this article is that providing an idea to usage link mining techniques from link mining to help to construct the Semantic Web.

  12. Simulation of Link-16 Data Link Signal%Link-16数据链信号模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张允

    2013-01-01

    分析了Link-16数据链信号的特点,描述了数据链的时隙结构、信号时序以及跳频、跳时、信息编码、扩频等实现过程,结合工程实际阐述了信号的产生方法,模拟产生了数据链终端发送的射频信号.

  13. Laser links for mobile airborne nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griethe, Wolfgang; Knapek, Markus; Horwath, Joachim

    2015-05-01

    Remotely Piloted Aircrafts (RPA's) and especially Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) and High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) are currently operated over long distances, often across several continents. This is only made possible by maintaining Beyond Line Of Side (BLOS) radio links between ground control stations and unmanned vehicles via geostationary (GEO) satellites. The radio links are usually operated in the Ku-frequency band and used for both, vehicle command & control (C2) - it also refers to Command and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) - as well as transmission of intelligence data - the associated communication stream also refers to Payload Link (PL). Even though this scheme of communication is common practice today, various other issues are raised thereby. The paper shows that the current existing problems can be solved by using the latest technologies combined with altered intuitive communication strategies. In this context laser communication is discussed as a promising technology for airborne applications. It is clearly seen that for tactical reasons, as for instance RPA cooperative flying, Air-to-Air communications (A2A) is more advantageous than GEO satellite communications (SatCom). Hence, together with in-flight test results the paper presents a design for a lightweight airborne laser terminal, suitable for use onboard manned or unmanned airborne nodes. The advantages of LaserCom in combination with Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) technologies particularly for Persistent Wide Area Surveillance (PWAS) are highlighted. Technical challenges for flying LaserCom terminals aboard RPA's are outlined. The paper leads to the conclusion that by combining both, LaserCom and ISR, a new quality for an overall system arises which is more than just the sum of two separate key technologies.

  14. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed.

  15. Linking microarray reporters with protein functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaj Stan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of microarray experiments requires accurate and up-to-date functional annotation of the microarray reporters to optimize the interpretation of the biological processes involved. Pathway visualization tools are used to connect gene expression data with existing biological pathways by using specific database identifiers that link reporters with elements in the pathways. Results This paper proposes a novel method that aims to improve microarray reporter annotation by BLASTing the original reporter sequences against a species-specific EMBL subset, that was derived from and crosslinked back to the highly curated UniProt database. The resulting alignments were filtered using high quality alignment criteria and further compared with the outcome of a more traditional approach, where reporter sequences were BLASTed against EnsEMBL followed by locating the corresponding protein (UniProt entry for the high quality hits. Combining the results of both methods resulted in successful annotation of > 58% of all reporter sequences with UniProt IDs on two commercial array platforms, increasing the amount of Incyte reporters that could be coupled to Gene Ontology terms from 32.7% to 58.3% and to a local GenMAPP pathway from 9.6% to 16.7%. For Agilent, 35.3% of the total reporters are now linked towards GO nodes and 7.1% on local pathways. Conclusion Our methods increased the annotation quality of microarray reporter sequences and allowed us to visualize more reporters using pathway visualization tools. Even in cases where the original reporter annotation showed the correct description the new identifiers often allowed improved pathway and Gene Ontology linking. These methods are freely available at http://www.bigcat.unimaas.nl/public/publications/Gaj_Annotation/.

  16. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Greenberg

    Full Text Available Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891 indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320 indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz. Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353 replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'. Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres compared to type S (bias towards systemizing who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock. Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes, negative valence (depressing and sad, and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful, while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling, and aspects of positive valence (animated and cerebral depth (complexity. The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S are discussed.

  17. Optical links in handheld multimedia devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geffen, S.; Duis, J.; Miller, R.

    2008-04-01

    Ever emerging applications in handheld multimedia devices such as mobile phones, laptop computers, portable video games and digital cameras requiring increased screen resolutions are driving higher aggregate bitrates between host processor and display(s) enabling services such as mobile video conferencing, video on demand and TV broadcasting. Larger displays and smaller phones require complex mechanical 3D hinge configurations striving to combine maximum functionality with compact building volumes. Conventional galvanic interconnections such as Micro-Coax and FPC carrying parallel digital data between host processor and display module may produce Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and bandwidth limitations caused by small cable size and tight cable bends. To reduce the number of signals through a hinge, the mobile phone industry, organized in the MIPI (Mobile Industry Processor Interface) alliance, is currently defining an electrical interface transmitting serialized digital data at speeds >1Gbps. This interface allows for electrical or optical interconnects. Above 1Gbps optical links may offer a cost effective alternative because of their flexibility, increased bandwidth and immunity to EMI. This paper describes the development of optical links for handheld communication devices. A cable assembly based on a special Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) selected for its mechanical durability is terminated with a small form factor molded lens assembly which interfaces between an 850nm VCSEL transmitter and a receiving device on the printed circuit board of the display module. A statistical approach based on a Lean Design For Six Sigma (LDFSS) roadmap for new product development tries to find an optimum link definition which will be robust and low cost meeting the power consumption requirements appropriate for battery operated systems.

  18. Quantum and Classical OpticsEmerging Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-09

    Invited Comment Quantum and classical optics–emerging links J H Eberly1,2, Xiao-Feng Qian1,3, Asma Al Qasimi1,2, Hazrat Ali1,2,4, M A Alonso1,3, R...Gutiérrez-Cuevas1,3, Bethany J Little1,2, John C Howell1,2, Tanya Malhotra1,2 and A N Vamivakas1,3 1 Center for Coherence and Quantum Optics, University...pas.rochester.edu Received 14 January 2016, revised 28 February 2016 Accepted for publication 8 March 2016 Published 9 May 2016 Abstract Quantum

  19. Growing Networks with Positive and Negative Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dech, Corynne; Antwi, Shadrack; Shaw, Leah

    Scale-free networks grown via preferential attachment have been used to model real-world networks such as the Internet, citation networks, and social networks. Here we investigate signed scale-free networks where an edge represents a positive or negative connection. We present analytic results and simulation for a growing signed network model. We compare the signed network to an unsigned scale-free network. We discuss several options for preferential attachment in a signed network that could be further adapted to model the accumulation of links over time in real-world signed networks.

  20. Linked Ocean Data 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Adam; Leadbetter, Adam; Cheatham, Michelle; Thomas, Rob

    2016-04-01

    When considering sustainable development of the oceans, it is not desirable to either have data siloed in one location where it cannot be reused for purposes beyond which it was originally collected, or in a state where it cannot be integrated into an holistic view of the marine environment. As such, the links between datasets should be formally documented and exploited as best as possible. Given this, the use of Semantic Web technology and information modelling patterns are explored with reference to the marine domain. Further, new strategies for adding semantic annotation to data in real-time are discussed and prototyped.

  1. Link Label Prediction in Signed Citation Network

    KAUST Repository

    Akujuobi, Uchenna

    2016-04-12

    Link label prediction is the problem of predicting the missing labels or signs of all the unlabeled edges in a network. For signed networks, these labels can either be positive or negative. In recent years, different algorithms have been proposed such as using regression, trust propagation and matrix factorization. These approaches have tried to solve the problem of link label prediction by using ideas from social theories, where most of them predict a single missing label given that labels of other edges are known. However, in most real-world social graphs, the number of labeled edges is usually less than that of unlabeled edges. Therefore, predicting a single edge label at a time would require multiple runs and is more computationally demanding. In this thesis, we look at link label prediction problem on a signed citation network with missing edge labels. Our citation network consists of papers from three major machine learning and data mining conferences together with their references, and edges showing the relationship between them. An edge in our network is labeled either positive (dataset relevant) if the reference is based on the dataset used in the paper or negative otherwise. We present three approaches to predict the missing labels. The first approach converts the label prediction problem into a standard classification problem. We then, generate a set of features for each edge and then adopt Support Vector Machines in solving the classification problem. For the second approach, we formalize the graph such that the edges are represented as nodes with links showing similarities between them. We then adopt a label propagation method to propagate the labels on known nodes to those with unknown labels. In the third approach, we adopt a PageRank approach where we rank the nodes according to the number of incoming positive and negative edges, after which we set a threshold. Based on the ranks, we can infer an edge would be positive if it goes a node above the

  2. Singularity links with exotic Stein fillings

    OpenAIRE

    Özbağcı, Burak; Akhmedov, Anar

    2012-01-01

    arXiv:1206.2468v3 [math.GT] 14 May 2014 SINGULARITY LINKS WITH EXOTIC STEIN FILLINGS ANAR AKHMEDOV AND BURAK OZBAGCI ABSTRACT. In [4], it was shown that there exist infinitely many contact Seifert fibered 3-manifolds each of which admits infinitely many exotic (homeomorphic but pairwise non-diffeomorphic) simply-connected Stein fillings. Here we extend this result to a larger set of contact Seifert fibered 3-manifolds with many singular fibers and observe that these 3- ma...

  3. Cross-linking for microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh Vazirani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of collagen cross-linking as a clinical modality to modify the clinical course in keratoconus seems to have fueled the search for alternative applications for this treatment. Current clinical data on its efficacy is limited and laboratory data seems to indicate that it performs poorly against resistant strains of bacteria and against slow growing organisms. However, the biological plausibility of crosslinking and the lack of effective strategies in managing infections with these organisms continue to focus attention on this potential treatment. Well-conducted experimental and clinical studies with controls are required to answer the questions of its efficacy in future.

  4. 45 Km Horizontal Path Optical Link Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, A.; Ceniceros, J.; Novak, M.; Jeganathan, M.; Portillo, A.; Erickson, D.; Depew, J.; Sanii, B.; Lesh, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    Mountain-top to mountain-top optical link experiments have been initiated at JPL, in order to perform a systems level evaluation of optical communications. Progress made so far is reported. ne NASA, JPL developed optical communications demonstrator (OCD) is used to transmit a laser signal from Strawberry Peak (SP), located in the San Bernadino mountains of California. This laser beam is received by a 0.6 m aperture telescope at JPL's Table Mountain Facility (TMF), located in Wrightwood, California. The optical link is bi-directional with the TMF telescope transmitting a continuous 4-wave (cw) 780 run beacon and the OCD sending back a 840 nm, 100 - 500 Mbps pseudo noise (PN) modulated, laser beam. The optical link path is at an average altitude of 2 km above sea level, covers a range of 46.8 km and provides an atmospheric channel equivalent to approx. 4 air masses. Average received power measured at either end fall well within the uncertainties predicted by link analysis. The reduction in normalized intensity variance (sigma(sup 2, sub I)) for the 4-beam beacon, compared to each individual beam, at SP, was from approx. 0.68 to 0.22. With some allowance for intra-beam mis-alignment, this is consistent with incoherent averaging. The sigma(sup2, sub I) measured at TMF approx. 0.43 +/- 0.22 exceeded the expected aperture averaged value of less than 0.1, probably because of beam wander. The focused spot sizes of approx. 162 +/- 6 microns at the TMF Coude and approx. 64 +/- 3 microns on the OCD compare to the predicted size range of 52 - 172 microns and 57 - 93 microns, respectively. This is consistent with 4 - 5 arcsec of atmospheric "seeing". The preliminary evaluation of OCD's fine tracking indicates that the uncompensated tracking error is approx. 3.3 micro rad compared to approx. 1.7 micro rad observed in the laboratory. Fine tracking performance was intermittent, primarily due to beacon fades on the OCD tracking sensor. The best bit error rates observed while

  5. Bidirectional ROF Links with Dynamic Capacity Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Chandan , Dharmendra Singh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available : Radio over fiber (ROF technology is an integration of wireless and fiber optic network. It plays vital role for broad band wireless communication. The well known advantages of optical as a transmission medium such as low loss, light weight, large bandwidth characteristics, small size and low cable cost make it the ideal and most flexible solution for efficiently transporting radio signals to remotely located antenna site in a wireless network. The joint venture of radio signal and optical fiber technology provides dynamic capacity allocation in radio over fiber links.

  6. Linking algal growth inhibition to chemical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine N.; Mayer, Philipp

    to chemical activity, as opposed to e.g. the total concentration. Baseline toxicity (narcosis) for neutral hydrophobic organic compounds has been shown to initiate in the narrow chemical activity range of 0.01 to 0.1. This presentation focuses on linking algal growth inhibition to chemical activity....... High-quality toxicity data are carefully selected from peer-reviewed scientific literature and QSAR databases. This presentation shows how the chemical activity concept can be used to compare and combine toxicity data across compounds and species in order to characterize toxicity – and further how...

  7. Design and implementation of a fiber optic RS232 link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, James W.

    1987-09-01

    This thesis investigates the feasibility of using a bi-directional fiber optic link to implement a RS232 data link. The results showed that a fiber optic link is a viable replacement. It offers a bandwidth up to 5 MHz, 250 times that of a RS232 data link. This fiber optic link was tested over a distance of 1.5 kilometers, nearly 100 times that of the present RS232 link. It also offers the benefits of space and weight savings and is comparable to devices produced commercially but at a substantial cost savings.

  8. Research on common issues for relationship between mechanism degree of freedom, driving link and executive link

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG AiLun

    2009-01-01

    During engineering practice and theoretical research, the mechanism degree of freedom is sometimes unequal to the number of the driving link, which is unable to be explained according to the classic theory of the mechanism degree of freedom. To solve this problem, the duality description for operating laws of mechanism is introduced based on the concepts of duality. The Junction-Structure Equation is established for the port descriptions of general ideal mechanism and the functional description for the mechanism degree of freedom is described by utilization of bond graph theory. The force-transfer degree of freedom, i.e. the antithesis concept of movement-transfer degree of freedom, is introduced and defined based on the analysis of energy transfer as well as the analysis of signal causality. By utilization of structural description, functional description and duality description for the equation of degree of freedom, the relationship between the movement-transfer degree of freedom and force-transfer degree of freedom is further explored and analyzed. Thus, the relationship between the mechanism degree of freedom upon the driving link and the executive link is described generally. Finally, some typical relationships between the mechanism degree of freedom, the driving link and the executive link are analyzed.

  9. Characterization of a 450-km Baseline GPS Carrier-Phase Link using an Optical Fiber Link

    CERN Document Server

    Droste, Stefan; Leute, Julia; Raupach, Sebastian M F; Matveev, Arthur; Hänsch, Theodor W; Bauch, Andreas; Holzwarth, Ronald; Grosche, Gesine

    2015-01-01

    A GPS carrier-phase frequency transfer link along a baseline of 450 km has been established and is characterized by comparing it to a phase-stabilized optical fiber link of 920 km length, established between the two endpoints, the Max-Planck-Institut f\\"ur Quantenoptik in Garching and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig. The characterization is accomplished by comparing two active hydrogen masers operated at both institutes. The masers serve as local oscillators and cancel out when the double differences are calculated, such that they do not constitute a limitation for the GPS link characterization. We achieve a frequency instability of 3 x 10^(-13) in 30 s and 5 x 10^(-16) for long averaging times. Frequency comparison results obtained via both links show no deviation larger than the statistical uncertainty of 6 x 10^(-16). These results can be interpreted as a successful cross-check of the measurement uncertainty of a truly remote end fiber link.

  10. Crafting Linked Open Data for Cultural Heritage: Mapping and Curation Tools for the Linked Jazz Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cristina Pattuelli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes tools and methods developed as part of Linked Jazz, a project that uses Linked Open Data (LOD to reveal personal and professional relationships among jazz musicians based on interviews from jazz archives. The overarching aim of Linked Jazz is to explore the possibilities offered by LOD to enhance the visibility of cultural heritage materials and enrich the semantics that describe them. While the full Linked Jazz dataset is still under development, this paper presents two applications that have laid the foundation for the creation of this dataset: the Mapping and Curator Tool, and the Transcript Analyzer. These applications have served primarily for data preparation, analysis, and curation and are representative of the types of tools and methods needed to craft linked data from digital content available on the web. This paper discusses these two domain-agnostic tools developed to create LOD from digital textual documents and offers insight into the process behind the creation of LOD in general.

  11. Improving interdependent networks robustness by adding connectivity links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xingpei; Wang, Bo; Liu, Dichen; Chen, Guo; Tang, Fei; Wei, Daqian; Tu, Lian

    2016-02-01

    Compared with a single and isolated network, interdependent networks have two types of links: connectivity link and dependency link. This paper aims to improve the robustness of interdependent networks by adding connectivity links. Firstly, interdependent networks failure model and four frequently used link addition strategies are briefly reviewed. Furthermore, by defining inter degree-degree difference, two novel link addition strategies are proposed. Finally, we verify the effectiveness of our proposed link addition strategies by comparing with the current link addition strategies in three different network models. The simulation results show that, given the number of added links, link allocation strategies have great effects on the robustness of interdependent networks, i.e., the double-network link allocation strategy is superior to single-network link allocation strategy. Link addition strategies proposed in this paper excel the current strategies, especially for BA interdependent networks. Moreover, our work can provide guidance on how to allocate limited resources to an existing interdependent networks system and optimize its topology to avoid the potential cascade failures.

  12. Porting Inition and Failure to Linked Cheetah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitello, P; Souers, P C

    2007-07-18

    Linked CHEETAH is a thermo-chemical code coupled to a 2-D hydrocode. Initially, a quadratic-pressure dependent kinetic rate was used, which worked well in modeling prompt detonation of explosives of large size, but does not work on other aspects of explosive behavior. The variable-pressure Tarantula reactive flow rate model was developed with JWL++ in order to also describe failure and initiation, and we have moved this model into Linked CHEETAH. The model works by turning on only above a pressure threshold, where a slow turn-on creates initiation. At a higher pressure, the rate suddenly leaps to a large value over a small pressure range. A slowly failing cylinder will see a rapidly declining rate, which pushes it quickly into failure. At a high pressure, the detonation rate is constant. A sequential validation procedure is used, which includes metal-confined cylinders, rate-sticks, corner-turning, initiation and threshold, gap tests and air gaps. The size (diameter) effect is central to the calibration.

  13. Porting Initiation and Failure into Linked CHEETAH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souers, Clark; Vitello, Peter

    2007-06-01

    Linked CHEETAH is a thermo-chemical code coupled to a 2-D hydrocode. Initially, a quadratic-pressure dependent kinetic rate was used, which worked well in modeling prompt detonation of explosives of large size, but does not work on other aspects of explosive behavior. The variable-pressure Tarantula reactive flow rate model was developed with JWL++ in order to also describe failure and initiation, and we have moved this model into Linked CHEETAH. The model works by turning on only above a pressure threshold, where a slow turn-on creates initiation. At a higher pressure, the rate suddenly leaps to a large value over a small pressure range. A slowly failing cylinder will see a rapidly declining rate, which pushes it quickly into failure. At a high pressure, the detonation rate is constant. A sequential validation procedure is used, which includes metal-confined cylinders, rate-sticks, corner-turning, initiation and threshold, gap tests and air gaps. The size (diameter) effect is central to the calibration. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  14. [The link between obesity and cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez R, César; Ibáñez, Carolina; Klaassen, Julieta

    2014-02-01

    While some genetic factors may explain the development of cancer, its main causes are related to environmental exposure to carcinogenic agents as well as to the effect of determined lifestyles and habits. Several epidemiological studies have shown a consistent relation between obesity and cancer. In non smokers, obesity is the most relevant risk factor in the development of malignant tumors. There is a clear association between obesity and endometrial cancer, breast cancer in postmenopausal women, pancreatic, esophageal and colon cancer. Sexual steroids, insulin like growth factor axis and adipokines are the three main models to explain the biological basis for the obesity-cancer relationship. However, these models do not explain all the biological mechanisms that link obesity to cancer. There are other factors in play such as chronic inflammation, hypoxia and oxidative stress. Obesity may hamper the screening, diagnosis and treatment of some tumors, increasing mortality rates. Obesity prevention and management, therefore, may be the most important modifiable factor in reducing both incidence and mortality in cancer. New studies are required to quantify the effect of intentional weight reduction on the incidence and relapse of cancer. Considering the efficacy of bariatric surgery for weight reduction, it is an attractive model to study this link.

  15. Parkinson's Disease: The Mitochondria-Iron Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Yorka; Carrasco, Carlos M; Campos, Joaquín D; Aguirre, Pabla; Núñez, Marco T

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction, iron accumulation, and oxidative damage are conditions often found in damaged brain areas of Parkinson's disease. We propose that a causal link exists between these three events. Mitochondrial dysfunction results not only in increased reactive oxygen species production but also in decreased iron-sulfur cluster synthesis and unorthodox activation of Iron Regulatory Protein 1 (IRP1), a key regulator of cell iron homeostasis. In turn, IRP1 activation results in iron accumulation and hydroxyl radical-mediated damage. These three occurrences-mitochondrial dysfunction, iron accumulation, and oxidative damage-generate a positive feedback loop of increased iron accumulation and oxidative stress. Here, we review the evidence that points to a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and iron accumulation as early events in the development of sporadic and genetic cases of Parkinson's disease. Finally, an attempt is done to contextualize the possible relationship between mitochondria dysfunction and iron dyshomeostasis. Based on published evidence, we propose that iron chelation-by decreasing iron-associated oxidative damage and by inducing cell survival and cell-rescue pathways-is a viable therapy for retarding this cycle.

  16. Nutrition education: linking research, theory, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contento, Isobel R

    2008-01-01

    The increase in obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease worldwide reflects the complex interactions of biology, personal behaviour and environment. Consequently there has been a greater recognition of the importance of nutrition education. An analysis of the evidence from 300+ studies shows that nutrition education is more likely to be effective when it focuses on behaviour/ action (rather than knowledge only) and systematically links theory, research and practice. There are three essential components to nutrition education: 1. A motivational component, where the goal is to increase awareness and enhance motivation by addressing beliefs, attitudes through effective communication strategies. 2. An action component, where the goal is to facilitate people's ability to take action through goal setting and cognitive self-regulation skills. 3. An environmental component, where nutrition educators work with policymakers and others to promote environmental supports for action. Each component needs to be based on appropriate theory and research. The procedure for program design can use the logic model: Inputs are the resources needed as well as the needs analysis process. The outputs are the activities within the three components of nutrition education described above. Here the behavioural focus is selected and theory and research are used to design appropriate educational strategies to achieve the targeted behaviours. The outcomes are the short, medium or long-term impacts of the nutrition program. These are evaluated through the use of appropriate designs and instruments. Nutrition education programs that link research, theory, and practice are more likely to be effective.

  17. Perceptual asymmetries and handedness: A neglected link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eMarzoli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Healthy individuals tend to weigh in more the left than the right side of visual space in a variety of contexts, ranging from pseudoneglect to perceptual asymmetries for faces. Among the common explanations proposed for the attentional and perceptual advantages of the left visual field, a link with the prevalence of right-handedness in humans has never been suggested, although some evidence seems to converge in favor of a bias of spatial attention towards the region most likely coincident with another person’s right hand during a face-to-face interaction. Such a bias might imply an increased efficiency in monitoring both communicative and aggressive acts, the right limb being more used than the left in both types of behaviour. Although attentional and perceptual asymmetries could be linked to right-handedness at the level of phylogeny because of the evolutionarily advantage of directing attention towards the region where others’ dominant hand usually operates, it is also legitimate to question whether, at the ontogenetic level, frequent exposure to right-handed individuals may foster leftward biases. These views are discussed in the light of extant literature, and a number of tests are proposed in order to assess our hypotheses.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls and links to cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jordan T; Petriello, Michael C; Newsome, Bradley J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2016-02-01

    The pathology of cardiovascular disease is multi-faceted, with links to many modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Epidemiological evidence now implicates exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with an increased risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, and obesity; all of which are clinically relevant to the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease. PCBs exert their cardiovascular toxicity either directly or indirectly via multiple mechanisms, which are highly dependent on the type and concentration of PCBs present. However, many PCBs may modulate cellular signaling pathways leading to common detrimental outcomes including induction of chronic oxidative stress, inflammation, and endocrine disruption. With the abundance of potential toxic pollutants increasing globally, it is critical to identify sensible means of decreasing associated disease risks. Emerging evidence now implicates a protective role of lifestyle modifications such as increased exercise and/or nutritional modulation via anti-inflammatory foods, which may help to decrease the vascular toxicity of PCBs. This review will outline the current state of knowledge linking coplanar and non-coplanar PCBs to cardiovascular disease and describe the possible molecular mechanism of this association.

  19. Legendrian links, causality, and the Low conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Chernov, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Let $(X^{m+1}, g)$ be a globally hyperbolic spacetime with Cauchy surface diffeomorphic to an open subset of $\\mathbb R^m$. The Legendrian Low conjecture formulated by Nat\\'ario and Tod says that two events $x,y\\in X$ are causally related if and only if the Legendrian link of spheres $\\mathfrak S_x, \\mathfrak S_y$ whose points are light geodesics passing through $x$ and $y$ is non-trivial in the contact manifold of all light geodesics in $X$. The Low conjecture says that for $m=2$ the events $x,y$ are causally related if and only if $\\mathfrak S_x, \\mathfrak S_y$ is non-trivial as a topological link. We prove the Low and the Legendrian Low conjectures. We also show that similar statements hold for any globally hyperbolic $(X, g)$ such that the universal cover of its Cauchy surface is diffeomorphic to an open domain of $\\mathbb R^m.$

  20. Preparing for a Linked Data Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Bernadette

    The cost of building a business application in the early 1990's that was both resilient and could handle additional data sources, let alone third party content, was many times the cost of building a simple application. The use of Web tools and techniques has changed that. The use of Web architecture within enterprises started in the mid-1990's and continues today. The introduction ofWeb architecture within the enterprise has had many benefits which include shortened development cycles, improved product innovation and increased product and service quality. The Semantic Web, a concept introduced in 2000, introduced the concept of machineunderstandable content. The benefit of having computers (or computer programs) understand content is to retrieve and present more relevant information to people. LinkedData, a concept introduced in 2006, is the next evolution and uses the Semantic Web to link related but previously unconnected content in new and meaningful ways. Later chapters in this book discuss both early and current efforts to showcase enterprise data and drive new value and insights.

  1. Functional links and robustness in food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesina, Stefano; Bodini, Antonio; Pascual, Mercedes

    2009-06-27

    The robustness of ecosystems to species losses is a central question in ecology, given the current pace of extinctions and the many species threatened by human impacts, including habitat destruction and climate change. Robustness from the perspective of secondary extinctions has been addressed in the context of food webs to consider the complex network of species interactions that underlie responses to perturbations. In-silico removal experiments have examined the structural properties of food webs that enhance or hamper the robustness of ecosystems to species losses, with a focus on the role of hubs, the most connected species. Here we take a different approach and focus on the role of the connections themselves. We show that trophic links can be divided into functional and redundant based on their contribution to robustness. The analysis of empirical webs shows that hubs are not necessarily the most important species as they may hold many redundant links. Furthermore, the fraction of functional connections is high and constant across systems regardless of size and interconnectedness. The main consequence of this scaling pattern is that ecosystem robustness can be considerably reduced by species extinctions even when these do not result in any secondary extinctions. This introduces the possibility of tipping points in the collapse of ecosystems.

  2. Alpha thalassaemia-mental retardation, X linked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbons Richard

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract X-linked alpha thalassaemia mental retardation (ATR-X syndrome in males is associated with profound developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, genital abnormalities and alpha thalassaemia. Female carriers are usually physically and intellectually normal. So far, 168 patients have been reported. Language is usually very limited. Seizures occur in about one third of the cases. While many patients are affectionate with their caregivers, some exhibit autistic-like behaviour. Patients present with facial hypotonia and a characteristic mouth. Genital abnormalities are observed in 80% of children and range from undescended testes to ambiguous genitalia. Alpha-thalassaemia is not always present. This syndrome is X-linked recessive and results from mutations in the ATRX gene. This gene encodes the widely expressed ATRX protein. ATRX mutations cause diverse changes in the pattern of DNA methylation at heterochromatic loci but it is not yet known whether this is responsible for the clinical phenotype. The diagnosis can be established by detection of alpha thalassaemia, identification of ATRX gene mutations, ATRX protein studies and X-inactivation studies. Genetic counselling can be offered to families. Management is multidisciplinary: young children must be carefully monitored for gastro-oesophageal reflux as it may cause death. A number of individuals with ATR-X are fit and well in their 30s and 40s.

  3. Linking ecosystem processes to sustainable wetland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Smith, Loren M.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Browne, Bryant A.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of concern over problems associated with the future of managed wetlands in North America, nearly two dozen wetland scientists and managers met in February 2006 at Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge in New Mexico and discussed a sustainable approach to wetland management. This approach links science with management by focusing on underlying wetland processes. From that meeting, several papers were developed and published in Wetlands to address these concerns (Euliss et al. 2008, Smith et al. 2008, Wilcox 2008). This article summarizes our first paper, Euliss et al. (2008), and a future Newsletter article will summarize Smith et al. (2008). Realization of the role that complex interactions play in maintaining ecosystems, coupled with increasing demands of humans for ecosystem services, has prompted much interest in ecosystem management. Not surprisingly, sustainability of ecosystems has become an explicitly stated goal of many natural resource agencies and, in some cases, has been legislatively mandated to ensure provision of resources for future generations. However, examples of sustainable ecosystem management are uncommon because management goals often focus on specific deliverables rather than processes that sustain ecosystems. This paper has three sections: (1) perspectives in which we provide a bit of history, (2), ecological consequences of a static view, and (3) suggestions to aid wetland managers link management goals with critical ecosystem processes responsible for provision of wetland services.

  4. Links between circadian rhythms and psychiatric disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia N Karatsoreos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Determining the cause of psychiatric disorders is a goal of modern neuroscience, and will hopefully lead to the discovery of treatments to either prevent or alleviate the suffering caused by these diseases. One roadblock to attaining this goal is the realization that neuropsychiatric diseases are rarely due to a single gene polymorphism, environmental exposure, or developmental insult. Rather, it is a complex interaction between these various influences that likely leads to the development of clinically relevant syndromes. Our lab is exploring the links between environmental exposures and neurobehavioral function by investigating how disruption of the circadian (daily clock alters the structure and function of neural circuits, with the hypothesis that disrupting this crucial homeostatic system can directly contribute to altered vulnerability of the organism to other factors that interact to produce psychiatric illness. This review explores some historical and more recent findings that link disrupted circadian clocks to neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression, mania, and schizophrenia. We take a comparative approach by exploring the effects observed in human populations, as well as some experimental models used in the laboratory to unravel mechanistic and causal relationships between disruption of the circadian clock and behavioral abnormalities. This is a rich area of research that we predict will contribute greatly to our understanding of how genes, environment, and development interact to modulate an individual’s vulnerability to psychiatric disorders.

  5. General relativistic treatment of LISA optical links

    CERN Document Server

    Dhurandhar, S V; Nayak, K Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    LISA is a joint space mission of the NASA and the ESA for detecting low frequency gravitational waves in the band $10^{-5} - 1$ Hz. In order to attain the requisite sensitivity for LISA, the laser frequency noise must be suppressed below the other secondary noises such as the optical path noise, acceleration noise etc. This is achieved by combining time-delayed data for which precise knowledge of time-delays is required. The gravitational field, mainly that of the Sun and the motion of LISA affect the time-delays and the optical links. Further, the effect of the gravitational field of the Earth on the orbits of spacecraft is included. This leads to additional flexing over and above that of the Sun. We have written a numerical code which computes the optical links, that is, the time-delays with great accuracy $\\sim 10^{-2}$ metres - more than what is required for time delay interferometry (TDI) - for most of the orbit and with sufficient accuracy within $\\sim 10$ metres for an integrated time window of about s...

  6. Cooperative Communications. Link Reliability and Power Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahsin, Tafzeel ur Rehman

    2012-07-01

    Demand for high data rates is increasing rapidly for the future wireless generations, due to the requirement of ubiquitous coverage for wireless broadband services. More base stations are needed to deliver these services, in order to cope with the increased capacity demand and inherent unreliable nature of wireless medium. However, this would directly correspond to high infrastructure cost and energy consumption in cellular networks. Nowadays, high power consumption in the network is becoming a matter of concern for the operators,both from environmental and economic point of view. Cooperative communications, which is regarded as a virtual multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) channel, can be very efficient in combating fading multi-path channels and improve coverage with low complexity and cost. With its distributed structure, cooperative communications can also contribute to the energy efficiency of wireless systems and green radio communications of the future. Using network coding at the top of cooperative communication, utilizes the network resources more efficiently. Here we look at the case of large scale use of low cost relays as a way of making the links reliable, that directly corresponds to reduction in transmission power at the nodes. A lot of research work has focused on highlighting the gains achieved by using network coding in cooperative transmissions. However, there are certain areas that are not fully explored yet. For instance, the kind of detection scheme used at the receiver and its impact on the link performance has not been addressed.The thesis looks at the performance comparison of different detection schemes and also proposes how to group users at the relay to ensure mutual benefit for the cooperating users.Using constellation selection at the nodes, the augmented space formed at the receiver is exploited for making the links more reliable. The network and the channel coding schemes are represented as a single product code, that allows us to

  7. AAH Cage Out-Link and In-Link Antenna Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeutter, Dean C.

    1998-01-01

    This final report encapsulates the accomplishments of the third year of work on an Advanced Biotelemetry System (ABTS). Overall MU/ABTS project objectives are to provide a biotelemetry system that can collect data from and send commands to an implanted biotransceiver. This system will provide for studies of rodent development in space. The system must be capable of operating in a metal animal cage environment. An important goal is the development of a small, "smart", micropower, -channel data output and single channel command implantable biotransceiver with eight input capabilities with the flexibility for easy customization for a variety of physiologic investigations. The NASA Ames/Marquette University Joint Research work has been devoted to the system design of such a new state of the art biotelemetry system, having multiple physiologic inputs, and bi-directional data transfer capabilities. This work has provided a successful prototype system that connects, by two-way radio links, an addressable biotelemetry system that provides communication between an animal biotelemeter prototype and a personal computer. The operational features of the prototype system are listed below: Two-Way PCM Communication with Implanted Biotelemeter Microcontroller Based Biotelemeter Out-Link: Wideband FSK (60 kbaud) In-Link: OOK (2.4 kbaud) Septum Antenna Arrays (In/Out-Links) Personal Computer Data Interface The important requirement of this third year's work, to demonstrate two-way communication with transmit and receive antennas inside the metal animal cage, has been successfully accomplished. The advances discussed in this report demonstrate that the AAH cage antenna system can provide Out-link and In-link capability for the ABTS bi-directional telemetry system, and can serve as a benchmark for project status.

  8. EarthCube GeoLink: Semantics and Linked Data for the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Cheatham, M.; Fils, D.; Hitzler, P.; Janowicz, K.; Ji, P.; Jones, M. B.; Krisnadhi, A.; Lehnert, K. A.; Mickle, A.; Narock, T.; O'Brien, M.; Raymond, L. M.; Schildhauer, M.; Shepherd, A.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    The NSF EarthCube initiative is building next-generation cyberinfrastructure to aid geoscientists in collecting, accessing, analyzing, sharing, and visualizing their data and knowledge. The EarthCube GeoLink Building Block project focuses on a specific set of software protocols and vocabularies, often characterized as the Semantic Web and "Linked Data", to publish data online in a way that is easily discoverable, accessible, and interoperable. GeoLink brings together specialists from the computer science, geoscience, and library science domains, and includes data from a network of NSF-funded repositories that support scientific studies in marine geology, marine ecosystems, biogeochemistry, and paleoclimatology. We are working collaboratively with closely-related Building Block projects including EarthCollab and CINERGI, and solicit feedback from RCN projects including Cyberinfrastructure for Paleogeosciences (C4P) and iSamples. GeoLink has developed a modular ontology that describes essential geoscience research concepts; published data from seven collections (to date) on the Web as geospatially-enabled Linked Data using this ontology; matched and mapped data between collections using shared identifiers for investigators, repositories, datasets, funding awards, platforms, research cruises, physical specimens, and gazetteer features; and aggregated the results in a shared knowledgebase that can be queried via a standard SPARQL endpoint. Client applications have been built around the knowledgebase, including a Web/map-based data browser using the Leaflet JavaScript library and a simple query service using the OpenSearch format. Future development will include extending and refining the GeoLink ontology, adding content from additional repositories, developing semi-automated algorithms to enhance metadata, and further work on client applications.

  9. Capacity and Shaping in Coherent Fiber-Optic Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2014-01-01

    Over view of the concepts and latest progress of capacity and constellation shaping incoherent optical links.......Over view of the concepts and latest progress of capacity and constellation shaping incoherent optical links....

  10. LINKING PUBLIC HEALTH AND AIR QUALITY DATA FOR ACCOUNTABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Program Area: Environmental HealthTopic Area: Linking Public Health Data into ActionTitle of Presentation: Linking Public Health and Air Quality Data for AccountabilityBackground and Significance Tracking environmental exposures to air pollutan...

  11. Gut Bacteria May Link Diet, Colon Cancer, Study Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163274.html Gut Bacteria May Link Diet, Colon Cancer, Study Says High- ... link appears to be a type of intestinal bacteria, the Boston research team said. Specifically, they looked ...

  12. Zika-Linked Birth Defects Surge in Colombia: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162464.html Zika-Linked Birth Defects Surge in Colombia: CDC Study ... born with devastating birth defects linked to the Zika virus is no longer confined to Brazil, a ...

  13. Study IDs 2 Zika Virus Proteins Linked to Microcephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160386.html Study IDs 2 Zika Virus Proteins Linked to Microcephaly Discovery might one day ... say they've identified two proteins in the Zika virus linked to the severe birth defect microcephaly. Babies ...

  14. In-room Reverberant Multi-link Channels: Preliminary Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinböck, Gerhard; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri;

    We model the delay power spectrum of inroom reverberant multi-link radio channels. The model relies on the empirical observation that the delay power spectrum of each link measured in a closed room, consists of an early peak and a late exponential reverberation tail. The peak vanishes...... spread versus distance for multiple links. These predictions are in good agreement with the estimates obtained from the multi-link measurements....

  15. High Speed Link Radiated Emission Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisognin, P.; Pelissou, P.; Cissou, R.; Giniaux, M.; Vargas, O.

    2016-05-01

    To control the radiated emission of high-speed link and associated unit, the current approach is to implement overall harness shielding on cables bundles. This method is very efficient in the HF/ VHF (high frequency/ very high frequency) and UHF (ultra-high frequency) ranges when the overall harness shielding is properly bonded on EMC back-shell. Unfortunately, with the increasing frequency, the associated half wavelength matches with the size of Sub-D connector that is the case for the L band. Therefore, the unit connectors become the main source of interference emission. For the L-band and S-band, the current technology of EMC back-shell leaves thin aperture matched with the L band half wavelength and therefore, the shielding effectiveness is drastically reduced. In addition, overall harness shielding means significant increases of the harness mass.Airbus D&S Toulouse and Elancourt investigated a new solution to avoid the need of overall harness shielding. The objective is to procure EM (Electro-Magnetic) clean unit connected to cables bundles free of any overall harness shielding. The proposed solution is to implement EMC common mode filtering on signal interfaces directly on unit PCB as close as possible the unit connector.Airbus D&S Elancourt designed and manufactured eight mock-ups of LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling) interface PCBs' with different solutions of filtering. After verification of the signal integrity, three mock-ups were retained (RC filter and two common mode choke coil) in addition to the reference one (without EMC filter).Airbus D&S Toulouse manufactured associated LVDS cable bundles and integrated the RX (Receiver) and TX (Transmitter) LVDS boards in shielded boxes.Then Airbus D&S performed radiated emission measurement of the LVDS links subassemblies (e.g. RX and TX boxes linked by LVDS cables) according to the standard test method. This paper presents the different tested solutions and main conclusions on the feasibility of such

  16. Linking Gestures: Cross-Cultural Variation during Instructional Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey Engle

    2015-01-01

    Deictic linking gestures, hand and arm motions that physically embody links being communicated between two or more objects in the shared communicative environment, are explored in a cross-cultural sample of mathematics instruction. Linking gestures are specifically examined here when they occur in the context of communicative analogies designed to…

  17. "LinkedIn" for Accounting and Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, W. David

    2011-01-01

    LinkedIn is a social media application that every accounting and business student should join and use. LinkedIn is a database of 90,000,000 business professionals that enables each to connect and interact with their business associates. Five reasons are offered for why accounting students should join LinkedIn followed by 11 hints for use.

  18. Synchronization of Nonlinear Oscillators Over Networks with Dynamic Links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the problem of synchronization of homogeneous nonlinear oscillators coupled by dynamic links. The output of the nonlinear oscillators is the input to the dynamic links, while the output of these dynamics links is the quantity available to the distributed controllers at t

  19. Teaching Inquiry with Linked Classes and Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercey, Victor; Cullen, Roxanne

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve problem-solving dispositions, a section of an inquiry-based math sequence for first-year business students was linked with a section of our general education English sequence. We describe how the linked classes worked and compare some preliminary results from linked and unlinked sections of the math sequence.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions X-linked SCID X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is an inherited disorder of the immune ...

  1. Deciding to Change OpenURL Link Resolvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Megan; Leonard, Andrea; Wiswell, John

    2015-01-01

    This article will be of interest to librarians, particularly those in consortia that are evaluating OpenURL link resolvers. This case study contrasts WebBridge (an Innovative Interface product) and LinkSource (EBSCO's product). This study assisted us in the decision-making process of choosing an OpenURL link resolver that was sustainable to…

  2. 21 CFR 11.70 - Signature/record linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Signature/record linking. 11.70 Section 11.70 Food... RECORDS; ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES Electronic Records § 11.70 Signature/record linking. Electronic signatures and handwritten signatures executed to electronic records shall be linked to their...

  3. Linking the Fits, Fitting the Links: Connecting Different Types of PO Fit to Attitudinal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Aegean; Chaturvedi, Sankalp

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the linkages among various types of person-organization (PO) fit and their effects on employee attitudinal outcomes. We propose and test a conceptual model which links various types of fits--objective fit, perceived fit and subjective fit--in a hierarchical order of cognitive information processing and relate them to…

  4. Synthesis of dye linked conducting block copolymers, dye linked conducting homopolymers and preliminary application to photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Hagemann, O.; Jørgensen, M.

    2004-01-01

    A synthetic approach to the synthesis of a large super molecule composed of two chemically different conducting polymer blocks with, respectively, high and low lying electronic energy levels linked through a porphyrin dye molecule is presented. The synthetic strategies to these molecular...

  5. The link between copper and Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, Rupert

    2013-01-01

    Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degeneration) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism leading to copper accumulation in the liver and extrahepatic organs such as the brain and cornea. Patients may present with combinations of hepatic, neurological and psychiatric symptoms. Copper is the therapeutic target for the treatment of Wilson's disease. But how did copper come to be linked with Wilson's disease? The answer encompasses a study of enzootic neonatal ataxia in lambs in the 1930s, the copper-chelating properties of British Anti-Lewisite, and the chemical analysis for copper of the organs of deceased Wilson's disease patients in the mid-to-late 1940s. Wilson's disease is one of a number of copper-related disorders where loss of copper homeostasis as a result of genetic, nutritional or environmental factors affects human health.

  6. MHC Genes Linked to Autoimmune Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitiker, Philip; Atassi, M Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs), or autoinflammatoiy diseases, are growing in complexity as diagnoses improve and many factors escalate disease risk. Considerable genetic similarity is found among ADs, and they are frequently associated with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. However, a given disease may be associated with more than one human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allotype, and a given HLA may be associated with more than one AD. The associations of non-MHC genes with AD present an additional problem, and the situation is further complicated by the role that other factors, such as age, diet, therapeutic drugs, and regional influences, play in disease. This review discusses some of the genetics and biochemistry of HLA-linked AD and inflammation, covering some of the best-studied examples and summarizing indicators for class I- and II-mediated disease. However, the scope of this review limits a detailed discussion of all known ADs.

  7. Links between arterial and venous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandoni, P

    2007-09-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests the likelihood of a link between arterial and venous disease. According to the results of recent studies, atherosclerosis and venous thromboembolism (VTE) share common risk factors, including age, obesity, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Atherosclerosis has the potential to promote the development of thrombotic disorders in the venous system. Another scenario assumes that the two clinical conditions are simultaneously triggered by biological stimuli responsible for activating coagulation and inflammatory pathways in both the arterial and the venous system. Several recent studies have consistently shown that patients with VTE of unknown origin are at a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerotic complications, than patients with secondary VTE and matched control individuals. Future studies are needed to clarify the nature of this association, to assess its extent and to evaluate its implications for clinical practice.

  8. THE LINK BETWEEN ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL EVASION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lăzărescu (Marinescu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, controversies have arisen concerning the link between accounting and fiscal evasion, which are the object of debates among specialists from different specialized organizations from many countries. Under the term of “creative accounting”, the American and European tax systems have made up an ensemble of accounting mechanisms and also of fiscal manipulation which increased the interest and involvement of the states in the mitigation of such fraud risks and fiscal subterfuges whose percentage in the countries’ GDP varies from 8 to 80%. Starting from the SWOT analysis of tax evasion in the real and underground economy, the specialists of the liberal trades are called to join the fight against fiscal fraud and share their professionalism in creating a real competitive environment characterized by fair play.

  9. Linking quality goals and product development competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Johanne Rønnow; Harmsen, Hanne; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Quality is a main determinant of consumer food choice. Product development is accordingly a key activity for companies, because it generates the products on the quality of which consumer choices are based. In this respect, product development managers have a focal role, as their personal quality...... orientation influence the way product development is performed. The aim of this paper is to investigate managerial quality goals and how these may be linked to product development competences, which has not previously been studied. The study draws on an empirical, qualitative study in the Danish food industry......, including reversed laddering sessions with 18 product development managers. Discrepancies between managerial and consumer quality goals are uncovered. Furthermore, the results point to two general dilemmas faced by product development managers in relation to quality; an external stakeholder dilemma...

  10. Empowering pharmacoinformatics by linked life science data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Daria; Zdrazil, Barbara; Digles, Daniela; Ecker, Gerhard F.

    2016-11-01

    With the public availability of large data sources such as ChEMBLdb and the Open PHACTS Discovery Platform, retrieval of data sets for certain protein targets of interest with consistent assay conditions is no longer a time consuming process. Especially the use of workflow engines such as KNIME or Pipeline Pilot allows complex queries and enables to simultaneously search for several targets. Data can then directly be used as input to various ligand- and structure-based studies. In this contribution, using in-house projects on P-gp inhibition, transporter selectivity, and TRPV1 modulation we outline how the incorporation of linked life science data in the daily execution of projects allowed to expand our approaches from conventional Hansch analysis to complex, integrated multilayer models.

  11. Neutropenia Associated with X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghamohammadi Asghar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available X-linked Agammaglobulinemia (XLA is a hereditary immunodeficiency, characterized by an early onset of recurrent bacterial infections, hypogammaglobulinemia and markedly reduced B lymphocytes number. In order to determine the association of neutropenia among Iranian patients with XLA, hospital records of 30 patients with confirmed XLA in Children Medical Center Hospital, were reviewed. Eight out of 30 XLA patients (26.7% developed neutropenia during the course of the disease. In two patients, episodes of neutropenia were identified before or at the time of diagnosis of XLA. Other six patients whom were not visited regularly and did not receive periodical immunoglobulin replacement therapy experienced neutropenia after diagnosis of XLA. Neutropenia in XLA is mainly associated with infection and is resolved with intravenous immunoglobulin replacement and antibiotics therapy.

  12. Identifying links between origami and compliant mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Greenberg

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Origami is the art of folding paper. In the context of engineering, orimimetics is the application of folding to solve problems. Kinetic origami behavior can be modeled with the pseudo-rigid-body model since the origami are compliant mechanisms. These compliant mechanisms, when having a flat initial state and motion emerging out of the fabrication plane, are classified as lamina emergent mechanisms (LEMs. To demonstrate the feasibility of identifying links between origami and compliant mechanism analysis and design methods, four flat folding paper mechanisms are presented with their corresponding kinematic and graph models. Principles from graph theory are used to abstract the mechanisms to show them as coupled, or inter-connected, mechanisms. It is anticipated that this work lays a foundation for exploring methods for LEM synthesis based on the analogy between flat-folding origami models and linkage assembly.

  13. Sharing Epigraphic Information as Linked Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Fernando-Luis; García-Barriocanal, Elena; Gómez-Pantoja, Joaquín-L.

    The diffusion of epigraphic data has evolved in the last years from printed catalogues to indexed digital databases shared through the Web. Recently, the open EpiDoc specifications have resulted in an XML-based schema for the interchange of ancient texts that uses XSLT to render typographic representations. However, these schemas and representation systems are still not providing a way to encode computational semantics and semantic relations between pieces of epigraphic data. This paper sketches an approach to bring these semantics into an EpiDoc based schema using the Ontology Web Language (OWL) and following the principles and methods of information sharing known as "linked data". The paper describes the general principles of the OWL mapping of the EpiDoc schema and how epigraphic data can be shared in RDF format via dereferenceable URIs that can be used to build advanced search, visualization and analysis systems.

  14. High Capacity Radio over Fiber Transmission Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    . This achievement has satisfied the requirements on transmission robustness and high capacity of next generation hybrid optical fibre-wireless networks. One important contribution of this thesis is the novel concept of photonic downconversion with free-running pulsed laser source for phase modulated Radio...... confirmed that this configuration provides high linear end-to-end transmission links and is capable of transparent transport of high spectral efficient modulation formats. Furthermore, this thesis introduces a novel approach for the generation and detection of high speed wireless signals in mm...... of the writing of this thesis. In conclusion, the results presented in this thesis demonstrate the feasibility of photonic technologies for the generation, distribution and detection of high speed wireless signals. Furthermore, it opens the prospects for next generation hybrid wireless-wired access networks...

  15. Linking advanced fracture models to structural analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiesa, Matteo

    2001-07-01

    Shell structures with defects occur in many situations. The defects are usually introduced during the welding process necessary for joining different parts of the structure. Higher utilization of structural materials leads to a need for accurate numerical tools for reliable prediction of structural response. The direct discretization of the cracked shell structure with solid finite elements in order to perform an integrity assessment of the structure in question leads to large size problems, and makes such analysis infeasible in structural application. In this study a link between local material models and structural analysis is outlined. An ''ad hoc'' element formulation is used in order to connect complex material models to the finite element framework used for structural analysis. An improved elasto-plastic line spring finite element formulation, used in order to take cracks into account, is linked to shell elements which are further linked to beam elements. In this way one obtain a global model of the shell structure that also accounts for local flexibilities and fractures due to defects. An important advantage with such an approach is a direct fracture mechanics assessment e.g. via computed J-integral or CTOD. A recent development in this approach is the notion of two-parameter fracture assessment. This means that the crack tip stress tri-axiality (constraint) is employed in determining the corresponding fracture toughness, giving a much more realistic capacity of cracked structures. The present thesis is organized in six research articles and an introductory chapter that reviews important background literature related to this work. Paper I and II address the performance of shell and line spring finite elements as a cost effective tool for performing the numerical calculation needed to perform a fracture assessment. In Paper II a failure assessment, based on the testing of a constraint-corrected fracture mechanics specimen under tension, is

  16. [Link between aluminum neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    Aluminum is an old element that has been known for a long time, but some of its properties are only now being discovered. Although environmentally abundant, aluminum is not essential for life; in fact, because of its specific chemical properties, aluminum inhibits more than 200 biologically important functions and exerts various adverse effects in plants, animals, and humans. Aluminum is a widely recognized neurotoxin. It has been suggested that there is a relationship between exposure to aluminum and neurodegenerative diseases, including dialysis encephalopathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism dementia in the Kii Peninsula and Guam, as well as Alzheimer' s disease: however, this claim remains to be verified. In this chapter, we review the detailed characteristics of aluminum neurotoxicity and the link between Alzheimer' s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, based on recent findings on metal-metal interactions and the functions of metalloproteins in synapses.

  17. Renal cell carcinoma: links and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaria, Reena; Klaassen, Zachary; Terris, Martha K

    2016-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and a summary of the most commonly associated risk factors. A literature review was performed with a focus on recent studies with a high level of evidence (large prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses). The incidence rate of RCC varies globally, with the rate rising rapidly in more developed regions, demonstrating the effects of increased use of diagnostic imaging and prevalence of modifiable risk factors. Based on the current evidence, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most well-established risk factors for sporadic RCC worldwide. Acquired cystic kidney disease is also a significant risk factor, specifically in dialysis patients. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between RCC risk and moderate alcohol consumption. Certain analgesics and occupational exposure have been linked to an increased risk of RCC, although data are limited. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may provide a protective effect. PMID:27022296

  18. DataCite and linked data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Brase

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Science is global, it needs global standards, global workflows and is a cooperation of global players. But science is carried out locally by local scientists that are part of local infrastructures with local funders. DataCite is an international consortium, founded in 2009 of currently 17 institutions from 12 countries worldwide. Its mission is to allow a better re-use and citation of data sets. Over 1 million datasets have been registered with a DOI name as a persistent identifier, so they can be published as independent scientific objects to allow stabile citation of data. Citable data sets can be crosslinked from journal articles, their usage and citations can be measured therefore helping scientists gain credit for making their data available. DataCite offers a central metadata repository with additional linked data service for persistent access to RDF metadata.

  19. Empowering pharmacoinformatics by linked life science data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Daria; Zdrazil, Barbara; Digles, Daniela; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2016-11-09

    With the public availability of large data sources such as ChEMBLdb and the Open PHACTS Discovery Platform, retrieval of data sets for certain protein targets of interest with consistent assay conditions is no longer a time consuming process. Especially the use of workflow engines such as KNIME or Pipeline Pilot allows complex queries and enables to simultaneously search for several targets. Data can then directly be used as input to various ligand- and structure-based studies. In this contribution, using in-house projects on P-gp inhibition, transporter selectivity, and TRPV1 modulation we outline how the incorporation of linked life science data in the daily execution of projects allowed to expand our approaches from conventional Hansch analysis to complex, integrated multilayer models.

  20. A Review of Algebraic Link Analysis Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini Singh Ahuja

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and navigate between them by using hyperlinks. Navigation is the process through which the users can achieve their purposes in using Web site, such as to find the information that they need or to complete the transactions that they want to do. Web mining is the application of data mining techniques to extract knowledge from Web data, where at least one of structure (hyperlink or usage (Web log data is used in the mining process (with or without other types of Web data. In this paper we have briefly discussed the web mining technique with major stress to the link analysis algorithms.

  1. Hypothyroidism and obesity: An intriguing link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debmalya Sanyal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to common perception, hypothyroidism is held responsible for obesity. However, linking them causally is controversial. Overt hypothyroidism is associated with modest weight gain, but there is a lack of clarity regarding subclinical hypothyroidism. Novel view indicates that changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH could well be secondary to obesity. The increasing prevalence of obesity further confounds definition of normal TSH range in population studies. Thyroid autoantibody status may help in establishing the diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism in obesity. High leptin levels may play a role in the hyperthyrotropinemia of obesity and also increase susceptibility to thyroid autoimmunity and subsequent hypothyroidism. There is at most a modest effect of L-T4 treatment in overt hypothyroidism in inducing weight loss; benefit in subclinical hypothyroidism is not established with no data supporting thyroid hormone use in euthyroid obese patients.

  2. The Cross - linking reaction of HEC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Jian; YE Jun; XUAN Zhiyong; XIE Guohui

    2001-01-01

    @@ Cellulose ethers are important components for light industries such as food and papermaking industries. Its modification research is a frontline science to widen their uses and realize their industrialization. The target of modification is to make high production value, low input and meet the needs better in industries. O-(2-hydroxyethl) cellulose (HEC) is one of the best-known cellulose ether derivatives. It is mainly used as thickeners, dispersants, adhesives, extenders, and films because of its water solubility and gel-forming properties. The present research,by means of cross-linking, we study the influence on HEC about rheological behavior.This will provide a feasible scheme for cellulose ethers modification.

  3. The Cross - linking reaction of HEC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG; Jian

    2001-01-01

    Cellulose ethers are important components for light industries such as food and papermaking industries. Its modification research is a frontline science to widen their uses and realize their industrialization. The target of modification is to make high production value, low input and meet the needs better in industries.  O-(2-hydroxyethl) cellulose (HEC) is one of the best-known cellulose ether derivatives. It is mainly used as thickeners, dispersants, adhesives, extenders, and films because of its water solubility and gel-forming properties. The present research,by means of cross-linking, we study the influence on HEC about rheological behavior.This will provide a feasible scheme for cellulose ethers modification.……

  4. Treating dyslipidemias: is inflammation the missing link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsidakis, Nikolaos; Deftereos, Spyridon; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Panagopoulou, Vasiliki; Manolis, Antonis S; Bouras, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade chronic inflammation is now being held as an important process in the development of atherosclerosis, with new links between dyslipidemia and inflammation being constantly found. While most studies aim to discover inflammatory pathways leading from dyslipidemia to atherogenesis, there is evidence that inflammation can also act in reverse, altering lipid metabolism in unfavorable ways, possibly creating a vicious cycle of inflammationdyslipidemia- inflammation. This is highly relevant for the search of novel therapeutic targets. In this review, after a brief account of the inflammatory mechanisms leading from dyslipidemia to atherogenesis, we focus on what is currently known about the ways inflammation can impair lipid metabolism and whether anti-inflammatory therapies could have a role in dyslipidemia management.

  5. New links between Ecuador and CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    A new protocol recently signed in Quito opens the way to stronger links between the Ecuadorian scientific community and CERN. The operational framework provided by the protocol will enable scientists from Ecuador to take part in CERN’s projects, supported by the Ecuadorian authorities.   Picture taken during the signing ceremony at SENESCYT (Quito, Ecuador) on 12 July 2011. From left to right: Guillermo Solórzano, Minister for Coordination of Knowledge and Human Talent, Rene Ramirez Gallegos, National Secretary for Higher Education, Science and Technology - SENECYT, Felicitas Pauss and Jose Salicio from CERN. Ecuador’s involvement with CERN dates back to 1999 when a first International Co-operation Agreement was signed. However, despite these early beginnings,   only a few scientists from Ecuador, affiliated to non-Ecuadorian institutes, have since been directly involved in CERN’s projects, in particular the CMS experiment a...

  6. Applying Linked Data Technologies for Online Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetanka Georgieva-Trifonova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The constantly growing data volume at the companies along with the necessity for finding information for the shortest possible time span involves methods of information search different from the ones conventionally used. The semantic technologies, developed in the late 90s and the beginning of the new century, are viewed as a new generation of databases and as text analyzing technologies. The present paper deals with researching the opportunities and examining the advantages of applying the semantic web technologies and the linked data for online newspapers. Besides, a RDF-based ontology for the purposes of a system for study and evaluation of online editions of regional daily newspapers is proposed. SPARQL endpoint is implemented to access the RDF data.

  7. Synthesis of S-linked oligoxylans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonora, Beatrice

    a big challenge for thebiofuel industry. In particular, the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosicpolysaccharides is one of the limiting steps of the entire procedure and thereforethe enzymes involved in the degradation process must ideally be characterized andunderstood. This requires a detailed......-(1→4)-Dxylopyranosebackbone, which is branched by short carbohydrate chains. Thebranches include D-glucuronic acid and its methyl ether, L-arabinose and/or variousoligosaccharides like D-xylose, L-arabinose, D- or L-galactose and D-glucose. Thehydrolysis of these polysaccharides is catalyzed...... by several families of enzymes,collected under the name of Glycosyl Hydrolases (GHs). Among other methods,the use of enzyme inhibitors like thio-linked oligosaccharides has for a long timebeen a common tool to analyze and characterize these enzymes.In the present work the chemical synthesis of thio...

  8. Improving Schema Matching with Linked Data

    CERN Document Server

    Assaf, Ahmad; Senart, Aline; Follenfant, Corentin; Troncy, Raphaël; Trastour, David

    2012-01-01

    With today's public data sets containing billions of data items, more and more companies are looking to integrate external data with their traditional enterprise data to improve business intelligence analysis. These distributed data sources however exhibit heterogeneous data formats and terminologies and may contain noisy data. In this paper, we present a novel framework that enables business users to semi-automatically perform data integration on potentially noisy tabular data. This framework offers an extension to Google Refine with novel schema matching algorithms leveraging Freebase rich types. First experiments show that using Linked Data to map cell values with instances and column headers with types improves significantly the quality of the matching results and therefore should lead to more informed decisions.

  9. Linking neuronal ensembles by associative synaptic plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Yuan

    Full Text Available Synchronized activity in ensembles of neurons recruited by excitatory afferents is thought to contribute to the coding information in the brain. However, the mechanisms by which neuronal ensembles are generated and modified are not known. Here we show that in rat hippocampal slices associative synaptic plasticity enables ensembles of neurons to change by incorporating neurons belonging to different ensembles. Associative synaptic plasticity redistributes the composition of different ensembles recruited by distinct inputs such as to specifically increase the similarity between the ensembles. These results show that in the hippocampus, the ensemble of neurons recruited by a given afferent projection is fluid and can be rapidly and persistently modified to specifically include neurons from different ensembles. This linking of ensembles may contribute to the formation of associative memories.

  10. Linking Science Fiction and Physics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Krista K.

    2016-05-01

    Generally, cohorts or learning communities enrich higher learning in students. Learning communities consist of conventionally separate groups of students that meet together with common academic purposes and goals. Types of learning communities include paired courses with concurrent student enrollment, living-learning communities, and faculty learning communities. This article discusses a learning community of 21 students that I created with a colleague in the English department. The community encompasses two general education courses: an algebra-based physics course entitled "Intro to Physics" and a literature course entitled "Science Fiction, Science Fact." Students must enroll in both of these courses during the same semester. Additionally, I highlight advantages to linking these courses through surveying the assignments and course materials that we used in our learning community. Figure 1 shows the topics that are covered in both physics and literature courses.

  11. Linking quality of care and training costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin G; Tabor, Ann; Madsen, Mette E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide a model for conducting cost-effectiveness analyses in medical education. The model was based on a randomised trial examining the effects of training midwives to perform cervical length measurement (CLM) as compared with obstetricians on patients' waiting times. (CLM......-performed CLM was the most cost-effective strategy, whereas midwife-performed CLM was cost-effective for WTP values above EUR 0.73 minute(-1) . CONCLUSION: Cost-effectiveness models can be used to link quality of care to training costs. The example used in the present study demonstrated that different training......), as compared with obstetricians. METHODS: The model included four steps: (i) gathering data on training outcomes, (ii) assessing total costs and effects, (iii) calculating the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and (iv) estimating cost-effectiveness probability for different willingness to pay (WTP...

  12. Problem Based Learning - Linking Students and Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Flemming K.

    2006-01-01

    WG2_G4 Problem based learning – linking students and industry: a case study from Aalborg, Denmark Flemming K. Flink ELITE Aalborg University In Aalborg University, Denmark, all study programmes are organised around inter-disciplinary project work in groups. Up to 50% of the study work is problem......-oriented project work: students work in teams to solve externally defined problem areas in co-operation with businesses, organisations and public institutions. Project Organised Problem Based Learning (POPBL) has generated a high degree of cooperation with the society and private companies. There are all the time...... in working life; enterprises with a clear idea of what the university stands for and how the future graduates might fit in as prospective employees; and the university with feedback and cases and ideas which can be used in research and teaching. This presentation has a focus on POPBL in engineering, which...

  13. A link between inflammation and metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M. T.; Forst, B.; Cremers, N.

    2015-01-01

    S100A4 is implicated in metastasis and chronic inflammation, but its function remains uncertain. Here we establish an S100A4-dependent link between inflammation and metastatic tumor progression. We found that the acute-phase response proteins serum amyloid A (SAA) 1 and SAA3 are transcriptional...... targets of S100A4 via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB signaling. SAA proteins stimulated the transcription of RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and presumably secreted), G-CSF (granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor) and MMP2 (matrix metalloproteinase 2), MMP3, MMP9...... and MMP13. We have also shown for the first time that SAA stimulate their own transcription as well as that of proinflammatory S100A8 and S100A9 proteins. Moreover, they strongly enhanced tumor cell adhesion to fibronectin, and stimulated migration and invasion of human and mouse tumor cells...

  14. Smart POI: Open and linked spatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerba, Otakar; Berzins, Raitis; Charvat, Karel; Mildorf, Tomas

    2016-04-01

    The Smart Point of Interest (SPOI) represents an unique seamless spatial data set based on standards recommended for Linked and open data, which are supported by scientist and researchers as well as by several government authorities and European Union. This data set developed in cooperation of partners of SDI4Apps project contains almost 24 millions points of interest focused mainly on tourism, natural features, transport or citizen services. The SPOI data covers almost all countries and territories over the world. It is created as a harmonized combination of global data resources (selected points from OpenStreetMap, Natural Earth and GeoNames.org) and several local data sets (for example data published by the Citadel on the Move project, data from Posumavi region in the Czech Republic or experimental ontologies developed in the University of West Bohemia including ski regions in Europe or historical sights in Rome). The added value of the SDI4Apps approach in comparison to other similar solutions consists in implementation of linked data approach (several objects are connected to DBpedia or GeoNames.org), using of universal RDF format, using of standardized and respected properties or vocabularies (for example FOAF or GeoSPARQL) and development of the completely harmonized data set with uniform data model and common classification (not only a copy of original resources). The SPOI data is published as SPARQL endpoint as well as in the map client. The SPOI dataset is a specific set of POIs which could be "a data fuel" for applications and services related to tourism, local business, statistics or landscape monitoring. It can be used also as a background data layer for thematic maps.

  15. Compulsive exercise: links, risks and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichtenstein MB

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mia Beck Lichtenstein,1 Cecilie Juul Hinze,2 Bolette Emborg,3 Freja Thomsen,2 Simone Daugaard Hemmingsen4 1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, 2Research Unit for Telepsychiatry and E-mental Health, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, Odense, 3Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, 4Research Unit, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Abstract: Compulsive exercise is a condition described since 1970s. It is characterized by a craving for physical training, resulting in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior with harmful consequences, such as injuries and impaired social relations. It has not been accepted as a mental disorder in either International Classification of Diseases or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The aim of this literature review was to critically examine the research on links (comorbidity, risks (negative consequences, and challenges faced (problems in a treatment context. This review found that compulsive exercise is associated with eating disorder pathology, perfectionism, neuroticism, narcissism, and obsessive compulsive traits. The most prominent negative consequences were injuries, social impairment, and depression, but more research is needed to uncover the potential dysfunction resulting from compulsive exercise. As the condition is not recognized as a psychiatric disorder, studies on treatment interventions are sparse. Problems with compliance have been reported; therefore, motivational interviewing has been proposed as a treatment approach, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy. This review summarizes and discusses findings on links/comorbidity, risks/negative consequences, and treatment challenges. We suggest that future studies should pay attention to both prevention and counseling in sports settings, where compulsive exercise

  16. Optimal search strategies on complex multi-linked networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Patti, Francesca; Fanelli, Duccio; Piazza, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of optimal search strategies on multi-linked networks, i.e. graphs whose nodes are endowed with several independent sets of links. We focus preliminarily on agents randomly hopping along the links of a graph, with the additional possibility of performing non-local hops to randomly chosen nodes with a given probability. We show that an optimal combination of the two jump rules exists that maximises the efficiency of target search, the optimum reflecting the topology of the network. We then generalize our results to multi-linked networks with an arbitrary number of mutually interfering link sets. PMID:25950716

  17. Links between energy and food markets. A preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvis, H.J.; Woltjer, G.B.

    2010-04-15

    This report addresses the links between energy and food markets, and the long-term trends and large short-term fluctuations they have undergone. The ways in which these markets are related and which feedback mechanisms must be taken into account in scenario analyses were investigated. On the basis of international studies and prognoses, three links connecting energy and food markets were identified. The first link is formed by the common drivers on the demand side, namely demographic and economic developments, the second link is related to the energy costs of agricultural and food production and distribution, and the third link comprises the role of agriculture as a producer of energy.

  18. Correlations between community structure and link formation in complex networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Links in complex networks commonly represent specific ties between pairs of nodes, such as protein-protein interactions in biological networks or friendships in social networks. However, understanding the mechanism of link formation in complex networks is a long standing challenge for network analysis and data mining. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Links in complex networks have a tendency to cluster locally and form so-called communities. This widely existed phenomenon reflects some underlying mechanism of link formation. To study the correlations between community structure and link formation, we present a general computational framework including a theory for network partitioning and link probability estimation. Our approach enables us to accurately identify missing links in partially observed networks in an efficient way. The links having high connection likelihoods in the communities reveal that links are formed preferentially to create cliques and accordingly promote the clustering level of the communities. The experimental results verify that such a mechanism can be well captured by our approach. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings provide a new insight into understanding how links are created in the communities. The computational framework opens a wide range of possibilities to develop new approaches and applications, such as community detection and missing link prediction.

  19. Critical links and nonlocal rerouting in complex supply networks

    CERN Document Server

    Witthaut, Dirk; Zhang, Xiaozhu; Hallerberg, Sarah; Timme, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Link failures repeatedly induce large-scale outages in power grids and other supply networks. Yet, it is still not well understood, which links are particularly prone to inducing such outages. Here we analyze how the nature and location of each link impact the network's capability to maintain stable supply. We propose two criteria to identify critical links on the basis of the topology and the load distribution of the network prior to link failure. They are determined via a link's redundant capacity and a renormalized linear response theory we derive. These criteria outperform critical link prediction based on local measures such as loads. The results not only further our understanding of the physics of supply networks in general. As both criteria are available before any outage from the state of normal operation, they may also help real-time monitoring of grid operation, employing counter-measures and support network planning and design.

  20. Critical Links and Nonlocal Rerouting in Complex Supply Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthaut, Dirk; Rohden, Martin; Zhang, Xiaozhu; Hallerberg, Sarah; Timme, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Link failures repeatedly induce large-scale outages in power grids and other supply networks. Yet, it is still not well understood which links are particularly prone to inducing such outages. Here we analyze how the nature and location of each link impact the network's capability to maintain a stable supply. We propose two criteria to identify critical links on the basis of the topology and the load distribution of the network prior to link failure. They are determined via a link's redundant capacity and a renormalized linear response theory we derive. These criteria outperform the critical link prediction based on local measures such as loads. The results not only further our understanding of the physics of supply networks in general. As both criteria are available before any outage from the state of normal operation, they may also help real-time monitoring of grid operation, employing countermeasures and support network planning and design.

  1. Conditioned reinforcement dynamics in three-link chained schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B A

    1997-01-01

    In two experiments rats were trained on three-link concurrent-chains schedules of reinforcement. In Experiment 1, additional entries to one terminal link were added during one of the middle links to a baseline schedule that was otherwise equal for the two chains, and, depending on the condition, these additional terminal-link presentations ended either in food or in no food. When food occurred, preference was always in favor of the chain with the additional terminal-link presentations (which also entailed a higher rate of reinforcement). When no food occurred at the end of the additional terminal links, the outcome depended on the nature of the stimuli associated with these additional terminal links. When stimuli different from the reinforced baseline terminal links were used for the no-food terminal links, preference was against the choice alternative that led to the extra periods of extinction. When the same stimulus was used for the two kinds of terminal links, preference was near indifference, that is, significantly greater than when different stimuli were used. In Experiment 2, rats learned repeated reversals of a simultaneous discrimination under a three-link concurrent-chains schedule, in which the food or no-food choice outcomes were delayed until the end of the chain. Different conditions were defined by the point in the chain at which differential stimuli occurred. When the middle and terminal links provided no differential stimuli, discrimination was acquired more slowly than when differential stimuli occurred in both links. When differential stimuli occurred in the middle but not the terminal links, acquisition rates were intermediate. Both experiments together show that the effects of stimuli in a chain schedule are due partly to the time to food correlated with the stimuli and partly to the time to the next conditioned reinforcer in the sequence.

  2. Browsing and Visualization of Linked Environmental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Charalampos; Kyzirakos, Kostis; Bereta, Konstantina; Dogani, Kallirroi; Koubarakis, Manolis

    2014-05-01

    Linked environmental data has started to appear on the Web as environmental researchers make use of technologies such as ontologies, RDF, and SPARQL. Many of these datasets have an important geospatial and temporal dimension. The same is true also for the Web of data that is being rapidly populated not only with geospatial information, but also with temporal information. As the real-world entities represented in linked geospatial datasets evolve over time, the datasets themselves get updated and both the spatial and the temporal dimension of data become significant for users. For example, in the Earth Observation and Environment domains, data is constantly produced by satellite sensors and is associated with metadata containing, among others, temporal attributes, such as the time that an image was acquired. In addition, the acquisitions are considered to be valid for specific periods of time, for example until they get updated by new acquisitions. Satellite acquisitions might be utilized in applications such as the CORINE Land Cover programme operated by the European Environment Agency that makes available as a cartographic product the land cover of European areas. Periodically CORINE publishes the changes in the land cover of these areas in the form of changesets. Tools for exploiting the abundance of geospatial information have also started to emerge. However, these tools are designed for browsing a single data source, while in addition they cannot represent the temporal dimension. This is for two reasons: a) the lack of an implementation of a data model and a query language with temporal features covering the various semantics associated with the representation of time (e.g., valid and user-defined), and b) the lack of a standard temporal extension of RDF that would allow practitioners to utilize when publishing RDF data. Recently, we presented the temporal features of the data model stRDF, the query language stSPARQL, and their implementation in the geospatial

  3. Linking properties to microstructure through multiresolution mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Cahal James

    The macroscale mechanical and physical properties of materials are inherently linked to the underlying microstructure. Traditional continuum mechanics theories have focused on approximating the heterogeneous microstructure as a continuum, which is conducive to a partial differential equation mathematical description. Although this makes large scale simulation of material much more efficient than modeling the detailed microstructure, the relationship between microstructure and macroscale properties becomes unclear. In order to perform computational materials design, material models must clearly relate the key underlying microstructural parameters (cause) to macroscale properties (effect). In this thesis, microstructure evolution and instability events are related to macroscale mechanical properties through a new multiresolution continuum analysis approach. The multiresolution nature of this theory allows prediction of the evolving magnitude and scale of deformation as a direct function of the changing microstructure. This is achieved via a two-pronged approach: (a) Constitutive models which track evolving microstructure are developed and calibrated to direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the microstructure. (b) The conventional homogenized continuum equations of motion are extended via a virtual power approach to include extra coupled microscale stresses and stress couples which are active at each characteristic length scale within the microstructure. The multiresolution approach is applied to model the fracture toughness of a cemented carbide, failure of a steel alloy under quasi-static loading conditions and the initiation and velocity of adiabatic shear bands under high speed dynamic loading. In each case the multiresolution analysis predicts the important scale effects which control the macroscale material response. The strain fields predicted in the multiresolution continuum analyses compare well to those observed in direct numerical simulations of the

  4. Scalable Text and Link Analysis with Mixed-Topic Link Models

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yaojia; Getoor, Lise; Moore, Cristopher

    2013-01-01

    Many data sets contain rich information about objects, as well as pairwise relations between them. For instance, in networks of websites, scientific papers, and other documents, each node has content consisting of a collection of words, as well as hyperlinks or citations to other nodes. In order to perform inference on such data sets, and make predictions and recommendations, it is useful to have models that are able to capture the processes which generate the text at each node and the links between them. In this paper, we combine classic ideas in topic modeling with a variant of the mixed-membership block model recently developed in the statistical physics community. The resulting model has the advantage that its parameters, including the mixture of topics of each document and the resulting overlapping communities, can be inferred with a simple and scalable expectation-maximization algorithm. We test our model on three data sets, performing unsupervised topic classification and link prediction. For both task...

  5. Simulation of Controller Pilot Data Link Communications over VHF Digital Link Mode 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretmersky, Steven C.; Murawski, Robert; Nguyen, Thanh C.; Raghavan, Rajesh S.

    2004-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has established an operational plan for the future Air Traffic Management (ATM) system, in which the Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) is envisioned to evolve into digital messaging that will take on an ever increasing role in controller to pilot communications, significantly changing the way the National Airspace System (NAS) is operating. According to FAA, CPDLC represents the first phase of the transition from the current analog voice system to an International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) compliant system in which digital communication becomes the alternate and perhaps primary method of routine communication. The CPDLC application is an Air Traffic Service (ATS) application in which pilots and controllers exchange messages via an addressed data link. CPDLC includes a set of clearance, information, and request message elements that correspond to existing phraseology employed by current Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures. These message elements encompass altitude assignments, crossing constraints, lateral deviations, route changes and clearances, speed assignments, radio frequency assignments, and various requests for information. The pilot is provided with the capability to respond to messages, to request clearances and information, to report information, and to declare/rescind an emergency. A 'free text' capability is also provided to exchange information not conforming to defined formats. This paper presents simulated results of the aeronautical telecommunication application Controller Pilot Data Link Communications over VHF Digital Link Mode 3 (VDL Mode 3). The objective of this simulation study was to determine the impact of CPDLC traffic loads, in terms of timely message delivery and capacity of the VDL Mode 3 subnetwork. The traffic model is based on and is used for generating air/ground messages with different priorities. Communication is modeled for the en route domain of the Cleveland

  6. A new nonsyndromic X-linked sensorineural hearing impairment linked to Xp21.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalwani, A.K.; Brister, J.R.; Fex, J.; Grundfast, K.M.; Pikus, A.T.; Ploplis, B.; San Agustin, T.; Skarka, H.; Wilcox, E.R. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1994-10-01

    X-linked deafness is a rare cause of hereditary hearing impairment. We have identified a family with X-linked dominant sensorineural hearing impairment, characterized by incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity in carrier females, that is linked to the Xp21.2, which contains the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) locus. The auditory impairment in affected males was congenital, bilateral, profound, sensorineural, affecting all frequencies, and without evidence of radiographic abnormality of the temporal bone. Adult carrier females manifested bilateral, mild-to-moderate high-frequency sensorineural hearing impairment of delayed onset during adulthood. Eighteen commercially available polymorphic markers from the X chromosome, generating a 10-15-cM map, were initially used for identification of a candidate region. DXS997, located within the DMD gene, generated a two-point LOD score of 2.91 at {theta} = 0, with every carrier mother heterozygous at this locus. Recombination events at DXS992 (located within the DMD locus, 3{prime} to exon 50 of the dystrophin gene) and at DXS1068 (5{prime} to the brain promoter of the dystrophin gene) were observed. No recombination events were noted with the following markers within the DMD locus: 5{prime}DYS II, intron 44, DXS997, and intron 50. There was no clinical evidence of Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy in any family member. It is likely that this family represents a new locus on the X chromosome, which when mutated results in nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss and is distinct from the heterogeneous group of X-linked hearing losses that have been previously described. 57 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. AGN Absorption Linked to Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Juneau, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Multiwavelength identification of AGN is crucial not only to obtain a more complete census, but also to learn about the physical state of the nuclear activity (obscuration, efficiency, etc.). A panchromatic strategy plays an especially important role when the host galaxies are star-forming. Selecting far-Infrared galaxies at 0.3link between X-ray absorption and either the gas fraction or the gas geometry in the hosts. These findings have implications for our current understanding of both the AGN unification model and the nature of the black hole-galaxy connection. These proceedi...

  8. Linking natural supersymmetry to flavour physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudas, Emilian [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, CNRS,Palaiseau (France); Gersdorff, Gero von [ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research,Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Sao Paulo State University,Sao Paulo (Brazil); Pokorski, Stefan [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,Warsaw (Poland); Ziegler, Robert [TUM-IAS and Physik Department, Technische Universität München,Munich (Germany)

    2014-01-22

    With the aim of linking natural supersymmetry to flavour physics, a model is proposed based on a family symmetry G×U(1), where G is a discrete nonabelian subgroup of SU(2), with both F-term and (abelian) D-term supersymmetry breaking. A good fit to the fermion masses and mixing is obtained with the same U(1) charges for the left- and right- handed quarks of the first two families and the right-handed bottom quark, and with zero charge for the left-handed top-bottom doublet and the the right handed top. The model shows an interesting indirect correlation between the correct prediction for the V{sub ub}/V{sub cb} ratio and large right-handed rotations in the (s,b) sector, required to diagonalise the Yukawa matrix. For the squarks, one obtains almost degenerate first two generations. The main source of the FCNC and CP violation effects is the splitting between the first two families and the right-handed sbottom determined by the relative size of F-term and D-term supersymmetry breaking. The presence of the large right-handed rotation implies that the bounds on the masses of the first two families of squarks and the right handed sbottom are in a few to a few tens TeV range. The picture that emerges is light stops and left handed sbottom and much heavier other squarks.

  9. MAPCERN links to Google Street View

    CERN Multimedia

    Matilda Heron

    2015-01-01

    CERN’s online maps, MAPCERN, now have the added bonus of Google Street View, thanks to the new release of images of many CERN sites captured by Google.   New Street View images of CERN sites have been added to MAPCERN, see bottom-right-hand image in the screenshot above.   Google Street View, an integrated service of Google Maps introduced in 2007, links 360-degree panoramic photos into a virtual tour. CERN and Google began collaborating on this Street View project in 2010 and now these Street View images have been embedded into MAPCERN, accessible by clicking the “Street View” tab in MAPCERN’s bottom-right-hand window. If you need to locate a building at CERN, or plan an operation on some equipment, you can save time by using the Street View images to check out the area in advance. The CERN Meyrin site has been fully mapped, as well as the surfaces of the eight LHC points, BA2 and BA3. New Street View images of CERN, including the Pr...

  10. Linking unfounded beliefs to genetic dopamine availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmack, Katharina; Rössler, Hannes; Sekutowicz, Maria; Brandl, Eva J.; Müller, Daniel J.; Petrovic, Predrag; Sterzer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Unfounded convictions involving beliefs in the paranormal, grandiosity ideas or suspicious thoughts are endorsed at varying degrees among the general population. Here, we investigated the neurobiopsychological basis of the observed inter-individual variability in the propensity toward unfounded beliefs. One hundred two healthy individuals were genotyped for four polymorphisms in the COMT gene (rs6269, rs4633, rs4818, and rs4680, also known as val158met) that define common functional haplotypes with substantial impact on synaptic dopamine degradation, completed a questionnaire measuring unfounded beliefs, and took part in a behavioral experiment assessing perceptual inference. We found that greater dopamine availability was associated with a stronger propensity toward unfounded beliefs, and that this effect was statistically mediated by an enhanced influence of expectations on perceptual inference. Our results indicate that genetic differences in dopaminergic neurotransmission account for inter-individual differences in perceptual inference linked to the formation and maintenance of unfounded beliefs. Thus, dopamine might be critically involved in the processes underlying one's interpretation of the relationship between the self and the world. PMID:26483654

  11. Linking unfounded beliefs to genetic dopamine availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina eSchmack

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unfounded convictions involving beliefs in the paranormal, grandiosity ideas or suspicious thoughts are endorsed at varying degrees among the general population. Here, we investigated the neurobiopsychological basis of the observed inter-individual variability in the propensity towards unfounded beliefs. 109 healthy individuals were genotyped for four polymorphisms in the COMT gene (rs6269, rs4633, rs4818 and rs4680, also known as val158met that define common functional haplotypes with substantial impact on synaptic dopamine degradation, completed a questionnaire measuring unfounded beliefs, and took part in a behavioural experiment assessing perceptual inference. We found that greater dopamine availability was associated with a stronger propensity towards unfounded beliefs, and that this effect was mediated by an enhanced influence of expectations on perceptual inference. Our results indicate that genetic differences in dopaminergic neurotransmission account for inter-individual differences in perceptual inference linked to the formation and maintenance of unfounded beliefs. Thus, dopamine might be critically involved in the processes underlying one's interpretation of the relationship between the self and the world.

  12. Chemokine Systems Link Obesity to Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuguhito Ota

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. This chronic inflammation is deeply involved in insulin resistance, which is the underlying condition of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. A significant advance in our understanding of obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance has been recognition of the critical role of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs. Chemokines are small proteins that direct the trafficking of immune cells to sites of inflammation. In addition, chemokines activate the production and secretion of inflammatory cytokines through specific G protein-coupled receptors. ATM accumulation through C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 and its ligand monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 is considered pivotal in the development of insulin resistance. However, chemokine systems appear to exhibit a high degree of functional redundancy. Currently, more than 50 chemokines and 18 chemokine receptors exhibiting various physiological and pathological properties have been discovered. Therefore, additional, unidentified chemokine/chemokine receptor pathways that may play significant roles in ATM recruitment and insulin sensitivity remain to be fully identified. This review focuses on some of the latest findings on chemokine systems linking obesity to inflammation and subsequent development of insulin resistance.

  13. Strengthening the link between science and society

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    On Friday 8 July, the lifts in the Main Building filled with directors-general, assistant directors-general, chiefs of staff, and secretaries-general from a veritable alphabet soup of international organisations. They were heading to a round-table discussion about science and society, chaired by CERN Director-General, Rolf Heuer. “We need to get away from talking like the dense books we read, and start speaking in ‘normal’ language,” said one of the delegates during the round table. The 19 high-ranking delegates from UNESCO, DOE, WHO, WMO, and OECD – to name but a few – sat over coffee and a working lunch, sharing ideas and opinions in a deliberately informal setting. Are the benefits of science being appropriately communicated to decision makers? How will basic research cope during these tough economic times? How can the applications of scientific research be more firmly linked to basic scientific research? Delegates jumped from topic to topic: fr...

  14. Tuberculosis and Cardiovascular Disease: Linking the Epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, Moises A; Henson, David; Ticona, Eduardo; Sterling, Timothy R; Garvy, Beth A

    The burden of tuberculosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is enormous worldwide. CVD rates are rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Public health programs have been challenged with the overlapping tuberculosis and CVD epidemics. Monocyte/macrophages, lymphocytes and cytokines involved in cellular mediated immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis are also main drivers of atherogenesis, suggesting a potential pathogenic role of tuberculosis in CVD via mechanisms that have been described for other pathogens that establish chronic infection and latency. Studies have shown a pro-atherogenic effect of antibody-mediated responses against mycobacterial heat shock protein-65 through cross reaction with self-antigens in human vessels. Furthermore, subsets of mycobacteria actively replicate during latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), and recent studies suggest that LTBI is associated with persistent chronic inflammation that may lead to CVD. Recent epidemiologic work has shown that the risk of CVD in persons who develop tuberculosis is higher than in persons without a history of tuberculosis, even several years after recovery from tuberculosis. Together, these data suggest that tuberculosis may play a role in the pathogenesis of CVD. Further research to investigate a potential link between tuberculosis and CVD is warranted.

  15. Neurochemistry of dementia: establishing the links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, P J; Gambetti, P; Harik, S I; Kalaria, R N; Perry, G; Younkin, S I; Tabaton, M; Unnerstall, J R

    1989-01-01

    Neurochemical research in dementia needs to move beyond descriptive inventories of neurotransmitter systems affected in the specific disorders and to link to molecular studies of mechanism and clinical studies of cognition. New advances in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Huntington's Disease (HD), and Parkinson's Disease (PD) are being guided by models of how nerve cells die in these disorders. Theories of pathophysiology which address the cellular level need to explain the selective vulnerability of neuronal populations in the different diseases. Clinically, the importance of neurochemical studies will be increased by understanding the bridges between neural and cognitive processes. Clinicians are concerned about the nosology of dementias, diagnostic tests, and more effective therapies. The value of neurochemical studies will be enhanced to the extent that they can contribute to understanding and modifying the clinical phenomenology of these disorders. In this paper, we will briefly review what is known about the neurochemistry of dementia but focus most of our attention on establishing the linkage between this level of description and the levels of description which are either "downstream" (molecular biology) or "upstream" (cognition) in terms of a reductionistic conception of understanding the disease process. We will explore how understanding neurochemistry relates to our understanding of disease mechanism and what constraints neurochemical studies place on understanding clinical aspects of disease. We will conclude by briefly discussing some of the problems with our current understanding of the neurochemistry of dementia and how we can address those problems in the future.

  16. optical links for the atlas pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Stucci, Stefania Antonia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Optical links are necessary to satisfy the high speed readout over long distances for advanced silicon detector systems. We report on the optical readout used in the newly installed central pixel layer (IBL) in the ATLAS experiment. The off detector readout employs commercial optical to analog converters, which were extensively tested for this application. Performance measurements during installation and commissioning will be shown. With the increasing instantaneous luminosity in the next years, the next layers outwards of IBL of the ATLAS Pixel detector (Layer 1 and Layer 2) will reach their bandwidth limits. A plan to increase the bandwidth by upgrading the off detector readout chain is put in place. The plan also involves new optical readout components, in particular the optical receivers, for which commercial units cannot be used and a new design has been made. The latter allows for a wider operational range in term of data frequency and light input power to match the on-detector sending units on the pres...

  17. Optical links for the ATLAS Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Stucci, Stefania Antonia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Optical links are necessary to satisfy the high speed readout over long distances for advanced silicon detector systems. We report on the optical readout used in the newly installed central pixel layer (IBL) in the ATLAS experiment. The off detector readout employs commercial optical to analog converters, which were extensively tested for this application. Performance measurements during installation and commissioning will be shown. With the increasing instantaneous luminosity in the next years, the next layers outwards of IBL of the ATLAS Pixel detector (Layer 1 and Layer 2) will reach their bandwidth limits. A plan to increase the bandwidth by upgrading the off detector readout chain is put in place. The plan also involves new optical readout components, in particular the optical receivers, for which commercial units cannot be used and a new design has been made. The latter allows for a wider operational range in term of data frequency and light input power to match the on-detector sending units on the pres...

  18. Renal cell carcinoma: links and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabaria R

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reena Kabaria, Zachary Klaassen, Martha K Terris Department of Surgery, Section of Urology, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA Abstract: This review provides an overview of the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC and a summary of the most commonly associated risk factors. A literature review was performed with a focus on recent studies with a high level of evidence (large prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses. The incidence rate of RCC varies globally, with the rate rising rapidly in more developed regions, demonstrating the effects of increased use of diagnostic imaging and prevalence of modifiable risk factors. Based on the current evidence, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most well-established risk factors for sporadic RCC worldwide. Acquired cystic kidney disease is also a significant risk factor, specifically in dialysis patients. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between RCC risk and moderate alcohol consumption. Certain analgesics and occupational exposure have been linked to an increased risk of RCC, although data are limited. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may provide a protective effect. Keywords: renal cell carcinoma, risk factors, incidence, smoking, obesity, hypertension

  19. A cannabinoid link between mitochondria and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert-Chatelain, Etienne; Desprez, Tifany; Serrat, Román; Bellocchio, Luigi; Soria-Gomez, Edgar; Busquets-Garcia, Arnau; Pagano Zottola, Antonio Christian; Delamarre, Anna; Cannich, Astrid; Vincent, Peggy; Varilh, Marjorie; Robin, Laurie M; Terral, Geoffrey; García-Fernández, M Dolores; Colavita, Michelangelo; Mazier, Wilfrid; Drago, Filippo; Puente, Nagore; Reguero, Leire; Elezgarai, Izaskun; Dupuy, Jean-William; Cota, Daniela; Lopez-Rodriguez, Maria-Luz; Barreda-Gómez, Gabriel; Massa, Federico; Grandes, Pedro; Bénard, Giovanni; Marsicano, Giovanni

    2016-11-24

    Cellular activity in the brain depends on the high energetic support provided by mitochondria, the cell organelles which use energy sources to generate ATP. Acute cannabinoid intoxication induces amnesia in humans and animals, and the activation of type-1 cannabinoid receptors present at brain mitochondria membranes (mtCB1) can directly alter mitochondrial energetic activity. Although the pathological impact of chronic mitochondrial dysfunctions in the brain is well established, the involvement of acute modulation of mitochondrial activity in high brain functions, including learning and memory, is unknown. Here, we show that acute cannabinoid-induced memory impairment in mice requires activation of hippocampal mtCB1 receptors. Genetic exclusion of CB1 receptors from hippocampal mitochondria prevents cannabinoid-induced reduction of mitochondrial mobility, synaptic transmission and memory formation. mtCB1 receptors signal through intra-mitochondrial Gαi protein activation and consequent inhibition of soluble-adenylyl cyclase (sAC). The resulting inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of specific subunits of the mitochondrial electron transport system eventually leads to decreased cellular respiration. Hippocampal inhibition of sAC activity or manipulation of intra-mitochondrial PKA signalling or phosphorylation of the Complex I subunit NDUFS2 inhibit bioenergetic and amnesic effects of cannabinoids. Thus, the G protein-coupled mtCB1 receptors regulate memory processes via modulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. By directly linking mitochondrial activity to memory formation, these data reveal that bioenergetic processes are primary acute regulators of cognitive functions.

  20. Linking fearfulness and coping styles in fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina I M Martins

    Full Text Available Consistent individual differences in cognitive appraisal and emotional reactivity, including fearfulness, are important personality traits in humans, non-human mammals, and birds. Comparative studies on teleost fishes support the existence of coping styles and behavioral syndromes also in poikilothermic animals. The functionalist approach to emotions hold that emotions have evolved to ensure appropriate behavioral responses to dangerous or rewarding stimuli. Little information is however available on how evolutionary widespread these putative links between personality and the expression of emotional or affective states such as fear are. Here we disclose that individual variation in coping style predicts fear responses in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using the principle of avoidance learning. Fish previously screened for coping style were given the possibility to escape a signalled aversive stimulus. Fearful individuals showed a range of typically reactive traits such as slow recovery of feed intake in a novel environment, neophobia, and high post-stress cortisol levels. Hence, emotional reactivity and appraisal would appear to be an essential component of animal personality in species distributed throughout the vertebrate subphylum.

  1. Optical Link ASICs for the LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, K K; Kass, R D; Moore, J R; Smith, D S

    2009-01-01

    We have designed three ASICs for possible applications in the optical links of a new layer of pixel detector in the ATLAS experiment for the first phase of the LHC luminosity upgrade. The ASICs include a high-speed driver for the VCSEL, a receiver/decoder to decode the signal received at the PIN diode to extract the data and clock, and a clock multiplier to produce a higher frequency clock to serialize the data for transmission. These ASICs were designed using a 130 nm CMOS process to enhance the radiation-hardness. We have characterized the fabricated ASICs and the submission has been mostly successful. We irradiated the ASICs with 24 GeV/c protons at CERN to a dosage of 70 Mrad. We observed no significant degradation except the driver circuit in the VCSEL driver fabricated using the thick oxide process in order to provide sufficient voltage to drive a VCSEL. The degradation is due to a large threshold shifts in the PMOS transistors used.

  2. Linking energetics and overwintering in temperate insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Brent J

    2015-12-01

    Overwintering insects cannot feed, and energy they take into winter must therefore fuel energy demands during autumn, overwintering, warm periods prior to resumption of development in spring, and subsequent activity. Insects primarily consume lipids during winter, but may also use carbohydrate and proteins as fuel. Because they are ectotherms, the metabolic rate of insects is temperature-dependent, and the curvilinear nature of the metabolic rate-temperature relationship means that warm temperatures are disproportionately important to overwinter energy use. This energy use may be reduced physiologically, by reducing the slope or elevation of the metabolic rate-temperature relationship, or because of threshold changes, such as metabolic suppression upon freezing. Insects may also choose microhabitats or life history stages that reduce the impact of overwinter energy drain. There is considerable capacity for overwinter energy drain to affect insect survival and performance both directly (via starvation) or indirectly (for example, through a trade-off with cryoprotection), but this has not been well-explored. Likewise, the impact of overwinter energy drain on growing-season performance is not well understood. I conclude that overwinter energetics provides a useful lens through which to link physiology and ecology and winter and summer in studies of insect responses to their environment.

  3. Link between vitamin D and airway remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berraies A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anissa Berraies, Kamel Hamzaoui, Agnes HamzaouiPediatric Respiratory Diseases Department, Abderrahmen Mami Hospital, Ariana, and Research Unit 12SP15 Tunis El Manar University, Tunis, TunisiaAbstract: In the last decade, many epidemiologic studies have investigated the link between vitamin D deficiency and asthma. Most studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of asthma and allergies. Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with asthma severity and loss of control, together with recurrent exacerbations. Remodeling is an early event in asthma described as a consequence of production of mediators and growth factors by inflammatory and resident bronchial cells. Consequently, lung function is altered, with a decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second and exacerbated airway hyperresponsiveness. Subepithelial fibrosis and airway smooth muscle cell hypertrophy are typical features of structural changes in the airways. In animal models, vitamin D deficiency enhances inflammation and bronchial anomalies. In severe asthma of childhood, major remodeling is observed in patients with low vitamin D levels. Conversely, the antifibrotic and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D in smooth muscle cells have been described in several experiments. In this review, we briefly summarize the current knowledge regarding the relationship between vitamin D and asthma, and focus on its effect on airway remodeling and its potential therapeutic impact for asthma.Keywords: vitamin D, asthma, airway remodeling, airway smooth muscle, supplementation

  4. Mechanism linking diabetes mellitus and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Goblan AS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah S Al-Goblan,1 Mohammed A Al-Alfi,1 Muhammad Z Khan2 1Diabetes Center, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Buraidah, Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Sulaiman AlRajhi Colleges, Al Bukairiyah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Body mass index has a strong relationship to diabetes and insulin resistance. In obese individuals, the amount of nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol, hormones, cytokines, proinflammatory markers, and other substances that are involved in the development of insulin resistance, is increased. The pathogenesis in the development of diabetes is based on the fact that the β-islet cells of the pancreas are impaired, causing a lack of control of blood glucose. The development of diabetes becomes more inevitable if the failure of β-islet cells of the pancreas is accompanied by insulin resistance. Weight gain and body mass are central to the formation and rising incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This literature review will demonstrate the facts that link obesity with insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. In conclusion, new approaches in managing and preventing diabetes in obese individuals must be studied and investigated based on the facts. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, obesity, insulin resistance

  5. Stronger links between CERN and South Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    iThemba LABS in South Africa is a research facility that, about twenty years ago, started to treat oncological patients with particle beams. Its collaboration with CERN has steadily grown over the years. After becoming a member of the ALICE and ATLAS Collaborations, today iThemba LABS is planning to buy a new medical-use cyclotron proton facility, and is seeking to strengthen its links with CERN and Europe also in this field by collaborating with ENLIGHT. The cyclotron will be dedicated to proton therapy – the only one of its kind in the southern hemisphere.   iThemba LABS (Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences) was established near Cape Town, South Africa almost 50 years ago as the continent's base for the Southern Universities Nuclear Institute that is now used mainly for material science research. In the 1980s, iThemba built a 200MeV cyclotron and, following its construction, in the early 1990s branched into a new scientific field: radiation and nuclear medicine. ...

  6. Missing Links in Antibody Assembly Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Anelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fidelity of the humoral immune response requires that quiescent B lymphocytes display membrane bound immunoglobulin M (IgM on B lymphocytes surface as part of the B cell receptor, whose function is to recognize an antigen. At the same time B lymphocytes should not secrete IgM until recognition of the antigen has occurred. The heavy chains of the secretory IgM have a C-terminal tail with a cysteine instead of a membrane anchor, which serves to covalently link the IgM subunits by disulfide bonds to form “pentamers” or “hexamers.” By virtue of the same cysteine, unassembled secretory IgM subunits are recognized and retained (via mixed disulfide bonds by members of the protein disulfide isomerase family, in particular ERp44. This so-called “thiol-mediated retention” bars assembly intermediates from prematurely leaving the cell and thereby exerts quality control on the humoral immune response. In this essay we discuss recent findings on how ERp44 governs such assembly control in a pH-dependent manner, shuttling between the cisGolgi and endoplasmic reticulum, and finally on how pERp1/MZB1, possibly as a co-chaperone of GRP94, may help to overrule the thiol-mediated retention in the activated B cell to give way to antibody secretion.

  7. Underlay of low-rate machine-type D2D links on downlink cellular links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno K.; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    probability for the MTC link. The results show that SIC is an important enabler of low-power underlay D2D transmission for low-rate machine-type traffic; however, it may incur a significant rate penalty for the cellular users when trying to meet the outage requirements of the MTC link.......Wireless cellular networks feature two emerging technological trends: direct Device-to-Device (D2D) communications and Machine-Type Communications (MTC). MTC devices (MTDs) pose new challenges to the cellular network, such as low transmission power and massive access that can lead to overload...... of the radio interface. In this paper we explore the opportunity opened by D2D links for supporting Low-rate Low-power MTDs that are connected to a nearby device, such as an on-body MTD connected to a mobile phone that acts as a relay towards the Base Station (BS). The low-rate requirement for this D2D...

  8. Cross-link guided molecular modeling with ROSETTA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Kahraman

    Full Text Available Chemical cross-links identified by mass spectrometry generate distance restraints that reveal low-resolution structural information on proteins and protein complexes. The technology to reliably generate such data has become mature and robust enough to shift the focus to the question of how these distance restraints can be best integrated into molecular modeling calculations. Here, we introduce three workflows for incorporating distance restraints generated by chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry into ROSETTA protocols for comparative and de novo modeling and protein-protein docking. We demonstrate that the cross-link validation and visualization software Xwalk facilitates successful cross-link data integration. Besides the protocols we introduce XLdb, a database of chemical cross-links from 14 different publications with 506 intra-protein and 62 inter-protein cross-links, where each cross-link can be mapped on an experimental structure from the Protein Data Bank. Finally, we demonstrate on a protein-protein docking reference data set the impact of virtual cross-links on protein docking calculations and show that an inter-protein cross-link can reduce on average the RMSD of a docking prediction by 5.0 Å. The methods and results presented here provide guidelines for the effective integration of chemical cross-link data in molecular modeling calculations and should advance the structural analysis of particularly large and transient protein complexes via hybrid structural biology methods.

  9. Pontryagin invariants and integral formulas for Milnor's triple linking number

    CERN Document Server

    DeTurck, Dennis; Komendarczyk, Rafal; Melvin, Paul; Shonkwiler, Clayton; Vela-Vick, David Shea

    2011-01-01

    To each three-component link in the 3-sphere, we associate a geometrically natural characteristic map from the 3-torus to the 2-sphere, and show that the pairwise linking numbers and Milnor triple linking number that classify the link up to link homotopy correspond to the Pontryagin invariants that classify its characteristic map up to homotopy. This can be viewed as a natural extension of the familiar fact that the linking number of a two-component link in 3-space is the degree of its associated Gauss map from the 2-torus to the 2-sphere. When the pairwise linking numbers are all zero, we give an integral formula for the triple linking number analogous to the Gauss integral for the pairwise linking numbers. The integrand in this formula is geometrically natural in the sense that it is invariant under orientation-preserving rigid motions of the 3-sphere, while the integral itself can be viewed as the helicity of a related vector field on the 3-torus.

  10. Link prediction in the network of global virtual water trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuninetti, Marta; Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Through the international food-trade, water resources are 'virtually' transferred from the country of production to the country of consumption. The international food-trade, thus, implies a network of virtual water flows from exporting to importing countries (i.e., nodes). Given the dynamical behavior of the network, where food-trade relations (i.e., links) are created and dismissed every year, link prediction becomes a challenge. In this study, we propose a novel methodology for link prediction in the virtual water network. The model aims at identifying the main factors (among 17 different variables) driving the creation of a food-trade relation between any two countries, along the period between 1986 and 2011. Furthermore, the model can be exploited to investigate the network configuration in the future, under different possible (climatic and demographic) scenarios. The model grounds the existence of a link between any two nodes on the link weight (i.e., the virtual water flow): a link exists when the nodes exchange a minimum (fixed) volume of virtual water. Starting from a set of potential links between any two nodes, we fit the associated virtual water flows (both the real and the null ones) by means of multivariate linear regressions. Then, links with estimated flows higher than a minimum value (i.e., threshold) are considered active-links, while the others are non-active ones. The discrimination between active and non-active links through the threshold introduces an error (called link-prediction error) because some real links are lost (i.e., missed links) and some non-existing links (i.e., spurious links) are inevitably introduced in the network. The major drivers are those significantly minimizing the link-prediction error. Once the structure of the unweighted virtual water network is known, we apply, again, linear regressions to assess the major factors driving the fluxes traded along (modelled) active-links. Results indicate that, on the one hand

  11. Dispersion penalty analysis for VSR-1 optical links

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Jiu-chun; CHEN Hong-da; CHEN Xiong-bin; ZHOU Yi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to calculate dispersion penalty for VSR-1 optical links.Based on parameters of a specific VSR-1 link,dispersion penalties are computed for various modal dispersion bandwidths respectively.The worst-case eye closure is expressed numerically by using the signal waveform at time 0,and the signal waveform is obtained in frequency domain through FFT algorithm.By this approach,the dispersion penalty is determined by the shape of transfer functions of the various components in the links.To simplify the derivation of multimode fiber link transfer function,a Gaussian form of normalized impulse response is used.This calculation approach can be used to estimate the worst-case dispersion penalty of VSR-1 links in the link budget analysis.

  12. Accelerating coordination in temporal networks by engineering the link order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki

    2016-02-01

    Social dynamics on a network may be accelerated or decelerated depending on which pairs of individuals in the network communicate early and which pairs do later. The order with which the links in a given network are sequentially used, which we call the link order, may be a strong determinant of dynamical behaviour on networks, potentially adding a new dimension to effects of temporal networks relative to static networks. Here we study the effect of the link order on linear coordination (i.e., synchronisation) dynamics. We show that the coordination speed considerably depends on specific orders of links. In addition, applying each single link for a long time to ensure strong pairwise coordination before moving to a next pair of individuals does not often enhance coordination of the entire network. We also implement a simple greedy algorithm to optimise the link order in favour of fast coordination.

  13. CSIR at INEX 2008 Link-the-Wiki Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Liu, Dan; Fu, Zhenzhen

    In this paper, we describe methods taken by CSIR in the INEX 2008 Link-the-Wiki track. For the incoming link detection, we use p(d|t), the probability to generate a document, when given the topic file, to judge which documents are proper link sources for the given topic. For the file-to-file task of outgoing link detection, we take a two-step approach: first, we identify a group of candidate target documents by literally matching the topic file title and document content; then, candidate documents are ranked by the number of incoming links. For the anchor-to-BEP task, we use p(d|a,t), the probability to generate a document, when given the topic file and an anchor name, to select anchors and link targets for a given topic.

  14. Accelerating coordination in temporal networks by engineering the link order

    CERN Document Server

    Masuda, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Social dynamics on a network may be accelerated or decelerated depending on which pairs of individuals in the network communicate early and which pairs do later. The order with which the links in a given network are sequentially used, which we call the link order, may be a strong determinant of dynamical behaviour on networks, potentially adding a new dimension to effects of temporal networks relative to static networks. Here we study the effect of the link order on linear synchronisation dynamics. We show that the synchronisation speed considerably depends on specific orders of links. In addition, applying each single link for a long time to ensure strong pairwise synchronisation before moving to a next pair of individuals does not often enhance synchronisation of the entire network. We also implement a simple greedy algorithm to optimise the link order in favour of fast synchronisation.

  15. Identification of hybrid node and link communities in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Weixiong

    2015-03-01

    Identifying communities in complex networks is an effective means for analyzing complex systems, with applications in diverse areas such as social science, engineering, biology and medicine. Finding communities of nodes and finding communities of links are two popular schemes for network analysis. These schemes, however, have inherent drawbacks and are inadequate to capture complex organizational structures in real networks. We introduce a new scheme and an effective approach for identifying complex mixture structures of node and link communities, called hybrid node-link communities. A central piece of our approach is a probabilistic model that accommodates node, link and hybrid node-link communities. Our extensive experiments on various real-world networks, including a large protein-protein interaction network and a large network of semantically associated words, illustrated that the scheme for hybrid communities is superior in revealing network characteristics. Moreover, the new approach outperformed the existing methods for finding node or link communities separately.

  16. Selective inattention to anxiety-linked stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, G S; Barbour, J S

    1979-06-01

    The term selective inattention as used here subsumes those phenomena whose primary function is the active blocking or attenuation of partially processed contents en route to conscious expression. Examples are anxiety-motivated forgetting or perceptual distortion and hypnotically induced negative hallucinations. Studies in the field of selective attention have typically been designed to explain what takes place in a task in which the subject is first instructed to attend to a particular stimulus and then to consciously execute that instruction as well as he can. The rejection of content in process is examined only sceondarily as a consequence of the acceptance of relevant information. In the present experiments and theorizing, the emphasis instead is on inhibitory operations that take place automatically, without conscious intent, in response to a potential anxiety reaction. Experiment 1 explored the interaction of anxiety-linked inattention with strength of a target stimulus. Three female subjects were programmed under hypnosis to respond posthypnotically in the On condition with prescribed degrees of anxiety when certain Blacky pictures popped into mind later ,t the end of experimental trials; in the Off conditionall pictures were to become neutral. With the three female subjects still under hypnosis, each of the loaded pictures was then paired with a four-letter work relevant to the individual's own version of what was happening in the picture. The waking recognition task, carried out with amnesia for the prior hypnotic programming, consisted of tachistoscopic exposure of loaded words and physically similar filler words at four durations within a baseline range of recognition accuracy from 50%--75% correct. The data yielded a curvilinear relationship in which the recognition of only the loaded words was significnatly lower in the On condition at the 60%--70% range of recognition accuracy but not at shorter or longer stimulus durations. Experiment 2, for which the

  17. Growth in X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariceta, Gema; Langman, Craig B

    2007-04-01

    Growth failure appears frequently in children with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLHR) due to hypophosphatemia, disease severity, body disproportion, and primary bone abnormality. Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) increases phosphate tubular reabsorption and phosphate level in blood and, thus, constitutes an attractive but controversial therapy in short children with XLHR, those efficacy was demonstrated in small uncontrolled series. Our aim was to report our experience regarding growth in XLHR. Twenty-seven children with XLHR--20 girls, seven boys--diagnosed at a median (md) of 1.46 years of age, (range 0.39-8.5 years), were studied at 10.12 years of age (1.58-18.56), md (range). All received oral treatment with phosphate and calcitriol. At the first visit, grouped Z-height was -1; (-4.58; 0.54) md (range). After 5 years' follow-up (0.92-15.6), Z-height was -0.91 (- 4.56; 0.17), not different from that at baseline (P = 0.465). In 16 children entirely controlled in our program upon presentation, a "catch up" phenomenon after the rickets had healed (P = 0.823) or throughout the long-term was not observed (P = 0.995). Eight patients had a Z-height 2 years at diagnosis, male gender and non-adherence to treatment. Four children, all boys, received rhGH, and in two cases with sufficient follow up stature normalized. No rhGH side effects were observed, and phosphate and calcitriol doses remained stable. Linear growth failure appeared in a third of XLHR children. Efforts need to be made to reduce the age of diagnosis and to improve adherence to treatment. Treatment with rhGH should be considered early, after the rickets has been controlled, in those patients with impaired growth or delayed diagnosis.

  18. Oral microbiome link to neurodegeneration in glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Astafurov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is a progressive optic nerve degenerative disease that often leads to blindness. Local inflammatory responses are implicated in the pathology of glaucoma. Although inflammatory episodes outside the CNS, such as those due to acute systemic infections, have been linked to central neurodegeneration, they do not appear to be relevant to glaucoma. Based on clinical observations, we hypothesized that chronic subclinical peripheral inflammation contributes to neurodegeneration in glaucoma. METHODS: Mouthwash specimens from patients with glaucoma and control subjects were analyzed for the amount of bacteria. To determine a possible pathogenic mechanism, low-dose subcutaneous lipopolysaccharide (LPS was administered in two separate animal models of glaucoma. Glaucomatous neurodegeneration was assessed in the retina and optic nerve two months later. Changes in gene expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 signaling pathway and complement as well as changes in microglial numbers and morphology were analyzed in the retina and optic nerve. The effect of pharmacologic blockade of TLR4 with naloxone was determined. FINDINGS: Patients with glaucoma had higher bacterial oral counts compared to control subjects (p<0.017. Low-dose LPS administration in glaucoma animal models resulted in enhancement of axonal degeneration and neuronal loss. Microglial activation in the optic nerve and retina as well as upregulation of TLR4 signaling and complement system were observed. Pharmacologic blockade of TLR4 partially ameliorated the enhanced damage. CONCLUSIONS: The above findings suggest that the oral microbiome contributes to glaucoma pathophysiology. A plausible mechanism by which increased bacterial loads can lead to neurodegeneration is provided by experiments in animal models of the disease and involves activation of microglia in the retina and optic nerve, mediated through TLR4 signaling and complement upregulation. The finding that commensal

  19. Methane oxidation linked to chlorite dismutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence G.; Baesman, Shaun M.; Carlström, Charlotte I.; Coates, John D.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the potential for CH4 oxidation to be coupled with oxygen derived from the dissimilatory reduction of perchlorate, chlorate, or via chlorite (ClO−2) dismutation. Although dissimilatory reduction of ClO−4 and ClO−3 could be inferred from the accumulation of chloride ions either in spent media or in soil slurries prepared from exposed freshwater lake sediment, neither of these oxyanions evoked methane oxidation when added to either anaerobic mixed cultures or soil enriched in methanotrophs. In contrast, ClO−2 amendment elicited such activity. Methane (0.2 kPa) was completely removed within several days from the headspace of cell suspensions of Dechloromonas agitata CKB incubated with either Methylococcus capsulatus Bath or Methylomicrobium album BG8 in the presence of 5 mM ClO−2. We also observed complete removal of 0.2 kPa CH4 in bottles containing soil enriched in methanotrophs when co-incubated with D. agitata CKB and 10 mM ClO−2. However, to be effective these experiments required physical separation of soil from D. agitata CKB to allow for the partitioning of O2 liberated from chlorite dismutation into the shared headspace. Although a link between ClO−2 and CH4 consumption was established in soils and cultures, no upstream connection with either ClO−4 or ClO−3 was discerned. This result suggests that the release of O2 during enzymatic perchlorate reduction was negligible, and that the oxygen produced was unavailable to the aerobic methanotrophs.

  20. Acute pancreatitis and fibromyalgia: Cytokine link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadat Muzammil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fibromyalgia is a widespread musculoskeletal pain disorder found in 2% of the general population and with a preponderance of 85% in females, and has both genetic and environmental contribution. Acute pancreatitis is a severe condition and in most cases gallstones disease represents approximately half of the cases of acute pancreatitis, and 20-25% are related to alcohol abuse. Small numbers of cases are caused by a variety of other reasons but a few cases have no obvious cause, referred to as ′idiopathic′. Here we present a case where fibromyalgia might be linked to acute pancreatitis. We believe this has not been reported in this context in literature. Case Report: Fibromyalgia is a widespread musculoskeletal pain disorder found in 2% of the general population and with a preponderance of 85% in females, and has both genetic and environmental contribution. Patient had a cholecystectomy eight years previously. Patient feels tired almost all the time due to her fibromyalgia and requires family support for daily routine. Patient′s blood results showed alanine transaminase 527 IU/L, alkaline phosphatase 604 IU/L, bilirubin 34 μmol/L, amylase 2257 IU/L, C-reactive protein 19 mg/L, Gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase 851 IU/L, renal function and electrolytes were within normal limits. The patient was admitted to the high dependency unit with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Conclusion: There is a known increase in levels of cytokines in patients with fibromyalgia. Part of the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis is related to raised cytokines and immune deregulations. We hypothesize that elevated levels of cytokines in fibromyalgia has led to acute pancreatitis in our patient. Further epidemiological research on the incidence of pancreatitis in cytokine mediated conditions such as fibromyalgia is required.

  1. Molecular piracy: the viral link to carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaitz, C M; Hicks, M J

    1998-11-01

    The vast majority of the human experience with viral infections is associated with acute symptoms, such as malaise, fever, chills, rhinitis and diarrhea. With this acute or lytic phase, the immune system mounts a response and eliminates the viral agent while acquiring antibodies to that specific viral subtype. With latent or chronic infections, the viral agent becomes incorporated into the human genome. Viral agents capable of integration into the host's genetic material are particularly dangerous and may commandeer the host's ability to regulate normal cell growth and proliferation. The oncogenic viruses may immortalize the host cell, and facilitate malignant transformation. Cell growth and proliferation may be enhanced by viral interference with tumor suppressor gene function (p53 and pRb). Viruses may act as vectors for mutated proto-oncogenes (oncogenes). Overexpression of these oncogenes in viral-infected cells interferes with normal cell function and allows unregulated cell growth and proliferation, which may lead to malignant transformation and tumour formation. Development of oral neoplasms, both benign and malignant, has been linked to several viruses. Epstein-Barr virus is associated with oral hairy leukoplakia, lymphoproliferative disease, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, B-cell lymphomas, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Human herpesvirus-8 has been implicated in all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphomas, multiple myeloma, angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy, and Castleman's disease. Human herpesvirus-6 has been detected in lymphoproliferative disease, lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. The role of human papillomavirus in benign (squamous papilloma, focal epithelial hyperplasia, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris), premalignant (oral epithelial dysplasia), and malignant (squamous cell carcinoma) neoplasms within the oral cavity is well recognized. Herpes simplex virus may participate as a cofactor in oral squamous

  2. Analyzing the Low Power Wireless Links for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mamun, Md Mainul Islam; Kumar, Sumon; Islam, Md Zahidul

    2010-01-01

    There is now an increased understanding of the need for realistic link layer models in the wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we have used mathematical techniques from communication theory to model and analyze low power wireless links. Our work provides theoretical models for the link layer showing how Packet Reception Rate vary with Signal to Noise Ratio and distance for different modulation schemes and a comparison between MICA2 and TinyNode in terms of PRR.

  3. Scaling of fat-link irrelevant-clover fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Zanotti, J M; Leinweber, D B; Williams, A G; 10.1103/PhysRevD.71.034510

    2005-01-01

    Hadron masses are calculated in quenched lattice QCD on a variety of lattices in order to probe the scaling behavior of the Fat-Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) fermion action, a fat-link clover fermion action in which the purely irrelevant operators of the fermion action are constructed using APE-smeared links. The scaling analysis indicates FLIC fermions provide a new form of nonperturbative O(a) improvement where near-continuum results are obtained at finite lattice spacing.

  4. Incites into Citation Linking using the OAI-PMH

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    deposit process. This highly-distributed approach to citation linking utilises the OAI-PMH to transfer structured citation data between IRs and citation indexing services. OpenURL - a standard for contextual linking using bibliographic data - is now a NISO standard. As well as it's linking role, OpenURL is a useful standard for the transfer of bibliographic data for the purposes of...

  5. Milnor open books of links of some rational surface singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Özbağcı, Burak; Bhupal, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Pacific Journal of Mathematics MILNOR OPEN BOOKS OF LINKS OF SOME RATIONAL SURFACE SINGULARITIES MOHAN BHUPAL AND BURAK OZBAGCI Volume 254 No. 1 November 2011 PACIFIC JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICS Vol. 254, No. 1, 2011 MILNOR OPEN BOOKS OF LINKS OF SOME RATIONAL SURFACE SINGULARITIES MOHAN BHUPAL AND BURAK OZBAGCI We determine Legendrian surgery diagrams for the canonical contact struc-tures of links of rational surface singularities that are also small Seifert...

  6. Link Perdurability Based Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xuebin; Zhou Zheng

    2003-01-01

    Ad Hoc networks are prone to link failures due to mobility. In this letter, a link perdurability based routing scheme is proposed to try dealing with this problem. This scheme uses signal strength measurements to estimate the route life time and hence chooses a stable route, and is implemented in two typical ad hoc routing protocols to evaluate its performance. The simulation results have shown that this scheme can improve these protocols' packet delivery ratio in cases where there are frequent link failures.

  7. Heterogeneity of link weight and the evolution of cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, M

    2015-01-01

    We consider the situation where individuals in a weighted one- or two-dimensional lattice play the prisoner's dilemma game. We investigate the effect of the "heterogeneity of link weight" on the evolution of cooperation. Our analyses show that heterogeneity of link weight can facilitate cooperation. Furthermore, we identify the two key mechanisms by which link-weight heterogeneity promotes the evolution of cooperation and find the conditions under which the mechanisms can work through evolutionary dynamics.

  8. FSO and radio link attenuation: meteorological models verified by experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazda, Vladimir; Fiser, Ondrej; Svoboda, Jaroslav

    2011-09-01

    Institute of Atmospheric Physics of Czech Academy measures atmospheric attenuation on 60 m experimental FSO link on 830 and 1550 nm for more than three years. Visibility sensors and two 3D sonic anemometers on both transmitting and receiving site, rain gauge and many sensors enabling the refractivity index computation are spaced along the optical link. Meteorological visibility, wind turbulent energy, sonic temperature, structure index and rain rate are correlated with measured attenuation. FSO link attenuation dependence on the above mentioned parameters is analyzed. The paper shows also basic statistical behavior of the long-term FSO signal level and also the simulation of hybrid link techniques.

  9. The braid index of complicated DNA polyhedral links.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Sheng Cheng

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to determine the braid index of two types of complicated DNA polyhedral links introduced by chemists and biologists in recent years. We shall study it in a more broad context and actually consider so-called Jaeger's links (more general Traldi's links which contain, as special cases, both four types of simple polyhedral links whose braid indexes have been determined and the above two types of complicated DNA polyhedral links. Denote by b(L and c(L the braid index and crossing number of an oriented link L, respectively. Roughly speaking, in this paper, we prove that b(L = c(L/2 + 1 for any link L in a family including Jaeger's links and contained in Traldi's links, which is obtained by combining the MFW inequality and an Ohyama's result on upper bound of the braid index. Our result may be used to to characterize and analyze the structure and complexity of DNA polyhedra and entanglement in biopolymers.

  10. LinkedIn Marketing An Hour a Day

    CERN Document Server

    von Rosen, Viveka

    2012-01-01

    A step-by-step guide for succeeding on the for ''business'' social media network LinkedIn Marketing: An Hour a Day helps you create, customize, and optimize a presence on LinkedIn, the world's largest social network for professionals. In this detailed, step-by-step book, LinkedIn expert Viveka von Rosen reveals how to use this powerful platform to ensure that you or your company get noticed by the right audience. Discover previously undocumented tips and tricks for community growth and management, including how to best use Groups, events, and other LinkedIn features and applications. Offers a

  11. Influence of propagation in digital wireless beam, microwave links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztejn, J.

    1984-10-01

    Methods are presented for determining the parameters which permit the prediction of the quality of tropospheric scattering and line of sight microwave links. Wireless beam, microwave links with tropospheric scattering are considered based on experiments for determining the coherence band which is the essential parameter for digital transmission by tropospheric scattering. The effects of propagation difficulties in line of sight links are discussed with focus on depolarization and selective fading. Experimental results are given which permit calculating the sensitivity of equipment and predicting the quality of the links.

  12. Reliability of capacitors for DC-link applications - An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    DC-link capacitors are an important part in the majority of power electronic converters which contribute to cost, size and failure rate on a considerable scale. From capacitor users' viewpoint, this paper presents a review on the improvement of reliability of DC-link in power electronic converters...... from two aspects: 1) reliability-oriented DC-link design solutions; 2) conditioning monitoring of DC-link capacitors during operation. Failure mechanisms, failure modes and lifetime models of capacitors suitable for the applications are also discussed as a basis to understand the physics-of-failure...

  13. Dual Purpose Simulation: New Data Link Test and Performance Limit Testing of Currently Deployed Data Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    While the results of this paper are similar to those of [I], in this paper technical difficulties present in [I] are eliminated, producing better results, enabling one to more readily see the benefits of Prioritized CSMA (PCSMA). A new analysis section also helps to generalize this research so that it is not limited to exploration of the new concept of PCSMA. Commercially available network simulation software, OPNET version 7.0, simulations are presented involving an important application of the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN), Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) over the Very High Frequency Data Link Mode 2 (VDL-2). Communication is modeled for essentially all incoming and outgoing nonstop air-traffic for just three United States cities: Cleveland, Cincinnati, and Detroit. The simulation involves 111 Air Traffic Control (ATC) ground stations, 32 airports distributed throughout the U.S., which are either sources or destinations for the air traffic landing or departing from the three cities, and also 1,235 equally equipped aircraft-taking off, flying realistic free-flight trajectories, and landing in a 24-hr period. Collision-less PCSMA is successfully tested and compared with the traditional CSMA typically associated with VDL-2. The performance measures include latency, throughput, and packet loss. As expected, PCSMA is much quicker and more efficient than traditional CSMA. These simulation results show the potency of PCSMA for implementing low latency, high throughput and efficient connectivity. Moreover, since PCSMA outperforms traditional CSMA, by simulating with it, we can determine the limits of performance beyond which traditional CSMA may not pass. So we have the tools to determine the traffic-loading conditions where traditional CSMA will fail, and we are testing a new and better data link that could replace it with relative ease. Work is currently being done to drastically expand the number of flights to make the simulation more

  14. Link22-北约国家的下一代战术数据链%Link 22-A Next Generation Uactical Data Link for NATO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁炎; 陆建勋

    2006-01-01

    Link-22是"北约改进Link-11"(NILE)定义的新型战术数据链,一种抗电子干扰、保密可靠、灵活机动的超视距数字数据通信系统,以便最终取代Link-11和补充完善Link-16.其目的是增加战术数据传输时间和传输高优先权的报警及作战命令,改进盟军互操作能力和增强指挥作战能力.

  15. LINK PREDICTION MODEL FOR PAGE RANKING OF BLOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Geetha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Social Network Analysis is mapping and measuring of relationships and flows of information between people, organizations, computers, or other information or knowledge processing entities. Social media systems such as blogs, LinkedIn, you tube are allows users to share content media, etc. Blog is a social network notepad service with consider on user interactions. In this paper study the link predictionand page ranking using MozRank algorithm using blog websites. It finds out how all the websites on the internet link to each other with the largest Link Intelligence database. As link data is also a component of search engine ranking, understanding the link profile of Search Engine positioning. Here the MozRank algorithm is using backlinks from blog websites and linking websites quality. Good websites with many backlinks which linking the corresponding WebPage give highly value of MozRank. MozRank can be improved a web page's by getting lots of links from semi-popular pages or a few links from very popular pages. The algorithm for page ranking must work differently and MozRank is more comprehensive and accurate than Goggle’s page rank. Another tool is Open Site Explorer that is ability to compare five URL's against each other. Open Site Explorer’s Compare Link Metrics option is how one measures pagelevel metrics, the other domain. This result can help to generate a chart form for the comparative URLs. A comparison chart of the important metrics for these pages is shown which makes it very clear and easy to compare the data between the five URL's.

  16. First two ALMA antennas successfully linked

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Scientists and engineers working on the world's largest ground-based astronomical project, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), have achieved another milestone -- the successful linking of two ALMA astronomical antennas, synchronised with a precision of one millionth of a millionth of a second -- to observe the planet Mars. ALMA is under construction by an international partnership in the Chilean Andes. ESO PR Photo 18a/09 The two ALMA antennas On 30 April, the team observed the first "interferometric fringes" of an astronomical source by linking two 12-metre diameter ALMA antennas, together with the other critical parts of the system. Mars was chosen as a suitable target for the observations, which demonstrate ALMA's full hardware functionality and connectivity. This important milestone was achieved at the ALMA Operations Support Facility, high in Chile's Atacama region, at an altitude of 2900 metres. "We're very proud and excited to have made this crucial observation, as it proves that the various hardware components work smoothly together. This brings us another step closer to full operations for ALMA as an astronomical observatory," says Wolfgang Wild, the European ALMA Project Manager. The two antennas used in this test will be part of ALMA's array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas that will observe in unison as a single giant telescope, under construction on the Chajnantor plateau above the Operations Support Facility, at an altitude of 5000 metres. ALMA will operate as an interferometer, capturing millimetre and submillimetre wavelength signals from the sky with multiple antennas, and combining them to create extremely high resolution images, similar to those that would be obtained by a single, giant antenna with a diameter equal to the distance between the antennas used. "This can only be achieved with the perfect synchronisation of the antennas and the electronic equipment: a precision much better than one millionth of

  17. Longitudinal Evidence Linking Processing Speed to the Development of Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kail, Robert V.; Lervåg, Arne; Hulme, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Age-related change in processing speed has been linked directly to increases in reasoning as well as indirectly via increases in the capacity of working memory (WM). Most of the evidence linking change in speed to reasoning has come from cross-sectional research; in this article we present the findings from a 2½-year longitudinal study of 277 6-…

  18. The payload/shuttle-data-communication-link handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Communication links between the Orbiter, payloads, and ground are described: end-to-end, hardline, S-band, Ku-band, TDRSS relay, waveforms, premodulation, subcarrier modulation, carrier modulation, transmitter power, antennas, the RF channel, system noise, received signal-to-noise spectral density, carrier-tracking loop, carrier demodulation, subcarrier demodulation, digital data detection, digital data decoding, and tandem link considerations.

  19. Is Multilingualism Linked to a Higher Tolerance of Ambiguity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWaele, Jean-Marc; Wei, Li

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the link between multilingualism and the personality trait Tolerance of Ambiguity (TA) among 2158 mono-, bi- and multilinguals. Monolinguals and bilinguals scored significantly lower on TA compared to multilinguals. A high level of global proficiency of various languages was linked to higher TA scores. A stay abroad…

  20. grlc Makes GitHub Taste Like Linked Data APIs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, A.; Hoekstra, Rinke; Sack, H; Rizzo, G; Steinmetz, N; Mladenić, D; Auer, S; Lange, C

    2016-01-01

    Building Web APIs on top of SPARQL endpoints is becoming a common practice to enable universal access to the integration favorable dataspace of Linked Data. However, the Linked Data community cannot expect users to learn SPARQL to query this dataspace, and Web APIs are the most extended way of enabl

  1. Selected Slither Link Variants are NP-complete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölker, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    In a Slither Link puzzle, the player must draw a cycle in a planar graph, such that the number of edges incident to a set of clue faces equals the set of given clue values. We show that for a number of commonly played graph classes, the Slither Link puzzle is NP-complete....

  2. Multi-Functional Fibre-Optic Microwave Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliese, Ulrik Bo

    1998-01-01

    GHz RF carrier. The frequency converting link demonstrates up-conversion of a 100 Mbit/s PSK signal from a 2 GHz carrier to a 9 GHz carrier with penalty-free transmission over 25 km of optical fibre. Finally, the transparent signal recovering link transmits a standard FM video 7.6 GHz radio...

  3. Sextant: Visualizing time-evolving linked geospatial data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolaou, C.; Dogani, K.; Bereta, K.; Garbis, G.; Karpathiotakis, M.; Kyzirakos, K.; Koubarakis, M.

    2015-01-01

    The linked open data cloud is constantly evolving as datasets get continuously updated with newer versions. As a result, representing, querying, and visualizing the temporal dimension of linked data is crucial. This is especially important for geospatial datasets that form the backbone of large scal

  4. Linked Psychology and Writing Courses across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargill, Kima; Kalikoff, Beth

    2007-01-01

    To enhance student performance, prevent attrition, and build a learning community, two courses were linked together by requiring concurrent enrollment. "Writing Effectively," an upper-division composition course, was linked with "Abnormal Psychology," an upper-division clinical psychology course, requiring concurrent enrollment in both. In short,…

  5. Community detection in networks with positive and negative links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, V.A.; Bruggeman, J.

    2009-01-01

    Detecting communities in complex networks accurately is a prime challenge, preceding further analyses of network characteristics and dynamics. Until now, community detection took into account only positively valued links, while many actual networks also feature negative links. We extend an existing

  6. Organic farming, soil health, and food quality: considering possible links

    Science.gov (United States)

    That the health of soils, plants, animals and people are linked is an ancient idea that still resonates. It is well known that soil nutrient deficiencies and toxicities can adversely impact plant and animal health. Growing evidence also supports the idea of positive links between farm management, so...

  7. Decreasing the spectral radius of a graph by link removals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mieghem, P.; Stevanović, D.; Kuipers, F.; Li, C.; Van de Bovenkamp, R.; Liu, D.; Wang, H.

    2011-01-01

    The decrease of the spectral radius, an important characterizer of network dynamics, by removing links is investigated. The minimization of the spectral radius by removing m links is shown to be an NP-complete problem, which suggests considering heuristic strategies. Several greedy strategies are co

  8. Linking nursing theory and practice: a critical-feminist approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Jane M

    2005-01-01

    Situated in a critical-feminist perspective, this article describes a pedagogical approach to linking nursing theory and practice. The inclusion of the critical humanities is emphasized in creating an environment in which this linkage can be reified for learners. Implications for the future of nursing theory and its links to practice in the context of current political realities in academia are considered.

  9. Impact of wireless link quality across communication layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, wireless networks are used in most of the applications with radio technologies being used in all kinds of wireless networks. In all wireless links, the transmitted packets can be lost. How to identify the quality of a certain wireless link and achieve the best delivery performance over a c

  10. Dissemination of the Linked-benefit Strategy in Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Goemans, M.; Bork, S.

    2009-01-01

    Multinationals wanting to sell eco-friendly products are advised by the green-marketing literature to apply a socalled linked-benefit strategy [1, 2, p.121], which describes attributes of a product (or service) that are positive for the environment and links those to benefits for the consumer (e.g.

  11. In Which "Linked Data" Means "a Better Web"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnov, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about linked data and focuses on the main point of linked data: building a better web. Even though how people build the web has changed steadily over the years (and keeps changing, as programmers switch toolkits and frameworks every few years, disposing of older languages and tools when newer, better ones come…

  12. 100 Gb/s single VCSEL data transmission link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Li, Bomin

    2012-01-01

    100 Gb/s optical fiber transmission link with a single 1.5 um VCSEL has been experimentally demonstrated using 4-level pulse amplitude modulation.......100 Gb/s optical fiber transmission link with a single 1.5 um VCSEL has been experimentally demonstrated using 4-level pulse amplitude modulation....

  13. Learning by Example: Designing and Developing Linked Data Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharani, Karim

    2016-01-01

    According to constructivist theory of learning, new knowledge is learned on the basis of what is already known by learners. Thus for an emerging and transformative technology such as Linked Data to be learned, the technology must be made relevant for learners and must be compatible with their skillset. Designing and developing Linked Data…

  14. LSD Dimensions: Use and Reuse of Linked Statistical Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, Albert

    2014-01-01

    RDF Data Cube (QB) has boosted the publication of Linked Statistical Data (LSD) on the Web, making them linkable to other related datasets and concepts following the Linked Data paradigm. In this demo we present LSD Dimensions, a web based application that monitors the usage of dimensions and codes

  15. Testing UV-filtered ("fat-link") clover fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Capitani, S; Hölbling, C; Capitani, Stefano; Durr, Stephan; Hoelbling, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We investigate filtered clover fermions, built from fat gauge links, both in one-loop perturbation theory and in numerical simulations. We use a variety of filtering recipes (APE, HYP, EXP, HEX), some of which are suitable for a HMC with dynamical fermions. A generic filtering together with a (fat-link) clover term yields fermions with much reduced chiral symmetry breaking.

  16. Comparison of Fat7-bar and HYP fat links

    CERN Document Server

    Bilson-Thompson, S O

    2004-01-01

    We study various methods of constructing fat links based upon the HYP (by Hasenfratz & Knechtli) and Fat7-bar (by W. Lee) algorithms. We present the minimum plaquette distribution for these fat links. This enables us to determine which algorithm is most effective at reducing the spread of plaquette values.

  17. Evaluation of Linked Data tools for Learning Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrik, Drachsler; Herder, Eelco; d'Aquin, Mathieu; Dietze, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Herder, E., d'Aquin, M., & Dietze, S. (2013, 8-12 April). Evaluation of Linked Data tools for Learning Analytics. Presentation given in the tutorial on 'Using Linked Data for Learning Analytics' at LAK2013, the Third Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge, Leuven, Belgium.

  18. Linking of total elbow prosthesis during surgery; a biomechanical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M.J. de; Wagener, M.L.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Eygendaal, D.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Presently, 2 types of elbow prostheses are used: unlinked and linked. The Latitude total elbow prosthesis allows the surgeon to decide during the implantation whether the prosthesis is placed unlinked or linked, and whether the native radial head is retained, resected, or replaced. The p

  19. Elasticity of cross-linked semiflexible biopolymers under tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Heydt, Alice; Wilkin, Daniel; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2013-09-01

    Aiming at the mechanical properties of cross-linked biopolymers, we set up and analyze a model of two weakly bending wormlike chains subjected to a tensile force, with regularly spaced inter-chain bonds (cross-links) represented by harmonic springs. Within this model, we compute the force-extension curve and the differential stiffness exactly and discuss several limiting cases. Cross-links effectively stiffen the chain pair by reducing thermal fluctuations transverse to the force and alignment direction. The extra alignment due to cross-links increases both with growing number and with growing strength of the cross-links, and is most prominent for small force f. For large f, the additional, cross-link-induced extension is subdominant except for the case of linking the chains rigidly and continuously along their contour. In this combined limit, we recover asymptotically the elasticity of a weakly bending wormlike chain without constraints, stiffened by a factor of 4. The increase in differential stiffness can be as large as 100% for small f or large numbers of cross-links.

  20. LinkedIn as a Learning Tool in Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Brett; Naatus, Mary Kate

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the existing research on social media as a learning tool in higher education and adds to the literature on incorporating social media tools into collegiate business education by suggesting specific course content areas of business where LinkedIn exercises and training can be incorporated. LinkedIn as a classroom tool cannot…

  1. Nephrology and astrology--is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S

    1990-07-01

    Astrologers presume a link between the susceptibility of particular organs to disease and signs of the Zodiac. A simple test of the positive connection between renal disease and the sign of Libra was undertaken by studying the birth dates of consecutive nephrology in-patient admissions. No significant link was found on analysis, thus disproving the traditional astrologers' claims.

  2. Rainfall measurement using radio links from cellular communication networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Stricker, J.N.M.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the potential of radio links such as employed by commercial cellular communication companies to monitor path-averaged rainfall. We present an analysis of data collected using two 38-GHz links during eight rainfall events over a 2-month period (October¿November 2003) during mostly stra

  3. Experimental radio frequency link for Ka-band communications applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Gene; Conray, Martin J.; Saunders, Alan L.; Pope, Dale E.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental radio frequency link has been demonstrated to provide two-way communication between a remote user ground terminal and a ground-based Ka-band transponder. Bit-error-rate performance and radio frequency characteristics of the communication link were investigated.

  4. New active load voltage clamp for HF-link converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a new active clamp for HF-link converters, which features very high efficiency by returning the clamped energy back to the primary side through a small auxiliary converter. It also increases the reliability of HF-link converters by providing an alternative load current path du...

  5. Culture, Self, and Collectivist Communication: Linking Culture to Individual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singelis, Theodore M.; Brown, William J.

    1995-01-01

    Develops and demonstrates a theoretical framework and corresponding methodology to link variables at the culture level to the individual level and, then, to specific outcome variables. Tests a path-analytic model linking cultural collectivism with interdependent self-construals and high-context communication. Discusses implications for theory…

  6. Regioselective oxidation of unprotected 1,4 linked glucans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisink, Niek N.H.M.; Lohse, Jonas; Witte, Martin D.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2016-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed alcohol oxidation allows the chemo- and regioselective modification of unprotected 1,4 linked glucans. This is demonstrated in the two-step bisfunctionalization of 1,4 linked glucans up to the 7-mer. Introduction of an anomeric azide is followed by a highly regioselective mono-ox

  7. Linking through Improved Design, Not Redefinition: Commentary on Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    "Linking" is a term given to a general class of procedures by which one represents scores X on one test or measure in terms of scores Y on another test or measure. A recent taxonomy by Holland and Dorans (2006; Holland, 2007) organizes the various types of links into three broad categories: prediction, scale aligning, and equating. In his article…

  8. Radiation cross-linked polyolefin-insulated wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, K.; Ishitani, H.

    Because radiation cross-linked polyolefin has excellent mechanical heat resistance, its application limit can be expanded extremely by improving the resistance against heat oxidation and flame. This paper is concerning a halogen free radiation cross-linked polyolefin-insulated wire having excellent heat resistance and flameretardant property, which is used for appliances.

  9. Predicting links based on knowledge dissemination in complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Jia, Yifan

    2017-04-01

    Link prediction is the task of mining the missing links in networks or predicting the next vertex pair to be connected by a link. A lot of link prediction methods were inspired by evolutionary processes of networks. In this paper, a new mechanism for the formation of complex networks called knowledge dissemination (KD) is proposed with the assumption of knowledge disseminating through the paths of a network. Accordingly, a new link prediction method-knowledge dissemination based link prediction (KDLP)-is proposed to test KD. KDLP characterizes vertex similarity based on knowledge quantity (KQ) which measures the importance of a vertex through H-index. Extensive numerical simulations on six real-world networks demonstrate that KDLP is a strong link prediction method which performs at a higher prediction accuracy than four well-known similarity measures including common neighbors, local path index, average commute time and matrix forest index. Furthermore, based on the common conclusion that an excellent link prediction method reveals a good evolving mechanism, the experiment results suggest that KD is a considerable network evolving mechanism for the formation of complex networks.

  10. Link-layer jamming attacks on S-MAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Yee Wei; Hartel, Pieter; Hartog, den Jerry; Havinga, Paul

    2005-01-01

    We argue that among denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, link-layer jamming is a more attractive option to attackers than radio jamming is. By exploiting the semantics of the link-layer protocol (aka MAC protocol), an attacker can achieve better efficiency than blindly jamming the radio signals alone. W

  11. Linking through Improved Design, Not Redefinition: Commentary on Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    "Linking" is a term given to a general class of procedures by which one represents scores X on one test or measure in terms of scores Y on another test or measure. A recent taxonomy by Holland and Dorans (2006; Holland, 2007) organizes the various types of links into three broad categories: prediction, scale aligning, and equating. In…

  12. A VGI data integration framework based on linked data model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lin; Ren, Rongrong

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims at the geographic data integration and sharing method for multiple online VGI data sets. We propose a semantic-enabled framework for online VGI sources cooperative application environment to solve a target class of geospatial problems. Based on linked data technologies - which is one of core components of semantic web, we can construct the relationship link among geographic features distributed in diverse VGI platform by using linked data modeling methods, then deploy these semantic-enabled entities on the web, and eventually form an interconnected geographic data network to support geospatial information cooperative application across multiple VGI data sources. The mapping and transformation from VGI sources to RDF linked data model is presented to guarantee the unique data represent model among different online social geographic data sources. We propose a mixed strategy which combined spatial distance similarity and feature name attribute similarity as the measure standard to compare and match different geographic features in various VGI data sets. And our work focuses on how to apply Markov logic networks to achieve interlinks of the same linked data in different VGI-based linked data sets. In our method, the automatic generating method of co-reference object identification model according to geographic linked data is discussed in more detail. It finally built a huge geographic linked data network across loosely-coupled VGI web sites. The results of the experiment built on our framework and the evaluation of our method shows the framework is reasonable and practicable.

  13. Test equating, scaling, and linking methods and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Kolen, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to test equating, scaling, and linking, including those concepts and practical issues that are critical for developers and all other testing professionals.  In addition to statistical procedures, successful equating, scaling, and linking involves many aspects of testing, including procedures to develop tests, to administer and score tests, and to interpret scores earned on tests. Test equating methods are used with many standardized tests in education and psychology to ensure that scores from multiple test forms can be used interchangeably.  Test scaling is the process of developing score scales that are used when scores on standardized tests are reported. In test linking, scores from two or more tests are related to one another. Linking has received much recent attention, due largely to investigations of linking similarly named tests from different test publishers or tests constructed for different purposes. In recent years, researchers from the education, psychology, and...

  14. Research Progress in Corneal Cross-linking Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Li; Xiujun Peng; Zhengjun Fan

    2014-01-01

    Corneal collagen cross-linking with UVA-riboflavin is cur-rently the only method for preventing the progression of kera-toconus from the pathological perspective. Topical application of a direct cross-linking agent is now attracting widespread at-tention in clinical settings..This article reviews the research progress in the application of indirect or direct cross-linking agents (e.g., riboflavin, glucose, ribose, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde,.glyceraldehyde,.short chain aliphatic β-nitro alcohol, and genipin) in the treatment of corneal diseases and analyzes the cross-linking efficacy,.toxicity,.and merits and disadvantages of each cross-linking agent,.providing clinical information for further studies.

  15. The Algorithm of Link Prediction on Social Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, most link prediction algorithms are based on the similarity between two entities. Social network topology information is one of the main sources to design the similarity function between entities. But the existing link prediction algorithms do not apply the network topology information sufficiently. For lack of traditional link prediction algorithms, we propose two improved algorithms: CNGF algorithm based on local information and KatzGF algorithm based on global information network. For the defect of the stationary of social network, we also provide the link prediction algorithm based on nodes multiple attributes information. Finally, we verified these algorithms on DBLP data set, and the experimental results show that the performance of the improved algorithm is superior to that of the traditional link prediction algorithm.

  16. Link power coordination for energy conservation in complex communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Communication networks consume huge, and rapidly growing, amount of energy. However, a lot of the energy consumption is wasted due to the lack of global link power coordination in these complex systems. This paper proposes several link power coordination schemes to achieve energy-efficient routing by progressively putting some links into energy saving mode and hence aggregating traffic during periods of low traffic load. We show that the achievable energy savings not only depend on the link power coordination schemes, but also on the network topologies. In the random network, there is no scheme that can significantly outperform others. In the scale-free network, when the largest betweenness first (LBF) scheme is used, phase transition of the networks' transmission capacities during the traffic cooling down phase is observed. Motivated by this, a hybrid link power coordination scheme is proposed to significantly reduce the energy consumption in the scale-free network. In a real Internet Service Provider (ISP)'...

  17. Independent and linked migrants: determinants of African American interstate migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S W; Roseman, C C

    1997-01-01

    "Through kinship and other links to destinations, many African American interstate migrants in the United States join other people in destination households. These ¿linked' migrants contrast to ¿independent migrants' who move as individuals or intact groups and set up their own households at the destination. Using U.S. Census Public Use Micro Sample data, this paper first shows that, in the 1985-90 period, about 45 percent of all Black interstate migrants were independent, compared to 38 percent who were linked to housing at the destination and 17 percent who moved into group quarters. Second, a multinomial logit model, incorporating individual and state-level variables, is specified that contrasts the determinants of independent and linked migration.... It is concluded that the understanding of Black migration must take into account a variety of factors beyond traditional labor market conditions, including links to the destination and individual housing circumstances."

  18. Autism and X-linked hypophosphatemia: A possible association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Vermeersch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We herein report the joint occurrence of an autistic disorder (AD and X-linked hypophosphatemia. X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH, an X-linked dominant disorder, is the most common of the inherited renal phosphate wasting disorders. Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder that occurs mainly due to genetic causes. In approximately 6-15% of cases, the autistic phenotype is a part of a broader genetic condition called syndromic autism. Therefore, reports of cases with the joint occurrence of a known genetic syndrome and a diagnosis of ASD by a child psychiatrist are relevant. A joint occurrence does not, however, mean that there is always a causal link between the genetic syndrome and the autistic behavioural phenotype. In this case, there are a number of arguments countering a causal link.

  19. Linked Data: what does it offer Earth Sciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Simon; Schade, Sven

    2010-05-01

    'Linked Data' is a current buzz-phrase promoting access to various forms of data on the internet. It starts from the two principles that have underpinned the architecture and scalability of the World Wide Web: 1. Universal Resource Identifiers - using the http protocol which is supported by the DNS system. 2. Hypertext - in which URIs of related resources are embedded within a document. Browsing is the key mode of interaction, with traversal of links between resources under control of the client. Linked Data also adds, or re-emphasizes: • Content negotiation - whereby the client uses http headers to tell the service what representation of a resource is acceptable, • Semantic Web principles - formal semantics for links, following the RDF data model and encoding, and • The 'mashup' effect - in which original and unexpected value may emerge from reuse of data, even if published in raw or unpolished form. Linked Data promotes typed links to all kinds of data, so is where the semantic web meets the 'deep web', i.e. resources which may be accessed using web protocols, but are in representations not indexed by search engines. Earth sciences are data rich, but with a strong legacy of specialized formats managed and processed by disconnected applications. However, most contemporary research problems require a cross-disciplinary approach, in which the heterogeneity resulting from that legacy is a significant challenge. In this context, Linked Data clearly has much to offer the earth sciences. But, there are some important questions to answer. What is a resource? Most earth science data is organized in arrays and databases. A subset useful for a particular study is usually identified by a parameterized query. The Linked Data paradigm emerged from the world of documents, and will often only resolve data-sets. It is impractical to create even nested navigation resources containing links to all potentially useful objects or subsets. From the viewpoint of human user

  20. From a Link Semantic to Semantic Links - Building Context in Educational Hypermedia

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Thomas C; Engelhardt, Michael; Lange, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Modularization and granulation are key concepts in educational content management, whereas teaching, learning and understanding require a discourse within thematic contexts. Even though hyperlinks and semantically typed references provide the context building blocks of hypermedia systems, elaborate concepts to derive, manage and propagate such relations between content objects are not around at present. Based on Semantic Web standards, this paper makes several contributions to content enrichment. Work starts from harvesting multimedia annotations in class-room recordings, and proceeds to deriving a dense educational semantic net between eLearning Objects decorated with extended LOM relations. Special focus is drawn on the processing of recorded speech and on an Ontological Evaluation Layer that autonomously derives meaningful inter-object relations. Further on, a semantic representation of hyperlinks is developed and elaborated to the concept of semantic link contexts, an approach to manage a coherent rhetori...