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Sample records for carbono pela cal

  1. Como evitar a formação de substâncias tóxicas durante a absorção de dióxido de carbono pela cal sodada com uso de anestésicos halogenados Como evitar la formación de substancias tóxicas durante la absorción de dióxido de carbono por la cal sodada con uso de anestésicos halogenados Preventing toxic substances production during carbon dioxide absorption by soda lime with halogenate anesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ângelo Saraiva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A cal sodada desde o início do seu uso sempre apresentou algumas complicações que resultaram em dificuldade na sua aplicabilidade. No entanto, devido as grandes vantagens que oferecia em relação a redução do fluxo de gases frescos, despoluição da sala de cirurgia e umidificação do sistema de inalação e via aérea, fizeram com que continuassem as pesquisas para que pudesse ser melhorada e corrigida de forma que a continuidade da sua utilização fosse assegurada. Atualmente existe o problema da desidratação com elevação da temperatura e da degradação metabólica dos anestésicos halogenados que necessitam de cuidados especiais para evitar a formação de produtos tóxicos. CONTEÚDO: Existe uma reação em cadeia a partir da cal sodada desidratada ou ressecada com baixos volumes percentuais de água. Há aumento da temperatura, maior absorção de anestésico halogenado para o interior do granulo de cal em seguida maior degradação metabólica das moléculas destes agentes e conseqüentemente a produção de substâncias tóxicas como o Composto A pela reação dos hidróxidos com o sevoflurano. Há também formação de monóxido de carbono produzido da mesma forma pela reação entre os halogenados e as bases fortes da cal. O composto A é nefrotóxico e o monóxido de carbono leva a hipóxia e alterações graves da coagulação do sangue. Além dos cuidados para a hidratação da cal sodada é possível usá-la sem conter as bases fortes como os hidróxidos de potássio e de sódio, contendo apenas hidróxido de cálcio para evitar excessivo aumento da temperatura e grande degradação metabólica dos halogenados sem prejudicar a absorção do dióxido de carbono. CONCLUSÕES: Deve-se ter o cuidado em usar a cal sodada mais recente possível e quando ela fica exposta ao meio ambiente (ar seco por muitas horas como por exemplo em um final de semana (mais de 48 horas é recomendável colocar

  2. Perdas de elementos nutritivos pela erosão: II - Elementos minerais e carbono Plant nutrient losses caused by erosion: II. Minerals and carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Grohmann

    1956-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho procurou-se conhecer as perdas por erosão, dos elementos minerais e carbono na terra-roxa-misturada, quando submetida a práticas agrícolas diversas. Com essa finalidade foram usados coletores de enxurrada, do tipo Geib. No material sólido arrastado pela erosão, como também na enxurrada, foram feitas análises químicas dos principais elementos minerais e carbono. Procurou-se, também, estudar as relações entre a quantidade de material arrastado e volume de enxurrada com a composição química desses mesmos materiais. Procurou-se verificar a influência das diversas práticas agrícolas na composição da enxurrada, bem como a influência do material sólido em suspensão, na composição química da enxurrada.The losses of mineral nutrients caused by erosion in plots submitted to different farming practices was studied. The runoff and transported soil were collected by means of a Geib measuring device and then analysed chemically. The results indicated that the amount of nutrients lost by erosion from the plots that received the various farming practices was not affected by the treatments, but were proportional to the total amount of transported soil and to the total volume of runoff. A greater amount of plant nutrients was lost in the form of transported soil than dissolved or suspended in the runoff. The concentration of nutrients in the runoff was not correlated to its volume, except for calcium. The analyses of samples of transported soil and runoff, collected after a few rains, allow a good estimate of the annual losses to be made.

  3. Cirrose experimental induzida pela inalação de tetracloreto de carbono: adaptação da técnica e avaliação da peroxidação lipídica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CREMONESE Ricardo Viégas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Racional - Administração a longo prazo de tetracloreto de carbono é modelo experimental para produzir fibrose hepática. O estresse oxidativo parece ser o mecanismo envolvido na hepatoxicidade por tetracloreto de carbono, onde as espécies ativas de oxigênio têm importante papel na patogênese da fibrose hepática. Objetivos - Avaliar a eficácia de um modelo experimental de cirrose hepática induzida pela inalação de tetracloreto de carbono em ratos, bem como avaliar a peroxidação lipídica e as características do líquido de ascite neste modelo. Material e Métodos - Inicialmente, acompanhou-se a evolução dos achados histológicos, através da técnica de hematoxilina e eosina, mediante o uso de tetracloreto de carbono inalatório ao longo das diferentes semanas (5ª, 7ª, 9ª, 12ª. Posteriormente, ao final da 15ª semana de estudo, os ratos, então divididos em três grupos (controle; controle + fenobarbital; e tetracloreto de carbono + fenobarbital, foram avaliados em sua histologia hepática, peroxidação lipídica e as características do líquido de ascite. Para as análises de peroxidação lipídica utilizaram-se as técnicas de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico e de quimiluminescência. No líquido de ascite avaliaram-se a citologia e a bacteriologia. Resultados - Observou-se entre a 12ª e 15ª semanas de inalação o estabelecimento de cirrose em 100% dos animais submetidos a inalação com tetracloreto de carbono, acompanhada de um aumento significante na peroxidação lipídica no fígado dos ratos inalados com tetracloreto de carbono. Evidenciou-se a presença de infecção do líquido de ascite em um dos sete casos nos quais esta estava presente. Conclusão - O método inalatório desenvolvido é eficaz na indução de cirrose hepática e formação de ascite, sendo o estresse oxidativo um dos principais mecanismos da indução de cirrose pelo tetracloreto de carbono.

  4. Cirrose experimental induzida pela inalação de tetracloreto de carbono: adaptação da técnica e avaliação da peroxidação lipídica Experimental cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride inhalation: technical modifications and lipoperoxidation effects

    OpenAIRE

    CREMONESE Ricardo Viégas; PEREIRA-FILHO Arthur Azambuja; MAGALHÃES Richard; Angelo Alves MATTOS; Marroni, Claudio Augusto; Zettler, Cláudio Galeano; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2001-01-01

    Racional - Administração a longo prazo de tetracloreto de carbono é modelo experimental para produzir fibrose hepática. O estresse oxidativo parece ser o mecanismo envolvido na hepatoxicidade por tetracloreto de carbono, onde as espécies ativas de oxigênio têm importante papel na patogênese da fibrose hepática. Objetivos - Avaliar a eficácia de um modelo experimental de cirrose hepática induzida pela inalação de tetracloreto de carbono em ratos, bem como avaliar a peroxidação lipídica e as ca...

  5. Disponibilidade de nitrogênio pela oxidação do carbono lábil com permanganato de potássio Availability of nitrogen by the oxidation of the labile carbon with potassium permanganate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celsemy E. Maia

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a liberação do nitrogênio associado ao carbono lábil oxidado com KMnO4 333 mmol L-1 e verificar a capacidade supridora de nitrogênio pela sua correlação com o nitrogênio absorvido pelas plantas. O solo utilizado foi proveniente de um experimento com milho em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, cultivado com milho desde 1984, cuja produtividade vem sendo avaliada em função das doses de 0 e 40 m³ ha-1 ano-1 de composto orgânico (palha de soja e feijão com esterco bovino combinadas com 0, 250 e 500 kg ha-1 ano-1 da fórmula 4-14-8 aplicados no plantio, e 0, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de sulfato de amônio em cobertura. Os resultados mostraram que o uso da matéria orgânica contribuiu para uma quantidade maior de nitrogênio solúvel em KMnO4 333 mmol L-1; o teor de nitrogênio solúvel em KMnO4 333 mmol L-1 foi superior ao obtido pelo método anaeróbico e se correlacionou significativamente com o carbono total, carbono lábil, nitrogênio total, teor de amônio e nitrato e com o nitrogênio biodisponível.The present work had the objective of evaluating the liberation of the nitrogen associated to the labile carbon oxidized with KMnO4 (333 mmol L-1 and to verify the supply capacity of nitrogen by its correlation with the nitrogen absorbed by the plants. The soil used belongs to a Cambic Yellow Red Podzol, cultivated with corn since 1984, and its productivity is being evaluated as a function of the doses of 0 and 40 m³ ha-1 year-1 of organic compost (beans and soybean straw with manure, combined with 0, 250 and 500 kg ha-1 year-1 of the formula 4-14-8 applied at planting and 0, 100 and 200 kg ha-1 year-1 of ammonium sulphate as top dressing. The results showed that the use of the organic material contributed to a higher amount of nitrogen soluble in KMnO4 (333 mmol L-1. The content of soluble nitrogen in KMnO4 (333 mmol L-1 was found to be superior than that obtained by the anaerobic method and

  6. CALS Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collin, Ib; Nielsen, Povl Holm; Larsen, Michael Holm

    1998-01-01

    To enhance the industrial applications of CALS, CALS Center Danmark has developed a cost efficient and transparent assessment, CALS Mapping, to uncover the potential of CALS - primarily dedicated to small and medium sized enterprises. The idea behind CALS Mapping is that the CALS State...... of the enterprise is compared with a Reference Enterprise Model (REM). The REM is a CALS idealised enterprise providing full product support throughout the extended enterprise and containing different manufacturing aspects, e.g. component industry, process industry, and one-piece production. This CALS idealised...... enterprise is, when applied in a given organisation modified with respect to the industry regarded, hence irrelevant measure parameters are eliminated to avoid redundancy. This assessment of CALS Mapping, quantify the CALS potential of an organisation with the purpose of providing decision support to the top...

  7. A AMAZONIA E O MERCADO DE CARBONO

    OpenAIRE

    Lamarca Junior, Mariano Rua; Chalita, Marie Anne Najm; Godoy, Amalia Maria Goldberg; Silva, Cesar Roberto Leite da

    2008-01-01

    A Amazônia tem um destacado papel na crise ambiental global uma vez que, no Brasil, há mais emissões de carbono por o desmatamento e queimadas do que pela queima de combustíveis de origem fóssil. Para discutir a problemática e a importância da inserção da Amazônia no mercado de carbono, parte-se dos processos de ocupação e uso dos recursos naturais da floresta e das contradições na formulação das políticas para a região. Com base nos conceitos de direitos de propriedade, direitos econômicos e...

  8. Estudo da substituição do couro pela pele de cortiça para aplicação em calçado - vestuário

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Ângela; Souto, A. Pedro

    2014-01-01

    No âmbito dos artigos de calçado/vestuário, verifica-se que o consumidor está cada vez mais exigente no que diz respeito ao bem-estar, conforto, funcionalidade e segurança. Ao longo das últimas décadas, este setor tem procurado encontrar novos materiais que vão ao encontro das necessidades dos consumidores. Para além das questões de proteção e design, as recentes exigências estão relacionadas com materiais que sejam amigos do ambiente e que permitam melhorar o conforto. Desta forma, foi estud...

  9. Introduktion til CALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkby, Phillip; Larsen, Michael Holm; Langer, Gilad;

    1997-01-01

    Denne rapport er udarbejdet af CALS Center Danmark og er en generel introduktion til CALS. Rapportenbeskriver indholdet i CALS ud fra fire synsvinkler: visionen i CALS, principper i CALS, det tekniske indhold,og organiseringen af CALS internationalt og i Danmark. Der redegøres for historien bag...... CALS, hvorfor der er behov for CALS og hvordan CALS standarderne ermed til at gøre information uafhængig af den teknologi, som benyttes. Forskellen mellem syntaktisk ogsemantisk standard defineres, og det beskrives, hvorledes CALS kan fungere som en "enabler" forrestrukturering af forretningsprocesser....... Endelig uddybes de videre perspektiver for CALS, hvordan CALSkan føre til nye dynamiske organisationsformer, som fungerer fuldstændig virtuelt på tværs af geografi og tid.Nye begreber som "Extended Enterprise", "Agile manufacturing" og "Virtuelle virksomheder" introduceres. Dokumentet afsluttes med...

  10. ${\\cal N}$ Goldstini

    CERN Document Server

    Cribiori, N; Farakos, F

    2016-01-01

    We study field theories with ${\\cal N}$ extended non-linearly realized supersymmetries, describing the couplings of models that contain ${\\cal N}$ goldstini. We review all the known formulations of the ${\\cal N}=1$ goldstino theories and we generalize them to an arbitrary number ${\\cal N}$ of non-linearly realized supersymmetries. We explicitly prove the equivalence of all these extended supersymmetry breaking models containing ${\\cal N}$ goldstini and reformulate the theory with ${\\cal N}$ supersymmetries in terms of standard ${\\cal N}=1$ constrained superfields.

  11. Rastreabilidade da farinha de carne e ossos bovinos em ovos de poedeiras comerciais pela técnica dos isótopos estáveis do carbono e nitrogênio Traceability of bovine meat and bones meal in eggs of commercial laying hens through carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Célia Denadai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo rastrear a inclusão de farinha de carne e ossos bovinos em dietas para poedeiras comerciais, por meio da análise dos ovos e de suas frações (gema e albúmen, pela técnica dos isótopos estáveis do carbono e nitrogênio e avaliar o índice analítico mínimo detectável. Foram utilizadas 240 galinhas poedeiras da linhagem Shaver White de 73 semanas de idade, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Foram avaliados cinco níveis de inclusão (0; 1,5; 3,0; 4,5 e 6,0% de farinha de carne e ossos bovinos em uma dieta à base de milho e farelo de soja. No 35º dia, foram tomados aleatoriamente 24 ovos por tratamento: 12 serviram para amostragem de gema e albúmen e os outros 12 para amostragem do ovo (gema + albúmen. Os resultados isotópicos foram submetidos à análise multivariada de variância e, a partir das matrizes de erro, com 95% de confiança, foram determinadas elipses para identificar as diferenças entre os resultados obtidos com o fornecimento das dietas experimentais e a dieta controle, sem farinha de carne e ossos bovinos. No ovo e na gema, a partir do par isotópico da dieta com 3,0% de farinha de carne e ossos, houve diferenciação do par do tratamento controle, enquanto, no albúmen, a diferenciação ocorreu a partir do nível de 1,5% de farinha de carne e ossos bovinos na dieta. Pela técnica dos isótopos estáveis, é possível rastrear o uso de farinha de carne e ossos bovinos na alimentação de poedeiras; no albúmen, o nível mínimo de inclusão detectável é de 1,5% e, no ovo e na gema, 3,0%.The objective of this study was to trace the inclusion of bovine meat and bones meal in diets of laying hens analyzing eggs and theirs fractions (yolk and albumen, by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes, as well as to evaluate the detectable analytical minimal index. Two hundred and forty (240 Shaver White laying hens aging 73 weeks were

  12. Consolidating BPR with CALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm; Leinsdorff, Torben; Madsen, Claus;

    1999-01-01

    the efficiency of the concept. However, limited directions are provided.This article suggests that Continuous Acquisition and Lifecycle Support (CALS) is a viable concept to complement and thus consolidate BPR. This is based on two hypotheses stating that CALS provides guidelines for applying IT to increase...

  13. Sensibilidade no diagnóstico da desnutrição protéico-calórica realizado pelas equipes de saúde por meio do SIAB e de busca ativa de casos The sensitivity of malnutrition diagnosis using the SIAB and active search of cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Monteiro Fiúza

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available É atribuição da Atenção Primária á Saúde e da Estratégia de Saúde da Família (ESF atuar na promoção e na manutenção do estado de saúde da população infantil por meio do atendimento e acompanhamento integrais. Para a atuação das equipes de saúde é fundamental a análise de saúde das populações cobertas. Para esse fim o Sistema de Informação da Atenção Básica (SIAB é instrumento de valor inestimável. O objetivo deste estudo foi demonstrar a sensibilidade no diagnóstico da desnutrição protéico-calórica realizado pelas equipes de Saúde da Família, quando são utilizados apenas dados primários como instrumentos de busca da adequação e posterior informação destes, via SIAB, e por meio da busca ativa de crianças de 0 a 23 meses e 29 dias e obtenção de seus dados antropométricos delas. Trata-se de estudo seccional, realizado no município de Patos de Minas (MG, de janeiro a abril de 2005. As prevalências de desnutrição protéico-calórica informadas no SIAB foram 2,35% e 2,5%, nas equipes A e B, respectivamente. As prevalências de desnutrição encontradas a partir da busca ativa, dos dados antropométricos e do cálculo dos índices peso-idade foram 14,12% e 13,75% nas equipes A e B, respectivamente. Essas foram superiores à prevalência descrita pela Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde, cuja prevalência foi 5,7%. As prevalências de desnutrição protéico-calórica com base no índice peso-idade, mediante exclusivamente a utilização do SIAB como fonte de dados, levam ao subdiagnóstico do problema. Tratando-se o SIAB de um sistema de informação “territorializado”, cujos dados possibilitam a construção de indicadores populacionais referentes a áreas de abrangência bem-delimitadas, propomos a avaliação crítica e constante desses dados.Both the Primary Care System and the Family Health Program are responsible for promoting and maintaining the health of the child population by

  14. O balanço de carbono da Amazônia brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Nobre, Carlos A.; Antônio D. Nobre

    2002-01-01

    GLOBALMENTE, a biota terrestre é um sumidouro significativo de dióxido de carbono (CO2) atmosférico. Estudos recentes do IPCC para a década de 1990 estimam a biota terrestre com sendo um sumidouro líquido de aproximadamente 1,4 gigatonelada de carbono por ano (assimilação líquida pela biota terrestre menos as emissões devidas às mudanças dos usos da terra). É provável que a maior parte desse suposto sumidouro aconteça nas florestas das latitudes médias e dos trópicos. Estudos do ciclo do carb...

  15. Parkinsonismo induzido pela flunarizina

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo N. Discher de Sá; Liana Miriam Miranda Heinisch

    1989-01-01

    Os autores estudaram 19 pacientes com parkinsonismo induzido pela flunarizina. A retirada da medicação levou ao desaparecimento dos sinais e sintomas em todos os casos em período de tempo que variou de 7 dias a 10 meses. Depressão foi observada em 68,5% da amostra.

  16. Acumulação de nitrogênio e carbono no solo pela adubação orgânica e mineral contínua na cultura do milho Nitrogen and carbon accumulation in soil through continuous organic and mineral fertilization of maize crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celsemy E. Maia

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, avaliou-se o efeito do uso contínuo das adubações orgânica e mineral na cultura do milho e sobre a acumulação e a disponibilidade do nitrogênio em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Estudou-se a produção de milho em função das doses de 0 e 40 m³ ha-1 ano-1 de composto orgânico (palhada de soja e feijão com esterco bovino, combinadas com 0, 250 e 500 kg ha-1 ano-1 da fórmula 4-14-8 aplicados no plantio, e 0, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de sulfato de amônio em cobertura. O uso contínuo da adubação orgânica aumentou a produtividade de milho com o efeito da adubação química sendo menos expressivo. Observou-se, ainda, aumento do C total. Com base nos resultados observados, pôde-se concluir que o uso contínuo da adubação orgânica proporcionou aumento na reserva (N total e na disponibilidade de N, sendo essas características pouco influenciadas pela adubação química.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of continuous use of the organic and mineral fertilization in maize crop and on the accumulation and availability of nitrogen in a Cambic Yellow Red Podzol. The maize yield was evaluated as a function of doses from 0 to 40 m³ ha-1 year-1 of the organic compost (beans and soybean straw with manure combined with 0, 250 and 500 kg ha-1 year-1 of the formula 4-14-8 applied at the planting time, and the application of 0, 100 and 200 kg ha-1 year-1 of ammonium sulphate. The plots consisted of eight furrows (8 m length 1.0 m apart from each other in a randomized experimental block design with four replications. The results showed that the continuous use of the organic fertilization increased maize productivity, whereas the chemical fertilization showed less expressive effects. Increases in both the total carbon and KMnO4- oxidized carbon were observed. The results also show that the continuous use of the organic fertilization provided an increase in total N reserve and availability of N, while the chemical

  17. Fond Memories of Cal Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Douglas L.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the author's personal involvement in the California Council for the Education of Teachers (Cal Council), beginning in 1960 and spanning four decades, which involved associations with key people in California teacher education and credentialing. The Cal Council was organized for leaders in teacher education from the…

  18. AMPLEX-SiCAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on an analog signal processor using commercial 3 μm CMOS technology which has been designed and produced for the silicon luminosity calorimeter SiCAL of the ALEPH experiment. This processor is a modified version of the AMPLEX integrated circuit designed for the inner silicon detector of the UA-2 experiment. The output voltage swing has been increased to more than 5.5 Volt as required for the large dynamic range of 1000 MIPs or 3.8 pC2. A fast analog summation, based on a neural network principle called follower aggregation, computes the average input charges for triggering purposes. The chip contains 16 channels, with a charge amplifier, shaper, track-and-hold stage, multiplexer, fast analog sum and a calibration system. The power consumption of the overall chip is 100 mW. The equivalent noise charge is less than 0.13MIP (0.5 fC rms) for a 50 pF detector capacitance, and the peaking time is about 250ns

  19. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  20. CalNex Observational Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Observations made during the 2010 CalNex measurement campaign. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Woody , M., K. Baker , P. Hayes, J....

  1. David Georgi's Cal Council Presidency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgi, David

    2015-01-01

    When the author was asked to write a mini-memoir about his time as Cal Council president, his first thought was "Now, when exactly was that?" He says that pretty much summarizes the quality of his memory these days. The author's first contact with the California Council on the Education of Teachers was back in the 1970s when the…

  2. O balanço de carbono da Amazônia brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Nobre

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available GLOBALMENTE, a biota terrestre é um sumidouro significativo de dióxido de carbono (CO2 atmosférico. Estudos recentes do IPCC para a década de 1990 estimam a biota terrestre com sendo um sumidouro líquido de aproximadamente 1,4 gigatonelada de carbono por ano (assimilação líquida pela biota terrestre menos as emissões devidas às mudanças dos usos da terra. É provável que a maior parte desse suposto sumidouro aconteça nas florestas das latitudes médias e dos trópicos. Estudos do ciclo do carbono do Experimento LBA estão mostrando que as florestas não-perturbadas da Amazônia comportam-se com um forte sumidouro de carbono, com taxas na faixa de 1 a 7 toneladas por hectare por ano, ao passo que as áreas inundadas e os rios podem estar agindo como fonte de carbono de até 1,2 tonelada por hectare por ano. O desmatamento e a queima de biomassa representam uma emissão líquida de aproximadamente 0,2 gigatonelada de carbono por ano na Amazônia brasileira. Ainda que se leve em conta as grandes incertezas existentes sobre essas medidas, o balanço das evidências observacionais aponta para a possibilidade de que as florestas tropicais da América do Sul estejam funcionando como sumidouros de carbono da atmosfera.GLOBALLY, the terrestrial biota acts as a significant carbon sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2. The most recent estimate from IPCC for the 1990's puts the terrestrial biota at a net sink of 1.4 gigaton of carbon per year (net carbon uptake by the biota minus emissions from land use changes. It is likely that most of this presumed sink takes place in mid-latitude and tropical forests. Carbon cycle studies in the LBA Experiment indicate that the undisturbed forest of Amazonia may be a strong sink of carbon, at rates from 1 to 7 tons per hectare per year, whereas the wetlands may act as a source of carbon into the atmosphere of up to 1.2 ton per hectare per year. Deforestation and biomass burning in Brazilian Amazonia

  3. Nanoestructuras de carbono con diferentes grupos funcionales

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilievna Kharissova, Oxana

    2013-01-01

    El carbono es uno de los elementos más interesantes en la Tabla Periódica. algunas de sus formas alotrópicas se conocen desde hace miles de años (diamante 3D y grafito 2D) y otras fueron descubiertas de entre 10 y 20 años atrás (fullerenos 0D y nanotubos 1D). Su nueva forma alotrópica, el grafeno 2D, fue descubierta en inglaterra por Geim & Novoselov en 2004 y actualmente es una estrella supernova en el horizonte de la ciencia de materiales y de la física de materia condensada. El grafeno...

  4. ALMACÉN DE CARBONO EN SISTEMAS AGROFORESTALES CON CAFÉ

    OpenAIRE

    William Espinoza-Domínguez; L. Krishnamurthy; Antonio Vázquez-Alarcón; Antonio Torres- Rivera

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio se realizó con el objetivo de estimar el almacén de carbono en sistemas agroforestales (SAF) con base en café en la región de Huatusco, zona de mayor producción de café (Coffea arabiga L.) en el estado de Veracruz, México, a fin de obtener información cuantitativa sobre el potencial de mitigación de carbono en los SAF de la región. Para ello, se estimaron los reservorios de carbono en biomasa vegetal y la materia orgánica edáfica existentes en sistemas agroforestales de ca...

  5. PRESUPUESTO DE CARBONO EN ARRECIFES CORALINOS DE MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Reyes Bonilla; Luis E. Calderón Aguilera; M. Cecilia Mozqueda Torres; Carriquiry, José D.

    2014-01-01

    El carbono, elemento omnipresente en los arrecifes coralinos, se halla predominantemente en forma de carbonato de calcio, ya que los esqueletos de muchas especies y la estructura física del ecosistema están formados por este compuesto. Los tejidos de los seres vivos del arrecife contienen carbono adquirido por la fotosíntesis y la heterotrofia, procesos que constituyen la red trófica del ecosistema. Este trabajo describe dichos procesos y los servicios ambientales que ofrecen los arrecifes co...

  6. Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) durch Berechnungsexperimente

    OpenAIRE

    Grob, Heinz Lothar (Ed.)

    1994-01-01

    Im Mittelpunkt von Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) steht der Arbeitsplatz eines Studierenden. Durch gezielte DV-Unterstützung soll der Studierende von Routinetätigkeiten entlastet und dazu ermuntert werden, sich vertieft auf theoretisches Neuland zu begeben. Das Spektrum der CAL-Varianten reicht dabei von einfachen Multiple-Choice-Programmen bis zu Multi-User-Produkten wie Planspielen. Realisierte Anwendungsgebiete aus dem wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Bereich sind beispielsweise Teile der P...

  7. NotCal04 - Comparison / Calibration 14C records 26-50 cal kBP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    der Plicht, J v; Beck, J; Bard, E; Baille, M

    2004-11-11

    The radiocarbon calibration curve, IntCal04, extends back to 26 cal kBP. While several high resolution records exist beyond this limit, these data sets exhibit discrepancies one to another of up to several millennia. As a result, no calibration curve for the time range 26-50 cal kBP can be recommended as yet, but in this paper the IntCal04 working group compares the available data sets and offers a discussion of the information that they hold.

  8. Developmental evolution of flowering plant pollen tube cell walls: callose synthase (CalS gene expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abercrombie Jason M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of innovations underlie the origin of rapid reproductive cycles in angiosperms. A critical early step involved the modification of an ancestrally short and slow-growing pollen tube for faster and longer distance transport of sperm to egg. Associated with this shift are the predominantly callose (1,3-β-glucan walls and septae (callose plugs of angiosperm pollen tubes. Callose synthesis is mediated by callose synthase (CalS. Of 12 CalS gene family members in Arabidopsis, only one (CalS5 has been directly linked to pollen tube callose. CalS5 orthologues are present in several monocot and eudicot genomes, but little is known about the evolutionary origin of CalS5 or what its ancestral function may have been. Results We investigated expression of CalS in pollen and pollen tubes of selected non-flowering seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms within lineages that diverged below the monocot/eudicot node. First, we determined the nearly full length coding sequence of a CalS5 orthologue from Cabomba caroliniana (CcCalS5 (Nymphaeales. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated low CcCalS5 expression within several vegetative tissues, but strong expression in mature pollen. CalS transcripts were detected in pollen tubes of several species within Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales, and comparative analyses with a phylogenetically diverse group of sequenced genomes indicated homology to CalS5. We also report in silico evidence of a putative CalS5 orthologue from Amborella. Among gymnosperms, CalS5 transcripts were recovered from germinating pollen of Gnetum and Ginkgo, but a novel CalS paralog was instead amplified from germinating pollen of Pinus taeda. Conclusion The finding that CalS5 is the predominant callose synthase in pollen tubes of both early-diverging and model system angiosperms is an indicator of the homology of their novel callosic pollen tube walls and callose plugs. The data suggest that CalS5 had transient expression

  9. Maximização do teor de carbono fixo em biocarvão aplicado ao sequestro de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra L. da Róz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOA emissão de dióxido de carbono é, atualmente, a principal causa do aquecimento global, devido ao efeito estufa. Ao redor do planeta pesquisadores têm-se esforçado na busca de soluções viáveis para o problema; com isto, o biocarvão está entre as mais recentes propostas de mitigação das mudanças climáticas em razão da sua simplicidade e eficiência. Desta forma, este trabalho teve, por objetivo, maximizar o teor de carbono fixo na produção de biocarvão. Para isso, analisaram-se sete tratamentos, temperaturas de pirólise: 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450 e 500 °C. A partir do rendimento gravimétrico de produção e do teor de carbono fixo calcularam-se os respectivos fatores de rendimento gravimétrico para cada tratamento, os quais indicam em qual temperatura se tem a maior quantidade de carbono fixo em função do biocarvão produzido. A pirólise com temperatura máxima de 300 °C indicou o maior fator de rendimento gravimétrico, atingindo 0,22672 C/biocarvão.

  10. A Simple Acronym for Doing Calculus: CAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    An acronym is presented that provides students a potentially useful, unifying view of the major topics covered in an elementary calculus sequence. The acronym (CAL) is based on viewing the calculus procedure for solving a calculus problem P* in three steps: (1) recognizing that the problem cannot be solved using simple (non-calculus) techniques;…

  11. CALS - What are the Potentials for SMEs ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne; Larsen, Michael holm; Langer, Gilad;

    1996-01-01

    is to demonstrate the potentials for improving business processes by effective information management. The three companies involved will demonstrate practical and innovative applications of CALS solutions, that will serve as examples for a wide variety of SMEs.The paper will focus on the industrial results...

  12. Modelos para la estimación del carbono en la biomasa de los sistemas forestales : influencia de la selvicultura en los socks de carbono

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Peinado Gertrudix, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Es ampliamente conocido y reconocido que los bosques tienen un papel fundamental en la mitigación del cambio climático. Funcionan como almacenes de carbono fijando el carbono que captan de la atmósfera en sus estructuras, conformando biomasa viva. El carbono de esta biomasa, una vez que esta muere, puede pasar de nuevo a la atmósfera o puede seguir almacenado durante años formando parte de productos forestales (madera, corcho, etc.) o en el suelo tras la descomposición de la materia orgánica....

  13. Key Factors Affecting Conceptual Gains from CAL Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Identifies key factors affecting conceptual gains from using a CAL (computer-assisted learning) package and their application to a college practical laboratory class. Considers students' biographical characteristics, design features of the CAL package, and the way that the CAL was integrated into the curriculum. (Author/LRW)

  14. Análise da quantidade produzida de CO2 pela bovinocultura no estado do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Giovanini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar a quantidade de gases causadores de efeito estufa emitidos anualmente pela bovinocultura no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A partir dos resultados, é analisada a viabilidade econômica, em termos de instalação de créditos de carbono, da instalação de biodigestores nas propriedades rurais, calculando-se a quantidade de toneladas medidas em unidades de gás carbônico, equivalentes por ano, que a adoção dessa tecnologia permitiria mitigar. Entre os resultados obtidos, tem-se que a instalação de biodigestores é viável apenas para propriedades que possuem mais de 20 animais, as quais representam 63% do rebanho bovino gaúcho, e a mitigação de 29.548,26ton equiv. CO2 ano.

  15. AVALIAÇÃO DA FORÇA DE RETENÇÃO DE COMPOSTOS ORGÂNICOS (COV EM NANOESTRUTURAS DE CARBONO “CUP STACKED”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Nagel Schirmer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Adsorventes carbonados estão entre as melhores opções na remoção de compostos orgânicos voláteis (COV de correntes gasosas,pela boa afinidade que apresentam com compostos dessa natureza, além de baixo custo e disponibilidade. O presente trabalhoavalia o desempenho do ciclo adsorção/dessorção de dois compostos orgânicos voláteis (fenol e tolueno em nanotubos de carbono(NTC comparativamente a um carbono grafitizado de aplicação tipicamente analítica (Carbotrap. As metodologias deamostragem e análise empregadas compreendem a coleta de gases por bombeamento (amostragem ativa em cartuchos (tubos,contendo o material adsorvente com posterior análise por cromatografia gasosa e espectrometria de massa (CG/EM, de acordocom o Método TO-17 da USEPA. Em relação ao desempenho dos adsorventes, o nanotubo obteve clara vantagem em relação aoCarbotrap, conseguindo reter mais adsorbato por massa de adsorvente. Além disso, não foi verificada interação diferenciada dofenol e tolueno com os dois adsorventes, tanto na etapa de adsorção quanto na de dessorção.

  16. Nonlinear waves in $\\cal PT$-symmetric systems

    CERN Document Server

    Konotop, Vladimir V; Zezyulin, Dmitry A

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress on nonlinear properties of parity-time ($\\cal PT$-) symmetric systems is comprehensively reviewed in this article. $\\cal PT$ symmetry started out in non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, where complex potentials obeying $\\cal PT$ symmetry could exhibit all-real spectra. This concept later spread out to optics, Bose-Einstein condensates, electronic circuits, and many other physical fields, where a judicious balancing of gain and loss constitutes a $\\cal PT$-symmetric system. The natural inclusion of nonlinearity into these $\\cal PT$ systems then gave rise to a wide array of new phenomena which have no counterparts in traditional dissipative systems. Examples include the existence of continuous families of nonlinear modes and integrals of motion, stabilization of nonlinear modes above $\\cal PT$-symmetry phase transition, symmetry breaking of nonlinear modes, distinctive soliton dynamics, and many others. In this article, nonlinear $\\cal PT$-symmetric systems arising from various physical disciplines ...

  17. Sistemas híbridos de polianilina y nanoestructuras de carbono para su aplicación en músculos artificiales y supercondensadores

    OpenAIRE

    García Gallegos, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    La presente tesis es el resultado del estudio de la síntesis de compuestos de polianilina (PAni) con nanoestructuras de carbono para su aplicación en músculos artificiales y electrodos de supercondensadores. Las nanoestructuras que se emplearon en los compuestos de PAni son nanotubos de carbono multicapa (MWCNT), nanotubos de carbono multicapa dopados con nitrógeno (CNx-MWCNT), nanotubos de carbono multicapa funcionalizados con grupos oxigenados (COx-MWCNT) nanotubos de carbono multicapa exfo...

  18. 2006 National Caring Awards. Cal Ripken Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    You can tell a lot about baseball legend Cal Ripken from his office in Baltimore. It's full of mahogany furniture that bespeaks his new role as businessman and philanthropist. Books are piled on the windowsill. Above the sofa are two pictures, one of the All-Century players--he and Ernie Banks are the only shortstops--and another of himself in 1995 after he broke Lou Gehrig's record for consecutive games played. Looming above it all is a huge pencil drawing of Mr. Ripken's dad, the person who shaped him as a player and a man. PMID:17153680

  19. DOSAR/CalLab Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogard, J.S.

    2000-03-01

    The Life Sciences Division (LSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a long record of radiation dosimetry research, primarily using the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) and the Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) Program Calibration Laboratory (CalLab), referred to formerly as the Radiation Calibration Laboratory. These facilities have been used by a broad segment of the research community to perform a variety of experiments in areas including, but not limited to, radiobiology, radiation dosimeter and instrumentation development and calibration, and the testing of materials in a variety of radiation environments.

  20. Resistência à corrosão de pós metálicos em concretos refratários contendo elevado teor de carbono Corrosion resistance of metal powders in high-carbon containing castables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Domiciano

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Os benefícios proporcionados pela adição de carbono em concretos refratários têm ampliado a utilização destes materiais em aplicações siderúrgicas. Contudo, um dos problemas que ainda limita o emprego de concretos refratários contendo elevado teor de carbono é a corrosão de pós metálicos comumente empregados para conter a oxidação do carbono a altas temperaturas. Estudos preliminares mostraram que a corrosão das partículas metálicas é diretamente afetada pelas condições alcalinas promovidas pela presença de cimento. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da temperatura e a influência de diferentes agentes ligantes sobre a resistência à corrosão de pós metálicos (Al e Si em água e em concretos refratários contendo elevado teor de carbono. Para isso, foi empregada uma técnica capaz de detectar a liberação de gás H2 como produto da reação de corrosão dos metais. Os resultados obtidos revelaram a possibilidade de aplicação dos pós metálicos em concreto refratário através da escolha de um ligante apropriado.The benefits promoted by carbon addition in refractory castables have led to an increase in the use of such materials in the steel making industry. Nevertheless, one of the problems that still hinder the use of high-carbon-containing castables is the corrosion of metal powders commonly used to prevent carbon oxidation at high temperatures. Preliminary studies have pointed out that the metal powders corrosion within the castables is affected by the aggressive alkaline conditions promoted by cement hydration. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of temperature as well as the influence of different binders on the corrosion resistance of Al and Si powders in water and in high-carbon containing castables. A technique able to detect the H2-gas release was used to identify the metal powders corrosion. The results revealed the possibility of applying Al or Si powders in these

  1. Scheduling of CAL actor networks based on dynamic code analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Boutellier, Jani; Silven, Olli; Raulet, Mickaël

    2011-01-01

    International audience CAL is a dataflow oriented language for writing high-level specifications of signal processing applications. The language has recently been standardized and selected for the new MPEG Reconfigurable Video Coding standard. Application specifications written in CAL can be transformed into executable implementations through development tools. Unfortunately, the present tools provide no way to schedule the CAL entities efficiently at run-time. This paper proposes an autom...

  2. El lago Chinchaycocha en el mercado de bonos de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Bulege Gutiérrez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El cambio climático como fenómeno global preocupa a todo el mundo y se manifiesta en lo cotidiano a través de diversos desórdenes del clima. El Panel Intergubernamental de Cambio Climático (IPCC, en su cuarto informe de evaluación presentado el 2007, y la Organización Mundial de Meteorología (OMM han establecido que desde el 2001 la temperatura media global en el planeta registra el nivel de aumento más alto de nuestra historia. A este ritmo, y por lo difícil que resulta encontrar una solución aun en el mediano plazo, todo indica que el 2013 no será la excepción. Las causas del cambio climático son atribuidas a factores naturales pero también antropogénicos; existe ya consenso respecto a la influencia de los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI, sobre todo el dióxido de carbono (CO2 en este proceso acelerado de calentamiento del planeta. Esta crisis del clima, como una forma de ser enfrentada, hoy está obligando a los países a promover proyectos que reduzcan las emisiones de GEI y permitan el almacenamiento de carbono. Uno de los mecanismos internacionales establecidos para concretar este objetivo son los bonos de carbono, iniciativa dispuesta por el Protocolo de Kioto, acuerdo jurídicamente vinculante firmado en 1997 y en vigor desde el 2005. Expiró el año pasado, pero la histórica Conferencia de Doha, Catar, decidió en diciembre último prorrogar la vigencia del tratado hasta el 2020. El protocolo, en su primera fase, exige a las grandes potencias reducir durante el período 2008-2012 la emisión de gases en un 5,2% por debajo del nivel de 1990. Lo interesante es que las empresas de tales potencias, para cumplir esta obligación, pueden hacerlo en cualquier lugar o comprar bonos de carbono de países que superen las metas exigidas. La emisión de estos bonos es, después de todo, una iniciativa de descontaminación, que permite que los países industrializados sigan con sus prácticas contaminantes, en tanto

  3. Cal Council at Seventy: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, James S.

    2015-01-01

    James Cantor, a professor in the College of Education at California State University, describes his history with the California Council on Teacher Education (CCTE or Cal Council) before becoming the President of the CCTE in 2008. He served as an active member for 10 years prior to becoming the Cal Council President. The author shares the…

  4. Engineering Students' Use of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huczynski, Andrzej; Johnston, Scott Paul

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the use of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) by undergraduate engineering students studying a business and management course. Discussing both the relationship between management and engineering and CAL applied to engineering education, this study is based on a survey of 82 undergraduates and adopts a quantitative research…

  5. An Interaction of Screen Colour and Lesson Task in CAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clariana, Roy B.

    2004-01-01

    Colour is a common feature in computer-aided learning (CAL), though the instructional effects of screen colour are not well understood. This investigation considers the effects of different CAL study tasks with feedback on posttest performance and on posttest memory of the lesson colour scheme. Graduate students (n=68) completed a computer-based…

  6. Finished Genome Sequence of Collimonas arenae Cal35

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Je-Jia; de Jager, Victor; Deng, Wen-ling; Leveau, Johan

    2015-01-01

    We announce the finished genome sequence of soil forest isolate Collimonas arenae Cal35, which comprises a 5.6-Mbp chromosome and 41-kb plasmid. The Cal35 genome is the second one published for the bacterial genus Collimonas and represents the first opportunity for high-resolution comparison of geno

  7. Proposta de um modelo de geração de valor para as empresas distribuidoras de gás natural canalizado em uma economia de baixo carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mario Rodrigues Marques

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Os combustíveis fósseis são considerados os principais responsáveis pelo aumento das emissões de gases de efeito estufa. Portanto, os negócios relacionados às fontes de energia de origem fóssil são, em princípio, incompatíveis em uma economia de baixo carbono. Essa visão pressupõe uma homogeneização dos combustíveis fósseis, todavia o gás natural é bem menos poluente, quando comparado com o carvão e o petróleo. Concomitantemente, o Brasil encontra-se em uma posição favorecida com relação à oferta de gás natural face às descobertas do pré-sal. Este estudo posiciona o gás natural como insumo de convergência entre oferta de energia e crescimento econômico sustentável, podendo constituir-se em fonte de energia adequada para a transição brasileira para uma economia de baixo carbono. O presente estudo propõe um modelo corporativo que auxilie aos gestores das empresas de distribuição de gás natural canalizado no Brasil a administrar as empresas de maneira sustentável, e, ao mesmo tempo, gerar valor para o acionista. O modelo caracteriza-se por enfatizar os riscos a serem enfrentados e as oportunidades a serem exploradas pelas empresas em um ambiente de baixo carbono. Está baseado nos pilares de liderança, comunicação, inovação, métricas e mensuração de resultados voltados para a sustentabilidade, apoiando-se em um sistema de governança corporativa comprometida com a administração do negócio em uma economia menos carbono intensiva. A adoção do modelo deve contribuir para o engajamento da gestão das empresas em um contexto econômico de baixo carbono, auxiliando seus gestores no enfrentamento dos riscos e superação dos desafios da sustentabilidade ambiental, ao mesmo tempo atendendo às exigências dos stakeholders em relação aos cuidados com o meio ambiente e gerando valor para os acionistas.

  8. Proposta de um modelo de geração de valor para as empresas distribuidoras de gás natural canalizado em uma economia de baixo carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mario Rodrigues Marques

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Os combustíveis fósseis são considerados os principais responsáveis pelo aumento das emissões de gases de efeito estufa. Portanto, os negócios relacionados às fontes de energia de origem fóssil são, em princípio, incompatíveis em uma economia de baixo carbono. Essa visão pressupõe uma homogeneização dos combustíveis fósseis, todavia o gás natural é bem menos poluente, quando comparado com o carvão e o petróleo. Concomitantemente, o Brasil encontra-se em uma posição favorecida com relação à oferta de gás natural face às descobertas do pré-sal. Este estudo posiciona o gás natural como insumo de convergência entre oferta de energia e crescimento econômico sustentável, podendo constituir-se em fonte de energia adequada para a transição brasileira para uma economia de baixo carbono.  O presente estudo propõe um modelo corporativo que auxilie aos gestores das empresas de distribuição de gás natural canalizado no Brasil a administrar as empresas de maneira sustentável, e, ao mesmo tempo, gerar valor para o acionista. O modelo caracteriza-se por enfatizar os riscos a serem enfrentados e as oportunidades a serem exploradas pelas empresas em um ambiente de baixo carbono. Está baseado nos pilares de liderança, comunicação, inovação, métricas e mensuração de resultados voltados para a sustentabilidade, apoiando-se em um sistema de governança corporativa comprometida com a administração do negócio em uma economia menos carbono intensiva. A adoção do modelo deve contribuir para o engajamento da gestão das empresas em um contexto econômico de baixo carbono, auxiliando seus gestores no enfrentamento dos riscos e superação dos desafios da sustentabilidade ambiental, ao mesmo tempo atendendo às exigências dos stakeholders em relação aos cuidados com o meio ambiente e gerando valor para os acionistas.

  9. Minimal $\\cal N=4$ topologically massive supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzenko, Sergei M; Sachs, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Using the superconformal framework, we construct a new off-shell model for topologically massive $\\cal N=4$ supergravity which is minimal in the sense that it makes use of a single compensating vector multiplet. Our theory provides a counterexample to the common lore that two compensating multiplets are required within the conformal approach to supergravity with eight supercharges in diverse dimensions. All solutions in this theory correspond to non-conformally flat superspaces. Its maximally supersymmetric solutions include the so-called critical (4,0) anti-de Sitter superspace introduced in arXiv:1205.4622. Other maximally supersymmetric solutions describe warped critical (4,0) anti-de Sitter superspaces. We also propose a dual formulation for the theory in which the vector multiplet is replaced with an off-shell hypermultiplet. Upon elimination of the auxiliary fields belonging to the hypermultiplet and imposing certain gauge conditions, the dual action reduces to the one introduced in arXiv:1605.00103.

  10. CALS - what are the potentials for SME’s ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne; Thomsen, Finn Tang; Larsen, Michael Holm;

    1997-01-01

    the potentials for improvingbusiness processes by effective information management. The threecompanies involved will demonstrate practical and innovativeapplications of CALS solutions, that will serve as examples for awide variety of SMEs. The paper will focus on the industrial results and the CALSengineering......The DanishCALS Center initiative, aims at making CALS operational in Danish industry. The centerconsists of three Danish companies, Bang & Olufsen, Odense Steel Shipyard, Nilfiskbesides from the Technical University of Denmark and the Danish Technological Institute.The objective is to demonstrate...

  11. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SD to SI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring...

  12. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SB to SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring...

  13. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names C to CE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring...

  14. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CI to CO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring...

  15. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI)Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains icthyoplankton data collected as part of the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) program and other cruises...

  16. Crecimiento de nanotubos de carbono sobre materiales de uso convencional en ingeniería

    OpenAIRE

    García Ruiz, Máximo

    2012-01-01

    Los nanotubos de carbono son una forma alotrópica del carbono, como el diamante o el grafito, que, debido a sus propiedades físicas, mecánicas y eléctricas están generando un gran interés de investigación en los últimos años. Típicamente, éstos son formados a partir de precursores tales como el monóxido de carbono, metano, acetileno, tolueno, alcohol, etc. En este proyecto se utilizó tolueno para la síntesis, empleando ferroceno como catalizador. El método utilizado para llevarlo a cabo, fue ...

  17. Accelerating universe in $f({\\cal R})$ brane gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Atazadeh, K.; Farhoudi, M.; Sepangi, H. R.

    2008-01-01

    We study a 5-dimensional $f({\\cal R})$ brane gravity within the framework of scalar-tensor type theories. We show that such a model predicts, for a certain choice of $f({\\cal R})$ and a spatially flat universe, an exponential potential, leading to an accelerated expanding universe driven solely by the curvature of the bulk space. This result is consistent with the observational data in the cosmological scale.

  18. Building the 'JMMC Stellar Diameters Catalog' using SearchCal

    OpenAIRE

    Lafrasse, Sylvain; Mella, Guillaume; Bonneau, Daniel; Duvert, Gilles; Delfosse, Xavier; Chesneau, Olivier; Chelli, Alain

    2010-01-01

    11 pages, to be published in SPIE'2010 conference on "Optical and Infrared Interferometry II" The JMMC Calibrator Workgroup has long developed methods to ascertain the angular diameter of stars, and provides this expertise in the SearchCal software. SearchCal dynamically finds calibrators near science objects by querying CDS hosted catalogs according to observational parameters. Initially limited to bright objects (K magnitude ≤ 5.5), it has been upgraded with a new method providing calibr...

  19. La huella de carbono de la Universidad de Córdoba. 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Toro Jordano, Ana de; Gomera Martínez, Antonio; Aguilar Moreno, José Emilio; Guijarro Jiménez, Clara; Antúnez López, Miguel; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    La huella de carbono es un término usado para describir la cantidad de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) que son liberados a la atmósfera directa o indirectamente como consecuencia de una actividad determinada, bien sea la fabricación de un producto, la prestación de un servicio, o el funcionamiento de una organización. Con el concepto huella de carbono de una organización se pretende describir el impacto total que una organización tiene sobre el clima en relación a las e...

  20. IntCal13 and Marine13 Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curves 0–50,000 Years cal BP

    OpenAIRE

    Bard, Edouard; Bayliss, Alex; Beck, J. Warren; Blackwell, Paul G.; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Caitlin E. Buck; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Friedrich, Michael; Grootes, Pieter M; Guilderson, Thomas P; Haflidason, Haflidi; Hajdas, Irka; Hatté, Christine; Heaton, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    The IntCal09 and Marine09 radiocarbon calibration curves have been revised utilizing newly available and updated data sets from C-14 measurements on tree rings, plant macrofossils, speleothems, corals, and foraminifera. The calibration curves were derived from the data using the random walk model (RWM) used to generate IntCal09 and Marine09, which has been revised to account for additional uncertainties and error structures. The new curves were ratified at the 21st International Radiocarbon c...

  1. OS ENFRENTAMENTOS EM BUSCA PELA INTERDISCIPLINARIDADE ESCOLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Girão de Albuquerque

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to review the literature on the term interdisciplinarity, from the perspective of great researchers of the subject and show the main hurdles in the quest for interdisciplinarity school. The terminterdisciplinarity comes from the expression discipline, then the understanding of interdisciplinarity is necessary to explain the discipline. The positivist principle is guiding the division of knowledge in specific areas in order topromote a greater depth in a more restricted area of knowledge, so the term discipline in the epistemological fieldor in the educational field, represents an imposition of limits of performance, methodologies own, languages,among others. These limits fragment knowledge and reality which makes a more global and totalitarian reality. In literature the term interdisciplinarity has no single definition, but it seems a consensus among many authors asMorin, Fazenda, Pombo, Lenoir among others, that interdisciplinarity is presented as an alternative in thefragmentation of knowledge and interdisciplinary projects do not pass between the extinction disciplines, but the search for reconnection between the knowledge contained in each knowledge area, revitalizing the intersectionsand interrelationships between them, either through an interdisciplinary approach as advocated by Fazenda or theway of thinking as advocated Morin.O presente artigo se propõe a fazer uma revisão da literatura, acerca do termo interdisciplinaridade, à luz de grandes estudiosos do tema e mostrar os principais obstáculos na busca pela interdisciplinaridade escolar. O termo interdisciplinaridade apresenta como núcleo central a expressão disciplina, logo a compreensão de interdisciplinaridade passa necessariamente pelo entendimento de disciplina. O princípio positivista se norteia na divisão do conhecimento em áreas específicas, a fim de promover uma profundidade maior em uma área mais restrita do conhecimento, assim o termo disciplina

  2. Adaptações de plantas submersas à absorção do carbono inorgânico Adaptations of submerged plants to inorganic carbon uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Andréa Pierini

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são discutidos alguns aspectos teóricos dos mecanismos e adaptações empregados pela vegetação submersa para maximizar o aproveitamento do carbono inorgânico na água. O tipo de estratégia utilizada pelas macrófitas aquáticas submersas deve-se a diferenças genéticas entre as espécies e também às condições ambientais predominantes. Vários mecanismos fisiológicos e morfológicos, como a utilização do metabolismo C4, do ácido das crassuláceas (CAM, a utilização do bicarbonato (HCO3-, a utilização do CO2 da água intersticial do sedimento e o desenvolvimento de folhas aéreas foram considerados as principais adaptações para evitar a limitação do carbono no ambiente aquático. De relevância ecológica, a utilização destas diferentes estratégias pode compensar baixas ofertas de CO2 às taxas fotossintéticas de várias espécies submersas e suprimir a fotorrespiração por garantir altas concentrações intracelulares de CO2. Assim, estes mecanismos são responsáveis, em parte, pelo sucesso das macrófitas aquáticas submersas em ambientes oligotróficos, com baixas concentrações de CO2.In this paper, the main theoretical aspects of the mechanisms and adaptations used by submerged vegetation to maximize the utilization of inorganic carbon are discussed. The type of strategy used by submerged plants is related to both genetic differences among species and environmental conditions. The use of C4 metabolism and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM, uptake of bicarbonate (HCO3-, uptake of CO2 from interstitial (sediment water and the development of aerial leaves are considered the main physiological and morphological adaptations to avoid CO2 limitation. These mechanisms are ecologically important given that their utilization overcome the low CO2 availability to several submerged species. In addition, they suppress the photorespiration by increasing the intracellular CO2 concentrations. Thus, these

  3. Avaliação epidemiológica dos pacientes vítimas de queimadura ocular pelo agente químico cal no Serviço de Oftalmologia do Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba Epidemiological assessment at the Ophthalmology Departament of the Evangelic University Hospital of Curitiba of patients victims of ocular lime burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Guerra Daros Castellano

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes vítimas de queimadura ocular pelo agente químico cal, no Serviço de Oftalmologia do Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba, enfatizando-se os casos de queimaduras oculares pela "Bomba de Cal". Métodos: Estudo prospectivo de 88 pacientes com queimadura ocular pela cal (cal sem explosão ou bomba de cal, que procuraram o serviço de Pronto Atendimento do referido hospital no período de setembro de 1999 a setembro de 2000. Resultados: Dos 88 pacientes avaliados 73 (82,95% foram vítimas de queimadura ocular pela cal no ambiente de trabalho e 15 (17,24% foram vítimas da "Bomba de Cal" (brincadeira regional. A maioria dos pacientes examinados foi do sexo masculino, com faixa etária entre 20 e 40 anos, com predomínio de queimadura ocular unilateral e grau I quando vítimas de acidente de trabalho e bilateral e grau IV quando a queimadura foi resultante da "Bomba de Cal". Conclusão: Comparando-se os grupos estudados observou-se que o grupo vítima de queimadura ocular pela "Bomba de Cal" apresentou maior agravo à saúde ocular demonstrado, neste estudo, pela bilateralidade, gravidade das lesões e idade mais precoce de acometimento dos pacientes.Purpose: The assessment of the epidemiological profile of patients victims of lime ocular burns, by the Ophthalmology Department of the Evangelic University Hospital of Curitiba, with emphasis on "Lime Bomb" burn cases. Methods: A study on 88 ocular lime burn patients (lime bomb or not, who came to the HUEC Emergency Service from September 1999 to September 2000. Results: Of 88 patients that were evaluated, 73 (82.95% had suffered ocular lime burn in their working place and 15 (17.24% had suffered it due to the `Lime Bomb" itself (local custom. Most of the patients that were examined were males, aged 20-40 years, with predominance of unilateral ocular burn and degree I in case of accident at the workplace, and bilateral and degree IV in

  4. Heterogeneidade entre Leitores Julgados Competentes pelas Professoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro Ângela Maria Vieira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho de leitura de um grupo de crianças de quarta série, julgadas pela professora como leitoras com desenvolvimento normal, foi investigado. Uma medida de desempenho deficiente/competente - baixos níveis de erros e tempos de reação rápidos para as respostas corretas para a leitura em voz alta de palavras reais (variando em familiaridade, regularidade e comprimento e não-palaras (com a mesma estrutura ortográfica das palavras reais e variando em comprimento - foi obtida com o objetivo de estabelecer uma definição de desempenho eficiente de leitura que, por sua vez, serviu de base para a identificação de deficiências, em crianças do mesmo grupo, cujos resultados situaram-se fora da amplitude estabelecida como normal. Dentre esses participantes houve um exemplo de dislexia fonológica e vários casos apresentando danos que afetaram ambos os processos, lexical e fonológico, com uma tendência para o padrão fonológico. A discrepância entre a avaliação da professora e a avaliação cognitiva de leitura conduzida é discutida.

  5. The Column Density Variance-{\\cal M}_s Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A.

    2012-08-01

    Although there is a wealth of column density tracers for both the molecular and diffuse interstellar medium, there are few observational studies investigating the relationship between the density variance (σ2) and the sonic Mach number ({\\cal M}_s). This is in part due to the fact that the σ2-{\\cal M}_s relationship is derived, via MHD simulations, for the three-dimensional (3D) density variance only, which is not a direct observable. We investigate the utility of a 2D column density \\sigma _{\\Sigma /\\Sigma _0}^2-{\\cal M}_s relationship using solenoidally driven isothermal MHD simulations and find that the best fit follows closely the form of the 3D density \\sigma _{\\rho /\\rho _0}^2-{\\cal M}_s trend but includes a scaling parameter A such that \\sigma _{\\ln (\\Sigma /\\Sigma _0)}^2=A\\times \\ln (1+b^2{\\cal M}_s^2), where A = 0.11 and b = 1/3. This relation is consistent with the observational data reported for the Taurus and IC 5146 molecular clouds with b = 0.5 and A = 0.16, and b = 0.5 and A = 0.12, respectively. These results open up the possibility of using the 2D column density values of σ2 for investigations of the relation between the sonic Mach number and the probability distribution function (PDF) variance in addition to existing PDF sonic Mach number relations.

  6. Obtenção e caracterização de carbono ativado a partir de resíduos provenientes de bandas de rodagem Preparation and characterization of activated carbons from thread of tire waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene T. S. Garcia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi investigada a preparação de carbonos ativados através da pirólise de composições elastoméricas provenientes de resíduos de bandas de rodagem de pneus de automóveis. O material foi processado nas temperaturas de 500, 620 e 700 °C, em atmosfera de N2, utilizando-se o hidróxido de potássio como agente ativador. Os produtos resultantes foram caracterizados pela fisisorção de N2 a 77 K, através de isotermas de Brunauer, Emmet e Teller e por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Esses carbonos ativados apresentam estruturas típicas de sólidos mesoporosos e a temperatura de pirólise tem grande influência na área específica e distribuição de volume de poros. O carbono ativado obtido a 700 °C apresentou maior área específica e estrutura porosa compacta. Esse material apresenta melhor desempenho frente à adsorção de azul de metileno, removendo até 1,0 x 10-1 g de corante por grama de carbono utilizado, em tempos inferiores a 300 s.In this work, the preparation of activated carbons through the pyrolysis of elastomers, arising from car threads of tire waste, was investigated. The material was processed at 500, 620 and 700 °C, under N2 atmosphere, by using potassium hydroxide as activating agent. The resulting products were characterized by physisorption of N2 at 77 K, through Brunauer, Emmet and Teller isotherms, and scanning electron microscopy. The carbons obtained display a characteristic structure of mesoporous materials and the pyrolysis temperature has strong influence on the specific area and porous volume distribution. The activated carbon obtained at 700 °C has high specific area and compact structure. It exhibited high performance for adsorption of methylene blue solution, removing 1.1 x 10-1 g of the dye per gram of carbon in less than 300 s.

  7. Sensores baseados em nanotubos de carbono funcionalizados por ligação não-covalente

    OpenAIRE

    Lage, Carla S. A.; Geraldo, M. Dulce

    2014-01-01

    A pesquisa na área dos nanomateriais de carbono, como os nanotubos de carbono (CNTs), tem crescido muito rapidamente devido às suas propriedades térmicas, eletrónicas e mecânicas. Muitos esforços têm sido realizados para aumentar a solubilidade destes materiais em diversos solventes e obter dispersões estáveis. Uma das estratégias para dispersar os CNTs consiste na funcionalização química, que apresenta como desvantagem a destruição da estrutura sp2 do carbono destes materiais. Ne...

  8. Arreflexia pós-calórica bilateral: aplicabilidade clínica da reabilitação vestibular

    OpenAIRE

    Bittar Roseli Saraiva Moreira; Bottino Marco Aurélio; Pedalini Maria Elisabete Bovino; Ramalho Jeanne da Rosa Oiticica; Carneiro Camila de Giacomo

    2004-01-01

    A perda bilateral da função vestibular é rara em pacientes com vertigem e desequilíbrio, porém os sintomas muitas vezes são incapacitantes e seu tratamento é tema controverso na literatura. OBJETIVO: Nosso objetivo foi avaliar e descrever a resposta clínica de pacientes com distúrbio do equilíbrio corporal secundário à arreflexia vestibular pós-calórica bilateral, documentada pela eletronistagmografia, submetidos à Reabilitação Vestibular. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Retrospectivo, inclui um desenho de ...

  9. Almacenamiento de carbono en pastos naturales de la subcuenca del Canipaco, Huancayo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Quispe Navarro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la correlación de pesos de biomasa aérea y radicular de las especies Calamagrostis vicunarum, Festuca dolichophylla y Muhlenbergia ligularis y sus capacidades de almacenamiento de carbono. La recolección de datos se realizó en tres zonas representativas tomando en cuenta factores como la fisonomía vegetativa, fisiografía, topografía y exposición hacia los puntos cardinales, denominándolas zonas I, II y III, equivalentes a tres poblaciones diferentes, las que fueron evaluadas aplicando el método de muestreo simple con distribución sistemática. Las unidades muestrales fueron parcelas cuadradas de 4m². La extracción de muestras vegetativas fueron tomadas al azar desde las parcelas, luego lavadas y oreadas a temperatura ambiente bajo techo antes de su traslado a laboratorios para el secado final, pesajes de biomasa y análisis del contenido de carbono. El procesamiento de datos del inventario para la estimación de la Biomasa y correlaciones fue por especie y zonas, luego a partir de los resultados de biomasa y mediante el factor de conversión se calcularon el contenido de carbono almacenado. Entre los resultados podemos mencionar que los promedios de carbono almacenados son: Calamagrostis vicunarum: 0,754 tC/ha; Festuca dolicophylla: 1,638 tC/ha y Muhlenbergia ligularis: 0,743 tC/ha. En conclusión, por la significancia de la correlación, el peso de la biomasa aérea puede permitir la estimación del peso de la biomasa radicular. El promedio de carbono almacenado por las tres especies juntas alcanza a 3,14 tC/ha.

  10. Reforma integral interior. Cal Nano - Esplugues de Llobregat

    OpenAIRE

    Escoté Solanellas, Laia

    2013-01-01

    El Projecte Final de Grau consisteix en la reforma integral interior de Cal Nano, situat a Esplugues de Llobregat. Cal Nano és el nom que se li dóna al conjunt format per dos edificis de vivendes de planta baixa i planta pis, amb un pati posterior comú. L’objectiu del treball és, ubicar-hi un únic edifici amb zona comú posterior per a quatre vivendes, dues a la planta baixa i dues a la planta pis. El document consta de tres apartats fonamentals : En el primer es parla de la ...

  11. Influencia del cambio de uso sobre la erosión del suelo, carbono transportado por erosión y stocks de carbono en ambientes semiáridos mediterráneos

    OpenAIRE

    López Carratalá, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    A continuación se describen los temas principales que serán abordados en la tesis doctoral futura: - Relevancia del proceso de erosión hídrica en zonas semiáridas mediterráneas. - Influencia de la erosión en la dinámica del carbono. - Relaciones estructura-Erosión hídrica-Carbono. - Pools de carbono asociados con la erosión hídrica - Contribución de la erosión hídrica a la pérdida de carbono. - Cambio en las propiedades básicas del suelo debido al cambio de uso. - Cambios...

  12. Estoques de carbono e nitrogênio nas frações da matéria orgânica em argissolo sob eucalipto e pastagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodinei Facco Pegoraro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de florestas plantadas de eucalipto em áreas de pastagem tem propiciado alterações no estoque de C e N no solo, em especial pelas diferentes características de cada planta e manejo dos resíduos vegetais; o eucalipto pode localizar maior estoque de C e N originário de resíduos da parte aérea na camada superficial do solo, e aumentar a relação C/N dos resíduos vegetais em decomposição. Tais diferenças podem causar redução no estoque de C e N nas frações químicas, físicas e biológicas do solo, tanto nas frações mais lábeis, quanto nas mais recalcitrantes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os estoques de C orgânico total (COT e N total (NT, estoque de C e N nas substâncias húmicas (ácidos fúlvicos, húmicos e húminas, fração leve (C-MOL e N-MOL e biomassa microbiana (C-BM e N-BM em amostras de solos coletadas nas camadas de 0-0,10, 0,10-0,20, 0,20-0,40, 0,40-0,60 e 0,60-1,00 m de profundidade, na linha (EL e entrelinha (EEL do solo sob cultivo de eucalipto na quarta rotação com seis anos de idade, e em área de pastagem cultivada com brachiaria (P. O estoque de carbono orgânico total e de carbono na fração leve do solo nas primeiras camadas do solo (até 0,60 m foi superior na entrelinha do eucalipto em comparação àquele cultivado com pastagem e na linha de cultivo do eucalipto, possivelmente favorecido pela incorporação de resíduos da colheita do ciclo anterior de eucalipto na atual entrelinha. Por meio da determinação da abundância natural de 13C na camada de 0-0,20m de solo verificou-se que 29 e 37% do carbono presente na matéria orgânica do solo (MOS após 28 anos de cultivo derivaram do eucalipto (planta C3, respectivamente, na linha e entrelinha, o que correspondeu à taxa de ciclagem média da MOS nesse solo de 1,04% (linha e 1,32% (entrelinha ao ano. No solo da entrelinha, observou-se que o C-C3 proveniente do eucalipto incrementou o estoque de C orgânico do solo, mesmo com a

  13. Cal Council: A Story of Continuity and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Gerald J.

    2015-01-01

    Gerald Brunetti served as President of the California Council on the Education of Teachers (Cal Council or CCET) from 1992 to 1994. This article describes the author's involvement with the CCET beginning in 1979, and covers the details of accomplishments throughout his presidency, such as the development of "CCNews," mail balloting, and…

  14. INTCAL09 AND MARINE09 RADIOCARBON AGE CALIBRATION CURVES, 0-50,000 YEARS CAL BP

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer, P.J.; Baillie, M. G. L.; Bard, E.; Bayliss, A; Beck, J.W.; Blackwell, P. G.; Ramsey, C. Bronk; Buck, C. E.; Burr, G. S.; Edwards, R. L.; Friedrich, M.; P. M. Grootes; T. P. Guilderson; Hajdas, I.; Heaton, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    The IntCal04 and Marine04 radiocarbon calibration curves have been updated from 12 cal kBP (cal kBP is here defined as thousands of calibrated years before AD 1950), and extended to 50 cal kBP, utilizing newly available data sets that meet the IntCal Working Group criteria for pristine corals and other carbonates and for quantification of uncertainty in both the 14C and calendar timescales as established in 2002. No change was made to the curves from 0-12 cal kBP. The curves were constructed ...

  15. Síntesis, caracterización y aplicaciones catalíticas de nanoestructuras de carbono y de carbono dopado con nitrógeno.

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto-Márquez Ballesteros, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo forma parte de un amplio programa de investigación sobre la preparación de nanoestruturas de carbono y su aplicación en procesos de interés energético, industrial y medioambiental, que actualmente se está desarrollando en el Departamento de Ingeniería Química de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha desde el año 2003. Durante las últimas décadas se ha asistido al inicio de una revolución científica basada en la capacidad de medir, manipular y organizar la materia en la ...

  16. Molecular characters and morphological genetics of CAL gene in Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    BcpCAL, the homologous gene of CAL, was isolated from Chinese cabbage. Unlike BobCAL of cauliflower, BcpCAL did not hold the terminating mutation in the fifth exon. After crosses of cauliflower with Chinese cabbage, the resultant hybrids failed to form curd, which implicates the genetic complement of BcpCAL to the mutated Bob CAL in the function of curd formation. One of CAL gene isolated from the hybrid apparently comes from the female parent (Chinese cabbage) even though there are a few of the bases substituted and deleted. The result offers the molecular and genetic evidences for the study of biological function of CAL in morphological genetics of curd.

  17. Logarithmic Corrections to the Black Hole Entropy Product of ${\\cal H}^{\\pm}$ via Cardy Formula

    CERN Document Server

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-01-01

    We compute the logarithmic corrections to the black hole (BH) entropy product of ${\\cal H}^{\\pm}$ \\footnote{ ${\\cal H}^{+}$ and ${\\cal H}^{-}$ denote outer (event) horizon and inner (Cauchy) horizons} by using \\emph{Cardy prescription}. We particularly apply this formula for BTZ BH. We show that logarithmic corrections to the entropy product of ${\\cal H}^{\\pm}$ when computed \\emph{via Cardy formula} it does not mass-independent (universal) nor does it quantized.

  18. Renovação do carbono-13 em figueiras 'Roxo de Valinhos'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Carvalho da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a taxa de renovação do carbono-13 ("turnover", dos diferentes órgãos da figueira 'Roxo de Valinhos'. O experimento foi conduzido no pomar da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, FCA/UNESP, Câmpus de Botucatu-SP. Determinou-se previamente, através das trocas gasosas com um medidor aberto portátil de fotossíntese, IRGA, a principal folha fotossinteticamente ativa. Essa folha foi colocada em uma câmara onde ocorreu a injeção do gás enriquecido. O tempo de enriquecimento da folha foi de 30 minutos. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por sete plantas de figueira, que foram retiradas do solo após: 6; 24; 48; 72; 120; 168 e 360 horas do enriquecimento com 13C, e suas partes seccionadas em: gema apical, folha jovem, folhas adultas (fotossinteticamente ativas, brotações laterais, frutos e ramo. Os resultados obtidos permitiram o estabelecimento da sequência de metabolização do carbono-13 nas partições estudadas: Folhas novas > Frutos > Brotações > Folhas Adultas > Gema Apical > Ramo > Folha marcada. Plantas de figueira 'Roxo de Valinhos' apresentam reciclagem do 13C de 24 horas e um tempo de meia-vida de duração do carbono-13 inferior a 11 horas.

  19. Comportamento de cilindros de carbono/epóxi submetidos a cargas compressivas axiais Mechanical behavior of carbon/epoxy cylinders under axial compressive loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Gonçalves

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Para estruturas utilizadas no setor aeroespacial, os requisitos de baixo peso, alta resistência e rigidez, além de estabilidade dimensional, têm propiciado o aumento da utilização de materiais compósitos nas suas manufaturas. Em particular, cascas cilíndricas ou estruturas construídas pela junção de cilindros de paredes finas, confeccionadas em fibra de carbono e resina epóxi, são amplamente utilizadas neste tipo de aplicação. Neste trabalho, um programa experimental foi desenvolvido para determinar as tensões de falha, os módulos de elasticidade e o modo de falha de 47 cilindros com diâmetro interno de 40 mm e espessura nominal de 0,6 mm (com exceção de 2 corpos de prova, fabricados em carbono/epóxi, quando submetidos a cargas compressivas uniaxiais. Os espécimes testados possuíam diferentes razões entre comprimento e diâmetro (variando de 2,50 a 11,25 e seqüências de laminação variadas (orientações de camadas. Os resultados dos ensaios foram comparados aos obtidos em análises realizadas com programas de elementos finitos e os fatores que influenciaram o comportamento mecânico destes cilindros foram analisados.The requirements of low weight and dimensional stability, combined with high strength and stiffness, for aerospace structures has prompted an increasing use of fiber reinforced materials in manufacturing such structures. In particular, carbon/epoxy cylinders have been widely used in aerospace applications. In this work, an experimental program was developed to determine failure loads, modulus of elasticity and failure modes of 47 carbon/epoxy cylinders shells under compressive loads. The specimens tested had several different length/diameter (from 2.50 to 11.25 ratios and laminate lay-up. These results were compared to the analytical results from finite element code and the most important factors influencing the mechanical behavior of this type of structure were analyzed.

  20. Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) program computer software design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) Program System Design Description contains a discussion of the design details for the WinCal product. Information in this document will assist a developer in maintaining the WinCal system. The content of this document follows the guidance in WHC-CM-3-10, Software Engineering Standards, Standard for Software User Documentation

  1. [Enforcement of type M 20 cal. 4 mm cartridges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobosz, Tadeusz; Jaworski, Ryszard; Kawecki, Jerzy; Semiczek, Wiesław; Trnka, Jakub

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to investigate and compare the speed and energy of a bullet from 4 mm cal. cartridges of central ignition type M20, both original and transformed by addition of different kinds of propellants. Original cartridges are characterized by an average speed of the bullet of 144 m/s and average energy of 4.8 J. After transformation by the addition of on an average 31.3 mg of smokeless powder from a cartridge type LR'22, a maximum bullet speed of 299 m/s (average) and maximum energy of 21.2 joule (average) were reached. Our test showed that shots using transformed ammunition type M 20 cal. 4 mm can be dangerous for both health and life. Multiple M20 shot wounds may be very similar to single shot wounds caused by a shotshell cartridge fired from a shotgun weapon.

  2. Representation Theorems for Quadratic ${\\cal F}$-Consistent Nonlinear Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Ying; Ma, Jin; Peng, Shige; Yao, Song

    2007-01-01

    International audience In this paper we extend the notion of ``filtration-consistent nonlinear expectation" (or ``${\\cal F}$-consistent nonlinear expectation") to the case when it is allowed to be dominated by a $g$-expectation that may have a quadratic growth. We show that for such a nonlinear expectation many fundamental properties of a martingale can still make sense, including the Doob-Meyer type decomposition theorem and the optional sampling theorem. More importantly, we show that an...

  3. On the correspondence between CAL and lagged cohort life expectancy

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Guillot; Hyun Sik Kim

    2011-01-01

    It has been established that under certain mortality assumptions, the current value of the Cross-sectional Average length of Life (CAL) is equal to the life expectancy for the cohort currently reaching its life expectancy. This correspondence is important, because the life expectancy for the cohort currently reaching its life expectancy, or lagged cohort life expectancy (LCLE), has been discussed in the tempo literature as a summary mortality measure of substantive interest. In this paper, we...

  4. CARBONO LÁBIL COMO UN INDICADOR DE CAMBIOS EN DOS SUELOS BAJO DIFERENTES USOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Ginebra Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La materia orgánica en el suelo es un componente clave en la reserva y ciclo del carbono. En condiciones naturales el carbono se incorpora al suelo a través del aporte continuo de material orgánico; sin embargo, existen prácticas de uso de la tierra que generan una disminución del carbono orgánico en el tiempo, a la vez hay prácticas de uso sostenible que favorecen su captura y acumulación. La determinación de fracciones lábiles de carbono orgánico del suelo, constituye una práctica frecuente para evaluar cambios en la calidad de la materia orgánica bajo distintos manejos. Se comparó el contenido de carbono lábil (COS L en la capa 0-20 cm de un suelo Ferralítico Rojo Típico con el de un Ferrítico Rojo Oscuro Típico, sometidos a tres usos del suelo (sin explotación, cultivo diversificado y cultivo intensivo. La extracción del COS L se realizó por oxidación con permanganato de potasio a 0,02 mg L -1 y las determinaciones se hicieron colorimétricamente. Se encontró que independientemente del uso, el contenido de COS L fue superior en el suelo Ferralítico que en el Ferrítico y que para ambos suelos los contenidos disminuyeron en las áreas bajo cultivo intensivo con relación a las áreas sin explotación; además, en el sistema diversificado, donde se aplican principios de Manejo Sostenible de Tierras, este indicador tiende a recuperarse. Estos resultados sugieren la inclusión de la determinación del COS L , como indicador de alerta del efecto de los usos del suelo sobre su calidad

  5. Almacenamiento de carbono en especies predominantes de flora en el lago Chinchaycocha

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    Ronald Medrano Yanqui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar la cantidad de carbono que almacenan las especies predominantes de flora del lago Chinchaycocha. Métodos: La investigación fue de tipo básica, de corte transversal y con un nivel exploratorio-comparativo. El estudio se hizo en tres ecosistemas dentro del humedal: bofedal, pajonal y totoral, las áreas fueron identificadas con ayuda de imágenes satelitales Landsat. El procedimiento estuvo basado en la recolección de muestras divididas en: biomasa aérea, biomasa radicular y muestras de suelo, hallándose el contenido de carbono de cada una. Resultados: En el totoral se obtuvo que Schoenoplectus californicus Var. Tatora almacena 30,65 tC/ha y Juncos arcticus Var. Andicola 8,70 tC/ha. En el pajonal Deyeuxia recta Kunth almacena 7,02 tC/ha en su biomasa aérea y 8,41 tC/ha en su biomasa radicular. En el bofedal: Plantago tubulosa almacena 0,81 t C/ha en su biomasa aérea y 1,88 t C/ha en su biomasa radicular, Eleocharis albibracteata almacena 0,22 t C/ha en su biomasa aérea y 2,95 tC/ha en su biomasa radicular, y Limosella australis almacena 0,22 tC/ha en su biomasa aérea y 0,38 tC/ha en su biomasa radicular. En el almacenamiento de carbono en suelos se determinó 774,76 tC/ ha en pajonales y 684,58 tC/ha en bofedales. Conclusiones: Se concluye que en el lago Chinchaycocha el ecosistema que brinda mayor almacenamiento de carbono es el totoral, seguido por el pajonal y en menor proporción el bofedal. Asimismo los suelos son considerados los mayores sumideros de carbono.

  6. Biodegradable PELA block copolymers: in vitro degradation and tissue reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, H; Nataf, P R; Cohn, D; Appelbaum, Y J; Pizov, G; Uretzky, G

    1988-01-01

    Degradation of, and tissue reaction elicited by a series of polyethylene oxide (PEO)/polylactic acid (PLA) PELA block copolymers were studied in vitro and in vivo. In particular, the effect of pH, temperature and enzymatic activity was addressed. The mass loss was faster, the more basic the media, while, expectedly, PELA copolymers degraded faster with the higher temperature. The addition of an enzyme (carboxylic ester hydrolase) had no effect. The degradation process strongly affected the mechanical properties of the materials under investigation, the elongation at break dropping drastically after two days of degradation. After seven days, only gross observation of the extensively degraded samples was possible. The in vivo studies compared the tissue reaction elicited by various PELA copolymers to that evoked by PLA. Evaluation of tissue reaction observed with a PELA sample after sterilization with gamma radiation showed acute inflammation with considerable dispersion of the material, 12 days after implantation. The granulomatous reaction observed with PELA copolymers after ethylene oxide sterilization was identical to the reaction observed with PLA. PMID:3064826

  7. Marine04 marine radiocarbon age calibration, 0-26 cal kyr BP

    OpenAIRE

    Hughen, Konrad A.; Baillie, Mike G.L.; Bard, Edouard; Beck, J. Warren; Bertrand, Chanda J.H.; Blackwell, Paul G.; Caitlin E. Buck; Burr, George S; Cutler, Kirsten B.; Damon, Paul E.; Edwards, Richard L.; Fairbanks, Richard G.; Friedrich, Michael; Guilderson, Thomas P; Kromer, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration data sets extend an additional 2000 yr, from 0–26 cal kyr BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision, and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically-dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box diffusion model ...

  8. Tendência à hidratação do pó de alumínio em concretos refratários contendo elevado teor de carbono Hydration of aluminum powder in high-carbon containing refractory castables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Domiciano

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Os benefícios proporcionados pela adição de carbono em concretos refratários têm ampliado a utilização desses materiais em aplicações siderúrgicas. Contudo, um problema inerente à utilização de carbono em refratários é a sua susceptibilidade à oxidação a temperaturas superiores a 600 °C. Uma das alternativas empregada na tentativa de controlar a oxidação do carbono é o uso de antioxidantes. Dentre eles, o pó de alumínio tem mostrado bons resultados em tijolos refratários contendo carbono. Porém, sua aplicação em concretos refratários é limitada pela forte tendência que o pó de alumínio apresenta em se hidratar. Algumas técnicas de recobrimento baseadas no processo Sol-Gel têm sido empregadas como forma de impedir a reação de hidratação do pó de alumínio quando em água. Entretanto, a eficiência destes recobrimentos ainda não foi avaliada em concretos refratários. O presente trabalho se propõe a avaliar a eficiência de recobrimentos à base de SiO2 ou TiO2 em inibir a reação de hidratação do pó de alumínio em condições reais de aplicação. Estes recobrimentos foram obtidos a partir de alcóxidos metálicos e um polímero reativo fazendo uso do método Sol-Gel.The benefits promoted by the addition of carbon in refractory castables resulted the increase use of these materials in steel making industry. Nevertheless, carbon-containing refractory castables faces the problem of oxidation at temperatures above 600°C. One of the alternatives to overcome this drawback is the use of antioxidants. Among them, aluminum powder has shown good results in carbon containing refractory bricks. However, its application in refractory castables is restricted by the strong tendency of aluminum powder to react with water. Some surface treatments, based on Sol-Gel process, have been employed to generate an oxide coating in order to inhibit the hydration reaction when aluminum is exposed to water. However, the

  9. Tratamento homeopático da hepatotoxicose aguda induzida por tetracloreto de carbono em coelhos Homeopatic treatment of acute carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rabbits

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    Maria Cecília Ribeiro Moncorvo

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Quinze (15 coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus foram submetidos à intoxicação pelo tetracloreto de carbono na dosagem de 0,5 ml/kg de peso corporal, dose única, administrado por sonda gástrica. Foram realizadas as dosagens de alanina amino transferase (ALT, aspartato amino transferase (AST, fosfatase alcalina (FA e gama glutamil transferase (GGT antes e durante o experimento. Vinte e quatro (24 horas após a intoxicação, os coelhos foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos de 5 animais. Cada grupo recebeu um tratamento diferente durante 13 dias. O grupo I foi tratado com tetracloreto de carbono diluído na 30ª centesimal hahnemanniana (30 CH, uma vez ao dia. O grupo II recebeu Phosphorus 30 CH, também uma vez ao dia. O grupo III desempenhou o papel de controle, recebendo diariamente uma dose de placebo, pelo mesmo período de tempo que os grupos anteriores. Os resultados das concentrações séricas de ALT, AST, GGT e FA foram submetidos à análise estatística. A variação da concentração de todas as enzimas foi significativa entre os dias, mas nem todas variaram significativamente entre os grupos considerados. O tetracloreto de carbono 30 CH foi capaz de acelerar a recuperação do quadro de hepatite tóxica aguda determinada pela redução dos níveis de ALT. O tratamento com Phosphorus 30 CH mostrou-se incapaz seja de reverter o quadro de hepatite tóxica, seja de acelerar a regeneração hepática.Fithteen (15 New Zeland and Californian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus were submitted to intoxication with carbon tethracloride in a dose 0/0.5 ml/kg, once a day, administred by orogastric sonde. Enzimatic parameters: alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase of those rabbits were tested before and during the experiment. After the intoxication, the rabbits were divided in three groups of five animals. Each group received differents treatments during 13 days. The

  10. Biopolímeros, Carbono e Enxofre Totais Associados à Atividade Bacteriana dos Sedimentos Superficiais do Delta do Paraíba do Sul, RJ-Brasil

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    Lazaro Luiz Mattos Laut

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacia de drenagem do Rio Paraíba do Sul localiza-se ao longo do eixo Rio de Janeiro-São Paulo, de grande densidade demográfica e intensa industrialização. Este trabalho objetivou analisar quali-quantitativamente a matéria orgânica (biopolímeros, carbono orgânico total e enxofre e o estado metabólico bacteriano nos sedimentos superficiais estuarino-deltaicos do Rio Paraíba do Sul, relacionando-os a distribuição granulométrica. Em média, 65,5% dos sedimentos foi classificado como arenoso e empobrecidos em carbono e enxofre, cujas concentrações médias foram 0,71% e 0,04%, respectivamente. A razão elementar C:S indica que o ambiente é predominantemente oxidante, coerente com a forte influência fluvial no estuário desse rio de médio porte. Os biopolímeros carboidratos (média de 2075,93 μg C/g, proteínas (média de 25,70 μg C/g e lipídeos (média de 363,10 μg C/g também apresentaram concentrações inferiores a outros ambientes. Em função dessas baixas concentrações, pôde-se classificar o ambiente como sendo meso-oligotrófico. A razão CARBOIDRATO:COT identificou o impacto de atividades antrópicas, mais especificamente o aporte de efluentes domésticos ao longo de todo o seu curso e da indústria açucareira fortemente presente no seu baixo curso. A comunidade bacteriana, responsável pela hidrólise da matéria orgânica, é predominantemente anaeróbia e anaeróbia facultativa, implicando em perda de nitrogênio para a atmosfera (desnitrificação e produção de sulfetos (sulfato-redução e os baixos valores da razão PROTEINA:CARBOIDRATO refletem essa perda de nitrogênio (presente nos compostos protéicos considerando a ocorrência de bactérias desnitrificantes. Os valores encontrados de carbono bacteriano são elevados (3,29 μg C/g que também, provavelmente, são devidos aos impactos descritos.

  11. Elevação dos níveis séricos de laminina na cirrose hepática induzida pelo tetracloreto de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Lindalva Batista

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Laminina sérica tem sido correlacionada com a hipertensão portal e a capilarização dos sinusóides na doença hepática crônica. Pouco é conhecido sobre sua dinâmica nas doenças hepáticas. OBJETIVO: Estudar os níveis séricos de laminina e correlacioná-los com graus de fibrose hepática e hipertensão portal em ratos tratados com tetracloreto de carbono. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Quarenta e nove ratos albinos Wistar foram mantidos como controles (n = 16 ou tratados com solução de tetracloreto de carbono a 8% (n = 23. Entre a 6ª e 16ª semana de experimento animais foram sacrificados após cateterização da veia porta e medida da pressão portal. Fragmentos de fígado foram fixados em formol para microscopia óptica. A fibrose hepática foi classificada em perivenular, septal incompleta e completa e cirrose. Concentração de laminina circulante foi determinada pela técnica de ensaio imunoenzimático com anticorpo desenvolvido a partir de laminina isolada de tumor Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm e purificado em coluna de afinidade. RESULTADOS: A pressão portal correlacionou-se com grau de fibrose hepática (r = 0,82; n = 45 e seus níveis nos grupos fibrose septal (10,8 ± 1,2 cm H2O e cirrose (13,6 + 3,1 cm H2O foram estatisticamente superiores aos observados no grupo-controle (7,9 + 1,5 cmH2O e no grupo com fibrose perivenular (9,1 + 0,8 cmH2O. A concentração de laminina no sangue periférico dos cirróticos (40,0 + 18,7 µg/dL foi significativamente superior aos grupos-controle (13,8 + 12,1 µg/dL, fibrose perivenular (19,1 + 15,5 e fibrose septal (22,2 + 27,0 µg/dL. Laminina circulante correlacionou-se de maneira significativa com o grau de fibrose hepática (r = 0,59; n = 49 e com os níveis de pressão portal (r = 0,29; n = 45. CONCLUSÕES: Na intoxicação crônica experimental pelo tetracloreto de carbono, níveis circulantes de laminina correlacionam-se mais com o grau de fibrose hepática do que com os níveis de hipertens

  12. Perdas de carbono e nitrogênio com aplicação de dejeto líquido bovino em latossolo muito argiloso sob plantio direto e chuva natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Timofiecsyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O transporte de poluentes via escoamento superficial em áreas agrícolas, principalmente na forma solúvel, é considerado um problema ambiental, mesmo em sistemas conservacionistas de preparo do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as perdas de carbono orgânico e nitrogênio no escoamento superficial, com a aplicação de 0, 60, 120 e 180 m³ ha-1 ano-1 de dejeto líquido bovino, em Latossolo muito argiloso, com declividade de 10 %, sob plantio direto e chuva natural, na região de Castro - PR. A aplicação do dejeto líquido bovino não alterou o carbono orgânico total, porém diminuiu as perdas de amônio e nitrato até a dose de 120 m³ ha-1 ano-1, o que indica ser esta a dose máxima recomendada para solo muito argiloso, declive moderadamente ondulado, baixas precipitações e com no mínimo uma semana de intervalo entre a aplicação do dejeto e a ocorrência de chuvas. As concentrações médias ponderadas de amônio e nitrato no escoamento superficial aumentaram com a aplicação de dejeto. As concentrações de amônio estiveram muito acima do máximo permitido pela legislação brasileira, inclusive sem aplicação de dejeto, o que indica a necessidade de práticas que evitem a entrada do escoamento em corpos de água, mesmo em sistemas conservacionistas.

  13. Influência dos créditos de carbono na viabilidade financeira de três projetos florestais Influence of carbon credits on the financial viability of three forest projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Hiroshi Nishi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a influência dos créditos de carbono na viabilidade financeira de três projetos florestais. Os projetos analisados foram: heveicultura, eucalipto e pinus para produção de borracha, celulose e resina, respectivamente. O Valor Presente Líquido (VPL, a Taxa Interna de Retorno (TIR, o Valor Esperado da Terra (VET e o Valor Anual Equivalente (VAE foram os indicadores utilizados na avaliação financeira, a uma taxa de desconto de 10% ao ano. Os resultados deste trabalho indicaram que, com esta taxa, os projetos de eucalipto e pinus foram viáveis sem os recursos adicionais dos CERs (Certificados de Emissões Reduzidas, ressaltando-se que a inclusão dos créditos de carbono propiciou aumento da viabilidade financeira destes. Já o projeto da heveicultura mostrou-se viável apenas com os Certificados de Carbono. A receita advinda da venda dos CERs aumentou consideravelmente a viabilidade financeira dos três projetos, mesmo considerando a tonelada de CO2 a US$3,00. Caso o Protocolo de Kyoto seja ratificado, haverá um incremento no preço pago pela tonelada de CO2, que ocasionará o aumento da contribuição dos CERs em projetos florestais.The objective of the present work was to study the influence of carbon credits on the financial viability of three forest projects. The analyzed projects were: heveiculture, eucalyptus and pinus for production of natural rubber, cellulose and resin, respectively. The Net Present Value (NPV, the Internal Return Rate (IRR, the Soil Expected Value (SEV and the Equivalent Annual Value (EAV were the indicators used in the financial evaluation, using a discount rate of 10% a year. The results of this work demonstrated that with this rate, the projects of eucalyptus and pinus were viable without additional resources from the CERs (Certificates of Emissions Reduced, and the inclusion of the carbon credits induced an increase in their financial viability. The heveiculture

  14. Incentivos econômicos e projeto de supply chain para captura e sequestro de carbono: caso Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto del Rosario Santibañez Gonzalez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, analisamos uma estratégia para reduzir as emissões de carbono que combina simultaneamente a criação de políticas de incentivo econômico e o desenvolvimento de uma infraestrutura de rede para captura e sequestro de carbono (CCS. Propomos um modelo de otimização linear inteira mista que considera aspectos técnicos e teóricos e permite analisar simultaneamente os efeitos de estabelecer preços para as emissões de carbono (carbon tax em conjunto com uma estratégia de implementação de uma rede de supply chain para capturar, transportar e sequestrar CO2 em reservatórios geológicos. Apresentamos resultados para o caso da indústria de cimento do Brasil usando CO2 tax estabelecidas atualmente em outros países.

  15. CalSimHydro Tool - A Web-based interactive tool for the CalSim 3.0 Hydrology Prepropessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Stough, T.; Vu, Q.; Granger, S. L.; Jones, D. J.; Ferreira, I.; Chen, Z.

    2011-12-01

    CalSimHydro, the CalSim 3.0 Hydrology Preprocessor, is an application designed to automate the various steps in the computation of hydrologic inputs for CalSim 3.0, a water resources planning model developed jointly by California State Department of Water Resources and United States Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region. CalSimHydro consists of a five-step FORTRAN based program that runs the individual models in succession passing information from one model to the next and aggregating data as required by each model. The final product of CalSimHydro is an updated CalSim 3.0 state variable (SV) DSS input file. CalSimHydro consists of (1) a Rainfall-Runoff Model to compute monthly infiltration, (2) a Soil moisture and demand calculator (IDC) that estimates surface runoff, deep percolation, and water demands for natural vegetation cover and various crops other than rice, (3) a Rice Water Use Model to compute the water demands, deep percolation, irrigation return flow, and runoff from precipitation for the rice fields, (4) a Refuge Water Use Model that simulates the ponding operations for managed wetlands, and (5) a Data Aggregation and Transfer Module to aggregate the outputs from the above modules and transfer them to the CalSim SV input file. In this presentation, we describe a web-based user interface for CalSimHydro using Google Earth Plug-In. The CalSimHydro tool allows users to - interact with geo-referenced layers of the Water Budget Areas (WBA) and Demand Units (DU) displayed over the Sacramento Valley, - view the input parameters of the hydrology preprocessor for a selected WBA or DU in a time series plot or a tabular form, - edit the values of the input parameters in the table or by downloading a spreadsheet of the selected parameter in a selected time range, - run the CalSimHydro modules in the backend server and notify the user when the job is done, - visualize the model output and compare it with a base run result, - download the output SV file to be

  16. Efeitos do carbono na evolução de segundas-fases e na densificação do nitreto de alumínio com Y2O3 Effects of carbon on second-phase evolution and densification of aluminum nitride with Y2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Molisani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigado o efeito da adição do carbono na evolução de segundas-fases e na densificação do AlN com 4% em massa de Y2O3. A mudança de composição da segunda-fase do AlN com Y2O3 foi induzida pela adição de 0,5% e 1,0% em massa de carbono. A sinterização sob atmosfera de nitrogênio foi realizada em forno com elemento resistivo de tungstênio entre 1650 ºC e 1850 ºC. A evolução de segunda-fase mostrou uma tendência para formar fases mais ricas em ítrio com o aumento do teor de carbono, o que atrasou a densificação do AlN com Y2O3 devido ao aumento da temperatura de formação de fase líquida. O efeito prejudicial causado pela adição de carbono diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura de sinterização, pois todas as amostras atingiram quase completa densificação após sinterização a 1800 ºC. A adição de carbono induziu uma evaporação significativa de compostos durante a sinterização, mas o comportamento de densificação foi pouco influenciado pela redução na fração de fase líquida existente na temperatura de sinterização e pelo gás aprisionado no interior dos poros fechados.The effect of carbon addition on the second-phases evolution and on the densification of AlN with 4wt.%.Y2O3 was investigated. The change of second-phase composition of AlN with Y2O3 was induced by the addition of 0.5wt.% and 1.0wt.% carbon. Sintering under nitrogen atmosphere was performed in tungsten heated furnace between 1650 ºC and 1850 ºC. The second-phase evolution had a tendency to form Y-richer phases with increasing carbon content, which delayed the densification of AlN with Y2O3 due to the increase of liquid-phase formation temperature. The harmful effect caused by the addition of carbon was diminished with increasing sintering temperature, since all samples achieved almost full densification after sintering at 1800 ºC. The addition of carbon induced significant evaporation of compounds during sintering, but the

  17. Disclosure of carbon credit operations in management publications Divulgación de las operaciones con créditos de carbono en los in informes de la administración y las notas explicativas Evidenciação das operações com crédito de carbono nos relatórios da administração e nas notas explicativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    écnica del análisis de contenido de los informes de la administración y de las notas explicativas desde el primer período de obtención de los créditos de carbono hasta el tercer trimestre de 2008. Los resultados de la investigación muestran que las empresas no difunden en sus informes datos sobre el tratamiento contable y tributario de las operaciones con créditos de carbono. Las noticias más publicadas en los proyectos se refieren a la forma de generación de los créditos y el costo de esta inversión. Se concluye que las comunicaciones evidenciadas en los informes de la administración y en las notas explicativas de las empresas estudiadas, sobre las operaciones con créditos de carbono, no respetan el principio de full disclosureO estudo objetiva identificar o nível de evidenciação, nos relatórios da administração e nas notas explicativas, das operações com créditos de carbono relacionadas aos projetos, meios de financiamento e mercado, contabilização e tributação. Realizou-se pesquisa descritiva, com abordagem qualitativa, por meio de análise documental, nas 14 empresas brasileiras de capital aberto que possuem projetos de Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo (MDL aprovados pela Comissão Interministerial de Mudança Global do Clima, conforme listagem do Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia. Em 28 de novembro de 2008 havia 195 projetos aprovados, 25 dos quais pertenciam a 14 empresas de capital aberto. Para a coleta dos dados, aplicou-se a técnica da análise de conteúdo nos relatórios da administração e nas notas explicativas desde o primeiro período de obtenção dos créditos de carbono até o terceiro trimestre de 2008. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram que as empresas não divulgam em seus relatórios informações sobre o tratamento contábil e tributário das operações com créditos de carbono. As informações mais divulgadas nos projetos referem-se à forma de geração dos créditos e ao custo deste investimento. Conclui-se que as

  18. Molecular evolution of the multiple calmodulin-like cal genes in C. elegans and in nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabinos, Anton

    2016-09-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a major EF hand containing intracellular calcium receptor in animals and plants; however, eukaryotes also express a number of related CaM-like proteins. We have previously characterized an embryonic phenotype of the single Caenorhabditis elegans CaM gene cmd-1, reported no visible RNAi phenotype for the four related cal-1 to cal-4 genes and started tissue-specific expression analyses of these proteins. In the present study, we analyzed evolutionary aspects of the previously reported CAL-1 to CAL-4 proteins, along with the four new CAL-5 to CAL-8 sequences retrieved from the worm database. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that all C. elegans CAL proteins arose from a CaM ancestor through repeated gene duplications, fusions and sequence divergence. The same holds, also, for the variable N-terminal extensions of the CAL-1 to CAL-4 proteins, which have evolved from the CaM-like core domain. We found 97 CAL homologs in different nematode clades and also detected two CAL-7-related sequences outside the nematodes. Moreover, the C. elegans-specific cal-6 gene, representing the most CaM-related sequence found in nematodes so far, harbours many deletions, insertions and sequence substitutions and is predicted, therefore, to be non-functional. These analyses provide an insight into a complex and dynamic origin of the multiple CAL genes in C. elegans and in nematodes and represent also a basis for further functional studies of these CaM-related sequences in nematodes. PMID:27558386

  19. Pegada de carbono da Quinta da Gruta: quantificação e compensação

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Mafalda Diana das Dores Rocha e

    2011-01-01

    A presente dissertação resulta de uma proposta feita por parte da Câmara Municipal da Maia, para a realização de um estudo sobre a pegada de carbono na Quinta da Gruta, um centro de educação ambiental localizado na freguesia de Avioso (Santa Maria), na Vila do Castêlo da Maia. Neste sentido, após uma revisão de literatura no âmbito das metodologias actualmente usadas no cálculo da pegada de carbono, foram calculadas as emissões totais anuais decorrentes da actividade da Quinta da Gruta, pa...

  20. Nanotubos de carbono aplicados às neurociências: perspectivas e desafios

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Oliveira; Michele Munk Pereira; Humberto de Mello Brandão; Marcos Antônio Fernandes Brandão; Wagner Farid Gattaz; Nádia Rezende Barbosa Raposo

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Os nanotubos de carbono (NTCs) são os nanomateriais mais promissores para aplicação terapêutica em doenças neurodegenerativas. Aplicações potenciais incluem sistemas de liberação controlada de fármacos, interfaces elétricas e substratos para crescimento celular. OBJETIVO: Descrever o estado da arte e as perspectivas e desafios da aplicação dos NTCs nas neurociências. MÉTODO: Procedeu-se a uma busca sistemática nos indexadores Medline, Lilacs e SciELO, utilizando os descritores "ca...

  1. FINANCIAMIENTO DE PROYECTOS URBANO-ECOLÓGICOS MEDIANTE INTERCAMBIO DE BONOS DE CARBONO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Pérez Lancellotti

    2010-01-01

    a diversas escalas, nos concentraremos específi camente en proyectos a escala urbana, los llamados proyectos "Ecociudad". Los bonos verdes o bonos de carbono, son instrumentos fi nancieros hasta hoy muy utilizados en proyectos más bien ligados a la generación de energías renovables. Este trabajo, revisará principalmente algunos proyectos de Ecociudad que se están llevando, a cabo y específi camente el caso de Dongtan en China.

  2. Sistema de seguridad para elaborar nanopartículas de carbono a escala de laboratorio

    OpenAIRE

    Dania Soguero González; Jorge Castillo Álvarez; Luis Felipe Desdín García

    2012-01-01

    Las nanopartículas de carbono (NPC) han sido de las más utilizadas, debido a sus propiedades. Muchas de estas propiedades que hacen tan útil a las NPC también pueden hacerlas tóxicas para las células y el organismo y por lo tanto deben ser manipuladas con precaución. El Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN) está desarrollando un programa de investigación que incluye la síntesis NPC usando el método de descarga de arco sumergida en agua. En este trabajo se describe ...

  3. Projecto e desenvolvimento de reactor HFCVD para revestimentos à base de carbono

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, José Augusto Machado Figueiredo dos

    2007-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objectivo fundamental o projecto e construção de um reactor para deposição química de filmes à base de carbono em fase vapor, bem como o desenvolvimento do respectivo sistema de controlo e monitorização. Para efeitos, foi necessário, numa primeira fase de trabalho, realizar um estudo aprofundado sobre os mecanismos físico-químicos de crescimento de filmes de diamante segundo a técnica referida que serviu de base ao dimensionamento do reactor....

  4. La Dieta del Dióxido de Carbono (CO2)

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Medina Valtierra

    2010-01-01

    Hoy en día y frecuentemente estamos viviendo el incremento de los desastres naturales en nuestro planeta y además sabemos que esto se debe al fenómeno llamado calentamiento global. Si este fenómeno continúa en aumento, muy pronto se tendrá un resultado devastador en el clima de la Tierra, aún para un aumento global de tan solo 2 ºC en un tiempo corto. El dióxido de carbono (CO2) es un importante contaminante cuya concentración aumenta y contribuye notablemente a tal sistema anómalo. Pero, un ...

  5. Distribuição do carbono orgânico em Latossolo sob manejoda adubação fosfatada em plantio direto no Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Jerke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição vertical e horizontal do carbono orgânico do solo (CO sob cinco manejos da adubação fosfatada, no sistema plantio direto. O experimento foi instalado sob Latossolo Vermelho, cultivado durante oito anos com soja ou milho, com milheto como planta de cobertura na entressafra. As parcelas foram submetidas aos tratamentos: aplicação de superfosfato triplo a lanço e no sulco, fosfato natural reativo a lanço e no sulco, e ausência de adição de fertilizante fosfatado (testemunha. A adição anual dos adubos fosfatados, na dose de 80 kg ha-1 de P2O5, foi realizada em solo inicialmente com baixo teor de fósforo disponível. Amostras foram coletadas perpendicularmente à linha de plantio, em sete pontos distanciados a 12,5 cm, e cinco camadas: 0-2,5, 2,5-5,0, 5,0-10, 10-20 e 20-30 cm. O conteúdo e a distribuição do CO são afetados pela adubação fosfatada, tanto vertical quanto horizontalmente, com os maiores conteúdos observados nos tratamentos com adubos fosfatados. Em comparação com a testemunha, o superfosfato triplo apresentou maior conteúdo de CO até a camada de 5,0-10 cm, e o fosfato natural reativo até 10-20 cm. A aplicação de fósforo em sulcos proporciona maior volume de solo com teores adequados de CO, em comparação à aplicação a lanço.

  6. Resposta da soja e da biomassa de carbono do solo aos resíduos de cinco genótipos de sorgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Vasconcellos

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência de resíduos de cinco cultivares de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L.: CMS XS 376, CMS XS 365, BR 304, BR 700 e CMS XS 755 no crescimento e no desenvolvimento da soja. Esses resíduos foram colhidos em três estádios do desenvolvimento reprodutivo do sorgo: florescimento, enchimento de grãos e maturação. Os tratamentos estudados constaram da deposição desses resíduos na superfície do solo ou da sua total incorporação na proporção de 4 g kg-1 de matéria seca no solo (LEd, fase cerrado. Nos tratamentos com planta, mantiveram-se três plantas de soja (cv. Doko em vasos com capacidade para 3 kg de solo. Nos tratamentos sem planta, o solo foi amostrado semanalmente para avaliação das formas de N. Após a colheita da soja, amostras de planta e de solo, de cada tratamento, foram retiradas para determinar a absorção total de N e a influência desses resíduos no N disponível extraído com KCl 2 mol L-1. Os resultados revelaram que alguns resíduos culturais de sorgo afetaram, independentemente do estádio de colheita, o desenvolvimento da soja, a absorção de N, o peso de nódulos e a biomassa microbiana do solo. Tais efeitos também foram dependentes do método de incorporação do resíduo. O teor de carbono imobilizado pela biomassa foi maior quando os resíduos de sorgo foram distribuídos na superfície do solo.

  7. Mass spectra in softly broken ${\\cal N}=2$ SQCD

    CERN Document Server

    Chernyak, Victor L

    2016-01-01

    Considered is ${\\cal N}=2\\,\\, SU(N_c)$ or $U(N_c)$ SQCD with $N_c+1cal N}=1$ by the mass term $\\mu_{\\rm x}{\\rm Tr} (X^2)$ of colored adjoint scalar partners of gluons, $\\mu_{\\rm x}\\ll\\Lambda_2$ ( $\\Lambda_2$ is the scale factor of the $SU(N_c)$ gauge coupling). There is a large number of different types of vacua in this theory with both unbroken and spontaneously broken global flavor symmetry $U(N_F)\\rightarrow U({\\rm n}_1)\\times U({\\rm n}_2)$. We consider in this paper the large subset of these vacua with the unbroken nontrivial $Z_{2N_c-N_F\\geq 2}$ discrete symmetry, at different hierarchies between the Lagrangian parameters $m\\gtrless\\Lambda_2,\\, \\mu_{\\rm x}\\gtrless m$. The forms of low energy Lagrangians, quantum numbers of light particles and mass spectra are described for all these vacua. Our results differ from corresponding results in recent papers arXiv:1304.0822; 1403.60...

  8. Precision Measurements of ${\\cal B}[\\psi(3686) \\to \\pi^+\\pi^- J/\\psi]$ and ${\\cal B}[J/\\psi\\to l^+l^-]$

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Albayrak, O; Ambrose, D J; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Ferroli, R Baldini; Ban, Y; Becker, J; Bennett, J V; Bertani, M; Bian, J M; Boger, E; Bondarenko, O; Boyko, I; Braun, S; Briere, R A; Bytev, V; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, Y P; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; Ding, W M; Ding, Y; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Du, S X; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fava, L; Feng, C Q; Friedel, P; Fu, C D; Fu, J L; Fuks, O; Gao, Y; Geng, C; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, T; Guo, Y P; Han, Y L; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; He, Z Y; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Huang, G M; Huang, G S; Huang, J S; Huang, L; Huang, X T; Huang, Y; Hussain, T; Ji, C S; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L L; Jiang, X S; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jing, F F; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kavatsyuk, M; Kloss, B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kuehn, W; Lai, W; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Leyhe, M; Li, C H; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, Q J; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, X R; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Liao, X T; Lin, D X; Liu, B J; Liu, C L; Liu, C X; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, H W; Liu, J P; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lou, X C; Lu, G R; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, X R; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lv, M; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, Q M; Ma, S; Ma, T; Ma, X Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Moeini, H; Morales, C Morales; Moriya, K; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Park, J W; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prencipe, E; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, X S; Qin, Y; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shepherd, M R; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Sun, D H; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Toth, D; Ullrich, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, Q J; Wang, S G; Wang, X F; Wang, X L; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z Y; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, Q G; Wen, S P; Werner, M; Wiedner, U; Wu, L H; Wu, N; Wu, S X; Wu, W; Wu, Z; Xia, L G; Xia, Y X; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Xu, Z R; Xue, Z; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, Y H; Yang, H X; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, H; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, H W; Yu, J S; Yu, S P; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, Y; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zang, S L; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, LiLi; Zhang, R; Zhang, S H; Zhang, X J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Zhenghao; Zhao, G; Zhao, H S; Zhao, J W; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, X H; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhu, C; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2013-01-01

    Based on $(106.41 \\pm 0.86)\\times 10^{6}$ $\\psi(3686)$ events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider, the branching fractions of $\\psi(3686) \\to \\pi^+\\pi^- J/\\psi$, $J/\\psi \\to e^+e^- $, and $J/\\psi \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-$ are measured. We obtain ${\\cal B}[\\psi(3686) \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-J/\\psi]=(34.98\\pm 0.02\\pm 0.45)%$, ${\\cal B}[J/\\psi \\to e^+e^-] = (5.983 \\pm 0.007 \\pm 0.037)%$ and ${\\cal B}[J/\\psi \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-] = (5.973 \\pm 0.007 \\pm 0.038)%$. The measurement of ${\\cal B}[\\psi(3686) \\to \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}J/\\psi]$ confirms the CLEO-c measurement, and is apparently larger than the others. The measured $J/\\psi$ leptonic decay branching fractions agree with previous experiments within one standard deviation. These results lead to ${\\cal B}[J/\\psi \\to l^+l^-] = (5.978 \\pm 0.005 \\pm 0.040)%$ by averaging over the $e^{+}e^{-}$ and $\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ channels and a ratio of ${\\cal B}[J/\\psi \\to e^+e^-] / {\\cal B}[J/\\psi \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-] = 1.0017 \\pm 0.0017 \\pm 0.0033$, which tests $e$-$\\mu$ universality at the fo...

  9. Carbono e nitrogênio de um Argissolo Vermelho sob floresta, pastagem e mata nativa Carbon and nitrogen of an Alfisol under forest, pasture and native forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clenio Nailto Pillon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O monitoramento da matéria orgânica do solo (MOS constitui um indicador da qualidade do sistema de uso adotado. No Sul do Brasil, são escassos os trabalhos que avaliam as alterações no carbono orgânico total (COT, nitrogênio total (NT e a labilidade da MOS em sistemas de produção florestal. Diante desse contexto, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a concentração de COT e de NT no solo e na fração leve e livre (FLL da MOS de um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico sob eucalipto após 13 e 20 anos de implantação, adotando-se a mata nativa e um sistema com produção de pastagem como áreas de referência. Além disso, foi quantificado o estoque de COT e de NT na serrapilheira e na liteira das áreas florestais. As avaliações foram feitas, aleatoriamente, em três trincheiras por área, nas camadas de 0,00 a 0,05; 0,05 a 0,10; 0,10 a 0,20 e 0,20 a 0,40m. Maiores concentrações de COT, de NT e da FLL foram verificadas na camada superficial, sendo estas favorecidas pela adição de resíduos vegetais e pela minimização das operações de revolvimento do solo.The monitoring of soil organic matter content (MOS has been considered soil quality indicator. Few studies, in Southern Brazil, have evaluated changes in the total organic carbon (COT, total nitrogen (NT and in the lability of MOS in forestry systems. This study aimed to evaluate the COT, NT and free light fraction of MOS from 0.00 to 0.05, 0.05 to 0.10, 0.10 to 0.20 and 0.20 to 0.40m depths of the Alfisol under eucalyptus, native forest and pasture. In addition, it was quantified the stock of COT and NT in plant residues in forestry areas. The concentration of COT and NT and labile fractions of MOS increased favored by the addition of vegetables residues and by minimizing soil disturbance.

  10. The Return of Two-Class Medicine—III Effects of Medi-Cal Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Waitzkin, Howard

    1985-01-01

    California's drastic Medi-Cal reforms have created great difficulties in health care for the poor. Patients' clinical problems seldom are apparent in descriptions of changes in public insurance programs. Rapidly escalating costs of Medi-Cal led to irresistible pressures for reform, especially from the business community. The new Medi-Cal regulations provide for prospective contracts with hospitals for inpatient services, the transfer of “Medically Indigent Adults” to the responsibility of cou...

  11. A Novel CalB-Type Lipase Discovered by Fungal Genomes Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Vaquero, Maria E.; de Eugenio, Laura I.; Martínez, Maria J.; Jorge Barriuso

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Pseudozyma antarctica produces a lipase (CalB) with broad substrate specificity, stability, high regio- and enantio-selectivity. It is active in non-aqueous organic solvents and at elevated temperatures. Hence, CalB is a robust biocatalyst for chemical conversions on an industrial scale. Here we report the in silico mining of public metagenomes and fungal genomes to discover novel lipases with high homology to CalB. The candidates were selected taking into account homology and cons...

  12. Automatic synthesis of TTA processor networks from RVC-CAL dataflow programs

    OpenAIRE

    Boutellier, Jani; Silven, Olli; Raulet, Mickaël

    2011-01-01

    International audience The RVC-CAL dataflow language has recently become standardized through its use as the official language of Reconfigurable Video Coding (RVC), a recent standard by MPEG. The tools developed for RVC-CAL have enabled the transformation of RVC-CAL dataflow programs into C language and VHDL (among others), enabling implementations for instruction processors and HDL synthesis. This paper introduces new tools that enable automatic creation of heterogeneous multiprocessor ne...

  13. Automatic Hierarchical Discovery of Quasi-Static Schedules of RVC-CAL Dataflow Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Boutellier, Jani; Raulet, Mickaël; Silvén, Olli

    2013-01-01

    International audience RVC-CAL is an actor-based dataflow language that enables concurrent, modular and portable description of signal processing algorithms. RVC-CAL programs can be compiled to implementation languages such as C/C++ and VHDL for producing software or hardware implementations. This paper presents a methodology for automatic discovery of piecewise-deterministic (quasi-static) execution schedules for RVC-CAL program software implementations. Quasi-static scheduling moves comp...

  14. Code generation for the MPEG Reconfigurable Video Coding framework: From CAL actions to C functions

    OpenAIRE

    Wipliez, Matthieu; Roquier, Ghislain; Raulet, Mickael; Nezan, Jean François; Déforges, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    International audience The MPEG reconfigurable video coding (RVC) framework is a new standard under development by MPEG that aims at providing a unified specification of current MPEG video coding technologies. In this framework, a decoder is built as a configuration of video coding modules taken from the standard ldquoMPEG toolbox libraryrdquo. The elements of the library are specified using the CAL actor language (CAL). CAL is a dataflow based language providing computation models that ar...

  15. Software synthesis of CAL actors for the MPEG reconfigurable Video Coding framework

    OpenAIRE

    Roquier, Ghislain; Wipliez, Matthieu; Raulet, Mickael; Nezan, Jean François; Déforges, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    International audience The MPEG Reconfigurable Video Coding (RVC) framework aims to provide a unified specification of all video technology. In this framework, a decoder is modularly built as a configuration of video coding tools taken from the MPEG toolbox library. The elements of the library are specified using the CAL Actor Language. CAL is a dataflow based language providing computation models that are concurrent and modular. This paper presents a synthesis tool that from a CAL specifi...

  16. CAL: A Language for Aggregating Functional and Extrafunctional Constraints in Streaming Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shafarenko, Alex

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present the {\\em Constraint Aggregation Language} (CAL), a declarative language for describing properties of stateless program components that interact by exchanging messages. CAL allows one to describe functional as well as extra-functional behaviours, such as computation latency. The CAL language intention is to be able to describe the behaviour of so-called boxes in the context of S-Net. However, the language would find application in other coordination models based on stateless components.

  17. Carrier Analysis Lab (CAL) – Aircraft/Weapons/Ship Compatibility Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Carrier Analysis Lab (CAL) - Aircraft/Weapons/Ship Compatibility Lab located at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Lakehurst, NJ provides...

  18. Equações para estimar a quantidade de carbono na parte aérea de árvores de eucalipto em Viçosa, Minas Gerais Equations for estimating the amount of carbon in the aerial parts of eucalypt trees in Viçosa, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pedro Boechat Soares

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de ajustar equações que permitem estimar com precisão a quantidade de carbono presente na parte aérea das árvores de eucalipto, na região de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Após as análises constatou-se que: a o fuste é o componente da parte aérea da árvore com a maior quantidade de carbono estocado, seguido dos galhos, da casca e das folhas; b existe uma relação exponencial positiva entre a quantidade de carbono presente nas diferentes partes das árvores (Yi e as dimensões dos fustes das árvores, expressa pelo dap e altura total (Ht, que pode ser descrita pela seguinte relação alométrica: Yi = a.dap b.Ht c; e c a variável dap foi significativa, a 95% de probabilidade, nas equações que estimam a quantidade de carbono de todos os componentes da parte aérea das árvores de eucalipto. Contudo, a variável altura foi significativa apenas nas equações para o fuste e para os galhos.The objective of this work was to adjust equations that allow for an accurate estimation of the amount of carbon present in the aerial part of eucalypt trees in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. After the analyses, it was verified that: a the stem in the aerial part component of the trees with the largest amount of stored carbon, followed by the branches, bark and leaves; b there is a positive exponential relationship among the amounts of the carbon present in the different parts of the trees (Yi and the stem dimensions of the trees, expressed by diameter at breast height (dbh and total height (Ht, that can be described by the following allometric relationship: Yi = a.dap b.Ht c ; and c the variable d.b.h. was significant, at the aerial parts of 95% probability, in the equations estimating the amount of carbon of all the components of the trees, the variable height was significant only for the stem and branch equations.

  19. The ${\\cal N}=4$ Schur index with Polyakov loops

    CERN Document Server

    Drukker, Nadav

    2015-01-01

    Recently the Schur index of ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM was evaluated in closed form to all orders including exponential corrections in the large $N$ expansion and for fixed finite $N$. This was achieved by identifying the matrix model which calculates the index with the partition function of a system of free fermions on a circle. The index can be enriched by the inclusion of loop operators and the case of Wilson loops is particularly easy, as it amounts to inserting extra characters into the matrix model. The Fermi-gas approach is applied here to this problem, the formalism is explored and explicit results at large $N$ are found for the fundamental as well as a few other symmetric and antisymmetric representations.

  20. Mobilização política e rede de interesses na produção calçadista de Jaú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Malagolli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de redes políticas é de fundamental importância para a compreensão do ambiente em que ocorre a interação estratégica dos atores e organizações dependentes de vários recursos, como os financeiros, tecnológicos, organizacionais, políticos, jurídicos e constitucionais. A aplicação do estudo de redes políticas em Arranjos Produtivos Locais (APLs pode explicar o desenvolvimento econômico e social do território pela formulação de políticas adotadas localmente. Este trabalho tem como objetivo mostrar a relevância da análise da rede política no estudo de Arranjos Produtivos Locais, tomando como objeto de estudo o APL calçadista de Jaú. Para isso, foi feita uma pesquisa de campo, por meio de um questionário semiestruturado, com empresas, entidades de classe e representantes do poder público local no APL calçadista de Jaú.

  1. CAL--ERDA program manual. [Building Design Language; LOADS, SYSTEMS, PLANT, ECONOMICS, REPORT, EXECUTIVE, CAL-ERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, B. D.; Diamond, S. C.; Bennett, G. A.; Tucker, E. F.; Roschke, M. A.

    1977-10-01

    A set of computer programs, called Cal-ERDA, is described that is capable of rapid and detailed analysis of energy consumption in buildings. A new user-oriented input language, named the Building Design Language (BDL), has been written to allow simplified manipulation of the many variables used to describe a building and its operation. This manual provides the user with information necessary to understand in detail the Cal-ERDA set of computer programs. The new computer programs described include: an EXECUTIVE Processor to create computer system control commands; a BDL Processor to analyze input instructions, execute computer system control commands, perform assignments and data retrieval, and control the operation of the LOADS, SYSTEMS, PLANT, ECONOMICS, and REPORT programs; a LOADS analysis program that calculates peak (design) zone and hourly loads and the effect of the ambient weather conditions, the internal occupancy, lighting, and equipment within the building, as well as variations in the size, location, orientation, construction, walls, roofs, floors, fenestrations, attachments (awnings, balconies), and shape of a building; a Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) SYSTEMS analysis program capable of modeling the operation of HVAC components including fans, coils, economizers, humidifiers, etc.; 16 standard configurations and operated according to various temperature and humidity control schedules. A plant equipment program models the operation of boilers, chillers, electrical generation equipment (diesel or turbines), heat storage apparatus (chilled or heated water), and solar heating and/or cooling systems. An ECONOMIC analysis program calculates life-cycle costs. A REPORT program produces tables of user-selected variables and arranges them according to user-specified formats. A set of WEATHER ANALYSIS programs manipulates, summarizes and plots weather data. Libraries of weather data, schedule data, and building data were prepared.

  2. Comparing Outcomes for Los Angeles County's HUD-Assisted and Unassisted CalWORKS Leavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nandita; Hendra, Richard

    The impact of supplemental assistance from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) on CalWORKs leavers was examined in a study of CalWORKs recipients in Los Angeles County, California, who stopped receiving welfare benefits in the third quarter of 1998. Two groups received federal housing assistance at the time of exit from…

  3. CAL and Tools for the Instructor-User (The Features of SPELEO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Passardiere, Brigitte

    1989-01-01

    Defines the role of the instructor-user in computer-assisted learning (CAL) and discusses the need to be able to alter and adapt existing CAL software for particular teaching needs. SPELEO, an authoring system developed in France that allows the modification of courseware content, is described. (eight references) (LRW)

  4. Data Management Standards in Computer-aided Acquisition and Logistic Support (CALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, David K.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on data management standards in computer-aided acquisition and logistic support (CALS) are presented. CALS is intended to reduce cost, increase quality, and improve timeliness of weapon system acquisition and support by greatly improving the flow of technical information. The phase 2 standards, industrial environment, are discussed. The information resource dictionary system (IRDS) is described.

  5. 78 FR 1264 - CalAmp Wireless Networks Corporation, Waseca, MN; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration CalAmp Wireless Networks Corporation, Waseca, MN; Notice of Negative... workers of the subject firm (TA-W-80,399A; CalAmp Wireless Networks Corporation, Waseca, Minnesota... Wireless Networks Corporation, Waseca, Minnesota to apply for TAA, the Department determines that...

  6. Dinámica del carbono (almacenes y flujos en manglares de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Herrera Silveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La cobertura de los manglares de México los coloca en cuarto lugar a nivel mundial. Se reconocen sus múltiples servicios ecosistémicos, pero también altas tasas de deforestación. Evaluaciones en otras partes del mundo destacan el papel de los manglares en el ciclo del carbono, principalmente como almacenes de carbono orgánico (Corg en los sedimentos y exportadores de Corg disuelto y particulado. Para estimar la contribución de los manglares, a escala local, regional y de país, en estrategias como la Reducción de Emisiones por Deforestación y Degradación (REDD+, es indispensable determinar los almacenes de Corg como línea base de emisiones. En este estudio se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica sobre almacenes y flujos de carbono en manglares de México mediante diferentes fuentes de información. De más de 200 estudios, solo 48 contenían datos o información para hacer una revisión del estado que guarda el conocimiento de almacenes y flujos de Corg en los manglares de México. Regionalmente, la zona del Pacífico Central tiene menos información y la Península de Yucatán donde más datos existen. Los mayores almacenes de Corg total se localizan en el Golfo de México y en los manglares de tipo ribereño (>1200 Mg C ha-1. Existe menos información sobre flujos de Corg, dominando los relacionados con la caída de hojarasca. En la zona del Pacífico Sur y en el manglar ribereño se observaron los valores más altos. La extensión y variabilidad de condiciones ambientales en los manglares de México son una oportunidad para desarrollar múltiples temas de investigación, como la caracterización de paisajes y mapas locales de coberturas relacionados con variables del agua (hidroperíodo, del suelo (topografía y procesos microbiológicos. La extensión y distribución de los manglares ofrecen la oportunidad para formar grupos de investigadores a escala regional y abordar de forma consensada estudios bajo una estrategia metodol

  7. CALS and the Product State Model - Methodology and Supporting Schools and Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1998-01-01

    This paper address the preliminary considerations in a research project, initiated February 1997, regarding Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support (CALS) which is a part of the activities in CALS Center Denmark. The CALS concept is presented focusing on the Product State Model (PSM). The PSM...... will be developed upon, will be discussed. Also, the parameters for evaluating the PSM will be considered. In establishing the theoretical body of knowledge with respect to CALS, an identification of schools and paradigms within the research area of applying information technology in a manufacturing environment...... will be provided. Focus will be put on exchange and sharing of product information in the production. Criteria for choosing certain theories upon which CALS can be supported will also be discussed....

  8. INVENTÁRIO DE EMISSÕES DE DIÓXIDO DE CARBONO (CO2 GERADAS POR FONTES MÓVEIS NO ESTADO DO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE – PERÍODO DE JANEIRO DE 2003 A JUNHO DE 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Freire de Macêdo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A elevada contribuição de fontes móveis para o aumento das concentrações de dióxido de carbono na atmosfera torna-se fator de estudo. O estado do Rio Grande do Norte apresenta um alto índice de motorização, cerca de 35 veículos por cada 100 habitantes, portanto, um elevado consumo de combustíveis derivados do petróleo. Estatísticas apontam que 97% das emissões veiculares são de CO2, comprovando a preocupação de se realizar inventários destas. A método top-down, reconhecido internacionalmente e recomendado pela ONU, foi seguido para a quantificação de gases de efeito estufa emitidos pela combustão de combustíveis fósseis em motores de veículos rodoviários, comprovando os altos teores de poluentes atmosféricos lançados na atmosfera do estado. A poluição atmosférica afeta a saúde ambiental bem como a estética urbana, acarretando perdas econômicas. A substituição do modal de transporte particular pelo coletivo e a adoção de novas tecnologias trarão ganhos ambientais além de impulsionar novas matrizes energéticas.

  9. Emprego de subprodutos da produção de piches de petróleo na síntese de nanoesferas de carbono Use of byproducts of petroleum pitch production as precursors for synthesis of carbon nanospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre T. de Castro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoesferas de carbono foram produzidas a partir de resíduos de petróleo, obtidos da produção de piches pela destilação de óleos decantados, pela técnica de deposição química de vapor a 1200 °C, sem catalisadores, em um processo contínuo. Três resíduos foram selecionados de forma a representar a faixa de propriedades tipicamente encontradas para este material. Nitrogênio e argônio foram empregados como gases de arraste. As nanoesferas obtidas apresentaram propriedades semelhantes para os três resíduos diferentes, sendo a influência do precursor menos significativa que a do gás de arraste empregado. Os rendimentos obtidos, na faixa de 40-50%, e a baixa sensibilidade do processo à composição do precursor indicam que o processo é adequado à utilização industrial.Carbon nanospheres were produced from petroleum residues obtained in the production of petroleum pitches by distillation of decant oils, using chemical vapor deposition at 1200 °C, without catalysts and in a continuous process. Three residues were selected to represent the typical variability in the properties of this material. Nitrogen and argon were used as carrier gases. The three residues yielded nanospheres of similar properties, which were more influenced by the nature of the carrier gas. The mass yields of 40-50% and the low dependence on precursor composition indicate that the process is suitable for large scale industrial use.

  10. Estudo da cinética de decomposição de compósitos nanoestruturados de poli (sulfeto de fenileno reforçados com nanotubos de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ribeiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho consiste na obtenção de compósitos nanoestruturados de poli (sulfeto de fenileno (PPS reforçados com nanotubos de carbono de paredes múltiplas (MWCNT por meio da técnica de mistura em fusão, e posterior caracterização de suas propriedades morfológicas e térmicas. A análise por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão foi utilizada com o intuito de avaliar a qualidade da dispersão dos MWCNTs na matriz polimérica. A partir das curvas de termogravimetria obtidas, foi observado um aumento na temperatura máxima de degradação pela adição do nanoreforço na matriz polimérica. Além disso, o modelo matemático de Ozawa-Wall-Flynn foi utilizado com o intuito de determinar os parâmetros cinéticos de degradação. Os resultados mostraram um aumento de aproximadamente 25 ºC na temperatura máxima de degradação (Tmax quando uma pequena quantidade de MWCNT (0,5 wt % foi considerada. Este fato contribuiu para o aumento da estabilidade térmica do PPS.

  11. Cistos aracnóides intracranianos: tratamento pela neuroendoscopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CASTRO SAMUEL CAPUTO DE

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor relata sua experiência com sete pacientes portadores de cistos aracnóides tratados cirurgicamente, todos pela técnica neuroendoscópica. Dentre os pacientes, dois portadores de cistos suprasselares haviam sido submetidos a várias cirurgias de derivação do líquido cefalorraquiano e um portador de cisto temporal, a derivações externas de higroma subdural associado. Apenas neste caso a abordagem endoscópica não resultou em controle dos sintomas do paciente. O tempo de acompanhamento variou de um a nove anos.

  12. Lesao pulmonar induzida pela ventilacao em recem-nascidos prematuros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Gutierrez Carvalho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade de intubação e do uso de ventilação mecânica na prematuridade está relacionada à chamada lesão pulmonar induzida pela ventilação e à consequente displasia broncopulmonar. Busca-se a melhor compreensão dos mecanismos de lesão envolvendo resposta inflamatória mediada pelas citocinas para o desenvolvimento de novas estratégias protetoras. Pesquisou-se na base de dados PubMed, incluindo artigos relevantes, os unitermos "ventilator induced lung injury preterm", "continuous positive airway pressure", "preterm" e "bronchopulmonary dysplasia". Dados e informações significativas foram compilados em tópicos, com o objetivo de formar uma visão crítica e plena acerca da lesão induzida pela ventilação e de suas consequências ao prematuro. Foi revisado o papel das citocinas pró-inflamatórias como mediadores da lesão, especialmente interleucinas 6 e 8, e fator de necrose tumoral alfa. Foram apresentadas evidências em estudos com animais e também em humanos, mostrando que breves períodos de ventilação mecânica são suficientes para a liberação dessas interleucinas inflamatórias. Também foram revisadas outras formas de ventilação mecânica e de ventilação não invasiva, como alternativas protetoras aos modos convencionais. Concluiu-se que o uso de ventilação não invasiva, a intubação com administração precoce de surfactante e a extubação rápida para CPAP nasal, além de estratégias que regulam o volume corrente evitando o volutrauma (como a ventilação com volume garantido, são medidas protetoras da lesão pulmonar induzida pela ventilação mecânica no prematuro.

  13. The global warming, public goods and carbon market; Calentamiento global, bienes publicos y mercado de carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadri de la Torre, Gabriel [EcoSecurities (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    The global warming is an issue of the public goods, and demands an outstanding multilateral action, which must to ensure both efficiency and unchanging transition towards an economy of low intensity of carbon. The new system, which is going to replace the Kyoto Protocol, will have compromises for the developing countries and deep implication in the relative competitivity of the nations and companies. [Spanish] El calentamiento global es un problema de bienes publicos que exige una extraordinaria accion multilateral. Esta debe asegurar eficiencia y una transicion fluida hacia una economia de baja intensidad de carbono. El nuevo sistema que sucedera al Protocolo de Kyoto significara compromisos para los paises en vias de desarrollo, y tendra profundas implicaciones en la competitividad relativa de naciones y empresas.

  14. La Dieta del Dióxido de Carbono (CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Medina Valtierra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoy en día y frecuentemente estamos viviendo el incremento de los desastres naturales en nuestro planeta y además sabemos que esto se debe al fenómeno llamado calentamiento global. Si este fenómeno continúa en aumento, muy pronto se tendrá un resultado devastador en el clima de la Tierra, aún para un aumento global de tan solo 2 ºC en un tiempo corto. El dióxido de carbono (CO2 es un importante contaminante cuya concentración aumenta y contribuye notablemente a tal sistema anómalo. Pero, un aumento en la temperatura del aire incrementará también la cantidad de vapor de agua en la atmósfera, añadiendo con esto más "fuego" al fenómeno señalado.

  15. Carbon Bonds and the saving of energy; Bonos de carbono y el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Ramirez, Alejandro [NovaEnergia (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This document deals with the development of the carbon bond project, the energy saving and the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol at a world-wide level. In this project Mexico opts for a development model in which the economic growth brakes ties with the discharge of greenhouse effect gases and in which the progress does not mean more damages to our planet. [Spanish] Este documento trata sobre el desarrollo del proyecto de bonos de carbono, ahorro de energia y la entrada en vigor del Protocolo de Kyoto a nivel mundial, en el cual Mexico opta por un modelo de desarrollo en el que el crecimiento economico esta desvinculado de la emision de gases de efecto invernadero y en donde el progreso no signifique mas danos a nuestro planeta.

  16. CAPTURA E ARMAZENAMENTO DE CO2 EM PORTUGAL: UMA PONTE PARA UMA ECONOMIA DE BAIXO CARBONO

    OpenAIRE

    Seixas, Júlia; Fortes, Patricia; Dias, Luís; Carneiro, Júlio; Mesquita, Paulo; Marques, Ferreira; Fernandes, Vítor; Helseth, Jonas; Ciesielska, Joanna; Whiriskey, Keith

    2015-01-01

    As atuais projeções indicam que são necessários esforços adicionais para atingir os objetivos de mitigação acordados para 2030 bem como a ambição de reduzir as emissões de gases com efeito de estufa da UE em 80 a 95% em 2050, face a 1990, sendo este o objetivo necessário a longo prazo para descarbonizar o sistema energético e industrial Europeu consentâneo com uma trajetória de estabilização climática do Planeta. Este estudo mostra como as tecnologias de baixo carbono contribuem para atingir ...

  17. Formas de carbono orgánico en suelos con diferentes usos en el departamento del Magdalena (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Vásquez-Polo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las fracciones de materia orgánica del suelo (MOS lábiles y humificadas pueden ser afectadas por las prácticas de uso y manejo; sin embargo el impacto de estos cambios no se ha evaluado en suelos y ambientes tropicales. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los contenidos y algunas formas de carbono orgánico del suelo (COS en cinco zonas de clima cálido tropical (0 - 1110 m.s.n.m. del departamento del Magdalena (Colombia y el efecto que sobre ellas han tenido las prácticas asociadas a suelos cultivados con café (Coffea arabica, banano (Musa sp., palma africana (Elaeis guineensis y sábila (Aloe vera, comparados con suelos de bosques naturales. No se encontraron diferencias (P < 0.05 tanto entre zonas como entre usos del suelo, se presentaron valores medios a bajos de MOS en las zonas de estudio y contenidos de carbono total (Ct mayores en suelos de bosques que en suelos cultivados, así los suelos de bosques presentan una acumulación media de Ct de 42.4 mg/ha a 20 cm, frente a 33.8 mg/ha en los suelos cultivados, esto equivale a una pérdida media de Ct del 23% por efecto del manejo de los cultivos. En relación con el carbono extraíble con pirofosfato sódico altamente relacionado con las fracciones humificadas de la MOS (Cp se observaron valores muy bajos en los suelos cultivados y casi nulos en suelos de bosques; sin embargo estos últimos presentan mayor contenido de formas de carbono no-oxidables o estables (Cnox determinado por diferencia entre Ct - carbono oxidable (Cox. En el suelo cultivado con banano, el Ct corresponde en su totalidad a formas de Cox; mientras que en el suelo cultivado con palma africana las formas estables Cnox representaron 83% del carbono total.

  18. Formas de carbono orgánico en suelos con diferentes usos en el departamento del Magdalena (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menjivar Flores Juan Carlos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las fracciones de materia orgánica del suelo (MOS lábiles y humificadas pueden ser afectadas por las prácticas de uso y manejo; sin embargo el impacto de estos cambios no se ha evaluado en suelos y ambientes tropicales. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los contenidos y algunas formas de carbono orgánico del suelo (COS en cinco zonas de clima cálido tropical (0 - 1110 m.s.n.m. del departamento del Magdalena (Colombia y el efecto que sobre ellas han tenido las prácticas asociadas a suelos cultivados con café (Coffea arabica, banano (Musa sp., palma africana (Elaeis guineensis y sábila (Aloe vera, comparados con suelos de bosques naturales. No se encontraron diferencias (P < 0.05 tanto entre zonas como entre usos del suelo, se presentaron valores medios a bajos de MOS en las zonas de estudio y contenidos de carbono total (Ct mayores en suelos de bosques que en suelos cultivados, así los suelos de bosques presentan una acumulación media de Ct de 42.4 mg/ha a 20 cm, frente a 33.8 mg/ha en los suelos cultivados, esto equivale a una pérdida media de Ct del 23% por efecto del manejo de los cultivos. En relación con el carbono extraíble con pirofosfato sódico altamente relacionado con las fracciones humificadas de la MOS (Cp se observaron valores muy bajos en los suelos cultivados y casi nulos en suelos de bosques; sin embargo estos últimos presentan mayor contenido de formas de carbono no-oxidables o estables (Cnox determinado por diferencia entre Ct - carbono oxidable (Cox. En el suelo cultivado con banano, el Ct corresponde en su totalidad a formas de Cox; mientras que en el suelo cultivado con palma africana las formas estables Cnox representaron 83% del carbono total.

  19. 78 FR 42156 - Sonoma-Marin Area Rail Transit District-Acquisition Exemption-In Marin County, Cal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... County, Cal. AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Exemption. SUMMARY: The Board... approximately 11.25-mile line of railroad in Marin County, Cal., from Golden Gate Bridge, Highway,...

  20. Terracotas del santuario de Calés (Calvi, Campania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. BLÁZQUEZ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El Museo Arqueológico Nacional de Madrid, entre sus magníficas colecciones, exhibe una compuesta por un numeroso conjunto de terracotas traídas de Italia en el siglo pasado por el Marqués de Salamanca. La colección Calvi, procedente del Santuario de Calés, en Campania, y así llamada del lugar de procedencia, ha sido repartida entre varios museos españoles, pero el grupo más numeroso es el depositado en el Museo Arqueológico Nacional que, a pesar de la alta calidad artística de las piezas y del buen estado de conservación de todas ellas, ha permanecido hasta el presente inédita. Tan sólo F. Benoit y nosotros, hemos publicado algunas terracotas de las que representan caballos. Otros investigadores, como Bianchi Bandinelli, han aludido a esta colección que, como las similares guardadas en los museos de Lecce, Capua, Louvre, Leide, British Museum, etc., se encuentra inédita. Particular interés ofrece el grupo conservado en la Glyptothek Ny Carlsberg, de Copenhague, algunos ejemplares se guardan en el Museo Universitario de Zurich y en el Museum f. ant. Kleinkunst de Munich. En Roma los conjuntos más numerosos de estas terracotas se encuentran depositados en los Museos Gregoriano Etrusco del Vaticano, Villa Giulia, y Nazionale Romano.

  1. The TileCal Optical Multiplexer Board 9U

    CERN Document Server

    Valero, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Castillo, V; Ferrer, A; González, V; Hernández, Y; Higón, E; Marín, CA; Moreno, P; Sanchís, E; Solans, C; Valls, JA

    2011-01-01

    TileCal is the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC/CERN. The system contains roughly 10,000 channels of read-out electronics, whose signals are gathered and digitized in the front-end electronics and then transmitted to the counting room through two redundant optical links. Then, the data is received in the back-end system by the Optical Multiplexer Board (OMB) 9U which performs a CRC check to the redundant data to avoid Single Event Upsets errors. A real-time decision is taken on the event-to-event basis to transmit single data to the ReadEOut Drivers (RODs) for processing. Due to the low dose level expected during the first years of operations in ATLAS it was decided not to use a redundant system and currently the front-end electronics is directly connected to the RODs. However, the increasing luminosity of the LHC will force to use the redundant read-out and the OMB system will be installed. Moreover, the OMB can be used as a ROD injector to emulate the front-end electronics for ROD softwar...

  2. POVOANDO O TERRITÓRIO DA LUTA PELA TERRA E PELA REFORMA AGRÁRIA NO BRASIL CONTEMPORÂNEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Thomaz Júnior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available  É fundamental distinguirmos a luta pela terra da luta pela reforma agrária, pois enquanto a reforma agrária é uma política recente, comparada ao processo de formação do latifúndio e da luta pela terra, aquela é uma política que se vincula às disputas com o latifúndio e é feita pelos trabalhadores. Dessa forma, podemos distinguir o que poderia ser um projeto de reforma agrária do que efetivamente ocorre no Brasil, por meio da política de assentamentos, via de regra, devido à pressão e às ocupações de terras improdutivas e griladas, pelos movimentos sociais, sem contar que a trágica situação da concentração da estrutura fundiária no país se renova e amplia os problemas agrários e sociais, ao longo do tempo. Esse modelo insustentável sempre se impôs, por intermédio do poder e da violência. Isso expõe de forma marcante a oposição entre trabalhadores e os segmentos da burguesia, latifundiários, especuladores imobiliários, Estado, organismos internacionais de fomento da ossatura da sociedade do capital (FMI, OMC, BM. Enfim está jogo interesses de classe, atualizados aos pressupostos dos grandes conglomerados transnacionais agroquímico-alimentar-financeiros, ao mercado externo em detrimento de alternativas factíveis para fortalecerem o mercado interno, a fixação dos trabalhadores e suas famílias, na terra, assim como a priorização da produção familiar camponesa, via reforma agrária.

  3. Rússia: o que vivenciou e o que tem pela frente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Zaslavskaia

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O ARTIGO constitui a versão escrita de uma apresentação feita pela autora, em 2003, em mesa-redonda organizada no âmbito do Simpósio realizado anualmente pela Escola Superior de Moscou de Estudos Econômicos e Sociais, sob o grande tema Para onde vai a Rússia? Trata-se de uma polêmica com o cientista político Vladimir Mau, atualmente reitor da referida Escola, a propósito dos resultados da transformação sistêmica que teve lugar na Rússia, a partir do início dos anos de 1990, sugerindo, a partir dos mesmos, um caminho para delineamento de um futuro distinto para o país.THE ARTICLE is a written version of the exposition done by the autor in 2003, in a Round Table organized within the symposium Whiter Russia?, that takes place annually under the auspices of the Moscow School of Social and Economic Studies. In the article she disputes with Vladimir Mau, a political scientist, now Rector of the referred School, about the results of the Russian systemic transformation of the 90's and suggests, on the basis of these results, a different path for the future development of the country.

  4. 75 FR 52589 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for the Cal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... (SEIS) for the Cal Black Memorial Airport at Halls Crossing, UT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... Decision concerning the development of Cal Black Memorial Airport. This supplemental EIS does not involve any new development or project at the airport. The Cal Black Memorial Airport opened in April 1992....

  5. Consideraciones teórico prácticas acerca de la soldadura de los aceros al carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmundo Héctor Rodríguez Pérez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los tres tipos de aceros al carbono y su clasificación desde el punto de vista de su soldabilidad. Se pueden observar los aspectos físico - químicos en la zona fundida, zona de transición y zona afectada por el calor. Existen varios aspectos en la tecnología de la soldadura de los aceros al carbono, tales como: preparación de los bordes, limpieza superficial, posición relativa de las piezas, precalentamiento, selección del material de aporte, deposición de los cordones, postcalentamiento, tratamiento térmico posterior y el control de la calidad de las uniones soldadas a tomar en cuenta para realizar la soldadura.

  6. Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) system configuration control board (SCCB) operating procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the operating procedure for the System Configuration Control Board (SCCB) performed in support of the Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) system. This board will consist of representatives from Babcock and Wilcox Hanford Company Babcock and Wilcox Protec, Inc.; and Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. In accordance with agreements for the joint use of the Babcock and Wilcox Hanford Company calorimeters located in the Hanford Site Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Nondestructive Assay Laboratory, concurrence regarding changes to the WinCal system will be obtained from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Further, changes to the WinCal software will be communicated to Los Alamos National Laboratory

  7. CalVR: an advanced open source virtual reality software framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Jürgen P.; Prudhomme, Andrew; Weber, Philip; DeFanti, Thomas A.

    2013-03-01

    We developed CalVR because none of the existing virtual reality software frameworks offered everything we needed, such as cluster-awareness, multi-GPU capability, Linux compatibility, multi-user support, collaborative session support, or custom menu widgets. CalVR combines features from multiple existing VR frameworks into an open-source system, which we use in our laboratory on a daily basis, and for which dozens of VR applications have already been written at UCSD but also other research laboratories world-wide. In this paper, we describe the philosophy behind CalVR, its standard and unique features and functions, its programming interface, and its inner workings.

  8. Computer-aided acquisition and logistics support (CALS): Concept of Operations for Depot Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, N.C.; Greer, D.K.

    1993-04-01

    This CALS Concept of Operations for Depot Maintenance provides the foundation strategy and the near term tactical plan for CALS implementation in the depot maintenance environment. The user requirements enumerated and the overarching architecture outlined serve as the primary framework for implementation planning. The seamless integration of depot maintenance business processes and supporting information systems with the emerging global CALS environment will be critical to the efficient realization of depot user's information requirements, and as, such will be a fundamental theme in depot implementations.

  9. Frontline CALS - Extranet Enabled Support of Customer Relations Based on Product State Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm; Franck, Lesley Robert; Pedersen, Mogens Kühn

    1999-01-01

    commerce called Frontline CALS. Frontline CALS integrate three bodies of knowledge, i.e. Continuous Acquisition and Lifecycle Support, Electronic Commerce, and the Customer Consumption Chain in order to construct a concept that enhances the service quality for customers with time critical operations....... The essence of Frontline CALS is that it combines a product and a customer view with the aim of enhancing the service quality offered by the dealers in collaboration with the producer. The article further provides empirical insight from an early prototype implementation of a Web Service System intended...

  10. Projeto LUPA: Laboratório urbano pela arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Fernandes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Em «Educación 2021: Para una Historia del Futuro», Nóvoa introduz o conceito de «espaço público de educação». Um cenário onde a escola e a sociedade são responsabilizadas de forma compartida pela educação. Neste contexto surge o projeto de serviço educativo LUPA - Laboratório Urbano Pela Arte que apresentamos neste texto. Trata-se de um projeto de serviço educativo de natureza experimental, não formal, de índole voluntária e sem orçamento, que é dirigido essencialmente à comunidade da cidade de Castelo Branco. Pretende através da educação pela arte refletir sobre a relação entre a cidade enquanto espaço físico e a comunidade enquanto espaço social, com a premissa de que a cidade é o ponto de partida para a promoção, exploração e construção de identidade urbana, reforçando a empatia com a cultura e com as artes e construindo espaços - laboratórios de partilha, experimentação e criação. Projeto probatório no primeiro ano, organiza-se em 12 atividades/laboratórios de periocidade mensal, que pretendem (reconhecer/(revalorizar o património material e imaterial albicastrense. A partir da análise da oferta educativa e cultural e do diagnóstico e identificação das lacunas existentes, constrói-se o projeto experimental, na definição de objetivos, na planificação flexível de ações e na construção de metodologias assertivas que estimulem parcerias entre instituições culturais e educativas.

  11. New ${\\cal W}_{q,p}(sl(2))$ algebras from the elliptic algebra ${\\cal A}_{q,p}({\\hat sl}(2)_c)$

    CERN Document Server

    Avan, J; Rossi, M; Sorba, Paul

    1997-01-01

    We construct operators t(z) in the elliptic algebra introduced by Foda et al. ${\\cal A}_{q,p}({\\hat sl}(2)_c)$. They close an exchange algebra when p^m=q^{c+2} for m integer. In addition they commute when p=q^{2k} for k integer non-zero, and they belong to the center of ${\\cal A}_{q,p}({\\hat sl}(2)_c)$ when k is odd. The Poisson structures obtained for t(z) in these classical limits are identical to the q-deformed Virasoro Poisson algebra, characterizing the exchange algebras at generic values of p, q and m as new ${\\cal W}_{q,p}(sl(2))$ algebras.

  12. The M8 Power Calibration Experiment (M8CAL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W. R.; Bauer, T. H.

    1994-05-01

    The M8 calibration experiment was a series of 23 irradiations in TREAT performed to determine the relationship between the fission power generated in the TREAT core and the fission power generated in experiment fuel located in an in-core experiment vehicle and irradiated by core neutrons. The experiment was planned to provide the essential calibration information specifically needed for planning and analysis of the M8 test (and subsequent tests similar in geometry to M8) to be performed in the post-upgrade TREAT core. Irradiations were performed in TREAT cores loaded with a full-slotted (to optimize hodoscope performance) and with a half-slotted (to maximize energy deposition). Tests included a few selected low-power irradiations of fresh IFR-type U-Zr and U-Pu-Zr fuel pins supplemented by multiple irradiations of uranium-zirconium monitor wires ranging from low steady-state power to high-power maximal transients. This report describes the M8CAL test hardware, measurements, analysis assumptions, and methods used to deduce power coupling between the reactor and experiment fuel--including both absolute magnitudes and axial distributions. Power coupling results are reported for fresh IF fuel pins under high-power transient test conditions appropriate to the planned M8 transient test. In line with previous calibration data, measured dependence of power coupling on the specifics of each irradiation is also shown to correlate well with the in-core axial locations of the TREAT control rods. Estimates are made for maximal test fuel energy deposition capabilty in controlled transients.

  13. The German SMOS project office - CAL/VAL activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittebrand, A.; Stammer, D.; Dransfeld, S.

    2009-04-01

    The SMOS remote sensing mission planned to be launched in July 2009 is part of the opportunity missions of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Earth Explorer programme. The role of the German SMOS project office (funded by the BMBF/DLR) is to inform the scientific community and the public about the current mission status as well as to promote the use of the SMOS data products within Germany. Within the framework of the project office scientific studies for the calibration and validation (cal/val) of the SMOS data are also supported. Our work includes the analysis of model-, shiptrack- and climatology determined salinity data as well as satellite, drifter and float measurements. The first comprehensive in situ data set suitable for global investigations of SSS characteristics is that provided by ARGO temperature and salinity profiles since 2000. The global ARGO float system (Gould et al., 2004) consisting of 3000 floats that provide temperature and salinity profiles, globally, from the top 2000 m every 10 days on approximately a 3 degree global grid. For our study we extract the near-surface values from ARGO salinity and temperature profiles to form a data set of near-surface salinity and temperature covering the years 2002 until 2008. All those ARGO data points are located at a depth of 0 to 5 m. Of importance for the justification of the SMOS mission is the deviation of the Argo-Measurements from climatologies, based on the bulk of the past global in situ salt content measurements, which renders the temporal condition of world oceans. Additionally a deployment of 25 drifters is planned in parallel to the SMOS launch, collecting data of temperature and salinity in the GIN SEA and the western Pacific.

  14. Comportamiento del monóxido de carbono y el clima en la ciudad de Toluca, de 1995 a 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Hernández Romero

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los gases contaminantes con mayor distribución y concentración en Toluca y su área metropolitana es el monóxido de carbono que, al igual que el dióxido de azufre y el dióxido de carbono, es generado principalmente por la combustión automotriz y, en segundo lugar por el sector industrial. Sin embargo, debido a la activa dinámica de los vientos en la mayor parte del año, estos gases tienden a dispersarse en todo el valle; solamente durante el invierno la concentración y la distribución del monóxido de carbono se encuentran por encima de las normas establecidas en la legislación vigente. Por eso se considera la calidad del aire como satisfactoria, aunque por su combinación con las bajas temperaturas del periodo invernal y la baja humedad del aire, tiende a representar riesgos para la salud humana.

  15. Reserva de carbono en biomasa forestal y suelos minerales en el Parque Nacional Malinche (México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Valdez Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Las áreas naturales protegidas representan una de las estrategias para la mitigación del cambio climático. El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en estimar el contenido de carbono en biomasa forestal en suelos minerales y calcular las pérdidas de carbono por cambios de uso del suelo en el Parque Nacional Malinche (PNM. La superficie de bosque del PNM es de 17.496,34 ha y almacena 1.544.377,66 mg en bosque y 4.148.985,97 mg en suelos. Para estimar el contenido de biomasa forestal se aplicaron ecuaciones alométricas y se trabajó con la cartografía del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI en el análisis espacio-temporal de los cambios de uso de suelo. Para el carbono en suelos se aplicaron los valores del Panel Intergubernamental de Cambio Climático (IPCC.

  16. Solubilização de fostatos por microrganismos na presença de fontes de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Silva Filho

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O potencial de solubilização de fosfatos por bactérias e fungos cultivados em meio de cultura GEL (Glicose-Extrato de Levedura, suplementado com diferentes formas de fosfatos (cálcio, alumínio e ferro e fontes de carbono (celulose, amido, sacarose, glicose, frutose e xilose, foi avaliado em laboratório. O crescimento, o diâmetro da área solubilizada e a relação halo/colônia variaram conforme o tipo de microrganismo e a fonte de fósforo e de carbono. Dos 57 isolados utilizados, 56 formaram halo na presença de fosfato de cálcio e cinco apenas na presença de fosfato de alumínio e nenhum foi capaz de solubilizar fosfato de ferro. Contudo, seis isolados cresceram melhor no meio com fosfato de ferro em comparação com o meio testemunha. As maiores colônias e halos foram observados nos isolados de Rhizopus e Aspergillus, enquanto as maiores relações halo/colônia foram encontradas em Paecilomyces e Penicillium. Todos os isolados cresceram no meio GEL base (testemunha sem açúcar, mas a solubilização ocorreu apenas na presença de carbono adicionado ao meio, destacando-se xilose, glicose, frutose e sacarose.

  17. Uso de diferentes fontes de carbono por estirpes de Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus isoladas de cana-de-açúcar Use of different carbon sources by strains of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus isolated from sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Alves Barbosa

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a população de Gluconactobacter diazotrophicus presente em plântulas de 34 variedades de cana-de-açúcar, e caracterizar os isolados quanto à capacidade de utilizar diversas fontes de carbono e formar pigmento róseo em presença de luz. A população de G. diazotrophicus foi quantificada pela técnica do número mais provável e isolada em meios de cultura semi-seletivos. A população de G. diazotrophicus foi maior no sistema radicular do que na parte aérea, e maior nas variedades brasileiras de cana-de-açúcar. Os isolados utilizaram poucas fontes de carbono, e aqueles obtidos do sistema radicular utilizaram maior número de fontes, em comparação aos da parte aérea. Apenas a estirpe padrão Ppe-4 e quatro outros isolados formam pigmento róseo em presença de luz. A baixa variação observada pode estar relacionada com o habitat ou com a adaptação dessa população às condições específicas do interior das plantas e, por isso, a estrutura genética da população dessas bactérias é limitada e conservada.The objective of this work was to quantify the population of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus present in plantlets of 34 sugarcane varieties and to characterize the isolates according to their capacity to use carbon sources and produce pink pigments under light. G. diazotrophicus population was estimated using the most probable number technique, and then, isolated in semi-selective culture media. The highest population number of G. diazotrophicus was found in the roots; Brazilian varieties presented the highest population. The isolates used little carbon sources, and those strains obtained from the root used the highest number of carbon sources. Only the strain Ppe-4 and four other ones produce pink pigments under light. The low variation observed may be related to the habitat or to the adaptation of this population to specific internal plant conditions, and for this reason, the

  18. Effects of hot and warm rolling on microstructure, texture and properties of low carbon steel Efeitos dos laminados a quente e a morno na microestrutura, textura e propriedades de aços baixo carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gerardo Bruna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that variations in the thermomechanical processing can have a profound effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Low Carbon steels. Numerous studies have been published on the effect of composition, slab reheating temperature (SRT, hot rolling finishing temperature (FRT, coiling temperature after rolling (CT, amount of deformation during hot and cold rolling, and annealing temperature on the mechanical properties of LC steels. There are, however, some disagreements in the results presented in the literature. In this work the FRT and CT effects on the microstructure, recrystallization behavior and texture of LC steels rolled under hot and warm-rolling industrial conditions were investigated. The results in terms of the microstructure, crystallographic texture and properties are shown and discussed. In addition, this study will present the possible mechanisms responsible for the microstructure and mechanical properties observed.É conhecido que variações de processo durante o tratamento termomecânico causam efeito marcante na microestrutura e nas propriedades mecânicas de aços baixo carbono. Vários trabalhos já foram publicados sobre o efeito da composição química, temperatura de reaquecimento, temperatura de laminação de acabamento, temperatura de bobinamento, quantidade de redução durante a laminação a quente e na laminação a frio e temperatura de recozimento nas propriedades mecânicas desses aços. Existem, no entanto, alguns pontos contraditórios na literatura. Nesse trabalho, são estudados os efeitos da temperatura de término de laminação e a temperatura de bobinamento na microestrutura, recristalização e textura dos aços baixo carbono laminados a quente e a morno em condições industriais. Os efeitos na microestrutura, textura cristalográfica e propriedades são apresentados e discutidos. Adicionalmente, o presente estudo analisa os possíveis mecanismos metalúrgicos respons

  19. PUERPÉRIO DA VACA PELA ULTRA-SONOGRAFIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Walter dos Santos; Jairo Pereira Neves

    1994-01-01

    Para caracterização Geográfica da involução uterina e reinício da atividade ovariana, o puerpério de 15 vacas da raça charolesa foi acompanhado pela ultra-sonografia a partir do 8° dia, com intervalo de 3 dias, até o 40° dia pós-parto. Utilizou-se um aparelho de ultra-som Pie Medical Inc., mod. 450 com transdutor de 5MHz, arranjo linear e uma impressora. A involução completa do útero foi detectada aos 28,12±1,55 dias nas vacas com parto eutócico e aos 32,57±1,13 dias nas vacas com parto distó...

  20. A Disputa do Espaço pela Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Baltazar, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Nesta tese estuda-se o desafio da exploração do Espaço pela Europa. Em concreto, apresentam-se, inicialmente, os conceitos técnicos associados à exploração do Espaço e os conceitos fundamentais à compreensão das Relações Internacionais – em particular a Astropolítica - num meio que alguns pretendem pacífico, mas onde a competição e a cooperação caminham lado a lado e onde as capacidades militares e civis, por vezes, se confundem. De facto, o Espaço, se por um lado, tem carac...

  1. Measurement of the ratio of branching fractions ${\\cal B}(B^0 \\to K^{\\ast 0} \\gamma)/{\\cal B}(B^0_s \\to \\phi \\gamma)$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Constantin, F; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M

    2012-01-01

    The ratio of branching fractions of the radiative $B$ decays $B^0\\to K^{*0}\\gamma$ and $B^0_s\\to \\phi\\gamma$ has been measured using $0.37\\,$fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at a centre of mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=7\\,$TeV, collected by the LHCb experiment. The value obtained is \\begin{equation} \\frac{{\\cal B}(B^0\\to K^{*0}\\gamma)}{{\\cal B}(B^0_s\\to \\phi\\gamma)} = 1.12 \\pm 0.08^{+0.06}_{-0.04}\\phantom{.}^{+0.09}_{-0.08},\

  2. Conformal kernel for NLO BFKL equation in ${\\cal N}$=4 SYM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balitsky, Ian; Chirilli, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Using the requirement of M\\"{o}bius invariance of ${\\cal N}$=4 SYM amplitudes in the Regge limit we restore the conformal NLO BFKL kernel out of the eigenvalues known from the forward NLO BFKL result.

  3. Vasoespasmo coronariano induzido pela ecocardiografia sob estresse pela dobutamina-atropina Coronary spasm induced by dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio A. Bogaz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos caso de mulher de 45 anos de idade, com antecedentes de hipertensão arterial sistêmica e tabagismo, submetida a ecocardiografia sob estresse pela dobutamina-atropina para investigação de doença arterial coronariana. No pico do estresse, a paciente apresentou dor precordial súbita e de forte intensidade. O eletrocardiograma de doze derivações revelou elevação do segmento ST nas derivações DII, DIII, aVF, V5 e V6 e depressão do segmento ST nas derivações DI, aVL, V2 e V3. Pela monitoração das imagens ecocardiográficas foi observado aparecimento de discinesia do septo inferior e acinesia da parede inferior do ventrículo esquerdo. O exame foi interrompido imediatamente, a paciente foi medicada e evoluiu com melhora da dor precordial e das alterações de motilidade segmentar. A angiografia coronariana revelou lesões coronarianas irregulares com menos de 50% de obstrução do diâmetro luminal. Trata-se de um caso de vasoespasmo coronariano induzido por estimulação alfa-adrenérgica durante a ecocardiografia sob estresse pela dobutamina-atropina.This is the report on a 45-year-old female, with a history of systemic arterial hypertension and cigarette smoking, submitted to dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography for the investigation of coronary artery disease. At stress peak, the patient reported sudden, highly intense precordial pain. The 12-lead electrocardiogram showed ST segment elevation in DII, DIII, aVF, V5 and V6, and depression in DI, aVL, V2 and V3. Echocardiographic imaging monitoring showed dyskinesia of inferior septum and akinesia of inferior wall. The test was interrupted immediately. The patient was medicated and improved her precordial pain condition as well as wall motion abnormalities. Coronary angiography showed irregular coronary lesions with <50% luminal diameter obstruction. It is a case of coronary spasm induced by alpha-adrenergic stimulation during dobutamine-atropine stress

  4. Fusion Rules of the ${\\cal W}_{p,q}$ Triplet Models

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Simon

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we determine the fusion rules of the logarithmic ${\\calW}_{p,q}$ triplet theory and construct the Grothendieck group with subgroups for which consistent product structures can be defined. The fusion rules are then used to determine projective covers. This allows us also to write down a candidate for a modular invariant partition function. Our results demonstrate that recent work on the ${\\cal W}_{2,3}$ model generalises naturally to arbitrary (p,q).

  5. Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) program computer software test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the information and guidelines necessary to conduct all the required testing of the Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) system. The strategy and essential components for testing the WinCal System Project are described in this test plan. The purpose of this test plan is to provide the customer and performing organizations with specific procedures for testing the specified system's functions

  6. A Complete Set of Firmware for the TileCal Read-Out Driver

    CERN Document Server

    Valero, A; Cuenca, C; Ferrer, A; Fullana, E; González, V; Higón, E; Poveda, J; Ruiz-Martinez, A; Salvachúa, B; Sanchís, E; Solans, C; Torres, J; Valls, J A

    2007-01-01

    TileCal is the hadronic tile calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC/CERN. The Read-Out Driver (ROD) is the main component of the TileCal back-end electronics. The ROD is a VME 64x 9u board with multiple programmable devices which requires a complete set of firmware. This paper describes the firmware and functionalities of all these programmable devices, especially the DSP Processing Units daughterboards where the data processing takes place.

  7. Cogeneration and Carbon bonds: clean development; Cogeneracion y bonos de carbono: desarrollo limpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Perez, Nidia [Facultad de Contaduria y Administracion, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    The growing preoccupation for the environment in our country and its interest to ratify the Kyoto Protocol with respect to the contamination of the atmosphere, offers great opportunities for the cogeneration so that it fortifies the scientific and technological research and gives a good international image about the sustainable development and care of the environment, so that companies that invest in clean technology will be able to assign a monetary value to their environmental patrimony, this through the so called Green Bonds or Carbon Bonds, this opens a new dimension to finance projects by means of these bonds that can be negotiated at an international level; by means of the Clean of Energy Production the investment can be stimulated and revenues for projects that contribute to the sustainable development of the country and the power efficiency. At the moment the country has at least 13 projects in different analysis stages to enter the carbon bond market, which are presented as co-generation projects of energy, in addition to the formation of the Mexican Committee for Projects of Reduction and Capture of Gas Discharges of Greenhouse Effect. [Spanish] La creciente preocupacion por el medio ambiente en nuestro pais y su interes por ratificar el Protocolo de Kyoto en lo referente a la contaminacion de la atmosfera, ofrece grandes oportunidades para la cogeneracion de manera que fortalezca la investigacion cientifica y tecnologica y dar una buena imagen internacional en torno a temas de desarrollo sustentable y cuidado del medio ambiente, de manera que empresas que invierten en tecnologia limpia podran asignar un valor monetario a su patrimonio ambiental, esto a traves de los llamados Bonos Verdes o Bonos de Carbono, esto abre una dimension nueva para financiar proyectos por medio de estos bonos que pueden negociarse a nivel internacional; por medio de la Produccion Limpia de energia se puede estimular inversion y ganancias para proyectos que contribuyan al

  8. Strengthening Pela-Gandong Alliance Based on John Rawls’ Theory of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanrico A.S. Titahelu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pela-Gandong could be seen as an alliance among two or more villages in Central Maluku territory. Pela-Gandong, besides as brotherhood and friendship among them,this alliance also shared common purpose of cooperation and collective security. Conflict in the beginning of 1999 draws up public attention to the effectiveness of the principles which contains in pela-gandong alliance. Important question come forward because of the plurality condition among current Indonesian society. Should pela-gandong principles nowadays, still playing role to develope social, economy and cultural life of Maluku traditional society? The purpose of this writings is to find out the weaknesses of pela-gandong alliance(s. Based on this, it should offers some suggestion how to strengthening the principles of pela-gandong alliance into the state and the social life in Indonesia.

  9. Estratégias das empresas do setor calçadista diante do novo ambiente competitivo: análise de três casos Footwear industry strategies for the new competition environment: a three case study analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andresa Silva Neto Francischini

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O ambiente competitivo dos anos 90, marcado pelo processo de abertura comercial, pela adoção da Constituição de 1988, pela sobrevalorização cambial e pelas mudanças nos padrões de concorrência internacional, afetou de maneira diferenciada os setores industriais brasileiros. Este estudo avalia as estratégias tecnológicas, de localização e reorganizadoras adotadas por três empresas calçadistas diante desse novo ambiente competitivo da década de 1990. Esse conjunto de estratégias é avaliado segundo a formulação de quatro proposições, as quais mostram o impacto diferenciado do ambiente competitivo conforme as características das empresas estudadas.The competitive environment during the 1990's - with trade liberalization, the new rules set by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988, exchange rate appreciation and changes in the international competition - had distinct effects on each Brazilian industry. This article analyzes the technological, locacional and organizational strategies in three footwear firms. Based in four propositions, we evaluate the three types of strategies and how the differ in accordance with firm characteristics.

  10. ${\\cal{KK}}\\text{MC-hh}$: Resummed Exact ${\\cal O}(\\alpha^2L)$ EW Corrections in a Hadronic MC Event Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Jadach, S; Was, Z A; Yost, S A

    2016-01-01

    We present an improvement of the MC event generator Herwiri2, where we recall the latter MC was a prototype for the inclusion of CEEX resummed EW corrections in hadron-hadron scattering at high cms energies. In this improvement the new exact ${\\cal O}(\\alpha^2L)$ resummed EW generator ${\\cal{KK}}$ MC 4.22, featuring as it does the CEEX realization of resummation in the EW sector, is put in union with the Herwig parton shower environment. The {\\rm LHE} format of the attendant output event file means that all other conventional parton shower environments are available to the would-be user of the resulting new MC. For this reason (and others -- see the text) we henceforth refer to the new improvement of the Herwiri2 MC as ${\\cal{KK}}\\text{MC-hh}$. Since this new MC features exact ${\\cal O}(\\alpha)$ pure weak corrections from the DIZET EW library and features the CEEX and the EEX YFS-style resummation of large multiple photon effects, it provides already the concrete path to 0.05\\% precision on such effects if we...

  11. Almacén y dinámica del carbono orgánico del suelo en bosques templados de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Galicia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Los bosques templados se establecen sobre diversos tipos de suelo, sin embargo la información sobre las características físicas, químicas y biológicas de estos suelos y su influencia en el ciclo del carbono es escasa. El objetivo de la presente revisión fue conocer el almacenamiento de carbono en suelos cubiertos por bosques templados. Estos bosques se distribuyen sobre 23 tipos de suelo, principalmente Leptosoles, Regosoles, Luvisoles, Phaeozems, Cambisoles, Umbrisoles y Andosoles formados a partir de materiales volcánicos en el centro del país, sedimentarios en la Sierra Madre Oriental y una variedad amplia de sustratos en la Sierra Madre Occidental. La información sobre el potencial de captura de carbono en los bosques templados está sesgada a la biomasa aérea; y existe menos información sobre los almacenes de carbono edáficos y un escaso entendimiento de los procesos de su estabilización. El almacenamiento de carbono del suelo varió con el tipo de suelo, la composición de especies y el relieve. Los Andosoles, a pesar de su escasa abundancia, son los suelos con la mayor capacidad de almacenar carbono debido a sus características mineralógicas. Los cambios en el carbono orgánico del suelo y los flujos de carbono en los bosques templados en México son el resultado de cambios locales, generados por las actividades humanas como el cambio de uso, el manejo forestal, los incendios, la regeneración y la sustitución de especies. El cambio de uso de suelo es uno de los principales factores que explican los flujos de carbono en estos ecosistemas, sin embargo, aún no existe evidencia clara de que sea en sentido negativo. Esta revisión resume la información existente y propone investigaciones futuras que permitan conocer mejor los procesos de estabilización de la materia orgánica en los suelos de bosques templados.

  12. Secuestro de carbono en la biomasa aérea de un sistema agrosilvopastoril de Cocos nucifera, Leucaena leucocephala Var. Cunningham y Pennisetum purpureum Cuba CT-115

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Anguiano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de estimar el secuestro de carbono en la biomasa aérea de un sistema agrosilvopastoril (sasp compuesto por cocotero (Cocos nucifera, Leucaena leucocephala Var. Cunningham sembrada en alta densidad y Pennisetum purpureum Cuba CT-115, se llevó a cabo un estudio en un suelo con textura franco arcillo- arenosa. Se utilizó un diseño en bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas con cuatro tratamientos 0, 40, 60 y 80 mil árboles de leucaena ha-1 y tres repeticiones; la evaluación duró desde su establecimiento hasta 340 días de edad. Los resultados muestran diferencia estadística (P<0.001 en el secuestro de carbono con 101.19d, 109.73c, 122.00b y 128.62a t C+ha-1año-1 para los sasp de 0, 40, 60 y 80 mil plantas de leucaena ha-1, respectivamente. El mayor aporte de secuestro de carbono lo realizó el cocotero que aportó del 60 al 80% del total del sasp y existió una relación inversa de secuestro de carbono de la gramínea al incrementar la densidad de la leguminosa. El tratamiento que incorpora la siembra en alta densidad de la leguminosa arbórea logró un mayor secuestro de carbono.

  13. The Efficiency of Delone Coverings of the Canonical Tilings MATH {cal T}(*(A_4)) -> T^*(A4) and MATH {cal T}(*(D_6)) -> T^*(D6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopolos, Zorka; Kasner, Gerald

    This chapter is devoted to the coverings of the two quasiperiodic canonical tilings MATH {cal T}(*(A_4)) -> T^*(A4) and MATH {cal T}(*(D_6)) equiv {cal T}(*(2F)) -> T^*(D6) T^*(2F), obtained by projection from the root lattices A4 and D6, respectively. In the first major part of this chapter, in Sect. 5.2, we shall introduce a Delone covering MATH {cal C}(s_{{cal) T}(*(A_4)}) -> C^sT^*(A4) of the 2-dimensional decagonal tiling MATH {cal T}(*(A_4)) -> T^*(A4). In the second major part of this chapter, Sect. 5.3, we summarize the results related to the Delone covering of the icosahedral tiling MATH {cal T}(*(D_6)) -> T^*(D6), MATH {cal C}_{{cal T}(*(D_6)}) -> CT^*(D6) and determine the zero-, single-, and double- deckings and the resulting thickness of the covering. In the conclusions section, we give some suggestions as to how the definition of the Delone covering might be changed in order to reach some real (full) covering of the icosahedral tiling MATH {cal T}(*(D_6)) -> T^*(D6). In Section 5.2 the definition of the Delone covering is also changed in order to avoid an unnecessary large thickness of the covering.

  14. Avaliação do grau de exposição de amostras populacionais de São Paulo ao monóxido de carbono Evaluation of the degree of exposure of sample population groups in S. Paulo (Brazil to carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilda A. Gallego Gandara de Fernícola

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de avaliar o grau de exposição ao monóxido de carbono da população da cidade de São Paulo (Brasil, foram coletadas 327 amostras de sangue de adultos, procedendo-se à determinação do conteúdo de carboxiemoglobina pela técnica espectrofotométrica. Trinta das amostras obtidas de residentes de uma cidade (Embú-Guaçu considerada, por suas características, como local de baixas concentrações de monóxido de carbono, foram tomadas como grupo-controle. Os valores de carboxiemoglobina encontrados foram os seguintes: policiais de trânsito: fumantes 6,3 ± 2,07, não fumantes 2,1 ± 0,68; motoristas de ônibus: fumantes 4,6 ± 1,94, não fumantes 1,6 ± 0,46; grupo-controle: fumantes 3,8 ± 1,74, não fumantes 0,8 ± 0,21.In order to evaluate the degree of exposure of the S. Paulo city (Brazil population to carbon monoxide, 327 blood samples from adults were collected and the carboxihemoglobin content determined by the spectrophotometric method. Thirty of these samples (control group were taken from residents of a city (Embú-Guaçu considered by its characteristics to be an area of low environmental carbon monoxide concentration. The following results were obtained: traffic policemen: smokers 6.3 ± 2.07, non-smokers 2.1 ± 0.68; bus drivers: smokers 4.6 ± 1.94, non-smokers 1.6 ± 0.46; control: smokers 3.8 ± 1.74, non-smokers 0.8 ± 0.21.

  15. Bonos de carbono: financiarización del medioambiente en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania López-Toache

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar las medidas de mitigación para la emisión de gases efecto invernadero ( GEI al medioambiente –bonos de carbono– establecidos en el Protocolo de Kyoto. Estos parten del estudio del Teorema de Coase, el cual plantea que el mercado asignará de manera adecuada los derechos de propiedad de las externalidades provocadas por los distintos agentes económicos. Por los resultados se puede afirmar que los bonos de carbono son una forma de financiarización del medioambiente, lo cual está creando en la práctica derechos de contaminación, lo que permite que los países industrializados y empresas contaminantes reduzcan sus emisiones de GEI en países subdesarrollados como México a través de proyectos de energía renovables donde les resulta más económico y rentable.

  16. PREPARACIÓN DE CATALIZADORES DE HIERRO Y COBALTO SOPORTADOS EN AEROGELES DE CARBONO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Y. Aguilar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se prepararon catalizadores de hierro y cobalto, soportados en aerogeles de carbono (AGC, por los métodos de humedad incipiente, intercambio catiónico y adición de una sal del metal a la mezcla precursora de los aerogeles. La caracterización de los catalizadores se realizó por adsorción de N2 a 77 K, descomposición con temperatura programada (DTP y difracción de rayos X (DRX. Se encontró que los catalizadores preparados por humedad incipiente e intercambio catiónico tienen una textura microporosa, mientras que los preparados por adición de la sal del metal a la mezcla inicial son mesoporosos. Los resultados de DTP muestran que la química superficial del aerogel está influida por el método de preparación y la naturaleza química del metal, y los análisis de DRX pusieron en evidencia que la matriz carbonosa de los aerogeles tiene un carácter reductor capaz de carburizar o reducir el metal incorporado.

  17. Nanotubos de carbono aplicados às neurociências: perspectivas e desafios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os nanotubos de carbono (NTCs são os nanomateriais mais promissores para aplicação terapêutica em doenças neurodegenerativas. Aplicações potenciais incluem sistemas de liberação controlada de fármacos, interfaces elétricas e substratos para crescimento celular. OBJETIVO: Descrever o estado da arte e as perspectivas e desafios da aplicação dos NTCs nas neurociências. MÉTODO: Procedeu-se a uma busca sistemática nos indexadores Medline, Lilacs e SciELO, utilizando os descritores "carbon nanotubes", "drug delivery", "electrical interface", "tissue regeneration", "neuroscience", "biocompatibility" e "nanotechnology", devidamente agrupados. RESULTADOS: A revisão da literatura evidenciou controvérsias nos estudos relativos à biocompatibilidade dos NTCs, embora tenha ratificado o seu potencial para a neuromedicina e neurociências. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados obtidos apontam a necessidade de estudos padronizados sobre as aplicações e interações dessas nanoestruturas com os sistemas biológicos.

  18. Intoxicación por Monóxido de Carbono Poisoning by carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sibón Olano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerosos autores recomiendan la realización de análisis toxicológico, prácticamente en todos los casos forenses, especialmente, cuando tras el examen macroscópico no aparece suficientemente aclarada la causa de la muerte. La ausencia de lesiones patognomónicas en la mayoría de las intoxicaciones avalan la recomendación anterior; sin embargo, en algunos casos los hallazgos en la autopsia son indicativos del agente causal. Así vemos como la coloración rojo cereza de las livideces cadavéricas van a ser muy sugestivas de intoxicación por monóxido de carbono o cianuro.Several authors recommend to perform a toxicological analysis in practically every forensic autopsy, specifically when the macroscopical examination does not reveal sufficiently the cause of death. The absence of pathognomonic findings in the majority of poisonings support this recommendation. However; in some cases autopsy findings are indicative of the causative agent. For instance, the red cherry coloration from livor mortis are suggestive of a carbon monoxide or cyanide poisoning.

  19. A descoberta da contingência pela teoria social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Josef Brüseke

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Historicamente, a contingência é pensada por Aristóteles, pela primeira vez, no seu texto peri hermeneias onde o filósofo introduz o conceito endechómenon, traduzido mais tarde como contingência. A descoberta da contingência reflete um novo estado de espírito nas obras de Weber, Parsons e Luhmann como na filosofia ocidental em Husserl, Heidegger, Camus, Sartre e outros, que se dão conta da dramaticidade das relações e fenômenos contingentes. Apesar da longa tradição da consciência da contingência no pensamento ocidental, é o advento do "pós-modernismo", relativamente tarde, que marca sua saída da latência. Autores como Lyotard, Maffesoli e Bauman exploram a descoberta da contingência no campo da teoria social e mostram que o mundo é necessariamente como é mas, também, poderia ser diferente. Nossa hipótese é que o caráter altamente contingente da técnica moderna, na medida em que esta penetra cada vez mais a sociedade contemporânea, afeta decisivamente o homem e seu modo de viver no mundo; desta maneira o problema da contingência ganha relevância sociológica.

  20. Refratários contendo carbono: propriedades, características e variáveis em sua composição Carbon containing refractories: properties, characteristics and variables in their composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Bitencourt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Por seu singular conjunto de propriedades e características, os refratários contendo carbono têm sido fundamentais para que a indústria siderúrgica alcance seus atuais níveis de produtividade. Apesar disso, investir no desenvolvimento desses materiais continua a ser necessário, sobretudo devido à crescente pressão para que o setor siderúrgico torne seus processos mais seguros e sustentáveis, objetivos esses que dependem diretamente do desempenho dos refratários utilizados ao longo da cadeia produtiva do ferro e do aço. Assim, com o intuito de indicar oportunidades de desenvolvimento ainda não exploradas, bem como de examinar as linhas de pesquisa que têm obtido êxito em aumentar a eficiência dos refratários contendo carbono, este trabalho faz uma ampla revisão dos possíveis constituintes destes materiais, tais como ligantes, fontes de carbono e aditivos diversos. Das inovações recentemente divulgadas, analisa-se o uso de adições combinadas de agentes antioxidantes e TiO2 para promover o desenvolvimento de fases com morfologias especiais (como whiskers, e a descoberta de aditivos que possibilitam a grafitização do carbono produzido pelas resinas termofixas. Este último avanço é particularmente significativo, pois proporciona às resinas uma capacidade antes exclusiva do piche de alcatrão, ligante que vem sendo evitado pelas condições insalubres que causa tanto no ambiente da indústria siderúrgica como refratarista. Já entre as possibilidades de inovação cogitadas, destaca-se a adição de agentes de acoplagem aos refratários resinados com o objetivo de otimizar, sobretudo, a sua processabilidade. Tal avanço seria especialmente desejável para os concretos refratários resinados, materiais que atualmente possuem aplicações limitadas, mas que atraem grande interesse por suas diversas vantagens em relação aos produtos pré-conformados, o que os leva a ser um importante foco para novos desenvolvimentos

  1. A POTENCIALIDADE DOS CRÉDITOS DE CARBONO NA GERAÇÃO DE LUCRO ECONÔMICO SUSTENTÃ VEL DA ATIVIDADE DE REFLORESTAMENTO

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende, Amaury Jose; Dalmacio, Flavia Zoboli; Ribeiro, Maisa de Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Objetivou-se, neste artigo, analisar as possíveis transações econômicas decorrentes das atividades de reflorestamento e como os mecanismos dos créditos de carbono e crédito de reposição podem representar incentivos econômicos ao processo de criação de atividades sustentáveis ao setor de reflorestamento. Dentre essas transações, destaca-se a instituição do mercado de crédito de carbono na geração de lucro econômico sustentável. Esse mercado de crédito de carbono caracteriza-se como uma alterna...

  2. Apicidin对人舌鳞癌CAL-27细胞作用的初步研究%In vitro study on the Mechanisms of Apicidin in the treatment of human tongue squamous carcinoma cell line CAL -27

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛立民; 赵晶; 韩斯琴高娃; 李国松; 李国林; 郭福林

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨Apicidin对体外培养人舌鳞癌CAL-27细胞影响及作用机制.方法 体外培养人舌鳞癌CAL-27细胞,采用不同浓度的Apicidin作为实验组,并设立对照组,倒置显微镜观察细胞形态,CCK-8法检测细胞增殖、TUNEL、流式细胞仪检测Apicidin对CAL-27细胞凋亡作用.结果 Apicidin可显著抑制CAL-27细胞的生长(P<0.05),呈时间剂量依赖性.通过TUNEL法、流式细胞仪检测显示CAL-27细胞的凋亡,并且使CAL-27细胞停留在G2期.结论 Apicidin能显著抑制CAL-27的体外生长并能诱导细胞凋亡.%Objective To investigate the effects of Apicidin on human tongue squamous carcinoma cell line CAL-27 in vitro. Methods The human tongue squamous carcinoma CAL-27 cells were cultured regularly in medium with different concentration rations of Apicidin. Morphology of cells was examined by light microsope, proliferative activity of cells was assessed by CCK-8, the cell apoptoais was detected by TUN EL and FCM. Results A time dose-dependent significantly inhibited was detected in CAL-27 cells by Apicidin (P<0.05). Apicidin could induce the cell apoptosis of CAL-27 which revealed by TUNEL and FCM, and increase the proportion in G2/M phases of the cell cycle. Conclusion Apicidin significantly inhibited the growth of CAL-27 in vital and can induce apoptosis.

  3. Contribuição dos créditos de carbono na viabilidade econômica dos contratos de fomento florestal no sul da Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlon Barbosa Valdetaro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A região do extremo sul da Bahia é caracterizada por sua extensa produção de eucalipto. Grandes empresas do setor de celulose e papel desempenham importante função na economia da região através dos programas de fomento florestal. Além disso, tem-se que alguns produtores fomentados por essas empresas possuem interesse em incrementar o retorno financeiro de seus contratos de fomento florestal através do recebimento de crédito de carbono. Nesse contexto, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a contribuição dos créditos de carbono na viabilidade econômica nos contratos de fomento florestal da região. O Valor Presente Líquido (VPL, a Taxa Interna de Retorno (TIR e o Valor Anual Equivalente (VAE foram os indicadores utilizados na avaliação financeira, a uma taxa de desconto de 10% ao ano, em 45 contratos de fomento distribuídos em 11 municípios da região, e estimou-se o potencial de estocagem de carbono utilizando dados de estoque de carbono do momento em que os contratos atingiram a idade técnica de corte. Os produtores florestais informaram dados referentes à produção, produtividade e rentabilidade do plantio de eucalipto em seus contratos de fomento. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram que a comercialização dos créditos de carbono pode aumentar consideravelmente a viabilidade financeira do contrato de fomento. Dessa forma, pode-se concluir que o comércio de créditos de carbono é uma atividade viável na região e aumentará os ganhos dos produtores fomentados.

  4. Aquisição de açúcar e perfil de macronutrientes na cesta de alimentos adquirida pelas famílias brasileiras (2002-2003) Sugar and overall macronutrient profile in the Brazilian family diet (2002-2003)

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Bertazzi Levy; Rafael Moreira Claro; Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    Avaliou-se a influência exercida pela aquisição de calorias de açúcar sobre a participação calórica dos demais macronutrientes da dieta. As estimativas deste estudo são baseadas em dados da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares realizada no Brasil pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística entre julho de 2002 e junho de 2003. Modelos de regressão linear múltiplos foram utilizados para estudar a influência das calorias de açúcar sobre a participação calórica de cada um dos macronutriente...

  5. Aplicación de biosensores amperométricos de polisulfona/nanotubos de carbono en el análisis de muestras reales

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Rafael, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    La investigación llevada a cabo en la presente tesis doctoral describe el desarrollo de biosensores basados en membranas de polisulfona y nanotubos de carbono (PS/CNT). Este tipo de membranas ha permitido la incorporación de diferentes biomoléculas como hormonas, anticuerpos y enzimas, de manera rápida y fácil gracias a la técnica de inversión de fase. Además, el uso de nanotubos de carbono confiere al material excelentes propiedades eléctricas, permitiendo su uso como transductor. Inicial...

  6. Niveles de carbono orgánico total en el Suelo de Conservación del Distrito Federal, centro de México

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Vela Correa; Jorge López Blanco; María de Lourdes Rodríguez Gamiño

    2012-01-01

    El Suelo de Conservación (SC) del Distrito Federal es un reservorio de carbono, por lo que es importante contar con datos sobre su capacidad de almacenamiento bajo diferentes tipos de cobertura vegetal. En este trabajo se estimó el contenido de carbono orgánico total en suelos (COS) de áreas con cobertura de bosque, uso agrícola y en áreas reforestadas. Se delimitaron unidades geomorfogenéticas que sirvieron de base para el muestreo de suelos. En total se estudiaron 50 sitios con muestras ...

  7. A incorporação de calcário em sistema plantio direto consolidado reduz o estoque de carbono em macroagregados do solo

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Yagi; Jonez Fidalski; Cássio Antonio Tormena

    2014-01-01

    Estoques de carbono em macroagregados do solo possuem relação com a taxa de sequestro de C no solo em sistema plantio direto. Objetivou-se avaliar os estoques de carbono em macroagregados (12,5-19,0mm) em função do revolvimento ocasional e/ou da calagem de um Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico típico textura muito argilosa, sob sistema plantio direto há 17 anos em Pato Branco, sudoeste do Paraná. A partir de outubro de 2009, foi avaliado um experimento em parcelas sub-subdivididas, tendo como p...

  8. El uso de las cubiertas verdes como reducción de la huella de carbono por absorción vegetal. Caso de Villaverde

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Miguel Carretero Monteagudo

    2013-01-01

    ResumenEl tema de este trabajo es a grandes rasgos la comprobación de la eficacia de las cubiertas verdes en la reducción de la huella de carbono, centrándonos exclusivamente en las capacidades asimilativas del dióxido de carbono de la vegetación contenida sobre estas cubiertas. La presente comprobación de la eficacia de las cubiertas verdes, fue realizada sobre el contexto del distrito de Villaverde en la Periferia Sur de Madrid. Sobre este distrito, se analizaron diferentes factores en rela...

  9. Valoración económica del manglar por el almacenamiento de carbono, Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta.

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold De la Peña; Cesar Augusto Rojas; Marlon De la Peña

    2010-01-01

    La Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM) genera diferentes bienes y servicios ambientales, por ejemplo, sumidero de carbono, hábitat de flora y fauna, despensa de alimentos y materias primas, entre otros. Se presenta una aproximación a la cuantificación monetaria del servicio de almacenamiento de carbono, con el fin de establecer información base para las decisiones de su uso. Lo anterior se hizo con base en muestreo de campo de 15 árboles de manglar y en mediciones realizadas en cuatro estaci...

  10. Oxidação electrocatalítica de hidratos de carbono utilizando complexos de metais de transição

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Paula Cristina Bastos Ferreira Leal

    2006-01-01

    Os hidratos de carbono podem ser convertidos em produtos químicos, energia, têxteis, materiais de construção, papel e muitos outros produtos industriais. Estes constituem uma matéria prima barata, renovável e facilmente disponível. No início dos anos noventa, 95% da biomassa produzida eram hidratos de carbono e correspondiam a duzentos biliões de toneladas. Nos dias de hoje, apenas 3 a 5% desta biomassa são utilizados em termos industriais. Os restantes sofrem degradação e são reciclado...

  11. Uso de arcillas fibrosas como coadyuvantes para mejorar la dispersión y estabilidad coloidal de nanotubos de carbono de medios hidrofílicos

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Martins Fernandes, Francisco Miguel; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Uso de arcillas fibrosas como coadyuvantes para mejorar la dispersión y estabilidad coloidal de nanotubos de carbono en medios hidrofílicos. La presente invención se refiere a una composición estable que comprende nanotubos de carbono en un medio líquido polar mediante su asociación a arcillas fibrosas (sepiolita o palygorskita) como coadyuvante para lograr dicha dispersión. La presente invención se refiere al procedimiento de obtención de la composición como una dispe...

  12. Tecnologías de membranas para la recuperación de hidrógeno y monóxido de carbono de gases residuales

    OpenAIRE

    David, Oana Cristina

    2012-01-01

    RESUMEN: Esta tesis doctoral está enfocada hacia la separación y recuperación de hidrogeno y monóxido de carbono de efluentes gaseosos residuales procedentes de procesos industriales de combustión mediante la tecnología de membranas. Se ha definido como caso de estudio la corriente de gases generada en la fabricación de negro de carbono. Se espera que el uso de tecnologías de separación con membranas permita obtener en el lado del permeado de la membrana una corriente enriquecida en hidrógeno...

  13. Cálculo de la Huella de Carbono del Máster en Ingeniería Ambiental de la Universidad de Valladolid. Curso 2014 - 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Bermejo Martínez, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Desde el siglo XIX, coincidiendo con la era de la industrialización, está clara la contribución de los gases de efecto invernadero al aumento del cambio climático natural. El cálculo de la huella de carbono es un muy indicador y una buena herramienta para identificar las fuentes de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero de una organización, producto o evento. Por eso, se calcula la huella de carbono del Máster en Ingeniería Ambiental durante el curso 2014 - 2015. Más de la mitad de las emis...

  14. Gestión ambiental empresarial: cálculo de la huella de carbono en la industria vitivinícola.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Ana Rodriguez; Adriana Belfort Martinez; Stella Maris Udaquiola

    2014-01-01

    La huella de carbono es un indicador ambiental que busca cuantificar la cantidad de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GHG). Su medición se convierte en una herramienta que permite trabajar bajo el concepto de eco-eficiencia e identificar oportunidades de reducción de consumo energético, ya que este último es la principal fuente de emisión de GHG a nivel mundial. El presente trabajo aplica la metodología PAS 2050:2011 para la medición de la huella de carbono, en la producción del vino ...

  15. The EuroSprite2005 Observational Campaign: an example of training and outreach opportunities for CAL young scientists

    OpenAIRE

    O. Chanrion; Crosby, N. B.; E. Arnone; Boberg, F.; van der Velde, O.; Odzimek, A.; Mika, Á.; Enell, C.-F.; Berg, P; M. Ignaccolo; Steiner, R. J.; Laursen, S.; Neubert, T.

    2007-01-01

    International audience The four year "Coupling of Atmospheric Layers (CAL)" EU FP5 Research Training Network project studied unanswered questions related to transient luminous events (sprites, jets and elves) in the upper atmosphere. Consisting of ten scientific work-packages CAL also included intensive training and outreach programmes for the young scientists hired. Educational activities were based on the following elements: national PhD programmes, activities at CAL and other meetings, ...

  16. Distribución a profundidad del carbono orgánico en los suelos de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Paz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available La caracterización de la distribución vertical del carbono orgánico en los suelos (COS en México es una tarea importante, dada la evidencia acumulada que muestra que el COS puede ser desestabilizado por diferentes mecanismos al incrementar la profundidad a la que se encuentra en el perfil. Con el objetivo de modelar la variación del COS con la profundidad, se analizó una base de datos de COS de perfiles de suelos distribuidos en todo México (base de datos INEGI-COLPOS. Esta base se depuró usando diferentes restricciones congruentes con el objetivo de desarrollar modelos matemáticos de la distribución del carbono con la profundidad (z. Los resultados de los ajustes estadísticos mostraron que modelo logarítmico, COS(z=a-b ln(z, resultó adecuado para lo planteado, por lo que se procedió a su síntesis. Se usó la propiedad de que un conjunto de rectas que se intersectan en un punto común, sus parámetros generan una línea recta. Con base en ella se desarrolló un esquema para estimar el carbono orgánico inerte (COI del espacio b-a del modelo logarítmico. Adicionalmente, para realizar estimaciones del COS a profundidad (hasta su valor máximo usando sólo el valor del COS de 0 a 30 cm, se desarrolló un método para realizar estas estimaciones a partir de parámetros asociados a los ecosistemas y tipos de vegetación. Los resultados de los ejercicios realizados para estimar el COI y el carbono orgánico a profundidad en los suelo usando sólo el COS 30 cm muestran ser adecuados y pueden ser implementados en forma operativa.

  17. Ensayo balístico de laminados de fibra de carbono y núcleo de Honeycomb

    OpenAIRE

    Armero Presa, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Las estructuras sándwich son cada vez más utilizadas y están adquiriendo una gran importancia por sus particulares características de ligereza y alta resistencia. Este Proyecto Fin de Carrera se centra en el comportamiento de laminados de fibra de carbono con núcleo de honeycomb frente a impactos de alta velocidad, con el fin de estudiar la influencia del núcleo en estos casos, y obtener unas dimensiones óptimas de éste para alcanzar la mejor relación entre el peso del panel sá...

  18. Distribuição dos agregados e carbono orgânico influenciados por manejos agroecológicos.

    OpenAIRE

    Loss, Arcângelo; Pereira, Marcos Gervasio; Schultz, Nivaldo; Ferreira, Edilene Pereira; Silva, Eliane Maria Ribeiro da; Beutler, Sidinei Julio

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência do manejo agroecológico na distribuição dos agregados estáveis em água e no teor de carbono orgânico dos agregados em diferentes coberturas vegetais. Foram selecionadas cinco áreas, a saber: sistema agroflorestal; cultivo de figo (Ficus carica L.); consórcio maracujá (Passiflora edulis S.)–Desmodium sp.; cultivo de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), em manejo convencional, e cultivo de milho (Zea mays L.), em plantio direto. Em cada área, foram ...

  19. Existencias y tasas de incremento neto de la biomasa y del carbono en bosques primarios y secundarios de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Orrego Suaza, Sergio Alonso; Del Valle Arango, Jorge Ignacio

    2002-01-01

    En 33 parcelas permanentes de 1000 m2 (0,1 ha) en bosques primarios y 77 parcelas permanentes de 500 m (0,05 ha) en bosques secundarios, para un área de muestreo de 7,15 ha, se estimaron las existencias de biomasa y del carbono almacenado en los siguientes compartimientos: biomasa aérea, necromasa, biomasa subterránea y suelo. La biomasa aérea total viva en los bosques primarios promedió 246,542 t/ha, representada 92,42% por árboles y arbustos dicotiledóneos, 5,93% en palmas (3,58% la pa...

  20. Síntesis, Activación Química y Aplicaciones de Nanoestructuras de Carbono

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Cotillas, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo forma parte de un amplio programa de investigación sobre la preparación de nanoestructuras de carbono y su aplicación en procesos de interés energético, industrial y medioambiental que, desde el año 2003 hasta la actualidad, se está desarrollando en el Departamento de Ingeniería Química de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM). Durante las últimas décadas se ha asistido al inicio de una revolución científica basada en la capacidad de medir, manipular y organizar l...

  1. Disponibilidade de metais pesados em Latossolo com aplicação superficial de escória, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário Heavy metal exchangeable in an Oxisol with surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludge and limestone

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa; Leonardo Theodoro Büll; Wanderley da Silva Paganini; Iraê Amaral Guerrini

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alguns atributos químicos do solo e a disponibilidade de cádmio (Cd), cromo (Cr), níquel (Ni), mercúrio (Hg), chumbo (Pb) e arsênio (As), por meio da extração pelo DTPA, em conseqüência da aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal e lodos de esgoto centrifugados e de biodigestores, nas doses 0 (testemunha), 2, 4 e 8 Mg ha-1 e um tratamento adicional composto pela calagem superficial na dose 2 Mg ha-1. O experimento foi conduzido em delineament...

  2. Nanofósseis Calcários e Registros Isotópicos (Oxigênio e Carbono da Seção de Shagamu,Bacia de Dahomey, Nigéria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber F. Alves

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A Bacia de Dahomey localiza-se na regiãodo Golfo de Guiné, estendendo-se ao sudoesteda margem africana por Gana, República de Togoe Benin e ao leste pela porção sul da Nigéria.Este trabalho apresenta resultados de um estudobioestratigráfico detalhado de nanofósseis calcáriosda seção de Shagamu, Nigéria. O intervaloinvestigado corresponde ao Paleoceno-Eoceno, emestratos marinhos da Formação Oshosun, contendoargilitos escuros intercalados com concreçõescalcárias. O estudo biocronoestratigráfico integradoentre nanofósseis calcários e foraminíferos indicouum intervalo entre o Paleoceno Superior ao EocenoInferior (biozonas P4b, P4c e P5 de foraminíferosplanctônicos e NP9, para nanofósseis. Os registrosisotópicos de carbono e oxigênio, baseados em tecasde foraminíferos planctônicos e bentônicos, apontamuma ligeira tendência de aquecimento em águasprofundas durante a transição do limite Paleoceno-Eoceno, possibilitando uma correlação com o eventoglobal do Máximo Termal do Eoceno Inferior.Este trabalho é parte de um projeto de pesquisamultidisciplinar internacional (PETROBRASCENPES,Rio de Janeiro, Technische UniversitätBerlin (TUB, Alemanha, e University of Ilorin,Nigéria, com apoio da Fundação Volkswagenpara o estudo de sucessões estratigráficas e eventospaleoceanográficos do Cretáceo superior aoPaleógeno (Paleoceno e Eoceno ao longo do oceanoAtlântico Sul Equatorial.

  3. A multi-proxy warm season temperature reconstruction (3400 cal yr BP - 1500 cal yr BP) from the varved sediments of Lake Silvaplana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Monique; Larocque, Isabelle; Grosjean, Martin

    2010-05-01

    A multi-proxy analysis of a nine-meter sediment core from Lake Silvaplana (1791 m a.s.l., 46°24'N, 9°42'E - 46°30'N, 9°52'E), including an innovative application of Spectrolino (380 - 730 nm) data, provides a decadal warm season temperature reconstruction (3400 cal yr BP - 1500 cal yr BP). The climate of this region has been shown to be representative of continental Europe (Trachsel et al., 2009). Consequently, we offer one of the first high-resolution multi-proxy records of European climate for this time period. The sediment of Silvaplana contains annual (‘varved') layers. Therefore, a chronology has been based on varve counts, 210Pb, 137Cs, documented flood layers and radiocarbon dates (Blass et al., 2007a;b). These varves enable high-resolution (sub-decadal) sampling and measurement of geochemical (Spectrolino, Biogenic Silica [BSi], varve thickness) and biological (chironomids) parameters. Spectrolino and BSi Flux measurements of the upper three meters of the core have been used to develop two independent calibrations-in-time and warm season (JJAS) temperature reconstructions back to AD 1177 (Spectrolino calibration period = 1864 - 1949; r = 0.92; pcorr = 0.001; BSi calibration period = 1864 - 1949; r = 0.67; pcorr = 0.03) (Trachsel et al., in review a;b; Blass et al., 2007b). A third warm season (July) temperature reconstruction to AD 1177 has been developed from chironomids (Larocque et al., 2009; Larocque-Tobler et al., 2009; accepted). Finally, Leemann and Niessen (1994), Ohlendorf et al. (1997), Nussbaumer et al. (in prep.) and Blass et al. (2007a) have shown a close relationship between local glacial activity and mean summer temperature. Here, the laboratory methods and calibrations-in-time previously used to reconstruct temperatures to AD 1177 are applied to the lower six meters of sediments (Spectrolino and varve thickness: 3400 cal yr BP - 1500 cal yr BP; BSi and chironomids: 2550 cal yr BP - 1810 cal yr BP). Both the BSi and chironomid based

  4. Aspects of screening and confinement in a topologically massive $U{\\left( 1 \\right)_{\\cal W}} \\times U{(1)_{\\cal Y}}$ Chern-Simons-Higgs theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gaete, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    By using the gauge-invariant but path-dependent, variables formalism, we consider a recently proposed topologically massive $U{\\left( 1 \\right)_{\\cal W}} \\times U{(1)_{\\cal Y}}$ Chern-Simons-Higgs theory in $2+1$ dimensions. In particular, we inspect the impact of a Chern-Simons mixing term between two Abelian gauge fields on physical observables. We pursue our investigation by analysing the model in two different situations. In the first case, where we integrate out the massive excitation and consider an effective model for the massless field, we show that the interaction energy contains a linear term leading to the confinement of static charge probes along with a screening contribution. The second situation, where the massless field can be exactly integrated over with its constraint duly taken into account, the interesting feature is that the resulting effective model describes a purely screening phase, without any trace of a confining regime.

  5. OPORTUNIDADES DO MERCADO DE CRÉDITO DE CARBONO PARA USINAS SUCROALCOOLEIRAS DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGUES, Elaine Miranda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of production and competitiveness in industry and technology, the global climate is in constant change, involving important discussions about this issue, for example, the increaseof carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by industrially countries. The questions have as objective to revert the situation, involving some steps and processes that demonstrate the importance of this discussion as an current model of sustainable use of nature. From these negotiations that Kyoto’s Protocol was created, generating new income resources. The general objective of this paper was to investigate, by literature, what opportunities are been created to the firms, specially of cane sugar cultivation – animportant segment to invest cause of the energy co-generation projects – with the purpose to reduce the environmental damage and increase the incomes, by the concept of Clean DevelopmentMechanism. After an important process of interviews we can conclude that there are opportunities to the firms of cane sugar process and cultivation, because of the national and international demand by clean energy use.Com o aumento da produção e competitividade no ramo industrial e tecnológico, o climado planeta vem passando por constantes transformações, envolvendo sérias discussões sobre o assunto, aexemplo disso, o aumento de gás carbônico lançado na atmosfera por países mais industrializados. Oquestionamento tem como relevância reverter à situação em que se encontra o mundo, envolvendoalgumas das etapas que demonstram a importância do assunto no modelo atual de consumo sustentável danatureza. E a partir de negociações como essas é que se deu a origem do Protocolo de Kyoto em 1997 noJapão, que estipula metas de redução das emissões de poluição para países mais desenvolvidos, ofertandoassim a possibilidade de países em desenvolvimento comercializarem emissões no Mercado de Crédito deCarbono, gerando uma nova fonte de renda. O

  6. Matching the $D^6 {\\cal R}^4$ interaction at two-loops

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hoker, Eric; Pioline, Boris; Russo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    The coefficient of the $D^6 {\\cal R}^4$ interaction in the low energy expansion of the two-loop four-graviton amplitude in type II superstring theory is known to be proportional to the integral of the Zhang-Kawazumi (ZK) invariant over the moduli space of genus-two Riemann surfaces. We demonstrate that the ZK invariant is an eigenfunction with eigenvalue 5 of the Laplace-Beltrami operator in the interior of moduli space. Exploiting this result, we evaluate the integral of the ZK invariant explicitly, finding agreement with the value of the two-loop $D^6 {\\cal R}^4$ interaction predicted on the basis of S-duality and supersymmetry. A review of the current understanding of the $D^{2p} {\\cal R}^4$ interactions in type II superstring theory compactified on a torus $T^d$ with $p \\leq 3$ and $d \\leq 4$ is included.

  7. L’Observatoire numérique Nouvelle-Calédonie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Ullmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ses missions consistent à observer le développement numérique et favoriser l’animation territoriale des acteurs en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Parrainée par l’association calédonienne pour les technologies de l’information et de la communication (ACTIC et le ministère en charge de l’économie numérique du Gouvernement de Nouvelle-Calédonie nommé depuis mai 2009, une mission d’étude a été menée depuis juin 2010 pour définir les contours d’un Observatoire numérique. A travers cette étude, il s’agissai...

  8. Anomalies, counterterms and the ${\\cal N} =0$ Polchinski-Strassler solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor-Robinson, M M

    2001-01-01

    The singularity structure of many IIB supergravity solutions asymptotic to $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ becomes clearer when one considers the full ten dimensional solution rather than the dimensionally reduced solution of gauged supergravity. It has been shown that all divergences in the gravitational action of the dimensionally reduced spacetime can be removed by the addition of local counterterms on the boundary. Here we attempt to formulate the counterterm action directly in ten dimensions for a particular class of solutions, the ${\\cal N} = 0$ Polchinski-Strassler solutions, which are dual to an ${\\cal N} =4$ SYM theory perturbed by mass terms for all scalars and spinors. This involves constructing the solution perturbatively near the boundary. There is a contribution to the Weyl anomaly from the mass terms (which break the classical conformal invariance of the action). The coefficient of this anomaly is reproduced by a free field calculation indicating a non-renormalisation theorem inherited from the ${\\cal N} =4...

  9. Sistema de seguridad para elaborar nanopartículas de carbono a escala de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania Soguero González

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Las nanopartículas de carbono (NPC han sido de las más utilizadas, debido a sus propiedades. Muchas de estas propiedades que hacen tan útil a las NPC también pueden hacerlas tóxicas para las células y el organismo y por lo tanto deben ser manipuladas con precaución. El Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN está desarrollando un programa de investigación que incluye la síntesis NPC usando el método de descarga de arco sumergida en agua. En este trabajo se describe el sistema de nanoseguridad implementado en los laboratorios del CEADEN para el desarrollo de las mejores prácticas con NPC. Dicho sistema se construyó sobre la base de un análisis de seguridad. Se usó el método ¿Qué pasa si? y un procedimiento que emplea un árbol de decisiones que permite clasificar los laboratorios en clases de acuerdo a niveles de peligrosidad. Se identificaron los peligros de importancia significativa. Para la estimación del riesgo de estas se construyó una matriz Probabilidad/Consecuencia, donde se reflejó el riesgo asociado a cada uno de los eventos analizados y se clasificó en las categorías de alto, medio y bajo riesgo. Finalmente, se procedió a implementar las medidas de protección personal, técnicas y organizativas definidas a partir del análisis de riesgo efectuado en forma de procedimientos.

  10. CAMBIOS EN LAS RESERVAS DE CARBONO ORGÁNICO DEL SUELO BAJO DIFERENTES COBERTURAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I. Bojórquez Serrano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las reservas de carbono orgánico en los suelos (COS y sus cambios en el tiempo son un tema ambiental de actualidad, asimismo las pérdidas de COS que ocurren con la conversión de ecosistemas naturales a agrosistemas, contribuyen con emisiones a la atmósfera, al calentamiento global y el cambio climático. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los cambios en las reservas de COS bajo diferentes coberturas de la cuenca del río Mololoa, Nayarit, México. El análisis de los cambios se realiza por diferencia en las reservas de COS en los primeros 20 cm de 13 perfiles de suelos con diferentes coberturas, dos en bosques de encino, dos en bosques de pino, uno en pastizal, uno en cultivo de aguacate y siete en terrenos cultivados con caña de azúcar. Las coberturas estables de bosque y pastizal generan ganancias en las reservas de COS; siendo el pastizal el que registra la mayor cantidad (2,65 Mg ha -1 año -1 , seguido por el bosque de encino (0,40-0,47 Mg ha -1 año -1 , el bosque de pino (0,15-0,38 Mg ha -1 año -1 y la arboleda de aguacate (0,29 Mg ha -1 año -1 . Mientras que la cobertura de cultivo de caña de azúcar generó pérdidas en las reservas de COS, entre 0,12-0,84 Mg ha -1 año -1

  11. Microbiological corrosion in low carbon steels; Corrosion microbiologica en aceros de bajo carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina-Custodio, O; Ortiz-Prado, A; Jacobo-Armendariz, V. H; Schouwenaars-Franssens, R [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: medina_1979@yahoo.com; armandoo@servidor.unam.mx; vjacobo@dgapa.unam.mx; raf_schouweenaars@yahoo.com

    2009-01-15

    The Microbiologically Induced Corrosion affects several industries, such as oil industry where it is estimated that 20% to 30% pipes failures are related with microorganism. The chemical reactions generate ions transfer, this validate the use of electrochemical technique for its analysis. Coupons submerged in a nutritional medium with presence and absence of three different microorganisms during two periods, 48 hours and 28 days were studied. Polarization resistance (Rp) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques were applied to determine the corrosively of the systems. The results show a greater corrosive effect of abiotic systems, this indicates a microorganisms protection effect to the metal, opposite to the first hypothesis. This result was ratified observing surface coupons by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) technique. A possible mechanism based on Evans - Tafel graph is proposed to explain inhibitor microorganism effect. [Spanish] La corrosion microbiologica es un tipo comun de deterioro que afecta diversas industrias, una de ellas es la petrolera en la que se estiman que el 20% o 30% de fallas en las tuberias de trasporte de hidrocarburos es favorecida por microorganismos. Las reacciones quimicas que sustentan estos, generan transferencia de iones, lo que justifica el empleo de tecnicas electroquimicas para su analisis. En este trabajo, se estudiaron probetas de acero de bajo carbono SAE 1018, sumergidas en un medio nutritivo rico en cloruros en presencia y ausencia de tres diferentes cargas microbianas, en tiempos de exposicion de 48 horas y 28 dias. Se realizaron ensayos de resistencia a la polarizacion (Rp) y espectroscopia de impedancia electroquimica (EIS) para determinar el efecto corrosivo de los diferentes sistemas. Los resultados muestran que el medio abiotico causa el mayor efecto corrosivo, lo que indica un efecto protector de los microorganismos al metal contradiciendo la hipotesis inicialmente propuesta. La observacion

  12. The Framework Model of Supply-Chain Process in CALS Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    E-supply chain is the trend of the supply chain ma na gement. However, building E-supply chain depends on business process improvemen t and re-engineering, which becomes one of the important aspects in supply chai n management. However, the supply chain process re-engineering and improvement is constrained because of lack of integrating operation framework and standards based on information management. We find that the idea of CALS origins from DoD of USA can solve the problems very well. CALS is the abb...

  13. L’élevage de la crevette bleue en Nouvelle -Calédonie

    OpenAIRE

    Della Patrona, Luc; Brun, Pierre; Peignon, Jean-marie

    2009-01-01

    Ce poster présente l'ouvrage homonyme qui représente une somme de connaissances considérable sur l’élevage de la crevette bleue Litopenaeus stylirostris en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Les différents aspects de l’élevage y sont détaillés avec de nombreux exemples très concrets et une iconographie abondante, 320 pages,101 figures, 49 photos, 85 tableaux, près de 500 références bibliographiques. Cet ouvrage satisfera naturellement les professionnels de la crevetticulture en Nouvelle-Calédonie et au delà...

  14. QIE12: A New High-Performance ASIC for the ATLAS TileCal Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, Gary; The ATLAS collaboration; Proudfoot, James; Stanek, Robert; Chekanov, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    We present results on the QIE12, a custom ASIC, being developed for the ATLAS TileCal Phase 2 Upgrade. The design features 1.5 fC sensitivity, more than 17 bits of dynamic range with logarithmic response, and an on-chip TDC with one nanosecond resolution. It has a programmable shunt output for monitoring the integrated current. The device operates with no dead-time at 40 MHz, making it ideal for calorimetry at the LHC. We present bench measurements and integration studies that characterize the performance, radiation tolerance measurements, and the design for the ATLAS TileCal detector for the Phase 2 Upgrade.

  15. Estudi constructiu i proposta de rehabilitació de la Masia Cal Mata ( Albinyana )

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Aragón, Sergi; Solé Alcàcer, Marc

    2013-01-01

    L’objectiu d’aquest treball és explicar l’evolució històrica de la masia Cal Mata i del seu entorn, analitzar quin és el seu estat actual, realitzar l’aixecament gràfic inexistent fins ara i realitzar una proposta de rehabilitació encarada a un canvi d’ús de l’actual masia a una masia rural. La masia Cal Mata ha estat dividida en dues zones. Una zona més antiga, que correspondria a la part oest, on hi trobem a la planta baixa els trasters per guardar material i a la planta pis les...

  16. Spatial structure of the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Seppä, H.; H. J. B. Birks; Giesecke, T.; D. Hammarlund; Alenius, T.; Antonsson, K.; Bjune, A.E.; Heikkilä, M.; MacDonald, G. M.; Ojala, A. E. K.; Telford, R J; Veski, S.

    2007-01-01

    A synthesis of well-dated high-resolution pollen records suggests a spatial structure in the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe. The temperate, thermophilous tree taxa, especially Corylus, Ulmus, and Alnus, decline abruptly between 8300 and 8000 cal yr BP at most sites located south of 61° N, whereas there is no clear change in pollen values at the sites located in the North-European tree-line region. Pollen-based quantitat...

  17. High temporal Resolution Fire History in Eastern Africa: the Last 16 kyr cal. BP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanniere, B.; Carcaillet, C.; Garcin, Y.; Vullien, A.; Williamson, D.

    2004-12-01

    Charcoal series, based on a high temporal resolution analysis, at Lake Massoko (9°20' S, 33° 45' E, 770 a.s.l., SW Tanzania) reveals numerous changes of fire regime over the last 16 kyr cal BP. Data are based on the tallying of charcoal from 700 continuous 1 cm thick samples along a 7m long sequence. The structure of charcoal particles is well preserved with an length:width ratio superior to 5; this appears to testify to the local provenance of the material studied and to the rapid transport of particles to the lake. The majority of particles belongs to herbaceous cuticles produced by savanna or bush fires. Time control is supported by 14 radiocarbon dates. Mean time resolution per sample of 17 yr provides the first long detailed biomass burning record in Africa. This record evidences frequent fires events during the last 16 kyr, indicating that fire is a key component of east African ecosystems since, at least, the last glacial stage up to present. From 16 to 12 kyr cal BP, the charcoal influx into the lake is low except during two specific sequences, between 13.5-12.5 kyr cal BP and 14.5-14 kyr cal BP. These may correspond to more arid or more biomass-available phases. Around 10 kyr cal BP, at the early Holocene a greater influx of charcoal is recorded in the lake, probably as a result of a high fire regime likely triggered by severe droughts. Between 8.3 and 1.7 kyr cal BP, the charcoal influx displays a cyclic fire history of ca. 500 yr. Low fire regime, between 3.5-2.5, 5.5-5 and 7.5-7 kyr cal BP, correspond to wetter periods. About 12 sequences of fire increase and decrease are highlighted, which appears to support a high climatic variability during the middle-Holocene. After 1.7 kyr BP, there is a long lasting increase of charcoal influx into the lake, as observed by black carbon analysis (Thevenon et al., 2003). This particular period, without analog since 16 kyr cal BP, is consistent with the development of Iron Age settlements in the region, slash

  18. Altimetry, bathymetry and geoid variations at the Gavdos permanent Cal/Val facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertikas, Stelios P.; Daskalakis, Antonis; Tziavos, Ilias N.;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work has been to examine the relationship of steep bathymetry in the coastal areas around the permanent Cal/Val facility of Gavdos, and their influence on the produced calibration values for the Jason-2 satellite altimeter. The paper describes how changes in seafloor topography...... calibration data and careful data analysis, certain features and variations, with permanent signatures at some locations south of Gavdos, have been found in the altimeter bias values. Causes of these variations have been interpreted. Some of these features, for example, at 12km south of the Cal/Val site seem...

  19. Chloroform fumigation-extraction labile C pool (microbial biomass C "plus" shows high correlation to microbial biomass C in Argentinian and Brazilian soils Alta correlación entre el "pool" de carbono lábil por fumigación con cloroformo-extracción (carbono de biomasa microbiana plus y carbono de biomasa microbiana en suelos de Argentina y Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helvécio De-Polli

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Chloroform fumigation-incubation and chloroform fumigation-extraction approaches have significantly contributed to assess soil microbial biomass. Some controversy is found in the literature about the suggestion to calculate microbial biomass carbon (MBC without the subtraction of the un-fumigated control, in opposition to the originally proposed method that requires such subtraction. Some authors consider the non-subtraction proceeding as a more robust method. Nevertheless, values obtained without subtraction of a control include other labile organic fractions of soil carbon besides microbial biomass. Therefore, due to the usefulness of this measurement we consider more appropriate to call it as chloroform-fumigation labile C pool or microbial biomass carbon "plus" (MBC PLUS. We used a vast series of data from soils of Argentina and Brazil under different management situations to verify whether MBC correlates to MBC PLUS. There was a significant statistical correlation between values of MBC obtained by fumigation-extraction method and the corresponding MBC PLUS. The MBC PLUS performed as well as MBC as an indicator to differentiate soil managements and their impact on soil quality.Los métodos de fumigación-incubación y fumigación extracción han contribuido significativamente a las determinaciones de biomasa microbiana del suelo. En la literatura se encuentran algunas controversias acerca de la sugerencia de calcular el carbono de biomasa microbiana (CBM sin la sustracción del control no fumigado, en oposición a las metodologías tradicionales que requieren de dicha sustracción. Algunos autores mencionan que el hecho de no realizar la sustracción hace al procedimiento más robusto. Sin embargo, los valores obtenidos sin la sustracción del control incluyen otras fracciones lábiles del carbono, además de la biomasa microbiana. Debido a lo útil que resulta esta medida consideramos adecuado llamarla "pool" de carbono lábil por fumigaci

  20. Ciência em Cuba: uma aposta pela soberania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orfilio Peláez Mendoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available No dia 15 de janeiro de 1960, o então primeiro-ministro do Governo Revolucionário, Fidel Castro Ruz, disse que o futuro de Cuba teria que ser necessariamente um futuro de homens de ciência, um futuro de homens de pensamento. Meio século depois de pronunciada tão profética frase, a ilha caribenha é um país de pesquisadores, especialistas e operários altamente qualificados, que dispõe de uma das indústrias biotecnológicas mais importantes do mundo, com resultados comparáveis aos atingidos pelas nações líderes nessa área do conhecimento, e na qual a atividade científica está a caminho de se converter numa potente força produtiva, geradora de significativo ingresso de divisas e de um bem-estar maior para a sociedade.El 15 de enero de 1960 el entonces primer ministro del Gobierno Revolucionario, Fidel Castro Ruz, dijo que el futuro de Cuba tendría que ser necesariamente un futuro de hombres de ciencia, un futuro de hombres de pensamiento. Medio siglo después de pronunciada tan profética frase, la Isla caribeña es un país de investigadores, especialistas y obreros altamente calificados, que dispone de una de las industrias biotecnológicas más pujantes del mundo, con resultados comparables a los alcanzados por las naciones líderes en esta esfera del conocimiento, y donde la actividad científica va en camino de convertirse en una potente fuerza productiva, generadora de significativos ingresos en divisas y de un mayor bienestar para la sociedad.On January 15, 1960, Fidel Castro Ruz, then prime minister of the Revolutionary Government, said that Cuba's future would necessarily have to be a future of men of science, a future of men of thought. Half a century after this prophetic announcement, the Caribbean island is a country of researchers, specialists and highly skilled workers, boasting one of the world's most important biotechnological industries, with achievements comparable to those of leading nations in this field of

  1. Gallery forest restoration by the attainment of carbon credit: a social-environmental proposal for low-income community; Restauracao de mata ciliar pela viabilizacao de credito de carbono: uma proposta socio-ambiental para comunidade de baixa renda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Maria Carolina Crisci

    2007-07-01

    Due to intensification in climate changes by anthropogenic causes, to the recognition of the environmental importance of the Gallery Forest and its intense degradation, this work presents an analysis of the possibilities of carbon credit attainment by low-income community, as part of an incentive program for the restoration of these areas. Two ways are demonstrated: projects of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), in the scope of the Kyoto Protocol, that generate credits called certified emission reductions; and projects based on voluntary scheme, that generate voluntary emission reductions. Both are difficult to organize and implement. For example: the eligibility of an area, baseline study, monitoring, non-permanence risks of storage carbon, technical and operational structures, operational and business costs, regulated market in consolidation and guarantee of credit acquisition. Nevertheless, this second market presents greater flexibility and acceptance for the forest projects. The social-environmental benefits of these projects are significant and the valuation of their environmental services can revert in financial incentives for low-income community, since that adequately remunerated. The carbon credit can help in the implementation of these projects, contributing for local restoration of the areas and also for carbon capture by the atmosphere, which this is a global subject. (author)

  2. Hidrólise da cana-de-açúcar com cal virgem ou cal hidratada Hydrolysis of cane sugar with lime or hydrated lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Azevedo Mota

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito do tratamento alcalino da cana-de-açúcar com cal virgem ou cal hidratada sobre a composição bromatológica e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca, da fibra em detergente neutro e da fibra em detergente ácido. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 × 3, composto de três formas de processamento da cana (in natura; cana hidrolisada com 0,5% de cal virgem; e cana hidrolisada com 0,5% de cal hidratada e três tempos de armazenamento (12, 36 e 60 horas. As formas de processamento influenciaram os teores de matéria orgânica, matéria mineral, carboidratos totais e hemicelulose, assim como os teores de fibra em detergente neutro e nutrientes digestíveis totais. Os tempos de armazenamento influenciaram os teores de proteína bruta, matéria orgânica, carboidratos totais e hemicelulose. Entre os minerais, somente o teor de cálcio teve aumento com a inclusão de ambos os tipos de cal em relação à cana-de-açúcar, que não sofreu o processo de hidrólise. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca e da fibra em detergente neutro aumentaram com a hidrólise da cana em comparação à cana in natura. A hidrólise com cal hidratada ou com cal virgem mantém o valor nutricional da cana-de-açúcar, permitindo que possa ser utilizada depois de até 60 horas de armazenamento.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the alkaline treatment of sugarcane with virgin lime or hydrated lime on the bromatologic composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber. It was used a complete random design with a 3 × 3 factorial scheme composed by three forms of of sugarcane processing (in natura sugarcane; hydrolyzed sugarcane with 0.5% virgin lime; and hydrolyzed sugarcane with 0.5% hydrated lime and three storage times (12, 36 and 60 hours. The forms of processing changed the contents of organic matter

  3. Diagnóstico nutricional de crianças de zero a cinco anos atendidas pela rede municipal de saúde em área urbana da região sul do Brasil, 1988 Nutritional diagnosis of children under five years of age assisted by the municipal health network an urban area in the Southern Region of Brazil, 1988

    OpenAIRE

    Erica Ell; Lydia M.M. Loureiro; Silvia A. Gugelmin; Sônia M.R. Cruz

    1992-01-01

    Como um dos requisitos para a operacionalização do Sistema de Vigilância Alimentar e Nutricional (SISVAN) no município de Curitiba, PR, Brasil, foi realizado um levantamento epidemiológico retrospectivo com dados de 1988, que buscou através do exame antropométrico conhecer a prevalência e as formas de desnutrição calórico-protéico de crianças menores de cinco anos atendidas pela Rede Municipal de Saúde de Curitiba. Numa amostra de 4.213 crianças encontrou-se pela Classificação de Gòmez 28,1% ...

  4. Flujo de Carbono Orgánico Total (COT en una cuenca andina: caso subcuenca Río Las Piedras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Ordóñez Díaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó para calcular el flujo de carbono transportado por la cuenca del río Las Piedras, típica representativa de los Andes tropicales suramericanos, reservorio estratégico del recurso hídrico. Se desarrolló una investigación observacional durante 20 meses sobre el recurso hídrico, mediante un diseño completamente aleatorio, estratificado por altura (msnm, analizando el contenido de COT, las propiedades físico-químicas del agua y variables hidrometeorológicas (caudal y variación estacional. La concentración promedio de COT aportada principalmente desde la zona alta fue 9 mgL-1. Se transporta en promedio un flujo de 2003,5 Kg.dia-1 de COT, asociado al caudal y la estacionalidad húmeda. El análisis en relación con variables físico-químicas permite concluir que el río disuelve CO2 en sus aguas. Este estudio contribuye al análisis del comportamiento de los ríos andinos y su aporte al ciclo global del carbono.

  5. Análisis de soldabilidad de aceros inoxidables con aceros de medio y bajo carbono por SMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luddey Marulanda Arevalo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio de la soldabilidad de aceros inoxidables austeníticos AISI 304 y AISI 316 con aceros de bajo y medio carbono AISI 1020 – AISI 1045, empleando como materiales de aporte los electrodos EutecTrode® 52 NG, 54 NG y 57 NG, mediante el proceso de arco eléctrico con electrodo revestido (SMAW. Para analizar la soldabilidad de estos electrodos cuando se realiza la unión de aceros inoxidables con aceros al carbono, se practicaron pruebas metalográficas y ensayos mecánicos de dureza, doblez y tracción, con el fin de observar el comportamiento tanto de la zona afectada térmicamente como del cordón de soldadura, a partir del cambio en las propiedades mecánicas y metalúrgicas en las diferentes regiones de las uniones soldadas. Durante el proceso de soldadura se siguió una especificación del procedimiento de soldadura (WPS, para que los resultados fueran repetibles, minimizando los problemas de agrietamiento en caliente, agrietamiento en frío, formación de fase sigma y precipitación de carburos.

  6. DESCRIPCIÓN DE LA DINÁMICA DE CARBONO EN SUELOS FORESTALES MEDIANTE UN MODELO DE RESERVORIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Orellana-Rivadeneyra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone una aproximación sobre variables medioambientales mediante funciones de distribución dependientes del tiempo para simplificar un modelo de la dinámica del carbono orgánico en el suelo. El modelo se basa en el concepto de reservorios, que supone que los diferentes estados de la materia orgánica del suelo constituyen masas homogéneas. Este modelo se enfoca en el intercambio de materia orgánica entre dichas masas, estableciendo relaciones de contacto. Usando el modelo simplificado se calculó la acumulación de materia orgánica en el suelo y la emisión de CO2 desde un ecosistema de bosque de pino (Pinus elliottii ubicado en Gainesville, Florida, EU. Se verificó la viabilidad de las aproximaciones en el modelo para estudiar la dinámica del carbono orgánico en suelos forestales. Se calculó la acumulación relativa de materia orgánica en el suelo. Con esto se obtuvo una estimación de la actividad del bosque de P. elliottii como secuestrador.

  7. Influencia del carbono y el cromo en el comportamiento tribológico de aleaciones férreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the abrasive wear resistance of a carbon steel, used in the linings of coal mills, and ferrous alloys with different chromium and carbon content. It also analyses the influence of chromium and carbon content on mechanical properties, such as hardness, and microstructure. The abrasive wear resistance of the different materials was determined by means of ASTM G 105, "Standard Test Method for Conducting Wet Sand/Rubber Wheel Abrasion Test". A blasting test was used to study erosive wear resistance.

    En este estudio se analiza la influencia, en las propiedades tribológicas, del contenido en carbono para distintas aleaciones férreas con similares contenidos en cromo, así como la influencia del cromo cuando el contenido en carbono es semejante. También, se analizó la influencia de estos elementos en propiedades como la dureza y en la microestructura de las aleaciones. Para el estudio tribológico se llevaron a cabo dos ensayos, el ensayo descrito en la norma ASTM G105: Standard Test Method for Conducting Wet Sand/Rubber Wheel Abrasion Test y ensayos de chorreo.

  8. Pela Primeira Vez, e suas Complicações Sintático-Semânticas Pela primeira vez, and its Syntactic-semantic.complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo ILARI

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflete-se neste texto sobre a expressão "pela primeira vez" e as ambigüidades que sua ocorrência gera em sentenças como "Ana e Juliana tocaram juntas pela primeira vez em Campinas no concerto de Natal de 1955". Atribui-se à expressão o papel de discutir prioridade cronológica a um evento entre outros de um mesmo tipo, e especula-se sobre as condições em que os diferentes adjuntos podem ser tomados como um dos elementos que definem o tipo de evento em questão. A reflexão que constitui o artigo é um pequeno fragmento de uma gramática de eventos, que por sua vez é parte da aspectologia, área de investigação que o Professor Ataliba T. de Castilho trilhou... pela primeira vez no Brasil há cerca de três décadas.In this paper I concern myself with the Portuguese expression "pela primeira vez"(= Engl. "for the first time" and with the ambiguities that its occurrence entails in sentences as "Ana e Juliana tocaram juntas pela primeira vez em Campinas no concerto de Natal de 1955" (=Ana and Juliana performed together for the first time in Campinas during the 1955 Christmas Concerto" Claming that "pela primeira vez" assigns precedence in time to a particular event among others of the same type, I speculate on the conditions in which different PPs belonging to the same sentence are taken as defining the relevant type of events. The reflections in this paper are intended to be a tiny fragment of the semantics of events, which is itself a part of aspectology.- an area of linguistic research that Professor De Castilho investigated...for the first time in Brazil three decades ago.

  9. Qualidade do ar interno em ambientes hospitalares climatizados: verificação de parâmetros físicos e da concentração de dióxido de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Nagel Schirmer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Em hospitais, a presença de poluentes no ar interno cria condições que podem comprometer a recuperação dos pacientes e afetar aprodutividade dos funcionários. Assim, estes estabelecimentos necessitam de sistemas de climatização que forneçam taxas deventilação adequadas para garantir o conforto de seus ocupantes e a assepsia dos ambientes. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliara qualidade do ar interno em um centro cirúrgico e uma unidade de terapia intensiva através da verificação dos parâmetros físicos deconforto e das concentrações de dióxido de carbono, seguindo-se a metodologia recomendada pela Resolução n° 09 da AgênciaNacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA, bem como propor um sistema de ar condicionado para cada um dos ambientes queatendesse à NBR 7256. Os resultados obtidos permitiram afirmar que a qualidade do ar interno destes ambientes pode ser melhorada,pois muitos dos parâmetros avaliados apresentaram valores superiores aos recomendados pela resolução. As altas concentrações deCO2 obtidas nestes dois ambientes hospitalares, por exemplo, podem ser justificadas pela falta de renovação de ar, uma vez que osaparelhos de climatização utilizados são desprovidos desta função. Sugere-se que sejam efetuadas mudanças nos sistemas declimatização, fazendo-se uso daqueles que contemplem a renovação do ar a taxas aceitáveis pela legislação vigente.Abstract In hospitals, the presence of pollutants in theindoor air creates conditions that may prejudice the recoveryof patients and affect the productivity of employees. Thus,these places need air conditioning well designed, to provideadequate ventilation rates to ensure the comfort of itsoccupants and the aseptic of environments. The present studyfocused on evaluating the indoor air quality (IAQ in a surgicalcenter and an intensive care unit, by checking the physicalparameters of comfort and the concentrations of carbondioxide, following the procedure

  10. Alótropos del carbono: experimentos de laboratorio que se hacen famosos años después

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rodríguez Reinoso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Es destacable que el “descubrimiento” de los tres últimos alótropos del elemento carbono se haya producido en un intervalo de pocos años: fullerenos en 1985, nanotubos en 1991 y grafeno en 2004.

  11. O atendimento educacional especializado pelas vozes das professoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Aparecida Hoffmann Bernardes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to acknowledge the teaching work of/in the Specialized Educational Service (SES in the public education system of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, through the voices of teachers who work in the area. Data were collected by questionnaires from approximately 34 Kindergarten and Elementary School teachers. All the participants were women between 31 and 50 years old selected through public tender, and who work a 40-hour week journey in the Specialized Education Service. These teachers are experienced in the field - 71% have been teaching for over six years in the municipal education; however, 88% of them have been working in the SES for three years or less and are, therefore, undergoing a professional moment of discovery and survival. Considering that these teachers are in a (recognition moment in the SES, their work is still singly configured. Nevertheless, some of the teachers perform activities that involve the whole school community. Participants’ voices revealed a lack of cohesion of teachers in the SES. There is need to discuss about this issue in order to try to understand their role, and even signify the SES as a pedagogical strategy in the school context, by contributing to the schooling process students, who are, first of all, school students. O estudo teve por objetivo conhecer o trabalho docente do/no Atendimento Educacional Especializado (AEE em uma rede municipal de ensino do Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, pelas vozes das professoras que atuam nesse serviço. Para a construção dos dados, aplicaram?se questionários a 34 professoras atuantes na Educação Infantil e no Ensino Fundamental, que foram tratados à luz da análise de conteúdo. Todas as participantes da pesquisa são mulheres com idades entre 31 e 50 anos concursadas como docentes no AEE, atuando 40 horas semanais como docentes no AEE. Pode-se dizer que as professoras especializadas são experientes, já que 71% atuam há mais de seis anos na rede

  12. The location of cemento enamel junction for CAL measurement: A clinical crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We face various problems while measuring the Clinical attachment level (CAL from Cemento-enamel junction (CEJ. This study aims to record and compare the CEJ location measurements using a xed reference point (FRP [Custom made stent] before and after ap elevation. Materials and Methods: A custom made stent and UNC-15 probe were used. Recording of CEJ location was made using a UNC-15 (Hu-Friedy probe, before (close CEJ and after (Open CEJ the reflection of the flap from the lower edge of the stent in those subjects who were indicated for flap surgery, at baseline. Results: We used statistical analysis involving intra-group comparison done by Paired-′t′ test. The close and the open CEJ measurements demonstrated a, statistically, non-significant difference. The equi-measurements of close and open CEJ numerical data were remarkably lower than the under and overestimation of measurements. Thus, despite certain disadvantages of stent, the FRP provides a simple solution for CAL measurement. Conclusion: The results of this study confirms the objective of the study and strongly suggests that CAL measurements done without FRP is subjected to great variation and the diagnostic and prognostic interpretation of CAL should be viewed seriously in periodontics.

  13. Study of TileCal Scintillators Irradiation using the Minimum Bias Integrators

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Cora; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This Talk is about the Minimum Bias Integrator System used in the ATLAS TileCal to monitor the instantaneous luminosity and detector response. Studies concerning these two topics are presented for 2012 and 2015 data periods. An emphasis is placed on the study of scintillator irradiation.

  14. Setup, tests and results for the ATLAS TileCal Read Out Driver production

    CERN Document Server

    Valero, Alberto; Castillo, V; Cuenca, C; Ferrer, A; Fullana, E; González, V; Higón, E; Munar, A; Poveda, J; Ruiz-Martínez, A; Salvachúa, B; Sanchís, E; Solans, C; Soret, J; Torres, J; Valls, J A

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe the performance and test results of the production of the 38 ATLAS TileCal Read Out Drivers (RODs). We first describe the basic hardware specifications and firmware functionality of the modules, the test-bench setup used for production and the test procedure to qualify the boards. We then finally show and discuss the performance results.

  15. Nonlinear modal interactions in parity-time (${\\cal PT}$) symmetric lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Li

    2016-01-01

    Parity-time ($\\cal PT$) symmetric lasers have attracted considerable attention lately due to their promising applications and intriguing properties, such as free spectral range doubling and single-mode lasing. In this work we discuss nonlinear modal interactions in these laser systems under steady state conditions, and we demonstrate that several gain clamping scenarios can occur for lasing operation in the $\\cal PT$-symmetric and $\\cal PT$-broken phases. In particular, we show that, depending on the system's design and the external pump profile, its operation in the nonlinear regime falls into two different categories: in one the system is frozen in the $\\cal PT$ phase space as the applied gain increases, while in the other the system is pulled towards its exceptional point. These features are first illustrated by a coupled mode formalism and later verified by employing the Steady-state Ab-initio Laser Theory (SALT). Our findings shine light on the robustness of single-mode operation in these lasers against ...

  16. Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) program computer software configuration management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-26

    This document describes the system configuration management activities performed in support of the Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) system, in accordance with Site procedures based on Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Standard 828-1990, Standard for Software Configuration Management Plans (IEEE 1990) and IEEE Standard 1042-1987, Guide to Software Configuration Management (IEEE 1987).

  17. New Fuzzy Extra Dimensions from $SU({\\cal N})$ Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Kurkcuoglu, Seckin

    2015-01-01

    We start with an $SU(\\cal {N})$ Yang-Mills theory on a manifold ${\\cal M}$, suitably coupled to two distinct set of scalar fields in the adjoint representation of $SU({\\cal N})$, which are forming a doublet and a triplet, respectively under a global $SU(2)$ symmetry. We show that a direct sum of fuzzy spheres $S_F^{2 \\, Int} := S_F^2(\\ell) \\oplus S_F^2 (\\ell) \\oplus S_F^2 \\left ( \\ell + \\frac{1}{2} \\right ) \\oplus S_F^2 \\left ( \\ell - \\frac{1}{2} \\right )$ emerges as the vacuum solution after the spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetry and lay the way for us to interpret the spontaneously broken model as a $U(n)$ gauge theory over ${\\cal M} \\times S_F^{2 \\, Int}$. Focusing on a $U(2)$ gauge theory we present complete parameterizations of the $SU(2)$-equivariant, scalar, spinor and vector fields characterizing the effective low energy features of this model. Next, we direct our attention to the monopole bundles $S_F^{2 \\, \\pm} := S_F^2 (\\ell) \\oplus S_F^2 \\left ( \\ell \\mp \\frac{1}{2} \\right )$ over $S_F^2 (...

  18. Essential norms of weighted composition operators on the space ${\\cal H}^\\infty$ of Dirichlet series.

    OpenAIRE

    Lefèvre, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    International audience We estimate the essential norm of a weighted composition operator relatively to the class of Dunford-Pettis operators or the class of weakly compact operators, on the space ${\\cal H}^\\infty$ of Dirichlet series. As particular cases, we obtain the precise value of the generalized essential norm of a composition operator and of a multiplication operator.

  19. Proposed Cal Grant Cuts Would Hit Community College Students Hardest. Keeping California's Promise. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Deborah Frankle

    2008-01-01

    Many more community college students than students at California's four-year colleges would lose financial aid under Governor Schwarzenegger's proposed budget for 2009. This issue brief finds that the budget-cutting plan would eliminate new Cal Grant awards for 45 percent of community college students who would have received them, compared to five…

  20. Environmental change in the Limfjord, Denmark (ca 7500-1500 cal yrs BP): A multiproxy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, J. P.; Ryves, D.B.; Rasmussen, P.;

    2013-01-01

    , foraminifera, sedimentary pigments, C and O stable isotopes and plant macrofossils) has been adopted to assess environmental change over the period ca 7500–1500 cal yrs BP at Kilen, a coastal fjord (before AD 1856) situated in the Western Limfjord. A diatom-based salinity transfer function based on a pan...

  1. The Evolution and Redefining of "CAL": A Reflection on the Interplay of Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, R.

    2010-01-01

    This article comments on how the core idea of the computer as an assistant to teaching and learning became reconfigured through changing technologies, pedagogies and educational cultures. Early influential researchers in computer assisted learning (CAL) made strong but differing links to theories and representations of learning, showing a…

  2. The TileCal Energy Reconstruction for Collision Data Using the Matched Filter

    CERN Document Server

    Peralva, B S M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Barrel Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS at LHC. It is divided in a central barrel and two extended barrels, where each part is formed by 64 modules in order to complete the entire cylinder. The central barrel modules are divided in 46 cells each, while the extended barrels modules are divided in 14 cells. The energy deposited in each cell is read out by two electronic channels for redundancy and the analog pulse is conditioned by a shaper circuit. Therefore, TileCal comprises more than 10,000 readout channels. The energy is estimated for each channel by reconstructing the amplitude of the digitized pulse sampled every 25 ns. This work presents the performance of an alternative algorithm for TileCal energy reconstruction, namely the TileCal Matched Filter (MF). The performance of the MF method is compared to the currently implemented algorithm (OF2) using collision data acquired in 2010 during LHC operation period. The results showed that the MF present...

  3. X-ray Pulsations in the Supersoft X-ray Binary CAL 83

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidtke, P. C.; Cowley, A. P.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray data reveal that the supersoft X-ray binary CAL 83 exhibits 38.4 minute pulsations at some epochs. These X-ray variations are similar to those found in some novae and are likely to be caused by nonradial pulsations the white dwarf. This is the first detection of pulsations in a classical supersoft X-ray binary.

  4. A double copy for ${\\cal N}=2$ supergravity: a linearised tale told on-shell

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, G L; Nampuri, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    We construct the on-shell double copy for linearised four-dimensional ${\\cal N}=2$ supergravity coupled to one vector multiplet with a quadratic prepotential. We apply this dictionary to the weak-field approximation of dyonic BPS black holes in this theory.

  5. Fisiologia do estresse calórico e a utilização de eletrólitos em frangos de corte Heat stress physiology and eletrolites for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Aparecido Borges

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Várias alterações metabólicas e fisiológicas são desencadeadas em frangos de corte submetidos a altas temperaturas ambientais, o que pode acarretar em grandes perdas no desempenho e na imunocompetência destas aves. Além das técnicas de controle ambiental estarem sendo freqüentemente empregadas para a redução do impacto negativo do estresse calórico sobre o desempenho das aves, outras medidas estão constantemente sendo estudadas. Nos últimos anos, o manejo nutricional adequado também tem demonstrado ser efetivo como medida preventiva para o estresse calórico, pois o funcionamento do sistema termorregulador do frango (produção de calor, rotas evaporativas e não evaporativas de dissipação de calor pode ser influenciado pela dieta, em especial, o estabelecimento de adequados balanços eletrolíticos, devido a sua importância fisiológica no mecanismo do estresse calórico. Assim, os mecanismos nutricionais devem ser reavaliados como uma ferramenta no controle desta disfunção metabólica das aves.High ambient temperature could result in numerous physiological and metabolic perturbations on broilers chicken with consequently adversely impact in broilers performance and immune response. Though the environmental control technique have been frequently useful for reduce the negative impact of heat stress in poultry performance, other alternative have been studied. Lately, the nutritional manipulation is also used for reducing the heat stress, once the most part of thermobalance components of broiler (heat production, evaporative and nonevaporative heat dissipation routes could be manipulated though the diet. Specially, the eletrolitic balance have fundamental importance in physiological stress mechanism and for this way should be considered as a tool in control of this metabolic dysfunction in birds.

  6. 78 FR 1252 - CalAmp Wireless Networks Corporation (CWNC), Satellite Products Division, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... December 13, 2011 (76 FR 77556). At the request of the State of Minnesota, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration CalAmp Wireless Networks Corporation (CWNC), Satellite Products Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Select Staffing, Oxnard, CA; CalAmp Wireless...

  7. 76 FR 70520 - Rovac Corp., RS Group of Companies, Inc., Rymer Foods, Inc. Stratus Services Group, Inc., Sun Cal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... COMMISSION Rovac Corp., RS Group of Companies, Inc., Rymer Foods, Inc. Stratus Services Group, Inc., Sun Cal Energy, Inc., Sun Motor International, Inc., Surebet Casinos, Inc., and Swiss Medica, Inc.; Order of... Sun Cal Energy, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended March...

  8. The quantitative reconstruction of the palaeoclimate between 5200 and 4300 cal yr BP in the Tianshui Basin, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative reconstruction of the palaeoclimate is a prerequisite for understanding climate processes at time scales of centuries and millennia. Here, the coexistence approach (CA was applied to reconstruct climatic factors quantitatively based on the fossil charcoal records between 5200 and 4300 cal yr BP in the Tianshui Basin, NW China. The CA analysis showed that the climate of the Tianshui Basin belonged to the northern subtropical zone between 5200 and 4300 cal yr BP. The mean annual temperature (MAT was approximately 13.2 °C, and the mean annual precipitation (MAP was approximately 778 mm between 5200 and 4900 cal yr BP. The MAT was approximately 13.2 °C, and the MAP was approximately 688 mm between 4800 and 4300 cal yr BP. The MAT was approximately 2.2 °C higher than today, and the MAP was approximately 280 mm higher than today from 5200 to 4900 cal yr BP. The MAT was also approximately 2.2 °C higher than today from 4800 to 4300 cal yr BP, while the MAP was approximately 196 mm higher than today. No abrupt cold event occurred between 5200 and 4300 cal yr BP; however, a drought tendency appeared after around 4800 cal yr BP.

  9. Apoptosis of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell (CAL-27 induced by Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang ZHANG

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites on viability of CAL-27 cells and apoptosis in CAL-27 cells. Methods: Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites 1 and 2 (LM1 and LM2 were obtained by culturing Lactobacillus sp. A-2 in reconstituted whey medium and whey-inulin medium; the cultured CAL-27 cells were treated with different concentrations of LM1 and LM2 (0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 mg/mL and assayed by methyl thiazolyltetrazolium (MTT method; morphological changes of apoptotic cell were observed under fluorescence microscopy by acridine orange (Ao fluorescent staining; flow cytometry method (FCM and agarose gel electrophoresis were used to detect the apoptosis of CAL-27 cells treated LM1 and LM2. Results: The different concentrations of LM1 and LM2 could restrain the growth of CAL-27 cells, and in a dose-dependent manner; the apoptosis of CAL-27 cells was obviously induced and was time-dependent. Conclusions: Viability of CAL-27 cells was inhibited by Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites; Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites could induce CAL-27 cells apoptosis; study on the bioactive compounds in the Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites and their molecular mechanism is in progress.

  10. Organic carbon determination in histosols and soil horizons with high organic matter content from Brazil Determinação do carbono orgânico em organossolos e solos com horizontes com elevado conteúdo de matéria orgânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gervasio Pereira

    2006-04-01

    órios para as amostras com elevado conteúdo de carbono orgânico. Com base em dados de análise de regressão, os teores de matéria orgânica determinados pela mufla podem ser calculados a partir dos dados de C-W & B md aplicando-se um fator que varia de 2,00 a 2,19 com 95% de probabilidade. O fator 2,10, valor médio, é sugerido para a conversão dos resultados obtidos por estes métodos.

  11. Comportamiento a fractura de dos aceros de ultraalto contenido en carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Vicente, A.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Two ultrahigh carbon steels containing 1.3 and 1.5 pet carbon have been tested for their plane-strain (Chevron-notch fracture toughness using Barker tests. The microstructure of these two materials consisted of fine carbides dispersed in a ferrite matrix. Fracture toughness of UHC-1.3 C was twice that of UHC-1.5 C. This result can be readily explained by means of the difference in size of the carbide particles found in each microstructure. The crack growth mechanism consisted of ductile tearing at the notch tip region followed by nucleation of a brittle crack at carbides. Crack propagation in the UHC-1.3 C specimen occurred unstably and smooth crack growth behavior was observed in UHC-1.5 C. The difference in crack growth behavior was attributed to the elastic energy stored in the grips, which was higher for the UHC-1.3 C test than for the UHC-1.5 C test.

    Se ha analizado la tenacidad a la fractura de dos aceros de ultraalto contenido en carbono, UAC, conteniendo 1,3% C y 1,5% C, los cuales poseían una microestructura de carburos esferoidales finos en una matriz de ferrita. Se ha empleado el ensayo Barker para determinar el comportamiento a fractura. La tenacidad obtenida en el acero UAC-1,3 C fue doble que la del acero UAC-1,5 C. Esto se explica a partir del tamaño de los carburos presentes en cada microestructura. El mecanismo de fractura en ambos aceros consiste, inicialmente, en desgarramiento dúctil de la zona de la punta de la entalla seguido de propagación frágil de una grieta nucleada en los carburos. La propagación de la grieta en el acero UAC-1,5 C se produjo de manera estable, mientras que en el acero UAC-1,3 C la grieta se propagó catastróficamente. La diferencia de comportamientos en el crecimiento de la grieta se atribuye a la mayor energía elástica acumulada por la mordaza para el acero UAC-1,3 C que para el acero UAC-1,5 C.

  12. Linfadenocromatografia perigástrica com carbono ativado (CH40: estudo experimental Perigastric lymphadenochromatography with activated carbon (CH40: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minao Okawa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Procedimento cirúrgico bem instituído e planejado constitui ainda a única terapêutica efetiva para o câncer gástrico. Entretanto, os resultados de cura não têm melhorado significativamente nas últimas décadas, principalmente no ocidente. O principal benefício de introdução endoscópica de corantes na submucosa gástrica está na facilitação de linfadenectomias regradas, podendo facilitar a localização acurada dos linfonodos. Além disso, a linfadenocromatografia possibilita futuras pesquisas para a detecção do linfonodo sentinela e sua aplicabilidade racional e seletiva na indicação precisa da linfadenectomia, principalmente dos grupos de linfonodos de ressecção mais trabalhosa e com maiores possibilidades de complicações. A linfadenocromatografia com carbono ativado (CH40 foi analisada neste estudo experimental (fase 1. OBJETIVOS: Testar a efetividade e inocuidade da linfadenocromatografia com CH40, em três espécies animais diferentes. MÉTODOS: Como preconizado pela Associação Brasileira de Pesquisas Clínicas (Resoluções nº 196/96 e 251/97, CNS/MS, foram utilizados três espécies diferentes de animais: 3 cães, 10 coelhos e 20 ratos. Em todos os cães, a introdução de CH40 na camada submucosa de estômago foi realizada através da endoscopia gástrica e utilizando, cateter de polietileno agulhado, usualmente empregado na esclerose de varizes esofageanas. O período de observação variou de 43 a 125 dias, quando o procedimento cirúrgico foi realizado. Em todos os coelhos e ratos a introdução de CH40 foi realizada através de agulha hipodérmica e seringa insulínica, na região subcutânea inguinal. O período de observação foi de 102 a 105 dias e 110 a 122 dias, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: Nos períodos de observação, desde a injeção até a eutanásia, não se detectou em nenhum animal efeito colateral ou óbito. Nos cães, linfonodos perigástricos foram corados pelo CH40. Em todos os

  13. CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge: Two Institutional Networks Increasing Diversity in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Impey, Chris David; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe two programs, CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge, with the common mission of increasing participation of groups traditionally underrepresented in astronomy, through summer research opportunities, in the case of CAMPARE, scholarships in the case of Cal-Bridge, and significant mentoring in both programs, leading to an increase in their numbers successfully pursuing a PhD in the field.In 6 years, the CAMPARE program has sent 62 students, >85% from underrepresented groups, to conduct summer research at one of twelve major research institutions in California, Arizona, and Wyoming. The graduation rate among CAMPARE scholars is 97%, and of the 37 CAMPARE scholars who have graduated with a Bachelor's degree, almost 60% (21) have completed or are pursuing graduate education in astronomy or a related field, at institutions including UCLA, USC, UC Riverside, Stanford, Univ. of Rochester, Georgia Tech, Kent State, Indiana Univ., Univ. of Oregon, Syracuse, and the Fisk-Vanderbilt Master's-to-PhD program. The Cal-Bridge program is a CSU-UC Bridge program comprised of faculty form 5 University of California (UC), 8 California State University (CSU), and 8 California Community College (CCC) campuses in Southern California. Cal-Bridge provides much deeper mentoring and professional development experiences over the last two years of undergraduate and first year of graduate school to students from this diverse network of higher education institutions. Cal-Bridge Scholars benefit from financial support, intensive, joint mentoring by CSU and UC faculty, professional development workshops, and exposure to research opportunities at the participating UC campuses.

  14. UTILIZAÇÃO DE LODO ANAERÓBIO COMO FONTE EXTERNA DE CARBONO NO PROCESSO DE DESNITRIFICAÇÃO DE ÁGUAS RESIDUÁRIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tavares de Sousa

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O processo de desnitrificação reduz, de forma geral, nitrato a nitrogênio molecular; essa redução acontece associada ao ganho de elétrons. Na desnitrificação, as bactérias heterotróficas utilizam carbono orgânico como fonte doadora de elétrons. No caso de esgotos sanitários já tratados (tratamento secundário e como estes não dispõem de carbono orgânico suficiente exigem, portanto, uma fonte externa de carbono orgânico. Assim sendo, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o potencial de desnitrificação de uma coluna preenchida com lodo anaeróbio sem o uso de outra fonte externa de carbono; esta coluna foi carregada pelo topo superior com lodo e, por meio de bomba peristáltica, o afluente nitrificado alimentava a coluna em fluxo ascendente. Durante 30 semanas de operação, a eficiência de remoção na coluna de desnitrificação permaneceu em torno de 72%, o lodo anaróbio se comportou como fonte externa de carbono adequada para o processo e a maior eficiência de remoção de nitrato ocorreu quando a coluna foi operada com maior concentração de sólidos suspenso voláteis (SSV; portanto, a eficiência de remoção de nitrato é função da concentração de SSV e, consequentemente, da masssa de lodo na coluna.

  15. Aplicação da técnica de ruído eletroquímico no estudo da corrosão do aço carbono em meio de bicarbonato de sódio saturado com dióxido de carbono

    OpenAIRE

    Klok, Simone Maria

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: O atual cenário da indústria petroquímica passou a envolver a perfuração de poços em condições de alta pressão e temperatura. Os campos de exploração de petróleo na camada pré-sal representam um desafio operacional, pois possuem elevada concentração de Dióxido de Carbono - CO2. O CO2 reage com a água e forma o ácido carbônico - H2CO3 que é corrosivo ao aço carbono. A corrosão por dióxido de carbono é um dos tipos de ataques mais encontrados na produção de óleo e gás e a maior parte da...

  16. Anaerobic digestion of vinasse: energetic application of biogas and acquisition of credits of carbon – a case Biodigestão anaeróbia da vinhaça: aproveitamento energético do biogás e obtenção de créditos de carbono – estudo de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaelo Balbinot

    2010-12-01

    ômico: a produção de metano e seu aproveitamento. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a aplicabilidade do sistema de digestão anaeróbia da vinhaça em reatores UASB, bem como o aproveitamento do biogás para geração de energia elétrica e obtenção de créditos de carbono. A estimativa da linha de base foi feita com base no balanço de massa entre o carbono presente na vinhaça e o CO2 emitido pela degradação aeróbia deste efluente no ambiente. Verificou-se que as emissões de linha de base e da implantação do projeto serão as mesmas, sendo que a adicionalidade é a produção de energia elétrica, uma vez que o biogás é uma fonte renovável de energia. Desta forma, pôde-se concluir que o biogás produzido pela biodigestão anaeróbia apresenta potencial energético competitivo com outras fontes energéticas e que o aproveitamento energético do biogás da vinhaça apresentou adicionalidade. Porém, a comercialização de créditos de carbono não pode ser considerada um atrativo (pelo menos financeiro na implantação deste tipo de projeto.

  17. Biodiesel production from different algal oil using immobilized pure lipase and tailor made rPichia pastoris with Cal A and Cal B genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathiraja, B; Ranjith Kumar, R; PraveenKumar, R; Chakravarthy, M; Yogendran, D; Jayamuthunagai, J

    2016-08-01

    In this investigation, oil extraction was performed in marine macroalgae Gracilaria edulis, Enteromorpha compressa and Ulva lactuca. The algal biomass was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Fourier Transform-Infra Red Spectroscopy. Six different pre-treatment methods were carried out to evaluate the best method for maximum oil extraction. Optimization of extraction parameters were performed and high oil yield was obtained at temperature 55°C, time 150min, particle size 0.10mm, solvent-to-solid ratio 6:1 and agitation rate 500rpm. After optimization, 9.5%, 12.18% and 10.50 (g/g) of oil extraction yield was achieved from the respective algal biomass. The rate constant for extraction was obtained as first order kinetics, by differential method. Stable intracellular Cal A and Cal B lipase producing recombinant Pichia pastoris was constructed and used as biocatalyst for biodiesel production. Comparative analysis of lipase activity and biodiesel yield was made with immobilized Candida antarctica lipase. PMID:26906444

  18. Ubiquitination and Degradation of CFTR by the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase MARCH2 through Its Association with Adaptor Proteins CAL and STX6

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Cheng; William Guggino

    2013-01-01

    Golgi-localized cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-associated ligand (CAL) and syntaxin 6 (STX6) regulate the abundance of mature, post-ER CFTR by forming a CAL/STX6/CFTR complex (CAL complex) that promotes CFTR degradation in lysosomes. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this degradation is unknown. Here we investigated the interaction of a Golgi-localized, membrane-associated RING-CH E3 ubiquitin ligase, MARCH2, with the CAL complex and the consequent bindin...

  19. Dinámica del carbono en los ecosistemas de páramo de los Andes neotropicales: revisión de literatura sobre modelos y parámetros relevantes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sevink; F.H. Tonneijck; K. Kalbitz; L.H. Cammeraat

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Los suelos del páramo almacenan cantidades excepcionales de carbono debido a las condiciones edáficas y climáticas sobre las cuales se desarrollan. Este gran reservorio de carbono está amenazado debido a los efectos del cambio climático y las dinámicas de uso de la tierra. No obstante, el de

  20. CalPFl4030 negatively modulates intracellular ATP levels during the development of azole resistance in Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-ming JIA; Ying WANG; Jun-dong ZHANG; Hong-yue TAN; Yuan-yingJIANG; Jun GU

    2011-01-01

    Aim:Widespread and repeated use of azoles, particularly fiuconazole, has led to the rapid development of azole resistance in Candida albicans.We investigated the role of CalPF14030 during the development of azole resistance in C albicans.Methods:The expression of CalPF14030 was measured by quantitative RT-PCR, and CalPF14030 was disrupted by the hisG-URA3-hisG(URA-blaster)method.The sensitivity of C albicans to azoles was examined using a spot assay, and the intracellular ATP concentrations were measured by a luminometer.Results:CalPF14030 expression in C albicans was up-regulated by Ca2+ in a calcineurin-dependent manner, and the protein was overexpressed during the stepwise acquisition of azole resistance.However,disruption or ectopic overexpression of CalPFl4030 did not affect the sensitivity of C albicans to azoles.Finally,we demonstrated that disruption of CalPFll4030 significantly increased intracellular ATP levels.and overexpression significantly decreased intracellular ATP levels jn C albicans.Conclusion:CalPF14030 may negatively modulate intracellular ATP levels during the development of azole resistance in C albicans.

  1. Aportes para la estimación de la huella de carbono en los grandes asentamientos urbanos de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Ferraro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El cambio climático y su efecto más inmediato, el calentamiento global, plantean desafíos para la gestión ambiental de las ciudades. Uno de ellos es estimar su huella de carbono con la finalidad de morigerar los potenciales impactos. El presente trabajo propone calcular las emisiones de CO2 producidas por las actividades antrópicas de los 15 asentamientos urbanos de Argentina de más de 300.000 habitantes. Para ello se analizaron por localidad los consumos de energía eléctrica y se calcularon las emisiones de CO2 por sector de demanda eléctrica. Los resultados muestran que Argentina, en general, y los grandes asentamientos, en particular, tienen una baja contribución de emisiones de CO2, que se asocian en orden decreciente con la actividad industrial, residencial y comercial.

  2. Aportes para la estimación de la huella de carbono en los grandes asentamientos urbanos de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Ferraro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El cambio climático y su efecto más inmediato, el calentamiento global, plantean desafíos para la gestión ambiental de las ciudades. Uno de ellos es estimar su huella de carbono con la finalidad de morigerar los potenciales impactos. El presente trabajo propone calcular las emisiones de CO2 producidas por las actividades antrópicas de los 15 asentamientos urbanos de Argentina de más de 300.000 habitantes. Para ello se analizaron por localidad los consumos de energía eléctrica y se calcularon las emisiones de CO2 por sector de demanda eléctrica. Los resultados muestran que Argentina, en general, y los grandes asentamientos, en particular, tienen una baja contribución de emisiones de CO2, que se asocian en orden decreciente con la actividad industrial, residencial y comercial.

  3. Propriedades da madeira e estimativas de massa, carbono e energia de clones de Eucalyptus plantados em diferentes locais

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa Carvalho Santos; Ana Márcia Macedo Ladeira Carvalho; Bárbara Luísa Corradi Pereira; Aylson Costa Oliveira; Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro; Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2012-01-01

    As diferentes espécies de Eucalyptus são aptas para os mais diversos usos, sendo sua madeira amplamente empregada na geração de energia a partir da sua queima direta na forma de lenha ou da sua conversão em carvão vegetal. Além das propriedades da madeira, informações a respeito da estimativa de massa, carbono fixado e quantidade de energia disponível por área de plantio são importantes para a previsão da quantidade de produtos a ser gerada por material genético em dado local. Diante da impor...

  4. Técnica alternativas de determinação "on site" de dióxido de carbono

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos Segundo, Emerson Hochsteiner de

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de técnicas alternativas, em campo, para determinação de dióxido de carbono em reservatórios para abastecimento de águas ou regularização de hidroelétricas. As técnicas concebidas têm aplicação tanto para o meio líquido quanto para o meio gasoso e baseiam-se na captação de sinais físicos, predominantemente no que diz respeito à espectroscopia. Foram analisadas possíveis aplicações em relação à produção de bolhas de gás pelo desl...

  5. Síntesis y caracterización de materiales híbridos basados en nanotubos de carbono

    OpenAIRE

    García Gutiérrez, Ángel Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Los nanotubos de carbono están despertando un gran interés investigativo en los últimos años debido a sus excepcionales propiedades electrónicas, mecánicas, térmicas, químicas y por sus potenciales aplicaciones en nanociencia y nanotecnología. Por otro lado, el óxido de zinc también genera un gran interés tanto científico como tecnológico debido a sus extraordinarias propiedades ópticas y eléctricas. Se trata de un material semiconductor con demostradas propiedades fotocatalíticas, que le con...

  6. ATRIBUTOS FÍSICO-HÍDRICOS E ESTOQUE DE CARBONO EM NEOSSOLO QUARTZARÊNICO SOB PLANTIO DE Eucalyptus urograndis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Libanio Pelissari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo  do  trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da colheita do eucalipto  nos atributos físico-hídricos e no estoque de carbono em Neossolo Quartzarênico. O estudo foi conduzido em um povoamento  de  Eucalyptus urograndis  com sete anos de idade, em Dom Aquino, MT, Brasil.  As avaliações  foram realizadas em dois períodos do ano (chuvoso e seco, e coletadas amostras de solo nas profundidades de 0–0,2; 0,2–0,4; 0,4–0,6; 0,6–0,8 e 0,8–1,0 m, antes e após a colheita semimecanizada, para a determinação da porosidade total, densidade, condutividade hidráulica saturada, conteúdo de água e estoque de carbono no solo, enquanto a resistência à penetração foi determinada até  0,8 m. O sistema semimecanizado de colheita alterou significativamente a resistência do solo à penetração e a porosidade total no período chuvoso do ano. A densidade do solo  foi inferior nas camadas superficiais, ao passo que a condutividade hidráulica saturada reduziu após a colheita. O conteúdo de água no solo foi o atributo que regulou  o impacto da colheita semimecanizada sobre o solo.  O estoque de carbono aumentou  após a colheita no período chuvoso.Palavra-chave compactação do solo, carbono orgânico, colheita de madeira.PHYSICAL-HYDRIC ATTRIBUTES AND CARBON STOCK IN TYPIC QUARTZIPISAMMENT UNDER Eucalyptus urograndis STANDS ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of eucalyptus harvesting in the physical-hydric attributes and carbon storage in Typic Quartzipisamment. The study was conducted with seven years old Eucalyptus urograndis stand, in Dom Aquino, MT, Brazil. The evaluations were conducted in two seasons (wet and dry, with soil sampling at depths of 0-0.2, 0.2-0.4, 0.4-0.6, 0.6-0.8 and 0.8-1.0 m, before and after the semi-mechanized harvesting, for the total porosity determination, bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, water content and soil carbon stock, while the soil penetration resistance was

  7. DIÓXIDO DE CARBONO ASSOCIADO À FOSFINA NO CONTROLE DO GORGULHO-DO-MILHO (Sitophilus zeamais)

    OpenAIRE

    Talita Lacaze de Camargo Casella; Lêda Rita D'Antonino Faroni; Pedro Amorim Berbert; Paulo Roberto Cecon

    1998-01-01

    RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da utilização de fosfina, associada a atmosferas ricas em dióxido de carbono, no controle efetivo de Sitophilus zeamais, em todas as suas fases de desenvolvimento, em grãos de milho, a temperatura de 29°C e 65% de umidade relativa. Os tratamentos compreenderam a combinação de atmosfera controlada (21% de CO2 e 79% de N2) e três doses de fosfina (0,25, 0,50 e 0,75g.m-3) e atmosfera ambiente e duas doses de fosfina (0,0 e 1,0g.m-3) em três p...

  8. Synergistic suppression of the PI3K inhibitor CAL-101 with bortezomib on mantle cell lymphoma growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-Lian Qu; Bing Xia; Su-Xia Li; Chen Tian; Hong-Liang Yang; Qian Li; Ya-Fei Wang; Yong Yu; Yi-Zhuo Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of CAL-101, particularly when combined with bortezomib (BTZ) on mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells, and to explore its relative mechanisms. Methods:MTT assay was applied to detect the inhibitory effects of different concentrations of CAL-101. MCL cells were divided into four groups:control group, CAL-101 group, BTZ group, and CAL-101/BTZ group. hTe expression of PI3K-p110σ, AKT, ERK, p-AKT and p-ERK were detected by Western blot. hTe apoptosis rates of CAL-101 group, BTZ group, and combination group were detected by lfow cytometry. hTe location changes of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) of 4 groups was investigated by NF-κB Kit exploring. Western blot was applied to detect the levels of caspase-3 and the phosphorylation of AKT in different groups. Results:CAL-101 dose-and time-dependently induced reduction in MCL cell viability. CAL-101 combined with BTZ enhanced the reduction in cell viability and apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed that CAL-101 signiifcantly blocked the PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling pathway in MCL cells. hTe combination therapy contributed to the inactivation of NF-κB and AKT in MCL cell lines. However, cleaved caspase-3 was up-regulated atfer combined treatment. Conclusion:Our study showed that PI3K/p110σis a novel therapeutic target in MCL, and the underlying mechanism could be the blocking of the PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling pathways. hTese ifndings provided a basis for clinical evaluation of CAL-101 and a rationale for its application in combination therapy, particularly with BTZ.

  9. A Comparison of CAL with a Conventional Method of Delivery of Cell Biology to Undergraduate Nursing Students Using an Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharrad, Heather J.; Kent, Christine; Allcock, Nick; Wood, Barry

    2001-01-01

    In study 1, 12 nursing students attended slide lectures on cell biology; 13 used interactive computer-assisted learning (CAL). Study 2 surveyed 38 students who used CAL to study immunology. Students preferred CAL and felt confident in their grasp of the material, even without the presence of lecturers to answer questions. (Contains 16 references.)…

  10. Análise do efeito higrotérmico no comportamento em fadiga de compósitos de PPS/fibras de carbono On the analysis of hygrothermal effect on fatigue behavior of PPS/carbon fiber composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. M. de Faria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O contínuo crescimento na utilização de compósitos termoplásticos em componentes estruturais na indústria aeroespacial deve-se, primordialmente, à flexibilidade de projeto, excelência de suas propriedades mecânicas e baixa massa específica, aliadas aos elevados valores de resistência mecânica e rigidez e baixa incidência de corrosão, atendendo aos severos requisitos de desempenho quando em serviço dessas estruturas. Componentes com exigências estruturais, quando expostos a ambientes agressivos como elevada temperatura e umidade, podem ter suas propriedades mecânicas sensibilizadas por esses fatores ambientais, e devem ser cuidadosamente avaliados antes de serem colocados em serviço. Em função do que foi exposto este trabalho tem como objetivo contribuir para a avaliação do efeito higrotérmico na resistência à fadiga do compósito termoplástico PPS/fibras de carbono. Os materiais estudados foram cedidos pela empresa holandesa TenCate, fornecedora de laminados da Airbus e EMBRAER. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho mostram que compósitos de PPS/fibras de carbono apresentam um aumento nos valores de resistência à tração quando condicionados higrotermicamente, devido à plasticização desta matriz polimérica, aumentando, consecutivamente, sua tenacidade à fratura. Entretanto, a partir dos ensaios realizados, foi constatado que o condicionamento higrotérmico não alterou de forma significativa o comportamento de vida em fadiga dos laminados PPS-C.The continued growth in the use of polymer composites in structural components in the aerospace industry is due primarily to the design flexibility, excellent mechanical properties and low density, combined with the high values of mechanical strength and stiffness and low incidence of corrosion, with which these structures meet several performance requirements when in service. Components with structural requirements may have their mechanical properties affected when

  11. Efeito do Nb na cinética de revenimento de aços de baixo carbono Effect of Nb on the tempering kinetics of low carbon steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahiana Francisca da Conceição Hermenegildo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da temperatura e do tempo sobre a cinética de revenimento foram estudados, utilizando chapas de um aço baixo carbono e microligado com Nb e de outro aço com composição química similar, porém sem Nb. A lei de cinética de revenimento foi estudada pela equação de Johnson, Mehl e Avrami, a partir da variação da dureza Vickers das amostras revenidas com a temperatura e com o tempo de revenimento para os dois aços. Para o aço sem Nb, verificou-se que a dureza praticamente não variou com o tempo de revenimento, para a temperatura de revenimento de 600°C, e que a dureza tende a saturar para altos tempos de revenimento, para as diferentes temperaturas de revenimento utilizadas. Para o aço com Nb, observou-se uma maior resistência ao revenimento para as temperaturas de revenimento de 500 e 600°C, associada à precipitação de partículas muito finas de carbonetos de Nb dispersos na ferrita. A energia de ativação, para o revenimento, para o aço sem Nb, é de 130kJ/mol e pode-se inferir que o mecanismo que limita a cinética de revenimento, é a difusão intersticial do carbono na ferrita. Para o aço com Nb, a energia de ativação, para o revenimento é de 180kJ/mol e pode-se inferir que o mecanismo que limita a cinética de revenimento é a difusão do Nb na ferrita.The effect of temperature and time on tempering kinetics was studied by using a low carbon steel microalloyed with Nb (0,031 and another steel with a similar chemical composition, however without Nb. After determining the Vickers hardness values, the kinetics law of tempering was studied by the Jonhson-Mehl-Avrami equation using a variation of temperatures and time for both steels. The hardness of the steel without Nb did not change with the tempering time at 600ºC and tended to saturate at high tempering times, for the different tempering temperatures used. For the tempering temperatures of 500 and 600ºC, the steel with Nb has a greater tempering

  12. Plano de negócios: calções de banho outlier

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Frederico Cipriano

    2014-01-01

    Mestrado em Gestão/JEL Classification System: M13, M21 Este projeto tem como objetivo a apresentação de um Plano de Negócios, que estude a viabilidade económica e financeira, da criação da Outlier, uma marca de calções de banho inovadora, em Portugal. Esta ideia surge no seguimento da deteção de uma necessidade por satisfazer neste segmento de mercado, onde não existem calções de banho com bolso impermeável e claramente distintos dos demais. Os dados recolhidos demonstram que a criaç...

  13. FPGA Implementation of Optimal Filtering Algorithm for TileCal ROD System

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, J; Castillo, V; Cuenca, C; Ferrer, A; Fullana, E; González, V; Higón, E; Poveda, J; Ruiz-Martinez, A; Salvachúa, B; Sanchis, E; Solans, C; Valero, A; Valls, J A

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, Optimal Filtering Algorithm has been implemented using general purpose programmable DSP chips. Alternatively, new FPGAs provide a highly adaptable and flexible system to develop this algorithm. TileCal ROD is a multi-channel system, where similar data arrives at very high sampling rates and is subject to simultaneous tasks. It include different FPGAs with high I/O and with parallel structures that provide a benefit at a data analysis. The Optical Multiplexer Board is one of the elements presents in TileCal ROD System. It has FPGAs devices that present an ideal platform for implementing Optimal Filtering Algorithm. Actually this algorithm is performing in the DSPs included at ROD Motherboard. This work presents an alternative to implement Optimal Filtering Algorithm.

  14. The design, fabrication and properties of B4C/Al neutron absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron absorber is used for the criticality safety during the storage or transportation of spent nuclear fuel. In this work, the metal matrix composite with good mechanical property and thermal neutron absorbing ability was investigated based on B4C/Al neutron radiation shielding material. The composition ratio for B4C/Al composite was firstly designed and the dependence of the neutron transmission on the thickness of the material was calculated. By vacuum hot-pressing technique at a low temperature, the neutron absorbers with high concentration of B4C were fabricated. Furthermore, the corresponding microstructure, physical, mechanical and corrosion properties as well as fracture surface were analyzed, proving that the developed composites can shield the neutron radiation as effectively as cadmium materials

  15. Practical Aspects of CALS in Design and Manufacturing of Sheet Metal Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shpitalni, Moshe; Alting, Leo; Bilberg, Arne

    1998-01-01

    the CALS approach. This approach requires global observation and allows actual and current information to flow both forward and backward. This information, regardless of the specific process in which it has been generated, is used to improve the entire global process. This paper is concerned......The transition from design to process planning and to the various stages of manufacturing is traditionally sequential. In many cases, practical problems associated with manufacturing cannot be resolved if only individual processes are examined. These problems can be overcome, however, by adopting...... with the design and manufacture of sheet metal parts. It is demonstrated that through implementation of the CALS approach, the overall process can be optimised and products can be manufactured significantly more accurately, faster and less expensively....

  16. Study of TileCal scintillators irradiation using the Minimum Bias integrators

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Cora; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It provides precise energy measurements of hadrons, jets, taus and missing transverse energy. The monitoring and calibration of the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal development is done by a movable Cs$^{137}$ radioactive source, a laser calibration system and a charge injection system. Moreover, during LHC data taking, an integrator based readout provides the signals coming from inelastic proton-proton collisions at predominantly low momentum transfer (minimum bias events) and allows to monitor the instantaneous ATLAS luminosity as well as the response of calorimeter cells. The integrator currents have been used to detect and quantify the effect of TileCal scintillators irradiation using the data taken in 2012 and 2015 that corresponds to about 22\\;fb$^{-1}$ and 4\\;fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity. Finally, the response variation for an irradiated cell has been studied combining the informa...

  17. A qualitative evaluation of UC CalFresh Plan, Shop, Save, Cook curriculum reveals additional outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Nicoli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available UC ANR Cooperative Extension (UCCE conducted six focus groups in 2013 with CalFresh-eligible adults to determine how to improve the existing evaluation method for the Plan, Shop, Save, Cook nutrition education classes. Focus group participants (n = 54 cited many behavior changes that are captured by the existing method. During the focus groups, changes in cooking practices and types of food purchased emerged as two domains that are not currently captured. A small pilot study conducted on 22 of the 54 focus group participants suggests that using a telephone interview to survey participants is a feasible and practical approach to collect follow-up data on long-term behavior changes. More rigorous follow-up studies may guide the development of policies aimed at increasing diet quality and food security of adult CalFresh participants.

  18. Experiment of Injecting Phase Cal Ahead of the Feed: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dmitrij; Maslenikov, Anatolij; Vytnov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    For developing the Russian VLBI network of new generation, a few experiments of injecting the phase calibration signal ahead of the feed were carried out. In the experiments an external broadband phase calibration signal was emitted through a special feed to a receiver horn directly. Prototypes of the feed for a frequency range of 2-18 GHz were created. The first experiments on injection phase cal ahead of the feed were carried out at Svetloe Observatory of the QUASAR VLBI network. The phase cal signal was emitted by the broadband feed installed on the roof of a mirror cabin, reflected by the sub-reflector, and received by the horn of the receiving system. The results of these experiments are considered.

  19. Los orígenes tecnológicos de la cal

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Villaseñor Alonso; Luis Barba Pingarrón

    2012-01-01

    En este artículo hacemos una revisión de los sitios arqueológicos en donde se ha re- portado el uso temprano de la cal en la arquitectura, con la finalidad de entender la forma en que esta tecnología fue inventada y posteriormente difundida a las distintas regiones de México y Centroamérica. Con base en nuestro análisis proponemos que las tierras bajas mayas, el valle de Oaxaca y la región de Puebla-Tlaxcala constituyen las tres zonas con el uso más temprano de la cal; por lo tanto, son las d...

  20. SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTY STUDY OF NANOPARTICLE QUATERNARY SEMICONDUCTOR SiCAlN FILMS WITH CO-SPUTTERING UNDER LOWER TEMPERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    SHIYONG HUANG; Xu, S; JIDONG LONG; ZHENHONG DAI; YUANPING SUN

    2005-01-01

    Quaternary SiCAlN nanoparticle films were produced by reactive rf magnetron co-sputtering technique with a chemically pure SiC and an Al target under low temperature. The crystalline structure, surface morphology, and element content of the films were studied in terms of sputtering parameters. The element content and chemical states of SiCAlN films were measured by means of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDX) and X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS). Surface morphology of SiCAlN fi...

  1. La Nouvelle-Calédonie: modèle d'île

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thérèse PANOUILLÈRES

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Relief, précipitations, répartition de la population accusent un certain nombre de dissymétries est-ouest en Nouvelle-Calédonie; la colonisation récente et la concentration de plus de la moitié des habitants à Nouméa sont un facteur supplémentaire de déséquilibre spatial.

  2. PAS-cal: a Generic Recombinant Peptide Calibration Standard for Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Breibeck, Joscha; Serafin, Adam; Reichert, Andreas; Maier, Stefan; Küster, Bernhard; Skerra, Arne

    2014-01-01

    We describe the design, preparation, and mass-spectrometric characterization of a new recombinant peptide calibration standard with uniform biophysical and ionization characteristics for mass spectrometry. “PAS-cal” is an artificial polypeptide concatamer of peptide cassettes with varying lengths, each composed of the three small, chemically stable amino acids Pro, Ala, and Ser, which are interspersed by Arg residues to allow site-specific cleavage with trypsin. PAS-cal is expressed at high y...

  3. CalWORKs Sanction Policies in Four Counties: Practices, Attitudes, and Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Sofya Bagdasaryan, with Ruth Matthias, Paul Ong, and Douglas Houston

    2005-01-01

    The federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 was the most sweeping overhaul of the U.S. welfare program for poor families with children since its inception in the 1935 Social Security Act.To comply with the new federal law, California passed its Temporary Assistance to Needy Families plan in August 1997. Counties began implementing the new program, CalWORKs (California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids), on January 1, 1998.

  4. Environmental change in NW Iberia between 7000 and 500 cal BC

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; Costa-Casais, Manuela; López Sáez, José Antonio

    2009-01-01

    [EN] We review research done on environmental changes in northwest (NW) Iberia spanning from the beginning to the late Holocene (7000–500 cal. BC). The type of archives (peat bogs, lake sediments, colluvium, soils, etc.) and proxies (pollen, element concentrations, isotopes, etc.) that were used to reconstruct changes on climate, soils, vegetation and atmospheric metal pollution are briefly described. Then we synthesize what the records suggest about the ecological history of NW Iberia. We id...

  5. RVC-CAL dataflow implementations of MPEG AVC/H.264 CABAC decoding

    OpenAIRE

    Bezati, Endri; Mattavelli, Marco; Raulet, Mickael

    2010-01-01

    International audience This paper describes the implementation of the MPEG AVC CABAC entropy decoder using the RVC-CAL dataflow programming language. CABAC is the Context based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding entropy decoder that is used by the MPEG AVC/H.264 main and high profile video standard. CABAC algorithm provides increased compression efficiency, however presents a higher complexity compared to other entropy coding algorithms. This implementation of the CABAC entropy decoder usin...

  6. Automatic generation of synthesizable hardware implementation from high level RVC-cal description

    OpenAIRE

    Jerbi, Khaled; Raulet, Mickaël; Deforges, Olivier; Abid, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    International audience Data process algorithms are increasing in complexity especially for image and video coding. Therefore, hardware development using directly hardware description languages (HDL) such as VHDL or Verilog is a difficult task. Current research axes in this context are introducing new methodologies to automate the generation of such descriptions. In our work we adopted a high level and target-independent language called CAL (Caltrop Actor Language). This language is associa...

  7. Design of an Embedded Low Complexity Image Coder using CAL language

    OpenAIRE

    Jerbi, Khaled; Raulet, Mickaël; Déforges, Olivier; Abid, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    International audience The increasing complexity of image codecs and the time to market requires a high level design. Caltrop Actor Language (CAL) is a domain-specific language that provides useful abstractions for dataflow programming with actor. It has been chosen by the ISO/IEC standardization organization in the new MPEG standard called Reconfigurable Video Coding. This framework is adopted to design a multitude of codecs by combining actors. We present in this paper the specification ...

  8. Ward identities and gauge flow for M-theory in ${\\cal N}{=}3$ superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker

    2015-01-01

    We derive the BRST symmetry, Slavnov-Taylor identities and Nielsen identities for the ABJM theories in ${\\cal N}{=}3$ harmonic superspace. Further, the gauge dependence of one-particle irreducible amplitudes in such superconformal Chern-Simons theory is shown to be generated by a canonical flow with respect to the extended Slavnov-Taylor identity, induced by the extended BRST transformations (including the BRST transformations of the gauge parameters).

  9. The Works Metallurgist: an evaluation of a CAL package on phase diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, Canan; Butcher, Philip; Scanlon, Eileen; Jones, Ann

    1996-01-01

    The Works Metallurgist is used in the Open University course: Materials — Engineering and Science. It is being evaluated as part of a larger study of CAL teaching in Science and Technology at the Open University. With 540 students, the course provides a sufficiently large sample for a range of evaluation methods to be employed in a variety of settings (e.g. home, residential school). The methods used include questionnaires, attitude scales and pre/post achievement tests, observations and inte...

  10. Integration of Computer-Aided Acquisition & Logistic Support (CALS) components into the ROK Army information infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Jo Sang

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the CALS initiative is to enable integration of enterprises on a worldwide basis. The vision is for all or parts of a single enterprise, or for example, an original equipment manufacturer and its suppliers, or a consortium of public and private groups and academia, to be able to work from a common digital database, in real time, on the design, development, manufacturing, distribution and servicing of products. The direct benefits would come through substantial reductions in produc...

  11. Autopercepção da fluorose pela exposição a flúor pela água e dentifrício

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes Léa Maria Bezerra de; Sousa Maria da Luz Rosário de; Rodrigues Lidiany Karla Azevedo; Cury Jaime Aparecido

    2002-01-01

    A percepção da fluorose dental e seu impacto em escolares de Piracicaba, SP, Brasil, expostos ao uso de flúor pela água e dentifrício, foram avaliados. O problema foi encontrado em 72% das crianças, mas o grau de alteração decorrente não provocou nenhum impacto na satisfação das crianças com seus dentes. Embora a fluorose dental, devido à ingestão de flúor pela água e ao uso de dentifrício fluoretado, não tenha comprometido a estética da amostra populacional avaliada, estudo mais abrangente d...

  12. A Mathematica-based CAL matrix-theory tutor for scientists and engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kelmanson

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the TLTP initiative, the Mathematics Departments at Imperial College and Leeds University are jointly developing a CAL method directed at supplementing the level of mathematics of students entering science and engineering courses from diverse A-level (or equivalent backgrounds. The aim of the joint project is to maintain – even increase - the number of students enrolling on such first-year courses without lowering the courses' existing mathematical standards. A CAL tutor for matrix theory is presented in this paper, in the form of Mathematica Notebooks. This constitutes one of a list of specific A-level mathematics core options required by science and engineering departments. The module has been written so as to recognize students' errors and advise accordingly. Questions are generated randomly, at run time, in order to preclude copying between users. The module incorporates automated performance indicators so as to impinge minimally on existing staff resources. As an aid to other CAL authors considering the use of Mathematica Notebooks, idiosyncratic difficulties encountered within Mathematica Notebooks are catalogued and discussed in detail.

  13. Study of the Pulse Shapes from the 3-in-1 Cards at ATLAS TileCal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Dunford, M.; Kim, Y. K.

    2010-02-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is designed to measure energy depositions in a single cell from 30 MeV to 2 TeV, and we expect to calibrate its response to 1-2%. We present studies of pulse shapes from the front-end electronics of the TileCal and infer their impact on minimum bias pile-up events, especially at high luminosity. High and low gain signals were obtained from both CERN and the University of Chicago test benches, using both the charge injection system and LED. In our studies, we quantify pulse-shapes and undershoot, measure card-to-card variations, and then compare these pulse shapes to the reference shapes used in ATLAS simulation. By running the TileCal pulse shape reconstruction using both the standard shapes in simulation and the shapes from test bench measurements, we are able to investigate the sensitivity of the reconstruction procedure to differences in pulse shape. )

  14. NLTE Model Atmosphere Analysis of the LMC Supersoft X-ray Source CAL 83

    CERN Document Server

    Lanz, T; Audard, M; Paerels, F; Rasmussen, A P; Hubeny, I; Lanz, Thierry; Telis, Gisela A.; Audard, Marc; Paerels, Frits; Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Hubeny, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    We present a non-LTE model atmosphere analysis of Chandra HRC-S/LETG and XMM-Newton RGS spectroscopy of the prototypical supersoft source CAL 83 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Taken with a 16-month interval, the Chandra and XMM-Newton spectra are very similar. They reveal a very rich absorption line spectrum from the hot white dwarf photosphere, but no spectral signatures of a wind. We also report a third X-ray off-state during a later Chandra observation, demonstrating the recurrent nature of CAL 83. Moreover, we found evidence of short-timescale variability in the soft X-ray spectrum. We completed the analysis of the LETG and RGS spectra of CAL 83 with new NLTE line-blanketed model atmospheres that explicitly include 74 ions of the 11 most abundant species. We successfully matched the Chandra and XMM-Newton spectra assuming a model composition with LMC metallicity. We derived the basic stellar parameters of the hot white dwarf, but the current state of atomic data in the soft X-ray domain precludes a detail...

  15. A study to optimize the simulation of the TileCal response using collision muons

    CERN Document Server

    Durglishvili, Archil

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to fully exploit the exciting opportunities for fundamental discoveries at high-energy frontier. The proton-proton center of mass energy of 14 TeV, the design luminosity of $10^{34}cm^{−2}s^{−1}$ and the time between bunch crossings of 25 ns are the basic collider parameters that drove the design of the experiment. One component of the ATLAS calorimeter system is Tile Calorimeter (TileCal). It is a sampling plastic scintillator/iron detector. A Sr scan of one of the TileCal scintillator tile shows that mesured signal in the center of tile is different from the signal in the edges. The shape of the distribution of tile response vs. $\\Delta{\\phi}$ is so-called U-shape. $\\Delta{\\phi}$ is the difference between the azimuth angle of the track and the azimuth position of the center of the tile. In the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of the TileCal response this U-shape is not yet included. In this work the U-shape was implemente...

  16. Remarks on N=1 ${\\cal SW}(3/2,2)$ algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Naka, M

    2002-01-01

    We find that some N=1 superconformal ${\\cal W}$ algebras ${\\cal SW}(3/2,2)$ can be constructed by a coset language based on compact Wolf spaces. Unitary models of discrete central charge in $3/2 \\leq c \\leq 6$ containing N=0 minimal models can be realized as level 1 coset models based on the Wolf spaces $G/(H\\times SU(2))$. The factor SU(2) encodes a information of N=0 minimal models. Then we argue that the models can be twisted to give topological conformal field theories. BRST charge is represented as double contour integrals of a spin 3/2 superconformal current. The BRST exactness of a topological stress tensor holds. In particular, a cyclic symmetry of $A$ series extended Dynkin diagram suggests that the models enhance to N=2 superconformal models based on Kazama-Suzuki coset construction. This situation is similar to a phenomena found by Gepner and Noyvert. Our observation might be viewed as a toy example in order to discuss a formulation of topological model of $c=12$ ${\\cal SW}(3/2,2)$ algebra for stri...

  17. Posibilidades estructurales de materiales a base de cal como conglomerante: primeros resultados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada, Enrique

    1986-11-01

    Full Text Available Lime is a plentiful material which production combine a very accessible technology with the advantage that it must be prepared in little disperse plants, so that the transport charges can be reduced to the minimum. This work expound the possibility to obtain concretes with structural purposes, for housing of scarce height, of easy obtention, basically from flying ashes or rice husk ashes, varying its proportions and fineness degree and studying the initial and final resistance. Good results have been obtained mainly with rice husk ashes and lime, with 60 days resistance higher than 15 Mpa.La cal es un material abundante y cuya producción suma a una tecnología muy accesible la ventaja de poder materializarse en pequeñas plantas dispersas, para poder reducir al mínimo la componente de costo debida al transporte. En el presente trabajo se ha planteado la posibilidad de obtener hormigones con fines estructurales, para viviendas de baja altura y que sean de fácil obtención, a base de cal y cenizas volantes o cenizas de cascara de arroz, variando sus proporciones, grados de finura y estudiando la influencia de distintos factores en la resistencia inicial y final. Se han obtenido buenos resultados, principalmente con ceniza de cascara de arroz y cal con resistencias a 60 días superiores a los 15 MPa.

  18. The upgrade of the laser calibration system for the ATLAS hadron calorimeter TileCal

    CERN Document Server

    Spalla, Margherita; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. TileCal is built of steel and scintillating tiles coupled to optical fibers and read‐out by photomultipliers (PMT). The performance of TileCal relies on a continuous, high resolution calibration of the individual response of the 10,000 channels forming the detector. The calibration is based on a three level architecture: a charge injection system used to monitor the full electronics chain including front-end amplifiers, digitizers and event builder blocks for each individual channel; a distributed optical system using laser pulses to excite all PMTs; and a mobile Cesium radiative source which is driven through the detector cell floating inside a pipe system. This architecture allows for a cascade calibration of the electronics, of the PMT and electronics, and of full chain including the active detec...

  19. Upgrade Design of TileCal Front-end Readout Electronics and Radiation Hardness Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, K; The ATLAS collaboration; Drake, G; Eriksson, D; Muschter, S; Oreglia, M; Pilcher, J; Price, L; Tang, F

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is essential for measuring the energy and direction of hadrons and taus produced in LHC collisions. The TileCal consists of "tiles" of plastic scintillator dispersed in a fine-grained steel matrix . Optical fibers from the tiles are sent to ~10,000 photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and associated readout electronics. The TileCal front-end analog readout electronics process the signals from ~10,000 PMTs. Signals from each PMT are shaped with a 7-pole passive LC shaper and split it to two channels amplified by a pair of clamping amplifiers with a gain ratio of 32. Incorporated with two 40Msps 12-bit ADCs, the readout electronics provide a combined dynamic range of 17-bits. With this dynamic range, the readout system is capable of measuring the energy deposition in the calorimeter cells from ~220MeV to 1.3TeV with the least signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 20. The digitized data from each PMT are transmitted off-detector optically, where the data are further processed with ded...

  20. Mass spectra in ${\\cal N}=1$ SQCD with additional colorless fields. Strong coupling regimes. II

    CERN Document Server

    Chernyak, Victor L

    2016-01-01

    This paper continues our studies in arXiV:1608.06452 [hep-th] of ${\\cal N}=1$ gauge theories in the strongly coupled regimes. We also consider here the ${\\cal N}=1$ SQCD-like theories with $SU(N_c)$ colors (and their Seiberg's dual), with $N_F$ flavors of light quarks and $N_F^2$ additional colorless flavored scalars $\\Phi^j_i$, but now with $N_F$ in the range $N_F>3N_c$. The mass spectra of these direct and dual theories in various vacua are calculated within the dynamical scenario introduced by the author in [8]. It assumes that quarks in such ${\\cal N}=1$ SQCD-like theories without elementary colored adjoint scalars can be in two {\\it standard} phases only. These are either the HQ (heavy quark) phase where they are confined or the Higgs phase. Recall that this scenario satisfies all those tests which were used as checks of the Seiberg hypothesis about the equivalence of the direct and dual theories. Calculated mass spectra of the direct $SU(N_c)$ theory are compared to those of its Seiberg's dual $SU(N_F-N...

  1. Studies with Muons in ATLAS: TileCal Level-2 Trigger and MSSM Higgs Discovery Reach

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz Martínez, A; Valls Ferrer, J A

    2009-01-01

    This thesis was carried out in the years previous to the LHC start-up, i.e. during the ATLAS detector commissioning phase. It contains an introductory part about the detector and its expected physics performance and two main parts about the development of a Level-2 trigger for muons and a study of the MSSM Higgs discovery reach with simulated data, which are briefly described below. The first part of the thesis is devoted to TileMuId, the muon identication algorithm based on TileCal whose main goal is to be used as a Level-2 trigger of low-$p_{\\text{T}}$ muons. A second version of TileMuId (ROD-based) has been implemented to run in the TileCal ROD DSPs. This involved developments in the DSP firmware and in the Athena framework, described in the document. In addition, studies of the algorithm performance in terms of efficiency and fraction of fakes have been done. Developments and studies to match the TileCal muon candidates with the Inner Detector tracks (provided by ID reconstruction algorithms) have been pe...

  2. Exploiting Parallelism in the TileCal Trigger System with GPGPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Marc

    2015-10-01

    After the 2022 upgrades, the Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) detector at ATLAS will be generating raw data at a rate of approximately 41 TB/s. The TileCal triggering system contains a degree of parallelism in its processing algorithms and thus presents an opportunity to explore the use of general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU). Currently, research into the viability of an sROD ARM-based co-processing unit (PU) is being conducted at Wits University with especial regard to increasing the I/O throughput of the detector. Integration of GPGPU into this PU could enhance its performance by relieving the ARMs of particularly parallel computations. In addition to the PU, use of GPGPU in the front-end trigger is being investigated on the basis of the used algorithms having a similarity to image processing algorithms - where GPU can be used optimally. The use of GPUs in assistance to or in place of FPGAs can be justified by GPUs’ relative ease of programming; C/C++ like languages as opposed to assembly-like Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This project will consider how GPUs can best be utilised as a subsystem of TileCal in terms of power and computing efficiency; and therefore cost.

  3. Consistent ${\\cal N}=8$ truncation of massive IIA on $S^6$

    CERN Document Server

    Guarino, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Massive type IIA supergravity is shown to admit a consistent truncation on the six-sphere to maximal supergravity in four dimensions with a dyonic ISO(7) gauging. We obtain the complete, non-linear embedding of all the $D=4$ fields into the IIA metric and form potentials, and show its consistency. We first rewrite the IIA theory in an $\\textrm{SO}(1,3) \\times \\textrm{SL}(7)$--covariant way. Then, we employ an ${\\cal N}=8$ SL(7)--covariant restriction of the $D=4$ tensor hierarchy in order to find the full embedding. The redundant $D=4$ degrees of freedom introduced by the tensor hierarchy can be eliminated by writing the embedding in terms of the field strengths and exploiting the restricted duality hierarchy. In particular, closed expressions for the Freund-Rubin term are found using this technique which reveal a pattern valid for other truncations. Finally, we show that the present ${\\cal N}=8$ truncation of massive IIA on $S^6$ and the ${\\cal N}=2$ truncation obtained when $S^6$ is equipped with its nearly...

  4. The TileCal Energy Reconstruction for Collision Data Using the Matched Filter

    CERN Document Server

    Peralva, B S M; The ATLAS collaboration; Cerqueira, A S; Seixas, J M

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Barrel Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS at LHC. It comprises more than 10,000 readout channels. The energy deposited in each channel is read out and the analog pulse is conditioned by a shaper circuit. The signal energy is estimated by reconstructing the amplitude of the digitized pulse sampled every 25 ns. This work presents the performance of an alternative algorithm for TileCal energy reconstruction, namely the TileCal Matched Filter (MF). The performance of the MF method is compared to the currently implemented algorithm (OF2) using collision data acquired in 2010 during LHC operation period. The results showed that the MF presents smaller error estimation (variance) than the OF2 method. In addition to that, the methods showed to be highly correlated with each other for high SNR signals. Preliminary results using a special ATLAS collision data taken later in 2012, for which LHC operated at 25 ns bunch spacing and ATLAS observed an increase of the p...

  5. Influência do tipo de material suporte no desempenho de reatores biológicos de leito móvel na remoção de carbono e nitrificação de esgoto sanitário The influence of material support kind on the biological moving bed reactors performance used for the carbon removal and nitrification of sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmira Beatriz Wolff

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi mostrada a influência do tipo de material suporte: P4 (plástico reciclado rugoso, diâmetro médio de 2,31 mm, densidade de 900 kg.m-3, superfície específica potencial de 2.596 m².m-3sup e P5 (polietileno, pouco rugoso, forma cilíndrica, diâmetro médio de 10 mm, densidade de 880 kg.m-3, superfície específica potencial de 3.075m².m-³sup utilizados em dois reatores biológicos de leito móvel, fluxo contínuo, na remoção de carbono e nitrificação de esgoto sanitário, os quais foram divididos em duas fases, de acordo com a idade do lodo (IL: fase A: IL de 10 dias e fase B: IL de 3 dias. Foram aplicadas cargas orgânicas superficiais médias de 4,0 kgDQO.m-2.d-1 (P4 e de 4,1 kgDQO.m-2.d-1 (P5; e cargas superficiais de nitrogênio de 0,63 kgN.m-2.d-1 (P5 e de 0,66 kgN.m-2.d-1 (P5. Para o material P4, a remoção média foi de 87% de carbono e 83% de nitrogênio (fase A e 80% de carbono e 77% de nitrogênio (fase B. Para o P5, remoção de 63% de carbono e 55% de nitrogênio (Fase A e 59% de carbono e de nitrogênio (fase B. Com base nos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que a remoção de carbono e nitrogênio não foi influenciada pela idade do lodo, mas pelo tipo de material suporte (forma ou características de superfície e superfície disponível para o crescimento da biomassa.This paper presented the influence of material support kind: P4 (rugous recycled plastic, medium diameter of 2.31 mm, density of 900 kg.m-3, specific surface potential of 2,596 m².m-3sup and P5 (polietilene, cilindric shape, medium diameter of 10 mm, density of 880 kg.m-3, specific surface potential of 3,075m².m-3sup used in two continuous flux biological moving bed reactors using different material support to remove nitrogen and carbon from sewage, which was divided in two phases according to sludge retention time (SRT: phase A: SRT of 10 days and phase B: SRT of 3 days. The organic loading rates applied were 4.0 kgCOD.m-2.d-1 (P4 and

  6. The TileCal Online Energy Estimation for the Next LHC Operation Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotto-Maior Peralva, B.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the detector used in the reconstruction of hadrons, jets and missing transverse energy from the proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It covers the central part of the ATLAS detector (|η| pile-up that deforms the signal of interest. Due to limited resources, the current hardware setup, which is based on Digital Signal Processors (DSP), does not allow the implementation of sophisticated energy estimation methods that deal with the pile-up. Therefore, the technique to be employed for online energy estimation in TileCal for next LHC operation period must be based on fast filters such as the Optimal Filter (OF) and the Matched Filter (MF). Both the OF and MF methods envisage the use of the background second order statistics in its design, more precisely the covariance matrix. However, the identity matrix has been used to describe this quantity. Although this approximation can be valid for low luminosity LHC, it leads to biased estimators under pile- up conditions. Since most of the TileCal cell present low occupancy, the pile-up, which is often modeled by a non-Gaussian distribution, can be seen as outlier events. Consequently, the classical covariance matrix estimation does not describe correctly the second order statistics of the background for the majority of the events, as this approach is very sensitive to outliers. As a result, the OF (or MF) coefficients are miscalculated leading to a larger variance and biased energy estimator. This work evaluates the usage of a robust covariance estimator, namely the Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD) algorithm, to be applied in the OF design. The goal of the MCD estimator is to find a number of observations whose classical covariance matrix has the lowest determinant. Hence, this procedure avoids taking into account low likelihood events to describe the background. It is worth mentioning that the background covariance matrix as well as the OF coefficients for

  7. CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge: Two Institutional Networks Increasing Diversity in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Impey, Chris David; Phillips, Cynthia B.; Povich, Matthew S.; Prather, Edward E.; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe two programs, CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge, with the common mission of increasing participation of groups traditionally underrepresented in astronomy, particularly underrepresented minorities and women, through summer research opportunities, in the case of CAMPARE, scholarships in the case of Cal-Bridge, and significant mentoring in both programs, leading to an increase in their numbers successfully pursuing a PhD in the field.CAMPARE is an innovative REU-like summer research program, currently in its sixth year, comprising a network of comprehensive universities and community colleges in Southern California and Arizona (most of which are minority serving institutions), and ten major research institutions (University of Arizona Steward Observatory, the SETI Institute, JPL, Caltech, and the five Southern California UC campuses, UCLA, UCI, UCSD, UCR, and UCSB).In its first five summers, CAMPARE sent a total of 49 students from 10 different CSU and community college campuses to 5 research sites of the program. Of these 49 participants, 25 are women and 24 are men; 22 are Hispanic, 4 are African American, and 1 is Native American, including 6 female Hispanic and 2 female African-American participants. Twenty-one (21) CAMPARE participants have graduated from college, and more than half (11) have attended or are attending a graduate program, including 8 enrolled in PhD or Master's-to-PhD programs. Over twenty CAMPARE students have presented at the AAS and other national meetings.The Cal-Bridge program is a diverse network of higher education institutions in Southern California, including 5 UC campuses, 8 CSU campuses, and 7 community colleges dedicated to the goal of increasing the number of underrepresented minority and female students attending graduate school in astronomy or related fields. We have recently selected our inaugural group of five 2014 Cal-Bridge Scholars, including four women (two Hispanic and one part Native American), and one Hispanic man

  8. Pollen record and environmental evolution of Caotanhu wetland in Xinjiang since 4550 cal. a BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun; KONG ZhaoChen; NI Jian; YAN Shun; YANG ZhenJing

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-proxy reconstruction of the climate change in Caotanhu wetland using pollen, phytolith and charcoal records, and the data of loss of ignition (LOI), grain size analysis, and susceptibility. Results reveal that between 4550 and 2500 cal. a BP, a dry climatic condition was not favorable for the accumulation of peat. Since 2500 cal. a BP, the climate became humid and the wetland developed with abundant freshwater aquatic plants, which contributed to peat accumulation. Never-theless, alternate periods of rain and dry climate occurred during that period. Between 2500 and 1810 cal. a BP (550 BC-140 AD), the climate was more humid than at present. A lot of emerged plants, such as Phragmites, Typha and Sparganium, and freshwater green algae grew in the wetland which was sur-rounded by desert-steppe vegetation composed mainly of Chenopodiaceae, Arternisia, Compositae and Thalictrum. However, from 1810 to 1160 cal. a BP (140-790 AD), the water level started to decrease and hydrophyte species reduced greatly, but some Phragmites still grew in the wetland and around it was desert vegetation with high proportion of Chenopodiaceae and Artemisia. Then from 1160 to 650 a BP (790-1300 AD), it entered a period of desert-steppe with abundant mesic and xerophytic plants. And a lot of aquatic plants prevailed in the wetland. Here, what is noticeable is that percentages of arboreal pollen, consisting mainly of Betula and Picea, increased greatly and reached a maximal value of 27.2%, in which, Betula percentages rose to 23.2%. Hence, it is reasonable to conclude that Betula grew in the highland of the wetland, or Picea timberline shifted downward resulting in the increase of percentages of Betula and Picea pollen, which were transported into the wetland by flood or wind. But since 650 cal. a BP, desert vegetation prevailed around the wetland again with dominant Chenopodiaceae and Ar-temisia, and the climate was similar to modern one. Despite some aquatic

  9. Determinación de carbono orgánico en materias primas cerámicas en presencia de siderita, FeCO3

    OpenAIRE

    Gazulla Barreda, María Fernanda; Gómez, Carmen M.; Rodrigo Carbonell, María Dolores; Orduña, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    La materia orgánica es una de las impurezas presentes en las materias primas utilizadas en la fabricación de pavimentos y revestimientos cerámicos. Durante el proceso de cocción, el carbono orgánico (Corgánico) puede producir la aparición de un núcleo negro conocido como “corazón negro”, que puede causar defectos en el producto final. Las materias primas cerámicas contienen Corgánico a nivel de mg·kg-1 (procedente de la materia orgánica) y carbono inorgánico (Cinorgánico) a nivel de porce...

  10. O discurso jornalístico do meio ambiente pela lente da pragmática

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroso, Juliana da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Em razão de o meio ambiente ser um assunto de relevância e tendo em vista que o jornalismo ajuda a construir formas de pensar e agir, o presente trabalho se dedica a investigar o discurso jornalístico. Optando pela mídia de revista, analisou-se quais estratégias são investidas pela revista Planeta para levar informações e conhecimentos aos seus leitores, com o intuito de compreender como o meio ambiente é comunicado. Esta pesquisa utiliza a pragmática, contextualizando-a como uma pers...

  11. A estética da cidade pela geografia do afeto na obra de Moacyr Scliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Antunes de Almeida

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Moacyr Scliar é herdeiro da literatura urbana gaúcha da década de 30, no entanto, diferente dos autores daquele período, traz à tona uma Porto Alegre permeada por espaços ricos de afeto e de memória, fazendo com que a cidade assuma outros aspectos que não apenas o do ambiente degradado. O bairro Bom Fim é o responsável por esse movimento e é a partir dele que se pode reconhecer uma estética da cidade, criada pela arte de narrar e pela arquitetura contemporânea.

  12. The quantitative reconstruction of the paleoclimate between 5200 and 4300 cal yr BP in the Tianshui Basin, NW China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, N; X. Q. Li

    2011-01-01

    The quantitative reconstruction of the paleoclimate is the ultimate goal of studying past global change. Here, the Coexistence Approach (CA) was applied to reconstruct climatic factors quantitatively based on the fossil charcoal records between 5200 and 4300 cal yr BP in the Tianshui Basin, NW China. The climate of the Tianshui Basin belonged to the northern subtropical zone from 5200–4300 cal yr BP. The climatic tolerance ranges were selected, and the lower limit value was regarded as the lo...

  13. The quantitative reconstruction of the palaeoclimate between 5200 and 4300 cal yr BP in the Tianshui Basin, NW China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, N; X. Q. Li

    2012-01-01

    The quantitative reconstruction of the palaeoclimate is a prerequisite for understanding climate processes at time scales of centuries and millennia. Here, the coexistence approach (CA) was applied to reconstruct climatic factors quantitatively based on the fossil charcoal records between 5200 and 4300 cal yr BP in the Tianshui Basin, NW China. The CA analysis showed that the climate of the Tianshui Basin belonged to the northern subtropical zone between 5200 and 4300 cal yr...

  14. The Impact of Open Access to Atypical Antipsychotics on Treatment Costs for Medi-Cal Patients with Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeeta Narayan; Kimberly L. Sterling; McCombs, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The California Medicaid Program (Medi-Cal) provided open access to atypical antipsychotics in October 1997. This study investigated the impact of open access to atypical antipsychotics on the costs and duration of therapy for patients with bipolar disorders. Methods: Paid claims data from Medi-Cal were used to identify episodes of treatment using antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, or selected anticonvulsants initiated by patients with bipolar disorders. Episodes of...

  15. Assessment of CO2 capture by calcium looping (CaL) process in a flexible power plant operation scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among various carbon capture options, calcium looping (CaL) seems to be a promising method to reduce both energy and cost penalties for post-combustion CO2 capture compared to gas–liquid applications. In addition, assessment of dynamic performances of power plants with carbon capture is of great importance in the context of actual energy sector. This paper develops and evaluates, through dynamic modeling, the performances of CaL cycle operating in turbulent and fast fluidization regimes. CaL cycle has two independed circulated fluidized bed (CFB) reactors: the calciner, where CO2 is captured by reacting with CaO and the carbonator, where the CO2 is released and the sorbent is regenerated. Detailed mathematic models for both CaL cycle reactors were developed and simulated in dynamic conditions similar to the power plant cycling. The simulation results, in case of carbonator, were compared with experimental data published in literature and good quality prediction of CaL cycle was observed. In terms of CO2 capture efficiency, the sorbent capacity decreases significant with the number of cycles. The results proved that the height of the dense region decreases with increasing of the superficial velocity of the gas. The most part of the reactions takes place in the dense region; therefore, at smaller superficial gas velocities a higher carbonation degree can be achieved (more than 73%). The CO2 removal rate has been studied using a ramp, step and sinusoidal input tests to highlight the CaL transient response that occur in a real power plant due to load following operation. - Highlights: • Development of dynamic model for the CO2 capture using calcium looping (CaL) process. • Evaluation of CaL cycle dynamic behavior and model validation vs. experimental data. • Evaluation of CO2 removal capacity during a ramp, step and sinusoidal input tests

  16. Applications of the Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support (CALS) initiative to the evolved SEASAPPROW Missile program

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhs, Hans Georg

    1995-01-01

    This thesis reviews the Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support (CALS) initiative and its data format specifications and analyzes how they were applied to the Evolved SEASPARROW Missile (ES SM) Program. The CALS initiative and its data format specifications were developed to facilitate management of defense system technical data. With recent reforms in defense acquisition policy called for in Secretary of Defense memorandum, "Specifications & Standards - A New Way of Doing Business" the...

  17. Caracterización del aceite de semilla de borraja extraído con dióxido de carbono supercrítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado Andújar, A.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work is based on a comparative study of the borage seed's oil obtained with supercritical carbon dioxide by means of the conventional extraction using hexane as a solvent. In the optimal working conditions, the results obtained in the extraction with carbon dioxide are comparable to those obtained in the extraction with hexane, although the oil's quality is higher. Therefore, the process of supercritical extraction with carbon dioxide could be more effective than conventional extraction because the solvent removal is not necessary and several steps of the oil refining process can be reduced notably.

    En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio comparativo de la calidad del aceite de semilla de borraja obtenido con dióxido de carbono supercrítico y mediante extracción convencional empleando hexano como disolvente. La calidad del aceite extraído con dióxido de carbono es superior. En las condiciones óptimas de operación, los rendimientos encontrados en la extracción con dióxido de carbono, son comparables a los obtenidos en la extracción con hexano, si bien la calidad del aceite es superior. Por tanto, el proceso de Extracción Supercrítica con dióxido de carbono, al eliminar la etapa de recuperación del disolvente y simplificar sensiblemente el proceso de refinado del aceite, se presenta como una alternativa competitiva con la extracción convencional.

  18. Simulação e análise dosimétrica de protonterapia e íons de carbono no tratamento do melanoma uveal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Tavares Christóvão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este artigo apresenta a avaliação dosimétrica da radioterapia por íons de carbono em comparação à protonterapia. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: As simulações computacionais foram elaboradas no código Geant4 (GEometry ANd Tracking. Um modelo de olho discretizado em voxels implementado no sistema Siscodes (sistema computacional para dosimetria em radioterapia foi empregado, em que perfis de dose em profundidade e curvas de isodose foram gerados e superpostos. Nas simulações com feixe de íons de carbono, distintos valores de energia do feixe foram adotados, enquanto nas simulações com feixe de prótons os dispositivos da linha de irradiação foram incluídos e diferentes espessuras do material absorvedor foram aplicadas. RESULTADOS: As saídas das simulações foram processadas e integradas ao Siscodes para gerar as distribuições espaciais de dose no modelo ocular, considerando alterações do posicionamento de entrada do feixe. Os percentuais de dose foram normalizados em função da dose máxima para um feixe em posição de entrada específica, energia da partícula incidente e número de íons de carbono e de prótons incidentes. CONCLUSÃO: Os benefícios descritos e os resultados apresentados contribuem para o desenvolvimento das aplicações clínicas e das pesquisas em radioterapia ocular por íons de carbono e prótons.

  19. Equações alométricas para estimativa de biomassa e carbono em árvores de reflorestamentos de restauração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Lucio Carneiro de Miranda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos desenvolver e ajustar modelos alométricos para estimativa da biomassa seca e do carbono total em árvores plantadas em áreas de restauração florestal. Os dados dos ajustes são provenientes de 107 árvores de 44 espécies plantadas na região do Médio Vale do Paranapanema, SP, localizado nos Biomas Mata Atlântica e Cerrado. A biomassa seca e a massa de carbono foram obtidas por meio de amostragem destrutiva da parte aérea e subterrânea das árvores. Para o teste e ajuste dos modelos foi realizada a estratificação do conjunto inicial dos dados em ritmos de crescimento das espécies amostradas. Os ajustes foram feitos usando-se oito modelos lineares de cada variável dependente e dois obtidos pelo processo Stepwise-Forward. Os melhores modelos para estimativa da biomassa seca e carbono orgânico apresentaram coeficientes de determinação ajustado acima de 0,95 e erros-padrão percentuais abaixo de 32%. Os modelos baseados nos ritmos de crescimento das espécies mostraram melhores resultados estatísticos, atingindo R² = 0,985 e Syx% = 16,15 para biomassa seca das espécies de crescimento lento. Modelos provenientes do procedimento Stepwise geraram as melhores equações para as estimativas de biomassa seca e carbono total, e a estratificação dos dados dos diferentes ritmos de crescimento das espécies amostradas mostrou-se que foi adequada para melhorar o desempenho dos modelos.

  20. Crystallization and Preliminary Diffraction Analysis of the CAL PDZ Domain in Complex with a Selective Peptide Inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Amacher; P Cushing; J Weiner; D Madden

    2011-12-31

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with loss-of-function mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which regulates epithelial fluid and ion homeostasis. The CFTR cytoplasmic C-terminus interacts with a number of PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) proteins that modulate its intracellular trafficking and chloride-channel activity. Among these, the CFTR-associated ligand (CAL) has a negative effect on apical-membrane expression levels of the most common disease-associated mutant {Delta}F508-CFTR, making CAL a candidate target for the treatment of CF. A selective peptide inhibitor of the CAL PDZ domain (iCAL36) has recently been developed and shown to stabilize apical expression of {Delta}F508-CFTR, enhancing net chloride-channel activity, both alone and in combination with the folding corrector corr-4a. As a basis for structural studies of the CAL-iCAL36 interaction, a purification protocol has been developed that increases the oligomeric homogeneity of the protein. Here, the cocrystallization of the complex in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 35.9, b = 47.7, c = 97.3 {angstrom}, is reported. The crystals diffracted to 1.4 {angstrom} resolution. Based on the calculated Matthews coefficient (1.96 {angstrom}{sup 3} Da{sup -1}), it appears that the asymmetric unit contains two complexes.

  1. The Aspergillus nidulans cetA and calA genes are involved in conidial germination and cell wall morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaish, Ravit; Sharon, Haim; Levdansky, Emma; Greenstein, Shulamit; Shadkchan, Yana; Osherov, Nir

    2008-03-01

    The Aspergillus nidulans genes cetA (AN3079.2) and calA (AN7619.2) encode a novel class of fungal thaumatin-like proteins of unknown function. Deletion of cetA does not result in an observable phenotype [Greenstein, S., Shadkchan, Y., Jadoun, J., Sharon, C., Markovich, S., Osherov, N., 2006. Analysis of the Aspergillus nidulans thaumatin-like cetA gene and evidence for transcriptional repression of pyr4 expression in the cetA-disrupted strain. Fungal Genet. Biol. 43, 42-53]. We prepared knockout calA and calA/cetA A. nidulans strains. The calA mutants were phenotypically identical to the wild-type. In contrast, the cetA/calA double mutant showed a synthetic lethal phenotype suggesting that the two genes affect a single function or pathway: most of its conidia were completely inhibited in germination. Many collapsed and underwent lysis. A few showed abnormal germination characterized by short swollen hyphae and abnormal hyphal branching. Nongerminated conidia contained a single condensed nucleus suggesting a block in early germination. This is the first functional analysis of the novel cetA/calA family of thaumatin-like genes and their role in A. nidulans conidial germination. We show that CETA and CALA are secreted proteins that together play an essential role in early conidial germination. PMID:17703972

  2. Vegetation and Climate Variations at Taibai, Qinling Mountains in Central China for the Last 3 500 cal BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qiang LI; John DODSON; Jie ZHOU; Su-Min WANG; Qian-Li SUN

    2005-01-01

    Pollen records of two swamp sections, located at Taibai Mountain, the highest peak in the Qinling Mountains of central China, show variations of vegetation and climate for the last 3 500 cal BP. The pollen assemblage at the Foyechi and Sanqingchi sections and the surface soil pollen allowed us to reconstruct a high-altitude vegetation history at Taibai Mountain for the first time. The data indicated that there was a cold-dry climate interval between 3 500 and 3 080 cal BP and a relatively warm and wet period compared with the present from 3 080 to 1 860 cal BP. The warmest period in the late Holocene on Taibai Mountain was from 1 430 to 730 cal BP, with an approximate 2℃ increase in mean annual temperature compared with today.There was a relatively cool-dry climate interval from 730 to 310 cal BP. After 310 cal BP, a mountain tundra vegetation developed again and the position of the modern tree line was established.

  3. Modelo para calculo estimación del carbono en Tipo Forestal Roble-Raulí-Coigüe en la Reserva Nacional Malleco: Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Moreno Garcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es la selección de un modelo para estimación de carbono en Tipo Forestal Roble-Raulí y Coigüe. La recolección de datos se realizo en la Reserva Nacional Malleco. Cada sitio fue representado por un grupo de 5 parcelas (cuadradas, de lado 35m, superficie 1225m2, ubicadas en un transecto según la pendiente más fuerte. Fueron estimados los volúmenes de madera con y sin corteza de la totalidad de los individuos por medio de funciones para cada especie del tipo forestal en estudio. La cantidad de carbono almacenado a nivel de fuste de las parcelas fue estimada aplicando la función universal de carbono. En cada parcela se contabilizaron los árboles por clase diamétrico de DAP, siendo definidas las clases a partir del DAP mínimo de 3 cm y con una amplitud de 5 cm. Fueron ajustados los modelos de Spurr, Meyer, Stoate, Naslund y Schumacher-Hall. El modelo Schumacher-Hall presento el mejor ajuste de acuerdo a los indicadores estadísticos considerados, además de una mejor distribución de residuales.

  4. Procesos de certificación de proyectos de captura de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI En los Mercados Internacionales de Carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabogal Aguilar Javier

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de la mitigación al cambio climático, subyacen dos tipos de mecanismos destinados a disminuir las concentraciones de gases efecto invernadero: en primer lugar, la reducción de emisiones por las fuentes contaminantes; y en segundo lugar, el secuestro o captura de los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI cuantificados en CO2 equivalente en proyectos forestales (conocidos como LULUCF.Los proyectos de mitigación se abordan en el presente artículo por la comparación de los procesos de certificación que deben cumplir los proyectos de captura de gases de efecto invernadero, para acceder a los Mercados Internacionales de Carbono, tanto del Mecanismo de Desarrollo Limpio (MDL adoptado por el Protocolo de Kioto, como de los Mercados Voluntarios de Carbono (MVC.Como resultados, se presenta el aporte al desarrollo sustentable "local y regional": social, económico y ambiental en disponibilidad y mantenimiento de bienes y servicios ambientales; se resaltan las críticas a los esquemas de mercado analizados, y la incidencia del aporte a la sustentabilidad regional y local en la aprobación. De acuerdo con a lo anterior, los mercados voluntarios de carbono resultan ser más acordes con proyectos de pequeña y mediana escala mientras que el mecanismo de desarrollo limpio favorece en mayor medida aquellos proyectos de mediana y gran escala.

  5. A Relação entre o Ingresso ou Saída de Empresas do Índice de Carbono Eficiente (ICO2 e sua Rentabilidade = The Relationship Between entry or Exit of Companies from Carbon Efficient Index (ICO2 and Their Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Mothé Maia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação ambiental e social nas ações humanas não é fato exclusivo do século XXI. A política pública ambiental brasileira, por exemplo, iniciou-se na década de 1930 e se consolida desde então. Este artigo tem o objetivo de estudar os possíveis impactos na rentabilidade de empresas que ingressaram ou saíram do Índice de Carbono Eficiente (ICO2. Em virtude da escassez de estudos acerca desse índice de responsabilidade social, a presente pesquisa se mostra relevante no avanço do entendimento das vantagens obtidas pelas empresas que adotam medidas carbono eficientes. A fim de analisar tal efeito, foi adotado um modelo adaptado do Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM. A amostra da pesquisa compreendeu 12 empresas que entraram ou saíram do índice ao longo do período de 2012 a 2015. Os resultados obtidos não permitiram associar movimentos no ICO2 com aumentos ou quedas nos índices de rentabilidade, à exceção de duas empresas. Sendo assim, não foram verificadas evidências estatísticas de que o ICO2 é um fator relevante para a elevação da rentabilidade empresarial. Esse fato aponta para uma não valorização, por parte do investidor, das empresas apenas por comporem o índice.The environmental and social concern in the human actions is not an unique fact of the XXI century. Brazilian environmental public policy, for example, began in the 1930s and strengthened since. This article aims to study the possible impact on the profitability of companies who entered or left the Carbon Efficient Index (ICO2. Due to the lack of studies about this social responsibility index, this research is important in advancing the understanding of the benefits obtained by the companies that adopt efficient carbon measures. In order to analyze this effect was adopted an adapted model of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM. The survey sample comprised 12 companies who entered or left the index over the period 2012 to 2015. The results obtained

  6. Estudo da cinética de cura de um pré-impregnado de resina epoxídica/fibra de carbono pelo método isoconversional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa C. G. M. Ferrari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo verificar a cinética de cura de um pré-impregnado ("prepreg" de resina epoxídica/fibra de carbono, utilizando a técnica de calorimetria diferencial de varredura (DSC pelo método isoconversional. O método isoconversional analisa a cinética de cura por meio da dependência da energia de ativação durante a conversão (análise isotérmica ou temperatura (análise não-isotérmica e utiliza esta dependência para calcular os parâmetros cinéticos. A avaliação da cinética da reação por DSC baseia-se na quantidade de calor gerado durante as reações exotérmicas. A hipótese de que o calor gerado pela reação química é proporcional à extensão da cura permite obter os parâmetros cinéticos no DSC por meio das análises pelos métodos isotérmicos e não-isotérmicos. Para o método isoconversional isotérmico, a energia de ativação média apresentou valores entre 103 e 72 kJ/mol, e, para o método isoconversional não-isotérmico um valor médio de 80,5 kJ/mol. Estes resultados foram comparados com os obtidos para os métodos ASTM E 2070 e ASTM E 698, cujos valores foram 89±5 kJ/mol e 77,5±2,5 kJ/mol, respectivamente, comprovando a eficiência do método isoconversional.

  7. Cinética de evolução de dióxido de carbono em área de caatinga em São João do Cariri-PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallianna Dantas Araujo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Em decorrência da importância dos elementos meteorológicos nos diversos processos que ocorrem no solo, objetivou-se avaliar a cinética de evolução do dióxido de carbono (atividade microbiana associada aos elementos meteorológicos em áreas de Caatinga, nas condições do semiárido paraibano. O experimento foi instalado em campo, na área da Bacia Escola/CCA/UFPB, Município de São João do Cariri, PB. A atividade microbiana diurna, medida pela liberação de CO2, foi avaliada mensalmente durante o período de janeiro a dezembro de 2008, em três áreas contíguas de Caatinga, correspondendo aos tratamentos: T1 (10 animais 1 animal/3.200 m², T2 (5 animais 1 animal/6.400 m² e T3 (Controle Sem animais. A área do experimento totalizou 9,6 ha, e em cada tratamento foi utilizada uma área de 3,2 ha. Foram selecionados em cada tratamento seis pontos de coleta (definidos ao acaso. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em delineamento de blocos inteiramente casualizados e arranjados em parcela subsubdividida (3x12x6, sendo três taxas de lotação (Parcela, 12 épocas de avaliação (Subparcelas e 6 h de avaliação (Subsubparcelas e três blocos. A metodologia baseou-se no princípio de que o CO2 liberado por uma área de solo é absorvido por uma solução de KOH 0,5 N e determinado por titulometria com HCl 0,1 N. A evolução do CO2 variou ao longo do dia em função dos elementos meteorológicos, principalmente temperatura. A taxa de CO2 apresentou tendência à maior liberação no final da tarde. Em decorrência da importância da temperatura do solo e do ar nos inúmeros processos que ocorrem no solo, são necessários mais estudos na região semiárida do Brasil.

  8. Efeitos da radiação laser de dióxido de carbono em tecido ósseo: estudo macroscópico em ratos Effect of carbon dioxide laser radiation on osseous tissue: macroscopic study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter NICCOLI-FILHO

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O laser de dióxido de carbono (CO2, pelas suas propriedades intrínsecas, tem se tornado um instrumento cirúrgico importante; entre estas podemos citar: hemostasia, redução do edema e da dor pós-operatória e esterilização do campo cirúrgico. Seu uso em tecido ósseo para realização de osteotomias ainda é questionável, principalmente devido à possibilidade de iatrogenias causadas pelo aumento da temperatura tecidual, bem como destes efeitos na área paraincisional. O propósito deste estudo foi proporcionar a confecção de um plano piloto visando analisar macroscopicamente os efeitos da radiação laser de CO2 em tíbia de rato a fim de estabelecerem-se parâmetros de segurança quanto a potência. Foram utilizados 12 ratos. Após anestesia, os ossos foram submetidos a radiação com potência de 1, 3 e 5 watts. Os animais foram sacrificados nos tempos imediatamente após, 3, 7 e 14 dias após a irradiação, visando à remoção do osso tratado. Os espécimes obtidos foram observados através de lupa estereoscópica com aumentos de 14, 25 e 40 vezes e fotografados para posterior análise. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a potência de 1 watt proporciona uma melhor qualidade de resposta à reparação e que as potências de 3 e 5 watts provocaram o atraso na cronologia de reparo.The use of CO2 laser in osseous tissue to execute osteotomies is still questionable, mainly due to the increase of temperature in the site of irradiation. The purpose of this research was to carry out a pilot study in order to analyze macroscopically the effect of CO2 laser irradiation on rat tibia and to establish security parameters regarding power. Twelve rats were submitted to irradiation with 1, 3 and 5 watts of power and were examined immediately, 3, 7 and 14 days after irradiation. The results showed better healing when irradiation was carried out with the power of 1 watt; the 3- and 5-watt powers caused delay in the chronology of healing.

  9. Atividade Empresarial e Sustentabilidade Ambiental: Estudo da Utilização do Calço de Embalagem dos Aparelhos Eletroeletrônicos pelas Empresas do Polo Industrial de Manaus

    OpenAIRE

    Perin, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    A presente pesquisa tem a finalidade de mostrar um estudo sobre o uso da polpa de papelão como substituto do Poliestireno Expandido, mais popularmente conhecido como Isopor®; sendo aplicado como componente de embalagem para determinados aparelhos do segmento de mercado de eletroeletrônicos, tanto os produzidos no Polo Industrial de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil, como também em outras regiões do referido país e do mundo. O estudo em epígrafe é composto de três capítulos, sendo que no...

  10. Carbono orgánico en suelos agrícolas de México: investigación y políticas públicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Cotler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de una extensa revisión bibliográfica sobre la investigación en conservación de carbono en suelos de México muestra que prácticas de agricultura de conservación y diversos sistemas de producción tradicionales pueden incrementar de manera considerable el carbono orgánico en suelos, lo que repercute en su resistencia ante el impacto de la lluvia, mejora la tasa de infiltración y la cantidad de agua disponible, incrementa el contenido de la biomasa microbiana, disminuye la erosión y mitiga la emisión de gases de efecto invernadero. La relevancia que adquiere la calidad de los suelos en la seguridad alimentaria y en los impactos ambientales, incluyendo el cambio climático, explica la importancia de su incorporación en las políticas públicas del país. Sin embargo, la revisión de instrumentos de política pública del presente sexenio (2013-2018 expone grandes vacíos y contradicciones que se presentan a través de ejemplos concretos de acciones. El escaso presupuesto destinado a la conservación de suelos (2.12% del presupuesto total de SAGARPA en 2014 aplicado mayormente (más de 80% a infraestructura hidráulica señala por un lado, la ausencia del reconocimiento del suelo como medio para infiltrar y retener agua; y por el otro, la incipiente incorporación de los estudios sobre carbono en suelos en los instrumentos de política pública correspondientes. Se identifican varios aspectos necesarios para mejorar la transversalidad en torno a la conservación de carbono en suelos: (i generar políticas públicas que reconozcan las funciones y los servicios ecosistémicos que proveen los suelos, (ii fortalecer la institucionalidad acerca del tema de suelos, (iii incentivar los programas de conservación de suelos in situ, que incorporen carbono a través de la promoción de agroecosistemas adaptados a las diversas condiciones territoriales.

  11. Evaluación preliminar del potencial de indicadores de salud y calidad relacionados con el ciclo del carbono de suelos del humedal de Jaboque (Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulido Barrios Hannier Wadith

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se evaluó el potencial de las actividades enzimáticas celulasa y ‚glucosidasa, de la
    biomasa microbiana por carbono, del porcentaje de carbono orgánico total y del pH en suelos y sedimentos aledaños al humedal de Jaboque (Bogotá-Colombia para determinar su posible utilidad como indicadores del estado de salud y calidad. Para ello se evaluaron los resultados obtenidos en dos épocas del año y en nueve puntos del humedal, que corresponden a problemáticas específicas: cuatro de ellos son suelos, dos son de carácter agrícola, mientras que los cinco puntos restantes son sedimentos. El análisis estadístico de los datos se realizó por el método no paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis (p=0,05 arrojando diferencias significativas entre los diferentes puntos del humedal y los diferentes tiempos de muestreo, excepto para el parámetro ecofisiológico tasa metabólica (qCO2. La biomasa por carbono en general se relaciona con la respiración y el porcentaje de acumulación de la materia orgánica. Se encontró que las actividades enzimáticas junto con los otros parámetros medidos, exceptuando la tasa metabólica varían significativamente en los distintos puntos
    de muestreo y en las dos épocas de muestreo. Para todos los puntos de muestreo se hizo una aproximación al estado de los procesos involucrados en el ciclo de carbono en el humedal. Los porcentajes de carbono orgánico son significativamente altos, lo que estaría implicando una eutrofización generalizada para todo el humedal. Las diferencias significativas encontradas en los parámetros medidos dan cuenta de la sensibilidad de éstos al problema de contaminación del humedal.

  12. BUSCA PELA "MUSCULARIDADE" E VARIÁVEIS ASSOCIADAS EM ADULTOS JOVENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Berbert de Carvalho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A busca pela "muscularidade" parece estar associada a diversas variáveis que impactam a saúde e a qualidade de vida dos sujeitos. No entanto, há uma carência de estudos sobre o construto, um baixo número de instrumentos de medida específicos para sua avaliação, além de reduzida avaliação de indivíduos do sexo masculino. Objetivo: Avaliar a busca pela "muscularidade" e associá-la a sintomas depressivos, autoestima, comportamentos de risco de transtornos alimentares e ao grau de comprometimento psicológico com o exercício físico. Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo transversal com 246 jovens adultos do sexo masculino. Foram utilizados instrumentos de autorrelato para avaliar a busca pela "muscularidade" (Drive for Muscularity Scale, autoestima (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, sintomas depressivos (Beck Depression Inventory, comportamentos de risco de transtornos alimentares (Eating Attitudes Test-26 e o grau de comprometimento psicológico com o exercício físico (Commitment Exercise Scale. Foi utilizado o teste de associação de Pearson para verificar relação entre as variáveis do estudo e Análise de Regressão Linear Múltipla (forward para verificação do quanto as variáveis do estudo influenciam na busca pela "muscularidade". Resultados: A busca pela "muscularidade" esteve associada à autoestima (rpearson = 0,13; p < 0,05, aos comportamentos de risco de transtornos alimentares (rpearson = 0,20; p < 0,05 e ao grau de comprometimento psicológico ao exercício (rpearson = 0,62; p < 0,05. O grau de comprometimento psicológico com o exercício explicou 38,4% da variância total da busca pela "muscularidade", 12,3% da insatisfação com a "muscularidade" e 51,0% dos comportamentos orientados para a "muscularidade". Conclusão: A busca pela "muscularidade" está associada à baixa autoestima, aos comportamentos de risco de transtornos alimentares e, em especial, ao grau de comprometimento psicológico com o exerc

  13. CalTOX, a multimedia total exposure model for hazardous-waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CalTOX has been developed as a spreadsheet model to assist in health-risk assessments that address contaminated soils and the contamination of adjacent air, surface water, sediments, and ground water. The modeling effort includes a multimedia transport and transformation model, exposure scenario models, and efforts to quantify and reduce uncertainty in multimedia, multiple-pathway exposure models. This report provides an overview of the CalTOX model components, lists the objectives of the model, describes the philosophy under which the model was developed, identifies the chemical classes for which the model can be used, and describes critical sensitivities and uncertainties. The multimedia transport and transformation model is a dynamic model that can be used to assess time-varying concentrations of contaminants introduced initially to soil layers or for contaminants released continuously to air or water. This model assists the user in examining how chemical and landscape properties impact both the ultimate route and quantity of human contact. Multimedia, multiple pathway exposure models are used in the CalTOX model to estimate average daily potential doses within a human population in the vicinity of a hazardous substances release site. The exposure models encompass twenty-three exposure pathways. The exposure assessment process consists of relating contaminant concentrations in the multimedia model compartments to contaminant concentrations in the media with which a human population has contact (personal air, tap water, foods, household dusts soils, etc.). The average daily dose is the product of the exposure concentrations in these contact media and an intake or uptake factor that relates the concentrations to the distributions of potential dose within the population

  14. Contraintes et enjeux de développement de la Nouvelle-Calédonie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Jost

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available En 2008 a été lancée en Nouvelle-Calédonie une vaste consultation pour élaborer un Schéma d’Aménagement et de Développement du territoire à l’horizon 2025. Si l’économie calédonienne a connu une forte croissance pendant plus d’une décennie, pouvant soutenir les besoins de la population et les investissements, le grand défi d’aujourd’hui réside dans la capacité à construire une communauté de destin basée sur une reconnaissance d’aspirations multiculturelles et sur un projet commun. Lancé dix ans après l’Accord de Nouméa qui le prévoyait, le S.A.D. est cette chance qu’ont les Néo-Calédoniens d’écrire enfin leur avenir ensemble. La réflexion stratégique globale et la mise en place d’une politique générale restent toutefois encore à mettre en place.In 2008 a vast consultation was launched in New Caledonia aimed at establishing a development plan for the territory, directed at the year 2025. If the Caledonian economy has experienced high growth over the past decade, thereby satisfying population and investment needs, the current challenge resides in the capacity to build the society of the future based on the recognition of multi-cultural aspirations and a shared project. Envisaged by the Accord de Nouméa and launched ten years later, the SAD offers all New Caledonians the opportunity to plan the future together. The over-arching strategic reflection and the creation of the broad politic foundations for the project have yet, however, to be determined.

  15. Depósito de capas de nitruro de carbono mediante ablación láser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto, R.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of carbon nitride thin films by ablation of different target compounds (graphite, guanazole in a reactive atmosphere of ammonia with an ArF excimer laser (193 nm is reported. The films were deposited on different substrates (silicon wafers and aluminium plates and were analysed with different techniques such as profilometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. For both targets, a comparative study of the influence of the ammonia total pressure on the growth rate, composition and properties of the obtained material has been done. A gradual nitrogen incorporation in the films with increasing ammonia pressure and also the presence of nitrogen bonded to carbon in different configurations (simple, double and/or triple bonds was observed. The use of guanazole targets leads to higher efficiency in the nitrogen incorporation and in the formation of simple C-N bonds.

    Se presenta la preparación de capas finas de nitruro de carbono mediante la ablación de diferentes tipos de blancos (grafito, guanazol en una atmósfera reactiva de amoniaco utilizando un láser de excímero de ArF (193 nm. Las capas se han depositado sobre diferentes soportes (obleas de silicio y aluminio y se han analizado empleando técnicas de caracterización básicas como la espectroscopia infrarroja mediante transformada de Fourier (FTIR, espectroscopia de rayos X por dispersión de energía (EDX y perfilometría. Se ha realizado, para los dos blancos utilizados, un estudio comparativo de la influencia de la presión total de amoniaco en la velocidad de depósito, composición y propiedades del material obtenido. Se ha observado en ambos casos la progresiva incorporación de nitrógeno en las capas con el aumento de la presión de amoniaco, estando el nitrógeno enlazado al carbono en diferentes configuraciones (enlaces simples, dobles y/o triples. La utilización del blanco de guanazol se muestra más eficiente en

  16. Gale Digital Collections: Ray Abruzzi Interviewed by Luisa Calè and Ana Parejo Vadillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Abruzzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This interview addresses the commercial dimensions of the nineteenth-century digital archive. Luisa Calè and Ana Parejo Vadillo ask Ray Abruzzi, Vice President and Publisher for 'Gale Digital Collections' at Gale, about the company’s origins, its commercial approach to digital collections, and the challenges of digitization. In the context of the open access movement, the architecture of participation, and crowdsourcing, Abruzzi discusses how the company works with academic partners and interfaces with other digital libraries and platforms.

  17. Terracotas de Calés en el Museo Arqueológico Nacional de Madrid

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. BLÁZQUEZ

    2009-01-01

    El Museo Arqueológico Nacional de Madrid exhibe entre sus magníficas colecciones una compuesta de numerosas terracotas traídas de Calés en el siglo pasado por el Marqués de Salamanca que nos hemos propuesto estudiar y a la que hemos dedicado varios trabajos ya. Colecciones similares se conservan en los museos de Lecce, Capua, Louvre, Leide, British Museum, Palazzo dei Conservatori, Villa Giulia, Nacionale Romano, Ny Carbsberg Glyptothek, Museo Universitario de Zurich, Museum für antike Kleink...

  18. Efecto antiinflamatorio preclínico del polvo seco de Caléndula officinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Figueredo, Yanier; Montero Alarcón, Claudia; Agüero Fernández, Sara; Muñoz Cernuda, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    Para demostrar la actividad antiinflamatoria del polvo seco Caléndula officinalis secado por atomización se emplearon dosis de 50, 150 y 450 mg/Kg y se evaluó el efecto sobre la inflamación aguda provocada por carragenina, dextrán, histamina y serotonina y granuloma inducido por discos de algodón en ratas y edema auricular inducido por aceite de crotón en ratones. El polvo seco mostró efecto inhibitorio sobre los diferentes modelos empleados sin afectar el peso del timo y las glándulas suprar...

  19. On the development of the final optical multiplexer board prototype for the TileCal experiment

    CERN Document Server

    González, V; Torres, J; Soret, J; Castelo, J; Castillo, V; Cuenca, C; Ferrer, A; Fullana, E; Higón, E; Munar, A; Poveda, J; Ruíz, A; Salvachúa, B; Solans, C; Valero, A; Valls, J A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture of the final optical multiplexer board for the TileCal experiment. The results of the first VME 6U prototype have led to the definition of the final block diagram and functionality of this prototype. Functional description of constituent blocks and the state of the work currently undergoing at the Department of Electronic Engineering, in collaboration with IFIC-Valencia, is presented. As no board is yet produced, no experimental results are presented but, nevertheless, design issues that have been taking into account as component placement and signal integrity issues will be detailed.

  20. A radiation tolerant Data link board for the ATLAS TileCal upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bohm, Christian; The ATLAS collaboration; Muschter, Steffen Lothar; Silverstein, Samuel; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We describe the latest (last?) full functionality revision of the high-speed data link board for the ATLAS TileCal phase 2 upgrade. It is highly redundant, using two Kintex-7 FPGAs and two Molex QSFP+ electro-optic modules. The FPGAs are remotely configured through two radiation-hard CERN GBTx deserialisers (GBTx), which also provide the LHC-synchronous system clock. The four QSFP+ uplinks transmit data at 10 Gbps. Virtually all single-point error modes are removed, and a combination of triple-mode redundancy, internal and external scrubbing will adequately protect against radiation-induced errors.

  1. In silico screening of 393 mutants facilitates enzyme engineering of amidase activity in CalB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hediger, Martin Robert; De Vico, Luca; Rannes, Julie Bille;

    2013-01-01

    Our previously presented method for high throughput computational screening of mutant activity (Hediger et al., 2012) is benchmarked against experimentally measured amidase activity for 22 mutants of Candida antarctica lipase B (CalB). Using an appropriate cutoff criterion for the computed barriers......, the qualitative activity of 15 out of 22 mutants is correctly predicted. The method identifies four of the six most active mutants with ≥3-fold wild type activity and seven out of the eight least active mutants with ≤0.5-fold wild type activity. The method is further used to screen all sterically possible (386...

  2. Upgrade Analog Readout and Digitizing System for ATLAS TileCal Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Akerstedt, H; Biot, A; Bohm, C; Carrio, F; Drake, G; Hildebrand, K; Muschter, S; Oreglia, M; Paramonov, A

    2013-01-01

    A potential upgrade for the front-end electronics and signal digitization and data acquisition system of the ATLAS hadron calorimeter for the high luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) is described. A Demonstrator is being built to readout a slice of the TileCal detector. The on-detector electronics includes up to 48 Analog Front-end Boards for PMT analog signal processing, 4 Main Boards for data digitization and slow controls, 4 Daughter Boards with high speed optical links to interface the on-detector and off-detector electronics. Two super readout driver boards are used for off-detector data acquisition and fulfilling digital trigger.\

  3. Mic Check: How the 99% Pitched a Movement from Occupy Wall Street to Occupy Cal

    OpenAIRE

    Bintliff, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The University of California, Berkeley, became a site of the Occupy Movement in fall 2011. On November 9, the university found itself in the company of financial hubs, civic centers, and parks and plazas the world over when Sproul Plaza was re-appropriated by the sleeping bags and “mic checks” that came to symbolize the disenfranchised majority, "the 99%." Occupy Cal was immediately subject to a brutal suppression of student protest by the police, as both students and the university administr...

  4. A Hybrid Readout System for the ATLAS TileCal Phase 2 Upgrade Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Bohm, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter phase 2 upgrade demonstrator project aims at installing hybrid on-detector electronic systems replacing 1-4 adjacent TileCal electronics drawers in ATLAS starting at the end of the long shut down of LHC 2013 to 2014. The new drawers will combine a fully functional phase 2 system with circuitry making them compatible with the present system. In the design we have emphasized redundancy and reliability. Data from and commands to the calorimeter are transferred via high speed (5 or 10 Gb/s) optical links.

  5. Morteros de cal : aplicaci??n en el patrimonio hist??rico

    OpenAIRE

    Cazalla V??zquez, Olga

    2002-01-01

    Los morteros de cal, ha sido un material de construcci??n muy utilizado en sus m??ltiples funciones a lo largo de la historia. Se constru??a tras una selecci??n especialmente cuidada de sus materias primas y eran totalmente compatibles con el resto de elementos de f??brica. Hoy en d??a, se tiende a reemplazarlos por morteros de cemento, que aunque tienen muy buenas propiedades f??sico-mec??nicas, son totalmente incompatibles con los dem??s elementos de f??brica, ya que adem??s producen un fue...

  6. L0 Project: Monitoring H1 Triggers with SpaCal

    OpenAIRE

    Barrelet, E.; Acounis, S; Durant, O.

    2001-01-01

    We have built a VME module using H1’s ADC and BaBar TDC interfaced to H1’s 29K processor. It is used to monitor SpaCal trigger, energy sums and trigger elements, by reading up to 130Kevents/s. The timing resolution is found to be surprisingly good ( »1ns) for energy sum signals. The performances under various beam conditions are shown, including a first study of the “hotspot” counters designed as a veto against e-beam background.

  7. Two-Loop Iteration of Five-Point ${\\cal N}=4$ Super-Yang-Mills Amplitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Bern, Z.; Czakon, M.; Kosower, David,; Roiban, R.; Smirnov, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    URL: http://www-spht.cea.fr/articles/T06/032 http://fr.arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/0604074 International audience We confirm by explicit computation the conjectured all-orders iteration of planar maximally supersymmetric ${\\cal N}=4$ Yang-Mills theory in the nontrivial case of five-point two-loop amplitudes. We compute the required unitarity cuts of the integrand and evaluate the resulting integrals numerically using a Mellin--Barnes representation and the automated package of M.~Czakon (hep-p...

  8. Mapping Site Response Parameters on Cal Poly Pomona Campus Using the Spectral Ratio Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    HO, K. Y. K.; Polet, J.

    2014-12-01

    Site characteristics are an important factor in earthquake hazard assessment. To better understand site response differences on a small scale, as well as the seismic hazard of the area, we develop site response parameter maps of Cal Poly Pomona campus. Cal Poly Pomona is located in southern California about 40 km east of Los Angeles, within 50 km of San Andreas Fault. The campus is situated on top of the San Jose Fault. With about twenty two thousand students on campus, it is important to know the site response in this area. To this end, we apply the Horizontal-to-Vertical (H/V) spectral ratio technique, which is an empirical method that can be used in an urban environment with no environmental impact. This well-established method is based on the computation of the ratio of vertical ambient noise ground motion over horizontal ambient noise ground motion as a function of frequency. By applying the spectral ratio method and the criteria from Site Effects Assessment Using Ambient Excitations (SESAME) guidelines, we can determine fundamental frequency and a minimum site amplification factor. We installed broadband seismometers throughout the Cal Poly Pomona campus, with an initial number of about 15 sites. The sites are approximately 50 to 150 meters apart and about two hours of waveforms were recorded at each site. We used the Geopsy software to make measurements of the peak frequency and the amplitude of the main peak from the spectral ratio. These two parameters have been determined to be estimates of fundamental frequency and a minimum site amplification factor, respectively. Based on the geological map from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and our data collected from Cal Poly Pomona campus, our preliminary results suggest that the area of campus that is covered by alluvial fan material tends to have a single significant spectral peak with a fundamental frequency of ~1Hz and a minimum amplification factor of ~3.7. The minimum depth of the surface layer is about 56

  9. Hitachi product data management system toward the 21st century by CALS approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIPDM21 (Hitachi Product Data Management System for the 21st century) is a comprehensive computer information management system which has been developed for the purpose of plant life cycle business support in terms of the electronics information exchange and sharing between the disciplines using the product data management technology. The system consists of core systems (Engineering Data Control System, Integrated Commodity Database system, and Document Management System) and business application systems. In the present development phase, the system is being enhanced to support CALS standards including EDT, SGML, and STEP, and to support information exchange and sharing with outside the company including clients, construction companies, and domestic/international vendors. (author)

  10. A prototype for the upgraded readout electronics for TileCal

    CERN Document Server

    Eriksson, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Bohm, C; Kavianipour, H; Muschter, S; Oreglia, M; Tang, F

    2011-01-01

    Upgrade plans for ATLAS hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) include full readout of all data to the counting room. We are developing a possible implementation of the future readout and trigger electronics aiming at a full functional demonstrator during Phase 0, starting from an existing functional test slice assembled using a combination of prototypes and emulators. Presently the first version of two PCBs in charge of digitization, control and communication are being developed. The design is highly redundant, using FPGAs with fault tolerant firmware for control and protocol conversion. Communication between on and off detector electronics is implemented via high speed optical links.

  11. Ward and Nielsen Identities for ABJM Theory in ${\\cal N}=1$ Superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker

    2016-01-01

    The structures and the associated gauge algebra of ABJM theory in ${\\cal N}=1$ superspace are reviewed. We derive the Ward identities of the theory in the class of Lorentz-type gauges at quantum level to justify the renormalizability of the model. We compute the Nielsen identities for the two-point functions of the theory with the help of enlarged BRST transformation. The identities are derived in ABJM theory to ensure the gauge independence of the physical poles of the Green's functions.

  12. Aerodynamic design of the Cal Poly Da Vinci Human-Powered Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larwood, Scott; Saiki, Neal

    1990-01-01

    This paper will discuss the methodology used in designing the rotor and drive propellers for the third generation Cal Poly Da Vinci Human-Powered Helicopter. The rotor was designed using a lifting surface, uniform inflow hover analysis code and the propeller was designed using a minimum induced-loss method. Construction, geometry, and operating considerations are discussed as they impact the designs. Optimization of the design performance is also explained. The propellers were tested in a wind tunnel and results are compared with theoretical data. Successful flight tests of the Da Vinci III are discussed.

  13. Abelian tensor hierarchy in 4D ${\\cal N}=1$ conformal supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Shuntaro; Yamada, Yusuke; Yokokura, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    We consider Abelian tensor hierarchy in four-dimensional ${\\cal N}=1$ supergravity in the conformal superspace formalism, where the so-called covariant approach is used to antisymmetric tensor fields. We introduce $p$-form gauge superfields as superforms in the conformal superspace. We solve the Bianchi identities under the constraints for the superforms. As a result, each of form fields is expressed by a single gauge invariant superfield. The action of superforms is shown with the invariant superfields. We also show the relation between the superspace formalism and the superconformal tensor calculus.

  14. Transfer of Air Force technical procurement bid set data to small businesses, using CALS and EDI: Test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-15

    This report documents a test transfer of three Air Force technical procurement bid sets to one large and twelve small businesses, using the Department of Defense (DoD) Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support (CALS) and ANSI ASC X12 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards. The main goal of the test was to evaluate the effectiveness of using CALS technical data within the context of the DoD`s EDI-based standard approach to electronic commerce in procurement, with particular emphasis on receipt and use of the data by small contractors. Air Force procurement data was provided by the Sacramento Air Logistics Center at McClellan Air Force Base; the manufacturing participants were selected from among McClellan`s ``Blue Ribbon`` contractors, located throughout the US. The test was sponsored by the Air Force CALS Test Network, headquartered at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The test successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of including CALS MIL-R-28002 (Raster) engineering data in an EDI Specification/Technical Information transaction set (ANSI ASC X12 841) when issuing electronic requests for quotation to small businesses. In many cases, the data was complete enough for the contractor participant to feel comfortable generating a quote. Lessons learned from the test are being fed back to the CALS and EDI standards organizations, and to future implementors of CALS-EDI based acquisition or contracting systems, which require the transfer of technical information, such as engineering data, manufacturing process data, quality test data, and other product or process data, in the form of a CALS or other digital datafile.

  15. Efeitos cardiorrespiratórios do butorfanol em cães pré-tratados ou não pela levomepromazina Cardiopulmonary effects of butorphanol in dogs treated with levomepromazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Patto dos Santos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este experimento avaliar os efeitos do butorfanol precedido ou não pela levomepromazina sobre a freqüência cardíaca (FC, as pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média (PAS, PAD e PAM, respectivamente, a freqüência respiratória (f, a concentração de dióxido de carbono ao final da expiração (ETCO2, a saturação da oxihemoglobina (SpO2, o volume corrente (VC e o volume minuto (VM, em cães. Para tal, foram empregados vinte animais adultos, clinicamente saudáveis, distribuídos igualmente em dois grupos (GC e GL. Ao GC administrou-se solução salina a 0,9% (Controle, no volume de 0,2mL kg-1, pela via intravenosa (IV. Decorridos 15 minutos, administrou-se butorfanol na dose de 0,3mg kg-1 pela mesma via. Aos animais do GL foi adotada a mesma metodologia, porém substituindo-se a solução salina pela levomepromazina na dose de 1mg kg-1. As medidas das variáveis cardiorrespiratórias iniciaram-se imediatamente antes da aplicação dos fármacos (M1. Novas mensurações foram realizadas 15 minutos após a administração da solução salina a 0,9% ou levomepromazina (M2 e 10 minutos após a administração de butorfanol (M3. As demais colheitas foram realizadas a intervalos de 10 minutos, durante 30 minutos (M4, M5 e M6, respectivamente. Os dados numéricos colhidos foram submetidos à Análise de Variância (ANOVA, seguida pelo teste de Tukey (pThis work was aimed at evaluating the effects of the butorphanol in dogs preceded or not buy levomepromazine on heart rate (HR, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (SAP, DAP and MAP, respectively, respiratory rate (RR, end tidal CO2 (ETCO2, oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2, minute volume (MV and tidal volume (TV. Twenty adult animals, clinically health were randomly distributed in two groups with ten animals each one (CG and LG. The first one received intravenous administration (IV of 0.2mL kg-1 of saline solution at 0.9% (control. After 15 minutes, 0.3mg kg-1

  16. Non-Hermitian ${\\cal PT}$-symmetric relativistic quantum theory in an intensive magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Rodionov, V N

    2016-01-01

    We develop relativistic non-Hermitian quantum theory and its application to neutrino physics in a strong magnetic field. It is well known, that one of the fundamental postulates of quantum theory is the requirement of Hermiticity of physical parameters. This condition not only guarantees the reality of the eigenvalues of Hamiltonian operators, but also implies the preservation of the probabilities of the considered quantum processes. However as it was shown relatively recently (Bender, Boettcher 1998), Hermiticity is a sufficient but it is not a necessary condition. It turned out that among non-Hermitian Hamiltonians it is possible to allocate a number of such which have real energy spectra and can ensure the development of systems over time with preserving unitarity. This type of Hamiltonians includes so-called parity-time (${\\cal PT}$) symmetric models which is already used in various fields of modern physics. The most developed in this respect are models, which used in the field of ${\\cal PT}$-symmetric op...

  17. The TileCal Online Energy Estimation for the Next LHC Operation Period

    CERN Document Server

    Peralva, B S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the detector used in the reconstruction of hadrons, jets, muons and missing transverse energy from the proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It covers the central part of the ATLAS detector (|η|<1.6). The energy deposited by the particles is read out by approximately 5,000 cells, with double readout channels. The signal provided by the readout electronics for each channel is digitized at 40 MHz and its amplitude is estimated by an optimal filtering algorithm, which expects a single signal with a well-defined shape. However, the LHC luminosity is expected to increase leading to signal pile-up that deforms the signal of interest. Due to limited resources, the current DSP-based hardware setup does not allow the implementation of sophisticated energy estimation methods that deal with the pile-up. Therefore, the technique to be employed for online energy estimation in TileCal for next LHC operation period must be based on fast filters such as the M...

  18. A Discussion on Personnel Exposure to Posttest Byproducts from a 50-cal. Light Gas Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Don; Rodriquez, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In January of 2002, employees working in the Hypervelocity Test Facility (HTF) at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) began to notice common physical complaints. These included loss of smell, loss of taste, skin irritation, a burning sensation of the mucus membranes, and redness and chapping of the lips. These conditions extended to home during the weekends and throughout holiday breaks as well. Concerns about air contaminants were raised with regard to the operation of the .50-cal. two-stage light gas gun (2SLGG). Employees suspected that these conditions might be caused by air contaminants from small leaks at the gun pump tube joint at the breech, and exhaust gas entrainment into the WAC systems. The WSTF Industrial Hygienist (IH) was notified and samples were collected using the MIRAN infrared spectrometer (real time) air sampler on 08 January 2002 at the SO-cal. gun. The results from this screening test suggested the need for more detailed investigations with analytical sampling and analysis.

  19. The Return of the King: No-Scale ${\\cal F}$-$SU(5)$

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the viable parameter space in No-Scale ${\\cal F}$-$SU(5)$, examining the Grand Unified Theory within the context of the prevailing gluino mass limits established by the LHC. The satisfaction of both the No-Scale boundary condition and the experimentally measured Standard Model (SM) like Higgs boson mass requires a lower limit on the gluino mass in the model space of about 1.9 TeV, which maybe not coincidentally is the current LHC supersymmetry search bound. This offers a plausible explanation as to why a supersymmetry signal has thus far not been observed at the LHC. On the contrary, since the vector-like flippon particles are relatively heavy due to the strict condition that the supersymmetry breaking soft term $B_{\\mu}$ must vanish at the unification scale, we also cannot address the recently vanished 750 GeV diphoton resonance at the 13 TeV LHC. Therefore, No-Scale ${\\cal F}$-$SU(5)$ returns as a King after the spurious 750 GeV diphoton excess was gone with the wind.

  20. Optical link card design for the phase II upgrade of TileCal experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; Ferrer, A; Gonzalez, V; Higon, E; Marin, C; Moreno, P; Sanchis, E; Solans, C; Valero, A; Valls, J

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an optical link card developed in the frame of the R&D activities for the phase 2 upgrade of the TileCal experiment. This board, that is part of the evaluation of different technologies for the final choice in the next years, is designed as a mezzanine that can work independently or be plugged in the optical multiplexer board of the TileCal backend electronics. It includes two SNAP 12 optical connectors able to transmit and receive up to 75 Gb/s and one SFP optical connector for lower speeds and compatibility with existing hardware as the read out driver. All processing is done in a Stratix II GX field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Details are given on the hardware design, including signal and power integrity ana lysis, needed when working with these high data rates and on firmware development to obtain the best performance of the FPGA signal transceivers and for the use of the GBT protocol.

  1. Exceptional points of degeneracy and $\\cal{PT}$-symmetry in photonic coupled chains of scatterers

    CERN Document Server

    Othman, Mohamed A K; Capolino, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of exceptional points of degeneracy (EPD) of periodic eigenstates in non-Hermitian coupled chains of dipolar scatterers. Guided modes supported by these structures can exhibit an EPD in their dispersion diagram at which two or more Bloch eigenstates coalesce, in both their eigenvectors and eigenvalues. We show a second-order modal EPD associated with the parity-time ($\\cal{PT}$) symmetry condition, at which each particle pair in the double chain exhibits balanced gain and loss. Furthermore, we also demonstrate a fourth-order EPD occurring at the band edge. Such degeneracy condition was previously referred to as a degenerate band edge in lossless anisotropic photonic crystals. Here, we rigorously show it under the occurrence of gain and loss balance for a discrete guiding system. We identify a more general regime of gain and loss balance showing that $\\cal{PT}$-symmetry is not necessary to realize EPDs. Furthermore, we investigate the degree of detuning of the EPD when the geometri...

  2. The TileCal Energy Reconstruction for LHC Run2 and Future Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Seixas, Jose; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the main hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS and it covers the central part of the detector (|η|<1.6). The energy deposited by the particles in TileCal is read out by approximately 10,000 channels. The signal provided by the readout electronics for each channel is digitized at 40 MHz and its amplitude is estimated by an optimal filtering algorithm. The increase of LHC luminosity leads to signal pile-up that deforms the signal of interest and compromises the amplitude estimation performance. This work presents the proposed algorithm for energy estimation during LHC Run 2. The method is based on the same approach used during LHC Run 1, namely the Optimal Filter (OF). The only difference is that the signal baseline (pedestal) will be subtracted from the received digitized samples, while in Run 1 this quantity was estimated on an event-by-event basis. The pedestal value is estimated through special calibration runs and it is stored in a data base for online and offline usage. Addit...

  3. The TileCal Energy Reconstruction for LHC Run2 and Future Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Seixas, Jose; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the main hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS and it covers the central part of the detector (|eta|<1.6). The energy deposited by the particles in TileCal is read out by approximately 10,000 channels. The signal provided by the readout electronics for each channel is digitized at 40 MHz and its amplitude is estimated by an optimal filtering algorithm. The increase of LHC luminosity leads to signal pile-up that deforms the signal of interest and compromises the amplitude estimation performance. This work presents the proposed algorithm for energy estimation during LHC Run 2. The method is based on the same approach used during LHC Run 1, namely the Optimal Filter (OF). The only difference is that the signal baseline (pedestal) will be subtracted from the received digitized samples, while in Run 1 this quantity was estimated on an event-by-event basis. The pedestal value is estimated through special calibration runs and it is stored in a data base for online and offline usage. Addi...

  4. The TileCal Online Energy Estimation for the Next LHC Operation Period

    CERN Document Server

    Peralva, B S; The ATLAS collaboration; Cerqueira, A S; Seixas, J M

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a study on the TileCal online energy estimation for the next LHC operation period (Run2). Due to hardware limitation, the algorithm that performs the online energy estimation must remain based on the linear and fast Optimal Filter (OF) technique, which envisages the use of the background covariance matrix in its design. During Run1, TileCal made use of an identity matrix to describe and the background covariance matrix, which showed to be a reasonable approximation for the low luminosity scenario. Under such conditions, the background for most of its cells comprised mainly electronic noise which can be approximated as a uncorrelated Gaussian process. However, as the pile-up introduces a non-Gaussian component to the background, the OF method presents larger variance and it becomes biased. The use of the background covariance matrix in the design of the OF weights is expected to improve the energy estimation performance. The results for the scenario considered show that for high occupancy ce...

  5. The TileCal Energy Reconstruction for LHC Run2 and Future Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Peralva, Bernardo Sotto-Maior

    2015-01-01

    The TileCal is the main hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS and it covers the central part of the detector ($|\\eta|$ < 1.6). The energy deposited by the particles in TileCal is read out by approximately 10,000 channels. The signal provided by the readout electronics for each channel is digitized at 40 MHz and its amplitude is estimated by an optimal filtering algorithm. The increase of LHC luminosity leads to signal pile-up that deforms the signal of interest and compromises the amplitude estimation performance. This work presents the proposed algorithm for energy estimation during LHC Run 2. The method is based on the same approach used during LHC Run 1, namely the Optimal Filter. The only difference is that the signal baseline (pedestal) will be subtracted from the received digitized samples, while in Run 1 this quantity was estimated on an event-by-event basis. The pedestal value is estimated through special calibration runs and it is stored in a data base for online and offline usage. Additionally, the backg...

  6. Chiral low-energy physics from squashed branes in deformed ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM

    CERN Document Server

    Steinacker, Harold C

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the low-energy physics which arises on stacks of squashed brane solutions of $SU(N)$ ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM, deformed by a cubic soft SUSY breaking potential. A brane configuration is found which leads to a low-energy physics similar to the standard model in the broken phase, assuming suitable VEV's of the scalar zero modes. Due to the triple self-intersection of the branes, the matter content includes that of the MSSM with precisely 3 generations and right-handed neutrinos. No exotic quantum numbers arise, however there are extra chiral superfields with the quantum numbers of the Higgs doublets, the $W,Z$, $e_R$ and $u_R$, whose fate depends on the details of the rich Higgs sector. The chiral low-energy sector is complemented by a heavy mirror sector with the opposite chiralities, as well as super-massive Kaluza-Klein towers completing the ${\\cal N}=4$ multiplets. The sectors are protected by two gauged global $U(1)$ symmetries.

  7. Upgrade of the Laser calibration system for the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter TileCal

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Woerden, Marius Cornelis

    2016-07-01

    We present in this contribution the new system for Laser calibration of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter TileCal. The Laser system is a part of the three stage calibration apparatus designed to compute the calibration factors of the individual cells of TileCal. The Laser system is mainly used to correct for short term drifts of the readout of the individual cells. A sub-percent accuracy in the control of the calibration factors is required. To achieve this goal in the LHC Run2 conditions, a new Laser system was designed. The architecture of the system is described with details on the new optical line used to distribute Laser pulses in each individual detector module and on the new electronics used to drive the Laser, to read out optical monitors and to interface the system with the ATLAS readout, trigger and slow control. The LaserII system has been fully integrated into the framework used for measuring calibration factors and for monitoring data quality. First results on the Laser system performances studied are presented.

  8. Investigating Atmospheric Rivers using GPS TPW during CalWater 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, V.; Foster, J. H.; Businger, S.

    2015-12-01

    Ship-based Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers have been successful in obtaining millimeter accuracy total precipitable water (TPW). We apply this technique with a field experiment using a GPS meteorology system installed on board the R/V Ronald Brown during the CalWater 2015 project. The goal of CalWater is to monitor atmospheric river (AR) events over the Eastern Pacific Ocean and improve forecasting of the extreme precipitation events they can produce. During the 30-day cruise, TPW derived from radiosonde balloons released from the Ron Brown are used to verify the accuracy of shipboard GPS TPW. The results suggest that ship-based GPS TPW offers a cost-effective approach for acquiring accurate real-time meteorological observations of TPW in AR's over remote oceans, as well as near the coastlines where satellites algorithms have limited accuracy. The results have implications for augmenting operational observing networks to improve weather prediction and nowcasting of ARs, thereby supporting hazard response and mitigation efforts associated with coastal flooding events.

  9. Upgrade of the Laser Calibration System for the ATLAS Hadronic Calorimeter TileCal

    CERN Document Server

    Van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We present in this contribution the new system for laser calibration of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter TileCal. The laser system is a part of the three stage calibration apparatus designed to compute the calibration constants of the individual cells of TileCal. The laser system is mainly used to correct for short term (one month) drifts of the readout of the individual cells. A sub-percent accuracy in the control of the calibration constants is required to keep the systematics effects introduced by relative cell miscalibration below the irreducible systematics in determining the parameters of the reconstructed hadronic jets. To achieve this goal in the LHC Run 2 conditions, a new laser system was designed. The architecture of the system is described with details on the new optical line used to distribute laser pulses in each individual detector module and on the new electronics used to drive the laser, to readout the system optical monitors and to interface the system with the Atlas readout, trigger, and slow...

  10. Mass spectra in ${\\cal N}=1$ SQCD with additional colorless fields. Strong coupling regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Chernyak, Victor L

    2016-01-01

    We consider the ${\\cal N}=1$ $SU(N_c)$ SQCD-like (direct) theory (and its Seiberg's dual with $SU(N_F-N_c)$ dual colors), and with $N_F$ flavors of light quarks ${\\overline Q}_j, Q^i$ with the mass term in the superpotential $m_Q{\\rm Tr}({\\overline Q} Q),\\,\\, m_Q\\ll\\Lambda$. Besides, there are $N_F^2$ additional colorless but flavored fields $\\Phi^j_i$ with the large mass parameter $\\mu_{\\Phi}\\gg\\Lambda$. But now considered is the region $N_c+1cal N}=1$ SQCD-like theories can be in two standard phases only. These are either the HQ (heavy quark) phase where they are confined or the Higgs phase. It is shown that due to the strong powerlike RG evolution, the seemingly heavy and dynamically ...

  11. Comparación de la corrosividad atmosférica del acero al carbono en Colombia y Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado Lastra, Juan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples of structural carbon steel were exposed to the atmosphere in a number of sites in Colombia and Cuba for periods of 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Corrosion rate was determined by mass loss measurements, and cause-effect relationship to exposure time and pollutants (deposited chloride and sulfur oxides were calculated. Analysis let to adjust models by the multiple regression method. Also, comparison of atmospheric corrosion rates between Colombia and Cuba were done using covariance analysis.

    Se expusieron a la atmósfera probetas de aceros estructurales de bajo contenido de carbono, en varios sitios de Colombia y Cuba, que se retiraron a intervalos de 2, 3, 6, 12, 18 y 24 meses. Se determinó la corrosión por pérdida de masa y se buscaron relaciones de causalidad con el tiempo de exposición y las cantidades de cloruro y óxidos de azufre depositados. El análisis permitió ajustar modelos de regresión múltiple y también, a través de variables dicótomas, realizar la comparación de la corrosión atmosférica entre Colombia y Cuba, mediante análisis de covarianza.

  12. EXTRACCIÓN DE PLAGUICIDAS EN SUELO EMPLEANDO DIÓXIDO DE CARBONO SUPERCRÍTICO-COSOLVENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Forero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evaluó la eficiencia de tres solventes orgánicos (acetato de etilo, metanol y acetona empleados como cosolventes en la extracción con fluidos supercríticos (EFS de una mezcla de plaguicidas con diferentes características fisicoquímicas. Los análisis se realizaron por medio de cromatografía de gases con detección simultánea por microcaptura electrónica (_ECD y nitrógeno-fósforo (NPD acoplados en paralelo. Se hicieron extracciones a muestras de suelo fortificadas con los plaguicidas empleando dióxido de carbono supercrítico (CO2SC como fase extractante a 35 ºC y 14 MPa adicionando 10 mL de cada cosolvente. Se encontró que el metanol ofrece la mayor eficiencia en el proceso de extracción obteniendo valores de recuperación entre 51,24 y 123,50%.

  13. Equivariant Fields in an $SU({\\cal N})$ Gauge Theory with new Spontaneously Generated Fuzzy Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Kurkcuoglu, S

    2015-01-01

    We find new spontaneously generated fuzzy extra dimensions emerging from an $SU({\\cal N})$ Yang-Mills (YM) theory on a manifold ${\\cal M}$, which, for ${\\cal M}=M^4$, is a certain massive deformation the $N=4$ supersymmetric YM. The theory has six scalars transforming under the adjoint representation of $SU(\\cal N)$ and the $(1,0) \\oplus (0,1)$ of a global $SU(2) \\times SU(2)$. We consider the possibility that all these scalar fields involve a composite part, which are obtained from certain bilinears of another set of scalar fields. The latter are still in the adjoint of the $SU({\\cal N})$, but transform under the $(\\frac{1}{2},0) \\oplus (0, \\frac{1}{2})$ of the global symmetry group. A new vacuum solution, $S_F^{2\\, Int}\\times S_F^{2\\, Int}$, that may be expressed in terms of a particular direct sum of product of fuzzy spheres, is determined. Fluctuations about this vacuum have the structure of gauge fields over $S_F^{2\\, Int}\\times S_F^{2\\, Int}$ and enables us to interpret the emerging model as a $U(n)$ ga...

  14. Terapia pela dança em adultos com deficiência mental e motora

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Bárbara; Francisco, Joana; Pereira, Sara; Pinheira, Vítor

    2015-01-01

    A terapia pela dança recorre ao uso psicoterapêutico do movimento como processo promotor da integração emocional e física, permitindo uma recuperação psicofísica e a expressão de pessoas com diferentes tipos de deficiência. O presente estudo teve como objetivos avaliar os resultados da terapia pela dança com adultos institucionalizados, com deficiência mental e motora, no equilíbrio, coordenação, esquema corporal e cognição social. A amostra foi constituída por 19 indivíduos (5 depende...

  15. The moduli spaces of $3d$ ${\\cal N} \\ge 2$ Chern-Simons gauge theories and their Hilbert series

    CERN Document Server

    Cremonesi, Stefano; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We present a formula for the Hilbert series that counts gauge invariant chiral operators in a large class of 3d ${\\cal N} \\ge 2$ Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theories. The formula counts 't Hooft monopole operators dressed by gauge invariants of a residual gauge theory of massless fields in the monopole background. We provide a general formula for the case of abelian theories, where nonperturbative corrections are absent, and consider a few examples of nonabelian theories where nonperturbative corrections are well understood. We also analyze in detail nonabelian ABJ(M) theories as well as worldvolume theories of M2-branes probing Calabi-Yau fourfold and hyperK\\"ahler twofold singularities with ${\\cal N} = 2$ and ${\\cal N} = 3$ supersymmetry.

  16. Les espèces envahissantes dans l’archipel néo-calédonien

    OpenAIRE

    Barré, Nicolas; Beauvais, Marie-Laure; Brescia, Fabrice; Coléno, Alain; Delos, Marc; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Frétey, Thierry; Gozlan, Estelle; Jaffré, Tanguy; Jourdan, Hervé; Lefeuvre, Jean-Claude; Loope, Lloyd; Loope, Lloyd L.; Lorvelec, Olivier; Meyer, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    La biodiversité calédonienne, reconnue comme l’une des plus exceptionnelles avec son fort taux d’endémisme, est largement menacée par l’introduction de nouvelles espèces. Il est donc important de protéger l’écosystème calédonien, à la fois riche et vulnérable, des espèces envahissantes, l’une des principales causes de perte de la biodiversité à l’échelle mondiale. Face à cette menace, le Gouvernement et les trois provinces de Nouvelle-Calédonie souhaitent mettre en place une structure collec...

  17. Adinkra `Color' Confinement In Exemplary Off-Shell Constructions Of 4D, ${\\cal N}$ = 2 Supersymmetry Representations

    CERN Document Server

    Gates,, S James

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is presented in some examples that an adinkra quantum number, $\\chi_{\\rm o}$ (arXiv:\\ 0902.3830 [hep-th]), seems to play a role with regard to off-shell 4D, $\\cal N$ = 2 SUSY similar to the role of color in QCD. The vanishing of this adinkra quantum number appears to be a condition required for when two off-shell 4D, $\\cal N$ = 1 supermultiplets form an off-shell 4D, $\\cal N$ = 2 supermultiplet. We also explicitly comment on a deformation of the Lie bracket and anti-commutator operators that has been extensively and implicitly used in our work on "Garden Algebras" adinkras, and codes.

  18. Preparation of 4-arm star PELA and its encapsulation of rotavirus for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingcong, Li; Xiaoxia, Pan; Hongli, Li; Minglong, Yuan

    2015-08-01

    A relatively high molecular weight of 4-arm star PELA was obtained by ring-opening polymerization of l-lactic acid O-carboxyanhydride with 4-arm-PEG in the presence of DMAP as an initiator. The results via(1)H NMR and (13)C NMR show that the end of the star PELA chain is a hydroxyl group and the central core is a PEG group. Rotavirus (strain SA11) was incorporated into 4-arm star PELA microspheres formulated by the water in oil in water emulsification solvent extraction method. The microspheres produced were spherical, and the mean diameter was 1.34 μm with a narrow size distribution. The drug release profile displayed a low burst release effect of 1.8% on the first day and a sustained release of antigen over 100 days. After the immunization of mice, the microsphere-entrapped RV elicited improved and long-lasting IgA and IgG antibody response in serum detected by ELISA in comparison to the free RV antigen. This study shows that 4-arm-PEG is an effective initiator for the ring-opening polymerization of Lac-OCA by DMAP as an initiator and that the resulting polymer is useful as a delivery system for the rotavirus vaccine. PMID:26073940

  19. A LUTA PELA TERRA ENTRE A CIDADE E O CAMPO UM OLHAR SOBRE PRESIDENTE PRUDENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vitor Ramos da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto é fruto das ações de pesquisa que vêm sendo desenvolvidas por meio do projeto de iniciação científica, denominado “Significados da Reforma Agrária em bairros periféricos de Presidente Prudente (SP: uma tentativa de diálogo entre a luta pela terra e a Soberania Alimentar”, vigente a partir de fevereiro de 2011, com financiamento da Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo – FAPESP. Tem por objetivo apresentar alguns aspectos sobre a relevância da inserção de comunidades periurbanas da cidade de Presidente Prudente no processo de luta pela terra no Pontal do Paranapanema, protagonizado principalmente pelos movimentos socioterritoriais, em especial o MST. O eixo central de análise envolve uma interrelação entre o trabalho, a luta pela terra e la Soberania Alimentar, assim como uma tentativa de construção de uma abordagem ontológica a partir da centralidade do trabalho, que potencialmente contribui para que as dicotomias teoricamente construídas entre cidade e campo sejam superadas, visto que os sujeitos da pesquisa, produtores de espaços/espacialidades e territórios/territorialidades, constituem o foco principal, para além das fragmentações.

  20. Repercussões do uso do calçado de salto alto na postura corporal de adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anniele Martins Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar estudos referentes às repercussões do uso de calçado com salto alto na postura corporal de adolescentes. FONTES DE DADOS: Pesquisa realizada nas bases de dados Scopus, SciELO e PubMed entre 1980 e 2011, incluindo artigos escritos em inglês e português. Foram utilizados os descritores: "postura", "centro de gravidade" e "calçado de salto alto". Foram encontrados 55 artigos, independentemente do desenho do estudo, incluindo-se 20 relacionados à postura da coluna vertebral e membros inferiores, à localização do centro de gravidade e às repercussões do uso do calçado de salto alto no sistema musculoesquelético em adolescentes. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O uso frequente do calçado de salto alto acarreta modificação do centro de gravidade e do equilíbrio corporal, podendo ocasionar mudança no alinhamento dos segmentos corporais. Isso traz repercussões negativas ao desenvolvimento motor das adolescentes, pois nessa fase há a necessidade de manutenção da postura fisiológica para que ocorra o crescimento e o desenvolvimento do sistema musculoesquelético. CONCLUSÕES: O uso do calçado de salto alto por adolescentes pode favorecer o aparecimento de distúrbios posturais, dentre os quais se destacam anteriorização da cabeça, hiperlordose lombar, anteversão pélvica e joelho em valgo. Identificou-se que a altura e a largura do salto são as características do calçado que mais influenciam no surgimento de alterações posturais e desequilíbrio corporal.

  1. 13000 cal years upwelling variation in southwestern Atlantic (Brazil): continental paleoclima implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, A.

    2009-12-01

    Ana Luiza ALBUQUERQUE(1); Bruno TURCq(2); Abdel SIFEDDINE(1,2). (1) Departamento de Geoquímica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. (2) LOCEAN, IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, Bondy, France. The Cabo Frio region as indicated by its name is a place of low SST due to a local upwelling triggered by the Northeast trade winds, the northward flow of cool South Atlantic Central Water and vortex of the Brazilian current in the upper warm Tropical Water. Paleoceanographic conditions during the last 13000 years have been reconstructed based on two cores collected on the outer shelf. The studied proxies included mineral and heavy metal quantification, bulk organic matter characteristics and planktonic foraminifera. A first phase of sedimentation between 13000 and 7000 cal BP is characterized by high mineral content probably due to the lower sea level. SST reconstruction indicate cool and highly variable temperatures that were probably not related to upwelling events made difficult by the low sea level but to lower regional SSTs. This is in good agreement with observations of continental climate dryer in southwest Brazil with intense events of precipitation. A second phase between 7000 and 3000 cal BP shows higher SST indicating few occurrences of upwelling. Its may be due to the decrease of South Atlantic Convergence Zone (ZCAS) intensity linked to the lower summer insolation and the reduced monsoonal flux at that time. On the adjacent continent the decrease monsoon is evidenced by low lake levels and poorly developed forests. The third and last phase, post 3000 cal BP, is characterized by the onset of upwelling events that may be related to an intensification of the South American Monsoon and of the ZCAS activity leading to an increase of Northeast winds during summer which is typically the upwelling season. On the continent this period was marked by forest development. The transition at 3000 yrs BP is very late compared to other Holocene Record. Paleoclimate model

  2. Carbono, matéria orgânica leve e frações oxidáveis do carbono orgânico sob sistemas de aléias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Fernandes Guareschi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os teores de carbono orgânico (COT do solo, matéria orgânica leve (MOL em água e as frações oxidáveis do COT em uma área de cultivo de milho em aléias de Flemingia macrophylla submetida a diferentes manejos de sua parte aérea. A área de estudo está localizada na “Fazendinha Agroecológica”, no município de Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O desenho experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com 3 tratamentos e 8 repetições, consistindo dos seguintes tratamentos: testemunha (cultivo de milho com ausência de aléias; cultivo de milho em sistema de aléias com poda de 0,6 m de altura e cultivo de milho em sistema de aléias sem poda. Em cada uma das áreas foram coletadas amostras compostas nas profundidades de 0-5 cm. A presença de aléias, bem como, as podas realizadas em Flemingia macrophylla na área que essa encontrava-se associada ao cultivo de milho não alterou o teor de COT do solo. No entanto, a utilização dos caules e das folhas como adubo verde oriunda do tratamento onde se realizou a poda da parte aérea das aléias de Flemingia macrophylla, proporcionou ao solo aumento dos teores de MOL, Conteúdo de C da MOL e da fração F1.

  3. Morfometría de la escarpa de falla histórica identificada al norte del cerro La Cal, zona de falla La Cal, Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mingorance

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigación morfométrica y paleosísmica histórica fue llevada a cabo en el Norte de Mendoza con el objeto de caracterizar y cuantificar a las evidencias geomorfológicas de ruptura superficial histórica identificadas en el sector septentrional de la zona de falla La Cal. Integración e interpretación de datos e información científica multidisciplinaria, sugieren fuertemente que la ruptura superficial histórica identificada estuvo asociada al terremoto destructivo de Mendoza ocurrido en 1861. La deformación superficial histórica ocurrió casi en su totalidad a lo largo de una escarpa prehistórica previa, mediante una combinación de fallamiento de corrimiento y plegamiento cercano a la superficie. Dos elementos de pendiente históricos de bajo relieve fueron reconocidos en la escarpa compuesta Villavicencio Sur, los cuales se diferencian de la típica secuencia de formas desarrollada en escarpas de falla normal históricas. El "remanente de cara libre", el elemento de pendiente superior, y la "pendiente de colapso", el elemento inferior, son controlados por la fricción interna y por la gravedad y la fricción de deslizamiento del material aluvial, respectivamente. La metodología paleosísmica histórica discutida en este trabajo, parece ser particularmente útil en el período de tiempo que cubre la mayor parte del registro histórico de terremotos destructivos en Argentina, los pasados 350 años, lapso en el cual la mayoría de los métodos de datación absoluta no son muy efectivos.

  4. The impact of BeamCal performance at different international linear collider beam parameters and crossing angles on $\\tilde{}$ searches

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Bambade; V Drugakov; W Lohmann

    2007-12-01

    The ILC accelerator parameters and detector concepts are still under discussion in the world-wide community. As will be shown, the performance of the BeamCal, the calorimeter in the very forward area of the ILC detector, is very sensitive to the beam parameter and crossing angle choices. We propose here BeamCal designs for small (0 or 2 mrad) and large (20 mrad) crossing angles and report about the veto performance study done. As an illustration, the influence of several proposed beam parameter sets and crossing angles on the signal-to-background ratio in the stau search is estimated for a particular realization of the supersymmetric model.

  5. Producción de semilla de cacahuate forrajero con siete dosis de cal y tres fechas de cosecha

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Francisco Enríquez Quiroz; Adrián Raymundo Quero Carrillo

    2001-01-01

    Arachis pintoi (cacahuatillo) es una valiosa leguminosa que puede ser utilizada con diferentes propósitos. En México la producción de semilla es nula, así como su manejo. Los objetivos fueron determinar la respuesta a la aplicación de cal y el tiempo a la cosecha de semilla. Se evaluaron dos ecotipos del CIAT (17434 y 18744), siete niveles de cal y tres fechas de cosecha, en un diseño de parcelas divididas; Se registró información de producción de semilla, peso unidad de semilla sin lavar, la...

  6. diCal-IBD: demography-aware inference of identity-by-descent tracts in unrelated individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tataru, Paula; Nirody, Jasmine A; Song, Yun S

    2014-01-01

    Summary: We present a tool, diCal-IBD, for detecting identity-bydescent (IBD) tracts between pairs of genomic sequences. Our method builds on a recent demographic inference method based on the coalescent with recombination, and is able to incorporate demographic information as a prior. Simulation...... study shows that diCal-IBD has significantly higher recall and precision than that of existing SNP-based IBD detection methods, while retaining reasonable accuracy for IBD tracts as small as 0.1 cM. Availability: http://sourceforge.net/projects/dical-ibd Contact: yss@eecs.berkeley.edu Supplementary...

  7. Abastecimento das linhas e layout de uma fábrica de calçado

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Diogo de Menezes Caldas Ribeiro de

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho é produto de um projeto desenvolvido na empresa Ecco’let Portugal e é composto por dois temas interligados. No primeiro tema pretendese otimizar o abastecimento às linhas de montagem e de acabamento. Neste caso o uso da filosofia lean e do sistema kanban foi uma constante dados os objetivos traçados pela empresa. Foi ainda utilizado um sistema milk run para o abastecimento dos materiais. No segundo tema pretende-se otimizar o layout de um dos pavilhões da...

  8. Gestión Ambiental empresarial: cálculo de la huella de carbono en la industria vitivinícola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Ana Rodriguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La huella de carbono es un indicador ambiental que busca cuantificar la cantidad de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GHG. Su medición se convierte en una herramienta que permite trabajar bajo el concepto de eco-eficiencia e identificar oportunidades de reducción de consumo energético, ya que este último es la principal fuente de emisión de GHG a nivel mundial. El presente trabajo aplica la metodología PAS 2050:2011 para la medición de la huella de carbono, en la producción del vino blanco. La misma excluye las emisiones asociadas con los insumos humanos de energía, el transporte de los consumidores al punto de venta y el transporte provisto por animales. Sin embargo, se consideran todas las emisiones involucradas con el ciclo de vida del producto. Como producto principal de este trabajo, se obtuvo una planilla de cálculo que puede aplicarse al cálculo de huella de carbono de cualquier producción de vino blanco, independientemente de su tamaño y proceso. Se incluyó una estimación de la emisión de GHG, teniendo en cuenta todas las posibles variantes que pudiese tener el proceso en la región de Cuyo, definiéndose los límites de la empresa y operaciones a evaluar, desde la vendimia hasta la disposición final.

  9. Efecto de plantaciones dendroenergéticas en el carbono a nivel de suelo, en dos suelos contrastantes de la región de Biobío, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin Esquivel; Rafael Rubilar; Simón Sandoval; Eduardo Acuña; Jorge Cancino; Miguel Espinosa; Fernando Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    La biomasa forestal como fuente de energía proveniente de plantaciones dendroenergéticas, al compararla con combustibles fósiles, presenta la ventaja de producir energía carbono-neutral, dado el secuestro de carbono (C) fijado en la biomasa producida y los aportes al suelo. Plantaciones forestales de corta rotación, altas densidades, y localizadas en terrenos marginales pueden representar una excelente oportunidad de producción de biomasa para la producción de energía o combustibles. Sin emba...

  10. Teores de Carbono Orgânico de Seis Espécies Naturais do Ecossistema da Floresta Ombrófi la Mista / Organic Carbon Contents in Six Native Species in the Araucaria Forest Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Simone Weber

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Muitas vezes o estoque de carbono de uma floresta é estimado com a aplicação de equações matemáticas que utilizam os teores de carbono para um determinado grupo de espécies. No entanto, isto só é possível se não houver diferenças significativas entre os teores de carbono destas espécies. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho visa analisar estatisticamente os teores de carbono de seis espécies nativas da Floresta Ombrófila Mista, na região sul do estado do Paraná. Foram feitas análises de variância entre os teores de carbono das espécies Myrsine ferruginea (Ruiz & Pav. Spreng. (capororoca, Ocotea porosa (Nees L. Barroso (imbuia, Mimosa scabrella Benth. (bracatinga, Styrax leprosus Hook & Arn. (carne-de-vaca, Symplocos unifl ora (Pohl Benth. (mariamole e Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. (erva-mate para verificar se existe variação estatisticamente significativa entre espécies, entre as mesmas partes (casca, fuste, folhagem, galho vivo, galho morto e miscelânea de diferentes espécies e entre diferentes partes da mesma espécie. Os resultados revelam que a folhagem de Styrax leprosus foi à única que se diferenciou das demais, pois possui um baixo teor de carbono. Em todas as outras partes não houve diferenças em função da espécie. A análise entre partes da mesma espécie, revelou que existem padrões diferentes para cada espécie, mas que a porção folhagem sempre concentra os maiores teores de carbono. Desconsiderando a separação em diferentes partes, não houve diferença estatística entre os teores de carbono quando comparados os valores médios de cada espécie.

  11. Análisis del ciclo de carbono en embalses y su posible efecto en el cambio climático. Aplicación al embalse de Susqueda (río Ter, NE España)

    OpenAIRE

    Palau, Antoni; Alonso, Miguel; Corregidor, David

    2010-01-01

    Los embalses han sido considerados como sistemas emisores netos de carbono. Si bien es cierto que son sistemas forzados a descomponer toda la materia orgánica que queda cubierta por el agua tras la puesta en carga, esta fase inicial de maduración remite con los años hasta niveles de emisión de carbono similares a las de lagos de estado trófico equivalente. No todos los embalses tienen un comportamiento similar en el procesado de la materia orgánica carbonatada. El balance de ca...

  12. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE DOS LAGUNAS COSTERAS DEL PACÍFICO TROPICAL MEXICANO EN RELACIÓN CON EL CONTENIDO DE CARBONO Y LA CAPTURA Y EMISIÓN DE CH4 Y CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel MENDOZA MOJICA; Amparo MARTÍNEZ ARROYO; María de la Luz ESPINOSA FUENTES; Óscar PERALTA ROSALES; Telma CASTRO ROMERO

    2013-01-01

    El estudio de los gases de efecto invernadero, como el bióxido de carbono (CO2) y el metano (CH4), tiene una relevancia de carácter global y su acumulación en la atmósfera por actividades humanas afecta el balance radiativo de la Tierra. Las lagunas costeras se consideran reservorios importantes de carbono, pero no es claro si contribuyen como fuentes o sumideros. Este trabajo presenta una estimación de los flujos de CO2 y CH4 en agua-aire en las lagunas de Chautengo y Tres Palos en Guerrero,...

  13. Huella del Carbono. Parte 1: Conceptos, Métodos de Estimación y Complejidades Metodológicas Carbon Footprint. Part 1: Concepts, Estimation Methods and Methodological Complexities

    OpenAIRE

    César Espíndola; José O. Valderrama

    2012-01-01

    Se presenta y analiza el concepto de huella del carbono, su origen, su relación con los gases efecto invernadero, y sobre los procedimientos para cuantificarla. El efecto invernadero provoca que la energía que llega a la Tierra sea devuelta más lentamente, por lo que es mantenida más tiempo junto a la superficie elevando la temperatura. Es aceptado hoy en día que este efecto es producido por algunos gases liberados en forma natural o por las acciones humanas. La Huella de Carbono es considera...

  14. Corrosión de aceros inoxidables martensíticos 13CrNiMo de bajo contenido de carbono en las industrias de gas y petróleo

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez, Claudia Marcela

    2013-01-01

    Los aceros inoxidables 13CrNiMo con bajo contenido de carbono, surgen como alternativa para el reemplazo de materiales más caros en el uso como sistemas de transporte de fluidos de las industrias de gas y petróleo, con concentraciones importantes de cloruros, pCO2, pH2S y temperatura elevadas. El bajo contenido en carbono permite salvar algunos problemas vinculados a la operación de soldadura. Con el fin de obtener una alta tenacidad, se realizan tratamientos térmicos de precalentamiento y de...

  15. Equações para estimar o estoque de carbono no fuste de árvores individuais e em plantios comerciais de eucalipto Equations to estimate carbon stock in stems of individual trees ans stands of eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Pedro Boechat Soares; Helio Garcia Leite; Eric Bastos Görgens

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi ajustar equações para estimar o carbono presente no fuste de árvores individuais de eucalipto e o estoque de carbono, por unidade de área, em diferentes condições de plantio. Para isso, foram utilizadas 532 árvores para ajustar a equação referente ao modelo alométrico de Schumacher e Hall (1933) e 95 parcelas permanentes para ajustar as equações referentes aos modelos de crescimento e produção, incluindo as seguintes variáveis independentes: idade (I), área basal...

  16. Empleo de la cáscara de arroz en la fundición de piezas de acero al carbono//Using of rice husk in the carbon steel casting parts process

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Cruz-Pérez; Jesús Eduardo González-Ruiz; Lorenzo Perdomo-González; Pantaleón Rodríguez-González

    2012-01-01

    Los materiales auxiliares desempeñan un papel importante en el aumento de la eficiencia tecnológica del proceso de fundición de piezas de acero al carbono. En este artículo se exponen los primeros resultados del empleo de la cáscara de arroz como material termoaislante en la obtención de piezas fundidas de acero al carbono. En los experimentos se evaluó la influencia  de seis combinaciones de las variables espesor de pared del casquillo y capa de cobertura. En la confección de los casquillos ...

  17. PELA microspheres loaded H. pylori lysates and their mucosal immune response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Min Ren; Ouan-Ming Zou; Fu-Kun Wang; Qiang He; Wei Chen; Wen-Kun Zen

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To prepare poly (D,L-lactide)-polyethylene glycol copolymer (PELA) microspheres loaded H.pylorilysates or CyStografin and observe their targeting in gastrointestinal mucous membrane or analyze the mucosal immune responses by oral administration. METHODS: PELA microspheres loaded H. Pylorilysates or Cystografin were preparedby double emulsion evaporation method. Their distribution in gastrointestinal mucous membrane was observed by CT. Balb/c mice orally immunized in mucosal immune responses, whose antibody production in salivary and gut washing and antibody secreting cells in Peyer's patches (PP) were estimated by ELISA and ELISPOT, respectively. The microspheres' physical properties, such as particle size, protein level and morphology were investigated.RESULTS: All prepared microspheres were found to have a smooth surface morphology from 3.20-4.05 μm in diameter and high encapsulation efficiency from 74.9-82.2 %. No significant correlation in their physical properties was shown, depending on their molecular weight at the similar composition ratio. Immunization with all types of PELA-Hp microspheres elevated the saliva sIgA level at week 3 by approximately 3-4 times that with soluble antigen, which was greatly enhanced after boosting. At one week after last immunization with all types of PELA-Hp microspheres (week 8), the specific sIgA-ASCs, IgG-ASCs and stgA in salivary rose obviously. In intestinal Peyer's patches, the specific sIgA-ASCs were 5.92-6.98× 104/ml cell and IgG-ASCs were 3.47-4.02 × 104/ml cell, about 5-9 times higher than those with soluble antigen (P<0.01). ASCs in intestine were more than those in stomach and the majority of the ASCs were sIgA-ASCs. The sIgA in gut washing fluid was 1.62-1.85 OD, about 3-6 times tthat of those with soluble antigen. There were significant differences of the ASCs and sIgA in gut washing fluid as compared with those of PBS and MS-0 (P<0.05). There appeared to be good correlation between sIgA level in gut

  18. On the contribution of scalars to ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Bonini, Alfredo; Piscaglia, Simone; Rossi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the contribution of $2n$ scalars to the Operator Product Expansion series for MHV gluon scattering amplitudes/polygonal Wilson loops in planar ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM. Hence, we sum up on $2n$ for large coupling $\\lambda$: the logarithm of the amplitude is proportional to $\\sqrt{\\lambda}$, thus competing, unexpectedly, with the famous classical contribution. We give analytical expressions for the first terms at large $\\lambda$ and in case of two and four scalars. For finalising this analysis, we find profitable an explicit computation of the $2n$-scalar term at any coupling by means of Young tableaux, paralleling, under certain aspects, the Nekrasov-Okounkov expressions for $\\mathcal N =2$ SYM prepotential.

  19. A High Resolution Spectroscopic Observation of CAL 83 with XMM-Newton/RGS

    CERN Document Server

    Paerels, F B S; Hartmann, H W; Heise, J; Brinkman, A C; De Vries, C P; Den Herder, J M; Paerels, Frits; Rasmussen, Andrew P.

    2001-01-01

    We present the first high resolution photospheric X-ray spectrum of a Supersoft X-ray Source, the famous CAL~83 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectrum was obtained with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer on XMM-Newton during the Calibration/Performance Verification phase of the observatory. The spectrum covers the range 20-40 A at an approximately constant resolution of 0.05 A, and shows very significant, intricate detail, that is very sensitive to the physical properties of the object. We present the results of an initial investigation of the spectrum, from which we draw the conclusion that the spectral structure is probably dominated by numerous absorption features due to transitions in the L-shells of the mid-$Z$ elements and the M-shell of Fe, in addition to a few strong K-shell features due to CNO.

  20. Area products for ${\\cal H}^{\\pm}$ in AdS space

    CERN Document Server

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-01-01

    We derive the thermodynamic products particularly area (or entropy) products of ${\\cal H}^{\\pm}$ for certain class of black holes in AdS space. We show by explicit calculations that more complicated function of event horizon area and Cauchy horizon area is indeed mass-independent. This mass-independent quantities indicate that they could turn out to be an "universal" quantity provided that they depends only on the quantized angular momentum, quantized charges, and cosmological constant. Furthermore, these area (or entropy) product relations for several class of black holes in AdS space gives us strong indication to understanding the nature of non-extremal black hole entropy (both inner and outer) at the microscopic level. Moreover, we compute the famous \\emph{Penrose inequality} for these class of black holes in AdS space. Local thermodynamic stability has been discussed for these black holes and under certain condition these black holes displayed second order phase transition.

  1. A hybrid readout system for the ATLAS TileCal phase 2 upgrade Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Bohm, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter phase 2 upgrade demonstrator project aims at installing hybrid on-detector electronic systems replacing 1-4 adjacent TileCal electronics drawers in ATLAS starting at the end of the long shut down of LHC 2013 to 2014. The new drawers combine a fully functional phase 2 system with circuitry making them compatible with the present system. We are reporting on a second generation prototype of the on-detector readout system containing front-end, data acquisition, control and link boards. In the design we have emphasized redundancy and reliability. Data from and commands to the calorimeter are transferred via high speed (5 or 10 Gb/s) optical links.

  2. Development of a Readout Link Board for theTileCal Phase 2 Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Muschter, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Bohm, C; Eriksson, D; Oreglia, M; Tang, F

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter phase 2 upgrade demonstrator aims at installing a hybrid on-detector electronic system replacing 1-4 adjacent TileCal drawers in ATLAS starting end of phase 0, combining a fully functional phase 2 system with circuitry making it compatible with the present system. We are reporting a second generation prototype link and controller board connecting the drawer to off-detector electronics in USA-15. The new boards main logic component is a XILINX Kintex7 FPGA connected to an 12x5 Gb/s AVAGO opto transmitter and a 4x10 Gb/s QSFP+ connector. One of the latter will be chosen for the final design

  3. Development of a readout link board for the TileCal phase 2 demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Muschter, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Bohm, C; Eriksson, D; Oreglia, M; Tang, F

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter phase 2 upgrade demonstrator aims at installing a hybrid on-detector electronic system replacing 1-4 adjacent TileCal drawers in ATLAS starting end of phase 0, combining a fully functional phase 2 system with circuitry making it compatible with the present system. We are reporting a second generation prototype link and controller board connecting the drawer to off-detector electronics in USA-15. The new boards main logic component is a XILINX Kintex7 FPGA connected to an 12x5 Gb/s AVAGO opto transmitter and a 4x10 Gb/s QSFP+ connector. One of the latter will be chosen for the final design.

  4. Resolved gravity duals of ${\\cal N}=4$ quiver field theories in 2+1 dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Cottrell, William

    2016-01-01

    We generalize the construction by Aharony, Hashimoto, Hirano, and Ouyang of ${\\cal N}=4$ quiver gauge theory with gauge group $U(N+M) \\times U(N)$, $k$ fundamentals charged under $U(N)$ and bi-fundamentals, to the case with gauge group $\\prod_{i=1}^{\\hat k} U(N_i)$ with $k_i$ fundamentals charged under $U(N_i)$. This construction is facilitated by considering the resolved $ALE_{\\hat k} \\times TN_{k}$ background in M-theory including non-trivial fluxes through the resolved 4-cycles in the geometry. We also describe the M-theory lift of the IIA Page charge quantization condition. Finally, we clarify the role of string corrections in various regimes of parameter space.

  5. A prototype for the upgraded readout electronics of TileCal

    CERN Document Server

    Eriksson, D; Bohm, C; Kavianipour, H; Anderson, K; Oreglia, M; Tang, F

    2012-01-01

    Upgrade plans for ATLAS hadronic tile calorimeter (TileCal) include full readout of all data to the counting room. R&amp;D activities at different laboratories target different parts of the upgraded system. We are developing a possible implementation of the future readout electronics to be included in a full functional demonstrator. This must be capable of adapting to each of the three different front-end alternatives. Prototypes of the two PCBs that will be in charge of digitization, control and communication have been developed. The design is redundant and uses FPGAs with fault tolerant firmware for control and protocol conversion. Communication and clock synchronization between on and off detector electronics is implemented via high speed optical links using the GBT protocol.

  6. Large-N correlation functions in ${\\cal N} = 2$ superconformal QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Baggio, Marco; Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Vos, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    We study extremal correlation functions of chiral primary operators in the large-N SU(N) ${\\cal N} = 2$ superconformal QCD theory and present new results based on supersymmetric localization. We discuss extensively the basis-independent data that can be extracted from these correlators using the leading order large-N matrix model free energy given by the four-sphere partition function. Special emphasis is given to single-trace 2- and 3-point functions as well as a new class of observables that are scalars on the conformal manifold. These new observables are particular quadratic combinations of the structure constants of the chiral ring. At weak 't Hooft coupling we present perturbative results that, in principle, can be extended to arbitrarily high order. We obtain closed-form expressions up to the first subleading order. At strong coupling we provide analogous results based on an approximate Wiener-Hopf method.

  7. Caracterización estructural y electroquímica de materiales Sonogel-Carbono modificados y su empleo como sensores electroquímicos selectivos

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    En esta Tesis Doctoral se ha abordado la caracterización estructural y electroquímica de los nuevos materiales Sonogel-Carbono, desarrollados y patentados por nuestro grupo de investigación, y de sus modificaciones. El planteamiento y la finidad del trabajo se han dirigido hacie el conocimiento de la estructura y de la superficie de los materiales, con el fin de poder comprender la utilidad y el comportamiento de lo sensores electroquímicos desarrollados. Para ello se han empleado diversas té...

  8. SÍNTESIS DE NANOTUBOS DE CARBONO POR PIRÓLISIS DE ALFA-PINENO: MODELADO MATEMÁTICO Y VALIDACIÓN EXPERIMENTAL

    OpenAIRE

    López Tinoco, Julián

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar y validar de manera experimental un modelo matemático para hacer más eficiente la producción de nanotubos de carbono (NTC). La síntesis de los NTC se llevó a cabo mediante el método de spray pirólisis variando los flujos del gas acarreador de 2.5 lpm a 7.5 lpm, manteniendo constante la concentración de catalizador y la temperatura de reacción. Los materiales obtenidos se caracterizaron mediante Análisis Termogravimetrico (TGA) y Micro...

  9. Huella hídrica y de carbono en cultivos extensivos de regadío en el sur de Navarra

    OpenAIRE

    Bermejo Ruiz, Irantzu

    2014-01-01

    Uno de los mayores retos de la agricultura europea en los próximos años consiste en la reducción de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero procedente de explotaciones agrarias y, al mismo tiempo, adaptarse al nuevo escenario que supone el cambio climático. Asimismo, se puede potenciar la rentabilidad económica y social de las explotaciones mediante la adopción de las oportunas prácticas agrarias sostenibles que reduzcan la huella de carbono de la agricultura y que potencien su efecto su...

  10. Simulación de los cambios de carbono orgánico del suelo en sistema de cultivo con higuerilla por el modelo RothC

    OpenAIRE

    Lucila González Molina; Esaú del C. Moreno Pérez; Laksmi Reddiar Krishnamurty; Aurelio Baéz Pérez; Acosta Mireles Miguel

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue la simulación de los cambios del carbono orgánico del suelo (COS), por el modelo RothC, en razón del cambio de uso de suelo del sistema tradicional - asociación maíz-calabaza (TMC) - a sistemas con higuerilla (Ricinus communis): multiestratos (MUL), callejones (CALL) y monocultivo de higuerilla (HIG). Las simulaciones del COS se hicieron para las profundidades de suelo 0-20 y 0-40 cm, para el periodo de 1980-2040, considerándose como línea base al sistema ...

  11. Estudio del comportamiento a fluencia en caliente de un acero avanzado de alta resistencia de bajo contenido en carbono NiCrVCu microaleado con boro

    OpenAIRE

    González Sala, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Una de las líneas de investigación prioritarias en el contexto internacional es el desarrollo de aceros avanzados de alta resistencia (AHSS) con excelentes propiedades de resistencia y tenacidad para aplicaciones en la industria automotriz, naval, aeronáutica y de generación de energía, que permitan disminuir el peso de los componentes y sustituyan aceros tradicionales de contenidos mayores de carbono. Los aceros AHSS microaleados al boro, debido a sus cualidades, tecnología de...

  12. Isótopos estables del carbono en restos humanos de Península Mitre y del Canal Beagle, Tierra del Fuego

    OpenAIRE

    Kozameh, Livia Febes; Panarello, Héctor; Tessone, Augusto; Testa, N; Valencio, Susana; Zangrando, Francisco Atilio

    2003-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar un análisis comparativo de los valores isotópicos del carbono (δ13C) medidos sobre gelatina ósea extraída de restos humanos procedentes de Península Mitre y del canal Beagle, Tierra del Fuego. Paralelamente, se discute esta información con aquella recabada a partir de otros estudios referidos a rastros fisiológicos y patológicos del esqueleto y del aparato masticatorio efectuados en ambas regiones. Los resultados señalan que, si bien en los análisis de ...

  13. Isótopos estables del carbono en restos óseos humanos de la región del canal Beagle, Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego

    OpenAIRE

    Tessone, Augusto; Zangrando, Francisco Atilio; Valencio, Susana; Panarello, Héctor

    2003-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer las particularidades de la dieta de grupos cazadores-recolectores, que habitaron la región del canal Beagle durante el Holoceno medio y tardío, mediante el análisis de isótopos estables del carbono sobre el colágeno de sus restos óseos. Se dan a conocer los valores de la 8¹³C obtenidos en cinco individuos. Seis determinaciones efectuadas previamente por otros autores en la misma región señalaron una variación mayor que la esperada en base a la informació...

  14. Análisis de la reflectividad sísmica e indicadores asociados para el monitoreo de reservorios de dióxido de carbono

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Julián Luis

    2014-01-01

    Esta Tesis tiene como objetivo principal modelar la reflectividad sísmica de onda compresional e indicadores asociados para analizar su utilidad en el monitoreo de reservorios de dióxido de carbono (CO2). Este tema es de gran interés actual en el campo de la Geofísica Aplicada y en la caracterización y monitoreo de reservorios en general. Principalmente se examina la capacidad de monitorear sísmicamente la saturación de CO2, el espesor de la acumulación, el tipo de mezcla...

  15. Cuantificación de biomasa y carbono en bosques nativos de Prosopis caldenia (Burkart) en la Pampa semiárida, Argentina.

    OpenAIRE

    Risio Allione, Lucía

    2012-01-01

    Los bosques del sur-oeste de la pampa Argentina están dominados por caldén (Prosopis caldenia). En la actualidad resta el 18 % de su superficie original. Existen iniciativas que reconocen a los bosques su rol de oferentes de servicios ambientales pero para alcanzar esta recompensa económica es necesario cuantificar la cantidad de carbono almacenado en ellos. En este trabajo se desarrolló un modelo de estimación de biomasa para caldén a partir de 38 árboles apeados y seccionados. Se ajustó un ...

  16. Distribuição do carbono orgânico em Latossolo sob manejoda adubação fosfatada em plantio direto no Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Jerke; Djalma Martinhão Gomes de Sousa; Wenceslau J. Goedert

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição vertical e horizontal do carbono orgânico do solo (CO) sob cinco manejos da adubação fosfatada, no sistema plantio direto. O experimento foi instalado sob Latossolo Vermelho, cultivado durante oito anos com soja ou milho, com milheto como planta de cobertura na entressafra. As parcelas foram submetidas aos tratamentos: aplicação de superfosfato triplo a lanço e no sulco, fosfato natural reativo a lanço e no sulco, e ausência de adição de fe...

  17. Adquisición de carbono en frutos de color verde del muérdago Tristerix corymbosus (Loranthaceae Carbon acquisition in green fruits of Tristerix corymbosus (Loranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia I. Núñez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El color verde de los frutos maduros podría atribuirse a la capacidad de adquirir carbono mediante fotosíntesis, lo cual disminuye los costos reproductivos e incrementa la recompensa nutritiva para los dispersores de semillas. En el muérdago Tristerix corymbosus (Loranthaceae el color de los frutos maduros varía según el bioma: en el matorral chileno los frutos son amarillos mientras que en el bosque templando son verdes. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar si el color de los frutos se relacionaba con la capacidad de ganar carbono vía fotosíntesis y si esta capacidad variaba con la madurez y el bioma. Realizamos mediciones fisiológicas en plantas provenientes de poblaciones de cada bioma. Los frutos, tanto inmaduros como maduros de cada bioma no mostraron adquisición neta de carbono; las hojas mostraron actividad fotosintética, éstas poseen estomas en ambas caras y los frutos carecen de ellos. Estos resultados permiten descartar la hipótesis de que el color verde de los frutos de T. corymbosus se encuentra asociado a la adquisición neta de carbono vía fotosíntesis y mantiene la necesidad de indagación de otras hipótesis sobre la variación del color de los frutos entre biomas.In some species fruits are green when they are ripe. This can be attributed to the ability to acquire carbon via photosynthesis, which reduces reproductive costs and increases nutritional reward for seed dispersers. The color of mature fruits of the mistletoe Tristerix corymbosus (Loranthaceae differ between biomes. In the Chilean matorral ripe fruits are yellow while in the temperate forest are green. Our objective was to determine whether or not fruits photosynthesize and if this ability varied with maturity stage and biome. We performed physiological measurements in plants from populations of each contrasting biome. Fruits did not denote carbon acquisition, regardless the biome or maturity stage. Leaves showed photosynthetic activity, they are amphistomatic

  18. CONTENIDOS DE CARBONO ORGÁNICO DE SUELOS SOMEROS EN PINARES Y ABETALES DE ÁREAS PROTEGIDAS DE MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Cruz-Flores; Jorge D. Etchevers-Barra

    2011-01-01

    Los contenidos de carbono orgánico del suelo (COS), biomasa microbiana (Cbm) y coeficientes metabólicos (qCO2) son indicadores de sostenibilidad. En México se carece de información sobre contenidos óptimos de COS, Cbm y qCO2 en bosques templados, aunque conocerlos es importante para diseñar estrategias de uso y manejo adecuado de suelos forestales, generalmente someros y vulnerables. Esta investigación se realizó en nueve áreas naturales protegidas de México con bosques templados sobre suelos...

  19. Carbono orgânico e elementar em partículas em suspensão em habitações

    OpenAIRE

    Pinho, Isabel Cristina Correia de

    2011-01-01

    As concentrações de partículas em suspensão na atmosfera (PM10) e o seu conteúdo em carbono foram determinadas em amostras recolhidas em quatro locais distintos do concelho de Aveiro. Na recolha das amostras foram utilizados dois amostradores, de baixo caudal um para o ar interior e outro para o ar exterior, em simultâneo, com tempos de amostragem de 48 horas. As concentrações de PM10 foram determinadas por gravimetria, enquanto que o material carbonoso foi determinado ...

  20. Utilização da fosfina em combinação com o dióxido de carbono no controle do Rhyzopertha dominica (f.)

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINAZZO ANA PAULA; FARONI LÊDA RITA D'ANTONINO; BERBERT PEDRO AMORIM; REIS FERNANDO PINHEIRO

    2000-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da utilização de fosfina, associada a uma atmosfera rica em dióxido de carbono (CO2), no controle efetivo do inseto Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) em todas as suas fases de desenvolvimento. Para isso, foram realizadas fumigações com atmosfera sintética contendo 21% de CO2 e 79% de N2 associada a níveis reduzidos de fosfina (0,25, 0,50 e 0,75 g m-3). Para posterior comparação dos resultados, foram realizados dois tratamentos com ar ambiente associado às dosagens de zer...

  1. CalClim: An accessible data archive to monitor California climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L. M.; Cayan, D. R.; Redmond, K. T.; McCurdy, G. D.; Riddle, L.; Tyree, M. M.

    2004-12-01

    Climate data for the state of California has historically been provided by several independent sources, requiring time-consuming searches to find the appropriate information. The CalClim California Climate Data Archive (CCDA) provides centralized climate data access to assist those interested in monitoring California climate variability and change. The CalClim website (http://www.calclim.dri.edu) is a gateway to a number of climate observation networks that operate in California, including NWS Cooperative Network, SNOTEL, Remote Automated Weather Station (RAWS), and other statewide and regional networks. This archive enables scientists, state agencies and others with California interests to retrieve climate data at their convenience, for periods from days to years, and from one or multiple networks. Software on the website can also produce summaries of data, and graphs of daily or monthly data with options such as running means. Currently a limited selection of data is available, but additional datasets will be added over the next several months to one year. A coastal-focused climate data archive is anticipated to be added in early 2005. Both graphical and text interfaces are used to select networks and/or individual stations. Other products available at the website include the monthly California Climate Watch online newsletter and recent climate maps for periods ranging from the last week to 3 years, updated daily. A climate metadata inventory for the state is being assembled in conjunction with this project, and will be made available online at its completion. An additional aspect in development involves support of an enhanced California climate monitoring network.

  2. Modeling Aerosol Effects on Clouds and Precipitation: Insights from CalWater 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L. R.; Lim, K. S. S.; Fan, J.; Prather, K. A.; DeMott, P. J.; Spackman, J. R.; Ralph, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    The CalWater 2015 field campaign took place in northern California from mid January through early March of 2015. The field campaign, including collaborations between CalWater 2 and ACAPEX, aims to improve understanding and modeling of large-scale dynamics and cloud and precipitation processes associated with atmospheric rivers (ARs) and aerosol-cloud interactions that influence precipitation variability and extremes in the western U.S. An observational strategy was employed using land and offshore assets to monitor (1) the evolution and structure of ARs from near their regions of development, (2) long range transport of aerosols in eastern North Pacific and potential interactions with ARs, and (3) how aerosols from long-range transport and local sources influence cloud and precipitation in the U.S. During the field campaign, an AR developed in the Northeast Pacific Ocean in early February and made landfall in northern California. In-situ aerosol and cloud measurements from the G-1 aircraft; remote sensing data of clouds and aerosols; and meteorological measurements from aircraft, ship, and ground-based instruments collected from February 5 - 8, 2015 are analyzed to characterize the large-scale environment and cloud and precipitation forming processes. Modeling experiments are designed using a regional model for simulations with a cloud resolving limited area domain and quasi-global coarser resolution domain to evaluate the impacts of aerosols on clouds and precipitation, and to explore the relative contributions of long-range transported and regional aerosols that interacted with the clouds before, during, and after AR landfall. Preliminary results will be discussed in the context of the field data as well as a multi-year simulation of the climatological contributions of long-range transported dust during AR landfall in California.

  3. RVC-CAL library for endmember and abundance estimation in hyperspectral image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano López, R.; Madroñal Quintín, D.; Juárez Martínez, E.; Sanz Álvaro, C.

    2015-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HI) collects information from across the electromagnetic spectrum, covering a wide range of wavelengths. Although this technology was initially developed for remote sensing and earth observation, its multiple advantages - such as high spectral resolution - led to its application in other fields, as cancer detection. However, this new field has shown specific requirements; for instance, it needs to accomplish strong time specifications, since all the potential applications - like surgical guidance or in vivo tumor detection - imply real-time requisites. Achieving this time requirements is a great challenge, as hyperspectral images generate extremely high volumes of data to process. Thus, some new research lines are studying new processing techniques, and the most relevant ones are related to system parallelization. In that line, this paper describes the construction of a new hyperspectral processing library for RVC-CAL language, which is specifically designed for multimedia applications and allows multithreading compilation and system parallelization. This paper presents the development of the required library functions to implement two of the four stages of the hyperspectral imaging processing chain--endmember and abundances estimation. The results obtained show that the library achieves speedups of 30%, approximately, comparing to an existing software of hyperspectral images analysis; concretely, the endmember estimation step reaches an average speedup of 27.6%, which saves almost 8 seconds in the execution time. It also shows the existence of some bottlenecks, as the communication interfaces among the different actors due to the volume of data to transfer. Finally, it is shown that the library considerably simplifies the implementation process. Thus, experimental results show the potential of a RVC-CAL library for analyzing hyperspectral images in real-time, as it provides enough resources to study the system performance.

  4. High-intensity geomagnetic field 'spike' observed at ca. 3000 cal BP in Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Mark D.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Waters, Michael R.; Lundelius, Ernest; Forman, Steven L.

    2016-05-01

    By observing the fluctuations in direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field through time, we increase our understanding of the fluid motions of the Earth's outer core that sustain the geomagnetic field, the geodynamo. Recent archaeomagnetic studies in the Near East have found extremely rapid increases - 'spikes' - in geomagnetic field intensity at ca. 3000 yr cal BP. These observations have proved problematic for our current understanding of core-flow. However, until now, these geomagnetic spikes had not been observed outside of the Near East, where they have been preserved in metallurgical slag and fired, mud brick walls. We present a new, fully oriented, geomagnetic secular variation and relative palaeointensity (RPI) record for the last 17,000 yr from Hall's Cave, Texas, whose complete, >3.8 m thick sedimentary sequence spans from the present to 16 , 850 ± 110 RC yr BP (Modern to 20,600 cal BP). Within the stable, cool climate of the cave, pedogenic and bioturbation processes are negligible to non-existent, thereby limiting post-depositional physical and geochemical alteration of the magnetic record. The sub-aerial and subterranean setting of the sedimentary sequence in Hall's Cave enabled us to collect oriented palaeomagnetic cubes from a previously excavated stratigraphic section. The palaeomagnetic samples yielded high-quality vectors. An age model for the sequence, determined using 15 AMS 14C-dates on individual bones from microvertebrates, was combined with the palaeomagnetic data to construct a secular variation record. The record is in broad agreement with predictions by Holocene field models for the site's location. However, starting ca. 3000 yr ago, the RPI data indicate an almost four-fold increase in geomagnetic field intensity lasting several hundred years. This record presents well-dated evidence, obtained using conventional techniques, for the existence of a geomagnetic intensity spike in North America that is contemporaneous with the

  5. The Kunming CalFit study: modeling dietary behavioral patterns using smartphone data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Edmund; Hua, Jenna; Wu, Lemuel; Bestick, Aaron; Shia, Victor; Eom, Sue; Han, Jay; Wang, May; Li, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Human behavioral interventions aimed at improving health can benefit from objective wearable sensor data and mathematical models. Smartphone-based sensing is particularly practical for monitoring behavioral patterns because smartphones are fairly common, are carried by individuals throughout their daily lives, offer a variety of sensing modalities, and can facilitate various forms of user feedback for intervention studies. We describe our findings from a smartphone-based study, in which an Android-based application we developed called CalFit was used to collect information related to young adults' dietary behaviors. In addition to monitoring dietary patterns, we were interested in understanding contextual factors related to when and where an individual eats, as well as how their dietary intake relates to physical activity (which creates energy demand) and psychosocial stress. 12 participants were asked to use CalFit to record videos of their meals over two 1-week periods, which were translated into nutrient intake by trained dietitians. During this same period, triaxial accelerometry was used to assess each subject's energy expenditure, and GPS was used to record time-location patterns. Ecological momentary assessment was also used to prompt subjects to respond to questions on their phone about their psychological state. The GPS data were processed through a web service we developed called Foodscoremap that is based on the Google Places API to characterize food environments that subjects were exposed to, which may explain and influence dietary patterns. Furthermore, we describe a modeling framework that incorporates all of these information to dynamically infer behavioral patterns that may be used for future intervention studies. PMID:25571578

  6. Ubiquitination and degradation of CFTR by the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH2 through its association with adaptor proteins CAL and STX6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Guggino, William

    2013-01-01

    Golgi-localized cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-associated ligand (CAL) and syntaxin 6 (STX6) regulate the abundance of mature, post-ER CFTR by forming a CAL/STX6/CFTR complex (CAL complex) that promotes CFTR degradation in lysosomes. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this degradation is unknown. Here we investigated the interaction of a Golgi-localized, membrane-associated RING-CH E3 ubiquitin ligase, MARCH2, with the CAL complex and the consequent binding, ubiquitination, and degradation of mature CFTR. We found that MARCH2 not only co-immunoprecipitated and co-localized with CAL and STX6, but its binding to CAL was also enhanced by STX6, suggesting a synergistic interaction. In vivo ubiquitination assays demonstrated the ubiquitination of CFTR by MARCH2, and overexpression of MARCH2, like that of CAL and STX6, led to a dose-dependent degradation of mature CFTR that was blocked by bafilomycin A1 treatment. A catalytically dead MARCH2 RING mutant was unable to promote CFTR degradation. In addition, MARCH2 had no effect on a CFTR mutant lacking the PDZ motif, suggesting that binding to the PDZ domain of CAL is required for MARCH2-mediated degradation of CFTR. Indeed, silencing of endogenous CAL ablated the effect of MARCH2 on CFTR. Consistent with its Golgi localization, MARCH2 had no effect on ER-localized ΔF508-CFTR. Finally, siRNA-mediated silencing of endogenous MARCH2 in the CF epithelial cell line CFBE-CFTR increased the abundance of mature CFTR. Taken together, these data suggest that the recruitment of the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH2 to the CAL complex and subsequent ubiquitination of CFTR are responsible for the CAL-mediated lysosomal degradation of mature CFTR.

  7. Calidad del carbono orgánico del suelo en diferentes técnicas de manejo de residuos forestales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Lupi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985736Las distintas técnicas de cosecha y manejo de residuos pueden provocar cambios en la cantidad y calidad de la materia orgánica (MO del suelo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las modificaciones en la concentración y la calidad de la MO en un Ultisol con diferentes manejos de los residuos de la cosecha forestal del Pinus elliottii Engelm, al inicio de la segunda rotación. Los tratamientos analizados fueron: a extracción manual de los residuos de la cosecha y del piso forestal, suelo descubierto (ER, b quema de residuos y del mantillo, y laboreo con rastra (PI, c conservación de residuos y del mantillo sobre el suelo (PC. Se determinó el carbono orgánico (CO en todo el suelo y en las fracciones de ácidos fúlvicos (AF, ácidos húmicos (AH, huminas (HU y en la fracción liviana (CL. La conservación de los residuos de la cosecha no aumentó el CO ni el CL. Se observó una pérdida de la fracción de ácidos fúlvicos (AF particularmente en PI. Los tratamientos sin residuos forestales (ER y PI muestran un aumento en el grado de estabilización de la MO con un incremento de las HU y de la relación CAH/CAF.

  8. Comportamiento mecánico de la aleación AZ31 reforzada con nanofibras de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeva, P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of reinforcing AZ31 with carbon nanofibres. The materials AZ31, AZ31-1 % C y AZ31-2 % C were produced by a conventional powder metallurgy route consisting of mechanical mixing of nanofibres and powders of AZ31, cool compactation and extrusion at 350 °C. After extrusion the three materials exhibited a recrystallized microstructure of similar grain size, fine and rather inhomogeneous. Furthermore, they presented a weak fibre texture with basal plane parallel to the extrusion direction. The tensile properties were affected by the nanofibres presence only at 100 °C. At this temperature, yield strength and tensile strength were 30% higher than in the unreinforced alloy.

    En este trabajo se ha estudiado el efecto de la adición de nanofibras de carbono en las propiedades mecánicas de la aleación AZ31 procesada por una ruta pulvimetalúrgica convencional. Se prepararon tres materiales, AZ31, AZ31- 1 % C y AZ31-2 % C. Tras una mezcla mecánica de las nanofibras con los polvos de AZ31, se precompactaron en frío y se extruyeron a 350 °C. Los tres presentan una microestructura recristalizada con un tamaño de grano similar, fino aunque algo heterogéneo. Los tres materiales presentan una débil textura de fibra con el plano basal paralelo a la dirección de extrusión. Las propiedades mecánicas a tracción únicamente se ven afectadas por la presencia de nanofibras a 100 °C superando los materiales reforzados en un 30 % a los valores de límite elástico y resistencia de la aleación sin reforzar.

  9. Influência da relação estequiométrica resina/endurecedor em propriedades mecânicas de compósitos ternários hierárquicos resina - epóxi/tecido de fibra de carbono/nanotubos de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kássio André Lacerda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção de materiais que apresentem alto desempenho em suas aplicações exige avanços tecnológicos e científicos. Os elevados valores de resistência à tração e módulo de elasticidade, aliados à flexibilidade, baixa densidade e alta razão de aspecto, fazem dos nanotubos de carbono excepcionais candidatos para reforçar compósitos poliméricos. Preparamos por laminação sistemas compósitos ternários à base de resina epóxi/tecidos de fibra de carbono (para os binários, acrescendo nanotubos de carbono para os sistemas ternários. Os parâmetros estequiométricos do sistema epoxídico (valor de Phr e concentração de nanotubos de carbono empregado nos sistemas compósitos tiveram avaliadas suas morfologias (MEV, propriedades térmicas (TG e mecânicas (ASTM D790. Embora o sistema epoxídico com Phr 10,0 tenha apresentado uma maior estabilidade térmica, os compósitos ternários produzidos a partir do sistema com Phr 26,6 mostraram valores de tensão máxima e módulo de elasticidade até 8 vezes maiores que aqueles produzidos com o sistema Phr 10. A adição de nanotubos de carbono aos compósitos com Phr 26,6 resultou em ganhos adicionais de aproximadamente 38 e 15% na tensão máxima e no módulo de elasticidade, respectivamente. Esses resultados revelaram a limitação nos métodos de integralização de nanoestruturas a sistemas compósitos, onde as dispersões estão limitadas a uma série de fatores inerentes a interação química e/ou física durante a fabricação dos compósitos nanoestruturados.

  10. Vigor of canola seeds through quantification of CO2 emission Vigor de sementes de canola quantificado pela liberação de CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alexandre Lopes Dranski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed marks the beginning of grain production from cultivated crops. Ensuring seed quality is the priority in the field of seed technology. In this context, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of carbon dioxide concentration to Classify Brassica napus seed lots of different quality resulting from various sowing dates. Seed lots were evaluated by percentage of normal plantlets and the germination rate index. CO2 concentration was quantified in samples submitted to five periods of incubation at 40° C with the aid of a gas exchange analyzer coupled to an injection and airflow system. The results were subjected to analysis of variance and the mean values were compared by the Duncan test and by regression analysis at the 5% level of significance. B. napus seeds from all lots showed a high percentage of normal plantlets and germination rate index. Percentage of normal plantlets was correlated with CO2 concentration. Determination of the CO2 concentration was more efficient with three hours of incubation which allowed classification of canola seed lots into four vigor classes. CO2 concentration was inversely proportional to the percentage of normal plantlets.A semente marca o inicio da produção de grãos de plantas cultivadas. Assegurar a qualidade da semente é a prioridade da tecnologia de sementes. Neste contexto, o trabalho objetivou aferir o uso da concentração de dióxido de carbono na classificação de sementes de Brassica napus de diferentes níveis de qualidade resultante de diferentes datas de semeadura. nos quais avaliou-se a porcentagem de plântulas normais e o índice de velocidade de germinação. A concentração CO2 foi quantificada em amostras mantidas por cinco períodos de incubação a 40 °C e mensuradas com o auxílio de um medidor de trocas gasosas, acoplado a um sistema de injeção e fluxo de ar. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Duncan e pela an

  11. Processo de mitigação de eutrofização do áçude velho pela eletrólise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Cristina Lucena Agostinho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Em lagos e reservatórios de acumulação eutróficos, o florescimento de algas verdes - azuladas contribui para o aumento do teor de clorofila “a”, deteriora a qualidade da água com condições anaeróbias nas águas mais profundas, provoca formação de espuma, entre outros impactos. Devido à ocorrência de eventos irregulares de nitrificação nas águas do açude urbano poluído, Açude Velho localizado em Campina Grande, PB durante o período de verão, foi analisado o desempenho do processo eletrolítico para tratar essaságuas. Para o tratamento eletrolítico foi construído, em escala de laboratório, um reator de 2 litros de capacidade onde foi inserida umacolméia eletrolítica constituída de chapas de aço carbono e de alumínio. As amostras foram coletadas em oito pontos de amostragemno açude. Os seguintes parâmetros físicos, químicos e de poluição orgânica determinados na água bruta e após eletrólise foram cor,turbidez, pH, Alcalinidade, cálcio, cloreto, nitrato, fósforo total e clorofila “a”. Após 15 minutos de eletrólise, o efluente foi submetidoà decantação durante 45 minutos. Os resultados mostraram que a produção de alúmen pela formação de par iônico com o sulfato daágua propiciou a flotação das impurezas da água. Foi também observada uma desnitrificação total (remoção de 100% de nitrato com liberação de N2 para o meio ambiente. A remoção de fósforo e de clorofila “a” foi também significativa.Abstract In eutrophic lakes and reservoirs the blooming of green–blue algae contributes to increase the chlorophyll “a” concentration, deteriorates the water quality, producing anaerobic conditions in the deepest waters among other impacts. This process also generates significant amount of scum, which also contributes to diminish the dissolution of the atmospheric oxygen in the water. Due to the occurrence of irregular nitrificationevents in the waters of the polluted urban lake

  12. Adubação da soja: IV - Estudo preliminar sobre maneiras de efetuar a calagem com calcário dolomítico e cal extinta Fertilizing soybeans: IV - Experiments on methods of applying liming materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Miyasaka

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available Em experiência realizada por três anos em solo ácido foi estudado o efeito, sôbre a produção da soja, da calagem com calcário dolomítico e cal extinta, aplicados em sulcos laterais aos de plantio ou a lanço, sòmente no primeiro ano ou parceladamente. O aumento médio de produção proporcionado pela calagem correspondeu a 59%, mas as diferenças entre os dois corretivos e os métodos de aplicação foram pequenas. O efeito imediato das doses empregadas sòmente no primeiro ano foi bem menor que o residual.An experiment was conducted on an acid soil at Campinas, State of São Paulo, to study the effects, on the yield of soybeans, of hydrated lime and dolomitic limestone broadcast or sideplaced, the entire doses being applied in the first year or portionswise over two or three years. The average increase through liming corresponded to 59%, but the differences between the two liming materials, as well as those shown by the methods of application were small. The direct effect of the entire doses applied in the first year was smaller than the residual effect.

  13. Avaliação do ciclo térmico de conformação por compressão de peças em poli(sulfeto de fenileno reforçado com fibras contínuas de carbono Thermal cycles evaluation during the compression forming of parts made of polyphenylsulphide reinforced with continuous carbon fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo G. da Costa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Peças em compósito termoplástico PPS/Carbono foram conformadas com o processo de moldagem por compressão a quente utilizando três diferentes ciclos térmicos, que foram avaliados pela análise comparativa do material antes e após o processo de conformação. As caracterizações dos laminados, antes e após a conformação, envolveram inspeção visual, análises por microscopia óptica avaliando a presença de vazios ou delaminações, determinação de cristalinidade pela técnica de DSC e avaliação das propriedades mecânicas em flexão. A análise dos resultados obtidos permite verificar que as peças conformadas não apresentam delaminações e vazios. Porém, no caso em que foi utilizado o molde mais frio (100 °C verifica-se um decréscimo nas propriedades mecânicas de até 25% e uma diferença significativa do grau de cristalinidade medido na face da peça (13% para o cerne da mesma (21%. Dado este não observado nas outras condições de processamento avaliadas (moldes a 170 e 210 °C, as quais apresentam graus de cristalinidade nas faces e no centro em torno de 20%.Thermoplastic composite parts were produced by the hot press compression molding process with three different thermal cycles, which were evaluated employing the material comparative analysis, before and after the manufacturing of parts. The properties of laminates and parts were evaluated by visual inspection, presence of voids or delamination by using optical microscopy, degree of crystallinity (DoC utilizing DSC technique and mechanical properties making use of the flexural test. The results showed no delamination or voids. However, when the coldest mold was used (100 °C, the mechanical properties decreased up to 25% and a significant difference of DoC was observed from the part surfaces in contact with the mold (13% to its centre (21%. This did not occur with the other processing conditions (molds at 170 and 210 °C, which exhibited DoCs around 20%.

  14. The EuroSprite2005 Observational Campaign: an example of training and outreach opportunities for CAL young scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chanrion

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The four year "Coupling of Atmospheric Layers (CAL" EU FP5 Research Training Network project studied unanswered questions related to transient luminous events (sprites, jets and elves in the upper atmosphere. Consisting of ten scientific work-packages CAL also included intensive training and outreach programmes for the young scientists hired. Educational activities were based on the following elements: national PhD programmes, activities at CAL and other meetings, a dedicated summer school, and two European sprite observational campaigns. The young scientists were strongly involved in the latter and, as an example, the "EuroSprite2005" observational campaign is presented in detail. Some of the young scientists participated in the instrument set-up, others in the campaign logistics, some coordinated the observations, and others gathered the results to build a catalogue. During the four-month duration of this campaign, all of them took turns in operating the system and making their own night observations. The ongoing campaign activities were constantly advertised and communicated via an Internet blog. In summary the campaign required all the CAL young scientists to embark on experimental work, to develop their organisational skills, and to enhance their ability to communicate their activities. The campaign was a unique opportunity to train and strengthen skills that will be an asset to their future careers and, overall, was most successful.

  15. The genesis, methodical foundations, and problems in the realisation of the Atlas de la Nouvelle-Calédonie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gay Jean-Christophe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main organisational, epistemological, and methodical principles assumed by one of the two scientific editors of the Atlas de la Nouvelle-Calédonie, and the problems they faced. The presented solutions may be useful to the authors of similar projects in the future.

  16. 77 FR 77183 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment of Freight Easement Exemption-in Alameda County, Cal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Industrial Lead); Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority--Abandonment of Residual Common Carrier... Railroad Company (UP) and Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (SCVTA) jointly filed with the... contiguous to the segment between mileposts 7.35 and 16.30 in Alameda and Santa Clara Counties, Cal.,...

  17. Uml2 is a novel CalB-type lipase of Ustilago maydis with phospholipase A activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerth, Christoph; Kovacic, Filip; Stock, Janpeter; Terfrüchte, Marius; Wilhelm, Susanne; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Feldbrügge, Michael; Schipper, Kerstin; Ernst, Joachim F; Tielker, Denis

    2014-06-01

    CalB of Pseudozyma aphidis (formerly named Candida antarctica) is one of the most widely applied enzymes in industrial biocatalysis. Here, we describe a protein with 66 % sequence identity to CalB, designated Ustilago maydis lipase 2 (Uml2), which was identified as the product of gene um01422 of the corn smut fungus U. maydis. Sequence analysis of Uml2 revealed the presence of a typical lipase catalytic triad, Ser-His-Asp with Ser125 located in a Thr-Xaa-Ser-Xaa-Gly pentapeptide. Deletion of the uml2 gene in U. maydis diminished the ability of cells to hydrolyse fatty acids from tributyrin or Tween 20/80 substrates, thus demonstrating that Uml2 functions as a lipase that may contribute to nutrition of this fungal pathogen. Uml2 was heterologously produced in Pichia pastoris and recombinant N-glycosylated Uml2 protein was purified from the culture medium. Purified Uml2 released short- and long-chain fatty acids from p-nitrophenyl esters and Tween 20/80 substrates. Furthermore, phosphatidylcholine substrates containing long-chain saturated or unsaturated fatty acids were effectively hydrolysed. Both esterase and phospholipase A activity of Uml2 depended on the Ser125 catalytic residue. These results indicate that Uml2, in contrast to CalB, exhibits not only esterase and lipase activity but also phospholipase A activity. Thus, by genome mining, we identified a novel CalB-like lipase with different substrate specificities.

  18. Teachers' Perceptions on the Use of ICT in a CAL Environment to Enhance the Conception of Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Frikkie; Ogunniyi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Instructional methodologies increasingly require teachers' efficacy and implementation of computer-assisted learning (CAL) practices in general and particularly in the science classroom. The South African National Education Department's e-Education[1] policy also encourages the use of computers and computer software in implementing outcome-based…

  19. Co-evolving CENP-A and CAL1 Domains Mediate Centromeric CENP-A Deposition across Drosophila Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosin, Leah; Mellone, Barbara G

    2016-04-18

    Centromeres mediate the conserved process of chromosome segregation, yet centromeric DNA and the centromeric histone, CENP-A, are rapidly evolving. The rapid evolution of Drosophila CENP-A loop 1 (L1) is thought to modulate the DNA-binding preferences of CENP-A to counteract centromere drive, the preferential transmission of chromosomes with expanded centromeric satellites. Consistent with this model, CENP-A from Drosophila bipectinata (bip) cannot localize to Drosophila melanogaster (mel) centromeres. We show that this result is due to the inability of the mel CENP-A chaperone, CAL1, to deposit bip CENP-A into chromatin. Co-expression of bip CENP-A and bip CAL1 in mel cells restores centromeric localization, and similar findings apply to other Drosophila species. We identify two co-evolving regions, CENP-A L1 and the CAL1 N terminus, as critical for lineage-specific CENP-A incorporation. Collectively, our data show that the rapid evolution of L1 modulates CAL1-mediated CENP-A assembly, suggesting an alternative mechanism for the suppression of centromere drive. PMID:27093083

  20. Can Verbalisers Learn as well as Visualisers in Simulation-Based CAL with Predominantly Visual Representations? Preliminary Evidence from a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tzu-Chien; Kinshuk; Lin, Yi-Chun; Wang, Ssu-Chin

    2012-01-01

    Simulation-based computer-assisted learning (CAL) is emerging as new technologies are finding a place in mainstream education. Dynamically linked multiple representations (DLMRs) is at the core of simulation-based CAL. DLMRs includes multiple visual representations, and it enables students to manipulate one representation and to immediately…

  1. The Sharp Rise of Δ14C ca. 800 cal BC : Possible causes, related climatic teleconnections and the impact on human environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geel, Bas van; Plicht, Johannes van der; Kilian, M.R.; Klaver, E.R.; Kouwenberg, J.H.M.; Renssen, H.; Reynaud-Farrera, I.; Waterbolk, H.T.

    1998-01-01

    In this study we report on accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) wiggle-match dating of selected macrofossils from organic deposits ca. 800 cal BC (ca. 2650 BP). Based on paleological, archaeological and geological evidence, we found that the sharp rise of atmospheric 14C between 850 and 760 cal BC co

  2. Vesetation and climate changes during the last 8660 cal. a BP in central Mongolia, based on a high-resolution pollen record from Lake Ugii Nuur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; MA YuZhen; FENG ZhaoDong; MENG HongWei; SANG YanLi; ZHAI XinWei

    2009-01-01

    Based on modern pollen studies and reliable chronology of nine AMS 14C dates, a detailed history of vegetation and climate changes during the past 8660 cal. a BP was reconstructed by a high-resolution pollen record from Ugii Nuur in central Mongolia. Poaceae-steppe dominated the study area and the climate was mild and semi-humid before 7800 cal. a BP with a noticeable cool and humid interval at 8350-8250 cal. a BP. Xerophytic plant increased and the climate became warm and dry gradually since 7800 cal. a BP. From 6860 to 3170 cal. a BP, semi-desert steppe expanded, suggesting a prolonged warm and dry climate. Between 3170 and 2340 cal. a BP, regional forest steppe expanded whereas semi-desert steppe retreated, indicating the climate became cool and wet gradually and the humidity reached the maximum at the end of this stage. From 2340 to 1600 cal. a BP, a general cool and wet climate prevailed. And the climatic instability increased after 1600 cal. a BP. Review of regional pub-lished palaeoclimaUc records implies that the mid-Holocene dry climate might have prevailed in vast areas from central Mongolia to arid areas of northwest China. Pollen-based climate reconstruction for UG04 core was well correlated with the result of climate model on Central Asia by Bush. In addition, several abrupt climatic events (cool and wet) were found and some could be broadly compared with the cool events in Atlantic.

  3. A Lactose-Binding Lectin from the Marine Sponge Cinachyrella Apion (Cal Induces Cell Death in Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Uchoa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer represents a set of more than 100 diseases, including malignant tumors from different locations. Strategies inducing differentiation have had limited success in the treatment of established cancers. Marine sponges are a biological reservoir of bioactive molecules, especially lectins. Several animal and plant lectins were purified with antitumor activity, mitogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral, but there are few reports in the literature describing the mechanism of action of lectins purified from marine sponges to induce apoptosis in human tumor cells. In this work, a lectin purified from the marine sponge Cinachyrella apion (CaL was evaluated with respect to its hemolytic, cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties, besides the ability to induce cell death in tumor cells. The antiproliferative activity of CaL was tested against HeLa, PC3 and 3T3 cell lines, with highest growth inhibition for HeLa, reducing cell growth at a dose dependent manner (0.5–10 µg/mL. Hemolytic activity and toxicity against peripheral blood cells were tested using the concentration of IC50 (10 µg/mL for both trials and twice the IC50 for analysis in flow cytometry, indicating that CaL is not toxic to these cells. To assess the mechanism of cell death caused by CaL in HeLa cells, we performed flow cytometry and western blotting. Results showed that lectin probably induces cell death by apoptosis activation by pro-apoptotic protein Bax, promoting mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, cell cycle arrest in S phase and acting as both dependent and/or independent of caspases pathway. These results indicate the potential of CaL in studies of medicine for treating cancer.

  4. Novel mutations in RASGRP2, which encodes CalDAG-GEFI, abrogate Rap1 activation, causing platelet dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, María Luisa; Cook, Aaron; Bastida, José María; Paul, David S; Iruin, Gemma; Cid, Ana Rosa; Adan-Pedroso, Rosa; Ramón González-Porras, José; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús María; Fletcher, Sarah J; Johnson, Ben; Morgan, Neil; Ferrer-Marin, Francisca; Vicente, Vicente; Sondek, John; Watson, Steve P; Bergmeier, Wolfgang; Rivera, José

    2016-09-01

    In addition to mutations in ITG2B or ITGB3 genes that cause defective αIIbβ3 expression and/or function in Glanzmann's thrombasthenia patients, platelet dysfunction can be a result of genetic variability in proteins that mediate inside-out activation of αIIbβ3 The RASGRP2 gene is strongly expressed in platelets and neutrophils, where its encoded protein CalDAG-GEFI facilitates the activation of Rap1 and subsequent activation of integrins. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) to identify 2 novel function-disrupting mutations in RASGRP2 that account for bleeding diathesis and platelet dysfunction in 2 unrelated families. By using a panel of 71 genes, we identified a homozygous change (c.1142C>T) in exon 10 of RASGRP2 in a 9-year-old child of Chinese origin (family 1). This variant led to a p.Ser381Phe substitution in the CDC25 catalytic domain of CalDAG-GEFI. In 2 Spanish siblings from family 2, WES identified a nonsense homozygous variation (c.337C>T) (p.Arg113X) in exon 5 of RASGRP2 CalDAG-GEFI expression was markedly reduced in platelets from all patients, and by using a novel in vitro assay, we found that the nucleotide exchange activity was dramatically reduced in CalDAG-GEFI p.Ser381Phe. Platelets from homozygous patients exhibited agonist-specific defects in αIIbβ3 integrin activation and aggregation. In contrast, α- and δ-granule secretion, platelet spreading, and clot retraction were not markedly affected. Integrin activation in the patients' neutrophils was also impaired. These patients are the first cases of a CalDAG-GEFI deficiency due to homozygous RASGRP2 mutations that are linked to defects in both leukocyte and platelet integrin activation. PMID:27235135

  5. Estudio Experimental de Piezas Lineales de Hormigón Reforzadas con Fibras de Carbono Experimental Study of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with Carbon Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valcuende

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado el comportamiento de seis vigas reforzadas simultáneamente con láminas y tejidos de fibra de carbono. Se analiza, para este tipo de refuerzos, la validez de dos de los métodos de cálculo posiblemente más utilizados. En ambos métodos se plantean las ecuaciones de equilibrio de fuerzas y momentos, pero se introducen suposiciones diferentes: i el acero tiene suficiente capacidad plástica para no romperse y ii el agotamiento se produce siempre por rotura de la lámina. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto que refuerzos de láminas y tejidos de fibra de carbono influyen notablemente sobre las piezas, mejorando su capacidad portante y modificando su comportamiento estructural en cuanto a rigidez y ductilidadA study on the behaviour of six beams reinforced with carbon fiber laminates and fabrics was done. The validity of the two most commonly used methods of evaluating the effects of these reinforcements was analyzed. Both methods propose equilibrium equations based on forces and moments, although introducing two different suppositions: i that the steel posesses enough elasticity to avoid breakage, and ii failure is always produced by the breakage of the laminate. The results obtained demonstrate that carbon fiber laminates and fabric reinforcements have notable influence on the pieces, improving their loading capacities and modifying their structural behavior regarding stiffness and ductility

  6. Questionando a comensuração do carbono: Algumas emissões são mais iguais que outras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sequeiros Coelho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O comércio de emissões é normalmente apresentado na literatura económica como um instrumento de regulação que permite atingir um objetivo ambiental minimizando os custos. Abrindo a “caixa negra” do processo de construção de um mercado de emissões, contudo, é possível ver como pressupõe um conjunto de processos sociais que vão influenciar a sua performance de formas não previstas pelos seus defensores.Com base na literatura crítica dos mercados de carbono, este artigo apresenta uma revisão das críticas à comensuração de emissões, enquadrando‑as numa taxonomia de argumentos baseados em ideias de rigor científico, justiça, sustentabilidade ou democracia. Estes argumentos mostram como os processos de comensuração inerentes aos mercados de carbono excluem do processo de decisão informação relevante e invisibilizam atores e instituições envolvidos. A conclusão apresenta uma discussão sobre o potencial de reforma destes mercados.

  7. Crescimento de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli sob diferentes temperaturas, pH, concentrações de cloreto de sódio e fontes de carbono Growth of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli under different variable temperature, pH, sodium chloride concentrations and carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Tanajura Cavalcanti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o efeito da temperatura (0 a 45°C, pH (4 a 10 e concentração de NaCl (1 a 10% sobre o crescimento de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Quatro estirpes de Aac foram cultivadas em meio de cultura líquido específico e o crescimento avaliado pela absorbância (580nm. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de regressão não linear. O crescimento das estirpes também foi avaliado em caldo base para fermentação contendo 1% dos carboidratos glicose, galactose, ramnose, sacarose, lactose, maltose, amido, inulina, manitol, dulcitol, sorbitol e salicina, indicada pela mudança da cor do meio. Com base nas análises de regressão, as temperaturas mínima, ótima e máxima para crescimento de Aac foram, respectivamente, 1, 32 e 41°C; o pH ótimo para crescimento dessa bactéria foi 7,4 com os extremos mínimo de 4,0 e máximo de 10,8 e; o crescimento de Aac decresceu com o aumento da concentração de NaCl, sendo o nível de 6,2% letal. Todos os carboidratos testados foram utilizados pelas estirpes de Aac como fonte de carbono, com pequena variação de crescimento observada pela velocidade e intensidade da utilização do substrato com produção de ácido.The objective of this study was to determine the effect of temperature (0 to 45°C, pH (4 to 10 and NaCl concentration (1 to 10% in the growth of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Four Aac strains were grown in specific liquid medium, and their growth evaluated by absorbance (580nm. Data were submitted to nonlinear regression analysis. The bacterial growth was also studied in fermentation broth containing 1% of fermentable carbohydrates, glucose, galactose, rhamnose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, starch, inulin, mannitol, dulcitol, sorbitol and salicin, being evaluated by medium color change. Based upon regression analyses, the minimum, optimum and maximum temperatures for Aac growth were respectively 1, 32 and 41°C; the optimum pH for Aac

  8. El uso de las cubiertas verdes como reducción de la huella de carbono por absorción vegetal. Caso de Villaverde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Miguel Carretero Monteagudo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl tema de este trabajo es a grandes rasgos la comprobación de la eficacia de las cubiertas verdes en la reducción de la huella de carbono, centrándonos exclusivamente en las capacidades asimilativas del dióxido de carbono de la vegetación contenida sobre estas cubiertas. La presente comprobación de la eficacia de las cubiertas verdes, fue realizada sobre el contexto del distrito de Villaverde en la Periferia Sur de Madrid. Sobre este distrito, se analizaron diferentes factores en relación con la eficacia de las cubiertas verdes. Para a posteriori establecer cuáles podrían ser los casos de zona homogénea dentro del distrito que pudieran dar datos más relevantes acerca de la eficacia de las cubiertas verdes. Considerando paralelamente un análisis de las capacidades de asimilación de los diferentes tipos de cubierta verde (Intensiva y extensiva. Finalmente se establecieron cuatro escenarios de aplicación sobre las zonas más relevantes derivadas de la selección anterior, para comprobar finalmente las aportaciones en la reducción de dióxido de carbono que una cubierta verde puede aportar a un tejido urbano. Se comprobó que la eficacia de las cubiertas verdes en la absorción del dióxido de carbono es muy limitada, siendo más adecuada la regeneración natural del espacio público.Palabras clave  Reducción Dióxido Carbono Tejidos Naturalización CubiertasAbstractThe main issue of this report is the study of the green roofs reliability aimed to carbon footprint reduction, Focusing only in carbon dioxin assimilative capabilities of vegetation placed on. This study was done in the background of Villaverde district placed in the southern outskirts of Madrid. About this district, different facts related to the reliability of green roofs were analyzed, in order to remark the most relevant cases of urban fabrics within the district, whose results could be the most interesting ones about the efficiency of green roofs. In a

  9. A implementação da política de saúde mental em município de pequeno porte – o caso de São José do Calçado/ ES - Brasil (The implementation of mental health policies in small towns – the case of São José do Calçado / ES - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Teixeira Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo analisa como o município de São José do Calçado (Espírito Santo, implantou o CAPs I em 2000 e estruturou, entre 2001 e 2007, sua rede de atenção à saúde mental. Utilizou-se uma abordagem qualitativa e, como método, o estudo de caso. Foi realizada pesquisa documental e visita ao município para contatos com o gestor municipal de saúde e coordenador do CAPs. Realizaram-se entrevistas semiestruturadas com cinco informantes-chaves sobre a política municipal de saúde mental. Para análise utilizou-se análise de conteúdo. A implantação do CAPs no município de São José do Calçado aconteceu em decorrência da constatação do alto índice de internações em Hospital Psiquiátrico (HP, motivadas tanto por transtornos mentais quanto por uso abusivo de substâncias psicoativas. Esses números chamavam a atenção dos técnicos da saúde pelo fluxo de usuários do Ambulatório de Saúde Mental existente em 1999 na cidade. Alguns atores políticos participaram desse processo: os atores governamentais (técnicos, e a comunidade (expressa na reação dos familiares ao tratamento dispensado pela Clínica a seus membros quando lá internados. O CAPs foi implantado e mantido com recursos da Prefeitura Municipal de São José do Calçado durante cinco anos, de 2000 até 2005, e a partir daí passou a contar com repasse do Ministério da Saúde para organização da rede municipal em saúde mental (sendo o CAPs responsável pela referência e contrarreferência em saúde mental. O estudo conclui que o CAPs vem buscando uma interação com outros serviços de saúde – especialmente os serviços de atenção primária – e também com outras secretarias da rede municipal, como a secretaria de Educação e a secretaria de Assistência Social. Isso nos permite dizer que há nesse percurso uma reafi rmação da necessidade do trabalho intersetorial. Entretanto, essa prática intersetorial delega ao PSF um papel marginal de

  10. Sediment record of environmental change at Lake Lop Nur (Xinjiang, NW China) from 13.0 to 5.6 cal ka BP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingzhong; Jia, Hongjuan

    2016-09-01

    Lake Lop Nur is located in the eastern part of the Tarim Basin in Xinjiang, northwestern China. A 220-cm-long sediment core was collected from the center of the ear-shaped depression forming the basin and dated with AMS14C. Grain size, total organic matter (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and TOC/TN (C/N) analyses were used to reconstruct climatic conditions from 13.0 to 5.6 cal ka BP. The results showed five main climatic stages. Zone I (13.0-11.3 cal ka BP) was a wet-dry environment, whereas Zone II (11.3-8.9 cal ka BP) consisted of a primarily wet environment. Zone III (8.9-7.7 cal ka BP) was subdivided into Zone IIIa (8.9-8.2 cal ka BP) that indicated lake constriction and dry climate, and Zone IIIb (8.2-7.7 cal ka BP) in which the proxies indicated wet conditions. In Zone IV (7.7-6.6 cal ka BP), the climate presented a bit wet conditions. In Zone V (6.6-5.6 cal ka BP), abundant glauberite is present in the sediment and silt dominates the lithology; these results indicate the lake shrank and the overall climate was dry. Abrupt environmental events were also identified, including six dry events at 11.0, 10.5, 9.3, 8.6, 8.2, and 7.6 cal ka BP and one flood event from 7.8 to 7.7 cal ka BP in the Early-Middle Holocene.

  11. Symptomatic nucleus of homeopathic remedies derived from carbon. Nucleo sintomático de los medicamentos homeopaticos derivados de carbono Núcleo sintomático dos medicamentos homeopáticos derivados do Carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Costa Lima Thomaz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Homeopathic clinical practice requires both accuracy and agility in diagnosis and prescription of treatment during real-time consultations. Several approaches have been attempted to facilitate this process including different criteria to group homeopathic remedies. This study sought to establish whether classification according to the chemical composition of substances used as basis of homeopathic remedies have correspondence in the experimental homeopathic materia medica. Methods: The homeopathic remedies derived from carbon were selected as case-study. The experimental symptoms of these remedies were compared and a nucleus of symptoms common to all could be found. This nucleus was then compared to similarly obtained nuclei of experimental symptoms of homeopathic remedies derived from sulfur and phosphor to test qualitative specificity and finally to the traditionally described clinical picture of the so-called homeopathic carbonic constitution to establish whether the latter has homeopathic experimental grounds. Results: a nucleus of experimental symptoms common to homeopathic remedies derived from carbon was found, qualitatively different from the symptomatic nuclei of homeopathic remedies derived from sulfur and phosphor; no correlation was found, however, with the clinical image of so-called carbonic constitution.

    Keywords: Homeopathy; Materia Medica; Remedies; Classes; Carbon.

     
    Núcleo sintomático dos medicamentos homeopáticos derivados do Carbono
  1. Upgrade Analog Readout and Digitizing System for ATLAS TileCal Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, F; Anderson, K; Bohm, C; Hildebrand, K; Muschter, S; Oreglia, M

    2015-01-01

    The TileCal Demonstrator is a prototype for a future upgrade to the ATLAS hadron calorimeter when the Large Hadron Collider increases luminosity in year 2023 (HL-LHC). It will be used for functionality and performance tests. The Demonstrator has 48 channels of upgraded readout and digitizing electronics and a new digital trigger capability, but is backwards-compatible with the present detector system insofar as it also provides analog trigger signals. The Demonstrator is comprised of 4 identical mechanical mini-drawers, each equipped with up to 12 photomultipliers (PMTs). The on-detector electronics includes 45 Front-End Boards, each serving an individual PMT; 4 Main Boards, each to control and digitize up to 12 PMT signals, and 4 corresponding high-speed Daughter Boards serving as data hubs between on-detector and off-detector electronics. The Demonstrator is fully compatible with the present system, accepting ATLAS triggers, timing and slow control commands for the data acquisition, detector control, and de...

  2. PaCAL: A Python Package for Arithmetic Computations with Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Korze?

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present PaCAL, a Python package for arithmetical computations on random variables. The package is capable of performing the four arithmetic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, as well as computing many standard functions of random variables. Summary statistics, random number generation, plots, and histograms of the resulting distributions can easily be obtained and distribution parameter ?tting is also available. The operations are performed numerically and their results interpolated allowing for arbitrary arithmetic operations on random variables following practically any probability distribution encountered in practice. The package is easy to use, as operations on random variables are performed just as they are on standard Python variables. Independence of random variables is, by default, assumed on each step but some computations on dependent random variables are also possible. We demonstrate on several examples that the results are very accurate, often close to machine precision. Practical applications include statistics, physical measurements or estimation of error distributions in scienti?c computations.

  3. Konishi Form Factor at Three Loop in ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Taushif; Dhani, Prasanna K; Rana, Narayan; Ravindran, V; Seth, Satyajit

    2016-01-01

    We present the first results on the third order corrections to on-shell form factor (FF) of the Konishi operator in ${\\cal N}=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory using Feynman diagrammatic approach in modified dimensional reduction ($\\overline {DR}$) scheme. We show that it satisfies KG equation in $\\overline {DR}$ scheme while the result obtained in four dimensional helicity (FDH) scheme needs to be suitably modified not only to satisfy the KG equation but also to get the correct ultraviolet (UV) anomalous dimensions. We find that the cusp, soft and collinear anomalous dimensions obtained to third order are same as those of the FF of the half-BPS operator confirming the universality of the infrared (IR) structures of on-shell form factors. In addition, the highest transcendental terms of the FF of Konishi operator are identical to those of half-BPS operator indicating the probable existence of deeper structure of the on-shell FF. We also confirm the UV anomalous dimensions of Konishi operator up to third ord...

  4. Constraining ${\\cal N}=1$ supergravity inflationary framework with non-minimal K\\"ahler operators

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Sayantan; Pukartas, Ernestas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we will illustrate how to constrain unavoidable K\\"ahler corrections for ${\\cal N}=1$ supergravity (SUGRA) inflation from the recent Planck data. We will show that the non-renormalizable K\\"ahler operators will induce in general non-minimal kinetic term for the inflaton field, and two types of SUGRA corrections in the potential - the Hubble-induced mass ($c_{H}$), and the Hubble-induced A-term ($a_{H}$) correction. The entire SUGRA inflationary framework can now be constrained from (i) the speed of sound, $c_s$, and (ii) from the upper bound on the tensor to scalar ratio, $r_{\\star}$. We will illustrate this by considering a heavy scalar degree of freedom at a scale, $M_s$, and a light inflationary field which is responsible for a slow-roll inflation. We will compute the corrections to the kinetic term and the potential for the light field explicitly. As an example, we will consider a visible sector inflationary model of inflation where inflation occurs at the point of inflection, which can matc...

  5. A new class of $({\\cal H}^k,1)$-rectifiable subsets of metric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ghezzi, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    The main motivation of this paper arises from the study of Carnot--Carath\\'eodory spaces, where the class of 1-rectifiable sets does not contain smooth non-horizontal curves; therefore a new definition of rectifiable sets including non-horizontal curves is needed. This is why we introduce in any metric space a new class of curves, called continuously metric differentiable of degree $k$, which are H\\"older but not Lipschitz continuous when $k>1$. Replacing Lipschitz curves by this kind of curves we define $({\\cal H}^k,1)$-rectifiable sets and show a density result generalizing the corresponding one in Euclidean geometry. This theorem is a consequence of computations of Hausdorff measures along curves, for which we give an integral formula. In particular, we show that both spherical and usual Hausdorff measures along curves coincide with a class of dimensioned lengths and are related to an interpolation complexity, for which estimates have already been obtained in Carnot--Carath\\'eodory spaces.

  6. Design de calçado e acessórios : Estágio na marca Guava e realização de uma minicolecção de calçado

    OpenAIRE

    Chalabardo, Mariana Vidinha Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Relatório de Estágio apresentado à Escola Superior de Artes Aplicadas do Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco e Guava Essentials Lda. para cumprimento dos requisitos necessários à obtenção do grau de Mestre em Design de Vestuário e Têxtil. O presente relatório é referente a um estágio curricular efectuado na marca portuguesa de Calçado Guava. Ao longo do relatório, vão ser enumerados vários aspectos relacionados com o Design, o Calçado e a marca Guava. É importante entend...

  7. Efeito de leguminosas nos atributos físicos e carbono orgânico de um Luvissolo Effect of legumes on the physical attributes and organic carbon of an Alfisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tavares Nascimento

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A degradação de um solo sob cultivo é resultante, principalmente, de seu manejo inadequado, com reflexos nas baixas produtividades das culturas. Com a finalidade de avaliar o efeito de leguminosas nos atributos físicos e carbono orgânico (CO de um Luvissolo, realizou-se, no município de Alagoinha (PB, um experimento entre 1997 e 1999, com as seguintes espécies: crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, L, guandu (Cajanus cajan,L, guandu anão (Cajanus cajan (L Millsp, calopogônio (Calopogonium mucunoides, L, feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiforme, L, lab-lab (Dolichos lab lab, L, kudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides, L, siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum, L, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, L, cunhã (Clitoria ternatea, L, mucuna preta (Styzolobium aterrimum, L, mucuna cinza (Styzolobium cinereum Piper e Tracy, e uma parcela com vegetação espontânea, como testemunha. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso em esquema de parcela subdividida, com distribuição de treze tratamentos principais na parcela (12 leguminosas + 1 testemunha e três tratamentos secundários, representados pelas profundidades de coleta de amostras de solo (0,00-0,10; 0,10-0,20; e 0,20-0,30 m, na subparcela, com três repetições. Na condição edafoclimática deste experimento, durante os três anos de trabalho, constatou-se que o emprego das leguminosas em relação à testemunha manteve inalterados o CO do solo, a densidade do solo, a porosidade total, a argila dispersa em água e a estabilidade dos agregados do solo.Soil degradation under cultivation results mainly from the inadequate management and it reflects in low crop yields. With the purpose of evaluating the effect of legumes on physical attributes and organic carbon content of an Alfisol, an experiment was conducted in the Alagoinha County-PB, Brazil, between 1997 and 1999, with the following species: Crotalaria juncea L, Cajanus cajan L, Cajanus cajan (L Millsp, Calopogonium mucunoides

  8. 计算机辅助教与学(CAI/CAL)在电磁学教学改革中的应用%CAI and CAL in the Teaching Reform of Electromagnetism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆斌

    2001-01-01

    阐述计算机辅助教与学(CAI/CAL)在教学改革中的重要性,论述了CAI/CAL的基本功能以及在电磁学教学改革中的主要应用,认为在21世纪,教学中引入CAI/CAL是实现教育现代化的重要手段.

  9. Carbono edáfico en Chiapas: planteamiento de políticas públicas de mitigación de emisiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Covaleda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ante los retos que plantea la mitigación del cambio climático en el sector AFOLU (agricultura, forestería y otros usos del suelo, es necesario plantear actividades que, a la vez que disminuyan las emisiones de CO2 a la atmósfera tengan un impacto socio-económico positivo. En Chiapas, el 76% de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero están ligadas a las actividades que realizan los productores rurales, por lo cual es fundamental que los tomadores de decisiones cuenten con herramientas sencillas de planeación que les permitan desarrollar actividades y programas de política pública encaminados a contribuir en la resolución de esta problemática. Por otra parte, en el estado, aproximadamente la mitad de las emisiones provienen de los suelos. En este trabajo, mediante análisis cartográfico, se identificaron las principales dinámicas de cambio de uso del suelo en Chiapas entre 2007 y 2011 a nivel regional, las cuales fueron: deforestación de bosques secundarios templados para establecer parcelas agrícolas de subsistencia (milpa en los Altos, deforestación de vegetación secundaria de selva alta perennifolia por ganadería extensiva en La Selva y degradación forestal de bosques de pino encino en la Sierra Madre. Utilizando modelos de dinámica de uso del suelo asociado a carbono para distintas regiones de Chiapas, se analizaron sus impactos sobre el carbono edáfico y sus costos de oportunidad para los productores. Además utilizando estos mismos modelos se propusieron actividades de política pública con impactos positivos sobre el almacén de carbono edáfico y sobre indicadores socio-económicos. Los sistemas propuestos como alternativa sustentable fueron: la labranza de conservación y el MIAF (maíz intercalado con árboles frutales, en los Altos, sistemas silvopastoriles en la Selva y protección de bosques secundarios, bosques con plan de manejo forestal y plantaciones forestales en la Sierra.

  10. Renovação do carbono-13 em figueiras 'Roxo de Valinhos' Carbon-13 turnover in fig trees 'Roxo de Valinhos'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Carvalho da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a taxa de renova��ão do carbono-13 ("turnover", dos diferentes órgãos da figueira 'Roxo de Valinhos'. O experimento foi conduzido no pomar da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, FCA/UNESP, Câmpus de Botucatu-SP. Determinou-se previamente, através das trocas gasosas com um medidor aberto portátil de fotossíntese, IRGA, a principal folha fotossinteticamente ativa. Essa folha foi colocada em uma câmara onde ocorreu a injeção do gás enriquecido. O tempo de enriquecimento da folha foi de 30 minutos. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por sete plantas de figueira, que foram retiradas do solo após: 6; 24; 48; 72; 120; 168 e 360 horas do enriquecimento com 13C, e suas partes seccionadas em: gema apical, folha jovem, folhas adultas (fotossinteticamente ativas, brotações laterais, frutos e ramo. Os resultados obtidos permitiram o estabelecimento da sequência de metabolização do carbono-13 nas partições estudadas: Folhas novas > Frutos > Brotações > Folhas Adultas > Gema Apical > Ramo > Folha marcada. Plantas de figueira 'Roxo de Valinhos' apresentam reciclagem do 13C de 24 horas e um tempo de meia-vida de duração do carbono-13 inferior a 11 horas.The aim of this study was to assess carbon-13 turnover in different organs of the fig tree cultivar 'Roxo de Valinhos'. The experiment was carried out in an orchard at School of Agronomical Sciences, FCA/UNESP, Botucatu Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil. The main photosynthetically active leaf was previously determined based on gas exchanges by means of an open portable photosynthesis system, IRGA. That leaf was placed in a chamber where the enriched gas injection occurred. The leaf enrichment time was 30 minutes. Treatments were constituted of seven fig trees harvested of soil after: 6; 24; 48; 72; 120; 168 and 360 hours of enrichment using 13C, and their parts were sectioned into: apical bud, young leaves, adult leaves (photosynthetically active

  11. Evaluation of AutoCAL for electronic portal imaging device-based multi-leaf collimator quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameem, Tarafder J

    2016-01-01

    Modern radiotherapy treatment techniques commonly include multi-leaf collimators (MLCs) to shape the treatment fields and to conform the radiation dose to the target volume. MLCs require accurate and frequent quality assurance (QA) to ensure spatial and temporal accuracy of the leaves in order to allow optimal dose delivery to the patient. In this study, the accuracy and efficacy of AutoCAL, a commercial software for MLC QA, were evaluated. The software was found to be reproducible to within 0.2 mm and to correspond with conventional QA methods (within 1.2 and 0.9 mm of film and water tank measurements, respectively.) Thus, AutoCAL was found to be an accurate and efficient tool for routine MLC QA and calibration. PMID:26508357

  12. Fotosíntesis, crecimiento y aceites esenciales en morfotipos florales de caléndula (Calendula officinalis L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Salomé Abarca, Luis Francisco

    2014-01-01

    La caléndula (Calendula officinalis) es una especie herbácea originaria de Egipto, que se cree fue introducida a Europa en el siglo XII. En México es cultivada como una planta medicinal y de ornato, en lugares con clima semiseco y templado. En la zona de los valles centrales de México, Palma observó amplia diversidad fenotípica en una variedad común de caléndula, y eligió seis variantes en la morfología floral de esa población heterogénea, a las cuales denominó de la S1 a la S6. El objetivo ...

  13. Historia de la producción de cal en el norte de la cuenca de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimira Palma Linares

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En Tula, Apaxco y Ajoloapan se localizan varios de los afloramientos de rocas sedimentarias más importantes de la cuenca de México, utilizados para la extracción de calizas para la producción de cal, recurso de suma importancia para la construcción y la nixtamalización. En este trabajo, a partir del análisis de documentos históricos, información arqueológica y etnográfica, se presenta la historia de la producción de cal, así como la forma en que los habitantes de las poblaciones de Atotonilco, Tequixquiac, Hueypochtla, Tlapanaloya, Xilotzingo y Ajoloapan, accedían a este recurso en la época prehispánica y durante la Colonia.

  14. CalQuo: automated, simultaneous single-cell and population-level quantification of global intracellular Ca2+ responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Marco; Fernandes, Ricardo A.; Colin-York, Huw; Santos, Ana M.; Lee, Steven F.; Lagerholm, B. Christoffer; Davis, Simon J.; Eggeling, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Detecting intracellular calcium signaling with fluorescent calcium indicator dyes is often coupled with microscopy techniques to follow the activation state of non-excitable cells, including lymphocytes. However, the analysis of global intracellular calcium responses both at the single-cell level and in large ensembles simultaneously has yet to be automated. Here, we present a new software package, CalQuo (Calcium Quantification), which allows the automated analysis and simultaneous monitoring of global fluorescent calcium reporter-based signaling responses in up to 1000 single cells per experiment, at temporal resolutions of sub-seconds to seconds. CalQuo quantifies the number and fraction of responding cells, the temporal dependence of calcium signaling and provides global and individual calcium-reporter fluorescence intensity profiles. We demonstrate the utility of the new method by comparing the calcium-based signaling responses of genetically manipulated human lymphocytic cell lines.

  15. El Uso de cal para salvar muros de fortificaciones como un legado de la Arquitectura Militar de la Colonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Domínguez Vega

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda el uso de la cal en la restauración y conservación de las fortificaciones de la línea defensiva Holguin ¿Gibara. Se basa en la tendencia actual para la conservación sostenible de los bienes patrimoniales y culturales que orienta los materiales utilizados en los trabajos de intervención, se detiene sobre la relevancia y alcance histórico cultural del patrimonio fortificado en la provincia de Holguín, describe las características constructivas de sus muros, los morteros utilizados y las dificultades para la conservación de estas. Propone que se revitalice el uso de la cal en obras de conservación.

  16. Development of the FoCal-E PAD detector and its electronics for the ALICE experiment at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Motoi; Chujo, Tatsuya; Hirano, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    In order to study the initial state of high-energy heavy-ion collisions, a forward calorimeter as an upgrade to the ALICE experiment is in the planning stage. The first beam test of the forward electro-magnetic calorimeter (FoCal-E) prototype was carried out in 2014 at the CERN PS and SPS accelerators. With the aim of reading out a signal from the low-granularity silicon pad sensors of FoCal-E, electronic circuits such as a temperature monitor, a trigger-signal converting-circuit, a trigger-signal processor, an independent regulated power circuit and an isolated high-voltage generator were developed. The electric noise problem was solved by means of both the power circuit and the high-voltage generator, and the signal was successfully read out.

  17. Elevage de la Crevette Bleue en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Litopenaeus Stylirostris. Bases biologiques et zootechnie

    OpenAIRE

    Della Patrona, Luc; Brun, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    L’ouvrage « Elevage de la Crevette Bleue en Nouvelle-Calédonie – Bases biologiques et zootechnie » est sans aucun doute le document de référence dont la crevetticulture de Nouvelle-Calédonie avait besoin. L’élaboration de cette synthèse des connaissances a été initiée lors du déroulement du projet de recherche Ifremer DESANS (DEfi SANté Stylirostris) construit sur la période 2003-2006 et a été finalisée sous le projet DEDUCTION (DEveloppement DUrable de la Crevetticulture, Traitement de l’Inf...

  18. Rehabilitació i canvi d'ús de l'antic edifici de batans i cardes de Cal Pons

    OpenAIRE

    Berengueras Campi, Aïda; Obea Escudé, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    L’Edifici de batans i cardes de Cal Pons ens va semblar molt interessant per realitzar el nostre Projecte Final de Grau, no només per la proximitat amb el nostre lloc de residència i l’accessibilitat gràcies a la col·laboració de l’Ajuntament del municipi de Puig-reig, sinó també perquè aquest edifici, juntament amb la resta del conjunt de la fàbrica tèxtil de Cal Pons, forma part de l’historia socioeconòmica de Catalunya i del nostre municipi, on gairebé el 90% de les famílies te...

  19. Historia de la producción de cal en el norte de la cuenca de México

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimira Palma Linares

    2009-01-01

    En Tula, Apaxco y Ajoloapan se localizan varios de los afloramientos de rocas sedimentarias más importantes de la cuenca de México, utilizados para la extracción de calizas para la producción de cal, recurso de suma importancia para la construcción y la nixtamalización. En este trabajo, a partir del análisis de documentos históricos, información arqueológica y etnográfica, se presenta la historia de la producción de cal, así como la forma en que los habitantes de las poblaciones de Atotonilco...

  20. Establishment of Centromeric Chromatin by the CENP-A Assembly Factor CAL1 Requires FACT-Mediated Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Chi; Bowers, Sarion; Lipinszki, Zoltan; Palladino, Jason; Trusiak, Sarah; Bettini, Emily; Rosin, Leah; Przewloka, Marcin R; Glover, David M; O'Neill, Rachel J; Mellone, Barbara G

    2015-07-01

    Centromeres are essential chromosomal structures that mediate accurate chromosome segregation during cell division. Centromeres are specified epigenetically by the heritable incorporation of the centromeric histone H3 variant CENP-A. While many of the primary factors that mediate centromeric deposition of CENP-A are known, the chromatin and DNA requirements of this process have remained elusive. Here, we uncover a role for transcription in Drosophila CENP-A deposition. Using an inducible ectopic centromere system that uncouples CENP-A deposition from endogenous centromere function and cell-cycle progression, we demonstrate that CENP-A assembly by its loading factor, CAL1, requires RNAPII-mediated transcription of the underlying DNA. This transcription depends on the CAL1 binding partner FACT, but not on CENP-A incorporation. Our work establishes RNAPII passage as a key step in chaperone-mediated CENP-A chromatin establishment and propagation. PMID:26151904

  1. Interpretação e utilidade da prova calórica Interpretation and use of caloric testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Utsch Gonçalves

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A prova calórica é o teste da avaliação otoneurológica que verifica a integridade do reflexo vestíbulo-ocular e possibilita avaliar cada labirinto separadamente. Os principais aspectos relacionados à realização, interpretação e utilidade da prova calórica foram revistos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se revisão sistemática sobre as publicações ocorridas nos últimos cem anos sobre o assunto. Incluíram-se artigos originais transversais e longitudinais, de revisão e meta-análise. Excluíram-se revisões de papeleta, relatos de caso e editoriais. Os descritores utilizados foram: prova calórica, nistagmo, sistema vestibular, preponderância direcional, predomínio labiríntico, teste calórico monotermal, teste calórico com água gelada, fenômeno de Bell. Pesquisou-se as bases de dados COCHRAINE, MEDLINE, LILACS, CAPES. RESULTADOS: De 818 resumos de artigos, selecionou-se inicialmente 93 que preenchiam os critérios de inclusão. A leitura dos artigos resultou na seleção final de 55. Na análise dos artigos, enfatizou-se na discussão fundamentos da prova calórica, tipos de estimulação utilizados, prova calórica monotermal e com água gelada, questões relacionadas à interpretação dos resultados, variáveis e artefatos. COMENTÁRIOS FINAIS: os valores de referência utilizados na prova calórica podem variar de serviço para serviço, com ponto de corte definido a partir de estudos locais. Semiotécnica cuidadosa é fundamental para elevar a sensibilidade do exame.Caloric testing is an otoneurologic evaluation of the status of the vestibular-ocular reflex; it allows an evaluation of each labyrinth separately. The main aspects on the use and interpretation of caloric testing are reviewed. METHOD: A systematic review of papers published in the past one hundred years on caloric testing was undertaken. The inclusion criteria were: cross-sectional, longitudinal, original articles, reviews and meta-analyses. Reviews of patient charts

  2. Z boson pair production at the LHC to ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s)$ in TeV scale gravity models

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Neelima; Ravindran, V.; Tiwari, V K; Tripathi, Anurag

    2009-01-01

    The first results on next-to-leading order QCD corrections to the production of two Z bosons, in hadronic collisions in the large extra dimension ADD model are presented. Various kinematical distributions are obtained to order $\\alpha_s$ in QCD by taking into account all the parton level subprocesses. We estimate the impact of the QCD corrections on various observables and find that they are significant. We also show the reduction in factorisation scale uncertainity when ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s)$ ...

  3. The Cost Escalation of Rail Projects: Using Previous Experience to Re-Evaluate the CalSpeed Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Leavitt, Dan; Ennis, Sean; McGovern, Pat

    1993-01-01

    This report is a follow-up study to last year's CalSpeed publication, "High-Speed Trains for California," Working Paper No. 565. The purpose of this paper is to test rigorously and critically the cost estimate methodology presented in that previous working paper. This has been accomplished primarily by focusing on the issue of cost escalation of rail projects, with reference to both U.S. and foreign experience.

  4. Usability-Studie der Dekanatssoftware CalRobi für den Modellstudiengang Medizin der RWTH Aachen

    OpenAIRE

    Seitz, Stefan Martin

    2011-01-01

    The CalRobi is an application program curricular planning esp. for the generation of syllabi. It was developed according to special requirements induced by the reformed medical curriculum of the Aachen Medical School. The implementation of the reformed curriculum led to the problem that due to the new interdisciplinary structure of the curriculum the available programs for curricular management could not be used anymore by the administrative staff. This problem was addressed by the implementa...

  5. "Um por todos, todos pela música nova" : um estudo de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Milheiro, Maria Helena Cruz Martins Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho explora o processo de ensino de música nas bandas filarmónicas em Portugal, através de métodos qualitativos e quantitativos. Parte de um estudo de caso realizado na Banda dos Bombeiros Voluntários de Ílhavo – Música Nova, inserindo-se no âmbito do projeto MIMAR, em curso no Instituto de Etnomusicologia – Centro de Estudos em Música e Dança, na Universidade de Aveiro. As Bandas Filarmónicas são instituições seculares responsáveis pela formação inicial de grande parte dos instr...

  6. Valor prognóstico da ecocardiografia com estresse pela dobutamina associada à atropina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Mathias Jr

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o valor prognóstico para eventos cardíacos maiores da ecocardiografia com estresse pela dobutamina associada à atropina (EEDA. MÉTODOS: Estudados 452 pacientes consecutivos, com alto risco para presença de doença arterial coronária, acompanhados por um período médio de 23 meses. RESULTADOS: Houve 9 mortes cardíacas e 2 infartos agudos do miocárdio em pacientes com EEDA positiva e 2 infartos e 1 morte cardíaca em pacientes com EEDA negativa. CONCLUSÃO: A EEDA é capaz de identificar pacientes de alto risco para eventos maiores.

  7. The impulsivity in internet purchase A Impulsividade nas Compras pela Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Diana Siqueira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of gender, age, income, and possession of a credit card on the impulsivity in e-commerce. The impulse buying is a type of unplanned purchase, defined as a consumer tendency to buy spontaneously, without reflection, in an immediate way, dominated by emotional attraction and absorbed by the promise of instant gratification. The impulse buying phenomenon, associated to the online retail is still relatively new and extremely important. E-commerce has grown by approximately 40% per year, reaching 23 million e-customers in Brazil in 2010. This study was based on a field survey with institutions of higher education in the Greater ABC region of São Paulo, whose sample consisted of 336 students in undergraduate and postgraduate level. According to the results analysis, the unique variable that showed influence on impulsive behavior in online retail is personal income. This outcome was not noticed in the other variables studied. The impulsivity mean score of the sample was 24,84 points, which could vary between 11 and 77. This suggests that the buying behavior on internet of analyzed students is guidance predominantly non-impulsive.Este artigo investiga a influência do gênero, idade, renda e posse de cartão de crédito sobre a impulsividade no processo de compras pela internet. A compra impulsiva é um tipo de compra não planejada, definida como a tendência do consumidor a comprar espontaneamente, sem reflexão, de forma imediata, dominado pela atração emocional e absorvido pela promessa de gratificação imediata. O fenômeno compra por impulso associado ao varejo online ainda é relativamente novo e de extrema relevância. O comércio eletrônico apresenta crescimento de aproximadamente 40% ao ano, tendo atingido 23 milhões de e-consumidores no Brasil, em 2010. Este estudo foi realizado com base num levantamento de campo junto a instituições de ensino superior na região do Grande ABC/SP, cuja amostra foi

  8. Identificação dos insulinomas pela ecoendoscopia Identification of insulinomas by endoscopic ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Celso Ardengh

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a sensibilidade da ecoendoscopia (EE no diagnóstico pré-operatório dos insulinomas e comparar com outros testes diagnósticos como tomografia helicoidal e ressonância magnética. MÉTODOS: Trinta pacientes foram examinados prospectivamente pela ecoendoscopia com o diagnóstico clínico de insulinoma antes de serem submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico. O exame ecoendoscópico sempre foi precedido pelo US, TC helicoidal e em 10 pacientes pela RM. Em 12 casos foi indicada a punção aspirativa com agulha fina eco-guiada para confirmar a suspeita de insulinoma. RESULTADOS: A sensibilidade da EE na identificação dessas lesões foi de 86,6% (26/30 tumores. Vinte e seis tumores foram benignos (86,6% e quatro malignos (13,4%. Realizamos punção biópsia aspirativa em 12 pacientes (40% e o diagnóstico histológico foi feito em 10/12 pacientes (83,3%. Nessa casuística, 25 tumores foram menores que 2 cm (83,3% e cinco maiores que 2 cm (16,7%. Os tumores detectados pela EE tinham tamanho médio de 1,5 cm (0,6 a 5,4 cm. A identificação dos tumores pela EE na cabeça, corpo e cauda foi de 100%, 100% e 55,5%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: A EE tem alta sensibilidade na identificação e localização dessas lesões e deve ser recomendada quando os métodos tradicionais de imagem empregados falham no diagnóstico. A PAAF é uma tentativa para evitarmos falso-positivos.BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to compare EUS and the others diagnostics tests in the correct localization of insulinomas. METHODS: We prospectively investigated 30 patients with endoscopic ultrasound with a clinical diagnosis of insulinomas prior to surgical exploration. They were submitted to abdominal ultrasonography, spiral computed tomography and four patients were submitted to magnetic ressonance before EUS. Surgery was the gold standard for tumor localization. RESULTS: Twenty-six tumors were benign (86.6% and four were malign (13.4%. The median size

  9. Sentimentos vivenciados pela equipe de enfermagem de um centro de tratamento de queimados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Trevisan Martins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Desvelar os sentimentos vivenciados pela equipe de enfermagem ao cuidar de pacientes com queimaduras. Métodos: Qualitativo. Resultados: Sete categorias: Trabalho mais difícil que desenvolveu profissionalmente, colocando-se no lugar do paciente e do familiar, impotência diante da situação, compaixão e dó ao cuidar da criança, sofrimento pelo descuido dos pais diante da vulnerabilidade da criança, sofrimento ao cuidar do paciente suicida e sentimento de felicidade ao cuidar do paciente e ver a sua recuperação. Conclusão: Existem vivências de sentimentos de prazer e sofrimento e, portanto, estratégias devem ser implementadas pelos gestores e equipe de enfermagem para promover, prevenir os agravos e recuperar a saúde.

  10. O espaço político aberto pela leitura literária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pinto de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo se propõe questionar sobre o espaço político aberto pela leitura literária. Especificando a literatura como uma tentativa de compreensão de problemas relacionados à existência, sublinhamos como a leitura literária coloca em questão nossas convicções e verdades defendidas cotidianamente. Para tanto, compreendemos as relações tecidas entre a linguagem, o poder e a resistência no seio da experiência literária. Concluímos que a leitura literária é atravessada por formas de resistência às palavras de ordem que circulam de forma hegemônica em nossa sociedade, disponibilizando assim uma transformação em nossa rede afetiva e cognitiva.

  11. Alterações ultra-sonográficas na gravidez Rh negativo sensibilizada avaliada pela espectrofotometria do líquido amniótico e pela dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardozza Luciano Marcondes Machado

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar e confrontar a presença de alterações ultra-sonográficas nas gestações Rh negativo sensibilizadas, quando a anemia fetal foi determinada ou pela espectrofotometria do líquido amniótico, ou pela dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Observacional descritivo com grupo de comparação. Nosso grupo de estudo foi constituído por 99 pacientes, avaliadas no período de janeiro de 1995 a janeiro de 2004. Foram analisados e comparados dois grupos: 74 gestantes sensibilizadas pelo fator Rh cuja anemia fetal foi acompanhada pela espectrofotometria (grupo SE e 25 gestantes sensibilizadas pelo fator Rh cuja anemia fetal foi acompanhada pela dopplervelocimetria (grupo SD. Avaliamos a presença ou não de alterações ultra-sonográficas no acompanhamento pré-natal e confrontamos os dois grupos de estudo. RESULTADOS: No grupo cuja anemia fetal foi acompanhada através da espectrofotometria (grupo SE, apuramos modificações placentárias, principalmente o aumento da espessura e sua alteração textural, mais assiduamente que as encontradiças no grupo de gestantes sensibilizadas, em que a anemia foi determinada através da dopplervelocimetria (grupo SD (64% X 32%, p = 6,294. CONCLUSÃO: As alterações ultra-sonográficas foram detectadas em dobro quando a anemia foi avaliada pela espectrofotometria em comparação com o grupo seguido pela dopplervelocimetria.

  12. Dose measurements using thermoluminescent dosimeters and DoseCal software at two paediatric hospitals in Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamadain, K.E.M.; Azevedo, A.C.P.; Rosa, L.A.R. da E-mail: lrosa@ird.gov.br; Guebel, M.R.N.; Boechat, M.C.B

    2003-07-01

    A dosimetric survey in paediatric radiology is currently being carried out at the paediatric units of two large hospitals in Rio de Janeiro city: IPPMG (Instituto de Pediatria e Puericultura Martagao Gesteira, University Hospital of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro) and IFF (Instituto Fernandes Figueira, FIOCRUZ). Chest X-ray examination doses for AP, PA and LAT projections of paediatric patients have been obtained with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and with use of a software package DoseCal. In IPPMG and IFF 100 patients have been evaluated with the use of the TLDs and another group of 100 patients with the DoseCal software. The aim of this work was to estimate the entrance skin dose (ESD) for frontal, back and lateral chest X-rays exposure of paediatric patients. For ESD evaluation, three different TL dosimeters have been used, namely LIF:Mg, Ti (TLD100), CaSO{sub 4}:Dy and LiF:Mg, Cu, P (TLD100H). The age intervals considered were 0-1, 1-5, 5-10 and 10-15 years. The results obtained with all dosimeters are similar, and it is in good agreement with the DoseCal software, especially for AP and PA projections. However, some larger discrepancies are presented for the LAT projection.

  13. Non-Hermitian $\\cal PT$-symmetric quantum mechanics of relativistic particles with the restriction of mass

    CERN Document Server

    Rodionov, V N

    2013-01-01

    The modified Dirac equations for the massive particles with the replacement of the physical mass $m$ with the help of the relation $m\\rightarrow m_1+ \\gamma_5 m_2$ are investigated. It is shown that for a fermion theory with a $\\gamma_5$-mass term, the limiting of the mass specter by the value $ m_{max}= {m_1}^2/2m_2$ takes place. In this case the different regions of the unbroken $\\cal PT$ symmetry may be expressed by means of the restriction of the physical mass $m\\leq m_{max}$. It should be noted that in the approach which was developed by C.Bender et al. for the $\\cal PT$-symmetric version of the massive Thirring model with $\\gamma_5$-mass term, the region of the unbroken $\\cal PT$-symmetry was found in the form $m_1\\geq m_2$ \\cite{ft12}. However on the basis of the mass limitation $m\\leq m_{max}$ we obtain that the domain $m_1\\geq m_2$ consists of two different parametric sectors: i) $0\\leq m_2 \\leq m_1/\\sqrt{2}$ -this values of mass parameters $m_1,m_2$ correspond to the traditional particles for which ...

  14. Dietary shift after 3600 cal yr BP and its influencing factors in northwestern China: Evidence from stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Minmin; Dong, Guanghui; Jia, Xin; Wang, Hui; Cui, Yifu; Chen, Fahu

    2016-08-01

    Human diets rely on natural resource availability and can reflect social and cultural values. When environments, societies, and cultures change, diets may also shift. This study traced the extent of dietary change and the factors influencing such change. Through stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic analysis of late Neolithic and early Bronze Age human and animal bone collagen, we found that significant shifts in human diets were closely associated with intercontinental cultural exchanges in Eurasia and climate change in northwestern China. The isotopic evidence indicated that human diets mainly consisted of C4 foodstuffs (presumably millet and/or animals fed with C4 foods) around 4000 calibrated years before the present (cal yr BP), corresponding to the flourishing of millet agriculture in the context of the optimal climate conditions of the mid-Holocene. Subsequently, more C3 foods (probably wheat, barley, and animals fed with C3 foods) were added to human diets post-3600 cal yr BP when the climate became cooler and drier. Such dietary variation is also consistent with the increasing intensity of long-distance exchange after 4000 cal yr BP. While many factors can lead to human dietary shifts (e.g. climate change, population growth, cultural factors, and human migration), climate may have been a key factor in Gansu and Qinghai.

  15. CalMagNet – an array of search coil magnetometers monitoring ultra low frequency activity in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dunson

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The California Magnetometer Network (CalMagNet consists of sixty-eight triaxial search-coil magnetometer systems measuring Ultra Low Frequency (ULF, 0.001–16 Hz, magnetic field fluctuations in California. CalMagNet provides data for comprehensive multi-point measurements of specific events in the Pc 1–Pc 5 range at mid-latitudes as well as a systematic, long-term study of ULF signals in active fault regions in California. Typical events include geomagnetic micropulsations and spectral resonant structures associated with the ionospheric Alfvén resonator. This paper provides a technical overview of the CalMagNet sensors and data processing systems. The network is composed of ten reference stations and fifty-eight local monitoring stations. The primary instruments at each site are three orthogonal induction coil magnetometers. A geophone monitors local site vibration. The systems are designed for future sensor expansion and include resources for monitoring four additional channels. Data is currently sampled at 32 samples per second with a 24-bit converter and time tagged with a GPS-based timing system. Several examples of representative magnetic fluctuations and signals as measured by the array are given.

  16. A new monoclonal antibody (CAL2) detects CALRETICULIN mutations in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded bone marrow biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H; Bob, R; Dürkop, H; Erck, C; Kämpfe, D; Kvasnicka, H-M; Martens, H; Roth, A; Streubel, A

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the diagnostic of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) discovered CALRETICULIN (CALR) mutations as a major driver in these disorders. In contrast to JAK2 mutations being mainly associated with polycythaemia vera, CALR mutations are only associated with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and essential thrombocythaemia (ET). CALR mutations are present in the majority of PMF and ET patients lacking JAK2 and MPL mutations. As these CALR mutations are absent from reactive bone marrow (BM) lesions their presence indicates ET or PMF. So far these mutations are detectable only by molecular assays. Their molecular detection is cumbersome because of the great CALR mutation heterogeneity. Therefore, the availability of a simple assay would be of great help. All CALR mutations reported lead to a frameshift generating a new 36 amino-acid C-terminus. We generated a monoclonal antibody (CAL2) to this C-neoterminus by immunizing mice with a representative peptide and compared its performance with Sanger sequencing data in 173 MPNs and other BM diseases. There was a 100% correlation between the molecular and the CAL2 immunohistochemical (IHC) assays. Thus, the detection of CALR mutations by the CAL2 IHC is a specific, sensitive, rapid, simple and low-cost method.

  17. The Cal-Bridge Program: Increasing the Gender and Ethnic Diversity of Astrophysics Students in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; Rudolph, Alexander L.

    2016-06-01

    The mission of the Cal-Bridge program is to increase the number of underrepresented minority and women students completing a bachelor’s degree and entering a PhD program in astronomy, physics, or closely-related fields. The program has created a network of faculty at diverse higher education institutions, including 5 University of California (UC) campuses, 9 California State Universities (CSUs), and 10 community colleges in southern California, dedicated to this goal. Students selected for the program are know as “Cal-Bridge Scholars” and they are given a wide variety of support: (1) scholarships in their junior/senior years at CSU and their first year of graduate school at a UC, (2) intensive mentoring by a pair of CSU and UC faculty members, (3) tutoring, when needed, (4) professional development workshops, (5) exposure to research opportunities at various universities, and (6) membership in a growing cohort of like-minded students. We report on the structure of our program, lessons learned with our current 12 Cal-Bridge scholars, and the results of our first two years of operation. Funding for this program is provided by NSF-SSTEM Grant #1356133.

  18. Morfometría de la escarpa de falla histórica identificada al norte del cerro La Cal, zona de falla La Cal, Mendoza Morphometry of the historic fault scarp identfied north of Cerro La Cal, La Cal Fault Zone, Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mingorance

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigación morfométrica y paleosísmica histórica fue llevada a cabo en el Norte de Mendoza con el objeto de caracterizar y cuantificar a las evidencias geomorfológicas de ruptura superficial histórica identificadas en el sector septentrional de la zona de falla La Cal. Integración e interpretación de datos e información científica multidisciplinaria, sugieren fuertemente que la ruptura superficial histórica identificada estuvo asociada al terremoto destructivo de Mendoza ocurrido en 1861. La deformación superficial histórica ocurrió casi en su totalidad a lo largo de una escarpa prehistórica previa, mediante una combinación de fallamiento de corrimiento y plegamiento cercano a la superficie. Dos elementos de pendiente históricos de bajo relieve fueron reconocidos en la escarpa compuesta Villavicencio Sur, los cuales se diferencian de la típica secuencia de formas desarrollada en escarpas de falla normal históricas. El "remanente de cara libre", el elemento de pendiente superior, y la "pendiente de colapso", el elemento inferior, son controlados por la fricción interna y por la gravedad y la fricción de deslizamiento del material aluvial, respectivamente. La metodología paleosísmica histórica discutida en este trabajo, parece ser particularmente útil en el período de tiempo que cubre la mayor parte del registro histórico de terremotos destructivos en Argentina, los pasados 350 años, lapso en el cual la mayoría de los métodos de datación absoluta no son muy efectivos.Morphometric and historic paleoseismic research was conducted in northern Mendoza in order to characterize and quantify the geomorphic evidences of historic surface rupture identified on the northern part of the La Cal fault zone. Integration and interpretation of multidisciplinary data and information strongly suggest that the identified historic surface rupture was associated with the devastating Mendoza Earthquake occurred in 1861. The historic

  19. Understanding sources of organic aerosol during CalNex-2010 using the CMAQ-VBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Woody

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model simulations utilizing the volatility basis set (VBS treatment for organic aerosols (CMAQ-VBS were evaluated against measurements collected at routine monitoring networks (Chemical Speciation Network (CSN and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE and those collected during the 2010 California at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex field campaign to examine important sources of organic aerosol (OA in southern California. CMAQ-VBS (OA lumped by volatility, semivolatile POA underpredicted total organic carbon (OC at CSN (−25.5 % Normalized Median Bias (NMdnB and IMPROVE (−63.9 % NMdnB locations and total OC was underpredicted to a greater degree compared to the CMAQ-AE6 (9.9 and −55.7 % NMdnB, respectively; semi-explicit OA treatment, SOA lumped by parent hydrocarbon, nonvolatile POA. However, comparisons to aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS measurements collected at Pasadena, CA indicated that CMAQ-VBS better represented the diurnal profile and the primary/secondary split of OA. CMAQ-VBS secondary organic aerosol (SOA underpredicted the average measured AMS oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, a surrogate of SOA concentration by a factor of 5.2 (4.7 μg m−3 measured vs. 0.9 μg m−3 modeled, a considerable improvement to CMAQ-AE6 SOA predictions, which were approximately 24× lower than the average AMS OOA concentration. We use two new methods, based on species ratios and on a simplified SOA parameterization from the observations, to apportion the SOA underprediction for CMAQ-VBS to too slow photochemical oxidation (estimated as 1.5× lower than observed at Pasadena using − log (NOx: NOy, low intrinsic SOA formation efficiency (low by 1.6 to 2× for Pasadena, and too low emissions or too high dispersion for the Pasadena site (estimated to be 1.6 to 2.3× too low/high. The first and third factors will be similar for CMAQ-AE6, while the intrinsic SOA formation

  20. Measurement of Greenhouse gases (GHGs) and source apportionment in Bakersfield, CA during CalNex 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, A.; Gentner, D. R.; Weber, R.; Gardner, A.; Provencal, R. A.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2011-12-01

    The California Global Warming Solutions Act 2006 (AB 32) creates a need to verify and validate the state GHG inventory, which is largely based on activity data and emission factor based estimates. The "bottom-up" emission factors for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have large uncertainties and there is a lack of adequate "top-down" measurements to characterize emission rates from sources. Emissions from non-CO2 GHG sources display spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability, and are thus, often, poorly characterized. The Central Valley of California is an agriculture and industry intensive region with huge concentration of dairies, refineries and active oil fields which are known CH4 sources. As part of the CalNex campaign, we performed measurements of principal trace GHG gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) and combustion tracer CO at the Bakersfield super-site during the summer of 2010. Measurements were made over a period of six weeks using fast response lasers based on cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (LGR Inc. CA). Coincident measurements of hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) served as anthropogenic and biogenic tracers of the GHG sources at local and regional levels. The local mean CH4 (1.93ppm) and N2O (325ppb) minimum are larger than that measured at Mauna Loa (NOAA). Daytime winds from the north-west draw emissions from the city center, Fruitvale oilfield and two refineries. Huge enhancements of CH4 relative to CO2 (> 4ppm of CH4) are seen on some days but almost on each night, when wind reversal and valley backflow brings winds from the east (oil fields and landfill). Winds from south-southwest (dairies) have ΔCH4 / ΔCO2 ratios similar to previous dairy chamber studies (Mitloehner et al., 2009). The ΔCH4 / ΔCO ratios at Bakersfield are much larger than that calculated downwind of Los Angeles at Mt. Wilson (Hsu et al., 2009) or in-flight measurements during CalNex (NOAA) suggesting additional non-combustion sources strongly influence