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Sample records for carbono api x65

  1. Characterisation of weldment hardness, impact energy and microstructure in API X65 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variation of microstructure and mechanical properties in various sub-zones of double submerged arc welded line pipe steel of grade API X65 was investigated. Instrumented Charpy V-notch tests and Vickers hardness experiments were conducted on the fusion zone, base metal and heat affected zone of the weld joint in 14.3 mm thick, 1219 mm outside diameter spiral pipeline. The lowest impact energy and the highest hardness level (160J and 218 HV, respectively) were recorded in the fusion zone. The low energy and high hardness characteristics of the seam weld can be attributed to its cast microstructure and the presence of grain boundary phases (such as proeutectoid ferrite), confirmed by standard metallographic observation. Despite this, service requirements set by the API 5L industry code (minimum impact energy of 73J, maximum hard spots of 350 HV) were fulfilled by the tested steel. Highlights: ► Experimental study of API X65 steel microstructure. ► Analysis of the relationship between X65 steel microstructure and hardness. ► Analysis of the relationship between X65 steel microstructure and impact energy. ► Presentation of detailed technical information on DSA welding in spiral pipes.

  2. Effect of Microstructural Parameters on Fatigue Crack Propagation in an API X65 Pipeline Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi-Bonab, M. A.; Eskandari, M.; Ghaednia, H.; Das, S.

    2016-09-01

    In the current research, we investigate fatigue crack growth in an API X65 pipeline steel by using an Instron fatigue testing machine. To this, first the microstructure of steel was accurately investigated using scanning electron microscope. Since nonmetallic inclusions play a key role during crack propagation, the type and distribution of such inclusions were studied through the thickness of as-received X65 steel using energy-dispersive spectroscopy technique. It was found that the accumulation of such defects at the center of thickness of the pipe body was higher than in other regions. Our results showed that there were very fine oxide inclusions (1-2 µm in length) appeared throughout the cross section of X65 steel. Such inclusions were observed not at the fatigue crack path nor on both sides of the fatigue crack. However, we found that large manganese sulfide inclusions (around 20 µm in length) were associated with fatigue crack propagation. Fatigue experiments on CT specimens showed that the crack nucleated when the number of fatigue cycles was higher than 340 × 103. On fracture surfaces, crack propagation also occurred by joining the microcracks at tip of the main crack.

  3. Effect of heat treatments on the hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of API X-65 grade line-pipe steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ananta Nagu; Amarnath; T K G Namboodhiri

    2003-06-01

    Delayed failure tests were carried out on hydrogen charged API X-65 grade line-pipe steel in as received (controlled rolled), normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions. The resistance to hydrogen embrittlement was found in the order of controlled rolled $\\gt$ quenched and tempered $\\gt$ normalized. The fracture mode in the hydrogen embrittled steel was ductile.

  4. Comparative study of the microbiological corrosion among an AISI 304L and an API X65; Estudio comparativo de la corrosion microbiologica entre un AISI 304L y un API X65

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz S, A.; Arganis J, C.; Luna C, P.; Carapia M, L. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Gonzalez F, E. [ITT, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Metallic samples of AISI 304L sensitized and API X65, were subjected to the action of an inoculated media with reductive sulphate microorganisms (SBR), carrying out electrochemical evaluations by means of the techniques of Polarization Resistance (RP), Tafel extrapolation (ET) and Electrochemical Noise (RE). The generated information was complemented with the analysis and diagnostic of the present damage in the surfaces exposed in both metals. The used electrochemical techniques allow to determine the corrosion velocities associated to each system, establishing that the uniform corrosion is not affected by the effect of the microorganisms; however, electrochemical noise, evidenced the formation of stings associated to the presence of bacteria. (Author)

  5. Variations in DBTT and CTOD within weld heat-affected zone of API X65 pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Jang-Bog [Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Asan 336-841 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo-sik [Research and Development Center, Korea Gas Corporation, Ansan 425-150 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jae-il, E-mail: jijang@hanyang.ac.kr [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fracture resistance of API X65 steel weld HAZ was systematically investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variations in DBTT and CTOD toughness within HAZ were explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results were discussed with the additional data from simulated HAZ specimen tests. - Abstract: The fracture resistance of heat-affected zones (HAZs) in girth welded joint of API X65 steel pipeline was systematically investigated. While the change in Charpy impact energy has been typically evaluated in previous studies, here the variations in ductile-to-brittle temperature (DBTT) and crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) within HAZ were explored. A series of experiments revealed that both values vary dramatically (i.e., DBTT increases and CTOD decreases) as the location approaches the fusion line (FL) and thus the region adjacent to FL exhibited the lowest CTOD and highest DBTT, possibly due to the increasing portion of coarse-grained HAZ. Interestingly, however, even the FL regions still showed moderate toughness at -40 Degree-Sign C {approx} room temperature. Microstructural analysis and additional impact tests using simulated HAZ specimens suggested a possibility that fine-grained HAZs with higher toughness may suppress the brittle fracture from neighboring coarse-grained region.

  6. KAYNAKLI API 5L X65 BORU HATTI ÇELİKLERİNİN KlRlLMA TOKLUGU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÜSEYİN UZUN

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Petrol ve dogal gaz boru hatla rında ya ygın olarak kulla nıla n ve ta ndem tozaltı ka yna k metodu ile bir leşt irilen API 5L X65 d u al fa zlı çeliğin kırılma to lduğu tespit edilmiştir. Kırılma to lduğu, çentikli üç nokta kırılma tokluğu deneyi kulla nıla ra k belirlenmiştir. Çentik, hem kayna k dikişinin or tası na hem de ısının tesiri altında ki bölgesi (IT AB içerisinin içine gelecek şekilde aç ılarak deney uygula nmıştır. Her bir nurnuneye gerilim giderme ta vlaması uygul anarak, kırılma tokluğu değerler inin nasıl etkilendiği değerlendirilmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre, gerilim giderme ta vı uygula nmamış ve uygulanmış numunelerde, kaynak dikişin in kırılma to ld u ğ u , IT AB bölgesinin kırılma to lduğundan daha yüksek çıkmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler - API 5L X65 çeliğinin kırılma tokluğu, spira l dikişli borular, ta ndem tozaltı kaynağı. Abstract -The fra cture toughness of API 5L X65 dual­phase steel welded by ta ndem submerged are welding process, which is used widely petrolenın and na tural gas pipelines, wa s investigated. The fra cture toughness values were obta ined using by three point bend fracture toughness test specimens. The notch was machined either in the center of w el d meta l or the heat affected zone (H AZ. It wa s employed stress relief annealing in order to inves tigate the effect heat treatment on the fra cture toughness va lues. The results show tha t the fracture toughness va lues of weld metal with both heat treatment and non-h eat treatment are higher than that of the heat affected zone. Keywords - Fracture toughness of API 5L X65 steel, sp ira ll y welded pipeline, tandem submerged are welding. ı. GİRİŞ Doğal gaz ve petrol taşıma borularında, sistemin emniyeti için API 5L standardına uygun sertifikalı borular tercih edilmektedir. Bu standarda göre, boyuna veya H. UZUN: Sakarya Üniversitesi, Teknik Eğitim Fak

  7. Caracterización de Revestimientos de Niobio formados por Aspersión Térmica a Plasma sobre Acero API 5l X65 Characterization of Niobium Coatings obtained by Plasma Spray Thermal Substrate on Steel API 5l X651

    OpenAIRE

    José F Matos; Felipe P Motta; Ester S Rieder; Célia F. Malfatti

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluó la morfología y el comportamiento electroquímico del revestimiento de niobio obtenido por el proceso de aspersión térmica a plasma en substrato de acero API 5L X65. El revestimiento con niobio se realizó con una corriente eléctrica de 500 A, flujo de polvo metálico de niobio de 15 g/min y gas de argón de 2.0 L/min. La preparación superficial del substrato se realiza con pre-calentamiento y limpieza a presión con abrasivo de alúmina. La morfología del revestimiento fue analizada por ...

  8. Caracterización de Revestimientos de Niobio formados por Aspersión Térmica a Plasma sobre Acero API 5l X65 Characterization of Niobium Coatings obtained by Plasma Spray Thermal Substrate on Steel API 5l X651

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Matos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la morfología y el comportamiento electroquímico del revestimiento de niobio obtenido por el proceso de aspersión térmica a plasma en substrato de acero API 5L X65. El revestimiento con niobio se realizó con una corriente eléctrica de 500 A, flujo de polvo metálico de niobio de 15 g/min y gas de argón de 2.0 L/min. La preparación superficial del substrato se realiza con pre-calentamiento y limpieza a presión con abrasivo de alúmina. La morfología del revestimiento fue analizada por microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB, la rugosidad de la superficie se evaluó por perfilometría, la dureza por micro-dureza Vickers y la adherencia por ensayado de doblado a 180°. La resistencia a la corrosión del revestimiento se determinó mediante el ensayo de polarización en una solución de NaVl 3,5%. A partir de los resultados obtenidos fue posible verificar que el revestimiento presentó fisuras y poros entre las placas rociadas además de una dureza elevada en relación al substrato y adherencia no adecuada. Aún así los valores de densidad de corriente desarrollados por el sistema en comparación al acero revestido se redujeron.The morphology and electrochemical behavior of niobium coating obtained by thermal plasma spray process on a substrate of steel API 5L X65 was evaluated. The coating was obtained, using electrical current of 500 A, 15 g/min of powder and 2.0 L/min of argon gas. The preparation of the substrate surface was performed with preheating and abrasive blasting with alumina. After thermal spraying, the morphology of the coating was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, while the surface roughness was evaluated by profilometry, hardness by Vickers microhardness test and adhesion by bending at 180 °. The corrosion resistance of the coating was evaluated from the polarization test in 3.5% NaVl solution. The results show that the coating presented cracking and lack of padding between the plates sprayed

  9. Comparative study in the induced corrosion by sulfate reducing microorganisms, in a stainless steel 304L sensitized and a carbon steel API X65; Estudio comparativo de la corrosion inducida por microorganismos sulfatorreductores, en un acero inoxidable 304L sensibilizado y un acero al carbono API X65

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz S, A.; Gonzalez F, E.; Arganis J, C.; Luna C, P.; Carapia M, L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: ads@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    In spite of the operational experience related with the presence of the phenomenon of microbiological corrosion (MIC) in industrial components, it was not but until the decade of the 80 s when the nuclear industry recognized its influence in some systems of Nuclear Generating Power plants. At the moment, diverse studies that have tried to explain the generation mechanism of this phenomenon exist; however, they are even important queries that to solve, especially those related with the particularities of the affected metallic substrates. Presently work, the electrochemical behavior of samples of stainless steel AISI 304L sensitized is evaluated and the carbon steel APIX65, before the action of sulfate reducing microorganisms low the same experimental conditions; found that for the APIX65 the presence of this type of bacteria promoted the formation of a stable biofilm that allowed the maintenance of the microorganisms that damaged the material in isolated places where stings were generated; while in the AISI 304L, it was not detected damage associated to the inoculated media. The techniques of Resistance to the Polarization and Tafel Extrapolation, allowed the calculation of the speed of uniform corrosion, parameter that doesn't seem to be influenced by the presence of the microorganisms; while that noise electrochemical it distinguished in real time, the effect of the sulfate reducing in the steel APIX65. (Author)

  10. APIs

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Daniel; Woods, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Programmers used to be the only people excited about APIs, but now a growing number of companies see them as a hot new product channel. This concise guide describes the tremendous business potential of APIs, and demonstrates how you can use them to provide valuable services to clients, partners, or the public via the Internet. You'll learn all the steps necessary for building a cohesive API business strategy from experts in the trenches. Facebook and Twitter APIs continue to be extremely successful, and many other companies find that API demand greatly exceeds website traffic. This book offe

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF Nb MICROALLOYING X65 PIPELINE STEEL IN EAF-CSP PROCESS%EAF-CSP流程X65管线钢开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春艳; 庄汉洲; 毛新平

    2010-01-01

    介绍了EAF-CSP流程采用单一铌微合金化技术开发的X65管线钢.开发的X65管线钢力学与工艺性能均满足API SPEC 5L标准和用户采购技术条件的要求,同时具有良好的常温、低温韧性和焊接性能.试制钢得到了用户的认可并被广泛应用.

  12. Bending of X65 Offshore Steel Pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Lofthaug, Kristoffer; Digerud, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is part of an ongoing research program between SIMLab and Statoil about impact loads on X65 offshore pipelines and it is a continuation of previous work.Offshore pipelines are frequently impacted by accidental loads, e.g. trawl gear or anchors. Such loads may cause severe damage to the pipe and a complex stress-strain history locally in the impacted area.Fracture have previously been found in pipes dynamically impacted. Quasi-static bending of similar pipes with the same boundary ...

  13. APPLICATION OF SINTAP TO THE SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF X65 PIPELINE STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Caiyan; Zhang Yufeng; Huo Lixing

    2005-01-01

    The recently developed European flaw assessment procedure, structural integrity assessment procedure(SINTAP) is applied to assessment for welded joints of the API 5L X65 pipeline steel with an assumed embedded flaw and surface flaw at the weld toe. As one of the basic input data, fracture toughness crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) tests are conducted at 0 ℃ and performed according to the requirements of the standard of BS7448. For the heat affected zone (HAZ) specimens, the microstructure observation is performed to insure that the tip of the crack is located in the coarse grain zone. The result explains the dispersity of the test values. In structural integrity assessment procedure-fracture assessment diagram(SINTAP FAD) method, the failure curves of welded joints at level 1 and 3 are derived from the tensile test results. The results of the assessment show that all assessment points are located within the failure lines of analysis level 1 and 3. So the welded joint of the pipeline is safe. This study laid the foundation of application of SINTAP to pipeline structure assessment.

  14. Uma breve revisão histórica do desenvolvimento da soldagem dos aços API para tubulações A brief history review of development on API steels welding for pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Casanova Soeiro Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho enfoca o desenvolvimento dos aços API para tubulações desde o aço API 5L X42, desenvolvido em 1948, através de laminação a quente seguida de tratamento térmico. Desde então foram feitos diferentes desenvolvimentos visando aumentar a resistência mecânica e a tenacidade, além de melhorar a soldabilidade. Entre eles, a adição de elementos de liga, produzindo os aços ARBL e a utilização de rotas de processamento termomecânico durante a laminação. Inicialmente a rota utilizada era a laminação a quente controlada (TMCR, com utilização de elemento microligante como Nb para os aços X60 e o conjunto Nb e V para os aços X65 e X70, associado a uma redução do teor de carbono. Posteriormente foi implantada a rota de fabricação do aço por laminação controlada seguida de resfriamento controlado (TMCP, com redução de carbono e adição de Nb e Ti para os aços X80, e adições de Mo, Nb, Be Ti para os X100. A redução do carbono foi motivada também para melhorar a sua soldabilidade e, por este motivo, estes aços são soldados por diferentes processos de soldagem, como o eletrodo revestido. Desenvolvimentos recentes com raiz feita com MAG-TC e enchimento com arame tubular tem dado resultados animadores.This paper is a brief history on the development of pipelines steels since the API 5L X42 steel, developed in 1948 by hot rolling followed by heat treatment. Subsequently different developments were made to increase the strength and toughness of these materials, and to improve their weldability. Among them, the addition of microalloying elements, producing HSLA steels and thermomechanical processing routes during hot rolling. Initially the route used was the controlled hot rolling (TMCR, together with microalloying element such as Nb for X60 steel and Nb plus V for X65 and X70 steels, associated with a reduction in carbon content. Later, the thermomechanical controlled process (TMCP manufacturing route was

  15. Micro Structural Comparison of Friction Stir Weldment and Shielded Metal Arc Welding in API-X65 Pipe Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Shahinfar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the microstructure and microhardness properties of the friction stir welded zones and shielded metal arc welded. Microstructural analysis of the weld was carried out using optical microscopy. Under FSW process base metal microstructure fully changed. Different heat inputs were obtained using a fix travel (welding speed in combination with several spindle speeds. Heat input during welding process had a significant influence on the microstructure and mechanical proprieties in the various weld regions.it can be concluded that with decrease in heat input the bainitic structure in the hard zone becomes finer and so hard zone hardness increase.

  16. X65MO海底管线钢焊接适应性研究%Research on Welding Adaptability of X65MO Submarine Pipeline Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤会; 陈延清; 郭占山; 张建强; 刘宏; 齐建

    2014-01-01

    Multi-wires submerged arc welding device was adopted to study the welding technology test of X65MO submarine pipeline steel with 15.9 mm thickness produced in Shougang. The microstructure of welded joint was analyzed by using metallographic test. Tensile test, impact test, bending test, hardness test and CTOD test were applied to evaluate the welded joint mechanical performance. And HIC test was adopted to analyze the HIC corrosion resistance properties. The results showed that the mechanical and anti-corrosion properties meet the requirements of the relevant technical standards and demands of the users.%采用多丝埋弧焊设备对首钢公司生产的15.9 mm厚X65MO海底管线钢进行了焊接工艺试验研究。通过金相试验分析了焊接接头的显微组织;通过拉伸、冲击、弯曲、硬度、 CTOD试验评价了焊接接头的力学性能;通过HIC试验评价了接头的抗HIC腐蚀性能。试验结果表明, X65MO海底管线钢焊接接头的力学性能和抗HIC腐蚀性能均达到相应技术标准的要求,能够满足用户的使用要求。

  17. X65级高频焊接钢管爆裂原因分析%Cause Analysis on Bursting of X65 High Frequency Welded Steel Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张良; 罗金恒; 冯耀荣; 张华; 张广利

    2011-01-01

    Bursting reasons for the φ457 mm× 7.1 mm X65 grade high frequency welded (HFW) pipeline was analyzed by means of chemical compositions analysis, mechanical properties test, metallographic examination and scanning electron microscope analysis.The results show that existing cold welding defects in the welding line and disqualification of impact ductility of the welding line were main reasons for the bursting.The effective bearing area reduced because of the cold welding defects and the original cracks initiated and expanded in the welding line.At the same time the ability of resistance the crack spreading was worsened because of low impact ductility of the welding line.So the X65 grade pipeline burst at the welding line under the force of hydraulic pressure test.%通过化学成分分析、力学性能测试、金相检验以及扫描电镜分析等方法对某规格为φ457 mm×7.1 mm的X65级高频焊(HFW)钢管水压试验时发生爆裂的原因进行了分析.结果表明:钢管爆裂失效是由于其直焊缝上存在冷焊缺陷以及焊缝冲击韧度不合格所致;焊缝中存在冷焊缺陷使其有效承载面积减小,原始裂纹在冷焊缺陷处萌生并扩展,加之焊缝冲击韧度低,抗裂纹扩展能力差,在水压试验压力作用下最终导致该钢管于焊缝处失稳爆裂.

  18. Recalls API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Recalls API allows you to tap into a list of (1) drug and food safety recalls from the Food and Drug Administration, Food Safety and Inspection Service, and...

  19. Helioviewer API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Helioviewer Project maintains a set of Public APIs with the goal of improving access to solar and heliospheric datasets to scientists, educators, developers,...

  20. Jobs API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Jobs API returns job openings across the federal government and includes all current openings posted on USAJobs.gov that are open to the public and located in...

  1. Facebook API

    OpenAIRE

    Hlaváček, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor Thesis deals with Facebook Platform utilization in web application development. Thesis is devided into five chapters, three of them are theoretical and two are pracical. First chapter deals with web APIs in general view and provides information about the basic comunication methods. The second chapter focuses on Facebook architecture, specific Facebook APIs, FQL and the Facebook Platform. The third chapter introduces Facebook Developer tools, CakePHP framework and describes setting up...

  2. Transverse and z-Direction CVN Impact Tests of X65 Line Pipe Steels of Two Centerline Segregation Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lihong; Li, Huijun; Lu, Cheng; Li, Jintao; Fletcher, Leigh; Simpson, Ian; Barbaro, Frank; Zheng, Lei; Bai, Mingzhuo; Shen, Jianlan; Qu, Xianyong

    2016-08-01

    Centerline segregation occurs as a positive concentration of alloying elements in the mid-thickness region of continuously cast slab. Depending upon its severity, it may affect mechanical properties and potentially downstream processing such as weldability, particularly for high-strength line pipe. The segregation fraction in continuously cast slabs and corresponding hot-rolled strips was assessed on API 5L grade X65 line pipe steels with different levels of segregation, rated as Mannesmann 2.0 and 1.4. The results showed that the segregation fraction in hot-rolled strip samples was in accordance with that assessed in the cast slabs, and the segregated regions in hot-rolled strip samples were found to be discontinuous. Transverse and z-direction CVN impact tests were conducted on the two strips and the results showed that centerline segregation does have an influence on the Charpy impact properties of line pipe steel. Specimens located at segregated regions exhibited lower Charpy impact toughness and strips rolled from slabs with higher segregation levels are more likely to exhibit greater variability in Charpy impact toughness. The influence of centerline segregation on z-direction Charpy impact toughness is more severe than on transverse Charpy impact toughness. Lower Charpy impact toughness and brittle fracture surface with cleavage facets along with rod-shaped MnS inclusions were observed for the strip rolled from slab with 2.0 segregation rating if the Charpy specimens were located at segregated regions. The influence on Charpy impact toughness can be associated with the pearlite structure at the centerline and level of MnS inclusions.

  3. Transverse and z-Direction CVN Impact Tests of X65 Line Pipe Steels of Two Centerline Segregation Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lihong; Li, Huijun; Lu, Cheng; Li, Jintao; Fletcher, Leigh; Simpson, Ian; Barbaro, Frank; Zheng, Lei; Bai, Mingzhuo; Shen, Jianlan; Qu, Xianyong

    2016-06-01

    Centerline segregation occurs as a positive concentration of alloying elements in the mid-thickness region of continuously cast slab. Depending upon its severity, it may affect mechanical properties and potentially downstream processing such as weldability, particularly for high-strength line pipe. The segregation fraction in continuously cast slabs and corresponding hot-rolled strips was assessed on API 5L grade X65 line pipe steels with different levels of segregation, rated as Mannesmann 2.0 and 1.4. The results showed that the segregation fraction in hot-rolled strip samples was in accordance with that assessed in the cast slabs, and the segregated regions in hot-rolled strip samples were found to be discontinuous. Transverse and z-direction CVN impact tests were conducted on the two strips and the results showed that centerline segregation does have an influence on the Charpy impact properties of line pipe steel. Specimens located at segregated regions exhibited lower Charpy impact toughness and strips rolled from slabs with higher segregation levels are more likely to exhibit greater variability in Charpy impact toughness. The influence of centerline segregation on z-direction Charpy impact toughness is more severe than on transverse Charpy impact toughness. Lower Charpy impact toughness and brittle fracture surface with cleavage facets along with rod-shaped MnS inclusions were observed for the strip rolled from slab with 2.0 segregation rating if the Charpy specimens were located at segregated regions. The influence on Charpy impact toughness can be associated with the pearlite structure at the centerline and level of MnS inclusions.

  4. Mechanism of protective film formation during CO2 corrosion of X65 pipeline steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Electrochemical techniques,X-ray diffraction (XRD),and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to study the corrosion behaviors of X65 steel in static solution with carbon dioxide (CO2 at 65℃.The results show that iron carbonate (FeCO3deposits on the steel surface as a corrosion product scale.This iron carbonate scale acts as a barrier to CO2 corrosion,and can reduce the general corrosion rate.The protection ability of the scale is closely related to the scale morphological characteristics.

  5. Dynamic versus quasi-static loading of X65 offshore steel pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, M.; Børvik, T.; Langseth, M.; Hopperstad, O. S.

    2016-05-01

    Anchors or trawl gear occasionally impact offshore pipelines, resulting in large local and global deformations. Impact velocities are typically less than 5 m/s, but local strain rates may be very high. In this study strain rate effects in an X65 offshore material was characterised by split Hopkinson bar tests, while the cross-section homogeneity and possible anisotropic behaviour were determined by quasi-static material tests. Further, dynamic impact tests at prescribed velocities were carried out on simply supported full scale X65 steel pipes. Next, deformation-controlled quasi-static tests with the same boundary conditions were conducted. The level of deformation in the quasi-static tests was set to be equal to that attained in the dynamic tests. Finally, an assessment of the differences between the dynamically and quasi-statically loaded pipes was made in terms of force-displacement response, energy absorbed, and fracture. An optical light microscope and a scanning electron microscope were used to investigate fracture surfaces arising from the various tests.

  6. Drug Interaction API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Interaction API is a web service for accessing drug-drug interactions. No license is needed to use the Interaction API. Currently, the API uses DrugBank for its...

  7. Improving fatigue performance of welded joints of X65 pipeline steel by UIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jinming; Chen Tong; Zhang Yufeng

    2005-01-01

    Treating weld toes properly can improve the fatigue performance. Ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT) is a more effective and convenient method to enhance the fatigue strength of welded joints and suchlike structures. Fatigue tests were conducted on the specimens made of X65 pipeline steel. The test specimens were investigated on the fatigue strength and the fatigue life at the same stress range level by comparing the ones peened by UIT with the others without the treatment: the fatigue strength of the specimens as UIT, 90% of the fatigue strength of the base mental, is increased by 38% compared with that of as welded only; the fatigue life of the ones as UIT is prolonged by 11 multiples of the ones as welded only.

  8. Study of an API migration for two XML APIs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartholomei, T.T.; Czarnecki, K.; Lämmel, R.; Storm, T. van der; Brand, M.G.J. van den; Gasevic, D.; Gray, J.

    2010-01-01

    API migration refers to adapting an application such that its dependence on a given API (the source API) is eliminated in favor of depending on an alternative API (the target API) with the source and target APIs serving the same domain. One may attempt to automate API migration by code transformatio

  9. Analyzing the Change-Proneness of APIs and web APIs

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, D.

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the Change-Proneness of APIs and web APIs APIs and web APIs are used to expose existing business logic and, hence, to ease the reuse of functionalities across multiple software systems. Software systems can use the business logic of legacy systems by binding their APIs and web APIs. With the emergence of a new programming paradigm called service-oriented, APIs are exposed as web APIs hiding the technologies used to implement legacy systems. As a consequence, web APIs establish contr...

  10. Analyzing the Change-Proneness of APIs and web APIs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, D.

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the Change-Proneness of APIs and web APIs APIs and web APIs are used to expose existing business logic and, hence, to ease the reuse of functionalities across multiple software systems. Software systems can use the business logic of legacy systems by binding their APIs and web APIs. With t

  11. NASA Techport API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA TechPort system provides a RESTful web services API to make technology project data available in a machine-readable format. This API can be used to export...

  12. Healthcare Finder API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — All of the data used on the Finder.HealthCare.gov web application is available through this API. There are multiple collections of data available through the API....

  13. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  14. Processing, basic characterization and standard dielectric measurements on PLZT x/65/35 (4 ≤ x ≤ 11) ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Krzysztof; Suchanicz, Jan; Livinsh, Maris; Sternberg, Andris

    2014-11-01

    The influence of external stress (0-800 bar) on the dielectric properties of lead lanthanum zirconium titanate (PLZT) x/65/35 (4 ≤ x ≤ 11) ceramics was investigated. Applying uniaxial pressure leads to a change in the peak intensity of the electric permittivity (ɛ), in its frequency dispersion as well as in the dielectric hysteresis. The peak intensity of ɛ becomes broader and shifts to lower temperatures for PLZT x/65/35 with x = 4, 7, 9.75 and 11, with increasing pressure, on heating. It was concluded that applying uniaxial pressure induces an increase of Tm, and thus has a similar effect as the increase of the Ti ion concentration in the lead zirconium titanate (PZT) system. Results based on nanoregion switching processes under combined electromechanical loading were interpreted. Studies clearly showed that applied stress has a significant influence on the dielectric properties of PLZT ceramics.

  15. Study on H2S stress corrosion test of welded joint for X65 pipeline steel and numerical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金晓军; 霍立兴; 张玉凤; 白秉仁; 李晓巍; 曹军

    2004-01-01

    The susceptibility of welded joint for the X65 pipeline steel to H2S stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is investigated. SCC tests on the steel are carried out in the environment based on NACE TM-01-77 solution with saturated gaseous H2S. The threshold stress intensity factor and crack propagation velocity are calculated according to wedge-opening loading (WOL) specimens. The three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analysis of WOL specimens is performed by using the FEM programming package ANSYS. Stress field and concentration of hydrogen distribution property ahead of the crack tip are obtained. This paper surveyed the microstructure of welded joint and studied on the mechanical properties of X65 pipeline steel. It provides experimental basis for studying stress corrosion. The results of numerical analysis are consistent with conclusions of stress corrosion test.

  16. Comparative study in the induced corrosion by sulfate reducing microorganisms, in a stainless steel 304L sensitized and a carbon steel API X65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the operational experience related with the presence of the phenomenon of microbiological corrosion (MIC) in industrial components, it was not but until the decade of the 80 s when the nuclear industry recognized its influence in some systems of Nuclear Generating Power plants. At the moment, diverse studies that have tried to explain the generation mechanism of this phenomenon exist; however, they are even important queries that to solve, especially those related with the particularities of the affected metallic substrates. Presently work, the electrochemical behavior of samples of stainless steel AISI 304L sensitized is evaluated and the carbon steel APIX65, before the action of sulfate reducing microorganisms low the same experimental conditions; found that for the APIX65 the presence of this type of bacteria promoted the formation of a stable biofilm that allowed the maintenance of the microorganisms that damaged the material in isolated places where stings were generated; while in the AISI 304L, it was not detected damage associated to the inoculated media. The techniques of Resistance to the Polarization and Tafel Extrapolation, allowed the calculation of the speed of uniform corrosion, parameter that doesn't seem to be influenced by the presence of the microorganisms; while that noise electrochemical it distinguished in real time, the effect of the sulfate reducing in the steel APIX65. (Author)

  17. API Global Sourcing Strategies 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Shannon

    2010-09-01

    The API Global Sourcing Strategies 2010 Conference, held in Berlin, included topics covering new developments in the field of global sourcing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). This conference report highlights selected presentations on development in Eastern API markets, specifically India and China, factors influencing changes in global API sourcing, and risk mitigation in API sourcing. PMID:20799139

  18. TA1/X65复合板焊接工艺及焊缝组织和性能研究%Research on Welding Process, Microstructure and Mechanical Property of TA1/X65 Clad Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军; 毕宗岳; 牛辉; 刘海璋; 张万鹏; 田磊; 黄晓江; 张超

    2015-01-01

    采用TIG+MIG+MAG焊接工艺对TA1/X65复合板进行了以V/Cu作为中间过渡填充金属的板-板对接焊试验。利用金相显微镜、扫描电镜、 X射线衍射、 EDS能谱面扫描和显微硬度试验,研究了焊缝区组织特征、界面元素分布、主要物相与显微硬度分布。研究结果表明,坡口设计和过渡金属纯度及各元素间物理、化学特性差异对焊接质量有较大影响。探讨了焊缝区裂纹缺陷的形成及脆硬金属间化合物的产生等问题,为TA1/X65钛钢复合板工程化焊接及焊接中易出现问题的规避和解决积累了经验。%Adopting the welding process of TIG(gas tungsten arc welding)+MIG(metal inert-gas welding)+MAG(metal active-gas welding) to carry out plate-plate butt welding test, with V/Cu as transition filler metal. By using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, EDS element mapping and microhardness test, the microstructure characteristics of weld area, interface element distribution, main phase and microhardness distribution were investigated. The results indicated that the welding quality of TA1/X65 pipeline steel clad plates butt joints was greatly influenced by weld groove design, transition-metals purity and differences between the physical and chemical properties. It also discussed some problems, such as the formation of weld area crack defects, the generation of brittle intermetallic compounds etc., which provide experience for avoiding and solving some problems easily appeared in titanium TA1/X65 steel clad plates engineering welding.

  19. Electrochemical Investigation of the Corrosion of Different Microstructural Phases of X65 Pipeline Steel under Saturated Carbon Dioxide Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanfeng Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of metallurgy on the corrosion behaviour of separate weld zone (WZ and parent plate (PP regions of X65 pipeline steel in a solution of deionised water saturated with CO2, at two different temperatures (55 °C and 80 °C and at initial pH~4.0. In addition, a non-electrochemical immersion experiment was also performed at 80 °C in CO2, on a sample portion of X65 pipeline containing part of a weld section, together with adjacent heat affected zones (HAZ and parent material. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS was used to evaluate the corrosion behaviour of the separate weld and parent plate samples. This study seeks to understand the significance of the different microstructures within the different zones of the welded X65 pipe in CO2 environments on corrosion performance; with particular attention given to the formation of surface scales; and their composition/significance. The results obtained from grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD measurements suggest that, post immersion, the parent plate substrate is scale free, with only features arising from ferrite (α-Fe and cementite (Fe3C apparent. In contrast, at 80 °C, GIXRD from the weld zone substrate, and weld zone/heat affected zone of the non-electrochemical sample indicates the presence of siderite (FeCO3 and chukanovite (Fe2CO3(OH2 phases. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM on this surface confirmed the presence of characteristic discrete cube-shaped crystallites of siderite together with plate-like clusters of chukanovite.

  20. Production of Baosteel X65 High Strength and High Toughness Pipeline Steel%宝钢X65高强度高韧性管线用板卷钢的生产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑磊; 陈钰珊

    2001-01-01

    This article introduces the development, production andapplication of Baosteel X65 high strength and high toughness pipeline steel . Baosteel has mastered the modern pipeline steel production and quality control technology, the product's quality is stable and meet the pipeline steel plate demand requirements of customers. It is not only solved the problem of long distance pipeline steel relying on import, realized import substitute , and also successfully applied on pipeline project both home and abroad.%介绍了宝钢发展X65高强度高韧性管线钢所进行的研制、生产及应用情况。宝钢已较好地掌握了现代管线钢的生产和质量控制技术,产品质量稳定,满足国内外用户对管线钢板卷的需求。不仅解决了我国长输管线用钢长期依靠进口的问题,产品能替代进口,并在国外管线工程上得到了成功的应用。

  1. A AMAZONIA E O MERCADO DE CARBONO

    OpenAIRE

    Lamarca Junior, Mariano Rua; Chalita, Marie Anne Najm; Godoy, Amalia Maria Goldberg; Silva, Cesar Roberto Leite da

    2008-01-01

    A Amazônia tem um destacado papel na crise ambiental global uma vez que, no Brasil, há mais emissões de carbono por o desmatamento e queimadas do que pela queima de combustíveis de origem fóssil. Para discutir a problemática e a importância da inserção da Amazônia no mercado de carbono, parte-se dos processos de ocupação e uso dos recursos naturais da floresta e das contradições na formulação das políticas para a região. Com base nos conceitos de direitos de propriedade, direitos econômicos e...

  2. X65级薄壁直缝埋弧焊管焊接工艺试验研究%Research on Welding Process of X65 SAWL Pipe with Thin Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世涛; 陈勇; 张颖娜

    2011-01-01

    Two different kinds of welding process parameters, that is inside and outside double wires welding and three wires welding, were tested on X65 grade JCOE pipe with 9.5 mm wall thickness, and the welding joints properties of both welding processes were analyzed. The results showed that both welding schemes can meet the technical requirements, however, all indexes of pipes manufactured by double wires welding process are better.Adopting double wires welding process to carry out mass production, the tensile property of weld can meet standard requirements, and all fracture locations are on the base metal. The hardness of base metal, weld and heat affected zone are all lower than the maximum allowable hardness 265HV10 specified in technical requirement. The weld structure is acicular ferrite, so that the welding joints possess good toughness property.%针对X65级9.5 mm薄壁JCOE钢管进行了内外焊三丝和双丝两种不同焊接工艺参数的试验研究,并对两种方案的焊接接头性能进行对比分析.结果表明,两种方案均能满足技术条件要求,内外焊双丝焊接工艺生产的钢管各项指标更优.选择该方案在工厂进行了批量生产,其焊缝拉伸性能均达到标准要求,且断裂位置均位于母材;母材、焊缝及热影响区的硬度均低于较低技术条件最大允许硬度265HV10的要求;焊缝组织为针状铁素体,焊接接头具有良好的韧性.

  3. DIRAC RESTful API

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DIRAC framework for distributed computing has been designed as a flexible and modular solution that can be adapted to the requirements of any community. Users interact with DIRAC via command line, using the web portal or accessing resources via the DIRAC python API. The current DIRAC API requires users to use a python version valid for DIRAC. Some communities have developed their own software solutions for handling their specific workload, and would like to use DIRAC as their back-end to access distributed computing resources easily. Many of these solutions are not coded in python or depend on a specific python version. To solve this gap DIRAC provides a new language agnostic API that any software solution can use. This new API has been designed following the RESTful principles. Any language with libraries to issue standard HTTP queries may use it. GSI proxies can still be used to authenticate against the API services. However GSI proxies are not a widely adopted standard. The new DIRAC API also allows clients to use OAuth for delegating the user credentials to a third party solution. These delegated credentials allow the third party software to query to DIRAC on behalf of the users. This new API will further expand the possibilities communities have to integrate DIRAC into their distributed computing models.

  4. Google Ajax Search API

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Use the Google Ajax Search API to integrateweb search, image search, localsearch, and other types of search intoyour web site by embedding a simple, dynamicsearch box to display search resultsin your own web pages using a fewlines of JavaScript. For those who do not want to write code,the search wizards and solutions builtwith the Google Ajax Search API generatecode to accomplish common taskslike adding local search results to a GoogleMaps API mashup, adding videosearch thumbnails to your web site, oradding a news reel with the latest up todate stories to your blog. More advanced users can

  5. Magnetic behavior of Ni{sub x}Fe{sub (100-x)} (65=

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navas, D. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain) and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, 06120 Halle (Germany)]. E-mail: danavas@icmm.csic.es; Asenjo, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Jaafar, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Pirota, K.R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Hernandez-Velez, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Sanz, R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lee, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, 06120 Halle (Germany); Nielsch, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, 06120 Halle (Germany); Batallan, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vazquez, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-04-15

    Arrays of magnetic nanowires with composition Ni{sub x}Fe{sub (100-x)} (65=

  6. Corporate Consumer Contact API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The data in the Corporate Consumer Contact API is based on the content you can find in the Corporate Consumer Contact listing in the Consumer Action Handbook (PDF)....

  7. GIBS API for Developers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — API using Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) designed to deliver global, full-resolution satellite imagery to users in a highly responsive manner, enabling...

  8. Mars Rover Photos API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This API is designed to collect image data gathered by NASA's Curiosity, Opportunity, and Spirit rovers on Mars and make it more easily available to other...

  9. IBM System i APIs at Work

    CERN Document Server

    Vining, Bruce; Hawkins, Ron

    2007-01-01

    This new edition of the bestselling i5 application programming interface (API) book includes powerful new APIs and updated code to give programmers a working knowledge of the APIs available under i5/OS. Using real business-world examples, this book explains APIs that serve webpages, list APIs, APIs that work with user spaces, dynamic index APIs, APIs that retrieve system values, job information and job queue information APIs, APIs that work with data queues, APIs for error handling and message handling, and spool file APIs, among many others. Completely revised and including eight new chapters

  10. Contracting the Facebook API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Rubinger

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an explosive growth in the popularity of online social networks such as Facebook. In a new twist, third party developers are now able to create their own web applications which plug into Facebook and work with Facebook's "social" data, enabling the entire Facebook user base of more than 400 million active users to use such applications. These client applications can contain subtle errors that can be hard to debug if they misuse the Facebook API. In this paper we present an experience report on applying Microsoft's new code contract system for the .NET framework to the Facebook API.We wrote contracts for several classes in the Facebook API wrapper which allows Microsoft .NET developers to implement Facebook applications. We evaluated the usefulness of these contracts during implementation of a new Facebook application. Our experience indicates that having code contracts provides a better and quicker software development experience.

  11. Data.gov CKAN API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The data.gov catalog is powered by CKAN, a powerful open source data platform that includes a robust API. Please be aware that data.gov and the data.gov CKAN API...

  12. Mars Atmospheric Aggregation System API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The {MAAS} API is an open source REST API built to help make it easier and more efficient to build interactive applications that want to utilize the wealth of...

  13. Nanoestructuras de carbono con diferentes grupos funcionales

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilievna Kharissova, Oxana

    2013-01-01

    El carbono es uno de los elementos más interesantes en la Tabla Periódica. algunas de sus formas alotrópicas se conocen desde hace miles de años (diamante 3D y grafito 2D) y otras fueron descubiertas de entre 10 y 20 años atrás (fullerenos 0D y nanotubos 1D). Su nueva forma alotrópica, el grafeno 2D, fue descubierta en inglaterra por Geim & Novoselov en 2004 y actualmente es una estrella supernova en el horizonte de la ciencia de materiales y de la física de materia condensada. El grafeno...

  14. The API petroassist network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past spill responses, such as those in the Exxon Valdez and American Trader incidents, demonstrated the value of companies volunteering their in-house experts and local knowledge to help other companies in spill response. The American Petroleum Institute (API) formed the PetroAssist Network to provide a means for oil companies to readily gain access to the expertise and communications equipment of other oil companies when needed for spill responses. An API work group developed the PetroAssist Network legal agreement and management and activation procedures. To minimize red tape and reduce the burden on members, existing systems were used whenever possible. The network became operational on January 1, 1992, with more than 40 members

  15. H2S Stress Corrosion Tests of Welded Joint for X65 Pipeline Steel and Finite Element Numerical Analysis of Crack Tip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金晓军; 霍立兴; 张玉凤; 白秉仁; 李小巍; 曹军

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure of welded joint is surveyed and the mechanical properties of X65 pipeline steel are studied in this paper, which provides experimental basis of performance effect on stress corrosion. H2S stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests on the steel are carried out in the environment based on NACE TM-01-77 solution. The threshold stress intensity factor and crack propagation velocity for base metal and HAZ are obtained. The susceptibility of welded joint for X65 pipeline steel to H2S stress corrosion cracking is investigated. The programming package ANSYS of finite element model (FEM) is used to perform the three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analysis of WOL specimens. Stress field and concentration of hydrogen distribution property of the crack tip are obtained.

  16. Evidence of Apis cerana sacbrood virus infection in Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacbrood virus (SBV) is one of the most serious threats to Apis cerana but is much less destructive to Apis mellifera. In previous studies, SBV isolates infecting A. cerana and A. mellifera were identified as different serotypes, suggesting a species-barrier of SBV infection. In order to clarify whe...

  17. Web API Fragility: How Robust is Your Web API Client

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinha, T.; Zaidman, A.; Gross, H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Web APIs provide a systematic and extensible approach for application-to-application interaction. A large number of mobile applications makes use of web APIs to integrate services into apps. Each Web API’s evolution pace is determined by their respective developer and mobile application developers a

  18. ALMACÉN DE CARBONO EN SISTEMAS AGROFORESTALES CON CAFÉ

    OpenAIRE

    William Espinoza-Domínguez; L. Krishnamurthy; Antonio Vázquez-Alarcón; Antonio Torres- Rivera

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio se realizó con el objetivo de estimar el almacén de carbono en sistemas agroforestales (SAF) con base en café en la región de Huatusco, zona de mayor producción de café (Coffea arabiga L.) en el estado de Veracruz, México, a fin de obtener información cuantitativa sobre el potencial de mitigación de carbono en los SAF de la región. Para ello, se estimaron los reservorios de carbono en biomasa vegetal y la materia orgánica edáfica existentes en sistemas agroforestales de ca...

  19. AUTOMATED API TESTING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNIL L. BANGARE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. With the help of software testing we can verify or validate the software product. Normally testing will be done after development of software but we can perform the software testing at the time of development process also. This paper will give you a brief introduction about Automated API Testing Tool. This tool of testing will reduce lots of headache after the whole development of software. It saves time as well as money. Such type of testing is helpful in the Industries & Colleges also.

  20. Learning Bing maps API

    CERN Document Server

    Sinani, Artan

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical, hands-on guide with illustrative examples, which will help you explore the vast universe of Bing maps.If you are a developer who wants to learn how to exploit the numerous features of Bing Maps then this book is ideal for you. It can also be useful for more experienced developers who wish to explore other areas of the APIs. It is assumed that you have some knowledge of JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. For some chapters a working knowledge of .Net and Visual Studio is also needed.

  1. PRESUPUESTO DE CARBONO EN ARRECIFES CORALINOS DE MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Reyes Bonilla; Luis E. Calderón Aguilera; M. Cecilia Mozqueda Torres; Carriquiry, José D.

    2014-01-01

    El carbono, elemento omnipresente en los arrecifes coralinos, se halla predominantemente en forma de carbonato de calcio, ya que los esqueletos de muchas especies y la estructura física del ecosistema están formados por este compuesto. Los tejidos de los seres vivos del arrecife contienen carbono adquirido por la fotosíntesis y la heterotrofia, procesos que constituyen la red trófica del ecosistema. Este trabajo describe dichos procesos y los servicios ambientales que ofrecen los arrecifes co...

  2. Intro to the Zotero API

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Morton

    2013-01-01

    In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use python with the Zotero API to interact with your Zotero library. The Zotero API is a powerful interface that would allow you to build a complete Zotero client from scratch if you so desired. But like most APIs, it works in small, discrete steps, so we have to build our way up to the complicated requests we might want to use to access our Zotero libraries. But this incremental building gives us plenty of time to learn as we go along.

  3. Intro to the Zotero API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Morton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use python with the Zotero API to interact with your Zotero library. The Zotero API is a powerful interface that would allow you to build a complete Zotero client from scratch if you so desired. But like most APIs, it works in small, discrete steps, so we have to build our way up to the complicated requests we might want to use to access our Zotero libraries. But this incremental building gives us plenty of time to learn as we go along.

  4. Maximização do teor de carbono fixo em biocarvão aplicado ao sequestro de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra L. da Róz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOA emissão de dióxido de carbono é, atualmente, a principal causa do aquecimento global, devido ao efeito estufa. Ao redor do planeta pesquisadores têm-se esforçado na busca de soluções viáveis para o problema; com isto, o biocarvão está entre as mais recentes propostas de mitigação das mudanças climáticas em razão da sua simplicidade e eficiência. Desta forma, este trabalho teve, por objetivo, maximizar o teor de carbono fixo na produção de biocarvão. Para isso, analisaram-se sete tratamentos, temperaturas de pirólise: 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450 e 500 °C. A partir do rendimento gravimétrico de produção e do teor de carbono fixo calcularam-se os respectivos fatores de rendimento gravimétrico para cada tratamento, os quais indicam em qual temperatura se tem a maior quantidade de carbono fixo em função do biocarvão produzido. A pirólise com temperatura máxima de 300 °C indicou o maior fator de rendimento gravimétrico, atingindo 0,22672 C/biocarvão.

  5. Dielectric properties of PLZT-x/65/35 (2≤x≤13 under mechanical stress, electric field and temperature loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pytel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of uniaxial pressure (0÷1000 bars applied parallely to the ac electric field on dielectric properties of PLZT-x/65/35 (2≤x≤13 ceramics. There was revealed a significant effect of the external stress on these properties. The application of uniaxial pressure leads to the change of the peak intensity of the electric permittivity (ϵ, of the frequency dispersion as well as of the dielectric hysteresis. The peak intensity ϵ becomes diffused/sharpened and shifts to a higher/lower temperatures with increasing the pressure. It was concluded that the application of uniaxial pressure induces similar effects as increasing the Ti ion concentration in PZT system. We interpreted our results based on the domain switching processes under the action of combined electromechanical loading.

  6. A Novel Emulsion Flow Loop for Investigating the Corrosion of X65 Steel in Emulsions with H2S/CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihan, Rihan; Zafar, Muhammad Nauman; Al-Hadhrami, Luai

    2016-07-01

    Corrosion resistance ( R P) of X65 steel was investigated in an oil-in-water emulsion containing H2S and CO2 at several oil concentrations and different flow regions using a novel emulsion flow loop. One working electrode was mounted in the flow developing region while the other one was mounted in a region where the flow is fully developed. The experimental results show that the addition of CO2 to an H2S containing emulsion decreases the corrosion rate. The R P in the flow developing region is less than that in the fully developed region and it increases with increasing oil concentration. This flow loop is a promising tool for investigating the R P of engineering materials in a simulated environment similar to that encountered in the petroleum industry.

  7. Modelos para la estimación del carbono en la biomasa de los sistemas forestales : influencia de la selvicultura en los socks de carbono

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Peinado Gertrudix, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Es ampliamente conocido y reconocido que los bosques tienen un papel fundamental en la mitigación del cambio climático. Funcionan como almacenes de carbono fijando el carbono que captan de la atmósfera en sus estructuras, conformando biomasa viva. El carbono de esta biomasa, una vez que esta muere, puede pasar de nuevo a la atmósfera o puede seguir almacenado durante años formando parte de productos forestales (madera, corcho, etc.) o en el suelo tras la descomposición de la materia orgánica....

  8. USAJOBS Job Opportunity Announcements (JOA) REST API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — This REST-based API is designed to support lightweight Federal Job Opportunity Announcement (JOA) content consumption by consumers. It is anticipated that this API...

  9. USAJOBS Job Opportunity Announcements (JOA) SOAP API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The purpose of the SOAP based API is to provide the full Federal Job Opportunity Announcement (JOA) content to the consumer. It is anticipated that this API will be...

  10. Automated Ply Inspection (API) for AFP Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Automated Ply Inspection (API) system autonomously inspects layups created by high speed automated fiber placement (AFP) machines. API comprises a high accuracy...

  11. X65钢在含超临界CO2的NaCl溶液中腐蚀机制的讨论%CORROSION MECHANISM DISCUSSION OF X65 STEEL IN NaCl SOLUTION SATURATED WITH SUPERCRITICAL CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏亮; 庞晓露; 高克玮

    2015-01-01

    利用高温高压反应釜研究了X65管线钢在含有超临界CO2(supercritical CO.SC CO2)的3.5%NaC1溶液、去离子水以及溶解有NaC1溶液的超临界CO2相中的腐蚀行为.结果表明,C1-的存在导致X65钢在含有饱和SC CO2的NaC1溶液中的腐蚀速率显著升高,腐蚀产物膜的晶粒形貌发生改变.X65钢在超临界CO2相中的腐蚀速率远远低于在NaCl溶液中的腐蚀速率,但出现局部腐蚀.X65钢在含有SC CO2的NaC1溶液中的腐蚀分为3个阶段:第一个阶段为基体快速溶解阶段,表面没有FeCO3生成;第二阶段为FeCO3开始沉积阶段,形成的FeCO3腐蚀产物膜不完整,增大了阴极还原反应面积,导致腐蚀加速;第三阶段为腐蚀产物膜保护阶段,形成的腐蚀产物膜致密性逐渐提高,保护性好,但C1-仍然可以穿过腐蚀产物膜到达膜基界面,从而加速钢的腐蚀.建立了普通管线钢在含C1-溶液中的超临界CO2腐蚀模型.

  12. Sistemas híbridos de polianilina y nanoestructuras de carbono para su aplicación en músculos artificiales y supercondensadores

    OpenAIRE

    García Gallegos, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    La presente tesis es el resultado del estudio de la síntesis de compuestos de polianilina (PAni) con nanoestructuras de carbono para su aplicación en músculos artificiales y electrodos de supercondensadores. Las nanoestructuras que se emplearon en los compuestos de PAni son nanotubos de carbono multicapa (MWCNT), nanotubos de carbono multicapa dopados con nitrógeno (CNx-MWCNT), nanotubos de carbono multicapa funcionalizados con grupos oxigenados (COx-MWCNT) nanotubos de carbono multicapa exfo...

  13. X65/2205耐蚀合金内衬管焊接工艺开发及焊接接头耐蚀性研究%Welding Procedure Development and Corrosion Resistance Research of Welded Joints for X65/2205 Anticorrosion Alloy Clad Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张念涛; 徐连勇; 韩永典; 刘永贞; 许可望

    2012-01-01

    根据X65/2205耐蚀合金内衬管焊接特点,开发了一种钨极氩弧焊焊接工艺.对内衬管焊接接头进行了显微组织分析、点蚀试验,抗H2S应力腐蚀开裂试验(SSCC)分析.结果表明:焊接接头HAZ的显微组织靠母材一侧为粗大的奥氏体晶粒,靠焊缝一侧为奥氏体基体上分布着铁素体;根部焊缝的显微组织为奥氏体基体上分布着铁素体.经过72h的点蚀试验后,对根部焊缝而言,钨极氩孤焊背部免充气保护焊接工艺得到的根部焊缝的耐腐蚀性与相邻的根部母材相当.经过720 h SSCC试验后,焊接接头均未发生开裂.%According to the welding characteristics of X65/2205 anticorrosion alloy clad pipe, a GTAW welding technology was developed. The microstructure analysis, pitting corrosion tests and sulfide stress corrosion crack (SSCC) tests were conducted on the X65/2205 clad pipe welded joints. The results revealed that the microstructure of HAZ was coarse austenite near base metal side and ferrite distributed in the austenite matrix near the weld metal side. The microstructure in the weld metal was ferrite distributed in the austenite matrix. After 72 h pitting corrosion test , the corrosion resistance of root weld metal, which was obtained by adopting TIG welding technology of non-filling argon in the back, the corrosion resistance was commensurate to that of the adjacent base metal. After 720 h SSCC test, the result showed that no crack was observed in the welded joints.

  14. Research on Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behavior of Welded Joints of X65/316L and AISI4130/Inconel625 Clad Pipe%X65/316L与AISI4130/Inconel625复合管焊接接头力学性能及腐蚀行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴星东; 谢树军

    2014-01-01

    X65/316L and AISI4130/Inconel625 clad pipe were successfully welded with ERNiCrMo-3 filler metal, and the mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of the welded joints were studied in this paper. Tensile test, all-weld metal tensile test, impact test, as well as hardness test were performed to characterize the mechanical properties of the joints. The CO2 stress corrosion test and electrochemical corrosion test were conducted on clad pipe joints according to the corresponding standards of ASTM G39 and ASTM G5. The results showed that tensile strength of the joint achieved 583 MPa and crack propagated along X65/316L base metal; however, the yield strength, tensile strength and elongation of the weld metal reached to 441.4 MPa, 725.9 MPa, 37.67%, respectively. The absorbed impact energy of the weld metal at-10℃was 157 J, and the hardness value of joint presented gradient transition. After CO2 stress corrosion test, the weightlessness of clad pipe welded sample reached the standard, and no crack was observed in base metal and weld; the corrosion resistance of weld and HAZ is was equal to that of base metal after electrochemical corrosion test.%采用ERNiCrMo-3焊丝成功焊接X65/316L与AISI4130/Inconel625复合管,研究了复合管焊接接头的力学性能和腐蚀行为。采用拉伸试验、全焊缝拉伸试验、冲击试验、硬度测试表征了焊接接头的力学性能。参照ASTM G39和ASTM G5的相应标准对复合管焊接接头进行了CO2应力腐蚀和电化学腐蚀性能测试。结果表明,复合管焊接接头的抗拉强度达到583 MPa,断裂发生在 X65/316L 母材处;焊缝屈服强度为441.4 MPa,抗拉强度为725.9 MPa,延伸率达到37.67%;在-10℃试验条件下,焊缝的冲击吸收功为157 J,接头硬度值呈现梯度过渡。复合管焊接试样经过CO2应力腐蚀试验后失重达标,在母材和焊缝处没有观察到裂纹;电化学腐蚀试验后焊缝和热影响区的耐蚀性与母材相当。

  15. BusinessUSA Resource Access API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — BusinessUSA connects businesses to government services and information. The API provides access to resource abstracts including programs, services, data, events,...

  16. El lago Chinchaycocha en el mercado de bonos de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Bulege Gutiérrez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El cambio climático como fenómeno global preocupa a todo el mundo y se manifiesta en lo cotidiano a través de diversos desórdenes del clima. El Panel Intergubernamental de Cambio Climático (IPCC, en su cuarto informe de evaluación presentado el 2007, y la Organización Mundial de Meteorología (OMM han establecido que desde el 2001 la temperatura media global en el planeta registra el nivel de aumento más alto de nuestra historia. A este ritmo, y por lo difícil que resulta encontrar una solución aun en el mediano plazo, todo indica que el 2013 no será la excepción. Las causas del cambio climático son atribuidas a factores naturales pero también antropogénicos; existe ya consenso respecto a la influencia de los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI, sobre todo el dióxido de carbono (CO2 en este proceso acelerado de calentamiento del planeta. Esta crisis del clima, como una forma de ser enfrentada, hoy está obligando a los países a promover proyectos que reduzcan las emisiones de GEI y permitan el almacenamiento de carbono. Uno de los mecanismos internacionales establecidos para concretar este objetivo son los bonos de carbono, iniciativa dispuesta por el Protocolo de Kioto, acuerdo jurídicamente vinculante firmado en 1997 y en vigor desde el 2005. Expiró el año pasado, pero la histórica Conferencia de Doha, Catar, decidió en diciembre último prorrogar la vigencia del tratado hasta el 2020. El protocolo, en su primera fase, exige a las grandes potencias reducir durante el período 2008-2012 la emisión de gases en un 5,2% por debajo del nivel de 1990. Lo interesante es que las empresas de tales potencias, para cumplir esta obligación, pueden hacerlo en cualquier lugar o comprar bonos de carbono de países que superen las metas exigidas. La emisión de estos bonos es, después de todo, una iniciativa de descontaminación, que permite que los países industrializados sigan con sus prácticas contaminantes, en tanto

  17. Validation of the Parlay API through prototyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellenthal, J.W.; Planken, F.J.M.; Wegdam, M.

    2001-01-01

    The desire within the telecommunications world for new and faster business growth has been a major drive towards the development of open network API. Over the past 7 years several (semi) standardization groups have announced work on network API, including TINA-C, JAIN, IEEE P1520, INforum, 3GPP, JAI

  18. API Requirements for Dynamic Graph Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, B; Eliassi-Rad, T

    2006-10-13

    Given a large-scale time-evolving multi-modal and multi-relational complex network (a.k.a., a large-scale dynamic semantic graph), we want to implement algorithms that discover patterns of activities on the graph and learn predictive models of those discovered patterns. This document outlines the application programming interface (API) requirements for fast prototyping of feature extraction, learning, and prediction algorithms on large dynamic semantic graphs. Since our algorithms must operate on large-scale dynamic semantic graphs, we have chosen to use the graph API developed in the CASC Complex Networks Project. This API is supported on the back end by a semantic graph database (developed by Scott Kohn and his team). The advantages of using this API are (i) we have full-control of its development and (ii) the current API meets almost all of the requirements outlined in this document.

  19. Web API Growing Pains: Loosely Coupled yet Strongly Tied

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinha, T.; Zaidman, A.; Gross, H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Web APIs provide a systematic and extensible approach for application-toapplication interaction. Developers using web APIs are forced to accompany the API providers in their software evolution tasks. In order to understand the distress caused by this imposition on web API client developers we perfor

  20. DySectAPI: Scalable Prescriptive Debugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nicklas Bo; Karlsson, Sven; Quarfot Nielsen, Niklas;

    We present the DySectAPI, a tool that allow users to construct probe trees for automatic, event-driven debugging at scale. The traditional, interactive debugging model, whereby users manually step through and inspect their application, does not scale well even for current supercomputers. While...... lightweight debugging models scale well, they can currently only debug a subset of bug classes. DySectAPI fills the gap between these two approaches with a novel user-guided approach. Using both experimental results and analytical modeling we show how DySectAPI scales and can run with a low overhead...

  1. The JANA Calibrations and Conditions Database API

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Lawrence

    2010-07-01

    Calibrations and conditions databases can be accessed from within the JANA Event Processing framework through the API defined in its JCalibration base class. The API is designed to support everything from databases, to web services to flat files for the backend. A Web Service backend using the gSOAP toolkit has been implemented which is particularly interesting since it addresses many modern cybersecurity issues including support for SSL. The API allows constants to be retrieved through a single line of C++ code with most of the context, including the transport mechanism, being implied by the run currently being analyzed and the environment relieving developers from implementing such details.

  2. Internet SCADA Utilizing API's as Data Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Rosslin John; Kim, Haeng-Kon; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    An Application programming interface or API is an interface implemented by a software program that enables it to interact with other software. Many companies provide free API services which can be utilized in Control Systems. SCADA is an example of a control system and it is a system that collects data from various sensors at a factory, plant or in other remote locations and then sends this data to a central computer which then manages and controls the data. In this paper, we designed a scheme for Weather Condition in Internet SCADA Environment utilizing data from external API services. The scheme was designed to double check the weather information in SCADA.

  3. Webometrische Analysen mit Hilfe der Google Web APIs

    OpenAIRE

    Mayr, Philipp; Tosques, Fabio

    2005-01-01

    This report describes possibilities and restrictions of the Google Web APIs (Google API). The implementation of the Google API in the context of information science studies from the webometrics field shows, that the Google API can be used with restrictions for internet based studies. The comparison of hit results from the two Google interfaces Google API and the standard web interface Google.com (Google Web) shows differences concerning range, structure und availability. The study bases on si...

  4. ChemSpell Web Service API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The ChemSpell Web Service API provides chemical name spell checking and chemical name synonym look-up. ChemSpell contains more than 1.3 million chemical names...

  5. Real World Uses For Nagios APIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Janice

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes the Nagios 4 APIs and how the NASA Advanced Supercomputing at Ames Research Center is employing them to upgrade its graphical status display (the HUD) and explain why it's worth trying to use them yourselves.

  6. System for Award Management (SAM) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The SAM API is a RESTful method of retrieving public information about the businesses, organizations, or individuals (referred to as entities) within the SAM entity...

  7. (H)appiness is a warm API!

    OpenAIRE

    Pattern, David

    2012-01-01

    Presentation given at the Internet Librarian International Conference 2012, Olympia Conference Centre, London, UK. The presentation discusses how Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) were used to help develop MyReading, the reading list software used by the University of Huddersfield.

  8. BeXRB Monitor Data API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fully queryable REST API with JSON, XML, and CSV output as well as inline, runable examples. This is a monitor using data from Swift/BAT, MAXI and Fermi/GBM...

  9. Crecimiento de nanotubos de carbono sobre materiales de uso convencional en ingeniería

    OpenAIRE

    García Ruiz, Máximo

    2012-01-01

    Los nanotubos de carbono son una forma alotrópica del carbono, como el diamante o el grafito, que, debido a sus propiedades físicas, mecánicas y eléctricas están generando un gran interés de investigación en los últimos años. Típicamente, éstos son formados a partir de precursores tales como el monóxido de carbono, metano, acetileno, tolueno, alcohol, etc. En este proyecto se utilizó tolueno para la síntesis, empleando ferroceno como catalizador. El método utilizado para llevarlo a cabo, fue ...

  10. La huella de carbono de la Universidad de Córdoba. 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Toro Jordano, Ana de; Gomera Martínez, Antonio; Aguilar Moreno, José Emilio; Guijarro Jiménez, Clara; Antúnez López, Miguel; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    La huella de carbono es un término usado para describir la cantidad de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) que son liberados a la atmósfera directa o indirectamente como consecuencia de una actividad determinada, bien sea la fabricación de un producto, la prestación de un servicio, o el funcionamiento de una organización. Con el concepto huella de carbono de una organización se pretende describir el impacto total que una organización tiene sobre el clima en relación a las e...

  11. Development of API 5L X70 and X80 in the Brazilian Vallourec and Mannesmann Tubes industry; Desenvolvimento de acos API 5L X70 e X80 na Vallourec e Mannesmann Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Julio M. Silveira e; Carvalho, Ricardo N. de [Vallourec and Mannesmann Tubes - V e M do Brasil, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The demand for seamless pipes with resistance higher than those for API 5L X60 and X65 grades has increased in the last years. They are traditionally used up to now for applications on rigid risers for production and exportation and line pipes for oil and gas. In the case of seamless pipes, the great challenge is to fulfill the requirements of mechanical properties for X70 and X80 grades, quenched and tempered, with values of carbon equivalent low enough to assure a good weldability. This paper presents the results obtained by Vallourec and Mannesmann Tubes - V and M do Brazil on producing seamless pipes of X70 and X80 API grades, with outside diameter lower than 8 5/8{sup (} 219,1 mm ) and wall thickness up to 0,562{sup (} 14,3 mm ). Results of tensile, Charpy notch impact resistance and hardness tests are shown. Hydrogen-Induced and Environmental Cracking tests were also carried out, since for some applications is required a good resistance to these kinds of embrittlement mechanisms. The mechanical properties, microstructure and physical characteristics of welded joints were also evaluated. The results obtained up to now are quite promising, showing good suitability to the aimed final applications. (author)

  12. APIs and Researchers: The Emperor's New Clothes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edmond

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Europeana Cloud (eCloud project, Trinity College Dublin investigated best practice in the use of web services, such as APIs, for accessing large data sets from cultural heritage collections. This research looked into the provision and use of APIs, and moreover, whether or not more customised programmatic access to datasets is what researchers want or need. In order to understand whether current patterns of API usage reflect a skills gap on the part of researchers or a mismatch of tool to purpose, we looked not only at the creators and developer/users of APIs, but also at humanists already re-using big data; approaches in cultural heritage institutions and other research infrastructures to bring API use to non-technical audiences; and the kinds of training and other support services available or emerging within the data-intensive humanities research lifecycle. We conducted both desk research and a series of 11 interviews with figures working as researchers, developers or data providers, including figures from both the API development and the data usage communities. This research, conducted under the eCloud project and supported by the European Commission’s ICT Policy and Support Programme (Grant number 325091, was begun in March 2014 and is now in its concluding validation stage. The results of the research are not yet finalised, but the contribution is already emerging of this work to the debate about APIs being either the way forward for digital cultural heritage collections, or the Emperor’s New Clothes (or maybe a bit of both.

  13. Comparative Foraging Behavior of Apis Cerana F. and Apis Mellifera L. in Rapeseed under Cage Condition in Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameshwor Pudasaini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the foraging behavior of Apis mellifera L. and Apis cerana F. in rapeseed under cage condition in Chitwan, Nepal during 2012-2013. This experiment showed that Apis cerana F. foraged extra 42 minute per day as compared to Apis mellifera L. Apis cerana F. were more attracted to nectar, whereas Apis mellifera L. were more attracted to pollen collection throughout the day. The activities, in into hives and out from hives, for both species were recorded more at 2:00 pm and least at 8:00 am. The highest in-out were observed at 2:00 pm on both species as Apis mellifera L. 44.33 bees entered into hives and 49.66 bees went out of hives, whereas lower number of Apis cerana F. 43.66 bees entered into hives and 48.16 bees were out of hives. Apis mellifera L. collect 1.22:1 and 0.41:1 pollen nectar ratio at 10:00 am and 4:00 am whereas at same hours Apis cerana collect 1.16:1 and 0.30:1 pollen nectar ratio. Apis cerana F. foraged significantly higher number of rapeseed flowers and plants as compared to Apis mellifera L. under caged condition. It shows that Apis cerana F. was more efficient pollinator as compared to Apis mellifera L. under caged condition.

  14. CALIBRATION, OPTIMIZATION, AND SENSITIVITY AND UNCERTAINTY ALGORITHMS APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE (COSU-API)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Application Programming Interface (API) for Uncertainty Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, and Parameter Estimation (UA/SA/PE API) tool development, here fore referred to as the Calibration, Optimization, and Sensitivity and Uncertainty Algorithms API (COSU-API), was initially d...

  15. Advanced API security securing APIs with OAuth 2.0, OpenID Connect, JWS, and JWE

    CERN Document Server

    Siriwardena, Prabath

    2014-01-01

    Advanced API Security is a complete reference to the next wave of challenges in enterprise security--securing public and private APIs. API adoption in both consumer and enterprises has gone beyond predictions. It has become the 'coolest' way of exposing business functionalities to the outside world. Both your public and private APIs, need to be protected, monitored and managed. Security is not an afterthought, but API security has evolved a lot in last five years. The growth of standards, out there, has been exponential. That's where AdvancedAPI Security comes in--to wade through the weeds

  16. Sensores baseados em nanotubos de carbono funcionalizados por ligação não-covalente

    OpenAIRE

    Lage, Carla S. A.; Geraldo, M. Dulce

    2014-01-01

    A pesquisa na área dos nanomateriais de carbono, como os nanotubos de carbono (CNTs), tem crescido muito rapidamente devido às suas propriedades térmicas, eletrónicas e mecânicas. Muitos esforços têm sido realizados para aumentar a solubilidade destes materiais em diversos solventes e obter dispersões estáveis. Uma das estratégias para dispersar os CNTs consiste na funcionalização química, que apresenta como desvantagem a destruição da estrutura sp2 do carbono destes materiais. Ne...

  17. A framework for API solubility modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul; Crafts, Peter

    . In addition, most of the models are not predictive and requires experimental data for the calculation of the needed parameters. This work aims at developing an efficient framework for the solubility modelling of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) in water and organic solvents. With this framework......-SAFT) are used for solubility calculations when the needed interaction parameters or experimental data are available. The CI-UNIFAC is instead used when the previous models lack interaction parameters or when solubility data are not available. A new GC+ model for APIs solvent selection based...... on the hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity and polarity information of the API and solvent is also developed, for performing fast solvent selection and screening. Eventually, all the previous developments are integrated in a framework for their efficient and integrated use. Two case studies are presented: the first...

  18. Unified Medical Language System Terminology Services (UTS) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The UTS API is intended for application developers to perform Web service calls and retrieve UMLS data within their own applications. The UTS API provides the...

  19. MODAPS Web Services API for LANCE-MODIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODAPS Web Services API for LANCE-MODIS. This Application Programming Interface (API) encompasses a library of functions that provides programmatic data access to...

  20. Comparative virulence and competition between Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbrath, Meghan O; van Tran, Toan; Huang, Wei-Fong; Solter, Leellen F; Tarpy, David R; Lawrence, Frank; Huang, Zachary Y

    2015-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are infected by two species of microsporidia: Nosema apis and Nosemaceranae. Epidemiological evidence indicates that N. ceranae may be replacing N. apis globally in A. mellifera populations, suggesting a potential competitive advantage of N. ceranae. Mixed infections of the two species occur, and little is known about the interactions among the host and the two pathogens that have allowed N. ceranae to become dominant in most geographical areas. We demonstrated that mixed Nosema species infections negatively affected honey bee survival (median survival=15-17days) more than single species infections (median survival=21days and 20days for N. apis and N. ceranae, respectively), with median survival of control bees of 27days. We found similar rates of infection (percentage of bees with active infections after inoculation) for both species in mixed infections, with N. apis having a slightly higher rate (91% compared to 86% for N. ceranae). We observed slightly higher spore counts in bees infected with N. ceranae than in bees infected with N. apis in single microsporidia infections, especially at the midpoint of infection (day 10). Bees with mixed infections of both species had higher spore counts than bees with single infections, but spore counts in mixed infections were highly variable. We did not see a competitive advantage for N. ceranae in mixed infections; N. apis spore counts were either higher or counts were similar for both species and more N. apis spores were produced in 62% of bees inoculated with equal dosages of the two microsporidian species. N. ceranae does not, therefore, appear to have a strong within-host advantage for either infectivity or spore growth, suggesting that direct competition in these worker bee mid-guts is not responsible for its apparent replacement of N. apis. PMID:25527406

  1. Almacenamiento de carbono en pastos naturales de la subcuenca del Canipaco, Huancayo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Quispe Navarro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la correlación de pesos de biomasa aérea y radicular de las especies Calamagrostis vicunarum, Festuca dolichophylla y Muhlenbergia ligularis y sus capacidades de almacenamiento de carbono. La recolección de datos se realizó en tres zonas representativas tomando en cuenta factores como la fisonomía vegetativa, fisiografía, topografía y exposición hacia los puntos cardinales, denominándolas zonas I, II y III, equivalentes a tres poblaciones diferentes, las que fueron evaluadas aplicando el método de muestreo simple con distribución sistemática. Las unidades muestrales fueron parcelas cuadradas de 4m². La extracción de muestras vegetativas fueron tomadas al azar desde las parcelas, luego lavadas y oreadas a temperatura ambiente bajo techo antes de su traslado a laboratorios para el secado final, pesajes de biomasa y análisis del contenido de carbono. El procesamiento de datos del inventario para la estimación de la Biomasa y correlaciones fue por especie y zonas, luego a partir de los resultados de biomasa y mediante el factor de conversión se calcularon el contenido de carbono almacenado. Entre los resultados podemos mencionar que los promedios de carbono almacenados son: Calamagrostis vicunarum: 0,754 tC/ha; Festuca dolicophylla: 1,638 tC/ha y Muhlenbergia ligularis: 0,743 tC/ha. En conclusión, por la significancia de la correlación, el peso de la biomasa aérea puede permitir la estimación del peso de la biomasa radicular. El promedio de carbono almacenado por las tres especies juntas alcanza a 3,14 tC/ha.

  2. Pro REST API development with nodejs

    CERN Document Server

    Doglio, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Pro REST API Development with Node.js is your guide to managing and understanding the full capabilities of successful REST development. API design is a hot topic in the programming world, but not many resources exist for developers to really understand how you can leverage the advantages. This book will provide a brief background on REST and the tools it provides (well known and not so well known). Understand how there is more to REST than just JSON and URLs. You will then cover and compare the maintained modules currently available in the npm community, including Express, Restify, Vatican,

  3. Upon a Message-Oriented Trading API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu VINTE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the premises for a trading system application-programming interface (API based on a message-oriented middleware (MOM, and present the results of our research regarding the design and the implementation of a simulation-trading system employing a service-oriented architecture (SOA and messaging. Our research has been conducted with the aim of creating a simulation-trading platform, within the academic environment, that will provide both the foundation for future experiments with trading systems architectures, components, APIs, and the framework for research on trading strategies, trading algorithm design, and equity markets analysis tools. Mathematics Subject Classification: 68M14 (distributed systems.

  4. Google Web APIs : an instrument for Webometric Analyses?

    OpenAIRE

    Mayr, Philipp

    2005-01-01

    This poster introduces Google Web APIs (Google APIs) as an instrument and playground for webometric studies. Several examples of Google APIs implementations in the context of webometrics are given. Our examples show that this Google Web Service can be used successfully for informetric Internet based studies albeit with some restrictions. E.g. we can show that hit results from the two different Google interfaces: Google APIs and the standard interface Google.com vary in range, structure und av...

  5. Google Web APIs - an Instrument for Webometric Analyses?

    OpenAIRE

    Mayr, Philipp; Tosques, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    This poster introduces Google Web APIs (Google APIs) as an instrument and playground for webometric studies. Several examples of Google APIs implementations in the context of webometrics are given. Our examples show that this Google Web Service can be used successfully for informetric Internet based studies albeit with some restrictions. E.g. we can show that hit results from the two different Google interfaces: Google APIs and the standard interface Google.com vary in range, structure und a...

  6. Influencia del cambio de uso sobre la erosión del suelo, carbono transportado por erosión y stocks de carbono en ambientes semiáridos mediterráneos

    OpenAIRE

    López Carratalá, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    A continuación se describen los temas principales que serán abordados en la tesis doctoral futura: - Relevancia del proceso de erosión hídrica en zonas semiáridas mediterráneas. - Influencia de la erosión en la dinámica del carbono. - Relaciones estructura-Erosión hídrica-Carbono. - Pools de carbono asociados con la erosión hídrica - Contribución de la erosión hídrica a la pérdida de carbono. - Cambio en las propiedades básicas del suelo debido al cambio de uso. - Cambios...

  7. 47 CFR 61.46 - Adjustments to the API.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustments to the API. 61.46 Section 61.46... Rules for Dominant Carriers § 61.46 Adjustments to the API. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d) and... carrier must calculate an API for each affected basket pursuant to the following methodology: APIt =...

  8. The Apis mellifera filamentous virus genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    A complete reference genome of the Apis mellifera Filamentous virus (AmFV) was determined using Illumina Hiseq sequencing. The AmFV genome is a double strand DNA molecule of approximately 498’500 nucleotides with a GC content of 50.8%. It encompasses 251 non overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), e...

  9. Standard methods for Apis mellifera propolis research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propolis is one of the most fascinating honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) products. It is a plant derived product that bees produce from resins that they collect from different plant organs and with which they mix beeswax. Propolis is a building material and a protective agent in the beehive. It also pl...

  10. DySectAPI: Scalable Prescriptive Debugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nicklas Bo; Karlsson, Sven; Quarfot Nielsen, Niklas;

    We present the DySectAPI, a tool that allow users to construct probe trees for automatic, event-driven debugging at scale. The traditional, interactive debugging model, whereby users manually step through and inspect their application, does not scale well even for current supercomputers. While...

  11. How Do Developers Use APIs? A Case Study in Concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Stefan; Kiniry, Joseph; Huisman, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    With the omnipresent usage of APIs in software development, it has become important to analyse how the routines and functionalities of APIs are actually used. This information is in particular useful for API developers, to make decisions about future updates of the API. However, also for developers...... of static analysis and verification tools this information is highly important, because it indicates where and how to put the most efficient effort in annotating APIs, to make them usable for the static analysis and verification tools. This paper presents an analysis of the usage of the routines...

  12. An Implementation Model of Parlay MMCCS API Based on SIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN You-qing; SHEN Su-bin

    2006-01-01

    Parlay Multi Media Call Control Services(MMCCS) Application Programming Interfaces (API) based on Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is essential for the implementation of Parlay Call Control (CC) API. This paper first proposes an implementation model of Parlay MMCCS API based on SIP, then presents a mapping between SIP and MMCCS API as far as methods and parameters are concerned, illustrates corresponding relationships between different components of SIP and MMCCS API by means of an application collaboration diagram, and finally presents an application using Java codes as well as some SIP messages. The application shows that a majority of MMCCS API based on SIP can be implemented and therefore verifies our mapping between MMCCS API and SIP.

  13. Comparison of API ZYM system with API AN-Ident, API 20A, Minitek Anaerobe II, and RapID-ANA systems for identification of Clostridium difficile.

    OpenAIRE

    Head, C B; Ratnam, S

    1988-01-01

    The API ZYM system was compared with four anaerobe identification systems for the definitive identification of Clostridium difficile by using 88 cultures of C. difficile grown on Mueller-Hinton blood agar medium. The API ZYM system yielded a distinct and consistent enzyme profile for all test strains, whereas the sensitivities of the other systems in identifying C. difficile ranged from 78 to 96% (AN-Ident, 77.9%; RapID-ANA, 88.6%; Minitek Anaerobe II, 90.9%; and API 20A, 95.5%). The API ZYM ...

  14. Síntesis, caracterización y aplicaciones catalíticas de nanoestructuras de carbono y de carbono dopado con nitrógeno.

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto-Márquez Ballesteros, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo forma parte de un amplio programa de investigación sobre la preparación de nanoestruturas de carbono y su aplicación en procesos de interés energético, industrial y medioambiental, que actualmente se está desarrollando en el Departamento de Ingeniería Química de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha desde el año 2003. Durante las últimas décadas se ha asistido al inicio de una revolución científica basada en la capacidad de medir, manipular y organizar la materia en la ...

  15. Population Genetics of Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae: One Host (Apis mellifera) and Two Different Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maside, Xulio; Gómez-Moracho, Tamara; Jara, Laura; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; De la Rúa, Pilar; Higes, Mariano; Bartolomé, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Two microsporidians are known to infect honey bees: Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Whereas population genetics data for the latter have been released in the last few years, such information is still missing for N. apis. Here we analyze the patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at three single-copy loci (PTP2, PTP3 and RPB1) in a collection of Apis mellifera isolates from all over the world, naturally infected either with N. apis (N = 22) or N. ceranae (N = 23), to provide new insights into the genetic diversity, demography and evolution of N. apis, as well as to compare them with evidence from N. ceranae. Neutral variation in N. apis and N. ceranae is of the order of 1%. This amount of diversity suggests that there is no substantial differentiation between the genetic content of the two nuclei present in these parasites, and evidence for genetic recombination provides a putative mechanism for the flow of genetic information between chromosomes. The analysis of the frequency spectrum of neutral variants reveals a significant surplus of low frequency variants, particularly in N. ceranae, and suggests that the populations of the two pathogens are not in mutation-drift equilibrium and that they have experienced a population expansion. Most of the variation in both species occurs within honey bee colonies (between 62%-90% of the total genetic variance), although in N. apis there is evidence for differentiation between parasites isolated from distinct A. mellifera lineages (20%-34% of the total variance), specifically between those collected from lineages A and C (or M). This scenario is consistent with a long-term host-parasite relationship and contrasts with the lack of differentiation observed among host-lineages in N. ceranae (< 4% of the variance), which suggests that the spread of this emergent pathogen throughout the A. mellifera worldwide population is a recent event. PMID:26720131

  16. Population Genetics of Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae: One Host (Apis mellifera and Two Different Histories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xulio Maside

    Full Text Available Two microsporidians are known to infect honey bees: Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Whereas population genetics data for the latter have been released in the last few years, such information is still missing for N. apis. Here we analyze the patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at three single-copy loci (PTP2, PTP3 and RPB1 in a collection of Apis mellifera isolates from all over the world, naturally infected either with N. apis (N = 22 or N. ceranae (N = 23, to provide new insights into the genetic diversity, demography and evolution of N. apis, as well as to compare them with evidence from N. ceranae. Neutral variation in N. apis and N. ceranae is of the order of 1%. This amount of diversity suggests that there is no substantial differentiation between the genetic content of the two nuclei present in these parasites, and evidence for genetic recombination provides a putative mechanism for the flow of genetic information between chromosomes. The analysis of the frequency spectrum of neutral variants reveals a significant surplus of low frequency variants, particularly in N. ceranae, and suggests that the populations of the two pathogens are not in mutation-drift equilibrium and that they have experienced a population expansion. Most of the variation in both species occurs within honey bee colonies (between 62%-90% of the total genetic variance, although in N. apis there is evidence for differentiation between parasites isolated from distinct A. mellifera lineages (20%-34% of the total variance, specifically between those collected from lineages A and C (or M. This scenario is consistent with a long-term host-parasite relationship and contrasts with the lack of differentiation observed among host-lineages in N. ceranae (< 4% of the variance, which suggests that the spread of this emergent pathogen throughout the A. mellifera worldwide population is a recent event.

  17. O balanço de carbono da Amazônia brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Nobre, Carlos A.; Antônio D. Nobre

    2002-01-01

    GLOBALMENTE, a biota terrestre é um sumidouro significativo de dióxido de carbono (CO2) atmosférico. Estudos recentes do IPCC para a década de 1990 estimam a biota terrestre com sendo um sumidouro líquido de aproximadamente 1,4 gigatonelada de carbono por ano (assimilação líquida pela biota terrestre menos as emissões devidas às mudanças dos usos da terra). É provável que a maior parte desse suposto sumidouro aconteça nas florestas das latitudes médias e dos trópicos. Estudos do ciclo do carb...

  18. Renovação do carbono-13 em figueiras 'Roxo de Valinhos'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Carvalho da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a taxa de renovação do carbono-13 ("turnover", dos diferentes órgãos da figueira 'Roxo de Valinhos'. O experimento foi conduzido no pomar da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, FCA/UNESP, Câmpus de Botucatu-SP. Determinou-se previamente, através das trocas gasosas com um medidor aberto portátil de fotossíntese, IRGA, a principal folha fotossinteticamente ativa. Essa folha foi colocada em uma câmara onde ocorreu a injeção do gás enriquecido. O tempo de enriquecimento da folha foi de 30 minutos. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por sete plantas de figueira, que foram retiradas do solo após: 6; 24; 48; 72; 120; 168 e 360 horas do enriquecimento com 13C, e suas partes seccionadas em: gema apical, folha jovem, folhas adultas (fotossinteticamente ativas, brotações laterais, frutos e ramo. Os resultados obtidos permitiram o estabelecimento da sequência de metabolização do carbono-13 nas partições estudadas: Folhas novas > Frutos > Brotações > Folhas Adultas > Gema Apical > Ramo > Folha marcada. Plantas de figueira 'Roxo de Valinhos' apresentam reciclagem do 13C de 24 horas e um tempo de meia-vida de duração do carbono-13 inferior a 11 horas.

  19. Effects of Nosema apis, N. ceranae, and coinfections on honey bee (Apis mellifera) learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Lise R; Hillier, Neil Kirk; Rogers, Richard E L; Williams, Geoffrey R; Shutler, Dave

    2016-01-01

    Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) face an increasing number of challenges that in recent years have led to significant economic effects on apiculture, with attendant consequences for agriculture. Nosemosis is a fungal infection of honey bees caused by either Nosema apis or N. ceranae. The putative greater virulence of N. ceranae has spurred interest in understanding how it differs from N. apis. Little is known of effects of N. apis or N. ceranae on honey bee learning and memory. Following a Pavlovian model that relies on the proboscis extension reflex, we compared acquisition learning and long-term memory recall of uninfected (control) honey bees versus those inoculated with N. apis, N. ceranae, or both. We also tested whether spore intensity was associated with variation in learning and memory. Neither learning nor memory differed among treatments. There was no evidence of a relationship between spore intensity and learning, and only limited evidence of a negative effect on memory; this occurred only in the co-inoculation treatment. Our results suggest that if Nosema spp. are contributing to unusually high colony losses in recent years, the mechanism by which they may affect honey bees is probably not related to effects on learning or memory, at least as assessed by the proboscis extension reflex. PMID:26961062

  20. CARBONO LÁBIL COMO UN INDICADOR DE CAMBIOS EN DOS SUELOS BAJO DIFERENTES USOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Ginebra Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La materia orgánica en el suelo es un componente clave en la reserva y ciclo del carbono. En condiciones naturales el carbono se incorpora al suelo a través del aporte continuo de material orgánico; sin embargo, existen prácticas de uso de la tierra que generan una disminución del carbono orgánico en el tiempo, a la vez hay prácticas de uso sostenible que favorecen su captura y acumulación. La determinación de fracciones lábiles de carbono orgánico del suelo, constituye una práctica frecuente para evaluar cambios en la calidad de la materia orgánica bajo distintos manejos. Se comparó el contenido de carbono lábil (COS L en la capa 0-20 cm de un suelo Ferralítico Rojo Típico con el de un Ferrítico Rojo Oscuro Típico, sometidos a tres usos del suelo (sin explotación, cultivo diversificado y cultivo intensivo. La extracción del COS L se realizó por oxidación con permanganato de potasio a 0,02 mg L -1 y las determinaciones se hicieron colorimétricamente. Se encontró que independientemente del uso, el contenido de COS L fue superior en el suelo Ferralítico que en el Ferrítico y que para ambos suelos los contenidos disminuyeron en las áreas bajo cultivo intensivo con relación a las áreas sin explotación; además, en el sistema diversificado, donde se aplican principios de Manejo Sostenible de Tierras, este indicador tiende a recuperarse. Estos resultados sugieren la inclusión de la determinación del COS L , como indicador de alerta del efecto de los usos del suelo sobre su calidad

  1. Almacenamiento de carbono en especies predominantes de flora en el lago Chinchaycocha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Medrano Yanqui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar la cantidad de carbono que almacenan las especies predominantes de flora del lago Chinchaycocha. Métodos: La investigación fue de tipo básica, de corte transversal y con un nivel exploratorio-comparativo. El estudio se hizo en tres ecosistemas dentro del humedal: bofedal, pajonal y totoral, las áreas fueron identificadas con ayuda de imágenes satelitales Landsat. El procedimiento estuvo basado en la recolección de muestras divididas en: biomasa aérea, biomasa radicular y muestras de suelo, hallándose el contenido de carbono de cada una. Resultados: En el totoral se obtuvo que Schoenoplectus californicus Var. Tatora almacena 30,65 tC/ha y Juncos arcticus Var. Andicola 8,70 tC/ha. En el pajonal Deyeuxia recta Kunth almacena 7,02 tC/ha en su biomasa aérea y 8,41 tC/ha en su biomasa radicular. En el bofedal: Plantago tubulosa almacena 0,81 t C/ha en su biomasa aérea y 1,88 t C/ha en su biomasa radicular, Eleocharis albibracteata almacena 0,22 t C/ha en su biomasa aérea y 2,95 tC/ha en su biomasa radicular, y Limosella australis almacena 0,22 tC/ha en su biomasa aérea y 0,38 tC/ha en su biomasa radicular. En el almacenamiento de carbono en suelos se determinó 774,76 tC/ ha en pajonales y 684,58 tC/ha en bofedales. Conclusiones: Se concluye que en el lago Chinchaycocha el ecosistema que brinda mayor almacenamiento de carbono es el totoral, seguido por el pajonal y en menor proporción el bofedal. Asimismo los suelos son considerados los mayores sumideros de carbono.

  2. O balanço de carbono da Amazônia brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Nobre

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available GLOBALMENTE, a biota terrestre é um sumidouro significativo de dióxido de carbono (CO2 atmosférico. Estudos recentes do IPCC para a década de 1990 estimam a biota terrestre com sendo um sumidouro líquido de aproximadamente 1,4 gigatonelada de carbono por ano (assimilação líquida pela biota terrestre menos as emissões devidas às mudanças dos usos da terra. É provável que a maior parte desse suposto sumidouro aconteça nas florestas das latitudes médias e dos trópicos. Estudos do ciclo do carbono do Experimento LBA estão mostrando que as florestas não-perturbadas da Amazônia comportam-se com um forte sumidouro de carbono, com taxas na faixa de 1 a 7 toneladas por hectare por ano, ao passo que as áreas inundadas e os rios podem estar agindo como fonte de carbono de até 1,2 tonelada por hectare por ano. O desmatamento e a queima de biomassa representam uma emissão líquida de aproximadamente 0,2 gigatonelada de carbono por ano na Amazônia brasileira. Ainda que se leve em conta as grandes incertezas existentes sobre essas medidas, o balanço das evidências observacionais aponta para a possibilidade de que as florestas tropicais da América do Sul estejam funcionando como sumidouros de carbono da atmosfera.GLOBALLY, the terrestrial biota acts as a significant carbon sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2. The most recent estimate from IPCC for the 1990's puts the terrestrial biota at a net sink of 1.4 gigaton of carbon per year (net carbon uptake by the biota minus emissions from land use changes. It is likely that most of this presumed sink takes place in mid-latitude and tropical forests. Carbon cycle studies in the LBA Experiment indicate that the undisturbed forest of Amazonia may be a strong sink of carbon, at rates from 1 to 7 tons per hectare per year, whereas the wetlands may act as a source of carbon into the atmosphere of up to 1.2 ton per hectare per year. Deforestation and biomass burning in Brazilian Amazonia

  3. Open Mobile API: Accessing the UICC on Android Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Roland, Michael; Hölzl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This report gives an overview of secure element integration into Android devices. It focuses on the Open Mobile API as an open interface to access secure elements from Android applications. The overall architecture of the Open Mobile API is described and current Android devices are analyzed with regard to the availability of this API. Moreover, this report summarizes our efforts of reverse engineering the stock ROM of a Samsung Galaxy S3 in order to analyze the integration of the Open Mobile ...

  4. Integration of Environmental Sensors with BIM: case studies using Arduino, Dynamo, and the Revit API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensek, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the feasibility of connecting environmental sensors such as light, humidity, or CO2 receptors to a building information model (BIM. A base case was created in Rhino; using Grasshopper and Firefly, a simple digital model responded to lighting-levels detected by a photoresistor on an Arduino board. The case study was duplicated using Revit Architecture, a popular BIM software, and Dynamo, a visual programming environment, in an innovative application. Another case study followed a similar procedure by implementing the Revit API directly instead of using Dynamo. Then the process was reversed to demonstrate that not only could data could be sent from sensors to change the 3D model, but changes to parameters of a 3D model could effect a physical model through the use of actuators. It is intended that these virtual/physical prototypes could be used as the basis for testing intelligent façade systems before constructing full size mock-ups.Este estudio investiga la posibilidad de conectar sensores ambientales como de luz, humedad, o dióxido de carbono con un modelo de información de un edificio (siglas BIM en inglés. Un caso base fue creado en Rhino; usando Grasshopper and Firefly, donde un simple modelo digital respondió a niveles de luz detectados por un foto resistor en una tarjeta Arduino. El caso de estudio fue duplicado usando Revit Architecture, una herramienta popular en BIM, y Dynamo, un ambiente de programación gráfica, en una creativa aplicación. Un segundo caso de estudio siguió un procedimiento similar implementando Revit API directamente en vez de usar Dynamo. Entonces el proceso fue revertido para demostrar que no solamente la información podría ser enviada desde sensores para cambiar el modelo tridimensional, pero cambios en los parámetros de un modelo tridimensional podrían afectar un modelo físico mediante el uso de actuadores. Se espera que esos modelos virtuales puedan ser usados como base para

  5. Privacy Issues of the W3C Geolocation API

    CERN Document Server

    Doty, Nick; Wilde, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The W3C's Geolocation API may rapidly standardize the transmission of location information on the Web, but, in dealing with such sensitive information, it also raises serious privacy concerns. We analyze the manner and extent to which the current W3C Geolocation API provides mechanisms to support privacy. We propose a privacy framework for the consideration of location information and use it to evaluate the W3C Geolocation API, both the specification and its use in the wild, and recommend some modifications to the API as a result of our analysis.

  6. Synthesis of a new family of Schiff base nonionic surfactants and evaluation of their corrosion inhibition effect on X-65 type tubing steel in deep oil wells formation water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some new Schiff base nonionic surfactants were synthesized and characterized using FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The corrosion inhibition effect of the synthesized surfactants on X-65 type tubing steel in deep oil wells formation water has been studied by polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and weight loss measurements. Polarization data indicate that the selected surfactants act as mixed type (cathodic/anodic) inhibitors. EIS results show that the change in impedance parameters with the concentration of the surfactants studied is indicative of the adsorption of surfactant molecules on carbon steel surface. The adsorption of the inhibitors was well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Effect of temperature on the efficiency of the corrosion inhibition process was studied and the values of activation energy, enthalpy of activation and entropy of activation were calculated and discussed. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the surfactants is correlated with surface tension measurements data. The protective film formed on the carbon steel surface was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX) techniques.

  7. What Should Developers Be Aware Of? An Empirical Study on the Directives of API Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Monperrus, Martin; Tekes, Elif; Mezini, Mira

    2012-01-01

    Application Programming Interfaces (API) are exposed to developers in order to reuse software libraries. API directives are natural-language statements in API documentation that make developers aware of constraints and guidelines related to the usage of an API. This paper presents the design and the results of an empirical study on the directives of API documentation of object-oriented libraries. Its main contribution is to propose and extensively discuss a taxonomy of 23 kinds of API directives.

  8. Incentivos econômicos e projeto de supply chain para captura e sequestro de carbono: caso Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto del Rosario Santibañez Gonzalez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, analisamos uma estratégia para reduzir as emissões de carbono que combina simultaneamente a criação de políticas de incentivo econômico e o desenvolvimento de uma infraestrutura de rede para captura e sequestro de carbono (CCS. Propomos um modelo de otimização linear inteira mista que considera aspectos técnicos e teóricos e permite analisar simultaneamente os efeitos de estabelecer preços para as emissões de carbono (carbon tax em conjunto com uma estratégia de implementação de uma rede de supply chain para capturar, transportar e sequestrar CO2 em reservatórios geológicos. Apresentamos resultados para o caso da indústria de cimento do Brasil usando CO2 tax estabelecidas atualmente em outros países.

  9. STABILITY TESTING OF ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENT [API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Vipul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Stability plays an important role in drug development process. It explains several factors that affect the quality of a drug substance or drug products varies with time under the influence of environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and light. Stability studies play a vital role to decide the re-test period and shelf life for the drug substance and recommended storage conditions of API. ICH and EMEA guidelines define stability data package for new drug substance or drug product that is sufficient for a registration application within the three regions of the EC, Japan and United States.

  10. Adaptive runtime for a multiprocessing API

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antao, Samuel F.; Bertolli, Carlo; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; O' Brien, John K.

    2016-10-11

    A computer-implemented method includes selecting a runtime for executing a program. The runtime includes a first combination of feature implementations, where each feature implementation implements a feature of an application programming interface (API). Execution of the program is monitored, and the execution uses the runtime. Monitor data is generated based on the monitoring. A second combination of feature implementations are selected, by a computer processor, where the selection is based at least in part on the monitor data. The runtime is modified by activating the second combination of feature implementations to replace the first combination of feature implementations.

  11. Pegada de carbono da Quinta da Gruta: quantificação e compensação

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Mafalda Diana das Dores Rocha e

    2011-01-01

    A presente dissertação resulta de uma proposta feita por parte da Câmara Municipal da Maia, para a realização de um estudo sobre a pegada de carbono na Quinta da Gruta, um centro de educação ambiental localizado na freguesia de Avioso (Santa Maria), na Vila do Castêlo da Maia. Neste sentido, após uma revisão de literatura no âmbito das metodologias actualmente usadas no cálculo da pegada de carbono, foram calculadas as emissões totais anuais decorrentes da actividade da Quinta da Gruta, pa...

  12. API and CPTDC Jointly Promote Chinese Enterprises to Go Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chunhui

    2005-01-01

    @@ In order to push the certification forward and help more Chinese enterprises to go abroad, API (American Petroleum Institute) and CPTDC (China Petroleum Technology & Development Corporation) jointly held a meeting between March 4 and 8, 2004, to promote API certification of Chinese enterprises.

  13. Interfacing RASCAL with Java APIs. Automated mapping with Apache POI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marmanidis, G.

    2013-01-01

    Interfacing RASCAL with Java APIs and reusing existing implementations is a required functionality in order to reduce effort and time in contrast with implementing a new one from scratch. In this study we are trying to interface RASCAL with Apache POI, a Java implemented API in order to import and a

  14. Experience API: Flexible, Decentralized and Activity-Centric Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevan, Jonathan M.; Ryan, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    This emerging technology report describes the Experience API (xAPI), a new e-learning specification designed to support the learning community in standardizing and collecting both formal and informal distributed learning activities. Informed by Activity Theory, a framework aligned with constructivism, data is collected in the form of activity…

  15. Nanotubos de carbono aplicados às neurociências: perspectivas e desafios

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Oliveira; Michele Munk Pereira; Humberto de Mello Brandão; Marcos Antônio Fernandes Brandão; Wagner Farid Gattaz; Nádia Rezende Barbosa Raposo

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Os nanotubos de carbono (NTCs) são os nanomateriais mais promissores para aplicação terapêutica em doenças neurodegenerativas. Aplicações potenciais incluem sistemas de liberação controlada de fármacos, interfaces elétricas e substratos para crescimento celular. OBJETIVO: Descrever o estado da arte e as perspectivas e desafios da aplicação dos NTCs nas neurociências. MÉTODO: Procedeu-se a uma busca sistemática nos indexadores Medline, Lilacs e SciELO, utilizando os descritores "ca...

  16. FINANCIAMIENTO DE PROYECTOS URBANO-ECOLÓGICOS MEDIANTE INTERCAMBIO DE BONOS DE CARBONO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Pérez Lancellotti

    2010-01-01

    a diversas escalas, nos concentraremos específi camente en proyectos a escala urbana, los llamados proyectos "Ecociudad". Los bonos verdes o bonos de carbono, son instrumentos fi nancieros hasta hoy muy utilizados en proyectos más bien ligados a la generación de energías renovables. Este trabajo, revisará principalmente algunos proyectos de Ecociudad que se están llevando, a cabo y específi camente el caso de Dongtan en China.

  17. Sistema de seguridad para elaborar nanopartículas de carbono a escala de laboratorio

    OpenAIRE

    Dania Soguero González; Jorge Castillo Álvarez; Luis Felipe Desdín García

    2012-01-01

    Las nanopartículas de carbono (NPC) han sido de las más utilizadas, debido a sus propiedades. Muchas de estas propiedades que hacen tan útil a las NPC también pueden hacerlas tóxicas para las células y el organismo y por lo tanto deben ser manipuladas con precaución. El Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN) está desarrollando un programa de investigación que incluye la síntesis NPC usando el método de descarga de arco sumergida en agua. En este trabajo se describe ...

  18. Projecto e desenvolvimento de reactor HFCVD para revestimentos à base de carbono

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, José Augusto Machado Figueiredo dos

    2007-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objectivo fundamental o projecto e construção de um reactor para deposição química de filmes à base de carbono em fase vapor, bem como o desenvolvimento do respectivo sistema de controlo e monitorização. Para efeitos, foi necessário, numa primeira fase de trabalho, realizar um estudo aprofundado sobre os mecanismos físico-químicos de crescimento de filmes de diamante segundo a técnica referida que serviu de base ao dimensionamento do reactor....

  19. La Dieta del Dióxido de Carbono (CO2)

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Medina Valtierra

    2010-01-01

    Hoy en día y frecuentemente estamos viviendo el incremento de los desastres naturales en nuestro planeta y además sabemos que esto se debe al fenómeno llamado calentamiento global. Si este fenómeno continúa en aumento, muy pronto se tendrá un resultado devastador en el clima de la Tierra, aún para un aumento global de tan solo 2 ºC en un tiempo corto. El dióxido de carbono (CO2) es un importante contaminante cuya concentración aumenta y contribuye notablemente a tal sistema anómalo. Pero, un ...

  20. API E MIELE NEL MEDITERRANEO ANTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bormetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available L’importanza del miele come sostanza culturalmente ed economicamente rilevante nel mondo antico non è stata ancora del tutto indagata. Il miele e le api sono nondimeno presenze assidue e trasversali ai generi e alle tipologie di fonti antiche greche e romane, ed è pertanto da esse che una ricerca sull’argomento deve partire. I manufatti, le tecniche e i concetti descritti dagli antichi devono però essere relazionati con cautela al materiale archeologico rinvenuto, per fare ciò pare indispensabile un approccio che tenga conto delle nozioni biologiche, etologiche e zootecniche di base. Attraverso quest’ottica sono state ricapitolate le evidenze materiali provenienti dal bacino del Mediterraneo e concernenti gli strumenti e le strutture relative all’apicoltura, dalle arnie agli apiari, peril lungo arco cronologico che va dall’età del bronzo alla tarda antichità. Ciò è possibile per la tematica apicola grazie alla conservatività delle tecniche, strettamente legate ai severi dettami della natura fino alla rivoluzione ottocentesca delle arnie razionali a telai mobili del reverendo Langstroth. Sono inoltre analizzati gli utilizzi più frequenti del miele per come descritti dalle fonti letterarie nonché le implicazioni di api e miele nella ritualità e nel simbolismo della morte, del genere e della regalità, sebbene i risultati siano scarsi data la povertà dei riscontri archeologici e la limitata attenzione di cui questo argomento ha fin ora goduto.

  1. Hymenoptera venom review focusing on Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. de Lima

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera venoms are complex mixtures containing simple organic molecules, proteins, peptides, and other bioactive elements. Several of these components have been isolated and characterized, and their primary structures determined by biochemical techniques. These compounds are responsible for many toxic or allergic reactions in different organisms, such as local pain, inflammation, itching, irritation, and moderate or severe allergic reactions. The most extensively characterized Hymenoptera venoms are bee venoms, mainly from the Apis genus and also from social wasps and ant species. However, there is little information about other Hymenoptera groups. The Apis venom presents high molecular weight molecules - enzymes with a molecular weight higher than 10.0 kDa - and peptides. The best studied enzymes are phospholipase A2, responsible for cleaving the membrane phospholipids, hyaluronidase, which degrades the matrix component hyaluronic acid into non-viscous segments and acid phosphatase acting on organic phosphates. The main peptide compounds of bee venom are lytic peptide melittin, apamin (neurotoxic, and mastocyte degranulating peptide (MCD.

  2. Investigating an API for resilient exascale computing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stearley, Jon R.; Tomkins, James; VanDyke, John P.; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Laros, James H.,; Bridges, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Increased HPC capability comes with increased complexity, part counts, and fault occurrences. In- creasing the resilience of systems and applications to faults is a critical requirement facing the viability of exascale systems, as the overhead of traditional checkpoint/restart is projected to outweigh its bene ts due to fault rates outpacing I/O bandwidths. As faults occur and propagate throughout hardware and software layers, pervasive noti cation and handling mechanisms are necessary. This report describes an initial investigation of fault types and programming interfaces to mitigate them. Proof-of-concept APIs are presented for the frequent and important cases of memory errors and node failures, and a strategy proposed for lesystem failures. These involve changes to the operating system, runtime, I/O library, and application layers. While a single API for fault handling among hardware and OS and application system-wide remains elusive, the e ort increased our understanding of both the mountainous challenges and the promising trailheads. 3

  3. Coming 5th Edition of the API Standard 618: major changes compared to the API 618, 4th edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyle, A.; Eijk, A.; Elferink, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper will present the highlights of changes that will be found in the 5th Edition of API 618, which is expected to be published in late 2003 or early 2004. Approximately every 5 years the API Standards are revised in such a way that the latest field experiences and proven designs are included

  4. The IRMIS object model and services API.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, C.; Dohan, D. A.; Arnold, N. D.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

    2005-01-01

    The relational model developed for the Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) toolkit has been successfully used to capture the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system software (EPICS process variables and their definitions). The relational tables are populated by a crawler script that parses each Input/Output Controller (IOC) start-up file when an IOC reboot is detected. User interaction is provided by a Java Swing application that acts as a desktop for viewing the process variable information. Mapping between the display objects and the relational tables was carried out with the Hibernate Object Relational Modeling (ORM) framework. Work is well underway at the APS to extend the relational modeling to include control system hardware. For this work, due in part to the complex user interaction required, the primary application development environment has shifted from the relational database view to the object oriented (Java) perspective. With this approach, the business logic is executed in Java rather than in SQL stored procedures. This paper describes the object model used to represent control system software, hardware, and interconnects in IRMIS. We also describe the services API used to encapsulate the required behaviors for creating and maintaining the complex data. In addition to the core schema and object model, many important concepts in IRMIS are captured by the services API. IRMIS is an ambitious collaborative effort for defining and developing a relational database and associated applications to comprehensively document the large and complex EPICS-based control systems of today's accelerators. The documentation effort includes process variables, control system hardware, and interconnections. The approach could also be used to document all components of the accelerator, including mechanical, vacuum, power supplies, etc. One key aspect of IRMIS is that it is a documentation framework, not a design and development tool. We do not

  5. The IRMIS object model and services API

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relational model developed for the Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) toolkit has been successfully used to capture the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system software (EPICS process variables and their definitions). The relational tables are populated by a crawler script that parses each Input/Output Controller (IOC) start-up file when an IOC reboot is detected. User interaction is provided by a Java Swing application that acts as a desktop for viewing the process variable information. Mapping between the display objects and the relational tables was carried out with the Hibernate Object Relational Modeling (ORM) framework. Work is well underway at the APS to extend the relational modeling to include control system hardware. For this work, due in part to the complex user interaction required, the primary application development environment has shifted from the relational database view to the object oriented (Java) perspective. With this approach, the business logic is executed in Java rather than in SQL stored procedures. This paper describes the object model used to represent control system software, hardware, and interconnects in IRMIS. We also describe the services API used to encapsulate the required behaviors for creating and maintaining the complex data. In addition to the core schema and object model, many important concepts in IRMIS are captured by the services API. IRMIS is an ambitious collaborative effort for defining and developing a relational database and associated applications to comprehensively document the large and complex EPICS-based control systems of today's accelerators. The documentation effort includes process variables, control system hardware, and interconnections. The approach could also be used to document all components of the accelerator, including mechanical, vacuum, power supplies, etc. One key aspect of IRMIS is that it is a documentation framework, not a design and development tool. We do not

  6. Building Hypermedia APIs with HTML5 and Node

    CERN Document Server

    Amundsen, Mike

    2011-01-01

    With this concise book, you'll learn the art of building hypermedia APIs that don't simply run on the Web, but that actually exist in the Web. You'll start with the general principles and technologies behind this architectural approach, and then dive hands-on into three fully-functional API examples. Too many APIs rely on concepts rooted in desktop and local area network patterns that don't scale well-costly solutions that are difficult to maintain over time. This book shows system architects and web developers how to design and implement human- and machine-readable web services that remain

  7. Privacy Issues of the W3C Geolocation API

    OpenAIRE

    Doty, Nick; Mulligan, Deirdre K.; Wilde, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The W3C's Geolocation API may rapidly standardize the transmission of location information on the Web, but, in dealing with such sensitive information, it also raises serious privacy concerns. We analyze the manner and extent to which the current W3C Geolocation API provides mechanisms to support privacy. We propose a privacy framework for the consideration of location information and use it to evaluate the W3C Geolocation API, both the specification and its use in the wild, and recommend s...

  8. Dinámica del carbono (almacenes y flujos en manglares de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Herrera Silveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La cobertura de los manglares de México los coloca en cuarto lugar a nivel mundial. Se reconocen sus múltiples servicios ecosistémicos, pero también altas tasas de deforestación. Evaluaciones en otras partes del mundo destacan el papel de los manglares en el ciclo del carbono, principalmente como almacenes de carbono orgánico (Corg en los sedimentos y exportadores de Corg disuelto y particulado. Para estimar la contribución de los manglares, a escala local, regional y de país, en estrategias como la Reducción de Emisiones por Deforestación y Degradación (REDD+, es indispensable determinar los almacenes de Corg como línea base de emisiones. En este estudio se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica sobre almacenes y flujos de carbono en manglares de México mediante diferentes fuentes de información. De más de 200 estudios, solo 48 contenían datos o información para hacer una revisión del estado que guarda el conocimiento de almacenes y flujos de Corg en los manglares de México. Regionalmente, la zona del Pacífico Central tiene menos información y la Península de Yucatán donde más datos existen. Los mayores almacenes de Corg total se localizan en el Golfo de México y en los manglares de tipo ribereño (>1200 Mg C ha-1. Existe menos información sobre flujos de Corg, dominando los relacionados con la caída de hojarasca. En la zona del Pacífico Sur y en el manglar ribereño se observaron los valores más altos. La extensión y variabilidad de condiciones ambientales en los manglares de México son una oportunidad para desarrollar múltiples temas de investigación, como la caracterización de paisajes y mapas locales de coberturas relacionados con variables del agua (hidroperíodo, del suelo (topografía y procesos microbiológicos. La extensión y distribución de los manglares ofrecen la oportunidad para formar grupos de investigadores a escala regional y abordar de forma consensada estudios bajo una estrategia metodol

  9. Multivariate Morphometric Study on Apis florea Distributed in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, Ayça; Gharleko, Mohammed M.; ÖZDEN, Berna; KANDEMİR, İrfan

    2009-01-01

    Multivariate Morphometric and Spatial Autocorrelation Analyses were performed to determine the morphometric variation in Apis florea colonies representing 13 localities from 4 states on the coastal north-south diagonal in Iran. New morphometric characters (hind wing length, hind wing width, and hind wing angles) were also measured to determine the usefulness of these characters for Apis florea. Analysis of variance of new morphometric characters showed that 7 out of the 8 hind wing variables ...

  10. Pengaruh Busur Api Terhadap Kekuatan Dielektrik Gas SF6

    OpenAIRE

    Jhony

    2011-01-01

    Bahan isolasi gas yang sering digunakan adalah gas SF6. Sifat –sifat dari gas SF6 ini tidak berwarna, tidak beracun, tidak berbau. Salah satu pemanfaatan dari gas SF6 ini sebagai bahan isolasi adalah pada pemutus tenaga (circuit breaker). Jika pemutus tenaga SF6 membuka, maka pada sela kontaknya akan terjadi busur api. Busur api akan menaikkan temperatur gas SF6 sehingga ada dugaan gas SF6 mengalami perubahan struktur kimia, sehingga sifat listriknya berubah. Tugas akhir ini ak...

  11. Drone competition at drone congregation areas in four Apis species

    OpenAIRE

    KOENIGER, Nikolaus; Koeniger, Gudrun; Gries, Michael; TINGEK, Salim

    2005-01-01

    International audience In Apis mellifera the estimated average number of drones visiting a drone congregation area (DCA) was 11 750 + 2 145. Drones of the species Apis cerana, A. koschevnikovi, A. dorsata and A. mellifera, which pursued a queen dummy moving in circular course, flew in a comet shaped formation. Median numbers of drones in a comet ranged from 9 drones (A. koschevnikovi) to 31 drones (A. mellifera). In none of the species we observed aggression between drones. Drone density b...

  12. Identification of Yersinia spp. with the API 20E system.

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, J R; Schell, R F; Pennell, D R; Wick, P D

    1987-01-01

    The ability of the API 20E system to identify 105 clinical isolates of Yersinia spp. was compared with those of conventional biochemical tests at 28 and 37 degrees C. Elimination of the Voges-Proskauer test (recorded as a negative result) increased the percentage of correct identifications for Yersinia spp. from 66 to 93% when the API 20E strips were incubated at 28 degrees C.

  13. GIANT API: an application programming interface for functional genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew M.; Wong, Aaron K.; Fisk, Ian; Troyanskaya, Olga G.

    2016-01-01

    GIANT API provides biomedical researchers programmatic access to tissue-specific and global networks in humans and model organisms, and associated tools, which includes functional re-prioritization of existing genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. Using tissue-specific interaction networks, researchers are able to predict relationships between genes specific to a tissue or cell lineage, identify the changing roles of genes across tissues and uncover disease-gene associations. Additionally, GIANT API enables computational tools like NetWAS, which leverages tissue-specific networks for re-prioritization of GWAS results. The web services covered by the API include 144 tissue-specific functional gene networks in human, global functional networks for human and six common model organisms and the NetWAS method. GIANT API conforms to the REST architecture, which makes it stateless, cacheable and highly scalable. It can be used by a diverse range of clients including web browsers, command terminals, programming languages and standalone apps for data analysis and visualization. The API is freely available for use at http://giant-api.princeton.edu. PMID:27098035

  14. GIANT API: an application programming interface for functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew M; Wong, Aaron K; Fisk, Ian; Troyanskaya, Olga G

    2016-07-01

    GIANT API provides biomedical researchers programmatic access to tissue-specific and global networks in humans and model organisms, and associated tools, which includes functional re-prioritization of existing genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. Using tissue-specific interaction networks, researchers are able to predict relationships between genes specific to a tissue or cell lineage, identify the changing roles of genes across tissues and uncover disease-gene associations. Additionally, GIANT API enables computational tools like NetWAS, which leverages tissue-specific networks for re-prioritization of GWAS results. The web services covered by the API include 144 tissue-specific functional gene networks in human, global functional networks for human and six common model organisms and the NetWAS method. GIANT API conforms to the REST architecture, which makes it stateless, cacheable and highly scalable. It can be used by a diverse range of clients including web browsers, command terminals, programming languages and standalone apps for data analysis and visualization. The API is freely available for use at http://giant-api.princeton.edu. PMID:27098035

  15. Mining Effective Temporal Specifications from Heterogeneous API Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Wu; Guang-Tai Liang; Qian-Xiang Wang; Hong Mei

    2011-01-01

    Temporal specifications for Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) serve as an important basis for many defect detection tools.As these specifications are often not well documented,various approaches have been proposed to automatically mine specifications typically from API library source code or from API client programs.However,the library-based approaches take substantial computational resources and produce rather limited useful specifications,while the client-based approaches suffer from high false positive rates.To address the issues of existing approaches,we propose a novel specification miniug approach,called MineHEAD,which exploits heterogeneous API data,including information from API client programs as well as API library source code and comments,to produce effective specifications for defect detection with low cost.In particular,MineHEAD first applies client-based specification mining to produce a collection of candidate specifications,and then exploits the related library source code and comments to identify and refine the real specifications from the candidates.Our evaluation results on nine open source projects show that MineHEAD produces effective specifications with average precision of 97.2%.

  16. The global warming, public goods and carbon market; Calentamiento global, bienes publicos y mercado de carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadri de la Torre, Gabriel [EcoSecurities (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    The global warming is an issue of the public goods, and demands an outstanding multilateral action, which must to ensure both efficiency and unchanging transition towards an economy of low intensity of carbon. The new system, which is going to replace the Kyoto Protocol, will have compromises for the developing countries and deep implication in the relative competitivity of the nations and companies. [Spanish] El calentamiento global es un problema de bienes publicos que exige una extraordinaria accion multilateral. Esta debe asegurar eficiencia y una transicion fluida hacia una economia de baja intensidad de carbono. El nuevo sistema que sucedera al Protocolo de Kyoto significara compromisos para los paises en vias de desarrollo, y tendra profundas implicaciones en la competitividad relativa de naciones y empresas.

  17. La Dieta del Dióxido de Carbono (CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Medina Valtierra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoy en día y frecuentemente estamos viviendo el incremento de los desastres naturales en nuestro planeta y además sabemos que esto se debe al fenómeno llamado calentamiento global. Si este fenómeno continúa en aumento, muy pronto se tendrá un resultado devastador en el clima de la Tierra, aún para un aumento global de tan solo 2 ºC en un tiempo corto. El dióxido de carbono (CO2 es un importante contaminante cuya concentración aumenta y contribuye notablemente a tal sistema anómalo. Pero, un aumento en la temperatura del aire incrementará también la cantidad de vapor de agua en la atmósfera, añadiendo con esto más "fuego" al fenómeno señalado.

  18. Carbon Bonds and the saving of energy; Bonos de carbono y el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Ramirez, Alejandro [NovaEnergia (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This document deals with the development of the carbon bond project, the energy saving and the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol at a world-wide level. In this project Mexico opts for a development model in which the economic growth brakes ties with the discharge of greenhouse effect gases and in which the progress does not mean more damages to our planet. [Spanish] Este documento trata sobre el desarrollo del proyecto de bonos de carbono, ahorro de energia y la entrada en vigor del Protocolo de Kyoto a nivel mundial, en el cual Mexico opta por un modelo de desarrollo en el que el crecimiento economico esta desvinculado de la emision de gases de efecto invernadero y en donde el progreso no signifique mas danos a nuestro planeta.

  19. CAPTURA E ARMAZENAMENTO DE CO2 EM PORTUGAL: UMA PONTE PARA UMA ECONOMIA DE BAIXO CARBONO

    OpenAIRE

    Seixas, Júlia; Fortes, Patricia; Dias, Luís; Carneiro, Júlio; Mesquita, Paulo; Marques, Ferreira; Fernandes, Vítor; Helseth, Jonas; Ciesielska, Joanna; Whiriskey, Keith

    2015-01-01

    As atuais projeções indicam que são necessários esforços adicionais para atingir os objetivos de mitigação acordados para 2030 bem como a ambição de reduzir as emissões de gases com efeito de estufa da UE em 80 a 95% em 2050, face a 1990, sendo este o objetivo necessário a longo prazo para descarbonizar o sistema energético e industrial Europeu consentâneo com uma trajetória de estabilização climática do Planeta. Este estudo mostra como as tecnologias de baixo carbono contribuem para atingir ...

  20. Kajian Bentuk Pengolahan dan Analisis Finansial Buah Api api (Avicennia officinalis L.) Sebagai Bahan Makanan dan Minuman di Kabupaten Deli Serdang

    OpenAIRE

    Sianturi, Gustinaria

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi bentuk pengolahan, tingkat kelayakan nilai finansial, dan strategi pengembangan usaha pengolahan buah api-api (Avicennia officinalis L.) di Dusun Paluh Merbau, Desa Tanjung Rejo, Kecamatan Percut Sei Tuan, Kabupaten Deli Serdang. Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif, analisis finansial, dan analisis strategi pengembangan usaha dengan menggunakan analisis SWOT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa produk olahan buah api-...

  1. Comparative toxicity and hazards of pesticides to Apis and non-Apis bees. A chemometrical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, J; Decourtye, A; Budzinskid, H; Pham-Delègue, M H; Cluzeau, S; Maurin, G

    2003-01-01

    The adverse effects of 158 pesticides to the Honey bee (Apis mellifera), the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata) and the alkali bee (Nomia melanderi) were compared by means of various linear and non-linear multivariate analyses. A comparison exercise including the bumble bee (Bombus spp.) was also performed from a more restricted set of 32 pesticides. While no difference of sensitivity was found between A. mellifera and Bombus spp., M. rotundata appeared the most susceptible to pesticides followed by N. melanderi. PMID:14758982

  2. Variance in spermatozoa number among Apis dorsata drones and among Apis mellifera drones

    OpenAIRE

    Koeniger, Gudrun; KOENIGER, Nikolaus; TINGEK, Salim; Phiancharoen, Mananya

    2005-01-01

    International audience Published estimates of the mean spermatozoa numbers for Apis dorsata drones vary from 1.2 × 106 and 2.4 × 106; the number of spermatozoa per individual drone vary from 0.22 × 106 to 2.65 × 106. Counts presented here revealed 1.19 × 106 + 0.25 × 106 spermatozoa in drones sampled near a colony and 1.59 × 106 + 0.18 × 106 in drones sampled at a drone congregation area (DCA) in Sabah, Borneo. The difference between the two sites is significant. Further, the degree of var...

  3. Reproduction of Varroa destructor in sealed worker bee brood cells of Apis mellifera carnica and Apis mellifera syriaca in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Alattal, Yehya; Rosenkranz, Peter; Zebitz, Claus Paul Walter

    2008-01-01

    The reproduction of the honey bee mite, Varroa destructor in sealed worker bee brood cells represents an important factor for the population development of this parasite in honey bee colonies. In this study, the relative infestation levels of worker brood cells, mite fertility (mites that lay at least one egg) and reproductive rate (number of viable adult daughters per mother mite) of Varroa mite in worker brood cells of Apis m. carnica and Apis m. syriaca were compared in fall 2003 and summe...

  4. Formas de carbono orgánico en suelos con diferentes usos en el departamento del Magdalena (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Vásquez-Polo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las fracciones de materia orgánica del suelo (MOS lábiles y humificadas pueden ser afectadas por las prácticas de uso y manejo; sin embargo el impacto de estos cambios no se ha evaluado en suelos y ambientes tropicales. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los contenidos y algunas formas de carbono orgánico del suelo (COS en cinco zonas de clima cálido tropical (0 - 1110 m.s.n.m. del departamento del Magdalena (Colombia y el efecto que sobre ellas han tenido las prácticas asociadas a suelos cultivados con café (Coffea arabica, banano (Musa sp., palma africana (Elaeis guineensis y sábila (Aloe vera, comparados con suelos de bosques naturales. No se encontraron diferencias (P < 0.05 tanto entre zonas como entre usos del suelo, se presentaron valores medios a bajos de MOS en las zonas de estudio y contenidos de carbono total (Ct mayores en suelos de bosques que en suelos cultivados, así los suelos de bosques presentan una acumulación media de Ct de 42.4 mg/ha a 20 cm, frente a 33.8 mg/ha en los suelos cultivados, esto equivale a una pérdida media de Ct del 23% por efecto del manejo de los cultivos. En relación con el carbono extraíble con pirofosfato sódico altamente relacionado con las fracciones humificadas de la MOS (Cp se observaron valores muy bajos en los suelos cultivados y casi nulos en suelos de bosques; sin embargo estos últimos presentan mayor contenido de formas de carbono no-oxidables o estables (Cnox determinado por diferencia entre Ct - carbono oxidable (Cox. En el suelo cultivado con banano, el Ct corresponde en su totalidad a formas de Cox; mientras que en el suelo cultivado con palma africana las formas estables Cnox representaron 83% del carbono total.

  5. Formas de carbono orgánico en suelos con diferentes usos en el departamento del Magdalena (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menjivar Flores Juan Carlos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las fracciones de materia orgánica del suelo (MOS lábiles y humificadas pueden ser afectadas por las prácticas de uso y manejo; sin embargo el impacto de estos cambios no se ha evaluado en suelos y ambientes tropicales. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los contenidos y algunas formas de carbono orgánico del suelo (COS en cinco zonas de clima cálido tropical (0 - 1110 m.s.n.m. del departamento del Magdalena (Colombia y el efecto que sobre ellas han tenido las prácticas asociadas a suelos cultivados con café (Coffea arabica, banano (Musa sp., palma africana (Elaeis guineensis y sábila (Aloe vera, comparados con suelos de bosques naturales. No se encontraron diferencias (P < 0.05 tanto entre zonas como entre usos del suelo, se presentaron valores medios a bajos de MOS en las zonas de estudio y contenidos de carbono total (Ct mayores en suelos de bosques que en suelos cultivados, así los suelos de bosques presentan una acumulación media de Ct de 42.4 mg/ha a 20 cm, frente a 33.8 mg/ha en los suelos cultivados, esto equivale a una pérdida media de Ct del 23% por efecto del manejo de los cultivos. En relación con el carbono extraíble con pirofosfato sódico altamente relacionado con las fracciones humificadas de la MOS (Cp se observaron valores muy bajos en los suelos cultivados y casi nulos en suelos de bosques; sin embargo estos últimos presentan mayor contenido de formas de carbono no-oxidables o estables (Cnox determinado por diferencia entre Ct - carbono oxidable (Cox. En el suelo cultivado con banano, el Ct corresponde en su totalidad a formas de Cox; mientras que en el suelo cultivado con palma africana las formas estables Cnox representaron 83% del carbono total.

  6. The Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Gauthier

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A complete reference genome of the Apis mellifera Filamentous virus (AmFV was determined using Illumina Hiseq sequencing. The AmFV genome is a double stranded DNA molecule of approximately 498,500 nucleotides with a GC content of 50.8%. It encompasses 247 non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs, equally distributed on both strands, which cover 65% of the genome. While most of the ORFs lacked threshold sequence alignments to reference protein databases, twenty-eight were found to display significant homologies with proteins present in other large double stranded DNA viruses. Remarkably, 13 ORFs had strong similarity with typical baculovirus domains such as PIFs (per os infectivity factor genes: pif-1, pif-2, pif-3 and p74 and BRO (Baculovirus Repeated Open Reading Frame. The putative AmFV DNA polymerase is of type B, but is only distantly related to those of the baculoviruses. The ORFs encoding proteins involved in nucleotide metabolism had the highest percent identity to viral proteins in GenBank. Other notable features include the presence of several collagen-like, chitin-binding, kinesin and pacifastin domains. Due to the large size of the AmFV genome and the inconsistent affiliation with other large double stranded DNA virus families infecting invertebrates, AmFV may belong to a new virus family.

  7. Honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) drone embryo proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianke; Fang, Yu; Zhang, Lan; Begna, Desalegn

    2011-03-01

    Little attention has been paid to the drone honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) which is a haploid individual carrying only the set of alleles that it inherits from its mother. Molecular mechanisms underlying drone embryogenesis are poorly understood. This study evaluated protein expression profiles of drone embryogenesis at embryonic ages of 24, 48 and 72h. More than 100 reproducible proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry on 2D electrophoresis gels. Sixty-two proteins were significantly changed at the selected three experimental age points. Expression of the metabolic energy requirement-related protein peaked at the embryonic age of 48h, whereas development and metabolizing amino acid-related proteins expressed optimally at 72h. Cytoskeleton, protein folding and antioxidant-related proteins were highly expressed at 48 and 72h. Protein networks of the identified proteins were constructed and protein expressions were validated at the transcription level. This first proteomic study of drone embryogenesis in the honeybee may provide geneticists an exact timetable and candidate protein outline for further manipulations of drone stem cells. PMID:21172355

  8. Inhibiting DNA methylation alters olfactory extinction but not acquisition learning in Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiwen; Wang, Chao; Nieh, James C; Tan, Ken

    2016-07-01

    DNA methylation plays a key role in invertebrate acquisition and extinction memory. Honey bees have excellent olfactory learning, but the role of DNA methylation in memory formation has, to date, only been studied in Apis mellifera. We inhibited DNA methylation by inhibiting DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) with zebularine (zeb) and studied the resulting effects upon olfactory acquisition and extinction memory in two honey bee species, Apis cerana and A. mellifera. We used the proboscis extension reflex (PER) assay to measure memory. We provide the first demonstration that DNA methylation is also important in the olfactory extinction learning of A. cerana. DNMT did not reduce acquisition learning in either species. However, zeb bidirectionally and differentially altered extinction learning in both species. In particular, zeb provided 1h before acquisition learning improved extinction memory retention in A. mellifera, but reduced extinction memory retention in A. cerana. The reasons for these differences are unclear, but provide a basis for future studies to explore species-specific differences in the effects of methylation on memory formation.

  9. Inhibiting DNA methylation alters olfactory extinction but not acquisition learning in Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiwen; Wang, Chao; Nieh, James C; Tan, Ken

    2016-07-01

    DNA methylation plays a key role in invertebrate acquisition and extinction memory. Honey bees have excellent olfactory learning, but the role of DNA methylation in memory formation has, to date, only been studied in Apis mellifera. We inhibited DNA methylation by inhibiting DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) with zebularine (zeb) and studied the resulting effects upon olfactory acquisition and extinction memory in two honey bee species, Apis cerana and A. mellifera. We used the proboscis extension reflex (PER) assay to measure memory. We provide the first demonstration that DNA methylation is also important in the olfactory extinction learning of A. cerana. DNMT did not reduce acquisition learning in either species. However, zeb bidirectionally and differentially altered extinction learning in both species. In particular, zeb provided 1h before acquisition learning improved extinction memory retention in A. mellifera, but reduced extinction memory retention in A. cerana. The reasons for these differences are unclear, but provide a basis for future studies to explore species-specific differences in the effects of methylation on memory formation. PMID:27262427

  10. A quick guide to API 510 certified pressure vessel inspector syllabus example questions and worked answers

    CERN Document Server

    Matthews, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    The API Individual Certification Programs (ICPs) are well established worldwide in the oil, gas, and petroleum industries. This Quick Guide is unique in providing simple, accessible and well-structured guidance for anyone studying the API 510 Certified Pressure Vessel Inspector syllabus by summarizing and helping them through the syllabus and providing multiple example questions and worked answers.Technical standards are referenced from the API 'body of knowledge' for the examination, i.e. API 510 Pressure vessel inspection, alteration, rerating; API 572 Pressure vessel inspection; API

  11. Consideraciones teórico prácticas acerca de la soldadura de los aceros al carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmundo Héctor Rodríguez Pérez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los tres tipos de aceros al carbono y su clasificación desde el punto de vista de su soldabilidad. Se pueden observar los aspectos físico - químicos en la zona fundida, zona de transición y zona afectada por el calor. Existen varios aspectos en la tecnología de la soldadura de los aceros al carbono, tales como: preparación de los bordes, limpieza superficial, posición relativa de las piezas, precalentamiento, selección del material de aporte, deposición de los cordones, postcalentamiento, tratamiento térmico posterior y el control de la calidad de las uniones soldadas a tomar en cuenta para realizar la soldadura.

  12. Analisis Kinerja Operasional Kereta Api Sriwedari Ekspress Jurusan Solo - Yogya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Rosida Sumantri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pada bulan Nopember 2012 PT. Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero DAOP 6 Yogyakarta mengoperasikan Kereta Api Sriwedari Ekspress dengan rute perjalanan Yogya – Solo, hal ini dilakukan untuk mengantisipasi lonjakan penumpang akibat pemangkasan rute perjalanan Kereta Api Prambanan Ekspress dari tiga belas kali perjalanan menjadi enam kali perjalanan. Menurut Humas PT. Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero DAOP 6 Yogyakarta, dibukanya rute baru Kereta Api Sriwedari Ekspress yang melayani delapan kali perjalanan hanya  dengan rute Yogya – Solo saja diharapkan kereta ini dapat memfasilitasi pergerakan penumpang antar dua daerah tersebut. Namun untuk mengetahui kinerja dari kereta api ini sesuai dengan Surat Keterangan Dirjen Perhubungan Darat No. 687 Tahun 2002, perlu ditinjau dari segi faktor muat, jumlah penumpang yang diangkut, waktu tunggu penumpang, ketepatan waktu kedatangan dan keberangkatan kereta dan kenyamanan penumpang. Dalam penelitian digunakan metode survey untuk mendapatkan nilai – nilai dari kinerja kereta api Sriwedari berupa survey observasi atau pengamatan lapangan.  Adapun  analisis yang digunakan untuk perhitungan waktu tempuh, waktu henti dan waktu tunda menggunakan uji hipotesis 1 sample t-test, karena uji ini paling memenuhi untuk melihat diterima atau tidaknya keterlambatan dari waktu kereta. Sedangkan untuk perhitungan load factor dan kenyamanan duduk dan berdiri berdasarkan perhitungan kapasitas dari Vukan R. Vuchic. Dari hasil analisis didapatkan waktu tempuh rata-rata untuk arah Yogyakarta selama 1 jam 14 menit dan untuk arah Solo selama 1 jam 12 menit. Waktu henti yang didapat dari seluruh jadwal perjalanan kereta arah Yogyakarta sebesar 3 menit, untuk arah Solo sebesar 5 menit. Waktu tunda dari seluruh perjalanan kereta Api Sriwedari untuk arah Yogyakarta didapat nilai waktu tunda kedatangan sebesar 22 menit dan nilai waktu tunda keberangkatan sebesar 20 menit, untuk arah Solo didapat nilai waktu tunda kedatangan sebesar 34

  13. A knowledge discovery object model API for Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Steven JM

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological data resources have become heterogeneous and derive from multiple sources. This introduces challenges in the management and utilization of this data in software development. Although efforts are underway to create a standard format for the transmission and storage of biological data, this objective has yet to be fully realized. Results This work describes an application programming interface (API that provides a framework for developing an effective biological knowledge ontology for Java-based software projects. The API provides a robust framework for the data acquisition and management needs of an ontology implementation. In addition, the API contains classes to assist in creating GUIs to represent this data visually. Conclusions The Knowledge Discovery Object Model (KDOM API is particularly useful for medium to large applications, or for a number of smaller software projects with common characteristics or objectives. KDOM can be coupled effectively with other biologically relevant APIs and classes. Source code, libraries, documentation and examples are available at http://www.bcgsc.ca/bioinfo/software.

  14. Comportamiento del monóxido de carbono y el clima en la ciudad de Toluca, de 1995 a 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Hernández Romero

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los gases contaminantes con mayor distribución y concentración en Toluca y su área metropolitana es el monóxido de carbono que, al igual que el dióxido de azufre y el dióxido de carbono, es generado principalmente por la combustión automotriz y, en segundo lugar por el sector industrial. Sin embargo, debido a la activa dinámica de los vientos en la mayor parte del año, estos gases tienden a dispersarse en todo el valle; solamente durante el invierno la concentración y la distribución del monóxido de carbono se encuentran por encima de las normas establecidas en la legislación vigente. Por eso se considera la calidad del aire como satisfactoria, aunque por su combinación con las bajas temperaturas del periodo invernal y la baja humedad del aire, tiende a representar riesgos para la salud humana.

  15. Reserva de carbono en biomasa forestal y suelos minerales en el Parque Nacional Malinche (México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Valdez Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Las áreas naturales protegidas representan una de las estrategias para la mitigación del cambio climático. El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en estimar el contenido de carbono en biomasa forestal en suelos minerales y calcular las pérdidas de carbono por cambios de uso del suelo en el Parque Nacional Malinche (PNM. La superficie de bosque del PNM es de 17.496,34 ha y almacena 1.544.377,66 mg en bosque y 4.148.985,97 mg en suelos. Para estimar el contenido de biomasa forestal se aplicaron ecuaciones alométricas y se trabajó con la cartografía del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI en el análisis espacio-temporal de los cambios de uso de suelo. Para el carbono en suelos se aplicaron los valores del Panel Intergubernamental de Cambio Climático (IPCC.

  16. Solubilização de fostatos por microrganismos na presença de fontes de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Silva Filho

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O potencial de solubilização de fosfatos por bactérias e fungos cultivados em meio de cultura GEL (Glicose-Extrato de Levedura, suplementado com diferentes formas de fosfatos (cálcio, alumínio e ferro e fontes de carbono (celulose, amido, sacarose, glicose, frutose e xilose, foi avaliado em laboratório. O crescimento, o diâmetro da área solubilizada e a relação halo/colônia variaram conforme o tipo de microrganismo e a fonte de fósforo e de carbono. Dos 57 isolados utilizados, 56 formaram halo na presença de fosfato de cálcio e cinco apenas na presença de fosfato de alumínio e nenhum foi capaz de solubilizar fosfato de ferro. Contudo, seis isolados cresceram melhor no meio com fosfato de ferro em comparação com o meio testemunha. As maiores colônias e halos foram observados nos isolados de Rhizopus e Aspergillus, enquanto as maiores relações halo/colônia foram encontradas em Paecilomyces e Penicillium. Todos os isolados cresceram no meio GEL base (testemunha sem açúcar, mas a solubilização ocorreu apenas na presença de carbono adicionado ao meio, destacando-se xilose, glicose, frutose e sacarose.

  17. Nosema ceranae in drone honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traver, Brenna E; Fell, Richard D

    2011-07-01

    Nosema ceranae is a microsporidian intracellular parasite of honey bees, Apis mellifera. Previously Nosema apis was thought to be the only cause of nosemosis, but it has recently been proposed that N. ceranae is displacing N. apis. The rapid spread of N. ceranae could be due to additional transmission mechanisms, as well as higher infectivity. We analyzed drones for N. ceranae infections using duplex qPCR with species specific primers and probes. We found that both immature and mature drones are infected with N. ceranae at low levels. This is the first report detecting N. ceranae in immature bees. Our data suggest that because drones are known to drift from their parent hives to other hives, they could provide a means for disease spread within and between apiaries. PMID:21621543

  18. Cogeneration and Carbon bonds: clean development; Cogeneracion y bonos de carbono: desarrollo limpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Perez, Nidia [Facultad de Contaduria y Administracion, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    The growing preoccupation for the environment in our country and its interest to ratify the Kyoto Protocol with respect to the contamination of the atmosphere, offers great opportunities for the cogeneration so that it fortifies the scientific and technological research and gives a good international image about the sustainable development and care of the environment, so that companies that invest in clean technology will be able to assign a monetary value to their environmental patrimony, this through the so called Green Bonds or Carbon Bonds, this opens a new dimension to finance projects by means of these bonds that can be negotiated at an international level; by means of the Clean of Energy Production the investment can be stimulated and revenues for projects that contribute to the sustainable development of the country and the power efficiency. At the moment the country has at least 13 projects in different analysis stages to enter the carbon bond market, which are presented as co-generation projects of energy, in addition to the formation of the Mexican Committee for Projects of Reduction and Capture of Gas Discharges of Greenhouse Effect. [Spanish] La creciente preocupacion por el medio ambiente en nuestro pais y su interes por ratificar el Protocolo de Kyoto en lo referente a la contaminacion de la atmosfera, ofrece grandes oportunidades para la cogeneracion de manera que fortalezca la investigacion cientifica y tecnologica y dar una buena imagen internacional en torno a temas de desarrollo sustentable y cuidado del medio ambiente, de manera que empresas que invierten en tecnologia limpia podran asignar un valor monetario a su patrimonio ambiental, esto a traves de los llamados Bonos Verdes o Bonos de Carbono, esto abre una dimension nueva para financiar proyectos por medio de estos bonos que pueden negociarse a nivel internacional; por medio de la Produccion Limpia de energia se puede estimular inversion y ganancias para proyectos que contribuyan al

  19. ADS 2.0: new architecture, API and services

    OpenAIRE

    Chyla, Roman; Accomazzi, Alberto; Holachek, Alexandra; Grant, Carolyn S.; Elliott, Jonathan; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Murray, Stephen S.; Sudilovsky, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The ADS platform is undergoing the biggest rewrite of its 20-year history. While several components have been added to its architecture over the past couple of years, this talk will concentrate on the underpinnings of ADS's search layer and its API. To illustrate the design of the components in the new system, we will show how the new ADS user interface is built exclusively on top of the API using RESTful web services. Taking one step further, we will discuss how we plan to expose the treasur...

  20. Pro JPA 2 Mastering the Java Persistence API

    CERN Document Server

    Schincariol, Merrick

    2010-01-01

    Pro JPA 2 introduces, explains, and demonstrates how to use the new Java Persistence API (JPA). JPA provides Java developers with both the knowledge and insight needed to write Java applications that access relational databases through JPA. Authors Mike Keith and Merrick Schincariol take a hands-on approach to teaching by giving examples to illustrate each new concept of the API and showing how it is used in practice. All of the examples use a common model from an overriding sample application, giving readers a context from which to start and helping them to understand the examples within an a

  1. Parameter-Free Probabilistic API Mining at GitHub Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Fowkes, Jaroslav; Sutton, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Existing API mining algorithms are not yet practical to use as they require expensive parameter tuning and the returned set of API calls can be large, highly redundant and difficult to understand. In an attempt to remedy these shortcomings we present PAM (Probabilistic API Miner), a near parameter-free probabilistic algorithm for mining the most informative API call patterns. We show that PAM significantly outperforms both MAPO and UPMiner, achieving 70% test-set precision, at retrieving rele...

  2. Almacén y dinámica del carbono orgánico del suelo en bosques templados de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Galicia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Los bosques templados se establecen sobre diversos tipos de suelo, sin embargo la información sobre las características físicas, químicas y biológicas de estos suelos y su influencia en el ciclo del carbono es escasa. El objetivo de la presente revisión fue conocer el almacenamiento de carbono en suelos cubiertos por bosques templados. Estos bosques se distribuyen sobre 23 tipos de suelo, principalmente Leptosoles, Regosoles, Luvisoles, Phaeozems, Cambisoles, Umbrisoles y Andosoles formados a partir de materiales volcánicos en el centro del país, sedimentarios en la Sierra Madre Oriental y una variedad amplia de sustratos en la Sierra Madre Occidental. La información sobre el potencial de captura de carbono en los bosques templados está sesgada a la biomasa aérea; y existe menos información sobre los almacenes de carbono edáficos y un escaso entendimiento de los procesos de su estabilización. El almacenamiento de carbono del suelo varió con el tipo de suelo, la composición de especies y el relieve. Los Andosoles, a pesar de su escasa abundancia, son los suelos con la mayor capacidad de almacenar carbono debido a sus características mineralógicas. Los cambios en el carbono orgánico del suelo y los flujos de carbono en los bosques templados en México son el resultado de cambios locales, generados por las actividades humanas como el cambio de uso, el manejo forestal, los incendios, la regeneración y la sustitución de especies. El cambio de uso de suelo es uno de los principales factores que explican los flujos de carbono en estos ecosistemas, sin embargo, aún no existe evidencia clara de que sea en sentido negativo. Esta revisión resume la información existente y propone investigaciones futuras que permitan conocer mejor los procesos de estabilización de la materia orgánica en los suelos de bosques templados.

  3. Evaluación de la susceptibilidad a la corrosión por picado del acero API 5L x42 expuesto a un ambiente con cloruros y CO2 mediante la técnica de ruido electroquímico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Vanegas, N.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of chloride ions and the partial pressure of CO2 play an important role in the degradation of low-carbon steels used for the construction of pipelines in oil and gas industry. In order to evaluate the susceptibility of carbon steel API 5L X42 to pitting corrosion electrochemical noise and linear polarization resistance measurements were carried out in aqueous solutions containing chloride ions and CO2. The concentration of chloride ions was varied between, 10000 and 18000 ppm, and the CO2 partial pressure between 10 psi and 18 psi. Experimental results pointed out that the formation of protective layer, consisting mainly of FeCO 3, depends on the partial pressure of CO2 in the system. Nevertheless, the stability of this layer was considerably affected by increasing the concentration of chloride ions causing that localized corrosion has taken place in some areas of the surface of API 5L X42, which were detected by electrochemical noise echnique.La concentración de iones cloruro y la presión parcial de CO2, tienen un papel importante en el proceso de degradación de los aceros de bajo carbono empleados en la construcción de líneas de transporte en industrias petroleras. Con el fin de evaluar la susceptibilidad del acero al carbono API 5L X42 a la corrosión por picado, se realizaron medidas de ruido electroquímico y resistencia a la polarización lineal en soluciones acuosas de iones cloruro con concentraciones entre 10.000 y 18.000 ppm, variando la presión parcial de CO2 entre 10 psi y 18 psi. Los resultados indican que la formación de una capa protectora, constituida principalmente por FeCO3, depende de la presión parcial de CO2 del sistema. No obstante, la estabilidad de dicha capa es afectada significativamente por el aumento de la concentración de iones cloruro, que producen fenómenos de corrosión localizada en algunas áreas de la superficie del acero API 5L X42, los cuales fueron detectados por la técnica de

  4. A method for designing fiberglass sucker-rod strings with API RP 11L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, J.W.; Laine, R.E. (Texas A and M University (US))

    1991-02-01

    This paper presents a method for using the API recommended practice for the design of sucker-rod pumping systems with fiberglass composite rod strings. The API method is useful for obtaining quick, approximate, preliminary design calculations. Equations for calculating all the composite material factors needed in the API calculations are given.

  5. A method for designing fiberglass sucker-rod strings with API RP 11L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a method for using the API recommended practice for the design of sucker-rod pumping systems with fiberglass composite rod strings. The API method is useful for obtaining quick, approximate, preliminary design calculations. Equations for calculating all the composite material factors needed in the API calculations are given

  6. Secuestro de carbono en la biomasa aérea de un sistema agrosilvopastoril de Cocos nucifera, Leucaena leucocephala Var. Cunningham y Pennisetum purpureum Cuba CT-115

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Anguiano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de estimar el secuestro de carbono en la biomasa aérea de un sistema agrosilvopastoril (sasp compuesto por cocotero (Cocos nucifera, Leucaena leucocephala Var. Cunningham sembrada en alta densidad y Pennisetum purpureum Cuba CT-115, se llevó a cabo un estudio en un suelo con textura franco arcillo- arenosa. Se utilizó un diseño en bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas con cuatro tratamientos 0, 40, 60 y 80 mil árboles de leucaena ha-1 y tres repeticiones; la evaluación duró desde su establecimiento hasta 340 días de edad. Los resultados muestran diferencia estadística (P<0.001 en el secuestro de carbono con 101.19d, 109.73c, 122.00b y 128.62a t C+ha-1año-1 para los sasp de 0, 40, 60 y 80 mil plantas de leucaena ha-1, respectivamente. El mayor aporte de secuestro de carbono lo realizó el cocotero que aportó del 60 al 80% del total del sasp y existió una relación inversa de secuestro de carbono de la gramínea al incrementar la densidad de la leguminosa. El tratamiento que incorpora la siembra en alta densidad de la leguminosa arbórea logró un mayor secuestro de carbono.

  7. The effects of Bt Cry1Ah toxin on worker honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica and Apis cerana cerana)

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Ping-Li; Wei ZHOU; Zhang, Jie; Jiang, Wei-Yu; Wang, Qiang; Cui, Hong-Juan; Sun, Ji-Hu; Wu, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Ting

    2012-01-01

    International audience We conducted feeding trials in a laboratory setting to test for possible adverse effects of Cry1Ah toxin mixed thoroughly into sugar syrup (60% w/v sucrose solution) at three concentrations (10 μg/mL, 10 ng/mL, and 1 ng/mL) on the survival, pollen consumption, and hypopharyngeal gland mass of Apis mellifera ligustica and Apis cerana cerana. No significant differences in the survival of A. mellifera or A. cerana were found among groups fed on sugar syrup with or witho...

  8. Bonos de carbono: financiarización del medioambiente en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania López-Toache

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar las medidas de mitigación para la emisión de gases efecto invernadero ( GEI al medioambiente –bonos de carbono– establecidos en el Protocolo de Kyoto. Estos parten del estudio del Teorema de Coase, el cual plantea que el mercado asignará de manera adecuada los derechos de propiedad de las externalidades provocadas por los distintos agentes económicos. Por los resultados se puede afirmar que los bonos de carbono son una forma de financiarización del medioambiente, lo cual está creando en la práctica derechos de contaminación, lo que permite que los países industrializados y empresas contaminantes reduzcan sus emisiones de GEI en países subdesarrollados como México a través de proyectos de energía renovables donde les resulta más económico y rentable.

  9. PREPARACIÓN DE CATALIZADORES DE HIERRO Y COBALTO SOPORTADOS EN AEROGELES DE CARBONO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Y. Aguilar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se prepararon catalizadores de hierro y cobalto, soportados en aerogeles de carbono (AGC, por los métodos de humedad incipiente, intercambio catiónico y adición de una sal del metal a la mezcla precursora de los aerogeles. La caracterización de los catalizadores se realizó por adsorción de N2 a 77 K, descomposición con temperatura programada (DTP y difracción de rayos X (DRX. Se encontró que los catalizadores preparados por humedad incipiente e intercambio catiónico tienen una textura microporosa, mientras que los preparados por adición de la sal del metal a la mezcla inicial son mesoporosos. Los resultados de DTP muestran que la química superficial del aerogel está influida por el método de preparación y la naturaleza química del metal, y los análisis de DRX pusieron en evidencia que la matriz carbonosa de los aerogeles tiene un carácter reductor capaz de carburizar o reducir el metal incorporado.

  10. Nanotubos de carbono aplicados às neurociências: perspectivas e desafios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os nanotubos de carbono (NTCs são os nanomateriais mais promissores para aplicação terapêutica em doenças neurodegenerativas. Aplicações potenciais incluem sistemas de liberação controlada de fármacos, interfaces elétricas e substratos para crescimento celular. OBJETIVO: Descrever o estado da arte e as perspectivas e desafios da aplicação dos NTCs nas neurociências. MÉTODO: Procedeu-se a uma busca sistemática nos indexadores Medline, Lilacs e SciELO, utilizando os descritores "carbon nanotubes", "drug delivery", "electrical interface", "tissue regeneration", "neuroscience", "biocompatibility" e "nanotechnology", devidamente agrupados. RESULTADOS: A revisão da literatura evidenciou controvérsias nos estudos relativos à biocompatibilidade dos NTCs, embora tenha ratificado o seu potencial para a neuromedicina e neurociências. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados obtidos apontam a necessidade de estudos padronizados sobre as aplicações e interações dessas nanoestruturas com os sistemas biológicos.

  11. Intoxicación por Monóxido de Carbono Poisoning by carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sibón Olano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerosos autores recomiendan la realización de análisis toxicológico, prácticamente en todos los casos forenses, especialmente, cuando tras el examen macroscópico no aparece suficientemente aclarada la causa de la muerte. La ausencia de lesiones patognomónicas en la mayoría de las intoxicaciones avalan la recomendación anterior; sin embargo, en algunos casos los hallazgos en la autopsia son indicativos del agente causal. Así vemos como la coloración rojo cereza de las livideces cadavéricas van a ser muy sugestivas de intoxicación por monóxido de carbono o cianuro.Several authors recommend to perform a toxicological analysis in practically every forensic autopsy, specifically when the macroscopical examination does not reveal sufficiently the cause of death. The absence of pathognomonic findings in the majority of poisonings support this recommendation. However; in some cases autopsy findings are indicative of the causative agent. For instance, the red cherry coloration from livor mortis are suggestive of a carbon monoxide or cyanide poisoning.

  12. Fertile diploid drones in africanized honeybees, Apis mellifera adansonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaud-Netto, J

    1977-02-15

    59 diploid drones of Apis mellifera adansonii, 12-37 days old, were tested for the presence of semen after provoked ejaculation; 13 drones ejaculated semen enough to be used in an instrumental insemination, but only three on them (5%) furnished 1 mm3 of semen. The problems referring to the attainment of descendants from the 2n drones are briefly discussed.

  13. Sperm use economy of honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Collins, Jason; Maalaps, Kristiina;

    2016-01-01

    the fecundity and longevity of queens and therefore colony fitness. We quantified the number of sperm that honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens use to fertilize eggs. We examined sperm use in naturally mated queens of different ages and in queens artificially inseminated with different volumes of semen. We found...

  14. Biophysics of the subgenual organ of the honeybee, Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Storm, Jesper

    1997-01-01

    The subgenual organ of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) is suspended in a haemolymph channel in the tibia of each leg. When the leg is accelerated, inertia causes the haemolymph (and the subgenual organ) to lag behind the movement of the rest of the leg. The magnitude of this phase lag determines...

  15. Standard methods for research on apis mellifera gut symbionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut microbes can play an important role in digestion, disease resistance, and the general health of animals, but little is known about the biology of gut symbionts in Apis mellifera. This paper is part of a series on honey bee research methods, providing protocols for studying gut symbionts. We desc...

  16. The MPO API: A tool for recording scientific workflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, John C., E-mail: jcwright@mit.edu [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA (United States); Greenwald, Martin; Stillerman, Joshua [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA (United States); Abla, Gheni; Chanthavong, Bobby; Flanagan, Sean; Schissel, David; Lee, Xia [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Romosan, Alex; Shoshani, Arie [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • A description of a new framework and tool for recording scientific workflows, especially those resulting from simulation and analysis. • An explanation of the underlying technologies used to implement this web based tool. • Several examples of using the tool. - Abstract: Data from large-scale experiments and extreme-scale computing is expensive to produce and may be used for high-consequence applications. The Metadata, Provenance and Ontology (MPO) project builds on previous work [M. Greenwald, Fusion Eng. Des. 87 (2012) 2205–2208] and is focused on providing documentation of workflows, data provenance and the ability to data-mine large sets of results. While there are important design and development aspects to the data structures and user interfaces, we concern ourselves in this paper with the application programming interface (API) – the set of functions that interface with the data server. Our approach for the data server is to follow the Representational State Transfer (RESTful) software architecture style for client–server communication. At its core, the API uses the POST and GET methods of the HTTP protocol to transfer workflow information in message bodies to targets specified in the URL to and from the database via a web server. Higher level API calls are built upon this core API. This design facilitates implementation on different platforms and in different languages and is robust to changes in the underlying technologies used. The command line client implementation can communicate with the data server from any machine with HTTP access.

  17. The Automatic Start Method of Application Program Using API

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces on a method about the au-tomactic start of application program. Through defining Registryby API function, the automatic start of specified application pro-gram is fulfilled when Windows98 is taking action. It gives facil-ities to many computer application works.

  18. Standard methods for research on Apis mellifera gut symbionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut microbes can play an important role in digestion, disease resistance, and the general health of animals, but little is known about the biology of gut symbionts in Apis mellifera. This paper is part of a series on honey bee research methods, providing protocols for studying gut symbionts. We desc...

  19. PrismTech Data Distribution Service Java API Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Cortney

    2008-01-01

    My internship duties with Launch Control Systems required me to start performance testing of an Object Management Group's (OMG) Data Distribution Service (DDS) specification implementation by PrismTech Limited through the Java programming language application programming interface (API). DDS is a networking middleware for Real-Time Data Distribution. The performance testing involves latency, redundant publishers, extended duration, redundant failover, and read performance. Time constraints allowed only for a data throughput test. I have designed the testing applications to perform all performance tests when time is allowed. Performance evaluation data such as megabits per second and central processing unit (CPU) time consumption were not easily attainable through the Java programming language; they required new methods and classes created in the test applications. Evaluation of this product showed the rate that data can be sent across the network. Performance rates are better on Linux platforms than AIX and Sun platforms. Compared to previous C++ programming language API, the performance evaluation also shows the language differences for the implementation. The Java API of the DDS has a lower throughput performance than the C++ API.

  20. The MPO API: A tool for recording scientific workflows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A description of a new framework and tool for recording scientific workflows, especially those resulting from simulation and analysis. • An explanation of the underlying technologies used to implement this web based tool. • Several examples of using the tool. - Abstract: Data from large-scale experiments and extreme-scale computing is expensive to produce and may be used for high-consequence applications. The Metadata, Provenance and Ontology (MPO) project builds on previous work [M. Greenwald, Fusion Eng. Des. 87 (2012) 2205–2208] and is focused on providing documentation of workflows, data provenance and the ability to data-mine large sets of results. While there are important design and development aspects to the data structures and user interfaces, we concern ourselves in this paper with the application programming interface (API) – the set of functions that interface with the data server. Our approach for the data server is to follow the Representational State Transfer (RESTful) software architecture style for client–server communication. At its core, the API uses the POST and GET methods of the HTTP protocol to transfer workflow information in message bodies to targets specified in the URL to and from the database via a web server. Higher level API calls are built upon this core API. This design facilitates implementation on different platforms and in different languages and is robust to changes in the underlying technologies used. The command line client implementation can communicate with the data server from any machine with HTTP access

  1. Infra-Population and -Community Dynamics of the Parasites Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, and Consequences for Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Geoffrey R; Dave Shutler; Burgher-MacLellan, Karen L.; Rogers, Richard E. L.

    2014-01-01

    Nosema spp. fungal gut parasites are among myriad possible explanations for contemporary increased mortality of western honey bees (Apis mellifera, hereafter honey bee) in many regions of the world. Invasive Nosema ceranae is particularly worrisome because some evidence suggests it has greater virulence than its congener N. apis. N. ceranae appears to have recently switched hosts from Asian honey bees (Apis cerana) and now has a nearly global distribution in honey bees, apparently displacing ...

  2. A POTENCIALIDADE DOS CRÉDITOS DE CARBONO NA GERAÇÃO DE LUCRO ECONÔMICO SUSTENTÃ VEL DA ATIVIDADE DE REFLORESTAMENTO

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende, Amaury Jose; Dalmacio, Flavia Zoboli; Ribeiro, Maisa de Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Objetivou-se, neste artigo, analisar as possíveis transações econômicas decorrentes das atividades de reflorestamento e como os mecanismos dos créditos de carbono e crédito de reposição podem representar incentivos econômicos ao processo de criação de atividades sustentáveis ao setor de reflorestamento. Dentre essas transações, destaca-se a instituição do mercado de crédito de carbono na geração de lucro econômico sustentável. Esse mercado de crédito de carbono caracteriza-se como uma alterna...

  3. Contribuição dos créditos de carbono na viabilidade econômica dos contratos de fomento florestal no sul da Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlon Barbosa Valdetaro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A região do extremo sul da Bahia é caracterizada por sua extensa produção de eucalipto. Grandes empresas do setor de celulose e papel desempenham importante função na economia da região através dos programas de fomento florestal. Além disso, tem-se que alguns produtores fomentados por essas empresas possuem interesse em incrementar o retorno financeiro de seus contratos de fomento florestal através do recebimento de crédito de carbono. Nesse contexto, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a contribuição dos créditos de carbono na viabilidade econômica nos contratos de fomento florestal da região. O Valor Presente Líquido (VPL, a Taxa Interna de Retorno (TIR e o Valor Anual Equivalente (VAE foram os indicadores utilizados na avaliação financeira, a uma taxa de desconto de 10% ao ano, em 45 contratos de fomento distribuídos em 11 municípios da região, e estimou-se o potencial de estocagem de carbono utilizando dados de estoque de carbono do momento em que os contratos atingiram a idade técnica de corte. Os produtores florestais informaram dados referentes à produção, produtividade e rentabilidade do plantio de eucalipto em seus contratos de fomento. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram que a comercialização dos créditos de carbono pode aumentar consideravelmente a viabilidade financeira do contrato de fomento. Dessa forma, pode-se concluir que o comércio de créditos de carbono é uma atividade viável na região e aumentará os ganhos dos produtores fomentados.

  4. Host Specificity in the Honeybee Parasitic Mite, Varroa spp. in Apis mellifera and Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaurepaire, Alexis L; Truong, Tuan A; Fajardo, Alejandro C; Dinh, Tam Q; Cervancia, Cleofas; Moritz, Robin F A

    2015-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major global threat to the Western honeybee Apis mellifera. This mite was originally a parasite of A. cerana in Asia but managed to spill over into colonies of A. mellifera which had been introduced to this continent for honey production. To date, only two almost clonal types of V. destructor from Korea and Japan have been detected in A. mellifera colonies. However, since both A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies are kept in close proximity throughout Asia, not only new spill overs but also spill backs of highly virulent types may be possible, with unpredictable consequences for both honeybee species. We studied the dispersal and hybridisation potential of Varroa from sympatric colonies of the two hosts in Northern Vietnam and the Philippines using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers. We found a very distinct mtDNA haplotype equally invading both A. mellifera and A. cerana in the Philippines. In contrast, we observed a complete reproductive isolation of various Vietnamese Varroa populations in A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies even if kept in the same apiaries. In light of this variance in host specificity, the adaptation of the mite to its hosts seems to have generated much more genetic diversity than previously recognised and the Varroa species complex may include substantial cryptic speciation. PMID:26248192

  5. Host Specificity in the Honeybee Parasitic Mite, Varroa spp. in Apis mellifera and Apis cerana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis L Beaurepaire

    Full Text Available The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major global threat to the Western honeybee Apis mellifera. This mite was originally a parasite of A. cerana in Asia but managed to spill over into colonies of A. mellifera which had been introduced to this continent for honey production. To date, only two almost clonal types of V. destructor from Korea and Japan have been detected in A. mellifera colonies. However, since both A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies are kept in close proximity throughout Asia, not only new spill overs but also spill backs of highly virulent types may be possible, with unpredictable consequences for both honeybee species. We studied the dispersal and hybridisation potential of Varroa from sympatric colonies of the two hosts in Northern Vietnam and the Philippines using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers. We found a very distinct mtDNA haplotype equally invading both A. mellifera and A. cerana in the Philippines. In contrast, we observed a complete reproductive isolation of various Vietnamese Varroa populations in A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies even if kept in the same apiaries. In light of this variance in host specificity, the adaptation of the mite to its hosts seems to have generated much more genetic diversity than previously recognised and the Varroa species complex may include substantial cryptic speciation.

  6. Aplicación de biosensores amperométricos de polisulfona/nanotubos de carbono en el análisis de muestras reales

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Rafael, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    La investigación llevada a cabo en la presente tesis doctoral describe el desarrollo de biosensores basados en membranas de polisulfona y nanotubos de carbono (PS/CNT). Este tipo de membranas ha permitido la incorporación de diferentes biomoléculas como hormonas, anticuerpos y enzimas, de manera rápida y fácil gracias a la técnica de inversión de fase. Además, el uso de nanotubos de carbono confiere al material excelentes propiedades eléctricas, permitiendo su uso como transductor. Inicial...

  7. Niveles de carbono orgánico total en el Suelo de Conservación del Distrito Federal, centro de México

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Vela Correa; Jorge López Blanco; María de Lourdes Rodríguez Gamiño

    2012-01-01

    El Suelo de Conservación (SC) del Distrito Federal es un reservorio de carbono, por lo que es importante contar con datos sobre su capacidad de almacenamiento bajo diferentes tipos de cobertura vegetal. En este trabajo se estimó el contenido de carbono orgánico total en suelos (COS) de áreas con cobertura de bosque, uso agrícola y en áreas reforestadas. Se delimitaron unidades geomorfogenéticas que sirvieron de base para el muestreo de suelos. En total se estudiaron 50 sitios con muestras ...

  8. A incorporação de calcário em sistema plantio direto consolidado reduz o estoque de carbono em macroagregados do solo

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Yagi; Jonez Fidalski; Cássio Antonio Tormena

    2014-01-01

    Estoques de carbono em macroagregados do solo possuem relação com a taxa de sequestro de C no solo em sistema plantio direto. Objetivou-se avaliar os estoques de carbono em macroagregados (12,5-19,0mm) em função do revolvimento ocasional e/ou da calagem de um Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico típico textura muito argilosa, sob sistema plantio direto há 17 anos em Pato Branco, sudoeste do Paraná. A partir de outubro de 2009, foi avaliado um experimento em parcelas sub-subdivididas, tendo como p...

  9. El uso de las cubiertas verdes como reducción de la huella de carbono por absorción vegetal. Caso de Villaverde

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Miguel Carretero Monteagudo

    2013-01-01

    ResumenEl tema de este trabajo es a grandes rasgos la comprobación de la eficacia de las cubiertas verdes en la reducción de la huella de carbono, centrándonos exclusivamente en las capacidades asimilativas del dióxido de carbono de la vegetación contenida sobre estas cubiertas. La presente comprobación de la eficacia de las cubiertas verdes, fue realizada sobre el contexto del distrito de Villaverde en la Periferia Sur de Madrid. Sobre este distrito, se analizaron diferentes factores en rela...

  10. Valoración económica del manglar por el almacenamiento de carbono, Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta.

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold De la Peña; Cesar Augusto Rojas; Marlon De la Peña

    2010-01-01

    La Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM) genera diferentes bienes y servicios ambientales, por ejemplo, sumidero de carbono, hábitat de flora y fauna, despensa de alimentos y materias primas, entre otros. Se presenta una aproximación a la cuantificación monetaria del servicio de almacenamiento de carbono, con el fin de establecer información base para las decisiones de su uso. Lo anterior se hizo con base en muestreo de campo de 15 árboles de manglar y en mediciones realizadas en cuatro estaci...

  11. Oxidação electrocatalítica de hidratos de carbono utilizando complexos de metais de transição

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Paula Cristina Bastos Ferreira Leal

    2006-01-01

    Os hidratos de carbono podem ser convertidos em produtos químicos, energia, têxteis, materiais de construção, papel e muitos outros produtos industriais. Estes constituem uma matéria prima barata, renovável e facilmente disponível. No início dos anos noventa, 95% da biomassa produzida eram hidratos de carbono e correspondiam a duzentos biliões de toneladas. Nos dias de hoje, apenas 3 a 5% desta biomassa são utilizados em termos industriais. Os restantes sofrem degradação e são reciclado...

  12. Uso de arcillas fibrosas como coadyuvantes para mejorar la dispersión y estabilidad coloidal de nanotubos de carbono de medios hidrofílicos

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Martins Fernandes, Francisco Miguel; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Uso de arcillas fibrosas como coadyuvantes para mejorar la dispersión y estabilidad coloidal de nanotubos de carbono en medios hidrofílicos. La presente invención se refiere a una composición estable que comprende nanotubos de carbono en un medio líquido polar mediante su asociación a arcillas fibrosas (sepiolita o palygorskita) como coadyuvante para lograr dicha dispersión. La presente invención se refiere al procedimiento de obtención de la composición como una dispe...

  13. Tecnologías de membranas para la recuperación de hidrógeno y monóxido de carbono de gases residuales

    OpenAIRE

    David, Oana Cristina

    2012-01-01

    RESUMEN: Esta tesis doctoral está enfocada hacia la separación y recuperación de hidrogeno y monóxido de carbono de efluentes gaseosos residuales procedentes de procesos industriales de combustión mediante la tecnología de membranas. Se ha definido como caso de estudio la corriente de gases generada en la fabricación de negro de carbono. Se espera que el uso de tecnologías de separación con membranas permita obtener en el lado del permeado de la membrana una corriente enriquecida en hidrógeno...

  14. Cálculo de la Huella de Carbono del Máster en Ingeniería Ambiental de la Universidad de Valladolid. Curso 2014 - 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Bermejo Martínez, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Desde el siglo XIX, coincidiendo con la era de la industrialización, está clara la contribución de los gases de efecto invernadero al aumento del cambio climático natural. El cálculo de la huella de carbono es un muy indicador y una buena herramienta para identificar las fuentes de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero de una organización, producto o evento. Por eso, se calcula la huella de carbono del Máster en Ingeniería Ambiental durante el curso 2014 - 2015. Más de la mitad de las emis...

  15. Gestión ambiental empresarial: cálculo de la huella de carbono en la industria vitivinícola.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Ana Rodriguez; Adriana Belfort Martinez; Stella Maris Udaquiola

    2014-01-01

    La huella de carbono es un indicador ambiental que busca cuantificar la cantidad de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GHG). Su medición se convierte en una herramienta que permite trabajar bajo el concepto de eco-eficiencia e identificar oportunidades de reducción de consumo energético, ya que este último es la principal fuente de emisión de GHG a nivel mundial. El presente trabajo aplica la metodología PAS 2050:2011 para la medición de la huella de carbono, en la producción del vino ...

  16. Distribución a profundidad del carbono orgánico en los suelos de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Paz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available La caracterización de la distribución vertical del carbono orgánico en los suelos (COS en México es una tarea importante, dada la evidencia acumulada que muestra que el COS puede ser desestabilizado por diferentes mecanismos al incrementar la profundidad a la que se encuentra en el perfil. Con el objetivo de modelar la variación del COS con la profundidad, se analizó una base de datos de COS de perfiles de suelos distribuidos en todo México (base de datos INEGI-COLPOS. Esta base se depuró usando diferentes restricciones congruentes con el objetivo de desarrollar modelos matemáticos de la distribución del carbono con la profundidad (z. Los resultados de los ajustes estadísticos mostraron que modelo logarítmico, COS(z=a-b ln(z, resultó adecuado para lo planteado, por lo que se procedió a su síntesis. Se usó la propiedad de que un conjunto de rectas que se intersectan en un punto común, sus parámetros generan una línea recta. Con base en ella se desarrolló un esquema para estimar el carbono orgánico inerte (COI del espacio b-a del modelo logarítmico. Adicionalmente, para realizar estimaciones del COS a profundidad (hasta su valor máximo usando sólo el valor del COS de 0 a 30 cm, se desarrolló un método para realizar estas estimaciones a partir de parámetros asociados a los ecosistemas y tipos de vegetación. Los resultados de los ejercicios realizados para estimar el COI y el carbono orgánico a profundidad en los suelo usando sólo el COS 30 cm muestran ser adecuados y pueden ser implementados en forma operativa.

  17. Ensayo balístico de laminados de fibra de carbono y núcleo de Honeycomb

    OpenAIRE

    Armero Presa, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Las estructuras sándwich son cada vez más utilizadas y están adquiriendo una gran importancia por sus particulares características de ligereza y alta resistencia. Este Proyecto Fin de Carrera se centra en el comportamiento de laminados de fibra de carbono con núcleo de honeycomb frente a impactos de alta velocidad, con el fin de estudiar la influencia del núcleo en estos casos, y obtener unas dimensiones óptimas de éste para alcanzar la mejor relación entre el peso del panel sá...

  18. Distribuição dos agregados e carbono orgânico influenciados por manejos agroecológicos.

    OpenAIRE

    Loss, Arcângelo; Pereira, Marcos Gervasio; Schultz, Nivaldo; Ferreira, Edilene Pereira; Silva, Eliane Maria Ribeiro da; Beutler, Sidinei Julio

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência do manejo agroecológico na distribuição dos agregados estáveis em água e no teor de carbono orgânico dos agregados em diferentes coberturas vegetais. Foram selecionadas cinco áreas, a saber: sistema agroflorestal; cultivo de figo (Ficus carica L.); consórcio maracujá (Passiflora edulis S.)–Desmodium sp.; cultivo de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), em manejo convencional, e cultivo de milho (Zea mays L.), em plantio direto. Em cada área, foram ...

  19. Existencias y tasas de incremento neto de la biomasa y del carbono en bosques primarios y secundarios de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Orrego Suaza, Sergio Alonso; Del Valle Arango, Jorge Ignacio

    2002-01-01

    En 33 parcelas permanentes de 1000 m2 (0,1 ha) en bosques primarios y 77 parcelas permanentes de 500 m (0,05 ha) en bosques secundarios, para un área de muestreo de 7,15 ha, se estimaron las existencias de biomasa y del carbono almacenado en los siguientes compartimientos: biomasa aérea, necromasa, biomasa subterránea y suelo. La biomasa aérea total viva en los bosques primarios promedió 246,542 t/ha, representada 92,42% por árboles y arbustos dicotiledóneos, 5,93% en palmas (3,58% la pa...

  20. Síntesis, Activación Química y Aplicaciones de Nanoestructuras de Carbono

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Cotillas, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo forma parte de un amplio programa de investigación sobre la preparación de nanoestructuras de carbono y su aplicación en procesos de interés energético, industrial y medioambiental que, desde el año 2003 hasta la actualidad, se está desarrollando en el Departamento de Ingeniería Química de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM). Durante las últimas décadas se ha asistido al inicio de una revolución científica basada en la capacidad de medir, manipular y organizar l...

  1. OPORTUNIDADES DO MERCADO DE CRÉDITO DE CARBONO PARA USINAS SUCROALCOOLEIRAS DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGUES, Elaine Miranda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of production and competitiveness in industry and technology, the global climate is in constant change, involving important discussions about this issue, for example, the increaseof carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by industrially countries. The questions have as objective to revert the situation, involving some steps and processes that demonstrate the importance of this discussion as an current model of sustainable use of nature. From these negotiations that Kyoto’s Protocol was created, generating new income resources. The general objective of this paper was to investigate, by literature, what opportunities are been created to the firms, specially of cane sugar cultivation – animportant segment to invest cause of the energy co-generation projects – with the purpose to reduce the environmental damage and increase the incomes, by the concept of Clean DevelopmentMechanism. After an important process of interviews we can conclude that there are opportunities to the firms of cane sugar process and cultivation, because of the national and international demand by clean energy use.Com o aumento da produção e competitividade no ramo industrial e tecnológico, o climado planeta vem passando por constantes transformações, envolvendo sérias discussões sobre o assunto, aexemplo disso, o aumento de gás carbônico lançado na atmosfera por países mais industrializados. Oquestionamento tem como relevância reverter à situação em que se encontra o mundo, envolvendoalgumas das etapas que demonstram a importância do assunto no modelo atual de consumo sustentável danatureza. E a partir de negociações como essas é que se deu a origem do Protocolo de Kyoto em 1997 noJapão, que estipula metas de redução das emissões de poluição para países mais desenvolvidos, ofertandoassim a possibilidade de países em desenvolvimento comercializarem emissões no Mercado de Crédito deCarbono, gerando uma nova fonte de renda. O

  2. Sistema de seguridad para elaborar nanopartículas de carbono a escala de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania Soguero González

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Las nanopartículas de carbono (NPC han sido de las más utilizadas, debido a sus propiedades. Muchas de estas propiedades que hacen tan útil a las NPC también pueden hacerlas tóxicas para las células y el organismo y por lo tanto deben ser manipuladas con precaución. El Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN está desarrollando un programa de investigación que incluye la síntesis NPC usando el método de descarga de arco sumergida en agua. En este trabajo se describe el sistema de nanoseguridad implementado en los laboratorios del CEADEN para el desarrollo de las mejores prácticas con NPC. Dicho sistema se construyó sobre la base de un análisis de seguridad. Se usó el método ¿Qué pasa si? y un procedimiento que emplea un árbol de decisiones que permite clasificar los laboratorios en clases de acuerdo a niveles de peligrosidad. Se identificaron los peligros de importancia significativa. Para la estimación del riesgo de estas se construyó una matriz Probabilidad/Consecuencia, donde se reflejó el riesgo asociado a cada uno de los eventos analizados y se clasificó en las categorías de alto, medio y bajo riesgo. Finalmente, se procedió a implementar las medidas de protección personal, técnicas y organizativas definidas a partir del análisis de riesgo efectuado en forma de procedimientos.

  3. CAMBIOS EN LAS RESERVAS DE CARBONO ORGÁNICO DEL SUELO BAJO DIFERENTES COBERTURAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I. Bojórquez Serrano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las reservas de carbono orgánico en los suelos (COS y sus cambios en el tiempo son un tema ambiental de actualidad, asimismo las pérdidas de COS que ocurren con la conversión de ecosistemas naturales a agrosistemas, contribuyen con emisiones a la atmósfera, al calentamiento global y el cambio climático. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los cambios en las reservas de COS bajo diferentes coberturas de la cuenca del río Mololoa, Nayarit, México. El análisis de los cambios se realiza por diferencia en las reservas de COS en los primeros 20 cm de 13 perfiles de suelos con diferentes coberturas, dos en bosques de encino, dos en bosques de pino, uno en pastizal, uno en cultivo de aguacate y siete en terrenos cultivados con caña de azúcar. Las coberturas estables de bosque y pastizal generan ganancias en las reservas de COS; siendo el pastizal el que registra la mayor cantidad (2,65 Mg ha -1 año -1 , seguido por el bosque de encino (0,40-0,47 Mg ha -1 año -1 , el bosque de pino (0,15-0,38 Mg ha -1 año -1 y la arboleda de aguacate (0,29 Mg ha -1 año -1 . Mientras que la cobertura de cultivo de caña de azúcar generó pérdidas en las reservas de COS, entre 0,12-0,84 Mg ha -1 año -1

  4. Microbiological corrosion in low carbon steels; Corrosion microbiologica en aceros de bajo carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina-Custodio, O; Ortiz-Prado, A; Jacobo-Armendariz, V. H; Schouwenaars-Franssens, R [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: medina_1979@yahoo.com; armandoo@servidor.unam.mx; vjacobo@dgapa.unam.mx; raf_schouweenaars@yahoo.com

    2009-01-15

    The Microbiologically Induced Corrosion affects several industries, such as oil industry where it is estimated that 20% to 30% pipes failures are related with microorganism. The chemical reactions generate ions transfer, this validate the use of electrochemical technique for its analysis. Coupons submerged in a nutritional medium with presence and absence of three different microorganisms during two periods, 48 hours and 28 days were studied. Polarization resistance (Rp) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques were applied to determine the corrosively of the systems. The results show a greater corrosive effect of abiotic systems, this indicates a microorganisms protection effect to the metal, opposite to the first hypothesis. This result was ratified observing surface coupons by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) technique. A possible mechanism based on Evans - Tafel graph is proposed to explain inhibitor microorganism effect. [Spanish] La corrosion microbiologica es un tipo comun de deterioro que afecta diversas industrias, una de ellas es la petrolera en la que se estiman que el 20% o 30% de fallas en las tuberias de trasporte de hidrocarburos es favorecida por microorganismos. Las reacciones quimicas que sustentan estos, generan transferencia de iones, lo que justifica el empleo de tecnicas electroquimicas para su analisis. En este trabajo, se estudiaron probetas de acero de bajo carbono SAE 1018, sumergidas en un medio nutritivo rico en cloruros en presencia y ausencia de tres diferentes cargas microbianas, en tiempos de exposicion de 48 horas y 28 dias. Se realizaron ensayos de resistencia a la polarizacion (Rp) y espectroscopia de impedancia electroquimica (EIS) para determinar el efecto corrosivo de los diferentes sistemas. Los resultados muestran que el medio abiotico causa el mayor efecto corrosivo, lo que indica un efecto protector de los microorganismos al metal contradiciendo la hipotesis inicialmente propuesta. La observacion

  5. Chloroform fumigation-extraction labile C pool (microbial biomass C "plus" shows high correlation to microbial biomass C in Argentinian and Brazilian soils Alta correlación entre el "pool" de carbono lábil por fumigación con cloroformo-extracción (carbono de biomasa microbiana plus y carbono de biomasa microbiana en suelos de Argentina y Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helvécio De-Polli

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Chloroform fumigation-incubation and chloroform fumigation-extraction approaches have significantly contributed to assess soil microbial biomass. Some controversy is found in the literature about the suggestion to calculate microbial biomass carbon (MBC without the subtraction of the un-fumigated control, in opposition to the originally proposed method that requires such subtraction. Some authors consider the non-subtraction proceeding as a more robust method. Nevertheless, values obtained without subtraction of a control include other labile organic fractions of soil carbon besides microbial biomass. Therefore, due to the usefulness of this measurement we consider more appropriate to call it as chloroform-fumigation labile C pool or microbial biomass carbon "plus" (MBC PLUS. We used a vast series of data from soils of Argentina and Brazil under different management situations to verify whether MBC correlates to MBC PLUS. There was a significant statistical correlation between values of MBC obtained by fumigation-extraction method and the corresponding MBC PLUS. The MBC PLUS performed as well as MBC as an indicator to differentiate soil managements and their impact on soil quality.Los métodos de fumigación-incubación y fumigación extracción han contribuido significativamente a las determinaciones de biomasa microbiana del suelo. En la literatura se encuentran algunas controversias acerca de la sugerencia de calcular el carbono de biomasa microbiana (CBM sin la sustracción del control no fumigado, en oposición a las metodologías tradicionales que requieren de dicha sustracción. Algunos autores mencionan que el hecho de no realizar la sustracción hace al procedimiento más robusto. Sin embargo, los valores obtenidos sin la sustracción del control incluyen otras fracciones lábiles del carbono, además de la biomasa microbiana. Debido a lo útil que resulta esta medida consideramos adecuado llamarla "pool" de carbono lábil por fumigaci

  6. Infra-population and -community dynamics of the parasites Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, and consequences for honey bee (Apis mellifera hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey R Williams

    Full Text Available Nosema spp. fungal gut parasites are among myriad possible explanations for contemporary increased mortality of western honey bees (Apis mellifera, hereafter honey bee in many regions of the world. Invasive Nosema ceranae is particularly worrisome because some evidence suggests it has greater virulence than its congener N. apis. N. ceranae appears to have recently switched hosts from Asian honey bees (Apis cerana and now has a nearly global distribution in honey bees, apparently displacing N. apis. We examined parasite reproduction and effects of N. apis, N. ceranae, and mixed Nosema infections on honey bee hosts in laboratory experiments. Both infection intensity and honey bee mortality were significantly greater for N. ceranae than for N. apis or mixed infections; mixed infection resulted in mortality similar to N. apis parasitism and reduced spore intensity, possibly due to inter-specific competition. This is the first long-term laboratory study to demonstrate lethal consequences of N. apis and N. ceranae and mixed Nosema parasitism in honey bees, and suggests that differences in reproduction and intra-host competition may explain apparent heterogeneous exclusion of the historic parasite by the invasive species.

  7. “Wrapping” X3DOM around Web Audio API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stamoulias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial sound has a conceptual role in the Web3D environments, due to highly realism scenes that can provide. Lately the efforts are concentrated on the extension of the X3D/ X3DOM through spatial sound attributes. This paper presents a novel method for the introduction of spatial sound components in the X3DOM framework, based on X3D specification and Web Audio API. The proposed method incorporates the introduction of enhanced sound nodes for X3DOM which are derived by the implementation of the X3D standard components, enriched with accessional features of Web Audio API. Moreover, several examples-scenarios developed for the evaluation of our approach. The implemented examples established the achievability of new registered nodes in X3DOM, for spatial sound characteristics in Web3D virtual worlds.

  8. Draft genome sequence of the Algerian bee Apis mellifera intermissa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nizar Jamal; Loucif-Ayad, Wahida; Adjlane, Noureddine; Saini, Deepti; Manchiganti, Rushiraj; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; AlShagoor, Banan; Batainh, Ahmed Mahmud; Mugasimangalam, Raja

    2015-06-01

    Apis mellifera intermissa is the native honeybee subspecies of Algeria. A. m. intermissa occurs in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco, between the Atlas and the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. This bee is very important due to its high ability to adapt to great variations in climatic conditions and due to its preferable cleaning behavior. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this honey bee, its Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JSUV00000000. The 240-Mb genome is being annotated and analyzed. Comparison with the genome of other Apis mellifera sub-species promises to yield insights into the evolution of adaptations to high temperature and resistance to Varroa parasite infestation. PMID:26484171

  9. Draft genome sequence of the Algerian bee Apis mellifera intermissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Jamal Haddad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apis mellifera intermissa is the native honeybee subspecies of Algeria. A. m. intermissa occurs in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco, between the Atlas and the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. This bee is very important due to its high ability to adapt to great variations in climatic conditions and due to its preferable cleaning behavior. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this honey bee, its Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JSUV00000000. The 240-Mb genome is being annotated and analyzed. Comparison with the genome of other Apis mellifera sub-species promises to yield insights into the evolution of adaptations to high temperature and resistance to Varroa parasite infestation.

  10. Antibacterial Activity of a Cardanol from Thai Apis mellifera Propolis

    OpenAIRE

    Boonsai, Pattaraporn; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha; Chanchao, Chanpen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Propolis is a sticky, dark brown resinous residue made by bees that is derived from plant resins. It is used to construct and repair the nest, and in addition possesses several diverse bioactivities. Here, propolis from Apis mellifera from Nan province, Thailand, was tested for antibacterial activity against Gram+ve (Staphylococcus aureus and Paenibacillus larvae) and Gram-ve (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Materials and methods: The three bacterial isolates were confirmed for specie...

  11. Paternity skew in seven species of honeybees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apis)

    OpenAIRE

    Schlüns, Helge; F.A. MORITZ, Robin; Michael G. Lattorff, H.; Koeniger, Gudrun

    2005-01-01

    International audience Honeybees (Apis) show an extremely polyandrous mating system. In general honeybee queens mate with at least ten drones. The reproductive success of the drones is usually biased giving rise to speculations of a first or last male advantage. Especially for A. andreniformis and A. florea a first male advantage was hypothesized due to the peculiar anatomy of their male genitalia. We reanalyzed data from the literature by using a sample size calibration method to survey t...

  12. Analisis Finansial Dan Pemasaran Usaha Lebah Madu (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Agustini, Rini

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to determine the financial analysis and marketing margins beekeeping businesses (Apis mellifera) in the village of Samura, Subdistrict Gung Negri, District Kabanjahe, Karo. The analysis method used was descriptive analysis and financial analysis with multiple criteria: Net Present Value (NPV), Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) and Internal Rate of Returns (IRR). The results showed the beekeeping business have value NPV, BCR, and IRR indicating that the beekeeping business worth ...

  13. Genetic characterization of a polymorphic dipeptidyl aminopeptidase of Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Del Lama,; Boraschi, Daniele; Ademilson Espencer Egea Soares,; Duran, Ximena

    2004-01-01

    International audience Dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (DAP) activity towards L-leucylglycine-$\\beta$-naphthylamide (Leu-Gly NA) was characterized in pupae and adult extracts of Apis mellifera. Enzyme activity was more conspicuous in pupae than in adult extracts and it seemed to be concentrated in digestive tract tissues. Two genetically determined electrophoretic variants were observed in honeybee samples from the USA and Chile; in Brazilian Africanized bees, two additional variants were observ...

  14. Reevaluation of honeybee (Apis mellifera) microtaxonomy: a geometric morphometric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kandemir, Irfan; Özkan, Ayça; FUCHS, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    International audience In the present study, the microtaxonomy of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) subspecies was reevaluated based on a geometric morphometric method. Wing images of honeybee subspecies, obtained from the Morphometric Bee Data Bank in Oberursel, Germany, were assigned to four honeybee lineages from the indivudial images, and 40 Cartesian coordinates were obtained. Honeybee lineages were significantly different based on individual and colony consensus average wing shapes of hon...

  15. Using open web APIs in teaching web mining

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, M; H Chen; Li, X; Ho, YJ; Tseng, C

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of the World Wide Web, many business applications that utilize data mining and text mining techniques to extract useful business information on the Web have evolved from Web searching to Web mining. It is important for students to acquire knowledge and hands-on experience in Web mining during their education in information systems curricula. This paper reports on an experience using open Web Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) that have been made available by major Inter...

  16. Metadata and API Based Environment Aware Content Delivery Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the limitations of current content delivery networks is lack of support for environment aware content delivery. This paper first discusses the requirements of such support, and proposes a new metadata gateway based environment aware content delivery architecture. The paper discusses in some details key functions and technologies of environment aware content delivery architecture, including its APIs and control policies. Finally the paper presents an application to illustrate advantages of environment aware content delivery architecture in the context of next generation network.

  17. Flujo de Carbono Orgánico Total (COT en una cuenca andina: caso subcuenca Río Las Piedras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Ordóñez Díaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó para calcular el flujo de carbono transportado por la cuenca del río Las Piedras, típica representativa de los Andes tropicales suramericanos, reservorio estratégico del recurso hídrico. Se desarrolló una investigación observacional durante 20 meses sobre el recurso hídrico, mediante un diseño completamente aleatorio, estratificado por altura (msnm, analizando el contenido de COT, las propiedades físico-químicas del agua y variables hidrometeorológicas (caudal y variación estacional. La concentración promedio de COT aportada principalmente desde la zona alta fue 9 mgL-1. Se transporta en promedio un flujo de 2003,5 Kg.dia-1 de COT, asociado al caudal y la estacionalidad húmeda. El análisis en relación con variables físico-químicas permite concluir que el río disuelve CO2 en sus aguas. Este estudio contribuye al análisis del comportamiento de los ríos andinos y su aporte al ciclo global del carbono.

  18. Análisis de soldabilidad de aceros inoxidables con aceros de medio y bajo carbono por SMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luddey Marulanda Arevalo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio de la soldabilidad de aceros inoxidables austeníticos AISI 304 y AISI 316 con aceros de bajo y medio carbono AISI 1020 – AISI 1045, empleando como materiales de aporte los electrodos EutecTrode® 52 NG, 54 NG y 57 NG, mediante el proceso de arco eléctrico con electrodo revestido (SMAW. Para analizar la soldabilidad de estos electrodos cuando se realiza la unión de aceros inoxidables con aceros al carbono, se practicaron pruebas metalográficas y ensayos mecánicos de dureza, doblez y tracción, con el fin de observar el comportamiento tanto de la zona afectada térmicamente como del cordón de soldadura, a partir del cambio en las propiedades mecánicas y metalúrgicas en las diferentes regiones de las uniones soldadas. Durante el proceso de soldadura se siguió una especificación del procedimiento de soldadura (WPS, para que los resultados fueran repetibles, minimizando los problemas de agrietamiento en caliente, agrietamiento en frío, formación de fase sigma y precipitación de carburos.

  19. DESCRIPCIÓN DE LA DINÁMICA DE CARBONO EN SUELOS FORESTALES MEDIANTE UN MODELO DE RESERVORIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Orellana-Rivadeneyra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone una aproximación sobre variables medioambientales mediante funciones de distribución dependientes del tiempo para simplificar un modelo de la dinámica del carbono orgánico en el suelo. El modelo se basa en el concepto de reservorios, que supone que los diferentes estados de la materia orgánica del suelo constituyen masas homogéneas. Este modelo se enfoca en el intercambio de materia orgánica entre dichas masas, estableciendo relaciones de contacto. Usando el modelo simplificado se calculó la acumulación de materia orgánica en el suelo y la emisión de CO2 desde un ecosistema de bosque de pino (Pinus elliottii ubicado en Gainesville, Florida, EU. Se verificó la viabilidad de las aproximaciones en el modelo para estudiar la dinámica del carbono orgánico en suelos forestales. Se calculó la acumulación relativa de materia orgánica en el suelo. Con esto se obtuvo una estimación de la actividad del bosque de P. elliottii como secuestrador.

  20. Influencia del carbono y el cromo en el comportamiento tribológico de aleaciones férreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the abrasive wear resistance of a carbon steel, used in the linings of coal mills, and ferrous alloys with different chromium and carbon content. It also analyses the influence of chromium and carbon content on mechanical properties, such as hardness, and microstructure. The abrasive wear resistance of the different materials was determined by means of ASTM G 105, "Standard Test Method for Conducting Wet Sand/Rubber Wheel Abrasion Test". A blasting test was used to study erosive wear resistance.

    En este estudio se analiza la influencia, en las propiedades tribológicas, del contenido en carbono para distintas aleaciones férreas con similares contenidos en cromo, así como la influencia del cromo cuando el contenido en carbono es semejante. También, se analizó la influencia de estos elementos en propiedades como la dureza y en la microestructura de las aleaciones. Para el estudio tribológico se llevaron a cabo dos ensayos, el ensayo descrito en la norma ASTM G105: Standard Test Method for Conducting Wet Sand/Rubber Wheel Abrasion Test y ensayos de chorreo.

  1. ADS 2.0: New Architecture, API and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyla, R.; Accomazzi, A.; Holachek, A.; Grant, C. S.; Elliott, J.; Henneken, E. A.; Thompson, D. M.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.; Sudilovsky, V.

    2015-09-01

    The ADS platform is undergoing the biggest rewrite of its 20-year history. While several components have been added to its architecture over the past couple of years, this talk will concentrate on the underpinnings of ADS's search layer and its API. To illustrate the design of the components in the new system, we will show how the new ADS user interface is built exclusively on top of the API using RESTful web services. Taking one step further, we will discuss how we plan to expose the treasure trove of information hosted by ADS (10 million records and fulltext for much of the Astronomy and Physics refereed literature) to partners interested in using this API. This will provide you (and your intelligent applications) with access to ADS's underlying data to enable the extraction of new knowledge and the ingestion of these results back into the ADS. Using this framework, researchers could run controlled experiments with content extraction, machine learning, natural language processing, etc. In this talk, we will discuss what is already implemented, what will be available soon, and where we are going next.

  2. Variation morphogeometrics of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena A. Nunes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphometrics of the honey bee Apis mellifera L., 1758 has been widely studied mainly because this species has great ecological importance, high adaptation capacity, wide distribution and capacity to effectively adapt to different regions. The current study aimed to investigate the morphometric variations of wings and pollen baskets of honey bees Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 from the five regions in Brazil. We used geometric morphometrics to identify the existence of patterns of variations of shape and size in Africanized honey bees in Brazil 16 years after the classic study with this species, allowing a temporal and spatial comparative analysis using new technological resources to assess morphometrical data. Samples were collected in 14 locations in Brazil, covering the five geographical regions of the country. The shape analysis and multivariate analyses of the wing allowed to observe that there is a geographical pattern among the population of Apis mellifera in Brazil. The geographical variations may be attributed to the large territorial extension of the country in addition to the differences between the bioregions.

  3. Alótropos del carbono: experimentos de laboratorio que se hacen famosos años después

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rodríguez Reinoso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Es destacable que el “descubrimiento” de los tres últimos alótropos del elemento carbono se haya producido en un intervalo de pocos años: fullerenos en 1985, nanotubos en 1991 y grafeno en 2004.

  4. A SNP based high-density linkage map of Apis cerana reveals a high recombination rate similar to Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yuan Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Eastern honey bee, Apis cerana Fabricius, is distributed in southern and eastern Asia, from India and China to Korea and Japan and southeast to the Moluccas. This species is also widely kept for honey production besides Apis mellifera. Apis cerana is also a model organism for studying social behavior, caste determination, mating biology, sexual selection, and host-parasite interactions. Few resources are available for molecular research in this species, and a linkage map was never constructed. A linkage map is a prerequisite for quantitative trait loci mapping and for analyzing genome structure. We used the Chinese honey bee, Apis cerana cerana to construct the first linkage map in the Eastern honey bee. RESULTS: F2 workers (N = 103 were genotyped for 126,990 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. After filtering low quality and those not passing the Mendel test, we obtained 3,000 SNPs, 1,535 of these were informative and used to construct a linkage map. The preliminary map contains 19 linkage groups, we then mapped the 19 linkage groups to 16 chromosomes by comparing the markers to the genome of A. mellfiera. The final map contains 16 linkage groups with a total of 1,535 markers. The total genetic distance is 3,942.7 centimorgans (cM with the largest linkage group (180 loci measuring 574.5 cM. Average marker interval for all markers across the 16 linkage groups is 2.6 cM. CONCLUSION: We constructed a high density linkage map for A. c. cerana with 1,535 markers. Because the map is based on SNP markers, it will enable easier and faster genotyping assays than randomly amplified polymorphic DNA or microsatellite based maps used in A. mellifera.

  5. Aggressiveness index of Apis Mellifera (Hymenoptera: Aapidae) Índice de agresividad en Apis mellifera ( Hymenoptera: Aapidae )

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra Omar Danilo; Insuasty Torres Jennyfer

    2004-01-01

    An index measuring the aggressiveness among ten colonies of Apis mellifera was elaborated based on the third generation synthetic indices by Charum et al. (1999). The index values are subject to a fixed parameter used as the beginning or standard value, and correspond to the aggressive features of some Africans colonies studied by Rothenbuler et al. (1968). In the ten colonies the index values are notably smaller than those of African colonies and are biased to the lowest values. This indicat...

  6. Comportamiento a fractura de dos aceros de ultraalto contenido en carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Vicente, A.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Two ultrahigh carbon steels containing 1.3 and 1.5 pet carbon have been tested for their plane-strain (Chevron-notch fracture toughness using Barker tests. The microstructure of these two materials consisted of fine carbides dispersed in a ferrite matrix. Fracture toughness of UHC-1.3 C was twice that of UHC-1.5 C. This result can be readily explained by means of the difference in size of the carbide particles found in each microstructure. The crack growth mechanism consisted of ductile tearing at the notch tip region followed by nucleation of a brittle crack at carbides. Crack propagation in the UHC-1.3 C specimen occurred unstably and smooth crack growth behavior was observed in UHC-1.5 C. The difference in crack growth behavior was attributed to the elastic energy stored in the grips, which was higher for the UHC-1.3 C test than for the UHC-1.5 C test.

    Se ha analizado la tenacidad a la fractura de dos aceros de ultraalto contenido en carbono, UAC, conteniendo 1,3% C y 1,5% C, los cuales poseían una microestructura de carburos esferoidales finos en una matriz de ferrita. Se ha empleado el ensayo Barker para determinar el comportamiento a fractura. La tenacidad obtenida en el acero UAC-1,3 C fue doble que la del acero UAC-1,5 C. Esto se explica a partir del tamaño de los carburos presentes en cada microestructura. El mecanismo de fractura en ambos aceros consiste, inicialmente, en desgarramiento dúctil de la zona de la punta de la entalla seguido de propagación frágil de una grieta nucleada en los carburos. La propagación de la grieta en el acero UAC-1,5 C se produjo de manera estable, mientras que en el acero UAC-1,3 C la grieta se propagó catastróficamente. La diferencia de comportamientos en el crecimiento de la grieta se atribuye a la mayor energía elástica acumulada por la mordaza para el acero UAC-1,3 C que para el acero UAC-1,5 C.

  7. UTILIZAÇÃO DE LODO ANAERÓBIO COMO FONTE EXTERNA DE CARBONO NO PROCESSO DE DESNITRIFICAÇÃO DE ÁGUAS RESIDUÁRIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tavares de Sousa

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O processo de desnitrificação reduz, de forma geral, nitrato a nitrogênio molecular; essa redução acontece associada ao ganho de elétrons. Na desnitrificação, as bactérias heterotróficas utilizam carbono orgânico como fonte doadora de elétrons. No caso de esgotos sanitários já tratados (tratamento secundário e como estes não dispõem de carbono orgânico suficiente exigem, portanto, uma fonte externa de carbono orgânico. Assim sendo, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o potencial de desnitrificação de uma coluna preenchida com lodo anaeróbio sem o uso de outra fonte externa de carbono; esta coluna foi carregada pelo topo superior com lodo e, por meio de bomba peristáltica, o afluente nitrificado alimentava a coluna em fluxo ascendente. Durante 30 semanas de operação, a eficiência de remoção na coluna de desnitrificação permaneceu em torno de 72%, o lodo anaróbio se comportou como fonte externa de carbono adequada para o processo e a maior eficiência de remoção de nitrato ocorreu quando a coluna foi operada com maior concentração de sólidos suspenso voláteis (SSV; portanto, a eficiência de remoção de nitrato é função da concentração de SSV e, consequentemente, da masssa de lodo na coluna.

  8. Aplicação da técnica de ruído eletroquímico no estudo da corrosão do aço carbono em meio de bicarbonato de sódio saturado com dióxido de carbono

    OpenAIRE

    Klok, Simone Maria

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: O atual cenário da indústria petroquímica passou a envolver a perfuração de poços em condições de alta pressão e temperatura. Os campos de exploração de petróleo na camada pré-sal representam um desafio operacional, pois possuem elevada concentração de Dióxido de Carbono - CO2. O CO2 reage com a água e forma o ácido carbônico - H2CO3 que é corrosivo ao aço carbono. A corrosão por dióxido de carbono é um dos tipos de ataques mais encontrados na produção de óleo e gás e a maior parte da...

  9. Evaluation of API microtube GT system for detection of germ tube production by clinically significant yeasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Philip, A; Tsui, A; O'Brien, J E

    1983-01-01

    A total of 152 fresh consecutive yeast isolates were tested for their ability to produce germ tubes by the API GT system (Analytab products, Plainview, N.Y.) and by a conventional method. The API system was found to be less sensitive than the conventional method. The costs per test by the API system and the conventional method were $0.76 and $0.39, respectively.

  10. Dinámica del carbono en los ecosistemas de páramo de los Andes neotropicales: revisión de literatura sobre modelos y parámetros relevantes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sevink; F.H. Tonneijck; K. Kalbitz; L.H. Cammeraat

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Los suelos del páramo almacenan cantidades excepcionales de carbono debido a las condiciones edáficas y climáticas sobre las cuales se desarrollan. Este gran reservorio de carbono está amenazado debido a los efectos del cambio climático y las dinámicas de uso de la tierra. No obstante, el de

  11. Failure behaviour of preloaded API line pipe threaded connections

    OpenAIRE

    Seys, Jonas; Roeygens, Koenraad; Van Wittenberghe, Jeroen; Galle, Timothy; DE BAETS, Patrick; De Waele, Wim

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on numerical and experimental work concerning the fatigue behaviour and sealing capacity of threaded pipe connections (1” API Line Pipe). Numerical simulations are performed using Abaqus® in combination with ThreadGen©. The fatigue life of a thick-walled standard coupling is determined using a four-point bending test. The corresponding S-N curve is compared to results of previous work on thin-walled specimens. It can be concluded that the standard thick-walled connection ha...

  12. Efectos digitales de audio con Web Audio API

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA CHAPARRO, SAMUEL

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo consiste en un estudio de la capacidad de Web Audio API para el procesado de efectos de audio en tiempo real. De todos los efectos de audio posibles se han elegido el wah-wah, el flanger y el choris, efectos ampliamente empleados con guitarra eléctrica. Se crean funciones de lenguaje JavaScript que modelan el comportamiento de los efectos de audio elegidos, haciéndolas funcionar sobre una plataforma web HTML5. García Chaparro, S. (2015). Efectos digitales de audio con W...

  13. Solar Eclipse Computer API: Planning Ahead for August 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Lesniak, Michael V.; Bell, Steve

    2016-01-01

    With the total solar eclipse of 2017 August 21 over the continental United States approaching, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) on-line Solar Eclipse Computer can now be accessed via an application programming interface (API). This flexible interface returns local circumstances for any solar eclipse in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) that can be incorporated into third-party Web sites or applications. For a given year, it can also return a list of solar eclipses that can be used to build a more specific request for local circumstances. Over the course of a particular eclipse as viewed from a specific site, several events may be visible: the beginning and ending of the eclipse (first and fourth contacts), the beginning and ending of totality (second and third contacts), the moment of maximum eclipse, sunrise, or sunset. For each of these events, the USNO Solar Eclipse Computer reports the time, Sun's altitude and azimuth, and the event's position and vertex angles. The computer also reports the duration of the total phase, the duration of the eclipse, the magnitude of the eclipse, and the percent of the Sun obscured for a particular eclipse site. On-line documentation for using the API-enabled Solar Eclipse Computer, including sample calls, is available (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/api.php). The same Web page also describes how to reach the Complete Sun and Moon Data for One Day, Phases of the Moon, Day and Night Across the Earth, and Apparent Disk of a Solar System Object services using API calls.For those who prefer using a traditional data input form, local circumstances can still be requested that way at http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/SolarEclipses.php. In addition, the 2017 August 21 Solar Eclipse Resource page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2017.php) consolidates all of the USNO resources for this event, including a Google Map view of the eclipse track designed by Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO). Looking further ahead, a

  14. Entorno de Audio usando la nueva API de HTML 5

    OpenAIRE

    LATORRE PLAYÁN, JAVIER

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo el diseño y programación de una aplicación de audio sobre la nueva API de audio de HTML 5. Para ello, utilizamos el programa SoundCool, que es propiedad de la Universidad Politécnica de Valencia y, a partir de los módulos que implementa, los adaptaremos al lenguaje antes mencionado, con el propósito de hacerlo más accesible y atractivo visualmente. Para poder llevar a cabo lo mencionado anteriormente, se ha realizado, en primer lugar, un trabajo de investig...

  15. Aportes para la estimación de la huella de carbono en los grandes asentamientos urbanos de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Ferraro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El cambio climático y su efecto más inmediato, el calentamiento global, plantean desafíos para la gestión ambiental de las ciudades. Uno de ellos es estimar su huella de carbono con la finalidad de morigerar los potenciales impactos. El presente trabajo propone calcular las emisiones de CO2 producidas por las actividades antrópicas de los 15 asentamientos urbanos de Argentina de más de 300.000 habitantes. Para ello se analizaron por localidad los consumos de energía eléctrica y se calcularon las emisiones de CO2 por sector de demanda eléctrica. Los resultados muestran que Argentina, en general, y los grandes asentamientos, en particular, tienen una baja contribución de emisiones de CO2, que se asocian en orden decreciente con la actividad industrial, residencial y comercial.

  16. Aportes para la estimación de la huella de carbono en los grandes asentamientos urbanos de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Ferraro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El cambio climático y su efecto más inmediato, el calentamiento global, plantean desafíos para la gestión ambiental de las ciudades. Uno de ellos es estimar su huella de carbono con la finalidad de morigerar los potenciales impactos. El presente trabajo propone calcular las emisiones de CO2 producidas por las actividades antrópicas de los 15 asentamientos urbanos de Argentina de más de 300.000 habitantes. Para ello se analizaron por localidad los consumos de energía eléctrica y se calcularon las emisiones de CO2 por sector de demanda eléctrica. Los resultados muestran que Argentina, en general, y los grandes asentamientos, en particular, tienen una baja contribución de emisiones de CO2, que se asocian en orden decreciente con la actividad industrial, residencial y comercial.

  17. Propriedades da madeira e estimativas de massa, carbono e energia de clones de Eucalyptus plantados em diferentes locais

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa Carvalho Santos; Ana Márcia Macedo Ladeira Carvalho; Bárbara Luísa Corradi Pereira; Aylson Costa Oliveira; Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro; Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2012-01-01

    As diferentes espécies de Eucalyptus são aptas para os mais diversos usos, sendo sua madeira amplamente empregada na geração de energia a partir da sua queima direta na forma de lenha ou da sua conversão em carvão vegetal. Além das propriedades da madeira, informações a respeito da estimativa de massa, carbono fixado e quantidade de energia disponível por área de plantio são importantes para a previsão da quantidade de produtos a ser gerada por material genético em dado local. Diante da impor...

  18. Técnica alternativas de determinação "on site" de dióxido de carbono

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos Segundo, Emerson Hochsteiner de

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de técnicas alternativas, em campo, para determinação de dióxido de carbono em reservatórios para abastecimento de águas ou regularização de hidroelétricas. As técnicas concebidas têm aplicação tanto para o meio líquido quanto para o meio gasoso e baseiam-se na captação de sinais físicos, predominantemente no que diz respeito à espectroscopia. Foram analisadas possíveis aplicações em relação à produção de bolhas de gás pelo desl...

  19. Síntesis y caracterización de materiales híbridos basados en nanotubos de carbono

    OpenAIRE

    García Gutiérrez, Ángel Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Los nanotubos de carbono están despertando un gran interés investigativo en los últimos años debido a sus excepcionales propiedades electrónicas, mecánicas, térmicas, químicas y por sus potenciales aplicaciones en nanociencia y nanotecnología. Por otro lado, el óxido de zinc también genera un gran interés tanto científico como tecnológico debido a sus extraordinarias propiedades ópticas y eléctricas. Se trata de un material semiconductor con demostradas propiedades fotocatalíticas, que le con...

  20. ATRIBUTOS FÍSICO-HÍDRICOS E ESTOQUE DE CARBONO EM NEOSSOLO QUARTZARÊNICO SOB PLANTIO DE Eucalyptus urograndis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Libanio Pelissari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo  do  trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da colheita do eucalipto  nos atributos físico-hídricos e no estoque de carbono em Neossolo Quartzarênico. O estudo foi conduzido em um povoamento  de  Eucalyptus urograndis  com sete anos de idade, em Dom Aquino, MT, Brasil.  As avaliações  foram realizadas em dois períodos do ano (chuvoso e seco, e coletadas amostras de solo nas profundidades de 0–0,2; 0,2–0,4; 0,4–0,6; 0,6–0,8 e 0,8–1,0 m, antes e após a colheita semimecanizada, para a determinação da porosidade total, densidade, condutividade hidráulica saturada, conteúdo de água e estoque de carbono no solo, enquanto a resistência à penetração foi determinada até  0,8 m. O sistema semimecanizado de colheita alterou significativamente a resistência do solo à penetração e a porosidade total no período chuvoso do ano. A densidade do solo  foi inferior nas camadas superficiais, ao passo que a condutividade hidráulica saturada reduziu após a colheita. O conteúdo de água no solo foi o atributo que regulou  o impacto da colheita semimecanizada sobre o solo.  O estoque de carbono aumentou  após a colheita no período chuvoso.Palavra-chave compactação do solo, carbono orgânico, colheita de madeira.PHYSICAL-HYDRIC ATTRIBUTES AND CARBON STOCK IN TYPIC QUARTZIPISAMMENT UNDER Eucalyptus urograndis STANDS ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of eucalyptus harvesting in the physical-hydric attributes and carbon storage in Typic Quartzipisamment. The study was conducted with seven years old Eucalyptus urograndis stand, in Dom Aquino, MT, Brazil. The evaluations were conducted in two seasons (wet and dry, with soil sampling at depths of 0-0.2, 0.2-0.4, 0.4-0.6, 0.6-0.8 and 0.8-1.0 m, before and after the semi-mechanized harvesting, for the total porosity determination, bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, water content and soil carbon stock, while the soil penetration resistance was

  1. DIÓXIDO DE CARBONO ASSOCIADO À FOSFINA NO CONTROLE DO GORGULHO-DO-MILHO (Sitophilus zeamais)

    OpenAIRE

    Talita Lacaze de Camargo Casella; Lêda Rita D'Antonino Faroni; Pedro Amorim Berbert; Paulo Roberto Cecon

    1998-01-01

    RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da utilização de fosfina, associada a atmosferas ricas em dióxido de carbono, no controle efetivo de Sitophilus zeamais, em todas as suas fases de desenvolvimento, em grãos de milho, a temperatura de 29°C e 65% de umidade relativa. Os tratamentos compreenderam a combinação de atmosfera controlada (21% de CO2 e 79% de N2) e três doses de fosfina (0,25, 0,50 e 0,75g.m-3) e atmosfera ambiente e duas doses de fosfina (0,0 e 1,0g.m-3) em três p...

  2. Long-term storage of Ascosphaera aggregata and Ascosphaera apis, pathogens of the leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata) and the honey bee (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, A B; James, R R; Eilenberg, J

    2009-06-01

    Survival rates of Ascosphaera aggregata and Ascosphaera apis over the course of a year were tested using different storage treatments. For spores, the storage methods tested were freeze-drying and ultra-low temperatures, and for hyphae, freeze-drying, agar slants, and two methods of ultra-low temperatures. Spores of A. aggregata and A. apis stored well at -80 degrees C and after freeze-drying. A. aggregata hyphae did not store well under any of the methods tested while A. apis hyphae survived well using cryopreservation. Spores produced from cryopreserved A. apis hyphae were infective. Long-term storage of these two important fungal bee diseases is thus possible. PMID:19332075

  3. Functional characterization of naturally occurring melittin peptide isoforms in two honey bee species, Apis mellifera and Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Doori; Jung, Je Won; Lee, Mi Ok; Lee, Si Young; Kim, Boyun; Jin, Hye Jun; Kim, Jiyoung; Ahn, Young-Joon; Lee, Ki Won; Song, Yong Sang; Hong, Seunghun; Womack, James E; Kwon, Hyung Wook

    2014-03-01

    Insect-derived antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have diverse effects on antimicrobial properties and pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammation and anticancer properties. Naturally occurring genetic polymorphism have a direct and/or indirect influence on pharmacological effect of AMPs, therefore information on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) occurring in natural AMPs provides an important clue to therapeutic applications. Here we identified nucleotide polymorphisms in melittin gene of honey bee populations, which is one of the potent AMP in bee venoms. We found that the novel SNP of melittin gene exists in these two honey bee species, Apis mellifera and Apis cerana. Nine polymorphisms were identified within the coding region of the melittin gene, of which one polymorphism that resulted in serine (Ser) to asparagine (Asp) substitution that can potentially effect on biological activities of melittin peptide. Serine-substituted melittin (Mel-S) showed more cytotoxic effect than asparagine-substituted melittin (Mel-N) against E. coli. Also, Mel-N and Mel-S had different inhibitory effects on the production of inflammatory factors such as IL-6 and TNF-α in BV-2 cells. Moreover, Mel-S showed stronger cytotoxic activities than Mel-N peptide against two human ovarian cancer cell lines. Using carbon nanotube-based transistor, we here characterized that Mel-S interacted with small unilamellar liposomes more strongly than Mel-N. Taken together, our present study demonstrates that there exist different characteristics of the gene frequency and the biological activities of the melittin peptide in two honey bee species, Apis mellifera and A. cerana. PMID:24512991

  4. Improvements and extensions to API 618 related to pulsation and mechanical response studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Smeulers, J.P.M.; Blodgett, L.E.; Smalley, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Purchasers of reciprocating compressors need a standard to help ensure reliable installations. The PNEUROP standard evolved in Europe, and the API 618 Standard in the U.S.A. Frequent application and generally good experience, worldwide, have led to four releases of API 618, the last dated June 1995.

  5. Macelignan inhibits bee pathogenic fungi Ascophaera apis growth through HOG1 pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.K. Shin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascosphaera apis is a bee pathogen that causes bee larvae infection disease, to which treatment is not yet well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate antifungal susceptibility in vitro against A. apis and to identify a new antifungal agent for this pathogen through minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC assay and western blot analysis. Macelignan had 1.56 and 3.125 μg/mL MIC against A. apis after 24 and 48 h, respectively, exhibiting the strongest growth inhibition against A. apis among the tested compounds (corosolic acid, dehydrocostus lactone, loganic acid, tracheloside, fangchinoline and emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. Furthermore, macelignan showed a narrow-ranged spectrum against various fungal strains without any mammalian cell cytotoxicity. In spite of miconazole having powerful broad-ranged anti-fungal activity including A. apis, it demonstrated strong cytotoxicity. Therefore, even if macelignan alone was effective as an antifungal agent to treat A. apis, combined treatment with miconazole was more useful to overcome toxicity, drug resistance occurrence and cost effectiveness. Finally, HOG1 was revealed as a target molecule of macelignan in the anti-A. apis activity by inhibiting phosphorylation using S. cerevisiae as a model system. Based on our results, macelignan, a food-grade antimicrobial compound, would be an effective antifungal agent against A. apis infection in bees.

  6. Differential gene expression of the honey bee Apis mellifera associated with Varroa destructor infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is the most serious pest of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, and has caused the death of millions of colonies worldwide. We investigated whether Varroa infestation induces changes in Apis mellifera gene expression, and whether there are genotypic differen...

  7. Individual Variability of Nosema ceranae Infections in Apis mellifera Colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Fell

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2006, beekeepers have reported increased losses of Apis mellifera colonies, and one factor that has been potentially implicated in these losses is the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Since N. ceranae is a fairly recently discovered parasite, there is little knowledge of the variation in infection levels among individual workers within a colony. In this study we examined the levels of infection in individual bees from five colonies over three seasons using both spore counting and quantitative real-time PCR. The results show considerable intra-colony variation in infection intensity among individual workers with a higher percentage of low-level infections detected by PCR than by spore counting. Colonies generally had the highest percentage of infected bees in early summer (June and the lowest levels in the fall (September. Nosema apis was detected in only 16/705 bees (2.3% and always as a low-level co-infection with N. ceranae. The results also indicate that intra-colony variation in infection levels could influence the accuracy of Nosema diagnosis.

  8. Physicochemical analysis of apis dorsata honey from terai forests, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multi floral honey produced by Apis dorsata from Shahabgunj, Dhakeri, Narayanpur and Perari forest, Nepal, were provided by International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Nepal. These ninety nine Apis dorsata honey samples were characterized physicochemical and were found to have values of various quality determining parameters well with in the permissible International standards. The honey samples had pH in the range of 3.8-4.68, free acidity 41-48 meq/kg, lactones 13-16 meq/kg, total acidity 55-65 meq/kg, moisture content 20.5-26%, electrical conductivity 0.22-0.63 mS/cm, proline content 76-160 mg/kg, HMF content 30-56 mg/kg, diastase number 5.1-29 DN, invertase number 390-499, apparent reducing sugars 73.78-77.78%, fructose 36.93-44.61%, glucose 19.61-27.51% and sucrose 12.07-20.38%. (author)

  9. 往复压缩机标准API-618、API-11P的异同点及其应用浅谈%The Similarities and Differences of Reciprocating Compressor Standards of API-618 and API-11P and Discussion of Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明悦; 扈滨

    2011-01-01

    PI Standard 618 and API Specification 11P are the standards for reciprocating compressors by American Petroleum Institute ( API) .This paper has speeified the applications of the two standards in the compressors which used in the Cas Treatment Plant of SES natural gas pmject.And the similarities and differences between them are compared.%API Standard 618和API Specification 11P都是美国石油学会(API)针对往复压缩机制定的标准.结合中海石油SES天然气项目中的气体处理厂压缩机单元对这两个标准的应用,对两者之间的异同点进行比较.

  10. The Ruby UCSC API: accessing the UCSC genome database using Ruby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishima Hiroyuki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC genome database is among the most used sources of genomic annotation in human and other organisms. The database offers an excellent web-based graphical user interface (the UCSC genome browser and several means for programmatic queries. A simple application programming interface (API in a scripting language aimed at the biologist was however not yet available. Here, we present the Ruby UCSC API, a library to access the UCSC genome database using Ruby. Results The API is designed as a BioRuby plug-in and built on the ActiveRecord 3 framework for the object-relational mapping, making writing SQL statements unnecessary. The current version of the API supports databases of all organisms in the UCSC genome database including human, mammals, vertebrates, deuterostomes, insects, nematodes, and yeast. The API uses the bin index—if available—when querying for genomic intervals. The API also supports genomic sequence queries using locally downloaded *.2bit files that are not stored in the official MySQL database. The API is implemented in pure Ruby and is therefore available in different environments and with different Ruby interpreters (including JRuby. Conclusions Assisted by the straightforward object-oriented design of Ruby and ActiveRecord, the Ruby UCSC API will facilitate biologists to query the UCSC genome database programmatically. The API is available through the RubyGem system. Source code and documentation are available at https://github.com/misshie/bioruby-ucsc-api/ under the Ruby license. Feedback and help is provided via the website at http://rubyucscapi.userecho.com/.

  11. Determinación de carbono orgánico en materias primas cerámicas en presencia de siderita, FeCO3

    OpenAIRE

    Gazulla Barreda, María Fernanda; Gómez, Carmen M.; Rodrigo Carbonell, María Dolores; Orduña, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    La materia orgánica es una de las impurezas presentes en las materias primas utilizadas en la fabricación de pavimentos y revestimientos cerámicos. Durante el proceso de cocción, el carbono orgánico (Corgánico) puede producir la aparición de un núcleo negro conocido como “corazón negro”, que puede causar defectos en el producto final. Las materias primas cerámicas contienen Corgánico a nivel de mg·kg-1 (procedente de la materia orgánica) y carbono inorgánico (Cinorgánico) a nivel de porce...

  12. Caracterización del aceite de semilla de borraja extraído con dióxido de carbono supercrítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado Andújar, A.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work is based on a comparative study of the borage seed's oil obtained with supercritical carbon dioxide by means of the conventional extraction using hexane as a solvent. In the optimal working conditions, the results obtained in the extraction with carbon dioxide are comparable to those obtained in the extraction with hexane, although the oil's quality is higher. Therefore, the process of supercritical extraction with carbon dioxide could be more effective than conventional extraction because the solvent removal is not necessary and several steps of the oil refining process can be reduced notably.

    En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio comparativo de la calidad del aceite de semilla de borraja obtenido con dióxido de carbono supercrítico y mediante extracción convencional empleando hexano como disolvente. La calidad del aceite extraído con dióxido de carbono es superior. En las condiciones óptimas de operación, los rendimientos encontrados en la extracción con dióxido de carbono, son comparables a los obtenidos en la extracción con hexano, si bien la calidad del aceite es superior. Por tanto, el proceso de Extracción Supercrítica con dióxido de carbono, al eliminar la etapa de recuperación del disolvente y simplificar sensiblemente el proceso de refinado del aceite, se presenta como una alternativa competitiva con la extracción convencional.

  13. Simulação e análise dosimétrica de protonterapia e íons de carbono no tratamento do melanoma uveal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Tavares Christóvão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este artigo apresenta a avaliação dosimétrica da radioterapia por íons de carbono em comparação à protonterapia. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: As simulações computacionais foram elaboradas no código Geant4 (GEometry ANd Tracking. Um modelo de olho discretizado em voxels implementado no sistema Siscodes (sistema computacional para dosimetria em radioterapia foi empregado, em que perfis de dose em profundidade e curvas de isodose foram gerados e superpostos. Nas simulações com feixe de íons de carbono, distintos valores de energia do feixe foram adotados, enquanto nas simulações com feixe de prótons os dispositivos da linha de irradiação foram incluídos e diferentes espessuras do material absorvedor foram aplicadas. RESULTADOS: As saídas das simulações foram processadas e integradas ao Siscodes para gerar as distribuições espaciais de dose no modelo ocular, considerando alterações do posicionamento de entrada do feixe. Os percentuais de dose foram normalizados em função da dose máxima para um feixe em posição de entrada específica, energia da partícula incidente e número de íons de carbono e de prótons incidentes. CONCLUSÃO: Os benefícios descritos e os resultados apresentados contribuem para o desenvolvimento das aplicações clínicas e das pesquisas em radioterapia ocular por íons de carbono e prótons.

  14. Equações alométricas para estimativa de biomassa e carbono em árvores de reflorestamentos de restauração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Lucio Carneiro de Miranda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos desenvolver e ajustar modelos alométricos para estimativa da biomassa seca e do carbono total em árvores plantadas em áreas de restauração florestal. Os dados dos ajustes são provenientes de 107 árvores de 44 espécies plantadas na região do Médio Vale do Paranapanema, SP, localizado nos Biomas Mata Atlântica e Cerrado. A biomassa seca e a massa de carbono foram obtidas por meio de amostragem destrutiva da parte aérea e subterrânea das árvores. Para o teste e ajuste dos modelos foi realizada a estratificação do conjunto inicial dos dados em ritmos de crescimento das espécies amostradas. Os ajustes foram feitos usando-se oito modelos lineares de cada variável dependente e dois obtidos pelo processo Stepwise-Forward. Os melhores modelos para estimativa da biomassa seca e carbono orgânico apresentaram coeficientes de determinação ajustado acima de 0,95 e erros-padrão percentuais abaixo de 32%. Os modelos baseados nos ritmos de crescimento das espécies mostraram melhores resultados estatísticos, atingindo R² = 0,985 e Syx% = 16,15 para biomassa seca das espécies de crescimento lento. Modelos provenientes do procedimento Stepwise geraram as melhores equações para as estimativas de biomassa seca e carbono total, e a estratificação dos dados dos diferentes ritmos de crescimento das espécies amostradas mostrou-se que foi adequada para melhorar o desempenho dos modelos.

  15. Modelo para calculo estimación del carbono en Tipo Forestal Roble-Raulí-Coigüe en la Reserva Nacional Malleco: Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Moreno Garcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es la selección de un modelo para estimación de carbono en Tipo Forestal Roble-Raulí y Coigüe. La recolección de datos se realizo en la Reserva Nacional Malleco. Cada sitio fue representado por un grupo de 5 parcelas (cuadradas, de lado 35m, superficie 1225m2, ubicadas en un transecto según la pendiente más fuerte. Fueron estimados los volúmenes de madera con y sin corteza de la totalidad de los individuos por medio de funciones para cada especie del tipo forestal en estudio. La cantidad de carbono almacenado a nivel de fuste de las parcelas fue estimada aplicando la función universal de carbono. En cada parcela se contabilizaron los árboles por clase diamétrico de DAP, siendo definidas las clases a partir del DAP mínimo de 3 cm y con una amplitud de 5 cm. Fueron ajustados los modelos de Spurr, Meyer, Stoate, Naslund y Schumacher-Hall. El modelo Schumacher-Hall presento el mejor ajuste de acuerdo a los indicadores estadísticos considerados, además de una mejor distribución de residuales.

  16. Procesos de certificación de proyectos de captura de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI En los Mercados Internacionales de Carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabogal Aguilar Javier

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de la mitigación al cambio climático, subyacen dos tipos de mecanismos destinados a disminuir las concentraciones de gases efecto invernadero: en primer lugar, la reducción de emisiones por las fuentes contaminantes; y en segundo lugar, el secuestro o captura de los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI cuantificados en CO2 equivalente en proyectos forestales (conocidos como LULUCF.Los proyectos de mitigación se abordan en el presente artículo por la comparación de los procesos de certificación que deben cumplir los proyectos de captura de gases de efecto invernadero, para acceder a los Mercados Internacionales de Carbono, tanto del Mecanismo de Desarrollo Limpio (MDL adoptado por el Protocolo de Kioto, como de los Mercados Voluntarios de Carbono (MVC.Como resultados, se presenta el aporte al desarrollo sustentable "local y regional": social, económico y ambiental en disponibilidad y mantenimiento de bienes y servicios ambientales; se resaltan las críticas a los esquemas de mercado analizados, y la incidencia del aporte a la sustentabilidad regional y local en la aprobación. De acuerdo con a lo anterior, los mercados voluntarios de carbono resultan ser más acordes con proyectos de pequeña y mediana escala mientras que el mecanismo de desarrollo limpio favorece en mayor medida aquellos proyectos de mediana y gran escala.

  17. The Arabidopsis apyrase AtAPY1 is localized in the Golgi instead of the extracellular space

    OpenAIRE

    Schiller Madlen; Massalski Carolin; Kurth Thomas; Steinebrunner Iris

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The two highly similar Arabidopsis apyrases AtAPY1 and AtAPY2 were previously shown to be involved in plant growth and development, evidently by regulating extracellular ATP signals. The subcellular localization of AtAPY1 was investigated to corroborate an extracellular function. Results Transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing AtAPY1 fused to the SNAP-(O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase)-tag were used for indirect immunofluorescence and AtAPY1 was detected in punctate st...

  18. Asynchronous API Pattern and its Application%异步接口模式及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何华海; 丁柯

    2002-01-01

    In distributed systems,high efficiency can be achieved using asynchronous API between client and server.This paper provides an architectural pattern that implements asynchronous API generally. Asynchronous methods donot execute operations directly,however,they delegate the sending and receiving process to individual threads via aqueue ,the client deals with results by means of callback ,wait or check. Synchronous API is implemented on the baseof asynchronous API. Presently the asynchronous API pattern has been employed in the implementation of messagequeue middleware ISMQ.

  19. Research on API Based on Visual Programming Platforms%基于可视化平台的 API 接口研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关玉蓉

    2015-01-01

    In a variety of visual programming platforms, especially with the external network environment, , a large number of API functions under Windows can help reflect strong advanced programming skills proving to be a multiplier effect. This paper firstly introduces the API function and the dynamic link library DLL, then briefly ex-plains the classification of API functions, and focuses on how to call the API function and its application of API function in the visual platform. The paper finally describes the skills and notes to pay attention for users when call-ing the API function, which enables them to master the advanced programming skills of API interface.%在各种可视化编程平台中,尤其是与外部网络环境相结合,为了体现强大的高级编程能力,可用Windows系统提供的大量API函数,必然会起到事半功倍的效果。本文首先介绍了API函数以及动态链接库DLL,其次简要说明了API函数的分类,然后重点分析了在可视化平台中如何调用API函数及其应用API函数的高级编程能力,最后阐述了用户调用API函数的技巧和注意事项,以提高用户灵活掌握API接口的高级编程应用能力。

  20. Yeast cell factories for fine chemical and API production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glieder Anton

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review gives an overview of different yeast strains and enzyme classes involved in yeast whole-cell biotransformations. A focus was put on the synthesis of compounds for fine chemical and API (= active pharmaceutical ingredient production employing single or only few-step enzymatic reactions. Accounting for recent success stories in metabolic engineering, the construction and use of synthetic pathways was also highlighted. Examples from academia and industry and advances in the field of designed yeast strain construction demonstrate the broad significance of yeast whole-cell applications. In addition to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, alternative yeast whole-cell biocatalysts are discussed such as Candida sp., Cryptococcus sp., Geotrichum sp., Issatchenkia sp., Kloeckera sp., Kluyveromyces sp., Pichia sp. (including Hansenula polymorpha = P. angusta, Rhodotorula sp., Rhodosporidium sp., alternative Saccharomyces sp., Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulopsis sp., Trichosporon sp., Trigonopsis variabilis, Yarrowia lipolytica and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.

  1. API, Cloud computing, WebGIS and cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Favretto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores some of the digital mapping processes available on the Internet in order to analyse their cartographic congruence. It will focus on WebGIS-based cartography in relation to what is produced using Mash-up site maps. These websites often use Googlebased maps in order to produce their own cartography. Thus, we can identify two main typologies of Internet mapping sites, which are characterized by the ownership or non-ownership of their cartographic bases. This paper will critically assess the cartography employed in the two different instances. A concise introduction to the Cloud Computing Internet propagated phenomenon is also premised in order to provide the reader with an accurate frame of reference. Cloud Computing has encouraged a significant Internet participation via the Application Programming Interface software (API, leading to mash-up cartographic websites.

  2. APIs for QoS configuration in Software Defined Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    control and management of the data plane (e.g. configurations of ports, queues, etc.). The current work contributes to the SDN ecosystem with the implementation of a plugin for the OVSDB protocol, for an existing SDN controller (SDNC). OVSDB complements OF with management functionality......The OpenFlow (OF) protocol is widely used in Software Defined Networking (SDN) to realize the communication between the controller and forwarding devices. OF allows great flexibility in managing traffic flows. However, OF alone is not enough to build more complex SDN services that require complete...... such as configuration of devices, ports, queues, etc. An Application Programming Interface (API) for dynamic configuration of QoS resources in the network devices is implemented herein, by using the capabilities of OVSDB. Further, the paper demonstrates the possibility to create network services with coarse granularity...

  3. EDGE REMOVAL OF 3D POLYGONAL MODEL USING MAYA API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMEER ARORA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In various applications of computer graphics, 3D polygonal modeling is used, which consists millions of triangular polygon. In this polygon attributes – vertices, edges and faces’ details are to be stored. In order to control the processing time, storing space, and transfer speed, it is often required to reduce the information ofthese polygonal 3D models. In this paper an effort is made to reduce the number of edges. There are various methods to reduce faces and edges of these 3D models. A C++ dynamic link library as Maya Plugin has been created to remove number of edges of 3D triangular polygon model using the Quadric Error Metrics (QEM in MAYA v2010 x64 API. QEM allows fast and accurate geometric simplification of 3D models.

  4. Design of Continuous Reactor Systems for API Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Jønch

    lifecycle of the API and GMP can make a potential reactor setup non-feasible. If the pharmaceutical industry is to adapt to recent trends towards end-to-end and on-demand pharmaceutical production, access to standard reactor units for commonly-used chemical transformations and methods for timely decision...... in continuous reactor setups. Grignard chemistry encompasses a very powerful reaction type frequently applied in the pharmaceutical industry, for the formation of new carbon-carbon bonds. Three Grignard addition reactions have been studied, all having very different behaviors related to aspects of reaction......-scale production equipment enabled complete replacement of the existing batch production of this intermediate. The crowning achievement in this work was the realization of continuous laboratory reactor setups capable of manufacturing the entire GMP portion of the synthesis of melitracen HCl at H. Lundbeck A...

  5. Carbono orgánico en suelos agrícolas de México: investigación y políticas públicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Cotler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de una extensa revisión bibliográfica sobre la investigación en conservación de carbono en suelos de México muestra que prácticas de agricultura de conservación y diversos sistemas de producción tradicionales pueden incrementar de manera considerable el carbono orgánico en suelos, lo que repercute en su resistencia ante el impacto de la lluvia, mejora la tasa de infiltración y la cantidad de agua disponible, incrementa el contenido de la biomasa microbiana, disminuye la erosión y mitiga la emisión de gases de efecto invernadero. La relevancia que adquiere la calidad de los suelos en la seguridad alimentaria y en los impactos ambientales, incluyendo el cambio climático, explica la importancia de su incorporación en las políticas públicas del país. Sin embargo, la revisión de instrumentos de política pública del presente sexenio (2013-2018 expone grandes vacíos y contradicciones que se presentan a través de ejemplos concretos de acciones. El escaso presupuesto destinado a la conservación de suelos (2.12% del presupuesto total de SAGARPA en 2014 aplicado mayormente (más de 80% a infraestructura hidráulica señala por un lado, la ausencia del reconocimiento del suelo como medio para infiltrar y retener agua; y por el otro, la incipiente incorporación de los estudios sobre carbono en suelos en los instrumentos de política pública correspondientes. Se identifican varios aspectos necesarios para mejorar la transversalidad en torno a la conservación de carbono en suelos: (i generar políticas públicas que reconozcan las funciones y los servicios ecosistémicos que proveen los suelos, (ii fortalecer la institucionalidad acerca del tema de suelos, (iii incentivar los programas de conservación de suelos in situ, que incorporen carbono a través de la promoción de agroecosistemas adaptados a las diversas condiciones territoriales.

  6. Evaluación preliminar del potencial de indicadores de salud y calidad relacionados con el ciclo del carbono de suelos del humedal de Jaboque (Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulido Barrios Hannier Wadith

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se evaluó el potencial de las actividades enzimáticas celulasa y ‚glucosidasa, de la
    biomasa microbiana por carbono, del porcentaje de carbono orgánico total y del pH en suelos y sedimentos aledaños al humedal de Jaboque (Bogotá-Colombia para determinar su posible utilidad como indicadores del estado de salud y calidad. Para ello se evaluaron los resultados obtenidos en dos épocas del año y en nueve puntos del humedal, que corresponden a problemáticas específicas: cuatro de ellos son suelos, dos son de carácter agrícola, mientras que los cinco puntos restantes son sedimentos. El análisis estadístico de los datos se realizó por el método no paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis (p=0,05 arrojando diferencias significativas entre los diferentes puntos del humedal y los diferentes tiempos de muestreo, excepto para el parámetro ecofisiológico tasa metabólica (qCO2. La biomasa por carbono en general se relaciona con la respiración y el porcentaje de acumulación de la materia orgánica. Se encontró que las actividades enzimáticas junto con los otros parámetros medidos, exceptuando la tasa metabólica varían significativamente en los distintos puntos
    de muestreo y en las dos épocas de muestreo. Para todos los puntos de muestreo se hizo una aproximación al estado de los procesos involucrados en el ciclo de carbono en el humedal. Los porcentajes de carbono orgánico son significativamente altos, lo que estaría implicando una eutrofización generalizada para todo el humedal. Las diferencias significativas encontradas en los parámetros medidos dan cuenta de la sensibilidad de éstos al problema de contaminación del humedal.

  7. Apoptosis inhibitor 5 (API-5; AAC-11; FIF) is upregulated in human carcinomas in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Koci, Lenka; Chlebova, Katarina; Hyzdalova, Martina; Hofmanova, Jirina; Jira, Miroslav; Kysela, Petr; Kozubik, Alois; Kala, Zdenek; Krejci, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor 5 (API-5) is a 55 kDa nuclear protein with potent anti-apoptotic signaling in tumor cells in vitro. In this study, we analyzed the expression of the API-5 protein in vivo in a broad spectrum of human carcinomas, including those of the colon, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, stomach and esophagus using tumor tissues obtained during tumor resection. The results showed significant upregulation of API-5 expression in biopsies of lung (23%, n=13) and colorectal tumors (33%, n=27)...

  8. Clarification of some api characteristics in relation to caribou (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William O. Pruitt, Jr.

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2177 comparisons of api hardness vs. density in northern Saskatchewan, southeastern Manitoba and northeastern Finland revealed no consistent correlation (r varied from +.70 to -.17. A total of 1395 comparisons of horizontal hardness of the top layer of api to vertical hardness of the same layer of api in southeastern Manitoba, northeastern Finland and far eastern middle Finland revealed no consistent correlation (r varied from +.99 to -.20. Therefore one cannot substitute density for hardness nor horizontal hardness of the top layer for vertical hardness of the top layer in the terms of the Värriö Snow Index.

  9. Depósito de capas de nitruro de carbono mediante ablación láser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto, R.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of carbon nitride thin films by ablation of different target compounds (graphite, guanazole in a reactive atmosphere of ammonia with an ArF excimer laser (193 nm is reported. The films were deposited on different substrates (silicon wafers and aluminium plates and were analysed with different techniques such as profilometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. For both targets, a comparative study of the influence of the ammonia total pressure on the growth rate, composition and properties of the obtained material has been done. A gradual nitrogen incorporation in the films with increasing ammonia pressure and also the presence of nitrogen bonded to carbon in different configurations (simple, double and/or triple bonds was observed. The use of guanazole targets leads to higher efficiency in the nitrogen incorporation and in the formation of simple C-N bonds.

    Se presenta la preparación de capas finas de nitruro de carbono mediante la ablación de diferentes tipos de blancos (grafito, guanazol en una atmósfera reactiva de amoniaco utilizando un láser de excímero de ArF (193 nm. Las capas se han depositado sobre diferentes soportes (obleas de silicio y aluminio y se han analizado empleando técnicas de caracterización básicas como la espectroscopia infrarroja mediante transformada de Fourier (FTIR, espectroscopia de rayos X por dispersión de energía (EDX y perfilometría. Se ha realizado, para los dos blancos utilizados, un estudio comparativo de la influencia de la presión total de amoniaco en la velocidad de depósito, composición y propiedades del material obtenido. Se ha observado en ambos casos la progresiva incorporación de nitrógeno en las capas con el aumento de la presión de amoniaco, estando el nitrógeno enlazado al carbono en diferentes configuraciones (enlaces simples, dobles y/o triples. La utilización del blanco de guanazol se muestra más eficiente en

  10. The Arabidopsis apyrase AtAPY1 is localized in the Golgi instead of the extracellular space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiller Madlen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The two highly similar Arabidopsis apyrases AtAPY1 and AtAPY2 were previously shown to be involved in plant growth and development, evidently by regulating extracellular ATP signals. The subcellular localization of AtAPY1 was investigated to corroborate an extracellular function. Results Transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing AtAPY1 fused to the SNAP-(O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase-tag were used for indirect immunofluorescence and AtAPY1 was detected in punctate structures within the cell. The same signal pattern was found in seedlings stably overexpressing AtAPY1-GFP by indirect immunofluorescence and live imaging. In order to identify the nature of the AtAPY1-positive structures, AtAPY1-GFP expressing seedlings were treated with the endocytic marker stain FM4-64 (N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl-4-(p-diethylaminophenyl-hexatrienyl-pyridinium dibromide and crossed with a transgenic line expressing the trans-Golgi marker Rab E1d. Neither FM4-64 nor Rab E1d co-localized with AtAPY1. However, live imaging of transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing AtAPY1-GFP and either the fluorescent protein-tagged Golgi marker Membrin 12, Syntaxin of plants 32 or Golgi transport 1 protein homolog showed co-localization. The Golgi localization was confirmed by immunogold labeling of AtAPY1-GFP. There was no indication of extracellular AtAPY1 by indirect immunofluorescence using antibodies against SNAP and GFP, live imaging of AtAPY1-GFP and immunogold labeling of AtAPY1-GFP. Activity assays with AtAPY1-GFP revealed GDP, UDP and IDP as substrates, but neither ATP nor ADP. To determine if AtAPY1 is a soluble or membrane protein, microsomal membranes were isolated and treated with various solubilizing agents. Only SDS and urea (not alkaline or high salt conditions were able to release the AtAPY1 protein from microsomal membranes. Conclusions AtAPY1 is an integral Golgi protein with the substrate specificity typical for Golgi apyrases. It is

  11. Histochemical Comparison of the Hypopharyngeal Gland in Apis cerana Fabricius, 1793 Workers and Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntima Suwannapong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypopharyngeal glands of honeybee are age-dependent structures that change with the size of acini and are correlated with various social behaviors. The histochemical structure of Apis cerana and A. mellifera worker hypopharyngeal glands in four different developmental stages wes stained with ninhydrin Schiff's and periodic acid Schiff's reagents (PAS for localization of proteins and carbohydrates, respectively, and examined with light microscopy. Nurse bees of both honeybee species had significantly larger glands as compared to guards and forgers, but there were no statistically significant differences between these two species after accounting for caste. Gland protein concentration increased progressively in nurse bees, and this was correlated with the appearance of enriched protein granules in the cytoplasm. In addition, the hypopharyngeal gland protein concentration of A. mellifera was higher than that of A. cerana even though gland size was not significantly different between species. However, gland size was shown to have decreased progressively in foragers and guards.

  12. BUILDING MODEL ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS WITH THE JOINT UNIVERSAL PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF RELIABILITY (JUPITER) API

    Science.gov (United States)

    The open-source, public domain JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) API (Application Programming Interface) provides conventions and Fortran-90 modules to develop applications (computer programs) for analyzing process models. The input ...

  13. A new detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis: Assessing the important meteorological factors affecting API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen-Hua

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the unique contribution of meteorological factors to the air pollution index (API), a new method, the detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis (DSPCCA), is proposed. Based on both a detrended cross-correlation analysis and a DFA-based multivariate-linear-regression (DMLR), this method is improved by including a semipartial correlation technique, which is used to indicate the unique contribution of an explanatory variable to multiple correlation coefficients. The advantages of this method in handling nonstationary time series are illustrated by numerical tests. To further demonstrate the utility of this method in environmental systems, new evidence of the primary contribution of meteorological factors to API is provided through DMLR. Results show that the most important meteorological factors affecting API are wind speed and diurnal temperature range, and the explanatory ability of meteorological factors to API gradually strengthens with increasing time scales. The results suggest that DSPCCA is a useful method for addressing environmental systems.

  14. Telephone Interpreter Services (TIS)-Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Language Yearly Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset displays our national TIS call volume for over 45 API languages for the last three fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from October through September. We...

  15. Candida albicans response to spaceflight (NASA STS-115) --- GSM1231690_Slide_43 API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fully queryable REST API with JSON, XML, and CSV output as well as inline, runable examples using data from the transcriptional profiling and phenotypic...

  16. A E- GEOD-50881 Gene Chip Assay --- Candida albicans response to spaceflight (NASA STS-115) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fully queryable REST API with JSON, XML, and CSV output as well as inline, runable examples using data from the transcriptional profiling and phenotypic...

  17. S E- GEOD-50881 Study Samples --- Candida albicans response to spaceflight (NASA STS-115) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fully queryable REST API with JSON, XML, and CSV output as well as inline, runable examples using data from the transcriptional profiling and phenotypic...

  18. Comparación de la corrosividad atmosférica del acero al carbono en Colombia y Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado Lastra, Juan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples of structural carbon steel were exposed to the atmosphere in a number of sites in Colombia and Cuba for periods of 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Corrosion rate was determined by mass loss measurements, and cause-effect relationship to exposure time and pollutants (deposited chloride and sulfur oxides were calculated. Analysis let to adjust models by the multiple regression method. Also, comparison of atmospheric corrosion rates between Colombia and Cuba were done using covariance analysis.

    Se expusieron a la atmósfera probetas de aceros estructurales de bajo contenido de carbono, en varios sitios de Colombia y Cuba, que se retiraron a intervalos de 2, 3, 6, 12, 18 y 24 meses. Se determinó la corrosión por pérdida de masa y se buscaron relaciones de causalidad con el tiempo de exposición y las cantidades de cloruro y óxidos de azufre depositados. El análisis permitió ajustar modelos de regresión múltiple y también, a través de variables dicótomas, realizar la comparación de la corrosión atmosférica entre Colombia y Cuba, mediante análisis de covarianza.

  19. EXTRACCIÓN DE PLAGUICIDAS EN SUELO EMPLEANDO DIÓXIDO DE CARBONO SUPERCRÍTICO-COSOLVENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Forero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evaluó la eficiencia de tres solventes orgánicos (acetato de etilo, metanol y acetona empleados como cosolventes en la extracción con fluidos supercríticos (EFS de una mezcla de plaguicidas con diferentes características fisicoquímicas. Los análisis se realizaron por medio de cromatografía de gases con detección simultánea por microcaptura electrónica (_ECD y nitrógeno-fósforo (NPD acoplados en paralelo. Se hicieron extracciones a muestras de suelo fortificadas con los plaguicidas empleando dióxido de carbono supercrítico (CO2SC como fase extractante a 35 ºC y 14 MPa adicionando 10 mL de cada cosolvente. Se encontró que el metanol ofrece la mayor eficiencia en el proceso de extracción obteniendo valores de recuperación entre 51,24 y 123,50%.

  20. NSLS-II High Level Application Infrastructure And Client API Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam commissioning software framework of NSLS-II project adopts a client/server based architecture to replace the more traditional monolithic high level application approach. It is an open structure platform, and we try to provide a narrow API set for client application. With this narrow API, existing applications developed in different language under different architecture could be ported to our platform with small modification. This paper describes system infrastructure design, client API and system integration, and latest progress. As a new 3rd generation synchrotron light source with ultra low emittance, there are new requirements and challenges to control and manipulate the beam. A use case study and a theoretical analysis have been performed to clarify requirements and challenges to the high level applications (HLA) software environment. To satisfy those requirements and challenges, adequate system architecture of the software framework is critical for beam commissioning, study and operation. The existing traditional approaches are self-consistent, and monolithic. Some of them have adopted a concept of middle layer to separate low level hardware processing from numerical algorithm computing, physics modelling, data manipulating, plotting, and error handling. However, none of the existing approaches can satisfy the requirement. A new design has been proposed by introducing service oriented architecture technology. The HLA is combination of tools for accelerator physicists and operators, which is same as traditional approach. In NSLS-II, they include monitoring applications and control routines. Scripting environment is very important for the later part of HLA and both parts are designed based on a common set of APIs. Physicists and operators are users of these APIs, while control system engineers and a few accelerator physicists are the developers of these APIs. With our Client/Server mode based approach, we leave how to retrieve information to the

  1. Antagonistic Effect of Gut Bacteria in the Hybrid Carniolan Honey Bee, Apis Mellifera Carnica, Against Ascosphaera Apis, the Causal Organism of Chalkbrood Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mohamed O. M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize bacterial strains associated with the gut of the hybrid Carniolan honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica, and to determine their in vitro and in vivo potential against Ascosphaera apis, the causal organism of chalkbrood disease, with the purpose of exploring feasible biological control. Six bacterial strains were isolated from healthy worker honey bees by culture-dependent methods. Six fungal strains (A3, A4, A7, A8, A9, and A15 of A. apis were isolated from larvae suffering from chalkbrood disease on Yeast-Glucose-Starch agar (YGPSA medium. All bacteria were identified by a combination of morphology, Gram stain, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, and fungal strains were identified by morphology and 5.8S rRNA. In vitro and in vivo inhibition assays were carried out to determine the ability of bacterial isolates to inhibit A. apis, the causal agent of chalkbrood disease. The analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed that four bacterial strains (B2, B4, B10, and B100 belong to Bacillus subtilis species, and two strains (P1 and P5 belong to Pseudomonas fluorescence. Significant differences in antagonistic activity of all bacterial strains were observed. B. subtilis isolate B2 showed the highest antagonistic activity, as measured by the inhibition zone against A. apis, followed by the P1 strain of P. fluorescence. SEM analysis also supports the antagonistic activity of these bacteria against A. apis. This study provides a theoretical basis for biological control of honey bee chalkbrood disease.

  2. Using the RxNorm Web Services API for Quality Assurance Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Lee; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Auditing large, rapidly evolving terminological systems is still a challenge. In the case of RxNorm, a standardized nomenclature for clinical drugs, we argue that quality assurance processes can benefit from the recently released application programming interface (API) provided by RxNav. We demonstrate the usefulness of the API by performing a systematic comparison of alternative paths in the RxNorm graph, over several thousands of drug entities. This study revealed potential errors in RxNorm...

  3. Atmospheric sulphuric acid and neutral cluster measurements using CI-APi-TOF

    OpenAIRE

    Jokinen, T; Sipilä, M.; Junninen, H.; M. Ehn; Lönn, G.; Hakala, J.; T. Petäjä; R. L. Mauldin III; M. Kulmala; Worsnop, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    The first ambient measurements using nitrate ion based Chemical Ionization with the Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometer (CI-APi-TOF) for sulphuric acid and neutral cluster detection are presented. We have found CI-APi-TOF a highly stable and sensitive tool for molecular sulphuric acid detection. The lowest limit of detection for sulphuric acid was determined to be 3 × 104 molecules cm−3 for two hour averaging. Si...

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of Fatigue Crack Growth Model for API Steels in Gaseous Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Robert L; Rustagi, Neha; Drexler, Elizabeth S; Slifka, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    A model to predict fatigue crack growth of API pipeline steels in high pressure gaseous hydrogen has been developed and is presented elsewhere. The model currently has several parameters that must be calibrated for each pipeline steel of interest. This work provides a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters in order to provide (a) insight to the underlying mathematical and mechanistic aspects of the model, and (b) guidance for model calibration of other API steels.

  5. A RESTful API for accessing microbial community data for MG-RAST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wilke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metagenomic sequencing has produced significant amounts of data in recent years. For example, as of summer 2013, MG-RAST has been used to annotate over 110,000 data sets totaling over 43 Terabases. With metagenomic sequencing finding even wider adoption in the scientific community, the existing web-based analysis tools and infrastructure in MG-RAST provide limited capability for data retrieval and analysis, such as comparative analysis between multiple data sets. Moreover, although the system provides many analysis tools, it is not comprehensive. By opening MG-RAST up via a web services API (application programmers interface we have greatly expanded access to MG-RAST data, as well as provided a mechanism for the use of third-party analysis tools with MG-RAST data. This RESTful API makes all data and data objects created by the MG-RAST pipeline accessible as JSON objects. As part of the DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase project (KBase, http://kbase.us we have implemented a web services API for MG-RAST. This API complements the existing MG-RAST web interface and constitutes the basis of KBase's microbial community capabilities. In addition, the API exposes a comprehensive collection of data to programmers. This API, which uses a RESTful (Representational State Transfer implementation, is compatible with most programming environments and should be easy to use for end users and third parties. It provides comprehensive access to sequence data, quality control results, annotations, and many other data types. Where feasible, we have used standards to expose data and metadata. Code examples are provided in a number of languages both to show the versatility of the API and to provide a starting point for users. We present an API that exposes the data in MG-RAST for consumption by our users, greatly enhancing the utility of the MG-RAST service.

  6. GLAME@lab: An M-script API for Linear Algebra Operations on Graphics Processors

    OpenAIRE

    Barrachina Mir, Sergio; Castillo Catalán, Maribel; Igual Peña, Francisco Daniel; Mayo, Rafael; Quintana Ortí, Enrique S.

    2008-01-01

    We propose two high-level application programming interfaces (APIs) to use a graphics processing unit (GPU) as a coprocessor for dense linear algebra operations. Combined with an extension of the FLAME API and an implementation on top of NVIDIA CUBLAS, the result is an efficient and user-friendly tool to design, implement, and execute dense linear algebra operations on the current generation of NVIDIA graphics processors, of wide-appeal to scientists and engineers. As an applicati...

  7. Differential gene expression of the honey bee Apis mellifera associated with Varroa destructor infection

    OpenAIRE

    Evans JD; Robinson GE; Martin-Magniette ML; Alaux C; Migeon A; Navajas M; Cros-Arteil S; Crauser D; Le Conte Y

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is the most serious pest of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, and has caused the death of millions of colonies worldwide. This mite reproduces in brood cells and parasitizes immature and adult bees. We investigated whether Varroa infestation induces changes in Apis mellifera gene expression, and whether there are genotypic differences that affect gene expression relevant to the bee's tolerance, as first steps toward unravelling m...

  8. Revoke and Let Live: A Secure Key Revocation API for Cryptographic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    V\\xe9ronique Cortier; Graham Steel; Cyrille Wiedling

    2012-01-01

    While extensive research addresses the problem of establishing session keys through cryptographic protocols, relatively little work has appeared addressing the problem of revocation and update of long term keys. We present an API for symmetric key management on embedded devices that supports revocation and prove security properties design in the symbolic model of cryptography. Our API supports two modes of revocation: a passive mode where keys have an expiration time, and an active mode where...

  9. Identification of Staphylococcus species with the API STAPH-IDENT system.

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    The API STAPH-IDENT system was compared with conventional methods for the identification of 14 Staphylococcus species. Conventional methods included the Kloos and Schleifer simplified scheme and DNA-DNA hybridization. The API STAPH-IDENT strip utilizes a battery of 10 miniaturized biochemical tests, including alkaline phosphatase, urease, beta-glucosidase, beta-glucuronidase, and beta-galactosidase activity, aerobic acid formation from D-(+)-mannose, D-mannitol, D-(+)-trehalose, and salicin, ...

  10. Sensitivity Analysis of Fatigue Crack Growth Model for API Steels in Gaseous Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Robert L; Rustagi, Neha; Drexler, Elizabeth S; Slifka, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    A model to predict fatigue crack growth of API pipeline steels in high pressure gaseous hydrogen has been developed and is presented elsewhere. The model currently has several parameters that must be calibrated for each pipeline steel of interest. This work provides a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters in order to provide (a) insight to the underlying mathematical and mechanistic aspects of the model, and (b) guidance for model calibration of other API steels. PMID:26601024

  11. Extensive population admixture on drone congregation areas of the giant honeybee, Apis dorsata (Fabricius, 1793)

    OpenAIRE

    Beaurepaire, Alexis L; Kraus, Bernard F; Koeniger, Gudrun; KOENIGER, Nikolaus; Lim, Herbert; Moritz, Robin F.A.

    2014-01-01

    The giant honeybee Apis dorsata often forms dense colony aggregations which can include up to 200 often closely related nests in the same location, setting the stage for inbred matings. Yet, like in all other Apis species, A. dorsata queens mate in mid-air on lek like drone congregation areas (DCAs) where large numbers of males gather in flight. We here report how the drone composition of A. dorsata DCAs facilitates outbreeding, taking into the account both spatial (three DCAs) and temporal (...

  12. Genome-wide characterization of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) provides new insight into viral diseases in honey bees Apis cerana and Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Jung, Je Won; Park, Doori; Ahn, Young-Joon; Lee, Sang-Choon; Shin, Sang-Yoon; Shin, Chanseok; Yang, Tae-Jin; Kwon, Hyung Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of RNAs that do not encode proteins. Recently, lncRNAs have gained special attention for their roles in various biological process and diseases. Results In an attempt to identify long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) and their possible involvement in honey bee development and diseases, we analyzed RNA-seq datasets generated from Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) and western honey bee (Apis mellifera). We identified 2470 lincRNAs with an a...

  13. Hot-Stage Microscopy for Determination of API Particles in a Formulated Tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Šimek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although methods exist to readily determine the particle size distribution (PSD of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API before its formulation into a final product, the primary challenge is to develop a method to determine the PSD of APIs in a finished tablet. To address the limitations of existing PSD methods, we used hot-stage microscopy to observe tablet disintegration during temperature change and, thus, reveal the API particles in a tablet. Both mechanical and liquid disintegration were evaluated after we had identified optimum milling time for mechanical disintegration and optimum volume of water for liquid disintegration. In each case, hot-stage micrographs, taken before and after the API melting point, were compared with image analysis software to obtain the PSDs. Then, the PSDs of the APIs from the disintegrated tablets were compared with the PSDs of raw APIs. Good agreement was obtained, thereby confirming the robustness of our methodology. The availability of such a method equips pharmaceutical scientists with an in vitro assessment method that will more reliably determine the PSD of active substances in finished tablets.

  14. The Matchmaker Exchange API: automating patient matching through the exchange of structured phenotypic and genotypic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buske, Orion J; Schiettecatte, François; Hutton, Benjamin; Dumitriu, Sergiu; Misyura, Andriy; Huang, Lijia; Hartley, Taila; Girdea, Marta; Sobreira, Nara; Mungall, Chris; Brudno, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of clinical sequencing, the difficulty of identifying additional affected families is a key obstacle to solving many rare diseases. There may only be a handful of similar patients worldwide, and their data may be stored in diverse clinical and research databases. Computational methods are necessary to enable finding similar patients across the growing number of patient repositories and registries. We present the Matchmaker Exchange Application Programming Interface (MME API), a protocol and data format for exchanging phenotype and genotype profiles to enable matchmaking among patient databases, facilitate the identification of additional cohorts, and increase the rate with which rare diseases can be researched and diagnosed. We designed the API to be straightforward and flexible in order to simplify its adoption on a large number of data types and workflows. We also provide a public test data set, curated from the literature, to facilitate implementation of the API and development of new matching algorithms. The initial version of the API has been successfully implemented by three members of the Matchmaker Exchange and was immediately able to reproduce previously identified matches and generate several new leads currently being validated. The API is available at https://github.com/ga4gh/mme-apis. PMID:26255989

  15. An analysis of multifractal characteristics of API time series in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen-hua; Huang, Yi; Yan, Ya-ni

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes multifractal characteristics of daily air pollution index (API) records in Nanjing from 2001 to 2012. The entire daily API time series is first divided into 12 parts that serve as research objects, and the generalized Hurst exponent is calculated for each series. And then, the multifractal sources are analyzed and singularity spectra are shown. Next, based on a singularity spectrum, the multifractal-characteristics parameters (maximum exponent α0, spectrum width Δ α, and asymmetry Δ αas) are introduced. The results show that the fractality of daily API for each year is multifractal. The multifractal sources originate from both a broad probability density function and different long-range correlations with small and large fluctuations. The strength of the distribution multifractality is stronger than that of the correlation multifractality. The variation in the structure of API time series with increasing years is mainly related to long-range correlations. The structure of API time series in some years is richer. These findings can provide a scientific basis for further probing into the complexity of API.

  16. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones ( Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee ( Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen’s visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  17. The Influence of Niobium on SSC Resistance in API Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malina, J.; Malina, M.; Novosel-Radovic, V. [Zagreb Univ., Faculty of Metallurgy (Croatia)

    2004-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Oil country tubular goods are often exposed to aggressive sour environments in oil wells where H{sub 2}S promotes sulfide stress cracking, SSC. This is one of the most dangerous corrosion phenomena characterized by unpredictable and sudden cracking of steel constructions in service. SSC results in a variety of fracture features having a common relationship to the presence of hydrogen in metal and therefore it belongs to hydrogen embrittlement phenomena, HE. For the production of sulfide stress cracking resistant (SSC) tubing from steels included in Group 3 of API Specification 5CT, in this study two experimental Cr-Mo steels (without niobium and with niobium microalloyed) were tested. The influence of Nb precipitates in pipeline steels on the sensitivity to sulfide stress cracking was examined in laboratory experiments using three point bent beam tests. High mechanical properties were achieved through quenching and tempering procedures. Better corrosion resistance of Nb-containing steel is the consequence of microstructural parameters obtained through strengthening mechanism with microalloying element. Besides the usual mechanical, metallographic, SEM and TEM analyses, as complementary method the X-ray diffraction was used. It was revealed that tetragonality of crystal lattice, dislocation density and residual stresses are in good correlation with Sc-vales from corrosion tests. Nb precipitates (especially niobium carbides) have beneficial influence when producing the steels with low sensitivity to SSC. (authors)

  18. Custom synthesis of isotope-labelled Apis mellifera Pheromone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this study is to determine the optimum conditions for the synthesis of the isotope-labelled isopentyl acetate. Isopentyl acetate is widely used as a raw material in industries, in syntheses, and is utilized as a sex attractant (pheromone) by the bee species, Apis mellifera. The isotope labelling of isopentyl acetate will allow tracking of the fate and movement of the isopentyl acetate in the environment, in chemical transformations, and in biological systems. Esterification by alcoholysis of acetic acid was optimized for the preparation of Carbon-14(14C)-labelled isopentyl acetate from 14C-labelled acetic acid and isoamyl alcohol. The different conditions studied were: (1) The effects of acid catalysis and/or reflux on the incorporation and retention of the isotope label on the product. The efficiency of label incorporation and retention was determined through the beta radioactivity of Carbon 14 in each of the synthetic constructs. Determination of the beta radioactivity concentration of 14C in the isopentyl acetate product was done using low level liquid scintillation spectrometry. Each of the synthetic products was mixed with Ultima Gold scintillation cocktail in a low potassium glass scintillation vial, and analysed in a low-level Wallac 1414 scintillation counter. The application of catalysis without reflux resulted in the highest yield (35%). The same condition also resulted in the highest abundance of carbon isotope label with 2.40 Bequerels per cubic centimetre, Bq/cc (measurement unit for radioactivity). (author)

  19. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen's visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  20. SIP APIs for Voice and Video Communications on the Web

    CERN Document Server

    Davids, Carol; Singh, Kundan; Sinnreich, Henry; Wimmreuter, Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    Existing standard protocols for the web and Internet telephony fail to deliver real-time interactive communication from within a web browser. In particular, the client-server web protocol over reliable TCP is not always suitable for end-to-end low latency media path needed for interactive voice and video communication. To solve this, we compare the available platform options using the existing technologies such as modifying the web programming language and protocol, using an existing web browser plugin, and a separate host resident application that the web browser can talk to. We argue that using a separate application as an adaptor is a promising short term as well as long-term strategy for voice and video communications on the web. Our project aims at developing the open technology and sample implementations for web-based real-time voice and video communication applications. We describe the architecture of our project including (1) a RESTful web communication API over HTTP inspired by SIP message flows, (2)...

  1. Molecular characterization of hemoglobin from the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankeln, Thomas; Klawitter, Sabine; Krämer, Melanie; Burmester, Thorsten

    2006-07-01

    Due to the prevailing importance of the tracheal system for insect respiration, hemoglobins had been considered rare exceptions in this arthropod subphylum. Here we report the identification, cloning and expression analysis of a true hemoglobin gene in the honeybee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera). The deduced amino acid sequence covers 171 residues (19.5kDa) and harbors all globin-typical features, including the proximal and the distal histidines. The protein has no signal peptide for transmembrane transport and was predicted to localize in the cytoplasm. The honeybee hemoglobin gene shows an ancient structure, with introns in positions B12.2 and G7.0, while most other insect globins have divergent intron positions. In situ hybridization studies showed that hemoglobin expression in the honeybee is mainly associated with the tracheal system. We also observe hemoglobin expression in the Malpighi tubes and testis. We further demonstrated that hemoglobins occur in other insect orders (Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera), suggesting that such genes belong to the standard repertoire of an insect genome. Phylogenetic analyses show that globins evolved along with the accepted insect systematics, with a remarkable diversification within the Diptera. Although insect hemoglobins may be in fact involved in oxygen metabolism, it remains uncertain whether they carry out a myoglobin-like function in oxygen storage and delivery. PMID:16698031

  2. Activity of telomerase and telomeric length in Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korandová, Michala; Frydrychová, Radmila Čapková

    2016-06-01

    Telomerase is an enzyme that adds repeats of DNA sequences to the ends of chromosomes, thereby preventing their shortening. Telomerase activity is associated with proliferative status of cells, organismal development, and aging. We report an analysis of telomerase activity and telomere length in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Telomerase activity was found to be regulated in a development and caste-specific manner. During the development of somatic tissues of larval drones and workers, telomerase activity declined to 10 % of its level in embryos and remained low during pupal and adult stages but was upregulated in testes of late pupae, where it reached 70 % of the embryo level. Upregulation of telomerase activity was observed in the ovaries of late pupal queens, reaching 160 % of the level in embryos. Compared to workers and drones, queens displayed higher levels of telomerase activity. In the third larval instar of queens, telomerase activity reached the embryo level, and an enormous increase was observed in adult brains of queens, showing a 70-fold increase compared to a brain of an adult worker. Southern hybridization of terminal TTAGG fragments revealed a high variability of telomeric length between different individuals, although the same pattern of hybridization signals was observed in different tissues of each individual. PMID:26490169

  3. Overview of API research projects on thread compound performance properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thread compounds are critical in achieving a leak-tight seal and for the prevention of connection damage during the make-up, running, and break-out of OCTG pipe. Over the last several years, there has been an increased awareness of the variance in thread compound performance properties and the need to evaluate the effect on field operational practices and to set compound selection criteria accordingly. These variances occur not only between different compound types, but also between compounds of the same general composition. Differences in performance properties are seen particularly in the new generation of proprietary compounds that have been developed to address the increasing environmental regulations and concerns that are effecting all segments of the industry. Full-scale testing of thread compounds either in Me field or the laboratory can be cost prohibitive and presents variables that are difficult or impossible to control This paper presents an overview of recent API research projects that have the objective of developing small-scale, standardized laboratory test procedures that can be used to determine relative performance properties, predict field performance, and be utilized for quality control both in the manufacture and purchasing of thread compounds

  4. Nosema Tolerant Honeybees (Apis mellifera Escape Parasitic Manipulation of Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kurze

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is not only pivotal for development, but also for pathogen defence in multicellular organisms. Although numerous intracellular pathogens are known to interfere with the host's apoptotic machinery to overcome this defence, its importance for host-parasite coevolution has been neglected. We conducted three inoculation experiments to investigate in the apoptotic respond during infection with the intracellular gut pathogen Nosema ceranae, which is considered as potential global threat to the honeybee (Apis mellifera and other bee pollinators, in sensitive and tolerant honeybees. To explore apoptotic processes in the gut epithelium, we visualised apoptotic cells using TUNEL assays and measured the relative expression levels of subset of candidate genes involved in the apoptotic machinery using qPCR. Our results suggest that N. ceranae reduces apoptosis in sensitive honeybees by enhancing inhibitor of apoptosis protein-(iap-2 gene transcription. Interestingly, this seems not be the case in Nosema tolerant honeybees. We propose that these tolerant honeybees are able to escape the manipulation of apoptosis by N. ceranae, which may have evolved a mechanism to regulate an anti-apoptotic gene as key adaptation for improved host invasion.

  5. Tranų (apis mellifera l.) skraidymo ritmai

    OpenAIRE

    Katinienė, Aurelija

    2007-01-01

    2004 ir 2006 m. birželio – rugpjūčio mėn. buvo tiriama medunešių bičių (Apis mellifera L.) tranų skraidymo pradžia, tranų skraidymo dinamika dienos metu ir kokią įtaką jai daro aplinkos temperatūra. Įvertintas išskrendančių ir atskrendančių į tą pačią bičių šeimą tranų skaičius bei tranų skridimas į svetimas bi��ių šeimas. Ištirta 6 stipresnės ir 5 silpnesnės bičių šeimos. Buvo skaičiuojami per 2 min. iš avilio išskridę, po to per 2 min. į avilį atskridę tranai. Kiekvienos bičių šeimos tranai...

  6. When API Mass Spectrometry Meets Super Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee Chuin

    2015-01-01

    In a tutorial paper on the application of free-jet technique for API-MS, John Fenn mentioned that "…for a number of years and a number of reasons, it has been found advantageous in many situations to carry out the ionization process in gas at pressures up to 1000 Torr or more" (Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 200: 459-478, 2000). In fact, the first ESI mass spectrometer constructed by Yamashita and Fenn had a counter-flow curtain gas source at 1050 Torr (ca. 1.4 atm) to sweep away the neutral (J. Phys. Chem. 88: 4451-4459, 1984). For gaseous ionization using electrospray plume, theoretical analysis also shows that "super-atmospheric operation would be more preferable in space-charge-limited situations."(Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 300: 182-193, 2011). However, electrospray and the corona-based chemical ion source (APCI) in most commercial instrument are basically operated under an atmospheric pressure ambient, perhaps out of the concern of safety, convenience and simplicity in maintenance. Running the ion source at pressure much higher than 1 atm is not so common, but had been done by a number of groups as well as in our laboratory. A brief review on these ion sources will be given in this paper.

  7. Cytosine modifications in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) worker genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Erik M K; Amdam, Gro V

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic changes enable genomes to respond to changes in the environment, such as altered nutrition, activity, or social setting. Epigenetic modifications, thereby, provide a source of phenotypic plasticity in many species. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) uses nutritionally sensitive epigenetic control mechanisms in the development of the royal caste (queens) and the workers. The workers are functionally sterile females that can take on a range of distinct physiological and/or behavioral phenotypes in response to environmental changes. Honey bees have a wide repertoire of epigenetic mechanisms which, as in mammals, include cytosine methylation, hydroxymethylated cytosines, together with the enzymatic machinery responsible for these cytosine modifications. Current data suggests that honey bees provide an excellent system for studying the "social repertoire" of the epigenome. In this review, we elucidate what is known so far about the honey bee epigenome and its mechanisms. Our discussion includes what may distinguish honey bees from other model animals, how the epigenome can influence worker behavioral task separation, and how future studies can answer central questions about the role of the epigenome in social behavior. PMID:25705215

  8. Relatedness among honeybees (Apis mellifera) of a drone congregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, E.; Solignac, M.; Garnery, L.; Gries, M.; Cornuet, J.-M.; Koeniger, N.

    1998-01-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) queen mates during nuptial flights, in the so-called drone congregation area where many males from surrounding colonies gather. Using 20 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci, we studied a sample of 142 drones captured in a congregation close to Oberursel (Germany). A parentage test based on lod score showed that this sample contained one group of four brothers, six groups of three brothers, 20 groups of two brothers and 80 singletons. These values are very close to a Poisson distribution. Therefore, colonies were apparently equally represented in the drone congregation, and calculations showed that the congregation comprised males that originated from about 240 different colonies. This figure is surprisingly high. Considering the density of colonies around the congregation area and the average flight range of males, it suggests that most colonies within the recruitment perimeter delegated drones to the congregation with an equal probability, resulting in an almost perfect panmixis. Consequently, the relatedness between a queen and her mates, and hence the inbreeding coefficient of the progeny, should be minimized. The relatedness among the drones mated to the same queen is also very low, maximizing the genetic diversity among the different patrilines of a colony.

  9. Cytosine modifications in the honey bee (Apis mellifera worker genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Magne Koscielniak Rasmussen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic changes enable genomes to respond to changes in the environment, such as altered nutrition, activity, or social setting. Epigenetic modifications, thereby, provides a source of phenotypic plasticity in many species. The honey bee (Apis mellifera uses nutritionally sensitive epigenetic control mechanisms in the development of the royal caste (queens and the workers. The workers are functionally sterile females that can take on a range of distinct physiological and/or behavioral phenotypes in response to environmental changes. Honey bees have a wide repertoire of epigenetic mechanisms which, as in mammals, includes cytosine methylation, hydroxymethylated cytosines, together with the enzymatic machinery responsible for these cytosine modifications. Current data suggests that honey bees provide an excellent system for studying the social repertoire of the epigenome. In this review, we elucidate what is known so far about the honey bee epigenome and its mechanisms. Our discussion includes what may distinguish honey bees from other model animals, how the epigenome can influence worker behavioral task separation, and how future studies can answer central questions about the role of the epigenome in social behavior.

  10. Western honeybee drones and workers (Apis mellifera ligustica) have different olfactory mechanisms than eastern honeybees (Apis cerana cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltedji, Dereje; Song, Feifei; Zhang, Lan; Gala, Alemayehu; Han, Bin; Feng, Mao; Fang, Yu; Li, Jianke

    2012-09-01

    The honeybees Apis mellifera ligustica (Aml) and Apis cerana cerana (Acc) are two different western and eastern bee species that evolved in distinct ecologies and developed specific antennal olfactory systems for their survival. Knowledge of how their antennal olfactory systems function in regards to the success of each respective bee species is scarce. We compared the antennal morphology and proteome between respective sexually mature drones and foraging workers of both species using a scanning electron microscope, two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Despite the general similarities in antennal morphology of the drone and worker bees between the two species, a total of 106 and 100 proteins altered their expression in the drones' and the workers' antennae, respectively. This suggests that the differences in the olfactory function of each respective bee are supported by the change of their proteome. Of the 106 proteins that altered their expression in the drones, 72 (68%) and 34 (32%) were overexpressed in the drones of Aml and Acc, respectively. The antennae of the Aml drones were built up by the highly expressed proteins that were involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, molecular transporters, antioxidation, and fatty acid metabolism in contrast to the Acc drones. This is believed to enhance the antennal olfactory functions of the Aml drones as compared to the Acc drones during their mating flight. Likewise, of the 100 proteins with expression changes between the worker bees of the two species, 67% were expressed in higher levels in the antennae of Aml worker contrasting to 33% in the Acc worker. The overall higher expressions of proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, molecular transporters, and antioxidation in the Aml workers compared with the Acc workers indicate the Aml workers require more antennal proteins for their olfactory

  11. Carbono, matéria orgânica leve e frações oxidáveis do carbono orgânico sob sistemas de aléias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Fernandes Guareschi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os teores de carbono orgânico (COT do solo, matéria orgânica leve (MOL em água e as frações oxidáveis do COT em uma área de cultivo de milho em aléias de Flemingia macrophylla submetida a diferentes manejos de sua parte aérea. A área de estudo está localizada na “Fazendinha Agroecológica”, no município de Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O desenho experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com 3 tratamentos e 8 repetições, consistindo dos seguintes tratamentos: testemunha (cultivo de milho com ausência de aléias; cultivo de milho em sistema de aléias com poda de 0,6 m de altura e cultivo de milho em sistema de aléias sem poda. Em cada uma das áreas foram coletadas amostras compostas nas profundidades de 0-5 cm. A presença de aléias, bem como, as podas realizadas em Flemingia macrophylla na área que essa encontrava-se associada ao cultivo de milho não alterou o teor de COT do solo. No entanto, a utilização dos caules e das folhas como adubo verde oriunda do tratamento onde se realizou a poda da parte aérea das aléias de Flemingia macrophylla, proporcionou ao solo aumento dos teores de MOL, Conteúdo de C da MOL e da fração F1.

  12. SjAPI, the first functionally characterized Ascaris-type protease inhibitor from animal venoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serine protease inhibitors act as modulators of serine proteases, playing important roles in protecting animal toxin peptides from degradation. However, all known serine protease inhibitors discovered thus far from animal venom belong to the Kunitz-type subfamily, and whether there are other novel types of protease inhibitors in animal venom remains unclear. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, by screening scorpion venom gland cDNA libraries, we identified the first Ascaris-type animal toxin family, which contains four members: Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (SjAPI, Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor 2 (SjAPI-2, Chaerilus tricostatus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (CtAPI, and Buthus martensii Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (BmAPI. The detailed characterization of Ascaris-type peptide SjAPI from the venom gland of scorpion Scorpiops jendeki was carried out. The mature peptide of SjAPI contains 64 residues and possesses a classical Ascaris-type cysteine framework reticulated by five disulfide bridges, different from all known protease inhibitors from venomous animals. Enzyme and inhibitor reaction kinetics experiments showed that recombinant SjAPI was a dual function peptide with α-chymotrypsin- and elastase-inhibiting properties. Recombinant SjAPI inhibited α-chymotrypsin with a Ki of 97.1 nM and elastase with a Ki of 3.7 μM, respectively. Bioinformatics analyses and chimera experiments indicated that SjAPI contained the unique short side chain functional residues "AAV" and might be a useful template to produce new serine protease inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, SjAPI is the first functionally characterized animal toxin peptide with an Ascaris-type fold. The structural and functional diversity of animal toxins with protease-inhibiting properties suggested that bioactive peptides from animal venom glands might be a new source of protease inhibitors, which will accelerate the

  13. Gestión Ambiental empresarial: cálculo de la huella de carbono en la industria vitivinícola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Ana Rodriguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La huella de carbono es un indicador ambiental que busca cuantificar la cantidad de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GHG. Su medición se convierte en una herramienta que permite trabajar bajo el concepto de eco-eficiencia e identificar oportunidades de reducción de consumo energético, ya que este último es la principal fuente de emisión de GHG a nivel mundial. El presente trabajo aplica la metodología PAS 2050:2011 para la medición de la huella de carbono, en la producción del vino blanco. La misma excluye las emisiones asociadas con los insumos humanos de energía, el transporte de los consumidores al punto de venta y el transporte provisto por animales. Sin embargo, se consideran todas las emisiones involucradas con el ciclo de vida del producto. Como producto principal de este trabajo, se obtuvo una planilla de cálculo que puede aplicarse al cálculo de huella de carbono de cualquier producción de vino blanco, independientemente de su tamaño y proceso. Se incluyó una estimación de la emisión de GHG, teniendo en cuenta todas las posibles variantes que pudiese tener el proceso en la región de Cuyo, definiéndose los límites de la empresa y operaciones a evaluar, desde la vendimia hasta la disposición final.

  14. Efecto de plantaciones dendroenergéticas en el carbono a nivel de suelo, en dos suelos contrastantes de la región de Biobío, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin Esquivel; Rafael Rubilar; Simón Sandoval; Eduardo Acuña; Jorge Cancino; Miguel Espinosa; Fernando Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    La biomasa forestal como fuente de energía proveniente de plantaciones dendroenergéticas, al compararla con combustibles fósiles, presenta la ventaja de producir energía carbono-neutral, dado el secuestro de carbono (C) fijado en la biomasa producida y los aportes al suelo. Plantaciones forestales de corta rotación, altas densidades, y localizadas en terrenos marginales pueden representar una excelente oportunidad de producción de biomasa para la producción de energía o combustibles. Sin emba...

  15. Teores de Carbono Orgânico de Seis Espécies Naturais do Ecossistema da Floresta Ombrófi la Mista / Organic Carbon Contents in Six Native Species in the Araucaria Forest Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Simone Weber

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Muitas vezes o estoque de carbono de uma floresta é estimado com a aplicação de equações matemáticas que utilizam os teores de carbono para um determinado grupo de espécies. No entanto, isto só é possível se não houver diferenças significativas entre os teores de carbono destas espécies. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho visa analisar estatisticamente os teores de carbono de seis espécies nativas da Floresta Ombrófila Mista, na região sul do estado do Paraná. Foram feitas análises de variância entre os teores de carbono das espécies Myrsine ferruginea (Ruiz & Pav. Spreng. (capororoca, Ocotea porosa (Nees L. Barroso (imbuia, Mimosa scabrella Benth. (bracatinga, Styrax leprosus Hook & Arn. (carne-de-vaca, Symplocos unifl ora (Pohl Benth. (mariamole e Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. (erva-mate para verificar se existe variação estatisticamente significativa entre espécies, entre as mesmas partes (casca, fuste, folhagem, galho vivo, galho morto e miscelânea de diferentes espécies e entre diferentes partes da mesma espécie. Os resultados revelam que a folhagem de Styrax leprosus foi à única que se diferenciou das demais, pois possui um baixo teor de carbono. Em todas as outras partes não houve diferenças em função da espécie. A análise entre partes da mesma espécie, revelou que existem padrões diferentes para cada espécie, mas que a porção folhagem sempre concentra os maiores teores de carbono. Desconsiderando a separação em diferentes partes, não houve diferença estatística entre os teores de carbono quando comparados os valores médios de cada espécie.

  16. Análisis del ciclo de carbono en embalses y su posible efecto en el cambio climático. Aplicación al embalse de Susqueda (río Ter, NE España)

    OpenAIRE

    Palau, Antoni; Alonso, Miguel; Corregidor, David

    2010-01-01

    Los embalses han sido considerados como sistemas emisores netos de carbono. Si bien es cierto que son sistemas forzados a descomponer toda la materia orgánica que queda cubierta por el agua tras la puesta en carga, esta fase inicial de maduración remite con los años hasta niveles de emisión de carbono similares a las de lagos de estado trófico equivalente. No todos los embalses tienen un comportamiento similar en el procesado de la materia orgánica carbonatada. El balance de ca...

  17. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE DOS LAGUNAS COSTERAS DEL PACÍFICO TROPICAL MEXICANO EN RELACIÓN CON EL CONTENIDO DE CARBONO Y LA CAPTURA Y EMISIÓN DE CH4 Y CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel MENDOZA MOJICA; Amparo MARTÍNEZ ARROYO; María de la Luz ESPINOSA FUENTES; Óscar PERALTA ROSALES; Telma CASTRO ROMERO

    2013-01-01

    El estudio de los gases de efecto invernadero, como el bióxido de carbono (CO2) y el metano (CH4), tiene una relevancia de carácter global y su acumulación en la atmósfera por actividades humanas afecta el balance radiativo de la Tierra. Las lagunas costeras se consideran reservorios importantes de carbono, pero no es claro si contribuyen como fuentes o sumideros. Este trabajo presenta una estimación de los flujos de CO2 y CH4 en agua-aire en las lagunas de Chautengo y Tres Palos en Guerrero,...

  18. Huella del Carbono. Parte 1: Conceptos, Métodos de Estimación y Complejidades Metodológicas Carbon Footprint. Part 1: Concepts, Estimation Methods and Methodological Complexities

    OpenAIRE

    César Espíndola; José O. Valderrama

    2012-01-01

    Se presenta y analiza el concepto de huella del carbono, su origen, su relación con los gases efecto invernadero, y sobre los procedimientos para cuantificarla. El efecto invernadero provoca que la energía que llega a la Tierra sea devuelta más lentamente, por lo que es mantenida más tiempo junto a la superficie elevando la temperatura. Es aceptado hoy en día que este efecto es producido por algunos gases liberados en forma natural o por las acciones humanas. La Huella de Carbono es considera...

  19. Corrosión de aceros inoxidables martensíticos 13CrNiMo de bajo contenido de carbono en las industrias de gas y petróleo

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez, Claudia Marcela

    2013-01-01

    Los aceros inoxidables 13CrNiMo con bajo contenido de carbono, surgen como alternativa para el reemplazo de materiales más caros en el uso como sistemas de transporte de fluidos de las industrias de gas y petróleo, con concentraciones importantes de cloruros, pCO2, pH2S y temperatura elevadas. El bajo contenido en carbono permite salvar algunos problemas vinculados a la operación de soldadura. Con el fin de obtener una alta tenacidad, se realizan tratamientos térmicos de precalentamiento y de...

  20. Cirrose experimental induzida pela inalação de tetracloreto de carbono: adaptação da técnica e avaliação da peroxidação lipídica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CREMONESE Ricardo Viégas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Racional - Administração a longo prazo de tetracloreto de carbono é modelo experimental para produzir fibrose hepática. O estresse oxidativo parece ser o mecanismo envolvido na hepatoxicidade por tetracloreto de carbono, onde as espécies ativas de oxigênio têm importante papel na patogênese da fibrose hepática. Objetivos - Avaliar a eficácia de um modelo experimental de cirrose hepática induzida pela inalação de tetracloreto de carbono em ratos, bem como avaliar a peroxidação lipídica e as características do líquido de ascite neste modelo. Material e Métodos - Inicialmente, acompanhou-se a evolução dos achados histológicos, através da técnica de hematoxilina e eosina, mediante o uso de tetracloreto de carbono inalatório ao longo das diferentes semanas (5ª, 7ª, 9ª, 12ª. Posteriormente, ao final da 15ª semana de estudo, os ratos, então divididos em três grupos (controle; controle + fenobarbital; e tetracloreto de carbono + fenobarbital, foram avaliados em sua histologia hepática, peroxidação lipídica e as características do líquido de ascite. Para as análises de peroxidação lipídica utilizaram-se as técnicas de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico e de quimiluminescência. No líquido de ascite avaliaram-se a citologia e a bacteriologia. Resultados - Observou-se entre a 12ª e 15ª semanas de inalação o estabelecimento de cirrose em 100% dos animais submetidos a inalação com tetracloreto de carbono, acompanhada de um aumento significante na peroxidação lipídica no fígado dos ratos inalados com tetracloreto de carbono. Evidenciou-se a presença de infecção do líquido de ascite em um dos sete casos nos quais esta estava presente. Conclusão - O método inalatório desenvolvido é eficaz na indução de cirrose hepática e formação de ascite, sendo o estresse oxidativo um dos principais mecanismos da indução de cirrose pelo tetracloreto de carbono.

  1. Equações para estimar o estoque de carbono no fuste de árvores individuais e em plantios comerciais de eucalipto Equations to estimate carbon stock in stems of individual trees ans stands of eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Pedro Boechat Soares; Helio Garcia Leite; Eric Bastos Görgens

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi ajustar equações para estimar o carbono presente no fuste de árvores individuais de eucalipto e o estoque de carbono, por unidade de área, em diferentes condições de plantio. Para isso, foram utilizadas 532 árvores para ajustar a equação referente ao modelo alométrico de Schumacher e Hall (1933) e 95 parcelas permanentes para ajustar as equações referentes aos modelos de crescimento e produção, incluindo as seguintes variáveis independentes: idade (I), área basal...

  2. Empleo de la cáscara de arroz en la fundición de piezas de acero al carbono//Using of rice husk in the carbon steel casting parts process

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Cruz-Pérez; Jesús Eduardo González-Ruiz; Lorenzo Perdomo-González; Pantaleón Rodríguez-González

    2012-01-01

    Los materiales auxiliares desempeñan un papel importante en el aumento de la eficiencia tecnológica del proceso de fundición de piezas de acero al carbono. En este artículo se exponen los primeros resultados del empleo de la cáscara de arroz como material termoaislante en la obtención de piezas fundidas de acero al carbono. En los experimentos se evaluó la influencia  de seis combinaciones de las variables espesor de pared del casquillo y capa de cobertura. En la confección de los casquillos ...

  3. The construction of prokaryotic expression system for human Api6 fusion protein%人Api6融合蛋白原核表达系统的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方严; 练雪梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To further study the pathophysiological function of human Api6 fusion protein expression using a prokaryotic expression system. Methods: Api6 cDNA was inserted into ppSUMO vector to form recombinant plasmid pp-SUMO-Api6;recombinant plasmid ppSUMO-Api6 was trans-formed into prokaryotic expression host E.coli Rosetta;prokaryotic expression method was optimized to induce expression of recombi-nant protein Api6 in different conditions of E.coli density,temperature,IPTG concentration and induction time;recombinant protein Api6 was identified by Western blot. Results:The recombinant plasmid ppSUMO-Api6 was successfully constructed;the recombinant protein Api6 was successfully induced,and the expression of recombinant protein ppSUMO-Api6 from the prokaryotic expression system was optimized in the condition of OD600=0.5-0.8,16℃,0.5 mmol/L IPTG and 16 h induction.Conclusion:Recombinant plasmid ppSUMO-Api6 was converted into the prokaryotic expression host E.coli Rosetta to get the recombinant strain ppSUMO-Api6-Rosetta.Recombinant protein ppSUMO-Api6 was expressed using a prokaryotic expression system at the optimal expression conditions.%目的:本研究拟采用蛋白原核表达的方法,诱导表达人Api6(Apoptosis inhibitor 6)融合蛋白,为进一步研究Api6在凋亡抑制、脂质代谢和肿瘤发生中的作用奠定基础.方法:利用PCR技术扩增人Api6基因,将其克隆至原核表达载体ppSUMO,构建重组质粒ppSUMO-Api6;重组质粒转化原核表达宿主菌E.coli Rosetta感受态;采用蛋白原核表达的方法,不同诱导前菌液浓度,不同温度、不同异丙基硫化半乳糖苷(Isopropy 1-β-D-thiogalaotopyrano-side,IPTG)浓度、不同诱导时间,筛选诱导表达Api6重组蛋白的最优条件;Western blot鉴定其表达情况.结果:成功构建重组质粒ppSUMO-Api6;成功诱导Api6重组蛋白的原核表达,表达的最优条件为:OD600=0.5~0.8的重组菌,16℃、0.5 mmol/L IPTG诱导16 h.结论:含有人Api6 c

  4. First Detection of Nosema ceranae, a Microsporidian Protozoa of European Honey­bees (Apis mellifera) In Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Gerami Sadeghian, A; S Nabian; Ahmadi, K; MH Nazem Shirazi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Nosemosis of European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is present in bee colonies world­wide. Until recently, Nosema apis had been regarded as the causative agent of the disease, that causes heavy economic losses in apicultures. Nosema ceranae is an emerging microsporidian para­site of European honeybees, A. mellifera, but its distribution is not well known. Previously, nosemosis in honeybees in Iran was attributed exclusively to N. apis.Methods: Six Nosema positive samples (determined ...

  5. Comparison of API 20E and invA PCR for identification of Salmonella enterica isolates from swine production units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucera, Daniele M; Maddox, Carol W; Hoien-Dalen, Patricia; Weigel, Ronald M

    2006-09-01

    API 20E and invA PCR were evaluated for the identification of Salmonella enterica isolates from swine farms. API 20E had the highest agreement with other tests at the 99.9% likelihood level. Both tests had 100% sensitivity and 96% specificity compared to 16S rRNA sequencing. Compared to serotyping, both tests had 96% sensitivity; specificity was 86% for API 20E and 79% for invA PCR.

  6. The Quality Management of Pipe Welding in Standard of API1104%API1104-2008标准中管道焊接质量管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉

    2011-01-01

    通过运用5M1E分析法,从人、机器、材料、方法、测量、环境六个方面对API 1104-2008进行分析,明确管道焊接时,API1104-2008在焊接操作者及检测人员、机械设备、管材、焊接材料、焊接工艺方法、焊缝检测以及工作环境等方面采取的质量管理控制措施。%Through the use of 5M1E analysis to specify quality control measures of welding operators,inspectors,mechanical equipments,steel tube,welding material,welding technology evaluation,appearance and nondestructive testing and working environment of API1104-2008,the thesis analyzes API1104-2008 from six aspects: man,machines,materials,methods,measurements,and environment.

  7. Caracterización estructural y electroquímica de materiales Sonogel-Carbono modificados y su empleo como sensores electroquímicos selectivos

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    En esta Tesis Doctoral se ha abordado la caracterización estructural y electroquímica de los nuevos materiales Sonogel-Carbono, desarrollados y patentados por nuestro grupo de investigación, y de sus modificaciones. El planteamiento y la finidad del trabajo se han dirigido hacie el conocimiento de la estructura y de la superficie de los materiales, con el fin de poder comprender la utilidad y el comportamiento de lo sensores electroquímicos desarrollados. Para ello se han empleado diversas té...

  8. SÍNTESIS DE NANOTUBOS DE CARBONO POR PIRÓLISIS DE ALFA-PINENO: MODELADO MATEMÁTICO Y VALIDACIÓN EXPERIMENTAL

    OpenAIRE

    López Tinoco, Julián

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar y validar de manera experimental un modelo matemático para hacer más eficiente la producción de nanotubos de carbono (NTC). La síntesis de los NTC se llevó a cabo mediante el método de spray pirólisis variando los flujos del gas acarreador de 2.5 lpm a 7.5 lpm, manteniendo constante la concentración de catalizador y la temperatura de reacción. Los materiales obtenidos se caracterizaron mediante Análisis Termogravimetrico (TGA) y Micro...

  9. Huella hídrica y de carbono en cultivos extensivos de regadío en el sur de Navarra

    OpenAIRE

    Bermejo Ruiz, Irantzu

    2014-01-01

    Uno de los mayores retos de la agricultura europea en los próximos años consiste en la reducción de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero procedente de explotaciones agrarias y, al mismo tiempo, adaptarse al nuevo escenario que supone el cambio climático. Asimismo, se puede potenciar la rentabilidad económica y social de las explotaciones mediante la adopción de las oportunas prácticas agrarias sostenibles que reduzcan la huella de carbono de la agricultura y que potencien su efecto su...

  10. Simulación de los cambios de carbono orgánico del suelo en sistema de cultivo con higuerilla por el modelo RothC

    OpenAIRE

    Lucila González Molina; Esaú del C. Moreno Pérez; Laksmi Reddiar Krishnamurty; Aurelio Baéz Pérez; Acosta Mireles Miguel

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue la simulación de los cambios del carbono orgánico del suelo (COS), por el modelo RothC, en razón del cambio de uso de suelo del sistema tradicional - asociación maíz-calabaza (TMC) - a sistemas con higuerilla (Ricinus communis): multiestratos (MUL), callejones (CALL) y monocultivo de higuerilla (HIG). Las simulaciones del COS se hicieron para las profundidades de suelo 0-20 y 0-40 cm, para el periodo de 1980-2040, considerándose como línea base al sistema ...

  11. Estudio del comportamiento a fluencia en caliente de un acero avanzado de alta resistencia de bajo contenido en carbono NiCrVCu microaleado con boro

    OpenAIRE

    González Sala, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Una de las líneas de investigación prioritarias en el contexto internacional es el desarrollo de aceros avanzados de alta resistencia (AHSS) con excelentes propiedades de resistencia y tenacidad para aplicaciones en la industria automotriz, naval, aeronáutica y de generación de energía, que permitan disminuir el peso de los componentes y sustituyan aceros tradicionales de contenidos mayores de carbono. Los aceros AHSS microaleados al boro, debido a sus cualidades, tecnología de...

  12. Isótopos estables del carbono en restos humanos de Península Mitre y del Canal Beagle, Tierra del Fuego

    OpenAIRE

    Kozameh, Livia Febes; Panarello, Héctor; Tessone, Augusto; Testa, N; Valencio, Susana; Zangrando, Francisco Atilio

    2003-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar un análisis comparativo de los valores isotópicos del carbono (δ13C) medidos sobre gelatina ósea extraída de restos humanos procedentes de Península Mitre y del canal Beagle, Tierra del Fuego. Paralelamente, se discute esta información con aquella recabada a partir de otros estudios referidos a rastros fisiológicos y patológicos del esqueleto y del aparato masticatorio efectuados en ambas regiones. Los resultados señalan que, si bien en los análisis de ...

  13. Isótopos estables del carbono en restos óseos humanos de la región del canal Beagle, Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego

    OpenAIRE

    Tessone, Augusto; Zangrando, Francisco Atilio; Valencio, Susana; Panarello, Héctor

    2003-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer las particularidades de la dieta de grupos cazadores-recolectores, que habitaron la región del canal Beagle durante el Holoceno medio y tardío, mediante el análisis de isótopos estables del carbono sobre el colágeno de sus restos óseos. Se dan a conocer los valores de la 8¹³C obtenidos en cinco individuos. Seis determinaciones efectuadas previamente por otros autores en la misma región señalaron una variación mayor que la esperada en base a la informació...

  14. Análisis de la reflectividad sísmica e indicadores asociados para el monitoreo de reservorios de dióxido de carbono

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Julián Luis

    2014-01-01

    Esta Tesis tiene como objetivo principal modelar la reflectividad sísmica de onda compresional e indicadores asociados para analizar su utilidad en el monitoreo de reservorios de dióxido de carbono (CO2). Este tema es de gran interés actual en el campo de la Geofísica Aplicada y en la caracterización y monitoreo de reservorios en general. Principalmente se examina la capacidad de monitorear sísmicamente la saturación de CO2, el espesor de la acumulación, el tipo de mezcla...

  15. Cuantificación de biomasa y carbono en bosques nativos de Prosopis caldenia (Burkart) en la Pampa semiárida, Argentina.

    OpenAIRE

    Risio Allione, Lucía

    2012-01-01

    Los bosques del sur-oeste de la pampa Argentina están dominados por caldén (Prosopis caldenia). En la actualidad resta el 18 % de su superficie original. Existen iniciativas que reconocen a los bosques su rol de oferentes de servicios ambientales pero para alcanzar esta recompensa económica es necesario cuantificar la cantidad de carbono almacenado en ellos. En este trabajo se desarrolló un modelo de estimación de biomasa para caldén a partir de 38 árboles apeados y seccionados. Se ajustó un ...

  16. Distribuição do carbono orgânico em Latossolo sob manejoda adubação fosfatada em plantio direto no Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Jerke; Djalma Martinhão Gomes de Sousa; Wenceslau J. Goedert

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição vertical e horizontal do carbono orgânico do solo (CO) sob cinco manejos da adubação fosfatada, no sistema plantio direto. O experimento foi instalado sob Latossolo Vermelho, cultivado durante oito anos com soja ou milho, com milheto como planta de cobertura na entressafra. As parcelas foram submetidas aos tratamentos: aplicação de superfosfato triplo a lanço e no sulco, fosfato natural reativo a lanço e no sulco, e ausência de adição de fe...

  17. Adquisición de carbono en frutos de color verde del muérdago Tristerix corymbosus (Loranthaceae Carbon acquisition in green fruits of Tristerix corymbosus (Loranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia I. Núñez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El color verde de los frutos maduros podría atribuirse a la capacidad de adquirir carbono mediante fotosíntesis, lo cual disminuye los costos reproductivos e incrementa la recompensa nutritiva para los dispersores de semillas. En el muérdago Tristerix corymbosus (Loranthaceae el color de los frutos maduros varía según el bioma: en el matorral chileno los frutos son amarillos mientras que en el bosque templando son verdes. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar si el color de los frutos se relacionaba con la capacidad de ganar carbono vía fotosíntesis y si esta capacidad variaba con la madurez y el bioma. Realizamos mediciones fisiológicas en plantas provenientes de poblaciones de cada bioma. Los frutos, tanto inmaduros como maduros de cada bioma no mostraron adquisición neta de carbono; las hojas mostraron actividad fotosintética, éstas poseen estomas en ambas caras y los frutos carecen de ellos. Estos resultados permiten descartar la hipótesis de que el color verde de los frutos de T. corymbosus se encuentra asociado a la adquisición neta de carbono vía fotosíntesis y mantiene la necesidad de indagación de otras hipótesis sobre la variación del color de los frutos entre biomas.In some species fruits are green when they are ripe. This can be attributed to the ability to acquire carbon via photosynthesis, which reduces reproductive costs and increases nutritional reward for seed dispersers. The color of mature fruits of the mistletoe Tristerix corymbosus (Loranthaceae differ between biomes. In the Chilean matorral ripe fruits are yellow while in the temperate forest are green. Our objective was to determine whether or not fruits photosynthesize and if this ability varied with maturity stage and biome. We performed physiological measurements in plants from populations of each contrasting biome. Fruits did not denote carbon acquisition, regardless the biome or maturity stage. Leaves showed photosynthetic activity, they are amphistomatic

  18. CONTENIDOS DE CARBONO ORGÁNICO DE SUELOS SOMEROS EN PINARES Y ABETALES DE ÁREAS PROTEGIDAS DE MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Cruz-Flores; Jorge D. Etchevers-Barra

    2011-01-01

    Los contenidos de carbono orgánico del suelo (COS), biomasa microbiana (Cbm) y coeficientes metabólicos (qCO2) son indicadores de sostenibilidad. En México se carece de información sobre contenidos óptimos de COS, Cbm y qCO2 en bosques templados, aunque conocerlos es importante para diseñar estrategias de uso y manejo adecuado de suelos forestales, generalmente someros y vulnerables. Esta investigación se realizó en nueve áreas naturales protegidas de México con bosques templados sobre suelos...

  19. Carbono orgânico e elementar em partículas em suspensão em habitações

    OpenAIRE

    Pinho, Isabel Cristina Correia de

    2011-01-01

    As concentrações de partículas em suspensão na atmosfera (PM10) e o seu conteúdo em carbono foram determinadas em amostras recolhidas em quatro locais distintos do concelho de Aveiro. Na recolha das amostras foram utilizados dois amostradores, de baixo caudal um para o ar interior e outro para o ar exterior, em simultâneo, com tempos de amostragem de 48 horas. As concentrações de PM10 foram determinadas por gravimetria, enquanto que o material carbonoso foi determinado ...

  20. Utilização da fosfina em combinação com o dióxido de carbono no controle do Rhyzopertha dominica (f.)

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINAZZO ANA PAULA; FARONI LÊDA RITA D'ANTONINO; BERBERT PEDRO AMORIM; REIS FERNANDO PINHEIRO

    2000-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da utilização de fosfina, associada a uma atmosfera rica em dióxido de carbono (CO2), no controle efetivo do inseto Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) em todas as suas fases de desenvolvimento. Para isso, foram realizadas fumigações com atmosfera sintética contendo 21% de CO2 e 79% de N2 associada a níveis reduzidos de fosfina (0,25, 0,50 e 0,75 g m-3). Para posterior comparação dos resultados, foram realizados dois tratamentos com ar ambiente associado às dosagens de zer...

  1. Development of API 5 CT grade P110 steel casing; Desenvolvimento de tubos casing API 5 CT grau P110

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Sergio Seijo; Roza, Juliana Espinossi

    2003-07-01

    This paper has as objective to discuss the results gotten in experiences carried through in industrial scale for the development of pipes class API 5CT P110 (1), with 244 mm of diameter and 12 mm of thickness. The pipes were welded longitudinally by process ERW (electric resistance welding) and submitted to quenching and tempering heat treatments. A C-Mn-Cr alloy with adequate quenching ability was used for the attainment of a martensite microstructure after quenching. The pipes at a temperature of 880 deg C were quenched in water and subsequently tempered at 515 deg C. The integrity of the weld region was evaluated through non destructive tests and flattening tests, Charpy impact tests and fracture toughness tests (CTOD). The pipes achieved the tension properties stipulated in the standard (yield strength bigger limit of 758 Mpa), and also the energy in the Charpy impact test (transversal), considering that the energy value obtained was 55 J (at 0 deg C) for base metal and 44 J in the weld metal. (author)

  2. 一种基于新型图模型的 API 推荐系统%APISynth:A New Graph-Based API Recommender System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晨; 姜伟; 虎嵩林

    2015-01-01

    对象实例化是软件工程类库复用中一个常见、复杂的问题.即根据已知源类型的对象,用户需要编写代码对目标类型进行实例化.研究人员提出了若干种 API 自动推荐系统辅助用户解决上述问题.然而这些系统不能同时兼顾准确率和查全率,因此在一定程度上影响了系统的实用性.该文提出了一种兼顾准确率和查全率,基于新型图模型的 API 推荐系统———APISynth.在查全率方面,APISynth 使用一个新颖的全局图模型来表达类库中所有的API 依赖关系和 API 历史使用信息.利用新的全局图模型具有的特殊 Tag 元素和可达性质以避免错误的 API 调用.在准确率方面,APISynth 首先将对象实例化问题建模为 Top-K 子图查询问题,然后设计一种新的支持 DAG 形式解的图搜索算法,避免了传统的最短路径图搜索算法导致的查不准问题.实验结果表明,与现有多种方法相比, APISynth 在准确率和查全率两方面均获得了较大提升.%How to perform object instantiation is a common and complex problem in reusing an existing library.In this problem,given the object of source type,users need to write code to instantiate the destination type.Recently,researchers have proposed a variety of related API automatic recommender systems to fulfill this problem.These systems can assist users to solve the above issue in some degree.However,it is very difficult for such systems to achieve both good recall and precision,which affects the usability.This paper presents APISynth,a new graph-based API recommender system.In order to improve the recall,APISynth utilizes a new global graph model to give a better representation for the API dependencies in the relevant class library,and to include API historical usage information in.A special tag element is added to the new graph together with a new reach ability property to avoid false invocation of APIs

  3. Calidad del carbono orgánico del suelo en diferentes técnicas de manejo de residuos forestales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Lupi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985736Las distintas técnicas de cosecha y manejo de residuos pueden provocar cambios en la cantidad y calidad de la materia orgánica (MO del suelo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las modificaciones en la concentración y la calidad de la MO en un Ultisol con diferentes manejos de los residuos de la cosecha forestal del Pinus elliottii Engelm, al inicio de la segunda rotación. Los tratamientos analizados fueron: a extracción manual de los residuos de la cosecha y del piso forestal, suelo descubierto (ER, b quema de residuos y del mantillo, y laboreo con rastra (PI, c conservación de residuos y del mantillo sobre el suelo (PC. Se determinó el carbono orgánico (CO en todo el suelo y en las fracciones de ácidos fúlvicos (AF, ácidos húmicos (AH, huminas (HU y en la fracción liviana (CL. La conservación de los residuos de la cosecha no aumentó el CO ni el CL. Se observó una pérdida de la fracción de ácidos fúlvicos (AF particularmente en PI. Los tratamientos sin residuos forestales (ER y PI muestran un aumento en el grado de estabilización de la MO con un incremento de las HU y de la relación CAH/CAF.

  4. Comportamiento mecánico de la aleación AZ31 reforzada con nanofibras de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeva, P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of reinforcing AZ31 with carbon nanofibres. The materials AZ31, AZ31-1 % C y AZ31-2 % C were produced by a conventional powder metallurgy route consisting of mechanical mixing of nanofibres and powders of AZ31, cool compactation and extrusion at 350 °C. After extrusion the three materials exhibited a recrystallized microstructure of similar grain size, fine and rather inhomogeneous. Furthermore, they presented a weak fibre texture with basal plane parallel to the extrusion direction. The tensile properties were affected by the nanofibres presence only at 100 °C. At this temperature, yield strength and tensile strength were 30% higher than in the unreinforced alloy.

    En este trabajo se ha estudiado el efecto de la adición de nanofibras de carbono en las propiedades mecánicas de la aleación AZ31 procesada por una ruta pulvimetalúrgica convencional. Se prepararon tres materiales, AZ31, AZ31- 1 % C y AZ31-2 % C. Tras una mezcla mecánica de las nanofibras con los polvos de AZ31, se precompactaron en frío y se extruyeron a 350 °C. Los tres presentan una microestructura recristalizada con un tamaño de grano similar, fino aunque algo heterogéneo. Los tres materiales presentan una débil textura de fibra con el plano basal paralelo a la dirección de extrusión. Las propiedades mecánicas a tracción únicamente se ven afectadas por la presencia de nanofibras a 100 °C superando los materiales reforzados en un 30 % a los valores de límite elástico y resistencia de la aleación sin reforzar.

  5. Myeloid-specific Expression of Api6/AIM/Spα Induces Systemic Inflammation and Adenocarcinoma in the Lung

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Peng; Du, Hong; Li, Yuan; Yan, Cong

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the functional role of apoptosis inhibition of myeloid lineage cells in tumor formation, apoptosis inhibitor 6 (Api6/AIM/Spα) was overexpressed in a myeloid-specific c-fms-rtTA/(TetO)7-CMV-Api6 bitransgenic mouse model under the control of the c-fms promoter/intron 2. In this bitransgenic system, Api6-Flag fusion protein was expressed in myeloid lineage cells after doxycycline treatment. Induction of Api6 abnormally elevated levels of macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic c...

  6. Influência da relação estequiométrica resina/endurecedor em propriedades mecânicas de compósitos ternários hierárquicos resina - epóxi/tecido de fibra de carbono/nanotubos de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kássio André Lacerda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção de materiais que apresentem alto desempenho em suas aplicações exige avanços tecnológicos e científicos. Os elevados valores de resistência à tração e módulo de elasticidade, aliados à flexibilidade, baixa densidade e alta razão de aspecto, fazem dos nanotubos de carbono excepcionais candidatos para reforçar compósitos poliméricos. Preparamos por laminação sistemas compósitos ternários à base de resina epóxi/tecidos de fibra de carbono (para os binários, acrescendo nanotubos de carbono para os sistemas ternários. Os parâmetros estequiométricos do sistema epoxídico (valor de Phr e concentração de nanotubos de carbono empregado nos sistemas compósitos tiveram avaliadas suas morfologias (MEV, propriedades térmicas (TG e mecânicas (ASTM D790. Embora o sistema epoxídico com Phr 10,0 tenha apresentado uma maior estabilidade térmica, os compósitos ternários produzidos a partir do sistema com Phr 26,6 mostraram valores de tensão máxima e módulo de elasticidade até 8 vezes maiores que aqueles produzidos com o sistema Phr 10. A adição de nanotubos de carbono aos compósitos com Phr 26,6 resultou em ganhos adicionais de aproximadamente 38 e 15% na tensão máxima e no módulo de elasticidade, respectivamente. Esses resultados revelaram a limitação nos métodos de integralização de nanoestruturas a sistemas compósitos, onde as dispersões estão limitadas a uma série de fatores inerentes a interação química e/ou física durante a fabricação dos compósitos nanoestruturados.

  7. Sperm use economy of honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Boris; Collins, Jason; Maalaps, Kristiina; den Boer, Susanne P A

    2016-05-01

    The queens of eusocial ants, bees, and wasps only mate during a very brief period early in life to acquire and store a lifetime supply of sperm. As sperm cannot be replenished, queens have to be highly economic when using stored sperm to fertilize eggs, especially in species with large and long-lived colonies. However, queen fertility has not been studied in detail, so that we have little understanding of how economic sperm use is in different species, and whether queens are able to influence their sperm use. This is surprising given that sperm use is a key factor of eusocial life, as it determines the fecundity and longevity of queens and therefore colony fitness. We quantified the number of sperm that honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens use to fertilize eggs. We examined sperm use in naturally mated queens of different ages and in queens artificially inseminated with different volumes of semen. We found that queens are remarkably efficient and only use a median of 2 sperm per egg fertilization, with decreasing sperm use in older queens. The number of sperm in storage was always a significant predictor for the number of sperm used per fertilization, indicating that queens use a constant ratio of spermathecal fluid relative to total spermathecal volume of 2.364 × 10(-6) to fertilize eggs. This allowed us to calculate a lifetime fecundity for honeybee queens of around 1,500,000 fertilized eggs. Our data provide the first empirical evidence that honeybee queens do not manipulate sperm use, and fertilization failures in worker-destined eggs are therefore honest signals that workers can use to time queen replacement, which is crucial for colony performance and fitness. PMID:27217944

  8. Acaricide, fungicide and drug interactions in honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed M Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemical analysis shows that honey bees (Apis mellifera and hive products contain many pesticides derived from various sources. The most abundant pesticides are acaricides applied by beekeepers to control Varroa destructor. Beekeepers also apply antimicrobial drugs to control bacterial and microsporidial diseases. Fungicides may enter the hive when applied to nearby flowering crops. Acaricides, antimicrobial drugs and fungicides are not highly toxic to bees alone, but in combination there is potential for heightened toxicity due to interactive effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Laboratory bioassays based on mortality rates in adult worker bees demonstrated interactive effects among acaricides, as well as between acaricides and antimicrobial drugs and between acaricides and fungicides. Toxicity of the acaricide tau-fluvalinate increased in combination with other acaricides and most other compounds tested (15 of 17 while amitraz toxicity was mostly unchanged (1 of 15. The sterol biosynthesis inhibiting (SBI fungicide prochloraz elevated the toxicity of the acaricides tau-fluvalinate, coumaphos and fenpyroximate, likely through inhibition of detoxicative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity. Four other SBI fungicides increased the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate in a dose-dependent manner, although possible evidence of P450 induction was observed at the lowest fungicide doses. Non-transitive interactions between some acaricides were observed. Sublethal amitraz pre-treatment increased the toxicity of the three P450-detoxified acaricides, but amitraz toxicity was not changed by sublethal treatment with the same three acaricides. A two-fold change in the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate was observed between years, suggesting a possible change in the genetic composition of the bees tested. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Interactions with acaricides in honey bees are similar to drug interactions in other animals in that P450-mediated detoxication

  9. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schott

    Full Text Available Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors.

  10. Viruses associated with ovarian degeneration in Apis mellifera L. queens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Gauthier

    Full Text Available Queen fecundity is a critical issue for the health of honeybee (Apis mellifera L. colonies, as she is the only reproductive female in the colony and responsible for the constant renewal of the worker bee population. Any factor affecting the queen's fecundity will stagnate colony development, increasing its susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens. We discovered a pathology affecting the ovaries, characterized by a yellow discoloration concentrated in the apex of the ovaries resulting from degenerative lesions in the follicles. In extreme cases, marked by intense discoloration, the majority of the ovarioles were affected and these cases were universally associated with egg-laying deficiencies in the queens. Microscopic examination of the degenerated follicles showed extensive paracrystal lattices of 30 nm icosahedral viral particles. A cDNA library from degenerated ovaries contained a high frequency of deformed wing virus (DWV and Varroa destructor virus 1 (VDV-1 sequences, two common and closely related honeybee Iflaviruses. These could also be identified by in situ hybridization in various parts of the ovary. A large-scale survey for 10 distinct honeybee viruses showed that DWV and VDV-1 were by far the most prevalent honeybee viruses in queen populations, with distinctly higher prevalence in mated queens (100% and 67%, respectively for DWV and VDV-1 than in virgin queens (37% and 0%, respectively. Since very high viral titres could be recorded in the ovaries and abdomens of both functional and deficient queens, no significant correlation could be made between viral titre and ovarian degeneration or egg-laying deficiency among the wider population of queens. Although our data suggest that DWV and VDV-1 have a role in extreme cases of ovarian degeneration, infection of the ovaries by these viruses does not necessarily result in ovarian degeneration, even at high titres, and additional factors are likely to be involved in this pathology.

  11. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Matthias; Klein, Birgit; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors. PMID:26083377

  12. Transcriptome analysis of the Asian honey bee Apis cerana cerana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Long Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Eastern hive honey bee, Apis cerana cerana is a native and widely bred honey bee species in China. Molecular biology research about this honey bee species is scarce, and genomic information for A. c. cerana is not currently available. Transcriptome and expression profiling data for this species are therefore important resources needed to better understand the biological mechanisms of A. c. cerana. In this study, we obtained the transcriptome information of A. c. cerana by RNA-sequencing and compared gene expression differences between queens and workers of A. c. cerana by digital gene expression (DGE analysis. RESULTS: Using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing we obtained 51,581,510 clean reads corresponding to 4.64 Gb total nucleotides from a single run. These reads were assembled into 46,999 unigenes with a mean length of 676 bp. Based on a sequence similarity search against the five public databases (NR, Swissport, GO, COG, KEGG with a cut-off E-value of 10(-5 using BLASTX, a total of 24,630 unigenes were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology terms, or metabolic pathways. Using these transcriptome data as references we analyzed the gene expression differences between the queens and workers of A. c. cerana using a tag-based digital gene expression method. We obtained 5.96 and 5.66 million clean tags from the queen and worker samples, respectively. A total of 414 genes were differentially expressed between them, with 189 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated in queens. CONCLUSIONS: Our transcriptome data provide a comprehensive sequence resource for future A. c. cerana study, establishing an important public information platform for functional genomic studies in A. c. cerana. Furthermore, the DGE data provide comprehensive gene expression information for the queens and workers, which will facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the different physiological aspects of the two castes.

  13. An Effective Method for Protecting Native API Hook Attacks in User-mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthumanickam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, many modern malware developers is taking the advantage of Application Programming Interface (API hook technique to take the control of the victim computer which making it difficult to detect their presence. Because of the sophistication of rootkit tools, a remote attacker can use native API to compromise any computer which can later be used for many illegal activities such as sniffing network lines, capturing passwords, sending spam and DDoS attack, etc. Thus to protect end-system by identifying and preventing native API malicious code hooking is a challenging problem to the defenders. Today, many different malware-analysis tools incur specific features against malwares but manual and error-prone. In this study, we proposed a behavior-based monitoring detection system to effectively deal native API hooks in user-mode. Unlike other malware identification techniques, our approach involved dynamically analyzing the behavior of native API call hooking malwares. Comparing our experimental evaluation results with existing tools show better performance with no false positive.

  14. Characterization of the N-glycans of recombinant bee venom hyaluronidase (Api m 2) expressed in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatova, Lyudmila N; Tsai, Chaoming; Dobrovolskaia, Ekaterina; Marković-Housley, Zora; Slater, Jay E

    2007-01-01

    Honeybee venom hyaluronidase (Api m 2) is a major glycoprotein allergen. Previous studies have indicated that recombinant Api m 2 expressed in insect cells has enzyme activity and IgE binding comparable with that of native Api m 2. In contrast, Api m 2 expressed in Escherichia coli does not. In this study, we characterized the carbohydrate side chains of Api m 2 expressed in insect cells, and compared our data with the established carbohydrate structure of native Api m 2. We assessed both the monosaccharide and the oligosaccharide content of recombinant Api m 2 using fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis and HPLC. To identify the amino acid residues at which glycosylation occurs, we digested recombinant Api m 2 with endoproteinase Glu-C and identified the fragments that contained carbohydrate by specific staining. Recombinant Api m 2 expressed in insect cells contains N-acetylglucosamine, mannose, and fucose, as well as trace amounts of glucose and galactose, and the oligosaccharide analysis is consistent with heterogeneous oligosaccharide chains consisting of two to seven monosaccharides. No sialic acid or N-acetylgalactosamine were detected. These results are similar to published data for native Api m 2, although some monosaccharide components appear to be absent in the recombinant protein. Analysis of proteolytic digests indicates that of the four candidate N-glycosylation sites, carbohydrate chains are attached at asparagines 115 and 263. Recombinant Api m 2 expressed in insect cells has enzymic activity and IgE binding comparable with the native protein, and its carbohydrate composition is very similar. PMID:17479607

  15. Estudio Experimental de Piezas Lineales de Hormigón Reforzadas con Fibras de Carbono Experimental Study of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with Carbon Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valcuende

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado el comportamiento de seis vigas reforzadas simultáneamente con láminas y tejidos de fibra de carbono. Se analiza, para este tipo de refuerzos, la validez de dos de los métodos de cálculo posiblemente más utilizados. En ambos métodos se plantean las ecuaciones de equilibrio de fuerzas y momentos, pero se introducen suposiciones diferentes: i el acero tiene suficiente capacidad plástica para no romperse y ii el agotamiento se produce siempre por rotura de la lámina. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto que refuerzos de láminas y tejidos de fibra de carbono influyen notablemente sobre las piezas, mejorando su capacidad portante y modificando su comportamiento estructural en cuanto a rigidez y ductilidadA study on the behaviour of six beams reinforced with carbon fiber laminates and fabrics was done. The validity of the two most commonly used methods of evaluating the effects of these reinforcements was analyzed. Both methods propose equilibrium equations based on forces and moments, although introducing two different suppositions: i that the steel posesses enough elasticity to avoid breakage, and ii failure is always produced by the breakage of the laminate. The results obtained demonstrate that carbon fiber laminates and fabric reinforcements have notable influence on the pieces, improving their loading capacities and modifying their structural behavior regarding stiffness and ductility

  16. AVALIAÇÃO DA FORÇA DE RETENÇÃO DE COMPOSTOS ORGÂNICOS (COV EM NANOESTRUTURAS DE CARBONO “CUP STACKED”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Nagel Schirmer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Adsorventes carbonados estão entre as melhores opções na remoção de compostos orgânicos voláteis (COV de correntes gasosas,pela boa afinidade que apresentam com compostos dessa natureza, além de baixo custo e disponibilidade. O presente trabalhoavalia o desempenho do ciclo adsorção/dessorção de dois compostos orgânicos voláteis (fenol e tolueno em nanotubos de carbono(NTC comparativamente a um carbono grafitizado de aplicação tipicamente analítica (Carbotrap. As metodologias deamostragem e análise empregadas compreendem a coleta de gases por bombeamento (amostragem ativa em cartuchos (tubos,contendo o material adsorvente com posterior análise por cromatografia gasosa e espectrometria de massa (CG/EM, de acordocom o Método TO-17 da USEPA. Em relação ao desempenho dos adsorventes, o nanotubo obteve clara vantagem em relação aoCarbotrap, conseguindo reter mais adsorbato por massa de adsorvente. Além disso, não foi verificada interação diferenciada dofenol e tolueno com os dois adsorventes, tanto na etapa de adsorção quanto na de dessorção.

  17. Questionando a comensuração do carbono: Algumas emissões são mais iguais que outras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sequeiros Coelho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O comércio de emissões é normalmente apresentado na literatura económica como um instrumento de regulação que permite atingir um objetivo ambiental minimizando os custos. Abrindo a “caixa negra” do processo de construção de um mercado de emissões, contudo, é possível ver como pressupõe um conjunto de processos sociais que vão influenciar a sua performance de formas não previstas pelos seus defensores.Com base na literatura crítica dos mercados de carbono, este artigo apresenta uma revisão das críticas à comensuração de emissões, enquadrando‑as numa taxonomia de argumentos baseados em ideias de rigor científico, justiça, sustentabilidade ou democracia. Estes argumentos mostram como os processos de comensuração inerentes aos mercados de carbono excluem do processo de decisão informação relevante e invisibilizam atores e instituições envolvidos. A conclusão apresenta uma discussão sobre o potencial de reforma destes mercados.

  18. Produtos naturais no comportamento defensivo de Apis mellifera L. = Natural products in the defensive behaviour of Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Leonardo Lomele

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do estudo foram investigar a influência de produtos naturais como capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus, folhas de abacateiro (Persea americana, casca de café (Coffea arabica e sementes de mamona (Ricinus communis na defensividade de Apis mellifera, e avaliar o efeito destes produtos no desenvolvimento populacional da colmeia. O comportamento defensivo foi avaliado por meio do tempo da primeira ferroada (TPF, número de ferrões (NFB e, o desenvolvimento populacional, pela área de cria aberta e fechada. Observou-se que o tratamento fumaça + sete sementes de mamona apresentou aumento significativo no TPF, em relação ao tratamento sem e com fumaça de maravalha. Com relação ao NFB, verificou-se que os tratamentos fumaça de maravalha + sete sementes de mamona e fumaça de maravalha + 20% de folhas de café foram diferentes do tratamento sem e com fumaça. Os demais tratamentos não diferiram significativamente em relação ao uso da fumaça ou sua ausência. A casca de café e a semente de mamona nãointerferiram no desenvolvimento populacional, sugerindo que estes compostos não foram tóxicos. Pode-se concluir que o uso de sementes de mamona e casca de café na fumaça pode representar importante ferramenta para a redução da defensividade, sem promover toxicidade para A. mellifera.The goal was to investigate the influence of natural products such as lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus, dried avocado leaves (Persea americana, coffee husk (Coffea arabica and castor bean (Ricinus communis in the defense of Apis mellifera, as well the effect of these products on the population development of the beehive. Defensive behavior was evaluated by time of first sting (TFS and number of stingers (NS, and population development, by open brood area and operculated brood. It was observed that the treatment with smoke + seven castor beans presented significant increase in the TFS, for treatment without and with smoke. Regarding NS, it was verified

  19. El uso de las cubiertas verdes como reducción de la huella de carbono por absorción vegetal. Caso de Villaverde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Miguel Carretero Monteagudo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl tema de este trabajo es a grandes rasgos la comprobación de la eficacia de las cubiertas verdes en la reducción de la huella de carbono, centrándonos exclusivamente en las capacidades asimilativas del dióxido de carbono de la vegetación contenida sobre estas cubiertas. La presente comprobación de la eficacia de las cubiertas verdes, fue realizada sobre el contexto del distrito de Villaverde en la Periferia Sur de Madrid. Sobre este distrito, se analizaron diferentes factores en relación con la eficacia de las cubiertas verdes. Para a posteriori establecer cuáles podrían ser los casos de zona homogénea dentro del distrito que pudieran dar datos más relevantes acerca de la eficacia de las cubiertas verdes. Considerando paralelamente un análisis de las capacidades de asimilación de los diferentes tipos de cubierta verde (Intensiva y extensiva. Finalmente se establecieron cuatro escenarios de aplicación sobre las zonas más relevantes derivadas de la selección anterior, para comprobar finalmente las aportaciones en la reducción de dióxido de carbono que una cubierta verde puede aportar a un tejido urbano. Se comprobó que la eficacia de las cubiertas verdes en la absorción del dióxido de carbono es muy limitada, siendo más adecuada la regeneración natural del espacio público.Palabras clave  Reducción Dióxido Carbono Tejidos Naturalización CubiertasAbstractThe main issue of this report is the study of the green roofs reliability aimed to carbon footprint reduction, Focusing only in carbon dioxin assimilative capabilities of vegetation placed on. This study was done in the background of Villaverde district placed in the southern outskirts of Madrid. About this district, different facts related to the reliability of green roofs were analyzed, in order to remark the most relevant cases of urban fabrics within the district, whose results could be the most interesting ones about the efficiency of green roofs. In a

  20. Using the RxNorm web services API for quality assurance purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Lee; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Auditing large, rapidly evolving terminological systems is still a challenge. In the case of RxNorm, a standardized nomenclature for clinical drugs, we argue that quality assurance processes can benefit from the recently released application programming interface (API) provided by RxNav. We demonstrate the usefulness of the API by performing a systematic comparison of alternative paths in the RxNorm graph, over several thousands of drug entities. This study revealed potential errors in RxNorm, currently under review. The results also prompted us to modify the implementation of RxNav to navigate the RxNorm graph more accurately. The RxNav web services API used in this experiment is robust and fast. PMID:18999038

  1. The Design and Implementation of Cryptographic API%加密API的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军

    2004-01-01

    文章设计了一种简单易用、可扩展和可移植的加密API,简称SEPC-API.SEPC-API采用标准的C/C++来编写,并使用抽象密钥类分层结构来构造.文中详细描述了SEPC-API的设计和实现,并给出了应用示例.此外,SEPC-API中的多数函数设计遵循微软Crypto API的语法,这意味着微软Crypto API用户只需修改很少的代码就可以移植到SEPC-API.

  2. An API for Integrating Spatial Context Models with Spatial Reasoning Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2006-01-01

    The integration of context-aware applications with spatial context models is often done using a common query language. However, algorithms that estimate and reason about spatial context information can benefit from a tighter integration. An object-oriented API makes such integration possible...... and can help reduce the complexity of algorithms making them easier to maintain and develop. This paper propose an object-oriented API for context models of the physical environment and extensions to a location modeling approach called geometric space trees for it to provide adequate support for location...... modeling. The utility of the API is evaluated in several real-world cases from an indoor location system, and spans several types of spatial reasoning algorithms....

  3. The SEMAINE API: Towards a Standards-Based Framework for Building Emotion-Oriented Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Schröder

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the SEMAINE API, an open source framework for building emotion-oriented systems. By encouraging and simplifying the use of standard representation formats, the framework aims to contribute to interoperability and reuse of system components in the research community. By providing a Java and C++ wrapper around a message-oriented middleware, the API makes it easy to integrate components running on different operating systems and written in different programming languages. The SEMAINE system 1.0 is presented as an example of a full-scale system built on top of the SEMAINE API. Three small example systems are described in detail to illustrate how integration between existing and new components is realised with minimal effort.

  4. Informacijos apie knygą elektroniniai šaltiniai Lietuvoje ir Didžiojoje Britanijoje

    OpenAIRE

    Smičiūtė, Sigita

    2012-01-01

    Magistro darbo objektas – Lietuvos ir Didžiosios Britanijos elektroniniai šaltiniai ir juose publikuojama informacija apie išleistas knygas. Darbo tikslas – išnagrinėti informaciją apie išleistas knygas elektroniniuose šaltiniuose, įvertinti ją ir palyginti probleminiu aspektu. Darbo uždaviniai: aptarti šiuolaikinę knygų rinkos situaciją, būdingą Lietuvai ir Didžiajai Britanijai; apibrėžti elektroninių informacijos šaltinių sampratą; suskirstyti į grupes ir ištirti informacijos apie knygas el...

  5. Studi Eksperimen Distribusi Temperatur Nyala Api Kompor Bioetanol Tipe Side Burner dengan Variasi Diameter Firewall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Vienna Sona Saputri Soetadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Untuk mendapatkan kompor bioetanol efisiensi thermal maksimal diperlukan penelitian komprehensif. Salah satunya adalah penelitian terhadap posisi peletakkan beban pada kompor bioetanol kompak. Pengujian dilakukan pada kompor uji bioetanol dengan kadar 99%, yaitu kompor bioetanol tipe side burner dengan firewall 2.5 inci dan firewall 3 inci. Pengukuran temperatur api dengan 13 thermocouple K dengan pengukuran searah api keatas setiap 5 mm-an. Kemudian, water boiling test dilakukan untuk mendapatkan daya dan beban dan dilanjutkan mengukur waktu pendidihan air. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan gambaran total distribusi temperatur nyala api difusi. Hasil menunjukkan untuk kompor 2.5 inci dengan daya 1.6 kW mempunyai temperatur 542 ºC dengan jarak ketinggian 5 mm dari rim kompor sedangkan kompor 3 inci menghasilkan daya 2.38 kW dengan temperatur 516 ºC.

  6. 360-MAM-Affect: Sentiment Analysis with the Google Prediction API and EmoSenticNet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Mulholland

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Online recommender systems are useful for media asset management where they select the best content from a set of media assets. We have developed an architecture for 360-MAM- Select, a recommender system for educational video content. 360-MAM-Select will utilise sentiment analysis and gamification techniques for the recommendation of media assets. 360-MAM-Select will increase user participation with digital content through improved video recommendations. Here, we discuss the architecture of 360-MAM-Select and the use of the Google Prediction API and EmoSenticNet for 360-MAM-Affect, 360-MAM-Select's sentiment analysis module. Results from testing two models for sentiment analysis, Sentiment Classifier (Google Prediction API and EmoSenticNetClassifer (Google Prediction API + EmoSenticNet are promising. Future work includes the implementation and testing of 360-MAM-Select on video data from YouTube EDU and Head Squeeze.

  7. Cirrose experimental induzida pela inalação de tetracloreto de carbono: adaptação da técnica e avaliação da peroxidação lipídica Experimental cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride inhalation: technical modifications and lipoperoxidation effects

    OpenAIRE

    CREMONESE Ricardo Viégas; PEREIRA-FILHO Arthur Azambuja; MAGALHÃES Richard; Angelo Alves MATTOS; Marroni, Claudio Augusto; Zettler, Cláudio Galeano; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2001-01-01

    Racional - Administração a longo prazo de tetracloreto de carbono é modelo experimental para produzir fibrose hepática. O estresse oxidativo parece ser o mecanismo envolvido na hepatoxicidade por tetracloreto de carbono, onde as espécies ativas de oxigênio têm importante papel na patogênese da fibrose hepática. Objetivos - Avaliar a eficácia de um modelo experimental de cirrose hepática induzida pela inalação de tetracloreto de carbono em ratos, bem como avaliar a peroxidação lipídica e as ca...

  8. AN OVERVIEW OF THE UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS, SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS, AND PARAMETER ESTIMATION (UA/SA/PE) API AND HOW TO IMPLEMENT IT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Application Programming Interface (API) for Uncertainty Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, andParameter Estimation (UA/SA/PE API) (also known as Calibration, Optimization and Sensitivity and Uncertainty (CUSO)) was developed in a joint effort between several members of both ...

  9. Symptomatic nucleus of homeopathic remedies derived from carbon. Nucleo sintomático de los medicamentos homeopaticos derivados de carbono Núcleo sintomático dos medicamentos homeopáticos derivados do Carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Costa Lima Thomaz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Homeopathic clinical practice requires both accuracy and agility in diagnosis and prescription of treatment during real-time consultations. Several approaches have been attempted to facilitate this process including different criteria to group homeopathic remedies. This study sought to establish whether classification according to the chemical composition of substances used as basis of homeopathic remedies have correspondence in the experimental homeopathic materia medica. Methods: The homeopathic remedies derived from carbon were selected as case-study. The experimental symptoms of these remedies were compared and a nucleus of symptoms common to all could be found. This nucleus was then compared to similarly obtained nuclei of experimental symptoms of homeopathic remedies derived from sulfur and phosphor to test qualitative specificity and finally to the traditionally described clinical picture of the so-called homeopathic carbonic constitution to establish whether the latter has homeopathic experimental grounds. Results: a nucleus of experimental symptoms common to homeopathic remedies derived from carbon was found, qualitatively different from the symptomatic nuclei of homeopathic remedies derived from sulfur and phosphor; no correlation was found, however, with the clinical image of so-called carbonic constitution.

    Keywords: Homeopathy; Materia Medica; Remedies; Classes; Carbon.

     
    Núcleo sintomático dos medicamentos homeopáticos derivados do Carbono
  1. Lowering the learning curve for declarative programming: a Python API for the IDP system

    OpenAIRE

    Vennekens, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Programmers may be hesitant to use declarative systems, because of the associated learning curve. In this paper, we present an API that integrates the IDP Knowledge Base system into the Python programming language. IDP is a state-of-the-art logical system, which uses SAT, SMT, Logic Programming and Answer Set Programming tech- nology. Python is currently one of the most widely used (teaching) lan- guages for programming. The first goal of our API is to allow a Python programmer to use the dec...

  2. EXPOSICIÓN AL MONÓXIDO DE CARBONO DEL PERSONAL ESPECIALISTA EN EXTINCIÓN DE INCENDIOS FORESTALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Carballo Leyenda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Se ha descrito que la salud y el rendimiento laboral del personal dedicado a la extinción de los incendios forestales se ven perjudicados principalmente por el monóxido de carbono (CO. El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido analizar la exposición al CO a la que se ve sometido el personal especialista en la extinción de los incendios. Métodos: Durante 58 incendios reales se monitorizó en 44 sujetos la exposición al CO a la que se vieron sometidos. También se analizó la concentración ponderada para una jornada de 8h (VA-ED. Todos los incendios fueron divididos en función del tipo de trabajo realizado (ataque directo, indirecto y combinado y del combustible presente (pasto, matorral, bajo arbolado y mixto. Las variables analizadas fueron estudiadas mediante la prueba de Kruskal-Wallis, se usó el test de Mann-Whitney para establecer las diferencias entre medias. Resultados: La concentración media de CO en los incendios fue de 18,4±1,7 ppm, lo que supuso una VA-ED de 7,0±1,0 ppm. Las mayores exposiciones al CO se analizaron en los ataques combinados (20,4±2,3 ppm seguidas de las obtenidas en los ataques directos (17,5±2,7 ppm e indirectos (10,6±5,4 ppm. Únicamente se obtuvieron diferencias significativas (p<0,05 al comparar las exposiciones al CO generadas por la combustión del matorral (19,8±2,2 y bajo arbolado (17,2±3,9 y pasto (12,0±5,6. Conclusiones: Las exposiciones de CO analizadas se vieron influidas por el tipo de combustible y trabajo desempeñado. Los valores medios obtenidos se situaron dentro de los límites establecidos como seguros por diferentes organismos nacionales (INSHT e internacionales (NIOSH, OSHA.

  3. Almacenes y dinámica del carbono orgánico en ecosistemas forestales tropicales de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Campo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El efecto del régimen de precipitación en la dinámica del carbono en los bosques tropicales es poco conocido a pesar de su importante papel en el ciclo global del C. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar si existe un efecto de la lluvia y del uso de la tierra en el ciclo del C. También se analizó la recuperación de los almacenes del C luego del abandono del pastoreo por ganado en regiones tropicales forestales distribuidas en un amplio rango de precipitación media anual. Se analizaron datos publicados de ocho bosques tropicales mexicanos, que incluyó un intervalo de precipitación media anual entre 642 y 4725 mm. El análisis indicó que el C en la biomasa aumentó con la precipitación media anual. La concentración de C en los primeros 20 cm del suelo tendió a aumentar con la precipitación media anual, pero presentó un pico también en el extremo más seco del gradiente, probablemente debido a su limitada descomposición. El almacén total de C en el suelo aumentó con la precipitación y, en particular, en el subsuelo (>30 cm, donde se acumuló del 49 al 60% del total. Los efectos del uso del suelo en el C parecen depender del régimen de precipitación. En contraste, el C del suelo durante la sucesión secundaria no varió con la intensidad de la sequía, aun cuando el número de estudios fue muy limitado. El análisis sugiere que el régimen de precipitación juega un papel central en la dinámica del ciclo del C en los bosques tropicales.

  4. An example of how to handle amorphous fractions in API during early pharmaceutical development: SAR114137--a successful approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzoldt, Christine; Bley, Oliver; Byard, Stephen J; Andert, Doris; Baumgartner, Bruno; Nagel, Norbert; Tappertzhofen, Christoph; Feth, Martin Philipp

    2014-04-01

    The so-called pharmaceutical solid chain, which encompasses drug substance micronisation to the final tablet production, at pilot plant scale is presented as a case study for a novel, highly potent, pharmaceutical compound: SAR114137. Various solid-state analytical methods, such as solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Dynamic Water Vapour Sorption Gravimetry (DWVSG), hot-stage Raman spectroscopy and X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) were applied and evaluated to characterise and quantify amorphous content during the course of the physical treatment of crystalline active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). DSC was successfully used to monitor the changes in amorphous content during micronisation of the API, as well as during stability studies. (19)F solid-state NMR was found to be the method of choice for the detection and quantification of low levels of amorphous API, even in the final drug product (DP), since compaction during tablet manufacture was identified as a further source for the formation of amorphous API. The application of different jet milling techniques was a critical factor with respect to amorphous content formation. In the present case, the change from spiral jet milling to loop jet milling led to a decrease in amorphous API content from 20-30 w/w% to nearly 0 w/w% respectively. The use of loop jet milling also improved the processability of the API. Stability investigations on both the milled API and the DP showed a marked tendency for recrystallisation of the amorphous API content on exposure to elevated levels of relative humidity. No significant impact of amorphous API on either the chemical stability or the dissolution rate of the API in drug formulation was observed. Therefore, the presence of amorphous content in the oral formulation was of no consequence for the clinical trial phases I and II. PMID:24075979

  5. Carbono edáfico en Chiapas: planteamiento de políticas públicas de mitigación de emisiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Covaleda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ante los retos que plantea la mitigación del cambio climático en el sector AFOLU (agricultura, forestería y otros usos del suelo, es necesario plantear actividades que, a la vez que disminuyan las emisiones de CO2 a la atmósfera tengan un impacto socio-económico positivo. En Chiapas, el 76% de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero están ligadas a las actividades que realizan los productores rurales, por lo cual es fundamental que los tomadores de decisiones cuenten con herramientas sencillas de planeación que les permitan desarrollar actividades y programas de política pública encaminados a contribuir en la resolución de esta problemática. Por otra parte, en el estado, aproximadamente la mitad de las emisiones provienen de los suelos. En este trabajo, mediante análisis cartográfico, se identificaron las principales dinámicas de cambio de uso del suelo en Chiapas entre 2007 y 2011 a nivel regional, las cuales fueron: deforestación de bosques secundarios templados para establecer parcelas agrícolas de subsistencia (milpa en los Altos, deforestación de vegetación secundaria de selva alta perennifolia por ganadería extensiva en La Selva y degradación forestal de bosques de pino encino en la Sierra Madre. Utilizando modelos de dinámica de uso del suelo asociado a carbono para distintas regiones de Chiapas, se analizaron sus impactos sobre el carbono edáfico y sus costos de oportunidad para los productores. Además utilizando estos mismos modelos se propusieron actividades de política pública con impactos positivos sobre el almacén de carbono edáfico y sobre indicadores socio-económicos. Los sistemas propuestos como alternativa sustentable fueron: la labranza de conservación y el MIAF (maíz intercalado con árboles frutales, en los Altos, sistemas silvopastoriles en la Selva y protección de bosques secundarios, bosques con plan de manejo forestal y plantaciones forestales en la Sierra.

  6. Renovação do carbono-13 em figueiras 'Roxo de Valinhos' Carbon-13 turnover in fig trees 'Roxo de Valinhos'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Carvalho da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a taxa de renova��ão do carbono-13 ("turnover", dos diferentes órgãos da figueira 'Roxo de Valinhos'. O experimento foi conduzido no pomar da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, FCA/UNESP, Câmpus de Botucatu-SP. Determinou-se previamente, através das trocas gasosas com um medidor aberto portátil de fotossíntese, IRGA, a principal folha fotossinteticamente ativa. Essa folha foi colocada em uma câmara onde ocorreu a injeção do gás enriquecido. O tempo de enriquecimento da folha foi de 30 minutos. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por sete plantas de figueira, que foram retiradas do solo após: 6; 24; 48; 72; 120; 168 e 360 horas do enriquecimento com 13C, e suas partes seccionadas em: gema apical, folha jovem, folhas adultas (fotossinteticamente ativas, brotações laterais, frutos e ramo. Os resultados obtidos permitiram o estabelecimento da sequência de metabolização do carbono-13 nas partições estudadas: Folhas novas > Frutos > Brotações > Folhas Adultas > Gema Apical > Ramo > Folha marcada. Plantas de figueira 'Roxo de Valinhos' apresentam reciclagem do 13C de 24 horas e um tempo de meia-vida de duração do carbono-13 inferior a 11 horas.The aim of this study was to assess carbon-13 turnover in different organs of the fig tree cultivar 'Roxo de Valinhos'. The experiment was carried out in an orchard at School of Agronomical Sciences, FCA/UNESP, Botucatu Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil. The main photosynthetically active leaf was previously determined based on gas exchanges by means of an open portable photosynthesis system, IRGA. That leaf was placed in a chamber where the enriched gas injection occurred. The leaf enrichment time was 30 minutes. Treatments were constituted of seven fig trees harvested of soil after: 6; 24; 48; 72; 120; 168 and 360 hours of enrichment using 13C, and their parts were sectioned into: apical bud, young leaves, adult leaves (photosynthetically active

  7. Testing of the structure of macromolecular polymer films containing solid active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boelcskei, E. [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Eoetvoes u. 6 (Hungary); Suevegh, K. [Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, H-1518 Budapest 112, P.O. Box 32 (Hungary); Marek, T. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Research Group for Nuclear Techniques in Structural Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, H-1518 Budapest 112, P.O. Box 32 (Hungary); Regdon, G. [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Eoetvoes u. 6 (Hungary); Pintye-Hodi, K., E-mail: klara.hodi@pharm.u-szeged.h [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Eoetvoes u. 6 (Hungary)

    2011-07-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure of free films of Eudragit{sup L} 30D-55 containing different concentrations (0%, 1% or 5%) of diclofenac sodium by positron annihilation spectroscopy. The data revealed that the size of the free-volume holes and the lifetimes of ortho-positronium atoms decreased with increase of the API concentration. Films containing 5% of the API exhibited a different behavior during storage (17 {sup o}C, 65% relative humidity (RH)) in consequence of the uptake of water from the air. -- Highlights: {yields} The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure of free films of Eudragit{sup L} 30D-55 containing different concentrations (0%, 1% or 5%) of diclofenac sodium by positron annihilation spectroscopy. {yields} The data revealed that the size of the free-volume holes and the lifetimes of ortho-positronium atoms decreased with increase of the API concentration (). {yields} The API distorts the original polymer structure, but as time goes by, the metastable structure relaxes and it is almost totally restored after 3 weeks of storage (17 {sup o}C, 65% RH).

  8. Does Year Round Schooling Affect the Outcome and Growth of California's API Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amery D.; Stone, Jake E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined whether year round schooling (YRS) in California had an effect upon the outcome and growth of schools' Academic Performance Index (API) scores. While many previous studies had examined the connection between YRS and academic achievement, most had lacked the statistical rigour required to provide reliable interpretations. As a…

  9. An Auto-Configuration System for the GMSEC Architecture and API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moholt, Joseph; Mayorga, Arturo

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on an automated configuration concept for The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) architecture and Application Program Interface (API) is shown. The topics include: 1) The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC); 2) Automated Configuration Concept; 3) Implementation Approach; and 4) Key Components and Benefits.

  10. Involvement of Phosphorylated "Apis Mellifera" CREB in Gating a Honeybee's Behavioral Response to an External Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Katrin B.; Heufelder, Karin; Feige, Janina; Bauer, Paul; Dyck, Yan; Ehrhardt, Lea; Kühnemund, Johannes; Bergmann, Anja; Göbel, Josefine; Isecke, Marlene; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is involved in neuronal plasticity. Phosphorylation activates CREB and an increased level of phosphorylated CREB is regarded as an indicator of CREB-dependent transcriptional activation. In honeybees ("Apis mellifera") we recently demonstrated a particular high…

  11. Reliability of the Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) Scoring System for the Bender Gestalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucone, Ernest J.; Raphael, Alan J.; Golden, Charles J.; Espe-Pfeifer, Patricia; Seldon, Jen; Pospisil, Tanya; Dornheim, Liane; Proctor-Weber, Zoe; Calabria, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Assessed the interrater reliability of the revised Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) (A. Raphael and C. Golden, 1998) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt Test (L. Bender, 1938). Agreement across nine raters exceeded 90% for each of three clinical protocols, and kappa statistics indicated good interrater reliability. (SLD)

  12. Asymmetrical Coexistence of Nosema ceranae and N. apis in Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globalization has provided opportunities for parasites/pathogens to cross geographic boundaries and expand to new hosts. Recent studies showed that Nosema ceranae, originally considered as a microsporidian parasite of Eastern honey bees, Apis ceranae, was the disease agent of Nosemosis in European ...

  13. ACME algorithms for contact in a multiphysics environment API version 2.2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinstein, Martin Wilhelm; Glass, Micheal W.; Gullerud, Arne S.; Brown, Kevin H.; Voth, Thomas Eugene; Jones, Reese E.

    2004-07-01

    An effort is underway at Sandia National Laboratories to develop a library of algorithms to search for potential interactions between surfaces represented by analytic and discretized topological entities. This effort is also developing algorithms to determine forces due to these interactions for transient dynamics applications. This document describes the Application Programming Interface (API) for the ACME (Algorithms for Contact in a Multiphysics Environment) library.

  14. Responses of Varroa-resistant honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to Deformed wing virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The negative impact of Deformedwing virus (DWV) on European honey bees Apis mellifera is magnified by Varroa destructor parasitism. This study compared the responses of two Varroa-resistant honey bee stocks, pure Russian honey bees (RHB) and out-crossed Varroa Sensitive Hygienic bees, Pol-line (POL)...

  15. Gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (GC-API-MS): review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Du-Xin; Gan, Lin; Bronja, Amela; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2015-09-01

    Although the coupling of GC/MS with atmospheric pressure ionization (API) has been reported in 1970s, the interest in coupling GC with atmospheric pressure ion source was expanded in the last decade. The demand of a "soft" ion source for preserving highly diagnostic molecular ion is desirable, as compared to the "hard" ionization technique such as electron ionization (EI) in traditional GC/MS, which fragments the molecule in an extensive way. These API sources include atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI), electrospray ionization (ESI) and low temperature plasma (LTP). This review discusses the advantages and drawbacks of this analytical platform. After an introduction in atmospheric pressure ionization the review gives an overview about the history and explains the mechanisms of various atmospheric pressure ionization techniques used in combination with GC such as APCI, APPI, APLI, ESI and LTP. Also new developments made in ion source geometry, ion source miniaturization and multipurpose ion source constructions are discussed and a comparison between GC-FID, GC-EI-MS and GC-API-MS shows the advantages and drawbacks of these techniques. The review ends with an overview of applications realized with GC-API-MS.

  16. The Earth Observatory Natural Event Tracker (EONET): An API for Matching Natural Events to GIBS Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, K.

    2015-12-01

    Hidden within the terabytes of imagery in NASA's Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) collection are hundreds of daily natural events. Some events are newsworthy, devastating, and visibly obvious at a global scale, others are merely regional curiosities. Regardless of the scope and significance of any one event, it is likely that multiple GIBS layers can be viewed to provide a multispectral, dataset-based view of the event. To facilitate linking between the discrete event and the representative dataset imagery, NASA's Earth Observatory Group has developed a prototype application programming interface (API): the Earth Observatory Natural Event Tracker (EONET). EONET supports an API model that allows users to retrieve event-specific metadata--date/time, location, and type (wildfire, storm, etc.)--and web service layer-specific metadata which can be used to link to event-relevant dataset imagery in GIBS. GIBS' ability to ingest many near real time datasets, combined with its growing archive of past imagery, means that API users will be able to develop client applications that not only show ongoing events but can also look at imagery from before and after. In our poster, we will present the API and show examples of its use.

  17. Biotyping of Haemophilus using API 10S—an epidemiological tool?

    OpenAIRE

    Mehtar, S.; Afshar, S Amini

    1983-01-01

    One hundred and ninety-nine strains of Haemophilus isolates were biotyped by Kilian's method1 and a modified API 10S strip and the results compared. One hundred percent correlation was found between the two systems. The ONPG test proved of value in differentiating between Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae when there was growth factor disc failure.

  18. Synergistic effects of non-Apis bees and honey bees for pollination services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Claire; Williams, Neal; Kremen, Claire; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2013-03-01

    In diverse pollinator communities, interspecific interactions may modify the behaviour and increase the pollination effectiveness of individual species. Because agricultural production reliant on pollination is growing, improving pollination effectiveness could increase crop yield without any increase in agricultural intensity or area. In California almond, a crop highly dependent on honey bee pollination, we explored the foraging behaviour and pollination effectiveness of honey bees in orchards with simple (honey bee only) and diverse (non-Apis bees present) bee communities. In orchards with non-Apis bees, the foraging behaviour of honey bees changed and the pollination effectiveness of a single honey bee visit was greater than in orchards where non-Apis bees were absent. This change translated to a greater proportion of fruit set in these orchards. Our field experiments show that increased pollinator diversity can synergistically increase pollination service, through species interactions that alter the behaviour and resulting functional quality of a dominant pollinator species. These results of functional synergy between species were supported by an additional controlled cage experiment with Osmia lignaria and Apis mellifera. Our findings highlight a largely unexplored facilitative component of the benefit of biodiversity to ecosystem services, and represent a way to improve pollinator-dependent crop yields in a sustainable manner. PMID:23303545

  19. Polymorphic DNA sequences of the fungal honey bee pathogen Ascosphaera apis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette B; Welker, Dennis L; Kryger, Per;

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenic fungus Ascosphaera apis is ubiquitous in honey bee populations. We used the draft genome assembly of this pathogen to search for polymorphic intergenic loci that could be used to differentiate haplotypes. Primers were developed for five such loci, and the species specificities were...... for the world's most important pollinator: the honey bee and one of its most common pathogens....

  20. Insights into social insects from the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael;

    2006-01-01

    Here we report the genome sequence of the honeybee Apis mellifera, a key model for social behaviour and essential to global ecology through pollination. Compared with other sequenced insect genomes, the A. mellifera genome has high A+T and CpG contents, lacks major transposon families, evolves more...

  1. The API methodology for risk-based inspection (RBI) analysis for the petroleum and petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-one petroleum and petrochemical companies are currently sponsoring a project within the American Petroleum Institute (API) to develop risk-based inspection (RBI) methodology for application in the refining and petrochemical industry. This paper describes that particular RBI methodology and provides a summary of the three levels of RBI analysis developed by the project. Also included is a review of the first pilot project to validate the methodology by applying RBI to several existing refining units. The failure for pressure equipment in a process unit can have several undesirable effects. For the purpose of RBI analysis, the API RBI program categorizes these effects into four basic risk outcomes: flammable events, toxic releases, major environmental damage, and business interruption losses. API RBI is a strategic process, both qualitative and quantitative, for understanding and reducing these risks associated with operating pressure equipment. This paper will show how API RBI assesses the potential consequences of a failure of the pressure boundary, as well as assessing the likelihood (probability) of failure. Risk-based inspection also prioritizes risk levels in a systematic manner so that the owner-user can then plan an inspection program that focuses more resources on the higher risk equipment; while possibly saving inspection resources that are not doing an effective job of reducing risk. At the same time, if consequence of failure is a significant driving force for high risk equipment items, plant management also has the option of applying consequence mitigation steps to minimize the impact of a hazardous release, should one occur. The target audience for this paper is engineers, inspectors, and managers who want to understand what API Risk-Based Inspection is all about, what are the benefits and limitations of RBI, and how inspection practices can be changed to reduce risks and/or save costs without impacting safety risk. (Author)

  2. Alteration Summary of the 8th Edition API SPEC Q1 as Opposed to the 7th Edition%API SPEC Q1第8版相对第7版变更摘要

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方晓东

    2009-01-01

    @@ API SPEC Q1是API标准中一项重要的技术政策性标准,通用于API的所有产品规范.API Q1第8版于2007年12月发布, 2008年6月15日生效.2008年6月15日以后对申请会标公司质量管理体系的审核,将按API Q1第8版的要求进行.

  3. API Spec5L(44版)关于材料及试验的变化%Changes of Materials and Tests in 44th Edition of Standard API Spec 5L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德林; 同建辉; 孙宏; 崔明亮

    2011-01-01

    针对API Spec 5L(44版)标准,简要分析了API 5L(44版)标准对于材料与理化试验方面与前一版本的变化.新版API 5L标准相比以前版本更加精简,实际使用更方便,在理化试验方面细节上变化较大,在焊管的实际生产应用中应予以注意.

  4. LOS PELIGROS DEL DOBLE DISCURSO. DE LO INTERNACIONAL A LO LOCAL: El caso de la propuesta “Costa Rica Carbono Neutral - 2021”

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Baltodano Aragón

    2008-01-01

    Resumen Este trabajo analiza algunos aspectos de las negociaciones e iniciativas que intentan enfrentar el cambio climático a nivel internacional, poniendo énfasis en los mecanismos de compensación y la creación de los mercados de carbono, su significado en relación a  la creación de “derechos de propiedad sobre la contaminación de la atmósfera” y en relación a la efectividad  que estos esquemas tienen para  enfrentar el Cambio Climático. Asimismo, se analiza su vinculación con la propuesta d...

  5. Utilización de nanotubos de carbono para la eliminación de metales tóxicos en aguas

    OpenAIRE

    López Gómez, Félix Antonio; Alguacil, Francisco José; Álvarez Centeno, Teresa; Cerpa Naranjo, Arisbel

    2014-01-01

    Se estudia la eliminación de metales en solución mediante la utilización de diversos tipos de nanotubos de carbono de pared múltiple comerciales. El proceso de eliminación de metales en soluciones acuosas parece ocurrir a través de mecanismos de adsorción física en los que el pH favorece la adsorción. En general, la adsorción de metales en los nanotubos se incrementa en medio alcalino (pH 11). Dependiendo del metal, el proceso de adsorción puede ser endotérmico (caso del In (II...

  6. IMPLANTACIÓN DE ENERGIAS RENOVABLES Y ESTIMACIÓN DE LA HUELLA DE CARBONO EN EL MUNICIPIO DE BLANCA (MURCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Molina Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La introducción del concepto de sostenibilidad en el mercado energético implica la potenciación de las energías renovables activando políticas que fomenten su implantación. El éxito de estas políticas se plasmará en el incremento de participación de las energías renovables en el mix energético, en la reducción de emisiones de CO2 y en el cumplimiento de los compromisos internacionales. Este trabajo analiza el grado de implantación de las energías renovables en un municipio de la Región de Murcia (Blanca, valorando la incidencia de la legislación sectorial energética y estimando la huella de carbono derivada del consumo de energía eléctrica.

  7. Aplicação de cinzas da combustão de biomassa na remoção do dióxido de carbono

    OpenAIRE

    Sequeira, Andreia da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Devido à forte dependência de combustíveis fósseis para a produção de energia no mundo, o nível de emissões de dióxido de carbono aumentou levando a um aumento do aquecimento global, que é acompanhada por mudanças climáticas em várias partes do mundo. Para reverter este facto, atualmente têm-se tentado utilizar fontes de produção de energia mais limpa, tal como a biomassa. A biomassa é considerada como uma fonte de energia renovável e pode desempenhar um papel importante nas tendências fut...

  8. Balance de carbono y tasa de descomposición de mantillo y horizontes de fermentación de suelos forestales.

    OpenAIRE

    Barrales Brito, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    El mantillo y horizontes de fermentación (CF) es un reservorio dinámico de carbono (C) en suelos forestales. Las metodologías que cuantifican la emisión de CO2 por la descomposición son escasas y requieren periodos largos de medición. Se requieren métodos para poder generar información de la emisión de CO2 de éstas capas orgánicas en tiempos cortos de medición. Los objetivos fueron: generar un protocolo para la medición de la emisión de CO2 por la descomposición de mantillo y CF con un respir...

  9. Relación carbono nitrógeno en el proceso de lombricompostaje y su potencial nutrimental en jitomate y menta.

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Figueroa, José Cruz

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la relación carbono/nitrógeno (C/N) inicial de los materiales orgánicos a compostar sobre el monitoreo de los grados de descomposición y la calidad nutrimental del vermicompost, para la producción de jitomate y menta. La elaboración de los compost se utilizó paja de maíz (PM) y estiércol de bovino (E B), a los que se les determinó materia orgánica y nitrógeno total. Los cálculos se hicieron en base a las fórmulas propuestas por Comi...

  10. Isótopos estables del carbono en restos humanos de Península Mitre y del Canal Beagle, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozameh, Livia Febes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar un análisis comparativo de los valores isotópicos del carbono (δ13C medidos sobre gelatina ósea extraída de restos humanos procedentes de Península Mitre y del canal Beagle, Tierra del Fuego. Paralelamente, se discute esta información con aquella recabada a partir de otros estudios referidos a rastros fisiológicos y patológicos del esqueleto y del aparato masticatorio efectuados en ambas regiones. Los resultados señalan que, si bien en los análisis de rastros se encuentran ciertas diferencias, los valores isotópicos obtenidos dan cuenta de dietas análogas basadas predominantemente en la explotación de recursos marinos.

  11. Glutamina e turnover do carbono da mucosa intestinal de leitões desmamados Glutamine and carbon turnover of the intestinal mucosa of weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para verificar a influência da glutamina no turnover do carbono na mucosa intestinal de leitões desmamados. Nove matrizes receberam dietas compostas basicamente de plantas do ciclo fotossintético C4 durante toda a gestação (d‰13C = 17,12 e lactação (d‰13C = -19,26. Os leitões foram desmamados aos 21 dias de idade e 68 deles foram alimentados com ração composta de plantas do ciclo fotossintético C3 (d‰13C = -25,12. Os leitões foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em duas dietas: uma sem suplementação de glutamina; e outra suplementada com 1% de glutamina. Aos 0; 1; 1,5; 2; 2,5; 3; 3,5; 4; 4,5; 5; 5,5; 8; 11; 15, 20; 29 e 46 dias pós-desmame, dois leitões de cada dieta foram abatidos para coleta de amostras da mucosa intestinal, que foram analisadas quanto à composição isotópica de d‰13C e mensurada a velocidade de substituição do carbono no tempo. Os valores da meia-vida do carbono para a mucosa intestinal foram de 6,0 e 3,5 dias para as dietas controle e com glutamina, respectivamente. A glutamina acelerou a velocidade de substituição do carbono na mucosa intestinal, evidenciando sua ação benéfica na recuperação da estrutura do intestino após o desmame.An experiment was carried out to evaluate the influence of glutamine on the carbon turnover in the intestinal mucosa of weaned piglets. Nine matrices received diets predominantly composed by photosintetic cycle C4 plants during the gestation (d‰13C = -17.12 and lactation (d‰13C = -19.26. The piglets were weaned at 21 days of age, and 68 animals were fed rations composed by photosintetic cycle C3 plants (d‰13C = -25.12. The piglets were distributed at random in two treatments: one diet without glutamine supplementation and the other diet supplemented with 1% of glutamine. On days 0; 1; 1.5; 2; 2.5; 3; 3.5; 4; 4.5; 5; 5.5; 8; 11; 15, 20; 29 and 46 after weaning, two piglets from each diet were slaughtered for collection of samples

  12. Monitorização do Carbono Negro (CN) e Poeiras Minerais (Pm) na Atmosfera do Atlântico Norte

    OpenAIRE

    Barata, Filipe,; Fialho, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    Comunicação apresentada na 9ª Conferência Nacional do Ambiente, Universidade de Aveiro, 19 de Abril de 2007. As médias anuais da concentração em massa de Carbono Negro (CN) no Atlântico Norte foram de 39 ± 11 ng mˉ³ e de 27 ± ng mˉ³ para a Camada Limite Marinha (CLM) e Troposfera Livre (TL), respectivamente. A variabilidade da concentração em massa de CN, com máximos no período de Verão e mínimos no período de Inverno, indicam que a deposição húmida é o principal mecanismo responsável pelo...

  13. LOS PELIGROS DEL DOBLE DISCURSO. DE LO INTERNACIONAL A LO LOCAL: El caso de la propuesta “Costa Rica Carbono Neutral - 2021”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Baltodano Aragón

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este trabajo analiza algunos aspectos de las negociaciones e iniciativas que intentan enfrentar el cambio climático a nivel internacional, poniendo énfasis en los mecanismos de compensación y la creación de los mercados de carbono, su significado en relación a  la creación de “derechos de propiedad sobre la contaminación de la atmósfera” y en relación a la efectividad  que estos esquemas tienen para  enfrentar el Cambio Climático. Asimismo, se analiza su vinculación con la propuesta del actual gobierno de Costa Rica (Oscar Arias Sánchez, 2006-2010 denominada “Costa Rica, Carbono Neutral para el año 2021” y su pertinencia para enfrentar el Cambio Climático en nuestro país.  Abstract This document analyzes some aspects of the international negotiations and initiatives that intent to face out Climate Change. It put emphasis on the offset mechanisms and carbon markets, their meaning in terms of the creation of “property” over the atmosphere contamination rights and in term of their efficiency to face the Climate Change.  It also analyzes the relationship of these initiatives with the actual Costa Rican Government (Oscar Arias Sánchez, 2006-2010 proposal, named “Costa Rica, Carbon Neutral 2021” and its adequacy to confront Climate Change in the country.

  14. EVALUACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS DE CALIDAD PARA LA DETERMINACIÓN DE CARBONO ORGÁNICO EN SUELOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    johnbrynner García Galvis

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio de la cuantificación de carbono orgánico en suelos por el método Walkley-Black se compararon dos técnicas de análisis (colorimetría y volumetría con el fin de evaluar los parámetros de calidad y así indicar la técnica más conveniente para implementarla en el análisis de suelos. Se determinó un intervalo lineal de 5 a 50 mg/mL de sacarosa a una longitud de onda de máxima absorción de 585 nm del ácido crómico reducido. Al comparar los dos métodos de cuantificación se encontraron evidencias de errores sistemáticos en el método volumétrico para los niveles evaluados (alto, medio y bajo de concentración de sacarosa, mientras que por el método colorimétrico la cuantificación fue más exacta y además los valores de desviación estándar y coeficientes de variación fueron menores, parámetros que lo catalogan como el método más preciso. Además, para tener un mayor soporte analítico se implementaron las metodologías en diferentes tipos de suelos; los resultados indicaron que el método colorimétrico para la determinación de carbono orgánico en suelos presentó menores costos y número de reactivos por análisis, y a su vez fue el que ofreció la mejor repetibilidad.

  15. Perdas de elementos nutritivos pela erosão: II - Elementos minerais e carbono Plant nutrient losses caused by erosion: II. Minerals and carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Grohmann

    1956-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho procurou-se conhecer as perdas por erosão, dos elementos minerais e carbono na terra-roxa-misturada, quando submetida a práticas agrícolas diversas. Com essa finalidade foram usados coletores de enxurrada, do tipo Geib. No material sólido arrastado pela erosão, como também na enxurrada, foram feitas análises químicas dos principais elementos minerais e carbono. Procurou-se, também, estudar as relações entre a quantidade de material arrastado e volume de enxurrada com a composição química desses mesmos materiais. Procurou-se verificar a influência das diversas práticas agrícolas na composição da enxurrada, bem como a influência do material sólido em suspensão, na composição química da enxurrada.The losses of mineral nutrients caused by erosion in plots submitted to different farming practices was studied. The runoff and transported soil were collected by means of a Geib measuring device and then analysed chemically. The results indicated that the amount of nutrients lost by erosion from the plots that received the various farming practices was not affected by the treatments, but were proportional to the total amount of transported soil and to the total volume of runoff. A greater amount of plant nutrients was lost in the form of transported soil than dissolved or suspended in the runoff. The concentration of nutrients in the runoff was not correlated to its volume, except for calcium. The analyses of samples of transported soil and runoff, collected after a few rains, allow a good estimate of the annual losses to be made.

  16. Índice de manejo de carbono e atributos químicos de Latossolo Vermelho sob diferentes sistemas de manejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolimar Antonio Schiavo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar mudanças nos atributos químicos, no estoque de carbono e no índice de manejo de C de um Latossolo Vermelho argiloso, sob diferentes sistemas de manejo. Avaliou-se o solo sob sistemas de manejo com diferentes históricos de uso, sob as seguintes coberturas: Zea mays, Urochloa decumbens e Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. Como testemunha, avaliou-se área sob vegetação de cerrado. Foram coletadas amostras compostas das camadas de solo de 0-5, 5-10 e 10-20 cm. Os teores de fósforo diminuíram com a profundidade, e os maiores valores foram observados na área com P. maximum. Na área com milho, observaram-se maiores valores de K+, Ca++, Mg++, CTC, e de soma e saturação por bases. O teor de C orgânico total do solo (COT foi maior sob cerrado e menor sob cobertura com P. maximum, à profundidade de 5-10 cm. Os maiores estoques de COT, carbono nas frações particuladas (C-MOP e nas frações associadas à fase mineral do solo ocorreram na área com U. decumbens, o que promoveu maiores índices de labilidade e de manejo de C, similares aos da vegetação de cerrado. Em todas as coberturas, a labilidade da matéria orgânica do solo diminuiu com o aumento da profundidade. A fração C-MOP apresenta maior sensibilidade às alterações de manejo e relaciona-se ao COT.

  17. Metabolismo de los hidratos de carbono en el síndrome de ovario poliquístico Metabolism of Carbohydrates in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Sabán

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de ovario poliquístico (SOP es una entidad fisiopatológica compleja caracterizada por la presencia de: Irregularidades menstruales, hirsutismo, acné, obesidad y resistencia a la insulina. La frecuencia de intolerancia a los hidratos de carbono y diabetes mellitus en pacientes con SOP es del 30-40 % y 5-10 %; respectivamente. En pacientes con SOP el riesgo de desarrollar diabetes mellitus tipo 2 es mayor que el de la población general. Se debe destacar que la tolerancia a la glucosa alterada, representa un factor de riesgo importante para el desarrollo de diabetes y enfermedad cardiovascular. El método más sensible para detectar tolerancia a la glucosa alterada, en mujeres con SOP, es la prueba de tolerancia oral a la glucosa. De esta manera, el objetivo fue analizar los distintos mecanismos implicados en el SOP y las alteraciones del metabolismo de los hidratos carbono. Los autores declaran no poseer conflictos de interés.Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO is a complex pathophysiological entity characterized by the presence of: menstrual irregularities, hirsutism, acne, obesity and insulin resistance. The estimated frequency of intolerance to carbohydrates and diabetes mellitus in patients with PCOS is 30-40 % and 5-10 %, respectively. In patients with PCO, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus is higher than in the general population. It should be noted that glucose intolerance is a major risk factor for developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The most sensitive test to detect glucose intolerance in women with PCO is the oral glucose tolerance test. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the different mechanisms involved in PCO and disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. No financial conflicts of interest exist.

  18. Isótopos estáveis e produção de bebidas: de onde vem o carbono que consumimos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Ana Cristina B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A composição isotópica do carbono (delta13C foi utilizada na determinação da origem botânica (C3 x C4 de amostras de café, vinho, cerveja e vodka, de diferentes marcas e procedências, comercializadas no Brasil. Dentre as marcas de café analisadas, apenas uma apresentou um elevado percentual de plantas C4 em sua composição, evidenciado pelo valor de delta13C (-16,2‰. Os valores de delta13C das amostras de vinhos brasileiros, variaram entre -25,1 e -17,1‰, indicando a presença de carbono de origem C4 nas amostras que tiveram os maiores valores de delta13C. Duas marcas de vinhos importados, por sua vez, apresentaram delta13C característico de planta C3 (-27,1 e -26,3‰. Os valores de delta13C das vodkas importadas variaram entre -26,4 e -23,9‰, e as brasileiras entre -12,8 e -11,8‰, excetuando-se uma marca que apresentou valor -23,1‰. As marcas de cervejas importadas, em sua maioria, apresentaram valores mais negativos (-27,3 a -20,7‰ que as nacionais (-25,9 a -18,4‰. Estes resultados evidenciam a eficiência desta metodologia na determinação da origem do C e percentual de mistura destas bebidas.

  19. Diseño de polvos de molde para colada continua de slabs de aceros bajo carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Ramírez, A.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Commercial fluxes were characterized by laboratory tests, and their original properties were changed with additions of chemical reagents in order to establish criteria and design strategies to produce new fluxes. The characterization of the commercial fluxes reveals that they are produced by simple mechanical blend of minerals, using feldspars and clays as base materials, containing SiO2, Al2O3, Na2 O and in less quantity K2O, MgO, Fe2 O3and MnO; limestone as the main source of CaO, fluorspar (CaF2 used to control the viscosity and graphite as carbon source. Melting-solidification tests revealed melting and fluidity temperatures and the existence of abundant mineralogical phases formed during the flux solidification. Some important mineralogical compounds are the nepheline (NaAlSiO4 and cuspidine (Ca4Si2O7F2; these species have a direct influence on the heat transfer phenomena from strand to mold and therefore on the phase transformations and the shrinkage of the steel.

    A partir de la caracterización de polvos comerciales mediante pruebas de laboratorio y la modificación de sus propiedades mediante adiciones de compuestos químicos, se identificaron y desarrollaron criterios y estrategias de diseño que sirvieron de base para elaborar nuevos polvos. La caracterización de los polvos comerciales indica que se fabrican por simple mezcla mecánica de minerales, utilizando feldespatos y arcillas como materiales base, que contienen SiO2, Al2O3, Na2 O y, en menor proporción, K 2O, MgO, Fe2 O3 y MnO, caliza como fuente principal de CaO, fluorita (CaF2 como fluidificante y grafito como fuente de carbono. Mediante pruebas de fusión-solidificación se determinaron las temperaturas de fusión y fluidez de los polvos y

  20. Valoración Económica del Manglar por el Almacenamiento de Carbono, Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold De la Peña

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM genera diferentes bienes y servicios ambientales, por ejemplo, sumidero de carbono, hábitat de flora y fauna, despensa de alimentos y materias primas, entre otros. Se presenta una aproximación a la cuantificación monetaria del servicio de almacenamiento de carbono, con el fin de establecer información base para las decisiones de su uso. Lo anterior se hizo con base en muestreo de campo de 15 árboles de manglar y en mediciones realizadas en cuatro estaciones de monitoreo de la CGSM (Caño Grande, Rinconada, Aguas Negras y Luna por INVEMAR (2008. Para tal fin, se estimó la biomasa aérea total, las existencias de carbono y de dióxido de carbono equivalente (CO2e discriminada por especie y zona. Los resultados indican que en términos relativos el bosque de manglar de la CGSM puede almacenar entre 6,9 (la Luna y 45,7 (Rinconada t C ha-1. La valoración monetaria se encuentran entre US$ 87,76 y 591,41 t CO2e ha-1, según los precios pagados por el Banco Mundial, correspondiente a los Certificados de Emisiones Reducidas (CERs forestales no permanentes. El valor monetario amplia la importancia de iniciar un proceso que permita incorporar estos beneficios económicos a los actuales mecanismos de mercado y contribuyan a los esfuerzos locales de conservación.Palabras Clave: Manglar; almacenamiento de carbono; biomasa aérea; dióxido de carbono equivalente y valoración económica. Economic Valuation of Mangrove for the Carbon Storage in the Ciénaga Grande de Santa MartaAbstractThe Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM Generate Different Environmental goods and services, for instance, carbon sink, habitat for flora and fauna, stocks of foods and raw materials, etc. This paper presents an attempt to value in monetary terms the service of carbon storage, with the aim to establish inputs for the decisions process of used. This paper presents an Attempt to Terms Monetary value in the service of carbon storage

  1. Variation morphogeometrics of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera in Brazil Variação morfogeométrica das abelhas africanizadas (Apis mellifera no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena A. Nunes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphometrics of the honey bee Apis mellifera L., 1758 has been widely studied mainly because this species has great ecological importance, high adaptation capacity, wide distribution and capacity to effectively adapt to different regions. The current study aimed to investigate the morphometric variations of wings and pollen baskets of honey bees Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 from the five regions in Brazil. We used geometric morphometrics to identify the existence of patterns of variations of shape and size in Africanized honey bees in Brazil 16 years after the classic study with this species, allowing a temporal and spatial comparative analysis using new technological resources to assess morphometrical data. Samples were collected in 14 locations in Brazil, covering the five geographical regions of the country. The shape analysis and multivariate analyses of the wing allowed to observe that there is a geographical pattern among the population of Apis mellifera in Brazil. The geographical variations may be attributed to the large territorial extension of the country in addition to the differences between the bioregions.Apis mellifera L., 1758 têm sido alvo de muitos estudos morfométricos principalmente pela sua importância ecológica, pela sua grande capacidade de adaptação, sua ampla distribuição e por serem capazes de se estabelecer eficientemente em diversas regiões. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as variações da forma em asas e corbículas de operárias de Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 provenientes das cinco regiões biogeográficas do Brasil utilizando análises morfogeométricas, a fim de verificar a existência de padrões de variação de forma e tamanho das abelhas africanizadas no Brasil após 16 anos do estudo clássico realizado com esta espécie, possibilitando uma análise espaço-temporal comparativa utilizando recursos tecnológicos atuais para a avaliação de dados morfom

  2. Efeito da glutamina sobre o turnover do carbono (d13C de músculos e vísceras de leitões desmamados: glutamina e turnover de carbono tecidual = Effect of glutamine on carbon (d13C turnover in the muscles and viscera of weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi conduzido para verificar a influência da glutamina no turnover do carbono em tecidos de leitões. Nove porcas foram cobertas e receberam dietas compostas predominantemente por grãos de plantas do ciclo fotossintético C4 durante gestação e lactação. Aos 21 dias de idade, 48 leitões foram distribuídos aleatoriamente nos tratamentos: T1 = dieta C3, sem suplementação de glutamina, e T2 = dieta C3, suplementada com 1% de glutamina. Nos dias 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 11, 15, 20, 29 e 46 pós-desmame, foram abatidos dois leitões/tratamento. Amostras dos músculos Psoas major e Masseter, fígado e pâncreas foram coletadas e analisadas quanto à composição em d‰13C e mensurada a substituição do carbono em função do tempo. A glutamina acelerou a substituição do carbono em ambos os músculos, como observado pelos valores de meia-vida (T destes tecidos (T = 51,4 e 21,7 dias para Masseter e 31,5 e 20,3 dias para Psoas major, nos tratamentos sem e com suplementação de glutamina, respectivamente. Os valores de meia-vida do carbono das vísceras indicam que esse aminoácido também acelerou o turnover do carbono nestes órgãos. Os resultados indicam estímulo anabólico da glutamina sobre os tecidos avaliados.The study was carried out to verify the influence of glutamineon carbon turnover in the muscles and viscera of piglets. Nine sows were bred and received diets predominantly composed by grains of C4 photosynthetic cycle plants during gestation and lactation. The piglets were weaned at 21 days of age, and 48 animals were distributed at random in two treatments: T1 = C3 diet, without glutamine supplementation; and T2 = C3 diet, supplemented with 1% glutamine. On days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 11, 15, 20, 29 and 46 postweaning, two piglets per treatment were slaughtered. Samples of the Psoas major and Masseter muscles, liver and pancreas were collected and analyzed for d‰13C composition, and carbon turnover was measured as a

  3. Vitellogenins are new high molecular weight components and allergens (Api m 12 and Ves v 6 of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Blank

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Anaphylaxis due to hymenoptera stings is one of the most severe clinical outcomes of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Although allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings are often considered as a general model for the underlying principles of allergic disease, venom immunotherapy is still hampered by severe systemic side effects and incomplete protection. The identification and detailed characterization of all allergens of hymenoptera venoms might result in an improvement in this field and promote the detailed understanding of the allergological mechanism. Our aim was the identification and detailed immunochemical and allergological characterization of the low abundant IgE-reactive 200 kDa proteins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tandem mass spectrometry-based sequencing of a 200 kDa venom protein yielded peptides that could be assigned to honeybee vitellogenin. The coding regions of the honeybee protein as well as of the homologue from yellow jacket venom were cloned from venom gland cDNA. The newly identified 200 kDa proteins share a sequence identity on protein level of 40% and belong to the family of vitellogenins, present in all oviparous animals, and are the first vitellogenins identified as components of venom. Both vitellogenins could be recombinantly produced as soluble proteins in insect cells and assessed for their specific IgE reactivity. The particular vitellogenins were recognized by approximately 40% of sera of venom-allergic patients even in the absence of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. CONCLUSION: With the vitellogenins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom a new homologous pair of venom allergens was identified and becomes available for future applications. Due to their allergenic properties the honeybee and the yellow jacket venom vitellogenin were designated as allergens Api m 12 and Ves v 6, respectively.

  4. An Update to the EARTHTIME Argon Intercalibration Pipette System (APIS): Smoking from the Same Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, B. D.; Swisher, C. C., III; Hemming, S. R.; Renne, P. R.; Deino, A. L.; Hodges, K. V.; Van Soest, M. C.; Heizler, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Background: An initial 40Ar/39Ar inter-calibration experiment, using two of the most commonly used 40Ar/39Ar mineral standards, Fish Canyon (FC, ~28.2 Ma) and Alder Creek (AC, ~1.2 Ma) sanidines, revealed significant inter-laboratory inconsistencies. The reported ages for the AC sanidines range from 1.173 to 1.200 Ma (FC 28.02) (±~2%), ~4 times greater than the reported precisions. These experiments have motivated the 40Ar/39Ar community to reevaluate procedures and subsequent informal lab intercalibrations experiments are in better agreement, but discrepancies remain that need to be addressed. Experiment: In an effort to isolate the causes of these inconsistencies, an Argon Intercalibration Pipette System (APIS) was designed and constructed. The APIS system consists of three gas canisters; one containing atmospheric Ar and the other two canisters contain 40Ar/39Ar ratios that represent FC and AC. The volumes of the pipettes, bulbs and manifold are determined to within 0.4% and both systems were initially filled to the same pressure with Ar standard gases. Each canister has 4x10-10 moles of 40Ar, is equipped with a 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 cc pipettes and can deliver increments from 0.1-0.7 cc. APIS-1 was designated as the traveling unit that is brought to participating labs, APIS-2 is the reserve/master standard. Early Results and Impressions: APIS-1 has been to four labs (Rutgers, LDEO, New Mexico Tech, and BGC) and is heading to ASU. Early APIS experimental data indicate that the inter-laboratory 40Ar/39Ar age results can meet or exceed the EARTHTIME goal of ±1‰ precision. The inter-laboratory comparisons are ongoing, and will include additional laboratories of opportunity. Lastly, the development of additional mineral standards that "fill in" the age gaps between the existing mineral standards would significantly improve attempting to achieve interlaboratory agreement at the ±1‰ level

  5. OpenSearch (ECHO-ESIP) & REST API for Earth Science Data Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A.; Cechini, M.; Pilone, D.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation will provide a brief technical overview of OpenSearch, the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federated Search framework, and the REST architecture; discuss NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHOuse’s (ECHO) implementation lessons learned; and demonstrate the simplified usage of these technologies. SOAP, as a framework for web service communication has numerous advantages for Enterprise applications and Java/C# type programming languages. As a technical solution, SOAP has been a reliable framework on top of which many applications have been successfully developed and deployed. However, as interest grows for quick development cycles and more intriguing “mashups,” the SOAP API loses its appeal. Lightweight and simple are the vogue characteristics that are sought after. Enter the REST API architecture and OpenSearch format. Both of these items provide a new path for application development addressing some of the issues unresolved by SOAP. ECHO has made available all of its discovery, order submission, and data management services through a publicly accessible SOAP API. This interface is utilized by a variety of ECHO client and data partners to provide valuable capabilities to end users. As ECHO interacted with current and potential partners looking to develop Earth Science tools utilizing ECHO, it became apparent that the development overhead required to interact with the SOAP API was a growing barrier to entry. ECHO acknowledged the technical issues that were being uncovered by its partner community and chose to provide two new interfaces for interacting with the ECHO metadata catalog. The first interface is built upon the OpenSearch format and ESIP Federated Search framework. Leveraging these two items, a client (ECHO-ESIP) was developed with a focus on simplified searching and results presentation. The second interface is built upon the Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture. Leveraging the REST architecture, a

  6. Polinização de morangueiro por Apis mellifera em ambiente protegido Strawberry polinization through Apis mellifera in protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Oliveira Calvete

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou comparar a produtividade e a qualidade dos frutos comerciáveis no morangueiro, em ambiente protegido, utilizando a espécie de abelha Apis mellifera em relação à ausência de um agente polinizador. Foram instalados dois experimentos, utilizando-se das cultivares Camarosa, Oso Grande, Diamante e Aromas (tratamentos, no período de 05 de maio a 19 de dezembro de 2006. No primeiro experimento, não havia polinizadores (testemunha. O segundo foi polinizado pela espécie de abelha Apis mellifera. Os tratamentos (cultivares foram dispostos, em cada experimento, em um delineamento completamente casualizado, com seis repetições. Foram avaliadas características de rendimento, bem como análise físico-química dos frutos de cada cultivar. Quanto ao rendimento, a maior produção obtida foi com a cultivar Camarosa tanto na ausência quanto na presença de polinizadores (907,46 g. planta-1 e 1.054,93 g. planta-1, respectivamente, ao passo que a cultivar Oso Grande apresentou menor número de frutos deformados.This work objectified to compare the productivity and the quality of the strawberry marketable fruits in protected environment, using the species of bee Apis mellifera in relation of the absence of a polinizator agent. It was installed two experiments using the cultivates Camarosa, Oso Grande, Diamante and Aromas (treatments, in the period of May 5 th until December 19th of 2006. The first experiment did not have polinizatores agents (control. The second was polinizated by the species of bee Apis mellifera. The treatments (cultivars had been arranged, in each experiment in a randomized blocks with 6 repetitions. They were evaluated income characteristics, as well as analysis physicist-chemistry of the fruits of each cultivar. For the income, the biggest production was gotten in cultivar Camarosa, for the first and the second experiment (907,46 g. plant-1 and 1054,93 g. plant-1, respectively, in the way that the cultivate

  7. OXIDACIÓN POR VÍA HÚMEDA CATALÍTICA DE EFLUENTES INDUSTRIALES EMPLEANDO UN CATALIZADOR DE Pt SOPORTADO EN NANOTUBOS DE CARBONO DE PARED MÚLTIPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ovejero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la efectividad de la oxidación por vía húmeda catalítica para tratar aguas residuales industriales en un reactor por lote. Para ello se han realizado ensayos con un contaminante modelo, el colorante básico Amarillo Directo 11 empleando como catalizador platino soportado en nanotubos de carbono de pared múltiple (Pt/MWNT. Así mismo se ha realizado el tratamiento de dos efluentes industriales. Los resultados muestran tanto la alta efectividad del tratamiento en presencia del catalizador, como una importante disminución del carbono orgánico total y de la toxicidad en el efluente final. Se concluye que el proceso se ha demostrado eficaz tanto para el tratamiento del colorante básico ensayado, como en los dos efluentes residuales industriales.

  8. COMPORTAMIENTO HIDRODINÁMICO Y ABSORCIÓN DE DIÓXIDO DE CARBONO MEDIANTE REACCIÓN QUÍMICA CON GLUCOSAMINA EN UN REACTOR AIR-LIFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia García-Abuín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado el comportamiento de disoluciones acuosas de glucosamina como absorbente para la captura de dióxido de carbono, empleando un reactor “air-lift”. Los resultados experimentales indican que este reactivo (glucosamina muestra un comportamiento similar al observado para otras disoluciones acuosas de aminas ampliamente utilizadas para la captura de dióxido de carbono, en relación a la velocidad a la cual se produce la absorción. El valor de la velocidad de transferencia de masa ha sido determinado, así como el efecto de distintas condiciones de operación sobre el valor de este parámetro y del área interfacial gas-líquido, tales como concentración de amina, pH o caudal de gas alimentado.

  9. Efeito do teor de carbono do metal de base e da alma do eletrodo revestido sobre a porosidade em soldas molhadas The effect of base metal and core rod carbon content on underwater wet welds porosity

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano G. D. Andrade; Weslley C. Dias; Leandro F. Ribeiro; Alexandre Q. Bracarense; Ezequiel C. P. Pessoa; Stephen Liu

    2010-01-01

    Porosidade é um defeito comum em soldagem subaquática molhada. Vários estudos têm sido realizados com o objetivo de avaliar os mecanismos que controlam sua formação e assim encontrar soluções para minimizá-la ou eliminá-la. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o efeito da variação dos teores de carbono do metal de base e da alma do eletrodo sobre a porosidade do metal de solda. Dois diferentes metais de base, com variações apenas no teor de carbono (C2 - 0,1% e C7 - 0,7%), foram utilizados...

  10. Relación de la captura de carbono en Saccharum officinarum con otros factores ambientales para el cultivo de caña panelera / Relation at carbon squestration in Saccharum officinarum with other environmental factors for cane crop

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra Cárdenas, Diana Carolina

    2010-01-01

    La caña panelera tiene un potencial como prestadora del servicio ambiental asociado a la capacidad de reducción de emisiones de CO2, dada la facultad que tiene la especie Saccharum officinarum para a la captura de carbono. El presente estudio identifica la relación de la captura de carbono con otros factores ambientales para el cultivo de caña panelera en Cundinamarca y la Hoya del Río Suárez, en donde la metodología principal se remite al análisis estadístico de los datos a través de los mét...

  11. Construction and assembly of pipelines using API 5L grade X80 tubes - considerations to be observed with high-strength steels; Construcao e montagem de dutos terrestres utilizando tubos API 5L Gr. X80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ailton C. de; Rabello, Jose Mauricio B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The use of line pipes API 5L Grade X80, at the point of view of designer allows: reduction of wall thickness and pipe weight or increase of design pressure. In the pipeline construction point of view, the use of line pipes API 5L Grade X80 provide some advantages, however some difficulties must be expected in several stages of the construction and assembly. The implications in cost, productivity, inspection and integrity, with the application of these high resistance steels, complying with PETROBRAS Standard N - 464 Construcao, Montagem e Condicionamento de Dutos Terrestres (Rev. H - 2004 Dec) and the experience consolidated in pipelines construction abroad were presented. At the design stage, a comparison between pipelines designed using API 5L-X70 and API 5L-X80 was carried out approaching the aspects of variation of thickness, pressure design and design factor. An evaluation of the expected gains when choosing API 5L Grade X80 steels were done, regarding reduction of costs and pipe weight. Regarding API 5L-X80 pipe fabrication, the obtained results were reported, proving that this aspect was already overcome, showing the viability of its production in Brazil. Difficulties were detected regarding construction and assembly stage and showing the need of revision of PETROBRAS standard N-464. (author)

  12. OWL应用接口的比较分析%Comparative Analysis of APIs for OWL Ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊振辉; 于娟

    2015-01-01

    The paper comparatively analyzes three types of APIs for OWL, including Jena API、Protégé API and OWL API, from aspects of characteristics, platforms which they base on, languages which they can process and OWL ontology models. It focuses on commonly-used functions of OWL API and obtains related conclusions: (1) Jena API cannot achieve all functions of OWL because it bases on RDF triple;(2) OWL API is specifically designed for OWL and it supports structural specification of OWL2 which is the latest edition of OWL;(3) current APIs for OWL ontology mostly base on Java platform, whereas APIs base on other platforms (e.g. .net plat-form) have not appeared.%比较分析了Jena API、Protégé API、OWL API这三种OWL应用接口(API)的特点、所基于的平台、可处理的语言以及描述OWL本体的模型,重点介绍了OWL API的常用基本功能,得出了相关结论:(1)Jena API基于RDF三元组的特点使其不能实现OWL语言的全部功能;(2)OWL API针对OWL语言设计,且支持最新的OWL2语言的结构规范;(3)目前这些API都是基于Java平台的,对于其它平台(如.net平台),尚未见有成熟的API出现。

  13. Evaluation of different glycoforms of honeybee venom major allergen phospholipase A2 (Api m 1) produced in insect cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Simon; Seismann, Henning; Plum, Melanie;

    2011-01-01

    Allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings are one of the major reasons for IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. However, proper diagnosis using venom extracts is severely affected by molecular cross-reactivity. In this study recombinant honeybee venom major allergen phospholipase A2 (Api m 1) was produced......-derived recombinant Api m 1 with defined CCD phenotypes might provide further insights into hymenoptera venom IgE reactivities and contribute to an improved diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy....

  14. Evaluation of API 20E System and Encise Enterotube for the identification of Enterobacteriaceae of animal origin.

    OpenAIRE

    Devenish, J A; Barnum, D A

    1980-01-01

    The API 20E System and the Encise Enterotube were evaluated for the identification of the Enterobacteriaceae isolated from clinical specimens of animal origin at a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Compared to conventional tubed media, the API 20E System identified 235 of 240 isolates (97.9%) correctly. The Encise Enterotube correctly identified 229 of the 240 isolates (95.4%). Thus, both these identification systems could be used to replace conventional methods for identifying members of thi...

  15. 环境空气中臭氧API评价探讨%Study on Air Ozone API Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建平

    2012-01-01

    Air ozone API evaluation is considered that area of influence on ozone concentration exceed ambient air quality, ozone API correction on hours on ozone concentration exceed ambient air quality and Ozone average concentration exceed ambient air quality.%环境空气中臭氧API评价应考虑臭氧超标影响范围、臭氧超标小时数和超标平均浓度对臭氧API修正.

  16. The microsporidian Nosema ceranae, the antibiotic Fumagilin-B®, and western honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony strength

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Geoffrey,; Shutler, Dave; Little, Catherine; Burgher-Maclellan, Karen; Rogers, Richard

    2011-01-01

    International audience Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) are under threat from a number of emerging pathogens, including the microsporidian Nosema ceranae historically of Asian honey bees (Apis cerana). Because of its recent detection, very little is known about the biology, pathology, and control of N. ceranae in western honey bees. Here we investigated effects of the antibiotic Fumagilin-B®, which is commonly used to control the historical Nosema parasite of western honey bees Nosema a...

  17. Opening the Door: A First Look at the OCLC WorldCat Metadata API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Reese

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Libraries have long relied on OCLC’s WorldCat database as a way to cooperatively share bibliographic data and declare library holdings to support interlibrary loan services. As curator, OCLC has traditionally mediated all interactions with the WorldCat database through their various cataloging clients to control access to the information. As more and more libraries look for new ways to interact with their data and streamline metadata operations and workflows, these clients have become bottlenecks and an inhibitor of library innovation. To address some of these concerns, in early 2013 OCLC announced the release of a set of application programming interfaces (APIs supporting read and write access to the WorldCat database. These APIs offer libraries their first opportunity to develop new services and workflows that directly interact with the WorldCat database, and provide opportunities for catalogers to begin redefining how they work with OCLC and their data.

  18. Beginning the 21st century with advanced Automatic Parts Identification (API)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Fred; Roxby, Don

    1994-01-01

    Under the direction of the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, the development and commercialization of an advanced Automated Parts Indentification (API) system is being undertaken by Rockwell International Corporation. The new API system is based on a variable sized, machine-readable, two-dimensioanl matrix symbol that can be applied directly onto most metallic and nonmetallic materials using safe, permanent marking methods. Its checkerboard-like structure is the most space efficient of all symbologies. This high data-density symbology can be applied to products of different material sizes and geometries using application-dependent, computer-driven marking devices. The high fidelity markings produced by these devices can then be captured using a specially designed camera linked to any IBM-compatible computer. Applications of compressed symbology technology will reduce costs and improve quality, productivity, and processes in a wide variety of federal and commercial applications.

  19. TogoWS: integrated SOAP and REST APIs for interoperable bioinformatics Web services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Toshiaki; Nakao, Mitsuteru; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2010-07-01

    Web services have become widely used in bioinformatics analysis, but there exist incompatibilities in interfaces and data types, which prevent users from making full use of a combination of these services. Therefore, we have developed the TogoWS service to provide an integrated interface with advanced features. In the TogoWS REST (REpresentative State Transfer) API (application programming interface), we introduce a unified access method for major database resources through intuitive URIs that can be used to search, retrieve, parse and convert the database entries. The TogoWS SOAP API resolves compatibility issues found on the server and client-side SOAP implementations. The TogoWS service is freely available at: http://togows.dbcls.jp/.

  20. Fast Synchronization In IVR Using REST API For HTML5 And AJAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kailuke,

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Need a web service is just a web page meant for a computer to request and process. IVR system uses REST API for data access while calling. When in call process user want to access data, server need to validate it and while validation data accessing must be synchronize with mysql server. For large data accessing API is essential. This method is for HTML5 and AJAX for fast data synchronization. REST can support any media type, but XML is expected to be the most popular transport for structured information. In IVR System problems with fast data access because before uses HTML4. Proposed work is for HTML5 with AJAX implementation.

  1. Developing a Digital Video Library with the YouTube Data API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Clark

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available MSU Library has created a digital video library using the YouTube API to power our local library channel. It is a complete search and browse application with item level views, microdata, a caching and optimization routine, and a file backup routine. The article will discuss applying the YouTube API as a database application layer: workflow efficiencies, metadata procedures and local backup and optimization procedures. Code samples in PHP, .htaccess examples, and shell commands used in developing the application and routines will be explained at length. And finally, a complete prototype application will be released on github for other libraries to get started using the lessons learned. A live version of the application is here: http://www.lib.montana.edu/channel/. The real benefit of this method is the low overhead for smaller shops and the ability to scale production and distribution of digital video.

  2. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals mite (Varroa destructor) resistance-related proteins in Eastern honeybees (Apis cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, T; Shen, F; Liu, Z; Yin, L; Shen, J; Liang, Q; Luo, Y X

    2015-08-21

    The mite (Varroa destructor) has become the greatest threat to apiculture worldwide. As the original host of the mite, Apis cerana can effectively resist the mite. An increased understanding of the resistance mechanisms of Eastern honeybees against V. destructor may help researchers to protect other species against these parasites. In this study, the proteomes of 4 Apis cerana colonies were analyzed using an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation technology. We determined the differences in gene and protein expression between susceptible and resistant colonies that were either unchallenged or challenged by V. destructor. The results showed that a total of 1532 proteins were identified. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis suggested that the transcription factors and basic metabolic and respiratory processes were efficient and feasible factors controlling this resistance, and 12 differentially expressed proteins were identified in Venn analysis. The results were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. This study may provide insight into the genetic mechanisms underlying the resistance of honeybee to mites.

  3. Temporal genetic structure of a drone congregation area of the giant Asian honeybee ( Apis dorsata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, F. B.; Koeniger, N.; Tingek, S.; Moritz, R. F. A.

    2005-12-01

    The giant Asian honeybee ( Apis dorsata), like all other members of the genus Apis, has a complex mating system in which the queens and males (drones) mate at spatially defined drone congregation areas (DCAs). Here, we studied the temporal genetic structure of a DCA of A. dorsata over an 8-day time window by the genotyping of sampled drones with microsatellite markers. Analysis of the genotypic data revealed a significant genetic differentiation between 3 sampling days and indicated that the DCA was used by at least two subpopulations at all days in varying proportions. The estimation of the number of colonies which used the DCA ranged between 20 and 40 colonies per subpopulation, depending on the estimation procedure and population. The overall effective population size was estimated as high as N e=140. The DCA seems to counteract known tendencies of A. dorsata for inbreeding within colony aggregations by facilitating gene flow among subpopulations and increasing the effective population size.

  4. Caracterización del aceite de germen de trigo extraído con dióxido de carbono líquido y supercrítico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molero Gómez, A.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work the quality of wheat germ oil obtained by extraction with liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide was studied. At the optimum operating conditions, the yield of supercritical extraction is similar to the conventional extraction by organic solvent, but the quality of the wheat germ oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide is higher. Furthermore, supercritical extraction could be more economical than organic extraction because the solvent removal by distillation is not necessary and several steps of the following oil refining process can be simplified.

    En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio de la calidad del aceite de germen de trigo obtenido mediante la extracción con dióxido de carbono a alta presión. En las condiciones operativas óptimas del proceso, el rendimiento de la extracción con dióxido de carbono líquido y supercrítico es similar al de la extracción con disolventes orgánicos, si bien la calidad del aceite obtenido es superior. De ello se desprende el hecho de que el proceso de extracción utilizando dióxido de carbono, en condiciones sub- y supercríticas, puede resultar competitivo con el convencional al simplificar sustancialmente las etapas de refinado del aceite y eliminar la destilación del disolvente, las más costosas desde el punto de vista energético.

  5. csd alleles in the red dwarf honey bee (Apis florea,Hymenoptera: Apidae) show exceptionally high nucleotide diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yong Liu; Zi-Long Wang; Xiao-Bo Wu; Wei-Yu Yan; Zhi-Jiang Zeng

    2011-01-01

    The single locus complementary sex determination (sl-csd) gene is the primary gene determining the gender of honey bees (Apis spp.).While the csd gene has been well studied in the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera),and comparable data exist in both the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) and the giant honey bee (Apis dorsata),no studies have been conducted in the red dwarf honey bee,Apisflorea.In this study we cloned the genomic region 3 of the A.florea csd gene from 60 workers,and identified 12 csd alleles.Analysis showed that similar to A.mellifera,region 3 of the csd gene contains a RS domain at the N terminal,a proline-rich domain at the C terminal,and a hypervariable region in the middle.However,the A.florea csd gene possessed a much higher level of nucleotide diversity,compared to A.mellifera,A.cerana and Apis dorsata.We also show that similar to the other three Apis species,in A.florea,nonsynonymous mutations in the csd gene are selectively favored in young alleles.

  6. Efeitos de atrativos e repelentes sobre o comportamento da abelha (Apis mellifera, l. Effect of attractants and repellents on the behavior of honey bees (Apis mellipera, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. MALERBO-SOUZA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente ensaio foi testar diversas substâncias e verificar sua atratividade e repelência para abelhas, Apis mellifera, L. Para isso, foram realizados testes em discos próximos às colméias e em cana picada oferecida como alimentação para gado bovino confinado. Nos discos próximos à colméia, o produto mais atrativo foi Bee-Here e o mais repelente foi o óleo de citronela. No cocho para bovinos, o repelente mais efetivo foi n-octyl-acetato.The experiment aimed to study honey bee (Apis mellifera attractants and repellents in vitro and on chopped sugar cane for bovine feeding. Tests were performed on plates located near to the hives and on bovine-hods. On plates, Bee-Here® was the most attractive and citronela oil the most repellent. On bovine-hods the most effective was n-octyl-acetate.

  7. Hydrogen sulfide corrosion of weld regions in API X52 steel; Corrosion por acido sulfhidrico de las regiones de soldadura en acero API X52

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas-Martinez, L.F [Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Coahuila (Mexico)]. E-mail: fernando.arenas@uadec.edu.mx; Garcia-Cerecero, G. [Corporacion Mexicana de Investigacion en Materiales S.A. de C.V., Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)]. E-mail: ggarcia@comimsa.com

    2012-10-15

    The corrosion behavior of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) regions has been studied using potentiodynamic polarization and polarization resistance (LPR) techniques. Experiments were conducted in hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S)-containing brine and in H{sub 2}S-free brine. Welds were made on API 5L X52 steel. Due to differences in their microstructure, chemical composition and residual stress level, weld regions exhibited different responses under H{sub 2}S corrosion. Base metal exhibited the highest corrosion rate (CR) and the most cathodic corrosion potential. [Spanish] Se estudio el comportamiento ante la corrosion de las regiones de soldadura de un cordon realizado por arco metalico con gas (GMAW) sobre un acero grado API X52 mediante las tecnicas de polarizacion potencio dinamica y resistencia a la polarizacion (LPR). Los experimentos se realizaron utilizando salmuera con 300 ppm de acido sulfhidrico (H{sub 2}S) y salmuera libre de H{sub 2}S como electrolitos. Debido a las diferencias en su microestructura, composicion quimica y el nivel de esfuerzos residuales, las regiones de soldadura mostraron diferentes respuestas a la corrosion por H{sub 2}S. El metal base exhibio la velocidad de corrosion (VC) mas alta y el potencial de corrosion mas catodico.

  8. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene family of the honey bee, Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Andrew K.; Raymond-Delpech, Valerie; Steeve H Thany; Gauthier, Monique; Sattelle, David B.

    2006-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast cholinergic synaptic transmission and play roles in many cognitive processes. They are under intense research as potential targets of drugs used to treat neurodegenerative diseases and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Invertebrate nAChRs are targets of anthelmintics as well as a major group of insecticides, the neonicotinoids. The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is one of the most beneficial insects worldw...

  9. Galenics: studies of the toxicity and distribution of sugar substitutes on Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    RADEMACHER, Eva; Fahlberg, Anja; Raddatz, Marlene; Schneider, Saskia; Voigt, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    International audience The aim of this study was to find a substitute to sugar water in medicinal treatments of honey bee colonies with the same properties but without being ingested by bees or being toxic to them. Tylose MH, sorbitol and glycerol were tested for their attractiveness to Apis mellifera, their application ability, toxicity via individual application and distribution in small groups respectively a small colony. Neither of the substances proved attractive or toxic. All had goo...

  10. Residual solvent determination by head space gas chromatography with flame ionization detector in omeprazole API

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Pandey; Preeti Pandey; Raj Kumar; Narendra Pal Singh

    2011-01-01

    Residual solvents in pharmaceutical samples are monitored using gas chromatography with head space. Based on good manufacturing practices, measuring residual solvents is mandatory for the release testing of all active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). The analysis of residual organic solvents (methanol, acetone, cyclohexane, dichloromethane, toluene) in Omeprazole, an active pharmaceutical ingredient was investigated. Omeprazole is a potent reversible inhibitor of the gastric proton pump H+/K...

  11. An Efficient Data Indexing Approach on Hadoop Using Java Persistence API

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Yang; ZhongZhi, Shi

    2010-01-01

    Data indexing is common in data mining when working with high-dimensional, large-scale data sets. Hadoop, a cloud computing project using the MapReduce framework in Java, has become of significant interest in distributed data mining. To resolve problems of globalization, random-write and duration in Hadoop, a data indexing approach on Hadoop using the Java Persistence API (JPA) is elaborated in the implementation of a KD-tree algorithm on Hadoop. An improved intersection algorithm for distrib...

  12. Manipulating API and AOD data to distinguish transportation of aerosol at high altitude in Penang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution index (API) is an index commonly used in Malaysia to determine the air quality level. It is a ground truth data measurement which is unable to unambiguously quantify air quality level at higher atmosphere. On the other hand, aerosol optical depth (AOD) from AERONET data obtained using sun photometer provides reading of the air quality for a column of atmosphere from ground surface. We first determine the quantitative correlation between the API and AOD data collected in Penang, Malaysia, between January – September, 2012, using two independent methods, one based on regression analysis and the other interpolation. Our purpose is to establish a systematic numerical procedure to determine whether aerosol transported in high altitude from other location has occurred. Two independent methods for establishing the quantitative relationship between the API and AOD data were used as a way to facilitate the verification of our approach. In our method, data from southwest monsoon period (August to September) were used as ''calibration dataset'' to establish the quantitative correlation between the AOD and API data. The established calibrated coefficients is then used to predict the AOD of other months, which are then compared against the data actually measured. Discrepancy between the predicted and measured AOD data can then be interpreted as an indication of whether the atmosphere at high altitude is polluted by aerosol transported from other location. If the predicted AOD is much larger than that measured, back trajectory analysis was applied to identify the aerosol transported source. This procedure is very helpful to investigate the aerosol transportation and distribution patterns during monsoon and non monsoon periods

  13. Function and distribution of 5-HT2 receptors in the honeybee (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Thamm; Daniel Rolke; Nadine Jordan; Sabine Balfanz; Christian Schiffer; Arnd Baumann; Wolfgang Blenau

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serotonin plays a pivotal role in regulating and modulating physiological and behavioral processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the honeybee (Apis mellifera), serotonin has been implicated in division of labor, visual processing, and learning processes. Here, we present the cloning, heterologous expression, and detailed functional and pharmacological characterization of two honeybee 5-HT2 receptors. METHODS: Honeybee 5-HT2 receptor cDNAs were amplified from brain cDNA...

  14. Molekulare und pharmakologische Charakterisierung von Serotonin-Rezeptoren der Honigbiene Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Schlenstedt, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Die Honigbiene Apis mellifera gilt seit langem als Modell-Organismus zur Untersuchung von Lern- und Gedächtnisvorgängen sowie zum Studium des Sozialverhaltens und der Arbeitsteilung. Bei der Steuerung und Regulation dieser Verhaltensweisen spielt das Indolalkylamin Serotonin eine wesentliche Rolle. Serotonin entfaltet seine Wirkung durch die Bindung an G-Protein-gekoppelte Rezeptoren (GPCRs). In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird der erste Serotonin-Rezeptor aus der Honigbiene molekular charakteris...

  15. Gut Pathology and Responses to the Microsporidium Nosema ceranae in the Honey Bee Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Dussaubat; Jean-Luc Brunet; Mariano Higes; Colbourne, John K.; Jacqueline Lopez; Jeong-Hyeon Choi; Raquel Martín-Hernández; Cristina Botías; Marianne Cousin; Cynthia McDonnell; Marc Bonnet; Luc P Belzunces; Moritz, Robin F.A.; Yves Le Conte; Cédric Alaux

    2012-01-01

    The microsporidium Nosema ceranae is a newly prevalent parasite of the European honey bee (Apis mellifera). Although this parasite is presently spreading across the world into its novel host, the mechanisms by it which affects the bees and how bees respond are not well understood. We therefore performed an extensive characterization of the parasite effects at the molecular level by using genetic and biochemical tools. The transcriptome modifications at the midgut level were characterized seve...

  16. Characterization of an Unusually Conserved Alui Highly Reiterated DNA Sequence Family from the Honeybee, Apis Mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Tares, S.; Cornuet, J. M.; Abad, P.

    1993-01-01

    An AluI family of highly reiterated nontranscribed sequences has been found in the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera. This repeated sequence is shown to be present at approximately 23,000 copies per haploid genome constituting about 2% of the total genomic DNA. The nucleotide sequence of 10 monomers was determined. The consensus sequence is 176 nucleotides long and has an A + T content of 58%. There are clusters of both direct and inverted repeats. Internal subrepeating units ranging from...

  17. Eph Receptor and Ephrin Signaling in Developing and Adult Brain of the Honeybee (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Vidovic, Maria; Nighorn, Alan; Koblar, Simon; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2007-01-01

    Roles for Eph receptor tyrosine kinase and ephrin signaling in vertebrate brain development are well established. Their involvement in the modulation of mammalian synaptic structure and physiology is also emerging. However, less is known of their effects on brain development and their function in adult invertebrate nervous systems. Here, we report on the characterization of Eph receptor and ephrin orthologs in the honeybee, Apis mellifera (Am), and their role in learning and memory. In situ h...

  18. Early Years of Serikat Buruh Kereta Api (Railway Workers Union, SBKA): Formation and Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    SURYOMENGGOLO, Jafar

    2008-01-01

    This essay describes the formation of Serikat Buruh Kereta Api (Railway Workers Union, SBKA) and its early orientation during the Indonesian revolution period of 1945-1950. SBKA originated from workers committees formed by groups of labour with nationalistic enthusiasm in order to secure the take-over process for independence. Later this committee was transformed into a union in response to government policies. Based on this description, this essay shows how the formation of unions at that pe...

  19. How Varroa Parasitism Affects the Immunological and Nutritional Status of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine A. Aronstein; Eduardo Saldivar; Rodrigo Vega; Stephanie Westmiller; Douglas, Angela E.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor on the immunological and nutritional condition of honey bees, Apis mellifera, from the perspective of the individual bee and the colony. Pupae, newly-emerged adults and foraging adults were sampled from honey bee colonies at one site in S. Texas, USA. Varroa‑infested bees displayed elevated titer of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV), suggestive of depressed capacity to lim...

  20. Characteristics of honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera) in Sweden surviving Varroa destructor infestation

    OpenAIRE

    Locke, Barbara; Fries, Ingemar

    2011-01-01

    International audience A population of European honey bees (Apis mellifera) surviving Varroa destructor mite infestation in Sweden for over 10 years without treatment, demonstrate that a balanced host-parasite relationship may evolve over time. Colony-level adaptive traits linked to Varroa tolerance were investigated in this population to identify possible characteristics that may be responsible for colony survival in spite of mite infestations. Brood removal rate, adult grooming rate, and...

  1. Viral epidemiology of the adult Apis Mellifera infested by the Varroa destructor mite

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, Sara; Venturino, Ezio

    2015-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor has become one of the major worldwide threats for apiculture. Varroa destructor attacks the honey bee Apis mellifera weakening its host by sucking hemolymph. However, the damage to bee colonies is not strictly related to the parasitic action of the mite but it derives, above all, from its action as vector increasing the trasmission of many viral diseases such as acute paralysis (ABPV) and deformed wing viruses (DWV), that are considered among the main ...

  2. Morphometric identification of queens, workers, intermediates in in vitro reared honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    De Souza, Daiana A.; Ying Wang; Osman Kaftanoglu; David De Jong; Amdam, Gro V.; Lionel S. Gonçalves; Francoy, Tiago M.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro rearing is an important and useful tool for honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) studies. However, it often results in intercastes between queens and workers, which are normally are not seen in hive-reared bees, except when larvae older than three days are grafted for queen rearing. Morphological classification (queen versus worker or intercastes) of bees produced by this method can be subjective and generally depends on size differences. Here, we propose an alternative method for caste cla...

  3. Studies of the eddy structure in the lower ionosphere by the API technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Grigoriev, Gennadii I.; Lapin, Victor G.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new application of the API technique to study of turbulent phenomena in the lower ionosphere. The main objective of these studies is experimental diagnostics of natural ordered eddy structures at the altitudes of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, such as those that occur when internal gravity waves propagate in stratified flows in the atmospheric boundary layer. To this end, we considered the impact of eddy motions in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere on the relaxation time and the frequency of the signal scattered by periodic irregularities. Theoretical study of eddy structures base on experiments using SURA heating facility (56,14 N; 44,1 W). It is known, artificial periodic irregularities (APIs) are formed in the field of the powerful standing wave as a result of the interference of the incident wave and reflected from the ionosphere (Belikovich et al., Ionospheric Research by Means of Artificial Periodic Irregularities - 2002. Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. Copernicus GmbH. 160 p.). The relaxation or decay of the periodic structure is specified by the ambipolar diffusion process. The atmospheric turbulence causes reduction of the amplitude and decay time of the API scattered signal in comparison with the diffusion time. We found a relation between the eddy period and the characteristic decay time of scattered signal, for which the synchronism of the waves scattered by a periodic structure is broken. Besides, it is shown, when the eddy structure moves by a horizontal wind exists at these heights, the frequency of the radio wave scattered by API structure will periodically increase and decrease compared with the frequency of the radiated diagnostic (probing) radio-wave. The work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation under grant No 14-12-00556.

  4. Comparative Toxicities and Synergism of Apple Orchard Pesticides to Apis mellifera (L.) and Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski)

    OpenAIRE

    Biddinger, David J.; Jacqueline L Robertson; Chris Mullin; James Frazier; Ashcraft, Sara A.; Edwin G Rajotte; Joshi, Neelendra K.; Mace Vaughn

    2013-01-01

    The topical toxicities of five commercial grade pesticides commonly sprayed in apple orchards were estimated on adult worker honey bees, Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Japanese orchard bees, Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). The pesticides were acetamiprid (Assail 30SG), λ-cyhalothrin (Warrior II), dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC), phosmet (Imidan 70W), and imidacloprid (Provado 1.6F). At least 5 doses of each chemical, diluted in distilled water, were app...

  5. Non-lethal sampling of honey bee, Apis mellifera, DNA using wing tips

    OpenAIRE

    Chaline, N.; F.L.W. Ratnieks; Raine, N. E.; Badcock, N.S.; Burke, T

    2004-01-01

    DNA sampling of insects frequently relies upon lethal or invasive methods. Because insect colonies contain numerous workers it is often possible to destructively sample workers for genetic analysis. However, this is not possible if queens or workers must remain alive after sampling. Neither is it possible to remove an entire leg, wing or other appendage as this will often hinder normal behaviour. This study investigates the possibility of genotyping queen honey bees Apis mellifera using DNA e...

  6. Differential insecticide susceptibility of the Neotropical stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata and the honey bee Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Sarto, Mário; Oliveira, Eugênio; Guedes,Raul; Campos, Lúcio

    2014-01-01

    International audience The toxicity of three insecticides frequently used in Neotropical tomato cultivation (abamectin, deltamethrin, and methamidophos) was estimated on foragers of the Neotropical stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata (Lep.) and the honey bee Apis mellifera (L.). Our results showed that the susceptibility varied significantly with the type of exposure (ingestion, topical, or contact), and there were significant differences between species. While M. quadrifasciata was usua...

  7. Influence of processing in the physicochemical quality of Apis mellifera honey from Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Renostro DUCATTI; Carmen WOBETO; Juliana Aparecida da SILVA; Claudineli Cássia Bueno da ROSA; Márcio Roggia ZANUZO; Angelo POLIZEL NETO

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the quality of the Apis mellifera honey produced by 12 beekeepers from four associations in the north of Mato Grosso state was investigated during processing, Materials and Methods: The samples were collected at three different stages of processing: a) in the honeycomb at the honey house reception (S1), b) after centrifugation (S2), c) after packaging (S3), The levels of free acidity, moisture, ash, insoluble solids, diastase activity, hydroxymethylfurfural, reducing...

  8. The Occurrence of Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman, 2000 on Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin, Levent; GÜLEĞEN, Ender; ÇAKMAK, İbrahim; GİRİŞGİN, A. Onur

    2007-01-01

    The mite formerly known as Varroa jacobsoni is one of the major problems in beekeeping worldwide. Recently, it was shown that this pest is not V. jacobsoni, which chiefly infests the nests of Apis cerana in the Malaysia-Indonesia region, and the widespread pest was recognized with the new name, V. destructor. Morphometric analysis was performed on collected Varroa specimens from various regions in Turkey and identified as V. destructor.

  9. Viral Infection Affects Sucrose Responsiveness and Homing Ability of Forager Honey Bees, Apis mellifera L.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiguo Li; Yanping Chen; Shaowu Zhang; Shenglu Chen; Wenfeng Li; Limin Yan; Liangen Shi; Lyman Wu; Alex Sohr; Songkun Su

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee health is mainly affected by Varroa destructor, viruses, Nosema spp., pesticide residues and poor nutrition. Interactions between these proposed factors may be responsible for the colony losses reported worldwide in recent years. In the present study, the effects of a honey bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), on the foraging behaviors and homing ability of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were investigated based on proboscis extension response (PER) assays and ra...

  10. Use of oxalic acid to control Varroa destructor in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies

    OpenAIRE

    AKYOL, Ethem; YENİNAR, Halil

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of oxalic acid (OA) on reducing Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) populations in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the fall. Twenty honeybee colonies, in wooden Langstroth hives, were used in this experiment. Average Varroa infestation levels (%) of the OA and control groups were 25.87% and 24.57% on adult workers before the treatments. The OA treatments were applied twice, on 3 November and 13 November 2006. Average Varroa infestation ...

  11. An analysis of the intrinsic cross-correlations between API and meteorological elements using DPCCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen-hua; Li, Cao-ling

    2016-03-01

    In order to reveal the intrinsic cross-correlations between air pollution index (API) records and synchronously meteorological elements data, the detrended partial cross-correlation (DPCC) coefficients are analyzed using a detrended partial cross-correlation analysis (DPCCA). DPCC coefficients for different spatial locations and seasons are calculated and compared. The results show that DPCCA can uncover intrinsic cross-correlations between API and meteorological elements, and most of their interactional mechanisms can be explained. DPCC coefficients are either positive or negative, and vary with spatial locations and seasons, with consistently interactional mechanisms. More remarkable, we find that detrended cross-correlation analysis can present the cross-correlations between the fluctuations in two nonstationary time series, but this cross-correlation does not always fully reflect the interactional mechanism for the original time series. Despite this, DPCCA is recommended as a comparatively reliable method for revealing intrinsic cross-correlations between API and meteorological elements, and it can also be useful for our understanding of their interactional mechanisms.

  12. A comparative study of relational learning capacity in honeybees (Apis mellifera and stingless bees (Melipona rufiventris.

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    Antonio Mauricio Moreno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Learning of arbitrary relations is the capacity to acquire knowledge about associations between events or stimuli that do not share any similarities, and use this knowledge to make behavioural choices. This capacity is well documented in humans and vertebrates, and there is some evidence it exists in the honeybee (Apis mellifera. However, little is known about whether the ability for relational learning extends to other invertebrates, although many insects have been shown to possess excellent learning capacities in spite of their small brains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a symbolic matching-to-sample procedure, we show that the honeybee Apis mellifera rapidly learns arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, reaching 68.2% correct choice for pattern-colour relations and 73.3% for colour-pattern relations. However, Apis mellifera does not transfer this knowledge to the symmetrical relations when the stimulus order is reversed. A second bee species, the stingless bee Melipona rufiventris from Brazil, seems unable to learn the same arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, although it exhibits excellent discrimination learning. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results confirm that the capacity for learning arbitrary relations is not limited to vertebrates, but even insects with small brains can perform this learning task. Interestingly, it seems to be a species-specific ability. The disparity in relational learning performance between the two bee species we tested may be linked to their specific foraging and recruitment strategies, which evolved in adaptation to different environments.

  13. CernVM WebAPI - Controlling Virtual Machines from the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampidis, I.; Berzano, D.; Blomer, J.; Buncic, P.; Ganis, G.; Meusel, R.; Segal, B.

    2015-12-01

    Lately, there is a trend in scientific projects to look for computing resources in the volunteering community. In addition, to reduce the development effort required to port the scientific software stack to all the known platforms, the use of Virtual Machines (VMs)u is becoming increasingly popular. Unfortunately their use further complicates the software installation and operation, restricting the volunteer audience to sufficiently expert people. CernVM WebAPI is a software solution addressing this specific case in a way that opens wide new application opportunities. It offers a very simple API for setting-up, controlling and interfacing with a VM instance in the users computer, while in the same time offloading the user from all the burden of downloading, installing and configuring the hypervisor. WebAPI comes with a lightweight javascript library that guides the user through the application installation process. Malicious usage is prohibited by offering a per-domain PKI validation mechanism. In this contribution we will overview this new technology, discuss its security features and examine some test cases where it is already in use.

  14. Super-Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources: Application and Coupling to API Mass Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Rahman, Md Matiur; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-01-01

    Pressurizing the ionization source to gas pressure greater than atmospheric pressure is a new tactic aimed at further improving the performance of atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources. In principle, all API sources, such as ESI, APCI and AP-MALDI, can be operated at pressure higher than 1 atm if suitable vacuum interface is available. The gas pressure in the ion source can have different role for different ionization. For example, in the case of ESI, stable electrospray could be sustained for high surface tension liquid (e.g., pure water) under super-atmospheric pressure, owing to the absence of electric discharge. Even for nanoESI, which is known to work well with aqueous solution, its stability and sensitivity were found to be enhanced, particularly in the negative mode when the ion source was pressurized. For the gas phase ionization like APCI, measurement of gaseous compound also showed an increase in ion intensity with the ion source pressure until an optimum pressure at around 4-5 atm. The enhancement was due to the increased collision frequency among reactant ion and analyte that promoted the ion/molecule reaction and a higher intake rate of gas to the mass spectrometer. Because the design of vacuum interface for API instrument is based on the upstream pressure of 1 atm, some coupling aspects need to be considered when connecting the high pressure ion source to the mass spectrometer. Several coupling strategies are discussed in this paper.

  15. APIS : an interactive database of HST-UV observations of the outer planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Laurent; Henry, Florence; Prangé, Renée; Le Sidaner, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Remote UV measurement of the outer planets offer a wealth of informations on rings, moons, planetary atmospheres and magnetospheres. Auroral emissions in particular provide highly valuable constraints on the auroral processes at work and the underlying coupling between the solar wind, the magnetosphere, the ionosphere and the moons. Key observables provided by high resolution spectro-imaging include the spatial topology and the dynamics of active magnetic field lines, the radiated and the precipitated powers or the energy of precipitating particles. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) acquired thousands of Far-UV spectra and images of the aurorae of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus since 1993, feeding in numerous magnetospheric studies. But their use remains generally limited, owing to the difficulty to access and use raw and value-added data. APIS, the egyptian god of fertilization, is also the acronym of a new database (Auroral Planetary Imaging and Spectroscopy), aimed at facilitating the use of HST planetary auroral observations. APIS is based at the Virtual Observatory (VO) of Paris and provides a free and interactive access to a variety of high level data through a simple research interface and standard VO tools (as Aladin, Specview). We will present the capabilities of APIS and illustrate them with several examples.

  16. Tratamento homeopático da hepatotoxicose aguda induzida por tetracloreto de carbono em coelhos Homeopatic treatment of acute carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Ribeiro Moncorvo

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Quinze (15 coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus foram submetidos à intoxicação pelo tetracloreto de carbono na dosagem de 0,5 ml/kg de peso corporal, dose única, administrado por sonda gástrica. Foram realizadas as dosagens de alanina amino transferase (ALT, aspartato amino transferase (AST, fosfatase alcalina (FA e gama glutamil transferase (GGT antes e durante o experimento. Vinte e quatro (24 horas após a intoxicação, os coelhos foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos de 5 animais. Cada grupo recebeu um tratamento diferente durante 13 dias. O grupo I foi tratado com tetracloreto de carbono diluído na 30ª centesimal hahnemanniana (30 CH, uma vez ao dia. O grupo II recebeu Phosphorus 30 CH, também uma vez ao dia. O grupo III desempenhou o papel de controle, recebendo diariamente uma dose de placebo, pelo mesmo período de tempo que os grupos anteriores. Os resultados das concentrações séricas de ALT, AST, GGT e FA foram submetidos à análise estatística. A variação da concentração de todas as enzimas foi significativa entre os dias, mas nem todas variaram significativamente entre os grupos considerados. O tetracloreto de carbono 30 CH foi capaz de acelerar a recuperação do quadro de hepatite tóxica aguda determinada pela redução dos níveis de ALT. O tratamento com Phosphorus 30 CH mostrou-se incapaz seja de reverter o quadro de hepatite tóxica, seja de acelerar a regeneração hepática.Fithteen (15 New Zeland and Californian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus were submitted to intoxication with carbon tethracloride in a dose 0/0.5 ml/kg, once a day, administred by orogastric sonde. Enzimatic parameters: alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase of those rabbits were tested before and during the experiment. After the intoxication, the rabbits were divided in three groups of five animals. Each group received differents treatments during 13 days. The

  17. Estoques de carbono e nitrogênio nas frações da matéria orgânica em argissolo sob eucalipto e pastagem

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    Rodinei Facco Pegoraro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de florestas plantadas de eucalipto em áreas de pastagem tem propiciado alterações no estoque de C e N no solo, em especial pelas diferentes características de cada planta e manejo dos resíduos vegetais; o eucalipto pode localizar maior estoque de C e N originário de resíduos da parte aérea na camada superficial do solo, e aumentar a relação C/N dos resíduos vegetais em decomposição. Tais diferenças podem causar redução no estoque de C e N nas frações químicas, físicas e biológicas do solo, tanto nas frações mais lábeis, quanto nas mais recalcitrantes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os estoques de C orgânico total (COT e N total (NT, estoque de C e N nas substâncias húmicas (ácidos fúlvicos, húmicos e húminas, fração leve (C-MOL e N-MOL e biomassa microbiana (C-BM e N-BM em amostras de solos coletadas nas camadas de 0-0,10, 0,10-0,20, 0,20-0,40, 0,40-0,60 e 0,60-1,00 m de profundidade, na linha (EL e entrelinha (EEL do solo sob cultivo de eucalipto na quarta rotação com seis anos de idade, e em área de pastagem cultivada com brachiaria (P. O estoque de carbono orgânico total e de carbono na fração leve do solo nas primeiras camadas do solo (até 0,60 m foi superior na entrelinha do eucalipto em comparação àquele cultivado com pastagem e na linha de cultivo do eucalipto, possivelmente favorecido pela incorporação de resíduos da colheita do ciclo anterior de eucalipto na atual entrelinha. Por meio da determinação da abundância natural de 13C na camada de 0-0,20m de solo verificou-se que 29 e 37% do carbono presente na matéria orgânica do solo (MOS após 28 anos de cultivo derivaram do eucalipto (planta C3, respectivamente, na linha e entrelinha, o que correspondeu à taxa de ciclagem média da MOS nesse solo de 1,04% (linha e 1,32% (entrelinha ao ano. No solo da entrelinha, observou-se que o C-C3 proveniente do eucalipto incrementou o estoque de C orgânico do solo, mesmo com a

  18. Biopolímeros, Carbono e Enxofre Totais Associados à Atividade Bacteriana dos Sedimentos Superficiais do Delta do Paraíba do Sul, RJ-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Luiz Mattos Laut

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacia de drenagem do Rio Paraíba do Sul localiza-se ao longo do eixo Rio de Janeiro-São Paulo, de grande densidade demográfica e intensa industrialização. Este trabalho objetivou analisar quali-quantitativamente a matéria orgânica (biopolímeros, carbono orgânico total e enxofre e o estado metabólico bacteriano nos sedimentos superficiais estuarino-deltaicos do Rio Paraíba do Sul, relacionando-os a distribuição granulométrica. Em média, 65,5% dos sedimentos foi classificado como arenoso e empobrecidos em carbono e enxofre, cujas concentrações médias foram 0,71% e 0,04%, respectivamente. A razão elementar C:S indica que o ambiente é predominantemente oxidante, coerente com a forte influência fluvial no estuário desse rio de médio porte. Os biopolímeros carboidratos (média de 2075,93 μg C/g, proteínas (média de 25,70 μg C/g e lipídeos (média de 363,10 μg C/g também apresentaram concentrações inferiores a outros ambientes. Em função dessas baixas concentrações, pôde-se classificar o ambiente como sendo meso-oligotrófico. A razão CARBOIDRATO:COT identificou o impacto de atividades antrópicas, mais especificamente o aporte de efluentes domésticos ao longo de todo o seu curso e da indústria açucareira fortemente presente no seu baixo curso. A comunidade bacteriana, responsável pela hidrólise da matéria orgânica, é predominantemente anaeróbia e anaeróbia facultativa, implicando em perda de nitrogênio para a atmosfera (desnitrificação e produção de sulfetos (sulfato-redução e os baixos valores da razão PROTEINA:CARBOIDRATO refletem essa perda de nitrogênio (presente nos compostos protéicos considerando a ocorrência de bactérias desnitrificantes. Os valores encontrados de carbono bacteriano são elevados (3,29 μg C/g que também, provavelmente, são devidos aos impactos descritos.

  19. Elevação dos níveis séricos de laminina na cirrose hepática induzida pelo tetracloreto de carbono

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    Neves Lindalva Batista

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Laminina sérica tem sido correlacionada com a hipertensão portal e a capilarização dos sinusóides na doença hepática crônica. Pouco é conhecido sobre sua dinâmica nas doenças hepáticas. OBJETIVO: Estudar os níveis séricos de laminina e correlacioná-los com graus de fibrose hepática e hipertensão portal em ratos tratados com tetracloreto de carbono. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Quarenta e nove ratos albinos Wistar foram mantidos como controles (n = 16 ou tratados com solução de tetracloreto de carbono a 8% (n = 23. Entre a 6ª e 16ª semana de experimento animais foram sacrificados após cateterização da veia porta e medida da pressão portal. Fragmentos de fígado foram fixados em formol para microscopia óptica. A fibrose hepática foi classificada em perivenular, septal incompleta e completa e cirrose. Concentração de laminina circulante foi determinada pela técnica de ensaio imunoenzimático com anticorpo desenvolvido a partir de laminina isolada de tumor Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm e purificado em coluna de afinidade. RESULTADOS: A pressão portal correlacionou-se com grau de fibrose hepática (r = 0,82; n = 45 e seus níveis nos grupos fibrose septal (10,8 ± 1,2 cm H2O e cirrose (13,6 + 3,1 cm H2O foram estatisticamente superiores aos observados no grupo-controle (7,9 + 1,5 cmH2O e no grupo com fibrose perivenular (9,1 + 0,8 cmH2O. A concentração de laminina no sangue periférico dos cirróticos (40,0 + 18,7 µg/dL foi significativamente superior aos grupos-controle (13,8 + 12,1 µg/dL, fibrose perivenular (19,1 + 15,5 e fibrose septal (22,2 + 27,0 µg/dL. Laminina circulante correlacionou-se de maneira significativa com o grau de fibrose hepática (r = 0,59; n = 49 e com os níveis de pressão portal (r = 0,29; n = 45. CONCLUSÕES: Na intoxicação crônica experimental pelo tetracloreto de carbono, níveis circulantes de laminina correlacionam-se mais com o grau de fibrose hepática do que com os níveis de hipertens

  20. DISTRIBUCIÓN DEL CARBONO ORGÁNICO EN LOS DIFERENTES TAMAÑOS DE PARTÍCULAS DEL SUELO: MODELO SIMPLE DE CINÉTICA LINEAL

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    Fernando Paz Pellat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La modelación de la dinámica del carbono orgánico en los suelos (COS permite establecer ganancias y pérdidas asociadas a perturbaciones de la vegetación y prácticas de manejo. En especial, la estimación de cambios en los reservorios de carbono, lábiles y recalcitrantes, sin consideraciones de estados de equilibrio, plantea la necesidad de establecer un modelo de distribución del COS en las fracciones físicas de los suelos (tamaño de partículas que pueda ser parametrizado con la información disponible en los inventarios nacionales (COS total y textura. En este trabajo se propone un modelo simplificado de la distribución del COS, el cual es producto del balance de masa entre las fracciones de carbono del suelo, el cual se plantea como directamente asociado al tamaño de las partículas y no a su distribución de masa. El modelo fue calibrado usando una base de datos de fraccionamientos físicos en Andosoles, Cambisoles y Acrisoles en sistemas agrícolas y forestales en Atécuaro, Michoacán, México, considerando solo el COS asociado a la parte organomineral y el total (organomineral + particulada. El modelo de la distribución del COS por tamaño de las partículas del suelo fue ajustado a datos experimentales. El mismo parte del conocimiento del COS total y del COS para un tamaño de partícula de referencia, estimada experimentalmente o supuesta. Los resultados mostraron que para el caso de los sistemas agrícolas el modelo se ajustó bien a las mediciones (R2 > 0.999. Para el caso de los sistemas forestales, las estimaciones son buenas (R2 > 0.97. Al final se discuten las implicaciones del modelo desarrollado, donde el concepto clásico de saturación de COS de los suelos es cuestionado y explicado en términos de las tasas de descomposición y asimilación de la fracción particulada y organomineral; asimismo, la relación entre la textura del suelo y el COS asociado al tamaño de las partículas no es soportada, al considerar a