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Sample records for carboxy terminal tail

  1. Carboxy terminal tail of polycystin-1 regulates localization of TSC2 to repress mTOR.

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    Ruhee Dere

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is a commonly inherited renal disorder caused by defects in the PKD1 or PKD2 genes. ADPKD is associated with significant morbidity, and is a major underlying cause of end-stage renal failure (ESRF. Commonly, treatment options are limited to the management of hypertension, cardiovascular risk factors, dialysis, and transplantation when ESRF develops, although several new pharmacotherapies, including rapamycin, have shown early promise in animal and human studies. Evidence implicates polycystin-1 (PC-1, the gene product of the PKD1 gene, in regulation of the mTOR pathway. Here we demonstrate a mechanism by which the intracellular, carboxy-terminal tail of polycystin-1 (CP1 regulates mTOR signaling by altering the subcellular localization of the tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2 tumor suppressor, a gatekeeper for mTOR activity. Phosphorylation of TSC2 at S939 by AKT causes partitioning of TSC2 away from the membrane, its GAP target Rheb, and its activating partner TSC1 to the cytosol via 14-3-3 protein binding. We found that TSC2 and a C-terminal polycystin-1 peptide (CP1 directly interact and that a membrane-tethered CP1 protects TSC2 from AKT phosphorylation at S939, retaining TSC2 at the membrane to inhibit the mTOR pathway. CP1 decreased binding of 14-3-3 proteins to TSC2 and increased the interaction between TSC2 and its activating partner TSC1. Interestingly, while membrane tethering of CP1 was required to activate TSC2 and repress mTOR, the ability of CP1 to inhibit mTOR signaling did not require primary cilia and was independent of AMPK activation. These data identify a unique mechanism for modulation of TSC2 repression of mTOR signaling via membrane retention of this tumor suppressor, and identify PC-1 as a regulator of this downstream component of the PI3K signaling cascade.

  2. The carboxy-terminal tail or the intracellular loop 3 is required for β-arrestin-dependent internalization of a mammalian type II GnRH receptor.

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    Madziva, Michael T; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N; Flanagan, Colleen A; Katz, Arieh A

    2015-08-15

    The type II GnRH receptor (GnRH-R2) in contrast to mammalian type I GnRH receptor (GnRH-R1) has a cytosolic carboxy-terminal tail. We investigated the role of β-arrestin 1 in GnRH-R2-mediated signalling and mapped the regions in GnRH-R2 required for recruitment of β-arrestin, employing internalization assays. We show that GnRH-R2 activation of ERK is dependent on β-arrestin and protein kinase C. Appending the tail of GnRH-R2 to GnRH-R1 enabled GRK- and β-arrestin-dependent internalization of the chimaeric receptor. Surprisingly, carboxy-terminally truncated GnRH-R2 retained β-arrestin and GRK-dependent internalization, suggesting that β-arrestin interacts with additional elements of GnRH-R2. Mutating serine and threonine or basic residues of intracellular loop 3 did not abolish β-arrestin 1-dependent internalization but a receptor lacking these basic residues and the carboxy-terminus showed no β-arrestin 1-dependent internalization. Our results suggest that basic residues at the amino-terminal end of intracellular loop 3 or the carboxy-terminal tail are required for β-arrestin dependent internalization.

  3. Structure of the Receptor-Binding Carboxy-Terminal Domain of the Bacteriophage T5 L-Shaped Tail Fibre with and without Its Intra-Molecular Chaperone

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    Garcia-Doval, Carmela; Castón, José R.; Luque, Daniel; Granell, Meritxell; Otero, José M.; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Renouard, Madalena; Boulanger, Pascale; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophage T5, a Siphovirus belonging to the order Caudovirales, has a flexible, three-fold symmetric tail, to which three L-shaped fibres are attached. These fibres recognize oligo-mannose units on the bacterial cell surface prior to infection and are composed of homotrimers of the pb1 protein. Pb1 has 1396 amino acids, of which the carboxy-terminal 133 residues form a trimeric intra-molecular chaperone that is auto-proteolyzed after correct folding. The structure of a trimer of residues 970–1263 was determined by single anomalous dispersion phasing using incorporated selenomethionine residues and refined at 2.3 Å resolution using crystals grown from native, methionine-containing, protein. The protein inhibits phage infection by competition. The phage-distal receptor-binding domain resembles a bullet, with the walls formed by partially intertwined beta-sheets, conferring stability to the structure. The fold of the domain is novel and the topology unique to the pb1 structure. A site-directed mutant (Ser1264 to Ala), in which auto-proteolysis is impeded, was also produced, crystallized and its 2.5 Å structure solved by molecular replacement. The additional chaperone domain (residues 1263–1396) consists of a central trimeric alpha-helical coiled-coil flanked by a mixed alpha-beta domain. Three long beta-hairpin tentacles, one from each chaperone monomer, extend into long curved grooves of the bullet-shaped domain. The chaperone-containing mutant did not inhibit infection by competition. PMID:26670244

  4. Elevated carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen in alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Hansen, M; Hillingsø, Jens

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) has been put forward as a marker of bone resorption. Patients with alcoholic liver disease may have osteodystrophy. AIMS: To assess circulating and regional concentrations of ICTP in relation to liver dysfunction......, bone metabolism, and fibrosis. METHODS: In 15 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and 20 controls, hepatic venous, renal venous, and femoral arterial concentrations of ICTP, and bone mass and metabolism were measured. RESULTS: Circulating ICTP was higher in patients with cirrhosis than in controls...... is highly elevated in patients with cirrhosis, with no detectable hepatic net production or disposal. No relation between ICTP and markers of bone metabolism was identified, but there was a relation to indicators of liver dysfunction and fibrosis. As the cirrhotic patients conceivably only had mild...

  5. Hepatitis C virus NS4B carboxy terminal domain is a membrane binding domain

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    Spaan Willy JM

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV induces membrane rearrangements during replication. All HCV proteins are associated to membranes, pointing out the importance of membranes for HCV. Non structural protein 4B (NS4B has been reported to induce cellular membrane alterations like the membranous web. Four transmembrane segments in the middle of the protein anchor NS4B to membranes. An amphipatic helix at the amino-terminus attaches to membranes as well. The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD of NS4B is highly conserved in Hepaciviruses, though its function remains unknown. Results A cytosolic localization is predicted for the NS4B-CTD. However, using membrane floatation assays and immunofluorescence, we now show targeting of the NS4B-CTD to membranes. Furthermore, a profile-profile search, with an HCV NS4B-CTD multiple sequence alignment, indicates sequence similarity to the membrane binding domain of prokaryotic D-lactate dehydrogenase (d-LDH. The crystal structure of E. coli d-LDH suggests that the region similar to NS4B-CTD is located in the membrane binding domain (MBD of d-LDH, implying analogy in membrane association. Targeting of d-LDH to membranes occurs via electrostatic interactions of positive residues on the outside of the protein with negative head groups of lipids. To verify that anchorage of d-LDH MBD and NS4B-CTD is analogous, NS4B-CTD mutants were designed to disrupt these electrostatic interactions. Membrane association was confirmed by swopping the membrane contacting helix of d-LDH with the corresponding domain of the 4B-CTD. Furthermore, the functionality of these residues was tested in the HCV replicon system. Conclusion Together these data show that NS4B-CTD is associated to membranes, similar to the prokaryotic d-LDH MBD, and is important for replication.

  6. The carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen in serum as a marker of bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, C; Jensen, L T; Johansen, J S;

    1991-01-01

    injection every 3 weeks for 1 year; and (2) 40 women received either 2 mg 17 beta-estradiol plus 1 mg norethisterone acetate or placebo tablets daily for 1 year. Sixty-seven (85%) completed the 1 year of treatment. Serum concentration of type I procollagen carboxy-terminal propeptide (PICP) was measured...... before and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of therapy. In addition, 32 of the women had an iliac bone biopsy taken after double tetracycline labeling. Initial serum PICP correlated significantly with histomorphometrically measured rate of bone formation (r = .4; P less than .05) and plasma bone Gla protein (r...

  7. Cleavage of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor and nuclear accumulation of the cytoplasmic carboxy-terminal fragment.

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    Cook, Julia L; Mills, Sarah J; Naquin, Ryan T; Alam, Jawed; Re, Richard N

    2007-04-01

    Our published studies show that the distribution of the ANG II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor (AT(1)R), expressed as a enhanced yellow fluorescent fusion (YFP) protein (AT(1)R/EYFP), is altered upon cellular treatment with ANG II or coexpression with intracellular ANG II. AT(1)R accumulates in nuclei of cells only in the presence of ANG II. Several transmembrane receptors are known to accumulate in nuclei, some as holoreceptors and others as cleaved receptor products. The present study was designed to determine whether the AT(1)R is cleaved before nuclear transport. A plasmid encoding a rat AT(1)R labeled at the amino terminus with enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and at the carboxy terminus with EYFP was employed. Image analyses of this protein in COS-7 cells, CCF-STTG1 glial cells, and A10 vascular smooth muscle cells show the two fluorescent moieties to be largely spatially colocalized in untreated cells. ANG II treatment, however, leads to a separation of the fluorescent moieties with yellow fluorescence accumulating in more than 30% of cellular nuclei. Immunoblot analyses of extracts and conditioned media from transfected cells indicate that the CFP domain fused to the extracellular amino-terminal AT(1)R domain is cleaved from the membrane and that the YFP domain, together with the intracellular cytoplasmic carboxy terminus of the AT(1)R, is also cleaved from the membrane-bound receptor. The carboxy terminus of the AT(1)R is essential for cleavage; cleavage does not occur in protein deleted with respect to this region. Overexpressed native AT(1)R (nonfusion) is also cleaved; the intracellular 6-kDa cytoplasmic domain product accumulates to a significantly higher level with ANG II treatment.

  8. The carboxy-terminal domain of Dictyostelium C-module-binding factor is an independent gene regulatory entity.

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    Jörg Lucas

    Full Text Available The C-module-binding factor (CbfA is a multidomain protein that belongs to the family of jumonji-type (JmjC transcription regulators. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, CbfA regulates gene expression during the unicellular growth phase and multicellular development. CbfA and a related D. discoideum CbfA-like protein, CbfB, share a paralogous domain arrangement that includes the JmjC domain, presumably a chromatin-remodeling activity, and two zinc finger-like (ZF motifs. On the other hand, the CbfA and CbfB proteins have completely different carboxy-terminal domains, suggesting that the plasticity of such domains may have contributed to the adaptation of the CbfA-like transcription factors to the rapid genome evolution in the dictyostelid clade. To support this hypothesis we performed DNA microarray and real-time RT-PCR measurements and found that CbfA regulates at least 160 genes during the vegetative growth of D. discoideum cells. Functional annotation of these genes revealed that CbfA predominantly controls the expression of gene products involved in housekeeping functions, such as carbohydrate, purine nucleoside/nucleotide, and amino acid metabolism. The CbfA protein displays two different mechanisms of gene regulation. The expression of one set of CbfA-dependent genes requires at least the JmjC/ZF domain of the CbfA protein and thus may depend on chromatin modulation. Regulation of the larger group of genes, however, does not depend on the entire CbfA protein and requires only the carboxy-terminal domain of CbfA (CbfA-CTD. An AT-hook motif located in CbfA-CTD, which is known to mediate DNA binding to A+T-rich sequences in vitro, contributed to CbfA-CTD-dependent gene regulatory functions in vivo.

  9. Formation of carboxy- and amide-terminated alkyl monolayers on silicon(111) investigated by ATR-FTIR, XPS, and X-ray scattering: Construction of photoswitchable surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rück-Braun, Karola; Petersen, Michael Åxman; Michalik, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    We have prepared high-quality, densely packed, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of carboxy-terminated alkyl chains on Si(111). The samples were made by thermal grafting of methyl undec-10-enoate under an inert atmosphere and subsequent cleavage of the ester functionality to disclose the carboxyli...

  10. Carboxy-terminal extension effects on crystal formation and insecticidal properties of colorado potato beetle-active Bacillus thuringiensis d-endotoxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naimov, S.; Martens-Uzunova, E.S.; Weemen, W.M.J.; Dukiandjiev, S.; Minkov, I.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Many Bacillus thuringiensis crystal proteins, particularly those active against lepidopteran insects, have carboxy-terminal extensions that mediate bipyramidal crystal formation. These crystals are only soluble at high (>10.0) pH in reducing conditions such as generally found in the lepidopteran

  11. Synthesis of stable carboxy-terminated NaYF4: Yb3+, Er3+@SiO2 nanoparticles with ultrathin shell for biolabeling applications

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    Liu, Fuyao; Zhao, Qi; You, Hongpeng; Wang, Zhenxin

    2013-01-01

    Here, a two-step method has been developed for synthesizing carboxy-terminated NaYF4: Yb3+, Er3+@SiO2 core@shell nanoparticles (UCNP@SiO2) with ultrathin shell (1.5 nm). First, the NaYF4: Yb3+, Er3+ upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) were prepared using solvothermal technology; then, silica shells (SiO2) were deposited on the nanocrystals to form core-shell structures by the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS). The ultrathin SiO2 shell was obtained by increasing surfactant amount and decreasing TEOS amount in the reaction mixture. Carboxyethylsilanetriol (CTES) was used to generate the carboxy group on the particle surface. The carboxy-terminated UCNP@SiO2 are ideally suited for biolabeling and bioimaging applications because the as-prepared nanoparticles have extreme colloidal and optical stabilities, and the carboxy groups on the particle surface easily react with amino residues of biomolecules. As an example, we reported on the interactions of Ricinus Communis Agglutinin (RCA 120) conjugated UCNP@SiO2 with HeLa cells. The excellent performance of the RCA 120 conjugated UCNP@SiO2 in cellular fluorescence imaging was demonstrated.Here, a two-step method has been developed for synthesizing carboxy-terminated NaYF4: Yb3+, Er3+@SiO2 core@shell nanoparticles (UCNP@SiO2) with ultrathin shell (1.5 nm). First, the NaYF4: Yb3+, Er3+ upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) were prepared using solvothermal technology; then, silica shells (SiO2) were deposited on the nanocrystals to form core-shell structures by the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS). The ultrathin SiO2 shell was obtained by increasing surfactant amount and decreasing TEOS amount in the reaction mixture. Carboxyethylsilanetriol (CTES) was used to generate the carboxy group on the particle surface. The carboxy-terminated UCNP@SiO2 are ideally suited for biolabeling and bioimaging applications because the as-prepared nanoparticles have extreme colloidal and optical stabilities, and the carboxy

  12. Determinants Present in the Receptor Carboxy Tail Are Responsible for Differences in Subtype-Specific Coupling of β-Adrenergic Receptors to Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase

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    Julie Simard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An agonist-occupied β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR recruits G protein receptor kinase-2 (GRK2 which is recruited to the membrane. Thus, the physical proximity of activated β2-AR and PI-3K allows the activation of the latter. In contrast, it has been observed that the β1-AR is unable to activate the PI-3K/Akt pathway. We hypothesized that the difference might be due to molecular determinants present in the carboxy termini of the two β-AR subtypes. Using transiently transfected HEK 293 cells expressing either β1- or β2-AR, we also observed that in presence of an agonist, β2-AR, but not β1-AR, is able to activate the PI-3K/Akt pathway. Switching the seventh transmembrane domain and the carboxy tail between the two receptors reverses this phenotype; that is, β1×β2-AR can activate the PI-3K/Akt pathway whereas β2×β1-AR cannot. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin abolished the activation of PI-3K by β2- or β1×β2-AR stimulation. Ligand-mediated internalization of the β2-AR induced by a 15-minute stimulation with agonist was abolished in the presence of a dominant negative of PI-3K or following pertussis toxin pretreatment. These results indicate that the subtype-specific differences in the coupling to PI-3K/Akt pathway are due to molecular determinants present in the carboxy tail of the receptor and further that β2-AR activates PI-3K via a pertussis toxin-sensitive mechanism.

  13. Ubiquitin Carboxy-Terminal HydrolaseL3 Correlates with Human Sperm Count, Motility and Fertilization

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    Wang, Meijiao; Yu, Tinghe; Hu, Lina; Cheng, Zhi; Li, Min

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L3 (UCHL3) belongs to the group of deubiquitinating enzymes and plays a part in apoptosis of germ cells and the differentiation of spermatocytes into spermatids. However, the exact role of UCHL3 in human spermatogenesis and sperm function remains unknown. Here we examined the level and activity of UCHL3 in spermatozoa from men with asthenozoospermia (A), oligoasthenozoospermia (OA) or normozoospermia (N). Immunofluorescence indicated that UCHL3 was mainly localized in the acrosome and throughout the flagella, and western blotting revealed a lower level in A or OA compared with N (p < 0.05). The catalytic activity of UCHL3 was decreased in spermatozoa from A or OA (p < 0.05, p < 0.001, respectively). The level and activity of UCHL3 were positively correlated with sperm count, concentration and motility. The UCHL3 level was positively correlated with the normal fertilization rate (FR) and percentage of embryos suitable for transfer/cryopreservation of in vitro fertilization (IVF). The UCHL3 activity was also positively correlated with FR, the percentage of embryos suitable for transfer/cryopreservation and high-quality embryos rate of IVF. Aforementioned correlations were not manifested in intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). These findings suggest that UCHL3 may play a role in male infertility. PMID:27780264

  14. A recombinant carboxy-terminal domain of alpha-toxin protects mice against Clostridium perfringens.

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    Nagahama, Masahiro; Oda, Masataka; Kobayashi, Keiko; Ochi, Sadayuki; Takagishi, Teruhisa; Shibutani, Masahiro; Sakurai, Jun

    2013-05-01

    Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin (CP, 370 residues) is one of the main agents involved in the development of gas gangrene. In this study, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the C-terminal domain (CP251-370) of the toxin and phospholipase C (PLC; CB, 372 residues) of Clostridum bifermentans isolated from cases of clostridium necrosis were examined. The recombinant proteins were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins. Antibodies that cross-reacted with alpha-toxin were produced after immunization with recombinant proteins including GST-CP251-370, GST-CP281-370, GST-CP311-370, CB1-372 and GST-CB251-372. Anti-GST-CP251-370, anti-GST-CP281-370 and anti-GST-CP311-370 sera neutralized both the PLC and hemolytic activities of alpha-toxin, whereas anti-CB1-372 and anti-GST-CB251-372 weakly neutralized these activities. Immunization with GST-CP251-370 and GST-CP281-370 provided protection against the lethal effects of the toxin and C. perfringens type A NCTC8237. Partial protection from the toxin and C. perfringens was elicited by immunization with GST-CP311-370 and CB1-372. GST-CP251-370 and GST-CP281-370 are promising candidates for vaccines for clostridial-induced gas gangrene.

  15. Structure and Sialyllactose Binding of the Carboxy-Terminal Head Domain of the Fibre from a Siadenovirus, Turkey Adenovirus 3

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    Singh, Abhimanyu K.; Berbís, M. Álvaro; Ballmann, Mónika Z.; Kilcoyne, Michelle; Menéndez, Margarita; Nguyen, Thanh H.; Joshi, Lokesh; Cañada, F. Javier; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Benkő, Mária; Harrach, Balázs; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    The virulent form of turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3), also known as turkey hemorrhagic enteritis virus (THEV), is an economically important poultry pathogen, while the avirulent form is used as a vaccine. TAdV-3 belongs to the genus Siadenovirus. The carboxy-terminal region of its fibre does not have significant sequence similarity to any other adenovirus fibre heads of known structure. Two amino acid sequence differences between virulent and avirulent TAdV-3 map on the fibre head: where virulent TAdV-3 contains Ile354 and Thr376, avirulent TAdV-3 contains Met354 and Met376. We determined the crystal structures of the trimeric virulent and avirulent TAdV-3 fibre head domains at 2.2 Å resolution. Each monomer contains a beta-sandwich, which, surprisingly, resembles reovirus fibre head more than other adenovirus fibres, although the ABCJ-GHID topology is conserved in all. A beta-hairpin insertion in the C-strand of each trimer subunit embraces its neighbouring monomer. The avirulent and virulent TAdV-3 fibre heads are identical apart from the exact orientation of the beta-hairpin insertion. In vitro, sialyllactose was identified as a ligand by glycan microarray analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and crystallography. Its dissociation constant was measured to be in the mM range by isothermal titration calorimetry. The ligand binds to the side of the fibre head, involving amino acids Glu392, Thr419, Val420, Lys421, Asn422, and Gly423 binding to the sialic acid group. It binds slightly more strongly to the avirulent form. We propose that, in vivo, the TAdV-3 fibre may bind a sialic acid-containing cell surface component. PMID:26418008

  16. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin carboxy-terminal fragment is a novel tumor-homing peptide for human ovarian cancer

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    Azoudi Masoud

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of innovative, effective therapies against recurrent/chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer remains a high priority. Using high-throughput technologies to analyze genetic fingerprints of ovarian cancer, we have discovered extremely high expression of the genes encoding the proteins claudin-3 and claudin-4. Methods Because claudin-3 and -4 are the epithelial receptors for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE, and are sufficient to mediate CPE binding, in this study we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of the carboxy-terminal fragment of CPE (i.e., CPE290-319 binding peptide as a carrier for tumor imaging agents and intracellular delivery of therapeutic drugs. Claudin-3 and -4 expression was examined with rt-PCR and flow cytometry in multiple primary ovarian carcinoma cell lines. Cell binding assays were used to assess the accuracy and specificity of the CPE peptide in vitro against primary chemotherapy-resistant ovarian carcinoma cell lines. Confocal microscopy and biodistribution assays were performed to evaluate the localization and uptake of the FITC-conjugated CPE peptide in established tumor tissue. Results Using a FITC-conjugated CPE peptide we show specific in vitro and in vivo binding to multiple primary chemotherapy resistant ovarian cancer cell lines. Bio-distribution studies in SCID mice harboring clinically relevant animal models of chemotherapy resistant ovarian carcinoma showed higher uptake of the peptide in tumor cells than in normal organs. Imunofluorescence was detectable within discrete accumulations (i.e., tumor spheroids or even single chemotherapy resistant ovarian cancer cells floating in the ascites of xenografted animals while a time-dependent internalization of the FITC-conjugated CPE peptide was consistently noted in chemotherapy-resistant ovarian tumor cells by confocal microscopy. Conclusions Based on the high levels of claudin-3 and -4 expression in chemotherapy

  17. The SUPERMAN protein is an active repressor whose carboxy-terminal repression domain is required for the development of normal flowers.

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    Hiratsu, Keiichiro; Ohta, Masaru; Matsui, Kyoko; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2002-03-13

    SUPERMAN was identified as a putative regulator of transcription that acts in floral development, but its function remains to be clarified. We demonstrate here that SUPERMAN is an active repressor whose repression domain is located in the carboxy-terminal region. Ectopic expression of SUPERMAN that lacked the repression domain resulted in a phenotype similar to that of superman mutants, demonstrating that the repression activity of SUPERMAN is essential for the development of normal flowers. Constitutive expression of SUPERMAN resulted in a severe dwarfism but did not affect cell size, indicating that SUPERMAN might regulate genes that are involved in cell division.

  18. The Contributions of the Amino and Carboxy Terminal Domains of Flightin to the Biomechanical Properties of Drosophila Flight Muscle Thick Filaments.

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    Gasek, Nathan S; Nyland, Lori R; Vigoreaux, Jim O

    2016-01-01

    Flightin is a myosin binding protein present in Pancrustacea. In Drosophila, flightin is expressed in the indirect flight muscles (IFM), where it is required for the flexural rigidity, structural integrity, and length determination of thick filaments. Comparison of flightin sequences from multiple Drosophila species revealed a tripartite organization indicative of three functional domains subject to different evolutionary constraints. We use atomic force microscopy to investigate the functional roles of the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal domain that show different patterns of sequence conservation. Thick filaments containing a C-terminal domain truncated flightin (fln(ΔC44)) are significantly shorter (2.68 ± 0.06 μm; p thick filaments containing a full length flightin (fln⁺; 3.21 ± 0.05 μm) and thick filaments containing an N-terminal domain truncated flightin (fln(ΔN62); 3.21 ± 0.06 μm). Persistence length was significantly reduced in fln(ΔN62) (418 ± 72 μm; p thick filament bending propensity. Our results indicate that the flightin amino and carboxy terminal domains make distinct contributions to thick filament biomechanics. We propose these distinct roles arise from the interplay between natural selection and sexual selection given IFM's dual role in flight and courtship behaviors.

  19. Elevated carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen in alcoholic cirrhosis: relation to liver and kidney function and bone metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Hansen, M; Hillingso, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) has been put forward as a marker of bone resorption. Patients with alcoholic liver disease may have osteodystrophy. AIMS: To assess circulating and regional concentrations of ICTP in relation to liver dysfunction......, bone metabolism, and fibrosis. METHODS: In 15 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and 20 controls, hepatic venous, renal venous, and femoral arterial concentrations of ICTP, and bone mass and metabolism were measured. RESULTS: Circulating ICTP was higher in patients with cirrhosis than in controls...... is highly elevated in patients with cirrhosis, with no detectable hepatic net production or disposal. No relation between ICTP and markers of bone metabolism was identified, but there was a relation to indicators of liver dysfunction and fibrosis. As the cirrhotic patients conceivably only had mild...

  20. Precursors of novel Gla-containing conotoxins contain a carboxy-terminal recognition site that directs gamma-carboxylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Mark A; Begley, Gail S; Czerwiec, Eva

    2005-01-01

    , and amino acid substitutions of these residues perturbed gamma-carboxylation of the Gla-TxXI peptide. The demonstration of a functional and transferable C-terminal postpeptide in these conotoxins indicates the presence of the gamma-carboxylation recognition site within the postpeptide and defines a novel...... precursor structure for vitamin K-dependent polypeptides. It also provides the first formal evidence to prove that gamma-carboxylation occurs as a post-translational rather than a cotranslational process....

  1. Global gene expression analysis of fission yeast mutants impaired in Ser-2 phosphorylation of the RNA pol II carboxy terminal domain.

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    Reza Saberianfar

    Full Text Available In Schizosaccharomyces pombe the nuclear-localized Lsk1p-Lsc1p cyclin dependent kinase complex promotes Ser-2 phosphorylation of the heptad repeats found within the RNA pol II carboxy terminal domain (CTD. Here, we first provide evidence supporting the existence of a third previously uncharacterized Ser-2 CTD kinase subunit, Lsg1p. As expected for a component of the complex, Lsg1p localizes to the nucleus, promotes Ser-2 phosphorylation of the CTD, and physically interacts with both Lsk1p and Lsc1p in vivo. Interestingly, we also demonstrate that lsg1Δ mutants--just like lsk1Δ and lsc1Δ strains--are compromised in their ability to faithfully and reliably complete cytokinesis. Next, to address whether kinase mediated alterations in CTD phosphorylation might selectively alter the expression of genes with roles in cytokinesis and/or the cytoskeleton, global gene expression profiles were analyzed. Mutants impaired in Ser-2 phosphorylation display little change with respect to the level of transcription of most genes. However, genes affecting cytokinesis--including the actin interacting protein gene, aip1--as well as genes with roles in meiosis, are included in a small subset that are differentially regulated. Significantly, genetic analysis of lsk1Δ aip1Δ double mutants is consistent with Lsk1p and Aip1p acting in a linear pathway with respect to the regulation of cytokinesis.

  2. Synthesis and application of a N-1' fluorescent biotinyl derivative inducing the specific carboxy-terminal dual labeling of a novel RhoB-selective scFv.

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    Chaisemartin, L; Chinestra, P; Favre, G; Blonski, C; Faye, J C

    2009-05-20

    The fluorescent site-specific labeling of protein would provide a new, easy-to-use alternative to biochemical and immunochemical methods. We used an intein-mediated strategy for covalent labeling of the carboxy-terminal amino acid of a RhoB-selective scFv previously isolated from a phage display library (a human synthetic V(H) + V(L) scFv phage library). The scFv fused to the Mxe intein was produced in E. coli and purified and was then labeled with a newly synthesized fluorescent biotinyl cysteine derivative capable of inducing scFv-Mxe intein splicing. In this study, we investigated the splicing and labeling properties of various amino acids in the hinge domain between scFv and Mxe under thiol activation. In this dual labeling system, the fluorescein is used for antibody detection and biotin is used for purification, resulting in a high specific activity for fluorescence. We then checked that the purified biotinylated fluorescent scFv retained its selectivity for RhoB without modification of its affinity.

  3. The X-ray Crystal Structure of the Phage Tail Terminator Protein Reveals the Biologically Relevant Hexameric Rang Structure and Demonstrates a Conserved mechanism of Tail Termination among Divrse Long Tailed Phages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pell, L.; Liu, A; Edmonds, L; Donaldson, L; Howell, L; Davidson, A

    2009-01-01

    The tail terminator protein (TrP) plays an essential role in phage tail assembly by capping the rapidly polymerizing tail once it has reached its requisite length and serving as the interaction surface for phage heads. Here, we present the 2.7-A crystal structure of a hexameric ring of gpU, the TrP of phage ?. Using sequence alignment analysis and site-directed mutagenesis, we have shown that this multimeric structure is biologically relevant and we have delineated its functional surfaces. Comparison of the hexameric crystal structure with the solution structure of gpU that we previously solved using NMR spectroscopy shows large structural changes occurring upon multimerization and suggests a mechanism that allows gpU to remain monomeric at high concentrations on its own, yet polymerize readily upon contact with an assembled tail tube. The gpU hexamer displays several flexible loops that play key roles in head and tail binding, implying a role for disorder-to-order transitions in controlling assembly as has been observed with other ? morphogenetic proteins. Finally, we have found that the hexameric structure of gpU is very similar to the structure of a putative TrP from a contractile phage tail even though it displays no detectable sequence similarity. This finding coupled with further bioinformatic investigations has led us to conclude that the TrPs of non-contractile-tailed phages, such as ?, are evolutionarily related to those of contractile-tailed phages, such as P2 and Mu, and that all long-tailed phages may utilize a conserved mechanism for tail termination.

  4. In Vitro and in Vivo Characterization of MOD-4023, a Long-Acting Carboxy-Terminal Peptide (CTP)-Modified Human Growth Hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Oren; Bar-Ilan, Ahuva; Guy, Rachel; Felikman, Yana; Moschcovich, Laura; Hwa, Vivian; Rosenfeld, Ron G; Fima, Eyal; Hart, Gili

    2016-02-01

    MOD-4023 is a novel long-acting version of human growth hormone (hGH), containing the carboxy-terminal peptide (CTP) of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). MOD-4023 is being developed as a treatment for adults and children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), which would require fewer injections than currently available GH formulations and thus reduce patient discomfort and increase compliance. This study characterizes MOD-4023's binding affinities for the growth hormone receptor, as well as the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics, toxicology, and safety profiles of repeated dosing of MOD-4023 in Sprague-Dawley rats and Rhesus monkeys. Although MOD-4023 exhibited reduced in vitro potency and lower affinity to the GH receptor than recombinant hGH (rhGH), administration of MOD-4023 every 5 days in rats and monkeys resulted in exposure comparable to daily rhGH, and the serum half-life of MOD-4023 was significantly longer. Repeated administration of MOD-4023 led to elevated levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and twice-weekly injections of MOD-4023 resulted in larger increase in weight gain with fewer injections and a lower accumulative hGH dose. Thus, the increased half-life of MOD-4023 in comparison to hGH may increase the frequency of protein-receptor interactions and compensate for its decreased in vitro potency. MOD-4023 was found to be well-tolerated in rats and monkeys, with minimal adverse events, suggesting an acceptable safety profile. These results provide a basis for the continued clinical development of MOD-4023 as a novel treatment of GHD in children and adults.

  5. Development of a direct ELISA based on carboxy-terminal of penicillin-binding protein BlaR for the detection of β-lactam antibiotics in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Juan; Cheng, Guyue; Huang, Lingli; Wang, Yulian; Hao, Haihong; Peng, Dapeng; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2013-11-01

    β-Lactam antibiotics, including penicillins and cephalosporins, are commonly used in veterinary medicine. Illegal use and abuse of β-lactams could cause allergy and selected bacterial resistance. BlaR-CTD, the carboxy-terminal of penicillin-recognizing protein BlaR from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580, was utilized in this study to develop a receptor-based ELISA for detection and determination of β-lactam antibiotics in milk, beef, and chicken. This assay was based on directly competitive inhibition of binding of horseradish peroxidase-labeled ampicillin to the immobilized BlaR-CTD by β-lactams. The assay was developed as screening test with the option as semiquantitative assay, when the identity of a single type of residual β-lactam was known. The IC50 values of 15 β-lactam antibiotics, including benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, dicloxacillin, oxacillin, nafcillin, cefapirin, cefoperazone, cefalotin, cefazolin, cefquinome, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefalexin, ceftiofur and its metabolite desfuroylceftiofur were evaluated and ranged from 0.18 to 170.81 μg L(-1). Simple sample extraction method was carried out with only phosphate-buffered saline, and the recoveries of selected β-lactam antibiotics in milk, beef, and chicken were in the range of 53.27 to 128.29 %, most ranging from 60 to 120 %. The inter-assay variability was below 30 %. Limits of detection in milk, beef, and chicken muscles with cefquinome matrix calibration were 2.10, 30.68, and 31.13 μg kg(-1), respectively. This study firstly established a rapid, simple, and accurate method for simultaneous detection of 15 β-lactams in edible tissues, among which 11 β-lactams controlled by European Union could be detected below maximum residue limits.

  6. Structural Analysis of the Carboxy Terminal PH Domain of Pleckstrin Bound to D-myo-Inositol 1,2,3,5,6-pentakisphosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson,S.; Zhang, Y.; Haslam, R.; Junop, M.

    2007-01-01

    Pleckstrin homology (PH) domains are one of the most prevalent domains in the human proteome and represent the major phosphoinositide-binding module. These domains are often found in signaling proteins and function predominately by targeting their host proteins to the cell membrane. Inositol phosphates, which are structurally similar to phosphoinositides, are not only known to play a role as signaling molecules but are also capable of being bound by PH domains. In the work presented here it is shown that the addition of commercial myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) inhibited the binding of the carboxy terminal PH domain of pleckstrin (C-PH) to phosphatidylinositol 3, 4-bisphosphate with an IC50 of 7.5 {mu}M. In an attempt to characterize this binding structurally, C-PH was crystallized in the presence of IP6 and the structure was determined to 1.35 Angstroms . Examination of the resulting electron density unexpectedly revealed the bound ligand to be D-myo-inositol 1, 2,3, 5,6-pentakisphosphate. The discovery of D-myo-inositol 1, 2,3, 5,6-pentakisphosphate in the crystal structure suggests that the inhibitory effects observed in the binding studies may be due to this ligand rather than IP6. Analysis of the protein-ligand interaction demonstrated that this myo-inositol pentakisphosphate isomer interacts specifically with protein residues known to be involved in phosphoinositide binding. In addition to this, a structural alignment of other PH domains bound to inositol phosphates containing either four or five phosphate groups revealed that the majority of phosphate groups occupy conserved locations in the binding pockets of PH domains. These findings, taken together with other recently reported studies suggest that myo-inositol pentakisphosphates could act to regulate PH domain-phosphoinositide interactions by directly competing for binding, thus playing an important role as signaling molecules.

  7. A disruption of ctpA encoding carboxy-terminal protease attenuates Burkholderia mallei and induces partial protection in CD1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, Aloka B; DeShazer, David; Inzana, Thomas J; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Schurig, Gerhardt G; Boyle, Stephen M

    2008-09-01

    Burkholderia mallei is the etiologic agent of glanders in solipeds (horses, mules and donkeys), and incidentally in carnivores and humans. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of B. mallei pathogenesis. The putative carboxy-terminal processing protease (CtpA) of B. mallei is a member of a novel family of endoproteases involved in the maturation of proteins destined for the cell envelope. All species and isolates of Burkholderia carry a highly conserved copy of ctpA. We studied the involvement of CtpA on growth, cell morphology, persistence, and pathogenicity of B. mallei. A sucrose-resistant strain of B. mallei was constructed by deleting a major portion of the sacB gene of the wild type strain ATCC 23344 by gene replacement, and designated as strain 23344DeltasacB. A portion of the ctpA gene (encoding CtpA) of strain 23344DeltasacB was deleted by gene replacement to generate strain 23344DeltasacBDeltactpA. In contrast to the wild type ATCC 23344 or the sacB mutant 23344DeltasacB, the ctpA mutant 23344DeltasacBDeltactpA displayed altered cell morphologies with partially or fully disintegrated cell envelopes. Furthermore, relative to the wild type, the ctpA mutant displayed slower growth in vitro and less ability to survive in J774.2 murine macrophages. The expression of mRNA of adtA, the gene downstream of ctpA was similar among the three strains suggesting that disruption of ctpA did not induce any polar effects. As with the wild type or the sacB mutant, the ctpA mutant exhibited a dose-dependent lethality when inoculated intraperitoneally into CD1 mice. The CD1 mice inoculated with a non-lethal dose of the ctpA mutant produced specific serum immunoglobulins IgG1 and IgG2a and were partially protected against challenge with wild type B. mallei ATCC 23344. These findings suggest that CtpA regulates in vitro growth, cell morphology and intracellular survival of B. mallei, and a ctpA mutant protects CD1 mice against glanders.

  8. TubZ filament assembly dynamics requires the flexible C-terminal tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Pérez, Maria E.; Núñez-Ramírez, Rafael; Martín-González, Alejandro; Juan-Rodríguez, David; Llorca, Oscar; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Oliva, Maria A.

    2017-01-01

    Cytomotive filaments are essential for the spatial organization in cells, showing a dynamic behavior based on nucleotide hydrolysis. TubZ is a tubulin-like protein that functions in extrachromosomal DNA movement within bacteria. TubZ filaments grow in a helical fashion following treadmilling or dynamic instability, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. We have unraveled the molecular basis for filament assembly and dynamics combining electron and atomic force microscopy and biochemical analyses. Our findings suggest that GTP caps retain the filament helical structure and hydrolysis triggers filament stiffening upon disassembly. We show that the TubZ C-terminal tail is an unstructured domain that fulfills multiple functions contributing to the filament helical arrangement, the polymer remodeling into tubulin-like rings and the full disassembly process. This C-terminal tail displays the binding site for partner proteins and we report how it modulates the interaction of the regulator protein TubY. PMID:28230082

  9. The co-crystal structure of ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) with a tripeptide fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAE(OMe)-FMK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Christopher W.; Chaney, Joseph; Korbel, Gregory; Ringe, Dagmar; Petsko, Gregory A.; Ploegh, Hidde; Das, Chittaranjan (Whitehead); (Purdue); (Rosenstiel)

    2012-07-25

    UCHL1 is a 223 amino acid member of the UCH family of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), found abundantly and exclusively expressed in neurons and the testis in normal tissues. Two naturally occurring variants of UCHL1 are directly involved in Parkinson's disease (PD). Not only has UCHL1 been linked to PD, but it has oncogenic properties, having been found abnormally expressed in lung, pancreatic, and colorectal cancers. Although inhibitors of UCHL1 have been described previously the co-crystal structure of the enzyme bound to any inhibitor has not been reported. Herein, we report the X-ray structure of UCHL1 co-crystallized with a peptide-based fluoromethylketone inhibitor, Z-VAE(OMe)-FMK (VAEFMK) at 2.35 {angstrom} resolution. The co-crystal structure reveals that the inhibitor binds in the active-site cleft, irreversibly modifying the active-site cysteine; however, the catalytic histidine is still misaligned as seen in the native structure, suggesting that the inhibitor binds to an inactive form of the enzyme. Our structure also reveals that the inhibitor approaches the active-site cleft from the opposite side of the crossover loop as compared to the direction of approach of ubiquitin's C-terminal tail, thereby occupying the P1{prime} (leaving group) site, a binding site perhaps used by the unknown C-terminal extension of ubiquitin in the actual in vivo substrate(s) of UCHL1. This structure provides a view of molecular contacts at the active-site cleft between the inhibitor and the enzyme as well as furnishing structural information needed to facilitate further design of inhibitors targeted to UCHL1 with high selectivity and potency.

  10. Self-assembly of double-tail anionic surfactant having cyanobiphenyl terminal groups in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagisaka, Masanobu; Hino, Masaya; Nakanishi, Yusuke; Inui, Yosuke; Kawaguchi, Tetsuya; Tsuchiya, Koji; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Yoshizawa, Atsushi

    2009-09-01

    This study reports the interfacial properties and lyotropic liquid crystal formation of sodium 1,2-bis{6-[4-(4-cyanophenyl)phenyloxy]hexyloxycarbonyl}ethanesulfonate (SBCPHS), which is a double-tail surfactant with cyanobiphenyl terminal groups, in water. Polarized microscopic observation of water/SBCPHS mixtures revealed the presence of columnar and lamellar phases. In the lamellar phase, myelin figures representing multilamellar tubes were observed, and some of these figures had a double-helix structure. In order to examine these liquid crystal structures in detail, the bilayer thickness of the lamellar tubes and the lattice parameters of the columnar phase were measured by small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. Four scattering peaks that could be ascribed to C2/m symmetry were observed for the columnar phase. The bilayer thickness and one of the lattice parameters were smaller than twice the molecular length of SBCPHS; this showed that the liquid crystal phases had intercalated structures. Comparison of SBCPHS with a typical double-tail hydrocarbon surfactant revealed that the cyanobiphenyl terminal groups in the former helped increase the stability of the liquid crystal formed at low temperatures. The stabilizing effect of the cyanobiphenyl terminal groups on the liquid crystals could have been driven by electrostatic intermolecular interactions between the terminal groups in antiparallel arrangement of the SBCPHS molecules.

  11. C-terminal tail of FGF19 determines its specificity toward Klotho co-receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinle; Lemon, Bryan; Li, XiaoFan; Gupte, Jamila; Weiszmann, Jennifer; Stevens, Jennitte; Hawkins, Nessa; Shen, Wenyan; Lindberg, Richard; Chen, Jin-Long; Tian, Hui; Li, Yang

    2008-11-28

    FGF19 subfamily proteins (FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23) are unique members of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) that regulate energy, bile acid, glucose, lipid, phosphate, and vitamin D homeostasis in an endocrine fashion. Their activities require the presence of alpha or betaKlotho, two related single-pass transmembrane proteins, as co-receptors in relevant target tissues. We previously showed that FGF19 can bind to both alpha and betaKlotho, whereas FGF21 and FGF23 can bind only to either betaKlotho or alphaKlotho, respectively in vitro. To determine the mechanism regulating the binding and specificity among FGF19 subfamily members to Klotho family proteins, chimeric proteins between FGF19 subfamily members or chimeric proteins between Klotho family members were constructed to probe the interaction between those two families. Our results showed that a chimera of FGF19 with the FGF21 C-terminal tail interacts only with betaKlotho and a chimera with the FGF23 C-terminal tail interacts only with alphaKlotho. FGF signaling assays also reflected the change of specificity we observed for the chimeras. These results identified the C-terminal tail of FGF19 as a region necessary for its recognition of Klotho family proteins. In addition, chimeras between alpha and betaKlotho were also generated to probe the regions in Klotho proteins that are important for signaling by this FGF subfamily. Both FGF23 and FGF21 require intact alpha or betaKlotho for signaling, respectively, whereas FGF19 can signal through a Klotho chimera consisting of the N terminus of alphaKlotho and the C terminus of betaKlotho. Our results provide the first glimpse of the regions that regulate the binding specificity between this unique family of FGFs and their co-receptors.

  12. Caspase-3-mediated cleavage of p65/RelA results in a carboxy-terminal fragment that inhibits IκBα and enhances HIV-1 replication in human T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcamí José

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Degradation of p65/RelA has been involved in both the inhibition of NF-κB-dependent activity and the onset of apoptosis. However, the mechanisms of NF-κB degradation are unclear and can vary depending on the cell type. Cleavage of p65/RelA can produce an amino-terminal fragment that was shown to act as a dominant-negative inhibitor of NF-κB, thereby promoting apoptosis. However, the opposite situation has also been described and the production of a carboxy-terminal fragment that contains two potent transactivation domains has also been related to the onset of apoptosis. In this context, a carboxy-terminal fragment of p65/RelA (ΔNH2p65, detected in non-apoptotic human T lymphocytes upon activation, has been studied. T cells constitute one of the long-lived cellular reservoirs of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. Because NF-κB is the most important inducible element involved in initiation of HIV-1 transcription, an adequate control of NF-κB response is of paramount importance for both T cell survival and viral spread. Its major inhibitor IκBα constitutes a master terminator of NF-κB response that is complemented by degradation of p65/RelA. Results and conclusions In this study, the function of a caspase-3-mediated carboxy-terminal fragment of p65/RelA, which was detected in activated human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs, was analyzed. Cells producing this truncated p65/RelA did not undergo apoptosis but showed a high viability, in spite of caspase-3 activation. ΔNH2p65 lacked most of DNA-binding domain but retained the dimerization domain, NLS and transactivation domains. Consequently, it could translocate to the nucleus, associate with NF-κB1/p50 and IκBα, but could not bind -κB consensus sites. However, although ΔNH2p65 lacked transcriptional activity by itself, it could increase NF-κB activity in a dose-dependent manner by hijacking IκBα. Thus, its expression resulted in a persistent

  13. The carboxyl-terminal tail of Noxa protein regulates the stability of Noxa and Mcl-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaming; Zhang, Jingjing; Lopez, Hernando; Wang, Yushu; Li, Wenyang; O'Neill, Katelyn L; Evans, Jacquelynn J D; George, Nicholas M; Long, Jianhong; Chen, Yi; Luo, Xu

    2014-06-20

    The BH3-only protein Noxa is a critical mediator of apoptosis and functions primarily by sequestering/inactivating the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Mcl-1. Although Noxa is a highly labile protein, recent studies suggested that it is degraded by the proteasome in a ubiquitylation-independent manner. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of Noxa degradation and its ability to regulate the stability of Mcl-1. We found that the ubiquitylation-independent degradation of Noxa does not require a physical association with Mcl-1. A short stretch of amino acid residues in the C-terminal tail was found to mediate the proteasome-dependent degradation of Noxa. Ectopic placement of this degron was able to render other proteins unstable. Surprisingly, mutation of this sequence not only attenuated the rapid degradation of Noxa, but also stabilized endogenous Mcl-1 through the BH3-mediated direct interaction. Together, these results suggest that the C-terminal tail of Noxa regulates the stability of both Noxa and Mcl-1.

  14. Influence of C-terminal tail deletion on structure and stability of hyperthermophile Sulfolobus tokodaii RNase HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Zhang, Ji-Long; Zheng, Qing-Chuan; Chu, Wen-Ting; Xue, Qiao; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Sun, Chia-Chung

    2013-06-01

    The C-terminus tail (G144-T149) of the hyperthermophile Sulfolobus tokodaii (Sto-RNase HI) plays an important role in this protein's hyperstabilization and may therefore be a good protein stability tag. Detailed understanding of the structural and dynamic effects of C-terminus tail deletion is required for gaining insights into the thermal stability mechanism of Sto-RNase HI. Focused on Sulfolobus tokodaii RNase HI (Sto-RNase HI) and its derivative lacking the C-terminal tail (ΔC6 Sto-RNase HI) (PDB codes: 2EHG and 3ALY), we applied molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at four different temperatures (300, 375, 475, and 500 K) to examine the effect of the C-terminal tail on the hyperstabilization of Sto-RNase HI and to investigate the unfolding process of Sto-RNase HI and ΔC6 Sto-RNase HI. The simulations suggest that the C-terminal tail has significant impact in hyperstabilization of Sto-RNase HI and the unfolding of these two proteins evolves along dissimilar pathways. Essential dynamics analysis indicates that the essential subspaces of the two proteins at different temperatures are non-overlapping within the trajectories and they exhibit different directions of motion. Our work can give important information to understand the three-state folding mechanism of Sto-RNase HI and to offer alternative strategies to improve the protein stability.

  15. Crystal Structure of a Complex between Amino and Carboxy Terminal Fragments of mDia1: Insights into Autoinhibition of Diaphanous-Related Formins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nezami, A.; Poy, F; Toms, A; Zheng, W; Eck, M

    2010-01-01

    Formin proteins direct the nucleation and assembly of linear actin filaments in a variety of cellular processes using their conserved formin homology 2 (FH2) domain. Diaphanous-related formins (DRFs) are effectors of Rho-family GTPases, and in the absence of Rho activation they are maintained in an inactive state by intramolecular interactions between their regulatory N-terminal region and a C-terminal segment referred to as the DAD domain. Although structures are available for the isolated DAD segment in complex with the interacting region in the N-terminus, it remains unclear how this leads to inhibition of actin assembly by the FH2 domain. Here we describe the crystal structure of the N-terminal regulatory region of formin mDia1 in complex with a C-terminal fragment containing both the FH2 and DAD domains. In the crystal structure and in solution, these fragments form a tetrameric complex composed of two interlocking N+C dimers. Formation of the tetramer is likely a consequence of the particular N-terminal construct employed, as we show that a nearly full-length mDia1 protein is dimeric, as are other autoinhibited N+C complexes containing longer N-terminal fragments. The structure provides the first view of the intact C-terminus of a DRF, revealing the relationship of the DAD to the FH2 domain. Delineation of alternative dimeric N+C interactions within the tetramer provides two general models for autoinhibition in intact formins. In both models, engagement of the DAD by the N-terminus is incompatible with actin filament formation on the FH2, and in one model the actin binding surfaces of the FH2 domain are directly blocked by the N-terminus.

  16. A carboxy terminal BMP/TGF-β binding site in secreted phosphoprotein 24 kD independently affects BMP-2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Haijun; Li, Chen-Shuang; Zhao, Ke-Wei; Wang, Jeffrey C; Duarte, M Eugenia L; David, Cynthia L; Phan, Kevin; Atti, Elisa; Brochmann, Elsa J; Murray, Samuel S

    2015-04-01

    Secreted phosphoprotein 24 kD (spp24) is a bone matrix protein isolated during attempts to identify osteogenic proteins. It is not osteogenic but performs other important roles in the regulation of bone metabolism, at least in part, by binding to and affecting the activity of members of the BMP/TGF-β family of cytokines. Spp24 exists in a number of forms that preserve the N-terminus and are truncated at the C-terminus. The hypothesized cytokine binding domain is present within the cystatin domain which is preserved in all of the N-terminal products. In this report, we describe a C-terminal fragment that is distinct from the cystatin domain and which independently binds to BMP-2 and TGF-β. This fragment inhibited BMP-2 activity in an ectopic bone forming assay. A shorter C-terminal product did not inhibit BMP-2 activity but improved bone quality induced by BMP-2 and produced increased calcium deposition outside of bone. Spp24 has been used to develop several potential therapeutic proteins. These results provide more information on the function of spp24 and provide other materials that can be exploited for clinical interventions.

  17. Versatility of the carboxy-terminal domain of the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase in transcriptional activation: use of the DNA contact site as a protein contact site for MarA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Bindi; Gronenborn, Angela M; Rosner, Judah L; Martin, Robert G

    2004-10-01

    The transcriptional activator, MarA, interacts with RNA polymerase (RNAP) to activate promoters of the mar regulon. Here, we identify the interacting surfaces of MarA and of the carboxy-terminal domain of the alpha subunit of RNAP (alpha-CTD) by NMR-based chemical shift mapping. Spectral changes were monitored for a MarA-DNA complex upon titration with alpha-CTD, and for alpha-CTD upon titration with MarA-DNA. The mapping results were confirmed by mutational studies and retention chromatography. A model of the ternary complex shows that alpha-CTD uses a '265-like determinant' to contact MarA at a surface distant from the DNA. This is unlike the interaction of alpha-CTD with the CRP or Fis activators where the '265 determinant' contacts DNA while another surface of the same alpha-CTD molecule contacts the activator. These results reveal a new versatility for alpha-CTD in transcriptional activation.

  18. Structural implications of the C-terminal tail in the catalytic and stability properties of manganese peroxidases from ligninolytic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Fueyo, Elena [CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Acebes, Sandra [Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Jordi Girona 29, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J.; Martínez, María Jesús; Romero, Antonio; Medrano, Francisco Javier, E-mail: fjmedrano@cib.csic.es [CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Guallar, Victor, E-mail: fjmedrano@cib.csic.es [Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Jordi Girona 29, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); ICREA, Passeig Lluís Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Martínez, Angel T., E-mail: fjmedrano@cib.csic.es [CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-01

    The variable C-terminal tail of manganese peroxidases, a group of enzymes involved in lignin degradation, is implicated in their catalytic and stability properties, as shown by new crystal structures, molecular-simulation and directed-mutagenesis data. Based on this structural–functional evaluation, short and long/extralong manganese peroxidase subfamilies have been accepted; the latter are characterized by exceptional stability, while it is shown for the first time that the former are able to oxidize other substrates at the same site where manganese(II) is oxidized. The genome of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora includes 13 manganese peroxidase (MnP) genes representative of the three subfamilies described in ligninolytic fungi, which share an Mn{sup 2+}-oxidation site and have varying lengths of the C-terminal tail. Short, long and extralong MnPs were heterologously expressed and biochemically characterized, and the first structure of an extralong MnP was solved. Its C-terminal tail surrounds the haem-propionate access channel, contributing to Mn{sup 2+} oxidation by the internal propionate, but prevents the oxidation of 2, 2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), which is only oxidized by short MnPs and by shortened-tail variants from site-directed mutagenesis. The tail, which is anchored by numerous contacts, not only affects the catalytic properties of long/extralong MnPs but is also associated with their high acidic stability. Cd{sup 2+} binds at the Mn{sup 2+}-oxidation site and competitively inhibits oxidation of both Mn{sup 2+} and ABTS. Moreover, mutations blocking the haem-propionate channel prevent substrate oxidation. This agrees with molecular simulations that position ABTS at an electron-transfer distance from the haem propionates of an in silico shortened-tail form, while it cannot reach this position in the extralong MnP crystal structure. Only small differences exist between the long and the extralong MnPs, which do not justify their

  19. The C-terminal tail of tetraspanin proteins regulates their intracellular distribution in the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coceres, V M; Alonso, A M; Nievas, Y R; Midlej, V; Frontera, L; Benchimol, M; Johnson, P J; de Miguel, N

    2015-08-01

    The parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, a prevalent sexually transmitted infection. Here, we report the cellular analysis of T.vaginalis tetraspanin family (TvTSPs). This family of membrane proteins has been implicated in cell adhesion, migration and proliferation in vertebrates. We found that the expression of several members of the family is up-regulated upon contact with vaginal ectocervical cells. We demonstrate that most TvTSPs are localized on the surface and intracellular vesicles and that the C-terminal intracellular tails of surface TvTSPs are necessary for proper localization. Analyses of full-length TvTSP8 and a mutant that lacks the C-terminal tail indicates that surface-localized TvTSP8 is involved in parasite aggregation, suggesting a role for this protein in parasite : parasite interaction.

  20. Crystallization of Galectin-8 Linker Reveals Intricate Relationship between the N-terminal Tail and the Linker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Si

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Galectin-8 (Gal-8 plays a significant role in normal immunological function as well as in cancer. This lectin contains two carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD connected by a peptide linker. The N-terminal CRD determines ligand binding specificity, whereas the linker has been proposed to regulate overall Gal-8 function, including multimerization and biological activity. Here, we crystallized the Gal-8 N-terminal CRD with the peptide linker using a crystallization condition that contains Ni2+. The Ni2+ ion was found to be complexed between two CRDs via crystal packing contacts. The coordination between Ni2+ and Asp25 plays an indirect role in determining the structure of β-strand F0 and in influencing the linker conformation which could not be defined due to its dynamic nature. The linker was also shortened in situ and crystallized under a different condition, leading to a higher resolution structure refined to 1.08 Å. This crystal structure allowed definition of a short portion of the linker interacting with the Gal-8 N-terminal tail via ionic interactions and hydrogen bonds. Observation of two Gal-8 N-terminal CRD structures implies that the N-terminal tail and the linker may influence each other’s conformation. In addition, under specific crystallization conditions, glycerol could replace lactose and was observed at the carbohydrate binding site. However, glycerol did not show inhibition activity in hemagglutination assay.

  1. The Myc Transactivation Domain Promotes Global Phosphorylation of the RNA Polymerase II Carboxy-Terminal Domain Independently of Direct DNA Binding▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, Victoria H.; Cole, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Myc is a transcription factor which is dependent on its DNA binding domain for transcriptional regulation of target genes. Here, we report the surprising finding that Myc mutants devoid of direct DNA binding activity and Myc target gene regulation can rescue a substantial fraction of the growth defect in myc−/− fibroblasts. Expression of the Myc transactivation domain alone induces a transcription-independent elevation of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) kinases cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) and CDK9 and a global increase in CTD phosphorylation. The Myc transactivation domain binds to the transcription initiation sites of these promoters and stimulates TFIIH binding in an MBII-dependent manner. Expression of the Myc transactivation domain increases CDK mRNA cap methylation, polysome loading, and the rate of translation. We find that some traditional Myc transcriptional target genes are also regulated by this Myc-driven translation mechanism. We propose that Myc transactivation domain-driven RNA Pol II CTD phosphorylation has broad effects on both transcription and mRNA metabolism. PMID:17242204

  2. MOD-4023, a long-acting carboxy-terminal peptide-modified human growth hormone: results of a Phase 2 study in growth hormone-deficient adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Christian J; Vanuga, Peter; Payer, Juraj; Pfeifer, Marija; Popovic, Vera; Bajnok, László; Góth, Miklós; Olšovská, Veˇra; Trejbalová, L‘udmila; Vadasz, Janos; Fima, Eyal; Koren, Ronit; Amitzi, Leanne; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Hershkovitz, Oren; Biller, Beverly M K

    2016-01-01

    Objective Growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy currently requires daily injections, which may cause distress and low compliance. C-terminal peptide (CTP)-modified growth hormone (MOD-4023) is being developed as a once-weekly dosing regimen in patients with GH deficiency (GHD). This study’s objective is to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD) and efficacy of MOD-4023 administered once-weekly in GHD adults. Design 54 adults with GHD currently treated with daily GH were normalized and randomized into 4 weekly dosing cohorts of MOD-4023 at 18.5%, 37%, 55.5% or 123.4% of individual cumulative weekly molar hGH dose. The study included 2 stages: Stage A assessed the effectiveness and PK/PD profiles of the 4 dosing regimens of MOD-4023. Stage B was an extension period of once-weekly MOD-4023 administration (61.7% molar hGH content) to collect further safety data and confirm the results from Stage A. Results Dose-dependent response was observed for both PK and PD data of weekly MOD-4023 treatment. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) SDS levels were maintained within normal range. The 18.5% cohort was discontinued due to low efficacy. MOD-4023 was well tolerated and exhibited favorable safety profile in all dose cohorts. The reported adverse events were consistent with known GH-related side effects. Conclusions Once-weekly MOD-4023 administration in GHD adults was found to be clinically effective while maintaining a favorable safety profile and may obviate the need for daily injections. Weekly GH injections may improve compliance and overall outcome. The promising results achieved in this Phase 2 study led to a pivotal Phase 3 trial, which is currently ongoing. PMID:27932411

  3. Mre11 nuclease and C-terminal tail-mediated DDR functions are required for initiating yeast telomere healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, M K; Matthews, K M; Lustig, A J

    2008-08-01

    Mre11 is a central factor in creating an optimal substrate for telomerase loading and elongation. We have used a G2/M synchronized telomere-healing assay as a tool to separate different functions of Mre11 that are not apparent in null alleles. An analysis of healing efficiencies of several mre11 alleles revealed that both nuclease and C-terminal mutations led to a loss of healing. Interestingly, trans-complementation of the 49 amino acid C-terminal deletion (DeltaC49) and the D16A mutant, deficient in nuclease activity and partially defective in MRX complex formation, restores healing. DeltaC49 provokes Rad53 phosphorylation after treatment with the radiomimetic agent MMS exclusively through the Tel1 pathway, suggesting that a Tel1-mediated function is initiated through the C-terminal tail.

  4. Controlled ribonucleotide tailing of cDNA ends (CRTC) by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase: a new approach in PCR-mediated analysis of mRNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, W M; Mueller, M W

    1996-05-01

    Controlled ribonucleotide tailing of cDNA ends (CRTC) by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-mediated technique that was developed to facilitate cloning and direct sequence analysis of complete 5'-terminal unknown coding regions of rare RNA molecules. In contrast with standard tailing protocols using dNTPs as the substrate, ribo-tailing of cDNA ends is easily controllable, self-limited (from two to four rNMP incorporations) and highly efficient (>98%). By virtue of the homopolymeric ribo-tail, the modified cDNA is anchored to the 3' overhang of a double-stranded DNA-adaptor in a T4 DNA ligase-dependent ligation. PCR amplification, mediated by two sequence-specific primers, yields the desired unique product suitable for cloning and dideoxy-sequencing.

  5. Emi2 inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome absolutely requires Emi2 binding via the C-terminal RL tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, Munemichi; Kawamura, Yoshiko; Ueno, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Daigo; Kanemori, Yoshinori; Senoo, Chiharu; Isoda, Michitaka; Nakajo, Nobushige; Sagata, Noriyuki

    2010-03-15

    Emi2 (also called Erp1) inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and thereby causes metaphase II arrest in unfertilized vertebrate eggs. Both the D-box and the zinc-binding region (ZBR) of Emi2 have been implicated in APC/C inhibition. However, it is not well known how Emi2 interacts with and hence inhibits the APC/C. Here we show that Emi2 binds the APC/C via the C-terminal tail, termed here the RL tail. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes and egg extracts, Emi2 lacking the RL tail fails to interact with and inhibit the APC/C. The RL tail itself can directly bind to the APC/C, and, when added to egg extracts, either an excess of RL tail peptides or anti-RL tail peptide antibody can dissociate endogenous Emi2 from the APC/C, thus allowing APC/C activation. Furthermore, and importantly, the RL tail-mediated binding apparently promotes the inhibitory interactions of the D-box and the ZBR (of Emi2) with the APC/C. Finally, Emi1, a somatic paralog of Emi2, also has a functionally similar RL tail. We propose that the RL tail of Emi1/Emi2 serves as a docking site for the APC/C, thereby promoting the interaction and inhibition of the APC/C by the D-box and the ZBR.

  6. Asymmetric banana-shaped liquid crystals with two different terminal alkoxy tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achten, R.; Cuypers, R.; Giesbers, M.; Koudijs, A.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Two series of asymmetric banana-shaped compounds have been synthesized and studied. In the 1,3-phenylene bis[4-(4'-alkoxybenzoyloxy)]benzoate series the lack of symmetry was derived solely from the difference in length of the two terminal alkoxy chains. In the 3,4'-biphenylene bis[4-(4'-alkoxybenzoy

  7. Peptides derived from human galectin-3 N-terminal tail interact with its carbohydrate recognition domain in a phosphorylation-dependent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berbís, M. Álvaro [Chemical and Physical Biology Department, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain); André, Sabine [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians University, 80539 Munich (Germany); Cañada, F. Javier [Chemical and Physical Biology Department, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pipkorn, Rüdiger [Central Peptide Synthesis Unit, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ippel, Hans [Department of Biochemistry, CARIM, University of Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Mayo, Kevin H. [Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Kübler, Dieter [Biomolecular Interactions, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Gabius, Hans-Joachim [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians University, 80539 Munich (Germany); Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús, E-mail: jjbarbero@cib.csic.es [Chemical and Physical Biology Department, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Galectin-3 is composed of a carbohydrate recognition domain and an N-terminal tail. •Synthetic peptides derived from the tail are shown to interact with the CRD. •This interaction is modulated by Ser- and Tyr-phosphorylation of the peptides. -- Abstract: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a multi-functional effector protein that functions in the cytoplasm and the nucleus, as well as extracellularly following non-classical secretion. Structurally, Gal-3 is unique among galectins with its carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) attached to a rather long N-terminal tail composed mostly of collagen-like repeats (nine in the human protein) and terminating in a short non-collagenous terminal peptide sequence unique in this lectin family and not yet fully explored. Although several Ser and Tyr sites within the N-terminal tail can be phosphorylated, the physiological significance of this post-translational modification remains unclear. Here, we used a series of synthetic (phospho)peptides derived from the tail to assess phosphorylation-mediated interactions with {sup 15}N-labeled Gal-3 CRD. HSQC-derived chemical shift perturbations revealed selective interactions at the backface of the CRD that were attenuated by phosphorylation of Tyr 107 and Tyr 118, while phosphorylation of Ser 6 and Ser 12 was essential. Controls with sequence scrambling underscored inherent specificity. Our studies shed light on how phosphorylation of the N-terminal tail may impact on Gal-3 function and prompt further studies using phosphorylated full-length protein.

  8. Ligand-induced Ordering of the C-terminal Tail Primes STING for Phosphorylation by TBK1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Tsuchiya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune protein Stimulator of interferon genes (STING promotes the induction of interferon beta (IFN-β production via the phosphorylation of its C-terminal tail (CTT by TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1. Potent ligands of STING are, therefore, promising candidates for novel anti-cancer drugs or vaccine adjuvants. However, the intrinsically flexible CTT poses serious problems in in silico drug discovery. Here, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of the STING fragment containing the CTT in ligand-bound and unbound forms and observed that the binding of a potent ligand cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP induced a local structure in the CTT, reminiscent of the known structure of a TBK1 substrate. The subsequent molecular biological experiments confirmed the observed dynamics of the CTT and identified essential residues for the activation of the IFN-β promoter, leading us to propose a new mechanism of STING activation.

  9. Substitutions in the amino-terminal tail of neurospora histone H3 have varied effects on DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyur K Adhvaryu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic genomes are partitioned into active and inactive domains called euchromatin and heterochromatin, respectively. In Neurospora crassa, heterochromatin formation requires methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9 by the SET domain protein DIM-5. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1 reads this mark and directly recruits the DNA methyltransferase, DIM-2. An ectopic H3 gene carrying a substitution at K9 (hH3(K9L or hH3(K9R causes global loss of DNA methylation in the presence of wild-type hH3 (hH3(WT. We investigated whether other residues in the N-terminal tail of H3 are important for methylation of DNA and of H3K9. Mutations in the N-terminal tail of H3 were generated and tested for effects in vitro and in vivo, in the presence or absence of the wild-type allele. Substitutions at K4, K9, T11, G12, G13, K14, K27, S28, and K36 were lethal in the absence of a wild-type allele. In contrast, mutants bearing substitutions of R2, A7, R8, S10, A15, P16, R17, K18, and K23 were viable. The effect of substitutions on DNA methylation were variable; some were recessive and others caused a semi-dominant loss of DNA methylation. Substitutions of R2, A7, R8, S10, T11, G12, G13, K14, and P16 caused partial or complete loss of DNA methylation in vivo. Only residues R8-G12 were required for DIM-5 activity in vitro. DIM-5 activity was inhibited by dimethylation of H3K4 and by phosphorylation of H3S10, but not by acetylation of H3K14. We conclude that the H3 tail acts as an integrating platform for signals that influence DNA methylation, in part through methylation of H3K9.

  10. Solution structure and membrane-binding property of the N-terminal tail domain of human annexin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, M K; Park, S H; Won, H S; Na, D S; Lee, B J

    2000-11-10

    The conformational preferences of AnxI(N26), a peptide corresponding to residues 2-26 of human annexin I, were investigated using CD and NMR spectroscopy. CD results showed that AnxI(N26) adopts a mainly alpha-helical conformation in membrane-mimetic environments, TFE/water and SDS micelles, while a predominantly random structure with slight helical propensity in aqueous buffer. The helical region of AnxI(N26) showed a nearly identical conformation between in TFE/water and in SDS micelles, except for the orientation of the Trp-12 side-chain, which was quite different between the two. The N-terminal region of the AnxI(N26) helix showed a typical amphipathic nature, which could be stabilized by the neighboring hydrophobic cluster. The helical stability of the peptide in SDS micelles was increased by addition of calcium ions. These results suggest that the N-terminal tail domain of human annexin I interacts with biological membranes in a partially calcium-dependent manner.

  11. Copper binding triggers compaction in N-terminal tail of human copper pump ATP7B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Tanumoy; Åden, Jörgen; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

    2016-02-12

    Protein conformational changes are fundamental to biological reactions. For copper ion transport, the multi-domain protein ATP7B in the Golgi network receives copper from the cytoplasmic copper chaperone Atox1 and, with energy from ATP hydrolysis, moves the metal to the lumen for loading of copper-dependent enzymes. Although anticipated, conformational changes involved in ATP7B's functional cycle remain elusive. Using spectroscopic methods we here demonstrate that the four most N-terminal metal-binding domains in ATP7B, upon stoichiometric copper addition, adopt a more compact arrangement which has a higher thermal stability than in the absence of copper. In contrast to previous reports, no stable complex was found in solution between the metal-binding domains and the nucleotide-binding domain of ATP7B. Metal-dependent movement of the first four metal-binding domains in ATP7B may be a trigger that initiates the overall catalytic cycle.

  12. Two Distinct Binding Modes Define the Interaction of Brox with the C-Terminal Tails of CHMP5 and CHMP4B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Ruiling; Dussupt, Vincent; Jiang, Jiansheng; Sette, Paola; Rudd, Victoria; Chuenchor, Watchalee; Bello, Nana F.; Bouamr, Fadila; Xiao, Tsan Sam (NIH)

    2012-05-21

    Interactions of the CHMP protein carboxyl terminal tails with effector proteins play important roles in retroviral budding, cytokinesis, and multivesicular body biogenesis. Here we demonstrate that hydrophobic residues at the CHMP4B C-terminal amphipathic {alpha} helix bind a concave surface of Brox, a mammalian paralog of Alix. Unexpectedly, CHMP5 was also found to bind Brox and specifically recruit endogenous Brox to detergent-resistant membrane fractions through its C-terminal 20 residues. Instead of an {alpha} helix, the CHMP5 C-terminal tail adopts a tandem {beta}-hairpin structure that binds Brox at the same site as CHMP4B. Additional Brox:CHMP5 interface is furnished by a unique CHMP5 hydrophobic pocket engaging the Brox residue Y348 that is not conserved among the Bro1 domains. Our studies thus unveil a {beta}-hairpin conformation of the CHMP5 protein C-terminal tail, and provide insights into the overlapping but distinct binding profiles of ESCRT-III and the Bro1 domain proteins.

  13. PRB1 is required for clipping of the histone H3 N terminal tail in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xue

    Full Text Available Cathepsin L, a lysosomal protein in mouse embryonic stem cells has been shown to clip the histone H3 N- terminus, an activity associated with gene activity during mouse cell development. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH was also identified as histone H3 specific protease in chicken liver, which has been connected to gene expression during aging. In baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, clipping the histone H3 N-terminus has been associated with gene activation in stationary phase but the protease responsible for the yeast histone H3 endopeptidase activity had not been identified. In searching for a yeast histone H3 endopeptidase, we found that yeast vacuolar protein Prb1 is present in the cellular fraction enriched for the H3 N-terminus endopeptidase activity and this endopeptidase activity is lost in the PRB1 deletion mutant (prb1Δ. In addition, like Cathepsin L and GDH, purified Prb1 from yeast cleaves H3 between Lys23 and Ala24 in the N-terminus in vitro as shown by Edman degradation. In conclusion, our data argue that PRB1 is required for clipping of the histone H3 N-terminal tail in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  14. PRB1 is required for clipping of the histone H3 N terminal tail in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Vashisht, Ajay A; Tan, Yuliang; Su, Trent; Wohlschlegel, James A

    2014-01-01

    Cathepsin L, a lysosomal protein in mouse embryonic stem cells has been shown to clip the histone H3 N- terminus, an activity associated with gene activity during mouse cell development. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was also identified as histone H3 specific protease in chicken liver, which has been connected to gene expression during aging. In baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, clipping the histone H3 N-terminus has been associated with gene activation in stationary phase but the protease responsible for the yeast histone H3 endopeptidase activity had not been identified. In searching for a yeast histone H3 endopeptidase, we found that yeast vacuolar protein Prb1 is present in the cellular fraction enriched for the H3 N-terminus endopeptidase activity and this endopeptidase activity is lost in the PRB1 deletion mutant (prb1Δ). In addition, like Cathepsin L and GDH, purified Prb1 from yeast cleaves H3 between Lys23 and Ala24 in the N-terminus in vitro as shown by Edman degradation. In conclusion, our data argue that PRB1 is required for clipping of the histone H3 N-terminal tail in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  15. Mutations in carboxy-terminal part of E2 including PKR/eIF2αphosphorylation homology domain and interferon sensitivity determining region of nonstructural 5A of hepatitis C virus 1b:Their correlation with response to interferon monotherapy and viral load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koji Ukai; Masatoshi Ishigami; Kentaro Yoshioka; Naoto Kawabe; Yoshiaki Katano; Kazuhiko Hayashi; Takashi Honda; Motoyoshi Yano; Hidemi Goto

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the amino acid substitutions in the carboxy (C)-terminal part of E2 protein and in the interferon (IFN) sensitivity determining region (ISDR)and their correlation with response to IFN and viral load in 85 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-1b-infected patients treated with IFN.METHODS: The C-terminal part of E2 (codons 617-711)including PKR/eIF2α phosphorylation homology domain (PePHD) and ISDR was sequenced in 85 HCV-1b-infected patients treated by IFN monotherapy.RESULTS: The amino acid substitutions in PePHD detected only in 4 of 85 patients were not correlated either with response to IFN or with viral load. The presence of substitutions in a N-terminal variable region (codons 617-641) in the C-terminal part of E2was significantly correlated with both small viral load (33.9% vs 13.8%, P=0.0394) and sustained response to IFN (25.0% vs 6.9%,P=0.0429). Four or more substitutions in ISDR were significantly correlated with both small viral load (78.6% vs 16.2%, P<0.0001) and sustained response to IFN (85.7% vs 2.9%, P<0.0001).In multivariate analysis, ISDR in nonstructural (NS) 5A (OR=0.39, P<0.0001) and N-terminal variable region (OR=0.51, P=0.039) was selected as the independent predictors for small viral load, and ISDR (OR=39.0, P<0.0001) was selected as the only independent predictor for sustained response.CONCLUSION: The N-terminal variable region in the C-terminal part of E2 correlates with both response to IFN monotherapy and viral load and is one of the factors independently associated with a small viral load.

  16. Calamitic Smectic A-Polar Smectic APA Transition Observed in Bent Molecules with Large Bent-Angle Central Core of 4,6-Dichlorobenzene and Alkylthio Terminal Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha; Kang, Sungmin; Tokita, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Junji

    2011-07-01

    New homologs of bent molecules with a large bent-angle central core of 4,6-dichloro benzene and an alkylthio terminal tail have been synthesized. Although the corresponding alkoxy-tail homologs show only the calamitic phases because of its large bent angles around 160°, the new homologs with an alkylthio tail exhibit the antiferroelectric smectic APA (SmAPA) banana phase that is transformed on cooling from the calamitic smectic A (SmA) phase. The biaxial polar packing of bent molecules in the SmAPA phase is considered to arise from the hindered rotation around the molecular long axis due to the expansion of the mesophase temperatures to a lower temperature region. This study indicates that the bent molecules, even with a large bent angle, have the potential to form a switchable banana phase with a remarkable decrease in its phase temperature range to around 60 °C.

  17. Contributions of the S100A9 C-terminal tail to high-affinity Mn(II) chelation by the host-defense protein human calprotectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Megan Brunjes; Nakashige, Toshiki G; Gaillard, Aleth; Nolan, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-27

    Human calprotectin (CP) is an antimicrobial protein that coordinates Mn(II) with high affinity in a Ca(II)-dependent manner at an unusual histidine-rich site (site 2) formed at the S100A8/S100A9 dimer interface. We present a 16-member CP mutant family where mutations in the S100A9 C-terminal tail (residues 96-114) are employed to evaluate the contributions of this region, which houses three histidines and four acidic residues, to Mn(II) coordination at site 2. The results from analytical size-exclusion chromatography, Mn(II) competition titrations, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy establish that the C-terminal tail is essential for high-affinity Mn(II) coordination by CP in solution. The studies indicate that His103 and His105 (HXH motif) of the tail complete the Mn(II) coordination sphere in solution, affording an unprecedented biological His6 site. These solution studies are in agreement with a Mn(II)-CP crystal structure reported recently (Damo, S. M.; et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2013, 110, 3841). Remarkably high-affinity Mn(II) binding is retained when either H103 or H105 are mutated to Ala, when the HXH motif is shifted from positions 103-105 to 104-106, and when the human tail is substituted by the C-terminal tail of murine S100A9. Nevertheless, antibacterial activity assays employing human CP mutants reveal that the native disposition of His residues is important for conferring growth inhibition against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Within the S100 family, the S100A8/S100A9 heterooligomer is essential for providing high-affinity Mn(II) binding; the S100A7, S100A9(C3S), S100A12, and S100B homodimers do not exhibit such Mn(II)-binding capacity.

  18. Role of multiple phosphorylation sites in the COOH-terminal tail of aquaporin-2 for water transport: evidence against channel gating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Hanne B; Macaulay, Nanna; Knepper, Mark A;

    2009-01-01

    in the COOH-terminal tail of AQP2 on protein function. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, prevention of AQP2 phosphorylation at S256A (S256A-AQP2) reduced osmotic water permeability threefold compared with wild-type (WT) AQP2-injected oocytes. In contrast, prevention of AQP2 single phosphorylation at S...... demonstrated that lack of phosphorylation at S256, S261, S264, or S269 had no effect on AQP2 unit water transport. Similarly, no effect on AQP2 unit water transport was observed for the 264D and 269D forms, indicating that phosphorylation of the COOH-terminal tail of AQP2 is not involved in gating...

  19. The role of the S4-S5 linker and C-terminal tail in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Zachary T; Joseph, Suresh K

    2006-08-25

    In previous studies we have suggested that spatial proximity of the C- and N-terminal domains of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) may be critical for the channel gating mechanism. In the present study we have examined the sites of C-N interaction in more detail. We report that deletion mutations within the S4-S5 linker (amino acids 2418-2437) prevent co-immunoprecipitation of the C- and N-terminal domains, inhibit channel activity and enhance IP(3) binding. We also show that a region of the C-terminal tail (amino acids 2694-2721), predicted to be a coiled-coil, is also required for channel activity. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and gel filtration studies confirm that this region has a helical structure with the ability to form tetramers. We propose a model in which IP(3)-induced conformational changes in the N-terminal domain are mechanically transmitted to the opening of the pore through an attachment to the S4-S5 linker. The coiled-coil domain in the C-terminal tail may play a critical role in maintaining the structural integrity of the channel.

  20. Structure of the Receptor-Binding Protein of Bacteriophage Det7: a Podoviral Tail Spike in a Myovirus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Monika; Fiedler, Christian; Grassl, Renate; Biebl, Manfred; Rachel, Reinhard; Hermo-Parrado, X. Lois; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Seckler, Robert; Miller, Stefan; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2008-01-01

    A new Salmonella enterica phage, Det7, was isolated from sewage and shown by electron microscopy to belong to the Myoviridae morphogroup of bacteriophages. Det7 contains a 75-kDa protein with 50% overall sequence identity to the tail spike endorhamnosidase of podovirus P22. Adsorption of myoviruses to their bacterial hosts is normally mediated by long and short tail fibers attached to a contractile tail, whereas podoviruses do not contain fibers but attach to host cells through stubby tail spikes attached to a very short, noncontractile tail. The amino-terminal 150 residues of the Det7 protein lack homology to the P22 tail spike and are probably responsible for binding to the base plate of the myoviral tail. Det7 tail spike lacking this putative particle-binding domain was purified from Escherichia coli, and well-diffracting crystals of the protein were obtained. The structure, determined by molecular replacement and refined at a 1.6-Å resolution, is very similar to that of bacteriophage P22 tail spike. Fluorescence titrations with an octasaccharide suggest Det7 tail spike to bind its receptor lipopolysaccharide somewhat less tightly than the P22 tail spike. The Det7 tail spike is even more resistant to thermal unfolding than the already exceptionally stable homologue from P22. Folding and assembly of both trimeric proteins are equally temperature sensitive and equally slow. Despite the close structural, biochemical, and sequence similarities between both proteins, the Det7 tail spike lacks both carboxy-terminal cysteines previously proposed to form a transient disulfide during P22 tail spike assembly. Our data suggest receptor-binding module exchange between podoviruses and myoviruses in the course of bacteriophage evolution. PMID:18077713

  1. Genetic complementation analysis showed distinct contributions of the N-terminal tail of H2A.Z to epigenetic regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakabe, Masayuki; Oku, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Ryo; Hori, Tetsuya; Muto, Akihiko; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Harata, Masahiko

    2016-02-01

    H2A.Z is one of the most evolutionally conserved histone variants. In vertebrates, this histone variant has two isoforms, H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2, each of which is coded by an individual gene. H2A.Z is involved in multiple epigenetic regulations, and in humans, it also has relevance to carcinogenesis. In this study, we used the H2A.Z DKO cells, in which both H2A.Z isoform genes could be inducibly knocked out, for the functional analysis of H2A.Z by a genetic complementation assay, as the first example of its kind in vertebrates. Ectopically expressed wild-type H2A.Z and two N-terminal mutants, a nonacetylable H2A.Z mutant and a chimera in which the N-terminal tail of H2A.Z.1 was replaced with that of the canonical H2A, complemented the mitotic defects of H2A.Z DKO cells similarly, suggesting that both acetylation and distinctive sequence of the N-terminal tail of H2A.Z are not required for mitotic progression. In contrast, each one of these three forms of H2A.Z complemented the transcriptional defects of H2A.Z DKO cells differently. These results suggest that the N-terminal tail of vertebrate H2A.Z makes distinctively different contributions to these epigenetic events. Our results also imply that this genetic complementation system is a novel and useful tool for the functional analysis of H2A.Z.

  2. Identification of potential hot spots in the carboxy-terminal part of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BNLF-1 gene in both malignant and benign EBV-associated diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvej, K; Peh, S C; Andresen, B S;

    1994-01-01

    In this study, we have sequenced the C-terminal part of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-BNLF-1 gene encoding for the latent membrane protein-1 from tissues of EBV-positive Danish Hodgkin's disease (HD) and of Danish and Malaysian peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTLs) and from tonsils of Danish infectious...

  3. T cell-based functional cDNA library screening identified SEC14-like 1a carboxy-terminal domain as a negative regulator of human immunodeficiency virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano, Emiko; Ichikawa, Reiko; Morikawa, Yuko; Yoshida, Takeshi; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Komano, Jun

    2010-05-26

    Genome-wide screening of host factors that regulate HIV-1 replication has been attempted using numerous experimental approaches. However, there has been limited success using T cell-based cDNA library screening to identify genes that regulate HIV-1 replication. We have established a genetic screening strategy using the human T cell line MT-4 and a replication-competent HIV-1. With this system, we identified the C-terminal domain (CTD) of SEC14-like 1a (SEC14L1a) as a novel inhibitor of HIV-1 replication. Our T cell-based cDNA screening system provides an alternative tool for identifying novel regulators of HIV-1 replication.

  4. Characterization of RNA binding and chaperoning activities of HIV-1 Vif protein. Importance of the C-terminal unstructured tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleiman, Dona; Bernacchi, Serena; Xavier Guerrero, Santiago; Brachet, Franck; Larue, Valéry; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Tisne, Carine

    2014-01-01

    The viral infectivity factor (Vif) is essential for the productive infection and dissemination of HIV-1 in non-permissive cells, containing the cellular anti-HIV defense cytosine deaminases APOBEC3 (A3G and A3F). Vif neutralizes the antiviral activities of the APOBEC3G/F by diverse mechanisms including their degradation through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and their translational inhibition. In addition, Vif appears to be an active partner of the late steps of viral replication by interacting with Pr55(Gag), reverse transcriptase and genomic RNA. Here, we expressed and purified full-length and truncated Vif proteins, and analyzed their RNA binding and chaperone properties. First, we showed by CD and NMR spectroscopies that the N-terminal domain of Vif is highly structured in solution, whereas the C-terminal domain remains mainly unfolded. Both domains exhibited substantial RNA binding capacities with dissociation constants in the nanomolar range, whereas the basic unfolded C-terminal domain of Vif was responsible in part for its RNA chaperone activity. Second, we showed by NMR chemical shift mapping that Vif and NCp7 share the same binding sites on tRNA(Lys) 3, the primer of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Finally, our results indicate that Vif has potent RNA chaperone activity and provide direct evidence for an important role of the unstructured C-terminal domain of Vif in this capacity.

  5. Cystoviral polymerase complex protein P7 uses its acidic C-terminal tail to regulate the RNA-directed RNA polymerase P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphonse, Sébastien; Arnold, Jamie J; Bhattacharya, Shibani; Wang, Hsin; Kloss, Brian; Cameron, Craig E; Ghose, Ranajeet

    2014-07-15

    In bacteriophages of the cystovirus family, the polymerase complex (PX) encodes a 75-kDa RNA-directed RNA polymerase (P2) that transcribes the double-stranded RNA genome. Also a constituent of the PX is the essential protein P7 that, in addition to accelerating PX assembly and facilitating genome packaging, plays a regulatory role in transcription. Deletion of P7 from the PX leads to aberrant plus-strand synthesis suggesting its influence on the transcriptase activity of P2. Here, using solution NMR techniques and the P2 and P7 proteins from cystovirus ϕ12, we demonstrate their largely electrostatic interaction in vitro. Chemical shift perturbations on P7 in the presence of P2 suggest that this interaction involves the dynamic C-terminal tail of P7, more specifically an acidic cluster therein. Patterns of chemical shift changes induced on P2 by the P7 C-terminus resemble those seen in the presence of single-stranded RNA suggesting similarities in binding. This association between P2 and P7 reduces the affinity of the former toward template RNA and results in its decreased activity both in de novo RNA synthesis and in extending a short primer. Given the presence of C-terminal acidic tracts on all cystoviral P7 proteins, the electrostatic nature of the P2/P7 interaction is likely conserved within the family and could constitute a mechanism through which P7 regulates transcription in cystoviruses.

  6. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein B cytoplasmic C-terminal tail domain regulates the energy requirement for EBV-induced membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Zhang, Xianming; Jardetzky, Theodore S; Longnecker, Richard

    2014-10-01

    The entry of enveloped viruses into host cells is preceded by membrane fusion, which in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is thought to be mediated by the refolding of glycoprotein B (gB) from a prefusion to a postfusion state. In our current studies, we characterized a gB C-terminal tail domain (CTD) mutant truncated at amino acid 843 (gB843). This truncation mutant is hyperfusogenic as monitored by syncytium formation and in a quantitative fusion assay and is dependent on gH/gL for fusion activity. gB843 can rescue the fusion function of other glycoprotein mutants that have null or decreased fusion activity in epithelial and B cells. In addition, gB843 requires less gp42 and gH/gL for fusion, and can function in fusion at a lower temperature than wild-type gB, indicating a lower energy requirement for fusion activation. Since a key step in fusion is the conversion of gB from a prefusion to an active postfusion state by gH/gL, gB843 may access this activated gB state more readily. Our studies indicate that the gB CTD may participate in the fusion function by maintaining gB in an inactive prefusion form prior to activation by receptor binding. Importance: Diseases resulting from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in humans range from the fairly benign disease infectious mononucleosis to life-threatening cancer. As an enveloped virus, EBV must fuse with a host cell membrane for entry and infection by using glycoproteins gH/gL, gB, and gp42. Among these glycoproteins, gB is thought to be the protein that executes fusion. To further characterize the function of the EBV gB cytoplasmic C-terminal tail domain (CTD) in fusion, we used a previously constructed CTD truncation mutant and studied its fusion activity in the context of other EBV glycoprotein mutants. From these studies, we find that the gB CTD regulates fusion by altering the energy requirements for the triggering of fusion mediated by gH/gL or gp42. Overall, our studies may lead to a better understanding of EBV fusion

  7. Active and accurate trans-translation requires distinct determinants in the C-terminal tail of SmpB protein and the mRNA-like domain of transfer messenger RNA (tmRNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenares, Devin; Dulebohn, Daniel P; Svetlanov, Anton; Karzai, A Wali

    2013-10-18

    Unproductive ribosome stalling in eubacteria is resolved by the actions of SmpB protein and transfer messenger (tm) RNA. We examined the functional significance of conserved regions of SmpB and tmRNA to the trans-translation process. Our investigations reveal that the N-terminal 20 residues of SmpB, which are located near the ribosomal decoding center, are dispensable for all known SmpB activities. In contrast, a set of conserved residues that reside at the junction between the tmRNA-binding core and the C-terminal tail of SmpB play an important role in tmRNA accommodation. Our data suggest that the highly conserved glycine 132 acts as a flexible hinge that enables movement of the C-terminal tail, thus permitting proper positioning and establishment of the tmRNA open reading frame (ORF) as the surrogate template. To gain further insights into the function of the SmpB C-terminal tail, we examined the tagging activity of hybrid variants of tmRNA and the SmpB protein, in which the tmRNA ORF or the SmpB C-terminal tail was substituted with the equivalent but highly divergent sequences from Francisella tularensis. We observed that the hybrid tmRNA was active but resulted in less accurate selection of the resume codon. Cognate hybrid SmpB was necessary to restore activity. Furthermore, accurate tagging was observed when the identity of the resume codon was reverted from GGC to GCA. Taken together, these data suggest that the engagement of the tmRNA ORF and the selection of the correct translation resumption point are distinct activities that are influenced by independent tmRNA and SmpB determinants.

  8. Structural and regulatory elements of HCV NS5B polymerase--β-loop and C-terminal tail--are required for activity of allosteric thumb site II inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Boyce

    Full Text Available Elucidation of the mechanism of action of the HCV NS5B polymerase thumb site II inhibitors has presented a challenge. Current opinion holds that these allosteric inhibitors stabilize the closed, inactive enzyme conformation, but how this inhibition is accomplished mechanistically is not well understood. Here, using a panel of NS5B proteins with mutations in key regulatory motifs of NS5B--the C-terminal tail and β-loop--in conjunction with a diverse set of NS5B allosteric inhibitors, we show that thumb site II inhibitors possess a distinct mechanism of action. A combination of enzyme activity studies and direct binding assays reveals that these inhibitors require both regulatory elements to maintain the polymerase inhibitory activity. Removal of either element has little impact on the binding affinity of thumb site II inhibitors, but significantly reduces their potency. NS5B in complex with a thumb site II inhibitor displays a characteristic melting profile that suggests stabilization not only of the thumb domain but also the whole polymerase. Successive truncations of the C-terminal tail and/or removal of the β-loop lead to progressive destabilization of the protein. Furthermore, the thermal unfolding transitions characteristic for thumb site II inhibitor-NS5B complex are absent in the inhibitor-bound constructs in which interactions between C-terminal tail and β-loop are abolished, pointing to the pivotal role of both regulatory elements in communication between domains. Taken together, a comprehensive picture of inhibition by compounds binding to thumb site II emerges: inhibitor binding provides stabilization of the entire polymerase in an inactive, closed conformation, propagated via coupled interactions between the C-terminal tail and β-loop.

  9. Topology of the C-terminal tail of HIV-1 gp41: differential exposure of the Kennedy epitope on cell and viral membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckbeck, Jonathan D; Sun, Chengqun; Sturgeon, Timothy J; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2010-01-01

    The C-terminal tail (CTT) of the HIV-1 gp41 envelope (Env) protein is increasingly recognized as an important determinant of Env structure and functional properties, including fusogenicity and antigenicity. While the CTT has been commonly referred to as the "intracytoplasmic domain" based on the assumption of an exclusive localization inside the membrane lipid bilayer, early antigenicity studies and recent biochemical analyses have produced a credible case for surface exposure of specific CTT sequences, including the classical "Kennedy epitope" (KE) of gp41, leading to an alternative model of gp41 topology with multiple membrane-spanning domains. The current study was designed to test these conflicting models of CTT topology by characterizing the exposure of native CTT sequences and substituted VSV-G epitope tags in cell- and virion-associated Env to reference monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Surface staining and FACS analysis of intact, Env-expressing cells demonstrated that the KE is accessible to binding by MAbs directed to both an inserted VSV-G epitope tag and the native KE sequence. Importantly, the VSV-G tag was only reactive when inserted into the KE; no reactivity was observed in cells expressing Env with the VSV-G tag inserted into the LLP2 domain. In contrast to cell-surface expressed Env, no binding of KE-directed MAbs was observed to Env on the surface of intact virions using either immune precipitation or surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. These data indicate apparently distinct CTT topologies for virion- and cell-associated Env species and add to the case for a reconsideration of CTT topology that is more complex than currently envisioned.

  10. Detailed topology mapping reveals substantial exposure of the "cytoplasmic" C-terminal tail (CTT sequences in HIV-1 Env proteins at the cell surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Steckbeck

    Full Text Available Substantial controversy surrounds the membrane topology of the HIV-1 gp41 C-terminal tail (CTT. While few studies have been designed to directly address the topology of the CTT, results from envelope (Env protein trafficking studies suggest that the CTT sequence is cytoplasmically localized, as interactions with intracellular binding partners are required for proper Env targeting. However, previous studies from our lab demonstrate the exposure of a short CTT sequence, the Kennedy epitope, at the plasma membrane of intact Env-expressing cells, the exposure of which is not observed on viral particles. To address the topology of the entire CTT sequence, we serially replaced CTT sequences with a VSV-G epitope tag sequence and examined reactivity of cell- and virion-surface Env to an anti-VSV-G monoclonal antibody. Our results demonstrate that the majority of the CTT sequence is accessible to antibody binding on the surface of Env expressing cells, and that the CTT-exposed Env constitutes 20-50% of the cell-surface Env. Cell surface CTT exposure was also apparent in virus-infected cells. Passive transfer of Env through cell culture media to Env negative (non-transfected cells was not responsible for the apparent cell surface CTT exposure. In contrast to the cell surface results, CTT-exposed Env was not detected on infectious pseudoviral particles containing VSV-G-substituted Env. Finally, a monoclonal antibody directed to the Kennedy epitope neutralized virus in a temperature-dependent manner in a post-attachment neutralization assay. Collectively, these results suggest that the membrane topology of the HIV gp41 CTT is more complex than the widely accepted intracytoplasmic model.

  11. Topology of the C-terminal tail of HIV-1 gp41: differential exposure of the Kennedy epitope on cell and viral membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Steckbeck

    Full Text Available The C-terminal tail (CTT of the HIV-1 gp41 envelope (Env protein is increasingly recognized as an important determinant of Env structure and functional properties, including fusogenicity and antigenicity. While the CTT has been commonly referred to as the "intracytoplasmic domain" based on the assumption of an exclusive localization inside the membrane lipid bilayer, early antigenicity studies and recent biochemical analyses have produced a credible case for surface exposure of specific CTT sequences, including the classical "Kennedy epitope" (KE of gp41, leading to an alternative model of gp41 topology with multiple membrane-spanning domains. The current study was designed to test these conflicting models of CTT topology by characterizing the exposure of native CTT sequences and substituted VSV-G epitope tags in cell- and virion-associated Env to reference monoclonal antibodies (MAbs. Surface staining and FACS analysis of intact, Env-expressing cells demonstrated that the KE is accessible to binding by MAbs directed to both an inserted VSV-G epitope tag and the native KE sequence. Importantly, the VSV-G tag was only reactive when inserted into the KE; no reactivity was observed in cells expressing Env with the VSV-G tag inserted into the LLP2 domain. In contrast to cell-surface expressed Env, no binding of KE-directed MAbs was observed to Env on the surface of intact virions using either immune precipitation or surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. These data indicate apparently distinct CTT topologies for virion- and cell-associated Env species and add to the case for a reconsideration of CTT topology that is more complex than currently envisioned.

  12. Epitope tags beside the N-terminal cytoplasmic tail of human BST-2 alter its intracellular trafficking and HIV-1 restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Mingyu; Wang, Jiawen; Zhang, Jingyao; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Xiaodan; Zhu, Yingzi; Zuo, Tao; Liu, Donglai; Li, Xiaojun; Wu, Jiaxin; Zhang, Haihong; Yu, Bin; Wu, Hui; Zhao, Xinghong; Kong, Wei; Yu, Xianghui

    2014-01-01

    BST-2 blocks the particle release of various enveloped viruses including HIV-1, and this antiviral activity is dependent on the topological arrangement of its four structural domains. Several functions of the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of BST-2 have been previously discussed, but the exact role of this domain remains to be clearly defined. In this study, we investigated the impact of truncation and commonly-used tags addition into the CT region of human BST-2 on its intracellular trafficking and signaling as well as its anti-HIV-1 function. The CT-truncated BST-2 exhibited potent inhibition on Vpu-defective HIV-1 and even wild-type HIV-1. However, the N-terminal HA-tagged CT-truncated BST-2 retained little antiviral activity and dramatically differed from its original protein in the cell surface level and intracellular localization. Further, we showed that the replacement of the CT domain with a hydrophobic tag altered BST-2 function possibly by preventing its normal vesicular trafficking. Notably, we demonstrated that a positive charged motif "KRXK" in the conjunctive region between the cytotail and the transmembrane domain which is conserved in primate BST-2 is important for the protein trafficking and the antiviral function. These results suggest that although the CT of BST-2 is not essential for its antiviral activity, the composition of residues in this region may play important roles in its normal trafficking which subsequently affected its function. These observations provide additional implications for the structure-function model of BST-2.

  13. Convenient one-step synthesis of 5-carboxy-seminaphthofluoresceins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøj, Peter; Thyhaug, Erling; Harris, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    The one-step synthesis and characterization of a series of regioisomerically pure 5-carboxy-seminaphthofluoresceins (5-carboxy-SNAFLs) is reported. The optical properties were determined in aqueous buffer at around biological pH, and highly pH sensitive, large Stokes-shift fluorophores with emiss...

  14. Tailings management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    Careful planning and water management is essential to the proper management of conventional tailings impoundments. Alternatives, like dry stacking and tailings backfill are becoming more widely used. Effective closure is important, especially if acid rock drainage (ARD) is to be avoided. 11 refs., 3 photos.

  15. The Ku80 carboxy terminus stimulates joining and artemis-mediated processing of DNA ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weterings, Eric; Verkaik, Nicole S; Keijzers, Guido;

    2008-01-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is predominantly mediated by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) in mammalian cells. NHEJ requires binding of the Ku70-Ku80 heterodimer (Ku70/80) to the DNA ends and subsequent recruitment of the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PK(CS)) an......Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is predominantly mediated by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) in mammalian cells. NHEJ requires binding of the Ku70-Ku80 heterodimer (Ku70/80) to the DNA ends and subsequent recruitment of the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA......-PK(CS)) and the XRCC4/ligase IV complex. Activation of the DNA-PK(CS) serine/threonine kinase requires an interaction with Ku70/80 and is essential for NHEJ-mediated DSB repair. In contrast to previous models, we found that the carboxy terminus of Ku80 is not absolutely required for the recruitment and activation...... of DNA-PK(CS) at DSBs, although cells that harbored a carboxy-terminal deletion in the Ku80 gene were sensitive to ionizing radiation and showed reduced end-joining capacity. More detailed analysis of this repair defect showed that DNA-PK(CS) autophosphorylation at Thr2647 was diminished, while Ser2056...

  16. The alpha/beta carboxy-terminal domains of p63 are required for skin and limb development. New insights from the Brdm2 mouse which is not a complete p63 knockout but expresses p63 gamma-like proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, S; Talos, F; Palacios, G;

    2009-01-01

    p63, an ancestral transcription factor of the p53 family, has three C-terminal isoforms whose relative in vivo functions are elusive. The p63 gene is essential for skin and limb development, as vividly shown by two independent global knockout mouse models. Both strains, although constructed diffe...

  17. A library of 7TM receptor C-terminal tails - Interactions with the proposed post-endocytic sorting proteins ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50), N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), sorting nexin 1 (SNX1), and G protein-coupled receptor-associated sorting protein (GASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, A.; Sondergaard, B.P.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2004-01-01

    -coupled receptor-associated sorting protein bound 23 of the 59 tail proteins. Surface plasmon resonance analysis of the binding kinetics of selected hits from the glutathione S-transferase pull-down experiments, i.e. the tails of the virally encoded receptor US28 and the delta-opioid receptor, confirmed......Adaptor and scaffolding proteins determine the cellular targeting, the spatial, and thereby the functional association of G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors with co-receptors, transducers, and downstream effectors and the adaptors determine post-signaling events such as receptor...... sequestration through interactions, mainly with the C-terminal intracellular tails of the receptors. A library of tails from 59 representative members of the super family of seven-transmembrane receptors was probed as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins for interactions with four different adaptor...

  18. An engineered amino-terminal domain of yeast phosphoglycerate kinase with native-like structure.

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Sherman; Chen, Y.; Mas, M. T.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the carboxy-terminal peptide (residues 401-415) and interdomain helix (residues 185-199) of yeast phosphoglycerate kinase, a two-domain enzyme, play a role in the folding and stability of the amino-terminal domain (residues 1-184). A deletion mutant has been created in which the carboxy-terminal peptide is attached to the amino-terminal domain (residues 1-184) plus interdomain helix (residues 185-199) through a flexible peptide linker, thus eliminating the...

  19. The structural basis of androgen receptor activation: Intramolecular and intermolecular amino–carboxy interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaufele, Fred; Carbonell, Xavier; Guerbadot, Martin; Borngraeber, Sabine; Chapman, Mark S.; Ma, Aye Aye K.; Miner, Jeffrey N.; Diamond, Marc I.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-regulated transcription factors important in human physiology and disease. In certain NRs, including the androgen receptor (AR), ligand binding to the carboxy-terminal domain (LBD) regulates transcriptional activation functions in the LBD and amino-terminal domain (NTD). The basis for NTD–LBD communication is unknown but may involve NTD–LBD interactions either within a single receptor or between different members of an AR dimer. Here, measurement of FRET between fluorophores attached to the NTD and LBD of the AR established that agonist binding initiated an intramolecular NTD–LBD interaction in the nucleus and cytoplasm. This intramolecular folding was followed by AR self-association, which occurred preferentially in the nucleus. Rapid, ligand-induced intramolecular folding and delayed association also were observed for estrogen receptor-α but not for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ2. An antagonist ligand, hydroxyflutamide, blocked the NTD–LBD association within AR. NTD–LBD association also closely correlated with the transcriptional activation by heterologous ligands of AR mutants isolated from hormone-refractory prostate tumors. Intramolecular folding, but not AR–AR affinity, was disrupted by mutation of an α-helical (23FQNLF27) motif in the AR NTD previously described to interact with the AR LBD in vitro. This work establishes an intramolecular NTD–LBD conformational change as an initial component of ligand-regulated NR function. PMID:15994236

  20. A library of 7TM receptor C-terminal tails. Interactions with the proposed post-endocytic sorting proteins ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50), N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), sorting nexin 1 (SNX1), and G protein-coupled receptor-associated sorting protein (GASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Arne; Søndergaard, Birgitte P; Ersbøll, Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    Adaptor and scaffolding proteins determine the cellular targeting, the spatial, and thereby the functional association of G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors with co-receptors, transducers, and downstream effectors and the adaptors determine post-signaling events such as receptor sequ...... that the tail library provides useful information on the general importance of certain adaptor proteins, for example, in this case, ruling out EBP50 as being a broad spectrum-recycling adaptor....... sequestration through interactions, mainly with the C-terminal intracellular tails of the receptors. A library of tails from 59 representative members of the super family of seven-transmembrane receptors was probed as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins for interactions with four different adaptor...

  1. Connexins in the early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis (Amphibia: The role of the connexin43 carboxyl terminal tail in the establishment of the dorso-ventral axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Cofre

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Connexins are a family of related proteins identified in vertebrate forming gap junctions, which mediate cell-to-cell communication in early embryos, with an important role in establishing embryonic asymmetry and ‘communication compartments’. By in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR and western blotting we show that a Cx43-like molecule is present in oocytes and embryos of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis, with specific localization in the animal-vegetal axis. This specific distribution is suggestive for an important role for this protein in the establishment of the dorso-ventral axis. Antisense RNA and antibodies directed against rat carboxyl terminal tail of the Cx43 (CT-Cx43 and injected in 1-cell stage Xenopus embryos, induced pronounced alterations in nervous system development, with a severe ventralization phenotype. Coherently, the overexpression of CT-Cx43 produced a dorsalization of the embryos. In antisense treated embryos, the expression of the beta-catenin gene is eliminated from the Nieuwkoop center, the pattern expression of the Chordin, Xnot and Xbra is modified, with no effect in expression of the Goosecoid gene. In CT-Cx43 mRNA treated embryos the pattern of expression of the beta-catenin, Chordin, Goosecoid, Xnot and engrailed-2 genes is modified. The expression of beta-catenin is increased in the Nieuwkoop center, the expression pattern of Chordin and Goosecoid is expanded to the posterior neural plate and engrailed-2 presents ectopic expression in the ventral region. Taken together our data suggest a role for CT-Cx43 as a maternal determinant with a critical function in the formation of the dorso-ventral axis in Xenopus laevis. The Cx43 may be one of the earliest markers of the dorso-ventral axis in these embryos and could possibly be acting through regionalization of factors responsible for the establishment of this axis.

  2. Carboxy-terminal extension effects on crystal formation and insecticidal properties of Cry15Aa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naimov, S.; Valkova, R.; Dukjandiev, S.; Minkov, J.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cry15Aa protein, produced by Bacillus thuringiensis serovar thompsoni HD542, in a crystal together with a 40 kDa accompanying protein, is one of a small group of non-typical, less well-studied members of the Cry family of insecticidal proteins, and may provide an alternative for the more commonly us

  3. Tail gut cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G Mallikarjuna; Haricharan, P; Ramanujacharyulu, S; Reddy, K Lakshmi

    2002-01-01

    The tail gut is a blind extension of the hindgut into the tail fold just distal to the cloacal membrane. Remnants of this structure may form tail gut cyst. We report a 14-year-old girl with tail gut cyst that presented as acute abdomen. The patient recovered after cyst excision.

  4. Phosphorylated peptides occur in a non-helical portion of the tail of a catch muscle myosin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, L.; Elliott, B.W. Jr.; Cohen, C.

    1987-05-01

    Myosin from a molluscan catch muscle (the Anterior Byssus Retractor (ABRM) of Mytilus edulis) is unusual in being phosphorylated in the rod by an endogenous heavy-chain kinase. This phosphorylation enhances myosin solubility at low ionic strength and induces molecular folding of the myosin tail. Papain and chymotryptic cleavage of this myosin, phosphorylated with (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP, indicates that the phosphorylated residues are associated with the carboxy-terminal end of the light meromyosin. Ion-exchange and reverse-phase HPLC of radiolabeled chymotryptic peptides allow the isolation of two different peptides with high specific activity. One of these peptides is rich in lysine and arginine residues, a finding consistent with the observation that basic residues often determine the substrate specificity of protein kinases. The second peptide contains proline residues. Taken together, these results suggest that, as in the case of Acanthamoeba myosin, phosphorylation occurs in a nonhelical portion of the rod that may also control solubility. Identification of the residues that are phosphorylated and their location in the rod may reveal how the phosphorylation-dependent changes observed in the myosin in vitro are related to changes in intermolecular interactions in the thick filaments in vivo.

  5. The Carboxy-terminus of BAK1 regulates kinase activity and is required for normal growth of Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Ho eOh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Binding of brassinolide to the BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSTIVE 1 (BRI1 receptor kinase promotes interaction with its co-receptor, BRI1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (BAK1. Juxtaposition of the kinase domains that occurs then allows reciprocal transphosphorylation and activation of both kinases, but details of that process are not entirely clear. In the present study we show that the carboxy (C - terminal polypeptide of BAK1 may play a role. First, we demonstrate that the C-terminal domain is a strong inhibitor of the transphosphorylation activity of the recombinant BAK1 cytoplasmic domain protein. However, recombinant BAK1 lacking the C-terminal domain is unable to transactivate the peptide kinase activity of BRI1 in vitro. Thus, the C-terminal domain may play both a positive and negative role. Interestingly, a synthetic peptide corresponding to the full C-terminal domain (residues 576 to 615 of BAK1 interacted with recombinant BRI1 in vitro, and that interaction was enhanced by phosphorylation at the Tyr-610 site. Expression of a BAK1 C-terminal domain truncation (designated BAK1-ΔCT-Flag in transgenic Arabidopsis plants lacking endogenous bak1 and its functional paralog, bkk1, produced plants that were wild type in appearance but much smaller than plants expressing full-length BAK1-Flag. The reduction in growth may be attributed to a partial inhibition of BR signaling in vivo as reflected in root growth assays but other factors are likely involved as well. Our working model is that in vivo, the inhibitory action of the C-terminal domain of BAK1 is relieved by binding to BRI1. However, that interaction is not essential for BR signaling, but other aspects of cellular signaling are impacted when the C-terminal domain is truncated and result in inhibition of growth. These results increase the molecular understanding of the C-terminal domain of BAK1 as a regulator of kinase activity that may serve as a model for other receptor kinases.

  6. Reaction of porous silicon with both end-functionalized organic compounds bearing alpha-bromo and omega-carboxy groups for immobilization of biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dong-Jie; Xiao, Shou-Jun; Xia, Bing; Wei, Shuai; Pei, Jia; Pan, Yi; You, Xiao-Zeng; Gu, Zhong-Ze; Lu, Zuhong

    2005-11-03

    Both end-functionalized (alpha-bromo and omega-carboxy) compounds were first tested for the radical reaction on the silicon-hydride (Si-H) terminated porous silicon (PSi) with/without the presence of diacyl peroxide initiator under microwave irradiation. Then the carboxylic acid monolayers (CAMs) assembled on PSi through the robust Si-C bonds were converted to amino-reactive linker, N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-ester, terminated monolayers. And finally two proteins of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (Lys) were immobilized through amide bonds. The optimum PSi membrane for protein immobilization without collapse, with parameters of porous radii 4-10 nm and depth 0.2-4.6 mum, was prepared from the (100)-oriented p-type silicon wafer. The chemically converted surface products were monitored with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM).

  7. A Convenient Route to 4-Carboxy-4-Anilidopiperidine Esters and Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjermund Henriksen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The route selection and development of a convenient synthesis of 4-carboxy-4-anilidopiperidines is described. Previous routes were hampered by the low yield of the target esters as well as the inability to convert the esters to the required free acids. Considerations for large-scale production led to a modified synthesis that utilised a tert-butyl ester of 4-carboxy-4-anilidopiperidines which resulted in a dramatic increase in the overall yield of the target N-propionylated- 4-anilidopiperidine-4-carboxylic acids and their corresponding methyl esters. These compounds are now available for use as precursors and reference standards, of particular value for the production of 11C and 18F-labelled 4-carboxy-4-anilidopiperidine radiotracers.

  8. Novel 3-carboxy- and 3-phosphonopyrazoline amino acids as potent and selective NMDA receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; Pinto, Andrea; Tamborini, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    The design and synthesis of new N1-substituted 3-carboxy- and 3-phosphonopyrazoline and pyrazole amino acids that target the glutamate binding site of NMDA receptors are described. An analysis of the stereochemical requirements for high-affinity interaction with these receptors was performed. We...

  9. Innovations in tailings management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beier, N. [Alberta Univ., Devon, AB (Canada). Oil Sands Tailings Research Facility; Sego, D. [Alberta Univ., Devon, AB (Canada). Oil Sands Tailings Research Facility; Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-09-15

    This article described the coordinated research efforts at the University of Alberta's Oil Sands Tailings Research Facility (OSTRF) to address oil sands tailings management issues. The facility was established in 2003 to provide the infrastructure needed for research opportunities at the intermediate scale. To date, OSTRF has been involved in 32 separate research projects. Alberta's Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB) recently created Directive 74 to oblige operators to improve tailings management and document their progress on tailings at each mine site. The initial OSTRF research program focused on improving the understanding and management of the massive inventories of mature fine tailings (MFT). The research focused primarily on the geotechnical and chemical behaviour of engineered tailings and the management and treatment of process affected water (PAW). The focus on water relates to its characterization, its treatment with coke and rapid removal of water from the total tailings stream. The next phase of research to be undertaken at OSTRF will include the reduction or elimination of volatile organic carbons and greenhouse gases from tailings ponds; further development and scaling of the novel in-line tailings dewatering system and alternative methods to release water from the MFT inventory; treatment technologies for re-use of PAW in utilities and for upgrading while also developing quality standards for eventual discharge of PAW off lease; and stabilization and capping of soft tailings deposits in preparation for reclamation, including methods of dewatering the upper surface of soft tailing to enhance its strength. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  10. Des-γ-Carboxy Prothrombin (DCP as a Potential Autologous Growth Factor for the Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Sheng Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP is a prothrombin precursor produced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Because of deficiency of vitamin K or γ-glutamyl carboxylase in HCC cells, the 10 glutamic acid (Glu residues in prothrombin precursor did not completely carboxylate to γ-carboxylated glutamic acid (Gla residues, leaving some Glu residues remained in N-terminal domain. These prothrombin precursors with Glu residues are called DCPs. DCP displays insufficient coagulation activity. Since Liebman reported an elevated plasma DCP in patients with HCC, DCP has been used in the diagnosis of HCC. Recently, its biological malignant potential has been specified to describe DCP as an autologous growth factor to stimulate HCC growth and a paracrine factor to integrate HCC with vascular endothelial cells. DCP was found to stimulate HCC growth through activation of the DCP-Met-JAK1-STAT3 signaling pathway. DCP might increase HCC invasion and metastasis through activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs and the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. DCP has also been found to play a crucial role in the formation of angiogenesis. DCP could increase the angiogenic factors released from HCC and vascular endothelial cells. These effects of DCP in angiogenesis might be related to activation of the DCP-KDR-PLC-γ-MAPK signaling pathway. In this article, we summarized recent studies on DCP in biological roles related to cancer progression and angiogenesis in HCC.

  11. Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) as a potential autologous growth factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Sheng; Chu, Jia-Hui; Cui, Shu-Xiang; Song, Zhi-Yu; Qu, Xian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) is a prothrombin precursor produced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Because of deficiency of vitamin K or γ-glutamyl carboxylase in HCC cells, the 10 glutamic acid (Glu) residues in prothrombin precursor did not completely carboxylate to γ-carboxylated glutamic acid (Gla) residues, leaving some Glu residues remained in N-terminal domain. These prothrombin precursors with Glu residues are called DCPs. DCP displays insufficient coagulation activity. Since Liebman reported an elevated plasma DCP in patients with HCC, DCP has been used in the diagnosis of HCC. Recently, its biological malignant potential has been specified to describe DCP as an autologous growth factor to stimulate HCC growth and a paracrine factor to integrate HCC with vascular endothelial cells. DCP was found to stimulate HCC growth through activation of the DCP-Met-JAK1-STAT3 signaling pathway. DCP might increase HCC invasion and metastasis through activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) and the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. DCP has also been found to play a crucial role in the formation of angiogenesis. DCP could increase the angiogenic factors released from HCC and vascular endothelial cells. These effects of DCP in angiogenesis might be related to activation of the DCP-KDR-PLC-γ-MAPK signaling pathway. In this article, we summarized recent studies on DCP in biological roles related to cancer progression and angiogenesis in HCC.

  12. Bar-tailed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, S.; Hidayati, N.A.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    Capsule Across the European wintering range Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica lapponica selected polychaete worms and especially Ragworms Hediste diversicolor, with differences between areas due to variations in prey availability.Aims To determine the diet of Bar-tailed Godwits across their winter

  13. Generation of H9 T-cells stably expressing a membrane-bound form of the cytoplasmic tail of the Env-glycoprotein: lack of transcomplementation of defective HIV-1 virions encoding C-terminally truncated Env

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch Valerie

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract H9-T-cells do not support the replication of mutant HIV-1 encoding Env protein lacking its long cytoplasmic C-terminal domain (Env-CT. Here we describe the generation of a H9-T-cell population constitutively expressing the HIV-1 Env-CT protein domain anchored in the cellular membrane by it homologous membrane-spanning domain (TMD. We confirmed that the Env-TMD-CT protein was associated with cellular membranes, that its expression did not have any obvious cytotoxic effects on the cells and that it did not affect wild-type HIV-1 replication. However, as measured in both a single-round assay as well as in spreading infections, replication competence of mutant pNL-Tr712, lacking the Env-CT, was not restored in this H9 T-cell population. This means that the Env-CT per se cannot transcomplement the replication block of HIV-1 virions encoding C-terminally truncated Env proteins and suggests that the Env-CT likely exerts its function only in the context of the complete Env protein.

  14. Termination Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

  15. The Tail of BPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruba, Steve; Meyer, Jim

    Business process management suites (BPMS's) represent one of the fastest growing segments in the software industry as organizations automate their key business processes. As this market matures, it is interesting to compare it to Chris Anderson's 'Long Tail.' Although the 2004 "Long Tail" article in Wired magazine was primarily about the media and entertainment industries, it has since been applied (and perhaps misapplied) to other markets. Analysts describe a "Tail of BPM" market that is, perhaps, several times larger than the traditional BPMS product market. This paper will draw comparisons between the concepts in Anderson's article (and subsequent book) and the BPM solutions market.

  16. Estimating tail probabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, D.B.; Tolley, H.D.

    1982-12-01

    This paper investigates procedures for univariate nonparametric estimation of tail probabilities. Extrapolated values for tail probabilities beyond the data are also obtained based on the shape of the density in the tail. Several estimators which use exponential weighting are described. These are compared in a Monte Carlo study to nonweighted estimators, to the empirical cdf, to an integrated kernel, to a Fourier series estimate, to a penalized likelihood estimate and a maximum likelihood estimate. Selected weighted estimators are shown to compare favorably to many of these standard estimators for the sampling distributions investigated.

  17. Estimating impact forces of tail club strikes by ankylosaurid dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Megan Arbour

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been assumed that the unusual tail club of ankylosaurid dinosaurs was used actively as a weapon, but the biological feasibility of this behaviour has not been examined in detail. Ankylosaurid tail clubs are composed of interlocking vertebrae, which form the handle, and large terminal osteoderms, which form the knob. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Computed tomographic (CT scans of several ankylosaurid tail clubs referred to Dyoplosaurus and Euoplocephalus, combined with measurements of free caudal vertebrae, provide information used to estimate the impact force of tail clubs of various sizes. Ankylosaurid tails are modeled as a series of segments for which mass, muscle cross-sectional area, torque, and angular acceleration are calculated. Free caudal vertebrae segments had limited vertical flexibility, but the tail could have swung through approximately 100 degrees laterally. Muscle scars on the pelvis record the presence of a large M. longissimus caudae, and ossified tendons alongside the handle represent M. spinalis. CT scans showed that knob osteoderms were predominantly cancellous, which would have lowered the rotational inertia of the tail club and made it easier to wield as a weapon. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Large knobs could generate sufficient force to break bone during impacts, but average and small knobs could not. Tail swinging behaviour is feasible in ankylosaurids, but it remains unknown whether the tail was used for interspecific defense, intraspecific combat, or both.

  18. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.;

    2014-01-01

    risk, it is important to detect and treat tail biting as soon as it occurs. Early warning signs before the first bloody tails appear, such as pigs holding their tails tucked under, could in future be automatically detected using precision livestock farming methods enabling earlier reaction......Tail biting is a serious animal welfare and economic problem in pig production. Tail docking, which reduces but does not eliminate tail biting, remains widespread. However, in the EU tail docking may not be used routinely, and some ‘alternative’ forms of pig production and certain countries do...... not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable...

  19. Characterization of carboxy methylcellulose doped with DTAB as new types of biopolymer electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A S Samsudin; M I N Isa

    2012-12-01

    The investigation of new solid biopolymer electrolyte (BEs) system based on carboxy methylcellulose (CMC) is creating opportunity for new types of electrochemical devices, which may themselves, in turn, revolutionize many industrial areas. Biodegradable carboxy methylcellulose (CMC) doped with dodecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) as BEs were prepared via solution-casting method. Upon addition of 35 wt. % of DTAB, highest ionic conductivity of 7.72 × 10-4 Scm-1 was achieved due to its higher amorphous region compared to other samples prepared. This result had been further proven in FTIR study. Temperature dependence relationship obeys the Arrhenius rule from which the activation energy, a, for ionic conductivity and activation energy for relaxation process, , were evaluated. The divergent values between a for ionic conductivity and relaxation process shows that the ions hop by jumping over a potential barrier.

  20. Functional interactions of the AF-2 activation domain core region of the human androgen receptor with the amino-terminal domain and with the transcriptional coactivator TIF2 (transcriptional intermediary factor2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Berrevoets (Cor); P. Doesburg (Paul); K. Steketee (Karine); J. Trapman (Jan); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractPrevious studies in yeast and mammalian cells showed a functional interaction between the amino-terminal domain and the carboxy-terminal, ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the human androgen receptor (AR). In the present study, the AR subdomains involved in thi

  1. Importance of the GluN2B Carboxy-Terminal Domain for Enhancement of Social Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Stephanie; Wei, Wei; Wang, Deheng; Tsien, Joe Z.

    2015-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is known to be necessary for many forms of learning and memory, including social recognition memory. Additionally, the GluN2 subunits are known to modulate multiple forms of memory, with a high GluN2A:GluN2B ratio leading to impairments in long-term memory, while a low GluN2A:GluN2B ratio enhances some…

  2. THE CESA (CE3B) CARBOXY-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF RUMINOCOCCUS FLAVEFACIENS 17 HAS GLUCURONOYL ESTERASE ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several types of covalent linkages between lignin and xylan in plant cell walls have been shown. One of such linkages could be an ester bond between hydroxyl groups of lignin moieties and the carboxyl group of the 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid (MeGlcA) side groups of glucuronoxylan. Enzymes capable...

  3. Estimation of Jump Tails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Todorov, Victor

    We propose a new and flexible non-parametric framework for estimating the jump tails of Itô semimartingale processes. The approach is based on a relatively simple-to-implement set of estimating equations associated with the compensator for the jump measure, or its "intensity", that only utilizes ...

  4. Managing 'tail liability'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Richard C; Weber, Ryan J

    2013-11-01

    To reduce and control their level of tail liability, hospitals should: Utilize a self-insurance vehicle; Consider combined limits between the hospital and physicians; Communicate any program changes to the actuary, underwriter, and auditor; Continue risk management and safety practices; Ensure credit is given to the organization's own medical malpractice program.

  5. On tails of perpetuities

    CERN Document Server

    Hitczenko, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    We establish an upper bound on the tails of a random variable that arises as a solution of a stochastic difference equation. In the non--negative case our bound is similar to a lower bound obtained by Goldie and Gr\\"ubel in 1996.

  6. The role of formin tails in actin nucleation, processive elongation, and filament bundling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcarra, Christina L; Bor, Batbileg; Quinlan, Margot E

    2014-10-31

    Formins are multidomain proteins that assemble actin in a wide variety of biological processes. They both nucleate and remain processively associated with growing filaments, in some cases accelerating filament growth. The well conserved formin homology 1 and 2 domains were originally thought to be solely responsible for these activities. Recently a role in nucleation was identified for the Diaphanous autoinhibitory domain (DAD), which is C-terminal to the formin homology 2 domain. The C-terminal tail of the Drosophila formin Cappuccino (Capu) is conserved among FMN formins but distinct from other formins. It does not have a DAD domain. Nevertheless, we find that Capu-tail plays a role in filament nucleation similar to that described for mDia1 and other formins. Building on this, replacement of Capu-tail with DADs from other formins tunes nucleation activity. Capu-tail has low-affinity interactions with both actin monomers and filaments. Removal of the tail reduces actin filament binding and bundling. Furthermore, when the tail is removed, we find that processivity is compromised. Despite decreased processivity, the elongation rate of filaments is unchanged. Again, replacement of Capu-tail with DADs from other formins tunes the processive association with the barbed end, indicating that this is a general role for formin tails. Our data show a role for the Capu-tail domain in assembling the actin cytoskeleton, largely mediated by electrostatic interactions. Because of its multifunctionality, the formin tail is a candidate for regulation by other proteins during cytoskeletal rearrangements.

  7. 7-Carboxy-7-deazaguanine Synthase: A Radical S-Adenosyl-l-methionine Enzyme with Polar Tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzymes are widely distributed and catalyze diverse reactions. SAM binds to the unique iron atom of a site-differentiated [4Fe-4S] cluster and is reductively cleaved to generate a 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical, which initiates turnover. 7-Carboxy-7-deazaguanine (CDG) synthase (QueE) catalyzes a key step in the biosynthesis of 7-deazapurine containing natural products. 6-Carboxypterin (6-CP), an oxidized analogue of the natural substrate 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin (CPH4), is shown to be an alternate substrate for CDG synthase. Under reducing conditions that would promote the reductive cleavage of SAM, 6-CP is turned over to 6-deoxyadenosylpterin (6-dAP), presumably by radical addition of the 5′-deoxyadenosine followed by oxidative decarboxylation to the product. By contrast, in the absence of the strong reductant, dithionite, the carboxylate of 6-CP is esterified to generate 6-carboxypterin-5′-deoxyadenosyl ester (6-CP-dAdo ester). Structural studies with 6-CP and SAM also reveal electron density consistent with the ester product being formed in crystallo. The differential reactivity of 6-CP under reducing and nonreducing conditions highlights the ability of radical SAM enzymes to carry out both polar and radical transformations in the same active site. PMID:28045519

  8. The C-Terminal Domain of RNA Polymerase II Is Modified by Site-Specific Methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Robert J.; Rojas, Luis Alejandro; Beck, David B.; Bonasio, Roberto; Schüller, Roland; Drury, William J.; Eick, Dirk; Reinberg, Danny

    2011-01-01

    The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) in mammals undergoes extensive posttranslational modification, which is essential for transcriptional initiation and elongation. Here, we show that the CTD of RNAPII is methylated at a single arginine (R1810) by the coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1). Although methylation at R1810 is present on the hyperphosphorylated form of RNAPII in vivo, Ser2 or Ser5 phosphorylation inhibits CARM1 activity toward this...

  9. Preparation and reactivity of carboxylic acid-terminated boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedziolka-Joensson, Joanna [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley, BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, UMR 8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Boland, Susan; Leech, Donal [School of Chemistry, National University of Irland, Galway (Ireland); Boukherroub, Rabah [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley, BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, UMR 8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Szunerits, Sabine, E-mail: sabine.szunerits@iri.univ-lille1.f [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley, BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, UMR 8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports on the formation of carboxy-terminated boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. The carboxylic acid termination was prepared in a controlled way by reacting photochemically oxidized BDD with succinic anhydride. The resulting interface was readily employed for the linking of an amine-terminated ligand such as an osmium complex bearing an amine terminal group. The interfaces were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Contact angle measurements were used to follow the changes in surface wetting properties due to surface functionalization. The chemical reactivity of the carboxyl-terminated BDD was investigated by covalent coupling of the acid groups to an amine-terminated osmium complex.

  10. Terminal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank; Allais, Arnaud; Mirebeau, Pierre; Ganhungu, Francois; Lallouet, Nicolas

    2009-10-20

    A terminal structure (2) for a superconducting cable (1) is described. It consists of a conductor (2a) and an insulator (2b) that surrounds the conductor (2a), wherein the superconducting cable (1) has a core with a superconducting conductor (5) and a layer of insulation that surrounds the conductor (5), and wherein the core is arranged in such a way that it can move longitudinally in a cryostat. The conductor (2a) of the terminal structure (2) is electrically connected with the superconducting conductor (5) or with a normal conductor (6) that is connected with the superconducting conductor (5) by means of a tubular part (7) made of an electrically conductive material, wherein the superconducting conductor (5) or the normal conductor (6) can slide in the part (7) in the direction of the superconductor.

  11. Significance of Des-gamma-carboxy Prothrombin Production in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto,Kazuhide

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Serum des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP is commonly used to detect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. This review focuses on the clinical features of DCP-positive HCC and the molecular function of DCP in HCC. DCP-positive HCC demonstrates more aggressive clinicopathological features than DCP-negative HCC. Analysis of the biological effects of DCP revealed that DCP acts as a growth factor in both an autocrine and paracrine manner. DCP stimulates HCC cell proliferation through the Met-Janus kinase 1-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathway, whereas for vascular endothelial cells, it stimulates cell proliferation and migration through the kinase insert domain receptor-phospholipase C-gamma-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

  12. New carboxy-functionalized terpyridines as precursors for zwitterionic ruthenium complexes for polymer-based solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duprez, V.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    New carboxy-terpyridines selectively functionalized at the 4-, 4'- and 4"-positions were prepared in a three-step procedure with good yields using, the Krohnke reaction followed by saponification. Their complexation with ruthenium led to symmetric and unsymmetric terpyridinyl zwitterionic complexes...

  13. The influence of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) on shale stability; Influencia do carboximetilcelulose (CMC) na estabilidade de folhelhos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles Filho, Antonio Alves de; Quezada, Augusto Eduardo Donoso [Grupo Ultra, XX (Brazil). Setor de Vendas Petroleo; Oliveira, Telma de [Grupo Ultra, XX (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento

    1988-12-31

    The methodology used in developing high and low viscosity purified CMC`s specific to salty and saturated drilling fluids is discussed. It is shown how CMC carboxy methyl groups, molecular weight, and uniformity of substitution affect the action of these products, decreasing overall drilling costs, substantially increasing penetration rates, and affording greater well wall stability. (author) 5 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  15. High CO2-capture ability of a porous organic polymer bifunctionalized with carboxy and triazole groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lin-Hua; Suh, Myunghyun Paik

    2013-08-26

    A new porous organic polymer, SNU-C1, incorporating two different CO2 -attracting groups, namely, carboxy and triazole groups, has been synthesized. By activating SNU-C1 with two different methods, vacuum drying and supercritical-CO2 treatment, the guest-free phases, SNU-C1-va and SNU-C1-sca, respectively, were obtained. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas of SNU-C1-va and SNU-C1-sca are 595 and 830 m(2) g(-1), respectively, as estimated by the N2-adsorption isotherms at 77 K. At 298 K and 1 atm, SNU-C1-va and SNU-C1-sca show high CO2 uptakes, 2.31 mmol  g(-1) and 3.14 mmol  g(-1), respectively, the high level being due to the presence of abundant polar groups (carboxy and triazole) exposed on the pore surfaces. Five separation parameters for flue gas and landfill gas in vacuum-swing adsorption were calculated from single-component gas-sorption isotherms by using the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST). The data reveal excellent CO2-separation abilities of SNU-C1-va and SNU-C1-sca, namely high CO2-uptake capacity, high selectivity, and high regenerability. The gas-cycling experiments for the materials and the water-treated samples, experiments that involved treating the samples with a CO2-N2 gas mixture (15:85, v/v) followed by a pure N2 purge, further verified the high regenerability and water stability. The results suggest that these materials have great potential applications in CO2 separation.

  16. Telling tails: selective pressures acting on investment in lizard tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Patricia A; Valentine, Leonie E; Bateman, Philip W

    2013-01-01

    Caudal autotomy is a common defense mechanism in lizards, where the animal may lose part or all of its tail to escape entrapment. Lizards show an immense variety in the degree of investment in a tail (i.e., length) across species, with tails of some species up to three or four times body length (snout-vent length [SVL]). Additionally, body size and form also vary dramatically, including variation in leg development and robustness and length of the body and tail. Autotomy is therefore likely to have fundamentally different effects on the overall body form and function in different species, which may be reflected directly in the incidence of lost/regenerating tails within populations or, over a longer period, in terms of relative tail length for different species. We recorded data (literature, museum specimens, field data) for relative tail length (n=350 species) and the incidence of lost/regenerating tails (n=246 species). We compared these (taking phylogeny into account) with intrinsic factors that have been proposed to influence selective pressures acting on caudal autotomy, including body form (robustness, body length, leg development, and tail specialization) and ecology (foraging behavior, physical and temporal niches), in an attempt to identify patterns that might reflect adaptive responses to these different factors. More gracile species have relatively longer tails (all 350 spp., P lizards (all 246 spp., P < 0.01; Scindidae, P < 0.05), larger skinks (P < 0.05), climbing geckos (P < 0.05), or active-foraging iguanids (P < 0.05). The selective advantage of investing in a relatively longer tail may be due to locomotor mechanics, although the patterns observed are also largely consistent with predictions based on predation pressure.

  17. Intrinsic Terminator Prediction and Its Application in Synechococcus sp. WH8102

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Feng Wan; Dong Xu

    2005-01-01

    A new method for intrinsic terminator prediction based on Rnall, an RNA local secondary structure prediction algorithm developed recently, and two U-tail score schemas are developed. By optimizing three parameters (thermodynamic energy of RNA hairpin structure, U-tail T weight, and U-tail hybridization energy), the method can recognize 92.25% of known terminators while rejecting 98.48% of predicted RNA local secondary structures in coding regions (negative control) as false intrinsic terminators in E. coli. This method was applied to scan the genome of Synechococcus sp. WH8102, and we predicted 266 intrinsic terminators, which included 232 protein-coding genes, 12 tRNA genes, and 3 rRNA genes. About 17% of these terminators are located at the end of operons. It is also identified 8 pairs of biodirectional terminators. The method for intrinsic terminator prediction has been incorporated into Rnall, which is available at http://digbio.missouri.edu/~wanx/Rnall/.

  18. Oilsand tailings : solving the issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granson, E.

    2008-11-15

    Oilsands tailings management is an integral part of oil sands research and development. Studies to decrease land disturbance and to resolve environmental and safety issues are underway at several government agencies and industry groups, including the Alberta Energy Research Institute, the Oil Sands Tailings Research Facility and Natural Resources Canada's CANMET Advanced Separation Technologies division. Fresh tailings that come from the bitumen extraction process are composed of 85 to 90 per cent water and 10 to 15 per cent solids having the consistency of muddy water. The 3 zones that develop following discharge into the tailings ponds are 3 metres of clear water; residual hydrocarbons that float on the surface; and, a 1 metre zone of water and settling clay particles known as mature fine tailings (MFT) which comprise about 90 per cent of the volume of the tailings pond. The tailings ponds must be built in areas where there is no bitumen suitable for surface mining. The impounded area is surrounded by tailings dykes built from local overburden materials. As such, tailings ponds are managed as dams according to Alberta Dam Safety regulation requirements. Dam stability is increased by the installation of internal seepage control measures. This article described the key guidelines and objectives for the construction of tailings ponds. It also described the 3 primary types of reclamation settings, namely aquatic reclamation, wetland reclamation and terrestrial reclamation. Water removed from the MFT can be recycled back to the plant to reduce the amount of water used from the river. Although this contributes to lower energy costs, there are challenges regarding salt levels that builds up in piping and equipment. The presence of water in the tailings also prevents tailings reclamation. In addition to mechanical systems to remove water, researchers are also considering the use of chemicals and natural processes. In the consolidated tailings (CT) process, the

  19. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  20. Metal-sulfate induced generation of ROS in human brain cells: detection using an isomeric mixture of 5- and 6-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (carboxy-DCFDA) as a cell permeant tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogue, Aileen I; Jones, Brandon M; Bhattacharjee, Surjyadipta; Percy, Maire E; Zhao, Yuhai; Lukiw, Walter J

    2012-01-01

    Evolution of reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated during the patho-physiological stress of nervous tissue, has been implicated in the etiology of several progressive human neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amylotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this brief communication we used mixed isomers of 5-(and-6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (carboxy-DCFDA; C(25)H(14)C(l2)O(9); MW 529.3), a novel fluorescent indicator, to assess ROS generation within human neuronal-glial (HNG) cells in primary co-culture. We introduced pathological stress using the sulfates of 12 environmentally-, industrially- and agriculturally-relevant divalent and trivalent metals including Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ga, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn and Zn. In this experimental test system, of all the metal sulfates analyzed, aluminum sulfate showed by far the greatest ability to induce intracellular ROS. These studies indicate the utility of using isomeric mixtures of carboxy-H(2)DCFDA diacetates as novel and highly sensitive, long-lasting, cell-permeant, fluorescein-based tracers for quantifying ROS generation in intact, metabolizing human brain cells, and in analyzing the potential epigenetic contribution of different metal sulfates to ROS-generation and ROS-mediated neurological dysfunction.

  1. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  2. Evaluation of the Effect of Carboxy Methyl Cellulose on Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ranjbar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cakes prepared from wheat flour are not appropriate for people suffering from celiac disease due to sensivity to gluten. Therefore cakes prepared from rice flour lacking gluten are produced for these individuals. In this study in order to produce gluten-free cakes, rice flour combined with Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC at two concentrations of 0.25 and 0.75% were used. A rice cake lacking gum was regarded as control. At first, chemical test measuring moisture, protein, ash, fat and pH were performed. Then rice cakes (containing gum and lacking gum were produced through semi-industrial method followed by sensory evaluation in terms of uniformity, crust property, rupture, aroma, taste and flavor. Sensory analysis by panelists showed that addition of CMC gum at two concentrations to bread formulation led to improvement of sensory properties, In other words rice cakes containing CMC had better sensory properties than control rice cakes (lacking gum. In addition of among gum-containing treatments, the sample with 0.75% gum had better scores than the other one.

  3. Carboxy alkyl esters of Uncaria tomentosa augment recovery of sensorineural functions following noise injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, O'neil W; Gearhart, Caroline A; Fulton, Sherry; Fechter, Laurence D

    2011-08-17

    This study tested the hypothesis that hydrophilic chemotypes of the medicinal vine Uncaria tomentosa (UT) would facilitate recovery of sensorineural functions following exposure to a damaging level of noise. The particular chemotypes investigated were carboxy alkyl esters (CAE) which are known to exhibit multifunctional cytoprotective properties that include: enhanced cellular DNA repair, antioxidation and anti-inflammation. Long-Evans rats were divided into four treatment groups: vehicle-control, noise-only, CAE-only and CAE+noise. The noise exposure was an 8kHz octave band of noise at 105dB SPL for 4h. Outer hair cell (OHC) function was measured with the cubic 2f(1)-f(2) distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) at the start of the study (baseline) and at time-points that corresponded to 1day, 1week and 4weeks post-noise exposure to determine within-group effects. Compound action potentials to puretone stimuli were recorded from the VIIIth craniofacial nerve at 4weeks post-noise exposure to determine between-group effects. Additionally, cytocochleograms were constructed for each row of OHCs from each group. Noise exposure produced significant sensorineural impairments. However, CAE treatment facilitated almost complete recovery of OHC function and limited the magnitude of cell loss. The loss of neural sensitivity to puretone stimuli was inhibited with CAE treatment. Therefore, it appears that the multifunctional cytoprotective capacity of CAE from UT may generalize to otoprotection from acoustic over-exposure.

  4. Structural and Mechanistic Studies on Klebsiella pneumoniae 2-Oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline Decarboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell)

    2010-11-12

    The stereospecific oxidative degradation of uric acid to (S)-allantoin was recently shown to proceed via three enzymatic steps. The final conversion is a decarboxylation of the unstable intermediate 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline (OHCU) and is catalyzed by OHCU decarboxylase. Here we present the structures of Klebsiella pneumoniae OHCU decarboxylase in unliganded form and with bound allantoin. These structures provide evidence that ligand binding organizes the active site residues for catalysis. Modeling of the substrate and intermediates provides additional support for this hypothesis. In addition we characterize the steady state kinetics of this enzyme and report the first OHCU decarboxylase inhibitor, allopurinol, a structural isomer of hypoxanthine. This molecule is a competitive inhibitor of K. pneumoniae OHCU decarboxylase with a K{sub i} of 30 {+-} 2 {micro}m. Circular dichroism measurements confirm structural observations that this inhibitor disrupts the necessary organization of the active site. Our structural and biochemical studies also provide further insights into the mechanism of catalysis of OHCU decarboxylation.

  5. [False positive serum des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin after resection of hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Kumiko; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Takagi, Kazumi; Iida, Takayasu; Takasaka, Yoshimitsu; Mizokami, Masashi

    2007-04-01

    Measurements of serum concentrations of des-gamma-carboxy-prothrombin (PIVKA-II) are widely used for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, when we evaluated the correlation of PIVKA-II between two commercially available PIVKA-II immunoassay kits (Lumipulse f vs. Picolumi) to introduce it in our hospital, false high values of PIVKA-II were observed in Lumipulse assay. Four(4%) of 100 serum samples showed false high values, and all of them were obtained from patients less than 2 month after curative resection of HCC. Examining additional 7 patients with HCC resection, serum samples from the 5 patients had the same trend. To elucidate the non-specific reaction by Lumipulse assay which utilized alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzymatic reaction, inhibition assays by various absorbents such as inactive ALP and IgM antibodies were performed. Excess of inactive ALP reduced the high values of PIVKA-II. Note that anti-bleeding sheets (fibrinogen combined drug), which included bovine thrombin, were directly attached on liver of all patients with HCC resection in this study. As the sheets also contaminate ALP and probably produce IgM antibodies to ALP, the IgM may cross-react with anti-PIVKA-II antibodies directly. Taken together, it was suggested that produced antibodies against ALP derived from anti-bleeding sheets led false high values of PIVKA-II in the patients with HCC resection.

  6. Diagnostic Performance of Des-γ-carboxy Prothrombin for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There have been many reports on des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP as a promising serum marker in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; however, the results are inconsistent and even conflicting. Methods. This meta-analysis was performed to investigate the performance of DCP in the diagnosis of HCC. Following a systematic review of relevant studies, Meta-DiSc 1.4 software was used to extract data and to calculate the overall sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR, negative likelihood ratio (NLR, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR. Data are presented as forest plots and summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC analysis was used to summarize the overall test performance. Results. Twelve studies were included in our meta-analysis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, PLR, and NLR of DCP for the detection of HCC in the studies included were 71% (95%CI: 68%–73%, 84% (95%CI: 83%–86%, 6.48 (95%CI: 4.22–9.93, and 0.33 (95%CI: 0.25–0.43, respectively. The area under the SROC curve was 0.8930 and the Q index was 0.8238. Significant heterogeneity was found. Conclusion. This meta-analysis indicated that DCP had moderate diagnostic accuracy in HCC. Further studies with rigorous design, large sample size, and mmultiregional cooperation are needed in the future.

  7. White-tailed jackrabbit relocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo summarizes a plan to relocate white-tailed jackrabbits to Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge (Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge) during 1997.

  8. Oxidation of the antiviral drug acyclovir and its biodegradation product carboxy-acyclovir with ozone: kinetics and identification of oxidation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasse, Carsten; Wagner, Manfred; Schulz, Ralf; Ternes, Thomas A

    2012-02-21

    The oxidation of the antiviral drug acyclovir (ACV) and its main biotransformation product carboxy-acyclovir (carboxy-ACV) by ozone was investigated. Both compounds have recently been detected in surface water, and carboxy-ACV has also been detected in drinking water. The experiments revealed a strong pH dependence of the oxidation of ACV and carboxy-ACV with reaction rate constants increasing by 4 orders of magnitude between the protonated, positively charged form (k(ox,PH(+)), ∼2.5 × 10(2) M(-1) s(-1)) and the deprotonated, negatively charged form (k(ox,P(-)), 3.4 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)). At pH 8 a single oxidation product was formed which was identified via LC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS and NMR as N-(4-carbamoyl-2-imino-5-oxoimidazolidin)formamido-N-methoxyacetic acid (COFA). Using Vibrio fischeri , an acute bacterial toxicity was found for COFA while carboxy-ACV revealed no toxic effects. Ozonation experiments with guanine and guanosine at pH 8 led to the formation of the respective 2-imino-5-oxoimidazolidines, confirming that guanine derivatives such as carboxy-ACV are undergoing the same reactions during ozonation. Furthermore, COFA was detected in finished drinking water of a German waterworks after ozonation and subsequent activated carbon treatment.

  9. The Role of Formin Tails in Actin Nucleation, Processive Elongation, and Filament Bundling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcarra, Christina L.; Bor, Batbileg; Quinlan, Margot E.

    2014-01-01

    Formins are multidomain proteins that assemble actin in a wide variety of biological processes. They both nucleate and remain processively associated with growing filaments, in some cases accelerating filament growth. The well conserved formin homology 1 and 2 domains were originally thought to be solely responsible for these activities. Recently a role in nucleation was identified for the Diaphanous autoinhibitory domain (DAD), which is C-terminal to the formin homology 2 domain. The C-terminal tail of the Drosophila formin Cappuccino (Capu) is conserved among FMN formins but distinct from other formins. It does not have a DAD domain. Nevertheless, we find that Capu-tail plays a role in filament nucleation similar to that described for mDia1 and other formins. Building on this, replacement of Capu-tail with DADs from other formins tunes nucleation activity. Capu-tail has low-affinity interactions with both actin monomers and filaments. Removal of the tail reduces actin filament binding and bundling. Furthermore, when the tail is removed, we find that processivity is compromised. Despite decreased processivity, the elongation rate of filaments is unchanged. Again, replacement of Capu-tail with DADs from other formins tunes the processive association with the barbed end, indicating that this is a general role for formin tails. Our data show a role for the Capu-tail domain in assembling the actin cytoskeleton, largely mediated by electrostatic interactions. Because of its multifunctionality, the formin tail is a candidate for regulation by other proteins during cytoskeletal rearrangements. PMID:25246531

  10. Des-Gamma-Carboxy Prothrombin (DCP Antagonizes the Effects of Gefitinib on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Sheng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP, an aberrant prothrombin produced by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cells, is known as a marker for HCC. Recent studies indicated that high levels of DCP are associated with the malignant potential of HCC. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of DCP with gefitinib treatment failure in HCC and whether DCP counteracts gefitinib-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of HCC. Methods: The experiments were performed in HCC cell lines HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5. The effects of gefitinib on HCC in the presence or absence of DCP were evaluated by the 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were identified by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. Western blotting was performed to analyze the expressions of molecules related to the apoptotic caspase-dependent pathway and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR pathway. Results: Gefitinib inhibited HCC cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells. The effects of gefitinib on HCC cells were antagonized by DCP. In the presence of DCP, HCC cells were resistant to the gefitinib-induced inhibition of proliferation and stimulation of apoptosis. DCP prevented the activation of the apoptotic caspase-dependent pathway induced by gefitinib. These antagonistic effects of DCP also arose from its ability to up-regulate EGFR, c-Met and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF in HCC cells. Conclusion: DCP antagonized gefitinib-induced HCC cell growth inhibition by counteracting apoptosis and up-regulating the EGFR pathway. High levels of DCP might thus lead to low response rates or possibly no response to gefitinib in patients with HCC.

  11. Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin as an important prognostic indicator in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenichi Hakamada; Norihisa Kimura; Takuya Miura; Hajime Morohashi; Keinosuke Ishido; Masaki Nara; Yoshikazu Toyoki; Shunji Narumi; Mutsuo Sasaki

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To clarify the effect of a high des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) level on the invasiveness and prognosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS:Among 142 consecutive patients with known DCP levels,who underwent hepatectomy because of hepatocellular carcinoma,85 patients met the criteria for small hepatocellular carcinoma,i.e.one≤5 cm sized single tumor or no more than three≤3 cm sized tumors.RESULTS:The overall survival rate of the 142 patients was 92.1% for 1 year,69.6% for 3 years,and 56.9% for 5 years.Multivariate analysis showed that microscopic vascular invasion (P = 0.03) and serum DCP≥400mAU/mL (P = 0.02) were independent prognostic factors.In the group of patients who met the criteria for small hepatocellular carcinoma,DCP≥400 mAU/mL was found to be an independent prognostic factor for recurrence-free (P = 0.02) and overall survival (P = 0.0005).In patients who did not meet the criteria,the presence of vascular invasion was an independent factor for recurrence-free (P = 0.02) and overall survivals (P = 0.01).In 75% of patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma and high DCP levels,recurrence occurred extrahepatically.CONCLUSION:For small hepatocellular carcinoma,a high preoperative DCP level appears indicative for tumor recurrence.Because many patients with a high preoperative DCP level develop extrahepatic recurrence,it is necessary to screen the whole body.

  12. Does climate have heavy tails?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Miguel; Mudelsee, Manfred

    2013-04-01

    When we speak about a distribution with heavy tails, we are referring to the probability of the existence of extreme values will be relatively large. Several heavy-tail models are constructed from Poisson processes, which are the most tractable models. Among such processes, one of the most important are the Lévy processes, which are those process with independent, stationary increments and stochastic continuity. If the random component of a climate process that generates the data exhibits a heavy-tail distribution, and if that fact is ignored by assuming a finite-variance distribution, then there would be serious consequences (in the form, e.g., of bias) for the analysis of extreme values. Yet, it appears that it is an open question to what extent and degree climate data exhibit heavy-tail phenomena. We present a study about the statistical inference in the presence of heavy-tail distribution. In particular, we explore (1) the estimation of tail index of the marginal distribution using several estimation techniques (e.g., Hill estimator, Pickands estimator) and (2) the power of hypothesis tests. The performance of the different methods are compared using artificial time-series by means of Monte Carlo experiments. We systematically apply the heavy tail inference to observed climate data, in particular we focus on time series data. We study several proxy and directly observed climate variables from the instrumental period, the Holocene and the Pleistocene. This work receives financial support from the European Commission (Marie Curie Initial Training Network LINC, No. 289447, within the 7th Framework Programme).

  13. Aging, Terminal Decline, and Terminal Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, Erdman; Cleveland, William

    1976-01-01

    Data from a 20-year longitudinal study of persons over 60 were analyzed by step-wise multiple regression to test for declines in function with age, for terminal decline (linear relationship to time before death), and for terminal drop (curvilinear relationship to time before death). There were no substantial terminal drop effects. (Author)

  14. Challenging the Long Tail Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Hongzhi; Li, Jing; Yao, Junjie; Chen, Chen

    2012-01-01

    The success of "infinite-inventory" retailers such as Amazon.com and Netflix has been largely attributed to a "long tail" phenomenon. Although the majority of their inventory is not in high demand, these niche products, unavailable at limited-inventory competitors, generate a significant fraction of total revenue in aggregate. In addition, tail product availability can boost head sales by offering consumers the convenience of "one-stop shopping" for both their mainstream and niche tastes. However, most of existing recommender systems, especially collaborative filter based methods, can not recommend tail products due to the data sparsity issue. It has been widely acknowledged that to recommend popular products is easier yet more trivial while to recommend long tail products adds more novelty yet it is also a more challenging task. In this paper, we propose a novel suite of graph-based algorithms for the long tail recommendation. We first represent user-item information with undirected edge-weighted graph and i...

  15. Tails, Fears and Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Todorov, Victor

    We show that the compensation for rare events accounts for a large fraction of the equity and variance risk premia in the S&P 500 market index. The probability of rare events vary significantly over time, increasing in periods of high market volatility, but the risk premium for tail events cannot...... for the corresponding jump tail density. Our estimates for the risk-neutral expectations are based on short maturity out-of-the money options and new model-free option implied variation measures explicitly designed to separate the tail probabilities. At a general level, our results suggest that any satisfactory...... equilibrium based asset pricing model must be able to generate large and time-varying compensations for fears of disasters....

  16. Mitosis and cell death in the tail of the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, C L; Bellairs, R

    1989-01-01

    Although somites develop from the mesoderm in the tail of the chick embryo, they do not form to the tip of the tail. Previous work has shown that this terminal mesoderm possesses many of the characteristics of the segmental plate mesoderm which gives rise to the somites in the trunk. This investigation is aimed therefore at understanding why the terminal mesoderm fails to form somites. Mitotic and pyknotic rates have been obtained for the tail region of chick embryos between stages 13 and 27. Embryos were treated with colchicine, so that the mitoses were blocked in metaphase, and counts were made on serial sections. The overall mitotic rates were highest between stages 15 and 18. Regions of high mitotic rate, which are an indication of cell synchrony, were found in the tail bud mesoderm though not in a consistent location, and only infrequently near the anterior end of the tail segmental plate. In the trunk however (Stern and Bellairs 1984) a single peak of cell synchrony was routinely found near the cranial end of the segmental plate. It is concluded that the cells of the tail mesoderm are less synchronised in preparation for somitogenesis than are the corresponding mesoderm cells in the trunk. A further conclusion is that the tail bud is not per se a region of high proliferation, though there are patches of high mitotic rate. The overall pyknotic rate reached a maximum at stage 25; peaks of pyknosis corresponded initially with the mitotic peaks and were associated with the ventral ectodermal ridge and the tail gut. By stage 25 however, the high levels of cell death were restricted mainly to the tip of the tail.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Effect of 2-(3-carboxy-1-oxopropyl) amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose on human esophageal cancer cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Wu; Hong Lu; Yun Zhou; Liang Qiao; Rui Ji; Ai-Qing Wang; Wei-Min Liu; Qun-Ji Xue

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether 2-(3-carboxy-1-oxopropy1)amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose (COPADG), a derivative of Damino-glucose, inhibited the growth of human esophageal cancer cell line Eca-109.METHODS: Effects of COPADG on Eca-109 cells cultured in RPMI 1640 medium were examined by a tetrazoliumbased colorimetric assay (MTT assay).RESULTS: COPADG inhibited the growth of Eca-109 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner; the maximum inhibition rate was 83.75%.CONCLUSION: COPADG can directly inhibit the proliferation of Eca-109 cells, which may serve as the experimental evidence for development of new drugs for esophageal cancer therapy.

  18. Portfolio Selection with Heavy Tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hyung (Namwon); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractConsider the portfolio problem of choosing the mix between stocks and bonds under a downside risk constraint. Typically stock returns exhibit fatter tails than bonds corresponding to their greater downside risk. Downside risk criteria like the safety first criterion therefore of ten sele

  19. Little Lizard’s Tail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖敏; 乐伟国

    2008-01-01

    一、故事内容It is a lovely sunny day.Little Lizard is walking in the forest.Suddenly,a big snake stops him.Little Lizard runs as quickly as pos-sible,but his tail is bitten off(咬断)by the snake

  20. Efficient and Scalable Synthesis of 4-Carboxy-Pennsylvania Green Methyl Ester: A Hydrophobic Building Block for Fluorescent Molecular Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woydziak, Zachary R; Fu, Liqiang; Peterson, Blake R

    2014-01-01

    Fluorinated fluorophores are valuable tools for studies of biological systems. However, amine-reactive single-isomer derivatives of these compounds are often very expensive. To provide an inexpensive alternative, we report a practical synthesis of 4-carboxy-Pennsylvania Green methyl ester. Derivatives of this hydrophobic fluorinated fluorophore, a hybrid of the dyes Oregon Green and Tokyo Green, are often cell permeable, enabling labeling of intracellular targets and components. Moreover, the low pKa of Pennsylvania Green (4.8) confers bright fluorescence in acidic cellular compartments such as endosomes, enhancing its utility for chemical biology investigations. To improve access to the key intermediate 2,7-difluoro-3,6-dihydroxyxanthen-9-one, we subjected bis-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)methanone to iterative nucleophilic aromatic substitution by hydroxide on scales of > 40 g. This intermediate was used to prepare over 15 grams of pure 4-carboxy-Pennsylvania Green methyl ester in 28% overall yield without requiring chromatography. This compound can be converted into the amine reactive N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester in essentially quantitative yield for the synthesis of a wide variety of fluorescent molecular probes.

  1. Segregation and differential settling in flocculated tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinato, R.S.; Mahmoudkhani, A.; Fenderson, T.; Watson, P. [Kemira, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Untreated oil sands tailings have a high solids content, have poor dewaterability, and contain no aggregates. This PowerPoint presentation investigated segregation and differential settling in flocculated tailings. Tailings were treated with gypsum and various polymers. Cylinder settling, dynamic rheometry, particle size analysis, and microscopy techniques were used to characterize the composite tailings. The particles sizes of the samples were evaluated in relation to shear rate, bed depth, and treatment. The study showed that the gypsum-treated tailings had small aggregates, size stratification, a high solids content, and poor dewaterability. The polymer N-treated tailings had the lowest solids content, good dewaterability, and weak aggregates. The polymer A-treated tailings had a low solids content, very good dewaterability, and strong aggregates. The addition of a coagulant to the polymer-A treated tailings provided weaker aggregates and a higher solids content. tabs., figs.

  2. Lobster Tail Ice Formation on Aerosurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Glace Ice formation commonly refered to as 'Lobster Tail' by scientists and engineers, is caused to form on the leading edge of a aircraft tail section in the icing research tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

  3. Active tails enhance arboreal acrobatics in geckos

    OpenAIRE

    Jusufi, Ardian; Goldman, Daniel I.; Revzen, Shai; Full, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Geckos are nature's elite climbers. Their remarkable climbing feats have been attributed to specialized feet with hairy toes that uncurl and peel in milliseconds. Here, we report that the secret to the gecko's arboreal acrobatics includes an active tail. We examine the tail's role during rapid climbing, aerial descent, and gliding. We show that a gecko's tail functions as an emergency fifth leg to prevent falling during rapid climbing. A response initiated by slipping causes the tail tip to p...

  4. Trail of Earth's tail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, S.W.H. (Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (UK). Blackett Lab.)

    1985-05-23

    The paper concerns the observations by the ISEE-3 spacecraft of the earth's geomagnetic tail and its environs. The overall structure of the tail is described, as well as the properties of plasmas and fields both in the magnetic tail lobes and in the central current sheet that separates the lobes.

  5. Why are most EU pigs tail docked?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'eath, R.B.; Niemi, J.K.; Vosough Ahmadi, B.

    2016-01-01

    To limit tail biting incidence, most pig producers in Europe tail dock their piglets. This is despite EU Council Directive 2008/120/EC banning routine tail docking and allowing it only as a last resort. The paper aims to understand what it takes to fulfil the intentions of the Directive by examin...

  6. Structure, Orientation and Finite Element Analysis of the Tail Club of Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Lida; YE Yong; SHU Chunkang; PENG Guangzhao; YOU Hailu

    2009-01-01

    The structure and orientation of the posterior extremity (tail club) of the caudal vertebrae of Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis Young and Chao, 1972 from the Upper Jurassic Shangshaximiao Formation has been analyzed to determine the tail club function using Finite Element Analysis. Of the four caudal vertebrae composing the tail club, the second largest (C"1") was probably the most proximal, and is fixed with the preceding sequence of the caudal vertebrae, whereas the smallest (C"4") is free and forms the termination of the tail club. Our analysis also suggests that the tail club is more efficient in lateral swinging rather than up-and-down motion, and that the best region for the tail club to impact is at the spine of the largest of the four caudals (C"2"), with a maximum load for impact at about 450 N. The tail club of Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis probably also had limitations as a defense weapon and was more possibly a sensory organ to improve nerve conduction velocity to enhance the capacity for sensory perception of its surroundings.

  7. Synthesis and in vitro transfection efficiency of spermine-based cationic lipids with different central core structures and lipophilic tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyomtham, Nattisa; Apiratikul, Nuttapon; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Opanasopit, Praneet; Yingyongnarongkul, Boon-Ek

    2015-02-01

    Twelve spermine-based cationic lipids with four different central core structures (di(oxyethyl)amino, di(oxyethyl)amino carboxy, 3-amino-1,2-dioxypropyl and 2-amino-1,3-dioxypropyl) and three hydrophobic tails (lauric acid, myristic acid and palmitic acid) were synthesized. The liposomes containing lipids and DOPE showed moderate to good in vitro DNA delivery into HeLa cells. GFP expression experiments revealed that liposomes composed of lipids with 3-amino-1,2-dioxypropyl as a central core structure exhibited highest transfection efficiency under serum-free condition. Whereas, lipid with 2-amino-1,3-dioxypropyl core structure showed highest transfection under 10% serum condition. Moreover, the liposomes and lipoplexes composted of these cationic lipids exhibited low cytotoxicity.

  8. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse;

    2008-01-01

    This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. A newly designed remediation cell, where the solids were kept in suspension by airflow, was tested. The results show that electric current could remove copper from suspended tailings...... experiment at 40 mA, with approximately 137.5 g mine tailings on dry basis. The removal for a static (baseline) experiment only amounted 15% when passing approximately the same amount of charge through 130 g of mine tailings. The use of air bubbling to keep the tailings suspended increased the removal...

  9. kbpt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kali Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kwmc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  16. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Includes all terminated HUD Multifamily insured mortgages. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the time the mortgage was terminated. The data is good as of...

  17. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This Excel 2010 file includes all terminated HUD Multifamily insured mortgages. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the time the mortgage was terminated. The data...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  2. kcrq Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. ksun Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. khdn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. pabe Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. ktop Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. ktrk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. krvs Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. phny Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. ktcl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kmrb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kcub Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kpdt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. ptkk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kcsm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. ksfo Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kcgi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kjhw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kdab Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kecp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kmls Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kroc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kfod Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. kmia Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. Scanning electron microscopy of Dalkon Shield tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, H L; Williamson, H O

    1983-09-01

    Scanning electron micrographs of Dalkon Shield tails removed from asymptomatic patients show a variety of microbes and debris throughout their entire length. Apparently, even in undamaged tails, bacterial flora thrive in the protein-rich environment within the multifilament tail. The presence of microbes in the portion of the tail beyond the double knot indicates that an alternative mechanism of microbial transport can occur. Since transient endometritis often occurs immediately after insertion of intrauterine devices, microbes may come in contact with both exposed ends of the multifilament tail and be drawn into the tail by capillary action from the uterine environment down the tail toward the double knot as well as upward from the vagina. Such microorganisms could serve as an inoculum for infection.

  6. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine...

  7. Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (PIVKA-II)-producing mediastinal embryonal carcinoma with features of hepatoid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yasuyuki; Tomita, Katsuyuki; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Shigeoka, Yasushi; Watanabe, Masanari; Yamasaki, Akira; Shimizu, Eiji

    2005-01-01

    The case of a 48-year-old man with primary nonseminomatous embryonal carcinoma at the posterior mediastinum is described. The patient displayed extremely high plasma levels of Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (PIVKA-II) (4040 mAU/ml). Ultrasonography and dynamic computed tomography ruled out hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or liver metastasis. After preoperative systemic chemotherapy, total tumor resection was performed. Postoperatively, the plasma levels of PIVKA-II returned to within the normal range (24 mAU/ml). An immnohistochemical study using anti-PIVKA-II monoclonal antibody revealed the cytoplasmic expression of PIVK4-II in the carcinoma cells. These results indicate that tumor cells, which are manifested as hepatoid differentiation, may produce PIVKA-II. This case seems to be the first case reported in which PIVKA-II was produced by nonseminomatous mediastinal embryonal carcinoma without HCC or liver metastasis.

  8. Surface grafting of a dense and rigid coordination polymer based on tri-para-carboxy-polychlorotriphenylmethyl radical and copper acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Mugnaini, Verónica

    2013-01-01

    The step-by-step method is here presented as suitable to anchor on appropriately functionalized gold surfaces a metal-organic coordination polymer based on a non-planar trigonal tri-para-carboxy-polychlorotriphenylmethyl radical derivative and copper acetate. The structural characteristics of the grafted coordination polymer are derived during the step-wise growth from the real time changes in refractive index and oscillation frequency. The film thickness, as measured by scanning force microscopy, combined with the mass uptake value from the quartz crystal microbalance, are used to estimate an average density of the grafted metal-organic coordination polymer that suggests the formation of a dense and rather rigid thin film. This journal is © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Self-consistent-field analysis of the micellization of carboxy-modified poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauw, Y.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The micellization properties of carboxy-modified Pluronics P85 (poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymers) are investigated by means of a molecularly realistic self-consistent-field theory. We consider the, so-called, carboxylic acid end-standi

  10. Structure of the SthK carboxy-terminal region reveals a gating mechanism for cyclic nucleotide-modulated ion channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Kesters

    Full Text Available Cyclic nucleotide-sensitive ion channels are molecular pores that open in response to cAMP or cGMP, which are universal second messengers. Binding of a cyclic nucleotide to the carboxyterminal cyclic nucleotide binding domain (CNBD of these channels is thought to cause a conformational change that promotes channel opening. The C-linker domain, which connects the channel pore to this CNBD, plays an important role in coupling ligand binding to channel opening. Current structural insight into this mechanism mainly derives from X-ray crystal structures of the C-linker/CNBD from hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-modulated (HCN channels. However, these structures reveal little to no conformational changes upon comparison of the ligand-bound and unbound form. In this study, we take advantage of a recently identified prokaryote ion channel, SthK, which has functional properties that strongly resemble cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG channels and is activated by cAMP, but not by cGMP. We determined X-ray crystal structures of the C-linker/CNBD of SthK in the presence of cAMP or cGMP. We observe that the structure in complex with cGMP, which is an antagonist, is similar to previously determined HCN channel structures. In contrast, the structure in complex with cAMP, which is an agonist, is in a more open conformation. We observe that the CNBD makes an outward swinging movement, which is accompanied by an opening of the C-linker. This conformation mirrors the open gate structures of the Kv1.2 channel or MthK channel, which suggests that the cAMP-bound C-linker/CNBD from SthK represents an activated conformation. These results provide a structural framework for better understanding cyclic nucleotide modulation of ion channels, including HCN and CNG channels.

  11. Lineage A Betacoronavirus NS2 Proteins and the Homologous Torovirus Berne pp1a Carboxy-Terminal Domain Are Phosphodiesterases That Antagonize Activation of RNase L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Stephen A; Thornbrough, Joshua M; Zhang, Rong; Jha, Babal K; Li, Yize; Elliott, Ruth; Quiroz-Figueroa, Katherine; Chen, Annie I; Silverman, Robert H; Weiss, Susan R

    2017-03-01

    Viruses in the family Coronaviridae, within the order Nidovirales, are etiologic agents of a range of human and animal diseases, including both mild and severe respiratory diseases in humans. These viruses encode conserved replicase and structural proteins as well as more diverse accessory proteins, encoded in the 3' ends of their genomes, that often act as host cell antagonists. We previously showed that 2',5'-phosphodiesterases (2',5'-PDEs) encoded by the prototypical Betacoronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), and by Middle East respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus antagonize the oligoadenylate-RNase L (OAS-RNase L) pathway. Here we report that additional coronavirus superfamily members, including lineage A betacoronaviruses and toroviruses infecting both humans and animals, encode 2',5'-PDEs capable of antagonizing RNase L. We used a chimeric MHV system (MHV(Mut)) in which exogenous PDEs were expressed from an MHV backbone lacking the gene for a functional NS2 protein, the endogenous RNase L antagonist. With this system, we found that 2',5'-PDEs encoded by the human coronavirus HCoV-OC43 (OC43; an agent of the common cold), human enteric coronavirus (HECoV), equine coronavirus (ECoV), and equine torovirus Berne (BEV) are enzymatically active, rescue replication of MHV(Mut) in bone marrow-derived macrophages, and inhibit RNase L-mediated rRNA degradation in these cells. Additionally, PDEs encoded by OC43 and BEV rescue MHV(Mut) replication and restore pathogenesis in wild-type (WT) B6 mice. This finding expands the range of viruses known to encode antagonists of the potent OAS-RNase L antiviral pathway, highlighting its importance in a range of species as well as the selective pressures exerted on viruses to antagonize it.IMPORTANCE Viruses in the family Coronaviridae include important human and animal pathogens, including the recently emerged viruses severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (MERS-CoV). We showed previously that two viruses within the genus Betacoronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and MERS-CoV, encode 2',5'-phosphodiesterases (2',5'-PDEs) that antagonize the OAS-RNase L pathway, and we report here that these proteins are furthermore conserved among additional coronavirus superfamily members, including lineage A betacoronaviruses and toroviruses, suggesting that they may play critical roles in pathogenesis. As there are no licensed vaccines or effective antivirals against human coronaviruses and few against those infecting animals, identifying viral proteins contributing to virulence can inform therapeutic development. Thus, this work demonstrates that a potent antagonist of host antiviral defenses is encoded by multiple and diverse viruses within the family Coronaviridae, presenting a possible broad-spectrum therapeutic target.

  12. A Disruption of ctpA Encoding Carboxy-Terminal Protease Attenuates Burkholderia mallei and Induces Partial Protection in CD1 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-03

    depression , shortness of breath, diarrhea, and rapid weight loss with mortality [1,2]. Death may occur after a few weeks from an acute infection...microbiologist. N Engl J Med 2001;345:256–8. [6] Kaufmann AF, Meltzer MI, Schmid GP. The economic impact of a bioterrorist attack: are prevention and postattack

  13. The carboxy-terminal pyridinoline cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen in serum as a marker of bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, C; Jensen, L T; Pødenphant, J

    1994-01-01

    in postmenopausal women with mild osteoporosis, and assessed the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (2 mg 17 beta-estradiol plus 1 mg norethisterone daily) and anabolic steroid therapy (50 mg nandrolone decanoate (ND) i.m. every 3 weeks) on serum ICTP in two double-blind placebo-controlled studies with 55...... conclude that serum ICTP does reflect bone metabolism in postmenopausal osteoporosis, but it is not a sensitive marker of the changes in bone resorption induced by hormone replacement therapy, and it does not correspond with other measures of bone resorption during anabolic steroid therapy....

  14. The Juxtamembrane and carboxy-terminal domains of Arabidopsis PRK2 are critical for ROP-induced growth in pollen tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polarized growth of pollen tubes is a critical step for successful reproduction in angiosperms and is controlled by ROP GTPases. Spatiotemporal activation of ROP (Rho GTPases of plants) necessitates a complex and sophisticated regulatory system, in which guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RopGEFs)...

  15. Characterization of a cDNA clone encoding the carboxy-terminal domain of a 90-kilodalton surface antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes.

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced a cDNA for a metacyclic trypomastigote-specific glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 90 kDa, termed MTS-gp90. By immunoblotting, antibodies to the MTS-gp90 recombinant protein reacted exclusively with a 90-kDa antigen of metacyclic trypomastigotes. The insert of the MTS-gp90 cDNA clone strongly hybridized with a single 3.0-kb mRNA of metacyclic forms, whereas the hybridization signal with epimastigote mRNA was weak and those with RNAs from other developmental sta...

  16. Ubc2, an Ortholog of the Yeast Ste50p Adaptor, Possesses a Basidiomycete-Specific Carboxy terminal Extension Essential for Pathogenicity Independent of Pheromone Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteins involved in the MAP kinase pathway controlling mating, morphogenesis and pathogenicity have been identified previously in the fungus Ustilago maydis. One of these, the Ubc2 adaptor protein, possesses a basidiomycete-specific structure. In addition to containing SAM and RA domains typical of...

  17. A hydrogen peroxide sensor based on a horseradish peroxidase/polyaniline/carboxy-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube modified gold electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Mu-Yi, E-mail: huamy@mail.cgu.edu.t [Green Research Center, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Biosensor Group, Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yu-Chen [Green Research Center, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Biosensor Group, Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Rung-Ywan [Electronics and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195, Sec. 4, Chung Hsing Rd., Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Liu, Yin-Chih [Green Research Center, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Biosensor Group, Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-30

    We have developed a polyaniline/carboxy-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube (PAn/MWCNTCOOH) nanocomposite by blending the emeraldine base form of polyaniline (PAn) and carboxy-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in dried dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at room temperature. The conductivity of the resulting PAn/MWCNTCOOH was 3.6 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1}, mainly as a result of the protonation of the PAn with the carboxyl group and the radical cations of the MWCNT fragments. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was immobilized within the PAn/MWCNTCOOH nanocomposite modified Au (PAn/MWCNTCOOH/Au) electrode to form HRP/PAn/MWCNTCOOH/Au for use as a hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) sensor. The adsorption between the negatively charged PAn/MWCNTCOOH nanocomposite and the positively charged HRP resulted in a very good sensitivity to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and an increased electrochemically catalytical current during cyclic voltammetry. The HRP/PAn/MWCNTCOOH/Au electrode exhibited a broad linear response range for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations (86 {mu}M-10 mM). This sensor exhibited good sensitivity (194.9 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}), a fast response time (2.9 s), and good reproducibility and stability at an applied potential of -0.35 V. The construction of the enzymatic sensor demonstrated the potential application of PAn/MWCNTCOOH nanocomposites for the detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with high performance and excellent stability.

  18. Organizational Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2011-01-01

    that a firm's percentage of unwanted customers decreases significantly as acceptance of termination increases, if the firm's definition of unwanted customers is well understood, and if a firm has clear termination routines. In addition, general focus on profitability and external constraints on relationship...... termination are found to significantly affect a firm's relationship termination competence. The findings suggest that managers should regard termination as a legitimate option in customer relationship management. In order to decrease the number of unwanted customers, managers must accept termination......Most firms are involved in a number of customer relationships that drain the firm's resources. However, many firms are hesitant to address this problem. This paper investigates customer relationship termination at the organizational level. We develop and analyze the organizational dimensions...

  19. Ruin problems and tail asymptotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn-Nielsen, Anders

    The thesis Ruin Problems and Tail Asymptotics provides results on ruin problems for several classes of Markov processes. For a class of diffusion processes with jumps an explicit expression for the joint Laplace transform of the first passage time and the corresponding undershoot is derived...... by an underlying Harris recurrent Markov process some asymptotic results for the ruin probability are derived. Finally, a paper, which is separate in content from the rest of the thesis, treats a RESTART problem in the situation, where failures occur with decreasing intensity....

  20. Effects of tail docking and docking length on neuroanatomical changes in healed tail tips of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, M S; Thodberg, K; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2015-01-01

    In pig production, piglets are tail docked at birth in order to prevent tail biting later in life. In order to examine the effects of tail docking and docking length on the formation of neuromas, we used 65 pigs and the following four treatments: intact tails (n=18); leaving 75% (n=17); leaving 50......% (n=19); or leaving 25% (n=11) of the tail length on the pigs. The piglets were docked between day 2 and 4 after birth using a gas-heated apparatus, and were kept under conventional conditions until slaughter at 22 weeks of age, where tails were removed and examined macroscopically and histologically...

  1. Four Tails Problems for Dynamical Collapse Theories

    CERN Document Server

    McQueen, Kelvin J

    2015-01-01

    The primary quantum mechanical equation of motion entails that measurements typically do not have determinate outcomes, but result in superpositions of all possible outcomes. Dynamical collapse theories (e.g. GRW) supplement this equation with a stochastic Gaussian collapse function, intended to collapse the superposition of outcomes into one outcome. But the Gaussian collapses are imperfect in a way that leaves the superpositions intact. This is the tails problem. There are several ways of making this problem more precise. But many authors dismiss the problem without considering the more severe formulations. Here I distinguish four distinct tails problems. The first (bare tails problem) and second (structured tails problem) exist in the literature. I argue that while the first is a pseudo-problem, the second has not been adequately addressed. The third (multiverse tails problem) reformulates the second to account for recently discovered dynamical consequences of collapse. Finally the fourth (tails problem di...

  2. Lipid tail protrusion in simulations predicts fusogenic activity of influenza fusion peptide mutants and conformational models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Larsson

    Full Text Available Fusion peptides from influenza hemagglutinin act on membranes to promote membrane fusion, but the mechanism by which they do so remains unknown. Recent theoretical work has suggested that contact of protruding lipid tails may be an important feature of the transition state for membrane fusion. If this is so, then influenza fusion peptides would be expected to promote tail protrusion in proportion to the ability of the corresponding full-length hemagglutinin to drive lipid mixing in fusion assays. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of influenza fusion peptides in lipid bilayers, comparing the X-31 influenza strain against a series of N-terminal mutants. As hypothesized, the probability of lipid tail protrusion correlates well with the lipid mixing rate induced by each mutant. This supports the conclusion that tail protrusion is important to the transition state for fusion. Furthermore, it suggests that tail protrusion can be used to examine how fusion peptides might interact with membranes to promote fusion. Previous models for native influenza fusion peptide structure in membranes include a kinked helix, a straight helix, and a helical hairpin. Our simulations visit each of these conformations. Thus, the free energy differences between each are likely low enough that specifics of the membrane environment and peptide construct may be sufficient to modulate the equilibrium between them. However, the kinked helix promotes lipid tail protrusion in our simulations much more strongly than the other two structures. We therefore predict that the kinked helix is the most fusogenic of these three conformations.

  3. Haloferax volcanii archaeosortase is required for motility, mating, and C-terminal processing of the S-layer glycoprotein: Haloferax volcanii archeosortase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul Halim, Mohd Farid [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Pfeiffer, Friedhelm [Department of Membrane Biochemistry, Max-Planck-Institute of Biochemistry, 82152, Martinsried, Germany; Zou, James [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Frisch, Andrew [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Haft, Daniel [J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, MD, 20850, USA; Wu, Si [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Tolić, Nikola [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Brewer, Heather [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Payne, Samuel H. [Division of Biological Sciences, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Pohlschroder, Mechthild [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA

    2013-05-28

    Cell surfaces are decorated by a variety of proteins that facilitate interactions with their environments and support cell stability.These secreted proteins are anchored to the cell by mechanisms that are diverse, and, in archaea, poorly understood. Recently published in silico data suggest that in some species a subset of secreted euryarchaeal proteins, which includes the S-­layer glycoprotein, is processed and covalently linked tot he cell membrane by enzymes referred to as archaeosortases. In silico work led to the proposal that an independent, sortase-like system for proteolysis-coupled carboxy-terminal lipid modification exists in bacteria (exosortase) and archaea (archaeosortase). Here, we provide the first in vivo characterization of an archaeosortase in the haloarchaeal model organism Haloferax volcanii. Deletion of the artA gene (HVO_0915) resulted in multiple biological phenotypes: (a) poor growth, especially under low-salt conditions, (b) alterations in cell shape and the S-layer, (c) impaired motility, suppressors of which still exhibit poor growth, and (d) impaired conjugation. We studied one of the ArtA substrates, the S-layer glycoprotein, using detailed proteomic analysis. While the carboxy-terminal region of S-layer glycoproteins, consisting of a threonine-rich O-glycosylated region followed by a hydrophobic transmembrane helix, has been notoriously resistant to any proteomic peptide identification, we were able to identify two overlapping peptides from the transmembrane domain present in the ΔartA strain but not in the wild-type strain. This clearly shows that ArtA is involved in carboxy-terminal posttranslational processing of the S-layer glycoprotein. As it is known from previous studies that a lipid is covalently attached to the carboxy-terminal region of the S-layer glycoprotein, our data strongly support the conclusion that archaeosortase functions analogously to sortase, mediating proteolysis-coupled, covalent cell surface attachment.

  4. Unique structural features facilitate lizard tail autotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanggaard, Kristian W; Danielsen, Carl Chr; Wogensen, Lise;

    2012-01-01

    Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed...... that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail...

  5. High-order tail in Kerr spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Casals, Marc; Ottewill, Adrian C

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the late-time tail of the retarded Green function for the dynamics of a linear field perturbation of Kerr spacetime. We develop an analytical formalism for obtaining the late-time tail up to arbitrary order for general integer spin of the field. We then apply this formalism to obtain the details of the first five orders in the late-time tail of the Green function for the case of a scalar field: to leading order we recover the known power law tail $t^{-2\\ell-3}$, and at third order we obtain a logarithmic correction, $t^{-2\\ell-5}\\ln t$, where $\\ell$ is the field multipole.

  6. CONTAINER TERMINALS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. WIEGMANS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and intermodal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter's theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive forces in both markets. Finally, a competitor analysis is performed for the logistics and transport market. These theories are applied so as to be able to determine the competitive position of intermodal container terminals with a view to the management of marketing channel flows and the physical transport of freight flows. Hence, the central question of this paper is: Which markets are served by intermodal container terminals and with whom are they competing? At present, neither the maritime container terminals nor the continental container terminals appear to have a significant influence in the logistics service market; they concentrate mainly on the physical movement of containers (transshipment. Furthermore, maritime container terminals and continental container terminals are not dominant players in the transport service market. Our conclusion is that continental terminals are predominantly competing with unimodal road transport, with neighbouring continental terminals and with barge transport companies.

  7. Lizard tail regeneration: regulation of two distinct cartilage regions by Indian hedgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozito, Thomas P; Tuan, Rocky S

    2015-03-15

    Lizards capable of caudal autotomy exhibit the remarkable ability to "drop" and then regenerate their tails. However, the regenerated lizard tail (RLT) is known as an "imperfect replicate" due to several key anatomical differences compared to the original tail. Most striking of these "imperfections" concerns the skeleton; instead of the vertebrae of the original tail, the skeleton of the RLT takes the form of an unsegmented cartilage tube (CT). Here we have performed the first detailed staging of skeletal development of the RLT CT, identifying two distinct mineralization events. CTs isolated from RLTs of various ages were analyzed by micro-computed tomography to characterize mineralization, and to correlate skeletal development with expression of endochondral ossification markers evaluated by histology and immunohistochemistry. During early tail regeneration, shortly after CT formation, the extreme proximal CT in direct contact with the most terminal vertebra of the original tail develops a growth plate-like region that undergoes endochondral ossification. Proximal CT chondrocytes enlarge, express hypertrophic markers, including Indian hedgehog (Ihh), apoptose, and are replaced by bone. During later stages of tail regeneration, the distal CT mineralizes without endochondral ossification. The sub-perichondrium of the distal CT expresses Ihh, and the perichondrium directly calcifies without cartilage growth plate formation. The calcified CT perichondrium also contains a population of stem/progenitor cells that forms new cartilage in response to TGF-β stimulation. Treatment with the Ihh inhibitor cyclopamine inhibited both proximal CT ossification and distal CT calcification. Thus, while the two mineralization events are spatially, temporally, and mechanistically very different, they both involve Ihh. Taken together, these results suggest that Ihh regulates CT mineralization during two distinct stages of lizard tail regeneration.

  8. Profitable tail-end production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinchbeck, R.H.

    1997-12-31

    This presentation discusses the origins of the present challenge faced in making mature oil fields profitable in the North Sea. It briefly examines the origins of these challenges, which are rooted in the industrial psychology of the North Sea. It develops a methodological formula for the successful re-engineering of inefficiently-run assets, focusing in particular on the personnel management aspects. It identifies some key areas to seek sustainable cost reductions and recognises the importance of renewing the context for investment in tail-end fields. Finally, it speculates about the way in which the learnings developed in the experiences of the last few years will influence the future of the North Sea. 2 refs.

  9. Integrative biology of tail autotomy in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Timothy E; Russell, Anthony P; Zani, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Self-amputation (autotomy) of the tail is essential for the survival of many lizards. Accordingly, it has garnered the attention of scientists for more than 200 years. Several factors can influence the release of the tail, such as the size, sex, and age of the lizard; type of predator; ecology; and evolutionary history of the lineage. Once lost, the tail will writhe for seconds to minutes, and these movements likely depend on the size and physiology of the tail, habitat of the lizard, and predation pressure. Loss of the tail will, in turn, have impacts on the lizard, such as modified locomotor performance and mechanics, as well as escape behavior. However, the tail is almost always regenerated, and this involves wound healing, altered investment of resources, and tissue differentiation. The regenerated tail generally differs from the original in several ways, including size, shape, and function. Here we summarize recent findings of research pertaining to tail autotomy, and we propose a framework for future investigations.

  10. Tailed Radio Sources in the CDFS Field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Dehghan; M. Johnston-Hollitt; M. Mao; R. P. Norris; N. A. Miller; M. Huynh

    2011-12-01

    Using 1.4 GHz ATCA & VLA images with 5.5 GHz ATCA data, we present a sample of 12 bent-tailed galaxies over the 4 deg2 area of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS). We find 10 new sources, one of which is possibly the highest red-shift bent-tailed galaxy detected at ∼ 2.

  11. Membrane Targeting and Insertion of the C-Tail Protein SciP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pross, Eva; Soussoula, Lavinia; Seitl, Ines; Lupo, Domenico; Kuhn, Andreas

    2016-10-09

    C-tailed membrane proteins insert into the bilayer post-translationally because the hydrophobic anchor segment leaves the ribosome at the end of translation. Nevertheless, we find here evidence that the targeting of SciP to the membrane of Escherichia coli occurs co-translationally since signal elements in the N-terminal part of the SciP protein sequence are present. Two short hydrophobic sequences were identified that targeted a green fluorescent protein-SciP fusion protein to the membrane involving the signal recognition particle. After targeting, the membrane insertion of SciP is catalyzed by YidC independent of the SecYEG translocase. However, when the C-terminal tail of SciP was extended to 21 aa residues, we found that SecYEG becomes involved and makes its membrane insertion more efficient.

  12. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, A.; Ottpsen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4......, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2V/cm.The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20V using approximately 1.8kg mine tailing on dry basis....... In addition, experiments with acidic tailing show that the copper removal is proportional with time....

  13. On tail behavior of nonlinear autoregressive functional conditional heteroscedastic model with heavy-tailed innovations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN; Jiazhu; WU; Guangxu

    2005-01-01

    We study the tail probability of the stationary distribution of nonparametric nonlinear autoregressive functional conditional heteroscedastic (NARFCH) model with heavytailed innovations. Our result shows that the tail of the stationary marginal distribution of an NARFCH series is heavily dependent on its conditional variance. When the innovations are heavy-tailed, the tail of the stationary marginal distribution of the series will become heavier or thinner than that of its innovations. We give some specific formulas to show how the increment or decrement of tail heaviness depends on the assumption on the conditional variance function. Some examples are given.

  14. Injurious tail biting in pigs: how can it be controlled in existing systems without tail docking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eath, R B; Arnott, G; Turner, S P; Jensen, T; Lahrmann, H P; Busch, M E; Niemi, J K; Lawrence, A B; Sandøe, P

    2014-09-01

    Tail biting is a serious animal welfare and economic problem in pig production. Tail docking, which reduces but does not eliminate tail biting, remains widespread. However, in the EU tail docking may not be used routinely, and some 'alternative' forms of pig production and certain countries do not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further investigation. The review identifies a number of knowledge gaps and promising avenues for future research into prevention and mitigation. We illustrate the diversity of hypotheses concerning how different proposed risk factors might increase tail biting through their effect on each other or on the proposed underlying processes of tail biting. A quantitative comparison of the efficacy of different methods of provision of manipulable materials, and a review of current practices in countries and assurance schemes where tail docking is banned, both suggest that daily provision of small quantities of destructible, manipulable natural materials can be of considerable benefit. Further comparative research is needed into materials, such as ropes, which are compatible with slatted floors. Also, materials which double as fuel for anaerobic digesters could be utilised. As well as optimising housing and management to reduce risk, it is important to detect and treat tail biting as soon as it occurs. Early warning signs before the first bloody tails appear, such as pigs holding their tails tucked

  15. Tail-anchored membrane proteins: exploring the complex diversity of tail-anchored-protein targeting in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Ben M; Mullen, Robert T

    2011-02-01

    Tail-anchored (TA) proteins are special class of integral membrane proteins that in recent years have received a considerable amount of attention due to their diverse cellular functions and unique targeting and insertion mechanisms. Defined by the presence of a single, hydrophobic membrane-spanning domain at or near their C terminus, TA proteins must be inserted into membranes post-translationally and are orientated such that their larger N-terminal domain (most often the functional domain) faces the cytosol, while their shorter C-terminal domain faces the interior of the organelle. The C-terminal domain of TA proteins also usually contains the information responsible for their selective targeting to the proper subcellular membrane, a process that, based primarily on studies with yeasts and mammals, appears to be highly complex due to the presence of multiple pathways. Within this context, we discuss here the biogenesis of plant TA proteins and the potential for hundreds of new TA proteins identified via bioinformatics screens to contribute to the already remarkable number of roles that this class of membrane proteins participates in throughout plant growth and development.

  16. Resolution, configurational assignment, and enantiopharmacology at glutamate receptors of 2-amino-3-(3-carboxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (ACPA) and demethyl-ACPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Stensbøl, T B; Nielsen, B;

    2001-01-01

    We have previously described (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-carboxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (ACPA) as a potent agonist at the (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subtype of (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) receptors. We now report the chromatographic resolution...... of ACPA and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-carboxy-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (demethyl-ACPA) using a Sumichiral OA-5000 column. The configuration of the enantiomers of both compounds have been assigned based on X-ray crystallographic analyses, supported by circular dichroism spectra and elution orders on chiral HPLC...... columns. Furthermore, the enantiopharmacology of ACPA and demethyl-ACPA was investigated using radioligand binding and cortical wedge electrophysiological assay systems and cloned metabotropic Glu receptors. (S)-ACPA showed high affinity in AMPA binding (IC(50) = 0.025 microM), low affinity in kainic acid...

  17. (4-Carboxy-2-sulfonatobenzoato-κ2O1,O2bis(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2N,N′manganese(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong-Fang Wu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Mn(C8H4O7S(C12H8N22], the MnII atom is chelated by one 4-carboxy-2-sulfonatobenzoate anion and two phenathroline (phen ligands in a distorted octahedral MnN4O2 geometry. The benzene ring of the 4-carboxy-2-sulfonatobenzoate anion is twisted with respect to the two phen ring systems at dihedral angles of 66.38 (9 and 53.56 (9°. In the crystal, intermolecular O—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonding links the molecules into chains running parallel to [100]. Intermolecular π–π stacking is also observed between parallel phen ring systems, the face-to-face distance being 3.432 (6 Å.

  18. Differential Regulation of Two Palmitoylation Sites in the Cytoplasmic Tail of the β1-Adrenergic Receptor*

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    S-Palmitoylation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is a prevalent modification, contributing to the regulation of receptor function. Despite its importance, the palmitoylation status of the β1-adrenergic receptor, a GPCR critical for heart function, has never been determined. We report here that the β1-adrenergic receptor is palmitoylated on three cysteine residues at two sites in the C-terminal tail. One site (proximal) is adjacent to the seventh transmembrane domain and is a consensus ...

  19. Growth, spectral, optical, thermal, and mechanical behaviour of an organic single crystal: Quinolinium 2-carboxy 6-nitrophthalate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohana, J.; Ahila, G.; Bharathi, M. Divya; Anbalagan, G.

    2016-09-01

    Organic single crystals of quinolinium 2-carboxy 6-nitrophthalate monohydrate (QN) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique using ethanol and water as a mixed solvent. X-ray powder diffraction analysis revealed that the crystal belongs to the monoclinic crystal system with space group of P21/c. The functional groups present in the crystallized material confirmed its molecular structure. The optical transparency range and the lower cutoff wavelength were identified from the UV-vis spectrum. The optical constants were determined by UV-visible transmission spectrum at normal incidence, measured over the 200-700 nm spectral range. The dispersion of the refractive index was discussed in terms of the single-oscillator Wemple and DiDomenico model. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that the charge transfer occur within the molecule. Electronic excitation properties were discussed within the framework of two level model on the basis of an orbital analysis. The nonlinear optical absorption coefficient (β) and nonlinear refraction (n2) of QN was measured by Z-scan technique and reported here. Thermal stability of QN was determined using TGA/DSC curves. Vicker's microhardness studies were carried out on the (1 1 ̅0) plane to understand the mechanical properties of the grown crystal. The microhardness measurements showed a Vickers hardness value as 18.4 kg/mm2 which is comparable to well-known organic crystal, urea.

  20. Diagnostic performance of des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) for hepatocellular carcinoma: a bivariate meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, P; Li, M; Tian, Q B; Liu, Dian-Wu

    2012-01-01

    Serum markers are needed to be developed to specifically diagnose Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) is a promising tool with limited expense and widely accessibility, but the reported results have been controversial. In order to review the performance of DCP for the diagnosis of HCC, the meta-analysis was performed. After a systematic review of relevant studies, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR and NLR, respectively) were pooled using a bivariate meta-analysis. Potential between-study heterogeneity was explored by meta-regression model. The post-test probability and the likelihood ratio scattergram to evaluate clinical usefulness were calculated. Based on literature review of 20 publications, the overall sensitivity, specificity, PLR and NLR of DCP for the detection of HCC were 67% (95%CI, 58%-74%), 92% (95%CI, 88%-94%), 7.9 (95%CI, 5.6-11.2) and 0.36 (95%CI, 0.29-0.46), respectively. The area under the bivariate summary receiving operating characteristics curve was 0.89 (95%CI, 0.85-0.92). Significant heterogeneity was present. In conclusion, the major role of DCP is the moderate confirmation of HCC. More prospective studies of DCP are needed in future.

  1. 异常凝血酶原和肝细胞癌%Des-gamma-carboxy-prothrombin and Hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁联文; 唐伟; 幕内·雅敏

    2002-01-01

    目前肝细胞癌(hepatocellular carcinoma,HCC)的诊断主要有影像学诊断和血清肿瘤标志物的检测.异常凝血酶原(des-gamma-carboxy-prothrombin,DCP)又被称为PIVKA-Ⅱ(protein induced by vita-min K absence or antagonist-Ⅱ),与AFP(alpha-fetoprotein)和AFP-L3(alpha-fetoprotein L3 fraction)一样被认为是一种很有价值的肝细胞癌血清肿瘤标志物.在HCC的检测诊断上,它们之间无明显相关关系,而表现为一定的互补性,结合影像学诊断,动态观测HCC高危(肝炎、肝硬化)人群,这些血清肿瘤标志物有助于HCC的早期发现,同时对HCC的手术疗效的评价、预后的估评有着一定的指导意义.

  2. Sulfation pattern of citrus pectin and its carboxy-reduced derivatives: influence on anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Nadiezda C; Gracher, Ana Helena P; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Gorin, Philip A J; Iacomini, Marcello; Cipriani, Thales R

    2012-08-01

    Citrus pectin (CP), a polysaccharide composed of [→4)-α-D-GalpA-(1→]n, was submitted to one or four carboxy-reduction cycles, resulting in CP-CR1 and CP-CR4, which had 40% and 2% of GalpA units, respectively. The polysaccharides were chemically sulfated and their anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects determined. Sulfated polysaccharides (CP-S, CP-CR1S and CP-CR4S) had different anticoagulant activities, doubling APTT at concentrations of 28.7, 13.2, and 4.9 μg/ml respectively. CP-CR1S and CP-CR4S also showed antithrombotic activity in vivo with ED50 of 3.01 and 1.70 mg/kg, respectively. Like heparin, they inhibited thrombin by a mechanism dependent on AT and HCII. Their hemorrhagic potential was also similar to that of heparin. According to methylation analysis, 91.1% and 50.2% of 6-O-position in CP-CR4S and CP-CR1S were sulfated, respectively. Therefore, substitution of carboxyl groups by sulfate esters in these polysaccharides increases the anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate the regulation of DNA-DNA attraction by H4 histone tail acetylations and mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Nikolay; Yu, Hang; Lyubartsev, Alexander P; Nordenskiöld, Lars

    2014-10-01

    The positively charged N-terminal histone tails play a crucial role in chromatin compaction and are important modulators of DNA transcription, recombination, and repair. The detailed mechanism of the interaction of histone tails with DNA remains elusive. To model the unspecific interaction of histone tails with DNA, all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out for systems of four DNA 22-mers in the presence of 20 or 16 short fragments of the H4 histone tail (variations of the 16-23 a. a. KRHRKVLR sequence, as well as the unmodified fragment a. a.13-20, GGAKRHRK). This setup with high DNA concentration, explicit presence of DNA-DNA contacts, presence of unstructured cationic peptides (histone tails) and K(+) mimics the conditions of eukaryotic chromatin. A detailed account of the DNA interactions with the histone tail fragments, K(+) and water is presented. Furthermore, DNA structure and dynamics and its interplay with the histone tail fragments binding are analysed. The charged side chains of the lysines and arginines play major roles in the tail-mediated DNA-DNA attraction by forming bridges and by coordinating to the phosphate groups and to the electronegative sites in the minor groove. Binding of all species to DNA is dynamic. The structure of the unmodified fully-charged H4 16-23 a.a. fragment KRHRKVLR is dominated by a stretched conformation. The H4 tail a. a. fragment GGAKRHRK as well as the H4 Lys16 acetylated fragment are highly flexible. The present work allows capturing typical features of the histone tail-counterion-DNA structure, interaction and dynamics.

  4. Untangling spider silk evolution with spidroin terminal domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garb Jessica E

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spidroins are a unique family of large, structural proteins that make up the bulk of spider silk fibers. Due to the highly variable nature of their repetitive sequences, spidroin evolutionary relationships have principally been determined from their non-repetitive carboxy (C-terminal domains, though they offer limited character data. The few known spidroin amino (N-terminal domains have been difficult to obtain, but potentially contain critical phylogenetic information for reconstructing the diversification of spider silks. Here we used silk gland expression data (ESTs from highly divergent species to evaluate the functional significance and phylogenetic utility of spidroin N-terminal domains. Results We report 11 additional spidroin N-termini found by sequencing ~1,900 silk gland cDNAs from nine spider species that shared a common ancestor > 240 million years ago. In contrast to their hyper-variable repetitive regions, spidroin N-terminal domains have retained striking similarities in sequence identity, predicted secondary structure, and hydrophobicity. Through separate and combined phylogenetic analyses of N-terminal domains and their corresponding C-termini, we find that combined analysis produces the most resolved trees and that N-termini contribute more support and less conflict than the C-termini. These analyses show that paralogs largely group by silk gland type, except for the major ampullate spidroins. Moreover, spidroin structural motifs associated with superior tensile strength arose early in the history of this gene family, whereas a motif conferring greater extensibility convergently evolved in two distantly related paralogs. Conclusions A non-repetitive N-terminal domain appears to be a universal attribute of spidroin proteins, likely retained from the origin of spider silk production. Since this time, spidroin N-termini have maintained several features, consistent with this domain playing a key role in silk

  5. APPLICATION OF POSTFLOTATION TAILINGS IN HYDROENGINEERING STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Stefaniak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic development stimulated by the increased demand for production of consumer goods and the growing human population result in increasing amounts of various wastes, including tailings. The mining industry in Poland, comprising also mining of non-ferrous metal ores, is a strategic branch of the national economy and at the same time a leading waste producer. Tailings management is a significant problem both in Poland and worldwide. Frequently considerable amounts of wastes are accumulated in mine spoil tips, in areas not always suitable for their deposition, thus leading to the degradation of the surrounding environment. At the huge volume of produced wastes their rational and economically viable management is becoming crucial. On the other hand, depletion of natural aggregate deposits is an important incentive to search for substitutes, which would be suitable for the development of road infrastructure or which could be used in earth structure engineering to construct hydroengineering objects. Since no profitable recovery technologies are available at present, tailings generated by copper mining are deposited in tailings storage facilities. The largest and at the same time the only currently operating facility in Poland is the Żelazny Most Mining Tailings Storage Facility, belonging to KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. The paper presents criteria for material quality and density imposed on the material embedded in the static core of the tailings pond dam. For this purpose studies were conducted to confirm applicability of sorted tailings as a material for the construction of earth structures.

  6. Asbestos Tailings as Aggregates for Asphalt Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xinoming; XU Linrong

    2011-01-01

    To use many asbestos tailings collected in Ya-Lu highway, and to explore the feasibility of using asbestos tailings as aggregates in common asphalt mixtures, and properties of some asphalt mixtures were evaluated as well. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescent (XRF), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) were employed to determine the solid waste content of copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium. Volume properties and pavement performances of AC-25 asphalt mixture with asbestos tailings were also evaluated compared with those with basalt as aggregates.XRD and XRF measurement results infer that asbestos tailing is an excellent road material. Volume properties of AC-25 asphalt mixture with asbestos tailings satisfied the related specifications. No heavy metals and toxic pollution were detected in AAS test and the value of pH test is 8.23, which is help to the adhesion with asphalt in the asphalt concrete. When compared with basalt, high temperature property and the resistance to low temperature cracking of AC-25 asphalt mixture was improved by using asbestos tailings as aggregates. In-service AC-25 asphalt pavement with asbestos tailings also presented excellent performance and British Pendulum Number (BPN) coefficient of surface.

  7. X-ray Observations of Parsec-Scale Tails behind Two Middle-Aged Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Kargaltsev, O; Pavlov, G G; Wong, J A; Garmire, G P

    2008-01-01

    Chandra and XMM-Newton resolved extremely long tails behind two middle-aged pulsars, J1509-5850 and J1740+1000. The tail of PSR J1509-5850 is discernible up to 5.6' from the pulsar (6.5 pc at a distance of 4 kpc), with a flux of 2*10^{-13} erg s^{-1} cm^{-2} in 0.5-8 keV. The tail spectrum fits an absorbed power-law (PL) model with the photon index of 2.3\\pm0.2, corresponding to the 0.5-8 keV luminosity of 1*10^{33} ergs s^{-1}, for n_H= 2.1*10^{22} cm^{-2}. The tail of PSR J1740+1000 is firmly detected up to 5' (2 pc at a 1.4 kpc distance), with a flux of 6*10^{-14} ergs cm^{-2} s^{-1} in 0.4-10 keV. The PL fit yields photon index of 1.4-1.5 and n_H=1*10^{21} cm^{-2}. The large extent of the tails suggests that the bulk flow in the tails starts as mildly relativistic downstream of the termination shock, and then gradually decelerates. Within the observed extent of the J1509-5850 tail, the average flow speed exceeds 5,000 km s^{-1}, and the equipartition magnetic field is a few times 10^{-5} G. For the J1740+...

  8. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset includes all terminated HUD Multifamily mortgages except those from the Hospital Mortgage Insurance Program. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the...

  9. Coal terminal directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The directory gives a comprehensive listing of the world's coal terminals, in a total of 50 countries including information on throughput, facilities, storage capacity, and vessel size limitation.

  10. The concepts of tail moment and tail inertia in the single cell gel electrophoresis assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, B; Vaghef, H; Boström, B

    1995-03-01

    Single cell gel electrophoresis under alkaline conditions is a technique used to detect primary DNA damage in individual mammalian cells. Cells embedded in agarose on microscope slides are subjected to lysis, unwinding of DNA and electrophoresis at high pH. After staining with a fluorescent dye, cells with DNA damage display increased migration of genetic material from the cell nucleus. The damage is quantified by measuring the displacement between the genetic material of the nucleus ('comet head') and the resulting 'tail'. The torsional moment of the tail ('tail moment') has been suggested to be an appropriate index of induced DNA damage in considering both the migration of the genetic material as well as the relative amount of DNA in the tail. In the present paper it will be shown that the moment of inertia ('tail inertia'), a not previously described tail parameter, provides a more precise description of the distribution of individual DNA fragments within the tails. The tail inertia was also found to be the most sensitive indicator of the DNA damage induced in peripheral lymphocytes from mice given a single intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg b.w.). It is concluded that the tail inertia is an important complement to other tail parameters when looking for damage of DNA with the single cell gel electrophoresis assay.

  11. SPS Scraping and LHC Transverse Tails

    CERN Document Server

    Drøsdal, L; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mete, O; Salvachua, B; Valentino, G; Veyrunes, E

    2013-01-01

    All high-intensity LHC beams have to be scraped before extraction from the SPS to remove the non-Gaussian transverse tails of the particle distributions. The tail particles would otherwise cause unacceptably high losses during injection or other phases of the LHC cycle. Studies have been carried out to quantify the scraping using injection losses and emittance measurements from wire scanners as diagnostics. Beams scraped in the SPS were scraped again in the LHC with collimators to investigate possible tail repopulation. The results of these studies will be presented in this paper.

  12. Topological defects with power-law tails

    CERN Document Server

    Radomskiy, Roman V; Gani, Vakhid A; Christov, Ivan C

    2016-01-01

    We study interactions of kinks and antikinks of the $(1+1)$-dimensional $\\varphi^8$ model. In this model, there are kinks with mixed tail asymptotics: power-law behavior at one infinity versus exponential decay towards the other. We show that if a kink and an antikink face each other in way such that their power-law tails determine the kink--antikink interaction, then the force of their interaction decays slowly, as some negative power of distance between them. We estimate the force numerically using the collective coordinate approximation, and analytically via Manton's method (making use of formulas derived for the kink and antikink tail asymptotics).

  13. Variation in salamander tail regeneration is associated with genetic factors that determine tail morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth J Voss

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander's tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66-68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (<4% and correlated with tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site.

  14. Variation in salamander tail regeneration is associated with genetic factors that determine tail morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Gareth J; Kump, D Kevin; Walker, John A; Voss, S Randal

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the factors that cause variation in regenerative potential within and between species. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify heritable genetic factors that explain variation in tail regenerative outgrowth. A hybrid ambystomatid salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum x A. andersoni) was crossed to an A. mexicanum and 217 offspring were induced to undergo metamorphosis and attain terrestrial adult morphology using thyroid hormone. Following metamorphosis, each salamander's tail tip was amputated and allowed to regenerate, and then amputated a second time and allowed to regenerate. Also, DNA was isolated from all individuals and genotypes were determined for 187 molecular markers distributed throughout the genome. The area of tissue that regenerated after the first and second amputations was highly positively correlated across males and females. Males presented wider tails and regenerated more tail tissue during both episodes of regeneration. Approximately 66-68% of the variation in regenerative outgrowth was explained by tail width, while tail length and genetic sex did not explain a significant amount of variation. A small effect QTL was identified as having a sex-independent effect on tail regeneration, but this QTL was only identified for the first episode of regeneration. Several molecular markers significantly affected regenerative outgrowth during both episodes of regeneration, but the effect sizes were small (<4%) and correlated with tail width. The results show that ambysex and minor effect QTL explain variation in adult tail morphology and importantly, tail width. In turn, tail width at the amputation plane largely determines the rate of regenerative outgrowth. Because amputations in this study were made at approximately the same position of the tail, our results resolve an outstanding question in regenerative biology: regenerative outgrowth positively co-varies as a function of tail width at the amputation site.

  15. Headgroup effects on the Krafft temperatures and self-assembly of ω-hydroxy and ω-carboxy hexadecyl quaternary ammonium bromide bolaform amphiphiles: micelles versus molecular clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Simon J; Sriskantha, Bruntha C; Bagshaw, Stephen A; Bruce, Ian J

    2012-02-01

    Eight bolaform amphiphiles were synthesised and characterised; 4 α,ω-hydroxy-alkane trialkyl (and pyridyl) ammonium bromides and 4 α,ω-carboxy-alkane trialkyl (and pyridyl) ammonium bromides where the alkyl groups were methyl, ethyl and propyl. Four of these represented new compounds. Overall the Krafft temperatures (T(K)) of the eight amphiphiles were high, with 6 of the eight possessing T(K)s greater than 45 °C. Thus most of the amphiphiles could only expect to find applications at raised temperatures limiting their potential utility. However in addition to the previously reported α,ω-hydroxy-hexadecyl triethylammonium bromide (2b) with a T(K) of 19.1 °C, another amphiphile, α,ω-carboxy-hexadecyl tripropylammonium bromide (2c) has been identified with a T(K) near ambient temperatures (T(K) of 22.1 °C). This provides an acid functional ammonium bolaform amphiphile that micellises at ambient temperatures to complement the hydroxyl derivative. A correlation between T(K) and the product of the enthalpies and T(m)s of the compounds was observed for 7 of the eight compounds. No correlation between the amphiphile critical micelle concentrations (cmc) and T(K)s was observed confirming previous reports that T(K) values are predominantly determined by crystalline stability rather than solubility. Considerable differences were observed between the various amphiphile T(K)s at different pHs but no clear trend was apparent for the various compounds (despite the degree to which the compounds' carboxylic acid and hydroxyl functionalities were likely to be ionised). The cmcs for the amphiphiles were an order of magnitude larger than those for analogous mono-ammonium amphiphiles with little difference in between the hydroxyl- and carboxy-functionalised compounds. The aggregation numbers (N(agg)) obtained for all compounds were very low (N(agg)bolaforms were in the range 1.0-1.4 nm whereas those for the carboxy-compounds were in the range 2.1-2.4 nm. These results

  16. Underground void filling by cemented mill tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Choudhary Bhanwar Singh; Kumar Santosh

    2013-01-01

    Underground mining always create voids. These voids can cause subsidence of surface. So it is always a demand to fill the void in such a manner that the effect of underground mining can be minimized. Void filling using mill tailings especially in metal mining is one of the best techniques. The tailings produced in milling process have traditionally been disposed in tailing ponds creating a waste disposal and environ-mental problems in terms of land degradation, air and water pollution, etc. This disposal practice is more acute in the metal milling industry where the fine grinding, required for value liberation, results in the production of very fine tailings in large percentage. This paper includes discussions on the effectiveness of different paste mixes with varying cement contents in paste backfilling operations. The results revealed that material composition and use of super plasticizer strongly influenced the strength of cemented backfill.

  17. Quantitative determination of 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol in hair by column switching LC-ESI-MS(3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Meejung; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Yuran; In, Sanghwan; Kim, Eunmi; Park, Yonghoon

    2014-02-01

    Hair analysis has been regarded as an alternative method to urine analysis in forensic and criminal cases. Cannabis (marijuana) is one of the most widely used drugs in the world and it has been controlled in South Korea since 1976. Identification of 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) in hair can be an important proof of cannabis use because it can exclude the possibility of passive cannabis smoke exposure. In this study, we described a quantitative method of THCCOOH in hair using simple liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), selective column switching liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS(3). For the column switching system three columns (precolumn, trap column and analytical column) were used. Valve switch from the precolumn to the trap column was set from 3.0 to 4.0 min because THCCOOH appeared around 3.5 min with this precolumn. After 4.0 min the valve was switched to the original position and the analytes in the trap column were eluted onto the analytical column. Resolution occurred in this column and eluted into the ESI-MS(3) system. The internal standard was THCCOOH-d3. We used ESI-negative-MS(3) transition of ions at m/z 343 to 299 to 245 (343/299/245) and m/z 346 to 302 to 248 (346/302/248) for quantification of THCCOOH and THCCOOH-d3, respectively. The validation results of selectivity, matrix effect, recovery, linearity, precision and accuracy, and processed sample stability were satisfactory. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.05 pg/mg and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.10 pg/mg. The range of concentration of THCCOOH from 98 authentic human hair was 0.13-15.75 pg/mg. This method was successfully applied in the analysis of authentic human hair samples.

  18. Documents from malicious terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Istvan Z.; Vajda, Istvan

    2003-04-01

    The user wishes to communicate with a remote partner over an insecure network. Since the user is a human being, a terminal is needed for communication. Cryptographic algorithms running on the terminal may provide authenticity for the user's messages. In this paper the problem of sending authentic messages from insecure or untrusted terminals is analyzed. In this case attackers are able to gain total control over the terminal, so the user must consider the terminal a potential attacker. Smart cards are often considered the ultimate tool for secure messaging from untrusted terminals. However, their lack of user interface enables man-in-the middle attack from the terminal. The authors assume, that user is a human being with limited memory and computational power, and also makes mistakes in his calculations. They demnostrate, that only exceptional useres are able to authenticate messages without a trusted device. Several biometric media encapsulate the content of the message and the identity of the sender, such as speech, video and handwriting. The authors suggest, that such media is far more difficult to counterfeit than plaintext. Thus, the user must rely on his other resources, like biometric ones. In the protocol proposed by the authors, the user sends messages in a biometric format, strengthened by simple algorithmic authenticators. The smart card functions as a secure time gate ensuring, that the attacker has extremely little time to counterfeit both the biometric and the algorithmic protection on the message. The authors claim, that with the proper calibration of the biometric method and the time gate of the smart card, their protocol is strong enough for practical use.

  19. Poisson vs. Long-Tailed Internet traffic

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we reexamine the long discussion on which model is suitable for studying Internet traffic: Poisson or Long-tailed Internet traffic. Poisson model, adapted from telephone network, has been used since the beginning of World Wide Web, while long-tailed distribution gradually takes over with believable evidence. Instead of using Superposition of Point Processes to explain why traffic that is not Poisson tends towards Poisson traffic as the load increases, as it is recent...

  20. On high energy tails in inelastic gases

    OpenAIRE

    Lambiotte, R.; Brenig, L.; Salazar, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    We study the formation of high energy tails in a one-dimensional kinetic model for granular gases, the so-called Inelastic Maxwell Model. We introduce a time- discretized version of the stochastic process, and show that continuous time implies larger fluctuations of the particles energies. This is due to a statistical relation between the number of inelastic collisions undergone by a particle and its average energy. This feature is responsible for the high energy tails in the model, as shown ...

  1. Electrodialytic Remediation of Copper Mine Tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Rojo, A.; Ottosen, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields.......This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields....

  2. Hybrid Tail Risk and Expected Stock Returns: When Does the Tail Wag the Dog?

    OpenAIRE

    Bali, Turan G.; Nusret Cakici; Robert F. Whitelaw

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new, hybrid measure of stock return tail covariance risk, motivated by the under-diversified portfolio holdings of individual investors, and investigate its cross-sectional predictive power. Our key innovation is that this covariance is measured across the left tail states of the individual stock return distribution, not across those of the market return as in standard systematic risk measures. We document a positive and significant relation between hybrid tail covariance risk ...

  3. Local Termination: theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Endrullis, Joerg; Waldmann, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The characterisation of termination using well-founded monotone algebras has been a milestone on the way to automated termination techniques, of which we have seen an extensive development over the past years. Both the semantic characterisation and most known termination methods are concerned with global termination, uniformly of all the terms of a term rewriting system (TRS). In this paper we consider local termination, of specific sets of terms within a given TRS. The principal goal of this paper is generalising the semantic characterisation of global termination to local termination. This is made possible by admitting the well-founded monotone algebras to be partial. We also extend our approach to local relative termination. The interest in local termination naturally arises in program verification, where one is probably interested only in sensible inputs, or just wants to characterise the set of inputs for which a program terminates. Local termination will be also be of interest when dealing with a specif...

  4. The Sodium Tail of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  5. Four tails problems for dynamical collapse theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Kelvin J.

    2015-02-01

    The primary quantum mechanical equation of motion entails that measurements typically do not have determinate outcomes, but result in superpositions of all possible outcomes. Dynamical collapse theories (e.g. GRW) supplement this equation with a stochastic Gaussian collapse function, intended to collapse the superposition of outcomes into one outcome. But the Gaussian collapses are imperfect in a way that leaves the superpositions intact. This is the tails problem. There are several ways of making this problem more precise. But many authors dismiss the problem without considering the more severe formulations. Here I distinguish four distinct tails problems. The first (bare tails problem) and second (structured tails problem) exist in the literature. I argue that while the first is a pseudo-problem, the second has not been adequately addressed. The third (multiverse tails problem) reformulates the second to account for recently discovered dynamical consequences of collapse. Finally the fourth (tails problem dilemma) shows that solving the third by replacing the Gaussian with a non-Gaussian collapse function introduces new conflict with relativity theory.

  6. Tail dependence of random variables from ARCH and heavy tailed bilinear models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘家柱

    2002-01-01

    Discussed in this paper is the dependent structure in the tails of distributions of random variables from some heavy-tailed stationary nonlinear time series. One class of models discussed is the first-order autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (ARCH) process introduced by Engle (1982). The other class is the simple first-order bilinear models driven by heavy-tailed innovations. We give some explicit formulas for the asymptotic values of conditional probabilities used for measuring the tail dependence between two random variables from these models. Our results have significant meanings in finance.

  7. Nonlinear autoregressive models with heavy-tailed innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN; Yang; AN; Hongzhi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the relationship between the stationary marginal tail probability and the innovation's tail probability of nonlJnear autoregressive models. We show that under certain conditions that ensure the stationarity and ergodicity, one dimension stationary marginal distribution has the heavy-tailed probability property with the same index as that of the innovation's tail probability.

  8. Tail Asymptotics for the Sum of two Heavy-tailed Dependent Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecher, H.; Asmussen, Søren

    Let X1,X2 denote positive exchangable heavy-tailed random variables with continuous marginal distribution function F. The asymptotic behavior of the tail of X1 + X2 is studied in a general copula framework and some bounds and extremal properties are provided. For more specific assumptions on F...

  9. Attitudes of Dutch Pig Farmers Towards Tail Biting and Tail Docking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Lauwere, de C.C.; Wind, S.M.M.; Zonderland, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch policy objective of a fully sustainable livestock sector without mutilations by 2023 is not compatible with the routine practice of tail docking to minimize the risk of tail biting. To examine farmer attitudes towards docking, a telephone survey was conducted among 487 conventional and 33

  10. Modeling Terminal Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Neal; Quintanilla, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a simultaneously falling softball as a stopwatch, the terminal velocity of a whiffle ball can be obtained to surprisingly high accuracy with only common household equipment. This classroom activity engages students in an apparently daunting task that nevertheless is tractable, using a simple model and mathematical techniques at their…

  11. Navy Multiband Terminal (NMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    military satellite communications terminal. The NMT Program is the required Navy component to the Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) Program... Advanced Extremely High Frequency ATO - Approval to Operate DAA - Designated Approval Authority deg - degree DISR - DoD Information Standards...Intermediate, and Depot. The Intermediate maintenance will be performed by the Regional Maintenance Centers and further supported by the In Service

  12. The tidal tails of NGC 2298

    CERN Document Server

    Balbinot, Eduardo; da Costa, Luiz N; Makler, Martin; Maia, Marcio A G

    2011-01-01

    We present an implementation of the matched-filter technique to detect tidal tails of globular clusters. The method was tested using SDSS data for the globular cluster Palomar 5 revealing its well known tidal tails. We also ran a simulation of a globular cluster with a tidal tail where we successfully recover the tails for a cluster at the same position and with the same characteristics of NGC 2298. Based on the simulation we estimate that the matched-filter increases the contrast of the tail relative to the background of stars by a factor of 2.5 for the case of NGC 2298. We also present the photometry of the globular cluster NGC 2298 using the MOSAIC2 camera installed on the CTIO 4m telescope. The photometry covers ~ 3deg2 reaching V ~ 23. A fit of a King profile to the radial density profile of NGC 2298 shows that this cluster has a tidal radius of 15.91' \\pm 1.07' which is twice as in the literature. The application of the matched-filter to NGC 2298 reveals several extra-tidal structures, including a leadi...

  13. How does innovation's tail risk determine marginal tail risk of a stationary financial time series?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN; Jiazhu; YU; Bosco; W.T.; PANG; W.K.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between the marginal tail risk probability and the innovation'stail risk probability for some stationary financial time series models.We first give the main results on the tail behavior of a class of infinite weighted sums of random variableswith heavy-tailed probabilities. And then, the main results are applied tothree important types of time series models:infinite order moving averages, the simple bilinear time series and the solutions of stochasticdifference equations. The explicit formulas are given to describe how the marginaltail probabilities come from the innovation's tail probabilities for these time series.Our results can be applied to the tail estimation of time series and are useful for risk analysis in finance.

  14. Eight new crystal structures of 5-(hydroxymethyl)uracil, 5-carboxyuracil and 5-carboxy-2-thiouracil: insights into the hydrogen-bonded networks and the predominant conformations of the C5-bound residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Vanessa Kristina; Hützler, Wilhelm Maximilian; Bolte, Michael

    2016-05-01

    In order to examine the preferred hydrogen-bonding pattern of various uracil derivatives, namely 5-(hydroxymethyl)uracil, 5-carboxyuracil and 5-carboxy-2-thiouracil, and for a conformational study, crystallization experiments yielded eight different structures: 5-(hydroxymethyl)uracil, C5H6N2O3, (I), 5-carboxyuracil-N,N-dimethylformamide (1/1), C5H4N2O4·C3H7NO, (II), 5-carboxyuracil-dimethyl sulfoxide (1/1), C5H4N2O4·C2H6OS, (III), 5-carboxyuracil-N,N-dimethylacetamide (1/1), C5H4N2O4·C4H9NO, (IV), 5-carboxy-2-thiouracil-N,N-dimethylformamide (1/1), C5H4N2O3S·C3H7NO, (V), 5-carboxy-2-thiouracil-dimethyl sulfoxide (1/1), C5H4N2O3S·C2H6OS, (VI), 5-carboxy-2-thiouracil-1,4-dioxane (2/3), 2C5H4N2O3S·3C6H12O3, (VII), and 5-carboxy-2-thiouracil, C10H8N4O6S2, (VIII). While the six solvated structures, i.e. (II)-(VII), contain intramolecular S(6) O-H...O hydrogen-bond motifs between the carboxy and carbonyl groups, the usually favoured R2(2)(8) pattern between two carboxy groups is formed in the solvent-free structure, i.e. (VIII). Further R2(2)(8) hydrogen-bond motifs involving either two N-H...O or two N-H...S hydrogen bonds were observed in three crystal structures, namely (I), (IV) and (VIII). In all eight structures, the residue at the ring 5-position shows a coplanar arrangement with respect to the pyrimidine ring which is in agreement with a search of the Cambridge Structural Database for six-membered cyclic compounds containing a carboxy group. The search confirmed that coplanarity between the carboxy group and the cyclic residue is strongly favoured.

  15. Harvey murine sarcoma virus p21 ras protein: biological and biochemical significance of the cysteine nearest the carboxy terminus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, B M; Norris, K; Papageorge, A G

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies of premature chain termination mutants and in frame deletion mutants of the p21 ras transforming protein encoded by the transforming gene of Harvey murine sarcoma virus (Ha-MuSV) have suggested that the C terminus is required for cellular transformation, lipid binding, and membrane...

  16. Design of tailing dam using red mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Subrat; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat

    2013-06-01

    Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

  17. International experience in tailings pond remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacG. Robertson, A. [Robertson GeoConsultants Ltd., Vancouver (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Tailings pond remediation is required primarily on mine closure. While mining is an ancient industry, requirement for mine facility remediation is a comparatively new development. Requirement for remediation has come about partly as a result of mans awareness of the environmental impacts of mining and his desire to minimize this, partly, as a result of the ever-increasing scale and production rates of tailings generation and the resulting increased environmental impacts and safety risks. The paper starts with a review of the evolution of mans intolerance of environmental impacts from tailings production and the assignment of liability to remediate such impacts. Many of the tailings ponds currently undergoing remediation were designed and constructed using methods and technology that would be considered inappropriate for new impoundments being designed and developed today. The paper reviews the history of tailings impoundment design and construction practice and the resulting inherent deficiencies that must be remediated. Current practices and future trends in tailings pond remediation are reviewed. The evolution of regulatory requirements is not only in terms of technical and safety criteria, but also in terms of financial and political risk. Perhaps the most substantive driver of risk management is today the requirement for corporate governance at mining company board level and oversight of new project development in the underdeveloped countries by the large financial institutions responsible for funding projects. Embarrassment in the public eye and punishment in the stock markets for poor environmental and safety performance is driving the need for efficient and effective risk management of potential impacts and the remediation to avoid these. A basis for practical risk management is described. (orig.)

  18. Cirrus Crystal Terminal Velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Iaquinta, Jean

    2000-04-01

    Cirrus crystal terminal velocities are of primary importance in determining the rate of transport of condensate from upper- to middle-tropospheric levels and profoundly influence the earth's radiation balance through their effect on the rate of buildup or decay of cirrus clouds. In this study, laboratory and field-based cirrus crystal drag coefficient data, as well as analytical descriptions of cirrus crystal shapes, are used to derive more physically based expressions for the velocities of cirrus crystals than have been available in the past.Polycrystals-often bullet rosettes-are shown to be the dominant crystal types in synoptically generated cirrus, with columns present in varying but relatively large percentages, depending on the cloud. The two critical parameters needed to calculate terminal velocity are the drag coefficient and the ratio of mass to cross-sectional area normal to their fall direction. Using measurements and calculations, it is shown that drag coefficients from theory and laboratory studies are applicable to crystals of the types found in cirrus. The ratio of the mass to area, which is shown to be relatively independent of the number of bullets in the rosette, is derived from an analytic model that represents bullet rosettes containing one to eight bullets in 19 primary geometric configurations. The ratio is also derived for columns. Using this information, a general set of equations is developed to calculate the terminal velocities and masses in terms of the aspect ratio (width divided by length), ice density, and rosette maximum dimension. Simple expressions for terminal velocity and mass as a function of bullet rosette maximum dimension are developed by incorporating new information on bullet aspect ratios.The general terminal velocity and mass relations are then applied to a case from the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Research Experiment (FIRE) 2, when size spectra from a balloon-borne ice crystal

  19. Antecedents of Customer Relationship Termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    To end business relationships, or to more actively terminate relationships, has long been acknowledged as part of customer relationship management. However, compared to other elements such as initiation and maintenance of relationships, little is known about the termination of business...... relationships as a managerial task. This paper contributes by (1) developing a conceptualization of relationship termination competence and (2) analyzing its antecedents. The empirical results identify termination acceptance, definition non-customers, organizational relationship termination routines......, and motivation as significant antecedents. Because of this, managers need to develop their organizations in order to use relationship termination as a vital strategy....

  20. Radial tail resolution in the SELEX RICH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelos, A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: morelos@ifisica.uaslp.mx; Mata, J. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Cooper, P.S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Engelfried, J. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Aguilera-Servin, J.L. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2005-11-11

    We use a seven million event data sample of 600GeV/c single-track pion events, where the pion track is reconstructed upstream and downstream of the SELEX RICH. We build the RICH ring radius histogram distribution and count the tail events that fall outside 5{sigma}, giving a fraction of 4x10{sup -5} events outside the Gaussian tails. This control of events establishes the ability of using the RICH as a velocity spectrometer for high-precision searches of the K{sup +}->{pi}{sup +}{nu}{nu}-bar decay like it is planned in the CKM experiment.

  1. Heavy-tailed chiral random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Takuya

    2016-05-01

    We study an unconventional chiral random matrix model with a heavy-tailed probabilistic weight. The model is shown to exhibit chiral symmetry breaking with no bilinear condensate, in analogy to the Stern phase of QCD. We solve the model analytically and obtain the microscopic spectral density and the smallest eigenvalue distribution for an arbitrary number of flavors and arbitrary quark masses. Exotic behaviors such as non-decoupling of heavy flavors and a power-law tail of the smallest eigenvalue distribution are illustrated.

  2. Pioneer fauna of nepheline-containing tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenkova, I. V.; Kalmykova, V. V.; Liskovaya, A. A.

    2009-08-01

    The zoological analysis of nepheline-containing sands deposited in tailings 10-40 years ago showed that the pioneer colonists of this technogenic substrate are collembolan and mites, whose proportions depend on the succession of the bacterial and fungal components of the microbiota. The pioneer groups of mesofauna on 10- to 30-year-old tailings include carnivorous herpetobiontic arthropods and phytophagous insects. An impoverished version of the fauna of northern-taiga podzols is developed in the sands rehabilitated more than 40 years ago.

  3. Heavy-tailed chiral random matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kanazawa, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    We study an unconventional chiral random matrix model with a heavy-tailed probabilistic weight. The model is shown to exhibit chiral symmetry breaking with no bilinear condensate, in analogy to the Stern phase of QCD. We solve the model analytically and obtain the microscopic spectral density and the smallest eigenvalue distribution for an arbitrary number of flavors and arbitrary quark masses. Exotic behaviors such as non-decoupling of heavy flavors and a power-law tail of the smallest eigenvalue distribution are illustrated.

  4. Termination Casts: A Flexible Approach to Termination with General Recursion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Stump

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a type-and-effect system called Teqt, which distinguishes terminating terms and total functions from possibly diverging terms and partial functions, for a lambda calculus with general recursion and equality types. The central idea is to include a primitive type-form "Terminates t", expressing that term t is terminating; and then allow terms t to be coerced from possibly diverging to total, using a proof of Terminates t. We call such coercions termination casts, and show how to implement terminating recursion using them. For the meta-theory of the system, we describe a translation from Teqt to a logical theory of termination for general recursive, simply typed functions. Every typing judgment of Teqt is translated to a theorem expressing the appropriate termination property of the computational part of the Teqt term.

  5. Mobile Phone Terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, an employee of a real estate firm is contacting his office by means of HICOM, an advanced central terminal for mobile telephones. Developed by the Orlando Division of Martin Marietta Aerospace, Orlando, Florida, and manufactured by Harris Corporation's RF Division, Rochester, N.Y., HICOM upgrades service to users, provides better system management to telephone companies, and makes more efficient use of available mobile telephone channels through a computerized central control terminal. The real estate man, for example, was able to dial his office and he could also have direct-dialed a long distance number. Mobile phones in most areas not yet served by HICOM require an operator's assistance for both local and long distance calls. HICOM improves system management by automatically recording information on all calls for accurate billing, running continual performance checks on its own operation, and reporting any malfunctions to a central office.

  6. Head/tail Breaks: A New Classification Scheme for Data with a Heavy-tailed Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new classification scheme - head/tail breaks - in order to find groupings or hierarchy for data with a heavy-tailed distribution. The heavy-tailed distributions are heavily right skewed, with a minority of large values in the head and a majority of small values in the tail, commonly characterized by a power law, a lognormal or an exponential function. For example, a country's population is often distributed in such a heavy-tailed manner, with a minority of people (e.g., 20 percent) in the countryside and the vast majority (e.g., 80 percent) in urban areas. This heavy-tailed distribution is also called scaling, hierarchy or scaling hierarchy. This new classification scheme partitions all of the data values around the mean into two parts and continues the process iteratively for the values (above the mean) in the head until the head part values are no longer heavy-tailed distributed. Thus, the number of classes and the class intervals are both naturally determined. We therefore claim tha...

  7. Superiority of Filtered Tailings Storage Facility to Conventional Tailings Impoundment in Southern Rainy Regions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the superiority of a filtered tailings storage facility (FTSF to conventional tailings impoundment in the southern rainy regions of China (SRRC, the tailings slurry leakage and pollution accident occurring at the wet tailings dam (WTD of Yinshan were analyzed, the properties of the tailings were tested in a laboratory, and the possibility of tailings liquefaction was evaluated. Comparisons of the slope stabilities of the filtered tailings dam (FTD and WTD in normal operation, flood, continuous rainfall, and earthquake situations were simulated using the Slide software. The results show that the FTD has less chance of seepage, lower failure probability, and limited potential destructiveness than the WTD with average slope safety factors of 2.120 for normal operation, 1.919 for flooding, 1.204 for continuous rainfall, and 1.724 for a magnitude-6.0 earthquake. The disaster chain model of the WTD of Yinshan belongs to the bursting and slippage chain. As the most safe and effective active prevention measure, the FTSF has the advantages of saving water, protecting the environment, improving its stability in flood and rainfall situations, and reducing the dam failure probability and potential losses, which is greatly applicable to the SRRC.

  8. Navy Multiband Terminal (NMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Acquisition Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development Estimate DoD - Department of Defense DSN - Defense Switched Network Econ - Economic Eng...Memo Note for Shore (for MTBF and MTBCF): Represents IOT &E and Verification of Correction of Deficiencies testing results; mission impact deemed...insignificant due to multiple terminals at Shore site. Note for Sub (for MTBF, MTBCF and MTTR): Represents IOT &E hours; test duration limit for

  9. The visual corticostriatal loop through the tail of the caudate: Circuitry and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A Seger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although high level visual cortex projects to a specific region of the striatum, the tail of the caudate, and participates in corticostriatal loops, the function of this visual corticostriatal system is not well understood. This article first reviews what is known about the anatomy of the visual corticostriatal loop across mammals, including rodents, cats, monkeys, and humans. Like other corticostriatal systems, the visual corticostriatal system includes both closed loop components (recurrent projections that return to the originating cortical location and open loop components (projections that terminate in other neural regions. The article then reviews what previous empircal research has shown about the function of the tail of the caudate. The article finally addresses the possible functions of the closed and open loop connections of the visual loop in the context of theories and computational models of corticostriatal function.

  10. Synthesis of highly strained terpenes by non-stop tail-to-head polycyclization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronin, Sergey V; Shenvi, Ryan A

    2012-11-01

    Non-stop carbocationic polycyclizations of isoprenoids have been called the most complex chemical reactions occurring in nature. We describe a strategy for the initiation of tail-to-head polycyclization that relies on the sequestration of the counteranion away from the carbocation, which allows full propagation of the cationic charge. If the anion is mobile, Coulombic forces hold this species in close proximity to the carbocation and cause preemptive termination through elimination. Anion sequestration is crucial for effecting the biomimetic synthesis of complex and unstable terpenes, including the highly strained funebrenes. This study illustrates the deleterious role of the counterion in tail-to-head carbocationic polycyclization reactions, which to the best of our knowledge has not been rigorously explored. These observations are also expected to find use in the design and control of cationic polycyclization along biosynthetic pathways that have previously been inaccessible in bulk solvent.

  11. Exact and efficient simulation of tail probabilities of heavy-tailed infinite series

    OpenAIRE

    Hult, Henrik; Juneja, Sandeep; Murthy, Karthyek

    2016-01-01

    We develop an efficient simulation algorithm for computing the tail probabilities of the infinite series $S = \\sum_{n \\geq 1} a_n X_n$ when random variables $X_n$ are heavy-tailed. As $S$ is the sum of infinitely many random variables, any simulation algorithm that stops after simulating only fixed, finitely many random variables is likely to introduce a bias. We overcome this challenge by rewriting the tail probability of interest as a sum of a random number of telescoping terms, and subsequ...

  12. EAR AND TAIL LESIONS ON CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER FAWNS (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS): A CASE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Treena L; Demarais, Stephen; Cooley, Jim; Fleming, Sherrill; Michel, Eric S; Flinn, Emily

    2016-06-01

    During the 2008-2011 time period, undiagnosed lesions were observed in 21 of 150 white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) that were part of a captive deer herd at Mississippi State University. Clinical findings in healthy and diseased fawns from 0 to 90 days of age included bite and scratch marks followed by moderate to severe ear and tail necrosis. Gross necropsy findings of necrotizing ulcerative dermatitis correlated with histopathologic findings that included focally severe multifocal vasculitis, vascular necrosis, and thrombosis. This article is a clinical description of these previously unreported lesions associated with tissue necrosis in young captive white-tailed deer.

  13. Functional morphology of the aardvark tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, H; Mori, K; Koyabu, D; Kawada, S; Komiya, T; Itou, T; Koie, H; Kitagawa, M; Sakai, T

    2013-04-01

    The musculoskeletal system of the aardvark (Orycteropus afer) tail was morphologically examined in two adult specimens. The tail musculature comprised three muscular groups, viz. a dorsal sacrocaudal system that consisted of the irregularly oriented Musculus sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis and M. sacrocaudalis dorsalis lateralis, a lateral inter-vertebral connecting system, and a ventral sacrocaudal system characterized by the thick M. sacrocaudalis ventralis lateralis and M. sacrocaudalis ventralis medialis. Both the dorsal and ventral systems possessed large tendon groups that strengthened the tail structure. Computed tomography (CT) examination showed the presence of large but homogeneous cartilaginous inter-vertebral discs, whereas V-shaped bones were situated at the ventral aspect of the caudal vertebrae at the level of the inter-vertebral discs. CT visualization of the tendons and V-shaped bones in various tail positions suggested that these structures contribute to the tunnel digging action by bearing the trunk weight and lending force when the aardvark are displacing the soil by means of the forelimbs.

  14. Vascularized tail bone grafts in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempuku, T; Tamai, S; Mizumoto, S; Yajima, H

    1993-03-01

    A new experimental model for vascularized corticocancellous bone grafts was established by investigation of vascular anatomy of the tail in 15 adult Fischer 344 rats and determination of the viability of vascularized tail bone grafts into the abdominal wall in 22 7-week-old rats. The tail bones of 40 rats were then raised on the pedicle of the caudal artery and its venae comitantes, transferred to a resected portion in the femur, and observed for 16 weeks. The vascularized graft showed marked reactive periosteal bone formation during the first and second weeks following transfer, and thereafter, the graft continued to show active bone formation. In transverse section, the sharp processes became rounded. In the cancellous bone, both bone resorption and bone formation were noticeably activated early after transfer, although resorption predominated and the amount of the cancellous bone consequently diminished. The nonvascularized grafts showed "creeping substitution." The results suggest that morphologic adaptation occurs if living (i.e., vascularized) tail bones are transferred to long-bone femurs.

  15. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  16. Analysis of biplane flapping flight with tail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tay, W.B.; Bijl, H.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been performed to examine the interference effects between an upstream flapping biplane airfoil arrangement and a downstream stationary tail at a Reynolds number of 1000, which is around the regime of small flapping micro aerial vehicles. The objective is to investigate th

  17. The tail index of exchange rate returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Koedijk (Kees); M. Schafgans (Marcia); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature on the empirical distribution of foreign exchange rates there is now consensus that exchange rate yields are fat-tailed. Three problems, however, persist: (1) Which class of distribution functions is most appropriate? (2) Are the parameters of the distribution invariant

  18. DNA isolation from rat tail or ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    This protocol describes a rapid procedure for isolating DNA from rat tail or ear punches. The simplest version of the protocol can be scaled for use in 96-well (deep-well) plates. The quality of the DNA is sufficient for any polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping approach.

  19. Electrokinetic remediation of copper mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, H. K.; Rojo, A.; Ottosen, L. M.

    2009-07-01

    The heavy metal contamination from mining industry has become a growing problem both in chile and worldwide. This contamination includes large areas with soil pollution, contaminated rivers and continuous generation of mining waste deposits. The solid waste that will be analysed is mine tailings, which are the residual products after the flotation process in conventional sulphide copper mining. (Author)

  20. Equilibrium Tail Distribution Due to Touschek Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash,B.; Krinsky, S.

    2009-05-04

    Single large angle Coulomb scattering is referred to as Touschek scattering. In addition to causing particle loss when the scattered particles are outside the momentum aperture, the process also results in a non-Gaussian tail, which is an equilibrium between the Touschek scattering and radiation damping. Here we present an analytical calculation for this equilibrium distribution.

  1. Electrokinetic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    in similar experiments but without the bipolar electrodes. The new electrokinetic remediation design was tested on copper mine tailings with different applied electric fields, remediation times and pre-treatment. The results showed that the copper removal was increased from 8% (applying 20V for 8 days...

  2. An essential role for the proximal but not the distal cytoplasmic tail of glycoprotein M in murid herpesvirus 4 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet S May

    Full Text Available Murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4 provides a tractable model with which to define common, conserved features of gamma-herpesvirus biology. The multi-membrane spanning glycoprotein M (gM is one of only 4 glycoproteins that are essential for MuHV-4 lytic replication. gM binds to gN and is thought to function mainly secondary envelopment and virion egress, for which several predicted trafficking motifs in its C-terminal cytoplasmic tail could be important. We tested the contribution of the gM cytoplasmic tail to MuHV-4 lytic replication by making recombinant viruses with varying C-terminal deletions. Removing an acidic cluster and a distal YXXPhi motif altered the capsid distribution somewhat in infected cells but had little effect on virus replication, either in vitro or in vivo. In contrast, removing a proximal YXXPhi motif as well completely prevented productive replication. gM was still expressed, but unlike its longer forms showed only limited colocalization with co-transfected gN, and in the context of whole virus appeared to support gN expression less well. We conclude that some elements of the gM cytoplasmic tail are dispensible for MuHV-4 replication, but the tail as a whole is not.

  3. The carboxy terminus of EmbC from Mycobacterium smegmatis mediates chain length extension of the arabinan in lipoarabinomannan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Libin; Berg, Stefan; Lee, Arwen; Spencer, John S; Zhang, Jian; Vissa, Varalakshmi; McNeil, Michael R; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Chatterjee, Delphi

    2006-07-14

    D-Arabinofurans, attached to either a galactofuran or a lipomannan, are the primary constituents of mycobacterial cell wall, forming the unique arabinogalactan (AG) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM), respectively. Emerging data indicate that the arabinans of AG and LAM are distinguished by virtue of the additional presence of linear termini in LAM, which entails some unknown feature of the EmbC protein for proper synthesis. In common with the two paralogous EmbA and EmbB proteins functionally implicated for the arabinosylation of AG, EmbC is predicted to carry 13 transmembrane spanning helices in an integral N-terminal domain followed by a hydrophilic extracytoplasmic C-terminal domain. To delineate the function of this C-terminal domain, the embC knock-out mutant of Mycobacterium smegmatis was complemented with plasmids expressing truncated embC genes. The expression level of serially truncated EmbC protein thus induced was examined by EmbC-specific peptide antibody, and their functional implications were inferred from ensuing detailed structural analysis of the truncated LAM variants synthesized. Apart from critically showing that the smaller arabinans are mostly devoid of the linear terminal motif, beta-D-Araf(1-->2)-alpha-D-Araf(1-->5)-alpha-D-Araf(1-->5)-alpha-D-Araf, our studies clearly implicate the C-terminal domain of EmbC in the chain extension of LAM. For the first time a full range of arabinan chains as large as 18-22 Araf residues and beyond could be released intact by the use of an endogenous endo-D-arabinanase from M. smegmatis, profiled, and sequenced directly by tandem mass spectrometry. In conjunction with NMR studies, our results unequivocally show that the LAM-specific linear termini are an extension on a well defined inner branched Ara-(18-22) core. This hitherto unrecognized feature not only allows a significant revision of the structural model of LAM-arabinan since its first description a decade ago but also furnishes a probable molecular basis of

  4. Collecting Tail Hair Follicle for Bison DNA Sample

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding collection and processing of tail hair follicles from Bison for genetics analysis. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect tail...

  5. Emission inventory estimation of an intercity bus terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhaowen; Li, Xiaoxia; Hao, Yanzhao; Deng, Shunxi; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Intercity bus terminals are hotspots of air pollution due to concentrated activities of diesel buses. In order to evaluate the bus terminals' impact on air quality, it is necessary to estimate the associated mobile emission inventories. Since the vehicles' operating condition at the bus terminal varies significantly, conventional calculation of the emissions based on average emission factors suffers the loss of accuracy. In this study, we examined a typical intercity bus terminal-the Southern City Bus Station of Xi'an, China-using a multi-scale emission model-(US EPA's MOVES model)-to quantity the vehicle emission inventory. A representative operating cycle for buses within the station is constructed. The emission inventory was then estimated using detailed inputs including vehicle ages, operating speeds, operating schedules, and operating mode distribution, as well as meteorological data (temperature and humidity). Five functional areas (bus yard, platforms, disembarking area, bus travel routes within the station, and bus entrance/exit routes) at the terminal were identified, and the bus operation cycle was established using the micro-trip cycle construction method. Results of our case study showed that switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) from diesel fuel could reduce PM2.5 and CO emissions by 85.64 and 6.21 %, respectively, in the microenvironment of the bus terminal. When CNG is used, tail pipe exhaust PM2.5 emission is significantly reduced, even less than brake wear PM2.5. The estimated bus operating cycles can also offer researchers and policy makers important information for emission evaluation in the planning and design of any typical intercity bus terminals of a similar scale.

  6. Tail-assisted pitch control in lizards, robots and dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Thomas; Moore, Talia Y; Chang-Siu, Evan; Li, Deborah; Cohen, Daniel J; Jusufi, Ardian; Full, Robert J

    2012-01-04

    In 1969, a palaeontologist proposed that theropod dinosaurs used their tails as dynamic stabilizers during rapid or irregular movements, contributing to their depiction as active and agile predators. Since then the inertia of swinging appendages has been implicated in stabilizing human walking, aiding acrobatic manoeuvres by primates and rodents, and enabling cats to balance on branches. Recent studies on geckos suggest that active tail stabilization occurs during climbing, righting and gliding. By contrast, studies on the effect of lizard tail loss show evidence of a decrease, an increase or no change in performance. Application of a control-theoretic framework could advance our general understanding of inertial appendage use in locomotion. Here we report that lizards control the swing of their tails in a measured manner to redirect angular momentum from their bodies to their tails, stabilizing body attitude in the sagittal plane. We video-recorded Red-Headed Agama lizards (Agama agama) leaping towards a vertical surface by first vaulting onto an obstacle with variable traction to induce a range of perturbations in body angular momentum. To examine a known controlled tail response, we built a lizard-sized robot with an active tail that used sensory feedback to stabilize pitch as it drove off a ramp. Our dynamics model revealed that a body swinging its tail experienced less rotation than a body with a rigid tail, a passively compliant tail or no tail. To compare a range of tails, we calculated tail effectiveness as the amount of tailless body rotation a tail could stabilize. A model Velociraptor mongoliensis supported the initial tail stabilization hypothesis, showing as it did a greater tail effectiveness than the Agama lizards. Leaping lizards show that inertial control of body attitude can advance our understanding of appendage evolution and provide biological inspiration for the next generation of manoeuvrable search-and-rescue robots.

  7. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials.

  8. Pareto tails and lognormal body of US cities size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckstead, Jeff; Devadoss, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    We consider a distribution, which consists of lower tail Pareto, lognormal body, and upper tail Pareto, to estimate the size distribution of all US cities. This distribution fits the data more accurately than a distribution that comprises of only lognormal and the upper tail Pareto.

  9. Spectrum of human tails: A report of six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Mukhopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human tail is a curiosity, a cosmetic stigma and presents as an appendage in the lumbosacral region. Six patients of tail in the lumbosacral region are presented here to discuss the spectrum of presentation of human tails. The embryology, pathology and treatment of this entity are discussed along with a brief review of the literature.

  10. Electro-remediation of copper mine tailings. Comparing copper removal efficiencies for two tailings of different age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Lamas, Victor; Gutierrez, Claudia;

    2013-01-01

    less than 2 years ago (new tailings). Parameters analyzed were the applied voltage drop, acid concentration during pretreatment, and the use of either passive or ion exchange membranes in the experimental setup. The comparison of the results confirms that there are differences in the electroremediation...... between the two tailings, even if the pH is similar and a mineralogical analysis showed similarities between the samples with respect to composition. It was found that an electroremediation is more favorable on the old tailings. The results showed that the best experimental conditions for both tailings......This work compares and evaluates the copper removal efficiency when applying electric fields to two mine tailings originating from the same mine but of different age. Eight experiments were carried out - four on tailings deposited more than 20 years ago (old tailings) and four on tailings deposited...

  11. Fungal mediator tail subunits contain classical transcriptional activation domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongle; Myers, Lawrence C

    2015-04-01

    Classical activation domains within DNA-bound eukaryotic transcription factors make weak interactions with coactivator complexes, such as Mediator, to stimulate transcription. How these interactions stimulate transcription, however, is unknown. The activation of reporter genes by artificial fusion of Mediator subunits to DNA binding domains that bind to their promoters has been cited as evidence that the primary role of activators is simply to recruit Mediator. We have identified potent classical transcriptional activation domains in the C termini of several tail module subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and Candida dubliniensis Mediator, while their N-terminal domains are necessary and sufficient for their incorporation into Mediator but do not possess the ability to activate transcription when fused to a DNA binding domain. This suggests that Mediator fusion proteins actually are functioning in a manner similar to that of a classical DNA-bound activator rather than just recruiting Mediator. Our finding that deletion of the activation domains of S. cerevisiae Med2 and Med3, as well as C. dubliniensis Tlo1 (a Med2 ortholog), impairs the induction of certain genes shows these domains function at native promoters. Activation domains within coactivators are likely an important feature of these complexes and one that may have been uniquely leveraged by a common fungal pathogen.

  12. Networks with superfat-tailed degree distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Timár, Gábor; Mendes, José Fernando F

    2016-01-01

    A majority of studied models for scale-free networks have degree distributions with exponents greater than $2$. Real networks, however, can demonstrate essentially more heavy-tailed degree distributions. We explore two models of scale-free equilibrium networks that have the degree distribution exponent $\\gamma = 1$, $P(q) \\sim q^{-\\gamma}$. Such "superfat-tailed" degree distributions can be identified in empirical data only if the mean degree of a network is sufficiently high. Our models exploit a rewiring mechanism. They are local in the sense that no knowledge of the network structure, apart from the immediate neighbourhood of the vertices, is required. These models generate uncorrelated networks in the infinite size limit, where they are solved explicitly. We investigate finite size effects by the use of simulations. We find that both models exhibit disassortative degree-degree correlations for finite network sizes. In addition, we observe a markedly degree-dependent clustering in the finite networks. We i...

  13. Forecast Combination under Heavy-Tailed Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forecast combination has been proven to be a very important technique to obtain accurate predictions for various applications in economics, finance, marketing and many other areas. In many applications, forecast errors exhibit heavy-tailed behaviors for various reasons. Unfortunately, to our knowledge, little has been done to obtain reliable forecast combinations for such situations. The familiar forecast combination methods, such as simple average, least squares regression or those based on the variance-covariance of the forecasts, may perform very poorly due to the fact that outliers tend to occur, and they make these methods have unstable weights, leading to un-robust forecasts. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose two nonparametric forecast combination methods. One is specially proposed for the situations in which the forecast errors are strongly believed to have heavy tails that can be modeled by a scaled Student’s t-distribution; the other is designed for relatively more general situations when there is a lack of strong or consistent evidence on the tail behaviors of the forecast errors due to a shortage of data and/or an evolving data-generating process. Adaptive risk bounds of both methods are developed. They show that the resulting combined forecasts yield near optimal mean forecast errors relative to the candidate forecasts. Simulations and a real example demonstrate their superior performance in that they indeed tend to have significantly smaller prediction errors than the previous combination methods in the presence of forecast outliers.

  14. Studies on the growth, structural, spectral and third-order nonlinear optical properties of Ammonium 3-carboxy-4-hydroxy benzenesulfonate monohydrate single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silambarasan, A.; Krishna Kumar, M.; Thirunavukkarasu, A.; Mohan Kumar, R.; Umarani, P. R.

    2015-01-01

    An organic nonlinear optical bulk single crystal, Ammonium 3-carboxy-4-hydroxy benzenesulfonate monohydrate (ACHBS) was successfully grown by solution growth technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study confirms that, the grown crystal belongs to P21/c space group. Powder X-ray diffraction and high resolution X-ray diffraction analyses revealed the crystallinity of the grown crystal. Infrared spectral analysis showed the vibrational behavior of chemical bonds and its functional groups. The thermal stability and decomposition stages of the grown crystal were studied by TG-DTA analysis. UV-Visible transmittance studies showed the transparency region and cut-off wavelength of the grown crystal. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of the grown crystal was estimated by Z-scan technique using Hesbnd Ne laser source. The mechanical property of the grown crystal was studied by using Vicker's microhardness test.

  15. A carboxy-methyl cellulose coated humidity sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer with waist-enlarged bi-tapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qifei; Ni, Kai; Huang, Ran

    2017-01-01

    A fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) humidity sensor is proposed, comprising a pair of waist-enlarged bi-tapers and carboxy-methyl cellulose (CMC) coating. The MZI utilizes intermodal interference between the core mode and cladding modes for the measurement of the effective refractive index (RI) of the CMC film that varies with surrounding humidity, through change in the sensor's interference pattern. The proposed sensor is linearly responsive to relative humidity (RH) within the humidity range from 70% RH to 85% RH, with maximum sensitivity of -0.8578 dB/% RH. The advantages of this sensor are its compact size and a facile fabrication process. More importantly, humidity sensitivity can be improved by changing the thickness of the CMC film, which makes this structure a highly promising for real-time, practical RH monitoring application.

  16. Rigid-rod polyamides and polyimides derived from 4,3 ''-diamino-2 ',6 '-diphenyl- or di(4-biphenylyl)-p-terphenyl and 4-amino-4 ''-carboxy-2 ',6 '-diphenyl-p-terphenyl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiliopoulos, IK; Mikroyannidis, JA; Tsivgoulis, GM

    1998-01-01

    4,3 "-Diamino-2',6'-diphenyl- or di(4-biphenylyl)p-terphenyl (3a or 3b) and 4-amino-4 "-carboxy-2',6'-diphenyl-p-terphenyl (6) were synthesized through pyrylium salts and used for the preparation of rigid-rod polyamides and polyimides. The polymers were characterized by inherent viscosity, elemental

  17. Radiation hazard of solid metallic tailings in Shangluo, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Sukai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The radiation hazards of five kinds of different solid metallic tailings collected from Shangluo, China were determined on the basis of natural radioactivity measurements using low background multichannel gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the tailings ranged from 5.1 to 204.3, 3.8 to 28.5, and 289.6 to 762.3 Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activities and the external hazard indexes of all studied metallic tailings were below the internationally accepted value of 370 Bq/kg and unity, respectively. The internal hazard index of vanadium tailings exceeded unity, while the internal hazard indexes of other analyzed metallic tailings were less than unity. The indoor air absorbed dose rate values for all studied metallic tailings except lead-zinc tailings and gold tailings were higher than the world population-weighted average of 84 nGy/h and the annual effective dose values of all metallic tailings except for vanadium tailings were lower than 1 mSv. The study showed that vanadium tailings present a radiation hazard and their usage as building materials should be restricted.

  18. Ecological aspects of microorganisms inhabiting uranium mill tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C L; Landa, E R; Updegraff, D M

    1987-09-01

    Numbers and types of microorganisms in uranium mill tailings were determined using culturing techniques.Arthrobacter were found to be the predominant microorganism inhabiting the sandy tailings, whereasBacillus and fungi predominated in the slime tailings. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, capable of leaching radium, were isolated in low numbers from tailings samples but were isolated in significantly high numbers from topsoil in contact with the tailings. The results are placed in the context of the magnitude of uranium mill tailings in the United States, the hazards posed by the tailings, and how such hazards could be enhanced or diminished by microbial activities. Patterns in the composition of the microbial population are evaluated with respect to the ecological variables that influence microbial growth.

  19. The relationship between infection and the tailed IUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, B H; Wu, Y H; Pan, X H

    1997-01-01

    To clarify the association between the tailed IUD and pelvic infection, vaginal smears from 111 Chinese IUD users (40 acceptors of tailed IUDs and 71 of tailless devices) were analyzed for bacterial microorganisms. All study subjects had used the IUD for at least 5 years. Of the 11 samples positive for bacteria taken from the internal os, eight were from users of tailed IUDs (p 0.01). Of the 7 positive samples taken from the uterine cavity, 5 were linked to a tailed device. Although the correlation between the tailed IUD and pelvic symptoms was not significant, infected users of the tailed device were slightly more likely to be symptomatic. The tailed IUD did not increase leukorrhea excretion.

  20. A Note on Upper Tail Behavior of Liouville Copulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hua

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The family of Liouville copulas is defined as the survival copulas of multivariate Liouville distributions, and it covers the Archimedean copulas constructed by Williamson’s d-transform. Liouville copulas provide a very wide range of dependence ranging from positive to negative dependence in the upper tails, and they can be useful in modeling tail risks. In this article, we study the upper tail behavior of Liouville copulas through their upper tail orders. Tail orders of a more general scale mixture model that covers Liouville distributions is first derived, and then tail order functions and tail order density functions of Liouville copulas are derived. Concrete examples are given after the main results.

  1. Ocular Lesions in Red-Tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis) With Naturally Acquired West Nile Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünschmann, A; Armién, A G; Khatri, M; Martinez, L C; Willette, M; Glaser, A; Alvarez, J; Redig, P

    2017-03-01

    Ocular lesions are common in red-tailed hawks with West Nile (WN) disease. These lesions consist of pectenitis, choroidal or retinal inflammation, or retinal necrosis, but detailed investigation of the ocular lesions is lacking. Postmortem examination of the eyes of 16 red-tailed hawks with naturally acquired WN disease and 3 red-tailed hawks without WN disease was performed using histopathology, immunohistochemistry for West Nile virus (WNV) antigen, glial fibrillary acid protein, cleaved caspase-3, and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling method. Retinal lesions were classified as type I or type II lesions. Type I lesions were characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in the subjacent choroid with degeneration limited to the outer retina (type Ia lesion) or with degeneration and necrosis of the outer retina or outer and inner retina (type Ib lesion) while retinal collapse, atrophy, and scarring were hallmarks of type II lesions. Type II retinal lesions were associated with a more pronounced choroiditis. Although not statistically significant, WNV antigen tended to be present in larger quantity in type Ib lesions. Type I lesions are considered acute while type II lesions are chronic. The development of retinal lesions was associated with the presence of an inflammatory infiltrate in the choroid. A breakdown of the blood-retina barrier is suspected to be the main route of infection of the retina. Within the retina, virus appeared to spread via both neuronal and Müller cell processes.

  2. Permeability Characteristics of Tailings considering Chemical and Physical Clogging in Lixi Tailings Dam, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengguang Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and physical clogging frequently occur in tailings dam. The clogging seriously influences the safety of tailings dam. This paper conducts several column experiments to analyse the physical and chemical clogging of the Lixi tailings dam in China. The experiment results of chemical clogging show that average flow velocity and permeability decrease by approximately 50% to 60%. The experiment results of physical clogging show that these values decrease by approximately 50% to 70%. For physical clogging, a higher hydraulic gradient could result in a larger extent of decrease in the permeability coefficient. The permeability did not decrease when the hydraulic gradient was equal to 0.125. The results of chemical clogging column experiments show that ferrous ion solution concentration is disproportional to the permeability coefficient. This scenario can be attributed to the extremely small concentration gradients.

  3. Functional stabilization of an RNA recognition motif by a noncanonical N-terminal expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netter, Catharina; Weber, Gert; Benecke, Heike; Wahl, Markus C

    2009-07-01

    RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) constitute versatile macromolecular interaction platforms. They are found in many components of spliceosomes, in which they mediate RNA and protein interactions by diverse molecular strategies. The human U11/U12-65K protein of the minor spliceosome employs a C-terminal RRM to bind hairpin III of the U12 small nuclear RNA (snRNA). This interaction comprises one side of a molecular bridge between the U11 and U12 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) and is reminiscent of the binding of the N-terminal RRMs in the major spliceosomal U1A and U2B'' proteins to hairpins in their cognate snRNAs. Here we show by mutagenesis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays that the beta-sheet surface and a neighboring loop of 65K C-terminal RRM are involved in RNA binding, as previously seen in canonical RRMs like the N-terminal RRMs of the U1A and U2B'' proteins. However, unlike U1A and U2B'', some 30 residues N-terminal of the 65K C-terminal RRM core are additionally required for stable U12 snRNA binding. The crystal structure of the expanded 65K C-terminal RRM revealed that the N-terminal tail adopts an alpha-helical conformation and wraps around the protein toward the face opposite the RNA-binding platform. Point mutations in this part of the protein had only minor effects on RNA affinity. Removal of the N-terminal extension significantly decreased the thermal stability of the 65K C-terminal RRM. These results demonstrate that the 65K C-terminal RRM is augmented by an N-terminal element that confers stability to the domain, and thereby facilitates stable RNA binding.

  4. Is Lake Tahoe Terminal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, R. N.; Reuter, J.; Heyvaert, A.; Lewis, J.; Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, G.; Thorne, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    ) the climatic water deficit will increase, especially at high elevations that will be most affected by the loss of snow, with likely consequences for existing vegetation and fire frequency. Hydrologically, Lake Tahoe is intermittently terminal; in a medical sense it is not yet terminal, but its condition—especially its valued clarity and deep blue color--is serious.

  5. Intra- and inter-nucleosomal interactions of the histone H4 tail revealed with a human nucleosome core particle with genetically-incorporated H4 tetra-acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamori, Masatoshi; Fujii, Yoshifumi; Suka, Noriyuki; Shirouzu, Mikako; Sakamoto, Kensaku; Umehara, Takashi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-11-26

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones, such as lysine acetylation of the N-terminal tails, play crucial roles in controlling gene expression. Due to the difficulty in reconstituting site-specifically acetylated nucleosomes with crystallization quality, structural analyses of histone acetylation are currently performed using synthesized tail peptides. Through engineering of the genetic code, translation termination, and cell-free protein synthesis, we reconstituted human H4-mono- to tetra-acetylated nucleosome core particles (NCPs), and solved the crystal structures of the H4-K5/K8/K12/K16-tetra-acetylated NCP and unmodified NCP at 2.4 Å and 2.2 Å resolutions, respectively. The structure of the H4-tetra-acetylated NCP resembled that of the unmodified NCP, and the DNA wrapped the histone octamer as precisely as in the unmodified NCP. However, the B-factors were significantly increased for the peripheral DNAs near the N-terminal tail of the intra- or inter-nucleosomal H4. In contrast, the B-factors were negligibly affected by the H4 tetra-acetylation in histone core residues, including those composing the acidic patch, and at H4-R23, which interacts with the acidic patch of the neighboring NCP. The present study revealed that the H4 tetra-acetylation impairs NCP self-association by changing the interactions of the H4 tail with DNA, and is the first demonstration of crystallization quality NCPs reconstituted with genuine PTMs.

  6. Asymptotic Results for Tail Probabilities of Sums of Dependent and Heavy-Tailed Random Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kam Chuen YUEN; Chuancun YIN

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Let X1,X2,...be a sequence of dependent and heavy-tailed random variables with distributions F1,F2,…. on (-∞,∞),and let т be a nonnegative integer-valued random variable independent of the sequence {Xk,k≥ 1}.In this framework,the asymptotic behavior of the tail probabilities of the quantities Sn =n∑k=1 Xk and S(n) =max1≤k≤n Sk for n > 1,and their randomized versions Sт and S(т) are studied.Some applications to the risk theory are presented.

  7. Terminal Satisfiability in GSTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized symbolic trajectory evaluation (GSTE is an extension of symbolic trajectory evaluation (STE and a method of model checking. GSTE specifications are given as assertion graphs. There are four efficient methods to verify whether a circuit model obeys an assertion graph in GSTE, Model Checking Strong Satisfiability (SMC, Model Checking Normal Satisfiability (NMC, Model Checking Fair Satisfiability (FMC, and Model Checking Terminal Satisfiability (TMC. SMC, NMC, and FMC have been proved and applied in industry, but TMC has not. This paper gives a six-tuple definition and presents a new algorithm for TMC. Based on these, we prove that our algorithm is sound and complete. It solves the SMC’s limitation (resulting in false negative without extending from finite specification to infinite specification. At last, a case of using TMC to verify a realistic hardware circuit round-robin arbiter is achieved. Avoiding verifying the undesired paths which are not related to the specifications, TMC makes it possible to reduce the computational complexity, and the experimental results suggest that the time cost by SMC is 3.14× with TMC in the case.

  8. Tailings philosophies : to segregate or not to segregate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, P.S. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Traditional technologies for treating oil sands tailings include the segregation of of tailings when discharged into water-filled ponds. The coarser tailings form long beaches. However, the percentage of silts and clays that remain suspended within the water column pose significant challenges to oil sands operators, and contribute to water losses and increases in storage volume. This paper discussed new technologies developed to identify the tailings materials that contribute to the problem and methods designed to isolate and treat the materials. Treatment material balances, process water balances, and material handling requirements for the technologies were evaluated and compared. Three scenarios were considered: (1) a sub-aqueous beaching scenario where tailings were produced by extraction and pumped to a beach storage area for dewatering through self-drainage; (2) a non-segregated tailings (NST) scenario that used mature fine tailings (MFT) drying; (3) and a segregated stream scenario where MFT drying was used where tailings were deposited in traditional tailings ponds. Results of the study showed that the segregated stream tailings treatment system was preferred to NST treatment system. Options for sub-aerial NST deposition may overcome the volume discrepancies between treating fines as well as the required volumes of coarser materials. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  9. The large subunit of bacteriophage lambda's terminase plays a role in DNA translocation and packaging termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Carol; Feiss, Michael

    2002-02-22

    The DNA packaging enzyme of bacteriophage lambda, terminase, is a heteromultimer composed of a small subunit, gpNu1, and a large subunit, gpA, products of the Nu1 and A genes, respectively. The role of terminase in the initial stages of packaging involving the site-specific binding and cutting of the DNA has been well characterized. While it is believed that terminase plays an active role in later post-cleavage stages of packaging, such as the translocation of DNA into the head shell, this has not been demonstrated. Accordingly, we undertook a generalized mutagenesis of lambda's A gene and found ten lethal mutations, nine of which cause post-cleavage packaging defects. All were located in the amino-terminal two-thirds of gpA, separate from the carboxy-terminal region where mutations affecting the protein's endonuclease activity have been found. The mutants fall into five groups according to their packaging phenotypes: (1) two mutants package part of the lambda chromosome, (2) one mutant packages the entire chromosome, but very slowly compared to wild-type, (3) two mutants do not package any DNA, (4) four mutants, though inviable, package the entire lambda chromosome, and (5) one mutant may be defective in both early and late stages of DNA packaging. These results indicate that gpA is actively involved in late stages of packaging, including DNA translocation, and that this enzyme contains separate functional domains for its early and late packaging activities.

  10. War Termination: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Peace Research 33, no. 4 (November 1996): 491-496. JSTOR Phinney, Catherine. "Enhancing Conflict Termination through Problem Solving...96." Journal of Peace Research 34, no. 3 (August 1997): 339-358. JSTOR Bibliographies Bibliography Branch, comp. Conflict Termination

  11. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  12. Phytomining for Artisanal Gold Mine Tailings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Dewi Krisnayanti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mine tailings are generally disposed of by artisanal and small scale gold miners in poorly constructed containment areas and this leads to environmental risk. Gold phytomining could be a possible option for tailings management at artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM locations where plants accumulate residual gold in their above ground biomass. The value of metal recovered from plants could offset some of the costs of environmental management. Getting gold into plants has been repeatedly demonstrated by many research groups; however, a simple working technology to get gold out of plants is less well described. A field experiment to assess the relevance of the technology to artisanal miners was conducted in Central Lombok, Indonesia between April and June 2015. Tobacco was planted in cyanidation tailings (1 mg/kg gold and grown for 2.5 months before the entire plot area was irrigated with NaCN to induce metal uptake. Biomass was then harvested (100 kg, air dried, and ashed by miners in equipment currently used to ash activated carbon at the end of a cyanide leach circuit. Borax and silver as a collector metal were added to the tobacco ash and smelted at high temperature to extract metals from the ash. The mass of the final bullion (39 g was greater than the mass of silver used as a collector (31 g, indicating recovery of metals from the biomass through the smelt process. The gold yield of this trial was low (1.2 mg/kg dry weight biomass concentration, indicating that considerable work must still be done to optimise valuable metal recovery by plants at the field scale. However, the described method to process the biomass was technically feasible, and represents a valid technique that artisanal and small-scale gold miners are willing to adopt if the economic case is good.

  13. A Farey tail for attractor black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan; Cheng, Miranda C. N.; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Manschot, Jan; Verlinde, Erik

    2006-11-01

    The microstates of 4d BPS black holes in IIA string theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold are counted by a (generalized) elliptic genus of a (0,4) conformal field theory. By exploiting a spectral flow that relates states with different charges, and using the Rademacher formula, we find that the elliptic genus has an exact asymptotic expansion in terms of semi-classical saddle-points of the dual supergravity theory. This generalizes the known "Black Hole Farey Tail" of [1] to the case of attractor black holes.

  14. A Farey Tail for Attractor Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    De Boer, J; Dijkgraaf, R; Manschot, J; Verlinde, E; Boer, Jan de; Cheng, Miranda C.N.; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Manschot, Jan; Verlinde, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The microstates of 4d BPS black holes in IIA string theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold are counted by a (generalized) elliptic genus of a (0,4) conformal field theory. By exploiting a spectral flow that relates states with different charges, and using the Rademacher formula, we find that the elliptic genus has an exact asymptotic expansion in terms of semi-classical saddle-points of the dual supergravity theory. This generalizes the known "Black Hole Farey Tail" of [1] to the case of attractor black holes.

  15. Probing the long tail of the magnetosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, R.A.

    1984-12-14

    Using data from the International Sun-Earth Explorer Spacecraft (ISEE-3), researchers have studied the structure of the magnetotail and its behavior. In the plasma sheet of the distant tail, ISEE-3 found plasma flowing tailward as fast as 1000 Km/sec. An ISEE-3 group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has offered an explanation of the high plasma speeds that addresses how the magnetosphere stores and ultimately rids itself of the charged particles and magnetic fields that it picks up from the solar wind. According to this group the high tailward plasma sheet flows are driven by a process called magnetic reconnection.

  16. Biogeochemistry of metalliferous mine tailings during phytostabilizatio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorover, J.; Root, R. A.; Hammond, C.; Wang, Y.; Maier, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the semi-arid southwest US, legacy mine tailings and the associated metal(loid) contaminants, are prone to wind dispersion and water erosion. Without remediation, tailings can remain barren for decades to centuries, providing a point source of toxic contamination. Successful mitigation of toxins (As, Pb) from fugitive dust is often limited to confinement and stabilization. Capping mine tailings with soil or gravel is an accepted, although expensive, strategy to reduce erosion. Revegetation via assisted direct planting (also known as phytostabilization) has the potential to be a cost-effective and self-sustaining alternative "green-technology" to expensive capping. The impact of phytostabilization, and requisite added organic carbon and irrigation on mechanisms of contaminant mobility is being investigated with concurrent highly-instrumented greenhouse mesocosms and in situ field studies using advanced microbiological tools and synchrotron x-ray based molecular probes. Composted treatments initially neutralized the near surface acid tailings (~2 to ~6.5). However, after 9 mo the mesocosms showed a gradual and eventual decrease back to pH 2. The exception was the root zone of Atriplex lentiformis, which buffered the acidic conditions for 12 months. Rhizosphere microbiota experienced a 5-log increase in the compost-amended compared to control greenhouse mesocosms. Weathering of the primary sulfidic mineral assemblage, indicated by the iron and sulfur speciation, was shown to control the mobility, speciation and bioavailability of both As and Pb via sequestration in (meta)stable neoformed jarosite phases as plumbojarosite and As(V) substituted for sulfate in hydronium jarosite, with important implications for human and environmental health risk management. We conclude that the disequilibrium imposed by phytostabilization results in an increase of heterotrophic biomass that is concurrent with a time series of geochemical transformations, which controls the species

  17. Scientists Explain Catalysis Neutralizing Car's Tail Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The neutralization of the car's tail gas is a problem of practical importance in the eyes of both experimental and theoretical physicists. Recently, a group of CAS scientists join hands with the Queen's University of Belfast in the UK to make advances in exploring the process of CO oxidation in a bid to reduce the air pollution caused by the car's exhaust gas. The work has been supported by the "National 973Program" and the CAS Foundation for Overseas Studies. On March 4,its result was published by the Internet edition of the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

  18. Azomesogens with methoxyethyl tail: Synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Prajapati; H M Pandya

    2005-05-01

    Two new mesogenic homologous series are synthesized from methoxyethyl 4-(4'-hydroxyphenylazo) benzoate. In series I the phenolic -OH group is alkylated, whereas in series II it is esterified with 4--alkoxybenzoyl group. In series I, all the nine members synthesized exhibit only enantiotropic smectic A mesophase. In series II, all the twelve homologues exhibit enantiotropic nematic mesophase. Smectic A mesophase appears from the -decyloxy derivative as a enantiotropic phase and persists till the last -hexadecyloxy member. The mesomorphic properties of both the series are compared with each other and also with the properties of other structurally related series to evaluate the effect of the methoxyethyl tail on mesomorphism.

  19. Conformal Mapping for Multiple Terminals

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Weimin; Wang, Qiang; Ren, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Conformal mapping is an important mathematical tool in many physical and engineering fields, especially in electrostatics, fluid mechanics, classical mechanics, and transformation optics. However in the existing textbooks and literatures, it is only adopted to solve the problems which have only two terminals. Two terminals with electric potential differences, pressure difference, optical path difference, etc., can be mapped conformally onto a solvable structure, e.g., a rectangle, where the two terminals are mapped onto two opposite edges of the rectangle. Here we show a conformal mapping method for multiple terminals, which is more common in practical applications. Through accurate analysis of the boundary conditions, additional terminals or boundaries are folded in the inner of the mapped rectangle. Then the solution will not be influenced. The method is described in several typical situations and two application examples are detailed. The first example is an electrostatic actuator with three electrodes. A ...

  20. Transcriptional regulators in the Hippo signaling pathway control organ growth in Xenopus tadpole tail regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shinichi; Ochi, Haruki; Ogino, Hajime; Kawasumi, Aiko; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Koji; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

    2014-12-01

    The size and shape of tissues are tightly controlled by synchronized processes among cells and tissues to produce an integrated organ. The Hippo signaling pathway controls both cell proliferation and apoptosis by dual signal-transduction states regulated through a repressive kinase cascade. Yap1 and Tead, transcriptional regulators that act downstream of the Hippo signaling kinase cascade, have essential roles in regulating cell proliferation. In amphibian limb or tail regeneration, the local tissue outgrowth terminates when the correct size is reached, suggesting that organ size is strictly controlled during epimorphic organ-level regeneration. We recently demonstrated that Yap1 is required for the regeneration of Xenopus tadpole limb buds (Hayashi et al., 2014, Dev. Biol. 388, 57-67), but the molecular link between the Hippo pathway and organ size control in vertebrate epimorphic regeneration is not fully understood. To examine the requirement of Hippo pathway transcriptional regulators in epimorphic regeneration, including organ size control, we inhibited these regulators during Xenopus tadpole tail regeneration by overexpressing a dominant-negative form of Yap (dnYap) or Tead4 (dnTead4) under a heat-shock promoter in transgenic animal lines. Each inhibition resulted in regeneration defects accompanied by reduced cell mitosis and increased apoptosis. Single-cell gene manipulation experiments indicated that Tead4 cell-autonomously regulates the survival of neural progenitor cells in the regenerating tail. In amphibians, amputation at the proximal level of the tail (deep amputation) results in faster regeneration than that at the distal level (shallow amputation), to restore the original-sized tail with similar timing. However, dnTead4 overexpression abolished the position-dependent differential growth rate of tail regeneration. These results suggest that the transcriptional regulators in the Hippo pathway, Tead4 and Yap1, are required for general vertebrate

  1. The carboxy terminus of p53 mimics the polylysine effect of protein kinase CK2-catalyzed MDM2 phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Götz, C; Wagner, P

    1997-01-01

    The oncogene product MDM2 can be phosphorylated by protein kinase CK2 in vitro 0.5-1 mol of phosphate were incorporated per mol MDM2 protein. The catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 (alpha-subunit) catalyzed the incorporation of twice as much phosphate into the MDM2 protein as it was obtained...... with the holoenzyme. Polylysine stimulated MDM2 phosphorylation by CK2 holoenzyme threefold in contrast to the alpha-subunit-catalyzed MDM2 phosphorylation which was reduced by about 66% when polylysine was added. Full length p53, but also a peptide representing a C-terminal fragment of the tumor suppressor gene......(264-393) was on the average close to twofold and inhibition in the case of the alpha-subunit-catalyzed MDM2 phosphorylation was about 40%. Phosphorylation of MDM2 by CK2 holoenzyme in the presence of the p21(WAF1/CIP1), known to be a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent protein kinases, also led to a significant reduction...

  2. A novel fragile X syndrome mutation reveals a conserved role for the carboxy-terminus in FMRP localization and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okray, Zeynep; de Esch, Celine E F; Van Esch, Hilde; Devriendt, Koen; Claeys, Annelies; Yan, Jiekun; Verbeeck, Jelle; Froyen, Guy; Willemsen, Rob; de Vrij, Femke M S; Hassan, Bassem A

    2015-02-17

    Loss of function of the FMR1 gene leads to fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of intellectual disability. The loss of FMR1 function is usually caused by epigenetic silencing of the FMR1 promoter leading to expansion and subsequent methylation of a CGG repeat in the 5' untranslated region. Very few coding sequence variations have been experimentally characterized and shown to be causal to the disease. Here, we describe a novel FMR1 mutation and reveal an unexpected nuclear export function for the C-terminus of FMRP. We screened a cohort of patients with typical FXS symptoms who tested negative for CGG repeat expansion in the FMR1 locus. In one patient, we identified a guanine insertion in FMR1 exon 15. This mutation alters the open reading frame creating a short novel C-terminal sequence, followed by a stop codon. We find that this novel peptide encodes a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS) targeting the patient FMRP to the nucleolus in human cells. We also reveal an evolutionarily conserved nuclear export function associated with the endogenous C-terminus of FMRP. In vivo analyses in Drosophila demonstrate that a patient-mimetic mutation alters the localization and function of Dfmrp in neurons, leading to neomorphic neuronal phenotypes.

  3. Paste and thickened tailings technology and its applicability in oil sand tailings management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, X.S.; Lahaie, R. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Tailings management practices can have a significant impact on overall oil sands mining operations. Paste and thickened tailings (P and TT) technology is an integrated engineering system that includes a thickener feed preparation process, type selection, and process; a flocculant selection and technology development; P and TT transport, deposition, and consolidation; and a strategy for re-using thickener overflow water and reducing impacts to the environment. This paper discussed developments of P and TT technology in relation to fine oil sands tailings. Practical applications of P and TT technology in the mineral industry were discussed, as well as recent research and development work conducted by Syncrude. Pilot programs currently being conducted to determine optimal thickener hydraulic and solids loading rates were discussed as well as the results of experiments conducted to determine flocculation and sedimentation processes. Thin-lift dry stacking technologies and containment methods were reviewed. Environmental considerations related to closure, residual bitumen, and warm water return and heat recovery were discussed. The study concluded by suggesting that a suite of technologies is needed to address the varying geographical, surface area, and mine progression challenges related to tailings management. 28 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  4. On the importance of tail ratios for psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Mohr, Elisabeth; Hagmann, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Even small group-mean differences (whether combined with variance differences or not) or variance differences alone (absent mean differences) can generate marked and sometimes surprising imbalances in the representation of the respective groups compared in the distributional tail regions. Such imbalances in group representation, quantified as tail ratios, have general importance in the context of any threshold, susceptibility, diathesis-stress, selection, or similar models (including the study of sex differences), as widely conceptualized and applied in the psychological, social, medical, and biological sciences. However, commonly used effect-size measures, such as Cohen's d, largely exploit data information around the center of distributions, rather than from the tails, thereby missing potentially important patterns found in the tail regions. This account reviews the background and history of tail ratios, emphasizes their importance for psychological research, proposes a consensus approach for defining and interpreting them, introduces a tail-ratio calculator, and outlines future research agenda.

  5. Tail regeneration affects the digestive performance of a Mediterranean lizard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagonas, Kostas; Karambotsi, Niki; Bletsa, Aristoula; Reppa, Aikaterini; Pafilis, Panayiotis; Valakos, Efstratios D.

    2017-04-01

    In caudal autotomy, lizards shed their tail to escape from an attacking predator. Since the tail serves multiple functions, caudal regeneration is of pivotal importance. However, it is a demanding procedure that requires substantial energy and nutrients. Therefore, lizards have to increase energy income to fuel the extraordinary requirements of the regenerating tail. We presumed that autotomized lizards would adjust their digestion to acquire this additional energy. To clarify the effects of tail regeneration on digestion, we compared the digestive performance before autotomy, during regeneration, and after its completion. Tail regeneration indeed increased gut passage time but did not affect digestive performance in a uniform pattern: though protein income was maximized, lipid and sugar acquisition remained stable. This divergence in proteins may be attributed to their particular role in tail reconstruction, as they are the main building blocks for tissue formation.

  6. Tidal Tails in Interacting Galaxies: Formation of Compact Stellar Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Mullan, B; Konstantopoulos, I S; Bastian, N; Chandar, R; Durrell, P R; Elmegreen, D; English, J; Gallagher, S C; Gronwall, C; Hibbard, J E; Hunsberger, S; Johnson, K E; Kepley, A; Knierman, K; Koribalski, B; Lee, K H; Maybhate, A; Palma, C; Vacca, W D

    2009-01-01

    We have used V- and I- band images from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to identify compact stellar clusters within the tidal tails of twelve different interacting galaxies. The seventeen tails within our sample span a physical parameter space of HI/stellar masses, tail pressure and density through their diversity of tail lengths, optical brightnesses, mass ratios, HI column densities, stage on the Toomre sequence, and tail kinematics. Our preliminary findings in this study indicate that star cluster demographics of the tidal tail environment are compatible with the current understanding of star cluster formation in quiescent systems, possibly only needing changes in certain parameters or normalization of the Schechter cluster initial mass function (CIMF) to replicate what we observe in color-magnitude diagrams and a brightest absolute magnitude -- log N plot.

  7. Measurements of uranium mill tailings consolidation characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, M J

    1985-02-01

    A series of experiments were conducted on uranium mill tailings from the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado, to determine their consolidation characteristics. Three materials (sand, sand/slimes mix, slimes) were loaded under saturated conditions to determine their saturated consolidated behavior. During a separate experiment, samples of the slimes material were kept under a constant load while the pore pressure was increased to determine the partially saturated consolidation behavior. Results of the saturated tests compared well with published data. Sand consolidated the least, while slimes consolidated the most. As each material consolidated, the measured hydraulic conductivity decreased in a linear fashion with respect to the void ratio. Partially saturated experiments with the slimes indicated that there was little consolidation as the pore pressure was increased progressively above 7 kPa. The small amount of consolidation that did occur was only a fraction of the amount of saturated consolidation. Preliminary measurements between pore pressures of 0 and 7 kPa indicated that measurable consolidation could occur in this range of pore pressure, but only if there was no load. 13 references, 13 figures.

  8. Environmental impact analysis of mine tailing reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Under certain conditions landscape topography which utilizes mine tailing reservoir construction using is likely to increase lateral recharge source regions, resulting in dramatic changes to the local hydrological dynamic field and recharge of downstream areas initiated by runoff, excretion state, elevated groundwater depth, shallow groundwater, rainfall direct communication, and thinning of the vadose zone. Corrosive leaching of topsoil over many years of exposure to chemical fertilizers and pesticides may result in their dissolution into the groundwater system, which may lead to excessive amounts of many harmful chemicals, therby affecting the physical and mental health of human residents and increase environmental vulnerability and risk associated with the water and soil. According to field survey data from Yujiakan, Qian'an City, and Hebei provinces, this paper analyzes the hydrogeological environmental mechanisms of areas adjacent to mine tailing reservoirs and establishes a conceptual model of the local groundwater system and the concentration-response function between NO3 - content in groundwater and the incidence of cancer in local residents.

  9. The big head and the long tail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how the advent of big data challenges established theories in Internet studies to redevelop existing explanatory strategies in order to incorporate the possibilities offered by this new empirical resource. The article suggests that established analytical procedures and theore......This paper discusses how the advent of big data challenges established theories in Internet studies to redevelop existing explanatory strategies in order to incorporate the possibilities offered by this new empirical resource. The article suggests that established analytical procedures...... and theoretical frameworks used in Internet studies can be fruitfully employed to explain high–level structural phenomena that are only observable through the use of big data. The present article exemplifies this by offering a detailed analysis of how genre analysis of Web sites may be used to shed light...... on the generative mechanism behind the long–tail distribution of Web site use. The analysis shows that the long tail should be seen as a tiered version of popular top sites, and argues that downsizing of large–scale datasets in combination with qualitative and/or small–scale quantitative procedures may provide...

  10. A red-tailed hawk at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    At KSC, a red-tailed hawk waits on top of a utility pole for the slightest movement in the grass below. It feeds mostly on small rodents. Ranging in height from 18 inches to 25 inches, the species has a stocky build with a whitish breast and rust-colored tail. It has a high-pitched descending scream with a hoarse quality. The hawk inhabits mainly deciduous forest and adjacent open country from Alaska and Nova Scotia south to Panama. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  11. Sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Lesley; Stephenson, Kate [Earth Sciences, McMaster University (Canada)], email: warrenl@mcmaster.ca; Penner, Tara [Syncrude Environmental Research (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings (CT). The Government of Alberta is accelerating reclamation activities on composite tailings. As a CT pilot reclamation operation, Syncrude is currently constructing the first freshwater fen. Minor unpredicted incidents with H2S gas released from the dewatering process associated with these reclamations have been reported. The objective of this study is to ascertain the connection between microbial activity and H2S generation within CT and to assess the sulfur biogeochemistry of untreated and treated (fen) CT over seasonal and annual timescales. The microbial geochemical interactions taking place are shown using a flow chart. CT is composed of gypsum, sand, clay and organics like naphthenic acids and bitumen. Sulfur and Fe cycling in mining systems and their microbial activities are presented. The chemistry and the processes involved within CT are also given along with the results. It can be said that the diverse Fe and S metabolizing microorganisms confirm the ecology involved in H2S dynamics.

  12. Non-equilibrium and band tailing in organic conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A T Oza; P C Vinodkumar; R G Patel

    2003-03-01

    The concept of band tailing with focal point and width of the tail from IR absorption spectra of different organic conductors is found valid even for thermal and elastic changes. The experimental situations like change of solvents, method of preparation, applied pressure and pressure cycle apart from compositions is analyzed within the framework of tailing of states. Non-equilibrium due to coupling between applied energy and free electrons can be responsible for the exponential relaxation from non-equilibrium to equilibrium.

  13. The use of mobile satellite communication terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, P. A.

    The role of small portable terminals in military satellite systems is examined; the discussion embraces terminals with an antenna reflector diameter of seven meters or less. Emphasis is placed on the specification of MARMOSET (Marconi Mobile Satellite Earth Terminal). Also considered are ship-borne satellite terminals, the improved SCOT terminal, interoperability, reduced downlink power, and reliability and availability.

  14. Why are most EU pigs tail docked? Economic and ethical analysis of four pig housing and management scenarios in the light of EU legislation and animal welfare outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eath, R B; Niemi, J K; Vosough Ahmadi, B; Rutherford, K M D; Ison, S H; Turner, S P; Anker, H T; Jensen, T; Busch, M E; Jensen, K K; Lawrence, A B; Sandøe, P

    2016-04-01

    numbers derived from the above-mentioned data. We discuss our results in the light of the EU Directive and its adoption and enforcement by Member States. Widespread use of tail docking seems to be accepted, mainly because the alternative steps that producers are required to take before resorting to it are not specified in detail. By tail docking, producers are acting in their own best interests. We suggest that for the practice of tail docking to be terminated in a way that benefits animal welfare, changes in the way pigs are housed and managed may first be required.

  15. Recovery of Iron from Copper Tailings by Direct Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jing; Xia, De-Hong; Gu, Jing; Liu, Kai-Qi; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Shou-Zeng; Qi, Zhao-Dong; Ao, Wen-Qing

    2016-05-01

    Direct reduction of copper tailings were performed to recover iron efficiently by carbon-containing pellets, and the metallization rate was gained by chemical analysis method. The results showed that the metallization rate of copper tailings was up to 85.32% and the best reduction parameters are also found. Content of precious metals, such as, gold, silver in copper tailings can be enriched by 1.8~1.9 times through removing iron. The apparent activation energy of direct reduction of iron oxide in copper tailings is calculated to be 125.4 kJ/mol and the restrictive factor of reduction process is solid diffusion.

  16. A survey of straw use and tail biting in Swedish pig farms rearing undocked pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Wallgren, Torun; Westin, Rebecka; Gunnarsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background Tail biting is a common problem in intensive pig farming, affecting both welfare and production. Although routine tail docking is banned within the EU, it remains a common practice to prevent tail biting. Straw as environmental enrichment has been proposed as an alternative to tail docking, but its effectiveness against tail biting and function in manure handling systems have to be considered. The aim of the study was to survey how pigs with intact tails are raised and how tail bit...

  17. Low Earth Orbiter: Terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Steven E.; Bundick, Steven N.

    1999-01-01

    In response to the current government budgetary environment that requires the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to do more with less, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility has developed and implemented a class of ground stations known as a Low Earth Orbiter-Terminal (LEO-T). This development thus provides a low-cost autonomous ground tracking service for NASA's customers. More importantly, this accomplishment provides a commercial source to spacecraft customers around the world to purchase directly from the company awarded the NASA contract to build these systems. A few years ago, NASA was driven to provide more ground station capacity for spacecraft telemetry, tracking, and command (TT&C) services with a decreasing budget. NASA also made a decision to develop many smaller, cheaper satellites rather than a few large spacecraft as done in the past. In addition, university class missions were being driven to provide their own TT&C services due to the increasing load on the NASA ground-tracking network. NASA's solution for this ever increasing load was to use the existing large aperture systems to support those missions requiring that level of performance and to support the remainder of the missions with the autonomous LEO-T systems. The LEO-T antenna system is a smaller, cheaper, and fully autonomous unstaffed system that can operate without the existing NASA support infrastructure. The LEO-T provides a low-cost, reliable space communications service to the expanding number of low-earth orbiting missions around the world. The system is also fostering developments that improve cost-effectiveness of autonomous-class capabilities for NASA and commercial space use. NASA has installed three LEO-T systems. One station is at the University of Puerto Rico, the second system is installed at the Poker Flat Research Range near Fairbanks, Alaska, and the third system is installed at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. This paper

  18. Proceedings of the 15. annual British Columbia MEND ML/ARD workshop : the management of tailings and tailings impoundments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-02-15

    This Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND) workshop was held to promote the exchange of information and ideas on environmental protection and reclamation associated with mining. The workshop covered a broad spectrum of reclamation issues and the key environmental challenges facing the mining industry, such as acid mine drainage (AMD) control, and metal leaching and acid rock drainage (ML/ARD). The theme for the 2008 workshop was the management of tailings and tailings impoundments. Topics of discussion included hydrogeology and geochemistry; tailings disposal; mitigation; closure plans; and postclosure performance. The emphasis was on full-scale case studies, practical constraints and sustaining successful disposal strategies and remediation. The session on tailings management reviewed overarching policies and practices; methods of subaerial tailings disposal and case studies of tailings management; and detailed investigations of geochemical properties and processes. The conference featured 22 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Cloning of a cDNA encoding the smallest neurofilament protein from the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J-P. Julien (Jean-Pierre); K. Ramachadran; F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractWe have cloned a cDNA coding for the smallest rat neurofilament protein. The cDNA is 861 nucleotides long coding for 287 amino acids from the internal alpha-helical region and the carboxy-terminal tail domain of the neurofilament protein. Comparison of the porcine, mouse and rat neurofil

  20. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori Segev

    Full Text Available Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping--i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics--on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample.

  1. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Ori; Polevikove, Antonina; Blank, Lior; Goedbloed, Daniel; Küpfer, Eliane; Gershberg, Anna; Koplovich, Avi; Blaustein, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping--i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics--on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail) on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata) larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length) at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample.

  2. 75 FR 13644 - TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port License...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Maritime Administration TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas...) for the TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal (BOET) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG... Natural Gas Pipeline, Williams Natural Gas Pipeline, Destin Natural Gas Pipeline, and Viosca...

  3. Assessment of water removal from oil sands tailings by evaporation and under-drainage, and the impact on tailings consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira, Fernando F.; Sanin, Maria Victoria [Golder Associates Ltd (Canada); Sedgwick, Andrea [Total EandP Canada (Canada); Blum, Jim [JG Blum Consulting Ltd (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Tailings, left-over material produced during the extraction process that separates bitumen from oil sand, are challenging the oil sands industry. These tailings require large surface areas and contain mature fine tailings, made up of fine clay particles suspended in water, which do not settle within a reasonable timeframe. Consequently, maximizing water removal from oil sands tailings is required to accelerate tailings consolidation. The study described in this paper was developed to measure the water loss from oil sands tailings associated with evaporation and under-drainage, using laboratory drying column tests, and to evaluate the impact of water loss on the process of tailings consolidation and the gain in shear strength for different lift thicknesses. Water removal from the tailings through evaporation occurred at a nearly constant rate, while the rate of under-drainage progressively reduced with time. Additionally, it was found that thinner lifts would have better performance in terms of tailings consolidation and gain in shear strength than thick lifts.

  4. Balanced Branching in Transcription Termination

    CERN Document Server

    Harrington, K J; Liang, S

    2000-01-01

    The theory of stochastic transcription termination based on free-energy competition requires two or more reaction rates to be delicately balanced over a wide range of physical conditions. A large body of work on glasses and large molecules suggests that this should be impossible in such a large system in the absence of a new organizing principle of matter. We review the experimental literature of termination and find no evidence for such a principle but many troubling inconsistencies, most notably anomalous memory effects. These suggest that termination has a deterministic component and may conceivably be not stochastic at all. We find that a key experiment by Wilson and von Hippel allegedly refuting deterministic termination was an incorrectly analyzed regulatory effect of Mg2+ binding.

  5. A proactive approach to sustainable management of mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The reactive strategies to manage mine tailings i.e. containment of slurries of tailings in tailings storage facilities (TSF's) and remediation of tailings solids or tailings seepage water after the decommissioning of those facilities, can be technically inefficient to eliminate environmental risks (e.g. prevent dispersion of contaminants and catastrophic dam wall failures), pose a long term economic burden for companies, governments and society after mine closure, and often fail to meet community expectations. Most preventive environmental management practices promote proactive integrated approaches to waste management whereby the source of environmental issues are identified to help make a more informed decisions. They often use life cycle assessment to find the "hot spots" of environmental burdens. This kind of approach is often based on generic data and has rarely been used for tailings. Besides, life cycle assessments are less useful for designing operations or simulating changes in the process and consequent environmental outcomes. It is evident that an integrated approach for tailings research linked to better processing options is needed. A literature review revealed that there are only few examples of integrated approaches. The aim of this project is to develop new tailings management models by streamlining orebody characterization, process optimization and rehabilitation. The approach is based on continuous fingerprinting of geochemical processes from orebody to tailings storage facility, and benchmark the success of such proactive initiatives by evidence of no impacts and no future projected impacts on receiving environments. We present an approach for developing such a framework and preliminary results from a case study where combined grinding and flotation models developed using geometallurgical data from the orebody were constructed to predict the properties of tailings produced under various processing scenarios. The modelling scenarios based on the

  6. Radiological impact of uranium tailings and alternatives for their management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, M. H.; Kisieleski, W. E.; Tyler, S.; Zielen, A.; Yuan, Y.; Roberts, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    Uncontrolled tailings piles are mobile sources of fugitive dust that may produce a practically uncleanable adjacent environment. A practical procedure for managing solid tailings is addition of surface moisture, mechanical and gravitational separation of slimes, and storage of slimes below solution tailings. Presently practical alternatives for tailings management are variations of two basic methods - surface below-ground disposal. Isolation of tailings by natural materials such as clay lenses and combinations of overburden, top soil, vegetation and rip-rap may provide both minimization of exposure and stability. Experimental measurement of radon flux over two inactive tailings, acid and carbonate leached tailings resulted in average specific flux values of phi infinity approx. = 0.64 and phi infinity approx. = 0.30 (pCi Rn-222/m/sup 2/ sec) / (pCi Ra-226/g), respectively. The average diffusion coefficient for these tailings were, respectively, 2.4 x 10/sup -3/ and 5.7 x 10/sup -4/ cm/sup 2//sec. Tailings covered with native soil of clay-silt-sand mixture to a depth of 225 cm resulted in attenuation of flux with diffusion coefficients of 3.69 x 10/sup -3/ and 3.60 x 10/sup -3/ cm/sup 2//sec for ACID and ALKO sites, respectively. By means of the UDAD code dose commitments were estimated for inhalation of particulates and radon and for external exposure under three degrees of surface moisture on the tailings. Based on these analyses and assumption that the dose contribution from ingestion pathway is comparable in magnitude to that of inhalation, both compliance with the 25 mrem/year limit and reduction of flux to background level is feasible. Stability of alternative decommissioned tailings over the predictable future is discussed.

  7. Testing for tail behavior using extreme spacings

    CERN Document Server

    Rojo, J

    2010-01-01

    Methodologies to test hypotheses about the tail-heaviness of an underlying distribution are introduced based on results of Rojo (1996) using the limiting behavior of the extreme spacings. The tests are consistent and have point-wise robust levels in the sense of Lehmann (2005) and Lehmann and Loh (1990). Simulation results based on these new methodologies indicate that the tests exhibit good control of the probability of Type I error and have good power properties for finite sample sizes. The tests are compared with a test proposed by Bryson (1974) and it is seen that, although Bryson's test is competitive with the tests proposed here, Bryson's test does not have point-wise robust levels. The operating characteristics of the tests are also explored when the data is blocked. It turns out that the power increases substantially by blocking. The methodology is illustrated by analyzing various data sets.

  8. The Radiative Tail of Realistic Gravitational Collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, S

    2000-01-01

    An astrophysically realistic model of wave dynamics in black-hole spacetimes must involve a {\\it non}-spherical background geometry with {\\it angular momentum}. We consider the evolution of {\\it gravitational} (and electromagnetic) perturbations in {\\it rotating} Kerr spacetimes. We show that a rotating Kerr black hole becomes ``bald'' {\\it slower} than the corresponding spherically-symmetric Schwarzschild black hole. Moreover, our results {\\it turn over} the traditional belief (which has been widely accepted during the last three decades) that the late-time tail of gravitational collapse is universal. In particular, we show that different fields have {\\it different} decaying rates. Our results are also of importance both to the study of the no-hair conjecture and the mass-inflation scenario (stability of Cauchy horizons).

  9. Rheologicai properties of tailing paste slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新民; 李建雄; 肖智政; 肖卫国

    2004-01-01

    The initial shear stress (τ) and plastic cohesion (η) are the most important parameters reflecting the rheological properties of the paste slurry. The rheological parameters as well as the quantitative relationship among the consumption of different fill materials were obtained through the experiment and research on these parameters.They can be used to predict the scope of the values of τ and η in production for a given ratio, which can reduce the conveying resistance of fill slurry along the pipelines and avoid the blockage of the pipelines. It is found that the rheological model of the total tailing slurry belongs to the Bingham type, which has a feature of strong internal structure and large initial shear stress. The calculation formula for the resistance loss of pipelines conforms nicely to the field test and the actual production in Jinchuan Nickel Mine.

  10. Correlations in quantum plasmas. II. Algebraic tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, F.

    1996-05-01

    For a system of point charges that interact through the three-dimensional electrostatic Coulomb potential (without any regularization) and obey the laws of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics with Bose or Fermi statistics, the static correlations between particles are shown to have a 1/r6 tail, at least at distances that are large with respect to the length of exponential screening. After a review of previous work, a term-by-term diagrammatic proof is given by using the formalism of paper I, where the quantum particle-particle correlations are expressed in terms of classical-loop distribution functions. The integrable graphs of the resummed Mayer-like diagrammatics for the loop distributions contain bonds between loops that decay either exponentially or algebraically, with a 1/r3 leading term analogous to a dipole-dipole interaction. This reflects the fact that the charge-charge or multipole-charge interactions between clusters of particles surrounded by their polarization clouds are exponentially screened, as at a classical level, whereas the multipole-multipole interactions are only partially screened. The correlation between loops decays as 1/r3, but the spherical symmetry of the quantum fluctuations makes this power law fall to 1/r5, and the harmonicity of the Coulomb potential eventually enforces the correlations between quantum particles to decay only as 1/r6. The coefficient of the 1/r6 tail at low density is planned to be given in a subsequent paper. Moreover, because of Coulomb screening, the induced charge density, which describes the response to an external infinitesimal charge, is shown to fall off as 1/r8, while the charge-charge correlation in the medium decreases as 1/r10. However, in spite of the departure of the quantum microscopic correlations from the classical exponential clustering, the total induced charge is still essentially determined by the exponentially screened charge-charge interactions, as in classical macroscopic electrostatics.

  11. Myosin isoform expression in the prehensile tails of didelphid marsupials: functional differences between arboreal and terrestrial opossums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, J E; Schmidt, E Cordero; Moreira-Soto, A; Herrera, B Rodríguez; Vandeberg, J L; Butcher, M T

    2014-08-01

    Prehensile tails are defined as having the ability to grasp objects and are commonly used as a fifth appendage during arboreal locomotion. Despite the independent evolution of tail prehensility in numerous mammalian genera, data relating muscle structure, physiology, and function of prehensile tails are largely incomplete. Didelphid marsupials make an excellent model to relate myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform fiber type with structure/function of caudal muscles, as all opossums have a prehensile tail and tail use varies between arboreal and terrestrial forms. Expanding on our previous work in the Virginia opossum, this study tests the hypothesis that arboreal and terrestrial opossums differentially express faster versus slower MHC isoforms, respectively. MHC isoform expression and percent fiber type distribution were determined in the flexor caudae longus (FCL) muscle of Caluromys derbianus (arboreal) and Monodelphis domestica (terrestrial), using a combination of gel electrophoresis and immunohistochemistry analyses. C. derbianus expresses three MHC isoforms (1, 2A, 2X) that are distributed (mean percentage) as 8.2% MHC-1, 2.6% 1/2A, and 89.2% 2A/X hybrid fibers. M. domestica also expresses MHC-1, 2A, and 2X, in addition to the 2B isoform, distributed as 17.0% MHC-1, 1.3% 1/2A, 9.0% 2A, 75.2% 2A/X, and 0.3% 2X/B hybrid fibers. The distribution of similar isoform fiber types differed significantly between species (P derbianus was observed to have larger cross-sectional area (CSA) for each corresponding fiber type along with a greater amount of extra-cellular matrix. An overall faster fiber type composition (and larger fibers) in the tail of an arboreal specialist supports our hypothesis, and correlates with higher muscle force required for tail hanging and arboreal maneuvering on terminal substrates. Conversely, a broader distribution of highly oxidative fibers in the caudal musculature is well suited for tail nest building/remodeling behaviors of terrestrial

  12. Synthesis, growth, characterisation and laser damage threshold studies of N,N-dimethylanilinium-3-carboxy-4-hydroxybenzenesulphonate crystal: An efficient SHG material for electro-optic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, M.; Chandramohan, A.

    2017-04-01

    An NLO active organic proton transfer complex salt, N,N-Dimethylanilinium-3-carboxy-4-hydroxybenzenesulphonate has been synthesized and single crystals grown by slow solvent evaporation solution growth technique at ambient temperature. The synthesized salt was characterized by Uv-visible absorption, UV-vis-NIR transmission spectral studies and elemental analysis. The formation of the salt and the crystal structure have been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the title crystal belongs to monoclinic crystal system with the non-centrosymmetric space group, Pc. The FT-IR spectrum was recorded to confirm the presence of various functional groups in the grown crystal. The molecular structure of the crystal was further confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The TG/DTA analyses were carried out to establish the thermal stability of the title crystal. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss have been studied as a function of frequency at different temperatures. The presence of SHG and its conversion efficiency was measured by employing the modified Kurtz and Perry powder technique. The laser damage threshold value of the title crystal was determined using a Nd:YAG laser with the wavelength of 1064 nm.

  13. Application of isotope-based carboxy group derivatization in LC-MS/MS analysis of tissue free-fatty acids for thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jiapeng; Guan, Qing; Sun, Tuanqi; Wu, Yi; Cao, Yanjing; Guo, Yinlong

    2013-10-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) analysis of human tissue is challenging due to the low abundance of tissue lipids and interference from the complex matrix. Based on our previously reported on 2,4-dimethoxy-6-piperazin-1-yl pyrimidine (DMPP) derivatization toward carboxy group, we have further applied DMPP derivatization method in the assay of tissue FFAs in patients with thyroid carcinoma after method optimization including sample pretreatment, and derivatization condition. d6-DMPP labeled mixture of FFAs standard was used as the internal standard (IS). The d0-DMPP labeled samples (spiked with IS) were subsequently used for lipids profiling by selective reaction monitoring (SRM) detection. The DMPP derivatization combined with SRM not only allowed trace analysis of FFAs in complex matrix due to the extremely high sensitivity, but also minimized the errors in quantitation because of the very similar property between d0-DMPP derivatized samples and d6-DMPP derivatized IS. Eighteen kinds of FFAs were detected successfully with the increased level in carcinoma tissue compared with the normal tissue, which may be the results of abnormality in the metabolism of fatty acid synthases and lipids. Application of the DMPP based FFAs derivatization is expected to provide a promising tool for the investigation of lipids in vivo, especially for the research of lipid metabolism.

  14. Studies on the growth aspects, structural and third-order nonlinear optical properties of Piperidinium 3-carboxy-4-hydroxy benzenesulfonate single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiyarasi, S.; Zahid, I. MD; Devi, S. Reena; Kumar, R. Mohan

    2017-02-01

    Organic nonlinear optical material Piperidinium 3-carboxy-4-hydroxy benzenesulfonate (PBS) single crystal was successfully grown by solution growth method. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study confirms that, the grown crystal belongs to P21/n space group. The crystalline quality of PBS was ascertained by HRXRD studies. Infrared spectral analysis showed the vibrational behaviour of chemical bonds and presence of its functional groups. TG/DTA studies were used to study the thermal stability and decomposition stages of the compound. UV-visible transmittance studies showed the transparency region, cut-off wavelength and band gap of the grown crystal. Photoluminescence emission study was carried out for the grown crystal to show its electronic properties. By using Nd:YAG laser, the laser damage threshold was estimated for the grown crystal. The third-order nonlinear optical parameters of the grown crystal were estimated by Z-scan technique using He-Ne laser source. The mechanical property of the PBS crystal was studied by using Vicker's microhardness measurement.

  15. Studies on the growth, spectral, structural, electrical, optical and mechanical properties of Uronium 3-carboxy-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate single crystal for third-order nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silambarasan, A.; Krishna Kumar, M.; Thirunavukkarasu, A.; Md Zahid, I.; Mohan Kumar, R.; Umarani, P. R.

    2015-05-01

    Organic Uronium 3-carboxy-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate (UCHBS) nonlinear optical single crystal was grown by solution growth technique. The solubility and nucleation studies were performed for UCHBS at different temperatures 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 and 55 °C. The crystal structure of UCHBS was elucidated from single crystal X-ray diffraction study. High resolution X-ray diffraction technique was employed to study the perfection and internal defects of UCHBS crystal. Infrared and Raman spectra were recorded to analyze the vibrational behavior of chemical bonds and its functional groups. The physico-chemical changes, stability and decomposition stages of the UCHBS compound were established by TG-DTA studies. The dielectric phenomenon of UCHBS crystal was studied at different temperatures with respect to frequency. Linear optical properties of transmittance, cut-off wavelength, band gap of UCHBS were found from UV-visible spectral studies. Third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility, nonlinear refractive index, nonlinear optical absorption coefficient values were measured by Z-scan technique. The mechanical properties of UCHBS crystal was studied by using Vicker's microhardness test. The growth features of UCHBS crystal were analyzed from etching studies.

  16. Quantitative analysis of 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannbinol (THC-COOH) in urine by LC-MS/MS following a simple filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpler, Marc J

    2014-04-15

    Quantification methods utilizing liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are common in clinical and forensic toxicology laboratories and the efficiency and rapidity of such methods continues to evolve. In most cases, urine drug confirmation does not require a drug extraction and can quickly and easily be accomplished with a dilution followed by sample filtration. The report describes the validation of a simple confirmation method for 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) and compared two types of filter extraction columns for sample clean-up. The method achieved a linear range of 10-3000ng/mL, acceptable bias (-4.7-2.6%) and precision (0.9-6.9%) and autosampler stability up to 72h. Universal filter columns offered less variable recovery over the linear range and fewer matrix interferences compared to THC-COOH specific filter columns. Authentic specimens testing positive for THC-COOH by LC-MS/MS were in good agreement with typically used GC-MS methods.

  17. Quantification of 11-Carboxy-Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in Meconium Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Judy; Davis, Brehon; Frazee, Clint; Garg, Uttam

    2016-01-01

    Maternal substance abuse is an ongoing concern and detecting drug use during pregnancy is an important component of neonatal care when drug abuse is suspected. Meconium is the preferred specimen for drug testing because it is easier to collect than neonatal urine and it provides a much broader time frame of drug exposure. We describe a method for quantifying 11-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in meconium. After adding a labeled internal standard (THC-COOH D9) and acetonitrile, samples are sonicated to release both free and conjugated THC-COOH. The acetonitrile/aqueous layer is removed and mixed with a strong base to hydrolyze the conjugated THC-COOH. The samples are then extracted with an organic solvent mixture as part of a sample "cleanup." The organic solvent layer is discarded and the remaining aqueous sample is acidified. Following extraction with a second organic mixture, the organic layer is removed and concentrated to dryness. The resulting residue is converted to a trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivative and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode.

  18. The effects of vitamin K on the generation of des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (PIVKA-II) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakon, M; Monden, M; Gotoh, M; Kobayashi, K; Kanai, T; Umeshita, K; Endoh, W; Mori, T

    1991-03-01

    The clinical significance of des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (PIVKA-II) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was investigated in 112 patients with and without vitamin K administration. The positivity rate of PIVKA-II was significantly decreased in patients receiving vitamin K (28.5%), compared with those without vitamin K administration (54.5%, p less than 0.05). The plasma levels of vitamin K derivatives [phylloquinone (VK1), menaquinone-4 (MK4), and menaquinone-7 (MK7)] measured were not decreased in patients with HCC, but were significantly increased in MK4 and VK1 + MK4 + MK7. The amount of PIVKA-II in plasma did not correlate with the plasma levels of vitamin K derivatives. However, PIVKA-II was decreased by the administration of vitamin K, and all of the six patients with more than 5.0 ng/ml of VK1 + MK4 + MK7 were within normal limits, whereas half of 32 patients with less than that had abnormal levels of PIVKA-II. Thus, it was suggested that PIVKA-II was not elevated due to vitamin K deficiency, but might result from the impaired metabolism or availability of vitamin K in the tumor. Therefore, PIVKA-II should be measured without vitamin K administration.

  19. Rapid Regression of Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Associated with Elevation of Des-Gamma-Carboxy Prothrombin after Short-Term Treatment with Sorafenib – A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahide Nakazawa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sorafenib is the first molecular-targeted agent that is effective for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, with prolongation of survival. However, a complete response is very rare, and rapid regression of HCC after short-term treatment with sorafenib has not been reported previously. Case Reports: We describe 2 patients with advanced multiple HCC who received sorafenib for short periods of 1 or 2 weeks, respectively. Longer treatment was precluded by the development of hepatic failure as an adverse event of sorafenib. Results: HCC rapidly regressed, and both patients had a partial response (PR, despite short-term treatment. Furthermore, an early elevation of des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP was temporarily seen in both patients, with no elevation of alpha-fetoprotein. Conclusions: Sorafenib can induce rapid regression of advanced HCC even after short-term treatment, and the initial response of HCC was identical in both patients. Since early elevation of DCP was observed in our patients with PR, DCP might be a predictive biomarker of anti-tumor response. Further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of sorafenib, including the alteration of DCP.

  20. Preconcentration and determination of copper and cadmium ions with 1,6-bis(2-carboxy aldehyde phenoxy)butane functionalized Amberlite XAD-16 by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Elif V; Dolak, Ibrahim; Temel, Hamdi; Ziyadanogullari, Berrin

    2011-02-15

    A new chelating resin, covalently linked 1,6-bis(2-carboxy aldehyde phenoxy)butane with the Amberlite XAD-16 was synthesized and used for preconcentration of Cu(II) and Cd(II) prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). It was characterized by elemental analyses and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Cu(II) and Cd(II) ions were quantitatively preconcentrated on minicolumn loaded with synthesised resin at pH 4.00 and 6.00, respectively. They were eluated with 5 mL of 0.5 mol L(-1) HCl. Recoveries of Cu(II) and Cd(II) were found to be 100±2.15, 100±1.40 (N=5), the limits of detection of Cu(II) and Cd(II) in the determination by FAAS (3s, N=20) were found to be 0.33 and 1.19 μg L(-1), respectively. The effect of foreign ions on the recovery has been investigated. The proposed method has been applied for the determination of Cu(II) and Cd(II) ions to the real samples collected from Tigris river water in Diyarbakir and Elaziğ cities in Turkey. Standard addition method and analysis of the certified reference material (NCS-DC 73350) was employed to check the accuracy of the method.

  1. Birefringence dynamics of poly{l_brace}1-[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzenesulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt{r_brace} cast films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madruga, Carla [Centro de Fisica e Investigacao Tecnologica CEFITEC, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Filho, Paulo Alliprandini [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, 38400902, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil); Andrade, Marta M. [REQUIMTE, CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Goncalves, Manuel [Institute of Experimental Physics, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Raposo, Maria [Centro de Fisica e Investigacao Tecnologica CEFITEC, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Ribeiro, Paulo A., E-mail: pfr@fct.unl.pt [Centro de Fisica e Investigacao Tecnologica CEFITEC, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2011-09-01

    Photoinduced birefringence creation/decay dynamics in poly{l_brace}1-[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzenesulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt{r_brace}cast films, has been characterized in the 5 to 100 mW writing laser power range at the wavelength of 514 nm. The maximum birefringence magnitude increased with laser beam power, being the largest value of 0.03, measured at 632.8 nm. Birefringence creation kinetics followed a biexponential behavior, where a slow process and a fast process could be clearly distinguished. The fast process accounted for more than 60% of birefringence. The time constants for both fast and slow processes decreased with increasing power of writing beam. Birefringence relaxation after removal of writing laser beam revealed to be independent of beam power and, was found to be ruled by two processes, described by a biexponential curve plus a constant term accounting for residual birefringence. A high residual birefringence signal of 85 {+-} 3% was attained, with the fast process contributing to 67% of decay from maximum value. The large values obtained for time constants for both birefringence creation and relaxation processes are believed to arise from stabilization of azo-group either by the formation of an ionic network, or by local short range interactions that are coming through as a result polyelectrolyte coiling due to its high degree of ionization.

  2. Structural Conservation of the Myoviridae Phage Tail Sheath Protein Fold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A.; Kurochkina, Lidia P.; Fokine, Andrei; Forouhar, Farhad; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim V.; Tong, Liang; Rossmann, Michael G. (SOIBC); (Purdue); (Columbia)

    2012-02-21

    Bacteriophage phiKZ is a giant phage that infects Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human pathogen. The phiKZ virion consists of a 1450 {angstrom} diameter icosahedral head and a 2000 {angstrom}-long contractile tail. The structure of the whole virus was previously reported, showing that its tail organization in the extended state is similar to the well-studied Myovirus bacteriophage T4 tail. The crystal structure of a tail sheath protein fragment of phiKZ was determined to 2.4 {angstrom} resolution. Furthermore, crystal structures of two prophage tail sheath proteins were determined to 1.9 and 3.3 {angstrom} resolution. Despite low sequence identity between these proteins, all of these structures have a similar fold. The crystal structure of the phiKZ tail sheath protein has been fitted into cryo-electron-microscopy reconstructions of the extended tail sheath and of a polysheath. The structural rearrangement of the phiKZ tail sheath contraction was found to be similar to that of phage T4.

  3. An expeditious synthesis of tailed tren-capped porphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Pascale; Ruzié, Christian; Ricard, David; Boitrel, Bernard

    2005-09-29

    [structure: see text] A one-pot two-step versatile synthesis of tailed tren-capped porphyrins has been achieved. The two resulting ligands demonstrate that this expeditious method can be applied to various axial bases to obtain highly functionalized macromolecules attractive for heme modeling purposes. Dioxygen binding of the pyridine-tailed iron complex is reported as a direct application.

  4. Efficient simulation of tail probabilities of sums of correlated lognormals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren; Blanchet, José; Juneja, Sandeep;

    We consider the problem of efficient estimation of tail probabilities of sums of correlated lognormals via simulation. This problem is motivated by the tail analysis of portfolios of assets driven by correlated Black-Scholes models. We propose two estimators that can be rigorously shown to be eff...

  5. A Glimpse of the genomic diversity of haloarchaeal tailed viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eSencilo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tailed viruses are the most common isolates infecting prokaryotic hosts residing hypersaline environments. Archaeal tailed viruses represent only a small portion of all characterized tailed viruses of prokaryotes. But even this small dataset revealed that archaeal tailed viruses have many similarities to their counterparts infecting bacteria, the bacteriophages. Shared functional homologues and similar genome organizations suggested that all microbial tailed viruses have common virion architectural and assembly principles. Recent structural studies have provided evidence justifying this thereby grouping archaeal and bacterial tailed viruses into a single lineage. Currently there are 17 haloarchaeal tailed viruses with entirely sequenced genomes. Nine viruses have at least one close relative among the 17 viruses and, according to the similarities, can be divided into three groups. Two other viruses share some homologues and therefore are distantly related, whereas the rest of the viruses are rather divergent (or singletons. Comparative genomics analysis of these viruses offers a glimpse into the genetic diversity and structure of haloarchaeal tailed virus communities.

  6. Lifshitz Tails for the Interband Light Absorption Coefficient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W Kirsch; M Krishna

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we consider the interband light absorption coefficient (ILAC) for various models. We show that at the lower and upper edges of the spectrum the Lifshitz tails behaviour of the density of states implies similar behaviour for the ILAC at appropriate energies. The Lifshitz tails property is also exhibited at some points corresponding to the internal band edges of the spectrum.

  7. Thresher sharks use tail-slaps as a hunting strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Simon P; Turner, John R; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails.

  8. Tail index and quantile estimation with very high frequency data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Daníelsson (Jón); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA precise estimation of the tail shape of forex returns is of critical importance for proper risk assessment. We improve upon the efficiency of conventional estimators that rely on a first order expansion of the tail shape, by using the second order expansion. Here we advocate a moments

  9. Characteristics of tailings from metal mines in Hunan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yun-guo; ZHANG Hui-zhi; ZENG Guang-ming; HUANG Bao-rong; LI Xin; XU Wei-hua

    2005-01-01

    The tailing soils were from 10 mining areas in Hunan Province. To predict the potential impact of tailings on nearby environments, the characteristics such as the pH value, loss on ignition, cation exchange capacity, and the concentration and speciation of heavy metals in the tailings were investigated. Based on these characteristics, the pollution index and danger index were calculated so as to evaluate the priorities of remediation. The results show that the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn exceed the tolerable levels of the phytotoxicity in the most tailings. The large proportion of heavy metals exists in the form of residual fraction in most tailings, followed by sulfides/organic and Fe/Mn oxide fractions, and a little in the exchangeable and carbonate fraction. The calculated pollution indices for the tailing samples range from 1.41 to 83.42, which indicates that all the tailings contain heavy metals at a level that causes toxicity to the ecosystem. The danger indices for the tailing samples range from 0.06 to 387.00. The highest value of the danger indices is that of Yongzhou sample, reaching 387.00; the lowest one is that of Xikuangshan sample, only 0.06. Considering the results of pollution index and danger index in combination, the priority of remediation is determined to be Yongzhou, Baoshan, Xiangtan and Lengshuijiang.

  10. Thresher sharks use tail-slaps as a hunting strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Oliver

    Full Text Available The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails.

  11. The association of BAG6 with SGTA and tail-anchored proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Leznicki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The BAG6 protein is a subunit of a heterotrimeric complex that binds a range of membrane and secretory protein precursors localized to the cytosol, enforcing quality control and influencing their subsequent fate. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BAG6 has an N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain, and a C-terminal Bcl-2-associated athanogene domain, separated by a large central proline-rich region. We have used in vitro binding approaches to identify regions of BAG6 important for its interactions with: i the small-glutamine rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha (SGTA and ii two model tail-anchored membrane proteins as a paradigm for its hydrophobic substrates. We show that the BAG6-UBL is essential for binding to SGTA, and find that the UBL of a second subunit of the BAG6-complex, ubiquitin-like protein 4A (UBL4A, competes for SGTA binding. Our data show that this binding is selective, and suggest that SGTA can bind either BAG6, or UBL4A, but not both at the same time. We adapted our in vitro binding assay to study the association of BAG6 with an immobilized tail-anchored protein, Sec61β, and find both the UBL and BAG domains are dispensable for binding this substrate. This conclusion was further supported using a heterologous subcellular localization assay in yeast, where the BAG6-dependent nuclear relocalization of a second tail-anchored protein, GFP-Sed5, also required neither the UBL, nor the BAG domain of BAG6. SIGNIFICANCE: On the basis of these findings, we propose a working model where the large central region of the BAG6 protein provides a binding site for a diverse group of substrates, many of which expose a hydrophobic stretch of polypeptide. This arrangement would enable the BAG6 complex to bring together its substrates with potential effectors including those recruited via its N-terminal UBL. Such effectors may include SGTA, and the resulting assemblies influence the subsequent fate of the hydrophobic BAG6

  12. Immunocalization of telomerase in cells of lizard tail after amputation suggests cell activation for tail regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, L

    2016-02-01

    Tail amputation (autotomy) in most lizards elicits a remarkable regenerative response leading to a new although simplified tail. No information on the trigger mechanism following wounding is known but cells from the stump initiate to proliferate and form a regenerative blastema. The present study shows that telomerases are mainly activated in the nuclei of various connective and muscle satellite cells of the stump, and in other tissues, probably responding to the wound signals. Western blotting detection also indicates that telomerase positive bands increases in the regenerating blastema in comparison to the normal tail. Light and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry localization of telomerase shows that 4-14 days post-amputation in lizards immunopositive nuclei of sparse cells located among the wounded tissues are accumulating into the forming blastema. These cells mainly include fibroblasts and fat cells of the connective tissue and satellite cells of muscles. Also some immature basophilic and polychromatophilic erytroblasts, lymphoblasts and myelocytes present within the Bone Marrow of the vertebrae show telomerase localization in their nuclei, but their contribution to the formation of the regenerative blastema remains undetermined. The study proposes that one of the initial mechanisms triggering cell proliferation for the formation of the blastema in lizards involve gene activation for the production of telomerase that stimulates the following signaling pathways for cell division and migration.

  13. A Tale of Two Tails: Exploring Stellar Populations in the Tidal Tails of NGC 3256

    CERN Document Server

    Rodruck, Michael; Knierman, Karen; Fedotov, Konstantin; Mullan, Brendan; Gallagher, Sarah; Gallagher, Sarah; Durrell, Patrick; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Charlton, Jane

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an observing program using deep, multiband imaging to probe the chaotic regions of tidal tails in search of an underlying stellar population, using NGC 3256's 400 Myr twin tidal tails as a case study. These tails have different colours of $u - g = 1.05 \\pm 0.07$ and $r - i = 0.13 \\pm 0.07$ for NGC 3256W, and $u - g = 1.26 \\pm 0.07$ and $r - i = 0.26 \\pm 0.07$ for NGC 3256E, indicating different stellar populations. These colours correspond to simple stellar population ages of $288^{+11}_{-54}$ Myr and $841^{+125}_{-157}$ Myr for NGC 3256W and NGC 3256E, respectively, suggesting NGC 3256W's diffuse light is dominated by stars formed after the interaction, while light in NGC 3256E is primarily from stars that originated in the host galaxy. Using a mixed stellar population model, we break our diffuse light into two populations: one at 10 Gyr, representing stars pulled from the host galaxies, and a younger component, whose age is determined by fitting the model to the data. We find similar ages ...

  14. Shutoff and agonist-triggered internalization of protease-activated receptor 1 can be separated by mutation of putative phosphorylation sites in the cytoplasmic tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammes, S R; Shapiro, M J; Coughlin, S R

    1999-07-20

    The thrombin receptor PAR1 becomes rapidly phosphorylated upon activation by either thrombin or exogenous SFLLRN agonist peptide. Substitution of alanine for all serine and threonine residues in the receptor's cytoplasmic carboxyl-terminal tail ablated phosphorylation and yielded a receptor defective in both shutoff and agonist-triggered internalization. These observations suggested that activation-dependent phosphorylation of PAR1's cytoplasmic tail is required for both shutoff and agonist-triggered internalization. To identify the phosphorylation site(s) that are necessary for these functions, we generated three mutant receptors in which alanine was substituted for serine and threonine residues in the amino-terminal, middle, and carboxyl-terminal thirds of PAR1's cytoplasmic tail. When stably expressed in fibroblasts, all three mutated receptors were rapidly phosphorylated in response to agonist, while a mutant in which all serines and threonines in the cytoplasmic tail were converted to alanines was not. This result suggests that phosphorylation can occur at multiple sites in PAR1's cytoplasmic tail. Alanine substitutions in the N-terminal and C-terminal portions of the tail had no effect on either receptor shutoff or agonist-triggered internalization. By contrast, alanine substitutions in the "middle" serine cluster between Ser(391) and Ser(406) yielded a receptor with considerably slower shutoff of signaling after thrombin activation than the wild type. Surprisingly, this same mutant was indistinguishable from the wild type in agonist-triggered internalization and degradation. Overexpression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) and GRK3 "suppressed" the shutoff defect of the S --> A (391-406) mutant, consistent with this defect being due to altered receptor phosphorylation. These results suggest that specific phosphorylation sites are required for rapid receptor shutoff, but phosphorylation at multiple alternative sites is sufficient for agonist

  15. Studies on tail length of Rambouillet and Mouflon sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, M

    1977-01-01

    Data are presented on tail length of various breeds or crosses of sheep and various combinations of Mouflon X Rambouillet breeding. Mouflons sheep had 11 coccygeal vertebrae, and Rambouillet had 18-24. Others were intermediate between these types. Finewool sheep (Merino or Rambouillet) had longer tails than medium wool (Dorset, Suffolk or Hampshire), crossed, or Rambouillet breeds. Heritability estimates for tail length of Rambouillet were 0.387 (intra-sire regression), 0.344 (half-sib method), and 0.706 for inter se matings in a population containing some Mouflon breeding. In the Rambouillet breed, tail length was shown to be correlated with various measures of wool production. However, this relationship was low and only wool covering and staple length were significant. The significance of this to the development of long tails in animals under domestication is discussed.

  16. Growth and respiration of regenerating tissues of the axolotl tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, I G

    1975-01-01

    Changes in the weight and oxygen consumption were studied during regeneration of the tail in adult axolotls and larvae. The curve of the increase in weight of the regenerating tail in both age groups is S-shaped. The intensity of respiration of the regenerating tail increases in adult axolotls and in larvae at the blastema stage; in adult axolotls there is also a second increase in the intensity of respiration of the regenerating tail during differentiation of the muscles. The relationship between weight and the rate of respiration was compared during regeneration of the tail in axolotl and the normal growth of the animals. Whereas growth of the animals was characterized by the relationship QO2 equals aPk with a constant value of k, during regeneration the various stages of this process have their own corresponding values of k.

  17. Diagnostic analysis of electrodialysis in mine tailing materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Mateus, Eduardo;

    2007-01-01

    removal results of a soil sampled close to an abandoned cupric pyrite mine-mainly polluted with lead (around 3800ppm) are also presented. The results show that the heavy metals could be mobilized in all three contaminated solid materials using the electrodialytic process. The effect of adding different......Removal of heavy metals from mine tailings and soil contaminated by copper mining activities was studied under batch electrodialytic conditions. Two types of mine tailings were treated: (i) freshly produced tailings coming directly from the flotation process, and (ii) tailings deposited......%. However, water removed only 15% of Ph from the soil, and no Cu from the fresh tailings. The soil fractionation of the metals before and after the experiments was evaluated by sequential chemical extractions, in order to work further on the optimization of the remediation conditions....

  18. Radon emanation from backfilled mill tailings in underground uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Patitapaban; Mishra, Devi Prasad; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekananda; Patnaik, R Lokeswara; Sethy, Narendra Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Coarser mill tailings used as backfill to stabilize the stoped out areas in underground uranium mines is a potential source of radon contamination. This paper presents the quantitative assessment of radon emanation from the backfilled tailings in Jaduguda mine, India using a cylindrical accumulator. Some of the important parameters such as (226)Ra activity concentration, bulk density, bulk porosity, moisture content and radon emanation factor of the tailings affecting radon emanation were determined in the laboratory. The study revealed that the radon emanation rate of the tailings varied in the range of 0.12-7.03 Bq m(-2) s(-1) with geometric mean of 1.01 Bq m(-2) s(-1) and geometric standard deviation of 3.39. An increase in radon emanation rate was noticed up to a moisture saturation of 0.09 in the tailings, after which the emanation rate gradually started declining with saturation due to low diffusion coefficient of radon in the saturated tailings. Radon emanation factor of the tailings varied in the range of 0.08-0.23 with the mean value of 0.21. The emanation factor of the tailings with moisture saturation level over 0.09 was found to be about three times higher than that of the absolutely dry tailings. The empirical relationship obtained between (222)Rn emanation rate and (226)Ra activity concentration of the tailings indicated a significant positive linear correlation (r = 0.95, p radon emanation rate from the backfill material of similar nature.

  19. Star Clusters in the Tidal Tails of Interacting Galaxies: Cluster Populations Across a Variety of Tail Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Mullan, B; Kepley, A A; Lee, K H; Charlton, J C; Knierman, K; Bastian, N; Chandar, R; Durrell, P R; Elmegreen, D; English, J; Gallagher, S C; Gronwall, C; Hibbard, J E; Hunsberger, S; Johnson, K E; Maybhate, A; Palma, C; Trancho, G; Vacca, W D

    2011-01-01

    We have searched for compact stellar structures within 17 tidal tails in 13 different interacting galaxies using F606W- and F814W- band images from the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The sample of tidal tails includes a diverse population of optical properties, merging galaxy mass ratios, HI content, and ages. Combining our tail sample with Knierman et al. (2003), we find evidence of star clusters formed in situ with Mv < -8.5 and V-I < 2.0 in 10 of 23 tidal tails; we are able to identify cluster candidates to Mv = -6.5 in the closest tails. Three tails offer clear examples of "beads on a string" star formation morphology in V-I color maps. Two tails present both tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG) candidates and cluster candidates. Statistical diagnostics indicate that clusters in tidal tails may be drawn from the same power-law luminosity functions (with logarithmic slopes ~ -2 - -2.5) found in quiescent spiral galaxies and the interiors of interacting systems. We find...

  20. The ticking tail: daily oscillations in mRNA poly(A) tail length drive circadian cycles in protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotic, Ivana; Schibler, Ueli

    2012-12-15

    In this issue of Genes & Development, Kojima and colleagues (pp. 2724-2736) examined the impact of mRNA poly(A) tail length on circadian gene expression. Their study demonstrates how dynamic changes in transcript poly(A) tail length can lead to rhythmic protein expression, irrespective of whether mRNA accumulation is circadian or constitutive.

  1. Conformal mapping for multiple terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weimin; Ma, Wenying; Wang, Qiang; Ren, Hao

    2016-11-01

    Conformal mapping is an important mathematical tool that can be used to solve various physical and engineering problems in many fields, including electrostatics, fluid mechanics, classical mechanics, and transformation optics. It is an accurate and convenient way to solve problems involving two terminals. However, when faced with problems involving three or more terminals, which are more common in practical applications, existing conformal mapping methods apply assumptions or approximations. A general exact method does not exist for a structure with an arbitrary number of terminals. This study presents a conformal mapping method for multiple terminals. Through an accurate analysis of boundary conditions, additional terminals or boundaries are folded into the inner part of a mapped region. The method is applied to several typical situations, and the calculation process is described for two examples of an electrostatic actuator with three electrodes and of a light beam splitter with three ports. Compared with previously reported results, the solutions for the two examples based on our method are more precise and general. The proposed method is helpful in promoting the application of conformal mapping in analysis of practical problems.

  2. Nesting habitat relationships of sympatric Crested Caracaras, Red-tailed Hawks, and White-tailed Hawks in South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actkinson, M.A.; Kuvlesky, W.P.; Boal, C.W.; Brennan, L.A.; Hernandez, F.

    2007-01-01

    We quantified nesting-site habitats for sympatric White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus) (n = 40), Red-tailed Hawks (B. jamaicensis) (n = 39), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) (n = 24) in the Coastal Sand Plain of south Texas. White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracara nest sites occurred in savannas, whereas Red-tailed Hawk nest sites occurred in woodlands on the edge of savannas. White-tailed Hawk nest sites were in shrubs and trees that were shorter (3.5 ?? 1.0 m) and had smaller canopy diameters (5.5 ?? 2.1 m) than those of Red-tailed Hawks (10.1 ?? 2.0 m, 13.7 ?? 5.8 m) and Crested Caracaras (5.6 ?? 1.7 m, 8.5 ?? 3.5 m). Red-tailed Hawk nest sites had higher woody densities (15.7 ?? 9.6 plants) and more woody cover (84 ?? 19%) than those of White-tailed Hawks (5.6 ?? 5.8 plants, 20 ?? 21%) and Crested Caracaras (9.9 ?? 6.7 plants, 55 ?? 34%). Crested Caracara nest sites were in dense, multi-branched shrubs composed of more living material (97 ?? 3%) than those of White-tailed (88 ?? 18%) and Red-tailed hawks (88 ?? 18%). Nest sites of White-tailed Hawks, Red-tailed Hawks, and Crested Caracaras were similar to random samples from the surrounding habitat indicating that preferred nesting habitat was available for each of these species at least within 60 m of active nest sites. Nest tree height, along with woody plant and native grass cover best discriminated nest sites among the three raptor species. There was no overlap at Red-tailed and White-tailed hawk nest sites in vegetation structure, while Crested Caracara nests were in habitat intermediate between the two other species. Partitioning of nesting habitat may be how these raptor species co-exist at the broader landscape scale of our study area in the Coastal Sand Plain of Texas.

  3. A new system for regulated functional gene expression for gene therapy applications: nuclear delivery of a p16INK4A-estrogen receptor carboxy terminal fusion protein only in the presence of estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Tomohiro; Kanuma, Tatsuya; Nakazato, Tomoko; Faried, Leri S; Aoki, Hiroshi; Minegishi, Takashi

    2010-04-01

    The clinical use of gene therapy requires tight regulation of the gene of interest and functional expression only when it is needed. Thus, it is necessary to develop ways of regulating functional gene expression with exogenous stimuli. Many regulatable systems are currently under development. For example, the tetracycline-dependent transcriptional switch has been successfully employed for in vivo preclinical applications. However, there are no examples of regulatable systems that have been employed in human clinical trials. In the present study, we established an adenovirus-delivered functional gene expression system that is regulated by estrogen. This system uses p16INK4A fused at its C-terminus to the ligand-binding domain of the estrogen receptor (DeltaERalpha). We were able to establish cell lines expressing this gene wherein the functional expression of p16INK4A is estrogen-dependent and causes the arrest of several ovarian cancer cell lines. This inducible and adenovirus-mediated gene transfer system may allow gene therapy using nuclear functioning genes in postmenopausal or ovariectomized women.

  4. Digital autonomous terminal access communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novacki, S.

    1987-01-01

    A significant problem for the Bus Monitor Unit is to identify the source of a given transmission. This problem arises from the fact that the label which identifies the source of the transmission as it is put into the bus is intercepted by the Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communications (DATAC) terminal and removed from the transmission. Thus, a given subsystem will see only data associated with a label and never the identifying label itself. The Bus Monitor must identify the source of the transmission so as to be able to provide some type of error identification/location in the event that some problem with the data transmission occurs. Steps taken to alleviate this problem by modifications to the DATAC terminal are discussed.

  5. Termination of Nondeterministic Quantum Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yangjia; Ying, Mingsheng

    2012-01-01

    We define a language-independent model of nondeterministic quantum programs in which a quantum program consists of a finite set of quantum processes. These processes are represented by quantum Markov chains over the common state space. An execution of a nondeterministic quantum program is modeled by a sequence of actions of individual processes. These actions are described by super-operators on the state Hilbert space. At each step of an execution, a process is chosen nondeterministically to perform the next action. A characterization of reachable space and a characterization of diverging states of a nondeterministic quantum program are presented. We establish a zero-one law for termination probability of the states in the reachable space of a nondeterministic quantum program. A combination of these results leads to a necessary and sufficient condition for termination of nondeterministic quantum programs. Based on this condition, an algorithm is found for checking termination of nondeterministic quantum progr...

  6. 12 CFR 611.1220 - Termination resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination resolution. 611.1220 Section 611... Institution Status § 611.1220 Termination resolution. No more than 1 week before you submit your plan of termination to us, your board of directors must adopt a termination resolution stating its support...

  7. The impact of the human DNA topoisomerase II C-terminal domain on activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Meczes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type II DNA topoisomerases (topos are essential enzymes needed for the resolution of topological problems that occur during DNA metabolic processes. Topos carry out an ATP-dependent strand passage reaction whereby one double helix is passed through a transient break in another. Humans have two topoII isoforms, alpha and beta, which while enzymatically similar are differentially expressed and regulated, and are thought to have different cellular roles. The C-terminal domain (CTD of the enzyme has the most diversity, and has been implicated in regulation. We sought to investigate the impact of the CTD domain on activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We have investigated the role of the human topoII C-terminal domain by creating constructs encoding C-terminally truncated recombinant topoIIalpha and beta and topoIIalpha+beta-tail and topoIIbeta+alpha-tail chimeric proteins. We then investigated function in vivo in a yeast system, and in vitro in activity assays. We find that the C-terminal domain of human topoII isoforms is needed for in vivo function of the enzyme, but not needed for cleavage activity. C-terminally truncated enzymes had similar strand passage activity to full length enzymes, but the presence of the opposite C-terminal domain had a large effect, with the topoIIalpha-CTD increasing activity, and the topoIIbeta-CTD decreasing activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In vivo complementation data show that the topoIIalpha C-terminal domain is needed for growth, but the topoIIbeta isoform is able to support low levels of growth without a C-terminal domain. This may indicate that topoIIbeta has an additional localisation signal. In vitro data suggest that, while the lack of any C-terminal domain has little effect on activity, the presence of either the topoIIalpha or beta C-terminal domain can affect strand passage activity. Data indicates that the topoIIbeta-CTD may be a negative regulator. This is the first report of in vitro

  8. TAILS N-terminomic and proteomic datasets of healthy human dental pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Eckhard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Data described here provide the in depth proteomic assessment of the human dental pulp proteome and N-terminome (Eckhard et al., 2015 [1]. A total of 9 human dental pulps were processed and analyzed by the positional proteomics technique TAILS (Terminal Amine Isotopic Labeling of Substrates N-terminomics. 38 liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS datasets were collected and analyzed using four database search engines in combination with statistical downstream evaluation, to yield the by far largest proteomic and N-terminomic dataset of any dental tissue to date. The raw mass spectrometry data and the corresponding metadata have been deposited in ProteomeXchange with the PXD identifier ; Supplementary Tables described in this article are available via Mendeley Data (10.17632/555j3kk4sw.1.

  9. TAILS N-terminomic and proteomic datasets of healthy human dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhard, Ulrich; Marino, Giada; Abbey, Simon R; Matthew, Ian; Overall, Christopher M

    2015-12-01

    The Data described here provide the in depth proteomic assessment of the human dental pulp proteome and N-terminome (Eckhard et al., 2015) [1]. A total of 9 human dental pulps were processed and analyzed by the positional proteomics technique TAILS (Terminal Amine Isotopic Labeling of Substrates) N-terminomics. 38 liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) datasets were collected and analyzed using four database search engines in combination with statistical downstream evaluation, to yield the by far largest proteomic and N-terminomic dataset of any dental tissue to date. The raw mass spectrometry data and the corresponding metadata have been deposited in ProteomeXchange with the PXD identifier ; Supplementary Tables described in this article are available via Mendeley Data (10.17632/555j3kk4sw.1).

  10. Removal of half the sympathetic innervation does not reduce vasoconstrictor responses in rat tail artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripovic, Diana; McLachlan, Elspeth M; Brock, James A

    2013-06-01

    Following reinnervation of denervated rat tail arteries, nerve-evoked contractions are at least as large as those evoked in normally innervated arteries despite a much lower nerve terminal density. Here nerve-evoked contractions have been investigated after transection of half the sympathetic innervation of normal tail arteries. After 1 week, the noradrenergic plexus 50-70 mm along the tail was about half as dense as control. Excitatory junction potentials recorded in smooth muscle cells of arterial segments isolated in vitro were half their normal amplitude. Surprisingly, nerve-evoked contractions of isometrically mounted segments were not reduced in amplitude, as was also the case after only 3 days. After 1 week, enhancement of nerve-evoked contractions by blocking either neuronal re-uptake of noradrenaline with desmethylimipramine or prejunctional α2-adrenoceptors with idazoxan was similar to control, suggesting that these mechanisms are matched to the number of innervating axons. The relative contribution of postjunctional α2-adrenoceptors to contractions evoked by long trains of stimuli was enhanced but that of α1-adrenoceptors was unchanged. Transiently, sensitivity to the α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine was slightly increased. After 7 weeks, amplitudes of nerve-evoked contractions remained similar to control, and sensitivity to phenylephrine had recovered but that to the α2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine was slightly raised. The normal amplitude of nerve-evoked contractions after partial denervation is only partly explained by the greater contribution of α2-adrenoceptors. While the post-receptor mechanisms activated by nerve-released transmitter may be modified to amplify the contractions after partial denervation, our findings suggest that these mechanisms are normally saturated, at least in this artery.

  11. Operational Semantics of Termination Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1996-01-01

    In principle termination analysis is easy: find a well-founded ordering and prove that calls decrease with respect to the ordering. We show how to embed termination information into a polymorphic type system for an eager higher-order functional language allowing multiple-argument functions...... and algebraic data types. The well-founded orderings are defined by pattern matching against the definition of the algebraic data types. We prove that the analysis is semantically sound with respect to a big-step (or natural) operational semantics. We compare our approach based on operational semantics to one...

  12. Stream Productivity by Outermost Termination

    CERN Document Server

    Zantema, Hans; 10.4204/EPTCS.15.7

    2010-01-01

    Streams are infinite sequences over a given data type. A stream specification is a set of equations intended to define a stream. A core property is productivity: unfolding the equations produces the intended stream in the limit. In this paper we show that productivity is equivalent to termination with respect to the balanced outermost strategy of a TRS obtained by adding an additional rule. For specifications not involving branching symbols balancedness is obtained for free, by which tools for proving outermost termination can be used to prove productivity fully automatically.

  13. Combining norms to prove termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genaim, S.; Codish, M.; Gallagher, John Patrick;

    2002-01-01

    of deriving automatically a candidate norm with which to prove termination. Instead of deriving a single, complex norm function, it is sufficient to determine a collection of simpler norms, some combination of which, leads to a proof of termination. We propose that a collection of simple norms, one for each...... of the recursive data-types in the program, is often a suitable choice. We first demonstrate the power of combining norm functions and then the adequacy of combining norms based on regular types....

  14. Flotation tailings in West Germany: Treatment and utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, D. (Steinkohlenbergbauverein, Essen (Germany, F.R.). Dezernat fuer Aufbereitung); Wilczynski, P. (Bergbau A.G. Lippe, Herne (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Aufbereitung); Koehling, R. (Ruhrkohle A.G., Essen (Germany, F.R.)); Erdmann, W.; Schieder, T. (Bergbau-Forschung G.m.b.H., Essen (Germany, F.R.))

    1979-05-01

    Each year, about 2,5 million tonnes of flotation tailings are produced in Federal Germany and this will rise in the future. With the methods which have predominated until now for eliminating these tailings, notably dumping in ponds, total operation costs including the water losses amount to 9.26 DM/t (wf) when the tailings are thickened beforehand, and 18.67 DM/t (wf) without this thickening. Dewatering flotation tailings in filter frame presses is now an accepted technique. Residual moisture is lower than in all other methods but the costs are very high, 17.91 DM/t (wf). Solid-bowl centrifuges have also proved extremely useful for dewatering flotation tailings. In this case, costs amount to 10.19 DM/t (wf). The high retained moisture, however, can cause difficulties in transport and bunkering. The first attempts at dewatering flotation tailings in screen-belt presses have been promising. The press cale is easy to transport and handles well; costs here work out at 12.49 DM/t (wf). A new method of treating and utilising flotation tailings is fluidised bed combustion. Though costs here reach 34.09 DM/t (wf), the residual energy can be utilized, to give proceeds of as much as 36.74 DM/t (wf) and thus make an overall profit of 2.65 DM/t (wf). Moreover, the combustion waste has been used in the building materials industry.

  15. Merging Galaxies with Tidal Tails in COSMOS to z=1

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Z Z

    2016-01-01

    Tidal tails are created in major mergers involving disk galaxies. How the tidal tails trace the assembly history of massive galaxies remains to be explored. We identify a sample of 461 merging galaxies with long tidal tails from 35076 galaxies mass-complete at $M_\\star\\ge 10^{9.5}\\,M_{\\odot}$ and $0.2\\leq z\\leq1$ based on HST/ACS F814W imaging data and public catalogs of the COSMOS field. The long tails refer to these with length equal to or longer than the diameter of their host galaxies. The mergers with tidal tails are selected using our novel $A_{\\rm O}-D_{\\rm O}$ technique for strong asymmetric features together with visual examination. Our results show that the fraction of tidal-tailed mergers evolves mildly with redshift, as $\\sim (1+z)^{2.0\\pm0.4}$, and becomes relatively higher in less massive galaxies out to $z=1$. With a timescale of 0.5 Gyr for the tidal-tailed mergers, we obtain that the occurrence rate of such mergers follows $0.01\\pm 0.007\\,(1+z)^{2.3\\pm 1.4}$ Gyr$^{-1}$ and corresponds to $\\si...

  16. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities. PMID:27412267

  17. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Patel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities.

  18. Revegetation of Copper Mine Tailings with Ryegrass and Willow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Xiu-Zhen; ZHOU Dong-Mei; SI You-Bin

    2004-01-01

    To restore vegetation on metal mine tailings is very difficult because they often contain high concentrations of heavy metals, low nutrient content and low water retention capacity. This study involved 3 experiments that evaluated the effects of 4 treatment amendments: montmorillonite, rice straw, organic manure and chemical fertilizer on the growth of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and willow (Saliz viminalis L.) with Cu and Zn mine tailings from two mining areas. The results showed that ryegrass was the most tolerant of 4 crops to Cu toxicity. Also when organic manure, which contained high concentrations of inorganic salts, was added to the mine tailings, it significantly hindered ryegrass growth (P = 0.05).Meanwhile, with ryegrass organic manure significantly increased (P= 0.05) the extractable Cu concentration in both mine tailings. When montmorillonite was used as a mine tailings amendment with willow, the height and tress number at the 1st cut were significantly greater (P =- 0.05) than a control without montmorillonite. However there was no significant difference for height, tress number, dry weight or root dry weight at the 2nd cut. So, amendment applications to reduce metal toxicity and increase nutrients retention in mine tailings were essential during revegetation of mine tailings.

  19. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amir; Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily

    2016-08-15

    During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities.

  20. Cassini in Titan's tail: CAPS observations of plasma escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; Lewis, G. R.; Arridge, C. S.; Crary, F. J.; Young, D. T.; Thomsen, M. F.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Johnson, R. E.; Szego, K.; Bebesi, Z.; Jones, G. H.

    2012-05-01

    We present observations of CAPS electron and ion spectra during Titan distant tail crossings at 5,000-10,000 km altitude by the Cassini spacecraft. In common with closer tail encounters, we identify ionospheric plasma in the tail. Some of the electron spectra indicate a direct magnetic connection to Titan's dayside ionosphere due to the presence of ionospheric photoelectrons. Ion observations reveal heavy (m/q˜ 16 and 28) and light (m/q = 1-2) ion populations streaming into the tail. Using the distant tail encounters T9, T75 and T63, we estimate total plasma loss rates from Titan via this process of (4.2, 0.96 and 2.3) × 1024 ions s-1 respectively for the three encounters, values which are in agreement with some simulations but slightly lower than earlier estimates based on non-differential techniques. Using the mass-separated data, this corresponds to mass loss rates of (8.9, 1.6, 4.0) × 1025 amu s-1 for T9, T75 and T63 respectively, an average loss rate of ˜7 tonnes per Earth day. Remarkably, all of the tail encounters studied here indicate a split tail feature, indicating that this may be a common feature in Titan's interaction with Saturn's magnetosphere.